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Full text of "Hardy perennials and old-fashioned garden flowers. Describing the most desirable plants for borders, rockcries, and shrubberies, and including both foliage and flowering plants"

The Gift of Beatrix Farrand 

to the General Library 
University of California, Berkeley 



HARDY PERENNIALS 

AND 

OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 




A CORNER OF THE AUTHOR'S GARDEN AT KIRKSTALL. 



HARDY 'PERENNIALS' 1 

AND 

Ol&*3fasbione& (Barben jf lowers: 

DESCRIBING 

THE MOST DESIRABLE PLANTS FOB BOBBERS, 
BOCKEBIES, AND SHBUBBEBIES, 

INCLUDING 

FOLIAGE AS WELL AS FLOWEBING PLANTS. 



BY JOHN WOOD. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



LONDON : 
L. UPCOTT GILL, 170, STBAND, W.C 

1884. 



LANDSCAPE 
ARCHITECTURE 



LONDON: PRINTED By A. BFADLBY, 170, STRAND, W.C. 



IV 6 



PREFACE. 



AT the present time there is a growing desire to 
patronise perennial plants, more especially the many 
and beautiful varieties known as " old-fashioned 
flowers." Not only do they deserve to be cultivated 
on their individual merits, but for other very important 
reasons ; they afford great variety of form, foliage, and 
flower, and compared with annual and tender plants, 
they are found to give much less trouble. If a right 
selection is made and properly planted, the plants may be 
relied upon to appear with perennial vigour and produce 
flowers more or less throughout the year. I would not 
say bouquets may be gathered in the depth of winter, 
but what will be equally cheering may be had in blow, 
such as the Bluet, Violet, Primrose, Christmas Eose, 
Crocus, Hepatica, Squills, Snowdrops, and other less 
known winter bloomers. It does not seem to be 
generally understood that warm nooks and corners, 
under trees or walls, serve to produce in winter flowers 
which usually appear in spring when otherwise placed. 

There are many subjects which, from fine habit and 
foliage, even when flowerless, claim notice, and they, 
too, are described. 

806 



VI PREFACE. 



Many gardens are very small, but these, if pro- 
perly managed, have their advantages. The smaller 
the garden the more choice should be the collection, 
and the more highly should it be cultivated. I shall 
be glad if anything I say tends in this direction. 
From my notes of plants useful memoranda may be 
made, with the object of adding a few of the freest 
bloomers in each month, thus avoiding the error often 
committed of growing such subjects as mostly flower 
at one time, after which the garden has a forlorn 
appearance. The plants should not be blamed for 
this; the selection is at fault. No amount of time 
and care can make a garden what it should be if 
untidy and weedy plants prevail. On the other hand, 
the most beautiful species, both as regards foliage 
and flowers, can be just as easily cultivated. 

The object of this small work is to furnish the names 
and descriptions of really useful and reliable Hardy 
and Perennial Plants, suitable for all kinds of flower 
gardens, together with definite cultural hints on each 
plant. 

Perhaps flowers were never cultivated of more di- 
versified kinds than at the present time ; and it is a 
legitimate and not uncommon question to ask, " What 
do you grow ? " Not only have we now the lovers of 
the distinct and showy, but numerous admirers of such 
species as need to be closely examined, that their 
beautiful and interesting features may gladden and stir 
the mind. The latter class of plants, without doubt, is 
capable of giving most pleasure ; and to meet the grow- 



PREFACE. 



ing taste for these, books on flowers must necessarily 
treat upon the species or varieties in a more detailed 
manner, in order to get at their peculiarities and re- 
quirements. The more we learn about our flowers the 
more we enjoy them ; to simply see bright colours and 
pretty forms is far from all the pleasure we may reap 
in our gardens. 

If I have not been able to give scientific information, 
possibly that of a practical kind may be of some use, 
as for many years, and never more than now, I have 
enjoyed the cultivation of flowers with my own hands. 
To be able to grow a plant well is of the highest im- 
portance, and the first step towards a full enjoyment 
of it. 

I have had more especially in view the wants of 
the less experienced Amateur; and as all descriptions 
and modes of culture are given from specimens suc- 
cessfully grown in my own garden, I hope I may 
have at least a claim to being practical. 

I have largely to thank several correspondents of 
many years' standing for hints and information incor- 
porated in these pages. 

J. WOOD. 

WOODVILLE, KlRKSTALL, 

November, 1883. 



ERRATA. 



For the placing of capital letters uniformly throughout this Volume to the 
specific names at the cross-headings, and for the omission of many capitals in the 
body of the type, the printer is alone responsible. 

Numerous oversights fall to my lot, but in many of the descriptions other than 
strictly proper botanical terms have been employed, where it seemed desirable to 
use more intelligible ones ; as, for instance, the flowers of the Composites have 
not always been termed " heads," perianths have sometimes been called corollas, 
and their divisions at times petals, and so on ; this is hardly worthy of the times, 
perhaps, but it was thought that the terms would be more generally understood. 

Page 7, line 8. For "lupin" read "Lupine." 

Page 39, line 31. For "calyx" read "involucre." 

Page 40, line 27. For "calyx" read "involucre." 

Page 46, line 1. For "corolla" read "perianth." 

Page 47, lines 3 and 6. For "corolla" read "perianth." 

Page 48, last line. For "lupin" read "Lupine." 

Page 60, line 16. For "pompon" read "pompone." 

Page 64, line 36. For "corolla" read "perianth." 

Page 102, line 27. For Fritillaries " read " Fritillarias." 

Page 114, cross-heading. For " Ice-cold Gentian " read " Ice-cold Loving Gen- 
tian." 

Page 213. For "Tirolensis" read "Tyrolensis." 

Page 214, cross-heading. For " Cashmerianum " read " Cashmeriana." 

Page 215, cross-heading. For *' Cashmerianum " read " Cashmeriana." 

Page 275, line 26. For "corolla" read "perianth." 

Page 284, line 25. For " calyx" read "involucre." 

Page 285, line 1. For "calyx" read "involucre." 

JOHN WOOD. 

November Mtfc, 1883. 



HARDY PERENNIALS 



AND 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS, 



Acaana Novae Zealandiae. 

Otherwise A. MICROPHYLLA ; Nat. Ord. SANGUISORBE^;, 
or ROSE FAMILY. 

THE plant, as may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 1), is small, 
and its flowers are microscopic, hardly having the appearance of 
flowers, even when minutely examined, but when the bloom has 
faded there is a rapid growth, the calyces forming a stout 
set of long spines ; these, springing from the globular head in 
considerable numbers, soon become pleasingly conspicuous, and 
this is by far the more ornamental stage of the plant. It is 
hardy, evergreen, and creeping. It seldom rises more than one 
or two inches from the ground, and only when it approaches a 
wall, stones, or some such fixed body, does it show an inclination 
to climb ; it is, therefore, a capital rock plant. As implied by 
its specific name, it comes from New Zealand, and has not long 
been acclimatised in this country. 

The flowers are produced on fine wiry stems an inch or more 
long, being nearly erect ; they are arranged in round heads, at 
first about the size of a small pea ; these, when bruised, have an 
ammoniacal smell. Each minute flower has four green petals 
and brownish seed organs, which cause the knob of flowers to 
have a rather grimy look, and a calyx which is very hard and 
stout, having two scales and four sepals. These sepals are the 

B 



2 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

parts which, after the seed organs have performed their func- 
tions, become elongated and of a fine rosy-crimson colour ; they 
form stiff and rather stout spines, often fin. long ; they bristle 
evenly from every part of the little globe of seed vessels, and are 
very pretty. The spines are produced in great abundance, and 
they may be cut freely ; their effect is unique when used for 
table decoration, stuck in tufts of dark green selaginella. On 
the plant they keep in good form for two months. The leaves 
are lin. to 2in. long, pinnate ; the leaflets are of a dark bronzy 
colour on the upper side and a pale green underneath, like 




PIG. 1. AC^NA Nova: ZEALANDLE. 
(One-half natural size.) 

maidenhair, which they also resemble in form, being nearly 
round and toothed. They are in pairs, with a terminal odd one ; 
they are largest at the extremity, and gradually lessen to rudi- 
mentary leaflets ; the foliage is but sparingly produced on the 
creeping stems, which root as they creep on the surface. 

The habit of the plant is compact and cushion-like, and the 
brilliant spiny balls are well set off on the bed of fern-like but 
sombre foliage. During August it is one of the most effective 
plants in the rock garden, where I find it to do well in either 
moist or dry situations ; it grows fast, and, being evergreen, it 
is one of the more useful creepers for all-the-year-round effect ; 
for covering dormant bulbs or bare places it is at once efficient 
and beautiful. It requires light soil, and seems to enjoy grit ; 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 3 

nowhere does it appear in better health or more at home than 
when carpeting the walk or track of the rock garden. 

It is self -propagating, but when it is desirable to move a tuft 
of it, it should be done during the growing season, so that it 
may begin to root at once and get established, otherwise the wind 
and frosts will displace it. 

It blooms from June to September, more or less, but only the 
earliest flowers produce well-coloured spines. 



Achillea /Egyptica. 

EGYPTIAN YARROW ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

THIS is an evergreen (though herb-like) species. It has been 
grown for more than 200 years in English gardens, and origin- 
ally came, as its name implies, from Egypt. Notwithstanding 
the much warmer climate of its native country, it proves to be 
one of the hardiest plants in our gardens. I dare say many will 
think the Yarrows are not worthy of a place in the garden ; 
but it should not be forgotten that not only are fine and 
useful flowers included in this work, but also the good " old- 
fashioned " kinds, and that a few such are to be found amongst 
the Yarrows is without doubt. Could the reader see the 
collection now before me, cut with a good piece of stem and 
some foliage, and pushed into a deep vase, he would not only 
own that they were a pleasing contrast, but quaintly grand for 
indoor decoration. 

A. JEgyptica not only produces a rich yellow flower, but the 
whole plant is ornamental, having an abundance of finely- 
cut foliage, which, from a downy or nappy covering, has a 
pleasing grey or silvery appearance. The flowers are produced 
on long stems nearly 2ft. high, furnished at the nodes with 
clean grey tufts of smaller-sized leaves ; near the top the stems 
.are all but naked, and are terminated by the flat heads or 
corymbs of closely-packed flowers. They are individually small, 
but the corymbs will be from 2in. to Sin. across. Their form is 
that of the common Yarrow, but the colour is a bright light 
yellow. The leaves are 6in. to Sin. long, narrow and pinnate, 
the leaflets of irregular form, variously toothed and lobed ; the 
whole foliage is soft to the touch, from the nappy covering, as 
already mentioned. Its flowers, from their extra fine colour, are 
very telling in a cut state. The plant is suitable for the borders, 
more especially amongst other old kinds. Ordinary garden 
loam suits it, and its propagation may be carried out at any 
time by root division. 

Flowering period, June to September. 

B2 



4 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Achillea Filipendula. 

Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

THIS grows 4ft. high, and the foliage, though fern-like, has an 
untidy appearance, from the irregular way in which it is dis- 
posed. It is herbaceous, and comes from the Caucasus. The 
flowers are somewhat singular, arranged in corymbs of a mul- 
tiplex character; they are very large, often Sin. across. The 
smaller corymbs are arched or convex, causing the cluster or 
compound corymb to present an uneven surface; the small 
flowers are of rich old gold colour, and have the appearance of 
knotted gold cord ; they are very rigid, almost hard. The 
leaves are linear, pinnate, lobed and serrated, hairy, rough, 
and numerously produced. From the untidy and tall habit 
of this subject, it should be planted in the background; its 
flowers, however, will claim a prominent position in a cut state ; 
they are truly rich, the undulating corymbs have the appearance 
of embossed gold plate, and their antique colour and form are 
compared to gold braid by a lady who admires " old-fashioned " 
flowers. It will last for several weeks after being cut, and even 
out of water for many days. A few heads placed in an old vase, 
without any other flowers, are rich and characteristic, whilst on 
bronze figures and ewers in a dry state, and more especially on 
ebony or other black decorations, it may be placed with a more 
than floral effect. In short, rough as the plant is, it is worth 
growing for its quaint and rich flowers alone ; it is seldom met 
with. Soil and propagation, the same as for A. jEgyptica. 
Flowering period, June to September. 

Achillea Millefolium. 

COMMON MILFOIL ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS is the well-known wild Yarrow ; it is, however, the typical 
form of a fine variety, called A. m. roseum, having very bright 
rose-coloured flowers, which in all other respects resembles the 
wild form. Both as a border subject and for cutting purposes, 
I have found it useful; it flowers for several months, but the 
individual blooms fade in four or six days; these should be 
regularly removed. The freshly-opened corymbs are much 
admired. Soil and mode of propagation, the same as for pre- 
vious kinds. 

Flowering period, June to November. 

Achillea Ptarmica. 

Syns. A. SYLVESTRIS and PTARMICA YTJLGARIS; Common Names, 
WILD YARROW, SNEEZEWORT, GOOSE-TONGUE, and WILD 
PELLITORY; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

A very common British plant, or, I may say, weed, which can 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWEBS. 5 

live in the most reeky towns, only mentioned here to introduce 
A. P.fl.-pl., which is one of the most useful of border flowers. I 
am bound to add, however, that only when in flower is it more 
presentable than the weedy and typical form; but the grand 
masses of pure white bachelors'-button-like flowers, which are 
produced for many weeks in succession, render this plant 
deserving of a place in every garden, It is a very old flower in 
English gardens. Some 250 years ago Parkinson referred to the 
double flowering kind, in his " Paradise of Pleasant Flowers," 
as a the'n common plant ; and I may as well produce Gerarde's 
description of the typical form, which answers, in all respects, 
for the double one, with the exception of the flowers themselves : 
" The small Sneesewoort hath many rounde and brittle braunches, 
beset with long and narrowe leaues, hackt about the edges like a 
sawe ; at the top of the stalkes do grow smal single flowers like 
the fielde Daisie. The roote is tender and full of strings, 
creeping f arre abroade in the earth, and in short time occupieth 
very much grounde." The flowers of this plant are often, but 
wrongly, called " bachelors' buttons," which they much resemble. 

For cutting purposes, this plant is one of the most useful ; not 
only are the blooms a good white, but they have the quality 
of keeping clean, and are produced in greater numbers than 
ever I saw them on the single form. Those requiring large 
quantities of white flowers could not do better than give the 
plant a few square yards in some unfrequented part of the 
garden ; any kind of soil will suit it, but if enriched the bloom 
will be all the better for it. The roots run freely just under the 
surface, so that a large stock may soon be had ; yet, fine as are 
its flowers, hardy and spreading as the plant proves, it is but 
seldom met with. Even in small gardens this fine old flower 
should be allowed a little space. Transplant any time. 

Flowering period, June to August. 

Aconitum Autumnale. 

AUTUMN MONK'S-HOOD ; Nat. Ord. E-ANUNCTJLACE^E. 
HARDY, perennial, and herbaceous. This is one of the finest 
subjects for autumn flowering. The whole plant, which stands 
nearly 3ft. high, is stately and distinct (Fig. 2) ; the leaves are 
dark green, large, deeply cut and veined, of good substance, and 
slightly drooping. The flowers are a fine blue (a colour some- 
what scarce in our gardens at that season), irregularly arranged 
on very stout stems; in form they exactly resemble a monk's 
hood, and the manner in which they are held from the stems 
further accords with that likeness. These rich flowers are 
numerously produced ; a three-year-old plant will have as many 
as six stout stems all well furnished, rendering the specimen very 
conspicuous. 




HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



This is one form of the Monk's-hood 
long grown in English gardens, and is 
called " old-fashioned." A. japonicum, 
according to some, is identical with it, 
but whether that is so or not, there is 
but a slight difference, and both, of 
course, are good. 

I find it likes a rich deep soil. It is 
propagated by division of the roots after 
the tops have turned yellow in autumn 
or winter. 

It flowers from August until cut down 
by frosts. 



Allium Moly. 

LARGE YELLOW GARLIC; Nat. 
LILIACE^E. 



Ord. 



A HARDY bulbous perennial, of neat 
habit, with bright golden flowers, pro- 
duced in large heads ; they endure a 
long time and are very effective; it is 
by far the best yellow species. Where 
bold clumps of yellow are desirable, 
especially if somewhat in the back- 
ground, there can be few subjects more 
suitable for the purpose than this plant ; 
both leaves and flowers, however, have 
a disagreeable odour, if in the least 
bruised. It is a very old plant in English 
gardens, and is a native of the South of 
Europe. Its chief merits are fine colour, 
large head, neat habit, and easy culture. 
The flowers ars lin. across, borne in close 
heads, having stalks over an inch long 
springing from stout scapes ; the six long 

oval petals are of a shining yellow colour ; the seed organs also 
are all yellow and half the length of petals ; the scape is about a 
foot high, naked, round, and very stout ; the leaves are nearly 
as broad as tulip leaves, and otherwise much resemble them. 
Flowering period, June to August. 



FIG. 2. 

ACONITTTM ATJTTTMNALE. 

(About one-tenth natural 

size.) 



Allium Neapolitan um. 
NEAPOLITAN ALLIUM; Nat. Ord. 
THIS has pure white flowers arranged in neat and effective 
umbels, and though not so useful in colour as the flowers of 
A. Moly, they are much superior to those of many of the genus. 
Flowering period, June to August. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 7 

Both of the above Alliums may be grown in any odd parts 
which need decorating with subjects requiring little care ; any 
kind of soil will do for them, but if planted too near the walks 
the flowers are liable to be cut by persons who may not be aware 
of their evil odour. The bulbs may be divided every three years 
with advantage, and may be usefully planted in lines in front of 
shrubs, or mixed with other strong-growing flowers, such as 
alkanets, lupins, and foxgloves. 

Alyssum Saxatile. 

BOCK MADWORT, or GOLDEN TUFT; Nat. Ord. CRUCIFER^E. 
THIS pleasing and well-known hardy, evergreen, half-woody 
shrub is always a welcome flower. From its quantity of bloom 




HJ. 3. ALYSSUM SAXATILE. 
(One- third natural size). 



all its other parts are literally smothered (see Fig. 3). When 
passing large pieces of it in full blow, its fragrant honey smell 
reminds one of summer clover fields. 



"8 HAKDY PERENNIALS AND 

Its golden yellow flowers are densely produced in panicles on 
procumbent stems, 12in. to 18in. long. The little flowers, from 
distinct notches in the petals, have a different appearance from 
many of the order Cruciferce, as, unless they are well expanded, 

there seem to be eight instead 
of four petals. The leaves 
are inversely ovate, lanceolate, 
villose, and slightly toothed. 
A specimen will continue in 
good form during average 
weather for about three weeks. 
It is not only seen to most 
advantage on rockwork, where 
its prostrate stems can fall 
over the stones, but the dry 
situation is in accordance with 
its requirements; still, it is not 
at all particular, but does 
well in any sunny situation, 
in any soil that is not over 
moist or ill drained. It is 
easily and quickly propagated 
by cuttings in early summer. 
Flowering period, April and 
May. 

Anchusa Italica. 

ITALIAN ALKANET; Nat.Ord. 

BORAGINACE^. 

A HARDY herbaceous peren- 
nial of first- class merit for 
gardens where there is plenty 
of room ; amongst shrubs 
it will not only prove worthy 
of the situation, but, being 
a ceaseless bloomer, its tall 
and leafy stems decked with 
brilliant flowers may always 
be relied upon for cutting 
purposes ; and let me add, as, 
FIG. 4. ANCHUSA ITALICA (Flower Spray), perhaps^ many have never 
(One-thfrd natural size.) * ried tllis fine but common 

flower in a large vase, the 

stems, if cut to the length of 18in., and loosely placed in an old- 
fashioned vase, without any other flowers, are more than orna- 
mental they are fine. 

Its main features are seen in its bold leafy stems, furnished with 




OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 9 

large, dark blue, forget-me-not-like flowers, nearly all their length. 
The little white eyes of the blossoms are very telling (see Fig. 4). 
The flowers are held well out from the large leaves of the main 
stem by smaller ones (from lin. to Sin. long), at the ends of 
which the buds and flowers are clustered, backed by a pair of 
small leaflets, like wings. Just before the buds open they are of 
a bright rose colour, and when the flowers fade the leafy calyx 
completely hides the withered parts, and other blooms take their 
places between the wing-like pair of leaflets ; so the succession 
of bloom is kept up through the whole summer. The leaves of 
the root are very large when fully grown during summer over a 
foot long those of the stems are much less ; all are lance- 
shaped and pointed, plain at the edges, very hairy, and of a 
dark green colour. The stems are numerous, upright, and, as 
before hinted, branched ; also, like the leaves, they are covered 
with stiff hairs, a characteristic common to the order. Well- 
established plants will grow to the height of 3ft. to 5ft. 
Flowering period, May to September. 

Anchusa Sempervirens. 

Nat. Ord. BORAGINACE^:. 

THIS is a British species, and, as its name denotes, is evergreen ; 
not, let me add, as a tall plant, for the stems wither or at least 
become very sere, only the large leaves of the root remaining fresh ; 
and though it has many points of difference from A. Italica, 
such as shorter growth, darker flowers and foliage, and more 
oval leaves these form the distinctions most observable. By its 
evergreen quality it is easily identified in winter. There is also 
an important difference from the axillary character of the flower 
stems. With these exceptions the description of A. Italica will 
fairly hold good for this native species. 

This Alkanet has various other names, as Borago sempervirens, 
Suglossum s., and with old writers it, together with allied 
species, was much esteemed, not only for the flowers, but for its 
reputed medicinal properties. To those who care to grow these 
good old plants I would say, well enrich the soil; when so 
treated, the results are very different from those where the 
plants have been put in hungry and otherwise neglected situa- 
tions ; this favourable condition may be easily afforded, and will 
be more than repaid. Strong roots may be transplanted at any 
time, and propagation is more quickly carried out by division of 
the woody roots, which should be cut or split so that each piece 
has a share of bark and a crown. Just before new growth has 
begun, as in January, is the best time for this operation, so that 
there is no chance of rot from dormancy. 

Flowering period, May to September. 



10 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



Andromeda Tetragona. 

Syn. CASSIOPE TETRAGONA; Nat. Ord. ERICACEAE. 
A DWARF hardy evergreen shrub, which comes to us from 
Lapland and North America; though a very beautiful subject 
for either rockwork or border, it is rarely seen. It is not one of 
the easiest plants to grow, which may, to some extent, account 
for its rarity. Still, when it can have its requirements, it not 
only thrives well, but its handsome form and flowers repay any 
extra trouble it may have given. In the culture of this, as of 
most plants of the order Ericaceae, there is decidedly a right way 
and a wrong one, and if the species now under consideration has 
one or two special requirements it deserves them. 




FIG. 5. ANDROMEDA TETRAGONA. 
(One-half natural size). 

With me it never exceeds a height of 6in. or 7in., is much 
branched, and of a fine apple green colour; the flowers are 
small but very beautiful, bell-shaped, pendent, and springing 
from the leafy stems of the previous year's growth. The leaves 
are small as well as curious, both in form and arrangement, 
completely hiding their stems ; their roundish grain-shaped 
forms are evenly arranged in four rows extending throughout 
the whole length of the branches (whence the name tetragona), 
giving them a square appearance resembling an ear of wheat, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 11 

but much less stout (see Fig. 5) ; the little leaves, too, are 
frosted somewhat in the way of many of the saxifrages. It is 
next to impossible to describe this pretty shrub; fortunately, 
the cut will convey a proper idea at a glance. All who possess- 
more select collections of hardy plants and shrubs should not 
fail to include this ; it is fit for any collection of fifty choice 
species. 

I struggled long before finding out the right treatment, as 
presumably I now have, yet it is very simple, in fact, only such 
as many other plants should have ; but, unlike them, A. tetragona 
will take no alternative ; it must have partial shade, sandy peat 
or leaf soil, and be planted in a moist or semi-bog situation. On 
the raised parts of rockwork it became burnt up ; planted in 
loam, though light, it was dormant as a stone ; in pots, it 
withered at the tips; but, with the above treatment, I have 
flowers and numerous branchlets. Many little schemes may be 
improvised for the accommodation of this and similar subjects. 
Something of the bog character would appear to be the difficulty 
here ; a miniature one may be made in less than half an hour. 
Next the walk dig a hole 18in. all ways, fill in with sandy peat, 
make it firm ; so form the surface of the walk that the water 
from it will eddy or turn in. In a week it will have settled ; 
do not fill it up, but leave it dished and put in the plant. 
Gentians, pyrolas, calthas, and even the bog pimpernel I have 
long grown so. 

A. tetragona can be propagated by division of the roots, but 
such division should not be attempted with other than a per- 
fectly healthy plant. It should be done in spring, just as it 
begins to push, which may be readily seen by the bright green 
tips of the branchlets ; and it is desirable, when replanting, to 
put the parts a little deeper, so as to cover the dead but per- 
sistent leaves about the bottoms of the stems which occur on 
the parts four or more years old. After a year, when so planted, 
1 have found good roots emitted from these parts, and, doubtless, 
such deeper planting will, in some way, meet its requirements, 
as in this respect they are provided for in its habitats by the 
annual and heavy fall of leaves from other trees which shade it. 

Flowering period, April and May. 

Anemone Alpina. 

ALPINE WINDFLOWER; 'Nat. Ord. RANTJNCULACE^E. 
FROM Austria, the foliage closely resembling that of A. 
sulphurea, but the flowers are larger and of various colours. It 
is said to be the parent of A. sulphurea. 
It flowers in June. See A. sulphurea. 



12 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Anemone Apennina. 

MOUNTAIN WINDFLOWER; Nat. Ord. K/ANUNCULACE.E. 

THIS is one of the " old-fashioned " flowers of our gardens in 
fact, a native species, having a black tuberous root, which forms 
a distinct, though invisible characteristic of the species. , As the 
old names are somewhat descriptive, I give them viz., Gera- 
nium-leaved Anemone, and Stork's -bill Windflower. 

The appearance of a bold piece of this plant when in flower is 
exceedingly cheerful ; the soft-looking feathery foliage forms a 
rich groundwork for the lavish number of flowers, which vary 
much in colour, from sky-blue to nearly white, according to the 
number of days they may have been in blow, blue being the 
opening colour. The flowers are produced singly on stems, Gin. 
high, and ornamented with a whorl of finely-cut leaflets, stalked, 
lobed, and toothed ; above this whorl the ruddy flower stem is 
much more slender. During sunshine the flowers are l|in. 
across the tips of sepals, becoming reflexed. The foliage, as 
before hinted, is in the form of a whorl, there being no root 
leaf, and the soft appearance of the whole plant is due to its 
downiness, which extends to and includes the calyx. The lobes 
of the leaves are cupped, but the leaves themselves reflex until 
their tips touch the ground, whence their distinct and pleasing 
form. 

This plant is most at home in the half shade of trees, where its 
flowers retain their blue colour longer. It should be grown in 
bold patches, and in free or sandy soil. The tubers may be 
transplanted soon after the tops have died off in late summer. 

Flowering period, April and May. 

Anemone Blanda. 

FAIR WINDFLOWER, or BLUE GRECIAN ANEMONE ; 

Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACE^. 

THIS is a lovely winter flower, of great value in our gardens, 
from its showiness. It is a recent introduction from the warmer 
climes of the South of Europe and Asia Minor ; and though it 
is not so vigorous under cultivation in our climate as most 
Windflowers, it proves perfectly hardy. A little extra care 
should be taken in planting it as regards soil and position, in 
order to grow it well. It belongs to that section of its numerous 
genus having an involucrum of stalked leaflets. 

The flowers are produced on stalks, 4in. to Gin. high ; they are 
nearly 2in. across, of a fine deep blue colour; the sepals are 
numerous and narrow, in the way of A. stellata, or star anemone. 
The leaves are triternate, divisions deeply cut and acute; the 
leaves of the involucrum are stalked, trifid, and deeply cut. 
The whole plant much resembles A. Apennina. Where it can 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 13 

be established, it must prove one of the most useful flowers, and 
to possess such charming winter blossom is worth much effort in 
affording it suitable conditions. The soil should be rich, light, 
and well drained, as sandy loam, and if mixed with plenty of 
leaf soil all the better. The position should be sheltered, other- 
wise this native of warm countries will have its early leaves and 
flowers damaged by the wintry blast, and the evil does not stop 
there, for the check at such a period interferes with the root 
development, and repetitions of such damage drive the plants 
into a state of " dwindling," and I may add, this is the condition 
in which this plant may frequently be seen. Many of the 
Anemones may be planted without much care, other than that of 
giving them a little shade from sunshine. The present subject, 
however, being so early, is not likely to obtain too much bright 
weather, but rather the reverse. If, then, it is planted in warm 
quarters, it may be expected to yield its desirable flowers in 
average quantity compared with other Windflowers, and in such 
proportion will its roots increase. The latter may be divided 
(providing they are of good size and healthy) when the leaves 
have died oft 

Flowering period, February and March. 

Anemone Coronaria. 

POPPY-LIKE WINDFLOWER; Nat. Ord. E/ANUNCTJLACE^. 

HARDY and turberous. The illustration (Fig. 6) is of the double 
form, in which it may frequently be seen; also in many colours, 
as blue, purple, white, scarlet, and striped; the same colours may 
be found in the single and semi-double forms. There are many 
shades or half colours, which are anything but pleasing, and where 
such have established themselves, either as seedlings or otherwise, 
they should be weeded out, as there are numerous distinct hues, 
which may just as easily be cultivated. The great variety in 
colour and form of this Anemone is perhaps its most peculiar 
characteristic ; for nearly 300 years it has had a place in English 
gardens, and came originally from the Levant. Its habit is 
neat ; seldom does it reach a foot in height, the flowers being 
produced terminally; they are poppy-like, and 2in. to 3in. 
across, having six sepals. The leaves are ternate, segments 
numerous ; each leaf springs from the tuber, with the exception 
of those of the involucre. 

In planting this species, it should be kept in mind that it 
neither likes too much sunshine nor a light soil ; under such con- 
ditions it may exist, but it will not thrive and scarcely ever 
flower. When the tuberous roots have become devoid of foliage 
they may be lifted, and if they have grown to a size exceeding 
3in. long and lin. in diameter, they may be broken in halves with 
advantage ; the sooner they are put back into the ground the 



14 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



better ; slight shade from the mid-day sun and good loam will be 
found to suit them best. When the various colours are kept 
separate, bold clumps of a score or so of each are very effective ; 
mixed beds are gay, almost gaudy ; but the grouping plan is so 
much better, that, during the blooming period, it is worth the 
trouble to mark the different colours, with a view to sorting them 
at the proper time. 




FIG. 6. ANEMONE CORONARIA FLORE-PLENO. 
(One-third natural size.) 

The nutty roots are often eaten by earth vermin, especially 
wireworm. Whenever there is occasion to lift the roots it is a 
good plan to dress them, by repeated dips in a mixture of clay 
and soot, until they are well coated ; they should be allowed to 
dry for a short time between each dip ; this will not only be 
found useful in keeping off wireworm and similar pests, but will 
otherwise benefit the plants as a manure. 

Flowering period, May and June. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



15 



Anemone Decapetala. 

Nat. Ord. 



, from North. America ; has a deteriorated resemblance to 
A. alpina and A. sulphurea (which see). The foliage is much 
less ; the flower stems are numerous, close together, stout, and 
9in. to 12in. high ; they are also branched, but not spreading. 
The flowers have seven to ten sepals, are an inch across, and of 
a creamy white colour. The heads of seed are more interesting 
than their flowers ; they form cotton-like globes, l|in. diameter, 
and endure in that state for a fortnight. I was inclined to 
discard this species when I first saw its dumpy and badly- 
coloured flowers, but the specimen was left in the ground, and 
time, which has allowed the plant to become more naturally 
established, has also caused it to produce finer bloom, and it is 
now a pleasing and distinct species of an interesting character. 

The same treatment will answer for this species as for A. 
sulphurea. All the Anemones may be propagated by seeds or 
division of the roots. The latter method should only be adopted 
in the case of strong roots, and their division will be more safely 
effected in early spring, when they can start into growth at once. 

Flowering period, May to June. 



Anemone Fulgens. 

SHINING WINDFLOWER ; Nat. Ord. BANUNCULACE^:. 

THIS is a variety of A. hortensis or A. pavonina, all of which 
much resemble each other. This 
very showy flower is much and 
deservedly admired. In sheltered 
quarters or during mild seasons it 
will flower at Christmas and con- 
tinue to bloom for several months. 
It will be seen by the illustration 
(Fig. 7) to be a plant of neat habit, 
and for effect and usefulness it is 
one of the very best flowers that 
can be introduced into the garden, 
especially the spring garden, as 
there is scarcely another of its 
colour, and certainly not one so 
floriferous and durable. Though 
it has been in English gardens 
over fifty years, it seems as if only 
recently its real worth has been 
discovered. It is now fast becom- 
ing a universal favourite. The flowers are 2in. across, and of a 




FIG. 7. ANEMONE FULGENS. 
(Plant, one-eighth natural size.) 



16 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

most brilliant scarlet colour, produced singly on tall naked 
stems, nearly a foot high. They vary in number of sepals, some 
being semi-double. The foliage is bright and compact, more 
freely produced than that of most Windflowers ; it is also 
richly cut. 

It may be grown in pots for conservatory or indoor decora- 
tion. It needs no forcing for such purposes ; a cold frame will 
prove sufficient to bring out the flowers in winter. Borders or 
the moist parts of rockwork are suitable for it ; but perhaps it is 
seen to greatest advantage in irregular masses in the half shade 
of trees in front of a shrubbery, and, after all, it is impossible to 
plant this flower wrong, as regards effect. To grow it well, how- 
ever, it must have a moist situation, and good loam to grow in. 
It is easily propagated by division of strong healthy roots in 
autumn. 

Flowering period, January to June, according to position and 
time of planting. 

Anemone Japonica. 

JAPAN WINDFLOWER ; Nat. Ord. RANTJNCULACE^. 
THIS and its varieties are hardy perennials of the most reliable 
kinds ; the typical form has flowers of a clear rose colour. A. j. 
vitifolia has larger flowers of a fine bluish tint, and seems to be 
the hybrid between the type and the most popular variety, viz., 
A. j. alba Honorine Jobert (see Fig. 8). So much has this 
grown in favour that it has nearly monopolised the name of the 
species, of which it is but a variety; hence the necessity of 
pointing out- the distinctions. Frequently the beautiful white 
kind is sought for by the typical name only, so that if a plant 
were supplied accordingly there would be disappointment at 
seeing a somewhat coarse specimen, with small rosy flowers, 
instead of a bold and beautiful plant with a base of large vine- 
shaped foliage and strong stems, numerously furnished with 
large white flowers, quite 2in. across, and centered by a dense 
arrangement of lemon-coloured stamens, somewhat like a large 
single white rose. This more desirable white variety sometimes 
grows 3ft. high, and is eminently a plant for the border in front 
of shrubs, though it is very effective in any position. I grow it 
in the border, on rockwork, and in a half shady place, and it 
seems at home in all. It will continue in bloom until stopped 
by frosts. The flowers are among the most useful in a cut state, 
especially when mingled with the now fashionable and hand- 
some leaves of heucheras and tiarellas ; they form a chaste 
embellishment for the table or fruit dishes. 

The plant is sometimes much eaten by caterpillars ; for this 
the remedy is soapy water syringed on the under side of the 
leaves. Earwigs also attack the flowers ; they should be trapped 
by a similar plan to that usually adopted for dahlias. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



17 



To those wishing to grow this choice Anemone, let me say, 
begin with the young underground runners ; plant them in the 
autumn anywhere you like, but see that the soil is deep, and if 




FIG. 8. 



ANEMONE JAPONICA ALBA (A. HONORINE JOBERT). 
(About one-twelfth natural size.) 



it is not rich, make it so with well-decayed leaves or manure, 
and you will have your reward. 

Flowering period, August to November. 

Anemone Nemorosa Flore-pleno. 

DOUBLE WOOD ANEMONE, or WINDFLOWER ; Nat. Ord. 

RANUNCTJLACEJE. 

THIS is the double form of the common British species ; in 
every part but the flower it resembles the type. The flower, 
from being double, and perhaps from being grown in more ex- 
posed situations than the common form in the shaded woods, is 
much more durable; an established clump has kept in good 
form for three weeks. 

The petals (if they may be so called), which render this flower 

c 



18 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

so pleasingly distinct, are arranged in an even tuft, being much 
shorter than the outer or normal sepals, the size and form of 
which remain true to the type. The pure white flower more 
than an inch across is somewhat distant from the handsome 
three-leaved involucrum, and is supported by a wiry flower stalk, 
Sin. to Sin. long ; it is about the same length from the root, 
otherwise the plant is stemless. The flowers are produced singly, 
and have six to eight petal-like sepals ; the leaves are ternately 
cut ; leaflets or segments three-cut, lanceolate, and deeply toothed ; 
petioles channelled ; the roots are long and round, of about the 
thickness of a pen-holder. This plant grown in bold clumps is 
indispensable for the choice spring garden ; its quiet beauty is 
much admired. 

It enjoys a strongish loam, and a slightly shaded situation will 
conduce to its lengthened flowering, and also tend to luxuriance. 
Soon after the flowers fade the foliage begins to dry up ; care 
should, therefore, be taken to have some other suitable flower 
growing near it, so as to avoid dead or blank spaces. Pentste- 
mons, rooted cuttings of which are very handy at this season for 
transplanting, are well adapted for such use and situations, 
and as their flowers cannot endure hot sunshine without suffering 
more or less, such half-shady quarters will be just the places 
for them. 

The double white Wood Anemone may be propagated by 
divisions of the tubers, after the foliage has completely withered. 

Flowering period, May. 

Anemone Pulsatilla. 

PASQUE FLOWER ; Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACE^E. 

A BRITISH species. This beautiful flower has long been cul- 
tivated in our gardens, and is deservedly a great favourite. 
It may not be uninteresting to give the other common and 
ancient names of the Easter Flower, as in every way this is not 
only an old plant, but an old-fashioned flower. " Passe Flower " 
and " Flaw Flower " come from the above common names, 
being only derivations, but in Cambridgeshire, where it grows 
wild, it is called " Coventry Bells " and " Hill Tulip." Three 
hundred years ago Gerarde gave the following description of 
it, which, together with the illustration (Fig. 9), will, I trust, 
be found ample : "These Passe flowers hath many small leaues, 
finely cut or iagged, like those of carrots, among which rise 
up naked stalks, rough and hairie ; whereupon do growe 
beautiful flowers bell fashion, of a bright delaied purple colour ; 
in the bottome whereof groweth a tuft of yellow thrums, 
and in the middle of the thrums thrusteth foorth a small 
purple pointell ; when the whole flower is past, there succeedeth 
an head or knoppe, compact of many graie hairie lockes, and in 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



19 



the solide parts of theknopslieth the seede flat and hoarie, euery 
seed having his own small haire hanging at it. The roote is 
thick and knobbie of a finger long, and like vnto those of the 
anemones (as it doth in all other parts verie notablie resemble) 
whereof no doubt this is a kinde." 

This flower in olden times was used for making garlands, and 
even now there are few flowers more suitable for such purpose ; 




FIG. 9. ANEMONE PULSATILLA. 
(One-half natural size.) 

it varies much in colour, being also sometimes double. It may 
be grown in pots for window decoration or in the open garden ; 
it likes a dry situation and well-drained soil of a calcareous 
nature. In these respects it differs widely from many of the 
other species of Windflower, yet I find it to do well in a collec- 
tion bed where nearly twenty other species are grown, and where 
there are both shade and more moisture than in the open parts 

2 



20 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



of the garden. It may be propagated by division of the strong 
root-limbs, each of which should have a portion of the smaller 
roots on them. Soon after flowering is a good time to divide it. 
Flowering period, March to May. 

Anemone Stellata. 

STAR WINDFLOWER; Nat. Ord. EANUNCULACE^E. 
THIS gay spring flower (Fig. 10) comes to us from Italy, but that 
it loves our dull climate is beyond doubt, as it not only flowers 
early, but continues for a long time in beauty. A. hortensis is 




FIG. 10. ANEMONE STELLATA. 
(One-half natural size,) 



another name for it, and there are several varieties of the species, 
which mostly vary only in the colours of the flowers, as striped, 
white and purple. The typical form, as illustrated, is seen to be 
a quaint little plant; its flowers are large, of a shining light 
purple colour, and star- shaped ; the dwarf foliage is of the well- 
known crowfoot kind. When grown in bold clumps it is richly 
effective, and, like most other Anemones, is sure to be admired. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 21 

It thrives well in a light loam and in slight shade ; I have 
tried it in pots kept in cold frames, where it flowers in mid- 
winter. It would doubtless make a showy appearance in a cool 
greenhouse. To propagate it, the roots should be divided after 
the tops have died down in summer. 

Flowering period, February to June, according to position and 
time of planting. 

Anemone Sulphurea. 

SULPHUR-COLOURED WINDFLOWER ; 8yn. A. APIIFOLIA ; 

Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACE.E. 

THIS is a grandly beautiful Windflower from Central Europe. 
The names, combined with the illustration (Fig. 11), must fail to 




FIG. 11. ANEMONE SULPHUREA. 
(One-fourth, natural size.) 



give the reader a proper idea of its beauty ; the specific name in 
reference to the colour falls far short, and cannot give a hint of 
its handsome form and numerous finely-coloured stamens ; and 



22 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the drawing can in no way illustrate the hues and shell-like sub- 
stance of the sepals ; there is also a softness and graceful habit 
about the foliage, that the name, apiifolia (parsley-leaved), does 
not much help the reader to realise. It may be parsley-like 
foliage in the comparative sense and in relation to that of 
other Anemones, but otherwise it can hardly be said to be like 
parsley. It is said by some to be only a variety of A. alpina; 
if so, it is not only a distinct but an unvarying form, so much so 
that by others it is held to be a species ; the line of difference in 
many respects seems so far removed, even granting it to be a 
variety (as in hundreds of similar cases), as to warrant a specific 
title. It may be more interesting to state that it is a lovely and 
showy flower, and that the shortest cut to an enjoyment of its 
beauties is to grow it. 

The flowers are 2in. to 2^in. across when expanded, but usually 
they are cup-shaped. The six sepals are egg-shaped but pointed, 
of much substance, and covered with a silky down on the outside, 
causing them to have changeable hues according to the play of 
wind and light. The stamens are very numerous, the anthers 
being closely arranged and of a rich golden colour ; the flower 
stems grow from 9in. to 18in. high, being terminated by one 
flower ; it carries a large and handsome involucre of three 
leaves, a little higher than the middle of the stem, and just 
overtopping the radical leaves, umbrella fashion ; the leaves of 
the involucre are like those of the root, but stalkless. The 
radical leaves are stalked, well thrown out, drooping, and over 
1ft. long, ternate and villous ; the leaflets are pinnatfiid and 
deeply toothed. 

This desirable plant is of the easiest culture, thriving in 
common garden soil, but it prefers that of a rich vegetable 
character and a situation not over dry. The flowers are per- 
sistent under any conditions, and they are further preserved 
when grown under a little shade, but it should only be a little. 

For propagation see A. decapetala. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

There are two other allied kinds which not only much resemble 
this, but which flower at or near the same time viz., A. alpina 
and A. decapetala, which see. 

Anemone Sylvestris. 
SNOWDROP A.; Nat. Ord. RANTING ULACE^E. 
THIS hardy herbaceous species comes from Germany, but it has 
been grown nearly 300 years in this country, It is distinct, 
showy, and beautiful ; it ranks with " old-fashioned " flowers. 
Of late this Windflower has come into great favour, as if for a 
time it had been forgotten ; still, it is hard to make out how 
such a fine border plant could be overlooked. However, it is well 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 23 

and deservedly esteemed at the present time; and, although 
many have proved the plant and flowers to be contrary to their 
expectations in reference to its common name, " Snowdrop 
Anemone," the disappointment has been, otherwise, an agreeable 
one. It only resembles the snowdrop as regards the purity and 
drooping habit of its flowers. 

Well-grown specimens have an exceedingly neat habit the 
foliage spreads and touches the ground, rounding up to the 
flower stems (which are about a foot high) in a pleasing manner. 
The earliest flowers are very large when fully open quite l^in. 
across but they are more often seen in the unopen state, when 
they resemble a nutmeg in shape. Whether open or shut, they 
are a pure white, and their pendent habit adds not a little to 
their beauty, as also does the leafy involucre. The leaves are 
three-parted, the two lower lobes being deeply divided, so that at 
a first glance the leaves appear to be five-parted ; each of the 
five lobes are three-cleft, and also dentate, downy, and veined ; 
the leaf stalks are radical, red, long, slightly channelled, and 
wiry ; in all respects the leaves of the involucre resemble those 
of the root, excepting the size, which is smaller, and the stalks 
are green, like the flower stems. 

In a cut state, the pure satin-white blossoms are fit for the 
most delicate wreath or bouquet ; they have, morever, a deli- 
cious clover-scent. It enjoys a light vegetable soil in a slightly 
shaded and moist situation ; if it could be allowed to ramble 
in the small openings of a front shrubbery, such positions would 
answer admirably. 

The roots are underground-creeping, which renders this 
species somewhat awkward to manage when grown with others 
in a collection of less rampant habit. On the other hand, the 
disposition it has to spread might very well be taken advantage 
of by providing it with a good broad space, than which nothing 
could be more lovely for two months of the year. 

It is needless to give directions for its propagation, as the 
runners spring up all round the parent plant. Slugs are very 
fond of it, and in early spring, especially when the new growths 
are appearing, they should be kept in check, otherwise they will 
eat down into the heart of the strongest plant ; a dose of clear 
lime water will be found effective and will not hurt the new 
leaves ; if this is followed up with a few sprinklings of sand, the 
slugs will not care to occupy such unpleasant quarters. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

Anemone Vernalis. 

SHAGGY WINDFLOWER ; Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACE^E. 

A CURIOUS but pretty alpine species, from the Swiss Alps, 
consequently very hardy. It is not a showy subject, but its 



24 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

distinctions are really beautiful, and commend it to those who 
love to grow plants of a recherche character. 

The illustration (Fig. 12) will give some idea of it, but no de- 
scription can convey even an approximate notion of its flowers, 
which are produced singly, on short, stout, hairy stems, about 
5in. high. For so small a plant the flower is large, more than an 
inch across when expanded, but usually it keeps of a roundish, 
bell-shaped form. Its colour is a bluish-white inside, the 
outside being much darker. It would be violet, were not the 
hairs so long and numerous that they form a brownish coat 
which is, perhaps, the most remarkable trait of this species. 




FIG. 12. ANEMONE VEENALIS (SHAGGY ANEMONE). 
(One-half natural size). 

The leaves, too, are very hairy twice, and sometimes thrice, 
divided, rather small, and also few. 

This little plant is most enjoyed when grown in pots. It may 
be plunged in sand or ashes in an open space, but it should never 
be allowed to suffer for moisture. When so grown, and just 
before the flowers open, it should be removed to a cool, airy 
frame, where it should also be plunged to keep its roots cool and 
moist ; it will require to be very near the glass, so as to get 
perfect flowers. Such a method of growing this flower affords 
the best opportunity for its close examination ; besides, it is so 
preserved in finer and more enduring form. It thrives well in 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 25 

lumpy peat and loam, but I have found charcoal, in very small 
lumps, to improve it, as it does most plants grown in pots, espe- 
cially such as require frequent supplies of water. The slugs are 
very fond of it ; a look-out for them should be kept when the 
plants are growing, and frequent sprinklings of sharp ashes will 
be found useful. 
Flowering period, April and May. 

Anthericum Liliago. 

ST. BERNARD'S LILY; Nat. Ord. LILIACEJE. 

THIS may be grown as a companion to St. Bruno's Lily, though 
not so neat in habit or rich in bloom. In all respects it is very 
different. It is taller, the flowers not half the size, and more 
star-shaped, foliage more grassy, and the roots creeping and 
jointed. 

All the Anthericums named by me will do in ordinary soil, but 
prefer a fat loam of considerable depth. If, therefore, such 
conditions do not exist, there should be a good dressing of well- 
rotted stable manure turned in, and a mulching given in early 
spring. 

Anthericums are propagated by division of the roots, which 
should be carefully performed during the autumn. After such 
mutilation they should not be disturbed again for three years, or 
they will deteriorate in vigour and beauty. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Anthericum Liliastrum. 
ST. BRUNO'S LILY; Nat. Ord. LILIACE^E. 

THIS charming plant is a native of Alpine meadows, and is 
known by other names, as Paradisia and Cyackia, but is more 
commonly called St. Bruno's Lily. It is emphatically one of the 
most useful and handsome flowers that can be grown in English 
gardens, where, as yet, it is anything but as plentiful as it ought 
to be. Not only is it perfectly hardy in our climate, but it 
seems to thrive and flower abundantly. It is fast becoming a 
favourite, and it is probable that before long it will be very 
common, from the facts, firstly, of its own value and beauty, 
and, secondly, because the Dutch bulb-growers have taken it in 
hand. Not long ago they were said to be buying stock where- 
ever they could find it. The illustration (Fig. 13) shows it in a 
small-sized clump. Three or four such specimens are very effective 
when grown near together ; the satin-like or shining pure white 
flowers show to greater advantage when there is plenty of 
foliage. A number planted in strong single roots, but near 
together, forming a clump several feet in diameter, represent also 
a good style ; but a single massive specimen, with at least fifty 



26 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



crowns, and nearly as many spikes of bloom just beginning to 
unfold, is one of the most lovely objects in my own garden. 

The chaste flowers are 2in. long, six sepalled, lily-shaped, of a 
transparent whiteness, and sweetly perfumed ; filaments white, 
and long as the sepals ; anthers large, and thickly furnished 
with bright orange-yellow pollen; the stems are round, stout, 
18in. high, and produce from six to twelve flowers, two or three 
of which are open at one and the same time. The leaves are long, 
thick, with membranous sheaths, alternate and stem-clasping, 
or semi-cylindrical; the upper parts are lanceolate, dilated, 




FIG. 13. ANTHERICUM LILIASTRUM. 
(Plant, one-sixth natural size ; blossom, one-fourth natural size.) 



subulate, and of a pale green colour. The roots are long, fleshy, 
brittle, and fasciculate. 

This plant for three or four weeks is one of the most decora- 
tive ; no matter whether in partial shade or full sunshine, it not 
only flowers well, but adorns its situation most richly; the 
flowers, in a cut state, are amongst the most useful and effective 
of hardy kinds indeed, they vie with the tender exotics. 

Flowering period, June and July. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 27 

A. I. major is a new variety in all its parts like the type, with 
the exception of size, the flowers being larger by nearly an inch. 
The variety is said to grow to the height of 8ft. 

Anthyllis Montana. 
MOUNTAIN KIDNEY YETCH; Nat. Ord. LEGTJMINOS^E. 

FOR rockwork this is one of the most lovely subjects. It is 
seldom seen, though easy to grow, perfectly hardy, and peren- 
nial. It is classed as an herbaceous plant, but it is shrubby, 
and on old specimens there is more wood than on many dwarf 
shrubs. It is of a procumbent habit, and only 4in. to Gin. high 
in this climate. It comes from the South of Europe, where it 
probably grows larger. 

In early spring the woody tips begin to send out the hoary 
leaves ; they are Sin. to Gin. long, and from their dense habit, 
and the way in which they intersect each other, they present a 
pleasing and distinct mass of woolly foliage. 

The leaves are pinnatifid, leaflets numerous, oval, oblong, and 
very grey, nearly white, with long silky hairs. 

The flowers are of a purple-pink colour, very small, and in 
close drumstick-like heads. The long and numerous hairs of 
the involucre and calyx almost cover over the flowers and render 
them inconspicuous ; still, they are a pretty feature of the plant ; 
the bloom stands well above the foliage on very downy, but 
otherwise naked stalks. 

When planted in such a position that it can rest on the edge 
of or droop over a stone, strong specimens are very effective. It 
seems to enjoy soil of a vegetable character, with its roots near 
large stones. I have heard that it has been found difficult to 
grow, but that I cannot understand. I fear the fault has been 
in having badly-rooted plants to start with, as cuttings are very 
slow in making an ample set of roots for safe transplanting. Its 
increase by division is no easy matter, as the woody stems are 
all joined in one, and the roots are of a tap character. Seed 
seldom ripens ; by cuttings appears to be the readier mode of 
propagation ; if these are taken off in early spring, put in a 
shady position, and in leaf soil, they will probably root as the 
seasons get warmer. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Apios Tuberosa. 

Syn. GLYCINE APIOS ; Nat. Ord. LEGTTMINOS^. 

THIS is a pretty climber, or, more strictly speaking, a twiner ; 
it is hardy, tuberous, and perennial The tubers resemble pota- 
toes, but incline to pear-shape, as implied by the generic name. 
240 years ago it was introduced from North America ; still, it is 



28 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



seldom met with; notwithstanding its good habit and colour. It 
is one of those happy subjects which most conduce to the fresh- 
ness and wild beauty of our gardens; the dark and glossy 
verdure is charmingly disposed in embowerments by means of 
the delicate twining stems ; and though it grows apace, there is 
never an unsightly dense or dark mass, so commonly seen in 
many climbers, but, instead, it elegantly adorns its station, and 
the outlines of its pretty pinnate leaves may easily be traced 
against the light. 




FIG. 14. APIOS TUBEBOSA. 
(One-twelfth natural size ; a, flower, natural size.) 

As may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 14), it is in the way 
of a climbing bean. The flowers are purple and borne in small 
clusters from the axils of the leaves, and, of course, as indicated 
by the order to which it belongs, they are like pea flowers ; they 
are produced a long time in succession, providing the frosts do not 
occur ; they have the scent of violets. The leaves are distantly 
produced on fine wiry stems, which grow to the length of 12ft. ; 
they are pinnate, the leaflets being of various sizes, oval, smooth, 
and of a dark shining green colour. 

The roots are not only peculiar in the way already mentioned, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 29 

but the tubers Lave the appearance of being strung together by 
their ends. They are edible, and where they grow wild they are 
called " ground nuts." From the description given it will be easy 
to decide how and where it should be planted. 

There should be provision made for its twining habit, and it 
may have the liberty of mixing its foliage with that of less 
beautiful things during autumn, such, for instance, as the bare 
Jasmine nudiflora ; its spare but effective leaves and flowers will 
do little or no harm to such trees, and after the frosts come the 
jasmine will be clear again. It may also be grown with happy 
results as shown in the illustration, needing only a well-secured 
twiggy bush. Cut as sprays it is very serviceable for hanging or 
twining purposes. 

It most enjoys a light soil, also a sunny situation. Sometimes 
it has been found slow at starting into growth when newly 
planted ; this, however, can hardly be the case with newly lifted 
tubers. I may add that it is no uncommon thing for these to be 
out of the ground for weeks and months together, when they not 
only become hard and woody, but when suddenly brought in 
contact with the damp earth rot overtakes them. There is no 
difficulty whatever with fresh tubers, which may be lifted after 
the tops have died off. Beyond securing fresh roots, there is 
nothing special about the culture of this desirable climber. 

Flowering period, August to October. 

Arabis Lucida. 

SHINING BOCK CRESS ; Nat. Ord. CRTJCIFER^E. 
THIS member of a well-known family of early spring flowers 
is desirable, for its neat habit and verdancy. There is not a 
particle of sere foliage to be seen, and it has, moreover, a glossy 
appearance, whence the specific name. The flowers are not of 
much effect, though, from their earliness, not without value; 
they are in the way of the flowers of the more common species, 
A. alpina, but less in size ; they are also more straggling in the 
raceme ; these two features render it inferior as a flower ; the 
stalks are Sin. to 6in. high. The leaves are arranged in lax 
flattened rosettes, are lin. to Sin. long, somewhat spathulate, 
notched, fleshy, of a very dark green colour, and shining. The 
habit is dense and spreading, established tufts having a fresh 
effect. Though an Hungarian species, it can hardly have a more 
happy home in its habitat than in our climate. Where verdant 
dwarf subjects are in request, either for edgings, borders, or 
rockwork, this is to be commended as one of the most reliable, 
both for effect and vigour. In the last-named situation it proves 
useful all the year round, but care should be taken that it does 
not overgrow less rampant rock plants. 

A. I. variegata is a variety with finely-marked leaves. The bloom 



30 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

resembles that of the type, but is rather weaker. It is better to 
remove the flowers of this kind, as then the rather slow habit of 
growth is much improved, as also is the colour of the foliage. The 
leaves being more serviceable and effective than the bloom, the 
uses should be made of it accordingly. They are broadly edged 
with yellow, the green being lighter than that of the type, but 
equally bright ; the ends of the leaves are curled backwards, but, 
with the exception of being a little smaller, they are similar in 
shape to the parent form. This is a gem for rockwork, and, if 
it did not belong to a rather ordinary race of plants, it would, 
perhaps, be more often seen in choice collections. This, how- 
ever, does not alter its worth. Seen in crevices of dark stone 
on rockwork, or in bold tufts near the walks, or planted with 
judgment near other dwarf foliaged subjects, it ever proves 
attractive. It is much less rampant, and, perhaps, less hardy 
than the type. It has only been during the recent very severe 
winters, however, that it has been killed. The Arabis is easily 
propagated by slips or rootlets, which should be taken after 
flowering. The variegated form is better for being so propa- 
gated every year. If bold patches are desired, they should be 
formed by planting a number together, Sin. or 4in. apart. 
Flowering period, February to June. 

Aralia Sieboldi. 

SIEBOLD'S ARALIA ; Nat. Ord. ARALIACE^E. 

THE present subject (see Fig. 15) beautiful, hardy, and ever- 
green is a species of recent introduction; still, it has already 
become well known and distributed, so much so that it scarcely 
needs description ; but there are * facts in reference to it which 
would seem to be less known. It is seldom seen in the open 
garden, and many amateurs, who otherwise are well acquainted 
with it, when they see it fresh and glossy in the open garden 
in the earliest months of the year, ask, "Is it really hardy ?" 
Not only is such the case, but the foliage, and especially the 
deep green colour, are rarely so fine when the specimens have 
indoor treatment, and, on this account, the shrub is eminently 
suitable for notice here. 

The order Araliacece is nearly related to Umlelliferce, from 
which fact an idea may be had of the kind and arrangement of 
the flowers. Many of the genera of the order Araliacece are 
little known ; perhaps the genus Hedera (ivy) is the only one 
that is popular, and it so happens to immediately follow the 
genus Aralia. To remember this will further assist in 
gleaning an idea of the form of blossom, as that of ivy is 
well known. Aralia Sieboldi, however, seldom flowers in this 
climate, either in or out of doors. When it does, the white 
flowers are not of much value ; they are small, like ivy blossom 
I 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



31 



in form, but more spread in the arrangement. There are five 
sepals, five petals, five styles, and five cells in the berries. The 
flowers are produced on specimens 2ft. to 5ft. high during winter, 




FIG. 15. AEALIA SIEBOLDI. 
(One-tenth natural size.) 

when favourable. The leaves, when well grown, are the main 
feature of the shrub, and are 12in. or more across. This size 
is not usual, but a leaf now before me, and taken from an outside 
specimen, measures over a foot, with a stout round stalk, 13in. 



OZ HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

long; the form of leaf is fan-shaped, having generally seven lobes, 
each supported by a strong mid-rib ; the lobes are formed by 
divisions rather more than half the diameter of the leaf ; they 
are slightly distant, broadly lance-shaped, waved at the edges, 
toothed near the ends, the teeth being somewhat spiny; the 
substance is very stout and leather-like to the touch ; the upper 
surface is a dark shining bronzy-green, beautifully netted or 
veined ; the under surface is a pale green, and richly ornamented 
by the risen mid-ribs and nerves of the whole leaf; the leaf- 
stalks are thick, round, bending downwards, and 6in. to 18in. 
long, springing from the half woody stem. 

The habit of the shrub is bushy, somewhat spreading, causing 
the specimens to have a fine effect from their roundness, the 
leaf arrangement also being perfect. Without doubt this is 
one of the most distinct and charming evergreens for the orna- 
mental garden, sub-tropical in appearance, and only inferior to 
palms as regards size ; it is effective anywhere. It need not be 
stated that as a vase or table decoration it ranks with the best 
for effect and service, as it is already well-known as such. In 
planting this subject outside, young but well-rooted examples 
should be selected and gradually hardened off. At the latter 
end of May they should be turned out of the pots into a rich 
but sandy loam. The position should be sunny, and sheltered 
from the north. Some have advised that it should be grown 
under trees, but I have proved that when so treated the less 
ripened foliage has suffered with frost, whilst the specimens 
fully exposed to the sun have not suffered in the least; they 
would droop and shrivel as long as the frost remained, but as 
soon as the temperature rose they became normal, without a 
trace of injury. When planted as above, young specimens will 
soon become so established and inured to open-air conditions, 
that little concern need be felt as regards winter ; even such as 
were under trees, where they continued to grow too long, and 
whose tender tops were cut away by frost, have, the following 
summer, made a number of fresh growths lower down the stems. 
I should like to say that on rockwork this shrub has a superb 
effect, and I imagine the better drained condition of such a 
structure is greatly in favour of its health and hardiness. The 
propagation is by means of cuttings ; slips of half -ripened wood, 
taken during the warmest months, if put in sandy loam in a 
cucumber frame, will root like willow. As soon as roots have 
formed, pot them separately and plunge the pots in the same 
frame for a week or two, then harden off. For the first winter 
the young stock ought to be kept either in a greenhouse or a 
cold frame, and by the end of the following May they will be 
ready to plant out. A well-drained position is important. 

Flowering period, November to March, in favourable or mild 
seasons. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 33 

Arisaema Triphyllum. 

Syns. A. ZEBRINUM and ARUM TRIPHYLLUM ; Common Names, 
THREE-LEAVED ARUM and JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT ; Nat. 
Ord. ARACE^:. 

A HARDY tuberous-rooted perennial from North America. I 
will at once explain that the above leading name is not the one 
generally used here, but in America, where the species is 
common, botanists have adopted it ; besides, it is, as will be 
seen from the following description, very distinct from other 
Arums. The Syn. Ariscema zebrinum, as given, belongs really to 
a variety of A. triphyllmn, but the type is marked in its flowers 
zebra-like, and there are many shades and colours of it, there- 
fore both or either of the names may be used for the different 
forms, with a fair degree of propriety, as in fact they are. 

There is a doubt with some as to the hardiness of this plant ; 
in my mind there is none whatever. It is no stranger to frosts 
in its habitats, but I do not found my conviction on anything 
but my experience of it. It has been grown fully exposed for 
two winters, and sometimes the frosts must have gone as far 
down as the roots. 

There is nothing showy about this plant, but there is some- 
thing which stamps it as a fitting subject for a garden of choice 
plants ; its bold, dark green foliage and quaint-looking flowers 
render it desirable on the score of distinctness. It has, more- 
over, a freshness upon which the eye can always linger. The 
flowers are in general form like the calla-lily ; the upper part of 
the spathe, or sheathing leaf, which is really the calyx, is, 
however, more elongated, pointed, and hooked; otherwise the 
spathe is erect, slightly reflexed just above the folded part, 
giving the appearance of a pair of small lobes ; this the calyx 
is really the most conspicuous part of the flower ; in the belly it 
is beautifully striped with broad lines of a purplish-brown 
colour, which shade off to an inch of green in the middle, when 
they form again, and continue to the tip of the spathe, which 
will be 4in. to 6in. long, and nearly 2in. broad at the widest 
part ; these lines run between the ribs, and, as before hinted, 
they are of various colours, such as brown, purple, pink, and 
green. The ribs are nearly white, and the green parts are very 
pale. The spadix is over 3in. long, club-shaped, spotted with 
brown, very much so near the end. The anthers at the base of 
the spadix are curious, and should be examined. They are 
invisible until the folded part of the spathe is opened ; they are 
numerous, arranged in a dense broad ring, sessile, and nearly 
black. This curious flower is produced on a stout, round scape, 
a foot or more in height. The leaves are radical, having a stalk 
a foot long. They are, as the specific name implies, divided into 
three parts, each being of equal length, entire, wavy, and pointed. 

D 



34: HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

The whole plant has a somewhat top-heavy appearance (see Fig. 
16), but I never saw it broken down by the weather. It makes 
quick growth in spring, the scape appearing with the leaves ; in 
late summer it dies down. It looks well in quiet nooks, but it 
also forms a good companion to showy flowers in more open 
situations ; in a cut state, for dressing " old-fashioned " vases, 
nothing could be in better character, a few leaves of yarrow, 
day lily, flag, or similar foliage being all it will require. 




Fia. 16. ARIS.EMA TKIPHTLLUM. 
(One-fourth natural size.) 

It may be transplanted, any time from September to the end 
-of January, into good light loam or leaf soil, 4in. or 6in. deep ; 
if there should be a dry season during the period of growth, the 
plant should be well watered. To increase it, the tubers may be 
divided every third year, providing the growth has been of a 
vigorous tone. I may add, that, from its tall and not over-dense 
habit, there may with advantage, both to it and the plants used, 
be a carpet grown underneath ivy, vincas, or sweet woodruff 
for some situations, and brighter subjects for more conspicuous 
parts of the garden, such as the finer kinds of mimulus, 
ourisia, alpine aster, and dwarf iris. 

Flowering period, June and July. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 35 

Arum Crinitum. 
HAIRY ARUM, or DRAGON'S MOUTH; Nat. Ord. ARACE.E. 

As may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 17), this is a most sin- 
gular plant. It proves hardy in this climate if its position is 
selected ; in other words, it is not hardy in all kinds of soils and 
situations, but if planted four or five inches deep, in sandy or 
half decayed vegetable mould, facing the south, there is little to 
fear either as regards hardiness or its thriving. I think, there- 
fore, it may be called hardy. It is far more interesting than 
handsome, but there is at the present time an evident desire 
amongst amateurs to grow the various Arums, and more espe- 
cially has this one been sought after ; I have, therefore, intro- 
duced it amongst more beautiful flowers, and given an enlarged 
drawing of the entire plant, together with the spathe in its 
unopened state. 

The plant is a native of Minorca, and was imported in 1777. 
In this climate it grows to the height of 18in., developing the 
flower with the foliage. It is produced on a stout scape nearly 
1ft. high, of a pale green colour, marked with dark short lines 
and spotted with delicate pink dots. The folded spathe is of 
leather-like substance, rough, almost corky in texture ; also 
variously marked and tinted. At the base there are a number 
of green lines arranged evenly and longitudinally on a nearly 
white ground. A little higher the belly part the lines are 
less frequent, irregular, and mixed with pink dots. Still higher, 
the ground colour becomes pale green, the lines dark green, and 
the pink spots are changed to clouded tints ; the remainder of 
the folded spathe to the tip is a mixture of brown and green 
dots, the total length being fully 9in. "When the spathe opens, 
it does so quickly, bending more than half its length outwards, 
the division looking upwards. To those who have not before 
seen the plant at this stage, it will prove an interesting surprise ; 
the odour, however, is repulsive. The spathe at its widest part 
is Gin. broad, and tapers off to a blunt point. It is of a 
dark purple colour and covered with long bent dark hairs, 
whence the specific name. They are curiously disposed, and 
remind one of some hairy animal that has been lifted out of the 
water the wrong way as regards the direction of the hair. The 
spadix is comparatively small, black, and also covered with 
hairs. The flower should be closely watched if its peculiarities 
are to be fully noted, as it not only opens quickly but soon 
begins to wither. During the short period that the flower in 
open the lower part of the spathe or belly becomes filled wits 
all kinds of flies, being held by the spear-like hairs. 

The leaves have long stalks, marked and tinted in a similar 
manner to that of the scape. They are curiously formed and 
twisted, pedate or bird-foot shaped, the outer segments twice 

D2 



36 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 




FIG. 17. ABTTM CEINITUM. 
(One-fourth natural size.) 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 37 

cut, lance-shaped, and turned inwards or over the main part of 
the leaf ; the leaves are of a deep green colour, and of good 
substance; they seldom exceed four in number to each plant or 
tuber. 

This curious species should, as above indicated, have a warm 
situation, where it will also be comparatively dry in winter. 
Its propagation may be effected by division of the roots of strong 
specimens. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Asters. 

MICHAELMAS DAISIES, or STARWORTS ; Nat. Ord. 

COMPOSITE. 

HARDY, perennial, and herbaceous. These are a numerous 
family, and many of them have an ungainly habit and insignifi- 
cant flowers in fact, are not worth growing, save as wild 
flowers in unfrequented places. I will mention a few of the 
finer sorts, which are mostly species : A. diversifolius, A. 
ericoides, A. grandiflorus, A. pendulus, and A. Dumosus, these 
are all good, both in habit and flowers ; ericoides and pendulus 
make really handsome bushes, but the very beautiful A. amellus, 
and its more dwarf variety (A. Mdme. Soyance], have tempted 
me to write of these old-fashioned plants, which may be said to 
be wholly distinct, as their flowers are so veiy much brighter 
(dark purple, with a clear yellow centre), and the rays so much 
more evenly and compactly furnished. Their stems are 2ft. to 
3ft. high, and flowered half their length with clusters of bloom 
about the size and form of full-grown field daisies. These 
wand-like spikes in a cut state are bright and appropriate deco- 
rations. In vases they are very effective, even when used alone. 
The flowers are very lasting, either cut or otherwise ; the plants 
will bloom six or eight weeks. 

These subjects will thrive in almost any kind of soil or posi- 
tion, opening their flowers during the dullest weather, and 
though they like sunshine, they will not wait for it. It is 
scarcely needful to further describe these well-known flowers, 
but, as well as the species, there are some bright and beautiful 
varieties which merit further notice All the Starworts are 
easily increased by root division any time. 

Flowering period, August to November. 

Aster Alpinus. 

ALPINE STARWORT, or BLUE DAISY; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
AN exceedingly beautiful and very much admired alpine 
plant, which does not die down like most of the Starworts, 
but has woody stems ; it is seldom seen more than a foot high, 



38 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



and its large bright purple flowers seem disproportionate. This 
is one of the plants which should have a place in every garden, 
and more especially in rock gardens. There cannot well be a 
more neat and telling subject ; the form and size of its flowers 
are not often seen on such dwarf plants, and it also has the 
merit of being a " tidy " subject when not in bloom. The illus- 
tration (Fig. 18) will give a fair idea of its main features. Its 
purple flowers, which are fully 2in. across, have for many days 
an even and well-expanded ray, when the florets curl or reflex ; 




FIG 18 ASTER ALPINTTS. 
(One-third natural size.) 



the disk is large, and numerously set with lemon-yellow florets ; 
the flowers are well lifted up on stout round stems, covered with 
short stiff hairs, and furnished with five or six small leaves ; the 
main foliage is of compact growth, lance-shaped, entire, 
spathulate and covered with short hairs. 

Considering that this plant has been in English gardens for 
220 years, and that its merits must be seen by anyone at a glance, 
it is hard to say why it is not better known ; even in choice and 
large collections it always proves attractive when in flower. The 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWEES. 39 

blooms in a cut state are very durable; they not only hold 
together, but also keep a good colour. Under cultivation it is in 
no way particular ; it will endure anything but being deprived of 
light; from its dwarf, stout, and shrubby character, it would 
form a useful and a handsome edging to the larger walks ; and 
by growing it so extensively an enviable supply of flowers for 
cutting would be at hand. 

A stock of young plants may soon be got up by division of 
strong roots after the flowering season ; such pieces as have roots 
may be planted at once in their permanent quarters ; the rootless 
parts should be dibbled into light sandy loam and shaded with 
branches for a week or two. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

A. a. albus is a white-flowered variety, blooming about the 
same time. There does not appear to be that vigour about it 
which characterises the type; this, however, is not the only 
shortcoming ; when compared with the rich purple flower, the 
white one, with its large yellow disk, appears, to say the least, a 
questionable improvement. 

Aster Ptarmicoides. 

BOUQUET STAEWOET ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS Starwort is a very recently - imported species from 
North America. Like many other things which have proved 
worthless as decorative flowers, this was highly praised, but 
for a while its weedy-looking foliage caused suspicion; after 
becoming well established, it flowered, and, I am glad to say, 
proves a most distinct and useful Starwort. Its small white 
flowers much resemble the field daisy, but they are borne on 
densely-branched stems in hundreds ; in fact, the plant, which 
grows nearly 2ft. high, seems to be nearly all flowers. Each one 
has a single ray of shining white florets, narrow and separate. 
Those of the disk are of a canary-yellow colour ; the imbricated 
calyx is pear-shaped ; pedicels slender, bent, wiry, and furnished 
with very small leaves ; main stems hispid, woody, and brittle. 
The leaves of the root are 2in. to 4in. long, smooth, entire, linear, 
almost grass-like; those of the stems much less, becoming 
smaller as they near the flowers ; they are somewhat rough, 
partaking of the quality of the stems. The habit of the plant is 
much branched, the spreading clusters of flowers being six or ten 
times the size of the plant, so that it becomes top-heavy; it 
blooms for many weeks, and is not damaged by coarse weather. 
Amongst other Asters it shows to advantage, flowering earlier 
than most of them, but lasting well into their period of bloom. 
It is sure to prove a useful white autumnal flower ; small sprays 
when cut look better than on the plant, as they are then seen to 
be well spread and rigidly held by means of their wiry stalks ; 



40 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

they have the scent of Southernwood. It grows well with me in 
ordinary garden loam, the situation being well exposed to the 
sun. It may be readily propagated by root division. 
Flowering period, August to October. 

Bellis Perennis. 

COMMON PERENNIAL DAISY; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS native plant, the commonest flower of the field and way- 
side, and the weed of our grass-plots, is the parent form of the 
handsome and popular double kinds seen in almost every 
garden. "Well known as these flowers are, it may prove 
interesting to learn a little more about the fine large double 
crimson and white kinds their treatment, for instance in 
order to have abundance of flowers during the earliest months 
of the year ; and the uses to which they may be most advan- 
tageously put ; for, common as are the Daisies, they are, without 
doubt, amongst the most useful flowers we possess. First, I will 
briefly give the names and descriptions of the more distinct 
varieties. 

B. p. aucubifolia is the Double Daisy, having a beautifully 
variegated foliage, mottled with golden-yellow in the way of the 
aucuba. 

B. p. fistulosa. This is the double crimson or pink Daisy, 
having its florets piped or quilled (see Fig. 19). 

B. p. hortensis embraces all the double forms raised and 
cultivated in gardens, no matter what colour, and so distin- 
guished from the typical form of the fields. 

B. p. prolifera is that curious and favourite kind called " Hen 
and Chickens." The flowers are double, and from the imbricate 
calyx of the normal flower there issue a number of smaller 
Daisies having straggling florets ; the whole on one main stalk 
presenting a bouquet-like effect. 

These kinds, the specific names of which are not only 
descriptive, but amply embrace the group, are much added to by 
flowers having other names and minor distinctions, the latter, 
for the most part, being only shades or mixtures of colour as 
crimson, pink, white, and bicolours. The florets in many kinds 
are exceedingly pretty, from the way in which they are tipped 
and shaded ; notably, a new variety that was sent me under the 
name of Dresden China. These sorts having different tints are 
usefully named with " florists' " names as Pearl, Snowball, Bob 
Boy, Sweep, Bride, &c. I may say that I have long grown the 
Daisy largely, Bride and Sweep being the favourite kinds ; both 
are robust growers, very hardy and early. Bride is the purest 
white, with florets full, shining, and well reflexed ; rather larger 
than a florin, and when fully developed has a half globular 
appearance ; another good point is its flower stalks being 4in. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 41 

to 5in. long, which renders it serviceable as cut bloom. Sweep is 
not quite so large, though a good-sized Daisy, it also opens 
more flat; its colour, however, is first rate, it is the darkest 
crimson Daisy I ever saw, is of a quilled form and very full. 




FIG. 19. BELLIS PERENNIS FISTTJLOSA. 
(One-third natural size.) 

Its chief point is its constant colour ; if the florets are 
examined, they are the same deep crimson underneath as on 
the face of the flower; this, together with its long stalks, 
renders it useful, too, in a cut state. 

To grow this useful flower well and render it doubly valuable 
by having it in bloom in mid-winter, requires three things : First, 
timely transplanting ; secondly, rich soil ; thirdly, partial shade ; 
these conditions will be more briefly and, perhaps, clearly 
explained, if I state my method. At the end of May or fore 
part of June, plenty of good rotten stable manure is wheeled 
into the bush-fruit quarters ; it is worked in with a fork, so as 
to do as little damage as possible to the bush roots. A line is 
drawn, and the old Daisy roots which have just been taken up 
are trimmed by shortening both tops and roots. They are 
severely divided, and the pieces planted Gin. apart in rows Sin. 
asunder. In such a cool, moist situation they soon form good 
tufts, and I need scarcely say that the dressing of manure has 
also a marked effect on the fruit crop. A planting so made is 
not only a cheerful carpet of greenery during winter, but is well 
dotted over with bloom. The plants being well established in 
rich soil, and having the shelter of the bushes during summer 
and winter, are the conditions which have conduced to such 
early flowers. This is the method I have adopted for 
years, and both Daisies and fruit have been invariably good 



42 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

crops. I ought, however, to say that beds more exposed,, 
together with the fact that the Daisy roots have to be trans- 
planted in October or November, never flower so early, from 
which it will be seen that the treatment explained hardly applies 
to such bedding ; but where a breadth of bloom is required, say,. 
for cutting purposes, I know no better plan. As cut bloom the 
daisy is charming in glass trays on a bed of moss, or even in 
small bouquets, mixed with the foliage of pinks, carnations, and 
rosemary. Such an arrangement has at least the merit of sweet 
simplicity, and somehow has also the effect of carrying our 
thoughts with a bound to spring-time. 

The ancient names for this " old-fashioned " flower were 
" Little Daisies " and " Bruisewoorte." The latter name, accord- 
ing to Gerarde, was applied for the following reasons : " The 
leaues stamped, taketh away bruses and swellings proceeding of 
some stroke, if they be stamped and laide thereon, whereupon it 
was called in olde time Bruise-woorte. The iuice put into the 
eies cleereth them, and taketh away the watering ;" and here is a 
dog note : " The same given to little dogs with milke, keepeth 
them from growing great." 

Flowering period, February to July. 

Bocconia Cordata. 

Syn. MACLEAYA CORDATA ; Nat. Ord. PAPAVERACEJE. 
A HARDY herbaceous perennial from China. It is a tall and 
handsome plant ; its fine features are its stately habit, finely- 
cut foliage, and noble panicles of buds and flowers ; during the 
whole progress of its growth it is a pleasing object, but in the 
autumn, when at the height of 7ft. it has become topped with 
lax clusters of flowers, over 2ft. long, it is simply grand. There 
are other names in trade lists, as B. japonica and B. alba, but 
they are identical with B. cordata ; possibly there may be a little 
difference in the shades of the flowers, but nothing to warrant 
another name. Having grown the so-called species or varieties, 
I have hitherto found no difference whatever ; and of the hardy 
species of this genus, I believe B. cordata is the only one at 
present grown in English gardens. During spring and early 
summer this subject makes rapid growth, pushing forth its 
thick leafy stems, which are attractive, not only by reason of 
their somewhat unusual form, but also because of their tender 
and unseasonable appearance, especially during spring ; it is 
rare, however, that the late frosts do any damage to its foliage. 
It continues to grow with remarkable vigour until, at the height 
of 5ft. or more, the flower panicles begin to develop ; these 
usually add 2ft. or more to its tallness. 

The flowers are very small but numerous, of an ivory-white 
colour ; they are more beautiful in the unopened state, when the 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 43 

two-sepalled calyx for many days compresses the tassel-like 
cluster of stamens. Each half of the calyx is boat-shaped, and 
before they burst they have the form and colour of clean plump 
groats; as already hinted, the stamens are numerous, and 
the anthers large for so small a flower, being spathulate. As, 




FlG. 20. BOCCONIA COKDATA. 

(About one-twentieth natural size ; blossom, one-half>atural;size.) 



soon as the stamens become exposed, the calyx falls, and in a 
short time a few hours the fugacious anthers disappear, 
to be followed only a little later by the fall of the filaments ; 
there is then left a naked but headed capsule, half the size of 
the buds, and of the same colour ; they may be traced on the 
panicle in the illustration (Fig. 20). From the fading quality 



44 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

of the above-named parts, the buds and capsules chiefly form the 
ornamental portion, of the compound racemes. 

The leaves are from Sin. to lOin. in diameter, the largest being 
at the base of the tall stems ; their outline, as the specific name 
implies, is heart-shaped, but they are deeply lobed and dentate, 
in the way of the fig leaf, but more prof usely so ; they are stalked, 
of good substance, glaucous, nearly white underneath, which 
part is also furnished with short stiff hairs. The glaucous hue 
or farina which covers the leaf-stalks and main stems has a 
metallic appearance, and is one of its pleasing features as a 
decorative plant. Tor many weeks the flowers continue to be 
developed, and from the deciduous quality of the fading parts, 
the panicles have a neat appearance to the last. In a cut state 
the long side branches of flowers, more than a foot long, are 
very effective, either alone or when mixed with other kinds, 
the little clusters of white drop -like buds being suitable for 
combination with the choicest flowers. 

As a decorative specimen for the more ornamental parts of 
the garden, and where bold subjects are desired, there are few 
herbaceous things that can be named as more suitable ; from the 
day it appears above the ground, to and throughout its fading 
days in the autumn, when it has pleasing tints, it is not only a 
handsome but distinct form of plant ; as an isolated specimen on 
the lawn, or by frequented walks, it may be grown with marked 
effect ; if too nearly surrounded with other tall things, its beauty 
is somewhat marred; but wherever it is planted it should have 
a good fat loam of considerable depth. I ought not to omit 
saying that it forms a capital subject for pot culture ; plants so 
treated, when 12in. or 18in. high, no matter if not then in flower, 
are very useful as window or table plants ; but of course, being 
herbaceous, they are serviceable only during their growing 
season ; they need not, however, be a source of care during 
winter, for they may with safety be plunged outside in a 
bed of ashes or sand, where they will take care of themselves 
during the severest weabher. 

It may be propagated by cuttings taken from the ax ils of the 
larger leaves during early summer; if this method is followed, 
the cuttings should be pushed on, so that there are plenty of 
roots before the winter sets in. I have found it by far the better 
plan to take young suckers from established plants ; in good 
rich soil these are freely produced from the slightly running 
roots; they may be separated and transplanted any time, but if 
it is done during summer they will flower the following season. 
Tall as this subject grows, it needs no supports ; neither have I 
noticed it to be troubled by any of the garden pests. 
Flowering period, September to August. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 45 

Bulbocodium Trigynum. 

Syns. COLCHICTJM CAUCASICUM and MERENDERA 
CAUCASICUM; Nat. Ord. MELANTHACEJE. 

THIS pretty miniature bulbous plant is very hardy, flowering in 
winter. It is a scarce flower, and has recently been represented 
as a new plant. As a matter of fact, it is not new, but has been 
known under the above synonymous names since 1823, when it 
was brought from the Caucasus. In general appearance it is 
very different from the Colchicum (Sprengle), as may be seen by 
the drawing (Fig. 21), and Merendera (Bieberstein) is only 
another Spanish name for Colchicum. The new name, autho- 
rised by Adams, may have been the cause, all or in part, of its 




FIG. 21. BULBOCODIUM TEIGTNUM. 
(Full size.) 

being taken for a new species. The specific name may be pre- 
sumed to be in reference to either its deeply- channelled, almost 
keeled leaves, which have the appearance of three corners, or in 
allusion to the triangular way in which they are disposed. It is 
a desirable flower for several reasons its earliness, durability, 
rich perfume, and intrinsic beauty. 

The little plant, at the height of 2in., produces its rather 
large flowers in ones and twos in February, and they last for 
many days in perfect form. The scent reminds one of the sweet 
honey smell of a white clover field during summer. The colour 
is very pale lilac, nearly white ; the tube takes - on a little 
greenness; it is also divided, though the slits 'are invisible 



46 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

until the bloom begins to fade. The corolla, of irregular seg- 
ments, is l|in. across when expanded ; the stamens are half the 
length of the petal-like segments, and carry anthers of exquisite 
beauty, especially when young, then they are orange colour, 
divided like a pair of half -opened shells, and edged with choco- 
late ; the styles are a delicate pale green, and rather longer than 
the stamens. The leaves, as already stated, are channelled, 
broadest at the base, tapering to a point, which is rather 
twisted; they are 2in. long during the blooming period, of a 
deep green colour, stiff, but spreading, forming a pretty accurate 
triangle. This description, together with the cut, will suggest 
both the uses and positions in which it should be planted ; if a 
single blossom, when brought indoors, proves strongly fragrant, 
it is easy to imagine what a clump must be in the garden. 
Like those of the colchicum, its flowers are quickly developed ; 
the leaves grow longer afterwards, and die off in summer. 

It thrives in a sandy loam or leaf soil, in a sunny part, and 
increases itself at the roots like the saffrons. 

Flowering period, February and March. 

Bulbocodium Vernum. 

SPRING BULBOCODIUM, or SPRING SAFFRON ; Nat. Ord. 

MELANTHACE^:. 

IN mild winters, sheltered positions, and light vegetable soil, 
this bulbous plant may be seen in blossom from January to 
March. The flowers appear before the leaves, and may, at 
the first glance, be taken for lilac-coloured croci. Up to a 
certain stage, however, the colour gradually improves in the 
direction of purple, and where there are established patches 
it is no inconsiderable part of the effect caused by this desirable 
winter flower to see it 'a mass of bloom in many shades, ranging 
from white (as in the bud state) to a lively purple. It is an old 
plant in English gardens, and is largely found wild in mid- 
Europe. It came from Spain as early as 1629. Still, it is not 
generally known or grown ; but within the last few years it has 
come to the fore, with a host of other hardy and early-flowering 
subjects. The natural order in which it is classed includes many 
beautiful genera, both as regards their floral effect and anatomical 
structures. Veratrum, Uvularia, and Colchicum are, perhaps, 
the more familiar, and the last-mentioned genus is a very nearly 
allied one. A feature of the genus Bulbocodium is implied by the 
name itself, which means " a wool-covered bulb." This quality, 
however, will be more observable when the bulb is in a dormant 
state ; it exists under the envelope. The crocus or saffron-like 
flowers are aptly named "Spring Saffron," though there is a 
great botanical difference to be seen between this genus and that 
of Colchicum when the flower is dissected. The bloom is produced 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 47 

from the midst of an ample sheath and overlapping leaves, which 
are only just visible in the early season of this year; the 
corolla of six petal-like divisions is 2in. to Sin. across when 
expanded, and of various shades and colours, as already stated ; 
the segments are completely divided, being continued from the 
throat of the corolla to the ovary by long tapering bases, called 
nails, claws, or ungues. The leaves are stout, broadly strap- 
sha/ped, channelled, and of a deep green colour. The bulb is 
rather small ; its form resembles that of the autumn crocus, as 
also does its mode of growth and reproduction. 

The early blossoms of this bulb soon disappear, and though 
the roots are all the better for being well ripened, a thin patch 
of some of the finer annuals sown in spring amongst their 
withering leaves will not do much harm, and will prove useful 
as gap-stoppers. Another good way is to grow these dwarf 
bulbous flowers with a carpet of creepers, of which there are 
scores in every way suitable ; and where nothing else is available 
or to be grown with success, the small-leaved ivy will answer 
well. The dwarf phloxes, however, are more useful; their 
browned spreading branches form a neutral but warm-looking 
ground to the purple blossoms ; besides, by the time all trace of 
the Bulbocodium has shrivelled up, they begin to produce their 
sheets of bloom. All such prostrate forms not only preserve 
dwarf winter flowers from the mud, but otherwise give effect to 
the borders. This bulb thrives best in light soil, well drained; 
in sheltered nooks it may be had in flower a month earlier than 
in exposed parts. Under such conditions it increases very fast, 
and the bulbs may be transplanted with advantage every other 
year after the tops have died off. In stiff or clay -like soil it 
dwindles and dies. 

Flowering period, January to March. 

Calthus Palustris Flore-pleno. 

DOUBLE MARSH MARIGOLD ; Old Common Name, " MEADOW 

BOOTES "; Nat. Ord. E-ANUNCULACE^E. 

THE typical, or single-flowering variety of this plant is a British 
species, and a rather common one ; but the pleasing habit and 
bright, finely-formed, orange-yellow flower of this double kind 
renders it a suitable plant for any garden. It is herbaceous and 
perennial, and loves boggy situations. It is, however, very 
accommodating, and will be found to do well in ordinary garden 
soil, especially if it be a stimsh loam ; clayey land is well adapted 
for it. No matter what kind of weather prevails, it has always 
a neat and fresh appearance. By the illustration (Fig. 22) the 
reader will doubtless recognise its familiar form. As already 
stated, its flowers are orange-yellow, very full, with petals evenly 
arranged ; they are lin. across, and produced on round, short, 



48 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



hollow stems, seldom more than 9in. high. The forked flower 

stalks are furnished with embracing leaves, differing very much 

from the others, which are 
stalked, heart-shaped, nearly 
round, and evenly-toothed. Ail 
the foliage is of a rich dark 
shining green colour. Strong 
specimens produce flowers for 
a long time, fully two months, 
and frequently they burst into 
blossom again in the autumn. 
Individual flowers are very last- 
ing, and, moreover, are very 
effective in a cut state. It is a 
robust grower, providing it is 
not in light dry soil ; it seems 
with me to do equally well 
fully exposed to sunshine and 
in partial shade, but both posi- 
tions are of a moist character. 
It has long fleshy roots, which 
allows of its being transplanted 
at any time, early spring being 
the best, to increase it. The 
crowns should be divided every 

three years, when there will be found to be ample roots to 

each one. 

Flowering period, April to June. 




FIG. 22. CALTHTJS PALTJSTRIS FLORE- 

PLENO. 
(One-half natural size.) 



Calystegia Pubescens Flore-pleno. 

Nat. Ord. CONVOLVTJLACE^. 

THIS double Convolvulus is a somewhat recent introduction 
from China ; it is hardy and perennial. So distinct are its large 
flesh-coloured flowers that they are often taken at the first 
glance, when cut, for double pyrethrums or chrysanthemums, 
but, seen in connection with the plant, the form of foliage 
and climbing or twining habit of the bindweed soon enable 
the most casual observer of flowers to recognise its genus. 

The flowers are 2in. to Sin. across, petals long, narrow, wavy, 
and reflexed ; these are well held together by the five-parted 
calyx, further supported by a bract of two small but stout leaves. 
The flower stalks are round and wiry, Sin. or 4in. long ; they are 
produced all along the twining stems, which are only of the 
moderate length of 5ft. or 6ft. The leaves are of the well-known 
Convolvulus form. 

I find it a good plan to grow this subject amongst tall, and 
early flowering plants, such as lupins, foxgloves, and lilies, the 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 49 

old stems of which, form ample supports for the climber ; more- 
over, they are rendered less unsightly from being thus furnished 
anew with leaf and flower, even though not their own. Another 
method is in early summer to place a short twiggy branch over 
the pushing growths ; it will soon become covered, and if not too 
large, the ends of the shoots will slightly outgrow the twigs and 
hang down in a pleasing manner. The plant should be started 
in light sandy loam and have a warm situation, otherwise flowers 
will be scarce and the whole specimen have a weedy appearance. 
When once it becomes established, it will be found to spread 
rapidly by means of its running roots, which, unless checked, 
will soon become a pest. I simply pull out all growths except 
such as shoot up in the desired position, and so continue to treat 
them as weeds throughout the growing season. Stems furnished 
with flowers a yard or more long, in a cut state, make rich 
festoons ; single blooms (the smaller ones) look well as " button- 
holes," being neat and effective, without gaudiness. I ought to 
state that a succession of flowers is kept up for fully three 
months ; this fact adds not a little to the value of this handsome 
flesh-coloured bloomer. Boots may be transplanted at any time ; 
the smallest piece will produce a blooming plant the first season, 
if put into a proper soil and situation. 
Flowering period, July to September. 

Campanula Grandis. 

GREAT BELLFLOWER; Nat. Ord. CAMPANULACE^;. 
A HARDY herbaceous perennial from Siberia, growing to a height 
of 3ft. Its flowers are large, bright, and numerous ; well-estab- 
lished clumps will present masses of bloom for more than a 
month with average weather. As a large showy subject there 
are few plants more reliable, or that can in any way excel it, 
more especially for town gardens. It is a rampant grower, 
quickly covering large spaces by means of its progressive roots ; 
in gardens or collections where it can only be allowed a limited 
space, the running habit of the roots will doubtless prove 
troublesome, and often such free growers, however handsome 
they may be otherwise, are esteemed common, which should not 
be. The proper thing to do would be to give these vigorous and 
fine flowering subjects such quarters as will allow them their 
natural and unrestrained development. 

The flowers of C. grandis are more than lin. across the corolla, 
the five segments being large and bluntly pointed, of a trans- 
parent purple-blue colour, and very enduring ; they are arranged 
on short stalks, which issue from the strong upright stems. 
They form little tufts of bloom at every joint for a length of 
nearly 2ft. ; the succession, too, is well kept up. Buds continue 
to form long after the earliest have opened. The leaves are 4in. 

E 



50 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

to 8in. long and fin. wide, lance-shaped, stalkless, and finely 
toothed. They are arranged in round tufts on the unproductive 
crowns, and they remain green throughout the winter. 

As regards soil, any kind will do ; neither is the question of 
position of any moment beyond the precaution which should be 
taken against its encroachments on smaller subjects. In the 
partial shade of shrubs it not only flowers well but proves very 
effective. Useful as this plant is in the garden, it becomes 
far more so in a cut state. When it is needful to make up a 
bold vase or basket of flowers for room decoration, it can be 
quickly and effectively done by a liberal use of its long, leafy, 
but well-bloomed spikes ; five or six of them, 2ft. to 3ft. long, 
based with a few large roses, paeonies, or sprays of thalictrum, 
make a noble ornament for the table, hall, or sideboard, and it is 
not one of the least useful flowers for trays or dishes when cut 
short. Propagated by division at any time, the parts may be 
planted at once in their blooming quarters. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Campanula Latifolia. 

BROAD-LEAVED BELLFLOWER; Nat. Ord. CAMPANULACE^S. 

A BRITISH species, very much resembling C. grandis, but some- 
what taller, and flowering a little earlier ; the latter quality has 
induced me to mention it, as it offers a fine spike for cutting 
purposes before the above is ready. 

Culture, uses, and propagation, the same as for C. grandis. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Campanula Persicifolia. 

PEACH-LEAVED BELLFLOWER ; Old Common Names, " PEACH- 
BELS" and " STEEPLE -BELS" ; Nat. Ord. CAMPANULACE^;. 

THIS good " old-fashioned " perennial has had a place in English 
gardens for several hundred years ; it is still justly and highly 
esteemed. It is a well-known plant, and as the specific name is 
descriptive of the leaves, I will only add a few words of Gerarde's 
respecting the flowers : " Alongst the stalke growe many flowers 
like bels, sometime white, and for the most part, of a faire blewe 
colour ; but the bels are nothing so deepe as they of the other 
kindes, and these also are more delated and spred abroade then 
any of the reste." The varieties include single blue (type) and 
white, double blue, and different forms of double white. 

In all cases the corolla is cup or broad bell shaped, and the 
flowers are sparingly produced on slightly foliaged stems, 18in. 
to 3ft. high; there are, however, such marked distinctions 
belonging to C. p. alba fl.-pl. in two forms that they deserve 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 51 

special notice ; they are very desirable flowers, on the score of 
both quaintness and beauty. I will first notice the kind with 
two corollas, the inner bell of which will be more than an inch 
deep, and about the same in diameter. The outer corolla is much 
shorter, crumpled, rolled back, and somewhat marked with 
green, as if intermediate in its nature between the larger corolla 
and the calyx. The whole flower has a droll but pleasing form, 
and I have heard it not inaptly called " Grandmother's Frilled 
Cap." The other kind has five or more corollas, which are neatly 
arranged, each growing less as they approach the centre. In 
all, the segments are but slightly divided, though neatly formed ; 
this flower is of the purest white and veiy beautiful, resembling 
a small double rose. It is one of the best flowers to be found at 
its season in the borders, and for cutting purposes I know none 
to surpass it; it is clean and durable. So much are the flowers 
esteemed, that the plant is often grown in pots for forcing and 
conservatory decoration, to which treatment it takes kindly. 

In the open all the above varieties grow freely in any kind of 
garden soil, but if transplanted in the autumn into newly-dug 
quarters they will in every way prove more satisfactory ; this 
is not necessary, but if cultivation means anything, it means we 
should adopt the best-known methods of treatment towards all 
the plants we grow, and certainly some of the above Bellflowers 
are deserving of all the care that flowers are worth. 

Flowering period, July to September. 

Campanula Pyramidalis. 

PYRAMIDAL or CHIMNEY CAMPANULA; Nat. Ord. 

CAMPANTJLACE.E. 

THIS herbaceous perennial is a very old flower in this country ; 
it came from Carniola in the year 1594. It is very hardy, and 
for several months together it continues to produce its large 
lively blue flowers, beginning in July and lasting until stopped 
by frosts. At no time is it in finer form than in September ; 
at the height of from 5ft. to 7ft. it proves richly effective 
amongst the blooming hollyhocks, where, as regards colour, it 
supplies the " missing link " (see Fig. 23). 

The flowers are a light bright blue colour, and lin. to l^in. 
across. The corolla is bell-shaped, the five divisions being deeply 
cut, which allows the flower to expand well ; the calyx is neat 
and smooth, the segments long and awl-shaped ; the flower stalks 
are short, causing the numerous erect branches to be closely 
furnished with bloom during favourable weather. The leaves of 
the root are very large and stalked, of irregular shape, but for 
the most part broadly oval or lance-shaped. The edges are 
slightly toothed, having minute glands ; those of the stems are 
much smaller, sessile, and long egg-shaped ; all the foliage is 

E 2 



52 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



smooth, and of a dark green colour ; the main stems are very 
stout, and sometimes grow to the height of 7ft. Vigorous plants 
will send up several of these, from which a great number of 
small ones issue, all assuming an erect habit ; blooming speci- 
mens are hardly anything else than a wand-like set of flowered 
stems, and though it is advisable to stake them, I have seen 
them bend and wave during high winds without damage. 

In the borders and shrubbery this is a very effective subject ; 
it is amongst herbaceous plants what the Lombardy poplar is 




FIG. 23. CAMPANULA PYRAMIDALIS. 
(One-twentieth natural size ; a, one-liulf natural size. ) 

amongst forest trees tall, elegant, and distinct. Its use, however, 
is somewhat limited, owing to the stiffness of the stems and the 
shortness of the flower stalks ; but when grown in pots as it 
often is for indoor decoration, it proves useful for standing 
amongst orange and camellia trees. It has very strong tap 
roots, and enjoys a deep rich loam. Not only does it look well 
among trees, but otherwise the partial shade of such quarters 
seems conducive to finer bloom. 
Flowering period, July to October. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 53 

C. p. alba is a white flowering variety of the above species ; 
its other points of distinction are its smaller-sized leaves and 
much paler green colour, by which alone the plants may be 
easily recognised from the type. This variety may be grown 
with good effect in pots or the border; it scarcely gets so tall as 
the blue form, but looks well by the side of it. 

The readiest way to increase these plants is to take the .young 
and dwarf growths from the woody crown of the roots, paring off 
a little of the bark with each. If these are put in sandy loam 
during the warm growing season and kept shaded for a few days, 
they will very soon make plenty of roots ; this method in no way 
damages the flowers. Another way is by seed, but seedlings are 
two years before they bloom. 

Campanula Speciosa. 

SHOWY HAREBELL; Nat. Ord. CAMPANTJLACE^. 
A COMPARATIVELY new species, brought from Siberia in 1825, 
and sometimes called C. glomerata dahurica. It is a good hardy 
plant, perennial and herbaceous, and one of the earliest to flower. 
It has a distinct appearance ; it nearly resembles C. aggregata, 
but the latter does not flower until several weeks later. Apart 
from its likeness to other species of the genus, it is a first-class 
border flower, having large bells of a fine deep purple colour, and, 
unlike many of the Harebells, is not over tall, but usually about 
a foot high, having a neat habit. The flowers are arranged in 
dense heads, whorl fashion, having very short stalks ; they are 
nearly 2in. long and bell shaped. The leaves (radical) are oval 
heart-shaped and stalked ; those of the stems are sessile ; the 
whole plant is hairy and robust. This is one of the flowers 
which can hardly be planted out of place in any garden, except- 
ing amongst the rare and very dwarf alpines ; it is not only 
true to its name, " showy," but handsome. It will grow and 
flower well in the worst soil and needs no sort of care ; it would 
be fine in lines by a shrubbery, and is effective in bold clumps ; 
and though a new kind, it belongs to a race of " old-fashioned " 
flowers, amongst which it would mix appropriately. Increased 
by division in autumn. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Campanula Waldsteiniana. 

Nat. Ord. CAMPANTJLACE^E. 

A RARE and distinct alpine species from Carinthia. It proves 
perfectly hardy in this climate. For the rock garden it is a gem 
of the first water, its habit being dwarf, dense, and rigid; flori- 
ferous as many of the Bellflowers are, I know none to excel this 
one. As may be observed in the following description, there are 



54 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

not a few distinctive traits about it, which, more or less, go to 
make it a desirable subject for rare and choice collections. 

The flowers are a glistening bluish-lilac, erect, and fin. across 
when fully expanded. The corolla can hardly be said to be bell- 
shaped, as the five divisions are two-thirds of its depth, which 
allows it, when full blown, to become nearly flat, and as the 
segments are equal, sharply cut, and pointed, the flower has a 
star-like appearance. The little calyx is cup-shaped, angular, 
and has small, stout, horn-like segments, which are bent down- 
wards. Each flower has a pedicel about lin. long, which 
springs from the axils of the main stem leaves; the stems 
seldom exceed the height of 4in. or 5in., and they are exceed- 
ingly fine, thready, as also are the pedicels ; they are, more- 
over, of zig-zag form, from node to node. The leaves are fin. 
long, and less than ^in. wide, ovate or nearly cordate, partially 
folded, and sometimes reflexed at the ends, nearly stalkless, 
slightly toothed, smooth, of good substance and a peculiar grey- 
green colour. The foliage for two or three weeks is completely 
hidden by the large number of flowers, during which time it is 
a most attractive subject. 

I grow it with other dwarf Campanulas in a collection bed, 
where it compares well with the finest, such as 0. pulla, C. 
muralis, and C. Zoysii, for effectiveness. Having proved it to 
thrive well in light sandy soil of a vegetable character, I have 
not tried it otherwise ; it enjoys a sunny situation. The site 
should be well drained ; it will endure nothing like stagnant 
moisture its peculiar roots would indicate this fact, they are 
not only tender and fleshy, but thick and of a pith-like nature, 
and, as I have never been able to gather any seed, and the pro- 
pagation has to be carried out by root division, there requires to 
be a careful manipulation of these parts, for not only do they 
split and break with the least strain, but when so mutilated they 
are very liable to rot. I have found it by far the better plan to 
divide this plant after it has begun to grow in March or April, 
when its fine shining black shoots, which resemble horse hairs 
in appearance, are about ^in. high. Slugs are fond of this plant ; 
a dressing once a week of sand and soot, when it begins to grow, 
will keep them off. 

Flowering period, July and August. 

Centaurea Montana. 

MOUNTAIN KNAPWEED ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS is an " old-fashioned " and favourite flower. Every one 
must be familiar with its thistle-like formed flowers ; it is some- 
times called the large or perennial Cornflower and also the 
Large Bluebottle. The blue variety has been grown in English 
gardens since 1596. There are now white and pink coloured 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 55 

varieties, all rampant growers, very hardy and perennial. They 
are in every way superior to the annual kind, which is so largely 
grown, the flowers being more than twice the size, and produced 
two months earlier; the blooming period is maintained until 
late autumn. 

The flowers, as before hinted, are thistle-shaped ; the pericline 
or knob just under the florets is cone-shaped, covered with evenly 
set and pointed scales, green, edged with a brown margin, set 
round with short bristle-like teeth. The florets of the outer ring 
are l|in. long, tubular half their length, the wider portion being 
five to seven cut ; the centre florets are short and irregular, 
richly tinted with pink at their bases ; the whole flower or ray, 
when expanded, is 3in. across. They are produced on stems 
over 2ft. long and of a somewhat procumbent habit, angular 
and branched near the tops ; the leaves are Sin. to 6in. long, 
lance-shaped, entire and decurrent, giving the stems a winged 
appearance. They are of a greyish colour nappy whence the 
name Knapweed. 

This vigorous species, with its white and pink varieties, may 
be grown in any kind of soil. It requires plenty of room ; a two- 
year-old plant will form a specimen a yard in diameter under 
favourable conditions. The effect is good when all the three 
colours are grown near each other in bold pieces. They yield an 
unfailing supply of flowers, which are of a very useful type ; in 
fact, the more they are cut the more they seem to bloom, and it 
is a good plan to cut short half the stems about June. They will 
(in a week or two) produce new shoots and large flowers in abun- 
dance, the gain being flowers of extra size during autumn. 

Propagated by division of the roots any time. 

Flowering period, June to September. 

Centranthus Ruber. 

Syn. YALERIANA RUBER RED VALERIAN ; Nat. Ord. 

YALERIANACE^;. 

THIS is a strong and vigorous garden plant, with a somewhat 
shrubby appearance ; it is herbaceous, perennial, and sometimes 
classed as a British species, therefore hardy; but though its 
classification among British plants is justifiable, it is only so on 
the ground of its being a naturalised subject, its original habitats 
being in the South of Europe . It is . a favourite and " old- 
fashioned" flower, and it fully justifies the estimation in which it 
is held, the flowers being produced in large bunches of a fine rich 
colour, which are very durable. Its shrubby habit is not one of 
its least recommendations ; seen at a distance which it easily 
can be it might be taken for a ruby-coloured rhododendron, to 
which, of course, it has no resemblance when closely inspected. 
It grows 2ft. high or more. 



56 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

The flowers are a bright ruby colour, very small, but closely 
massed in great numbers, borne in corymbs, terminal and much 
branched ; " the calyx-limb, at first revolute, afterwards ex- 
panded into a feather-like pappus ; " the corolla is tubular, 
long, slender, and spurred ; the segments or petals are small and 
uneven, both in form and arrangement ; the germen is long ; 
anther prominent and large for so small a flower, viz., fin. 
long and hardly ^in. in diameter. The stems are stout, round, 
hollow, and glaucous ; they are furnished with leaves of various 
shapes at the nodes, as lance-shaped, long oval, heart-shaped 
and plain, elliptical and pointed, wavy and notched, and arrow- 
shaped, lobed, and toothed. The root leaves are mostly ovate, 
lanceolate, and entire. The whole plant is smooth and glaucous. 
From the description given, it may readily be seen that when in 
flower it will be effective massive heads of ruby flowers topping 
a shrub-like plant of shining foliage and glaucous hue. It is 
eminently fitted for lines or borders where other strong growers 
are admitted. In a cut state the flowers are very useful ; they 
are strongly scented, something like the lilac, with just a 
suspicion of Yalerian in it. I ought not to omit mention of its 
extra brightness as seen by gaslight this fact adds much to its 
value for indoor decoration. 

It may be grown in any kind of garden soil, needing nothing 
at any time in the way of special treatment ; but if it is sup- 
plied with a little manure it will pay back with interest, in the 
form of extra- sized bunches and brighter flowers. 

C. r. albus is a white-flowering kind of the above ; its main 
points of difference are its paler green foliage, smaller sized 
corymbs, shorter growth, and rather later season of bloom. 

C. r. coccinea is another kind ; the specific name is misleading. 
It is not scarlet, but nearer a rose colour, and when compared 
with the typical colour it appears much inferior ; still, it is a 
good variety. All the three colours, when grown side by side, 
are very showy when in bloom. 

This species, with its varieties, may be easily propagated by 
root divisions at any time from late summer to spring ; the long 
fleshy roots should not be broken more than can be helped; 
every piece with a crown on it will make a flowering plant the 
first season. 

Flowering period, June to September. 

Cheiranthus Cheiri. 

COMMON WALLFLOWER; Nat. Ord. CRTJCIFER^. 
THIS well-known evergreen shrub (see Fig. 24) is more or less 
hardy in our climate, according to the conditions under which 
it is grown. Although a native of the South of Europe, it 
rarely happens, however severe the winter may be in this 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 57 

country, that we are totally deprived of tlie favourite bouquet of 
Wallflowers in winter or early spring, while it is equally true 
that, during the hard weather of one or two recent winters, 
in numerous gardens every plant was killed. In favourable 
seasons its blooms are produced throughout winter, but the full 
blow comes in April. Three hundred 
years ago it was known by its present 
name ; in this respect it is a rare excep- 
tion, as most flowers have many and 
widely different names, especially the 
" old-fashioned " sorts, so that often 
the varied nomenclature hinders the 
identification of the species. At one 
time the Wallflower was called the 
" Gillyflower," but the name is now 
only applied to a biennial and single- 
flowered variety of the stock a near 
relation of the Wallflower. More than 
200 years ago Parkinson wrote, " Those 
Wallflowers that, carrying beautiful 
flowers, are the delights and ornaments 
of a garden of pleasure." 

Of its well-known beauties, as re- 
gards its form, colour, varieties, and 
delicious perfume, description is need- 
less, though I may say, in passing, that 
its fragrance renders it of value to 
those whose olfactory nerve is dead to 
the scent of most other flowers. 

Two errors are frequently committed 
in planting the Wallflower; first, at 
the wrong time, when it is nearly a 
full-grown specimen and showing its 
flowers ; next, in the wrong way, as in 
rows or dotted about. It should be 
transplanted from the seed beds when 
small, in summer or early autumn, and 
not in ones and twos, but in bold and 
irregular groups of scores together; 
anything like lines or designs seems 
out of harmony with this semi-wild- 
ling. There is another and very easy 
method which I should like to mention, as a suggestion that 
of naturalisation; let those near ruins, quarries, and railway 
embankments and cuttings, generously scatter some seed thereon 
during the spring showers, when the nir is still ; in such dry 
situations this flower proves more hardy than in many gardens. 
Moreover, they serve to show it to advantage, either alone or in 




58 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

connection with other shrubs, as the whin, which flowers at the 
same time ; here, too, it would be comparatively safe from being 
" grubbed up." 

Flowering period, January to June. 

Cheiranthus Marshallii. 

MARSHALL'S WALLFLOWER ; Nat. Ord. CRUCIFER^:. 
A DISTINCT and very hardy hybrid, being shrubby and tree-like 
in shape, but withal very dwarf. From the compact habit, 
abundance and long duration of its flowers, it is well suited for 
showy borders or lines. It is not yet well known, but its 
qualities are such that there can be no wonder at its quickly 
coming to the front where known. 

It differs from the common Wallflower in being more dwarf 
and horizontally branched, while the leaves are more bent back, 
hairy, and toothed; immediately below the floriferous part of 
the stem the leaves are more crowded, the stems more angular, 
the flowers much less, not so straggling, and of a dark orange 
colour. Other hybrids in the same way are being produced, 
differing mostly in the colour of the flowers, as lemon, greenish- 
yellow, copper, and so on. 

Plants a year old are so easily raised from cuttings, and form 
such neat specimens, that a stock cannot be otherwise than very 
useful in any garden ; besides, they lift so well that transplant- 
ing may be done at any time. My finest specimens have been 
grown from their cutting state, on a bed of sifted ashes liberally 
mixed with well-rotted stable manure; in such light material 
they have not only done well, but, when a few roots were 
required, they lifted large balls without leaving any fibre in the 
ground. To have good stout stock before winter sets in, slips 
should be taken from the old plants as soon as they have done 
flowering ; dibble them into light bat well enriched soil, and 
give water in droughty weather only. 

I ought to mention that this dwarf Wallflower, and also its 
allied kinds, are capital subjects for very dry situations ; on old 
walls and the tops of outhouses they not only do well, but prove 
decorative throughout the year. In such places plants will live 
to a great age, and sow their own seed freely besides. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

Chionodoxa Luciliae. 

SNOW GLORY; Nat. Ord. LILIACE^E. 

A HARDY bulbous perennial, from Asia Minor. It has only been 
cultivated about four years in English gardens; still it has 
been proved to be as hardy as the squills, which it very much 
resembles. Mr. Maw, who discovered and introduced it, found 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 59 

it "near the summit of the mountain," which (though it is a 
native of a much warmer climate than ours) may account for 
its hardy character. That it is a most beautiful flower is beyond 
doubt, but there are those who think it has been overpraised. 
It should not, however, be forgotten that Mr. Maw's description 
of it was from a sight of it in masses, a state in which it can 
hardly have been judged yet in this country, as until very 
recently the bulbs were very expensive. It has, however, taken 
kindly to our climate, and is likely to increase fast, when it may 
be seen to greater advantage. 

It grows to the height of 6in. or Sin. ; the flower scapes, which 
are rather slender, are somewhat shorter than the foliage, the 
flowers being longer in the petals than the squills, almost star- 
shaped, and nearly lin. across; later on they reflex. Their 
colour is an intense blue, shading to white in the centre of the 
flower. The flowers are produced in numbers, from three to six 
on a stem, having slender pedicels, which cause the flowers to 
hang slightly bell fashion. The leaves, from their flaccidness 
and narrowness, compared with the squills, may be described as 
grassy. The bulbs are a little larger than the kernel of a cob 
nut, nearly round, having satiny skins or coats. 

It may be grown in pots, and forces well if allowed first to 
make good roots, by being treated like the hyacinth. It should 
be kept very near the glass. It has also flowered fairly well in 
the open border fully exposed, but in a cold frame, plunged in 
sand and near the glass, it has been perfection. Single bulbs 
so grown in " sixties " pots have done the best by far. 

All the bulbs hitherto experimented with have been newly 
imported ; very different results may possibly be realised from 
"home-grown" bulbs. It is also probable that there may be 
varieties of this species, as not only have I noticed a great 
difference in the bulbs, but also in the flowers and the habit of 
plant. This I have mentioned to a keen observer, and he is of 
the same opinion ; be that as it may, we have in this new plant 
a lovely companion to the later snowdrops, and though it much 
resembles the squills, it is not only sufficiently distinct from 
them, but an early bloomer, which we gladly welcome to our 
gardens. It seems to do well in equal parts of peat, loam, and 
sand, also in leaf soil and sand. 

Flowering period, March and April. 



Chrysanthemum. 

Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

THE flowers to which I would now refer the reader are of no 
particular species, but, like several other genera, this genus has 
been considerably drawn upon or utilised by the hybridiser, and 
the species, looked upon from a florist's point of view, have been 



60 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

much improved upon by their offspring. Not only are Japan 
and China the homes of the finer flowering species, but in these 
countries the Chrysanthemum has been esteemed and highly 
cultivated for centuries ; in fact, such a favourite is this flower 
with the Chinese, that they have treated it with many forms of 
their well-known art in matters horticultural, and when the 
flower was brought to this country it would doubtless be in a form 
improved by them. It reached this country nearly 100 years 
ago, and was known by the names C. indicum and C. sinense ; 
about the same time a species from the East Indies was called 
C. indicum. This flower, from the time of its introduction, has 
been justly appreciated ; and by the skill of several cultivators 
we have a largely increased number of forms and colours. Still, 
there are certain distinctions kept up amongst the varieties, and 
they are commonly known by such names as " large -flowering," 
"pompon, or small-flowered," "early flowering," "anemone- 
flowered," and " Japanese." These names, besides being some- 
what descriptive, are otherwise useful to the amateur who may 
wish to grow a representative collection, and where there is con- 
venience it is desirable to do so in order to observe their widely 
different forms and colours, as well as to enjoy a long succession 
of bloom. 

So well is the Chrysanthemum known that little could be 
usefully said of it by way of description ; but well as it is known 
and easy as its culture is, there are few things in our gardens 
that show to greater disadvantage. This should not be with a 
subject which offers such range of habit, colour, and period of 
blooming ; and when such is the case, there must be some radical 
mistake made. The mistake I believe to be in the selection, and 
that alone. If so, the remedy is an easy matter. Let me ask 
the reader to remember three facts : (1) Many sorts grown in 
pots and flowered under glass are unfitted for the borders or 
open garden. (2) The later flowering varieties are of no use 
whatever for outside bloom. (3) Of the early blooming section, 
not only may the finest varieties be grown with marked effect, 
but they, as a rule, are of more dwarf habit, and will afford 
abundance of bloom for cutting purposes for nearly two months. 
Selections are too often made from seeing the fine sorts in pots ; 
let it be understood that all are perfectly hardy, but owing to 
their lateness, their utility can only be realised under artificial 
conditions. I am not now considering pot, but garden kinds, 
and no matter what other rules may be observed, if this is 
overlooked it will be found that though the plant may grow 
finely and set buds in plenty, they will be so late as to perish in 
their greenness by the early frosts ; on the other hand, of the 
early section, some will begin to bloom in August, and others 
later, each kind, after being covered with flowers for several 
weeks, seeming to finish naturally with our season of flowers. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 61 

There is nothing special about the culture of this very hardy 
and rampant -growing plant, but I may add that, though it will 
stand for many years in one place, and flower well too, it is 
vastly improved by division of the roots in autumn or early 
spring every second year. The earth of its new site should be 
deeply dug and well enriched with stable manure; it will not 
then matter much what sort of soil it is the more open the 
situation the better. How grandly these decorate the borders 
when in masses ! and as a cut flower I need hardly say that there 
are few to excel the Chrysanthemum, either as an individual 
bloom or for bouquet and other work. 

I do not frequently make mention of many florists' flowers by 
name, but in this case I think I may usefully name a few 
varieties : Andromeda, cream coloured, Sept. ; Captain Nemo, 
rosy purple, Aug. ; Cassy, pink and white, Oct. ; Cromatella, 
orange and brown, Sept. ; Delphine Caboche, reddish mauve, Aug. ; 
Golden Button, small canary yellow, Aug. ; Illustration, soft 
pink to white, Aug. ; Jardin des Plantes, white, Sept. ; La Petite 
Marie, white, good, Aug.; Madame Pecoul, large, light rose, Aug.; 
Mexico, white, Oct. ; Nanum, large, creamy blush, Aug. ; Preco- 
cite, large, orange, Sept. ; Soeur Melaine, French white, Oct. ; 
St. Mary, very beautiful, white, Sept. These, it will be seen, 
are likely to afford a variety and succession of bloom. 

Flowering period, August to November. 

Cichorium Intybus. 

0. PERENNE and C. SYLVESTRE WILD SUCCORY or 

CHICORY; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS herbaceous perennial is a native plant, in many parts 
being very common. Not only, however, do many not know it 
as a wild flower, but we have the facts that under cultivation it 
is a distinct and showy plant, and that of late it has come into 
great request. Its flowers are a pleasing blue, and produced on 
ample branches, and for mixing with other "old-fashioned" 
kinds, either in the borders or as cut blooms, they are decidedly 
telling; for blending with other Composites it has its value 
mainly from the fact that blues are rare in September; the 
China asters are too short in the stalk for cutting purposes, and 
many of the tall perennial starworts are neither bright nor well 
disposed. I may also mention another proof of its decorative 
quality it is not common (i.e., wild) in my district, and a plant 
being cultivated in my garden for its flowers has been so 
much admired that it is likely to have other patrons, and in 
many instances it is being introduced into gardens where the 
choicest flowers are cultivated. I am bound, however, to 
say that when not in flower it has the appearance of the com- 
monest weed. 



62 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Its flowers are produced when 2ft. to 6ft. high. They are of 
a fine glistening blue colour, lin. to l|in. across, and in the way 
of a dandelion flower, but stalkless individually, being disposed 
in ones, twos, and threes, somewhat distantly in the axils of the 
leaves, and all over the numerous and straggling branches. The 
leaves are rough, of a dingy green colour, and variously shaped, 
Gerarde's description being as follows: "Wilde Succori hath 
long leaues, somewhat snipt about the edges like the leaues of 
sow thistle, with a stalke growing to the height of two cubits, 
which is deuided towarde the top into many braunches. The 
flowers grow at the top blewe of colour ; the roote is tough and 
woodie, with many strings fastened thereto." 

I find this plant not only enjoys a half shady place, but if it 
is so placed that its quick growing branches can mix with those 
of other subjects in a trellis or other supports, its coarser parts 
will not only be partially hidden, but the rich coloured flowers 
will show to advantage. I may mention that mine is mixed with 
Yirginian creeper on wires, and the effect may easily be imagined. 
It will do in any kind of garden soil, but if deeply dug and well 
manured the flowers are vastly improved. Propagated by seed or 
division of the stout tap roots. 

Flowering period, August to September. 

Clethra AInifoIia. 

ALDER-LEAVED CLETHRA; Nat. Ord. ERICACEAE. 
A HARDY deciduous shrub, and mentioned in connection with 
herbaceous perennials because of its rich flowers and dwarf 
habit. It is a native of North America, having been grown in 
this country for 150 years ; it is not so often met with as it 
ought to be, though much esteemed. It becomes very productive 
of flowers when only 2ft. high, but grows somewhat taller 
when well established ; it is more valuable than common from 
its floriferousness during late summer to the end of the season. 

Let me at once state that its winning point is the delicious 
scent of its pure white flowers ; it is very powerful, and like that 
of the lilac and alder combined ; the racemes are 2in. or Sin. 
long, and compactly formed of short-stalked flowers less than 
^in. across ; they are of good substance, and in form resemble 
the lilac flower minus the tube; the flower stems are somewhat 
woody, and foliaged to the base of the spike or raceme. The 
leaves are of varying sizes, oval, lance-shaped, and short-stalked, 
distinctly veined and slightly wrinkled, sharp but finely toothed, 
of a dark shining green colour on the upper and a greyish-green 
on the under side. The whole shrub is somewhat rough to the 
touch ; the habit is bushy and branching, increasing in size from 
suckers ; the numerous twiggy side shoots of the previous year's 
growth produce the flowers. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



63 



It enjoys a light soil and sunny situation, and it may be 
planted anywhere in the shrubbery or borders as a first-class 
flowering subject. Its scent loads the air for some distance 
around, and pleasantly reminds one of spring flowers. Such 
sweet- smelling flowers are not too plentiful in September, and I 
know not a better one than this amongst hardy flowers for the 
late season. Its odour is fine and full ; a single sprig now by me 
proves almost too much for the confinement of a room. This 
quality is invaluable in small flowers that can be freely cut, 
which, moreover, as in this case, are otherwise suitable for 
bouquet work. Propagated by cuttings and division of the 
suckers, taken when growth has ceased ; if put in sandy loam 
and a warm situation, they will become rooted during the 
following spring. 

Flowering period, August and September. 



Colchicum Autumnale. 

MEADOW SAFFRON; Common Name, AUTUMNAL CROCUS; 

Nat. Ord. MELANTHACE^:. 

A NATIVE bulbous perennial (see Fig. 25). The Colchicums are 
often confounded with the autumn-flowering species of croci, 
which they much resemble when in bloom ; the similarity is the 
more marked by the absence, from both, of their leaves in 
that season, otherwise the leaves would prove to be the 
clearest mark of difference. Botanically they are far removed 
from each other, being of different orders, 
but there is no need to go into such distinc- 
tions, not, at any rate, in this case. 

The flowers are well known and they need 
not be described further than by saying they 
are in form crocus-like, but much longer in 
the tubes and of a bright mauve-purple 
colour. The bulbs have no resemblance to 
the crocus whatever, being often four times 
the size of the crocus corms. Moreover, 
they are pear-shaped and covered with flaky 
wrappers of a chestnut brown colour; if 
examined, these coverings will be found, near 
the neck of the bulb, to be very numerous 
and slack fitting, extending above the ground, where they have 
the form of decayed or blackened foliage ; a singular fact in con- 
nection with the roots is, they are not emitted from the base of 
the bulb, but from the side of the thickened or ovate part, and are 
short and tufty. In early spring the leaves, which are somewhat 
like the daffodil, but much broader and sheathed, are quickly 
grown; at the same time the fruit appears. In summer the 
foliage suddenly turns brown, and in the autumn nothing is seen 




FIG. 25. COLCHICUM 
AUTUMNALE (about one- 
sixth natural size). 



64 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

but blackened foliage, which is very persistent, and which, a 
little later, acts as sheaths for the long-tubed flowers. Unless 
the weather be very unfavourable, these flowers last a long time 
fully two weeks. The double variety, which is somewhat 
scarce, is even more lasting, and I may add, it is a form and colour 
so softly and richly shaded that it is nothing short of exquisite ; 
but the single variety, now more especially under notice, is also 
capable of agreeably surprising its friends when used in certain 
ways, for instance, as follows : A tray of the bright green and 
nearly transparent selaginella, so common in all greenhouses, 
should form the ground for twos or threes of these simple but 
elegant Saffron flowers ; no other should be placed near their 
simplicity forms their charm. It will be seen that the robust 
but soft-coloured flower of the meadows harmonises finely with 
the more delicately grown moss. In other ways this fine 
autumnal flower may be used with pleasing effect in a cut state, 
and it blends well with the more choice exotics. This is more 
than can be said of many hardy flowers, and it is fortunate that 
during dull weather, when we are driven from our gardens, there 
are still some flowers which may be hastily gathered and so 
arranged indoors as to give us all the pleasure which only such 
flowers can yield at such a season. 

I find this subject to do well in any situation, but I think the 
blooms are a richer colour if grown under partial shade. The 
bulbs should not be disturbed if abundance of flowers are 
wanted ; but if it is found desirable to propagate them, the bulbs 
may be lifted every two or three years, when the tops have 
withered, and when there will probably be found a goodly crop 
of young tubers. 

Flowering period, September and October. 

Colchicum Variegatum. 

Nat. Ord. MELANTHACE^. 

THIS comes from Greece, nevertheless it is perfectly hardy ; it 
is not only peculiarly pretty when closely examined, but a truly 
handsome flower, either as cut bloom or seen in groups in a 
growing state. Compared with C. autumnaie, it is shorter in the 
tube, or more dwarf ; still, it is a larger flower, and its rosy 
purple petals, or divisions of the corolla, are more spear-shaped, 
and each from 2in. to Sin. long ; they have a stout and almost 
white mid-rib, the other parts of the segments being distinctly 
and beautifully chequered with white and rosy purple; the 
tube is stout, and of transparent whiteness ; the foliage less 
than that of the British species, and more wavy. The habit 
of the flowers is erect, and during sunshine they become flatly 
expanded, when they will be 4in. to 5in. across, being 3in. to 4in. 
high. It is a very durable flower, lasting at least a fortnight, 




OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



65 



and many are produced from one bulb, appearing in succession, 
so that the blooming period 
is well extended; it braves 
the worst weather with little 
or no damage. Unlike the 
longer-tubed varieties, it is 
never seen in a broken state, 
and it is this which mainly 
renders it superior. Either 
as a cut flower, or a decora- 
tive subject for the borders 
or rockwork, it is a first-rate 
plant, being neat and showy. 

It enjoys a sandy loam in 
a moist but warm situation ; 
at the base of a small rock- 
work having a southern as- 
pect it flourishes to perfec- 
tion ; it can hardly be planted 
wrongly provided there is no 
stagnant moisture. Propa- 
gated like C. autumnale, 
than which it is of slower 
increase. 

Flowering period, Septem- 
ber and October. 



Coreopsis Auriculata. 

EAR-LEAVED COREOPSIS; 

Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THE oldest species of the 
genus grown in English 
gardens ; its flowers are yel- 
low, but dotted at the base 
of the rav florets. The 
leaves, as implied by the 
name, are dissimilar to other 
species, being lobed and hav- 
ing ear-like appendages ; but 
this feature is far from con- 
stant, and otherwise the 
leaves differ, being sub-ses- 
sile and oval -lance-shaped 



(One-fourth natural size.) 




as long ago 

as 1699. Slugs are very 

fond of these plants, and in winter more especially, when the 



66 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

dormant eyes are not only in a green, but exposed state ; they 
should be watched after, or during one mild night the whole 
may be grazed off, to the great injury of the plant. 

Its habit, uses, culture, and propagation are the same as for 
C. tenuifolia. 

Coreopsis Grandiflora. 

LARGE-FLOWERED COREOPSIS ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

IN many parts this resembles C. lanceolata, its main distinction 
being implied by its name. The flowers are larger and the ray 
florets more deeply cut ; it is also bolder in the foliage, and the 
stems grow nearly as strong as willows. It is an abundant 
bloomer, and a good specimen is a' glorious object during the 
autumn. It comes from North America, but my experience of 
it is that it is not so hardy as C. lanceolata and 0. auriculata. 
'Habit, uses, culture, and propagation, as for C. lanceolata. 

Coreopsis Lanceolata. 

SPEAR-LEAVED COREOPSIS; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

THIS form of bright yellow flower is in great favour during 
August, but that is not all. The various kinds of this genus are 
plants of the easiest culture, and their rich flowers are produced 
in great quantities from midsummer to the time the frosts begin. 
This species has been said to be only of a biennial character ; it 
is, however, understood generally to be perennial, though not 
quite so hardy as others which come from the colder climates of 
America. It was imported from Carolina in 1724, and in this 
country proves hardy in selected situations, where its roots are 
comparatively dry in winter, and I may add that it proves a true 
perennial. 

"When the plant has attained the height of a foot it begins to 
flower; each bloom has a long pedicel, nearly naked, also 
round and smooth. The flowers are a shining yellow colour, and 
nearly Sin. across; the florets of the ray are flatly arranged, 
shield-shaped, pleated, and four -toothed, the teeth being some- 
times jagged ; the disk is small for so large a flower ; the florets 
brown and yellow. The double involucrum, common to the 
genus, has its upper set of bracteoies rolled outward ; they are 
of a brownish colour ; the lower set are green and wheel-shaped 
during the period of a perfect ray, and they alternate with the 
upper ones. The leaves, as may be inferred from the specific 
name, are lance-shaped, 2in. to 6in. long, smooth and entire ; 
they are attenuated to the stems, which they more or less clasp. 
The habit of the plant is much branched, but only slightly at 
base ; it becomes top-heavy from the numerous shoots near the 
top, which cause it to be procumbent; otherwise this subject 
would rank with tall growers. It is one of the most useful 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 67 

flowers, both in the garden and when cut, the long stalks in both 
cases adding much to its effectiveness ; its form and brightness 
are sure to commend it, no matter whether it happens to be a 
fashionable flower or otherwise. It is at once a bold and delicate 
form, and one that harmonises with any other kinds and colours. 

It should be grown in deeply-dug and well-enriched earth, and, 
as already hinted, the drier the situation the more safely will it 
winter. Not only that, but on raised beds or banks sloping to 
the full sunshine it will also flower to perfection. All its family, 
so far as I have proved them, hate excessive moisture. Its pro- 
pagation may be by division, as in this damp climate it does not 
seem to ripen seed, but I have found sometimes not a little 
difficulty in dividing the woody roots, as frequently there is 
only one stem below the surface with roots. When there are 
more the difficulty is lessened, but I have noticed that the 
stronger branches which are weighted to the ground form rudi- 
mentary roots where in contact with the earth. These may either 
be pegged and covered with soil, or cut off and made into cut- 
tings, removing most of the tops. If the latter is done during 
August they will become well rooted before the frosts appear. 

Flowering period, July to October. 

Coreopsis Tenuifolia. 

SLENDER-LEAVED COREOPSIS; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITES. 
HARDY, herbaceous, and perennial ; a native of North America, 
and a distinct species, from its finely-cut foliage and small, dark, 
orange-yellow flowers. For several weeks it has a few flowers, 
but during September it literally covers itself with bloom, so 
that it is one of the most pleasing objects in the garden. 

It grows 2ft. high ; each flower has a long nearly nude stalk, 
slender but wiry; the flowers are l^in. across, and of a deep 
yellow colour ; the florets of the ray are more distant from each 
other than is the case with many of the genus; the disk is 
small, dark brown, but changing from the appearance and dis- 
appearance of the yellow seed organs. The foliage, as may be 
seen by the illustration (Fig. 27), is deeply and finely cut, of a 
dark green colour, and so arranged that each node has a nearly 
uniform dressing ; the main stems are slender, and bend grace- 
fully with the least breeze, and otherwise this plant proves a 
lively subject. Its habit is bushy and very floriferous, and it is 
well worth a place in every garden. It cannot fail to win 
admiration ; even when growing, and before the flowers appear, 
it is a refreshing plant to look upon. In a cut state, the bloom, 
if taken with long stems, is well adapted for relieving large and 
more formal kinds. Tastes differ, and in, perhaps, nothing more 
than floral decorations; all tastes have a right to a share of 
indulgence, and in claiming my privilege in the use of this 

F2 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



flower, I should place two or three sprays (stems) alone in a glass 
or bright vase, but there might be added a spike of the cardinal 
flower or a pair of single dahlias and a falling spray of the 
Flame nasturtium (Tropceolum specipsum). 

This plant should have a rich soil, sunny aspect, and a raised 




FIG. 27. COREOPSIS TENUIFOLIA. 
(One-sixth natural size j a, half natural size.) 

or well-drained site, and this is all it needs ; it is not a subject 
to increase fast ; not only, however, may it be easily divided, but 
if properly done after the tops have died down, the smallest 
pieces will make good blooming stock the first season. 
Flowering period, August and September. 



Cornus Canadensis. 

CANADIAN CORNELL, or DOGWOOD ; Nat. Ord. CORNACE^. 
THIS pretty herbaceous plant is sometimes said to be a British 
species; its specific name, however, somewhat forbids that 
opinion. C. suecica, which is British, is very similar in all its 
parts, and the two may have been confounded. They flower, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



69 



however, at very different dates, C. Canadensis beginning in 
June and continuing until well into autumn ; during the month of 
August the flowers are in their finest form and greatest numbers. 
It grows 6in. to 8in. high, and notwithstanding its dwarfness, it 
proves a most attractive object, being not only conspicuous for 
so small a plant, but chastely beautiful. 

The flowers are exceedingly small, strictly speaking, and are 
arranged in a minute umbel in the midst of a bract of four white 
pink-tinted leaves; these latter are commonly taken for the 




CORNUS CANADENSIS. 
(One-half natural size.) 



petals, and, as may be seen in the illustration (Fig 28), the real 
flowers will only appear as so many stamens ; but at their earlier 
stage these are of a yellowish colour; later the purplish style 
becomes prominent and imparts that colour to the umbel, and, 
in due time, small fruit are formed. All the while the bract of 
pleasing white leaves remain in unimpaired condition ; they are 
arranged in two pairs, one of larger size than the other, some- 
what heart-shaped and bluntly-pointed, richly tinted at their 



70 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

edges and tips with a bright pink colour, and forming a flower- 
like bract l^in. across the broadest part. The bract and pedicels 
of the umbel all spring from the extremity of a peduncle l|in. 
long, square, but of wiry character ; this grows from the midst 
of a whorl of six leaves, and sometimes only four. They are in 
pairs, one pair being larger than their fellows, and are from 
l^in. to 2in. long, elliptical-oblong, entire, smooth, waved, dis- 
tinctly veined, tinted with pink at the tips and edges, and of a 
pale apple-green colour. On the stem, below the whorl of leaves, 
there "is one pair more, varying only in size, being rather less. 
The habit of the species is neatness itself. From the slightly 
creeping roots, the perennial stems are produced separately, 
forming compact colonies of bright foliage, topped with its livery 
bracts. 

It is a suitable plant for the moist parts of rockwork, where it 
may be grown with such things as Cardamine trifolia, Galax 
aphylla, Pyrola rotundifolia, and Salix reticulata, and it would 
form a rich edging to choice dwarf plants, more especially if the 
position were gutter-formed, as it loves moisture in abundance. 
In such positions as those just mentioned, together with a light 
vegetable soil, this plant will grow to perfection, and that it is 
worth a proper place is evidenced by its long-continued blooming. 
Many flowers come and go during its period of attractiveness, 
and, after the summer flush, it is one to remain, braving alike the 
hot sunshine and heavy rain. Its propagation is by division of 
the roots in autumn or very early spring. 

Flowering period, June to October. 

Corydalis Lutea. 

YELLOW FUMITORY; Nat. Ord. FUMARIACEJS. 
A NATIVE herbaceous perennial, though somewhat rare in a 
wild state. As grown in gardens, where it seems to appreciate 
cultural attentions, it proves both useful and effective, especially 
when placed in partial shade (when its foliage has an almost 
maiden-hair-like appearance), or as an edging it proves both 
neat and beautiful. 

It seldom exceeds a foot in height. The flowers are small, a 
yellow, white and green mixture, the yellow predominating; 
they are produced in loose spare racemes, on well-foliaged diffuse 
stems, which are also angular ; the calyx is composed of two 
leaves; the petals are four, forming a snapdragon-like flower. 
The leaves are bip innate, leaflets wedge- shape, trifoliate, and 
glaucous ; the foliage very dense, having a pretty drooping 
habit. It flowers all summer, and is one of the most useful 
plants in a garden to cut from, the foliage being more valuable 
than the flowers. 

Its native habitats are said to be old walls and ruins, but I 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



71 



have proved it for years to do grandly in ordinary garden soil, 
"both exposed and in the shade of fruit trees. When once 
established it propagates itself freely by seed. I ought to add 
that it answers admirably grown in pots for window decoration, 
the rich foliage nearly hiding the pot. 
Flowering period, May to October. 

Corydalis Nobilis. 

NOBLE or GREAT-FLOWERED CORYDALIS; Nat. Ord. 

FTJMARIACE2E. 

A HARDY tuberose perennial, imported from Siberia in 1783. It 
is one of that section of the Fumitories called " Hollowe Roote," 




Fia. 29. CORYDALIS NOBILIS. 
(One-half natural size; blossom, natural size.) 

the appropriateness of which name is most amply illustrated in 
the species now under consideration. If, in the first or second 
month of the year, a strong specimen is examined, the long and 
otherwise stout tuberous root will be found, immediately under 
the healthy and plump crown, to be not only hollow, but so 
decayed that the lower and heavy fleshy parts of the root, which 



72 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

are attached to the crown by a narrow and very thin portion of 
the root bark, in such a way as to suggest that the lower parts 
might as well be cut off as useless but, let me say, do not cut 
it. If it is intended to replant the specimen, let it go back 
to " Mother Earth " with all its parts, deformed as some may 
seem to us ; otherwise Corydalis nobilis will be anything but a 
noble plant at the flowering season ; it may not die, but it will 
probably make for itself another " hollowe roote " before it pro- 
duces any flowers, The habit and form of this plant are perfect 
(see Fig. 29), and there are other points of excellence about it 
which cannot be shown by an engraving, in the way of the 
arrangements of colours and shades. Seldom does the little 
plant, so full of character, exceed a height of Sin. The speci- 
men from which the drawing was made was 7in., and grown 
fully exposed in a pot plunged in sand. Another plant, grown 
on rockwork, " high and dry," is about the same size, but it 
looks better fed. Probably the long roots are short of depth in 
pots, and the amount of decay may soon poison the handful of 
mould contained therein. Be that as it may, the specimens 
grown in pots have a hungry appearance compared with those 
less confined at the roots. 

The flowers are a pleasing mixture of white, yellow, brown, 
and green. The four petals are of such a shape and so ar- 
ranged as to form a small snapdragon-like flower. These are 
densely produced in a terminal cluster in pyramid form on the 
stout and richly-f oliaged stem ; dense as is the head of flowers, 
every floret is alternated with a richly-cut leaf, both diminishing 
in size as they near the top. The older flowers become yellow, 
with two petals tipped with brown, the younger ones have more 
white and green, and the youngest are a rich blend of 
white and green ; the head or truss is therefore very beautiful 
in both form and colour, and withal exquisitely scented, like 
peach blossom and lilac. The leaves are stalked bipinnate ; leaf- 
lets three-parted, cut, and glaucous ; there are few plants with 
more handsome foliage, and its beauty is further enhanced by 
the gracefully bending habit of the whole compound leaf. The 
flowers are too stiff for cutting, and otherwise their fine forms, 
colours, and perfume cannot well be enjoyed unless the plants 
are grown either in pots or at suitable elevations on rockwork, 
the latter being the more preferable way. The long blooming 
period of this plant adds not a little to its value, lasting, as it 
does, quite a month, the weather having little or no effect on 
the flowers. 

Any kind of sweet garden soil seems to do for it, and its pro- 
pagation is carried out by careful root division. 

Flowering period, April to June. 






OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 

Corydalis Solida. 

Common Name, FUMITORY ; Nat. Ord. FUMARIACE M. 



73 



THIS is said to be a British species, but it is a doubtful, as well 
as somewhat scarce one. Though but a small plant of the height 
of 6in. or 8in., it is very effective, being compact with finely-cut 
foliage of a pale glaucous green, and the stems pleasingly 
tinted. For some weeks in early spring it forms a graceful 
object on rockwork, where it seems to thrive well. 

The flowers, which are purple, are not showy ; still, they are 
effective from the way in which they are borne, as the illustra- 
tion (Fig. 30) will show. Its specific name is in reference to its 




FIG. 30. CORTDALIS SOLIDA. 
(One-half natural size.) 

root, which is bulbous and solid. Many of the Fumitories have 
remarkably hollow roots, and one of the old names of this genus 
is written " Hollo we roote." When the flowers fade the whole 
plant withers, nothing being left but the bulbous roots to com- 
plete their ripening ; still, this should not hinder its extensive 
cultivation, because it not only appears in its best form when 
flowers are rare, but also because it is so pleasingly distinct. 
I find it to do well on rockwork, also in well-drained borders of 



74 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

light loam. It should be allowed to increase until it forms good- 
sized tufts, which it soon does. To propagate it, it is only 
necessary to divide the tubers any time from July to October. 
Flowering period, February to May. 

Crocus Medius. 

Nat. Ord. IRIDACEJS. 

THIS is a charming kind, seldom seen and, perhaps, little known - T 
the name would imply that it is a variety having equal traits 
of two other forms. It blooms in January and the flowers appear 
without any foliage. So well is the Crocus known, it will only be 
needful to state the more striking features of the one under 
notice. 

The flowers are produced on tubes Sin. to 5in. long, and 
stoutly formed ; the colour is a shaded lilac-purple, striped with 
darker lines ; the petals or divisions of the perianth are l^in. 
long and ^in. broad, shining or satiny, and become well expanded 
during the short moments of winter sunshine ; the stamens are 
half the length of perianth, of a fine deep orange colour, and 
covered with a thick coat of pollen all their visible length. In 
rich contrast with these is the style, with its tuft of filaments of 
a bright orange scarlet colour. From this description it will be 
seen that the flower is a rather small Crocus, but from the soft 
tints of the perianth, and more pronounced and bright colours 
of the seed organs, it is one of much beauty. These features, 
added to the facts of the bloom appearing in winter and having 
the scent of wild roses, are sure to render it a favourite kind 
wherever grown. The leaves are short and narrow, almost grassy. 

It enjoys a light but rich loam and sunny aspect, and increases 
itself freely by offsets of the matured conns, clumps of which 
may be divided after the foliage has withered. 
1, January. 



Cyananthus Lobatus. 

Nat. Ord. POLEMONACE^E. 

A SMALL plant with a large flower, a veritable gem ; no collection 
of choice alpines can be complete without this species. A native 
of Chinese Tartary, brought to this country in 1844, where it 
proves perfectly hardy in the most exposed parts of the open 
garden; it is herbaceous and perennial; its large and brilliant 
flowers are very beautiful, but all its other parts are small, as 
may be seen in the illustration (Fig. 31). It is seldom met 
with except in collections of rare plants, but there is no reason 
why it should not be more commonly grown, as its requirements 
are now well understood. It is not a showy subject, but, when 
examined, it proves of exquisite beauty. 



OLD-FASHIONED GAEDEN FLOWEES. 75 

The flowers are of a bright purple-blue colour, over an inch 
across, the petals being of good substance, tongue-shaped, and 
falling backwards, when the china-like whiteness about the top 
of the tube becomes more exposed; the calyx is very large, 
nearly egg-shaped, having five finely-pointed and deeply-cut 
segments ; the bulky-looking part, which has an inflated appear- 
ance, is neatly set on a slender stem, and densely furnished 
with short black hairs of even length ; this dusky coat has a 
changeable effect, and adds not only to the character, but 
also to the beauty of the flower. The small attenuated leaves 




FIG. 31. CTANANTHUS LOBATTJS. 
(Natural size.) 

are alternate and laxly arranged on the flower stems, which are 
6in. to 12in. long, round, and nearly red. Each leaf is less than 
lin. long, distinctly lobed with five or more lobes, and all the 
edges are turned back, causing the foliage to appear thick and 
well finished; the foliage of the stems not bearing flowers is 
more closely set. The habit of the plant is procumbent ; stems 
contorted, and producing solitary flowers. 

It should be grown on rockwork, where its stems can nestle 
between the stones and its roots find plenty of moisture, as in a 
dip or hollowed part ; the long and fleshy roots love to run in 



76 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



damp leaf mould and sand. The position should be open and 
sunny, in order to have flowers. Cuttings may be taken during 
summer, and struck in sandy peat kept moist, or strong roots 
may be divided. The latter method is the less desirable, not 
only because of jeopardising the parent stock but also because 
strong roots show to greater advantage when not separated. 
Flowering period, September and October. 



Cypripedium Calceolus. 

ENGLISH LADY'S SLIPPER; Nat. Ord. ORCHIDACE^. 

THIS well-known terrestrial orchid is a rare British plant, very 

beautiful, and much admired, so 
much so, indeed, that many de- 
sire to grow it. It happens, how- 
ever, that it seldom thrives under 
cultural treatment, and seems to 
prefer a home of its own selection, 
but its habitats are said now to be 
very few in Great Britain, it hav- 
ing] been hunted out and grubbed 
up everywhere. Fortunately, it 
can be grown in gardens, and 
in good form, though rarely seen 
thus. To see well-grown flowers 
of this orchid either makes us feel 
more contented with our own cli- 
mate or strongly reminds us of 
others where the most gorgeous 
varieties of flowers and fruit grow 
wild. It is large and striking, fra- 
grant, and very beautiful ; no one 
can see it, especially in a growing 
state, without being charmed by 
its freshness and simplicity ; it 
also forms one of the finest speci- 
mens for the student in botany, 
and in every way it is a plant and 
flower of the highest merit (see 
Fig. 32). It should be in all col- 
lections of choice plants, and every 
amateur should persevere until he 
succeeds in establishing it. 

Under cultivation it flowers in 
early May, at a height of 9in. 

FIG. 32. CYPRIPEDHTM CALCEOLUS. to 12in. ; the flowers are composed 
(One-third natural size.) of a calyx of three brownish- 

purple sepals, which have only the appearance of two, from the 







OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 77 



fact of the lower two being joined or grown together, and even so 
combined they are somewhat less than the tipper sepal. The 
division may be observed at the tips, though in some speci- 
mens it is microscopic in the one now by me it is hardly the 
eighth of an inch. Two petals ; these are cross-form in relation 
to the sepals, of the same colour, and a little longer about 2in. 
narrow, drooping, pointed, and slightly twisted when a few days 
old; lip, "blown out like a slipper," shorter than the sepals, 
compressed, richly veined, and lemon yellow. The seed organs 
are curious, the stigma being foot-stalked, peltate, and placed 
between and above the anthers. The leaves are pale green, very 
hairy, many-ribbed, stem-clasping, alternate, ovate, and slightly 
wavy ; the lower ones are 5in. or Gin. long and 2in. to Sin. wide, 
and pointed. The root is creeping, the fibres stout, long, wiry, 
and bent. During spring the plant makes rapid growth, and 
seldom bears more than one flower ; for the first time a plant 
produced two with me in 1882. They are sweetly scented, like 
the primrose. 

Many amateurs, who have otherwise proved their knowledge 
of the requirements of plants by growing large and choice collec- 
tions, have failed to establish this after many trials ; and were it 
not for the fact that with me it is growing in various positions 
and under different modes of treatment, and that it has so grown 
for several years, I think I should not have ventured to give 
hints to experienced horticulturists. In my opinion, four con- 
ditions are strictly necessary in order to establish this native 
orchid in our garden : (1) A strong specimen with a goodly 
portion of the rhizoma attached; (2) Firm or solid planting 
during autumn ; (3) Moist situation ; (4) Shade from the mid-day 
sun. Further information may be best given by stating the 
modus operandi : Several years ago a number of good roots were 
planted in sandy loam of a calcareous nature. They were put 
in somewhat deeply, the roots carefully spread out, and the soil 
made solid by repeated waterings, the position being shaded by 
an apple tree. They are now well established, and only receive 
a top dressing of leaves and manure to keep them cool and moist 
in summer. At the same time a number were potted deeply in 
loam, peat, and broken oyster shells ; when filling in the compost, 
it, too, was washed to the roots, so as to make all solid by fre- 
quent applications ; the pots have always been kept in cool and 
shady quarters, and plunged ; they bloom well every season. I 
have likewise found another plan to answer well. In a moist 
corner make up a low-lying bed of sand and peat, mostly sand, 
plant 9in. deep, and make all solid, as before, by water. When 
the growths appear on the surface, water with weak liquid 
manure, and if shade does not exist from the mid-day sun, some 
should be provided ; in this way I am now growing my finest 
specimens ; but if once the roots become dry, the plants will 



78 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



suffer a serious check. I feel equally confident that the roots 
enjoy a firm bed, but it should be of such material that they can 
freely run in it. 

Flowering period, May and June. 



Daphne Cneorum. 

TRAILING DAPHNE; Common and Poetical Name, GARLAND 

FLOWER; Nat. Ord. THYMELACEJE. 

AN alpine shrub from Austria ; dwarf, evergreen, and having a 
tendency to creep. It is deservedly a great favourite ; it wins 
admiration by its neat and compact form and its dense and 
numerous half -globular heads of rosy pink flowers, which are 
exceedingly fragrant, in the way of the 
old clove carnation, but more full. 

The flower buds are formed during 
the previous season of growth, like those 
of the rhododendron; for many days 
before the flowers open the buds have a 




FIG. 33. DAPHNE CNEORUM. 
(One-f ourtli natural size ; (1) flower, full size.) 

very pleasing appearance, being closely packed and coral-like; 
when all the florets are expanded they form a half -globular head 
lin. to l^in. across, being of a lively pink colour. The flowers 
are composed of a tubular calyx, four-parted ; leaves inversely 
ovate, lanceolate, pointed, and entire ; about an inch long, and 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 79 

narrow ; of a dark green colour and much substance, being arranged 
in circular form on the round and somewhat wiry, tough stems, 
which in time become very long and bare. 

In order to grow this shrub well, three conditions are needful, 
viz., a moderately pure atmosphere, exposure to full sunshine, 
and plenty of moisture ; it also prefers peat or vegetable soil, but 
this is not strictly needful if the other conditions are present. ^ I 
have grown the specimen, from part of which the illustration 
(Fig. 33) was drawn, for four years in rich loam, without a 
particle of peat, but the roots have been protected against 
drought by large stones at the base of small rockwork. Doubt- 
less, peat, where it is plentiful, used in addition to the above 
compost, would prove beneficial. After a few years' growth in 
one position, bushes which have become long and bare in the 
stems may be transplanted with advantage, laying in the stems 
to a moderate depth, from which new roots will issue the first 
season ; this is also the readiest way of propagation. February 
or September would be suitable months for such operation, but 
the latter would probably interfere with its flowering at that 
time, when frequently a second but spare crop is produced. 

Flowering periods, April and May, and again in September. 

Daphne Mezereum. 

MEZEREON; Old Names, SPURGE-FLAX, GERMAN OLIVE-SPURGE, 
and DWARF BAY ; Nat. Ord. THYMELACE.E. 

THIS is a dwarf deciduous shrub, which produces its welcome 
flowers in great abundance whilst bare of leaves ; it is a British 
species, though not occurring generally, yet it is pretty well 
known from its extensive cultivation as a garden shrub. The 
flowers are very desirable, from the way in which they are pro- 
duced in knotted clusters on the long stems; they appear in 
winter ; moreover, they are of a hardy and durable nature and 
very sweetly scented. As a shrub it is very suitable for any 
sized garden, being dwarf 2ft. to 4ft. In some parts it is a 
general favourite, and may be seen in almost every garden; 
such patronage is well merited, as it not only enlivens the garden 
at a dead season, but it heralds spring time and furnishes long 
sprigs of wallflower-scented blossom as cut bloom, which shows 
to advantage by gaslight. 

There are interesting facts in connection with this shrub that 
add to its charm. It was esteemed of old of great virtue ; all its 
parts are hot and biting, more especially the berries, of which it 
was said that "if a drunkard do eate he cannot be allured to 
drinke any drinke at that time : such will be the heate of his 
mouth and choking in the throte." Its wood is very soft and 
tough, and cannot easily be broken ; this, however is a quality 
common to the genus. The berries are poisonous to man, but 



80 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

birds are so fond of them that they are rarely allowed to become 
ripe, at least, such is the case near towns. The seeds of this and 
allied species are used in the South of Europe as a yellow dye for 
wool. From its importance, the shrub has been long and widely 
known, and both its botanical and common names are numerous ; 
for these, however, the reader may not care. It is seldom called 
by any other than its specific name, Mezereon, which Gerarde 
describes as English-Dutch. 

Its flowers, which are purple, come on the otherwise naked 
stems of last season's growth, lateral fashion, in threes mostly, 
and sometimes the blossomed stems will be over a foot in length ; 
the flowers are ^in. long, sessile and funnel-shaped; the limb 
four-cut ; sweet smelling and very durable. The berries are the 
size of a small pea, bright green at first, then turning to red, and 
ultimately to a nearly black colour. The leaves lance-shaped, 
smooth, and deciduous appear after the flowers. The habit is 
branched and erect, forming neat bushes. In a wild state it 
flowers in March and April, but under cultivation it is much 
earlier. 

In the garden it may be planted under other trees, where it 
proves one of a scarce class of shade-loving flowering shrubs ; it 
also does well in open quarters. In gardens, where its fruit is 
unmolested, it is, perhaps, more attractive than when in blossom, 
as then the foliage adds to its beauty. The flowers in a cut state 
are serviceable, pretty, and desirable from their sweetness ; long 
sprigs mixed with lavender or rosemary form a winter bouquet 
not to be despised ; or, it may be placed in a vase, with a few small- 
leaved ivy trails and a spray of evergreen bamboo (Metake). 
Gerarde's description of this shrub will, doubtless, be read with 
interest : " The braunches be tough, limber, and easie to bend, 
very soft to be cut ; whereon do grow long leaves like those of 
priuet, but thicker and fatter. The flowers come foorth before 
the leaves, oftentimes in the moneth of Januarie, clustering 
togither about the stalks at certain distances, of a whitish colour 
tending to purple, and of a most fragrant and pleasant sweet 
smell. After come the smal berries of an exceeding hot and 
burning taste, inflaming the mouth and throte of those that do 
taste thereof, with danger of choking." 

Flowering period, February to April. 

There is a variety called D. M. album; the only difference 
from the typical form is implied by the name, the flowers being 
white. It also is in bloom at the same time as the species. 

D. M. autumnale is another variety, which, however, blooms in 
the autumn ; the flowers are red ; it is a native of Europe. 

These shrubs enjoy a light but moist soil of a vegetable nature, 
but they also thrive in a sandy loam. They may be increased by 
seed, or, more quickly, by grafting on stocks of spurge laurel ; 
cuttings may be rooted, but are uncertain. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 81 

Dentaria Digitata. 

TOOTHWORT; Nat. Ord. C RTJCIFER^. 
A HARDY, tuberous perennial, native of Switzerland, but long 
cultivated in British gardens, and decidedly " old-fashioned." 

Imagine a spray of pale purple wallflower, and that will give 
some idea of the form and colour of its flowers, which are 
produced on round wiry stems, nearly a foot high, in terminal 
racemes. The leaves, which are produced mostly in threes on a 
stem, have a channelled petiole, and, as the specific name denotes, 
are spread out like fingers, mostly of five parts ; a five-cut leaf 
of a Christmas rose will give a fair notion of the form, but the 
Toothwort leaves are less, not so thick, and more herb-like than 
the hellebore; they are also finely, deeply, but irregularly 
toothed. The roots are of singular form, almost like human 
teeth, arranged as scales, whence the name Toothwort. Its first 
appearance above ground is in February, when the young 
growths are bent or folded like those of the anemone, and in 
genial seasons it will flower early in March. 

It loves both a little shade and moisture. I grow it at the 
base of a bit of rockwork, in black or leaf mould ; the aspect is 
south-east, but an old sun-dial screens it from the midday sun. 
The whole plant has a somewhat quaint appearance, but it has 
proved a great favourite. When the tops have died down the 
roots can safely be lifted, cut in lengths of one or two inches, 
and then replanted. It also produces seed freely, but from the 
easy method of increase by root division, I have not had occasion 
to experiment with seed. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Dianthus Deltoides. 

MAIDEN PINK ; Old Names, " WILD GILLOFLOWER," " YIRGIN- 
LIKE PINKE," "MAIDENLY PINKE "; Nat. Ord. CARYO- 

PHYLLACE.E SlLENACE^. 

A BRITISH species of perennial character, never failing to bloom 
for a long period when it meets with a suitable home in our gar- 
dens as in positions similar to those described for Erysimum 
-pumilum. Seen either wild or in gardens it is much admired; 
it bears but simple flowers, but therein consists its beauty. 

As Gerarde says, " Yirgin-like Pinke is like unto the rest of 
the garden pinkes in stalkes, leaves, and rootes. The flowers are 
of a blush colour, whereof it tooke his name, which sheweth the 
difference from the other." It is about the most simple form of 
the Pink tribe. The flowers are a little over -lin. across, of a rose 
colour or pleasing blush. It grows nearly a foot high in some 
soils, but in a poor compost it is more dwarf and floriferous. 
The flower stems are much divided near the tops, and capable of 
producing a good effect from their numbers of bright flowers. 

a 



82 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

The leaves are small, scarcely lin. long, linear, lance-shaped, and 
of a dark green colour ; they are closely arranged on decumbent 
stems, which sometimes are more than 1ft. long. The habit 
is compact, both as regards leaves, stems, and flowers. 

For all such places as afford dryness at the roots this is a 
suitable plant as a constant bloomer of effective colour. When 
once it has become established it seeds freely, and the young 
plants may be seen in the walks for yards around the parent 
stock. It is one of those happy subjects that can take care 
of themselves, either braving its enemies or having none. 

In its wild state it blooms from the sixth to the tenth month, 
both inclusive; but with cultural attention and during favourable 
winters, it has been seen in flower to the end of the year. 

Flowering period, June to October. 

Dianthus Hybridus. 

Syn. D. MTJLTIFLORTJS ; MULE PINK ; Nat. Ord. 

CARYOPHYLLACE^E. 

HARDY and evergreen. The specific name of this variety is not at 
all descriptive, and it may be better to at once give its common 
name of Mule Pink, of which there are various colours, as bright 
scarlet, rose and pure white, all very double and neat flowers. 

It is the double rose kind which has induced me to speak of 
this section of the Pink and Sweetwilliam family. I dare say 
many will be surprised when I state that my strongest plant of 
this has been in flower more than two years. Severe as the 
1881 winter was, when the plant was clear of snow it was seen to 
have both flowers and buds in fact, for two years it has 
flowered unceasingly; the other varieties are not such per- 
sistent bloomers. The genus to which these hybrids belong is 
very numerous, and includes Carnations, Picotees, garden and 
alpine Pinks and Sweetwilliams. They are all remarkable for 
their fresh green and glaucous foliage and handsome flowers. 
Some species or varieties are amongst the " old-fashioned " 
garden plants of Parkinson's time, and all are characterised by 
an exquisite perfume. The Latin name of this genus is a very 
happy one, meaning " divine flower," in reference to its fragrance. 
Nearly every form and colour of Dianthus are popular favour- 
ites, and hardly any garden is without some of them. 

The Mule Pink is supposed to have been produced from D. 
barbatus and D. plumarius ; be that as it may, the features of 
both are distinctly seen in it : the colour and partial form of the 
foliage, the form of stems, and clustered arrangement of the 
buds much resemble D. barbatus or Sweetwilliam ; whilst the 
stout reflexed and pointed features of the leaves, and the general 
form of the small but double flowers resemble D. plumarius, or 
the garden Pink. To this description of D. hybridus I will only 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 83 

add that in both foliage and flowers there is more substance than 
in either of its reputed parents, and the habit of the plant is 
semi-trailing or procumbent, as seen in specimens three years 
old. It is rather more difficult to grow than the common Pink. 
Any position or soil will not answer ; it does well on rockwork, 
where it can hardly suffer from damp, so much disliked by all 
the genus ; but if thus planted, it should be where its thickly - 
foliaged stems cannot be turned over and wrenched by strong 
winds. It may be grown in borders in sandy loam ; and if such 
borders are well drained, as they always should be for choice 
flowers, there will be little to fear as to its thriving. Such 
an excellent flower, which, moreover, is perpetually produced, 
deserves some extra care, though, beyond the requirements 
already mentioned, it will give very little trouble. 

To increase it, the readiest way is to layer the shoots about 
midsummer, half cutting through the stems, as for Carnations ; 
thus treated, nice plants will be formed by October, when they 
may be lifted and transplanted to their blooming quarters ; and 
I may here state that a line of it, when in flower, is richly 
effective. A good style also is to make a bold clump by setting 
ten or twelve plants 9in. apart. Another mode of propagation is 
to take cuttings at midsummer and dibble them into boxes of leaf 
soil and sand. Keep them shaded and rather close for a week or 
more. If the boxes could be placed in a cucumber frame, the 
bottom heat and moisture would be a great help to them. The 
object to aim at should be not only to root the cuttings, but to 
grow them on to fair-sized plants for putting out in the autumn. 
To do this, when the cuttings are rooted they should be planted 
6in. apart in a bed made up of well decayed manure and sand, 
in which it will be seen that they will make plenty of roots and 
become sturdy plants. The wireworm and slugs are both very 
fond of Pinks and Carnations. Slugs should be trapped, but the 
wireworm, unfortunately, has often done the mischief before we 
become aware of its presence, and even then it is a troublesome 
pest to get rid of. I find nothing more useful than stirring and 
digging the soil as soon as there is room to work with a spade or 
fork ; the worm cannot endure frequent disturbance, and such 
operations are otherwise beneficial to the plants. 

Flowering period, May to September 

Dodecatheon Jeffreyanum. 

Nat. Ord. PRIMULACE^J. 

THIS is a distinct and noble species. The older leaves are more 
spoon- shaped, at least a foot long, rather narrow, not toothed, of 
a reddish colour at the base, and the mid-rib pale green, almost 
straw-colour ; the flower scape is also reddish, but the flowers are 
fewer. As a foliage plant this species is very effective. 



84 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

All the Dodecatheons make a rapid growth in spring, their 
scapes being developed with the leaves ; the genus will continue 
in flower for two months,, after which time, however, their foliage 
begins to dry up. They should, therefore, be planted with other 
subjects of later growth and blooming, so as to avoid blank 
spaces. The overshading foliage of other things will do them no- 
harm, as it will be only for a season. The position should 
be moist and somewhat sheltered from high winds, or the stout 
and tender flower stems will be snapped oft. The soil should be 
of a vegetable character and retentive of moisture. My speci- 
mens are grown in leaf soil and loam, in a dip of small rockwork. 
All the kinds were planted that a large flat stone, which we had 
ready, would so fit to, or over, them as to secure their roots 
against drought. This I find a good plan with moisture-loving 

subjects, where suitable positions 
are not otherwise readily offered. 
Besides, the varieties so grown 
have a pleasing appearance, and 
for purposes of comparison are 
very handy. Their propagation is 
easy. The crowns may be divided 
either in spring or autumn, the 
latter being the best time, as then 
probably each piece will flower the 
following spring. 

Flowering period, April to June. 




Dodecatheon Meadia. 

SHOOTING STAR, or AMERICAN 

COWSLIP; JVa.0nZ.PRIMULACE,3E. 

A DISTINCT and pretty herba- 
ceous perennial, very hardy and 
floriferous. Those who do not 
readily recognise it by any of the 
above names, may do so by the 
illustration (Fig. 34). It has long 
been grown in English gardens 
nearly 150 years its habitat being 
Fiu.34. DODECATHEON MEADIA. North America. Not only does 

(One-sixth natural size.) it do well in this climate, but since 

its introduction several improved 

varieties of this species have been produced, which are both 
good and distinct. A brief notice of them will not be out of 
place here, but first the general description may as well be 
given. 

The flowers much resemble the Cyclamen, but they are only 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 85 

about one-fourth the size ; the calyx is five-parted ; the corolla 
has five stout petals inserted in the tube of calyx ; they are well 
reflexed and rather twisted ; their colour is purplish-lilac, but at 
the base of the petals there is a rich blending of maroon and 
yellow. The seed organs are very long, compact, and pointed, 
giving the appearance of shooting stars. The flowers are arranged 
in fine clusters on a scape more than a foot high, each flower 
having a rather long, wiry, and gracefully bending pedicel ; all 
of them spring from one centre. The leaves are radical, oblong, 
smooth, dented, and wavy, about Sin. long and nearly Sin. broad. 

D. M. albiflorum I do not grow, but from what I remember of 
it, it differs from the above only in being less vigorous and 
in having white flowers. 

D. M. elegans. Shorter and broader in leaf, and roundly 
toothed ; flower stems shorter, umbels more numerously flowered, 
bloom deeper in colour. 

D. M. giganteum has a very large leaf, much larger than 
the typical form of the species, and of a pale green colour, and in 
all other respects it is larger, being also more than a week earlier 
in flower. 

Flowering period, April to June. 



Dondia Epipactis. 

Syns. ASTRANTIA EPIPACTIS and HACQTJETIA EPIPACTIS ; 
Nat. Ord. UMBELLIFER^E. 

THIS is a little gem, perhaps rather overdone with too many big 
names ; still, this choice, hardy, herbaceous perennial is worth 
knowing by all its titles. Never more than Gin. high, its singular 
flowers are very attractive ; they spring from the ground almost 
abruptly, are greenish-yellow and leafy in appearance in fact, 
what at first sight might seem to be the petals are really but 
whorled bracts, which embrace the tiny umbels of flowers. Soon 
after the flowers the leaves begin to appear, unfolding like many 
of the anemones, each one springing from the root only; they 
also are of a peculiar colour and shape, being three-lobed and 
finely notched. 

It will stand any amount of rough weather, always having a 
fresh appearance when above ground. It forms a choice speci- 
men for pot culture in cold frames or amongst select rock plants ; 
it should be grown in mostly vegetable mould, as peat or leaf 
mould, and have a moist position. Not only is it a slow-growing 
subject, but it is impatient of being disturbed ; its propagation 
should therefore only be undertaken in the case of strong and 
healthy clumps, which are best divided before growth commences 
in February. 

Flowering period, April and May. 



86 



HARDY PERENNIALS 



Doronicum Caudasicum. 

LEOPARD'S-BANE ; Syn. D. ORIENTALE ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THE specific name denotes sufficiently whence this comes. It is 
hardy, herbaceous, and perennial, and one of those plants which 
deserves to be in every garden ; its general appearance is that of 
a tender plant, from the pale but fine delicate green of its foliage, 
a somewhat uncommon shade for so early a season. It begins to 
flower in March in a warm situation in the garden, when only a 
few inches high, and it goes on growing and flowering until 
summer, when it is nearly 2ft. high. A glance at Fig. 35 will 
give a fair idea of its habit. 




FIG. 35. DORONICUM CAUCASICUM. 
(One-third natural size.) 



The flowers, which are bright yellow, are 2|in. across, produced 
one at a time, though the leafy stems are well supplied with buds 
in various stages of development. The leaves, besides being so 
rich in colour, are of handsome forms, being variously shaped, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 87 

some having long stalks, others none ; all are finely toothed and 
heart-shaped ; the radical ones come well out and form a good 
base, from which the flower stems rise, and they in their turn 
serve to display the richly veined and ample foliage which clasps 
them to near their tops. Although this species is not a very oL I 
plant in English gardens, it belongs to a genus, several specie 
of which are very " old-fashioned," and, consequently, it shares 
the esteem in which such subjects are held at the present time. 

If left alone, after being planted in fairly good soil, it will soon 
grow to a bold specimen. Plants three years old are 2ft. across : 
rockwork or ordinary borders are alike suitable for it, but if 
planted on the former, it should be of a bold character, so as to 
harmonise. I have observed that neither grubs nor slugs seem 
to meddle with this plant, which is certainly a rare recommenda- 
tion. Its propagation may be carried out at almost any time. 

Flowering period, March to July. 

Echinaeea Purpurea. 

Syn. RUDBECKIA PURPUREA; PURPLE CONE-FLOWER; 

Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

IN the autumn season one is almost confined to Composites, but 
in this subject there is, at any rate, a change as regards colour. 
Yellows are indispensable, but then predominate too strongly. 
The flower under notice is a peculiar purple with greenish-white 
shadings. This will doubtless sound undesirable, but when the 
flower is seen it can hardly fail to be appreciated. It is much 
admired ; in fact it is stately, sombre, and richly beautiful 
not only an " old-fashioned " flower, but an old inhabitant of 
English gardens, coming, as it did, from North America in the 
year 1699. In every way the plant is distinct ; it does not 
produce many flowers, but they individually last for several 
weeks, and their metallic appearance is a fitting symbol of their 
durability. They begin to expand in the early part of Stp- 
tember, and well-established plants will have bloom until cut 
oif by frost. 

The flowers are borne at the height of 2ft. to 3ft., and are 
produced singly on very thick, rigid stalks, long, nearly nude, 
grooved, furnished with numerous short, bristle-like hairs, and 
gradually thickening up to the involucrum of the flower. Sid 
involucrum is composed of numerous small leaves, a distinguish- 
ing trait from its nearest relative genus Eudbeckia. The recep- 
tacle or main body of the flower is very bulky ; the ray is fully 
4in. across, the florets being short for so large a ray ; they are 
set somewhat apart, slightly reflexed, plaited, and rolled at the 
edges, colour reddish-purple, paling off at the tips to a greyish- 
green ; the disk is very large, rather flat, and furnished with 
spine-like scales, whence the name Echinaeea, derived from 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



echinus (a hedgehog). In smelling this flower contact should 
therefore be avoided ; it is rather forbidding ; the disk has 
changeable hues of red, chocolate, and green. The leaves of 
the root are oval, some nearly heart-shaped, unevenly toothed, 
having long channelled stalks; those of the stems are lance- 
shaped, distinctly toothed, of stouter substance, short stalked, 
and, like those of the root, distinctly nerved, very rough on both 
sides, and during September quickly changes to a dark, dull, 
purple colour. The habit of the plant is rather " dumpy;" 
being spare of foliage, thick and straight in the stems, which 
are drum-stick like ; it is for all that a pleasing subject when in 
flower ; I consider the blooms too stiff for cutting, more espe- 
cially as they face upwards. 

Unlike many species of its order, it is somewhat fickle. I 
have lost many plants of it ; it likes neither shade nor too much 
moisture ; latterly I have found it to do well in a sunny situation, 
in deep rich loam and vegetable soil mixed. If planted with 
other ray flowers it forms a fine contrast, and when once it has 
found suitable quarters the more seldom it is disturbed the 
better. It may be propagated by division, which may be more 
safely done after growth has fairly started in spring, or it may 
be done at the sacrifice of the flowers in late summer or early 
autumn, before growth or root action has ceased. 

Flowering period, September to end of October. 

Edraianthus Dalmaticus. 

Nat. Ord. CAMPANULACE^:. 

A RARE and beautiful alpine species, from Dalmatia and Switzer- 
land. At the end of July it is one of the most distinct and 
charming flowers in the rock garden, where it not only finds a 
happy home, but, by its neat and peculiar habit, proves a 
decorative subject of much merit. This desirable plant (see 
Fig. 36) is quite hardy in this climate, being herbaceous and 
perennial; it has, however, the reputation of being difficult 
to manage, but, like numerous other things, when once its 
requirements and enemies are found out, the former supplied 
and protection from the latter afforded, it proves of easy 
management. In some instances these conditions may, though 
stated in such few words, prove comprehensive ; but in this case 
it is not so. The position and soil it most seems to enjoy may 
be readily afforded in any garden, as we shall shortly see ; but, 
so far as my experience goes, the slugs are its most persistent 
enemies. Especially when in flower do they make long journeys 
to reach it ; they go over sand and ashes with impunity, and 
often the beautiful tufts of bloom are all grazed off in one night. 
I had occasion to fetch in from the garden the specimen now 
before me, and, when brought into the gas-light, a large slug 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



89 



was found in the midst of the grassy foliage, and a smaller one 
inside one of the bell flowers. The " catch and kill 'em " process 
is doubtless the surest remedy, and three hours after sunset 
seems to be the time of their strongest muster. Not only does 
this plant suffer from slugs when in flower, but perhaps equally 
as much when in its dormant state, especially if the winter is 
mild; then I have noticed the somewhat prominent crowns eaten 
entirely off, and it is not unlikely that this plant has come to 
have the name of a fickle grower, from being the favourite prey 
of slugs. 




FIG. 36. EDRAIANTHUS DALMAIICUS. 
(One-half natural size.) 

It is not more than 4in. high under any conditions in this 
climate, and more often only 3in. in height. From the thrift- 
like tufts of foliage there radiates a set of stout round flower 
stalks, which are Sin. to 4in. long, and rest on the ground ; the 
large heads of flowers are erect ; the stalks are red, and furnished 
with short stout hairs and short foliage, the latter becoming sere 
long before the bloom fades. The crowded heads of " bells " are 
of pale purple colour, in the style of the bell-flower; they are an 
inch in length, the corolla being somewhat deeply divided ; eight 
to twelve form the terminal cluster, and they have a fleshy calyx, 
with very long and persistent segments; the lower part can 
scarcely be seen for the ample and somewhat peculiar bract 



90 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

which closely embraces the whole cluster ; said bract springs 
from the much thickened stalk and is composed of half leaf and 
half scale-like forms, arranged in two or more circles ; the scales 
feather off with the leaf -like appendage, the latter being reflexed, 
but the whole is furnished with spines. The foliage of a well- 
grown specimen is arranged in tufts, the whole having a grass - 
like appearance. The leaves are 2in. to 4in. long, rough and 
hairy on the upper side, smooth and shining underneath, the 
edges having rather long hairs their whole length ; the main 
root is long, thick, and somewhat woody. 

To grow this plant well, it requires a good deep loam for its 
long roots, and a surfacing of grit will be of benefit, as the 
crowns should be clear of the damp loam. This elevation of the 
crowns is natural to the plant, and should be provided for. The 
position cannot well be too exposed, provided the deep searching 
roots can find plenty of moisture. On rockwork this subject 
may be planted with considerable effect. If put between large 
stones in upright positions, the plant will show its pretty form 
to advantage. The spoke-like flower stalks, radiating from the 
rich dark green tufts of foliage, are very pleasing. It may be 
propagated by offsets from strong and healthy plants. Care 
should be taken not only to have all the roots possible with each 
crown, but the young stock should be carefully established in 
pots before planting in the open. Shade and careful watering 
will be needful ; too much of the latter will render rot inevitable. 
Soon as the flowering period is past is the best time to divide 
the roots, which should not be done too severely. 

Flowering period, July and August. 

Epigeea Repens. 

CREEPING or GROUND LAUREL ; Nat. Ord. ERICACE^. 
A HARDY evergreen creeper, long since imported into this country 
from North America (1736), but only within the last few years 
has it won much favour. At the present time it is much sought 
after. It has the reputation of being a ticklish subject to grow. 
Many have had it and lost it, and those who still retain a 
specimen are loth to mutilate it for increase. This may to some 
extent account for the present demand for and difficulty ex- 
perienced in obtaining it. For the last three years, hard as the 
seasons have been within that time, its flowers have been pro- 
duced in great abundance on my specimen. 

Usually it flowers in this climate in April, but when winter 
has continued open and genial, its blooms are produced as early 
as the middle of March, and they are in their full beauty in early 
April. They are white, delicately tinged with pink, of much 
substance and wax-like appearance. They are small, not unlike 
in form the lilac flower, but rather more open at the corolla 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 91 

and shorter in the tube. They are arranged in one-sided, elon- 
gated bunches, which rest on the ground, the blossoms peeping 
through the foliage. I must not omit to mention perhaps the 
most desirable property of this species viz., the perfume of its 
flowers, which is strong, aromatic, and refreshing. The leaves- 
are cordate, ovate, and entire, nearly 2in. long, slightly drawn 
or wrinkled, and covered with stiffish hairs. They are arranged 
on procumbent branches, all, like the flowers, facing upwards. 
To see the clusters of waxy flowers these branches must be 
raised, when it will be seen that the flower stalks issue from the 
axils of the leaves all along the branches. In a cut state the 
flowers are more than useful ; they are, from their delicious 
scent, a great treat. The plant is a suitable companion 
to the ledums, kalmias, gaultherias, and other genera of its own 
order. 

Its culture, in this climate at least, has, from all accounts, 
proved rather difficult, so that it may be said to require special 
treatment; such, at any rate, has been my experience of it. 
Suitable soil, aspect, shelter, moisture, and position, all seem 
necessary for the well-doing of this plant. It deserves them all, 
and, let me add, they may all be easily afforded. The list of 
requirements may seem formidable on paper, but to put them into 
practice is but a trifling affair. My specimen is grown in leaf 
mould, a little loam mixed in with it, and fine charcoal instead 
of sand, but sand will answer nearly as well ; the aspect is east, 
it is sheltered from the west by a wall, the north by rhododen- 
drons, and the south by a tall andromeda. Moreover, its position 
is one that is sunken between small mounds, where moisture 
collects, and is never wanting ; and when the specimen was first 
planted a large sandstone was placed over its roots to further 
secure them against drought; under these conditions it has 
thriven and flowered well, and afforded many offshoots. I 
attribute its well-doing mainly to the sheltered aspect and even 
state of moisture, but doubtless all the conditions have helped 
its growth. Its propagation is best carried out by earthing up 
about the collar, so as to induce the branches to become rooted, 
or they may be pegged near the extremities like carnation 
layers, but they will be two years, probably, before they can be 
safely lifted. 

Flowering period, middle of March to end of April. 

Eranthis Hyemalis. 

Syn. HELLEBORTJS HYEMALIS; WINTER ACONITE; Nat. Ord. 

RANUNCTJLACE^. 

THIS, though well known and a general favourite, is not seen in 
the broad masses which ought to characterise its culture. 

It is nearly related to the Christmas roses, and, like them, 



92 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

flowers in winter, the bright golden blossoms suddenly appearing 
during sunshine close to the earth. A little later the involucrum 
becomes developed, and is no unimportant feature. It forms a 
dark green setting for the sessile flower, and is beautifully cut, 
like the Aconite. There are other and very interesting, traits 
about this little flower that will engage the study of botanists. 

It enjoys a moist soil, somewhat light; also a little shade. 
In such quarters not only do the tubers increase quickly, but 
the seed germinates, and if such positions are allowed it, and 
garden tools kept off , there will soon be a dense carpet of golden 
flowers to brighten the wintry aspect of the open garden. Many 
things in the way of deciduous flowering shrubs may be grown 
with them, their bareness in winter and shade during summer 
favouring their enjoyment and growth. Early in the summer 
they die down. From that time the tubers may be lifted and 
transplanted. Such work should be finished in early autumn, 
or the roots will not have time to establish themselves for the 
first winter's bloom. 

Flowering period, December to February. 

Erica Carnea. 

WINTER HEATH; Nat. Ord. ERICACEAE. 

A WELL-KNOWN, hardy, evergreen shrub, belonging to a genus 
comprising many hundreds of species and varieties, which, for 
the most part, however, are not hardy in this country, being 
natives of the Cape. The genus is most numerously and beauti- 
fully illustrated in Loddige's Botanical Cabinet. This might be 
thought to have no claim to consideration in this book, but 
I introduce it because of its great value in the spring garden, 
and because in all respects it may be cultivated like an ordinary 
border plant, which is saying a deal for one of the Heath family. 

Erica carnea comes to us from Germany, but it has so long 
been grown in this country that it would appear to have become 
naturalised in some parts. In the latter part of March it is to 
be seen in its full beauty ; the flowers are reddish-purple, abun- 
dantly produced on short leafy stems, and arranged in racemes, 
drooping; the foliage is of the well-known Heath type; the 
whole shrub has a procumbent habit, rarely growing more than 
a foot high ; its fine deep green foliage, compact habit, and 
bright enduring flowers are its chief recommendations; the 
latter often last six weeks in good form and colour, so that 
little more needs to be said in its praise. 

It can hardly be planted in a wrong position on rockwork, 
in borders, or shrubberies, fully exposed, or otherwise, it proves 
a cheerful object, whilst as an edging shrub it is second to none, 
excelling box by the additional charm of its flowers. Not long 
since I was struck by the way in which the common vinca had 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 93 

interlaced itself with a few bushes of this Heath, both being in 
full bloom at the same time ; the effect was truly fine, the red of 
the Heath and pale blue flowers of the periwinkle being so 
numerous and set on such a fine bright green carpet, of two 
distinct types of foliage, that to my mind they suggested a 
most pleasing form, of spring bedding, and also one of semi- 
wildness, which, for quiet beauty, more laboured planting could 
certainly not excel. Most Ericas require peaty soil ; in the case 
of this, however, it is not necessary. Doubtless it would do well 
in peat, but I have ever found it to thrive in ordinary loam or 
garden soil, so that I have never planted it otherwise, except 
where peat has been the most handy. It is also easily propa- 
gated, carrying, as it does, plenty of root as well as earth with 
each rooted stem ; these only need to be carefully divided and 
transplanted in showery weather, just before the new growths 
commence being the best time. An annual top dressing of leaf 
mould is very beneficial. 

Flowering period, February to April, 

Erigeron Caucasicus. 
CAUCASIAN FLEABANE ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
HERBACEOUS and perennial. This species is a somewhat 
recent introduction compared with some of the same genus 
which may be called old varieties, from having been introduced 
as early as 1633, as in the case of E. graveolens. Moreover, the 
genus is represented by such British species as E. acris, E. 
alpinus, and E. uniflorus. The variety now under notice is, as 
its specific name implies, a native of the Caucasus, first brought 
into this country about sixty years ago. It is a pleasing subject 
when in flower, and is certainly worth growing. 

Its daisy-shaped flowers are less than an inch across, and 
when fully matured of a rosy purple colour ; but, perhaps, the 
most interesting and attractive features about this plant are the 
various forms and colours of its flowers at their different stages 
of development ; just before opening, the buds are like minia- 
ture birds' nests formed of white horsehairs, all arranged in the 
same way, i.e., round the bud, but the points are turned into the 
centre these are the unexpanded florets; the next stage of 
development may be seen in buds, say, two days older, when a. 
few of the florets have sprung from the nest form, and have the 
appearance of mauve-coloured spiders' legs laid over the bud ; 
gradually they (being dense and numerous) expand in a similar 
manner, outgrowing their angularity, and at the same time 
deepening in colour, until at length we see the rosy-purple, daisy- 
shaped, and feathery flower with a yellowish centre. These 
pleasing flowers are borne in loose masses on stems nearly 2ft. 
high, and remain in bloom all the summer through. 



94 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

About the middle of August a large plant was divided, and 
the flowers were then cut away. The young stock so propagated 
were in flower in the following June. I may here appropriately 
name an experiment I tried on this species two years ago. It 
was sent to me as the dwarf Aster dumosus, which it much 
resembles in the leaves, these being spoon-shaped from the roots, 
the others tongue-shaped and stem-clasping, but rougher and 
lighter green. I also saw it was not woody enough in the stem 
for the Michaelmas daisy. It was then near flowering, and the 
winter was just upon us, so, in order to get the flowers out, I 
covered it with a bell glass, slightly tilted. It flowered, and 
continued to flower throughout the winter with such shelter, 
and doubtless many of our fine late-blooming perennials, by 
such simple contrivances, might have their flowers protected or 
produced at a much later date than otherwise. 

Flowering period, June to October. 

Erigeron Glaucum. 
Syn. CONYZA CHILENSIS; GLAUCOUS FLEABANE, or 

SPIKENARD; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

THIS very beautiful species is far from common. There are 
many facts in connection with it which render it of more than 
-ordinary value and interest. It is sometimes classed as an 
.alpine ; probably that is only an inference, or it may be so con- 
sidered by some, from its dwarf habit and suitable association 
with alpines. It is not an alpine ; it comes from South America, 
and though that climate differs so widely from ours, the plant 
grows and winters to perfection in this country. 

One of its main distinctions is its somewhat shrubby and 
evergreen character ; of the whole genus, so far as it is at present 
-comprehended, it is the only species with such traits ; its foliage, 
too, is of leathery substance, and compares oddly with the herb- 
like leaves of its relatives ; it is, moreover, as indicated by its 
specific name, of a glaucous hue; and otherwise, as may be 
seen in the following description, there exist well marked dis- 
similarities. But, what is of more importance, when viewed as 
a garden subject or an ornamental flower, it is one of the most 
useful as well as distinctly beautiful, as much from the fact 
that it produces its flowers in two crops, which extend over 
six or seven months of the year, as from their numbers and 
showiness. 

The flowers are nearly 2in. across the ray, the florets being of 
a pleasing lilac-purple, and rather short, owing to the large size 
of the disk, which is often nearly an inch in diameter ; this part 
of the flower is more than usually effective, as the disk florets 
become well developed in succession, when they have the appear- 
ance of being dusted with gold ; the scales, which are set on the 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 95 

swollen stem, are of a substantial character; the numerous 
imbricate parts, which are covered with long downy hairs point- 
ing downwards, give the body of the flower a somewhat bulky 
appearance. It will be observed that I have made no mention 
of the Conyza traits of divided ray florets and reflexed scales, 
simply because they do not exist in this species, and though 
there are other Conyza traits about the plant, notwithstanding 
its almost isolating distinctions from other Erigerons, it would 
seem to have more properly the latter name, and which is most 
often applied to it. The flower stems, which produce the flowers 
singly, seldom exceed a height of 12in. ; they are stout, round, 
and covered with soft hairs, somewhat bent downwards. They 
spring from the parts having new foliage, and for a portion 
about half of their length are furnished with small leaves, 
which differ from those on the non-floriferous parts of the 
shrub, inasmuch as they have no stalks. The leaves are pro- 
duced in compact tufts on the extremities of the old or woody 
parts of the shrub, which become procumbent in aged specimens ; 
the leaves vary in length from 2in. to 4in. long, and are roundly 
spoon-shaped, also slightly and distantly toothed, but only on 
the upper half ; they are stout, ribbed, clammy, and glaucous. 
The habit of the shrub is much branching, dense, and prostrate ; 
its foliage has a pleasant, mentha-like odour, and the flowers 
have a honey smell. 

This subject may occupy such positions as rockwork, borders 
of the shrubbery, or beds of " old-fashioned" flowers. Its flowers, 
being, as taste goes at the present time, of a desirable form, 
will prove very serviceable as cut bloom. A good loam suits it 
to perfection, and no flower will better repay a good mulching 
of rotten manure. Its propagation, though easy, is somewhat 
special, inasmuch as its woody parts are stick-like and bare of 
roots, until followed down to a considerable depth, therefore the 
better plan is either to take advantage of its prostrate habit by 
pegging and embedding its branches, or, as I have mostly done, 
take cuttings with a part of the previous season's wood to them, 
put them well down in deeply-dug light soil, and make them 
firm. If this plan is followed, it should be done during the 
summer, so that the cuttings will have time to root before winter 
sets in. The layering may be done any time, but if in spring or 
summer, rooted plants will be ready for the following season. 

This subject begins to flower in June, and, as already hinted, 
it produces two crops of flowers ; the first are from the parts 
which have been green and leafy through the winter, the second 
from the more numerous growths of the new season, and which 
are grandly in bloom in August ; not only are the latter more 
effective as regards numbers and colour, but the fuller habit or 
more luxuriant condition of the shrub render the specimens 
more effective in late summer. 



96 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



Eryngium Giganteum. 

GREAT ERYNGO; Nat. Ord. UMBELLIFER^. 
THIS hardy species was brought from the Caucasus in 1820. 
The genus, though not commonly patronised as garden subjects, 
are, nevertheless, highly ornamental, and when well grown 
much admired. Specimens are of various heights, according to 
position and nature of the soil ; under ordinary conditions they 
will be 2ft. to 3ft. high at the blooming period. 

As will be inferred from the order to which the Eryngium 




FIG. 37. ERYNGIUM GIGANTEUM. 
(One-tenth natural size.) 



belongs, the flowers are aggregate, of a changeable blue, and 
arranged in cone-shaped heads liin. long ; the heads are neatly 
embraced by an ample bract of prickly leaves ; the main flower 
stem is well and evenly branched (see Fig. 37), each node being 
furnished with leaves which clasp the stems ; they are, like those 
of the flower bract, deeply cut and prickly ; the radical leaves are 
very different, long stalked, large heart-shaped and toothed, of 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 97 

good substance and a glossy green colour. The whole plant has 
a rather stiff appearance, the flower stems, together with the 
stem leaves, are of a pleasing hue, nearly the colour of blue note 
paper; this is characteristic of several of the genus, and adds 
greatly to their effect. Specimens look well with a grassy fore- 
ground or in borders. 

Their culture is easy, provided the soil is of a light nature ; a 
sunny position is needful, in order to have the tops well coloured. 
Propagate by division of strong and healthy clumps when 
dormant. Wireworm and grub are fond of the roots ; when the 
plants appear sickly, these pests should be looked for. 

Flowering period, August and September. 

Erysimum Pumilum. 

FAIRY WALLFLOWER, or DWARF TREACLE-MUSTARD ; 

Nat. Ord. CRUCIFER^:. 

ONE of the alpine gems of our rock gardens, not in the sense 
of its rarity, because it grows and increases fast. It came 
from Switzerland about sixty years ago, and for a long time was 
esteemed as a biennial, but it is more it is perennial and ever- 
green ; at any rate its new branches take root, and so its peren- 
nial quality is established. Let the reader imagine a shrub, Sin. 
high, much branched, and densely furnished with pale green 
foliage, which hides all its woody parts, forming itself into 
cushions, more or less dotted over with minute canary-yellow 
flowers, and he will then only have a poor idea of the beauty of 
this pretty alpine. It flowers in summer, autumn, and winter,, 
and in certain positions both its habit and flowers show to most 
advantage at the latter season. At no other time during the 
year have my specimens looked so fresh and beautiful as in 
January. This I have proved repeatedly to be the result of posi- 
tion, shortly to be explained. 

The flowers are produced in terminal racemes, are scarcely ^itu 
across, cruciform in the way of the Wallflower, greenish-yellow, 
and delicately scented. The leaves vary in shape on the various 
parts of the branches, some being lance- shaped and others nearly 
spoon-shaped ; the lower ones being all but entire, and the upper 
ones, which are arranged in rosettes, distinctly toothed. They 
seldom exceed an inch in length, more often they are only half 
that size, but much depends on the position and soil. In summer 
the foliage is greyish- green ; later it is almost a bright or clear 
green, the latter being its present colour. The habit is branching 
and compact, by which it adapts itself to crevices and uneven 
parts in a pleasing manner; and not only does it best adorn 
such places, but from the fact of their dryness, they are better 
suited to the requirements of this little shrub. 

A sandy loam, such as will not bake, suits, and if mixed with a 

H 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

few stones all the better this will be found ample food for it ; 
poor soil and a dry situation grow this subject in its finest 
form. I may perhaps usefully give the method by which my 
specimen is grown, after experimenting with it in various parts 
of the garden, and also the substance of a few notes I made of 
it. In pots the fine roots soon formed a matted coat next the 
sides, when the foliage would turn sickly and yellow, so that, 
useful as the practice is of growing alpines in pots, it does 
not answer in this case. On rockwork, in vegetable soil, this low 
shrub grew taller, being less woody, and was killed by severe 
weather. On the flat, in borders, in rich soil, it did well for a 
season, then damped off, a branch or two together. On the flat, 
in sand alone, it does well, also on the top of a wall, such being a 
position especially provided for hardy sempervivums and a few 
cacti. A bit of the Fairy Wallflower was tried there in a thin 
layer of sandy loam, and for two years my finest specimen has 
occupied that position, flowering more or less throughout the 
winter. Where there are old walls or rockwork it should be 
introduced. A ready and effective way of planting it is to get a 
sod of grass 3in. thick ; measure with the eye the size of the 
interstice in the side of a wall, partly cut through the sod on the 
earthy side, open it by bending, and insert the roots of a small 
specimen ; close up, and cram the planted sod tightly into the 
selected opening. In one season the shrub so planted will have 
a snug and pretty appearance. It is self -propagating, from the 
fact of its lower branches rooting where they touch the soil. 
These may be taken any time and planted separately. 
Flowering period, April to winter. 



Erythronium Dens-canis. 

DOG'S-TOOTH VIOLET; Nat. Ord. 
A HARDY bulbous perennial. There are several varieties of this 
species, and all are very handsome. 

The variety shown at Fig. 38 is the large white-flowering kind ; 
others have yellow, pale purple, and lilac-coloured blooms. All 
are produced singly on stems 4in. or Sin. long, and gracefully 
bending. During bright weather the divisions of the lily-like 
flowers become reflexed and otherwise show themselves to advan- 
tage. Their foliage forms a rich setting for the flowers, being 
variously coloured with red, brown, and different shades of 
green, all charmingly blended or marbled. The leaves are broad 
and oval, and open out flatly, so that their beauties can be well 
seen ; if they are grown amongst the very dwarf sedums or 
mosses, they look all the better and are preserved from splashes. 
Two leaves, one stem, one flower, and one bulb constitute a whole 
plant; both flowers and foliage remain in beauty for a long 
time. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 99 

I have them growing in various positions and soils, and I think 
they most enjoy a vegetable mould, with full exposure to the 
sun, but they should not lack moisture ; they seem to increase 




Fia. 38. ERYTHRONITJM DENS-CANIS. 
(Large white variety. One-half natural size.) 

more i*apidly in peat than in any other compost. They should 
not be disturbed more than necessary, and when they are, 
autumn is the best time to transplant. 
Flowering period, March and April. 

Euonymus Japonicus Radicans Variegata. 

VARIEGATED ROOTING SPINDLE TREE ; 

Nat. Ord. CELASTRACEJE. 

IT is probable that the genus Euonymus is more generally known 
than that of Celastrus, from which the order takes its name ; 

H2 



100 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

besides, the latter is composed of unfamiliar genera, so it is more 
likely that the reader will not care about any reference to them ; 
it may concern him more to know that the above somewhat 
long name belongs to a very dwarf hardy evergreen shrub, having 
a neat habit and very beautiful foliage. This variety is one of 
many forms which come under the name E. japonicus, none 
of which, however, have long been cultivated in this country, 
the date of the introduction of the type being 1804. The genus 
is remarkable for the number of its species having ornamental 
foliage, and not less so, perhaps, for the insignificance of their 
flowers. The species under notice (E. japonicus} in cultivation 
has proved sportive, which habit has been taken advantage of, 
whence the numerous forms, including the one I have selected 
for these remarks. Some of the Spindle Trees do not flower in 
this climate, and others, which do, produce no seed ; these facts 
are in connection with the more finely leaf -marked sorts, and it 
may be inferred that such unfruitfulness arises from their 
hybrid nature or abnormal tendency, as seen in " sports." 

The typical form is a tree growing 20ft. high, producing 
small white flowers, but of the variegated kind under notice 
established specimens have ever failed to show the least sign 
of flowering, though, otherwise well developed and of good 
habit. The leaves are nearly oval, |in. to l|in. long, sometimes 
oblong, sharply serrulated, of stout leathery substance, smooth, 
and much variegated in colour. The markings are mostly on 
and near the edges, and take the form of lines and marblings. 
The tints are a mixture of white, yellow, and pink, inclining to 
purple; these are variously disposed on a dark green ground. 
The arrangement of the leaves is crowded and panicled on the 
recent shoots, which are twice and thrice branched ; from the 
shortness and twisted shape of the leaf stalks, the branchlets 
have a compressed appearance. The old stems are round, wiry, 
9in. to 18in. long, prostrate, and emit roots like the ivy when 
they come in contact with suitable surfaces, whence the name 
" radicans." The habit of the shrub, from its dense and flat- 
tened foliage, fine colour, and persistent nature, together with 
its dwarfness and rooting faculty, all go to render it one of the 
finest rock shrubs for winter effect. The wetness of our climate 
only seems to make it all the brighter, and it is also without 
that undesirable habit of rooting and spreading immoderately. 

It enjoys a sunny situation and enriched sandy loam. Where 
such conditions exist it may be planted with good effect as a 
permanent edging to walks or beds ; as such it may be clipped 
once or twice a year, but I may add that it is worth the extra 
time required for pruning with a knife, as then the leaves are 
not cut in two and the outline is left less formal. By such treat- 
ment the foliage is kept thick to the base of the shrub. The 
summer prunings may be pricked into sandy loam in a shady 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 101 

part, where they will root and become useful stock for the fol- 
lowing spring, or strong examples may be pulled to pieces of 
the desired size. 

Festuca Glauca. 

BLUE GRASS ; Nat. Ord. GRAMINE^}. 

THIS comes from the warm climate of Southern Europe, but is 
a perfectly hardy grass in this country ; it is highly ornamental, 
irrespective of its flowers, and is useful in several ways. With me 
it is grown somewhat largely, and both professional and amateur 
gardeners have quickly appreciated its effectiveness, but it has 
been amusing to see their want of faith when told that " it 
stands out all winter." It belongs to a section of grasses of fine 
quality as fodder for cattle, all enjoying good soil of a light and 
rich nature. Its main features as a garden subject are its dis- 
tinct blue colour and dense graceful habit ; these qualities, how- 
ever, are greatly dependent on the quality of soil, which must be 
positively rich. Its bloom is of no value ornamentally, being 
much like that of some of our common meadow grasses, and it 
will be as well to remove it in order that the grass may be all the 
brighter and more luxuriant. The blades, if they can be so 
called, are reed-like, but very fine, 6in. to 12in. long, densely 
produced, and gracefully bending. The glaucous quality is most 
pronounced, and quite justifies the common name Blue Grass. 
More need not be said to show that this must be effective in a 
garden, especially where bedding and the formation of bold lines 
are carried out ; as single tufts, on rockwork, or in the borders, 
it looks well ; whilst as an edging to taller grasses and bamboos 
it shows all to advantage. It is also often grown in pots in 
greenhouses, where it proves useful for drooping over the edges 
of the stage ; but if it once obtains a place in the garden and is 
well grown, the amateur will see in it a suitable subject for many 
and varied uses. 

Wherever it is planted the soil should be made sandy and fat 
with manure ; in this the long roots are not only warmer, but 
they amply support a rapid growth and metallic lustre. As the 
roots can easily be lifted from the light soil without damage, 
this grass may be divided any time when increase is needful. 

Flowering period, summer. 



Fritillaria Armena. 

Nat. Ord. LILIACE^E. 

A CHARMING little hardy bulbous perennial, which, although 
as yet a comparative stranger in this country, bids fair to find 
a place not only in our gardens, but in the list of the choicest 
spring favourites, such as lily of the valley, snowdrops, snowflake, 



102 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



and squills, being of the same or nearly allied order, as well as 
of corresponding stature. Its yellow flowers, too, highly com- 
mend it, as, with the exception of the yellow crocus, we have not 
a very dwarf spring flower of the kind, and, as may be seen 

by the illustration (Fig. 39), it differs 
, widely from the crocus in every way. 

This is a really charming species ; 
its dark yellow flowers are large for 
so small a plant, being more than 
an inch across when expanded by 
sunshine, but its more common 
form is bell- shape ; one, and some- 
times more flowers are produced on 
the upright, smooth, leafy stem, 
which is less than Gin. high. The 
leaves are alternate linear, sharply 
pointed, smooth, and glaucous. 
Such dwarf flowers always show to 
most advantage, as well as keep 
cleaner, where carpeted with suit- 
able vegetation; the dark green 
Herniaria glabra would be perfec- 
tion for this glaucous plant. 

It seems happy where growing 
fully exposed in ordinary garden 

soil, but it is not unlikely that it may require more shade, in 
common with other Fritillaries, for, as before hinted, it is yet 
in its trial stage. I am, however, pretty certain of its hardiness, 
but not about the best mode of culture and propagation. 
Flowering period, April and May. 

Funkia Albo-marginata. 

Common Name, WHITE-EDGED PLANTING-LEAVED LILY 
Nat. Ord. 




. 39. FKITILLAKIA ARMENA. 
(One-half natural size.) 



A HARDY herbaceous perennial from Japan, of but recent intro- 
duction, than which there are few more useful subjects to be 
found in our gardens. It combines with its wealth of foliage a 
bold spike of pleasing lilac flowers, the former, as implied by the 
specific name, being edged with a white line, which is broad and 
constant, this quality being all the more commendable from the 
fact that many variegations are anything but reliable. Speaking 
of this as a decorative plant for the garden, it may be said to be 
one of the best ; however placed, it has a neatness and beauty 
which are characteristic, especially when used in lines, and has 
become well established ; from early spring, when the fresh young 
leaves appear, until the autumn is well advanced, this plant 
upholds a fine appearance independent of its flowers ; they are, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 103 

however, not wanting in beauty, produced as they are on stems 
nearly 2ft. high, and nude with the exception of one or two very 
small leaves. The floral part of the stem will be 8in. or more in 
length; the flowers are numerous, 2in. long, trumpet-shaped, 
drooping, and so arranged that all fall in one direction; the 
colour is lilac, with stripes of purple and white ; each flower is 
supported by a bract, which, like the foliage, is margined with 
white. The leaves are Gin. to Sin. long, oval-lanceolate, waved 
and ribbed, of a dark green colour, margined with white ; the 
leaf stalks are stout, Gin. long, and broadly channelled. 
Flowering period, June to August, 

Funkia Sieboldii. 

SIEBOLD'S PLANTING-LEAVED LILY; Nat. Ord. LILIACE.&. 
THIS is a grand plant ; the lily-like flowers alone are sufficient 
to commend it, but when we have them springing from such a 
glorious mass of luxuriant and beautiful foliage, disposed with a 
charming neatness rarely equalled, they are additionally effective. 
The illustration (Fig. 40) gives a fair idea of the form and 
dimensions of a specimen three years ago cut from the parent 
plant, when it would not have more than two or three crowns, so 
it may be described as very vigorous ; and, as if its beauties 
were not sufficiently amplified by flowers and form of foliage, the 
whole plant is of a rich glaucous hue, rendering it still more 
conspicuous and distinct. It is herbaceous and perfectly hardy, 
though it comes from the much warmer climate of Japan, whence 
are all the species of Funkia. It is a comparatively new plant in 
English gardens, having been introduced into this country only 
about fifty years ; still, it is pretty widely distributed, thanks, 
doubtless, to its exceptionally fine qualities. I know no plant 
more capable of improvement as regards size than this; if set in 
rich deep soil, it will in a few years grow to an enormous speci- 
men. One so treated in my garden is 4ft. to 5ft. in diameter, 
and about the same height when the flower-stems are fully 
developed. I should, however, add that this is an unusual 
size, but it, neverthelesss, indicates what may be done by high 
culture. 

The flowers are produced on nude stems, 2ft. or 4ft. high, 
being arranged in somewhat short and irregular one-sided spikes ; 
they spring singly from the axils of rather long bracts (see 
Fig. 40) and have long bending pedicels, which, cause the flowers to 
hang bell fashion ; their colour is a soft pale lilac, nearly white. 
Size, lin. to 2in. long, and bell or trumpet shaped. They are of 
good substance, and last a long time in fine form. The leaves 
have radical stalks, nearly 2ft. long in well-grown specimens, 
gracefully bending and deeply channelled ; they are from Sin. to 
12in. long, and about half as wide, long heart-shaped, somewhat 



104 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



hooded, waved, distinctly ribbed, and evenly wrinkled ; glaucous 
and leathery. The outer foliage is so disposed that the tips touch 
the ground ; it is abundantly produced, forming massive tufts. 




FlG. 40. FT7NKIA SlEBOLDII. 

(One-eighth natural size.) 



The long fleshy roots denote its love of a deep soil; a moist but 
well-drained situation suits it, and manure may be used both 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 105 

dug in and as a top dressing with marked advantage. The 
natural beauty of this subject fits it for any position the lawn, 
shrubbery, borders, beds, or rockwork can all be additionally 
beautified by its noble form ; grown in pots, it becomes an effec- 
tive plant for the table or conservatory. The flowers in a cut 
state are quaint and graceful, and the leaves are even more useful ; 
these may be cut with long stalks and stood in vases in twos and 
threes without any other dressing, or, when desired, a few large 
flowers may be added for a change, such as a panicle of Spiraea 
aruncus, a large sunflower, or a spike or two of gladioli. Leaves 
so cut may be used for weeks; after they have become dusty they 
may be sponged, when they will appear fresh, like new-cut ones. 

In the propagation of this plant certain rules should be ob- 
served, otherwise the stock of young plants will prove stunted 
and bad in colour. Do not divide any but strong and healthy 
clumps, taking care not to damage more roots than can be 
helped ; do not divide too severely, but let each part be a strong 
piece of several crowns, and after this they should be allowed to 
make three years' growth in a good, rich, deep soil before they 
are again disturbed, and thereby the stock will not only be of a 
vigorous character, but always fit for use in the most decorative 
parts of the garden. 

Flowering period, July to September. 



Galanthus Elwesii. 

ELWES'S GALANTHUS or SNOWDROP ; Nat. Ord. 
AMARYLLIDACE^]. 

THIS is a splendid species or variety, whichever it may be, said 
to be the finest of all the Snowdrops ; it is a new kind and not 
yet much known. My impressions of it last spring were not in 
accordance with such reports, but I ought to add that, though the 
bulbs were fresh when sent me, they had only been planted less 
than a year, when they flowered somewhat feebly. 

Flowering period, February and March. 

All the Snowdrops may be propagated by seed or division of 
crowded clumps after all the tops have died off is the proper 
time ; the longer the delay, the worse for next season's bloom, as 
new root action sets in about that period. 

Galanthus Imperati. 
IMPERIAL SNOWDROP ; Nat. Ord. AMARYLLIDACE^C. 

I HAVE only recently flowered this kind. It is said by Mr. W. 
Robinson to be double the size of G. nivalis, which estimate is 
probably correct, judging from the blooms which I have ob- 
tained. With me the bulbs seem either not to have a. happy 



106 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



home, or they may have suffered from the vicissitudes of trans- 
port from the genial climate of Italy. The publisher of this 
book informs me that he flowered G. imperati the first year 
in the open borders, from some bulbs procured from Messrs. 
Collins Bros., and that the blossoms were highly scented, as of 
elder flowers. 

Flowering period, February and March. 



Galanthus Nivalis. 

COMMON SNOWDROP, EARLY BULBOTJS VIOLET, and FAIR 
MAIDS OF FEBRUARY ; Nat. Ord. AMARYLLIDACEJE. 

ONE of the most charming members of the British flora ; a 
native of our fields and orchards, so beautiful as to be beyond 
description, and, fortunately, so common as to need none (see 
Fig. 41). It belongs to a noble order of bulbous plants, the 




FIG. 41. GALANTHUS NIVALIS. 
(One-half natural size.) 



genera of which are numerous, as are the species too, in perhaps 
an increased proportion. Comparatively few are hardy in our 
climate, and very few indeed are natives of this country, so that 
in this respect the Snowdrop, if not a rare flower, is a rare repre- 
sentative in our flora of the order Amaryllidacece. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 107 

It may be useful to give a few of the better-known genera to- 
which Galanthus is so nearly related : Amaryllis, Nerine, 
Crinum, Vallota, Pancratium, Alstrcemeria, and Narcissus. The 
last-named genus is more nearly allied than any of the other 
genera mentioned ; not only does it resemble the Galanthus in 
style, early period of bloom, and habit of becoming double, but 
also for the general hardiness of its species, a feature not usual 
in their order. 

The literal meaning of the generic name is " Milk Flower." 
The title with such a pleasing reference was given by Linnaeus. 
The specific name meaning white may, for two reasons, seem 
unnecessary ; first, because milk is white, and again, because no 
other than white-flowered species are known. All the three 
common names are happy ones : " Snowdrop" and " Fair Maids 
of February " are appropriate both to the season and a pretty 
flower; "Bulbous Violet " pleasantly alludes to its sweetness; 
all are poetical, as if this lovely flower had the same effect on the 
different minds of those (including LinnaBus) who first gave 
them. A dropped name for the Snowdrop was that of " Gillo- 
flower " ; Theophrastus, the father of natural history, gave it the 
name of "Yiolet" (Viola alba or V. bulbosa) that would be 
2100 years ago! The bulbs should be planted by thousands; 
they will grow anywhere and in any kind of soil ; the demand 
for their blossom is ever increasing, and Snowdrops, as 
everybody knows, are always in place, on the grass, border, or 
window sill, or for table; they may be used as emblems of 
either grief or joy ; they are sweetly pure and attractive, without 
showiness. 

Flowering period, February to April. 

Galanthus Plicatus. 

FOLDED GALANTHUS ; Nat. Ord. AMARYLLIDACE^:. 
A SPECIES from the Crimea; compared with our native kind, 
it is larger in the grass, having also other, but very slight, 
points of difference. The main one is implied by its name, 
" plicatus," or folded ; its leaves are furrowed, which causes it to 
have a folded appearance. 

Culture and flowering period, the same as for the other 
species. 

Galanthus Redoutei. 
REDOUTE'S GALANTHUS ; Nat. Ord. AMARYLLIDACE^. 

THIS is by far the most distinct form, having broad grass-green 
foliage. It is somewhat late in flowering (during March and 
April), and not so free as others. 



108 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



Galax Aphylla. 

Syn. BLANDFORDIA CORDATA ; HEART-LEAVED GALAX ; 
Nat. Ord. PYROLACE^. 

NEARLY 100 years ago this charming little plant was imported 
from North America; still, it is rarely seen, notwithstanding 
that rock-gardens have long been popular. On rockwork it not 
only thrives well, but appears to great advantage. No rock- 
garden should be without it. It is a rare and beautiful subject, 
remarkably distinct and pleasing; it is perfectly hardy, also 




FIG. 42. GALAX APHYLLA. 
(One-sixth natural size; 1, natural size.) 



perennial and herbaceous ; but its last-named characteristic 
should be qualified, inasmuch as the old leaves remain in good 
form and colour until long after the new ones are fully grown, 
so that there are always two sets of foliage. Viewed in this 
light, it may be called an evergreen plant ; moreover, it is one of 
those plants which the artist can scarcely do justice to, for 
though the illustration (Fig. 42) depicts faithfully its neat habit 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 109 

and handsome foliage, the living plant makes a better impres- 
sion. I said it was rare, but this is less in the sense of scarcity 
than because it is little known and seldom seen ; it is also quite 
distinct from any other plant, and the only species of the 
genus. 

Its milk-white flowers, which, though very simple, are richly 
effective, are produced on tall, nude stems, 18in. high, round, 
wiry, and nearly amber-coloured. They are arranged in a dense 
spike, 6in. to 8in. long. ; the corolla is ^in. across, and composed 
of five petals ; the calyx has a short tube and five sepals ; the 
leaves are heart-shaped, nearly round, evenly toothed, and some- 
times glandular; of leathery substance, and somewhat stiff, 
smooth, shining, and richly veined or nerved. The leaves of 
various ages differ in colour ; the old ones are dark green, con- 
spicuously reticulated ; the new, but perfectly-developed ones, are 
pale green, with a ray of yellowish-green next the edges ; the 
growing ones are nearly red, and all the serrated edges are 
hemmed with a nearly scarlet line, always brightest at the points 
of the teeth. This finely-tinted foliage is elegantly disposed by 
means of the stalks, which bend in various ways ; they vary in 
length from 4in. to 8in., and are all radical ; they are round, 
wiry, and once grooved. The bloom lasts for several weeks in 
good form, and the foliage is always beautiful, more especially in 
the autumn, when it glows like polished mahogany. Such a 
plant can hardly fail to please when well grown, but it must be 
so developed. 

This lovely plant certainly requires a little special treatment, 
but that is easy and simple ; in fact, it scarcely can be called 
special. It may be put in a few words damp, but not sour 
vegetable soil, and very slight shade. My specimen, from 
which the drawing was taken, is growing in a little dip at the 
base of a small rockery, below the level of the walk, which acts as 
a watershed ; the soil is nearly all leaf mould a small portion 
of loam, and I ought to add that there is a moderate quantity of 
small charcoal incorporated with it, which will doubtless assist 
in keeping the soil sweet. There cannot, therefore, be much 
difficulty in setting up these conditions ; the charcoal may not 
be necessary, but an annual top-dressing with it will meet the 
case of such plants as grow in low damp situations. The propa- 
gation of this species is very easy in the case of well-grown 
clumps, which, when dug up in the autumn and thoroughly 
shaken, will come asunder into many small and well-rooted 
crowns ; these only require to be replanted separately, under 
similar conditions to those by which they were produced. No 
attempt should be made to divide other than perfectly healthy 
clumps. 

Flowering period, July and August. 



110 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Galega Officinalis. 

OFFICINAL GOAT'S-RUE ; Nat. Ord. LEGUMINOS^E. 
A GRAND "old-fashioned" flower. It is 314 years since this plant 
was brought from Spain; it is perfectly hardy and herbaceous. 
Both it and its varieties are among the most useful subjects of 
the flower garden ; they grow to shrub-like bushes, have elegant 
foliage, and an abundance of bloom, which continues until late 
autumn. Specimens have a clean and healthy appearance, and 
though they grow to the height of 4ft., they give no trouble, 
requiring neither tying nor supports. From their large quantities 
of flowers they are exceedingly gay ; but it is for the handsome 
stems in a cut state that they should be most prized. These, cut 
18in. long, and placed singly in pots or vases, are truly noble, 
more especially by gaslight. 

As will be inferred from the order to which Galega belongs, 
the flowers are pea-flower-shaped, about |in. or more long, and 
the same broad. They are of a pleasing, but undecided blue 
.colour, arranged in long conical racemes, on stout, round stalks, 
.as long as the leaves, which are pinnate, having a terminal odd 
one. The leaflets are evenly arranged in pairs, mostly in six 
pairs ; they are each about 2in. long, lance-shaped, mucronate, 
entire, smooth, and glaucous. The floriferous character of the 
plant may be inferred from the fact that, after the raceme fades, 
there pushes from the axil a peduncle, which, in a short time, 
produces many other recemes. 

G. o. alba, a variety of the above, grows 4ft. high, and is an 
abundant bloomer; flowers superb for cutting purposes. For 
.culture, see G. Persica lilacina. 

Flowering period, July to September. 

Galega Persica Lilacina. 

Nat. Ord. LEGUMINOS^E. 

THIS is a lovely species of Galega imported little more than fifty 
years ago from Persia. Perfectly hardy; in general form it 
corresponds with G. officinalis. The following are its distinc- 
tions : More dense racemes of lilac flowers, a foot less tall, 
leaflets shorter and broader in fact, oval, oblong, somewhat 
twisted or edged up in the arrangement, and often without the 
terminal leaflet. 

The above Goafs-rues are of the simplest culture ; they will do 
in any soil, but if they are liberally treated they will repay it. A 
fat loam and sunny situation are what they delight in. They 
may remain year after year in one position, but I find them to do 
better in eveiy way if they are divided the second year ; it should 
be done in summer, so that they can make a little growth in 
vtheir new quarters before winter sets in. In order to carry out 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. Ill 

this, the older plants (I divide half my stock one year, the other 
half the year following) should be cut over near the ground, 
though they may be in full bloom. Divide the roots into several 
strong pieces, and replant them in soil deeply dug and where 
they are intended to flower ; they will bloom finely the following 
season. 
Flowering period, July to September. 



Gentiana Acaulis. 

GENTIANELLA; Nat. Ord. GENTIANACE^. 

A HARDY, evergreen creeper, its creeping stems running imme- 
diately under the surface. This is a remarkably beautiful plant, 
and the wonder is that it is not grown in every garden. The 
most attractive features, when in flower, of this dwarf Gentian 
are its immensely large blooms and neat shining green foliage 
{see Fig. 43). It is easily identified, there being not another 




FIG. 43. GENTIANA ACAULIS. 
(One-fourth natural size.) 

species like it, and certainly very few to equal it for beauty and 
service ; it forms one of the best edgings for beds and borders. 
Many report that it is difficult to grow, which may be the case in 
some gardens from one cause or other, whilst in many places it 
runs like quick-grass. 

Flowers, dark bright blue, large, long bell-shaped, but not 
drooping ; tube, five-angular, nearly Sin. long ; corolla, five-limbed, 
and an inch or more wide ; the stems are seldom more than Sin. 
long, square, furnished with small opposite leaves, and termi- 
nated with one flower on each. That part of the foliage which 
sends up the flower is arranged in rosette form, the leaves being 
stout, flat, and acutely lance- shaped. Anywhere or everywhere 
may this subject be planted ; it is always bright, even in winter, 



112 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

and when there are no flowers upon it it forms a rich covering- 
for the otherwise bare ground ; its blooms will each keep good a 
week. They are rarely produced in great numbers at one time, 
but the plants will continue for a long while to yield them 
sparingly. 

I find G. acaulis to thrive well at the base of rockwork, as an 
edging to a flat bed, and in the gutters of the garden walks 
it likes moisture. To me this is clearly proved by other plants, 
which, in all respects but one, are treated the same, the excep- 
tional condition being that they are planted on the sloping face 
of rockwork, where they scarcely grow and never bloom. With 
reference to soil, rich or silky loam is best for it, but any kind, if 
sweet and retentive, will do Its propagation may be effected by 
division of the rooted creeping stems after they have made four 
leaves. Yery early in spring is a good time to do this, but 
neither these nor the old plant, if it has been much disturbed, 
will flower the same season after being so mutilated. 

Flowering period, May to July. 

Gentiana Asclepiadea. 

SWALLOW-WORT-LEAVED GENTIAN; Nat. Ord. GrENTIANACE^. 

A TALL and beautiful alpine species from Austria, very hardy 
and herbaceous. It has long had a place in English gardens 
fully 250 years and is described by Parkinson in his " Paradise 
of Flowers." The tall stems are very showy, having an abund- 
ance of shining dark green foliage, amongst which nestle the 
large and bright purple-blue flowers ; it is a subject that looks 
well at a distance, and, as a rule, flowers with that quality are of 
the greatest value for borders and cutting purposes. 

It grows nearly 2f fc. high ; the stems are round, erect, short- 
jointed, and very leafy ; the flowers are produced on a third of 
their length, they are stalkless, and spring from the axils of the 
leaves in pairs ; the calyx is ^in. long, tubular, angled, and having 
fang-shaped segments ; the corolla is also tubular and angled, 
somewhat bellied, the divisions being deeply cut and reflexed ; 
the whole flower will be fully l^in. long. The inside of the 
corolla is striped with white and various shades of blue and 
purple. The leaves are 2in. long, oval, lance-shaped, distinctly 
ribbed, somewhat lobed at the base, and stem-clasping, which 
gives the pair of leaves a joined or perfoliate appearance ; the 
nodes are short, or near together, the lower ones being the more 
distant, where also the leaves are much smaller ; the foliage is 
a glossy dark green colour, the whole plant having a sombre 
but rich effect. 

From the fact that the long stems are top-heavy and of a 
brittle character, a sheltered position should be given to this 
plant, or the wind will snap them off. It ought not to have 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 113 

stakes, as they would mar its good form. A fat loam and a moist 
situation will suit this Gentian to perfection, and it may be 
planted with other strong herbaceous things in the borders, 
where it should be allowed to grow to large specimens. It is one 
of the quickest growers of its genus, few species of which can be 
grown in too large quantities. When it is needful to increase 
this subject, it may be done more readily than the propagation of 
some Gentians the roots are more easily separated. It should, 
however, be carefully done, and early spring is the best time ; or 
if the autumn should be a dry season and the tops die off early, 
it may be done then. 

Flowering period, July and August. 

Gentiana Burseri. 

BTJRSER'S GENTIAN; Nat. Ord. GENTIANACE^E. 
A HARDY perennial species, of a bold but neat habit, while the 
flowers and foliage combine in rendering it a first-class decora- 
tive subject. It is a recent introduction, having been brought 
from the Pyrenees in 1820 ; it is seldom seen in flower gardens, 
where it certainly deserves to be. 

Its flowers are not brilliant, but they are effective from their 
size, number, and persistency ; they are produced in whorls on 
stout round stems 18in. high, but only on the three or four upper 
joints. Each flower is Ifin. long, lemon-yellow, tubular, angu- 
lar, having four to six segments, widely separated, and furnished 
with a membrane at each separation. The segments, and also 
the tube, are dotted with dark brown spots; each flower is 
tightly folded in a somewhat one-sided membranous calyx and 
borne erect. They occur in pairs mostly, but with several pairs 
in a whorl. They have very short pedicels, and the whorl is sup- 
ported by a bract of stem-clasping leaves, cupped, and variously 
shaped, as ovate and beaked ; there are also supplementary 
bracteoles. The leaves of the root very much resemble the 
plantain leaf, also that of G. lutea, having longish ribbed and 
grooved petioles or stalks ; they are 5in. to 6in. long, and over 
3in. broad, egg-shaped, entire, veined longitudinally, and slightly 
wrinkled ; they are of a dark green colour, shining, and of good 
substance. The leaves of the stems, as already stated, are stem- 
clasping, and differ in shape. The flowers keep in good form for 
two or three weeks, and otherwise this rigid bright-foliaged 
Gentian proves very ornamental. 

I find it to do well in vegetable soil in a moist quarter. 
Most of the members of this genus enjoy plenty of moisture 
at their roots, and this specimen is no exception. A flat stone 
will form a good substitute for a damp situation if placed 
over the roots ; besides, such a method of growing this and 
others of the tall Gentians will allow of their being planted on 

I 



114 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

rockwork, or otherwise, near the more frequented walks, where 
they must always prove pleasing from their bold and shining 
foliage, to say nothing of their striking flowers. The propaga- 
tion of this species should be effected by division of the roots, 
which are very strong. Each crown should have as much of the 
more fibrous roots retained as possible, and the parts to be severed 
should be cut with a very sharp knife; it also ripens seed 
plentifully. 

Flowering period, June to August. 

Gentiana Cruciata. 

CROSS-LEAVED GENTIAN ; Nat. Ord. GENTIANACE^. 
AN interesting species from Austria, and one of the " old- 
fashioned " plants of English gardens, having been cultivated in 
this country for nearly 300 years. Gerarde gives a faithful and 
full description of it, which I will quote : " Crossewoort Gentian 
hath many ribbed leaues spred upon the ground, like unto the 
leaues of sopewroot, but of a blacker green colour ; among which 
rise vp weak iointed stalks, trailing or leaning towarde the 
grounde. The flowers growe at the top in bundels, thicke thrust 
togither, like those of sweete Williams, of a light blew colour. 
The roote is thicke, and creepeth in the grounde f arre abroade, 
whereby it greatly increaseth." Its height seldom exceeds lOin., 
and it is to be commended because it is one of the Gentians that 
are easily grown, and is handsome withal. It may be planted in 
either vegetable or loamy soil the common border seems to suit 
it ; it spreads much faster than any of the other Gentians I know, 
with the exception of G. acaulis, and it is in broad masses one 
sees it to greatest advantage. Propagated by division any time. 
Flowering period, June and July. 

Gentiana Gelida. 

ICE-COLD GENTIAN ; Nat. Ord. GENTIANACEJE. 
THIS species comes from Siberia, and has been grown in this 
country for nearly eighty years. It is a very beautiful species, 
the whole plant being handsome ; it grows nearly a foot high. 

The flowers are produced in terminal clusters, one large flower 
being surrounded by a whorl of smaller ones ; they are of a rich 
purplish-blue inside the corolla, which is rotate ; the segments 
(mitre-shaped) and the spaces between are prettily furnished 
with a feathery fringe ; the wide tube is also finely striped inside ; 
the calyx is tubular, having long awl-shaped segments; the 
stems are procumbent, firm (almost woody), short jointed, and 
thickest near the top. The leaves are of a dark shining green 
colour, from l|in to 2in. long, smallest at the root end, and 
finishing next the flowers with the largest, which are lance- 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 115 

shaped, the lower ones being heart-shaped; they are closely 
arranged in pairs, are sessile, and at right angles with the stem. 

It seems to enjoy a shady damp corner in rockwork, where its 
distinct forms and neat habit appear to advantage. It should "be 
planted in vegetable soil, such as peat or well-decayed leaves 
mixed with sand. It cannot endure drought at the roots. It is 
a slow-growing plant, but very floriferous ; the flowers last fully 
a fortnight in good form, the weather, however rough or wet, 
seeming to have no effect on them. In a cut state it is exquisite, 
but those who properly value the Gentians, especially the slow 
growers, will hardly care to cut away the stems, as, by doing so, 
not only will the plant be checked, but next year's growth will 
prove reduced in both number and vigour. It is propagated by 
root division when in a dormant state. I have also successfully 
transplanted this kind after it has made considerable growth, 
but the roots have been carefully guarded against dryness. 

Flowering period, June to August. 

Gentiana Verna. 

SPRING ALPINE FELWORT ; Nat. Ord. GENTIANACE.E. 
A NATIVE evergreen creeper. This plant has many synony- 
mous names in old books. It is now, however, well known by 
the above Latin name. Let nae at once say that it is a matchless 
gem. Its flowers are such as to attract the notice of any but a 
blind person. It is said to be rare now in this country, still, I 
think it is far from being extinct in its wild state. Be that as it 
may, it is fortunate that it can be easily cultivated, and nothing 
in a garden can give more pleasure. Its flowers are blue but 
such a blue ! the most intense, with a large and sharply defined 
white eye, and though only |in. across, one on each stem, and 
Sin. high, they are grandly effective. It has a tubular, angled 
calyx ; corolla five-cut. The leaves are oval, nearly lin. long, and 
half as broad; dark shining green and of leathery substance. 
The radical leaves are crowded into a nearly rosette form. 

By many this Gentian is considered difficult to grow, but if a 
proper beginning is made it proves to be of the easiest manage- 
ment. Very suitable places may be found for it in, not on, rock- 
work, where good fat loam forms the staple soil ; little corners, 
not above the ground level, but on, or better still, below the 
ground level, are sure to meet its requirements ; on the edge of 
a border, too, where moisture collects in the small gutter, has 
proved a suitable position for it. But, perhaps, the most suc- 
cessful way of growing it is in pots, for, as with Trientalis 
Europa and other root creepers, when so treated more compact 
specimens are obtained. It is important to begin with properly- 
rooted plants, the crowns of which are often 2in. to Sin. below 
the surface ; from these spring the numerous, bare, yellow, wiry 

i2 



116 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

stems, too often taken for roots, whereas the main roots are still 
deeper, very long for so small a plant, and furnished with silky 
feeders. Good crowns potted in rich fibrous loam and plunged 
in sand, fully exposed, with an unstinted supply of water, is the 
substance of the simple treatment my plants receive the year 
round ; they are still in the Sin. and 4in. pots in which they were 
placed three years ago, and during spring they are covered 
with flowers. When a pot is lifted out of the sand in which it is 
plunged, the fine long silky roots are seen to have made their 
way through the hole. Spring is the best time to plant. 
Flowering period, April to June. 

Geranium Argenteum. 

SILVERY CRANE'S-BILL: Nat. Ord. GERANIACE^. 
A HARDY perennial alpine from the South of Europe, introduced 
in 1699. It is, therefore, an old plant in this country, and is one 




FIG. 44. GERANIUM ARGENTETJM. 
(One-half natural size.) 



of the gems of the rock garden ; very dwarf, but effective, as 
may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 44). The foliage is of a 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 117 

distinct and somewhat conglomerate character, besides being of 
a silvery-grey colour. Well-grown specimens of this charming 
Crane's-bill look remarkably well against dark stones. Its 
flowers are large for so small a plant, and wherever it finds a 
suitable home it cannot fail to win admiration. In borders of 
rich soil it is grown to the height of about six inches, but in 
drier situations, as on the upper parts of rockwork, it is more 
dwarf. 

The flowers are fully an inch in diameter when open, cup- 
shaped, and striped in two shades of rose colour ; the unopened 
flowers are bell-shaped and drooping ; they are borne on long 
naked pedicels, bent and wiry, oftentimes two on a stem ; calyx 
five-cleft, segments concave ; petals five, equal and evenly 
arranged. The leaves are produced on long, bent, wiry stalks, 
the outline is circular, but they are divided into five or seven 
lobes, which are subdivided and irregular, both in size and 
arrangement ; they have a silky appearance, from being furnished 
with numerous fine hairs or down. The plant continues to flower 
for many weeks, but, as may be judged, it is, otherwise than 
when in flower, highly attractive. To lovers of ornamental 
bedding this must prove a first-rate plant. As an edging to beds 
or borders of choice things it would be pleasingly appropriate, 
and, indeed, anywhere amongst other dwarf flowers it could not 
be other than decorative. 

It thrives well in a good depth of loam, its long tap-roots 
going a long way down. If, therefore, it is planted on rockwork, 
suitable provision should be made for this propensity. The pro- 
pagation of the plant is not so easy, from the fact that it makes 
large crowns without a corresponding set of roots, and its seed is 
scarce and often taken by birds before ripened. Moreover, the 
seedlings do not always come true; still, it seems the only 
mode of propagation, unless the old plants have plenty of time 
allowed them to spread and make extra roots. Latterly I have 
gathered the seeds before the capsules burst in fact, whilst green 
and, after carrying them in the waistcoat pocket for a few 
days, they have been sown in leaf soil and sand, and germinated 
freely. When the seedlings have made a few leaves the deterio- 
rated forms may be picked out readily. 

Flowering period, May to July. 

Gillenia Trifoliata. 

Syn. SPIR^A TRIFOLIATA and S. TRILOBA THREE-LEAVED 

GILLENIA ; Nat. Ord. ROSACE^E. 

A HARDY herbaceous perennial from North America, imported 
in 1713. The main features about this plant are its elegant form 
and rich tints. The illustration (Fig. 46) may give some idea of 
the former quality, but to realise the latter the reader should see 



118 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



a living specimen in the form of a bold clump. There is a wild 
beauty about this subject which it is not easy to describe ; as a 
flower it is insignificant, but the way in which the flowers are 
disposed on the slender stems, blending with a quaintly pretty 
foliage, neither too large nor dense, renders them effective in their 
way. It is, however, only as a whole that it can be considered 
decorative, and it should be well grown. 

Although most nearly related to the spiraeas the distinctions 
from that genus are very marked, notably the very slender stems 




FIG. 45. GILLENIA TRIFOLIATA. 
(One-sixth natural size ; blossom, full size.) 

and large flowers, which are produced singly on rather long- 
bending pedicels, almost as fine as thread, and, like the stems, 
of a bright brown (nearly ruddy) colour. The flowers form a lax 
panicle, interspersed with a little foliage. The calyx is a bright 
brown colour, rather large and bell-shaped. It contrasts finely 
with the five long, narrow petals, which are white, tinted with 
red ; they are also irregular in form and arrangement, somewhat 
contorted. The leaves, as implied by the specific name, are 
composed of three leaflets; they have very short stalks, and 
the leaflets are all but sessile, lance-shaped, finely toothed or 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 119 

fringed, ribbed, and somewhat bronzed. Perhaps it is most 
useful in a cut state ; the sprays, even if they have but one or two 
iowers on them, are charming for vase work. I may say the 
calyx is persistent, and after the petals have fallen they not only 
increase in size, but turn a fine red colour, and so render the 
sprays additionally effective. 

To grow this plant well it should have a deep soil ; it also loves 
moisture, and, as already hinted, partial shade ; it is a steady 




It may be propagated by division, the best time being early 
in the year, just before growth commences. 
Flowering period, June to August. 

Gynerium Argenteum. 

PAMPAS or SILVERY GRASS; Nat. Ord. GRAMINE^. 
THIS handsome grass is well known, at least, its feathery plumes 
are, from the fact of their being imported largely in a dry state 
for decorative purposes. It has not been grown long in this 
country, and, perhaps, it is not generally known that it endures 
our climate as an outdoor plant ; in most parts of Great Britain, 
however, it proves hardy. As far north as Yorkshire I have seen 
it in the form of specimens 8ft. high ; my own examples are yet 
young two and three years old and are only just beginning to 
flower, at the height of 3ft. to 4ft., diameter about the same. It 
is a native of South America, occurring mostly on the prairies; it 
is also found in other parts where there are swamps and high 
temperatures. This would lead us to have doubts as to its 
suitableness for English gardens, but facts prove it to have elastic 
qualities in this respect. It proves at all times to be a noble 
ornament in gardens of moderate size. 

In its growing or green state it is a distinct and pleasing 
object, but it is at its greatest beauty when it has ripened its tall 
and silky plumes, which glisten in the sunshine and are of a 
silvery- grey colour, and when also the very long and narrow 
grass has become browned and falls gracefully, more or less 
curling under the tufts. All its parts are persistent, and, as a 
specimen of ripe grass, it is not only ornamental in itself, but it 
gives a warm effect to its surroundings during winter. Under 
favourable conditions it will grow 10ft. or 12ft. high, but it is 
seldom that it attains a height jof more than 8ft. or 9ft. As an 
illustration (Fig. 46) is given, further description is not needed. 
I may add that if it is not " laid " by heavy snows, it keeps in 
good form until the new grass begins to grow in the following 
spring. 

I find it to do well in light earth, well enriched with stable 



120 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



manure, the soil having a more than ordinary quantity of sand 
in it ; the position is such as can have a good supply of moisture, 
being near walks that drain to it. In stifnsh loam a strong 
clump was planted three years ago, but it has never looked 




FIG. 46. GYNERIUM ARGENTEUM. 
(One-twentieth natural size.) 

healthy. The best positions for it are well -prepared shrubbery 
borders ; there it contrasts finely with the greenery, and receives 
some protection from the high winds. It may be increased by 
division of healthy roots, when the grass is ripe, but it ought not 
to be cut off. 

The plumes appear in August, and will keep in good condition 
till the weather changes to a wintry character. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 121 

Harpalium Rigidum. 

Syn. HELIANTHTJS RIGIDTJS RIGID SUNFLOWER; 
Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 

ONE of the most effective and beautiful flowers to be seen 
in autumn ; it would be hard to mention another at any period 
of the year that gives more satisfaction and pleasure than 
this does, either as a decorative plant or a cut flower. A bold 
specimen, 4ft. through, is truly fine, and not only those who 
seldom visit a garden, but amateurs well versed in flowers, are 
alike charmed with its rich and stately blossoms. Most people 
know what a Sunflower is ; many of them are coarse and almost 
ugly ; but though the present subject is of the family, it is 
supremely distinct; it is without the formal character in its 
ray, and also the herby leafiness of many of its genus, its large, 
clean, shining, golden flowers, mounted on slender, ruddy, long, 
and nearly nude stalks, not only render it distinct, but impart 
an elegance to this species, which is all its own. It grows 4ft. 
high, is a comparatively new kind in English gardens, and 
comes from North America ; still, it has become widely known 
and appreciated, in fact a universal favourite, so much so that, 
although it increases fast, the demand for it is not yet satisfied ; 
it is, doubtless, a flower for every garden. 

The flowers are 4in. across, glistening golden yellow, and 
formed of a deep ray and small disk ; the florets of the ray are 
l|in. long and more than in. broad, they are incurved at their 
points, but reflexed at their edges, and are handsomely ribbed 
or pleated; they are arranged in two or three rays in each 
flower, and irregularly disposed ; the florets, being well apart, 
not only seem to give the bloom body, but also an artistic 
informality and lightness. The florets of the disk are chocolate 
colour, whence issue twirled filamentary forms, which impart to 
the centre of flower the appearance of being netted with a 
golden thread. The scaly involucre is formed of numerous 
small members of a dark olive-green colour, neatly arranged 
and firmly clasping the whole flower. The pedicels are long, 
round, covered with short stiff hairs, and thickened at the invo- 
lucre; the stems are very rough, rigid, hard, and brown or 
ruddy on the sunny side, sometimes twisted and nude, with the 
exception of a solitary rudimentary leaf. The main stems have 
many axillary branches. The leaves of the root are few, Sin. or 
Gin. long, and oval. Those of the stems more lance-shaped, 
sessile, and slightly dentate, or toothed, lessening in size as 
they get higher ; all the leaves are very thick, three-veined, and 
remarkably hispid, being almost as coarse as sandpaper to the 
touch. I have also observed another peculiarity about the 
leaves, when they have been taken from the plant for an hour 
or more, i.e., they have a most elastic property. Very often the 



122 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

leaves may be seen in trios, whence spring three side branches, 
surrounding the upright and central one. The habit of the 
whole specimen is very rigid, with the exception of the flowers, 
which are slightly nodding ; the tallest growths need no stakes, 
and the species enjoys a happy immunity from insect pests, 
probably by reason of its hispid character. As already stated, 
as a garden subject this is one of the most useful ; it shows 
grandly in front of evergreens, and associates well with lilies. 
In borders of tall perennials, or in conspicuous but distant 
situations, such as are visible from the doors or windows of the 
house, or as isolated clumps, on or near the lawn, this fine Sun- 
flower may be planted with satisfactory results ; in fact, it 
cannot be planted wrong, provided it is kept away from small 
subjects. In a cut state it is of such value that it cannot be 
overpraised a branch with four fully blown flowers and others 
nearly out, requires no assistance as a table decoration. Its 
blooms have the quality of keeping clean, doubtless from the 
smoothness of the florets. 

The cultural requirements are few. Any garden soil will do 
for it, but if deeply dug and well enriched with stable manure, 
so much the better ; it should have a fairly open situation ; it is 
not only a Sunflower in name and form, but it enjoys sunshine. 
It is self -propagating, and runs freely at the roots, immediately 
under the surface ; the thick stolons form knobby crowns at their 
extremities, out of and from under which the roots issue, going 
straight and deep down, and so forming an independent plant. 

Flowering period, August and September. 

Hedera Conglomerata. 

CONGLOMERATE IVY; Nat. Ord. ARALIAC^. 
I DO not introduce this as a flowering subject, but as a dwarf 
ornamental shrub ; it differs so much from all other species and 
varieties of Ivy, and is so beautiful withal, that I trust no further 
apology is needed for giving it a place amongst decorative 
plants and shrubs. I have not been able to learn its habitat or 
origin ; its stunted tree-like shape, together with other pecu- 
liarities, would indicate that it is a species ; be that as it may, it 
has long had a place in English gardens, and yet it is seldom 
met with it would be hard to explain why. On a bit of rock- 
work I have grown a specimen for nearly five years, and it was 
an old shrub when planted, yet it is not more than 2ft. in 
diameter and 1ft. high. It is much admired, and many notes 
have been taken of it. For rock work, it is one of the best dwarf 
evergreen shrubs I know. 

It has very small leaves, densely arranged in flat or one-sided 
wreaths. They seldom exceed lin. in diameter, and are of 
various forms, as heart-shaped, sagittate, oval, tri-lobed, and so 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 123 

on. Some are notched, others slightly toothed, but many are 
entire. All are waved or contorted, wrinkled and thickened at 
the edges, where the younger leaves show a brown line ; the 
under sides are pale green, and furnished with short stiff brown 
hairs, as also are the stout leaf stalks. The upper side of the 
foliage is a dark glossy green, with shadings of brown. In sub- 
stance the leaves are leathery, inclining to stiffness. The 
stunted branches have a cork-like appearance as regards the 
bark, are diffuse, curiously bent, and sometimes twisted loosely 
together. It is of slow growth, more especially in the upward 
direction, and though provision may be made for it to cling and 
climb, and it has also well-formed roots on the branchlets, still, 
it assumes more the tree- shape. I never saw or heard of its 
flowering, much less that it ever produced seed ; if it does not 
seed we are not only deprived of an ornamental feature belonging 
to the genus from the absence of berries, but it proves that it is 
only a variety of some species. 

It may be grown in any kind of sandy soil, and nothing special 
whatever is needed. An open sunny situation will favour its 
form and colour of foliage ; under trees I have found it to 
produce larger leaves of plainer shape and more even colour. 
During the winter it becomes a conspicuous object on rockwork, 
where it seems most at home. It may be propagated by cuttings, 
and spring is a suitable season to lay them in; in well dug 
light soil they soon make plenty of roots. 

Helianthus Multiflorus. 

MANY-FLOWERED SUNFLOWER; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS fashionable flower is glaringly showy. Still, it is not 
wanting in beauty; moreover, it belongs to an " old-fashioned" 
class, and is itself a species which has been grown for nearly 
300 years in English gardens. It was brought from North 
America in the year 1597, and during the whole of its history in 
this country, it can hardly ever have been more esteemed than 
it is to-day ; it is very hardy, and in every way a reliable subject. 
Everybody knows the Sunflower, therefore no one will care to 
read a description of it ; still, one or two remarks may, perhaps, 
be usefully made in the comparative sense, as this is a numerous 
genus. Many of the Sunflowers are annuals, to which this and 
others of a perennial character are much superior, not only in 
being less trouble and not liable to be out of season from mis- 
management in sowing and planting, as with the annual sorts, 
but from the fact that their flowers are of better substance and 
far more durable ; they are also less in size and more in number 
two points of great gain as regards their usefulness as cut 
bloom. They are, besides, better coloured, and the flowering 
season more prolonged. Well-established specimens, two or 



124 HAEDY PERENNIALS AND 

three years old, will, in average weather, last in good form for 
fully six weeks. The colour (yellow) is common to the Sun- 
flowers. This species has flowers which vary much in size, from 
2in. to 6in. across, and they are produced on stems 3ft. to 6ft. 
high, well furnished with large heart-shaped leaves of a herb- 
like character, distinctly nerved, toothed, and rough. 

Flowering period, August and September. 

H.m.fl.-pl. is, of course, the double form of the above, the 
disk being represented by a mass of florets considerably shorter 
than those of the ray proper. The flowers are not produced in 
such large numbers as with the typical form, neither does the 
plant grow so tall, but the foliage is a little larger ; these con- 
stitute all the points of difference which I have noticed. These 
forms of Sunflower are very effective nowhere, perhaps, so 
much as amongst shrubs. The plants lift well, carrying a good 
ball that facilitates their being placed in pots even when in 
bloom, when, as I have lately seen, they may be used in a most 
telling manner with potted shrubs in large halls, corridors, and 
public buildings. In such places they get no sun to make 
them droop, and a good watering keeps them as fresh as if they 
had not been disturbed. Of the usefulness of this flower in a 
cut state nothing whatever need be said who has not tried it ? 
Doubtless, when it becomes unfashionable it will have fewer 
patrons, but it will be the same flower, richly beautiful sesthetic. 
No special culture is needed, any kind of garden soil will suit it ; 
if well enriched, all the better. Any situation will do but one 
too densely shaded. Propagated by splitting the roots after the 
plants have done flowering, or in spring. 

Flowering period, August and September. 

Helianthus Orygalis. 

GRACEFUL SUNFLOWER; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
YET another Sunflower, and one, too, of the common yel- 
low colour, and not otherwise attractive, as may be seen by 
the illustration (Fig. 47) of course, I am now referring to the 
flower only. There are, however, features about this species 
which all must admire ; stems 7ft. high, furnished with bright 
foliage, in the manner indicated, are not mean objects, even if 
topped with but a common yellow composite. This is a native 
of North America, and of recent introduction ; it is a distinct 
species, and for foliage a prince among its fellows. I know not 
another to nearly approach it, H. angustifolius being perhaps 
the nearest, but that species has never with me proved of more 
than a biennial character, and its leaves, though long and 
narrow, are irregular and herby. 

The flowers need not be further described beyond saying that 
they are borne on short side shoots, near the top of the main 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



125 



stems, but they harmonise with the general arrangement of 
foliage, and, indeed, from their bract-like leanness, somewhat 
enrich it. This is one of the latest-blooming Sunflowers. The 
leaves are Sin. to Sin. long, and ^in. to lin. wide, the lower half 
on the stems droop, though they are of good substance ; the 
upper half bend gracefully, and, from their close arrangement, 
all but hide the stem. At the axils of the larger leaves, tufts of 




FI<J. 47. HELIANTHUS ORTQALIS. 
(One-eighth natural size ; flower, one-fourth natural size.) 

smaller (much smaller) leaves appear, causing the long stems to 
be top-heavy. Still, they wave and bend during the strongest 
winds without supports or damage. It will be seen that the use- 
fulness of this plant consists in its distinct form and -tallness, 
and that it is effective is without doubt. Among low shrubs, 
or with other tall things, will prove suitable quarters for jt. 

Any kind of soil will do, shelter from the wind being the most 
important, and perhaps the only point to study when planting. 
It is propagated by root divisions when the tops have withered. 

Flowering period, September and October. 



126 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Helleborus Abchasicus. 

ABCH ASIAN HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. RANUNCTJLACEJE. 

THIS is a native of the Caucasus, and in this climate, where it 
has been cultivated about fifteen years, it retains its foliage 
through the winter in a green state. It is a free grower, and 
flowers well, having a somewhat slender habit. It is sometimes 
described as having green flowers, but more often as having 
purple ones. It may be useful to remember that there are 
varieties, and it is likely that, even in the so-called green flowers, 
traces of purple will be seen. Not only is it a fact that this 
species, like H. purpurascens and H. niger, is far from fixed as 
regards depth of colour, but it is said to be one of the parent 
forms of some of the fine hybrids. These considerations may 
help to reconcile the apparently conflicting descriptions as 
regards bloom colour. 

The flower stems are 12in. to 18in. high, distantly forked 
twice, and of a purplish colour. The flowers are produced in 
threes and fours on each of the branchlets, are inclined to purple, 
over 2in. across, and nodding ; sepals oval, waved, and set well 
apart at the outer ends ; petals scale-like, green, and numerous ; 
anthers a beautiful delicate yellow ; leaves of the flower stems 
few, small, and of irregular form, notched, finely serrate, and of 
a purplish-green shade ; in their young state more especially 
does the purple prevail on the under surface they are, in fact, 
nearly the colour of the flowers. The radical leaves are many, 
nearly a foot in diameter, of a dark green colour, and leathery 
substance; the leaflets are rather distant from each other, 
forming a noble pedate leaf ; they are somewhat one-sided, 
slightly waved, sharply and regularly toothed nearly all their 
length. From this description it will be inferred that this is 
one of the most distinct species, and such is truly the case. 
Moreover, it has a bold and rich effect. The older radical 
foliage, with its long stalks, is for the most part spread on the 
ground, when the new erect flower stems, furnished with small 
leaves and nodding buds and blossoms, all of a shining purplish 
colour, form a peculiar but pleasing contrast, not nearly so 
marked in any other species with which I am acquainted. There 
is a variety called 

H. A. purpureus, in allusion to the colour of the flowers being 
a little more purple. 

This Abchasian species and its varieties are not widely 
distributed; they are to be obtained, and need no longer be 
found only in rare collections. It is desirable in every way for 
the garden, where it forms a most ornamental object during 
winter. Its flowers last for four or five weeks, and in a cut state 
they form rich companion bloom to the white Christmas Rose. 

A good fat loam suits them ; the position should be rather 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 127 

shady and moist, but by all means well drained. A top dressing 
of good rotten manure, after all have done blooming, about the 
end of March, is a great help to them. All the Hellebores may 
be easily increased by root divisions, but the stock should be 
strong and healthy. Roots affected with the least rot or canker 
should be discarded, as from their slowness of growth they will 
not be worth garden space. Seed may also be raised, but unless 
sown as soon as it is ripe germination is less certain, and always 
slower in proportion to the length of time it has been kept dry. 
I may add that, in February (1883), I noticed a pot, sown with 
Hellebore seed in February of 1880 ; a few were just pushing 
through the mould. The seed was sold to me as the produce of 
1879. Since 1880 I have sown seed ripened on plants that were 
bloomed for indoor decoration, it being ready about February. 
From this I had nice little plants in less than twelve months. 
But by seed the process of propagation is slow, and not advisable 
unless the object is to obtain new varieties a very easy matter, 
by the way, with this family, if the simple rules of cross- 
hybridising are applied. 

All the Christmas Roses should be so planted that they may 
be conveniently shaded during their blooming time. They 
mostly flower during the dullest part of the year, and the 
blossom, more especially the white kinds and those with metallic 
hues, unless protected, become damaged with mud splashes. 
Hand-lights or bell-glasses should be freely used. 

Flowering period, January to March. 

Helleborus Antiquorum. 

ANCIENT HELLEBORE; Nat. Ord. RANTJNCULACE^. 
IN what sense this specific name is applied, or which meaning of 
the word is supposed to be exemplified in this plant, I have no 
means of being certain. It is very probable that the name is in 
reference to its " old-fashioned," but beautiful, flowers ; that they 
are "worthy," "dearer, more acceptable," and of "more esteem and 
account," is likely to be the verdict of every amateur who grows 
this kind sucessfully, for a more lovely flower could hardly be 
desired large, white, softly toned with pink and grey. Sepals 
very large, incurved, overlapping each other, having the appear- 
ance of being semi-double, and being of "good substance. The 
petals are small, short, of a lively green, and numerous. It is a 
bold and effective flower, but to see it in its full beauty it should 
be gathered spotlessly clean, as grey and pink tints are ugly 
when soiled. The leaves accompanying the flowers are of the 
previous season's growth, and are produced on slender round 
stalks, 1ft. to l|ft. long, and much thickened at their junction 
with the leaves. The latter are nearly a foot across, pedate, or 
palm-shaped ; the segments or leaflets are sub-divided and of 



128 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

irregular form, but mostly ovate, lance- shaped, finely and 
sharply toothed, and of a dull green colour. In a rich and free 
loam this kind proves a good grower, and when, in January, it is 
putting up its flower stalks, the buds being well developed and 
coloured from the time they appear above the earth, furnished 
with " floral leaf," in which respect it differs from the common 
Christmas Rose, it causes a pleased surprise that such a pure 
and delicate looking blossom can develop and mature in the 
depth of winter. As a cut flower by many it would be preferred 
to the better-known JET. niger, not only for its antique tints, but 
for the fine cup form, which is constant, and the overlapping, 
incurved edges of the sepals. Altogether, its form is distinct, 
and when used in small glasses as single specimens, or, at most, 
accompanied only by a fern frond or a few blades of grass, it is 
a charming object. 

Cultivation, as for H. Abchasicus. 

Flowering period, January to April. 

Helleborus Bocconi. 

BOCCON'S HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. BANUNCULACE^J. 
THIS, by many, is believed to be a species, but as such is unau- 
thenticated. It is classed as a variety of H. purpurascens, 
compared with which, however, there are some well-marked dis- 
tinctions. It is sometimes called H. multifidus, a name that 
suits it well, as being descriptive of its irregularly slashed 
foliage. It has but recently been brought under cultivation, and 
was found a native of the Apennines of Etruria. It proves 
perfectly hardy in this climate, and flowers in midwinter unless 
the season is very severe. As will be inferred from its near 
relationship to H. purpurascens, like that species it has non- 
persistent foliage, and the flower stems with their floral leaves 
appear before the leaves of the root. As a species or variety, 
whichever it may be, its more marked features are to be seen in 
the form or cut of the leaves. 

As a garden flower it is not showy, yet it stands out well in a 
group ; the nodding cup-shaped bloom is a bright green' colour, 
and, for a time, the outer sides of the sepals only are seen ; but 
when the flowers are more fully expanded, the numerous and 
somewhat long stamens (which are a creamy-white) seem to 
nearly fill the cup ; to my mind, its greatest charm is in the 
fragrant odour which it yields, resembling that of elder flowers. 
A single blossom, if plucked dry and when in its prime, scents a 
small room ; at such a stage, the anthers are loaded with pollen, 
and the tubular petals are richly charged with nectar. True, 
these last-named qualities are common to the genus, but when 
they are coupled with that of a sweet perfume, and produced 
by an open-air plant in winter, such a plant, be its blossoms 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 129 

green or red, is too valuable to be neglected. The flowers are borne 
on stems 6in. to 12in. high, which are twice and thrice branched 
or forked, having six to twelve blossoms on a stem. The flowers 
are bright green, nearly 2in. across, cup-shaped, and drooping. 
The sepals are somewhat oval, concave, and overlapping ; petals 
very short, pale green, and evenly arranged; stamens creamy-" 
white ; styles green. The flowers are supported by floral leaves, 
which are much divided, in the way of those of H. purpurascens, 
but the segments are more irregular in shape. The radical leaves 
have long stems, and are palmate ; divisions lobed. It dies down 
entirely during the autumn. Being a vigorous grower and free 
bloomer, and the flowers very durable withal, it should be largely 
grown for the sake of its sweet-scented blossoms for cutting pur- 
poses. There is an allied variety cultivated under the name of 

H. S. angustifolia (narrow-leaved). Assuming that H. Bocconi 
is a species, this is a variety but slightly removed from the 
typical form, inasmuch as the latter is not only much cut in the 
floral and radical leaves, but the shape is uncertain. This form, 
then, which, at least by its name, claims a specific feature in the 
cut of leaf, may be somewhat difficult to identify, more especially 
as there are no other dissimilarities of note. Seen, however, as a 
well-grown specimen, the feature of narrow foliage is not only 
manifest, but the plant is very effective. 

Cultivation and flowering period, the same as with H. 
Abchasicus. 

Helleborus Colchicus. 

COLCHICAN HELLEBORE; Nat. Ord. BANUNCULACE^. 
A NEW species from Asia Minor. This is a strong grower and 
blooms well. The flowers vary in size and shade, but it may be 
said to be distinct in form and pronounced in colour, the latter 
being an uncommon feature with the Hellebores ; either growing 
or cut it is indispensable to a group. Moreover, it is one of the 
best flowers of the genus, and would stand high even in a selection 
of the best six; it is one that should have a place in every 
collection. 

It flowers amongst the previous season's foliage on branched 
stems ; the sepals are somewhat round and flat, which gives the 
flower a stiff appearance. Still, from their unusual deep purple 
colour and the yellow stamens, together with the manner in 
which the sepals overlap each other, the flower is a most effective 
one ; the petals are a bright green, and blend harmoniously with 
the yellow and purple parts. The leaves are very large, pedate, 
dentate, and distinctly veined. In a young state the foliage is 
richly coloured or tinted with " bloom." It enjoys a rich sandy 
loam and summer shade. 

Cultivation, the same as for H. Abchasicus. 

Flowering period, January to March. 



130 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Helleborus Cupreus. 

COPPERY HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. RANTJNCTJLACEJE. 
NOTWITHSTANDING its peculiar colour, as implied by the name, 
tliis is a pleasing border flower ; moreover, the somewhat large 
flowers are also numerous ; blossoms 3in. across, arranged in 
clusters of four and six, and handsomely furnished with new 
foliage, are no mean things in the depth of winter. The specific 
name of this Hellebore, though applicable, is not so definite as 
some, inasmuch as the colour to which it refers is that of several 
other species and varieties ; there may be rather more of the 
metallic hue in our subject, but it is so slight as to be outside 
the pale of notice to the florist. The Coppery Hellebore is a 
native of mid-Europe, and is one of recent introduction into this 
country, where it proves hardy but annually dies down. It grows 
and flowers freely in January, the flower stalks appearing before 
the radical foliage, and attaining a height of nearlya foot. 

The flower stems are a palish green, with purplish markings, 
are twice branched and furnished with floral leaves ; the latter 
have ample stipules and seven longish divisions, which are well 
spread out, distinctly veined underneath, and coarsely toothed. 
The flowers are 2in. to Bin. across, sepals pointed, overlapping 
for about half their length, and well expanded ; their outsides 
are of a purplish colour, which extends along the stalk; the 
inner surface of the sepals is a yellowish green, the whole being 
suffused with a metallic hue or " bloom " ; the stamens and 
anthers are a creamy white, the petals short and apple-green. 
The flowers droop gracefully, and are rendered all the more 
pleasing by the floral leaves which immediately support them. 
The leaves of the root are large and pedate, the divisions wide 
apart and unevenly toothed; the under sides are distinctly 
veined with purplish-brown when in a young state. The habit 
is robust, and the bloom is produced well above the radical 
foliage. There is a peculiar beauty about a strong flowering 
specimen which would hardly be expected from the above de- 
scription, and it is even more difficult for me to do it justice. 

In a cut state a whole stem, with its flowers in different stages 
of development, is fine. The youngest rosy-purple buds, about 
the size of a cob nut ; the more opened bell-shaped forms, just 
showing both the inner and outer colours of the sepals ; these 
surmounted by the longer- stalked, fully expanded, but dropping 
flower, with its tassel -like bunch of stamens, and all finely inter- 
spersed with young leaves of two distinct colours, according 
to the side which meets the eye all go to make ifc a charming 
decoration for indoors, and if cut clean it deserves a place for 
the whole week or more during which it remains in good form. 

Cultivation, as for H. Abchasicus. 

Flowering period, January to March. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 131 

Helleborus Dumetorum. 
BUSHY HELLEBORE; Nat. Ord. BANTJNCULACE^. 
ONE of the less showy species. It comes from Hungary, 
and has been grown in this country about seventy years. It 
entirely renews its foliage yearly, the flower stems appearing 
before the radical leaves. The flowers are small, green, and 
drooping ; the sepals are roundish. The flower stems are twice 
branched, full-flowered, and furnished with the " cut floral leaf," 
which is nearly stalkless and palmate. The root leaves are very 
smooth and pedate. The bright green flowers mix well with 
others, but where Hellebores are grown in limited varieties this 
may be omitted without loss as regards floral beauty. 

Cultivation, as for H. Abchasicus. 

Flowering period, February and March. 

Helleborus Fcetidus. 

STINKING HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACE.^ 
THIS is a native species, distinct, ornamental, and evergreen- 
Its name may, with some, prevent its being planted in the 
pleasure garden, but its foetid odour is not perceptible unless 
sought for. It is mostly found wild in this country in chalky 
districts, and it occurs largely in the southern parts of Europe. 
Though poisonous, it is a valuable herb. Its value as a garden 
subject consists in its dark evergreen foliage, good habit, and 
handsome panicles of bloom. The latter is produced under 
cultivation in midwinter. It never fails to flower then if the 
position is a sheltered one. In its wild state the flowers appear 
in March. It belongs to that section of the Hellebores which 
have leafy stems and many flowers; its grows 2ft. high, and 
never seems to rest, but goes on making new leaves throughout 
winter. 

The flowers are produced in clusters larger than a man's hand, 
and are of a green colour, the sepals edged with brown, which 
turns to a purplish tint; they are nearly an inch across, well 
cupped, and mostly hang bell-fashion; the leaves are much 
smaller than those of most Hellebores, pedate, smooth, of stout 
substance and dark green colour; the divisions of the leaves 
are narrow and numerous. The foliage is persistent, and keeps 
green until after the new has appeared ; it bends downwards in 
a pleasing manner, and the leafy stems have a palm-like appear- 
ance. These, when topped with panicles of flowers, though they 
be green ones, are worthy objects for any garden. It is a suit- 
able plant for mixing with deciduous shrubs ; bold specimens of 
it enliven such borders by their shining greenery, and they are 
of greatest service when most needed, for in such sheltered 
quarters they are pretty sure to flower during winter; and 

K 2 



132 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the summer shade, if not too dense, will prove more beneficial 
to them than otherwise. 

Cultivation, ordinary garden soil. 

Flowering period, December to April. 

Helleborus Guttatus. 

SPOTTED HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. RANUNCTJLACE^E. 
THIS is one of the newer species or varieties ; its main distinc- 
tion is well implied by the specific name. The flowers are fully 
2in. across, and white ; the sepals are spotted with purple ; the 
petals are more constant than in some species, and of a rich 
green colour; flowers are produced on stems having the floral 
leaf ; the buds are a greenish white, but very beautiful. The 
foliage is smaller than that of most kinds ; the leaves are radical, 
rather short-stalked, pedate, and divisions narrow ; they are of 
a leathery substance and a dark green colour. This is a free 
bloomer, a fact which, together with those of its winter-blooming 
habit and distinct flowers, renders it a valuable acquisition to 
the open garden. Either cut or growing, it is very lasting. 

Cultivation, as for H. Abchasicus. 

Flowering period, January to March. 

Helleborus Niger. 
BLACK HELLEBORE, or CHRISTMAS ROSE ; 

Nat. Ord. RANITNCTJLACE^E. 

A HARDY, herbaceous perennial. It came from Austria in 1597. 
In favoured situations it proves evergreen ; there is nothing 
black to be seen about a growing plant, and it has often puzzled 
its admirers as to the cause of its specific name, which is in 
reference to the black roots of a year or more old. It would 
appear, moreover, that this is not the true " Black Hellebore " 
of the ancients (see remarks under H. Orientalis}. This "old- 
fashioned " flower is becoming more and more valued. . That it 
is a flower of the first quality is not saying much, compared 
with what might be said for it ; and, perhaps, no plant under 
cultivation is capable of more improvement by proper treatment 
(see Fig. 48). Soil, position, and tillage may all be made to bear 
with marked effect on this plant, as regards size and colour of 
flowers and season of bloom. We took its most used common 
name Christmas Rose from the Dutch, who called it 
Christmas Herb, or Christ's Herb, " because it flowereth about 
the birth of our Lord lesus Christ," and we can easily imagine that 
its beautiful form would suggest the other part of its compound 
name, " rose." In sheltered parts, where the soil is deep and 
rich, specimens will grow a foot high and begin to bloom in 
December, continuing until March. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



133 



The individual flowers last a long time in perfection, either on 
the plant or in a cut state ; they vary somewhat iu their colour, 
some being more brown on the outer side of the sepals, and 
others much suffused with pink; but under glass, whether in 
the shape of a bell glass in the open garden, or a greenhouse, 
they mature to a pure white ; their form is somewhat like that 
of a single rose, but may be more properly compared to a flower 
of its own order the single pseonia. It is composed of five 
sepals, and is 2in. to Sin. across, being white or rose-coloured; 
these sepals form a corolla-like calyx ; the petals are very short 
and tubular, nestling down amongst the tassel-like bunch of 




FIG. 48. HELLEBORTJS NIGER. 
(One-quarter natural size.) 



stamens; the flowers are produced on stout leafless scapes, 
having one or two bractese ; for the most part the flowers are in 
ones or pairs, but sometimes there may be seen three, and even 
four, on a scape. The leaves are radical, having stout, round 
stalks; they are large and pedate in shape, stout, and of 
leathery substance. The habit of the plant is neat, growing 
into rounded tufts. 

In suitable quarters it proves a quick grower, whilst in 
ungenial situations it will hardly increase, though it is seldom 
killed. As it happens that its flowers are produced at a most 
unfavourable time for keeping them clean, they should be 



134 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

covered with some kind of glass shelters, or, where the soil is 
retentive, the roots may be lifted with large balls of earth to 
them, and be placed in a cool greenhouse well up to the light. 
It would, however, be a mistake to adopt this plan where the soil 
is loose, and during the lifting operation will fall from the roots ; 
and it is also a mistake to expect flowers from newly-planted 
roots. Where its fine bloom is required at Christmas, good 
roots should have been planted fully a year previously. Doubt- 
less many an amateur will herein recognise his failing point 
when expecting Christmas Roses from roots planted only a month 
before, and sometimes less. True, the buds are there, and fine 
ones, too, perhaps, but the plants, unless transferred with a good 
ball, suffer a check which it will take at least a year to outgrow. 
It is a good plan to grow this flower in good- sized pots, which 
should be plunged in a shady part of the garden all the year, 
with the exception of the blooming period ; but even with pots 
well grown and showing plenty of buds, the mistake is often 
made of suddenly placing them in heat, immediately over hot 
pipes or flues, the heat from which shrivels the buds and 
foliage too. Though the Hellebores are amongst our best 
flowers for forcing, it should be done gently in an atmosphere 
constantly kept humid. 

As a cut bloom, the Christmas Rose vies with the eucharis 
and pancratium. For vase work, or used about the person, it is 
a flower that wins the greatest admiration, and it is no unusual 
thing for cut flowers to last indoors quite a fortnight. 

H. n. angustifolius (narrow-leaved Hellebore) has smaller 
flowers than the type. The divisions of the leaves or leaflets 
are narrower, whence its name. The foliage is of a pale or 
apple green, whereas that of the type is very dark. It was 
introduced in the same year as its reputed parent. As a foliage 
plant it is very handsome, the leaves bending gracefully, and 
the whole specimen having a neat appearance. 

H. n. maximus is the largest Christmas Rose, and is a truly 
grand variety; the flowers are 4in. and Sin. across. The 
illustration (Fig. 49) is one-fourth natural size. The scapes 
are very stout, and produce several flowers, which are held 
well above the foliage ; like those of the type, they, too, are 
tinted with a pink colour, which passes away when the flowers 
are a week or so old. The foliage is remarkably bold, having 
thick, round, and beautifully marked stalks. Well-established 
specimens have a shrub-like effect, being nearly 2ft. high, and 
richly furnished to the ground. The half -blown buds of this 
variety are exquisitely beautiful, and vary somewhat in form 
according to their age ; some resemble a nearly blown tulip, and 
others a rosebud. As buttonholes, backed with a frond of 
maidenhair, they are charming. A whole scape, having one 
fully-blown flower and several buds, is the most perfect 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWEKS. 



135 



and beautiful decoration imaginable for a lady's hair. This 
variety is at its best in the month of December, being a little 
earlier than the typical form. 

All these kinds should be grown in moist and rather shady 
quarters ; under trees not too densely f oliaged will suit them j 
the soil should be a deep rich loam. I may mention that all my 
Hellebores are grown under " nurses," i.e., suitable small trees. 
I use walnut. About eighteen species and varieties are planted 
under six small trees, 4ft. high. The reasons why I use walnut 
are, that they leaf late in spring and lose their leaves early in 




FIG. 49. HELLEBORTTS NIGER MAXIMITS. 
(One-quarter natural size.) 

autumn, so affording the greater amount of light during the 
flowering time of the Hellebores, and screening them in summer 
from the sun with their ample but not over thick foliage ; a cut 
under the trees once a year with a sharp spade keeps them dwarf 
and prevents their making too many strong roots. With- 
out saying that Hellebores should be grown in this way, it will 
serve to show how they may be conveniently shaded. Nothing 
could well look more happy under such treatment, and, once 
properly planted, they give no further trouble than a mulching 
of rotten manure in spring, when all the kinds have finished 
flowering. Christmas Roses are easily raised from seed, provided 



136 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

it is sown as soon as ripe, but plants so raised are two or three 
years before they flower. The quicker method of increase is by 
division of the roots. This can only be done successfully when 
the old stock is in robust health. Pieces of roots taken from 
old and unhealthy specimens will remain in the ground for 
twelve months as immovable as stones, whereas the least 
Trits of clean young growths will form nice blooming plants the 
first year. 

Flowering period, December to March. 

Helleborus Odorus. 

SWEET-SCENTED HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. BANTJNCULACE^E. 
LIKE all the Hellebores, excepting the white-flowered H. niger 
and its varieties, this has, until very recently, been much 
neglected, notwithstanding that its name implies the rare and 
desirable quality of a sweet odour ; moreover, it is of easy 
culture, very hardy, and a free bloomer. It is a native of 
Hungary, and was introduced to English gardens in 1817. It is 
like H. purpurascens, only its flowers are green ; it even more 
strongly resembles our native H. viridis. All its foliage is 
renewed annually. It belongs to the section having stems 
few-flowered, forked, and bearing floral leaves. It grows 9in. 
to 12in. high. 

The flowers are green, small, nodding, and scented. The 
sepals are nearly round, and overlap each other. The flowers 
are produced at long intervals on the twice-branched, stout, pale 
green stems ; they are supported by prettily-cut leaves, having 
lance- shaped segments, finely serrated, also having large sti- 
pules. The radical leaves are palmate, covered with a fine down 
on the under surface. The segments are oblong, undivided, 
and at the base quite entire, but finely toothed near the top. 
The bloom lasts a long time, either cut or in the growing 
state. There is nothing very distinct to the eye about this 
species, but it is to be commended for the sweetness of its 
flowers. 

Like other Hellebores, it should be grown in a shady place, 
where there is a good depth of rich sandy loam. Propagated by 
division of healthy stock at almost any period. 

Flowering period, February to March. 

Helleborus Olympicus. 

OLYMPIAN HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. E/ANUNCTJLACE^E. 
THIS comes from a Grecian habitat, as the specific name denotes ; 
still it is perfectly hardy in this climate, and it deserves a place 
in every garden. It is not so old in English gardens as some 
kinds, and may not be much known ; at any rate, it is seldom 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 137 

met with ; but, from the fact of its coming into bloom in the 
first month of the year, and having finely -formed purple flowers, 
it is a desirable companion to the white Christmas Rose ; it is 
variously stated to have white and purple flowers, both state- 
ments being authorised ; they are produced in spare clusters on 
stems a foot high ; the buds are charming objects, of a ruddy- 
brown colour, and the size of a big filbert; they are rather 
close together, and supported by a " cut floral leaf." The leaves 
are well divided and almost palm-shaped, the leaflets being 
ovate and toothed. It is a free grower, and never fails to bloom 
well too. 

Cultivation and flowering period, the same as with H. niger. 

Helleborus Orientalis. 

EASTERN HELLEBORE; Nat. Ord. RANUNCTJLACEJE. 
SOMETIMES also called the Lenten Rose, as it may often be 
seen in flower during Lent, though it is no uncommon thing 
for it to bloom in January in favoured situations and mild 
winters. This is a very old species which has long been known 
to botanists, but it has only recently been introduced into this 
country. It is a native of the Levant, is plentiful on 
mountains and near Thessalonica and Constantinople. It has 
gone under the name of H. officinalis, and as such was, as it still 
is, the shop Hellebore of the East. As a garden flower it is to be 
recommended as one of the best of the genus ; the colour is 
often a fine rose variously tinted, and the blooms are of good 
size. It is, however, a species respecting which there is still 
considerable misconception. One authority says the leaves die 
off: and again appear with the flowers ; another classes it with 
the group "leaves not annually dying"; then one says, "the 
greenish-white blossoms are tinted at the margin with purple " ; 
another, that the flowers are " rose-coloured " ; whilst botanical 
descriptions, usually so taunting to the florist as regards 
blossom-colour, are no exceptions in this case. " Sepals oval, 
coloured," does not point out very clearly the information desired. 
Many of the species of Hellebore are known to produce flowers 
varying more or less in colour; and we also know that an 
individual blossom, during the long period in which the sepals 
keep good, often changes its tints and colours, but we are 
scarcely prepared to hear that a species has greenish-white 
flowers, whilst we have always seen a rosy or rosy-purple one 
produced. Still, the information from another source, that H. 
orientalis is a species intermediate between H. niger and H. 
viridis, would seem to favour the greenish-white as the typical 
colour ; be that as it may, it is most likely that the more desir- 
able rosy-flowered variety will prevail in flower gardens, that 
being the general recognised colour of the type, and moreover, 



138 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

one which renders it pleasingly distinct in the whole genus. 
There are hybrid kinds which have been raised from this 
species crossed with H. viridis and, perhaps, others, and some 
of them have greenish- white flowers; but they should not be 
confounded with the species under notice. These varieties have 
received such names as H. orientalis elegans, H. o. viridescens, 
and H. o. punctatus. If hybrids are to be honoured with 
specific names, it will require much care to avoid confusion, 
and it is just possible that some such causes have led to 
the various descriptions above referred to. The type under 
notice is fairly distinct, and the amateur having a slight 
acquaintance with the Hellebore family will have little difficulty 
in making it out. 

The flowers are produced on forked stems, and are accom- 
panied by finely-cut floral leaves, nearly sessile and palmate; the 
radical leaves are large, pedate, downy underneath, having long 
stalks, and remaining green throughout winter. The habit is to 
push the stout flower stems well up above the foliage, sometimes 
as high as 18in. ; the flowers are very durable, at least the major 
parts as the sepals are, the stamens and petals falling some- 
what sooner than those of most species ; if different positions 
are given to a few specimens, flowers may be had from Christmas 
to Lent, according to amount of shelter or exposure therein 
obtained for the plants. 

There are facts connected with this plant, as other than a 
garden subject, which can hardly fail to be generally interesting. 
" This is the Black Hellebore of the ancients," so that, though 
H. niger bears the name and is known to be largely possessed 
of properties similar to those of the oriental species, it is proved 
to be wrongly applied. So much was claimed by ancient doctors 
for the Black Hellebore as a medicine in mania, epilepsy, dropsy, 
and other ills to which mortals are heirs, that naturally the time 
plant was sought with much zeal. Dr. Woodville laments the 
want of proper descriptions of plants and the consequences, 
and in his " Botany," p. 51, points out some ridiculous errors 
made in reference to the Black Hellebore previous to 1790 ; he 
gives the names of many plants which had been mistaken for it 
and actually employed, and he assumes that at the time of his 
writing all such errors had not only been discovered, but cor- 
rected, by what he then described as, and we now call by the 
name of, H. niger, being the true Black Hellebore ; and after 
all, the potent herb of the ancients has been identified in a plant 
(a near relation, it is true) other than the white Christmas Rose 
it may be some time before we come to think of our present 
subject as the true Black Hellebore, especially when an otherwise 
popular species bears the name. 

Cultivation, as for H. niger. 

Flowering period, December to April. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 139 

Helleborus Purpurascens. 

PURPLISH HELLEBORE ; Nat. Ord. RANTJNCULACE.E. 
A NATIVE of Podolia and Hungary, introduced sixty to seventy 
years ago. It belongs to the section whose flowers appear before 
the root leaves, having branched flower stalks and the cut floral 
leaf. It is a dwarf kind, and varies very much ; I have now an 
established specimen in bloom at the height of 3in., and others 
at Sin. or 9in. It also differs in the depth of bloom-colour; 
some of its flowers may be described as purplish-green and 
others as greenish-purple, slaty and dove- coloured; others have 
a tinge of red more visible. The flowers are few, on twice- 
forked stems, are 2in. or more across, and commonly, as the name 
implies, of a purplish colour ; the inner surface of the sepals is 
a slaty shade, the purple prevailing on the outer surface ; the 
form of the flower is nearly round and slightly cupped, from the 
nearly round or kidney shaped sepals, which neatly overlap each 
other, and are also incurved at the edges ; the petals are very 
short and green ; the stamens and anthers of a creamy white ; 
the floral leaf is nearly stalkless ; segments unevenly toothed. 
The radical leaves are " pubescent on the under surface, palmate, 
with the segments cuneated at the base, and from three to five 
lobed at the apex." The habit is robust and free blooming ; the 
flowers slightly droop, and, though the colours are not showy, 
they^ are attractive from the way in which they are borne on the 
straight stems and the absence of the larger leaves. It is a 
desirable species for the garden ; a few specimens grown amongst 
a mass of the " winter aconite " are enough to make one forget 
that it is winter. 

Cultivation, as for If. niger. 

Flowering period, February to April. 

Hepatica Angulosa. 

Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACEJE. 

THIS is a very distinct species. It comes from North America, 
and is twice the size of H. triloba in all its parts ; the leaves are 
more cut, and very woolly ; the flowers are bright mauve, and 
l^in. across. All the Hepaticas are slow growers, but H. angu- 
losa is the more vigorous. Some say they should be grown in 
peat, but I never saw them so fine in peat as in strong loam, 
well drained and manured; they are the better with slight 
shade. I do not object to peat, as possibly it may be more 
suitable than the natural soil of some gardens. Still, if I had 
to make up a compost for Hepaticas, I should freely use strong 
loam on a well- drained site. With me they have been in flower 
nearly three months, commencing in February. 

It seems desirable to increase these fine spring flowers, but 
they are most impatient of being disturbed, and, after all, the 



140 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



increase can exist in no finer form than in big clumps, though 
when they are to be propagated the roots should be divided 
before the new leaves are produced, which is during the bloom- 
ing period. A deeply-dug and well-manured plot should be 
prepared for them, and their long roots should not be doubled 
up in the least ; they both need and deserve great care. 
Flowering period, February to April. 

Hepatica Triloba. 

Syns. ANEMONE TRILOBA and ANEMONE HEPATICA; 

Nat. Ord. E/ANTJNCULACEJE. 

THE well-known common Hepatica, of which there are so many 
beautiful varieties. It is a hardy perennial, one of the "old- 
fashioned " flowers of English gardens, and is said by some to 
be a British species ; anyhow, it was well known and admired in 
this country 300 years ago. Well-established specimens form 




FIG. 50. HEPATICA TRILOBA. 
(One-third natural size.) 

neat tufts of three-lobed leaves on long stems, which are not 
evergreen in this climate, though the Hepaticas are known to 
be so in North America, one of their most extensive habitats. 
Here, under cultivation, they produce much finer flowers, and 
more of them. The cut (Fig. 50), however, shows the foliage 
in more perfect form than it is commonly seen to be in this 
climate during the period of bloom, when the old is usually 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 141 

sered, and the new scarcely visible. The varieties of H. triloba 
differ only in the colour and form of their flowers, there being 
blue, purple, white, and pink. Of the first and last named there 
are double varieties as well. 

Cultivation, the same as for H. angulosa. 

Flowering period, February to April. 

H. t. splendens is a charming Windflower, and one which, 
from its extra brilliancy, is sure to become a favourite, as, 
indeed, the whole genus Anemone is. It is a new variety of JET. 
triloba, and is yet somewhat scarce, differing from the more gene- 
rally known kinds of the same species in only two points, so 
that, beyond the mention of them, no other description is need- 
ful: (1) Its flowers are single red, but so much deeper in colour, 
brighter, and of better substance, as to be quite distinct, and 
merit the name "splendens." (2) It flowers earlier than the 
commoner red kind. This handsome seedling of the common 
Hepatica is very suggestive of what can be done by raising seed 
from carefully-selected sorts, and within the last few years 
something has been done in that direction, so that in a little 
time we may expect to see other good varieties. I may add that 
seedlings are three years before they bloom, and even longer 
before a proper idea can be formed of their qualities. 

Cultivation, the same as for H. angulosa. 

Flowering period, February to March. 

Hesperis Matronalis Flore-pleno. 

DOUBLE SWEET ROCKET, or DAMES' YIOLET ; Nat. Ord. 

CRTJCIFER^E. 

THERE are several double forms of this very popular old flower, 
such as purple, ruby, and pure white, the last named being by 
far the greatest favourite. A few years ago it was said to be 
very scarce, and in some parts of the country it certainly was so, 
but when the present taste for the good old flowers became 
general, it was not only found, but quickly propagated, so that 
now the double white Sweet Rocket may be had everywhere, and 
certainly no more beautiful flower can occupy the garden 
borders, its perfume being strong and deliciously fragrant. The 
parent plant of these double kinds is widely "distributed over 
Europe ; all are perfectly hardy. 

They vary in height from 12in. to 18in., branching candelabra- 
like, the flowers being produced in terminal spikes, arranged in 
the way of, and very much resembling, the double stocks in 
fact, the Hesperis used to be called " Queene's Gilloflower." 
The leaves may be briefly described as oval, lance-shaped, 
toothed, and veined ; dark green, and often spotted or blotched. 
Gerarde's description, too, may be given, as it is always pleasant 
to recognise the old plants 01 300 years ago : " Dames' Yiolets 



142 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

hath great large leaues of a darke greene colour, somewhat snipt 
about the edges ; among which spring up stalks of the height of 
two cubites, set with such like leaves ; the flowers come f oorth at 
the topj>e of the branches like those of the Stock Gilloflower, 
of a vei'ie sweete smell." 

These desirable flowers have a long blooming period, and their 
cultivation is simple ; there is, however, one special point to be 
observed, otherwise these double kinds will die off. It should be 
remembered that they 'produce no seed, and propagation must be 
carried out by divisions of the roots and cuttings ; old plants, 
too, have a habit of forming their perennial crowns nearly out 
of the soil, so that the roots going down from them are often bare 
and unestablished ; the older parts, too, are frequently attacked 
by ground vermin. No doubt these causes would tend greatly 
to the former scarcity of the finer kinds, but all the difficulties, 
if they can be called such, may be overcome by the very simple 
process of either putting in cuttings like wallflower slips during 
summer, or, as soon as the old plants are past their best bloom, 
dividing and replanting the various parts deeper, whereby all of 
them, however small, will make good plants the following season. 

This mode of keeping up the stock will be found to make the 
plants vigorous and free blooming, and also will prove a remedy 
for the complaint so often given expression to in such words 
as "I lost all my double Sweet Rockets; I cannot keep them 
above two years." 

Flowering period, June to August. 

Heuchera. 

ALUM-ROOT; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^}. 

THIS is a small genus of hardy perennials suitable for the 
decoration of the English garden from their bold and finely- 
shaped leaves, which are well marked with various pleasing 
tints, also because of their perpetual verdure and neat habit. 
It takes its name from J. H. de Heucher, a botanist. The 
species, as many of them as are known, are from American 
habitats ; nearly all have been introduced within the last sixty 
years; the well-known H. Americana^ however, is an old plant 
in English gardens, having been cultivated for 223 years. The 
order, as given above, together with the illustration figuring one 
of the species (see Fig. 51), will give some idea of the usefulness 
of the genus, especially when it is remembered that in the depth 
of winter the foliage is fresh, and even in a growing state. 

The flowers are of little value for ornamental purposes ; they 
are very small and numerous, and are arranged in panicles or 
racemes, on rather tall and mostly leafless stems, round, and 
somewhat wiry ; calyx, petals, and stamens have a mixed appear- 
ance, the whole flower being of a dingy colour, often resembling 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 143 

some of the panicled bloom of meadow grass, when seen at a 
short distance ; the calyces, however, are persistent, they crown 
the capsules; these and the naked stems, from their durable 
nature, mar the beauty of the foliage for several weeks, unless cut 
off. The plants are more ornamental without the flowers, as they 
impart a seedy appearance ; at no time does the foliage show to 
more advantage than in January, when most herbaceous plants 
are dormant, and when their handsome tufts are alike beautiful, 
either bedewed with fogs, crystallised with hoar-frost, or glitter- 
ing in the sunshine. As a genus, Heuchera is sometimes placed 
after Saxifraga and before that of Tiarella ; the latter it much 
resembles, as well as the genera Mitella and Tellima. Anyone 
knowing these will at once admit the usefulness of the plants 
under notice. 

Not only do they make good edgings or lines to borders, but 
the leaves in a cut state are of great service for table decora- 
tion, doing duty repeatedly around dishes, &c., either with or 
without flowers; after being so used, if placed in water, they 
may be kept a fortnight in good form. I am told that the 
leaves are sold in Covent Garden Market for similar purposes. 
I have seen them used in the autumn with the large white 
anemone, and in winter with the Christmas rose, one flower 
arranged and tied on the face of a single leaf. These placed 
round dishes, &c., have a pretty effect. 

They grow freely in any kind of soil, excepting stiff clay, 
and are readily increased by division of the crowns. This may 
be done any time, but, perhaps, spring is the best. 

The Heucheras bloom from May to August. 



Heuchera Americana. 

AMERICAN HETJCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^. 
THE flowers of this species are a dull or reddish purple. The 
foliage is rough and clammy; the form of leaf resembles that of 
H. glabra (see Fig. 51), but the colour is a lighter green. All 
the genus are of an astringent nature, but this species is 
remarkably so, and in its native country has earned for the 
family the name of " Alum-root." 

For cultivation and flowering period see Heuchera. 

Heuchera Cylindrica. 

CYLINDRICAL-SPIKED HEUCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^E. 
THIS is much in the way of H. Richardsoni, with the distinction 
indicated by the name, the flowers being arranged evenly round 
the spike like a cylinder. 

For cultivation and flowering period see Heuchera 



144 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Heuchera Drummondi. 

DRTTMMOND'S HETJCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^:. 
A TALL kind, with leaves of handsome shape (heart-shaped and 
lobed) and greener than most varieties. 

Cultivation and flowering period are described under Heuchera. 

Heuchera Glabra. 

SMOOTH HETJCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE.E. 
THIS was introduced in 1824 from North America. The foliage 
is bold and abundant; the illustration (Fig. 51) not only gives a 




:~= ._-."-- ^_- 



.- ^ 



Fia. 51. HEUCHERA GLABRA. 
(One-sixth natural size.) 

good idea of the form and habit of foliage, but fairly represents 
the whole genus, as seen during the late (1882) season. This 
species has dull pinkish flowers ; the scapes have a few leaves ; 
root leaves are 2in. to 5in. in diameter, heart-shaped, lobed, 
toothed, smooth, and of a dark bronzy-green colour. The leaf 
stalks are long and slender ; the habit very neat. 

Cultivation and flowering period are described under Heuchera. 

Heuchera Lucida. 

SHINING-LEAVED HEUCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACEJE. 
A VERY dwarf species, not more than Sin. or 4in. high ; the foliage 
a clear bright green, nearly kidney-shaped, lobed, and roundly 
toothed. The fresh appearance of its prostrate leaves, which 
are 2in. across, forms a pleasing object in mid-winter. 

Cultivation and flowering period, as given under Heuchera. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 145 

Heuchera Metallica. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^. 

THIS was presented to me in 1881 by a lady, who informed me 
that it was introduced by the late Miss Hope. It is a beautiful 
plant ; the hues somewhat justify the name, but to the touch 
the leaves are more like a soft fabric, as cloth or velvet. The 
flowers are of no value, but the foliage is bloom of no mean order, 
so much so, that everyone stops to admire this handsome plant. 
Cultivation and flowering period, as given under Heuchera. 

Heuchera Micrantha. 

SMALL-FLOWERED HEUCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^J. 

FROM Columbia. Flowers a yellowish-green; leaves nearly 
round, bluntly lobed, crenate or round toothed, the teeth horned 
or pointed; the colour is inclined to auburn during autumn, 
but it varies, and for a botanical description it would be hard to 
state a particular colour. The gardener, however, will find in this 
a most useful plant, where different forms and tints of foliage 
are desirable. Into the sub-tropical garden it may be introduced 
with good effect. I may add that the leaf stalks are 9in. to 12in. 
long, also of a rich brown colour, and the leaves are Sin. to Sin. 
across. 

Cultivation and flowering period, as described under Heuchera. 



Heuchera Purpurea. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^E. 

THIS seems to be a less known or newer variety. If the name has 
reference to the colour of the foliage) it is not inappropriate. 
The bold leaves are a dark green, shading to a bronze, then a 
purple, the whole having a soft downy effect. It is a charming 
kind. 

Cultivation and flowering period, the same as for the Heuchera. 



Heuchera Ribifolia. 

CURRANT-LEAVED HEUCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^E. 

THIS is another dwarf kind, producing such leaves as the name 
denotes. Of this species the only useful feature for a garden 
seems to be its habit of neatly carpeting the ground under 
deciduous trees. It has also a remarkably fresh appearance 
during winter. 

Cultivation and flowering period, as for other Heucheras. 

L 



146 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Heuchera Ri c hards on i. 

RICHARDSON'S HEUCHERA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^. 
A TALLER variety than H. Drummondi. The most striking 
distinctions are the pale green colour of the young leaves con- 
trasting with the bronzed appearance of the older ones, and the 
larger size of its flowers, which, however, are green. 
Cultivation and flowering period, as for other species. 

Houstonia Coerulea. 

BLUETS; Nat. Ord. GENTIANACE^:. 

HARDY and evergreen. This pretty little shining plant never 
exceeds a height of 3in. Like most species of this order, both 
flowers and foliage have much substance and endure for a long 
time in perfection, but its neat form and bright parts most com- 
mend it it almost sparkles in both leaf and flower. This species, 




FlG. 52. HOTTSTONIA CCERULEA. 

(Natural size.) 



as implied by the specific name, bears a blue flower, but there is a 
variety (H. c. alba or H. albiflord) which bears white flowers, 
from a specimen of which the illustration (Fig. 52) is drawn, and, 
as the colour of the flower is the only dissimilarity, a description 
of the typical form will in all other respects apply to both. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 147 

The flowers, which are produced singly on slender stems 2in. 
high, are composed of a four-toothed calyx; corolla, four petals, 
or four-toothed and funnel-shaped ; when fully expanded each 
flower is |in. across, and shows a distinct yellow eye. The leaves 
of the root are spathulate, those of the stems opposite and 
lanceolate ; all the parts are shown of the natural size in the 
illustration. 

All the known Houstonias are natives of North America ; 
still, our winters seem to kill strong plants. From an impres- 
sion that the plants were destroyed by insects amongst their 
roots and foliage, I had several tufts lifted, well shaken out, and 
divided in the autumn; they were replanted in leaf soil and sand 
and kept rather moist. When planting them, all amongst the 
roots was thickly strewn with dry silver sand, so as to leave no 
space for the lodgment of vermin ; the results were fine, fresh, 
green tufts throughout the following winter, which, however, 
was not severe ; still, the plants not so treated dwindled and were 
unhealthy, whereas the others were finely in bloom, the subject 
of the drawing being one of them. These minute plants do well 
and look well wedged between large stones on rockwork, where 
they flower nearly all the year round ; they also form pretty pot 
specimens under cold frame treatment ; and they may be used 
with good effect for surfacing the pots in which other hardy but 
tall and bare stemmed things such as lilies are grown. 

The mode of propagation has been indicated by the above 
autumnal treatment. 

Flowering period, April to July. 

Hutchinsia Alpina. 

Syn. LEPIDIUM ALPINUM; Nat. Ord. CRUCIFER^:. 
AN alpine species, from South Europe, which may be said to be 
evergreen in this climate, and, according to my experience of it, 
flowering throughout the year. Though found in some gardens 
to be difficult to establish, when it finds a suitable home it 
becomes a pretty addition. 

This alpine seldom exceeds 2in. in height. The flowers are 
a glistening white and very small, produced in numerous heads, 
and they are very enduring ; the calyx is concave and falls off ; 
the four petals are inversely ovate ; the little leaves are deeply 
lobed, of a pale shining green colour, with plenty of substance ; 
its habit is spreading or creeping. Neither slugs nor any other 
pests seem to meddle with it. It may be transplanted at 
any time, and the mode of propagation may be gathered from 
the following remarks. 

Probably because its name implies its alpine character, some 
may be misled to plant it on rockwork; whether that be so or 
not, I so tried it, and found it would not grow in such a 

L2 



148 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

situation. A bed of dwarf and moisture-loving subjects was 
being planted, in which a bit of this Hutchinsia was dibbled, and 
it found a home in the moist vegetable soil. For two or three 
years I do not remember to have seen it, or the seedlings, with- 
out flowers ; its pretty, dwarf, rue-like foliage grew so thickly 
that it threatened to kill the edging of gentianella and such 
things as Polemonium variegatum, the double cuckoo-flower, and 
the little Armeria setacea ; it also filled the walks, and its long 
wiry roots have been eradicated with difficulty. From this 
it will be seen how much depends, with some plants, on the posi- 
tion in which they are placed. 



Hydrangea Paniculata Grandiflora. 

LARGE-PANICLED HYDRANGEA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^;. 

THIS dwarf shrub is perfectly hardy and deciduous; it comes 
from Japan, and is one of the best hardy^ things I have come 
across for some time. It is quite a new introduction, and has 
many fine qualities ; the fact of its producing immense clusters 
of white flowers, 12in. long and 12in. in circumference, as 
well-established plants, is enough to induce its extended cul- 
tivation ; but when it is stated that its clusters are numerous 
and durable, that the shrub begins to flower in summer and 
continues in great beauty until damaged by frosts, it will doubt- 
less be recorded on the lists of desiderata of those who do not 
possess it. The usefulness of such a subject is notable not only 
to the gardener who has a keen eye to artistic effect, but to the 
lover of showy flowers (see Fig. 53). 

The flowers are male and female kinds, and, as is usual with the 
genus, the fruitful ones are interspersed with unfruitful, being 
shorter in the stalks and nearly covered over by the latter, 
which are much larger ; in fact, they^ are not the true flowers 
from a botanist's point of view, but with the florist it is exactly 
the opposite; their colour is white, more or less tinted with 
pink, which, if the autumn season proves fine and dry, becomes 
purple. As the name denotes, the bloom is arranged in massive 
panicles, pyramidal form, Gin. to 12in. long, and 4in. to 8in. in 
diameter. They slightly bend with the great weight, but are 
otherwise well supported by the woody stems. The latter are 
somewhat short, seeing they carry such large clusters. The 
leaves are oval, subcordate (varying), distinctly ribbed, and 
finely toothed, also varying much in size. The habit of the 
shrub is much branched, of strong growth, and very floriferpus. 
The flowering shoots issue from the hard wood of the previous 
season's growth. In the shrubbery it is very attractive, its 
flowers out-numbering, out-measuring, and out-lasting most of its 
neighbours. Kept dwarf, what a grand bedder it would make ! 
Grown in pots it is a first-class indoor subject. It has that rare 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



149 



quality, [even when in small pots, of being adapted for the 
company of large ferns, palms, &c., from the great size of its 
panicles, and I need scarcely say that for cutting purposes it is 
valuable, more [especially in decorations which are not closely 
viewed. 

The culture of this shrub is very simple ; it does best in rich 
loam. The situation should be sunny, that it may well ripen its 
wood. In order to have clusters of large size, it should be 




FIG. 53. HYDRANGEA PANICULATA GRANDIFLORA. 
(One-tenth natural size ; blossom, natural size. 

closely pruned, like roses, by which treatment the bush may also 
be kept in the desired form. Its propagation is by cuttings; they 
should be of fairly well-ripened wood of the last season's growth. 
The degree of ripeness, like that of such things as roses and 
fuchsias, may vary according to the method by which the 
cuttings are to be treated. Half -ripened shoots will root well 
in a little heat ; the harder wood will root equally well, but more 
slowly ,"in the open in sandy loam. 
Flowering period, July to end of September. 



150 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Hypericum Calycinum. 

LARGE -CALYXED ST. JOHN'S WORT, or ROSE OF SHARON; Nat. 

Ord. HYPERICACE^:. 

A VERY ornamental deciduous shrub, but often green through- 
out the winter. This 1 claim the privilege of introducing 
amongst herbaceous perennials ; it is a well-known and favourite 
" old-fashioned " flower, in fact, a native of Ireland. The old 
name for it was " Cup St. John's Wort." In July it is in splendid 
form, and, familiar as we are with it, it never fails to win admira- 
tion. How charming are its large, shining, golden blossoms, 
nestling amongst the bright but glaucous foliage ! the bundled 
tassels composed of numerous filamentary stamens glisten- 
ing like threads of gold ; and though often seen one can never 
tire of it. As a flower, it is distinct in form, showy, and richly 
effective. 

It grows to the height of 1ft. or 18in. ; the flowers are 4in. 
across, of a rich golden-yellow colour, and produced singly on the 
very leafy stems which, at the base or at their more woody parts, 
are square, the upper parts being nearly round. Short flower- 
stalks issue from the side and near the top, a small new growth 
being produced in juxtaposition with the blossom, the said 
growth being composed of half-a-dozen or so smaller-sized leaves 
of a pale apple-green, charmingly suffused with a glaucous hue. 
The calyx of five sepals is very large, whence the specific name, 
and each sepal is nearly round and cupped, whence the old com- 
mon name, " Cup St. John's Wort " ; the five petals are 2in. long 
and widely apart ; stamens very numerous, long, thready, and 
arranged in tufts. These are very beautiful, and form the most 
conspicuous part of the flower ; like the other seed organs, and 
also the petals, they are of a rich, glistening, yellow colour. 
The leaves are closely arranged in pairs, opposite, and nearly 
sessile ; they are 2in. to Sin. long, and about lin. broad, oval- 
oblong, blunt, smooth, and leathery. When young, they are 
as above described, but when older, they are of a dark, shining 
green colour, and somewhat reflexed. The under sides are finely 
reticulated or veined, and sometimes the foliage is spotted with 
brown. The habit of the shrub is neat, the short stems being 
numerous and semi-prostrate, forming dense, even masses of 
verdant foliage. 

Such a subject as this cannot be too highly esteemed on the 
score of the merits already set forth ; but there are other good 
qualities which I will briefly refer to presently. There can be 
little doubt that the fine parts and many uses, decorative and 
otherwise, of most of the " old-fashioned " flowers have much to do 
with the high and continued esteem in which they are held. Not 
one of the least recommendations of this St. John's Wort is that 
it can be grown with great success under the shade of trees. It 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 151 

is one of the very few subjects that will bloom freely in such 
situations. It is, therefore, very valuable ; besides, as regards its 
period of flowering, it conies in nicely after the vincas are over. 
These two genera are, perhaps, the best hardy flowering shrubs 
we possess -for planting in the shade of trees. I scarcely need add 
that for more open situations, as rockwork and borders, it is in 
every way suitable. 

To the lover of cut flowers this must prove one of the most 
satisfactory, not only because of its beauty, but also because 
they are produced for fully three months into September 
and they are sweetly scented, like wallflowers. A flower- 
topped stem forms a perfect and unique decoration for a lady's 
hair ; sprays in small vases are exquisite, whilst a bowlful for the 
table (without any other flower) is very fine indeed let the 
reader try these simple styles of decoration. Also, mixed with 
other flowers, it is one of the most telling ; none of the yellow 
exotics can excel it. It is now before me, with a few sprays of the 
pink sweet pea and a bold spike of the white variety of goat's-rue ; 
the blend is both delicate and effective. As a cut flower it can 
hardly be misused, provided it is not crowded. 

Its culture is simple. Any sort of garden soil suits it, but it 
prefers a sandy loam. A winter top dressing of stable litter will 
help to produce greater luxuriance and a longer succession 
of flowers. It quickly and broadly propagates itself by means 
of its creeping roots; these may be at any time chopped 
off, with a sharp spade, in strong pieces, which, if planted in 
deeply-dug loam, will make blooming specimens for the follow- 
ing season. 

Flowering period, July to September. 



Iberis Correaefolia. 

Nat. Ord. CRTJCIFER^C. 

THIS is a hybrid and much improved variety of the well-known 
evergreen and shrubby Candytuft, often called "Everlasting 
Candytuft." A more pronounced remove from its parents could 
hardly be found in any plant or shrub than is this. There are 
evident improvements in colour, size, and habit, both in foliage 
and flowers. It is also a robust grower and perfectly hardy, in 
these respects being very different from I. Gibraltarica. None 
of the shrubby Candytufts can compare with this for usefulness 
and beauty ; it comes into flower in May, and is in its greatest 
beauty in early June. It remains in fine form for fully four 
weeks. At first the flowers seem small, but later they form 
broad masses of dazzling whiteness, the corymbs being the size 
of a crown piece. Not only is this wholly distinct from its 
relatives, but it is one of the most useful flowers and evergreen 
shrubs which can be introduced to a garden. It cannot be 



152 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

planted wrong as regards either soil or situation. It forms a 
rich surfacing subject, all the year round, to other tall plants, as 
lilies, &c. It looks well as a front specimen in the shrubbery, 
makes an effective and neat appearance at the angles of walks, 
or as an edging it may be cut and trimmed as a substitute for a 
grass verge ; it thrives on sunny or almost sunless outhouse tops, 
and on rockwork it is superb ; moreover, it grows fairly well in 
reeky towns, and though its white flowers may be soiled the day 
they open, its bright green leaves and dense habit render it a 
pleasing object. 

The flowers are arranged in flat heads at first, but as the stems 
become elongated and the succession of buds open, a long round 
cluster is formed by the old flowers remaining (as they do for 
weeks), such heads or spikes sometimes being 3in. long. There 
is much substance in the petals, which causes them to glisten 
in strong light ; the flower stems are produced 5in. or 6in. above 
the foliage, their total height rarely exceeding a foot. The leaves 
are numerous, of a dark shining green colour ; in length l^in., 
and over ^in. broad near the ends ; their shape is spathulate, 
obtuse, entire, and smooth; the new set of foliage contrasts 
pleasingly with the old, and its growth is completed during the 
flowering period ; the woody and slender branches are numerous 
and procumbent. 

Besides the positions already mentioned, in which this shrub 
may usefully be planted, there is none more so, perhaps, than 
that of rough or unsightly corners, where, if it is provided 
with a little loam, it will soon adapt its form to the surround- 
ings. The flowers in a cut state are not only sweet- smelling, but 
very useful where white bloom is needed in quantity, as for 
church decorations. I. correcefolia can scarcely be said to need 
cultural treatment, but it is useful to bear in mind that it may 
be much more finely bloomed if generously treated, which 
simply consists in nothing more than giving it a sunny place 
and sandy loam, well enriched with old manure. Specimens so 
treated, which were cuttings only two years ago, are now 2ft. in 
diameter, and covered densely with large flowers; and how 
lovely some of the pretty weeds which have sprung up amongst 
the bushes, and mingle their flowers among the masses of white, 
appear such as Spring Beauty ( Clay tonia), pink flowers; the 
Maiden Pink (Dianthus deltoides), rose; Self-heal (Prunella 
pyrenaica], purple ; and the forget-me-nots ! This comparatively 
new Candytuft is as easily increased as grown, by either layers 
or cuttings ; the latter may be put in almost any time, early 
spring being the best ; if put in in June, no better quarters can 
be given than under the shade of shrubs, where the soil is sandy 
loam. 

Flowering period, middle of May to middle of June. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 153 

Iris Fcetidissima. 

GLADDON, GLADWIN, or SPURGE-WORT; Nat. Ord. IRIDACEJE. 
A BRITISH species, occurring largely in some parts, in shady 
woods and swampy places near the sea. It is evergreen and of 
a pleasing form throughout the year. Its flowers are of a dull 
colour, and not likely to be much esteemed, more especially when 
in midsummer there are so many beautiful kinds around ; still, 
it merits a place in our gardens. Its handsome berry-like seeds, 
which are so attractively conspicuous in December, are much 
more desirable than its flowers, ready as they are for our use at 
Christmas time. 

It grows 2ft. high, and is a water-loving plant, but may be 
easily grown in the more moist parts of the garden. The large 
pod is three-cornered ; the husks having turned brown, become 
divided, and expose to view the large, orange-coloured seeds, 
which, later, turn to a reddish-brown. They are held in the husks 
for many weeks and strong winds do not displace them ; they are 
very effective amongst the dark green foliage, and may be cut if 
desired, as they often are, for indoor decoration They may be 
used in a hundred different ways, but never do they show to more 
advantage than when cut with ' long stems and placed in a vase 
with some of their own dark green sword-shaped leaves ; these 
last-named, by the way, may be appropriated throughout the 
winter as a dressing for other flowers. There need be no 
difficulty in growing this species, for if the soil is not naturally 
moist in summer, a thick dressing of rotten stable manure will 
meet the case. As a matter of fact, my specimen is grown in a 
bed fully exposed to the sun ; the soil is well drained, and stone- 
crops are grown in the next bed to it ; no water is ever given to 
established plants, and still the Gladwin is well fruited ; the soil is 
deeply tilled, and there is a thick covering of manure. It is 
easily propagated by division of the roots in autumn or early 
spring. 

Flowering period, June to August. 

Isopyrum Gracilis. 

SLENDER ISOPYRUM; Nat. Ord. BANUNCULACE^:. 
THIS is a hardy herbaceous plant, of great beauty. The flowers 
are not showy, but their great numbers and arrangement render 
them of importance in what may be termed a fme-foliaged 
subject. The Isopyrums are very nearly related to the thalic- 
trums or rues, and this one greatly resembles the maidenhair- 
like section, one of which it is often taken for. There is, how- 
ever, an important botanical difference between the two genera : 
the thalictrums have no calyx, and the Isopyrums have. Still, 
as the flowers of both are very small, that feature is not very 
observable. As a decorative plant it may be classed with the 



154 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

maidenhair-like rues, and the illustration may be said to give a 
fair idea of three or four species. 

The Isopyrum under notice grows 12in. or 15in. high, and 
produces its dark brown flowers on slender, well-branched stems, 
forming feathery panicles, which have a graceful appearance. 
The flowers are very small, and composed of a five-cleft calyx, 
five equal petals, and numerous long, pendent seed-organs ; the 
stems are elegantly furnished with the fine-cut foliage. The 
leaves are large, but the leaflets small, as may be seen by the one 
given, full size, in the drawing (Fig. 54), being somewhat 




FIG. 54. ISOPYRUM GEACILIS. 
(One-eighth natural size ; 1, leaflet, full size.) 

cordate, lobed, and dentate ; they have hair-like stalks, which 
add to their elegance of arrangement, and their glaucous colour 
further enhances their effectiveness. 

This light and diffuse subject may be usefully planted to 
relieve other kinds ; in beds or lines it looks well, having a 
lace-like effect ; as a cut flower or spray it nearly equals maiden- 
hair, and for mixing with large flowers, it perhaps excels. Either 
cut or in the growing state it is very durable. It may be grown 
in average garden soil, but to have it fine, it should be given 
vegetable soil and a moist situation, not shaded. It is propagated 
by seeds or division of the roots in autumn. 

Flowering period, July and August. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



155 



Jasminum Nudiflorum. 

NUDE-FLOWERED JASMINE ; Nat. Ord. JASMINACE^. 

THIS was brought to this country from China a little less than 
forty years ago, and, as proof of its sterling worth, it is already 
in extensive use. The whole genus is a favourite one ; but there 




FIG. 55. JASMINUM NUDIFLORUM. 
(One-third natural size.) 



is a special and most attractive feature about this species that is 
sure to render it desirable to all it flowers freely in midwinter, 
and it does so in the open garden. Like many of the genus, this 
species comes from a very warm climate, and for a time it was 
grown in glass-houses as a tender shrub, where it flowered during 
the winter months. It is now found to be a perfectly hardy 



156 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

subject, not only withstanding our most trying seasons without 
the least injury, but also proving true to the month of December 
as the period when it begins to produce its numerous golden 
flowers. It is a climbing deciduous shrub, though it has neither 
the habit of clinging nor twining. 

The shrub produces bloom when only 18in. high, but it often 
grows to as many feet, and even taller. The flowers are borne 
singly at the joints from which the leaves have fallen, and as the 
latter were opposite, the blossom appears in pairs on the new 
twigs. In the bud state they are drooping, and are marked with 
a bright chestnut tint on the sunny side. The calyx is ample, 
almost leafy, but these parts are hidden when the flower opens 
and becomes erect. The form of the Jasmine blossom is well 
known ; in size this one is rather larger than a full-blown violet, 
and quite as sweetly scented, which is saying very much, but the 
colour is yellow ; the petals are of good substance and shining ; 
the flowers last a long time, even during the roughest weather, 
they open most during sunshine, but do not wait for it, and they 
remain open until they fade. The leaves, which are produced in 
early spring, are very small and ternate ; leaflets of unequal size, 
ovate, downy, and of dark green colour. The wood is very 
pithy, square, with sharp corners, and having the appearance 
almost as if winged; the younger branchlets are dark bronze 
green. The habit of the shrub is rampant, climbing, much 
branched, and very floriferous. The green leafless sprigs of 
bloom are very serviceable in a cut state for vase decoration, 
especially if mixed with dry grasses or well-f oliaged flowers ; the 
sweet odour, too, reminds one of spring time. Specimens 
growing against the house or other walls, either nailed or in 
a trellis, have a happy effect in winter, from the slender 
whip-like growths hanging down and being well bloomed. 
From the dark green colour and great number of branchlets, 
although leafless, a well-grown example has quite the effect of 
an evergreen. 

It enjoys a sunny position, but I have it doing well in a north- 
west aspect ; it may be used in bush form in almost any situa- 
tion. Neither is it particular as to soil, but I should not think 
of planting a winter-blooming subject in stiff or retentive loam 
that of a sandy nature is more likely to be productive of 
flowers. It is easily propagated from cuttings of the young 
wood; if they are taken in late summer, when the leaves are 
falling, they will root quickly. Before the strong west winds of 
autumn occur, it should be pruned, in order to prevent its being 
torn from the wall; if the prunings are laid in sandy loam, 
between shrubs, they will be sufficiently rooted for planting 
out by the following spring. 

Flowering period, December to April. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 157 

Kalmia Latifolia. 

BROAD-LEAVED KALMIA; Nat. Ord. ERICACEAE. 

AN evergreen shrub, very hardy in our climate. It conies 
from North America, and from its dwarf character and free- 
blooming habit, it is not only one of the most useful shrubs, but 
may be freely planted in connection with herbaceous subjects, 
where it will help to redeem the deadness of beds and borders 
during winter (see Fig. 56). Like the rhododendron, it grows to 
various heights, according to the soil or situation in which it 
may be planted, but 18in. to 2ft. is the size at which it may often 




FIG. 56. KALMIA LATIFOLIA. 
(One-third natural size.) 



perhaps most often be seen producing its wealth of flowers. 
There are many fine flowering shrubs, but they do not gain the 
esteem in which this is held. Its large clusters of delicate 
flowers, surmounting dark shining foliage, and which seem almost 
too pure and beautiful to withstand the vicissitudes of the open 
garden, are its winning points ; moreover, the flowers last several 
weeks in perfection. The flowers are arranged in broad 
panicles; the pedicels and five-cleft caly^x are a bright brown 
colour, and furnished with short stiff hairs. The salver- shaped 
corolla, which is white, pleasingly tinted with red, has a short 



158 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

tube and five divisions, curiously cornered ; the flower is fully Jin. 
across, and in its unopened state is hardly less pretty than when 
blown. The leaves are borne on stout woody branches, have 
short stalks, and a bent or contorted habit ; they are thick, 
leathery, shining, smooth, and of a dark green colour on the 
upper side; underneath they are a yellowish-green. In form 
they are elliptical and entire, being Sin. to 4in. long. Healthy 
specimens are well furnished with foliage ; otherwise it is spare, 
and when that is the case the flowering is rarely satisfactory. 

As this subject requires to be grown in moist vegetable soil, 
such as leaf mould or peat, it is useless to plant it where these con- 
ditions do not exist ; moreover, the rule with species of the order 
Ericaceae is to require a pure, or approximately pure, atmosphere. 
Doubtless these conditions will debar many from growing this 
shrub successfully ; but I may add, where its requirements can be 
afforded, not only should it be freely planted, but it will probably 
thrive without any further care. 

As a cut flower it is exquisite, if taken with a good stem and a 
few leaves ; to many it may appear odd when I say it is too good 
to cut, but there are others who will comprehend me. The 
flowers can nowhere show to more advantage than on the bush, 
and it seems a pity to take its strongest branches for the sake of 
transferring the blossom. 

It is a slow-growing subject, but easily propagated by layering 
the lower branches ; no matter how old or hard the wood has 
grown, if pegged well down they will soon become rooted. 

Flowering period, June to August. 

Lactuca Sonchifolia. 

Sow THISTLE-LEAVED LETTUCE ; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS is one of the few ornamental species of a somewhat 
numerous genus ; it is, moreover, perennial and hardy in this 
climate characteristics not common to the family. It came 
from Candia, in 1822, since which time it has been grown in 
English gardens, more or less, as a decorative plant; it is 
of unusual form, especially in the foliage. I think it would 
scarcely be called handsome ; but the flowers, which are a fine 
pale blue, and of the form usual to the order, are too good to be 
overlooked, and their value is enhanced by the fact of their 
being produced so late in the year. 

In speaking of the flower as a subject of the pleasure garden, 
it is unnecessary to describe it beyond saying that it is of a rich 
but pale blue colour, and over lin. across, produced on stalks 
nearly 2ft. high, in lax panicles. The leaves are large about 
1ft. long and 9in. wide have a stout midrib, are pinnate, and 
most curiously lobed. The leaflets, moreover, are fantastically 
shaped, being again lobed, also toothed and bent in various 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 159 

ways. The teeth have spine-like points, and the only uniform 
trait about their form seems to be that the edges are turned 
backwards. The upper surface is a pale green colour, the under 
side grey, almost white. It is of rather neat habit, and though 
I have not grown it in lines, it is only needful to see one good 
specimen in order to be certain of its effectiveness when so 
planted ; it would be singularly distinct. 

It enjoys sunny quarters and deep but light or sandy loam. 
With me it does well on a raised bed of light earth ; its long tap 
roots will save it from drought during the driest summer, when 
its fleshy and fast-growing foliage would lead one to think that 
it could not endure a dry time. It is readily increased by 
division of the roots or seed. 

Flowering period, September to strong frosts. 



Lathyrus Grandiflorus 

LARGE-FLOWERED EVERLASTING PEA ; Nat. Ord. LEGUMINOS^:. 

A HARDY, herbaceous climber, coming from the South of Europe. 
It was introduced to this country nearly seventy years ago; 
it is an attractive object when in bloom, growing 6ft. high and 
being very floriferous. The flowers are nearly 2in. across. Not 
only in good soil do specimens grow densely and become furnished 
from the ground to the extremities of the stalks with bloom, but 
the roots run under the surface so rapidly that a veritable 
thicket is formed in three or four years. It is as well to allow 
this fine pea a good broad space, in the midst of which several 
iron standards, 6ft. high, should be firmly fixed; to these, fresh 
twiggy branches might be secured every spring ; if the old ones are 
left in, their rottenness will allow them to snap off during strong 
winds when the tendrils have laid hold of them; but fresh 
branches, used as suggested, will bend but not break, and will 
withstand the strongest winds. This is very important, as, if 
the mass of foliage heads over, it is spoilt for the season. 

The flowers are dark rose colour, produced in twos and threes 
on longish stalks, which spring from the axils. The tendrils are 
three-cut, having a pair of oval leaflets ; the stems are square, or 
four-angled, and slightly twisted and winged. This plant may 
be grown in any soil or situation. A specimen does well with 
me planted in rubble, where it covers a short rain-water pipe, the 
said pipe being feathered with twigs every spring ; but to have 
flowers of extra size and luxuriant growth, plant in good loam, 
in a sunny site, and top dress with stable manure every spring. 
This large Pea-flower is most useful for cutting purposes, being 
not only handsome but very durable. The running roots may be 
transplanted in early spring, just before they make any stem. 

Flowering period, June to August. 



160 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



Lathyrus Latifolius. 

LARGE-LEAVED LATHYRUS, or EVERLASTING PEA; Nat' Ord. 

LEGUMINOS^E. 

THIS deciduous climber is one of the handsomest plants of the 
British flora (see Fig. 57); in its wild state it is a charming 
object, and under cultivation, in full exposure to sunshine, with 
proper provision for its tendrils, and kept clear of weeds, it 




FIG. 57. LATHYRUS LATIFOLIUS. 
(One-sixth natural size.) 



becomes in every way one of the finest objects in the garden, 
whether considered as a decorative climber, a floral specimen, or 
a source of cut flowers. 

It grows fully 8ft. high, in deep and rich soil, and is furnished 
with large, many-flowered bunches of blossom from the leaf axils 
nearly all its length, each flower stalk being Gin. to 9in. long. 
The flowers are of a lively rose colour, about twelve in a 
cluster ; tendrils five- cut, long, and two-leaved. The leaves are in 
pairs, elliptical, many ribbed, glaucous, and very large, whence 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 

the specific name; the inter- 
nodes of the whole plant are 
winged, wings membranaceous ; 
stipules large, broader than the 
stems. The habit is rampant; 
it enjoys sunshine, but will do 
in partial shade. 

L. I. albus is a variety similar to 
the above in all its parts, but scarcely 
as large in the foliage, and the flowers 
are pure white, and produced a week 
or a fortnight later; for cutting pur- 
poses these are justly and highly 
esteemed. 

Tall vases may be pleasingly dressed 
by the flowered stems, if cut about 3ft. 
long ; these twined round or hanging 
down are very graceful, but they should 
not be used too freely one, or two at 
most, on each large vase will be ample. 

Both the above may be grown with good 
effect amongst other climbers, on a specially 
prepared trellis-work, ordinary pea-rods, or 
over defunct trees. 

Propagated by seeds, or by division of very 
strong roots only. February is a good time 
for both methods. 

Flowering period, June to August. 



Leucojum /Estivum, 

SUMMER SNOWFLAKE; Nat. Ord. AMARYL- 
LIDACEJS. 

As may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 58), 
this native bulbous plant is somewhat un- 
gainly ; blooming specimens are sometimes 
2ft. high, and each one rarely produces 
more than three of its small 
flowers, but they are worth grow- 
ing, because of their lasting pro- 
perties, either cut or otherwise ; 
the pretty snowdrop - shaped 
flowers are very effective when 
used in vases, their long stems 
rendering them more serviceable 
than they otherwise would be. FlG - 58 - L^XTCOJUM 

The white flower is without (One-third natural size). 

calyx, and has a corolla of six 



161 




162 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

petals, each one being delicately tipped with pale green ; they are 
produced on long thick stems, each flower having a somewhat 
lengthened pedicel, by which they are suspended bell-fashion. 
The foliage is of the common daffodil form, but longer ; bulb 
small. 

There are, it is said, two varieties of this species, which have 
generally become mixed ; the other variety is said to be more 
dwarf and later in flowering ; if this is correct, possibly these 
mixed varieties may have something to do with the long time 
which they are known to continue flowering. 

Not only for the sake of preventing the tall growths from 
heading over should it be grown in broad masses, but when so 
planted this flower is more effective. It will grow in any kind of 
soil, but it seems most at home amongst dwarf shrubs, where its 
flowers are always of a more delicate colour than when exposed. 
Propagated by division of the roots during autumn every third 
year. 

Flowering period, May to July. 

Leucojum Vernum. 

SPRING SNOWFLAKE; Nat. Ord. AMARYLLIDACE^:. 
A HARDY bulbous species from Germany. It is not necessary 
either to describe or praise this beautiful flower, beyond stating 
that in every way it closely resembles the snowdrop ; it is larger, 
however, whence the appropriateness of its name, Snowflake, 
in relation to that of the snowdrop. It will thrive anywhere but 
in wet, sour situations ; it most enjoys fine light soil and the 
partial shade of trees, where it rapidly increases by offsets of the 
bulbs ; these may, with advantage, be divided every three or four 
years. 

Flowering period, March and April. 

Lilium Auratum. 

GOLDEN-RAYED or JAPANESE LILY; Nat. Ord. LILIACE.E. 
THIS is a hardy Lily, and though this particular species is 
comparatively new to our English gardens, it belongs to a 
noble genus which has had a place in our ancestors' gardens 
for ages. It was long thought that this bulb from Japan could 
not endure our winters, and though it is proved to be perfectly 
hardy, there are yet many who only cultivate it indoors, and 
seem surprised when they see it in beds and borders, where it is 
allowed to remain year after year. 

The flowers vary very much in size, from Sin. to Sin. across ; 
the divisions are richly tinted (golden-rayed), beautifully spotted 
and reflexed ; the stems, at the height of 3ft. to 6ft., are 
furnished with flowers, mostly about five to eight in number. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



163 



'Though the flowers appear delicate, it is surprising how well they 
stand out in the open garden. For beauty and effect this Lily is 
incomparable (see Fig. 59). 

Much has been said about its culture, far more than need be 
put into practice. I have found the observance of three simple 
rules sufficient in order to have it in fine bloom year after year: 
First, begin with good sound bulbs, not over large. Second, 
plant them 9in. deep in sandy soil, and a moist situation, 




FlG. 59. LlLITJM AUBATTJM. 

(One-half natural size). 

surrounding each bulb with half -a- spadeful of fine charcoal, 
which protects them from rot, canker, and (what I believe to be 
the chief cause of failure) the wireworm. Third, grow them 
where they will be sheltered from high winds ; otherwise their 
long and top-heavy stems become wrenched, and the upper roots, 
above the bulbs, so torn that the current season's bloom is more 
or less damaged and root development checked. 

To put my simple method of growing this Lily in a plainer 

M2 



164 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

way, I may state that my garden is naturally well drained, has 
light soil, and a south aspect. Under a west wall I planted 
small bulbs in the manner already stated, and though I have 
often seen this Lily nearly twice as tall as ever I grew it, I have 
not any cause to complain about the quantity of bloom. I never 
either water or put down stakes as supports. If the situation is 
moist no water is needed, and it is next to impossible to send 
down stakes without coming in contact with the large bulbs. 
Doubtless a few good waterings with liquid manure would be an 
advantage, but where L. auratum is esteemed as satisfactory 
with short stems, this need not be given. 

When once a clump or batch of this Lily has become estab- 
lished, it should not be disturbed for several years, when, if the 
stems are becoming too rank to allow them to wave without 
damaging each other's flowers, or if there are many young 
unflowered stems, they may profitably be dug out in a careful 
manner when the bulbs have ripened, which will be the case 
when the tops have become thoroughly dry ; there will then be 
found to be numbers of nice clean young bulbs, which, with a 
year's extra patience, will probably form a more vigorous batch 
than the parent one. Such bulbs are properly called " home 
grown." 

Flowering period, September to November. 

Linum Flavum. 
YELLOW FLAX; Nat. Ord. LINAGES. 

THIS handsome shrub-like Flax comes from Austria, and is a 
comparatively new species in English gardens. It is not only a 
distinct form, but from the large quantities and more durable 
quality of its flowers, it proves itself a very useful subject for 
flower-beds and borders, where it should have the most select 
companions. It is classed as a hardy, herbaceous perennial ; its 
woody character, and a few green leaves which it carries through- 
out the winter would, however, show that it is not strictly 
herbaceous. Its hardiness, too, will be questioned by many who 
have tried to winter it outside, more especially in the northern 
parts of Great Britain. It is only hardy under certain con- 
ditions, which, in effect, is saying that it is not perfectly hardy. 
It requires a light warm soil and a dry situation, besides which, 
if the winter is severe, it should be protected with a thick 
covering of ashes or cocoa fibre. This special treatment has 
been found needful in Yorkshire, but more south it has been 
proved hardy without such precautions. The neat habit and 
clusters of rich yellow flowers of this plant render it deserving 
of the little extra care above indicated ; this, together with the 
fact that it is hardy in many parts, is a sufficient reason for 
naming it amongst hardy plants. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 165 

Its flowers are produced in branched heads, dense and numerous, 
on stems a foot or more high ; each flower is lin. or l^in. across, 
the five petals being of a transparent golden yellow, distinctly 
veined with orange ; they are broad, and overlap each other ; 
calyx small, and of a dark olive-green colour ; segments finely 
pointed. The leaves are 2in. or more in length, lanced, but 
inclining to spoon shape; sessile, stout, smooth, entire, and 
glaucous. Through the summer new stems are quickly grown, 
which, in their turn, become topped with clusters of bloom, and 
so a succession of flowers is kept up until autumn. On rock- 
work it is effective, the situation, to some extent, meeting the 
requirements of its somewhat tender constitution ; it may also 
be grown well in beds or borders, but they should be of a sandy 
character, and raised, unless it is intended to take up the plants 
for the winter ; in such positions four or five specimens form a 
charming group, and nothing can be finer than the effect of 
other Flaxes, of a tall and spray-like character, grown near 
and amongst this golden yellow, such, for instance, as L. Narbon- 
nense and L. perenne. 

It is easily propagated by seeds, which should be sown in the 
autumn as soon as ripe ; it may also be divided, but I have found 
the quickest and best results from cuttings taken in a half- 
ripened state. They should be put round the side of a rather 
large pot in sandy peat ; the warmth, shade, and moisture of 
a cucumber-frame will cause them to root quickly, when they 
should be potted off singly, so as to make sturdy plants before 
the winter sets in, and such young stock ought to be wintered in 
a cold frame. 

Flowering period, August and September. 

Lithospermum Prostratum. 

PROSTRATE GROMWELL; Nat. Ord. BORAGINACE.^. 
SOMETIMES called the Gentian L., from its bright blue gentian- 
like flowers. By many this species is considered synonymous 
with L. fruticosum. They are, however, very dissimilar. Our 
subject is an evergreen and stunted trailer ; L. fruticosum is a 
deciduous trailer and very vigorous ; both, however, are perfectly 
hardy. The most striking characteristics of the Prostrate Grom- 
well are its fine dark blue flowers and procumbent habit. It is 
a native of France, and only within the last sixty years has it 
been introduced into this country. Its habit is most distinct as 
compared with the various long-stemmed species. It much 
resembles the well-known Veronica prostrata in its general 
appearance. 

Its flowers are sparingly produced from the axils of the leaves, 
but, being large compared with the size of the foliage, they are 
very effective when they first open. The dark but bright 



166 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

blue corolla is tinged with red, but later on the colour becomes 
an unmixed blue, and the blooms increase in size until more 
than |in. across. The complexion of the foliage is very dark 
(holly green), the leaves are about lin. long, and are narrow 
and stalkless ; they have much substance and are rather hard. 
The whole plant is thickly coated with hairs a common 
feature of this order; but in this species the hairs are re- 
markably stiff, those of the edges of the leaves being almost 
thorny. 

The form of growth assumed by this plant eminently fits it for 
rockwork. It should be so planted that its densely-branched 
stems can fall over the face of a light- coloured stone ; in this 
respect it forms a good companion to the dwarf phloxes, but it 
is otherwise a superior rock plant, being more characteristic and 
prolonged in its flowering. It should be allowed to grow to a 
large size, which will require several years, or the object may 
be sooner gained by planting half-a-dozen specimens in a group ; 
this should be done when the plants are young, as it is very 
impatient of being disturbed when once established. It would 
make a capital edging plant for small shrubs, to come next the 
grass, backed by a row of Erica carnea, which is also dwarf, a 
continued bloomer and contemporaneous. Its propagation can 
only be readily effected in this climate by cuttings, as it does not 
ripen seed well ; it cannot be divided, because generally the little 
shrub has a short bole, therefore, cuttings must be struck from 
the previous year's growth ; they should be dibbled into fine sand 
and peat, kept shaded and cool for several weeks; they root 
quicker during the warm season, when they are also less liable 
to be over-watered, which is a very common cause of failure in 
striking cuttings ; they should be well rooted before the winter 
sets in. 

Flowering period, May to July. 

Lobelia Cardinalis. 

CARDINAL FLOWER ; Nat. Ord. LOBELIACE.E. 
THIS is one of the finest herbaceous perennials that bloom in 
October ; stately, brilliant and lasting. There are many varieties 
of it, and of late years some extra fine sorts have been raised 
and named, all of which are good. The varieties differ much in 
the foliage as well as the flowers, some being much larger, and 
of a dark brown or reddish colour. The illustration (Fig. 60) is 
drawn from the typical form, which has smooth foliage ; it is not 
so large as some of the varieties, but it seemed desirable to figure 
the type, otherwise the varieties might have proved misleading. 
To a more than ordinary extent this plant is called by its 
common name, " the Cardinal Flower," and I have very fre- 
quently found that it has not been recognised by its proper 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



167 



name, even by amateurs who had long grown it. " Is that tall 
plant a Lobelia P " has often been asked ; therefore, common as the 
plant is, I thought it might prove useful to give an illus- 
tration. One of its valuable qualities is that it flowers for 
a very long time, beginning about the latter end of August 
and continuing until stopped by frosts. In the early part 
of October it is simply grand, as then not only the main 
stems, but the lower ones, are all furnished with their brilliant 
colouring. 




FIG. 60. LOBELIA CAKDINALIS. 
(One-twelfth natural size.) 



This "old-fashioned" plant grows 2ft. or 3ft. high; the 
flowers are produced in terminal spikes on stout, round, and 
well-foliaged stems ; each flower has a slender stalk, starting 
from the axil of a rudimentary leaf. The calyx is very finely 
formed, broadly cup-shaped and cornered ; the five divisions are 
narrow, finely pointed, fin. long, and spreading ; the corolla has 
a divided tube lin. long, broadly set in the ample calyx, gradu- 
ally narrowing to the divisions of the corolla. As may be 



168 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

seen by the engraving, the flowers much resemble some of our 
native orchids in form, the lip being most characteristic. The 
leaves are broadly lancet-shaped, serrated, and sessile. The habit 
of the plant is erect, and almost rigid. The flowers are of the 
most attractive kind for borders, and, as cut bloom, can hardly 
be excelled. 

The only drawback which attaches to it in this climate is that 
it is not perfectly hardy ; in other words, it dies in winter when 
planted in certain soils and positions. But I can, from an ex- 
perience extending over three trying winters, confidently state 
that, if it is planted in spring, in deep rich loam, fully exposed to 
the sun, it will both flower well and live through the winter. 
Only let the reader remember that it is a native of North 
America, and he may then judge that it can be no stranger to a 
cold climate. The advantages of the above method are, that the 
plant becomes well established during summer, its long cord-like 
roots get deep down to the moisture it loves so well, and from 
full exposure it withers seasonably and the crowns become fully- 
ripened by the time the strongest frosts occur, so that they do it 
no harm. The reader may take it for what it is worth, that by 
leaving the dried stalks on, the plants are benefited ; at any rate, 
I leave them on, for the following reasons : In a dry state they 
are very hollow, and when cut I have found them conductors of 
rain into the midst of the younger roots and dormant crowns, 
causing them to rot, and when the remaining part of the stalk 
has come away from rottenness too, it has been seen that a cavity 
of corruption had formed where it joined. When I have left the 
withered stalks untrimmed until the following growing season, 
no such decay has been seen. So that, after all, it is perhaps not 
less hardy than many other plants about which little doubt 
exists, but which may have been a little more fortunate as regards 
other conditions than cold. 

To those who prefer to dig up their stock of L. cardinalis and 
winter it away from frost, I may say that it is only needful to 
pack the roots in sand, which should be kept moist, not wet. 
Propagation may be effected by division of the crowns in 
spring. 

Flowering period, August to first frosts. 

Lychnis Chalcedonica. 

CHALCEDONIAN LYCHNIS, or SCARLET LYCHNIS; 

Nat. Ord. SILENACEJE. 

THIS hardy herbaceous perennial (see Fig. 61) came from Russia 
so long ago as 1596. It is a well-known and favourite flower, 
and, of course, a very "old-fashioned" one; it is commonly 
called the Scarlet Lychnis, but there are other forms of it with 
white flowers, both double and single, and there is also a double 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



169 



scarlet variety. The typical form comes into flower a fortnight 
earlier than the others, but all may be seen in bloom during 
July. The very brilliant flowers, which are produced for several 
weeks in large showy heads, must commend this plant, and its 
tall habit renders it all the more conspicuous. It ought to be 
grown in every collection of hardy perennial flowers, amongst 
which bright scarlets are not too plentiful. In sandy loam, 
enriched with well-rotted manure, 
it attains a height of 2ft. to 3ft. 
The flowers are fin. across, the 
five petals open flat, and each petal 
is divided into two rounded seg- 
ments ; the calyx is hairy, long, 
bellied, ribbed, five-cleft, and much 
narrowed at the divisions ; the 
numerous flowers are arranged in 
flat clusters, interspersed with many 
small leaves or bracteoles ; the 
stems are stout, round, and having 
hairs pointing downwards ; the nodes 
or joints are distant and furnished 
with a pair of stem-clasping, lance- 
shaped leaves, whence issue short 
stems that flower later on. The 
leaves are 2in. to 4in. long, lance- 
shaped, hairy, waved at the edges, 
and somewhat recurved. The whole 
plant is of a clammy character, after 
the manner of other Catchflies. 

As already hinted, this species, with 
its varieties, enjoys a sandy soil; a 
mulching of manure proves of great 
benefit; not only are the heads of 
bloom larger for it, but the side 
shoots are induced to flower freely. 
In borders of tall plants the scarlets 
are very showy; they cannot, how- 
ever, endure shade ; the position 
should be sunny and open. The pro- 
pagation of the single forms may be 
carried out by seed, which ripens 
in large quantities; in fact, they 
sow themselves freely. The double 
kinds should be divided in early 

spring. In a cut state the flowers are both useful and effective, 
and if kept in a sunny window will continue in good form and 
open the buds. 

Flowering period, June to August. 




FIG. 61. LYCHNIS CHALCEDONICA. 
(One-third natural size). 



170 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Lychnis Viscaria Flore-pleno. 

GERMAN CATCHFLY; Nat. Ord. SILENACEJE. 
THE double form of the red German Catchfly. The old Latin 
name for the type was L. Angustifolia, which is still used some- 
times, being a good descriptive name. So much cannot be said 
of the common name ; at any rate, it sounds odd that one of 
our native plants should be called the " German Catchfly," as 
name is evidently used in the geographical sense. There are 
several forms of this species having double flowers, which may 
be termed florists' or garden varieties; all are handsome and 
effective flowering plants, and last a long time in good form. A 
very short description will suffice for these, the flowers of which 
in many respects resemble pinks ; they are, however, borne on 
stout stems in long heads, the petals being full, divided, and 
bent, each flower an inch across. The rose-coloured varieties 
are bright and attractive ; the leaves are in tufts Sin. or 4in. 
long, narrow and reflexed. These double Catchflies are very 
showy in either borders or rockwork ; they rank with our neatest 
subjects and brightest flowers, and certainly ought to be widely 
grown. 

They enjoy a stiff soil, but are in no way particular; they 
should, however, have a sunny situation. They may be increased 
by root divisions in summer or early spring. 

Flowering period, June to August, 

Lysimachia Clethroides. 

CLETHRA-LIKE LOOSESTRIFE ; Nat. Ord. PRIMULACE^. 
THIS is a tall-growing and distinct species, newly imported from 
Japan; it is perfectly hardy and herbaceous, and differs very 
much indeed from its creeping and evergreen relation, the money- 
wort, or " creeping jenny," being more like a tall speedwell, 
having large leaves ; it is so dissimilar, there can be no likelihood 
of confounding it with other species. As a decorative garden 
plant it is both attractive and interesting. 

It attains a height of 3ft. in favourable quarters, and has both 
a wealth of rich foliage and showy one-sided spikes of white 
flowers; the latter are neatly formed and continue to develop 
along the spike for the length of a foot; the flowers are in. 
across, somewhat star-shaped, having five, and sometimes six, 
divisions of the corolla, which are oval and cupped ; the short 
flower stalk is supported by a very narow bracteole of equal length 
this helps not a little to enrich the yet unblossomed part of the 
spike, the buds of which are of the purest whiteness and pearl- 
shape, mounted in the claw-like setting of the pale green calyx ; 
these pleasing spikes of flowers and buds have a peculiar habit 
of bending ; the unbloomed part is at right angles with the erect 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 171 

stem, with the exception of the tip, which slightly erects itself ; 
the angle is ever changing, being ruled by the change of flower 
to seed, the development causing the sharp bend to rise day by 
day. The leaves of the root are spoon-shaped, and those of the 
stems broadly lance-shaped, varying in length from Sin. to 
5in., entire, veined, of good substance, and having attenuated 
stalks ; the younger leaves have a changeable satiny hue ; all the 
leaves at their junction with the stems are marked with a bright 
redness ; the main stems are furnished with many side branches, 
which assist in maintaining floriferousness until late autumn. 
The habit of the plant is dense, and from the numerous spikes of 
flowers and bright green foliage strong specimens have a com- 
mendable appearance ; with me, the growth has been remarkably 
vigorous, exceeding by nearly a foot the usual height ; this I 
attribute to the enrichment of the soil. The bent spikes are 
scarcely suitable for cutting purposes, but that the plant is 
deserving of a place in the borders may fairly be inferred from 
the manner in which it wins admiration when in flower. It 
enjoys deep loam, which, as before hinted, should be rich ; the 
situation should be such as will afford it protection from the 
winds then, if its leaves remain untorn, they will afford a treat 
from their "autumnal tints." Propagated by root division 
during late autumn or early spring. 
Flowering period, July to September. 

Margyricarpus Setosus. 
BRISTLY PEARL-FRUIT; Nat. Ord. ROSACEJE. 
A CHARMING little evergreen shrub, and most aptly named, for 
not only does the name convey some idea of its beauty, but it is 
specific to the utmost degree; a glance at the illustration 
(Fig. 62) and the English name, which is a translation of the 
Latin one, will show this. It is the only species of the genus. 
It was introduced in the year 1829 from Peru, and for a time was 
considered too tender a subject for other than stove treatment, 
and even now it is treated as a shrub needing protection ; but 
warm as is its native climate, it proves hardy in ours ; it is not 
merely a safe subject to winter out under special conditions, but 
quite hardy in fully exposed parts. It stood out with me in the 
winters of 1879-80 and 1880-1, and in 1881-2, which, however, 
was specially mild, it held its berries until spring. Its ever- 
green character renders it all the more desirable, for though the 
foliage is small and somewhat spare, it is of a bright and 
pleasing colour. Quite young specimens are prolific, and only 
during the severe months are they without berries. 

A full-grown example does not exceed the height of 6in. or 8in. 
in this climate. The flowers are green and insignificant in 
fact, hardly visible, and must be closely looked for; they are 



172 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



produced singly on the riper parts of the soft wooded branches ; 
they are chubby forms, all but stalkless, and supported by a 
brown stem- clasping sheath, which is long-pointed and bent 
backwards, resembling a spine ; these sheaths are numerous, and 
probably suggested the specific name, setosus rough or bristly. 
The flowers appear for many months, and there is a corre- 
sponding succession of berries ; the latter form the main feature 
of this singular shrub, measuring ^in. to ^in. in diameter, they 
are of a clear, shining white colour, and are well named " pearl 




FIG. 62. MARGYRICARPUS SETOSTJS. 
(One-third natural size j fruit, natural size.) 

fruit." Sooner or later in the season every joint of the main 
branches seems to be furnished with fruit, which lasts a long 
time in perfection. The leaves are |in. to lin. long, pinnate, 
leaflets awl-shaped, reflexed, and of a deep glistening green 
colour; they are arranged in minute tufts on stoutish branchlets, 
and, for the most part, have a single berry at the parent node. 
All these young shoots grow in the upward direction, leaving the 
procumbent branches to form an even line on the lower side. 
The habit of this shrub is spreading and prostrate, and, from the 
bright berries and foliage (the latter all turned upwards), it 
becomes a most pleasing object to look down upon, reminding 
one of a dwarf erica immediately after a hailstorm. For rockwork, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 173 

this is a gem. Many amateurs will be glad to learn, if they do 
not already know the shrub, that it is one of those pretty, un- 
common, and distinct forms ever desirable for choice collections. 

It should be so planted that its branches can rest on a dark- 
coloured stone ; this will show up its fruit to advantage. It 
enjoys a rich, light soil, thriving in a mixture of sand, loam, and 
rotten leaves. Beyond this there is nothing special about its 
culture; moreover, it is easily increased, either by cuttings taken 
in summer and pricked into moist peat under a bell glass, or by 
layering the branches. These only need to be pegged down and 
covered with soil, or to have a small boulder placed on the part 
where roots are desired. 

Flowering period, all summer. 



Mazus Pumilio. 

DWARF MAZUS; Nat. Ord. SCROPHULARIACEJE. 
THIS diminutive and pretty plant is a native 'of Australia, and 
was introduced into this country in 1823. It is hardy, her- 
baceous, and perennial ; it is, however, sometimes said to be only 
annual, which may have been inferred from the fact of its 
perishing in winter in this climate when grown in cold, stiff soil, 
but that it is perennial is beyond doubt. Not only have I ex- 
perienced that it dies every winter in clay soil, but also that the 
roots remain fresh and healthy year after year when in more 
suitable quarters, such as an open situation in light vegetable 
soil mixed with sand, where it quickly spreads by underground 
runners and asserts its perennial character. 

Its flowers much resemble the small wild violet of the hedge- 
rows, in size and colour more especially ; the flower-stalks are, 
however, sometimes branched, carrying four or five flowers; 
and if I may be allowed to make another comparison in order to 
convey an idea of its form, I would mention Pinguicula vulgaris, 
the common butterwort. The flowers spring from the midst 
of flattened tufts of pale green foliage ; the leaves are lin. to 3in. 
long, spoon-shaped, slightly waved at the edges and occasionally 
notched, distinctly veined, of a light green colour, and flesh- 
tinted in the stalks ; they are arranged in nearly rosette form up 
to the period of flowering, when they are not only longer, but 
become almost erect ; but the younger tufts which do not produce 
flowers remain perfectly flat. 

It is useful for rockwork or as a carpet plant where the soil is 
of a sandy nature. There should be few bare places in our 
gardens whilst we have such lovely creepers as this to fall back 
upon. The rooted stems, which run immediately under the 
surface, may be transplanted any time except during winter. If 
the roots are mutilated then, they will probably rot. 

Flowering period, June to September. 



174 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



Melittis Melissophyllum. 
8yn. M. GRANDIFLORTJM ; LARGE-FLOWERED BASTARD BALM; 

Nat. Ord. LABIATE. 

THIS is a somewhat uncommon but handsome native plant. 
The above names, together with the illustration (Fig. 63), will 




FIG. 63. MELITTIS MELISSOPHYLLUM. 
(One-sixth natural size.) 



-doubtless give the reader a fair idea of its appearance. It forms 
one of the best possible subjects for a border of " old-fashioned " 
plants, being of a distinct type and colour. 

The flowers are a mixture of white, pink, and purple ; and are 
nearly 2in. long, in general shape resembling the foxglove, but 
wider at the corolla and a little shorter in the broad tube. They 
.are arranged in whorls springing from the axils of the leaves. 
The whorls are said to be of as many as eight flowers, but speci- 
mens are more commonly seen to have only two to four, being 
repeated the whole length of the stems, which are 18in. high. 
'The leaves are two to three inches long, and half as broad, 
ovate, serrate, hairy, and short stalked. No one can be other- 
wise than pleased with the ancient style and soft colour of the 
large flowers, which last a long time in perfection. There is a 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 175 

trimness, too, about the plant which distinguishes it from the 
more weedy species to which it is related. 

In a cut state the long stems are not only pretty of themselves 
when placed in old vases or crackle ware, but they have a 
remarkably good effect. They, however, should not be crowded 
or swamped by more showy foliage or flowers in fact, they 
should be used alone. 

It will grow anywhere and in any quality of soil, but slight 
shade and well- enriched loam will be found to make a vast dif- 
ference in the size of the flowers, and their colour will be also 
improved. It may be divided or transplanted any time after it 
has done flowering. 

Flowering period, June to August. 



Monarda Didyma. 

Syn. M. KALMIANA; BEE BALM, or OSWEGO TEA; Nat. Ord. 

LABIAT^E. 

ALL the Monardas are natives of North America, and, con- 
sequently, quite hardy in this country ; they are also herbaceous 
and perennial. This species has been grown for 130 years in 
English -gar dens, and at the present time it is not only accounted 
an old flower but it is highly esteemed. The blooms are large 
and brilliant in colour, and their shaggy forms give them an 
effect which is decorative both in the garden and vase. 

The flowers are not only numerous, but, for the most part, 
bright ; moreover, they begin to flower at midsummer and con- 
tinue until the frosts set in. 

The species under notice has bright scarlet flowers, produced 
when the plant is about 18in. high ; it, however, grows to 
nearly twice that size, flowering all the while. The whorls of 
bloom issue from half-globular arrangements of buds and persis- 
tent calyces ; each flower is an inch long ; corolla ringent, or 
gaping; helmet, or upper division, linear; the seed organs are 
longer ; the calyx tubular, having five minute teeth, being striped 
and grooved ; the whole head, or whorl, is supported by a leafy 
bract, the leaflets being of a pale green colour, tinted with red. 
The leaves are ovate- cor date, or broadly lance-shaped, taper- 
pointed, toothed, rough, and slightly wrinkled, and they have 
short stalks. The stems are square, grooved, and hard. The 
whole plant exhales a powerful but pleasant odour. The habit 
is branching, that of the root progressive, not only increasing 
rapidly, but such parts on the surface maybe termed creeping 
or prostrate branches, forming a veritable mat of fibre. 

The whole genus is made up of such species as may be used 
freely in most gardens, more especially in those having plenty of 
space. 

For culture and flowering period, see M. Russelliana. 



176 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Monarda Fistulosa. 

WILD BERGAMOT ; Syns. M. AFFINIS, M. ALTISSIMA, M. MEDIA, 
M. OBLONGATA, M. PURPUREA, and M. RTTGOSA ; Nat. Ord. 
LABIATE. 

THE Wild Bergamot has a pleasant smell ; it has, however, the 
objectionable property of attracting great numbers of bees and 
wasps. 

Compared with the scarlet M. didyma, the more striking 
differences are the purple flowers, which are less, and mostly 
produced in single heads. The bracts are tinted with purple, 
and they are more bent down the stems ; the latter, too, are only 
half as thick and of a dark brown colour. 

For culture and flowering period, see M. Russelliana. 

Monarda Russelliana. 

RUSSELL'S MONARDA ; Nat. Ord. LABIATE. 
ANOTHER distinct species. Its flowers are white, with pistil 
tinted purple, and less in size than either of the above. The 
bract is remarkably large, and further amplified by numerous 
small leaves amongst the flowers ; all are deeply tinted or veined 
with purple ; the leaves are larger than those of M. didyma, and 
those near the tops of the stems are also tinted with purple on 
their stalks, mid-ribs, and edges ; the stems are green, rounded 
at the corners, channelled, and smooth. 

There are other species than those I have named, but the 
above-mentioned are not only the more distinct, and well represent 
the genus, but as flowers they form a richly beautiful trio of 
colour, so that, when grown side by side, their effectiveness is 
much enhanced ; as cut bloom they answer well for furnishing 
old vases. Either growing or cut, their flowers and leaves are 
pleasant, but if bruised the odour is too powerful ; they, however, 
when used in moderation, form a valuable ingredient of pot 
pourri. 

They may be grown in ordinary soil, and in any position but a 
too shady one. The propagation of these plants may be carried 
out any time, by cutting small squares of the matted roots from 
old specimens, but it will be found that if allowed to grow to 
bold examples their effect will be all the more telling. 

Flowering period, July to September. 

Morina Longifolia. 

Syn. M. ELEGANS; WHORL FLOWER; Nat. Ord. 

DIPSACE^J. 

UNTIL this plant comes into flower there is little about it for us, 
who are trained to dislike and almost despise thistles, to admire. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 177 

It is not a thistle certainly, but the resemblance is very 
close when not in flower, and the three or four specimens which 
I grow have often caused a laugh from visitors at my expense, 
but I pocket the laugh and ask them to come and see my 
thistles in June. When, too, weeding is being done, it is always 
needful, for the safety of the plants, to give some such hint as 
"Do not pull up those thistles ;" but if this plant is no relation 
to that despised weed, it belongs to another race, the species of 
which are also formidably armed viz., the Teasel. It comes 
from the Himalayas, and is comparatively new in English 
gardens. 

It is hardy, herbaceous, and perennial, grows to a height of 
2ft., and the flowers are produced in whorls or tiers interspersed 
with the thorny foliage near the top of the stems. At this 
stage of development the plant has a noble appearance, and 
the rings of flowers are very beautiful though when I say 
flowers I here mean the combination of buds and blossoms in 
their different stages and colours. The buds are pure white and 
waxy, and when open, are of a delicate pink; as they get 
advanced, they turn to a lovely crimson ; these are all the more 
pleasing, because the flowers last a long time. In form they are 
tubular and horn- shaped, having a spreading, uneven corolla, 
five-parted. Each flower is lin. long and fin. across, six to fifteen 
in a whorl, the whorls being five to ten in number. The whorl- 
bracts are formed of three arrow-shaped leaves, deeply cupped, 
and overlapping at their junction with the stem or scape ; they 
are spiny and downy underneath. Calyx, tubular and brown. 
Segments (two), pale green, notched, alternated with long spines, 
and surrounded with shorter ones. The leaves of the root are 
9in. to 12in. long, and 2in. wide in the broadest parts ; pinnate, 
waved, and spined, like the holly or thistle. The leaves of the 
stem are similar in shape, but very much smaller. The whole 
plant, and especially if there are several together, has a stately 
appearance, and attracts much attention ; it is a good border 
plant, but it will be more at home, and show to equal ad- 
vantage in openings in the front parts of the shrubbery, because 
it enjoys a little shade, and the shelter from high winds is a 
necessity, it being top heavy ; if tied, it is robbed of its natural 
and beautiful form. 

It thrives well in sandy loam. Slugs are fond of it, and eat 
into the collar or crown, and therefore they should be looked 
for, especially in winter, during open weather. To propagate it, 
the roots should be divided as soon as the plants have done 
flowering, they then become established before winter sets in. 
Plant in the permanent quarters, and shade with leafy branches, 
for a fortnight. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

N 



178 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Muhlenbeckia Complexa. 

Nat. Ord. POLYGONACE^E. 

A HARDY climber, of great beauty; during November its 
nearly black stems are well furnished with its peculiar small dark 
green leaves, which, even when without flowers or fruit, render it 
an object of first-class merit as a decorative subject. The illustra- 
tion (Fig. 64) is fairly representative of all its parts ; still, it can 




Fia. 64. MUHLENBECKIA COMPLEXA. 
(One-fourth natural size ; fruit, natural size.) 

give no idea of the effect of a specimen climbing 4ft. to 6ft. high, 
diffuse and spreading withal. Although I have grown this hand- 
some climber several years, my experience and information re- 
specting it are very limited indeed ; its hardiness and beauty are 
the inducements which have led me to recommend it for the 
pleasure garden. As a matter of fact, I have never bloomed it, 
and I am indebted to a lady for the wax-like and flower- shaped 
fruits illustrated; they were produced in a warm vinery, and 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 179 

I have otherwise learned that in this climate the plant only 
flowers outside during very warm summers. I have also in- 
formation from one of H.M. Botanic Gardens that this species 
" was introduced from South America, but when and by whom I 
am unable to say. It requires a warm, sheltered position. 
Before the severe winters came it used to be covered with star- 
like whitish flowers, which were succeeded by fruits." 

The fruits given in the illustration (natural size) are a fine 
feature, but, considering the uncertainty of their production, 
they can hardly be claimed for outside decoration. They are of 
a transparent, wax-like substance, and the tooth-like divisions 
glisten like miniature icicles; they hang in small clusters on 
lateral shoots from the more ripened stems, and have a charming 
effect, contrasting finely with the black stems and dark green 
foliage. The leaves are small (iin. to fin. across) somewhat 
fiddle- shaped, of good substance, and having slender stalks ; they 
are alternate and distantly arranged on the long trailing and 
climbing stems. The habit is dense and diffuse, and though it 
loses many leaves in winter, I have never seen it entirely bare ; it 
is therefore entitled to be called evergreen with outdoor treat- 
ment. The distinct form and colour of its foliage, together with 
the graceful shape of the spray-like branches, render this subject 
of great value for cutting purposes. Seen in company, and used 
sparingly with white flowers for epergne work, the effect is unique ; 
and I ask those who possess it to try it in that or a similar 
way. 

It enjoys a sunny position and well drained or sandy soil. 
With me it grows entangled with a rose tree, the latter being 
nailed to the wall. I have also seen it very effective on the 
upper and drier parts of rockwork, where it can have nothing to 
cling to ; there it forms a dense prostrate bush. It may be 
propagated by cuttings of the hardier shoots, which should be 
taken in early summer ; by this method they become nicely rooted 
before winter. 

Flowering periods, warm summers. 



Muscari Botryoides. 

GRAPE HYACINTH; Nat. Ord. 
THIS is a hardy species, somewhat finer than the more common 
M. racemosum, from the fact of its richer, bright sky blue flowers. 
The form of the Grape Hyacinth is well known (see Fig. 65), 
being a very old garden flower and a great favourite ; when it is 
once planted, it keeps its place, despite all drawbacks common to 
a crowded border, with the exception of that wholesale destroyer, 
a careless digger; if left undisturbed for a year or two, it 
increases to very showy clumps. 

The flowers, which are densely arranged on stout spikes Sin. 

N2 



180 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



high, are very small, globular, and narrowed at the opening, 
where the tiny divisions are tipped with white. The foliage 
resembles that of the wood hyacinth, 
but it is more rigid, not so broad, and 




slightly glaucous. 
It see 



seems to do best in light earth, 
and the flowers are finer in colour when 
grown in shade, but not too much. 
"Where quantities are available, they 
may be used as an edging, nothing 
looking better in a spring garden. 

M. b. alba varies only in the colour 
of its flowers; the white is somewhat 
creamy for a time; it becomes much 
clearer after a few days, and remains 
in perfection for two weeks in ordinary 
weather. This is a charming variety ; 

grown by the side of the different blues 
Fia.65. MUSCAB! BOTETOIDES. itg beauty ig enlianced> It ig very effec . 

(One-eighth natural size.) tive as a cut flower, though rather stiff, 
but if sparingly used it is attractive for bouquets, whilst for a 
buttonhole one or two spikes answer admirably. 
Flowering period, March to May. 



Muscari Racemosum. 

Nat. Ord. LILIACE^:. 

THIS is the commonest species, and although very pleasing, 
suffers by a comparison with the above blue kind, being more 
dwarf and the flowers less bright. The best time to transplant 
the bulbs is when the tops have died off, and the choicer sorts 
of these, as well as all other bulbs whose foliage dies off early in 
summer, should have something to mark their situation when 
in their dormant state. 

Cultivation and flowering period, as for M. botryoides. 

Narcissus Minor. 

SMALLER DAFFODIL ; Nat. Ord. AMARYLLIDACE^. 
A VERY beautiful and effective spring flower. Though a native 
of Spain, it proves one of the hardiest denizens of our gardens ; 
it is not often met with, but it has been cultivated in this 
country since 1629. It was well known in Parkinson's time. 
Not merely is it a species due to bloom early, but it does so, 
no matter how severe the weather may be, in March, and the 
flowers are freely produced. We could hardly have more severe 
weather than we had in March, 1883, when the snow was some- 
times several inches deep and the frost as much as 17deg. to 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 181 

23deg. Still this little Daffodil continued to push up its golden 
blossoms, so that in the latter half of the month, it formed one 
of the most pleasing of the hardy flowers of the spring garden. 
Its blue-green leaves are densely grown, and being only 4in. high 
and somewhat rigid, they not only form a rich setting for the 
bright blossom which scarcely tops them, but they support the 
flowers, which have a drooping habit. Later on, however, they 
lift their fair faces and look out sideways, but whether seen in 
profile or otherwise, they are alike charming. 

I do not remember ever to have seen or heard this flower 
described as finely scented ; as a matter of fact, it is deliciously 
so. The odour is aromatic and mace-like. If the bloom is cut 
when in its prime and quite dry, a few heads will scent a fair- 
sized room. Of course, all the species of the genus (as implied 
by the generic name) exhale an odour, and some kinds a very 
fragrant one, whilst others are said to be injurious ; but the spicy 
smell of this can scarcely be otherwise than acceptable, and it 
must always be a desirable feature in a flower suitable for 
cutting, and more especially in a winter and spring flower. 
From its dwarfness this Daffodil is very liable to be soiled; 
either of three plans may be adopted to prevent this : Plant 
on grass; top-dress in January with longish litter, which 
by the blooming time will have a washed and not very objec- 
tionable appearance ; or, lastly, let the patches grow broad and 
thick, when their own foliage will keep down the mud, excepting 
at the sides. I find the litter method to answer well for scores 
of things for a similar purpose. 

Flowers are produced on slender scapes, Sin. to 4in. long, 
singly, from the long membranous spatha ; they are lin. across 
the expanded perianth, and about the same length; the six 
divisions are rather longer than the tube, and of a pale yellow or 
lemon colour ; the crown or nectary is campanulate, longer than 
the petal-like divisions, lobed, fringed, and of a deep yellow 
colour. The leaves are strap-shaped, stout and glaucous, and 
about the same length as the scapes. 

This plant is in no way particular as to soil, provided it is 
well drained. It enjoys, however, partial shade and liberal top- 
dressings of manure. It increases fast by offsets, and, if 
desirable, the bulbs may be lifted the third year for division, 
after the tops have died off in late summer. 

Flowering period, March and April. 

Nierembergia Rivularis. 

WATER NIEREMBERGIA, or WHITE CUP; Nat. Ord. 

SOLANACE^:. 

THIS alpine plant comes from La Plata ; when well grown (and 
it easily may be) it is a gem hardy, herbaceous, and perennial. 



182 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

It has a most pleasing habit ; from its mass of root-like steins, 
which run very near the surface, it sends up a dense carpet of 
short-stalked leaves, which in July become studded over with 
large and chaste white flowers; though it rarely exceeds 4in. 
in height, it is very attractive. 

The flowers are l|in. across, of a variously tinted white, some- 
times with pink and sometimes with purplish-grey inside the 
corolla. The outside is yellowish-green; the five lobes of the 
corolla are arranged cup-fashion, having four distinct ribs or 
nerves and wavy margins, the inner bases being richly tinted 
with lemon -yellow ; what appears at first sight to be the flower- 
stalk, 2in. to 3in. long, is really a long round tube, very narrow 
for so large a flower ; it is of even thickness all its length. The 
calyx nearly touches the earth ; it is also tubular and five-cleft. 
The leaves are from less than an inch to Sin. long, somewhat 
spoon- shaped or sub-spathulate and entire, smooth, and very 
soft to the touch. 

It thrives in a light soil, but it should not be dry. Moisture 
and a little shade are the chief conditions required by this lovely 
creeper, and where bare places exist, which are otherwise 
suitable, nothing more pleasing could well be planted ; in dips or 
the more moist parts of rockwork, it may be grown with capital 
effect, but the patches should be broad. It also forms a good 
surfacing subject for leggy plants or shrubs. Lilies not only 
appear to more advantage when carpeted with the short dense 
foliage of this creeper, but their roots are kept more cool and 
moist by it, and there are many similar cases in which it will 
prove equally useful. It is easily propagated by division of the 
roots after the leaves have died off, but I have found spring 
much the better time, just as the new growth is pushing. 

Flowering period, July and August. 

CEnothera Speciosa. 

SHOWY EVENING PRIMROSE ; Nat. Ord. ONAGRACE^. 
A HARDY and beautiful perennial species from North America ; 
it is aptly named, as the flowers are not only large but numerous 
(see Fig. 66). The plant has a gay appearance for many weeks. 
As a garden flower, it is one of those happy subjects which may 
be allowed to grow in any odd corner, no matter what quality 
the soil may be, and full exposure or a little shade is equally 
suitable. No matter where it grows in the garden, it is a showy 
and pleasing flower, which, if plucked, is found to have the 
delicate smell of the sweet pea. It grows 18in. high, is herb-like 
in the foliage, and very distinct from other species, more espe- 
cially as regards its slender stems and somewhat large and 
irregular foliage. 
The flowers are a satiny white, delicately nerved, and nearly 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 183 

3in. across; the four petals are a pleasing yellowish-green at the 
bases; when fully expanded they form a cross, being clear of each 
other ; they become tinted with rose when they begin to fade 
The leaves are of various sizes, sometimes spotted, lance-shaped, 
toothed, and attenuated at the base. The general habit of the 
plant is erect, but it is often procumbent ; it has, from its slender 




FIG. 66. (ENOTHEKA SPECIOSA. 
(One-sixth natural size.) 

stems, a light appearance, and for one evening's use the sprays 
are very useful in a cut state. 

It propagates itself freely by its root runners near the surface. 
These roots may be transplanted in early spring, and they will 
flower the same year. 

Flowering period, June to August. 

CEnothera Taraxacifolia. 

DANDELION-LEAVED EVENING PRIMROSE; Nat. Ord. 

ONAGRACE^E. 

FROM the great beauty of the flowers of this plant, it has not 
only become widely distributed, but a great favourite, considering 



184 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

that it was so recently introduced into this country as 1825 ; 
it came from Peru. Fortunately this charming exotic proves 
perfectly hardy in our climate ; it is also herbaceous and peren- 
nial. No garden ought to be without so easily grown a flower, 
and though its foliage much resembles that of the common 
dandelion, a fine mass of it proves no mean setting for the large 
white flowers which spring from the midst of it. Another 
pleasing feature in connection with the flowers is that for a day 
they are pure white, after which they partly close and turn to a 
scarcely less beautiful delicate flesh tint. This colour and the 
half closed form are retained for several days ; it exhales a sweet 
odour, about which there is a peculiarity. When newly opened 
the first night while the flowers are white, they will be found 
to have a grateful scent like tea roses; but if the older and 
coloured blooms are tried, they will be found to have the re- 
freshing smell of almonds. 

There is yet another curious trait about this lovely flower 
it has a long stalk-like tube, which may be called the flower stalk, 
as, so to speak, it has no other, and the lower part it being 4in. 
to Gin. long is inclined to squareness, but near the top it becomes 
round and widens into the divisions of the calyx, being, in fact, 
the tube or undivided part of the calyx. Let the reader carefully 
examine this interesting flower. First pluck it with all its length 
of stem or tube (it may be Gin. long); with a small knife or 
needle split it upwards, and there will be exposed the style of 
a corresponding length. The tube and segments of the calyx are 
of a pale green colour, segments an inch or more long, finely 
pointed ; the four petals are large, nearly round, and overlapping 
each other, forming a corolla more than Sin. across; they are 
satiny in appearance, and transparent, beautifully veined or 
nerved, the nerves having delicate green basements, from which 
spring stamens of a like colour, but with anthers |in. long, 
evenly balanced, and furnished with lemon-yellow pollen. The 
leaves are herb-like, and, as the common name implies, like 
the leaves of the dandelion, similar in size, but more cut or lobed. 
The plant, however, varies materially from the dandelion, in 
having stems which push out all round the crown, growing to a 
considerable length, and resting on the ground. 

This plant cannot well be grown in too large quantities, where 
there is plenty of room; it produces flowers for a long time, 
and they are highly serviceable for cutting purposes, though 
lasting only a short time. It cannot well be planted wrong as 
regards position, as it will thrive anywhere, providing the soil is 
enriched, it being a gross feeder; it should not, however, be 
planted where it will be likely to overgrow smaller and less 
rampant subjects. On the whole, it is one of those plants which 
afford a maximum of pleasure for a minimum of care, and needs 
no special culture in fact, takes care of itself. Its propagation 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 185 

is simple, and may be carried out either by division of the 
old roots or by transplanting the self-sown seedlings into their 
blooming quarters, during March or April. 
Flowering period, June to August. 

Omphalodes Verna. 

CREEPING FORGET-ME-NOT ; Syn. CYNOGLOSSTJM OMPHALODES; 

Nat. Ord. BORAGINACE^. 

THE common name of this pretty, hardy, herbaceous creeper at 
once gives the keynote to its description ; it is a very old plant 
in English gardens, and a native of South Europe. Parkinson 
gives a very neat description of it : " This small borage shooteth 
forth many leaves from the roote, every one upon a long stalke, 
of a darke greene colour ; the stalkes are small and slender, not 
above halfe a foote high, with very few leaves thereon, and at 
the toppes come forth the flowers, made of five blew round 
pointed leaves, every one upon a long foote stalke." This, 
together with the well-known form and habit of the plant, leaves 
little more to be said byway of description; and it maybe added 
that though the flowers are akin to forget-me-nots, but more 
brilliant, the foliage is very different indeed, being nearly heart- 
shaped, and over 2in. long. Its habit is such that though its 
flowers are small, they are somewhat conspicuous, from their 
brightness, abundance, and manner in which they are produced, 
i.e., well above a bright green mass of leaves ; only bold clumps, 
however, show to such advantage. "When the plant is fairly 
established, it makes rapid growth, increasing itself somewhat 
strawberry fashion, by runners. 

It is worthy of note here that this semi-woody creeper does 
well under trees not too densely grown. Many inquiries are made 
for such subjects, and this is one of the number (which is far 
from ample) that can be relied upon for not only covering the 
bare earth, but also for bespangling such position with its bright 
blossoms for two months in spring. I have also tried it in pots, 
grown and bloomed under the shade of a trellised peach tree, in 
a "small house, without artificial heat, where it not only did well, 
but vied with the violets for effectiveness. 

This otherwise robust plant I have found to die when divided 
in the autumn (a period when many indeed, I may say most 
perennials are best transplanted), but when its propagation is 
carried out in spring, it grows like a weed. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Ononis Rotundifolia. 

BOUND-LEAVED BE STH ARROW ; Nat. Ord. LEGTJMINOS^. 
ONE of the most charming of the " old-fashioned " border flowers, 
having been grown in this country since 1570. Jt came from 



186 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



the Pyrenees, is hardy, evergreen, and shrubby. The common 
name of the genus, Restharrow, is in reference to the long, tough, 
and woody roots and branches. According to Gerarde, these 
properties " maketh the oxen, whilst they be in plowing, to rest or 
stand still." Although this species has tougn roots and branches, 
it seems more likely that the name would be from the trouble 
caused by the weedy species of the genus of his time. 

In its growing state there is seen an exquisiteness of form and 
colour rarely approached by any other subject ; from the manner 




FIG. 67. ONONIS EOTTJNDIFOLIA. 
(Plant, one-sixth natural size ; blossom, natural size.) 



in which the unopened scarlet buds blend with the thick and 
handsome-shaped foliage, the illustration (Fig. 67) can scarcely 
do justice to it. It should not be judged by other and better 
known species of the genus, some of which are of a weedy charac- 
ter, and from which this is as distinct as it well can be. Besides 
having the valuable property of flowering all summer, it is 
otherwise a suitable subject for the most select collections of 
hardy flowers. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 187 

It grows 18in. high, and is erect and branched in habit ; the 
flowers are produced on short side shoots ; in form they are pea- 
flower- shaped, as the reader will infer from the order to which 
the shrub belongs. The raceme seldom has more than two or 
three flowers fully open at one time, when they are of a shaded 
pink colour, and nearly an inch in length ; the leaves are lin. to 
2in., ternate, sometimes in fives, ovate, toothed, and covered with 
glandular hairs. 

The plant should be grown in bold specimens for the best effect. 
Ordinary garden soil suits it; if deeply dug and enriched, all 
the better. It is not so readily increased by division of the roots 
as many border plants, though root slips may, with care, be 
formed into nice plants the first season ; the better plan is to sow 
the seed as soon as well ripened, from which more vigorous plants 
may be had, and they will sometimes flower the following 
summer, though far short of their natural size. 

Flowering period, June to September. 

Onosma Taurica. 

GOLDEN DROP; Nat. Ord. BORAGINACE^J. 

A HARDY perennial, somewhat woody, and retaining much of its 
foliage in a fresh state throughout the winter, though by some 
described as herbaceous. The leaves which wither remain per- 
sistent, and sometimes this proves a source of danger to the 
specimen, from holding moisture during our wet winters, causing 
rot to set in. It is a comparatively new plant in English 
gardens, having been introduced from the Caucasus in 1801, and 
as yet is seldom met with. Not only is it distinct in the form of 
its flowers as may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 68) from 
other species of its order, but it has bloom of exceptional beauty, 
and the plant as a garden subject is further enhanced in value 
from the fact of its delicious perfume and perpetual blooming 
habit i.e., it flowers until stopped by frosts ; in short, it is one 
of the very finest hardy flowers, and if I could only grow a small 
collection of fifty, this should be one of such collection. 

The flowers are bright yellow, l^in. long, somewhat pear- 
shaped, and tubular. The calyx is long and deeply divided; the 
corolla is narrowed at the mouth; segments short, broad, and 
rolled back, forming a sort of rim. The flowers are arranged 
in branched heads, which are one-sided. The flower stalks are 
short, and the flowers and buds closely grown. The stems are 
about a foot long, having short alternate shoots, which flower 
later on; they are weighed to the ground with the numerous 
flowers and buds; the leaves are Sin. to 6in. long, narrow, 
lance-shaped, reflexed, and covered with short stiff hairs, which 
impart a grey appearance to the foliage. 

It should be grown fully exposed, as it loves sunshine; if 



188 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



planted in the frequented parts of the garden, its delicious 
perfume is the more likely to be enjoyed ; on rockwork, some- 
what elevated, will perhaps prove the best position for it, as then 
the pendent flowers can be better seen and studied. The whole 
habit of the plant renders it a suitable subject for the rock 
garden ; it may be grown in either loam or vegetable soil if well 
drained, and when it once becomes established in genial quarters 
it makes rapid growth and is very floriferous. What a rich bed 
could be formed of this, judiciously mixed with hardy fuchsias 




FIG. 68. ONOSMA TAUEICA. 
(Plant, one-quarter natural size ; blossom, one-half natural size.) 

and the various linums, having deep blue flowers and graceful 
slender stems ! These all love a breezy situation and sunshine, 
they also all flower at the same time, and continuously. To in- 
crease this choice plant, cuttings should be taken during summer ; 
they may be rooted quickly if placed in a cucumber frame and 
kept shaded for ten or twelve days; water should be given 
carefully, or the hairy leaves will ijegin to rot. Aim at having 
the young stock well rooted and hardened off before the cold 
weather sets in. 

Flowering period, June to the frosts. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 189 

Orchis Foliosa. 

LEAFY ORCHIS; Nat. Ord. ORCHID ACE^E. 

THIS terrestrial Orchid is not generally known to be hardy, 
but that such is the fact is beyond doubt. It is not only hardy, 
though it conies from Madeira, but it thrives better in this 
climate when exposed to all the drawbacks belonging to the open 
garden, or hardy treatment, than when kept under glass. It 
only seems to require two things a deep rich soil and leaving 
alone being very impatient of disturbance at its roots. Many 
of the hardy Orchids, though interesting, are not showy enough 
as flowers for beds or borders. This, however, is an exception, and 
is not only, in common with other Orchids, an interesting species, 
but a handsome and durable flower. 

It blooms at different heights, from 9in. to 2ft. ; the spike, 
as implied by the name, is leafy up to and among the flowered 
portion, which is from Sin. to 9in. long ; the flowers are a cheerful 
purple colour, each fin. in diameter ; the sepals are erect, cupped, 
and paler in colour than the other parts of the flower; petals 
small ; lip large, three lobed, the middle one somewhat pointed ; 
leaves oblong and smooth, lessening and becoming more subulate 
near the top of the stem. When well grown, this plant has a 
noble appearance, and when closely viewed is seen to be a flower 
of a high order, as, in fact, all the Orchids are. 

Fortunately, it is not so particular either as regards soil or 
atmosphere as most of its relations, and it may frequently be met 
with in cottage gardens in splendid form. Good sandy loam, in 
a moist situation, suits it well, and I have seen it with fine spikes 
of bloom both in partial shade and fully exposed. Its position 
should be correctly noted, otherwise, when the tops have died 
down, the roots may suffer damage ; they should be well guarded 
against disturbance. When increase is desirable the roots may 
be divided, but if they can be left alone it will be much to the 
advantage of the specimens. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Orchis Fusca, 

BROWN ORCHIS; Nat. Ord. ORCHIDACE^:. 
A RARE and noble British species, terrestrial, and having a 
tuberous root of moderate size; the specific name does not 
always apply, as this species varies considerably in the colour 
of its flowers certainly all are not brown. According to Gray, 
the flowers are " large, greenish-brown, brownish-purple, or pale 
ash grey;" the specimen from which our illustration (Fig. 69) 
was drawn may be said to be " brownish-purple," from its great 
number of brown spots ; it is also slightly tinged with green. 
According to Linnaeus, it is synonymous with 0. Militaris, the 



190 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Soldier, or Brown Man Orchis. Of the native kinds of Orchis, 
many of which are now getting very scarce, it is desirable to 
know what's what. But, as a garden flower, the one now under 
consideration has many points of merit. The plant is bold and 
portly, and the foliage ample compared with many of the genus. 
The head of flowers is large, numerous, and well lifted up, while, 
far from their least good quality, is that of their fine aromatic 
perfume. 

The full size of a flower is shown in the drawing. The sepals 
are seen to be broad, converging, and pointed ; the lip, which is 




FIG. 69. ORCHIS PUSCA. 
{One-fourth natural size j 1 and 2, natural size of flower.) 



rough, is three-parted ; lobes, unequal and ragged ; the side ones 
are long and narrow, the middle lobe is twice notched in an 
irregular manner ; the spur is straight with the stem ; bracts, 
short; the flowers are densely produced, forming a compact 
bunch 3in. to 4in. long, on a spike rather over a foot tall ; they 
continue in perfection three weeks or a month. The leaves are 
.9in. or more in length, lance-shaped, and fully an inch broad in 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 191 

the middle ; they are of a pale, shining, green colour, the root 
leaves resting on the ground. 

I find this Orchid capable of withstanding very rough treat- 
ment, but it requires some time (two years) to get fairly estab- 
lished. Silky loam and leaf soil are suitable for it; a moist 
situation, but in no way of a stagnant character, should be given, 
and the position should also be carefully selected, so as to secure 
the brittle and top-heavy flower spikes from strong winds, other- 
wise it will suffer the fate of hundreds of tulips after a gale. 
It is propagated by root division after the foliage has died off. 

Flowering period, end of May to end of June. 

Origanum Pulchellum. 

BEAUTIFUL MARJORAM; Nat. Ord. LABIATE. 

THIS is indeed a well-named species or variety, whichever it may 
he ; little seems to be known of its origin, but that it is distinct 
and beautiful is beyond doubt. It shines most as a rock plant ; 
its long and bending stems, which are somewhat procumbent, 
have as much rigidity about them as to prevent their having 
a weak appearance ; the tips, moreover, are erect, showing off to 
advantage the handsome imbricate bracts, bespangled as they are 
with numerous rosy-purple blossoms. The long and elegant 
panicles of bracteae, together with the pleasing arrangement 
thereof, are the main features of this subject. 

The rosy flowers are very small, and have the appearance 
of being packed between the bracteoles ; still, their gaping forms 
are distinctly traceable, but the pretty lipped calyxes are quite 
hidden ; the bract leaves are roundly-oval, acute, cupped, and 
touched with a nutty-brown tint on the outer sides ; the spikes 
have many minor ones, being as fine as a thread, covered with 
short soft hairs, and of a brown colour ; the leaves are fin. long, 
oval, entire, and downy. The plant or shrub grows 18in. high. 
As already hinted, the habit is procumbent, the older flower 
stems being woody ; not only is it a bright object for rockwork, 
but it is in its finest form when most other flowers are past. The 
branches are useful in a cut state ; the slender spikelets, with 
their pale green and brown tinted bracts, are very pretty by gas 
light, and they keep well for a long time in water. 

The Marjorams are fond of a dry situation, and this is no 
exception to that rule. Rockwork or raised beds of sandy loam 
suits it to perfection, provided the aspect is sunny. It will, 
therefore, be seen that there is nothing special about its culture, 
neither is there in its propagation; cuttings may be taken in 
summer, or the rooted shoots may be divided at almost any 
time. 

It flowers from September to the time of severe frosts, and is 
in its greatest beauty in October. 



192 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Orobus Vernus. 

PEASELING, OR SPRING BITTER VETCH; Nat. Ord. LEGTJMINOSJE, 

A HARDY herbaceous perennial ; it flowers in very early spring, 
and sometimes sooner, but it is in full beauty in April, its. 
blooming period being very prolonged. Not only is this bright 
and handsome pea flower worth attention being a very old subject 
of English gardens, but also because of its intrinsic merit as a 
decorative plant. I say plant designedly, as its form is both 
sprightly and elegant, which, I fear, the illustration (Fig. 70) 
can hardly do justice to more especially its spring tints and 
colours. 




FIG. 70. OROBTTS VEBNTJS. 
(One-fourth natural size.) 

Pretty nearly as soon as the growths are out of the earth the 
flowers begin to appear. The greatest height the plants attain 
rarely exceeds a foot ; this commends it as a suitable border 
plant. Individually the flowers are not showy, but collectively 
they are pleasing and effective. When they first open they are a 
mixture of green, red, blue, and purple, the latter predominating. 
As they become older they merge into blue, so that a plant shows 
many flowers in various shades, none of which are quite an inch 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 193 

long, and being borne on slender drooping stalks, which issue 
from the leafy stems, somewhat below the leading growths, the 
bloom is set off to great advantage. The foliage in form 
resembles the common vetch, but is rather larger in the leaflets, 
and instead of being downy like the vetch, the leaves are smooth 
and bright. In a cut state, sprays are very useful, giving light- 
ness to the stiffer spring flowers, such as tulips, narcissi, and 
hyacinths. Rockwork suits it admirably; it also does well in 
borders ; but in any position it pays for liberal treatment in the 
form of heavy manuring. It seeds freely, and may be propagated 
by the seed or division of strong roots in the autumn. Whether 
rabbits can scent it a considerable distance off, I cannot say, but, 
certain it is, they find mine every year, and in one part of the 
garden eat it off bare. 
Flowering period, March to May. 

Ourisia Coccinea. 
Nat. Ord. SCROPHTJLARIACE.E. 

A HARDY herbaceous perennial from South America, as yet 
rarely seen in English gardens, and more seldom in good form. 
As may be judged by the illustration (Fig. 71), it is a charming 
plant, but it has beauties which cannot be there depicted ; its 
deep green and shining leaves constitute wavy masses of foliage, 
most pleasing to see, and the short-stemmed, lax clusters of 
dazzling scarlet flowers are thereby set off to great advantage. I 
have no fear of overpraising this plant, as one cannot well do 
that. I will, however, add that it is a decorative subject of the 
highest order, without a single coarse feature about it; seldom is 
it seen without a few solitary sprays of flowers, and it is never 
met with in a seedy or flabby state of foliage, but it remains 
plump throughout the autumn, when it sometimes shows a dis- 
position to indulge in "autumnal tints." Though seldom encoun- 
tered, this lovely plant is well known, as it is pretty sure to be, 
from notes made of it and published with other garden news ; 
but it has the reputation of being a fickle plant, difficult to grow, 
and a shy bloomer. I trust this statement will not deter a single 
reader from introducing it into his garden ; if I had found it 
manageable only with an unreasonable amount of care, I would 
not have introduced it here. It certainly requires special treat- 
ment, but all the conditions are so simple and practicable, in even 
the smallest garden, that it cannot be fairly termed difficult, as 
we shall shortly see. 

The flowers are l^in. long, in form intermediate between the 
pentstemon and snapdragon, but in size smaller, and the colour 
an unmixed deep scarlet : they are produced on stems 9in. high, 
round, hairy, and furnished with a pair of very small stem- 
clasping leaves, and where the panicle of flowers begins there is 

o 



194 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



a small bract, and less perfectly developed ones are at every joint, 
whence spring the wiry flower stalks in fours, threes, and twos, 
of various lengths and a ruddy colour. The panicles are lax and 
bending ; the flowers, too, are pendent ; calyx, five-parted and 
sharply toothed; stamens, four, and long as petals; anthers, large 
and cream coloured, style long and protruding. The leaves are 
radical, and have long, hairy, bending stalks ; the main ribs are 
also hairy; beneath, they are of a deep green colour, bald, shining, 




Fia. 71. OXTKISIA COCCINEA. 
(Plant, one-fourth natural size; 1, blossom, one-half natural size.) 



veined and wrinkled; their form is somewhat heart-shaped, 
sometimes oval, lobed, but not deeply, and unevenly notched; 
they grow in dense masses to the height of Gin. 

It is said to like a peaty soil, in which I have never tried it. 
In the management of this plant I have found position to be the 
main desideratum ; the soil may be almost anything if it is kept 
moist and sweet by good drainage, but Ourisia coccinea will not 
endure exposure to hot sunshine ; even if the soil is moist it will 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 195 

suffer. I have large patches of it, 3ft. in diameter, growing in a 
mixture of clay and ashes, formed into a bank 18in. high, sloping 
north and screened by a hedge nearly 6ft. high from the midday 
sun, and shaded by overhanging trees ; and I may also add that 
during the three years my specimens have occupied this shady, 
moist, but well drained position they have grown and flowered 
freely, always best in the deepest shade. As before hinted, there 
is a sort of special treatment required by this plant, but it is, 
after all, very simple. It is a slow surface creeper, should be 
planted freely in frequented parts of the garden, if the needful 
conditions exist, and no more beautiful surfacing can be recom- 
mended; grown in such quantities it will be available for cutting 
purposes. As a cut flower it is remarkably distinct and fine ; it 
so outshines most other flowers that it must either have well 
selected company or be used with only a few ferns or grasses. 

It is readily increased by division of the creeping roots, which 
is best done in early spring. If such divisions are made in the 
autumn, according to my experience, the roots rot ; they should 
therefore be taken off either in summer, when there is still time 
for the young stock to make roots, or be left in the parent clump 
until spring, when they will start into growth at once. 

Flowering period, May to September. 

Papaver Orientale. 

ORIENTAL POPPY; Nat. Ord. PAPAVERACE^I. 

THE Oriental Poppy is a bold and showy plant, very hardy and 
perennial. There are several colours, but the bright scarlet 
variety is the most effective. Specimens of it which have become 
well established have a brilliant appearance during June ; they 
are 3ft. high and attract the eye from a distance. Among other 
large herbaceous plants, as lupines, pseonies, thalictrums, &c., 
or even mixed with dwarf shrubs, they are grandly effective ; 
indeed, almost too much so, as by the size and deep colour of the 
flowers they dazzle the eye and throw into the shade the surround- 
ing flowers of greater beauty. The kinds with brick-red and 
other shades are comparatively useless. Their flowers are not 
only smaller, but wind or a few drops of rain spot the petals. A 
night's dew has the same effect ; the stems, too, are weak and 
bending, which makes them much wanting in boldness, and when 
the flowers are damaged and the stems down there is little left 
about the Oriental Poppies that is ornamental. 

The flowers are Gin. to Sin. across when expanded, produced 
singly on stout round stems covered with stiff hairs flattened 
down, and also distantly furnished with small pinnate leaves. 
Only in some varieties is the leafy bract (Fig. 72) to be found. 
This variety is sometimes called P. bracteatmn. The calyx is 
three-parted and very rough ; the six petals (see engraving) are 

o2 



196 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 




FIG. 72. PAP AVER ORIENTALS (var. BRACTEATUM). 
(One-fourth natural size.) 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 197 

large, having well defined dark spots, about the size of a penny 
piece. The leaves are a foot or more in length, stiff but bend- 
ing; they are thickly furnished with short hairs, pinnate and 
serrated. 

This large poppy can be grown to an enormous size, and other- 
wise vastly improved by generous treatment ; in a newly trenched 
and well manured plot a specimen has grown 3ft. high, and pro- 
duced flowers 9in. across, the colour being fine ; it will, however, 
do well in less favoured quarters in fact, it may be used to fill 
up any odd vacancies in the shrubbery or borders. It is readily 
increased by division of the roots, and this may be done any time 
from autumn to February ; it also ripens seed freely. 

Flowering period, May to June. 

Pentstemons. 
Nat. Ord. SCROPHULARIACE^:. 

THE hybrids, which constitute the numerous and beautiful class 
commonly grown as " florists' flowers," are the kinds now under 
notice. The plant, when a year old, has a half-shrubby appear- 
ance, and if I said that it was but half hardy I should probably 
be nearer the mark than if I pronounced it quite hardy, It may, 
therefore, appear odd that I should class it with hardy peren- 
nials; there are, however, good reasons for doing so, and as 
these extra fine border plants are great favourites and deserve 
all the care that flowers can be worth, I will indicate my mode 
of growing them ; but first I will state why the hybrid Pentste- 
mons are here classed as hardy. One reason is that some 
varieties really are so, but most are not, and more especially 
has that proved to be the case during recent severe winters 
the old plants, which I never trouble to take in, are mostly 
killed. Another reason why I do not object to their being 
classed as hardy is that cuttings or shoots from the roots 
appear to winter outside, if taken in the summer or autumn 
and dibbled into sand or a raised bed (so that it be somewhat 
drier than beds of the ordinary level), where they will readily 
root. Such a bed of cuttings I have found to keep green all 
the winter, without any protection other than a little dry 
bracken. My plants are so propagated and wintered. 

The Pentstemon has of late years been much improved by 
hybridising, so that now the flowers, which resemble foxgloves, 
are not only larger than those of the typical forms, but also 
brighter, and few subjects in our gardens can vie with them 
for effectiveness; moreover, they are produced for several months 
together on the same plants, and always have a remarkably fresh 
appearance. 

The corolla, which can be well seen both inside and out, has 
the pleasing feature of clearly pronounced colour on the outside, 



198 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

and rich and harmonious shadmgs inside ; such flowers, loosely 
arranged on stems about 2ft. high, more or less branched, and 
furnished with lance-shaped foliage of a bright glossy green, go 

to make this border plant one that is 
justly esteemed, and which certainly 
deserves the little extra care needful 
during winter. 

It is grandly effective in rows, bu.t 
if in a fully exposed position it flags 
during hot sunshine ; it is, therefore, 
a suitable plant to put among shrubs, 
the cool shelter of which it seems to 
enjoy. The remarks I have already 
made respecting its hardiness suffi- 
ciently indicate the mode of propaga- 
tion. Old plants should not be de- 
pended upon, for though they are 
thoroughly perennial, they are not 
so hardy as the younger and less 
woody stuff besides, young plants 
are far more vigorous bloomers. 
Flowering period, June to August. 




Petasites Vulgaris. 
Syns. TUSSILAGO PETASITES and T, 

FRAGRANS; "WlN'x. HELIO- 

TROPE and COM.' BUTTER- 
BUR; Nat. Ord. C^MPOSIT^E. 

I MUST explain why this nati^: weed, 
of rampant growth and perennial 
character, is here mentioned as a fit 
subject for the garden. It blooms in 
the depth of winter in fact, all 
winter ; the flowers are not showy at 
all, but they are deliciously scented, 
whence the specific name fragrans 
and the common one " Winter Helio- 
trope," as resembling the scent of 
heliotrope. In its wild state it does 
not flower so early as when under cul- 
tivation ; the latter state is also more favourable to its holding 
some green foliage throughout the winter. It has been said that 
there are different forms male and female, or minor and major. 
Parkinson recognises two forms, and as his remarks are 
interesting and clearly point to the variety under notice, I will 
quote him from " The Theater of Plants," page 419 : " The Butter 



FIG. 73. PENTSTEMON. 
(One-fourth natural size). 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 199 

burre is of two sorts, the one greater and the other lesser, differ- 
ing also in the flowers, as you shall heare ; but because they are 
so like one another, one description shall serve for them both. 
Each of them riseth up very early in the yeare, that is, in 
February, with a thicke stalke about a foote high, whereon are 
set a few small leaves, or rather peeces, and at the toppes a long 
spiked head of flowers, in the one which is the lesse and the more 
rare to finde, wholly white and of a better sent than the other 
(yet some say it hath no sent), in the greater, which is more 
common with us, of a blush or deepe red colour, according to the 
soile wherein it groweth, the clay ground bringing a paler colour 
somewhat weake, and before the stalke with the flowers have 
abidden a moneth above ground will be withered and gon, blowen 
away with the winde, and the leaves will beginne to spring, which 
when they are full growne are very large and broad, that they 
may very well serve to cover the whole body, or at the least the 
head like an umbello from the sunne and raine." 

The flowers are produced on bare, fleshy scapes, springing from 
amongst the old foliage ; the new leaves not appearing until 
much later. The bloom is small, of a pinky white colour ; they 
are miniature forms, resembling the coltsfoot flowers, being 
arranged, however, in clusters. The leaves are large, cordate, 
downy, and soft to the touch, having long stout stems ; they vary 
much in size, from 3in. to more than a foot across, according to 
the nature of the soil. 

The usefulness of this plant consists entirely in its flowers 
as cut bloom, the least bit of which fills a large room with its 
most agreeable perfume. The plant, therefore, need not be grown 
in the more ornamental parts of the garden, and it should have a 
space exclusively allotted to it. It runs widely underground, 
and soon fills a large space. It enjoys moisture, but I have 
proved it to be more productive of bloom with leaves of half 
their usual size when planted in a rather dry situation with 
light but good soil. Usually a root does not produce flowers 
until two years after it has been planted. Poor as the flowers 
otherwise are, they are of great value in winter, when finely- 
scented kinds are scarce. They may be mixed with more 
beautiful forms and colours so as not to be seen, when, like 
violets in the hedgerow, they will exhale their grateful odour 
from a position of modest concealment. 

Flowering period, November to February. 

Phlox. 

HYBRID TALL VARIETIES ; SUB-SECTIONS, STJFFRTTTICOSA and 
DECTJSSATA (EARLY and LATE FLOWERING); Nat. Ord. 

POLEMONIACE^E. 

THESE noble flowers are not only beautiful as individuals, but the 
cheerful appearance of our gardens during the autumn is much 



200 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

indebted to them; the great variety in colour and shade is as 
remarkable as it is effective. The finer sorts are known as 
" florists' flowers," being named. Whence they came (from which 
species) is not so clear, but in other respects than form and habit 
they are much in the way of P. paniculata. The Phlox family is 
a numerous one, and the species are not only numerous but 
extremely dissimilar, consisting of the dwarf woody trailers, or 
P. procumbens section, the oval-leafed section (P. ovata), the 
creeping or stolon-rooted (P. stolonifera) section, and the one now 
under notice, which differs so widely that many have seemed 
puzzled that these bold tall plants are so closely related to the 
prostrate, "Whin-like species. The sub-divisions of the section 
under notice, viz., early and late flowering varieties, in all other 
respects except flowering period are similar, and any remarks 
of a cultural nature are alike applicable. This favourite part of 
the Phlox family is honoured with a specific name, viz., P. omni- 
fiora (all varieties of flowers), but notwithstanding that it is a 
most appropriate name it is seldom applied. 

As the flowers must be familiar to the reader, they need 
hardly be described, and it is only necessary to mention the 
general features. They are produced on tall leafy stems in 
panicles of different forms, as pyramidal, rounded, or flattish; 
the clusters of bloom are sometimes Sin. in diameter in rich soil ; 
the corolla of five petals is mostly flat, the latter are of a velvety 
substance, and coloured at their base, which in most varieties 
forms the "eye;" the tube is fine and bent, so as to allow the 
corolla to face upwards ; the calyx, too, is tubular, the segments 
being deep and sharply cut ; the buds abound in small clusters, 
and although the flowers are of a somewhat fugacious character, 
their place is quickly supplied with new blossoms (the succession 
being long maintained) which, moreover, have always a fresh 
appearance from the absence of the faded parts. The leaves, as 
indicated by the name suffruticosa, are arranged on half wood 
stems, and, as implied by the name decussata, are arranged in 
pairs, the alternate pairs being at right angles ; these names are 
more in reference to the habit and form of the plants than the 
period of flowering, which, however, they are sometimes used to 
indicate ; the leaves of some early kinds are leathery and shining, 
but for the most part they are herb -like and hairy, acutely lance- 
s.haped, entire, and 2in. to 5in long. 

Under ordinary conditions these hybrid forms of Phlox grow 
into neat bushy specimens of a willow-like appearance, 2ft. to 4ft. 
high, but in well-prepared richly-manured quarters they will not 
only grow a foot taller, but proportionally stouter, and also pro- 
duce much finer panicles of bloom ; no flower better repays liberal 
culture, and few there are that more deserve it. In the semi- 
shade of trees, the more open parts of the shubbery, in borders, or 
when special plantings are made, it is always the same cheerful 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 201 

subject, sweet, fresh, and waving with the breeze; its scent is 
spicy, in the way of cinnamon. The whole genus enjoys loam, but 
these strong-growing hybrids have a mass of long hungry roots, 
and, as already hinted, if they are well fed with manure they pay 
back with interest. 

As cut bloom, if taken in entire panicles, they are bouquets in 
themselves. All are effective, and many of the more delicate 
colours are exquisite, vieing with the much more cared-for 
bouvardias and tender primulas. 

To grow these flowers well there is nothing special about 
their management, but a method of treatment may be men- 
tioned which, from the improved form it imparts to the speci- 
mens, as well as the more prolonged period in which extra-sized 
blooms are produced, is well worthy of being adopted. When 
the stems are 12in. or 15in. grown, nip off the tops of all 
the outer ones, they will soon break into two or four shoots. 
These will not only serve to "feather" down the otherwise 
" leggy " specimens and render them more symmetrical, but they 
will produce a second crop of flowers, and, at the same time, allow 
the first to develope more strongly. "When the taller stems have 
done flowering, or become shabby, the tops may be cut back to 
the height of the under part of the then-formed buds of the 
early pinched shoots, and the extra light will soon cause them to 
flower; they should then be tied to the old stems left in the 
middle ; this will quite transform the specimen, not only making 
it more neat and dwarf, but otherwise benefiting it the old worn 
stems will have gone, and a new set of beaming flowers will 
reward the operator. The tops pinched out in the early part 
of the season make the best possible plants for the following 
season's bloom. They root like willows in a shady place in sandy 
loam, and are ready for planting in the open by midsummer, so 
that they have ample time to become strong before winter. 
Another way to propagate these useful flower roots is to divide 
strong clumps in the autumn after they have ceased to bloom. 

The very earliest kinds (some three or four) begin to flower 
early in August, and by the middle of the month many are in 
bloom ; the late-flowering (decussata) section is a month later ; all, 
however, are continued bloomers. 

Phlox Frondosa. 

FRONDED P.; Nat. Ord. POLEMONIACEJS. 

A HARDY creeper ; one of the dwarf section, having half -woody, 
wiry stems. For this and many other species of the Creeping 
Phlox we are indebted to North America. Of late years 
these beautiful flowers have received much attention, not only 
from the trade, but also from amateurs, some of whom have 
taken much pains in crossing the species by hybridising, notably 



202 HAKDY PERENNIALS AND 

the late Rev. J. G. Nelson. Perhaps the most distinct and 
beautiful of all the dwarf Phloxes is the one which bears his 
name the white-flowered P. Nelsoni. I have selected the 
species P. frondosa, because the specific name is, perhaps, beyond 
that of any of the others, more generally descriptive of all the 
following kinds : P. divaricata, P. glaberrima, P. Nelsoni (white 
flowers), P. reflexa, P. oculata. P. setacea, P. s. atropurpurea, 
P. s. violaccea, P. subulata, P. prostrata. These differ but 
slightly from one another, so little, indeed, that many discard 
the distinctions ; still, they do exist, and may be clearly seen 
when grown close together in collections. The flowers differ 
in depth of colour; the leaves of some are more recurved, 
crossed, twisted, shining, or pointed, also broader and longer ; 
the stems likewise differ; herein the distinctions are seen, 
probably, more than in either flowers or leaves. Some- 
times they are, in the different species, long or short, leafy, 
branched, dense, arched, and divaricate, but, although at any 
time when their fresh foliage is upon them, and when they are 
so close together that the eye can take them all in at a glance, 
their distinctions are fairly clear, autumn is the time to see 
them in their most definite and beautiful form. Like many 
other North American plants, they have lovely autumnal tints, 
then their forms have rich glistening colours, and they are seen 
to not only differ considerably, but, perhaps, to more advantage 
than when in flower; but let me add at once that I have only 
proved these plants to take such rich autumnal colours when 
they have been grown so as to rest on stones, which not only 
keep them from excess of moisture, from worm casts, &c., but 
secure for them a healthy circulation of air under their dense 
foliage. From the above, then, it will be seen that a general 
description of P. frondosa will apply to the other species and 
varieties mentioned. 

The flowers are lilac-rose; calyx, tubular; corolla of five 
petals, narrow and notched ; leaves, awl-shaped, short, bent, and 
opposite ; stems, branched, dense and trailing. 

The dwarf Phloxes are pre-eminently rock plants, as which 
they thrive well ; when raised from the ground level, so as to be 
nearly in the line of sight, they are very effective. They should 
be so planted that they can fall over the stones, like the one 
from which the illustration (Fig. 74) was drawn. For at least a 
fortnight the plants are literally covered with flowers, and at all 
times they form neat rock plants, though in winter they have 
the appearance of short withered grass ; even then the stems are 
full of health, and in early spring they become quickly furnished 
with leaves and flowers. These Phloxes make good edgings. 
Notwithstanding their dead appearance in winter, a capital sug- 
gestion occurred to me by an accidental mixture of croci with 
the Phlox. At the time when the latter is most unseasonable the 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



203 



crocuses, which should be planted in the same line, may be seen 
coming through the browned foliage. When in flower, the 
blooms will not only be supported by this means, but also be 
preserved from splashes; when the crocuses are past their prime, 
the Phlox will have begun to grow, and, to further its well doing, 
its stems should be lifted and the then lengthened foliage of the 




FIG. 74. PHLOX FKONDOSA. 
(Plant, one-sixth natural size; 1, natural size of flower.) 

crocuses should be drawn back to the under side of the Phlox, 
where it might remain to die off. This would allow the Phlox to 
have the full light, and the arrangement would be suitable for 
the edge of a shrubbery or border of herbaceous plants, or even 
along the walks of a kitchen garden. 

The Phloxes are easily propagated, either from rooted layers 
or cuttings. The latter should be put into a good loam and 
kept shaded for a week or two. Early spring is the best time. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Physalis Alkekengi. 

WINTER CHERRY; Nat. Ord. SOLAN ACEJE. 

THIS plant begins to flower in summer ; but as a garden subject 
its blossom is of no value ; the fine large berries, however, which 



204 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

are suspended in orange-yellow husks of large size, are very 
ornamental indeed, and form a very pleasing object amongst 
other " autumnal tints." It is not till October that the fruit 
begins to show its richness of colour. The plant is quite hardy, 
though a native of southern Europe; it is also herbaceous 
and perennial, and it has been grown in this country for 330 
years. Still, it is not to be seen in many gardens. An old 
common name for it was /'Red Nightshade," and Gerarde 
gives a capital illustration of it in his Herbal, under the name 
Solanum Halicacabum. 

P. Alkekengi grows to the height of about two feet. The 
stems of the plant are very curious, being somewhat zig-zag 
in shape, swollen at the nodes, with sharp ridges all along 
the stems ; otherwise, they are round and smooth. The leaves 
are produced in twins, their long stalks issuing from the same 
part of the joint ; they are of various forms and sizes, but mostly 
heart-shaped, somewhat acute, and 2in. to 4in. long. The little 
soft creamy white flowers spring from the junction of the twin 
leaf - stalks ; their anthers are bulky for so small a flower. 
The calyx continues to grow after the flower has faded, and 
forms the Chinese-lantern-like covering of the scarlet berry; the 
latter will be over ^in. in diameter, and the orange-coloured calyx 
l^in., when fully developed. In autumn the older stems cast 
their leaves early, when the finely-coloured fruit shows to advan- 
tage ; the younger stems keep green longer, and continue to 
flower until stopped by the frost. To this short description I 
may add that of Gerarde, which is not only clear but pleasantly 
novel : "The red winter Cherrie bringeth foorth stalkes a cubite 
long, rounde, slender, smooth, and somewhat reddish, reeling 
this way and that way by reason of his weakness, not able to 
stande vpright without a support : whereupon do growe leaues 
not vnlike to those of common nightshade, but greater ; among 
which leaues come foorth white flowers, consisting of five small 
leaues; in the middle of which leaues standeth out a berrie, 
greene at the first, and red when it is ripe, in colour of our 
common Cherrie and of the same bignesse, which is enclosed in a 
thinne huske or little bladder of a pale reddish colour, in which 
berrie is conteined many small flat seedes of a pale colour. The 
rootes be long, not vnlike to the rootes of Couch grasse, ramping 
and creeping within the vpper crust of the earth farre abroade, 
whereby it encreaseth greatly." 

The stems, furnished with fruit of good colour, but other- 
wise bare, make capital decorations for indoors, when mixed 
with tall grasses, either fresh or dried, and for such purposes 
this plant is worth growing ; any kind of soil will do, in an 
out-of-the-way part, but if in shade, the rich colour will be 
wanting. 

Flowering period, June to frosts. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 205 

Podophyllum Peltatum. 

DDCK'S-FOOT, sometimes called MAY APPLE ; Nat. Ord. 

PODOPHYLLACE^]. 

A HARDY herbaceous perennial from North America, more or 
less grown in English gardens since 1664. As may be seen from 
the illustration (Fig. 75), it is an ornamental plant, and though 




FlG. 75. PODOPHYLLTTM PELTATUM. 

(One-third nattiral size.) 



its flowers are interesting, they are neither showy nor con- 
spicuous, as, from the peculiar manner in which they are 
produced, they are all but invisible until sought out. Its leaves 
and berries constitute the more ornamental parts of the plant. 



206 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

The flowers are white, not unlike the small white dog-rose 
in both size and form ; the calyx is of three leaves, which fall off; 
the corolla, of six to nine petals ; peduncle nearly an inch long, 
which joins the stem at the junction of the two leaf stalks, only 
one flower being produced on a stem or plant. The leaves 
join the rather tall and naked stem by stalks, 2in. to Sin. long ; 
they are handsome in both form and habit. As the specific 
name implies, the leaves are peltate or umbrella-shaped, deeply 
lobed, each lobe being deeply cut, and all unevenly toothed and 
hairy at the edges, with^ a fine down covering the under sides ; 
the upper surface is of a lively, shining green colour, and finely 
veined. The flower is succeeded by a large one-celled ovate 
berry, in size and form something like a damson, but the colour 
is yellow when ripe, at which stage the berry becomes more 
conspicuous than the flower could be, from the manner in which 
the young leaves were held. 

We want cheerful-looking plants for the bare parts under 
trees, and this is a suitable one, provided the surface soil has a 
good proportion of vegetable matter amongst it, and is rather 
moist. The thick horizontal roots creep near the surface, so it 
will be seen how important it is to secure them against drought 
otherwise than by depth of covering ; a moist and shady posi- 
tion, then, is indispensable. In company with trilliums, helle- 
bores, anemones, and ferns, this graceful plant would beautifully 
associate. Another way to grow it is in pots, when exactly the 
required kind of compost can easily be given, viz., peat and 
chopped sphagnum. Thus potted, plunged in wet sand, and 
placed in a northern aspect, it will be found not only to thrive well, 
as several specimens have done with me, but also to be worth all 
the trouble. To propagate it, the long creeping roots should be 
cut in lengths of several inches, and to a good bud or crown. 
When so cut in the autumn, I have proved them to rot when 
planted, but others buried in sand until February, and then 
planted, have done well. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

Polyanthus. 

Nat. Ord. PRIMTJLACE^I. 

THIS, with its numerous varieties, comes under Primula veris, or 
the common Cowslip. The improved varieties which have sprung 
from this native beauty of our meadows and hedgerows are 
innumerable, and include the rich "gold-laced" kinds which are 
cared for like children and are annually placed on the exhibition 
tables as well as the homely kinds, which grow in the open 
borders by the hundred. The Polyanthus is eminently a flower 
for English gardens ; and this country is noted for the fine sorts 
here raised, our humid climate suiting the plant in every way ; 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 207 

its flowers offer a variety of colour, an odour of the sweetest 
kind, full and rich, reminding us not only of spring time, but of 
youthful rambles and holidays. 

As an "old-fashioned" flower for garden decoration it is 
effective and useful, from the great quantity of bloom it sends 
forth and the length of its flowering season; from its love of 
partial shade it may be planted almost anywhere. Its neat 
habit, too, fits it for scores of positions in which we should 
scarcely think of introducing less modest kinds ; such nooks and 
corners of our gardens should be made to beam with these and 
kindred flowers, of which we never have too many. Plant them 
amongst bulbs, whose leaves die off early, and whose flowers will 
look all the happier for their company in spring; plant them 
under all sorts of trees, amongst the fruit bushes, and where only 
weeds have appeared, perhaps, for years ; dig and plant the Poly- 
anthus, and make the wilderness like Eden. 

Flowering period, February to June. 

Polygonum Brunoni's. 

KNOTWEED; Nat. Ord. POLYGONACEJE. 

THIS is a dwarf species from India, but quite hardy. It is 
pretty, interesting, and useful. The flowers are produced on 
erect stems a foot high, and formed in spikes Sin. to Sin. long, 
which are as soft as down and smell like heather. The colour is 
a soft rose. These flowers spring from a dense mass of rich 
foliage ; the leaves in summer and early autumn are of a pleasing 
apple-green colour, smooth, oblong, and nearly spoon-shaped 
from the narrowing of the lower part ; the midrib is prominent 
and nearly white ; the leaf has rolled edges, and is somewhat 
reflexed at the point. Let the reader closely examine the leaves 
of this species while in their green state, holding them up to a 
strong light, and he will then behold the beauty and finish of 
Nature to a more than ordinary degree. This subject is one 
having the finest and most lasting of "autumnal tints," the 
dense bed of leaves turn to a rich brick-red, and, being per- 
sistent, they form a winter ornament in the border or on rock- 
work. The habit of the plant is creeping, rooting as it goes. It 
is a rampant grower, and sure to kill any dwarf subject that 
may be in its way. 

It may be grown in any kind of soil, and almost in any 
position, but it loves sunshine. If its fine lambtail-shaped 
flowers are desired, it should be grown on the flat, but, for its 
grand red autumnal leaf tints, it should be on the upper parts 
of rockwork. It is self -propagating, as already hinted. 

The flowers prove capital for dressing epergnes. I had not 
seen them so used, until the other day a lady visitor fancied a 
few spikes, and when I called at her house a day or two later 



208 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

saw them mixed with white flowers and late flowering forget-me- 
nots they were charming. 

Flowering period, August to the time of frosts. 

Polygonum Cuspidatum. 
CTJSPID KNOTWEED; Nat. Ord. POLYGON ACE JE. 
A RECENT introduction from China, perfectly hardy, shrub-like 
but herbaceous ; a rampant grower, attaining the height of 6ft. 
or 7ft., and spreading fast by means of root suckers. During 
the early spring it pushes its fleshy shoots, and the coloured 
leaves, which are nearly red, are very pleasing ; as they unfold 
they are seen to be richly veined, and are as handsome as the 
beautiful Fittonias, so much admired as hothouse plants. 

The long slender stems grow apace, and when the growth has 
been completed the flowers issue from the axils of the leaves; 
they are in the form of drooping feathery panicles, 4in. to Sin. 
long, creamy white, and produced in clusters, lasting for three 
weeks or more in good condition. The leaves are 3in. to 4in. 
long, nearly heart-shaped but pointed, entire, and stalked, of good 
substance, and a pale green colour; they are alternately and 
beautifully arranged along the gracefully-arching stems. The 
specimens are attractive even when not in bloom. If the roots 
are allowed to run in their own way for two or three years they 
form a charming thicket, which must prove a pleasant feature in 
any large garden. 

All through the summer its branches are used as dressings for 
large vases, and, either alone or with bold flowers, they prove 
most useful. In the shrubbery, where it can bend over the grass, 
from its distinct colour and graceful habit, it proves not only an 
effective but a convenient subject, as it allows the mowing 
machine to work without hindrance or damage. It is a capital 
plant for the small town garden. After sending to a friend 
several hampers of plants season after season, all without satis- 
factory results, owing to the exceptionally bad atmosphere of the 
neighbourhood, I sent him some of this, and it has proved suit- 
able in every way. 

Flowering period, July and August. 

P. c. compactum is a variety of the above. It is, however, 
very distinct in the way implied by its name, being more com- 
pact and rigid, and not more than half as tall. The leaves, 
too, are somewhat crimped, and of a much darker colour, the 
stems are nearly straight and ruddy, and the flowers are in more 
erect racemes, the colour yellowish- white. It forms a handsome 
bush, but is without the graceful habit of the type. Like the 
other knotweeds described, it enjoys a sandy loam, and requires 
nothing in the way of special culture. The roots may be trans- 
planted or divided when the tops have withered. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 209 

Polygonum Filiformis Variegatum. 

KNOTWEED; Nat. Ord. POLYGON ACE^J. 

VERY hardy and effective. I simply mention this as a foliage 
plant. The leaves are large, drooping, and finely splashed or 
marbled with pale green and yellow, in shape oval- oblong, being 
crimped between the veins. It is a scarce variety. Fine for the 
sub-tropical garden. Culture, the same as for all the Knotweeds. 
Flowering period, late summer. 

Polygonum Vaccinifolium. 

YACCINITJM-LEAVED KNOTWEED; Nat. Ord. POLYGON ACE.E. 
IT may seem odd that we should go into the Dock family for 
plants and flowers for our gardens ; still we may, and find some 
truly beautiful species. The above-named is a charming alpine, 
coming from the Himalayas, and proves perfectly hardy in our 
climate; it is seldom met with and cannot be generally known, 
otherwise it would be more patronised ; it forms a pretty dwarf 
shrub, with woody slender stems, clothed with small shining 
foliage. 

The flowers are very small, resembling those of the smaller 
ericas, and of a fine rosy colour ; the unopened ones are even 
more pretty, having a coral-like effect; they are arranged in 
neat spikes, about 2in. long, and tapering to a fine point ; they 
are numerously produced all along the procumbent branches, 
becoming erect therefrom. As the specific name denotes, the 
leaves are Yaccinium-like i.e., small and oval, like box, but not 
so stout ; they are closely set on the stems, are of a pale shining 
green, and somewhat bent or rolled. The habit is exceedingly 
neat, and, when in flower, a good specimen is a pleasing object ; 
it is only a few inches high, but spreads quickly. 

On rockwork it seems quite at home. My example has shade 
from the mid-day sun, and, without saying that it should have 
shade, I may safely say that it does well with it. The plant will 
thrive in sandy loam and is readily increased by putting small 
stones on the trailing stems, which soon root. 

The leafy stems, with their coral-like, miniature spires, are 
useful in a cut state, so pretty, in fact, that it does not require 
any skill to " bring them in." ' 

Flowering period, August to the frosts. 

Potentilla Fruticosa. 

SHRUBBY CINQTJEFOIL; Nat. Ord. ROSACES. 
IN mountainous woods this native deciduous shrub is found wild, 
and it is much grown in gardens, where it not only proves very 
attractive, but from its dwarf habit and flowering throughout the 

p 



210 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

summer and autumn months, it helps to keep the borders or rock 
garden cheerful. 

The flowers, which are lemon yellow, are in form like those of 
its relative, the strawberry, but smaller; they are produced in 
terminal small bunches, but seldom are more than two or three 
open at the same time, and more often only one ; but from the 
numerous branchlets, all of which produce bloom, there seems to 
be no lack of colour. In gardens it grows somewhat taller than 
in its wild state, and if well exposed to the sun it is more flori- 
ferous, and the individual flowers larger. 

It attains the height of 2ft. Gin. ; the flowers are lin. across ; 
the petals apart; calyx and bractese united; ten parted; each 
flower has a short and slender stalk. The leaves are 2in. or more 
inlength, pinnate, five but oftener seven parted, the leaflets being 
oblong, pointed, entire and downy; the leaf stalks are very 
slender, and hardly an inch long ; they spring from the woody 
stems or branches, which are of a ruddy colour, and also downy. 
The habit of the shrub is densely bushy, and the foliage has a 
greyish green colour from its downiness. 

This subject may be planted in any part of the garden where a 
constant blooming and cheerful yellow flower is required ; it is 
pretty but not showy ; its best quality, perhaps, is its neatness. 
It enjoys a vegetable soil well drained, and propagates itself by 
its creeping roots, which push up shoots or suckers at short 
spaces from the parent stock. 

Flowering period, summer to early frosts. 

Pratia Repens. 

Syn. LOBELIA PRATIANA ; CREEPING PRATIA; sometimes called 

LOBELIA REPENS; Nat. Ord. LOBELIACE^. 
IN October this small creeper is a very pretty object on rock- 
work, when the earlier bloom has become changed into oval 
fruit-pods. These berry-like capsules are large for so small a 
plant, and of a bright and pleasing colour. These, together with 
the few flowers that linger, backed up, as they are, with a 
dense bed of foliage, interlaced with its numerous filiform 
stems, present this subject in its most interesting and, perhaps, 
its prettiest form. 

The flowers may be called white, but they have a violet tint, 
and are over half-an-inch in length. The calyx is adnate in 
relation to the ovarium, limb very short, but free and five- 
toothed; the corolla is funnel-shaped, but split at the back, 
causing it to appear one-sided. The solitary flowers are pro- 
duced on rather long stems from the axils of the leaves. As 
they fade the calyces become fleshy and much enlarged, and 
resemble the fruit of the hawthorn when ripe. The leaves are 
distantly arranged on the creeping stems, in. long, oval, roundly 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 211 

toothed and undulated, fleshy, somewhat glaucous and petiolate. 
The habit of the plant is to root as it creeps, and the thread-like 
stems intersect each other in a pleasing way. They are to be 
seen distinctly, as the leaves are not only small, but distant, and 
seem to rest on a lattice-work of stems. This species comes 
from the Falkland Islands, and is of recent introduction. 

It is herbaceous and perennial, and proves hardy in this 
climate if planted on a well-drained soil of a vegetable character. 
It not only enjoys such a position as the slope of rockwork, but, 
when so placed, it may be seen to advantage. It should be free 
from shade, or the fruit will not colour well. It will therefore be 
seen that this is a rock plant, so far as its decorative qualities 
are concerned. It may, however, be grown well on flat beds of 
peat soil, where its fruit will mature finely, but it cannot be so 
well seen. It is self-propagating. Transplantings should be 
made in spring, or tufts may be placed in pots, during the 
autumn, and put in cold frames, as then they would not suffer 
displacement by frosts. 

Flowering period, June to frosts. 

Primula Acaulis. 

8yu. P. YTJLGARIS, COMMON PRIMROSE; Nat. Ord. 

PRIMTJLACEJE. 

THIS common native flower needs no description, growing every- 
where, yet we all seem to enjoy its company in our gardens, 
though it "may, perhaps, be seen wild close by. It is a flower of 
more interest than ordinary, and to the florist of some im- 
portance. The great variety of double and single primroses 
have all sprung from this, the modest form found in our woods 
and damp hedgerows, and the number is being added to year by 
year. The generic name is in allusion to a quality that of early 
or first flowering. The specific name, acaulis, is in reference to 
its stemlessness, which is its main distinguishing feature from 
the Polyanthus and Oxlip (P. veris}. I may add, that from the 
great variety of P. acaulis and P. veris, and their mutual resem- 
blance in many instances, the casual observer may often find in 
this feature a ready means by which to identify a specimen. Of 
course, there are other points by which the different species can 
be recognised, even when the scape is out of sight, but I am now 
speaking of their general likeness to each other in early spring. 

Common Cowslips or Paigles (P. veris}, great Cowslips or 
Oxlips (P. elatior}, field primrose or large-flowered primrose 
(P. acaulis}, were all in olden times called by the general name 
of primrose, the literal meaning of which is first-rose Old 
authorities give us many synonymous names for this plant, as 
P. grandiflora, P. vulgaris, P. sylvestris, and P. veris. The last is 
given by three authorities, including Linnaeus. As this seems to 

p 2 



212 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

clash hard -with the name as applied to the Cowslip species, I 
may at once state that Linnaeus has only that one name for the 
three species, viz : P. acaulis, P. elatior, P. veris ; the name 
P. vulgaris, by another authority, is explained by the same rule ; 
Curtis (Flora Londinensis) is the authority for the name P. 
acaulis. 

I need not here go into any of the varieties, beyond giving a 
cursory glance at them as a whole. The double kinds are all 
beautiful, some superb and rare, as the ruby and crimson ; the 
white, sulphur, mauve, magenta, and other less distinct double 
forms are more easily grown, and in some parts are very plen- 
tiful. The single kinds have even a more extensive range in 
colour. We have now fine reds and what are called blue prim- 
rose; the latter variety is not a blue, but certainly a near 
appoach to it. It is an interesting occupation to raise the 
coloured primroses from seed, not only because of the pleasing 
kinds which may be so obtained, but under cultivation, as in a 
wild state, seedlings are always seen to be the more vigorous 
plants ; self-sown seed springs up freely on short grass, sandy 
walks, and in half -shaded borders ; but when it is sought to im- 
prove the strain, not only should seedlings be regularly raised, 
but it should be done systematically, when it will be necessary, 
during the blooming season, to look over the flowers daily and 
remove inferior kinds as soon as proved, so that neither their 
seed nor pollen can escape and be disseminated. This part of the 
operation alone will, in a few years, where strictly carried out, 
cause a garden to become famous for its primroses. Seasonable 
sowing, protection from slugs, and liberal treatment are also of 
the utmost importance. 

Briefly stated, the modus operandi should be as follows : Sow 
the seed at the natural season, soon as ripe, on moist vegetable 
soil ; do not cover it with more than a mere dash of sand ; the 
aspect should be north, but with a little shade any other will do ; 
the seedlings will be pretty strong by the time of the early 
frosts ; about that time they should, on dry days, have three or 
four slight dressings of soot and quicklime ; it should be dusted 
over them with a " dredge " or sieve ; this may be expected to 
clear them of the slug pest, after which a dressing of sand and 
half -rotten leaves may be scattered over them ; this will not only 
keep them fresh and plump during winter, but also protect them 
from the effects of wet succeeded by frost, which often lifts such 
things entirely out of the earth. In March, plant out in well 
enriched loam, in shady quarters; many will flower in late spring. 
Another plan would be to leave them in the seed bed if not too 
rank, where most would flower; in either case, the seed bed might 
be left furnished with undisturbed seedlings. The main crop of 
bloom should not be looked for until the second spring after the 
summer sowing. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 213 

The double forms are not only less vigorous, but the means of 
propagation are limited ; offsets of only healthy stock should be 
taken in early summer. A rich retentive loam suits them, or 
moist vegetable soil would do: shade, however, is the great 
desideratum ; exposure to full sunshine harms them, even if well 
moistened at the roots; besides, in such positions red spider is 
sure to attack them. This mode of propagation is applicable to 
desirable single varieties, as they cannot be relied upon to pro- 
duce stock true to themselves from seed. In planting offsets it 
is a good practice to put them in rather deeply; not only are the 
new roots emitted from above the old ones, but the heart of the 
offset seems to be sustained during the warm and, perhaps, dry 
weather, by being set a trifle below the surface. This I have 
ever proved to be a sure and quick method in the open garden. 

Flowering period, February to June. 

Primula Capitata. 

ROUND-HEADED PRIMULA; Nat. Ord. PRIMULACE^. 
HARDY, herbaceous, and perennial. Before referring to this 
Primula in particular, I would say a word or two respecting 
hardy and alpine Primulse in general. It may appear strange 
and, on my part, somewhat presumptuous, when I state that this * 
section of the Primula family is little known. Gardeners, both 
old and young, who have seen them in collections, have asked 
what they were as they stood over them admiring their lovely 
flowers. They are, however, very distinct on the one hand from 
the primrose (Primula vulgaris or acaulis) and polyanthus 
(Primula elatior) sections ; and also from the P. sinensis section 
the species with so many fine double and single varieties, much 
grown in our greenhouses, and which, of course, are not hardy. 
The hardy and distinct species to which I now allude are mostly 
from alpine habitats, of stunted but neat forms, widely distinct, 
and very beautiful. 

The British representatives of this class are Primula farinosa 
and P. Scotica, but from nearly all parts of the temperate zone 
these lovely subjects have been imported. It may not be out 
of place to name some of them : P. Allioni, France ; P. amcena, 
Caucasus; P. auricula, Switzerland; P. Carniolica, Carniola; 
P. decora, South Europe; P. glaucescens and P. grandis, 
Switzerland; P. glutinosa, South Europe; P. latifolia, Pyrenees; 
P. longifolia, Levant ; P. marginata, Switzerland ; P. minima, 
South Europe; P. nivalis, Dahuria; P. villosa, Switzerland; 
P. viscosa, Piedmont; P. Wulfeniana, P. spectabilis,P. denticulata, 
P. luteola, P. Tirolensis, and others, from the Himalayas and 
North America, all of which I have proved to be of easy 
culture, either on rockwork, or in pots and cold frames, where, 
though they may be frozen as hard as the stones amongst which 



214 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

their roots delight to run, they are perfectly safe. The treat- 
ment they will not endure is a confined atmosphere. 

P. capUata, which is a native of Sikkim, is still considered to 
be new in this country, though it was flowered at Kew about 
thirty years ago, but it has only become general in its distribution 
during the past three or four years. 

The flowers are borne on stems which are very mealy, and Gin. 
to 9in. high ; the head of bloom is round and dense, l|in. across. 
The outer pips are first developed, and as they fade the succeed- 
ing rings or tiers extend and hide them. The very smallest 
in the centre of the head remain covered with the farina-like 
substance, and form a beautiful contrast to the deep violet-blue 
of the opened, and the lavender-blue of the unopened pips. One 
head of bloom will last fully four weeks. The denseness and 
form of the head, combined with the fine colour of the bloom, are 
the chief points which go to make this Primula very distinct. 
The leaves, which are arranged in rosette form, are otherwise 
very pretty, having a mealy covering on the under side, some- 
times of a golden hue; they are also finely wrinkled and toothed, 
giving the appearance, in small plants, of a rosette of green 
feathers. Sometimes the leaves are as large as a full-grown 
polyanthus leaf, whilst other plants, which have flowered equally 
well, have not produced foliage larger than that of primroses, 
when having their earliest flowers. 

It makes a fine pot subject, but will not endure a heated 
greenhouse. It should be kept in a cold frame, with plenty 
of air. It may be planted on rockwork where it will not get the 
midday sun. I hear that it grows like grass with a correspondent 
whose garden soil is stiff loam; there it seeds and increases 
rapidly. My first experience with it was troublesome ; when 
dying down in the winter, the leaves, which are persistent, 
seemed to collect moisture at the collar and cause it to rot. 
I tried planting not quite so deeply, and I imagine that it has 
proved a remedy. So choice a garden subject should not be 
passed by because it cannot be dibbled in and grown as easily as 
a cabbage. Old plants produce offsets which, as soon as the 
April showers come, may be transplanted in loamy soil and 
a shady situation. Propagation may also be carried on by seed 
when well ripened, but that has not been my experience of it 
hitherto. 

Flowering period, April to June. 

Primula Cashmerianum. 

CASHMERE PRIMROSE; Nat. Ord. PRIMULACE^. 

THIS belongs to the large-leaved and herbaceous section, and 
though it comes (as its name specifies) from a much warmer 
climate than ours, its habitat was found at a great altitude, and 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



215 



it has been proved to be perfectly hardy in North Britain. This 
species is comparatively new to English gardens, but it has 
already obtained great favour and is much grown (see Fig. 76). 




FIG. 76. PRIMULA CASHMEBIANUM. 
(One-fourth natural size.) 

No collection of Primulce can well be without it ; its boldness, 
even in its young state, is the first characteristic to draw atten- 
tion, for with the leaf development there goes on that of the 
scape. For a time the foliage has the form of young cos lettuce, 
but the under sides are beautifully covered with a meal 
resembling gold dust. This feature of the plant is best seen at 
the early stage of its growth, as later on the leaves bend or 
flatten to the ground in rosette form, the rosettes being often 



216 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

more than 12in. across. The golden farina varies in both 
quantity and depth of colour on different plants. 

The flower scape is from 9in. to 12in. high, nearly as stout as a 
clay pipe stem, and very mealy, thickening near the top. The 
flowers, which are small, of a light purple colour, and having a 
yellow eye, are densely arranged in globular trusses, each lasting 
more than a fortnight in beauty. The leaves when resting on 
the ground show their finely serrated edges and pleasing pale 
green, which contrasts oddly with the under sides of those still 
erect, the latter being not only of a golden colour, as already 
mentioned, but their edges are turned, almost rolled under. 

This plant loves moisture, and it will adorn any position where 
it can be well grown; it will also endure any amount of sunshine 
if it has plenty of moisture at the roots, and almost any kind of 
soil will do except clay, but peat and sand are best for it, 
according to my experience. During winter the crown is liable 
to rot, from the amount of moisture which lodges therein some- 
what below the ground level ; latterly I have placed a piece of 
glass over them, and I do not remember to have lost one so 
treated. Offsets are but sparingly produced by this species; 
propagation is more easily carried out by seed, from which 
plants will sometimes flower the first year. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Primula Denticulata. 

TOOTHED PRIMULA ; Nat. Ord. PRIMULACEJE. 
THIS is one of that section of the Primrose family having stout 
scapes and compact heads of bloom. It is a comparatively 
recent introduction from the Himalayas, a true alpine, and per- 
fectly hardy in this climate. As a garden flower, it has much 
merit, blooming early and profusely. It cannot be too highly 
commended for its fine form as a plant and beauty as a flower, 
more especially as seen on rockwork. The flower buds begin in 
very early spring to rise on their straight round stems, new 
foliage being developed at the same time. 

The flowers are arranged in dense round clusters, and are often 
in their finest form when nearly a foot high. They are of a 
light purple colour, each flower |iu. across, corolla prettily 
cupped, segments two-lobed, greenish white at bases, tube long 
and cylindrical, calyx about half length of tube, teeth rather 
long and of a dark brown colour. The scape is somewhat dark- 
coloured, especially near the apex, The leaves are arranged in 
rosette form, are lance-shaped, rolled back at the edges and 
toothed, also wrinkled and downy ; they continue to grow long 
after the flowers have faded. 

Delicate as the flowers seem, they stand the roughest storms 
without much hurt. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 217 

P. d. major is a larger form in all its parts. 

P. d. nana is more dwarfed than the type. 

P. d. amabilis is a truly lovely form, having darker foliage and 
rosy buds ; its habit, too, is even more neat and upright, and the 
blooming period earlier by about two weeks. 

A moist position and vegetable mould suit it best, according 
to my experience, and the dips of rockwork are just the places 
for it, not exactly in the bottom, for the following reason : The 
large crowns are liable to rot from wet standing in them, and if 
the plants are set in a slope it greatly helps to clear the crowns 
of stagnant moisture. Propagation is by means of offsets, 
which should be taken during the growing season, so that they 
may form good roots and become established before winter. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Primula Farinosa. 

MEALY PRIMROSE, or BIRD'S-EYE; Nat. Ord. PRIMTJLACEJH. 
THE pretty native species, very common in a wild state in some 
parts, near which, of course, it need not be grown in gardens ; 
but as its beauty is unquestionable, and as there are many who 
do not know it, and evidently have never seen it, it ought to have 
a place in the garden. It is herbaceous and perennial. All its 
names are strictly descriptive. The little centre has a resem- 
blance to a bird's eye, and the whole plant is thickly covered with 
a meal-like substance. Small as this plant is, when properly 
grown it produces a large quantity of bloom for cutting purposes. 

It is 3in. to Sin. high, according to the situation in which it is 
grown. The flowers are light purple, only |in. across, arranged 
in neat umbels ; the corolla is flat, having a bright yellow centre ; 
leaves small, ovate-oblong, roundly toothed, bald, and powdery 
beneath; the flower scapes are round and quite white, "with a 
meal-like covering. 

In stiff soil and a damp situation this little gem does well, or it 
will be equally at home in a vegetable soil, such as leaf mould or 
peat, but there must be no lack of moisture, and it is all the 
better for being screened from the mid-day sun, as it would be 
behind a hedge or low wall. So freely does it bloom, that it is 
not only worth a place in the garden, but repays all the trouble 
required to establish it in proper quarters, after which it will take 
care of itself, by producing offsets and seedlings in abundance. 

Flowering period, April to June. 

Primula Marginata. 

Syn. P. CRENATA; MARGINED PRIMROSE; Nat. Ord. 

PRIMTJLACE.&. 

A NATIVE of Switzerland, so rich in alpine flowers ; this is but a 
small species, yet very distinct and conspicuous (see Fig. 77). 



218 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

As its specific name denotes, its foliage has a bold margin, as if 
stitched with white silken thread, and the whole plant is thickly 
covered with a mealy substance. So distinct in these respects is 
this lovely species that, with, perhaps, one exception, it may 
easily be identified from all others, P. auricula marginata being 
the one that most resembles it, that species also being edged and 
densely covered with farina, but its foliage is larger, not toothed, 
and its flowers yellow. 

P. marginata has bright but light violet flowers on very short 
scapes, seldom more than Sin. high; these and the calyx also 




FIG. 77. PRIMULA MARGINATA. 
(Two-thirds natural size.) 

are very mealy. The little leaves are of various shapes, and 
distinctly toothed, being about the size of the bowl of a 
dessert spoon. They are neatly arranged in tufts on a short 
footstalk, which becomes surrounded with young growths, all 
as clear in their markings as the parent plant, so that a well 
grown specimen of three years or even less becomes a beautiful 
object, whether it is on rockwork or in a cold frame. - 

The flowers are produced and remain in good form for two or 
three weeks on strong plants, and for nearly the whole year the 
plant is otherwise attractive. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 219 

I scarcely need mention that such plants with mealy and downy 
foliage are all the better for being sheltered from wind and rain. 
In a crevice, overhung by a big stone, but where the rockwork is 
so constructed that plenty of moisture is naturally received, a 
specimen has done very well indeed, besides keeping its foliage 
dry and perfect. "When such positions can either be found or 
made, they appear to answer even better than frames, as alpine 
species cannot endure a stagnant atmosphere, which is the too 
common lot of frame subjects. It is not very particular as to 
soil or situation. I grow it both in shade and fully exposed to 
the midday sun of summer, and, though a healthy specimen is 
grown in loam, I find others to do better in leaf mould mixed 
with grit and pebbles. It enjoys a rare immunity the slugs let 
it alone, or at least my slugs do, for it ia said that different tribes 
or colonies have different tastes. To propagate it, the little off- 
sets about the footstalk should be cut off with a sharp knife when 
the parent plant has finished flowering ; they will mostly be found 
to have nice long roots. Plant in leaf soil and grit, and keep 
them shaded for a month. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Primula Purpurea. 

PURPLE-FLOWERED PRIMULA; Nat. Ord. PRIMULACEJE. 
A TRULY grand primrose of the same section as P. denticulata, 
coming also from an alpine habitat, viz., the higher elevations of 
the Himalayas. It has not long been in cultivation in this 
country compared with our knowledge of the Himalayan flora. 
It is perfectly hardy, but seems to require rather drier situations 
than most of the large-leaved kinds. I never saw it so fine as 
when grown on a hillock of rockwork in sand and leaf mould ; 
the specimen had there stood two severe winters, and in the 
spring of 1881 we were gladdened by its pushing in all directions 
fifteen scapes, all well topped by its nearly globular heads of fine 
purple flowers. It begins to flower in March, and keeps on for 
quite a month. 

The flower stems are 9in. high, stout, and covered with a mealy 
dust, thickest near the top and amongst the small bracts. The 
umbels of blossom are 2in. to Sin. across, each flower nearly fin. 
in diameter, the corolla being salver shaped and having its lobed 
segments pretty well apart ; the tube is long and somewhat 
bellied where touched by the teeth of the calyx; the latter is 
more than half the length of tube, of a pale green colour, and the 
teeth, which are long, awl shaped, and clasping, impart to the 
tubes of the younger flowers a fluted appearance ; later on they 
become relaxed and leafy. The leaves have a strong, broad, pale 
green, shining midrib, are lance-shaped, nearly smooth, wavy, 
and serrulated ; the upper surface is of a lively green colour, and 



220 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the under side lias a similar mealy covering to that of the scape. 
Flowers and leaves develope at the same time, the latter being 
8in. long and of irregular arrangement. 

The exceedingly floriferous character of this otherwise hand- 
some primula renders it one of the very best subjects for the 
spring garden ; it should have a place in the most select collec- 
tions, as well as in more general assemblages of plants, for not 
only does it take care of itself when once properly planted, but it 
increases fast, forming noble tufts a foot in diameter, than 
which few things give a finer effect or an equal quantity of 
flowers at a time when they are not too plentiful. As already 
hinted, it should have a somewat drier position than P. denticu- 
lata, but by no means should it suffer from drought, and a little 
shade will be beneficial. Propagated by division during the 
growing season, immediately after flowering being the best time. 

Flowering period, March and April. 



Primula Scotica. 

SCOTTISH PRIMROSE; Nat. Ord. PRIMULACE-E. 
THIS charming little member of the British flora very much 
resembles the native Bird's-eye Primrose (P. farinosa), which is 
very common in some parts. It is not uniformly conceded to be 
a distinct species, but many botanists believe it to be such. As 
a matter of fact, it is different from P. farinosa in several im- 
portant points, though they are not seen at a mere glance. That 
it has darker flowers and a more dwarf and sturdy habit may, 
indeed, be readily seen when the two are side by side. Size and 
colour, however, would not in this case appear to be the most 
distinctive features. The seed organs differ considerably. " In 
P. farinosa the germen is broadly obovate and the stigma 
capitate ; here the germen is globose and the stigma has five 
points." But there is another dissimilarity which may or may 
not prove much to the botanist, but to the lover of flowers who 
tries to cultivate them it is all-important. Whilst P. farinosa 
can be easily grown in various soils and positions, in the same 
garden P. Scotica refuses to live ; so fickle, indeed, is it, that 
were it not a very lovely flower that can be grown and its 
fastidious requirements easily afforded, it would not have been 
classed in this list of garden subjects. Here it begins to 
blossom in the middle of March at the height of Sin. In its 
habitats in Caithness and the north coast of Sutherland it is 
considerably later April and May. 

The flowers are arranged in a crowded umbel on a short 
stoutish scape ; they are of a deep-bluish purple, with a yellow 
eye ; the divisions of the corolla are flat and lobed ; calyx nearly 
as long as tube, and ventricose or unevenly swollen. The whole 
flower is much less than P. farinosa. The leaves are also smaller 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 221 

than those of that species ; obovate, lanceolate, denticulate, and 
very mealy underneath. 

To grow it requires not only a light but somewhat spongy soil, 
as peat and sand, but it should never be allowed to get dry at 
the roots; a top dressing during summer of sand and half 
decayed leaves is a great help to it, for the roots are not only 
then very active, going deep and issuing from the base of the 
leaves, but they require something they can immediately grow 
into when just forming, and to be protected from drought. It 
will be well to remember that its principal habitats are on the 
sandy shores, as that gives a proper idea of the bottom moisture, 
and, from the looseness of the sand, the drier condition of the 
immediate surface. My specimens have always dwindled during 
summer and failed to appear the following spring, excepting 
where such treatment as the above has been adopted. I am 
much indebted for these hints to several amateurs, who grow it 
well. That many fail with it is evidenced by the facts that it is 
in great demand every spring and that there are few sources of 
supply other than its wild home. Never was it more sought for, 
perhaps, than at the present time, not only by amateurs at home, 
but by both private and trade growers abroad. The exquisite 
beauty of this primrose when well grown and the technical care 
required to have it in that condition are both things of which 
any plant lover may be proud. 

If once established, its propagation is scarcely an affair of the 
cultivator's; the self-sown seed appears to germinate with far 
more certainty when left alone, and, as the plants are always 
very small, they hardly need to be transplanted. If left alone, 
though they are often much less than an inch across, many will 
flower the first season. Some have taken it as something of a 
biennial character. The treatment is at fault when it gives 
cause for such impressions; its perennial quality is both 
authorised and proved under cultivation. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Primula Sikkimensis. 

Nat. Ord. PRIMTJLACEJE. 

THE specific name of this noble and lovely plant has reference to 
its habitat, Sikkim, in the Himalayas, where it was found not 
many years ago. It is not largely cultivated yet probably not 
well known. It may, however, be frequently met with in choice 
collections, where no plant is more worthy of a place. Its general 
character may be said to be very distinct, especially when in 
flower. It is herbaceous, hardy, and perennial. Its hardiness has 
been questioned for several years, but the winters of 1880 and 
1881 settled that beyond the region of doubt. I had then many 
plants of it fully exposed, without even a top-dressing, which is 



222 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



sometimes given to plants of unquestionable hardiness, and they 
stood the winters as well as their kindred species our common 
Cowslip. It was also said to be not more than biennial, as if it 
were a plant too good to be without some fatal fault for our 
climate. However, I can say emphatically that it is more than 
Tbiennial, as the specimens from which the drawing (Fig. 78) is 
taken are three years old. Several correspondents have written 
me stating that their plants are dead. That has been during 




FIG. 78. PRIMULA SIKKIMENSIS. 
(Plant, one-sixth natural size ; a, blossom, two-thirds natural size.) 

their season of dormancy, but in every case they have pushed at 
the proper time. I may as well here explain, though somewhat 
out of order, a peculiarity in reference to the roots of this species : 
it^ dies down in early autumn, and the crown seems to retire 
.within the ball of its roots, which are a matted mass of fibres, and 
not only does it seem to retire, but also to dwindle, so that any- 
one, with a suspicion, who might be seeking for the vital part, 
might easily be misled by such appearances, which are further 
added to by the fact that the species does not start into growth 
until a late date compared with others of the genus. So peculiar 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 223 

are the roots and crown of this plant, that if a root were dug up 
in mid-winter, and the soil partly shaken from it, a two-year-old 
specimen would be found to be the size and shape of a cricket 
ball, and the position of the crown so difficult to find that, 
on planting the root again, considerable discrimination would 
have to be exercised, or the crown might be pointed the 
wrong way. 

P. Sikkimensis is a Cowslip. The flowers are a pale primrose 
yellow, rendered more pale still by a mealiness which covers 
the whole stem, being most abundant near the top, but whether 
it is produced on the petals, or, owing to their bell-shape and 
pendent form they recieve it from the scape and pedicels by the 
action of the wind, I cannot say. The flowers are considerably 
over lin. long ; they are numerously produced on long drooping 
pedicels, of irregular lengths ; the tallest scape of the specimen 
illustrated is 18in. high, but under more favourable conditions 
this Cowslip has been said to reach a height of 3ft. The leaves 
are Gin. to 12in. long, wrinkled, unevenly dentate, oblong and 
blunt ; during the time of seeding the leaves increase in length, 
some becoming spathulate, or broadly stalked ; it ripens seed 
plentifully, from which seedlings come true. 

Although. I have never grown this noble plant otherwise than 
in ordinary garden loam well enriched and in shady borders, it 
is said to be more at home in peaty soil always in a moist 
state. However that may be, I have proved it to do well under 
ordinary treatment; it should be well watered during hot dry 
weather ; amongst dwarf trees, in the more damp parts of rock- 
work, or at the foot of a north wall covered with any kind of 
foliage, it will be grown and seen to advantage. 

Besides by seed, which should be sown as soon as ripened, it 
may be propagated by root divisions at the time the crowns are 
pushing in spring. 

Flowering period, June and July. 

Primula Vulgaris Flore-pleno. 

DOUBLE-FLOWERED PRIMROSE; Nat. Ord. PRIMULACE^. 
IT is not intended to descant upon, or even attempt to name, 
the many forms of Double Primrose; the object is more to 
direct the attention of the reader to one which is a truly 
valuable flower and ought to be in every garden. Let me at 
once state its chief points. Colour, yellow; flowers, large, full, 
clear, and sweetly scented, produced regularly twice a year; 
foliage, short, rigid, evergreen, handsome, and supporting the 
flowers from earth splashes, Having grown this variety for five 
years, I have proved it to be as stated during both mild and 
severe seasons. It seems as if it wanted to commence its 
blooming period about October, from which time to the severest 



224 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

part of winter it affords a goodly amount of flowers ; it is then 
stopped for a while, though its buds can be seen during the 
whole winter, and when the longer days and vernal sunshine 
return, it soon becomes thickly covered with blossoms, which are 
of the most desirable kind for springy gathering. 

Its flowers need no further description beyond that already 
given ; but I may add that the stalks are somewhat short, which 
is an advantage, as the bloom is kept more amongst the leaves 
and away from the mud. The foliage is truly handsome, short, 
finely toothed, rolled back, pleasingly wrinkled, and of a pale 
green colour. It is very hardy, standing all kinds of weather, 
and I never saw it rot at the older crowns, like so many of the 
fine varieties, but it goes on growing, forming itself into large 
tufts a foot and more across. 

It has been tried in stiff loam and light vegetable soil; in 
shade, and fully exposed ; it has proved to do equally well in 
both kinds of soil, but where it received the full force of the 
summer sun the plants were weak, infested with red spider, 
and had a poorer crop of flowers. It would, therefore, appear 
that soil is of little or no importance, but that partial shade is 
needful. It is not only a variety worth the having, but one 
which deserves to have the best possible treatment, for flowers in 
winter and such flowers are worth all care. 

Flowering periods, late autumn and early spring to June. 

Pulmonarias. 

LUNGWORTS; Nat. Ord. BORAGINACE^J. 

IN speaking of these hardy herbaceous perennials, I should wish 
to be understood that the section, often and more properly called 
Mertensia, is not included because they are so very distinct in 
habit and colour of both flowers and foliage. Most of the 
Pulmonarias begin to flower early in March, and continue to do 
so for a very long time, quite two months. 

For the most part, the flowers (which are borne on stems 
about Sin. high, in straggling clusters) are of changing colours, 
as from pink to blue ; they are small but pretty, and also have 
a quaint appearance. The foliage during the blooming period is 
not nearly developed, the plants being then somewhat small 
in all their parts, but later the leaf growth goes on rapidly, and 
some kinds are truly handsome from their fine spreading habit 
and clear markings of large white spots on the leaves, which are 
often 9in. or lOin. long and Sin. broad, oblong, lanceolate, taper- 
pointed, and rough, with stiff hairs. At this stage they would 
seem to be in their most decorative form, though their flowers, 
in a cut state, formed into " posies," are very beautiful and really 
charming when massed for table decoration ; on the plant they 
have a faded appearance. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 225 

Many of the species or varieties have but slight distinctions, 
though all are beautiful. A few may be briefly noticed otherwise 
than as above : 

P. ojficinalis is British, and typical of several others. Flowers 
pink, turning to blue ; leaves blotted. 

P. off. alba differs only in the flowers being an unchanging 
white. 

P. angustifolia, also British, having, as its specific name 
implies, narrow leaves ; flowers bright blue or violet. 

P. mollis, in several varieties, comes from North America ; is 
distinct from its leaves being smaller, the markings or spots less 
distinct, and more thickly covered with soft hairs, whence its 
name. 

P. azurea has not only a well-marked leaf, but also a very 
bright and beautiful azure flower ; it comes from Poland. 

P. maculata has the most clearly and richly marked leaf, and 
perhaps the largest, that being the chief distinction. 

P. saccharata is later ; its flowers are pink, and not otherwise 
very distinct from some of the above kinds. 

It is not necessary to enumerate others, as the main points of 
difference are to be found in the above-mentioned kinds. 

All are very easily cultivated; any kind of soil will do for 
them, but they repay liberal treatment by the extra quality of 
their foliage. Their long and thick fleshy roots allow of their 
being transplanted at any time of the year. Large clumps, 
however, are better divided in early spring, even though they are 
then in flower. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Puschkinia Scilloides. 

SCILLA-LIKE PUSCHKINIA, or STRIPED SQUILL; Syns. P. 

LIBANOTICA, ADAMSIA SCILLOIDES ; Nat. Ord. LILIACE^B. 
As all its names, common and botanical, denote, this charming 
bulbous plant is like the scillas ; it may, therefore, be useful to 
point out the distinctions which divide them. They are (in the 
flowers) to be seen at a glance ; within the spreading perianth 
there is a tubular crown or corona, having six lobes and a mem- 
branous fringe. This crown is connected at the base of the 
divisions of the perianth, which divisions do not go to the base 
of the flower, but form what may be called an outer tube. In 
the scilla there is no corona, neither a tube, but the petal-like 
sepals or divisions of the perianth are entire, going to the base 
of the flower. There are other but less visible differences which 
need not be further gone into. Although there are but two or 
three known species of the genus, we have not only a confusion 
of names, but plants of another genus have been mistaken as 
belonging to this. Mr. Baker, of Kew, however, has put both 

Q 



226 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the plants and names to their proper belongings, and we are no 
longer puzzled with a chionodoxa under the name of 
PuschTcinia. This Lilywort came from Siberia in 1819, and 
was long considered a tender bulb in this climate, and even 
yet by many it is treated as such. With ordinary care judi- 
cious planting it not only proves hardy, but increases fast. 
Still, it is a rare plant, and very seldom seen, notwith- 
standing its great beauty. It was named by Adams, in honour 
of the Russian botanist, Count Puschkin, whence the two 
synonymous names PuschTcinia and Adamsia ; there is also 
another name, specific, which, though still used, has become 
discarded by authorities, viz., P. Libanotica this was sup- 
posed to be in reference to one of its habitats being on 
Mount Lebanon. During mild winters it flowers in March, and 
so delicately marked are its blossoms that one must always feel 
that its beauties are mainly lost from the proverbial harshness 
of the season. 

At the height of 4in. to Sin. the flowers are produced on 
slender bending scapes, the spikes of blossom are arranged one- 
sided ; each flower is iin. to nearly lin. across, white, richly 
striped with pale blue down the centre, and on both sides of the 
petal-like divisions. The latter are of equal length, lance- 
shaped, and finely reflexed ; there is a short tube, on the mouth 
of which is joined the smaller one of the corona. The latter is 
conspicuous from the reflexed condition of the limb of the 
perianth, and also from its lobes and membranous fringe being 
a soft lemon-yellow colour. The pedicels are slender and 
distant, causing the flower spikes, which are composed of four 
to eight flowers, to have a lax appearance. The leaves are few, 
4in. to 6in. long, lance-shaped, concave, but flatter near 
the apex, of good substance and a dark green colour ; bulb 
small. 

As already stated, a little care is needed in planting this choice 
bulbous subject. It enjoys a rich, but light soil. It does not so 
much matter whether it is loamy or of a vegetable nature if it 
is light and well drained ; and, provided it is planted under such 
conditions and in full sunshine, it will both bloom well and 
increase. It may be propagated by division of the roots during 
late summer, when the tops have died off; but only tufts 
having a crowded appearance should be disturbed for an 
increase of stock. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

P. s. compacta is a variety of the above, having a stronger 
habit and bolder flowers. The latter are more numerous, have 
shorter pedicels, and are compactly arranged in the spike 
whence the name Culture, propagation, and flowering time, 
same as last. 



QLD-FASHIQNEP GARDEN FLOWERS, 227 

Pyrethrum Uliginosurrt. 

MARSH FEVERFEW; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
A VERY bold and strong growing species, belonging to a numerous 
genus ; it comes to us from Hungary, and has been grown more 
or less in English gardens a little over sixty years. It is a 
distinct species, its large flowers, the height to which it grows, 
and the strength of its willow-like stalks being its chief 
characteristics. Still, to anyone with but a slight knowledge of 
hardy plants, it asserts itself at once as a Pyrethrum. It is 
hardy, herbaceous, and perennial, and worth growing in every 
garden where there is room for large growing subjects. There 
is something about this plant when in flower which a bare 
description fails to explain; to do it justice it should be seen 
when in full bloom. 

Its flowers are large and ox-eye-daisy-like, having a white ray, 
with yellow centre, but the florets are larger in proportion to 
the disk ; plain and quiet as the individual flowers appear, when 
seen in numbers (as they always may be seen on well-established 
specimens), they are strikingly beautiful, the blooms are more 
than 2in. across, and the mass comes level with the eye, for the 
stems are over 5ft. high, and though very stout, the branched 
stems which carry the flowers are slender and gracefully bending. 
The leaves are smooth, lance-shaped, and sharply toothed, fully 
4in. long, and stalkless ; they are irregularly but numerously dis- 
posed on the stout round stems, and of nearly uniform size and 
shape until the corymbose branches are reached, i.e., for 4ft. or 
5ft. of their length ; when the leaves are fully grown they reflex 
or hang down, and totally hide the stems. This habit, coupled 
with the graceful and nodding appearance of the large white 
flowers, renders this a pleasing subject, especially for situations 
where tall plants are required, such as near and in shrubberies. 
I grow but one strong specimen, and it looks well between two 
apple trees, but not over-shaded. The idea in planting it there 
was to obtain some protection from strong winds, and to avoid 
the labour and eyesore which staking would create. 

It likes a stiff loam, but is not particular as to soil if only it 
is somewhat damp. The flowers last three weeks ; and in a cut 
state are also very effective ; and, whether so appropriated or 
left on the plant, they will be found to be very enduring. When 
cutting these flowers, the whole corymb should be taken, as in 
this particular case we could not wish for a finer arrangement, 
and being contemporaneous with the Michaelmas daisy, the 
bloom branches of the two subjects form elegant and fashionable 
decorations for table or vase use. To propagate this plant, it is 
only needed to divide the roots in November, and plant in deeply - 
dug but damp soil. 

Flowering period, August to September. 

Q 2 



228 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Ramondia Pyrenaica. 
Syns. CHAIXIA MYCONI and VERBASCUM MYCONI; Nat. Ord> 

SOLANACE^I. 

THIS is a very dwarf and beautiful alpine plant, from the 
Pyrenees, the one and only species of the genus. Although 
it is sometimes called a Verbascum or Mullien, it is widely 
distinct from all the plants of that family. To lovers of dwarf 
subjects this must be one of the most desirable ; small as it is, 
it is full of character. 

The flowers, when held up to a good light, are seen to be 
downy and of ice-like transparency ; they are of a delicate, pale, 
violet colour, and a little more than an inch in diameter, pro- 
duced on stems Sin. to 4in. high, which are nearly red, and 
furnished with numerous hairs ; otherwise the flower stems are 
nude, seldom more than two flowers, and oftener only one bloom 
is seen on a stem. The pedicels, which are about half-an-inch 
long, bend downwards, but the flowers, when fully expanded, 
rise a little; the calyx is green, downy, five-parted, the divi- 
sions being short and reflexed at their points ; the corolla is 
rotate, flat, and, in the case of flowers several days old, thrown 
back ; the petals are nearly round, slightly uneven, and waved 
at the edges, having minute protuberances at their base tipped 
with bright orange, shading to white ; the seed organs are very 
prominent; stamens arrow-shaped; pistil more than twice the 
length of filaments and anthers combined, white, tipped with 
green. The leaves are arranged in very flat rosettes, the latter 
being from four to eight inches across. The foliage is entirely 
stemless, the nude flower stalks issuing from between the leaves, 
which are roundly toothed, evenly and deeply wrinkled, and 
elliptical in outline. Underneath, the ribs are very prominent, 
and the covering of hairs rather long, as are also those of the 
edges. On the upper surface the hairs are short and stiff. 

In the more moist interstices of rockwork, where, against and 
between large stones, its roots will be safe from drought, it will 
not only be a pleasing ornament, but will be likely to thrive and 
flower well. It is perfectly hardy, but there is one condition of 
our climate which tries it very much the wet, and alternate 
frosts and thaws of winter. From its hairy character and flat 
form, the plant is scarcely ever dry, and rot sets in. This is 
more especially the case with specimens planted flat ; it is 
therefore a great help against such climatic conditions to place 
the plants in rockwork, so that the rosettes are as nearly as 
possible at right angles with the ground level. Another inte- 
resting way to grow this lovely and valuable species is in pans 
or large pots, but this system requires some shelter in winter, as 
the plants will be flat. The advantages of this mode are that 
five or six specimens so grown are very effective. They can, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 229 

from higher cultivation (by giving them richer soil, liquid 
manure, and by judicious confinement of their roots), be brought 
into a more floriferous condition, and when the flowers appear, 
they can be removed into some cool light situation, under cover, 
so that their beauties can be more enjoyed, and not be liable to 
damage by splashing, &c. Plants so grown should be potted in 
sandy peat, and a few pieces of sandstone placed over the roots, 
slightly cropping out of the surface ; these will not only help to 
keep the roots from being draughted, but also bear up the 
rosetted leaves, and so allow a better circulation of air about the 
collars, that being the place where rot usually sets in. In the 
case of specimens which do not get proper treatment, or which 
have undergone a transplanting to their disadvantage, they will 
often remain perfectly dormant to all appearance for a year or 
more. Such plants should be moved into a moist fissure in rock- 
work, east aspect, and the soil should be of a peaty character. 
This may seem like coddling, and a slur on hardy plants. Here, 
however, we have a valuable subject, which does not find a home 
in this climate exactly so happy as its native habitat, but which, 
with a little care, can have things so adapted to its requirements 
as to be grown year after year in its finest form ; such care is 
not likely to be witnheld by the true lover of choice alpines. 

This somewhat slow-growing species may be propagated by 
division, but only perfectly healthy specimens should be selected 
for the purpose, early spring being the best time ; by seed also it 
may be increased ; the process, however, is slow, and the seed- 
lings will be two years at least before they flower. 

Flowering period, May to July. 

Ranunculus Aconitifolius. 

ACONITE -LEAVED CROWFOOT, or BACHELORS' BUTTONS ; 

Nat. Ord. K/ANUNCULACE^. 

AN herbaceous perennial, of the alpine parts of Europe, and for 
a long time cultivated in this country. It grows 1ft. high, is 
much branched in zigzag form, and produces numerous flowers, 
resembling those of the strawberry, but only about half the 
size ; the leaves are finely cut and of a dark green colour ; it is 
not a plant worth growing for its flowers, but the reason why I 
briefly speak of it here is that I may more properly introduce 
that grand old flower of which it is the parent, E. a. fl.-pl. (see 
Fig. 79), the true "English double white Crowfoote," or Bachelor's 
Buttons ; these are the common names which Gerarde gives as 
borne by this plant nearly 300 years ago, and there can be no 
mistaking the plant, as he figures it in his " Historic of Plantes," 
p. 812 ; true, he gives it a different Latin name to the one it 
bears at the present time ; still, it is the same plant, and his 
name for it (R. albus multiflorus) is strictly and correctly 



230 



HARDY PERENNIALS ANI> 



specific. Numerous flowers are called Bachelor's Buttons, in- 
cluding daisies, globe flowers, pyrethrums, and different kinds of 
ranunculi, but here we have the " original and true ; " probably 
it originated in some ancient English garden, as Gerarde says,. 
"It groweth in the gardens of herbarists & louers of strange 
plants, whereof we have good plentie, but it groweth not wild 
anywhere." 

Its round smooth stems are stout, zigzag, and much branched,, 
forming the plant into a neat compact bush, in size (of plants- 




PIG. 79. RANUNCULUS ACONIT FOLIUS FLORE-PLENO. 
(One-fourth natural size ; a, natural size of flower.) 



two or more years old) 2ft. high and 2ft. through. The flowers 
are white, and very double or full of petals, evenly and beauti- 
fully arranged, salver shape, forming a flower sometimes nearly 
an inch across ; the purity of their whiteness is not marred by 
even an eye, and they are abundantly produced and for a long 
time in succession. The leaves are of a dark shining green 
colour, richly cut as the specific name implies after the style 
of the Aconites ; the roots are fasciculate, long, and fleshy 
This " old-fashioned" plant is now in great favour and much 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 231 

sought after ; and no wonder, for its flowers are perfection, and 
the plant one of the most decorative and suitable for any position 
in the garden. In a cut state the flowers do excellent service. 
This subject is easily cultivated, but to have large specimens, 
with plenty of flowers, a deep, well enriched soil is indispensable; 
stagnant moisture should be avoided. Autumn is the best time 
to divide the roots. 
Flowering period, May to July. 



Ranunculus Acris Flore-pleno. 

DOUBLE ACRID CROWFOOT, YELLOW BACHELOR'S BUTTONS? 
Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACEJE. 

THE type of this is a common British plant, most nearly related 
to the field buttercup. I am not going to describe it, but mention 
it as I wish to introduce R. acris fl.-pl., sometimes called "yellow 
Bachelor's Buttons" indeed, that is the correct common name 
for it, as used fully 300 years ago. In every way, with the 
exception of its fine double flowers, it resembles very much the 
tall meadow buttercup, so that it needs no further description ; 
but, common as is its parentage, it is both a showy and useful 
border flower, and forms a capital companion to the double white 
Bachelor's Buttons (R. aconitifolius fl.-pl.). 
Flowering period, April to June. 



Ranunculus Amplexicaulis. 

STEM-CLASPING RANUNCULUS; Nat. Ord. RANUNCULACE^. 
A VERY hardy subject; effective and beautiful. The form of 
this plant is exceedingly neat, and its attractiveness is further 
added to by its smooth and pale glaucous foliage. It was intro- 
duced into this country more than 200 years ago, from the 
Pyrenees. Still it is not generally grown, though at a first 
glance it asserts itself a plant of first-class merit (see Fig. 80). 

The shortest and, perhaps, best description of its flowers will 
be given when I say they are white Buttercups, produced on stout 
stems nearly a foot high, which are also furnished by entire 
stem-clasping leaves, whence its name ; other leaves are of 
varying forms, mostly broadly lance-shaped, and some once- 
notched ; those of the root are nearly spoon-shaped. The whole 
plant is very smooth and glaucous, also covered with a fine meal. 
As a plant, it is effective ; but grown by the side of R. montanus 
and the geums, which have flowers of similar shape, it is seen to 
more advantage. 

On rockwork, in leaf soil, it does remarkably well ; in loam it 
seems somewhat stunted. Its flowers are very serviceable in a 
cut state, and they are produced in succession for three or four 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



weeks on the same plant. It has large, fleshy, semi-tuberous 
roots, and many of them ; so that at any time it may be trans- 




Fia. 80. RANUNCULUS AMPLEXICAUI/IS 
(One-fourth natural size.) 



planted. I have pulled even flowering plants to pieces, and the 
different parts, which, of course, had plenty of roots to them, 
still continued to bloom. 

Flowering period, April and May. 



Ranunculus Speciosum. 

SHOWY CROWFOOT; Nat. Ord. BANUNCULACE^E. 

THIS is another double yellow form of the Buttercup. It has 
only recently come into my possession. The blooms are very 
large and beautiful, double the size of R. acris fl.-pl., and a 
deeper yellow ; the habit, too, is much more dwarf, the leaves 
larger, but similar in shape. 

Flowering period, April to June. 

All the foregoing Crowfoots are of the easiest culture, needing 
no particular treatment ; but they like rich and deep soil. They 
may be increased by division at almost any time, the exceptions 
being when flowering or at a droughty season. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 233 

Rudbeckia Californica. 

CALIFORNIAN CONE-FLOWER; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS, in all its parts, is a very large and showy subject; the 
flowers are Sin. to 6in. across, in the style of the sunflower. It 
has not long been grown in English gardens, and came, as its 
name implies, from California : it is very suitable for association 
with old-fashioned flowers, being nearly related to the genus 
Helianthus, or sunflower. It is not only perfectly hardy in this 
climate, which is more than can be said of very many of the Cali- 
f ornian species, but it grows rampantly and flowers well. It is 
all the more valuable as a flower from the fact that it comes into 
bloom several weeks earlier than most of the large yellow 
Composites. Having stated already the size of its flower, I need 
scarcely add that it is one of the showiest subjects in the garden; 
it is, however, as well to keep it in the background, not only on 
account of its tallness, but also because of its coarse abundant 
foliage. 

It grows 4ft. to 6ft. high, the stems being many-branched. 
The flowers have erect stout stalks, and vary in size from Sin. to 
6in. across, being of a light but glistening yellow colour; the 
ray is somewhat unevenly formed, owing to the florets being of 
various sizes, sometimes slit at the points, lobed, notched, and 
bent ; the disk is very bold, being nearly 2in. high, in the form 
of a cone, whence the name " cone flower." The fertile florets of 
the disk or cone are green, and produce an abundance of yellow 
pollen, but it is gradually developed, and forms a yellow ring round 
the dark green cone, which rises slowly to the top when the florets 
of the ray fall; from this it will be seen that the flowers last a long 
time. The leaves of the root are sometimes a foot in length and 
half as broad, being oval, pointed, and sometimes notched or 
lobed; also rough, from a covering of short stiff hairs, and 
having once -grooved stout stalks 9in. or more long ; the leaves 
of the stems are much smaller, generally oval, but of very 
uneven form, bluntly pointed, distinctly toothed, and some of 
the teeth so large as to be more appropriately described as 
segments ; the base abruptly narrows into a very short stalk. 
The flowers of this plant are sure to meet with much favour, 
especially while the present fashion continues ; but apart from 
fashion, merely considered as a decorative subject for the garden, 
it is well worth a place. There are larger yellow Composites, but 
either they are much later, or they are not perennial species, and 
otherwise this one differs materially from them. 

I need not say anything respecting this form of flower in a 
cut state its effectiveness is well known. If planted in ordinary 
garden loam it will hold its place and bloom freely year after 
year without further care, Smaller subjects should not be set 
too near it ; it may be unadvisable to plant too many clumps in 



234 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the same garden, but it can be allowed to spread into one bold 
patch. The best time to divide or transplant is in early spring, 
when growth is just pushing, for vigorous as this and many 
other perennials are, I have often found them to rot, when the 
dormant roots, after being cut into pieces, have had to face the 
winter. 
Flowering period, July to September. 



Rudbeckia Serotina. 

Late CONE-FLOWER; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
THIS hardy American species, though not an old plant in 
English gardens, is nevertheless classed with "old-fashioned" 
plants and flowers ; and certainly its sombre but pleasing dark 
golden ray flowers, together with its likeness to many of the 
old sunflowers, favours such classification. It is the latest of 
a late -flowering genus. 

It attains the height of 2ft. ; the root leaves are of irregular 
shape, some oval and pointed, others, on the same plant, being 
lance-shaped, with two or three large teeth or acute lobes; 
in size the leaves also vary from Sin. to Sin. long, and being 
covered with short bristly hairs, they are very rough, also of 
a dull green colour ; the flower stems have but few leaves, so it 
will be judged that the plant has but a weedy appearance, but 
this is compensated for by the rich and numerous large dark 
orange flowers, "Sin. across ; the ray is single, and the centre, 
which is large and prominent, is a rich chocolate brown. 

This subject, to be effective, should be grown in large speci- 
mens; mine is about 3ft. in diameter, and the level mass of 
flowers, as I have often noticed them in twilight, were grandly 
beautiful. I can well understand that many have not cared for 
this cone flower when they have judged it from a small plant 
which has sent up its first, and perhaps abnormal, bloom. It is 
especially a subject that should be seen in bold clumps, and 
in moderately rich soil it will soon become such. Moreover, the 
flowers are very effective in a cut state, when loosely arranged 
in vases, only needing something in the way of tall grasses to 
blend with in order to form an antique " posy." 

Autumn is the best time to plant it ; its long roots denote that 
it enjoys deep soil, and, when planted, the roots of this, as well 
as all others then being transplanted, should be made firm, 
otherwise the frost will lift them out and the droughts will finish 
them off. Many plants are lost in this manner, and, indeed, 
many short-rooted kinds are scarcely saved by the greatest care. 
The stem-rooting character of this plant affords ready means of 
propagation by root divisions. 

Flowering period, from September till strong frosts. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 235 

Salix Reticulata. 

WRINKLED or NETTED WILLOW; Nat. Ord. SALICACE^J. 
A NATIVE deciduous shrub, of creeping or prostrate habit, not 
growing higher than 2in. As the flowers are inconspicuous and 
only interesting to the botanist or when under the microscope, 
let me at once say I mention this subject because of its beautiful 
habit and distinct quality of foliage. When grown on rock- 
work, no other plant can compare with it, and where choice 
spring bulbs are planted, this handsome creeper may be allowed, 
without injury to such roots, to broadly establish itself; so 
grown, its little stout leaves, thickly produced, flatly on the 
surface, are much admired. 

The flowers or catkins stand well above the foliage, but are 
unattractive, being of a dusky brown colour ; the leaves are dark 
green, downy, of much substance, l^in. long, and nearly lin. 
broad, but the size of foliage varies according to the conditions 
under which the specimens are grown ; the sizes now referred to 
are of plants grown on rather dry rockwork and fully exposed ; 
the form of the leaves is orbicular, obtuse, not in the least notched, 
bald, reticulately veined, and glaucous beneath; the stems are 
short and diffuse, and tinged with red on the younger parts. 

During winter, when bare of foliage, its thick creeping stems, 
covered with fat buds and interlaced in a pleasing manner, 
render it interesting in almost any situation not shaded. It 
forms a capital carpet plant from early spring to the end of 
summer. 

It is in no way particular as regards soil, and though it loves 
moisture, like most other willows, it proves thriving in diy 
places. It is, moreover,- a good grower in large towns. Its 
propagation may be carried out before the leaves unfold in 
spring. Little branches with roots to them may be cut from 
the parent plant, and should be set in sandy loam and watered 
well to settle it about the roots. 

Flowering period, September to strong frosts. 

Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

BLOODROOT; Nat. Ord. PAPAVERACE^E. 

THIS is a native of North America, and is, therefore, hardy in 
this climate; tuberous rooted. It is a curious plant, not only 
from its great fulness of sap or juice, which is red (that of 
the root being darker, whence its name Bloodroot), but also 
because of the shape of its leaves, their colour, and method of 
development (see Fig. 81). Though very dwarf, it is handsome 
and distinct. 

The flowers are pure white and nearly 2in. across ; the petals 
have good substance, but they fall in five or six sunny days ; the 



236 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



stamens are numerous and bright yellow. Though belonging to 
the order of the Poppy, it is in many respects unlike it ; each 
flower stem, which is 6in. high, springs directly from the root, 
and only one flower is produced on a stem ; the leaves are also 
radical, so that the plant is branchless and stemless ; the leaf 
stalks are rather shorter than those of the flowers. The foliage 
is of a slate-grey colour, prominently veined on the under side, 
the upper surface being somewhat wrinkled ; the leaves are Sin. 




FIG. 81. SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS. 
(One-half natural size.) 

across when fully developed, vine -leaf shaped, deeply and beauti- 
fully lobed; their development is slow, not being completed 
until the bloom is past. Both leaves and flowers are produced 
in a curious fashion; for a time the flower-bud is compactly 
enfolded by a leaf, and so both grow up to the height of 2in. or 
3in., when the former pushes through, and soon swells its olive- 
shaped buds. At this stage a good specimen clump is very 
attractive, and is only more so when the fine blooms first open. 



OLD-FASHIONED GAEDEN FLOWEBS. 237 

It should be grown amongst some such carpeting plants as 
Sibihorpia Europcea or Linaria pilosa, so as to protect it ; more- 
over, these creepers are suited for a similar soil and position. 
The soil should be light, either of sandy or vegetable character, 
but one that cannot bake ; shade from the midday sun is 
essential, as also is plenty of moisture. "When the growths have 
become crowded, as they do in about three years, it is as well to 
lift, divide, and replant at a distance of Sin. ; this is best done 
after the tops have died off in summer ; plant 4in. or 5in. deep. 

Flowering period, April and May. 

Saponaria Ocymoides. 
BOCK SOAPWORT, or BASIL-LEAVED SOAPWORT : Nat. Ord. 

SlLENACE^. 

A VERY hardy alpine from France, and one of the most flori- 
ferous subjects that can be placed on rockwork, where should be 
its position. During a single season it is no uncommon thing to 
see a small plant grow into a large cushion 2ft. in diameter, and 
only 6in. or 9in. high. In planting it this fact should not be 
overlooked, not only for the sake of giving it plenty of room, 
but also in order that less vigorous subjects near it may not 
become overgrown; it blooms all summer, and though the 
flowers are small and not at all bright, their numbers render it 
attractive. 

The flowers, which are about in. across, are of a pink 
colour, and produced on many-branched prostrate stems; the 
calyx is five-toothed ; the corolla is formed of five flat petals ; the 
leaves are small, basil-like, oval-lance shaped, entire and smooth ; 
the general appearance of the plant when in bloom is that of a 
compact mass of small leaves and flowers, the latter pre- 
dominating. 

It will grow in any kind of soil, but prefers that of a vegetable 
character, with its roots amongst large stones ; but, strictly 
speaking, it needs nothing but an open situation and plenty of 
room to spread. It ripens an abundance of seed, and there is 
not a better mode of propagation than its own; hundreds of 
stout seedlings appear the following spring around the parent 
plant, and these may then be transplanted, and they will flower 
the same season. 

8. o. splendens is a variety of the above very much improved 
indeed ; and though one cannot discard the good old plant for 
its very recent offspring, the former is certainly very much 
eclipsed. Splendens has foliage slightly different, but its 
flowers are much larger and brighter ; and though it may not be 
quite so vigorous, in this case that may be considered an 
improvement. It is said to come true from seed. 

Flowering period, May to August. 



238 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Saxifraga Burseriana. 

BURSER'S SAXIFRAGE ; Nat. Ord. SAXIPRAGACE^E. 
A HARDY evergreen alpine. A native of Carniola, not long 
discovered, and quite new to English gardens. Though it 
belongs to a very extensive genus, it is a distinct species ; many 
of the Saxifrages are not so, neither are they sufficiently decora- 
tive to merit a place in any but large or scientific gardens. This 
one, however, is a truly handsome kind, and its flowers are pro- 
duced amid the snow and during the bleak and dull weather of 
mid-winter. 

The plant in form is a dense cushion of little spiked rosettes, 
of a dark green colour, slightly silvered. The flowers are pro- 
duced on bright ruddy stems Sin. high, and are creamy white, 
nearly the size of a sixpence. Small as the plant is, a moderate 
sized specimen is very attractive, especially before the flowers 
open, when they are in their prettiest form. They open slowly 
and endure nearly two months. 

It enjoys light soil and a well drained situation, such as the 
edge of a border, where strong growing kinds cannot damage it, 
or on rockwork, where it will be fully exposed to the sun. To be 
effective, it should be grown into strong clumps, which may 
easily be done by annually giving a top-dressing of leaf -mould ; 
the older parts of the plant will remain perfectly sound and 
healthy for years. When it is desirable to propagate it, it may 
best be done in April, when the tufts should be carefully divided, 
and its short roots made firm in the soil by one or two stones 
being placed near. 

Flowering period, January to April. 

Saxifraga Caesia. 

SILVER Moss, or GREY SAXIFRAGE ; Nat. Ord. 

SAXIFRAGACE^J. 

ONE of the alpine gems. This has been grown in English 
gardens since 1752, yet good specimens are rarely met with, 
though its culture is simple and easy. It is found wild on the 
Alps of Switzerland, Austria, and the Pyrenees. To the lover 
of the minute forms of genuine alpine plants, this will be a 
treasure ; it is very distinct in form, habit, and colour. Its tiny 
rosettes of encrusted leaves can scarcely be said to rise from the 
ground, and the common name, " silver moss," which it is often 
called by, most fittingly applies ; but perhaps its colour is the 
main feature of notice. The meaning of its specific name is grey, 
to which it certainly answers ; but so peculiar is the greyness that 
a more definite description may be useful, in giving which I will 
quote that of Decandolle and Sprengle : " The lavender-blue is a 
pale blue (csesius) ; it is mixed with a little grey." This exactly 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



239 



Answers to the colour of the pretty Saxifrage under notice, and it 
is far from a common one in foliage. 

The flowers differ but slightly from those of other encrusted 
forms of the genus, but they are a creamy white, arranged in 
small panicles on short and slender stems. They are sparingly 
produced in May and June. The leaves are ^in. long, aggregate 
or in miniature rosettes ; in shape, linear-oblong, recurved, and 
keeled. The upper surface is concave, having marginal dots, 
evenly disposed; the dots are bright and excavated, and some of 
-the leaves (those of the stems) are scale formed. The glaucous 




FIG. 82. SAXIFRAGA CJESIA MAJOK. 
(1, single rosette, natural size.) 

or lavender-blue colour is beautifully enlivened with the crystal 
dots. Its habit reminds one of the more distinct forms of 
lichens, and, when it is grown with suitable companions on 
rockwork, it has a happy way of showing and adapting itself in 
such situation ; besides, its colour then shows with more effect. 

There is a variety of this species not yet in general cultivation, 
and it cannot be too strongly recommended to lovers of the 
finest forms of rock or alpine plants. It is called S. c. major 
(see Fig. 82). The name at once suggests the main difference 



240 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

from the type, but there are other features quite as marked as 
that of its extra size in all its parts ; the foliage is more 
crowded, which seems to cause the largest leaves to become more 
erect, and the habit, too, perhaps from the same cause, is ball 
shaped ; the small rosettes of thick encrusted leaves, from the 
manner in which they are packed together, form a rigid mass, 
which differs widely both in detail and effect from any other 
Saxifrage I know. 

These dwarf subjects are best suited for rockwork; but 
another plan, now much practised, is to grow them in pots. This 
in no way implies that protection is given or needed these 
sturdy subjects are far better fully exposed but the pot system 
has advantages ; when so planted, the roots are more likely to 
be placed in a better selected compost, and the specimens can be 
raised in order to examine their miniature beauties. The above 
kinds enjoy a gritty vegetable soil; perfect drainage is indispen- 
sable. These are not among the Saxifrages that are readily 
propagated ; a few crowns or rosettes with short pieces of stem 
are "not sure to root, and if more careful division is not carried 
out, perhaps but two or three growing bits from a large specimen 
may be the result, so lessening instead of increasing the stock. 
Before cutting let the roots be washed clear of soil, trace the 
long roots, and so cut up the plant that each division will have a 
share of them. Sometimes a rather large specimen will have 
but few of such roots, in which case it will prove the better and 
safer plan to make only a corresponding number of divisions, so 
making sure of each. A further help to such newly planted 
stock is gained by placing small stones about the collars ; this 
keeps the plants moist and cool during the dry season, when 
(after flowering) the divisions should be made. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

Saxifraga Ceratophylla. 

HORN-LEAVED SAXIFRAGE; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^J. 
FOR the most part, this numerous genus flowers in spring and 
early summer, the species now under notice being one of the 
late bloomers; its flowers however, like most of the Saxifrages, 
are small and insignificant ; on the other hand, its foliage, as 
may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 83) is highly ornamental. 
In November, the grand half-globular tufts of rigid dark green 
foliage are delicately furnished with a whitish exudation, which, 
seen through a magnifying glass, resembles scales, but seen by the 
naked eye and it can be clearly seen without stooping it gives 
the idea of hoar frost. We have here, then, an interesting and 
ornamental subject, which, when grown in collections of con- 
siderable variety, proves attractive; and as even after many 
degrees of frost, it retains its beauty, and, I may add, its finest 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



241 



form, it may be confidently recommended as a suitable winter 
garden subject. This species proves evergreen in our climate, 
though a native of Spain, from which country it was imported 
about eighty years ago. It is sometimes called S. cornutum, a 
name quite applicable, and ifc is frequently confounded with S. 
pentadactylis (the Five-fmgered-leaved Saxifrage), which it much 
resembles, from which, however, it is distinct in several respects. 
Its flowers are small, white, and numerous, produced on 
slender stalks in summer ; they are of the general type of the 
flowers of the mossy section, and need not be further described. 
The foliage forms rigid cushions, dense, rounded, and of a dark 




FIG. 83. SAXIFRAGA CERATOPHTLLA. 
(Leaf, one-half natural size.) 

green colour in the early season ; later it becomes grey, with an 
exudation ; the leaves are arranged in rosette form, having stout 
stalks, channelled or folded on the upper surface; there are 
three deep divisions, and others less cut; the segments are 
subulate, bent back and tipped with horny mucrones. whence its 
specific name; these horn-like points are bent under, which, 
together with their transparency, renders them all but invisible ; 
they can, however, be clearly seen if brought near the eye and 
looked for on the under side of the foliage. The leaves are of 
good substance, lin. to 2in. long, having broad stipules; the 
stems are exceedingly slender in the older parts, and somewhat 
woody, having the appearance of being dried up and dead. 



242 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

On rockwork it is seen in its best form, as the slope not only 
shows it off better, but is conducive to a finer growth. In flat 
places, the dense cushions, which are Gin. or Sin. high, often rot 
from too much moisture. I have never seen this occur in the 
drier positions afforded by the slopes of a rockery. If planted 
between large stones it has a happy way of adapting itself to 
them, and few plants are more effective. It thrives equally well 
in soil of a loamy or vegetable character, but it seems to enjoy 
a little limestone, small pieces of which I place . round the 
specimens; they also serve to hold up the lower foliage and 
favour the admission of air. Where alpines are grown in pots 
this should form one, as it makes a charming specimen ; the 
drainage should be perfect. It also makes a capital edging 
plant, especially for raised beds, as then it is accommodated in 
the same way as on rockwork. 

It may be propagated by taking the slips nearest the earth, 
which will often be found to have a few rootlets, but if not they 
will still prove the more suitable ; if taken in summer and 
dibbled into sand, they will make good roots in a week or two, 
when they may be transplanted to their permanent quarters, so 
as to become established before winter. 



Saxifraga Ciliata. 

HAIRY-MARGINED SAXIFRAGE ; Syn. MEGASEA CILIATA ; 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^. 

THIS is a peculiar, distinct, and beautiful form of Saxifrage ; 
there seems, however, to be some confusion in reference to its 
nomenclature. That it belongs to the Megasea section there can 
be little doubt, so that its synonym (M. ciliata) is fairly 
descriptive ; but when it is said to be identical with 8. ligulata, 
also of the Megasea section, the difficulty of recognising the 
form illustrated as such is very great indeed. It is also 
supposed to be a variety of 8. ligulata, and though it has many 
important dissimilarities, it has also many affinities. So much 
does it differ from 8. Ugulata that it seems to be fully entitled 
to the specific honours which some authorities have given to it. 
It differs from 8. ligulata, described by Don, in being rough and 
hairy on both sides of the leaves ; in other respects it agrees, 
more especially in the colour of the flowers, which is uncommon. 
It may be the Megasea ciliata of Haworth, which Don refers to 
under 8. ligulata, or it may be a distinct form of the latter, as, 
on the authority of Dr. Wallich, of the Botanical Gardens of 
Calcutta, the species has varieties. Wherever its proper place may 
be in its numerous genus, the name at the head hereof is a good 
descriptive one. It is an Indian contribution, hailing from the 
mountains east of Bengal. In this climate it endures our 
winters, though it is not one of the hardiest of its tribe. It has 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 243 

not long been cultivated in this country, and is rarely met with. 
Its distinct habit and fine flowers render it desirable, and it will 
with many be more so on the score of its peculiarities. A few of 
the latter may be mentioned here. Anthers very large, and 
brick-red before becoming pollenized ; scapes and scape-sheaths 
nearly smooth, though all other foliar parts are hairy; stipules 
very large and fully developed whilst the leaves are in their 
rudimentary stage. When not in flower the plant has a strong 
resemblance to S. sarmentosa, which belongs to another section, 
but 8. ciliatahas features belonging to both sections. The habit, 
however, is more flat, and leaves more oval, and if, as has 







FIG. 84. SAXIFRAGA CILIATA. 
(One-fourth natural size ; (1) two-thirds natural size.) 

been hinted, this is a hybrid, it may not be without some 
relationship to that species, which is also of Asian origin. 
Further, on the authority of Murray, Sax. sarmentosa is identical 
with 8. ligulata; so that, if we may suppose 8. ciliata to be a 
distinct variety of 8. ligulata, and the latter to have such affinity 
to 8. sarmentosa that Murray puts it as identical, the chief 
difference between our subject and the form generally accepted 
as 8. ligulata is accounted for, viz., the hairy and rougher 
surfaces of the leaves, which are traits of the well-known 
8. sarmentosa. If these remarks prove nothing, they may serve 
to show the difficulty of recognising the various forms and 

B 2 



244 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

species of so popular a genus from reading alone, it having 
been so extensively treated of, and the classifications being so 
varied. Its study, when the species are being cultivated, is 
simply delightful, compared with the confusion of book study 
alone; and yet it is no uncommon thing, when forming a 
collection of Saxifrages, to receive three or four different forms 
from different sources under the same name, and each perhaps 
more or less anthorised. The student by growing this genus of 
plants will reap other pleasures than that of identification, and 
in a few years time will find in his own garden (as the outcome 
of growing allied species) new forms springing from seed, and 
scattered about the beds and walks in a pleasing and suggestive 
manner. (See Fig. 84.) 

The present subject has bell-shaped flowers, arranged in short- 
branched panicles, each flower fin. across, and sometimes, when 
well expanded, quite an inch; the colour is a delicate pink-tinted 
white ; petals obovate and concave, inserted in the calyx, clawed, 
sometimes notched and even lobed ; stamens long as petals, 
inserted in throat of calyx, stout, green changing to pink ; 
anthers large and brick red when young; styles massive, 
joining close together, turgid, nearly long as stamens, and pale 
green ; stigmas, simple, beardless, turning to a red colour ; calyx 
bell-shaped, five-parted, wrinkled; segments slightly reflexed 
and conniving or joining; scapes 4in. to 6in. high, stout and 
smooth, excepting solitary hairs ; bracts, leaf -like ; leaves oval or 
cordate, 2in. to 4in. long, wrinkled, slightly waved, and toothed, 
conspicuously ciliated or haired on the margin, whence the 
specific name " ciliata" Both surfaces are also furnished with 
short stiff hairs, the whole leaf being stout and flatly arranged ; 
leaf stalks short, thick, and furnished with numerous long hairs, 
and ample stipules, which are glabrous, but beautifully ciliated. 
Roots, woody, and slightly creeping on the surface. Habit of 
foliage reflexing, forming flat masses ; smaller or supplementary 
scapes are sent up later than the main scape, from the midst 
of the stipules, bearing flowers in ones and twos. The blossom, 
which is effective and very beautiful, is also sweetly scented, 
like the hawthorn. 

As already hinted, this is not one of the most hardy Saxifrages, 
but I have twice wintered it out on gritty beds, well raised, also 
on rockwork, under a warm south wall ; and, as such positions 
can be found or made in most gardens, it would be advisable to 
try and establish this distinct and lovely spring bloomer. 
Lime and sandstone grit mixed with loam and leaf soil I find to 
be the best compost I have yet tried for it ; in fact, until a dry 
situation and a little lime were given, it proved a shy bloomer. 
It is now quite the reverse, notwithstanding that the roots were 
divided during the previous autumn. Fogs and rain are its 
greatest plagues, owing to its hairy nature ; the glass and wire 



* 
OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 245 

shelters should be used for this most deserving subject. Propa- 
gated by division of the woody semi- creeping roots during early 
autumn; each division should have a crown and some roots, 
when they may be planted in their permanent quarters. 
Flowering period, March to May. 

Saxifraga (Megasea) Cordifolia. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^]. 

A FIRST-CLASS herbaceous perennial, grown for over a hundred 
years in English gardens; it comes from Siberia, and conse- 
quently, it is very hardy in this climate. The Megasea section 
of the Saxifraga is a very distinct genus; there are several 
forms with but slight distinctions in the section, but the species 
now under notice may be readily distinguished from its nearest 
known relatives, first by its extra size in all its parts, next by its 
wrinkled heart-shaped leaves. 

The flowers are produced on stout stems nearly a foot high, 
a section of which will cut the size of a sixpenny piece ; the rose- 
coloured flowers are perfectly developed before they push through 
the many -times over-lapped foliage ; they are neatly arranged, 
the branching stems sometimes giving the panicle, of blossom 
the form and also the size of a moderate bunch of grapes. Just 
at this stage the flowers, to be most enjoyed, should be cut 
before the weather spoils their delicate colour. The fine pale 
green calyx, which is also conspicuous by its handsome form and 
extra length, is far from the least important feature of this 
flower, especially at the above-mentioned stage. The leaves are 
Gin. to lOin. across. 

Of the use of its flowers in a cut state, a few words may be said 
The weather soon destroys their beauty, but when cut they may 
be preserved for fully a fortnight. On one occasion I took a 
blossom and placed it in a flower stand for single specimen 
blooms ; in this instance all the other glasses held such fine roses 
as Baroness Rothschild, Madame Lacharme, and Edouard 
Morren, but so richly did it compare with these roses that it was 
given the place of honour the top centre glass ; this flower I 
should say had never seen the full light in the open. After that 
others pushed out of the leaves and were speedily damaged, and 
not fit to cut. 

Flowering period, March to May, 

Saxifraga Coriophylla. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^. 

THIS is a rather recently discovered alpine species, very dwarf, 
but beautiful. The specific name would appear to be in allusion 
to its flowers as pink-shaped; they are very small, but the 



246 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

reader, by referring to the cut (Fig. 85), may form his own 
opinion of such likeness ; however well founded or otherwise the 
name may be, we have in this subject a gem for the rock garden. 
It is a native of Albania, and belongs to that section of its 
extensive genus having triquetrous and obtuse leaves, or blunt 
three- sided foliage, as formed by a well developed keel. It is in 
flower in the middle of March, at the height of 2in. All its 
parts are of miniature dimensions, and yet when grown in a 
suitable position it is effective. 
The flowers are pure white, produced on leafy stems an inch or 




FIG. 85. SAXIFKAGA COBIOPHTLLA. 
(One half natural size.) 

more high ; they are few, and open in succession ; petals round 
and overlapping ; calyx large for the size of flower, and covered 
with down ; sepals obtuse and tipped with a brown, almost red- 
tint ; stamens short, having rather large yellow anthers, which 
fill the throat of the corolla. The leaves are evergreen or silvery 
grey, arranged in small rosettes, and ^in. long, of good substance, 
rigid and smooth ; their shape is obtuse, concave, and keeled ; 
they are furnished with marginal excavations, which present 
themselves as dots ; the habit is compact, the rosettes being 
crowded and forming cushioned- shaped specimens; the flowers 
last for a fortnight in average weather. 

Between large stones in vegetable mould and grit, it both 
thrives and shows to advantage ; it is also a charming subject 
for the pot culture of alpines. In company with the red-stalked 
and white-flowered 8. Burseriana, the purple S. opposiiifolia, and 
the many other forms of the mossy section, all, or nearly all in 
bloom about the same time, it offers a pleasing variety, as being 
distinct in every way from its contemporaries, more especially in 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 247 

the foliage. It is rather a slow grower, and not so readily 
increased as most Saxifrages ; it is greatly benefited by having 
pebbles or small stones about the collar. These keep it moist at 
the roots during the growing season. If a little dry cow manure 
or guano is dusted amongst the stones during early summer, the 
results will soon be seen ; such growth, however, should not be 
stimulated during the latter half of the year, or from its want of 
ripeness it will be liable to damage during winter. This practice 
of top dressing greatly assists the parts touching the earth to 
root, and so either an increased stock or larger specimens may 
sooner be obtained. 
Flowering period, March, 

Saxifraga Fortunei. 

FORTUNE'S SAXIFRAGE ; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^E. 
THIS, as may at once be seen by a glance at Fig. 86, belongs to 
the lobed-leafed section. It is as yet new in English gardens, 
and is often grown in pots in warm glasshouses. It is, however, 
perfectly hardy, having stood out with me in the open for the 
past three years. It is nearly related to 8. japonica and its 
varieties, but is without the stolons or runners. In this climate, 
with outdoor treatment, it flowers in October until cut down by 
frost, which sometimes happens before the flowers get well out. 
It has been stated not only that it is not hardy, but that its flower- 
ing period is May. With me it has proved otherwise, and others 
have proved it to flower naturally in October. I also observed 
it in bloom in the Hull Botanic Gardens on the open rockwork in 
November, 1882. I have no doubt that autumn is the natural 
season for well-established plants to flower ; weaker specimens 
may fail to push forth ere the frost cuts down their leaves, 
when the dormant buds must remain sealed for the winter, but 
ready to develope with the return of longer and warmer days. 

The flowers are arranged in panicles on scapes nearly a foot 
high, the panicles being Gin. long and Sin. in diameter. The 
petals are long and narrow, of uneven length, and notched; 
colour pure white. The calyx is well developed ; segments oval, 
notched at the ends ; colour, pale apple green. Stamens, long and 
tipped with beautifully orange-coloured anthers. The ovary is 
prominent, and of a pale yellow. Besides the above features, the 
flowers, which mostly look sideways and are quite an inch across 
their broadest parts, have one very long petal at the low side, 
and the two next are at right angles with it, less than half its 
size, the two upper ones being still less ; the effect is both 
unusual and pleasing. The leaf stalks are long, stout, and of a 
succulent nature, semi-transparent, and slightly furnished with 
longish hairs ; the stipules are ample, and of a bright red, which 
colour extends for a short length up the stalk. The leaves are 



248 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



kidney- shaped, 2in. to 5in. across, eight or ten lobed, toothed and 
reflexed ; they are furnished with solitary stiff: hairs, are of good 
substance, and a very dark green colour, but herbaceous. The 
habit of this species is neat and very floriferous ; therefore it is a 
valuable plant for in or outdoor gardening ; but owing to its 
late season of flowering outside, the blossom is liable to injury. 
A bell glass, however, will meet the case ; it should be placed over 
the plant, but tilted slightly, when there are signs of frost the 
flowers will amply reward such care. If the bloom can be cut 




FIG. 86. SAXIFRAGA FORTUNEI. 
(One-fifth natural size ; 1 and 2, full size.) 

clean, a good cluster will vie with many orchids for delicacy 
and effect. 

I find it to do well in fat loam, and with the same kind of soil 
in pots, which comes in for placing in cold frames when frost 
threatens. I find it one of the easiest plants possible to manage 
in fact, it needs no care to grow it ; still, many amateurs fail to 
keep it, I suppose from taking it into a warm greenhouse, where 
it is sure to dwindle. It is readily propagated by division of the 
crowns, which should be done in spring. 

Flowering period, October until strong frosts. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



249 



Saxifraga (Megasea) Ligulata. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^E. 

ONE of the large-leaved species (see Fig. 87) compared with others 
of the Megasea section, its leaves are strap-like, as implied by 
the specific name. It is sometimes called Megasea ciliata, but 
there is a large-leaved species, commonly called S. ciliata, which 
is very distinct from this one, and it is all the more important 
that they should not be confounded with each other, as S. ciliata 
is .not very hardy, whilst this is perfectly so, being also one of 




FIG. 87. SAXIFRAGA (MEGASEA) LIGTJLATA. 



our finest herbaceous perennials, It comes to us from Nepaul, 
and has not long been cultivated in this country. 

Its flowers are produced numerously on bold stout stems lOin. 
high. Sometimes the flower-stem is branched. The pale but 
clear rosy flowers are not only showy, but very enduring, lasting 
several weeks. The leaves are six to ten inches long, of irregular 
form, but handsomely ribbed and wavy; the new growths are 



250 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

bright yellowish-green, and tinted from the edges with a reddish 
bronze, so that, during spring, besides being finely in flower r 
it is otherwise a pleasing plant to look upon. Moreover, it 
is one of the few bold kinds of plants which flower so early 
and therefore a most valuable subject for the spring flower- 
beds. 

It looks well in any position, either near or back from the 1 
walks, in shrubs, or as a centre specimen for beds ; it is also a 
plant that may be moved easily, as it carries plenty of root and 
earth, consequently it may be used in such designs as necessitate 
frequent transplantings. It is not particular as to soil or 
position, but in light earth, well enriched with stable manure, I 
have found it to thrive, so as to be equal to many of the so-called 
" fine foliage " plants during summer ; therefore, I should say, 
give it rich food. To propagate it, a strong specimen with 
branched crowns should be selected. These branches or stems 
are ^in. to lin. thick. They should be cut off with as much 
length as possible ; if they have a bit of root, all the better ; if 
not, it does not much matter. Let the cut end dry for a little 
time, take off half, or even the whole, of the largest leaves, or 
the action of the wind will prevent their remaining firm. When 
so prepared, the cuttings may be deeply planted in sandy loam, 
which has previously been deeply stirred. This may be done as 
soon as the flowers are past, and by the end of the year the 
cuttings should be well rooted and suitable for moving into the 
ornamental part of the garden. 

Flowering period, March to May. 

Saxifraga Longifolia- 

LONG-LEAVED SAXIFRAGE ; QUEEN OF SAXIFRAGES ; Nat. Ord. 

SAXIFRAGACEuE. 

NUMEROUS and beautiful as are the species and varieties of this 
genus, this is the most admired of them all, from which fact it 
derives its proud name of " Queen." It is of recent introduction; 
habitat, the Pyrenees ; but though of alpine origin, it thrives in 
lower, I may say the lowest, situations even in our wet climate. 
As will be seen by the illustration (Fig. 88), it belongs to the 
rosette section, and may indeed be said, for size and symmetry, 
to head the list. There are many forms of it, differing more or 
less in shape of leaves, colour, habit, and size of rosette. The 
original or reputed type is but an indifferent form compared 
with the one now generally accepted as the representative of the 
species. So readily do the various Saxifrages become crossed, 
that it is hard to distinguish them ; and when a distinct form 
is evolved the question occurs, What constitutes or entitles it to 
specific honours ? Surely the form of which we are speaking 
must be fully entitled to a name all its own, as it is not possible 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWEKS. 



251 



to find another Saxifrage that can so widely contrast with the 
whole genus. 

It may be as well, in a few words, to refer to one or two 
varieties ; and it shall only be from an amateur's point of 
view, whose estimate of their worth or importance is based 
entirely on their ornamental qualities under cultivation. Such 
varieties, as far as I know, have not had any name giv^en them, 
descriptive or otherwise, and I for one have no desire to see any, 
as the genus is already overloaded with names. 




FIG. 88. SAXIFRAGA LONGIFOLIA. 
(One-fourth natural size.) 

There is, first, a form whose main distinction is its dark 
olive-green leaves ; the ends are rather inclined to be spathulate, 
they are long, narrow, and arch well, rather nearer the centre of 
the rosette ; this causes the end of the outer circle of leaves to 
come flat on the ground. The whole specimen has a sombre 
appearance compared with the. more silvery kinds. The second 
form has broader leaves, is more distinctly toothed and spotted ; 
as a consequence of their width, the leaves are fewer, and though 
all the varieties are very formal, this is the most so. When by 



252 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the side of what we may term the true form, which has sometimes 
vera added to its name, this one has a plain and somewhat 
" dumpy " appearance, and frequently the tips of the leaves curl 
back, which further detracts from its ornamental quality. A 
third form has small rosettes, pale green foliage, indistinct 
silvery dots, and, worse than all, the habit of throwing out a 
progeny of young growths all round the collar, f uraishing itself 
as with a ruff:, when the parent rosette turns to a yellowish- 
green. Of all the forms this is the most constant bloomer. The 
favourite variety, to which an engraving can do but scant justice, 
is superior to the above kinds in all its parts. Its blooming 
period is in early summer, but specimens often grow in size and 
beauty for three or five years without producing flowers. The 
foliage is the more admired feature, and is at its greatest beauty 
in December. 

The flowers are borne in handsome panicles, in the style of 
those of 8. pyramidalis, which are about 18in. high. The blossom 
is of the kind common to this section. The leaves are long, 
narrow, toothed bluntly, and spotted with silvery dots; the whole 
leaf is greyish ; the habit is rigid and of even arrangement ; the 
rosettes are of all sizes, from 2in. to lOin. in diameter. At Sin. to 
6in. they are attractive, and as they grow larger, they become 
conspicuous in their beauty. It is not desirable to have them 
flower, inasmuch as the rosettes are then destroyed, though the 
plants do not die. Of course, if a specimen " shows bloom " it 
cannot be helped, but rather than lose a season's produce of 
young stock I would nip out the " lead," and so cause offsets to 
be produced instead of flowers. 

In the rock garden this is one of the most telling subjects that 
can be introduced ; not only does it love to have its roots 
amongst the stones, but it is a form which harmonises and yet 
contrasts finely with such shapeless material, and, further, 
relieves the sameness of verdure of other plants in a more than 
ordinary degree. It will grow in borders or beds, but looks 
nowhere so well as on rockwork. True, its uses are limited, but 
then they are exceedingly effective. I have grown this subject in 
almost every kind of soil and compost, and it has done well in 
most ; stiff clay-like loam appears too cold or wet for it ; on the 
other hand, a sandy loam, mixed with leaf soil, grows it finely ; 
perfect drainage is the desideratum, in no matter what position 
it is planted. It may be increased in various ways 1st, By 
seeds, which may be bought, as it is carefully harvested abroad ; 
2nd, from offsets, as already stated ; and, 3rd, from offsets 
produced by cutting out the leaves in two or more parts, so as to 
let the light in at the collar. This method may seem heartless, 
and it certainly spoils the specimen ; it is a mode to be followed 
only where there are spare old plants and young stock is needed. 

Flowering period, June and July. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 253 

Saxifraga Macnabiana. 

MACRAE'S SAXIFRAGA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^. 
THIS is a new and very beautiful variety, called after Mr. Mac 
Nab, who raised it in 1877. Of the several hundreds of species 
and varieties of this genus, it is doubtless one of the best and 
most distinct as regards its habit and rich flowers. So 
pronounced are its merit that, although I have not grown it 
for more than four years or so, I can have no hesitation in 
sounding its praise. It is possible that when it has become 
better established in the collections of amateurs and others, and 
when it has regained what may be termed its natural vigour, 
lost by the too rapid propagation common to new plants, it may 
prove to be even better than I have yet proved it. However that 
may be, there can at present be only one opinion respecting it. 

The rosette foliage is in the style of 8. longifolia and 8. 
pyramiddlis, intermediate; the flowers are quite distinct, but 
they remind one of the charming 8. mutata, which is also a 
rosette form, having a fine panicle of blossom. It is said to be a 
seedling from S. Nepalensis crossed by $. cotyledon or 8. 
pyramidalis, but, as the cross was accidental, there must be 
some uncertainty ; both parents are evidently incrusted forms. 

The flowers are |in. across, corolla flat, petals richly spotted 
with numerous bright red spots ; they are much shorter than 
the petals of most of the other incrusted varieties ; they are also 
slightly reflexed in the more matured flowers ; the calyx, too, is 
less hairy and the segments shorter than those of its reputed 
parents. The stem of my tallest specimen is not more than 
15in. high; the panicle is large, beginning about four inches 
above the rosette, It is well branched, the flowers being 
clustered at the ends of the branchlets. The whole panicle will 
be about lOin. long and Gin. or Sin. through. As regards the 
foliage, I only need add to what has already been stated, that 
the leaves are arranged in somewhat lax rosettes, are strap, or 
tongue-shaped, evenly serrated, and, in the winter bright at 
the edges, with frosted or silvery markings ; the flowers are 
so very attractive that casual observers readily recognise their 
beauties amongst hundreds of other Saxifrages, and they have 
not inaptly been compared with fine old china. 

I ought not to omit mention of that rare quality possessed by 
this Saxifrage, viz., a rich perfume. 

Though it is perfectly hardy, it may be grown in pots with 
great advantage, as then it can be the more closely examined ; 
but if it is not convenient to grow it in that manner, it may be 
planted either on rockwork or in borders amongst choice things, 
where its flowers will not fail to command admiring notice. As 
to the kind of soil, it seems in no way particular. Sandy loam, 
mixed with peat, however, suits it well. It is propagated by 



254 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

offets, but these are rarely produced in numbers, as is common 
with most of the incrusted Saxifrages. I may say that I have 
only met with one specimen which has thus proved useful in any 
degree worth notice, and it produced nearly a score of off-sets 
during one season ; it ripens much seed, which may, or may not 
.come true. 

Flowering period, June and July. 



Saxifraga Mutata. 
Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACEJE. 

A SOMEWHAT rare alpine species, evergreen, hardy, very dis- 
tinct and beautiful. It is one of the rosette forms, after the 
style of S.pyramidalis, but there are several important variations 
about the plant, other than in the flowers, which are totally 
different. There are many peculiarities about this species, but 
they would hardly require to be noticed here were not the plant 
-otherwise of great merit. When in bloom it is highly decorative, 
and the flowers in a cut state are unique. 

The flower stem is 12in. to 18in. high, furnished with supple- 
mentary ones all its length ; the lower ones are 8m. long, and 
spreading ; they become shorter as they near the top, the whole 
forming a fine symmetrical panicle. The flowers are over ^in. 
Across, petals awl-shaped, and, when first open, are nearly red; 
they change to dark orange and again to pale yellow ; the calyx 
is very large, the sepals four times as broad as the petals and 
bluntly pointed; the stamens and anthers are coloured, and 
change like the petals ; the ovary, which is very conspicuous, is 
& fine purple, but later, it, too, changes to a pink colour ; the 
.outer parts of the calyx and all the shorter flower- stalks, which 
are clustered at the ends of the supplementary stems, are 
greenish-yellow, and this feature of the plant adds much to its 
beauty. Calyx, stems, and stem-leaves are densely furnished 
with stiff gland-tipped hairs, rendering them clammy to the 
touch. The leaves of the rosettes are tongue-shaped, rough at 
the edges, fleshy, covered with glandular hairs, of a shining 
green colour, and slightly reflexed. The changeable nature of 
the flowers doubtless gives rise to the specific name. A well- 
flowered specimen is very effective on rockwork, but the panicles 
have a fault of heading over, from their weight, and also 
because, unlike S. longifolia and S. cotyledon, which have large 
and firm rosettes close to the ground to stay them, this species 
has a somewhat " leggy " rosette or a foot stalk, which is more 
or less furnished with browned and very persistent foliage. 
The flowers last a long time in good form, and, if grown clean, 
their yellow nearly golden stalks render them very useful in 
;a cut state. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN -FLOWERS. 255 

The propagation of this Saxifraga is more difficult than any 
other according to my experience, and I have heard of many 
who have found it the same. The offsets are not produced close 
to the ground, consequently have no rootlets ; neither, from their 
hairy character, can they resist rot from moisture so well when 
planted as if they were bald, like the stolons of other species. I 
have found the best plan to be as follows : Take offsets before 
the plants flower; if there are none, which will often be the 
case, the bloom must be sacrificed by pinching out the stem. 
As soon as there are nice sized shoots ready, cut them off with 
all possible length of stalk ; prepare a sandy patch of soil in a 
warm situation, lay them in a row on the surface, heads to the 
north, and then place a brick on them so as to hold all the 
cuttings in position; gently press on the brick, to cause the 
cuttings to assume a more natural position, and they will need 
no other attention until they become rooted ; the brick will act 
as a screen from the hot sunshine, absorbing the heat to the 
benefit of the cuttings, as it will also absorb superfluous 
moisture. During the summer I have rooted many offsets in 
this way. That contact with the brick is favourable to the 
roots is evidenced by their clinging to it ; no water should be 
given, however droughty the season may be excessive moisture 
is the main thing to guard against. 

Flowering period, June to August. 

Saxifraga Oppositifolia (Lin.) 
PURPLE MOUNTAIN SAXIFRAGE, PURPLE SAXIFRAGE, BLUE 

SAXIFRAGE, OPPOSITE-LEAVED SAXIFRAGE; Nat. Ord. 

SAXIFRAGACE^J. 

DURING the month of March this is one of the most effective 
flowers in our gardens. The mossy appearance of its foliage, 
when dotted with its large blossoms, is hardly less beautiful 
than when the whole broad spreading tufts are literally packed 
with them. This must be a dear flower to all lovers of our 
native flora, for it not only comes very early, and in its wild 
homes on the Ingleborough, Welsh, and Scottish hills, greets 
and gladdens the rambler, who is, perhaps, making his first 
excursion of the year, but it is one of our most striking and 
beautiful flowers, even though they are produced on a plant of 
such humble size and habit. The pleasing and descriptive 
names of this gem of our hills would form a chapter in them- 
selves. Even the old Latin names by which it was known, before 
the time when Linnaeus arranged and re-named most of our 
native plants, bespeak a desire to do justice to a flower of more 
than ordinary beauty ; and, as they were so strictly descriptive, 
at least one, I think, may be given without trying the reader's 
patience : Saxifraga alpina ericoides flore cceruleo, or the Blue- 



256 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

flowered Erica-like Mountain Saxifrage. Doubtless, shorter 
names are more convenient, but such specific names as the one 
just given are not entirely useless. Its present botanical name is 
in reference to the foliage only, but otherwise so distinct is this 
plant either in or out of bloom that no one could well mistake it. 

The flowers are ^in. to fin. across, produced terminally and 
singly on short procumbent stems. They are of a bright purple 
colour ; petals ovate ; the longish stamens carry bold anthers 
furnished with dark orange-coloured pollen, which forms a pretty 
feature. The leaves are small; crowded, opposite, ovate, entire, 
leathery, fringed or ciliated, and retuse. A peculiar feature 
about this species is the pore at the blunt apex of each leaf. 
The habit is prostrate ; the stems being long, tufted, or pendu- 
lous, according to the situation ; the flower shoots are upright, 
on which the leaves are more remote. Under cultivation newly 
planted roots will be found not only to flower sparingly, but 
the blooms will be rather small until the plant grows large and 
strong. 

On rockwork, with its roots near or between large stones, is in 
every way the best place for it ; it however, thrives in the borders. 
The soil is not of much importance, but without doubt it does 
best in a compost of the nature of that of its wild homes. The 
humus and grit may be represented by sand and small stones,, 
and peat or leaf soil, all mixed with loam. This, let me here 
state, will be found generally the right stuff for alpines and 
rockery plants. This plant is useful as a spring bedder, or for 
carpeting bare places ; and any conspicuous part of the garden 
needing bright objects during M!arch and April should give room 
largely for this cheerful subject. The bloom is very lasting ; no 
storm seems to do it any hurt, and in every way it is reliable. It 
may be readily propagated by divisions. The procumbent stems 
will, in strong patches, be found to supply rootlets in abundance. 
These may be transplanted at almost any time of the year. 

Flowering period, March and April. 

8. opp. alba is a white flowered variety of the above. It is not 
found wild. Other dissimilarities are the smaller parts through- 
out the whole plant, and the less straggling habit. The white 
petals show up the dark orange anthers finely. There are other 
varieties of the above type, but their points of difference are so 
slight as not to need description for garden uses. It may, 
however, be useful to give their names : 8. opp. major, 8. opp. 
pyrenaica, 8. opp. retusa, 8. opp. pallida. All the above 
varieties may be grown like the common form ; their uses, propa- 
gation, and blooming period are the same, with the exception of 
pyrenaica, which not only flowers a little later, but is less 
rampant, and not nearly so easy to propagate. I have imagined 
that a little limestone has helped it, bits of which are placed over 
its roots. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 257 

Saxifraga Paradoxa. 

PARADOXICAL SAXIFRAGE; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^J. 
ONE of the less known and, perhaps, somewhat rare saxifrages ; 
it is a curious, distinct, and beautiful form, being of that class 
which the lover of the ornamental kinds most admires, for not 
only is it attractive all the year round, but additionally so when 
there cannot be seen any part of a growing or decaying flower 
stem upon it, and when its silvery, but lax rosettes, with their 
encrustments and glistening leaf dots, are perfectly matured, 
which is the case during mid-winter. I fear the illustration 
(Fig. 89), can give but a poor idea of the pleasing silvery-grey 




Fig. 89. SAXIFRAGA PARADOXA. 
. (Two-thirds natural size.) , 

colour, which, when the specimen is dry, overlays foliage of a 
dark and glossy green, to say nothing of the numerous and 
regular spots which so charmingly enliven the specimens. I am 
unable to learn to what species it is most nearly related ; i fcs 
name, which doubtless has reference to its peculiar form and 
habit, would seem to isolate it even from its parents, if such 
are known; it, however, belongs to that section having thick 
leathery leaves, ligulate, encrusted, arranged in rosette form, 
and having excavated dots. Saxifraga lingulata, S. crustata, S. 
Australis, S. longifolia, and S. carinthiaca belong to the same 
section; but 8. paradoxa differs much in general appearance 
from them all, and remarkably so in one or two respects, as, 
indeed, it does from the whole genus, thus justifying its name. 
The uneven length and arrangement of leaves, the casting off of 

8 



258 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the encrustments as a skin or in flakes, exposing to view a finely- 
polished surface, and the general web-like appearance of the 
tufts, are all peculiar to it. Of all the varieties of its section it 
most resembles 8. carinthiaca and $. Australis; these forms, how- 
ever, grow in compact rosette form, having leaves of more even 
size and shape. Our subject is irregular in every way, many of 
the leaves pushing out to double the length of others, and 
becoming attenuated at their junction, or club-shaped. 

Its flowers are insignificant and similar to those of S. 
Aizoon, but more dwarf in the stem. The leaves are %in. to Sin. 
long, very narrow and tongue-shaped, sometimes obtuse and 
club-shaped; stout, dark green, with a greyish crust-like 
covering, and deeply dotted with bright spots. The leaves are 
arranged in lax rosettes and are reflexed or pressed flat to the 
earth nearly all their length. The habit is very pretty in esta- 
blished and fair-sized specimens, which accommodate themselves 
to the form of surface, and the longer or erratic leaves become so 
interlaced with the other parts as to appear woven ; this habit 
and the bright bead-like dots go to make the plant more than 
ordinarily attractive. It should be in every collection of choice 
Saxifrages; it is charming as a pot specimen, plunged and 
grown out of doors the year round. 

On rockwork it should have a place, too, among the gems, being 
a neat and slow grower; its position should be near dark- 
coloured stones, where it will prove most telling. In damp 
weather its silvery parts are obliterated, but a breeze of half-an- 
hour or a beam of sunshine soon brings it into full beauty again. 
Gritty peat and a little loam suits it well ; I have it doing nicely 
in ordinary garden soil ; but if the more carefully prepared 
composts are employed, the results well repay the pains so 
taken. Its propagation is easily carried out by root divisions ; 
early spring is a good time for the operation. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

Saxifraga Pectinata. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE.E. 

THIS belongs to the encrusted section, being most distinctly 
toothed ; from this it takes its name ; the teeth are large for such 
small leaves. Specimens of this Saxifrage, though small, are 
exceedingly pretty. Excepting when there is fog or rain, it is 
nearly white ; and the rosettes, of various sizes, from in. to lin. 
across, are not only neat in themselves, but are densely and 
pleasingly arranged in a hard flat mass. It is never more 
beautiful, not even in May and June, when it flowers, than in 
November, when the growth is both complete and ripened, and 
the scaly substance which is spread over the leaves and the 
silvery teeth combine to render it attractive. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 259 

The flowers are of the usual form, and are produced on stems 
4in. to Gin. high ; they are white. The leaves seldom exceed in. 
in length and iin. in width ; they are spathulate in form, stout, 
and rigid. The rosettes are somewhat flattened and numerous, 
*ind give the idea of greenish-white flowers. 

8. p. hybrida is a variety of the foregoing species, and without 
pretending to say what the type has been crossed with to 
produce this handsome form, I may, for the purpose of con- 
veying an idea of what it is like, say that it approaches 8. aizoon, 
which also flowers in May and June. In all its parts it is larger 
than the type; the leaves are greener and more strap- shaped, 
and are more erect, but not so rigid ; the habit, too, differs it 
forms more rounded tufts. In all these respects it will be seen 
to resemble 8. aizoon. It is a lovely form ; the sparkling teeth 
are relieved by the fine dark green ground of the foliage. 

These comb-leaved Saxifrages belong to the more neat and 
effective rock plants ; the type, at least, is of alpine origin, and 
under cultivation it seems most happy amongst the stones. I 
have grown these kinds as pot specimens, on nearly flat beds, 
and as edging plants ; and in every position they prove attrac- 
tive. It is very strange that such pretty forms are not more 
generally seen in gardens ; they will grow well on walls and the 
tops of outhouses, and are good subjects for town gardens. Any 
kind of sandy soil will do for them ; that of a vegetable character 
is, however, the best ; they may be planted with choicer things, 
for, unlike many of the genus, they are not rampant growers. 
Practically, they need no propagating; for as the specimens 
spread they make new roots, and at any time one or half a dozen 
rosettes may be slipped off for planting elsewhere. It is better, 
though, to avoid this with small plants, as their full beauty is 
not realised until they become of considerable size. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

Saxifraga Peltata. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^J. 

A NEW species to English gardens, hardy, herbaceous, and 
perennial, imported from North America; it is a truly noble 
plant. The illustration (Fig. 90) will convey some idea of its 
fine form, but the reader must rely on the description for its 
size when fully developed. When the flowers of this Saxifrage 
are in their best form, the noble foliage is scarcely half developed ; 
a drawing, therefore (though it could hardly be made at a stage 
when the plant is more interesting), must necessarily fail, in 
this case, to give any more than an approximate idea of the 
parts undeveloped. Not only is this the largest species of the 
extensive genus at present grown in this country, but its form is 
both distinct and noble. 

82 



260 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

The flowers are produced on stems 18in. high and fin. thick 
at the base, being covered with long stiff white hairs, which are 
very conspicuous on the reddish stems. The flowers are similar 
to those of most of the genus, as may be seen by the one given 
in the drawing ; they are arranged in massive heads, Sin. to 6in. 
in diameter, and rose-coloured. The leaves at the flowering time 
are 6in. or 9in. across, having stout, round, ruddy stems, Sin. long, 
covered with stiff hairs ; they form a junction with the leaves 
in an unusual way, viz., near the centre, whence the specific 
name peltata, or umbrella shape ; but the form of the leaves at 




. 90. SAXIFRAGA PELTATA. 
(1, Single blossom, natural size.) 

the flowering period, which is funnel- shape, is, a little later on, 
reversed, the edges bending downwards. The younger leaves 
are folded and hooked downward, having the appearance of 
stout fern fronds just out of the ground, and their stalks are 
much contorted. The more advanced leaves are seen to be 
seven-cut, each lobe divided and sub-divided by cuts less deep, 
the whole leaf being richly toothed and veined. The under side 
is covered with hairs, the upper surface being smooth, shining, 
and of a pleasing bronze-green colour. Later, the foliage in 
every way increases very much in size, reaching a height of 2ft., 
and each leaf measuring nearly a foot across. The root or 
rhizoma is horizontal, progressive, jointed, and fibrous at the 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 261 

joints, and nearly 2in. in diameter ; it may be clearly traced on 
the surface, but the fibrous parts go very deep. 

It is said to be a bog subject ; fortunately, however, this fine 
plant may be grown otherwise than in a bog, but it should not 
want for depth of rich soil. This I believe to be a more 
important condition than a boggy situation, inasmuch as I have 
grown my specimen for three years on the top of a dry mound ; 
but the soil is good rich loam, and fully 5ft. deep ; and to show 
that this strong-growing subject needs a good depth of soil, I 
may mention that I had occasion to dig up a piece, when it was 
found, for the operation, to require both the strength and tools 
that trees demand, the fibrous parts being deep and tough. 
When fairly established it makes rapid growth, and when in full 
leaf it proves very effective. Its propagation is easy with 
healthy plants ; a length of the creeping root, with a crown to it, 
should be cut from the parent stock just before growth 
commences in early March. If planted as indicated in the 
foregoing remarks, and kept shaded with a leafy branch for a 
month or two, there need not be any fear about young plants 
becoming established the first season. 

Flowering period, June. 

Saxifraga Purpurascens. 

LARGE-LEAVED PURPLE SAXIFRAGA, MEGASEA section-, Nat. 

Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^:. 

A RARE plant of great beauty. It is figured here without 
flowers, as I consider it in finer form then than when in bloom. 
Fine as its flowers are, much resembling those of S. cordifolia 
and S. crassifolia (also of the Megasea section); the bright- 
ness and colouring of its leaves in autumn are such as to render 
it distinct from all the other species. I need only ask the 
reader to note the fine foliage indicated in the cut (Fig. 91), and 
inform him that in the autumn it turns to a glossy vermilion 
colour, and I think he will admit that it will not come far short 
in beauty of any flower. The species is a recent introduction 
from the Himalayas, and in this climate proves all but ever- 
green (if tinted foliage can be so called) and hardy. The latter 
quality has been doubted by some, but by others re-asserted. 
My present specimen was planted in the open garden in the 
spring of 1880, since which time it has withstood 22deg. of frost. 
The flowers are produced on stout stems, Sin. high, arranged 
in branched heads, of a rose or rosy-purple colour, and bell- 
shaped. They are, however, soon damaged by unfavourable 
weather, and there is little about the plant at that period to 
render it more attractive than its fellows ; its finer qualities are 
developed as more genial weather prevails. When the stout 
foliage grows glossy, waved, and of a deep clear green colour, 



262 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

the edges of the leaves become lined with red as if hemmed with 
red silk ; the leaves also have the edges irregular in form, the 
outline broadly oval, 4in. to Gin. long, and they are veined and 
slightly wrinkled ; during the autumn a yellow tint starts from 
the edge, and in time becomes a vermilion, which is all the 
more effective from the leaf being of leather-like substance. 

It enjoys a deep rich loam ; and, evidently, to place its roots 
in contact with pieces of limestone is beneficial. Bare as the 




FIG. 91. SAXIFRAGA PURPTJRASCENS. 
(One-third natural size.) 

plant is, this is all that I do for it, and not only does it remain 
healthy, but it has increased greatly in size during the last year. 
I have not as yet tried to propagate it, but so far as I can judge 
there will be no difficulty in forming young stock by root 
division. It has hitherto enjoyed a happy immunity from all 
garden pests, not excepting slugs. 
Flowering period, April to June. 

Saxifraga Pyramidalis. 

PYRAMIDAL SAXIFRAGA; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^E. 
THIS is a very handsome form or variety of 8. Cotyledon, and 
belongs to the alpine regions of Europe. As a decorative 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



263 



subject for our gardens, it is highly and deservedly esteemed ; its 
attractiveness consists more in the numbers and arrangement of 
the flowers than in any beauty which belongs to them indi- 
vidually, though they are not devoid of that quality. 

Of the many hundreds of species and varieties of Saxifrages 
which bloom during the month of June, this is one of the most 
distinct and useful as a decorative flower, and where the 
Saxifrages are grown in large collections, as they often are, 
giving more than an ordinary amount of pleasure compared 




FIG. 92. SAXIFRAGA PYRAMIDALIS. 

(One-eighth natural size ; 1, single blossom, natural size ; 2, leaf, one-eighth 
natural size). 

with collections of other genera, the kind now under considera- 
tion always asserts itself as one of the first order of merit. Not 
only in its blooming state, but all the year round, it is very 
effective and striking; it is a free grower, having handsome, 
large resetted foliage. 

The flowers, as will be seen by the one given, natural size, in 
the illustration (Fig. 92), are of the common Saxifrage form, but 



264 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

rather more highly coloured in the central markings than the 
general run. They are produced on stout stems, 2ft. high, well 
and evenly branched in the form of a pyramid, whence the 
specific name. Each flower will be |in. or more across ; they are 
very numerous, and, partly from the fact that they remain 
perfect for a very long while, and partly because of the habit of 
the plant being to open all its flowers about or near the same 
time, the large panicle of bloom is very fine. The leaves, as 
already hinted, are formed into lax rosettes, which are Sin. to 7in. 
across ; they are strap-shaped, narrowing slightly at the connec- 
tion, half an inch wide, the outer ones being reflexed; the 
edges are finely serrated, and irregularly lined with a silver 
colouring. 

This is a capital plant for rockwork, where it shows itself to 
much advantage ; but specimens are much finer grown in beds or 
borders, where the moisture and temperature at the roots are 
likely to be more equable ; besides, I find that, owing to its small 
quantity of roots, all of which are very near the surface, when 
grown on rockwork they may often be seen bare on inclined 
surfaces, and the weight of the flowers drags them entirely out 
of the soil on one side. They may be planted as an edging to a 
shrubbery, in bold groups, or as ordinary border flowers. So 
useful has this variety been found by professional gardeners 
that it is now largely grown in pots in single rosettes, which, 
after becoming well established, send up their rich plumes of 
blossom, all the finer for having been kept clean under glass. 
So grown, nothing can better repay the small amount of trouble 
which they give in order to place them in the conservatory as 
showy specimens ; all they require being a 4in. pot, well drained, 
a compost of half -rotted leaves, and fat loam and sand. Put in 
one rooted offset any time from June to the end of July, the 
earlier the better ; plunge the pot to its rim in sand or ashes until 
next spring, when it may be taken under glass if desired. To 
have fine flowers, the offsets should be pinched off as they 
appear. I may also mention that a somewhat shady situation 
has proved conducive to large and better coloured flowers ; 
between irises 4ft. high and shrubs 6ft. high, the opening being 
not more than 3ft., running north and south. The specimen 
from which the drawing is taken was grown along with many 
others. A baking or dry treatment is oft^n not only given to 
plants of this genus, but believed to be of advantage to them ; it 
may be to some, but there are exceptions, and this is one without 
doubt. All the sections of Saxifraga to which it belongs are 
fond of good loam, well enriched. It is propagated from offsets 
taken as soon as they are from an inch to two inches across ; 
they may either be put into nursery beds or be planted in 
their blooming quarters. 

Flowering period, June and July. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 265 



Saxifraga Rocheliana. 

ROCHEL'S SAXIFRAGE; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^:. 

ANOTHER hardy evergreen species, distinct in form, foliage and 
flowers, and a native of the alpine regions of central Europe ; it 
nevertheless thrives well in our climate with ordinary care. Its 
foliage takes the form of miniature rosettes, which are closely 
packed; the tiny leaves are distinctly and regularly dotted; and 
present a frosted appearance. 

The flowers are unimportant, though they form an interesting 
feature of such a choice and somewhat rare plant ; they are 
small, white, and produced on stems Sin. to 4in. high, which are 
thick and curiously furnished with leaves. During summer this 
species has a very bright silvery appearance, as if laid on in 
patches. 

Similar treatment is required for this as for 8. Burseriana, 
but it will be found much more difficult to propagate, as its 
roots are of the tap kind, and are more sparingly produced, 
while its seed seldom ripens, I believe, in this climate. To 
increase it, the better plan is to prepare the old plant by 
keeping it well earthed up, and so encouraging new roots ; after 
a year's patience it may be divided in April. The small pieces 
should be secured by stones or verbena pins, and a supply of 
pebbles placed around them will keep them cool and moist 
during summer. 

Flowering period, March and April. 



Saxifraga Umbrosa. 
LONDON PRIDE ; Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACEJE. 
THIS common flower is well known, and is only mentioned here 
as the typical form, and by way of introducing a beautiful 
variety called 8. u. variegata, broad cushions of which, from 
their verdant condition, good habit, and pleasing variations of 
leaf colour, are amongst the more attractive objects of the garden 
in January. It hardly need be said that the plant is not valued 
for its flowers, which are similar to those of the parent form and 
borne at a corresponding date. The leaves, however, are much 
less in size and more flatly arranged in rosette form, they are 
also recurved at the edges. The markings are of two colours, 
creamy-white and pink, and there are many shades of green. 
The forms of the markings are most irregular, as striped, 
flecked, marbled, dotted, and edged; the various shades of 
green blended with pink and white, although figured on one of 
the commonest plants we know, render such plant worthy of a 
place in every garden, and more especially on rockwork. 



266 HARDY PERENETALS AND 

It has this drawback it is not constant. In some gardens? 
the markings die out. This, however, need not be, for a rather 
dry situation and rich soil will produce rosettes of large size and 
good figuring. Still, there will be fully half of the rosettes 
entirely green in a large patch; this is more desirable than 
otherwise. The marked ones have a more starry effect in such 
a green setting; it is only when all become green that dis- 
appointment is felt. Sometimes I have noticed rosettes, about 
the size of a penny-piece, all one colour creamy-white which, 
when cut from the plant, very much resembled a carnation. 
Such abnormal forms are of no moment to the botanist, but if 
nine out of every ten persons who see this plant are interested, 
not to say pleased with it, it ought not to be entirely neglected. 
It is most effective in patches 1ft. to 2ft. broad. In propagating 
it the more finely marked pieces only should be taken. 

Flowering period, May to July. 

Saxlfraga Wallacei* 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^, 

A HARDY perennial hybrid variety, of first-class merit. Its 
loose and spreading panicles of large pure white flowers are 
something better than the ordinary run of bloom belonging to 
this extensive genus ; it is said to be the offspring of species of 
the mossy section ; but there is certainly a great likeness about 
its foliage to some of the horny section, such as S. cornutum or 
S. pentadactylis, or even the handsome S. geranioides. It would, 
however, be hard to say what it is from ; but in it we have not 
only a showy but most useful variety (see Fig. 93). It has 
deservedly grown into great favour, though known to amateurs 
but for three years. It begins to flower in April, but in May 
it is in its best form, being covered with a rich mass of bloom 
from the foliage to the height of a foot. 

The flowers, as before stated, are of a pure white an unusual 
colour amongst the genus; they are bell-shaped but erect, the 
ovate petals reverse. Well -grown specimens with me have 
flowers quite an inch across. The individual blooms last more 
than a week, and the succession is well maintained during 
summer. The panicles are leafy, having small entire leaves, and 
others once and twice-cut. The stems of the present season's 
growth are stout, semi-transparent, and ruddy ; the leaves are 
palmate, slender at the bottom, mostly five-fingered, fleshy, and 
covered with long silky hairs which stand well off; the fine 
apple-green foliage is shown to great advantage by the ruddy 
stems. 

This plant may be grown in pots or borders, as edging, or on 
rockwork, and in any kind of soil ; but to have fine specimens 
and large flowers it should be planted in calcareous loam, and be 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 267 

top dressed in early spring with well rotted manure. I have it 
as an edging to a small bed of roses ; the position is bleak, but 
the soil is good ; it furnishes large quantities of cut bloom, and 
otherwise, from its rich hawthorn-like scent, it proves a great 
treat. So freely is its handsome foliage produced that it, too, 
may be cut in quantities for table decoration. If the flowers, or 




FIG. 93. SAXIFRAGA WALLACEI. 
(One-half natural size.) 

some of them, be left on, the tufts will form a pretty setting for 
a few other small flowers of decided colours. 

To increase this Saxifrage is a simple matter during the warm 
season : The twiggy tufts should be pulled asunder, no matter 
whether they have roots or no roots ; if dibbled into fine soil, 
deeply dug, and shaded for a week or two, they will form strong 
plants before the winter sets in. 

Flowering period, April to August. 

Scilla Campanulata. 

BELL-FLOWERED SCILLA or BLUEBELL; Nat. Ord. LILIACE.E. 
A HARDY bulbous perennial, introduced from Spain 200 years 
ago. It very much resembles the English hyacinth H. nutans, 



268 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



or Scilla non-scripta better known as the wood hyacinth. 
Handsome as this simple flower is, it might have been omitted 
from these notes as a plant too well known, but for the fact that 
there are several varieties of the species which are less known, 
very beautiful, and deliciously fragrant, entitling them to a 
place amongst other choice flowers, both in books and gardens. 

Of the typical form little need be said by way of description. 
The flowers are bell-shaped, pendent, blue, and produced in 




FIG. 94. SCILLA CAMPANTTLATA ALBA. 
(One-fourth natural size ; single flower, one-half natural size.) 

racemes of many flowers. The leaves are lance-shaped, prostrate, 
and of a dark'shining green colour. 

8. c. alba differs from the type in having its white flowers 
arranged more evenly round the scape, being shorter in the 
divisions of petals and wider at the corolla; the habit of the 
plant, too, as may be seen by the illustration (Fig. 94), is more 
rigid and neat. In a cut state the flowers are not only very 
lasting, but if gathered clean, they are suitable for the most 
delicate wreath or bouquet. 

8. c. carnea has pink flowers. 

All the forms of 8. campanulata are cheerful and effective 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 26 

spring flowers. They should be grown in bold clumps, and if 
under slight shade, where many other things cannot be well 
grown, all the better ; still, they are in no way particular any 
aspect, position, or soil will answer for these robust flowers. 
Such being the case, few gardens should be without at least the 
finer forms of the large Bluebell. So fast do these varieties 
increase by seed and otherwise, that any remarks on their propa- 
gation are unnecessary. 

Flowering period, April to June. 

Sedum Sieboldi. 

SIEBOLD'S STONECROP ; Nat. Ord. CRASSTJLACE^;. 
THIS is a capital species. It is perfectly hardy, though not 
generally known to be so. It is more often seen under glass, 
and is certainly a pretty pot plant. 

Its stems are 12in. or less in length, slender and procumbent. 
The leaves, which are rather larger than a shilling, fleshy, 
cupped, and glaucous, are curiously arranged on the stems, 
somewhat reflexed, and otherwise twisted at their axils, pre- 
senting a flattened but pleasing appearance. The small flowers, 
which are bright rose, are borne in clusters, and remain two or 
three weeks in perfection. 

It is a fine subject for rockwork, and, moreover, likes such dry 
situations as only rockwork affords. It should be so planted 
that its graceful stems can fall over the stones. There is a 
variety of this species, with creamy foliage, but it is less 
vigorous ; neither are the flowers so fine in colour. Slugs are 
fond of these, and sometimes they will eat off nearly every leaf. 
A sprinkling of sharp sand once a week keeps them off, but 
trapping them with hollowed turnips is a more effective remedy. 
Propagated by cuttings pricked into sand in summer, or division 
of roots when the tops have died down. 

Flowering period, August and September. 

Sedum Spectabile. 

SHOWY STONECROP; Nat. Ord. CRASSTJLACE^. 
HARDY and herbaceous. This is one of our finest autumn 
bloomers. During September, the broad massive heads of 
small rosy flowers, which are arranged in cymes 6in. across, are 
very attractive, and will, with average weather, keep in good 
form for a month. This species is somewhat mixed up with 
another called S. Fabarium ; by many they are said to be 
identical, but such is not the case. I grow them side by side, 
and I may say that they are as "like as two peas " up to mid- 
summer, when they begin to diverge. 8. Fabarium continues to 
grow to the height, or rather length, of 2ft., and tumbles over ; 



270 HAUDY PERENNIALS AND 

the foliage has a lax appearance, and the flowers are very pale. 
Concurrently 8. spectabile has grown its stems and glaucous 
leaves to stouter proportions, and crowned them with more 
massive heads of bright rose-coloured flowers, at the height of 
15in. It is larger in all its parts, with the exception of length 
-of stem, and by September it is nearly twice the size of S. 
Fdbarium; it also stands erect, so that then the two species 
suggest a contrast rather than a comparison, S. spectabile being 
by far the more desirable. 

I find, however, that it is much slower in increasing itself ; 
the best way to propagate it is by cuttings- dibbled into sand in 
early summer. The commoner one increases rapidly and often 
bears the wrong name ; care should therefore be taken to obtain 
the true species, after which it will not give much further 
trouble, thriving in any kind of soil, but it should be planted 
in the full sunshine, when its habit and flowers will be greatly 
improved. It will bear any amount of drought indeed, it 
seems to enjoy it. My finest clump is on a very dry part 
of rockwork, where it has always flowered well. These two 
Stonecrops and a variegated variety are some of the very few 
hardy plants which slugs do not graze; at any rate, it is so 
with me ; neither do other pests attack them, but the humble 
bees literally cover their flowers the whole day long at times. 

Flowering period, August to October. 

Sempervivum Laggeri. 
LAGGER'S HOTJSELEEK ; Nat. Ord. CRASSULACEJS. 
OF the numerous species and varieties of Houseleek, this is at 
once the most curious, interesting, and beautiful. It is by far 
the finest of the webbed forms. It has, however, the repu- 
tation of not being quite hardy, but that it will endure our 
severest winters is without doubt, and if we recall its habitats, 
which are in alpine regions, its hardiness in a low temperature 
need not be further questioned. Still, partly from its downy 
nature, and partly from the dampness of our winters, this 
climate causes it to rot. There are, however, simple and most 
-efficient remedies, which shall be mentioned shortlv. 

The illustration (Fig. 95) gives some idea of its form and 
habit. The flowering rosettes send up stems Gin. high ; they are 
well furnished with leaves in fact, they are the rosettes 
elongated ; they terminate with a cluster of buds and flowers, 
which remain several weeks in perfection, however unfavourable 
the weather may be. 

The flowers are more than an inch across, of a bright rose 
colour, and very beautiful ; the central flower is invariably the 
largest, and the number of petals varies from six to twelve. The 
leaves are in rosette form, the rosettes being sometimes 2in. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



271 



across, nearly flat, and slightly dipped in the centre ; a downy 
web, as fine as a cobweb, covers the rosette, it being attached to 
the tips of the leaves, and in the middle it is so dense that 
it has a matted appearance. The leaves are very fleshy, 
glandular, and of a pale green colour. Slow in growth, habit 
very compact ; it has a tender appearance, but I never saw its 
web damaged by rain or hail. 

Many grow it in pots for indoor use ; it finds a happy home 




FIG. 95. SEMPERVIVUM LAGGERI. 
(Two-thirds natural size.) 

on rockwork or old walls; it should have a dry and sunny 
situation, and, with these conditions, it will prove attractive all 
the year round. It thrives well in gritty loam ; a little peat 
rubbed in with the grit will be an improvement and also more 
resemble its native soil. To preserve it from the bad effects of 
our damp winters, it need not be taken indoors, but sheets of 
glass should be tilted over the specimens during the short days, 
when they are dormant ; the glass should not touch the plant. 
This seems to be the nearest condition we can afford it as a 
substitute for the snows of its mountain home, and I may add, 
for years it has proved effective ; in fact, for several years I have 



272 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



left specimens in the open without any shelter whatever, and the 
percentage of loss has been very low, though the seasons were 
trying. It propagates itself freely by off -sets ; if it is intended 
to remove them from the parent plant, it should be done early 
in summer, so that they may become established before winter, 
otherwise the frosts will lift them out of position. 
Flowering period, June to August. 



Senecio Pulcher. 

NOBLE GROUNDSEL; Nat. Ord. COMPOSITE. 
AUTUMN is the heyday of Composite flowers. The one now under 
notice has the merit of being of an unusual and beautiful colour. 




FIG. 96. SENECIO PULCHER. 
(One-tenth natural size.) 



viz., purplish crimson. It is, in fact, a new plant in 1 English 
gardens, and has been justly described as one of the finest 
imports of recent years; it has only to be seen in order to 
commend itself to all lovers of hardy flowers (see Fig. 96). It is 
a robust grower, ranking with the more noble subjects suitable 
for the borders. Its hardiness is doubted by many, and a few 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 273 

have suspected its perennial quality; but notwithstanding the 
warm climate of South America (whence it hails), it has proved 
both hardy and perennial in this country. Excessive moisture 
is its greatest enemy. 

Its bright purplish- crimson flowers are daisy-shaped and large, 
the centre being a fine golden yellow on strong young plants 
the flowers will be 3in. across. Moreover, they are numerously 
produced on stems 3ft. high, in branching cymes, and last a long 
time in perfection; "With favourable weather an individual bloom 
will stand above a week, and the plant provides itself with 
abundance of buds for succession. I never yet saw a specimen 
that developed half its buds, but this brings me to notice one of 
its faults (for it has more than one), viz., it is too late in 
blooming ; at any rate, in Yorkshire we rarely get more than 
three weeks' enjoyment of its flowers, when, but for severe frosts, 
it appears capable of blooming for two months. To some extent 
this may be remedied, as will be shown when I refer to its 
culture. The radical leaves are over a foot long, stem leaves 
much smaller, very dark holly green of leather-like substance, 
the edges very unevenly shaped, the general form of the leaf 
being something like the cos lettuce. 

The cut blooms are indeed fine and cannot well be inappro- 
priately used. This brings me to fault No. 2. The flower stems 
are very hollow and dry, nearly as much so as the hemlock or kex, 
and I have found that when flowers have been cut, either from 
the moisture collecting in the stem, or some such cause, rot sets 
in lower down, and soon the branches of bloom head over. I 
tried cutting to a joint where the cavity was stopped, but the 
pith when so exposed soon gave way, so that latterly I have 
ceased to cut the flowers, unless the occasion was worth the 
risk. A specimen not cut from did not suffer from stem rot. I, 
therefore, blamed the cutting. There may, however, be other 
causes ; at any rate, there is the fact of fine flowers in their 

Erime falling over, and it is worth one's while to try to find out 
fom what cause it happens, and if my theory is not the true one, 
it may prove useful as a hint. 

It likes a deep and rich soil, and well deserves to have it; if left 
out all the winter, a piece of glass should be put over the crown, 
because it has the fault (No. 3) of rotting in the centre, as I 
believe from water being conducted down its spout-like stems ; 
but even under the most neglected conditions it stands our 
winters, and the rootlets send up a number of small growths in 
spring. These may make plants, but will not be reliable for 
bloom the following autumn ; the damage should be prevented if 
possible. Another plan, by which two points are gained, is to 
grow young plants in good-sized pots and winter them, plunged 
in cold frames, not failing to give plenty of air. In April 
these, if compared with others in the open garden, will be found 

T 



274 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



to be much more forward, and the first gain will "be that, if 
planted out then, they will flower much more vigorously, and, 
secondly, they will start earlier by two weeks at least. To 
propagate this fine border plant, the very long and fleshy roots 
may be cut into pieces Gin. long and dibbled into fine soil ; they 
are somewhat slow, but pretty sure to " go " ; they should be 
protected from slugs, which are very fond of the young leaves. 
On young stuff, grown apart from the flower beds and borders, 
quicklime may be used, which would otherwfse be unsightly. 
Flowering period, August to October. 



Sisyrinchium Grandiflorum. 

SATIN-FLOWER, or RUSH LILY; Nat. Ord. 
THE generic name of this flower is in reference to the grubbing 
of swine for its roots, and means " pig- snout." The common 




FlG. 97. SlSTRINCHIUM GEANDIPLOBtTM. 

(One-third natural size.) 



names may be seen, by a 
most appropriate; that of 



glance at the cut (Fig. 97), to be 
Satin-flower is of American origin 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 275 

the plant being a native of Oregon, and is in reference to its 
rich satiny blossom; that of Bush-lily, which is, perhaps, an 
even more suitable name, has been recently applied to it, I 
believe, in this country. It is applicable alike to the rush-like 
form and habit of foliage, and the lily-like purity and style of 
flowers. It was sent to this country in 1826, and yet it is rarely 
met with in English gardens. Some think it scarcely hardy in 
our climate in certain soils. I happen to have grown it for six 
years, which period includes the recent severe winters, and it 
has not only survived but increased in a moderate degree. This 
took place on rockwork facing south ; in the autumn of 1881 I 
divided the specimen, and planted a part of it in the coldest 
part of my garden, which is not without clay, though far from 
all clay ; that division is now a strong plant, and has made an 
extra crown; it forms the subject of the present illustration. 
.Let me state, in passing, that it is naturally a slow grower. 
'The very severe weather of the week previous to my writing this 
note, in March, 1883, when 23deg. of frost was registered, which 
cut down the bloom stems of Hellebores and many other well- 
known hardy things, did not hurt this subject very much ; I am, 
therefore, confident of its hardiness from six years of such 
experience. 

The flowers are lin. to-l^in. long, and about as much across 
when open, of a fine purple colour, with a shining satiny appear- 
ance ; the six transparent petal-like divisions are of uneven form, 
having short bluntish points ; from the openness of the corolla the 
stamens and style are well exposed, and they are very beautiful. 
The flowers are produced when the plant is about 6in. or 9in. 
high, the buds being developed on a rush-like stem, and enfolded 
in an almost invisible sheath 2in. or Sin. from the apex. 
Gradually the sheath, from becoming swollen, attracts notice, 
and during sunshine it will suddenly burst and let fall its 
precious contents a pair of beautiful flowers which dangle on 
slender arching pedicels, springing from the sheath-socket. 
They seem to enjoy their new-born freedom, and flutter in the 
March wind like tethered butterflies. Their happy day, however, 
is soon over ; their fugacious petals shrivel in three or four days. 
The leaves are rush-like, ribbed, and sheathed. 

I have found it to thrive in loam, both light and moderately 
stiff, also in vegetable soil and sand ; it likes moisture, but not 
of a stagnant character ; between large stones, at the base of 
rockwork, suits it in every way ; it may also be grown by the 
side of the larger kinds of snowdrops for contrast and effect. 
Impatient of being disturbed, it is not wisdom to lift it for 
any purpose, provided it is making progress, or until it has 
formed strong tufts ; when, if it is desirable to increase it, and 
during early autumn, the long roots should be got well under, 
and taken out of the ground as entire as possible ; from their 

T2 



276 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

wiry nature they are then both easily cleared of earth and 
divided into single crowns ; these should be replanted in positions 
deeply dug, and where they are intended to remain, being care- 
fully arranged without any doubling up. After such pains have 
been taken with so well- deserving a plant, there will be little to 
fear for its future, no matter how severe the winter may prove. 

S. g. album is a white-flowered variety, of which, however, I 
have had no experience. Since these lines appeared in serial 
form, a lady, cultivating a good collection of choice hardy flowers, 
has informed me that this variety is very fine, and in every way 
commendable. 

Flowering period, March to May, according to positions or 
climatic conditions. 

Soldanellas. 

Nat. Ord. PRIMULACE.E. 

DIMINUTIVE herbaceous alpine perennials. This genus is 
small in number of known species as in size of specimens. 
They are found in very high altitudes in the Tyrol, Switzerland, 
and Germany ; but they are easily managed even in our foggy 
climate, as is shown by the fact of the various species being 
grown in all collections of alpines; and, indeed, no collection can 
be said to be complete without such gems they are great 
favourites, as they well deserve to be. They flower in early 
spring, some with one, and others more than one flower on a 
stem. 

The flowers are very small, broadly bell-shaped, and of a 
feathery appearance, from the fact of their petals being finely 
divided. The foliage is also small, nearly round, of good 
substance, and in all the following species very bright green; 
the leaf stalks are long and wiry, and form neat and handsome 
little tufts, independent of the flowers, which, I may add, do not 
last more than five or six days. 

S. alpina, smaller in all its parts, but otherwise much 
resembling S. montana has leaves the size of a shilling piece, 
flowers bright blue, mostly two on a stem. 

S. Clusii, from Germany, is smaller than S. alpina ; in other 
respects similar, with the exception of flowers, which are purple. 

S. minima (smallest). Yery tiny in all its parts, many of its 
little thick leaves being only in. across ; flowers purple, single 
on the stem, which is only ^in. to lin. long. 

e 8. montana (Fig. 98) is the largest species of all leaves the 
size of a half-crown piece, flowers bright blue, four or five on a 
stem, 5in. high. It has other distinctions, of a minute character, 
from the smaller species, but by difference of size alone it may 
be readily identified. 

All the Soldanellas love a vegetable soil, as peat or leaf mould, 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



277 



to which, when under cultivation, a liberal quantity of sand 
should be added. If grown in pots, they make lovely specimens, 
and should be plunged in sand and kept moist ; but I find my 
specimens to grow much more vigorously when planted out, as 
they are at the base of a small rockery, rather below the level of 
the neighbouring walk, which forms a miniature watershed for 
the supply of moisture. I also fancy the liverwort, which 




FlG. 98. SOLDANELLA MONTANA. 

(One-half natural size.) 

surrounds them, rather helps them than otherwise. Certain I 
am, however, that moisture is the great desideratum in the 
culture of this genus. My difficulty with the planted-out 
specimens is to keep them from being grazed off by the slugs ; a 
dash of silver sand every day or two has sometimes proved of 
use. When the Soldanellas once get into proper quarters 
they make rapid growth ; I have divided them most successfully 
in April and May. 

Flowering period, March to May. 



278 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



Spiraea Palmata. 

PALM-LIKE SPIK^EA; Nat. Ord. ROSACES. 

A BOLD and handsome species from China, imported about sixty 
years ago. It is perfectly hardy, though generally grown in 
pots and under glass. It belongs to the herbaceous section, and 
I may as well state at once that the Spiraeas more especially 
the he baceous kinds are only decorative when in flower, by 
which I wish to convey the idea that after they have done 




PIG. 99. SPIRAEA PALMATA. 
(One-eighth natural size.) 

flowering, from their abundant foliage, which then begins to turn 
sere and ragged, they become unsightly if planted in conspicuous 
parts. Still, their flowers and general habit are both rich and 
handsome when in their prime, and they are certainly worth 
growing, especially by those who have large gardens, where they 
can be planted in large patches in some of the less frequented 
parts. 

S. palmata (Fig. 99) has remarkably bright rosy - crimson 
flowers ; they are of indistinct form iinless closely examined. It 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 279 

is, however, a well-known form of flower, or arrangement of 
flowers, and need not be further described, beyond saying they 
are in panicles and have a feathery appearance. The leaves, 
which are 6in. or more across, have long smooth stems, are 
mostly seven-lobed, the lobes being long, pointed, and unevenly 
serrated. The size of foliage and height of plants vary very 
much; if grown in a bog or by the side of a stream, it attains 
the height of 3ft. to 4ft. ; in drier situations I have seen it 
flower when only lOin. high. The specimen illustrated is about 
15in. high. 

A light spongy vegetable soil, with plenty of moisture, is the 
main requirement of most of the Spiraeas, and to grow them to 
perfection little less will do ; but a creditable display of bloom 
may be enjoyed from plants grown in ordinary garden loam, 
provided the situation is moist. By way of experiment, I planted 
a dozen roots of this species in an exposed border, drained, and 
in all respects the same as for the ordinary run of border flowers. 
They none of them flowered, and scarcely grew ; at no time 
would they be higher than 6in. I wish to make it clear that the 
Spiraeas, and especially S. palmata, cannot be grown and bloomed 
well without an abundance of moisture at the roots, as I am 
aware that many have tried and failed with this desirable kind. 
It should be treated as a bog plant, then it can scarcely fail to 
do well. In sunk parts of rockwork, by the walk gutters, by the 
side of a pond or stream, or (if there is one) in the hedge dyke, 
are all suitable places for this bright flower, and if only for the 
fine spikes which it produces for cutting purposes, it should be 
grown largely ; and as most of the positions indicated are some- 
what out of the way, they may perhaps be the more readily thus 
appropriated. Propagated by division of strong roots during 
autumn. 

Flowering period, July and August. 



Spirgea Ulmaria Variegata. 

Syn. S. ODORATA FOL. YAR. ; Nat. Ord. ROSACES. 
THE beautiful variegated form of the well-known " Meadow- 
sweet," other old names being " Mead-sweet," and "Queen of the 
Meadows." The typical form, at least, needs no description, it 
being one of the commonest and most appreciated plants of the 
British flora. This variety, however, is less known; it differs 
only as regards the markings of the foliage. When the crimped 
leaves are young, the broad golden patches are very effective, 
and when the plants are fully grown, the markings of the older 
foliage become lighter coloured, but not less rich. Of the value 
of this as a " fine foliage " plant there can be no doubt ; it is 
very telling, and always admired. As regards its flowers, they 



280 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

ought not to be allowed to develope. I only mention this subject 
for the sake of its beautifully coloured leaves. 

Requirements : Ordinary garden loam, in a moist situation ; 
propagated by root divisions during autumn. 

Flowering period, May to August. 



Spiraea Venusta. 

QUEEN OF THE PRAIRIE ; Nat. Ord. ROSACES. 
A COMPARATIVELY new species of the herbaceous section, from 
North America. In good deep loam it grows to the height of 
3ft. or more. 

The flowers are of a soft red, after the manner of those of 8. 
palmata, but rather differently arranged, viz., in clustered sprays 
or cymes, which bend outwards ; they are durable and very 
effective, even when seen at some distance in the garden, whilst 
for cutting they are flowers of first-class merit ; the leaves are 
large, somewhat coarse, pinnate, segments sharply lobed and 
irregularly serrated. 

I find this plant to flower indifferently under the shade of 
trees, but in a fully exposed situation, planted in a deep retentive 
loam, it thrives and flowers well. It is perfectly hardy, and 
easily propagated by division during autumn. 

Flowering period, June to August. 



Statice Latifolia. 

BROAD-LEAVED SEA-LAVENDER; Nat. Ord. PLUMBAGINACE^E. 
THIS hardy perennial is all but evergreen in this climate. 
Probably there are two varieties of it, as although the plants in 
growth and form correspond, there is a notable difference in 
the habit of some specimens, as regards the greenness of the 
foliage in winter; whilst one shrivels and blackens the other 
will remain more or less green. It is possible that the native 
countries from which they come may have something to do with 
this fact. The species was introduced from Portugal in 1740, 
and again from Siberia in 1791. It need not be wondered at if 
the variety from the northern habitat proved the more verdant, 
notwithstanding its becoming acclimatised. Its lofty and diffuse 
panicles are ornamental and lasting ; it is a subject which may 
be grown in almost any part of the garden, and hardly seem 
misplaced, notwithstanding its height of 3ft., because only the 
slender stems, furnished with their minute flowers, rise above 
the ground, and from the cloud-like effects more dwarf flowers 
can be easily seen, even when behind them. In many such 
cases, therefore, this gauzy-flowered Sea-lavender proves of 
advantage. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 281 

The bloom is lilac-coloured, each flower being very small. The 
stout scape at a short distance above the ground becomes much 
branched ; the branchlets, as already indicated, are slender, and 
furnished with the soft blue bloom. The leaves are radical, and 
arranged in somewhat rosette form, and for the most part 
prostrate ; many of them are quite a foot long and 5in. broad, or 
long egg-shaped; they are wavy, of leathery substance, and a 
dark shining green colour. 

Of all the genus, this is, perhaps, the most useful of the hardy 
species. Either in a growing or cut state, the flowers are much 
admired ; cut, they need not be placed in water ; and for a year, 
until the plant yields fresh supplies, they will remain presentable 
and even bright. Its culture is simple, though there are 
positions where I have found it to simply exist, viz., on rock- 
work, unless it was given a part where moisture would be abun- 
dant about the roots, in search of which its long woody roots go 
deeply ; if planted in deep loam of a light nature, there will be 
little fear as to its thriving, but if well manured and mulched, 
specimens would grow to nearly double size. Propagated by 
root division. But often the crowns are all on one stout root, 
and then it is not a safe or ready operation ; still, with a sharp 
knife, the woody root may be split its whole length this should 
be done in spring, when the divisions can begin to grow at once. 
Another and safer plan would be to divide the root for an inch 
or more from the crowns downwards, insert a few pebbles to 
keep the parts open, and put back the specimen in freshly dug 
earth, where, during a season of growth, the cut parts would 
produce vigorous roots. 

Flowering period, August to October. 

Statice Profusa. 

PROFUSE SEA-LAVENDER; Nat. Ord. PLTJMBAGINACEJE. 
A HYBRID hardy form, not to be confounded with the hairy- 
leaved and tender kind commonly grown under glass, which has 
the same name. All the Sea-lavenders are profuse blooming, but 
the one now under notice is more especially so, as may be seen by 
the illustration (Fig. 100). The seed of this genus is prolific in 
varieties, and, although the name of this variety, or even the 
plant, may not be generally known, and the parentage, perhaps, 
untraceable, it appeared to such advantage, when grown by the 
side of such species as S. bellidifolia, S. echioides, 8. gmelina, 8. 
incana, 8. Latifolia, 8. sereptana, 8. speciosa, 8. tatarica, 8. 
tormentilla, 8. virgata, and 8. Wildenovi, that I considered it 
worth a short description, more especially as the object of this 
book is to speak of subjects with telling flowers or attractive 
forms. It is well known that the Statices have insignificant 
blossoms, taken individually, though, from their great profusion, 



282 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



they have a singular beauty. The variety now under notice, at 
the height of 2ft., developed a well "branched panicle about the 
latter end of August; gradually the minute flowers expanded, 
when, in the middle of September, they became extremely fine, 
the smaller stems being as fine as horsehair, evenly disposed, and 
rigid ; the head being globular, and supported by a single stem. 

The flowers are of a lively lilac, having a brownish or snuff- 
coloured spiked calyx, the effect being far prettier than the 




FIG. 100. STATICE PKOFUSA. 
(One-tenth natural size.) 



description, would lead one to imagine. The leaves are radical, 
Gin. to Sin. long, oval, or somewhat spathulate, waved, leathery, 
shining and dark green, the outer ones prostrate, the whole 
being arranged in lax rosette form. 

The flowers are very durable, either cut or in the growing 
state ; they may be used to advantage with dried grasses, ferns, 
and "everlastings;" or the whole head, when cut, is a good 
substitute for gold-paper clippings in an unused fire grate ; our 
people have so used one for two years, and it has still a fresh 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 285 

appearance. It needs no words of mine to explain that such a 
plant as is represented by the illustration will prove highly 
decorative in any part of the flower garden. There is nothing 
special about the culture of the genus. All the Sea-lavenders do 
well in sandy loam, enriched with stable manure. Some sorts, 
the present one included, are not very readily propagated, 
as the crowns are not on separate pieces of root, but often 
crowded on a woody caudex. I have, however, sometimes split 
the long root with a sharp knife, and made good plants ; 
this should only be done in spring, when growth can start at 
once. 

Flowering period, August to frosts. 



Stenactis Speciosus. 

Syn. ERIGERON SPECIOSUS; SHOWY FLEABANE ; Nat. Ord. 
COMPOSITE. 

THIS has not long been cultivated in this country ; but though a 
native of the warm climate of California, it proves to be one of 
the most hardy of herbaceous perennials ; it begins to flower in 
early summer, but August is the heyday of its showiness, and it 
continues at least a month longer. Its more recent name, 
Stenactis, is, according to Paxton, a happy and appropriate 
derivation, and tends much to explain the form of flower, " 8tene f 
narrow, and dktin, a sunbeam, from the narrow and sunlike 
rays of the expanded flower." It belongs to a genus of "old- 
fashioned " flowers, which, moreover, is that of the most modern 
fashion in flowers. As a garden plant it is not only effective, 
but one of that class which will put up with the most off- 
hand treatment ; tenacious of life, neither particular as to 
soil nor position, constant in fair and foul weather, and doing 
duty alike in town or suburban garden, these qualities go to 
make it a worthy subject. Whilst it is nearly related to, and 
much resembles, the starworts or Michaelmas daises, it far 
exceeds in beauty the best of them, with only a third of their 
ungainly length of stem. 

The flowers are fully two inches across, of a light purple 
colour ; the disk is somewhat large and of a greenish yellow ; the 
florets of the ray are numerous, full, narrow, and slightly uneven 
at their points, giving the otherwise dense ray a feathery appear- 
ance. These large flowers are produced in bunches of six or 
ten on each branch, at the height of about eighteen inches ; there 
are many stems, and each one is well branched, the species being 
very floriferous ; the leaves are herb-like, lance-shaped, pointed, 
amplexicaul, and smooth ; root-leaves spathulate. 

This plant needs no cultural care ; its only requirements are a 
place in the garden and some one to appropriate its beaming 



284 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

crop of flowers, which cannot fail to be serviceable. As a border 
plant, among suitable companions, bold clumps are fine, espe- 
cially when seen by twilight ; in lines, too, it may be profitably 
used. Propagated by division of the roots at any time. 
Flowering period, June to September. 

Stokesia Cyanea. 

JASPER-BLUE STOKESIA, or STOKES' ASTER; Nat. Ord. 
COMPOSITE. 

THIS handsome, hardy, herbaceous perennial was brought from 
Carolina in the year 1766. It is the only species known of the 
genus, and was named after Jonathan Stokes, M.D., who assisted 
Withering, the botanist, in his arrangement of British plants. 
The order which includes it is a very extensive one, and it may 
be useful to add that it belongs to the sub-order Carduacece, or 
the Thistle family. The mention of this relationship may not 
help our subject much in the estimation of the reader, but it 
must be borne in mind that in plant families as well as others, 
there are individual members that often contrast rather than 
compare with their relatives, and so it is in the Thistle family, 
for it embraces the gay Doronicums, silky Gnaphaliums, shining 
Arnica, and noble Stobaea and Echinops. But the relationship 
will, perhaps, be better understood when it is stated that as a sub- 
order the Carduacece stand side by side with that of the Ast eracece, 
which includes so many well-known and favourite flowers. Let 
me now ask the reader to glance at the illustration (Fig. 101), and 
he will, I think, see marks of affinity with both the thistle and the 
aster; the few thorny teeth at the base of the larger leaves, and 
the spines on the smaller divisions of the imbricate calyx, are 
clearly features of the former, whilst the general form of the 
plant and flowers are not unlike the aster. 

Of all herbaceous plants, this is one of the latest to bloom ; in 
favourable situations it will begin in October, but often not 
until November and December in northern parts of the country ; 
and, I hardly need add, unless severe frosts hold off, it will 
be cut down before its buds expand. There is much uncertainty 
about its flowering, when planted in the ordinary way, so that, 
fine as its flowers are, the plant would scarcely be worth a place 
in our gardens, if there were no means by which such uncertainty 
could be at least minimised ; and were it not a fact that this 
plant may be bloomed by a little special treatment, which it 
justly merits, it would not have been introduced in this book, 
much less illustrated. The plant itself is very hardy, enduring 
keen frosts without apparent damage, and the bloom is also 
durable, either cut or on the plant. 

I scarcely need further describe the flowers, as the form is a 
very common one. It has, however, a very ample bract, which 






OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



285 



supports a large imbricate calyx, tlie members of winch have 
stiff bristle-like hairs. Each flower will be 2in. to 3in. across, 
and of a fine blue colour. The leaves are aranged on stout 
round stems, 18in. high, being from 2in. to 6in. long, somewhat 
lobed and toothed at the base, the teeth rather spiny; their 




FIG. 101. STOKESIA CYANEA. 
(One-sixth natural size.) 



shape varies very much, but generally they are lance-shaped, 
concave, often waved at the edges, and otherwise contorted. 
The foliage is more thickly furnished at the upper part of the 
plant, it has a glaucous hue, is of good substance, smooth 
and shining, like many of the gentians. It will, therefore, 
be seen that this is far from a weedy-looking subject, and 
throughout the season has a tidy and shrub-like appearance, but 
it grows top-heavy, and, unless supported, is liable to be snapped 
off at the ground line by high winds. 

In order to get it to bloom before the frosts cut it, the soil and 



286 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

situation should be carefully selected ; the former cannot be too 
sandy if enriched with manure, whilst cold, stiff soil is quite 
unsuited to it. The position should not only have the sunniest 
possible aspect, but be at the base of a wall that will ward off the 
more cutting winds. In such snug quarters many things may 
be had in bloom earlier, and others kept in flower through the 
winter, as violets ; whilst fuchsias, crinums, African and Bella- 
donna lilies, and similar roots, that would perish in more exposed 
parts, will live from year to year in such situations. Unless 
the subject now under consideration can bave these conditions, 
it is useless to plant it not that its hardiness is doubtful, but 
because its blooming period should be hastened. Its propagation 
may, be by division of the roots after it has flowered, or in 
spring. 

Flowering period, October to December. 

Symphytum Caucascium. 
CAUCASIAN COMFREY; Nat. Ord. BORAGINACEJE. 
A COMPARATIVELY modern species in English gardens, belong- 
ing to a genus well represented by native species, from which 
this differs mainly in being less tall and hairy, and otherwise less 
coarse. The erect habit, and abundant azure flowers produced in 
pendent form, which, moreover, last for several weeks, go to 
make this a capital border plant. If not an old species, from 
its resemblance to some which are so, it is rendered a suitable 
companion to " old-fashioned " subjects. The plant grows to a 
height of nearly 2ft., is of dark greyish-green colour, from being 
thickly covered with short, stiff hairs, on every part, including the 
calyx. 

The flowers are more than ^in. long, produced in elongated 
clusters, opening three or four at a time, and just before expan- 
sion they are of a bright rose colour, but afterwards turn a fine 
blue; calyx five-parted, as also is the corolla, the segments being 
drawn in at the mouth. The entire flower is long and bell- 
shaped; the pendent clusters of bloom are well held out from the 
main stem by leafy branches, each being terminated by two 
racemes. The leaves of the root are large and stalked, oval, 
lance-shaped, and wrinkled; those of the stems are stalkless, and 
so attached as to give the stems a winged appearance near their 
junction. 

The plant will thrive in any kind of soil, but it likes shade and 
moisture, and a specimen grown under such conditions will be 
found to be much superior in every way. A position under fruit 
trees suits it admirably, and for such thoughtful planting it will 
well repay the lover of flowers for vase decoration. It also 
makes a good subject for large or rough rockwork, on which, 
however, it should be sheltered from the midday sun. Its propa- 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



287 



gation may be carried out at any time by dividing the roots, but 
autumn is the preferable period. 
Flowering period, April to June. 

Tiarella Cordifolia. 

Nat. Ord. SAXIFRAGACE^J. 

THE illustration (Fig. 102), together with the order given to 
which it belongs, will convey a fair idea of the style and habit of 
the plant, but its exquisite flowers must be seen to be appreciated, 




FIG. 102. TIARELLA CORDIFOLIA. 
(One-fifth, natural size ; o, flower, natural size.) 



and hardly could they appear to more advantage than in a 
growing state, the rich foliage forming their most natural and 
effective ground. This hardy herbaceous perennial has been 
known to English gardens for 150 years, and was introduced 
from North America, where it grows in glorious masses, but 
common as it is in its native country, and long as it has been 
grown in this, I scarcely know a flower respecting which so many 
have been in error as regards the true species. I have had all 
sorts of things sent to me under the name, and, after all, it is 
easy to be wrong with it unless the amateur has either closely 



288 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

noted its distinctions or grown it for a year at least. Heucheras 
are similar in habit and shape of foliage, and are often con- 
founded with it, though otherwise very distinct. Tellima grandi- 
flora, when in its young state, is very like it, but the strong 
crowns should be noted they are twice the strength of T. 
cordifolia, and develope foliage more than double its size, whilst 
the flowers are on stems 3ft. high, nearly green, and might easily 
be taken for seed pods. 

The Mitellas, however, are much more puzzling, the distinc- 
tions being finer and mostly of a botanical character. Still, in 
May and June, when all are in flower, the identification of our 
subject is not difficult, more especially if the other species of the 
same order are near for comparison. 

T. cordifolia grows to the height of 9in. to 12in. ; the flowers 
are composed of a calyx (five-parted) and five petals, which are 
entire, evenly set in the calyx. The ten stamens are prominent ; 
each flower has a stout pedicel, which holds out the pretty white 
blossom in a nearly horizontal way. There is nothing of a bell- 
shape character about the flower, as in its nearest relative the 
Mitella. The flower stem is erect and round, being evenly 
furnished with flowers, for a length of 4in. to 6in. ; the flowers are 
very lasting. The leaves are heart-shaped, acutely lobed, denti- 
culate, slightly wrinkled, hairy on both sides, and more or less 
spotted or splashed with brown spots on the main ribs ; the leaf 
stalks are long, and carry the foliage gracefully. The whole 
plant has a neat habit, and, when in vigorous health, sends out 
surface creepers. 

It enjoys moist quarters and slight shade, though it is grown 
as seen in the drawing in an exposed part. The soil is good, but 
otherwise there is nothing special about its culture. If this 
little spring flower can be made more known, it will be sure to be 
more widely cultivated; for covering the bare parts of lawn 
shrubberies it would form a pleasing subject, and might be 
mixed with the scarlet ourisia and the finer sorts of myosotis ; 
these would make an excellent blend, all flowering together, and 
lasting for a long time, besides being suitable otherwise for such 
shady positions. When increase is desired strong plants may be 
divided at any time, soon after flowering being the best ; if the 
season be dry, the young stock should be shaded by a leafy 
branch and kept well watered. 

Flowering period, May and June. 

Trientalis Europaea. 

EUROPEAN WINTERGREEN, 'or STAR-FLOWER; Nat. Ord. 

PRIMTJLACEJE. 

SOME may say, " Why, this is a common British plant ; " and so 
it is in some parts, but for all that there are many who have 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 289 

never seen it. In no way does the mention here of this lovely 
little flower need an apology: the best possible reasons for 
growing and recommending it are in the facts that it is very 
beautiful and greatly admired (see Fig. 103). 

The flowers, which are fin. across, are salver-shaped, pure 
white, excepting for a day or two when newly opened, then they 
are stained with a soft pink ; the calyx has eight handsome 
light green, shining, awl-shaped sepals; the corolla has five 
to nine petals, equal in size, flatly and evenly arranged, their 
pointed tips forming the star-like appearance from which 




FIG. 103. TEIENTALIS ETJROPJEA. 
(Plant, one-third natural size; blossom, full size.) 

the flower takes one of its common names; the flower 
stalks are exceedingly fine thready but firm, from lin. to 
Sin. long, and each carries but one flower; they issue from 
the axils of the leaves, which are arranged in whorls of five or 
seven, and nearly as many blossoms will be produced from the 
whorl, but seldom more than one, and hardly ever more than 
two, flowers will be open together, when they occupy the cen- 
tral position of the foliage, which gives the plant an elegant 
appearance. The leaves are of a pale green colour, sometimes 
a little bronzed at the tips, veined, entire, bald, lance-shaped, 

u 



290 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

and, as before hinted, verticillate ; they vary much in size, being 
from lin. to Sin. long and in. to lin. broad. The stems are 
round, reddish, slender, and naked, with the exception of two or 
three minute round leaves, borne distantly apart; the stems, 
too, like the leaves, vary in length; sometimes they grow 8in., 
while others equally floriferous are not above Sin. high ; the root 
is creeping, and somewhat tuberous. A colony of this plant has 
the appearance of a miniature group of palms, bedecked with 
glistening stars at the flowering time, and it is one of the most 
durable flowers I know ; so persistent, indeed, are they, that 
botanical descriptions make mention of it. 

In a cut state they equal either violets or snowdrops, from the 
beautiful combination of flowers and foliage, and it is a pity that 
it is not grown in sufficient quantities for cutting purposes. Its 
culture is very easy, but to do it well it may be said to require 
special treatment; in its wild state it runs freely, and the 
specimens are not nearly so fine as they may be had under 
cultivation with proper treatment. It should have moist 
quarters, a little shade, light vegetable soil, and confinement at 
the roots. I ought, perhaps, to explain the last-mentioned 
condition. It would appear that if the quick- spreading roots are 
allowed to ramble, the top growths are not only straggling, but 
weak and unfruitful. To confine its roots, therefore, not only 
causes it to grow in compact groups, but in every way improves 
its appearance; it may be done by planting it in a large seed 
pan, 15in. across, and 4in. or 6in. deep. Let it be well drained ; 
over the drainage place a layer of lumpy peat, on which arrange 
another of roots, and fill up with leaf soil and peat mixed with 
sand ; this may be done any time from September to February ; 
the pan may then be plunged in a suitable position, so as to 
just cover the rim from sight, and so do away with artificial 
appearances ; but if it is sunk too deep, the roots will go over the 
rim and all the labour will be lost. So charming is this plant 
when so grown, that it is worth all the care. A well-known bota- 
nist saw such a pan last spring, and he could hardly believe it to 
be our native species. Pans at two years old are lovely masses, and 
very suitable for taking as grown for table decoration. The outer 
sides of the pans should be banked down to the tray with damp 
moss, which could be pricked in with any soft-coloured flowers, as 
dog roses, pinks or forget-me-nots. 

I will only add that, unless the root confinement is effected 
either in the above or some other way, according to my experi- 
ence, the plant will never present a creditable appearance as a 
cultivated specimen ; at the same time, this somewhat troublesome 
mode of planting it is not in proportion to the pleasure it will 
afford and certainly ought not to prevent its introduction into 
every garden. 

Flowering period, May and June. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 

Trillium Erectum. 



291 



ERECT WOOD-LILY; Nat. Ord. MELANTHACE^. 

A HARDY, tuberous perennial, from North America, whence 
most, perhaps all, the species of this genus are imported. The 
peculiar form of the plants gives rise to the generic name. A 
flowering specimen has on one stem three leaves, three sepals, 
and three petals ; the specific name is in reference to the more 
erect habit of this species compared with others. Of T. erectum 
there are several varieties, having different-coloured flowers ; the 




FIG. 104. TRILLIUM ERECTUM. 
(One-half natural size.) 



specimens from which the drawing (Fig. 104) was taken have 
rich brown or dark maroon flowers. Little groups have a rather 
quaint look, they being very formal, the flowers curiously placed, 
and of unusual colour. The flowers are fully 2in. across, or 
much more, if the petals did not reflex almost their whole 
length. The sepals of the calyx are exactly alternate with 
the petals, and remain erect, giving the flower a characteristic 

2 



292 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

quality ; and, let me add, they are far more pleasing to the eye- 
than to the sense of smell. The leaves are arranged in threes on 
the main stem, and that number constitutes the entire foliage of 
the plant ; they are stalkless, oval, but pointed, entire, smooth, 
and of a shining dark green colour. The specimens from 
which the illustration was made are 5in. to 6in. high, but their 
height differs very much with the positions in which they are 
grown, shade and moisture inducing taller growths. The roots, 
which are tuberous, are of unusual form soft swollen root- 
stocks may be more descriptive of them. Trilliums are now in 
much favour, and their quiet beauty is likely to create a genuine 
love for them. Moreover, the different species are distinct, and 
if grown in cool, shady quarters, their flowers remain in good 
form and colour for a long time. They are seen to most advan- 
tage in a subdued light, as under the shade of rather tall but not 
too thickly grown trees. They require vegetable soil, no matter 
how light it may be, provided it can be maintained in a moist 
state, the latter condition being indispensable. Trilliums are 
capable of taking a good share towards supplying shade-loving 
subjects. How finely they would mix with anemones, violets, 
Paris quadrifolia, hellebores, and such like flowers! Colonies of 
these, planted so as to carpet small openings in shrubberies, 
would be a clear gain in several ways to our gardens ; to many 
they would be a new feature ; more showy flowers would not 
have to be given up for such an arrangement, but, on the other 
hand, both would be more enjoyed by the contrast. Trilliums 
increase slowly ; propagation may be carried out by the division 
of the roots of healthy plants. 
Flowering period, May and June. 



Triteleia Uniflora 

Sometimes called MILLA UNIFLORA; ONE -FLOWERED TRITELEIA, 
or SPRING STAR FLOWER ; Nat. Ord. 



THIS is a favourite flower, and in some soils increases very fast; 
it is the commonest species of the very limited genus to which 
it belongs ; was brought from South America only so recently 
as 1836, and it is already extensively grown in this country, and 
as a trade article is very cheap indeed, thanks to its intrinsic 
worth. Though small, its star-like form gives it a lively and 
effective appearance in the borders. It is much used by the 
Americans as a window and greenhouse plant, notwithstanding 
that it is a wild flower with them, and its pretty shape and 
lovely hues render it eligible for such uses, but on account of 
the esteem in which is held the odour of garlic, I should not like 
to recommend it for such close associations. The flower in 






OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 293 

shape is, as the generic name implies, like the Trillium, formed 
of three, or rather threes ; the divisions are arranged in threes, 
or triangularly; the two triangles, being crossed, give the 
flower a geometrical and star-like effect. The flowers, which 
are lin. to 2in. across, are borne on slender stems, 4in. to Gin. 
long. They are nearly white, but have various tints, bluish 
reflections, with a line of blue in each petal. The leaves 
resemble those of the snowdrop when overgrown and turning 
flabby, and have a somewhat untidy and sprawling habit ; they 
are abundantly produced from the rather small cocoon-shaped 
bulbs. On the whole, the plant is very ornamental when in 
flower, and the bloom is produced more or less for many weeks ; 
at any rate, it is an early flower, and if it cannot be used indoors 




FIG. 105. TBITELEIA UNIFLOEA. 
(One-fourth natural size.) 

it should be extensively planted amongst border subjects, than 
which there are few more hardy or reliable. Propagated by 
divisions of the crowded bulbs every other year, during late 
summer. 

T. u. lilacina (the Lilac-coloured Star Flower) is a most hand- 
some variety, having, as implied by the name, a richly coloured 
flower. I am indebted to a lady for roots and flowers recently sent 
me ; so far as I know, it is not yet generally distributed. It is very 
distinct from the type in having smaller parts throughout, and 
a more highly coloured bloom, with the outer surface of the 
shining tube of a darker or brownish -green colour. I have seen 
a mauve coloured form, but this is much more pronounced and 
effective. The chief recommendation of this otherwise desirable 



294 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

flower, to my thinking, is its rich new-mown hay scent ; in this 
it differs much from the parent form. 
Flowering period, March to May. 

Tritoma Uvaria. 

GREAT TRITOMA ; Common Names, FLAME-FLOWER, BED-HOT 
POKER; Nat. Ord. LILIACE^-HEMERO-CALLIDE^;. 

THIS is one of our finest late-flowering plants; it has, moreover, 
a tropical appearance, which renders it very attractive. It is fast 
becoming popular, though as yet it is not very often seen in 
private gardens ; it comes from the Cape of Good Hope, its year 
of introduction being 1707. In this climate, when planted in 
well-exposed situations and in sandy loam, it proves ~hardy but 
herbaceous ; if protected it is evergreen ; and I ought to add 
that if it is planted in clay soil, or where the drainage is de- 
fective, it will be killed by a severe winter; but when such 
simple precautions as are here indicated will conduce ta 
the salvation of a somewhat doubtful plant, it may be fairly 
termed hardy. According to my experience during severe 
winters, plants in wet stiff loam were all killed, but others 
of the same stock, in light sandy earth, did not suffer in 
the least. I have also made similar observations outside my 
own garden. 

The stout scapes or stems sometimes reach a height of 4ft., and 
are topped with long or cocoon-shaped spikes of orange and red 
flowers ; the flowers are tubular and small, closely arranged, and 
drooping ; each will be about an inch long, and the spikes 6in. to 
Sin. long. The leaves are narrow, 2ft. to 3ft. long, keeled, chan- 
nelled, and rough on the edges, of a dark green colour and pros- 
trate- habit. Either amongst trees or in more conspicuous 
positions this flower proves very effective, whilst in lines it is 
simply dazzling ; when grown in quantity it may be cut for 
indoor decoration, than which few large flowers are more 
telling. 

Cultural hints have already been given in speaking of its 
hardiness, but I may add that where the soil is naturally 
light and dry a liberal dressing of well-rotted manure may 
be dug in with great benefit to the flowers. It is readily pro- 
pagated by division of the roots every third year; the young 
stock should be put in rows, the earth having been deeply 
stirred and well broken; this may be done in late autumn or 
spring if the former, a top dressing of leaves will assist root 
action. 

This bold and brilliant flower appears in September, and is 
produced in numbers more or less to the end of the year, pro- 
vided the season does not set in very severe. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 295 

Tropaeolum Tuberosum. 

TUBEROUS TROP^OLTJM; Nat Ord. TROP^OLACE^:. 

ALL the species of this genns are highly decorative garden 
subjects, including the annual varieties, and otherwise they are 
interesting. They are known by various names, as Trophy-plant, 
Indian Cress, and Nasturtium, though the latter is only ap- 
plicable strictly to plants of another order. The plant under 
notice is a climber, herbaceous and perennial, having tuberous 
roots, whence its specific name ; they much resemble small 
potatoes, and are eaten in Peru, the native country of the plant. 
It has not long been grown in this country, the date of its intro- 
duction being 1836 ; it is not often seen, which may be in part 
owing to the fact of its being considered tender in this climate. 
But let me at once state that under favourable conditions, and 
such as may easily be afforded in any garden, it proves hardy. 
As a matter of fact, I wintered it in 1880-1, and also in 1881-2, 
which latter does not signify much, as it proved so mild ; but it 
must be admitted that the first-mentioned winter would be a fair 
test season. The position was very dry, viz., on the top of a small 
bank of earth, against a south wall ; the soil was sandy loam, and 
it was overgrown with ivy, the leaves of which would doubtless 
keep out many degrees of cold, as also would the dryness of the 
soil; another point in favour of my specimen proving hardy, 
would be the fact of its exposure to the sun, by which the tubers 
would be well and duly ripened. It is one of the handsomest 
trailers or climbers I know for the herbaceous garden; a free 
grower, very floriferous, bright, distinct, and having a charming 
habit. The illustration (Fig. 106) can give no idea of the fine 
colours of its flowers, or richly glaucous foliage. One specimen 
in my garden has been much admired, thanks to nothing but 
its own habit and form ; under a west wall, sheltered from the 
strong winds, it grows near some Lilium auratum ; after out- 
growing the lengths of the stems, and having set off to advan- 
tage the lily bloom, it caught by its tendril-like shoots an apricot 
tree on the wall, and then reached the top, being furnished 
with bloom its whole length. The flowers are orange and scarlet, 
inclining to crimson; they are produced singly on long red 
stalks, which spring from the axils of the leaves; the orange 
petals are small and overlapping, being compactly enclosed in 
the scarlet calyx ; the spur, which is also of the same colour , is 
thick and long, imparting a pear-like form to the whole flower, 
which, however, is not more than l|in. long. The leaves are 
nearly round in outline, sub-peltate, five, but sometimes only 
three-lobed ; lobes entire, sometimes notched, smooth and glau- 
cous; the leaf -stalks are long and bent, and act as tendrils. 
The plant makes rapid growth, the stems going out in all 
directions, some trailing on the ground. 



296 



HARDY PERENNIALS AND 



It is a good subject for the drier parts of rockwork, where a 
twiggy branch should be secured, which it will soon cover. It is 
also fine for lattice work, or it may be grown where it can 
appropriate the dried stems of lupine and larkspurs. For all 
such situations it is not only showy, but beautiful. The flowered 
sprays are effective in a cut state, especially by gaslight; they 
come in for drooping or twining purposes, and last a long time in 
water. 

If grown as a tender plant its treatment is as simple as 
can be ; the tubers may be planted in early spring in any desired 




FIG. 106. TROP-ffiOLTjM TUBEROSTTM. 
(One-fifth natural size.) 

situation, and when the frosts at the end of the season have cut 
down the foliage, the tubers maybe taken up and stored in sand; 
but if it is intended to winter it out the situation should be 
chosen for its dryness, and the soil should be of a sandy nature, 
in which the tubers ought to be placed 5in. or 6in. deep. It is 
self -propagating, the tubers being numerously produced; and 
like "potato sets," the larger ones may be cut in pieces; if, 
however, numbers are not the object they are better left uncut. 
Caterpillars are fond of this plant ; at the first sight of an eaten 
leaf, they should be looked for and destroyed. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



297 



It begins to flower in the latter part of summer, continuing 
until stopped by frosts. 

Umbilicus Chrysanthus. 
Nat. Ord. CRASSULACE.SJ. 

THIS is a very pretty and distinct subject, and never fails 
to flower very late in the year. It is a plant having the 
appearance of being tender, and is not often seen growing fully 
exposed in the garden ; it is, however, perfectly Lardy, enduring 
any amount of cold ; it suffers more from wet. It is also ever- 
green. Its soft dull or greyish-green rosettes are in marked 




FIG. 107. UMBILICUS CHRTSANTHXTS. 
(One-half natural size.) 



contrast with the rigid and shining sempervivums, in the company 
of which it is frequently placed. It is an alpine subject, and 
comes from the mountains of Asiatic Turkey, being also found 
more west. Not only is it interesting, but its pretty form and 
habit are qualities which render it very useful in a garden, 
more especially for dry parts, such as old walls and rockwork. 



298 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

It grows 6in. high, the older rosettes elongate and form leafy 
flower stalks, which are topped by drooping panicles of flowers, 
somewhat bell shaped; each flower is fin. long, of a yellowish 
white colour; the petals are finely pointed, and well supported 
by a fleshy calyx; the bloom is slowly developed and very 
enduring, even when the worst weather prevails. The leaves 
are arranged in flat rosette form (the rosettes from lin. to 2in. 
across), lower leaves spathulate, those near the centre more oval. 

All are fleshy, covered with short hairs, and somewhat clammy 
to the touch. Its habit is neat, and it adorns such situations 
as otherwise suit it, viz., banks or risen beds, and such other 
positions as have already been named. 

Its culture is easy, but it ought to have the compost it 
most enjoys peat and grit and it should be sheltered from the 
strong winds, otherwise its top-heavy flower stalks will be laid 
prostrate. When it once finds a happy home it increases fast ; 
the thick stalks are procumbent and emit roots. These may 
either be left to form large specimens or be taken off during 
the growing season for stock. Excessive wet is its greatest 
enemy. For such subjects, the wire and glass shelters are not 
only a remedy, but very handy. 

Flowering period, summer, until stopped by frosts. 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea. 

BED WHORTLE-BERRY; sometimes called COW-BERRY; 
Nat. Ord. YACCINACE^. 

ALTHOUGH a native evergreen, and in some parts occurring 
extensively, it proves to be both decorative and useful as a 
garden subject ; as a neat evergreen it is worthy of a place, 
especially when it is not to be found near in a wild state. It is 
seldom seen without either its waxy and pink-tinted white 
flowers or its bright clusters of red berries, but in October it 
carries both, which, together with the fine condition of the 
foliage, renders the shrub most attractive. It grows Gin. to 9in. 
high under cultivation. 

In form the flowers somewhat resemble the lily of the valley, 
but they are closely set in the stems and partly hidden, owing to 
the shortness and drooping character of the racemes ; not only 
are the flowers pleasingly tinted, but they exhale a full and spicy 
odour; the buds, too, are tinted with a lively pink colour on 
their sunny sides. The berries are quickly developed, being 
nearly the size of the holly berry, but a more bright red. The 
leaves are stout, shining, and leathery, and ofttimes pleasingly 
bronzed. They are over ^in. long and egg-shaped, being bent 
backwards. The stems are furnished with short hairs, are much 
oranched, and densely foliaged. This compact-growing shrub 
would make a capital edging, provided it was well grown in 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 299 

vegetable soil. It would go well with Erica carnea to form a 
double line, either to a shrubbery or permanent beds of dwarf 
flowering trees. "Now that berries are so much used for wearing 
about the person and for indoor decoration, those of this shrub 
may become useful. A dishful of sprigs in October proves 
pleasant both to the sight and smell, the flowers and fruit being 
charmingly blended. 

V. v.-i. major IB a variety which is simply larger in all its parts; 
it is, however, rather more bronzed in the foliage. I daresay by 




FIG. 108. VACCINIUM 

(Natural size.) 

many it would be preferred to the typical form, both for its robust 
and decorative qualities. It is nearly twice the size of the type. 

As may be inferred, both from the order to which this shrub 
belongs and the localities where it occurs in its wild state, a peaty 
or vegetable soil will be required. I find the species grow most 
freely in a mixture of leaf soil and sand, the position being moist 
but exposed. It does not object to a little shade, but then its 
useful berries are neither so numerously produced nor so well 
coloured. 

It is easily propagated by division at almost any time. 

Flowering period, May to October. 



300 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

Veronica Gentianoides. 

Syn. Y. GENTIANIFOLIA; GENTIAN-LEAVED SPEEDWELL; 

Nat. Ord. SCROPHTJLARIACE.E. 

THIS is a distinct and pleasing species, viewed as a garden 
plant. It is very hardy, and one of the herbaceous kinds; it 
has been grown in English gardens nearly 150 years, and came 
originally from the Levant. It is pretty widely used, but it 
deserves a place in every garden ; not only are its tall spikes of 
flowers effective during their season, but the foliage, compared 
with other Yeronicas, is of a bright and plump character. The 
newly-formed tufts, which are somewhat rosette-shaped, have a 
fresh appearance throughout the winter, it being one of the few 
herbaceous subjects in which the signs of life are so visible in 
this climate. 

The flowers are small |in. in diameter numerously produced 
on spikes 18in. high. They are blue, striped with light and 
dark shades ; both calyx and corolla, as common to the genus, 
are four-parted, petals of uneven size. The flower spikes are 
finely developed, the flowers and buds occupying 12in. of their 
length, and tapering off to a point which bends gracefully. The 
buds are not less prettjr than the flowers, resembling as they do 
turquoise in a deep setting of the calyx. The leaves are smooth, 
shining, and of much substance, 3in. to 6in. long, and lin. to 
2in. broad, lance-shaped, serrated, and sheathing. They are of a 
somewhat clustered arrangement close to the ground. Good 
pieces of this plant, 1ft. to 2ft. across, are very effective, and 
flower for a good while. 

The rich and graceful spikes are of great value for vase deco- 
ration, one or two sufficing in connection with other suitable 
flowers. 

There is a lovely variety of this species called V. g. variegata; 
in shape and habit it resembles the type though scarcely as 
vigorous, but not at all " miffy." The leaves are richly coloured 
pale green, white, and pink ; and the flowers, as seldom occurs in 
variegated forms, are larger and more handsome than in the 
parent; in all respects, it is as useful, and, for forming an 
edging, perhaps more suitable than the common form. 

Both kinds like a good fat loam and a moist situation ; they 
may be grown either in borders or on rockwork, but specimens 
on the latter compare poorly with those grown otherwise ; either 
they are too dry, or the soil gets washed from them, so that the 
new roots, which strike down from the surface-creeping stems, do 
not find the needful nourishment. Their increase is easily 
effected by division of the rooted stems any time after they have 
done flowering. If the season is droughty, they should be well 
watered. 

Flowering period, May to July. 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 301 

Veronica Pinguifolia. 

FAT-LEAVED SPEEDWELL; Nat. Ord. SCROPHULARIACEJE. 

THIS is a rather uncommon species, being of the shrubby 
section, but unlike many of its relative kinds, it is perfectly 
hardy, also evergreen and very dwarf; a specimen three or four 
years old is but a diminutive bush, 18in. through and Sin. high. 
The habit is dense, the main or old branches are prostrate, the 
younger wood being erect and full of very short side shoots. 

The flowers are produced on the new wood; the chubby 
flower-spikes issue from the axils of the leaves near the leading 
shoot ; in some cases there are three, in others four, but more 
often two. Each flower spike has a short, stout, round stem, 
nearly an inch long, and the part furnished with buds is nearly 
as long again. At this stage (just before they begin to open) the 
buds are rice-shaped, snow white, waxy, and arranged cone form. 
They are, moreover, charmingly intersected with the pale green 
sepals in their undeveloped stage. The little bunches of buds are 
simply exquisite. The flowers are small, pure white, waxy, and 
twisted in the petals. The two filaments are longer than the 
petals, having rather large anthers, which are bright purple. This 
pleasing feature, together with the young shoots in the midst of 
the blossoms, which have small stout glaucous leaves tipped 
with yellow nearly golden give the clusters a bouquet-like 
appearance. The leaves are small little more than half an inch 
long and ovate, slightly cupped, stem-clasping, and opposite. 
They are a pale glaucous hue, and closely grown on the stems ; 
they greatly add to the rich effect of the flowers. 

This shrub is a most fitting subject for rockwork, and it 
would also make an edging of rare beauty, which, if well grown, 
no one could but admire. It seems to enjoy loam and leaf soil 
in a moist but sunny situation. It may be propagated by 
cuttings, taken with a part of the previous year's wood. 

Flowering period, May to July, 

Veronica Prostrata. 

PROSTRATE SPEEDWELL; Nat. Ord. SCROPHULARIACE^ZE. 

THIS is sometimes confounded with V. repens, I presume from 
the slight distinction in the specific names, but so different are 
the two species that no one who has seen them can possibly take 
one for the other. V. repens is herb-like; it creeps and roots, 
and has nearly white flowers in April ; but V. prostrata is a 
deciduous trailer, and the more common and best form has fine 
gentian-blue flowers; it is a capital rock plant, being most 
effective when hanging over the face of large stones. The 
flowers are small, and produced in rather long sprays, which are 



302 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

numerous, so that little else than flowers can be seen for two or 
three weeks. 

It will grow and flower freely in any soil, but the aspect should 
be sunny ; it is easily increased by division or rootlets. I may 
add that the very long stems of this prostrate plant (when in 
bloom) are well adapted for indoor decoration. Where pendent, 
deep blue flowers are needed, there are very few good blues so 
suitable. 

Flowering period, May to July. 

Vesicaria Graeca. 

Nat. Ord. 



THIS] beautiful, diminutive, hardy evergreen shrub comes to us 
from Switzerland, being an alpine species (see Fig. 109). 

When in flower it does not exceed the height of Gin. or 8in., 




FI<J. 109. VESICARIA GRJECA. . 
(One-third natural size ; 1, full size.) 



at which time it is very showy, covered, as it is, with flowers of 
the brightest golden yellow, surpassing the golden alyssum, 
which in some respects it resembles, being half woody, possessing 
greyish leaves, and dense heads of flowers, which, however, are 
arranged in small corymbs, and being also much larger. The 
leaves of the flower stalks resemble lavender leaves in general 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 303 

appearance; those of the unproductive stems are larger, and 
arranged sparingly in rigid rosette form, such unproductive 
stems being few. 

The neat and erect habit of the plant renders it most suitable 
for rockwork or edgings, and otherwise, from its long con- 
tinued flowering, which will exceed a month in moderate 
weather, it is one of the most useful spring flowers ; whilst, for 
cutting purposes, it cannot but rank with the more choice, as, 
combined with extra bightness of colour, it exhales a rich haw- 
thorn perfume. To all who have a garden, big or little, I would 
say, grow this sweet little shrub. It has never failed to do well 
with me in any situation that was fully exposed; it flowers 
freely in a light dry bed, but on rockwork it is most at home. 
The quickest way to prepare plants of flowering strength is to 
divide strong pieces ; but this interferes with the larger speci- 
mens, which are by far the best forms in which to grow and 
retain it. Another mode is to cut off all the flowers nearly down 
to the old wood ; side shoots will thus be induced to grow earlier 
than otherwise, so that in late summer they may be taken off as 
slips, and there will still be plenty of time to strike them like 
wallflower slips, and get plenty of roots to them before the cold 
weather sets in. The plant also produces seed freely in its 
inflated pods, which affords another, but more tedious, way of 
increasing it. 

Flowering period, April to June. 



Viola Pedata. 

PEDATE-LEAVED or BIRD'S-FOOT YIOLET; 
Nat. Ord. YIOLACE^. 

OVER a hundred years ago this hardy herbaceous violet was 
introduced from North America ; still, it is not largely grown, 
though it is now becoming quite a favourite. As may be seen 
by the illustration (Fig. 110), it is distinct in general appear- 
ance, more especially in the foliage, which in its young state is 
bird - foot - shaped, whence the appropriateness of its specific 
name ; it should perhaps be explained that the leaves are very 
small compared with the flowers when the plant first begins 
to bloom, but later they increase very much in size. There are 
several characteristics about this species which render it desir- 
able, and no choice collection should be without either this (the 
typical form) or some of its varieties. Deep cut, shining, dark 
green foliage, very bright blue flowers, and pleasing habit are 
its most prominent features ; its blooming period is prolonged, 
and it has a robust constitution, which further commends it to 
lovers of choice flowers, and if once planted in proper quarters it 
gives no further trouble in the way of treatment. 



304 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

The flowers are nearly an inch across, bright purple-blue, 
produced on stalks of varying lengths, but mostly long; the 
leaves are many parted, segments long, narrow and lance-shaped, 
some being cut or toothed near the tips ; the crown of the root 
is rather bulky ; the roots are long and fleshy. 

The following are varieties; all are handsome and worth 
growing : V. p. alba, new ; flowers white, not so robust as the 
type. F. p. Mcolor, new ; flowers two colours. F. p. flabellata 
(syn. F. digitata) ; flowers light purple. F. p. ranunculifolia 
(syn. F. ranunculifolid) ; flowers nearly white. 

As this plant requires a moist and partially shaded situation, 
it is not eligible for doing duty indiscriminately in any part of 




FIG. 110. VIOLA PEDATA. 
(Two-thirds natural size.) 

the garden ; still, it will thrive under any conditions such as the 
well-known violets are seen to encounter. On the north or west 
side of rockwork, in dips or moist parts, it will be found to do 
well and prove attractive. 

The propagation of all the kinds may be carried out by 
allowing the seed to scatter itself, and, before the winter sets 
in, a light top-dressing of half rotted leaves and sand will not 
only be a natural way of protecting it until germination takes 
place, but will also be of much benefit to the parent plants. 
Another mode of increase is to divide the roots of strong and 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 



305 



"healthy specimens ; in this way only can true kinds be obtained ; 
seedlings are almost certain to be crossed. 
Flowering period, May and June. 



Viola Tricolor. 

THREE-COLOURED YIOLET, PANSY, or HEARTSEASE ; 

Nat. Ord. YIOLACE^B. 

THIS well known herbaceous perennial is a British species. It 
has long been grown in gardens, where, by selection and 
crossing, innumerable and beautiful kinds have been produced, 
so that at the present time it is not only a " florist's flower," 
but a general favourite. Besides the above-mentioned common 
names, it has many others, and it may not be uninteresting to 
repeat them" Love in Idleness," " Call me to you," " Kiss me 




FIG. 111. VIOLA TEICOLOR. 
(One-third natural eize.) 



ere I rise," " Herb Trinity," and " Three Faces under one Hood." 
Although this plant is herbaceous, the old stems remain green 
until the new growths come into flower, and, in many varieties, 
by a little management in plucking out the buds during summer, 
flowers may be had in the autumn and well into winter. If, also, 
from other plants early cuttings have been taken, and become 
well rooted, they will produce large flowers very early in spring 

x 



306 HAEDY PERENNIALS AND 

and so the Pansy may be had in flower nearly the year round. 
Any description of this well-known plant would be superfluous to 
an English reader. 

The wild F. tricolor is, however, a very different plant and 
flower to its numerous offspring, such as the illustration 
(Fig. Ill) depicts, and in which there is ever a tendency to " go 
back." It is only by constant care and high cultivation that the 
Pansy is kept at such a high standard of excellence, and one 
may add that such labour is well repaid by the results. "With 
no flower more than the Pansy does all depend on the propa- 
gation and culture s Not the least reliance can be placed on 
seeds for producing flowers like those of the parent. Cuttings 
or root divisions should be made in summer, so as to have them 
strong, to withstand the winter. They enjoy a stimsh loam, 
well enriched. And in spring they may be lifted with a ball and 
transplanted into beds, borders, lines, or irregular masses, where 
they are equally effective, and no flower is more reliable for a 
profusion of bloom. 



Yucca Filamentpsa. 

THREADY-LEAVED YUCCA ; Nat. Ord. 

THIS is of a more deciduous nature than T. gloriosa, reclothing 
itself each spring more amply with foliage. In December, 
however, it is in fine form, and though it is a better flowering 
species than most of its genus, and to a fair extent valuable 
for its flowers, it will be more esteemed, perhaps, as a shrub 
of ornamental foliage. It came from Virginia in the year 1675. 

The flowers are pretty, greenish-white, bell-shaped, and 
drooping : they are arranged in panicles, which, when sent up 
from strong plants, are, from their size, very attractive ; but 
otherwise they are hardly up to the mark as flowers. The leaves 
in form are lance-shaped, concave, reflexed near the ends, and 
sharp -pointed. The colour is a yellowish-green, the edges are 
brown, and their substance is split up into curled filaments, which 
are sometimes 9in. or more long, and are blown about by every 
breeze. Prom these thready parts the species takes its name. 
It is seldom that this kind grows more than 4ft. high, but a 
greater number of offsets are produced from this than from 
any other of our cultivated Yuccas. 

I know no better use for this kind than planting it on the 
knolly parts of rockwork, positions which in every way suit it, 
for it enjoys a warm, dry soil. 

Y. f. variegata, as its name implies, is a form with coloured 
foliage. In the north it proves to be far from hardy, and there- 
fore cannot be recommended for culture in the open garden. My 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 307 

reasons for mentioning it are that it is convenient to do so 
when the typical form is under notice, and that it is fre- 
quently spoken of as hardy. Subjects needing well selected 
positions, protection, and a mild winter in order to keep them 
alive from autumn to spring, can in no sense be considered 
hardy, even though they may be planted out of doors. 
Flowering period, August to October. 



Yucca Gloriosa. 

GLORIOUS YUCCA, ADAM'S NEEDLE; Nat. Ord. LILIACEJE. 
A HARDY evergreen shrub which has long been grown in 
England, but for all that is not often met with in private 
gardens. It is a native of South America, and was brought to 
our shores in 1596. The genus is remarkable for not flowering 
constantly in our climate, and also for slow growth; fortunately, 
both these drawbacks, if one may term them such, are counter- 
balanced by the handsome foliage of the various species, mostly 
of an evergreen and very durable nature, and also by the bold 
and symmetrical arrangement of the same. This Yucca flowers 
in the autumn, but it may be considered more especially a 
foliage subject, as the bloom is insignificant compared with 
the leaves and is not produced more than once in four years 
as a rule. The leaves assume their richest hues and become 
thoroughly matured about the end of the year; and when the 
ground is covered with a thick coat of snow, their rigid forms 
are amongst the very few of any note that can be seen. In any 
garden, no matter how large or how small, a Yucca imparts a 
style or character to it which scarcely any other subject can 
give. It may not be so easy to explain this, but the fact is 
recognised by the most casual observer at first sight. If I say 
the effect is tropical, noble, rich, and sometimes graceful, a 
partial idea of its ornamental qualities may be conveyed; but 
to know its value and enjoy it, it should be grown. The species 
under consideration has many forms, some differing rather widely 
from the type, so much so that these varieties are honoured with 
specific names. First may be given a brief description of the 
parent form. 

It grows from 3ft. to 6ft. high, according to the more or less 
favourable conditions. These dimensions apply to blooming 
specimens ; but shrubs, three to six years old, if they have never 
bloomed, may not exceed 1ft. to 2ft. in height, and about the 
same in diameter. The flowers, as may be gathered from the 
order to which the genus belongs, are lily-like, or bell-shaped; 
they are of a greenish white colour, arranged in lax clusters on 
stoutish stalks. The leaves are 12in. to 2ft. long, Sin. or more 

x 2 



308 HARDY PERENNIALS AND 

broad in their widest parts, concave or boat- shaped, sharp pointed r 
glaucous, sometimes slightly plicate, rigid, and leathery. 

The habit, after flowering, is generally to form offsets, when 
the plant loses much of its former boldness and effect. From 
the lateness of its blooming period, and a lack of suitable con- 
ditions, it does not ripen seed in our climate, and it must of 
necessity be raised from seed ripened in more favourable climes. 

The following are said to be some of its varieties, bearing 
useful descriptive names : Y. g. pendula, having a pendulous 
habit or reflexed leaves ; Y. g. plicata, having plaited leaves ; 
Y. g. minor, a lesser form in its various parts. There are other 
reputed varieties of more doubtful descent. 

For cultivation see Y. recurva. 



Yucca Recurva. 

RECTTRVE-LEAVED YUCCA ; Common Name, WEEPING YUCCA ; 
Nat. Ord. LILIACE^E. 

THIS is a charming species, perfectly hardy and evergreen ; it 
was brought from Georgia about ninety years ago. 

The flowers are a greenish-white, and undesirable where the 
shrub is grown for the sake of its ornamental qualities ; fortu- 
nately they are far from being constant in their appearance. 
September is its blooming period in our climate. The leaves are 
its main feature; with age it becomes rather tall, 6ft. to 9ft. high, 
having a woody bole or caudex, which is largely concealed by the 
handsome drooping foliage ; a few of the youngest leaves from 
the middle of the tuft remain erect. The whole specimen is 
characterised by its deep green and glossy foliage, combined 
with a most graceful habit. Few things can be planted with 
such desirable effect as this shrub; it puts a stamp on the 
landscape, parterre and shrubland, and when well grown forms a 
landmark in the most extensive garden. 

For all the species and varieties of Yucca the mode of culture 
is not only similar but simple. They have long roots of a wiry 
texture. These denote that they require deep soil, light, and 
rather dry. Sandy loam, light vegetable soil, or marl and peat 
grow them well. Raised beds or borders, the higher parts of 
rockwork, or any open position, thoroughly drained, will not 
only be conducive to their health, but also prove fitting points of 
vantage. In planting Yuccas it must never be forgotten that 
perfect drainage is the all important requisite, and if it is not 
afforded the stock will never thrive, but ultimately die from rot 
or canker. Another matter, when referred to, will perhaps 
complete all that is special about the culture, or rather planting, 
of Yuccas. Begin with young stuff; I know nothing that 



OLD-FASHIONED GARDEN FLOWERS. 309 

transplants worse than this class of shrubs after they have 
become considerably grown. Their spare, wiry roots, when taken 




FIG. 112. YUCCA RECUEYA (one-eighteenth natural size) . 



out of a sandy soil, do not carry a "ball," and from the great 
depth, to which they run they are seldom taken up without 



310 HARDY PERENNIALS. 

more than ordinary damage. Young specimens, 6in., 9in., or not 
more than 12in. high, should be preferred, and of these sizes the 
least will prove the safest. Yuccas are readily propagated at 
the proper season ; and in specifying the season it is needful to 
point out that of offsets, from which young stock is soonest 
obtained, there are two kinds. Some spring from immediately 
below the earth, and may more properly be termed suckers ; the 
others grow on the visible part of the stem or caudex, often close 
to the oldest leaves ; these should be cut off with a sharp knife, 
in early summer, and if they have a little of the parent bark 
attached to them all the better. If they are planted in a shady 
place, in sweet sandy loam, they will make good roots before 
winter, and may be allowed to make the following summer's 
growth in the same position. In the succeeding autumn it will 
be a good plan to put them in their permanent places. The 
suckers will be found to have more or less root ; they should 
be taken in spring from the parent specimen, the roots should be 
carefully preserved, and the pushing parts planted just level 
with the surface. 



FLOWERING PERIODS. 



As an aid to readers desirous of making a selection of plants 
which will secure a succession of bloom the year through, we 
here give a list of those described in the preceding pages, 
arranged according to their average periods of flowering. 

January. 

Anemone fulgens, Aralia Sieboldi, Bulbocodium yernum, Chei- 
ranthus Cheiri, Crocus medius, Eranthis hyemalis, Helleborus 
abchasicus, H. antiquorum, H. Bocconi, H. colchicus, H. cu- 
preus, H. foetidus, H. guttabus, H. niger, H. orientals, H. 
olympicus, Jasminum nudiflorum, Petasites vulgaris, Saxifraga 
Burseriana. 

February. 

Anemone blanda, A. fulgens, A. stellata, Arabis lucida, A. 
Sieboldi, Bellis perennis, Bulbocodium trigynum, B. vernum, 
Cheiranthus Cheiri, Corydalis solida, Daphne Mezereum, Eran- 
this hyemalis, Erica carnea, Galanthus Elwesii, G. Imperati, 
G. nivalis, G. plicatus, Helleborus abchasicus, H. antiquorum, H. 
Bocconi, H. colchicus, H. cupreus, H. dumetorum, H. fcetidus, 
H. guttabus, H. niger, H. odorus, H. orientalis, H. olympicus, H. 
purpurascens, Hepatica angulosa, H. triloba, Jasminum nudi- 
florum, Petasites vulgaris, Polyanthus, Primula acaulis, Saxi- 
f raga Burseriana. 

March. 

Anemone blanda, A. fulgens, A. Pulsatilla, A. stellata, Arabis 
lucida, Aralia Sieboldi, Bellis perennis, Bulbocodium trigynum, 
B. vernum, Cheiranthus Cheiri, Chionodoxa Lucilise, Corydalis 
solida, Daphne Mezereum, Dentaria digitata, Doronicum cau- 
casicum, Epigsea repens, Erica carnea, Erythronium dens-canis, 
Galanthus Elwesii, G. Imperati, G. nivalis, G. plicatus, G. 
Redoutei, Helleborus abchasicus, H. anfciquorum, H. Bocconi, 
H. colchicus, H. cupreus, H. dumetorum, H. foetidus, H. guttabus, 
H. niger, H. odorus, H. orientalis, H. olympicus, H. purpu- 
rascens, Hepatica angulosa, H. triloba, Jasminum nudiflorum, 
Leucojum vernum, Muscari botryoides, M. racemosum, Narcissus 
minor, Omphalodes verna, Orobus vernus, Phlox frondosa, Poly- 
anthus, Primula acaulis, P. Cashmeriana, P. denticulata, P. 



312 HARDY PERENNIALS. 

marginata, P. purpurea, P. Scotica, Pulmonarias, Puschkinia 
scilloides, Saxifraga Burseriana, S. ciliata, S. cordifolia, S. corio- 
phylla, S. ligulata, S. oppositifolia, S. Rocheliana, Sisyrinchium 
grandiflorum, Soldanellas, Triteleia uniflora. 

April. 

Alyssum saxatile, Andromeda tetragona, Anemone Apennina, 
A. fulgens, A. Pulsatilla, A. stellata, Arabis lucida, Bellis 
perennis, Calthus palustris flore-pleno, Cheiranthus Cheiri, 
Chionodoxa Lucilise, Corydalis nobilis, C. solida, Daphne 
cneorum, D. Mezereum, Dentaria digitata, D. Jeffreyanum, D. 
Meadia, Dondia Epipactis, Doronicum caucasicum, Epigsea 
repens, Erica carnea, Erysimum ptlmilum, Erythronium dens- 
canis, Fritillaria armena, Galantnus nivalis, G. plicatus, G. 
E-edoutei, Gentiana verna, Helleborus antiqnorum, H. colchicus, 
H. orientalis, H. purpurascens, Hepatica angulosa, H. triloba, 
Houstonia ccerulea, Jasminum midiflomm, Leucojum vernum, 
Muscari botryoides, M. racemosum, Narcissus minor, Ompba- 
lodes verna, Orobus vernus, Phlox frondosa, Polyanthus, Primula 
acaulis, P. capitata, P. Cashmeriana, P. denticulata, P. farinosa, 
P. marginata, P. purpurea, P. Scotica, P. vulgaris flore-pleno, 
Pulmonarias, Puschkinia scilloides, Ranunculus acris flore- 
pleno, R. amplexicaulis, R. speciosum, Sanguinaria canadensis, 
Saxifraga Burseriana, S. ciliata, S. cordifolia, S. ligulata, S. op- 
positifolia, S. purpurascens, S. Rpcheliana, S. Wallacei, Scilla 
campanulata, Sisyrinchium grandiflorum, Soldanellas, Symphy- 
tum caucasicum, Tritelia uniflora, Yesicaria grseca. 

May. 

Alyssum saxatile, Anchusa Italica, A. sempervirens, An- 
dromeda tetragona, Anemone Apennina, A. coronaria, A. de- 
capitate, A. fulgens, A. nemorosa flore-pleno, A. Pulsatilla, A. 
stellata, A. sulphurea, A. sylvestris, A. vernalis, Arabis lucida, 
Bellis perennis, Calthus palustris flore-pleno, Cheiranthus Cheiri, 
C. Marshallii, Corydalis lutea, C. nobilis, C. solida, Cypripedium 
calceolus, Daphne cneorum, Dentaria digitata, Dianthus hy- 
bridus, Dodecatheon Jenreyanum, D. Meadia, Dondia Epipactis, 
Doronicum caucasicum, Erysimum pumilum, Fritillaria armena, 
Gentiana acaulis, G. verna, Geranium argenteum, Heuchera, 
H. Americana, H. cylindrica, H. Drummondi, H. glabra, H. 
lucida, H. metallica, H. micrantha, H. purpurea, H. ribifolia, 
H. Richardspni, Houstonia cosrulea, Iberis correaef olia, Leucojum 
sestivum, Lithospermum prostratum, Muscari botryoides, M. 
racemosum, Omphalodes verna, Orchis fusca, Orobus vernus, 
Ourisia coccinea, Papaver orientale, Phlox frondosa, Podo- 



FLOWERING TERIODS. 313 

phyllum peltatum, Polyanthus, Primula acaulis, P. capitata, 
P. Cashmeriana, P. denticulata, P. farinosa, P. marginata, 
P. Scotica, P. vulgaris flore-pleno, Pulmonarias, Puschkinia 
scilloides, E/amondia pyrenaica, Ranunculus aconitifolius, B. 
acris flore-pleno, B. amplexicaulis, B. speciosum, Sanguinaria 
canadensis, Saponaria ocymoides, Saxifraga caesia, S. ciliata, 
S. cordifolia, S. ligulata, S. paradoxa, S. pectinata, S. purpu- 
rascens, S. tuberosa, S. Wallace!, Scilla campanulata, Sisyrinchium 
grandiflorum, Soldanellas, Spiraea ulmaria yariegata, Symphytum 
caucascium, Tiarella cordifolia, Trientalis europaea, Trillium 
erectum, Triteleia uniflora, Yaccinium Yitis Idaea, Yeronica gen- 
tianoides, Y. pinguifolia, Y. prostrata, Yesicaria graeca. 



June. 

Acaena Novae Zealandiae, Achillea aegyptiaca, A. filipendula, 
A. millefpiium, A. Ptarmica, Allium Moly, A. neapolitanum, 
Anchusa italica, A. sempervirens, Anemone alpina, A. coronaria, 
A. decapitata, A. fulgens, A. stellata, A. sulphurea, A. sylvestris, 
A. vernalis, Anthericum Liliago, A. Liliastrum, Anthyllis montana, 
Arabis lucida, Arisaema triphyllum, Arum crinitum, Aster al- 
pinus, Bellis perennis, Calthus palustris flore-pleno, Campanula 
grandis, C. latifolia, C. specipsa, Centaurea montana, Centran- 
thus ruber, Cheiranthus Cheiri, C. Marshallii, Cornus canadensis, 
Corydalis lutea, C. nobilis, Cypripedium calceolus, Dianthus 
deltoides, D. hybridus, Dodecatheon Jeffreyanum, D. Meadia, 
Doronicum caucasicum, Erigeron caucasicus, E. glaucum, 
Erysimum pumilum, Festuca glauca, Funkia albo-marginata, 
Gentiana acaulis, G. Burseri, G. cruciata, G. gelida, G. verna, 
Geranium argenteum, Gillenia trifoliata, Hesperis matronalis 
flore-pleno, Heuchera, H. Americana, H. cylindrica, H. Drum- 
mondi, H. glabra, H. lucida, H. metallica, H. micrantha, H. 
purpurea, H. ribifolia, H. Bichardsoni, Houstonia ccerulea, Iberis 
correaefolia, Iris fostidissima, Kalmia latifolia, Lathyrus grandi- 
florus, L. latifolius, Leucojum aestivum, Litnospermum prostratum, 
Lychnis chalcedonica, L. Yiscaria flore-pleno, Margyricarpus 
setpsus, Mazus pumilio, Melittis melisspphyllum, Morina longi- 
folia, (Enothera speciosa, (E. taraxacifolia, Ononis rotundifolia, 
Onosma taurica, Orchis foliosa, O. fusca, Ourisia coccinea, Papaver 
orientale, Pentstemons, Physalis Alkekengi, Podophyllum pel- 
tatum, Polyanthus, Pratia repens, Primula acaulis, P. capitata, 
P. farinosa, P. sikkimensis, P. vulgaris flore-pleno, Bamondia 
pyrenaica, Banunculus aconitifolius flore-pleno, B. acris flore- 
pleno, B. speciosum, Saponaria ocymoides, Saxifraga caesia, S. 
longifolia, S. Macnabiana, S. mutata, S. paradoxa, S. pectinata, 
S. peltata, S. purpurascens, S. pyramidalis, S. umbrosa, S. 
Wallacei, Scilla campanulata, Sempervivum Laggeri, Spiraea 



314 HARDY PERENNIALS. 

ulmaria variegata, S. venusta, Stenactis speciosus, Symphytum 
caucasicum, Tiarella cordifolia, Trientalis europaea, Trillium 
erectum, Yaccinium Yitis-Idaea, Yeronica gentianoides, Y. pin- 
guifolia, Y. prostrata, Yesicaria graeca. 

July. 

Acsena Novae Zealandiae, Achillea aegyptiaca, A. filipendula, 
A. millefolium, A. Ptarmica, Allium Moly, A. neapolitanum, 
Ancliusa Italica, A. sempervirens, Anthericum Liliago, A. 
liliastrum, Anthyllis montana, Arisaema triphyllum, Arum 
crinitum, Aster alpinus, Bellis perennis, Calystegia pubescens 
flore-pleno, Campanula grandis, 0. latifolia, C. persicifolia, 0. 
pyramidalis, C. speciosa, C. Waldsteiniana, Centaurea montana, 
Centrantlms ruber, Coreopsis lanceolata, Cornus canadensis, 
Corydalis lutea, Diantnus deltoides, D. hybridus, Doronicum 
caucasicum, Edraianthus dalmaticus, Erigeron caucasicus, 
E. glaucum, Erysimum pumilum, Festuca glauca, Funkia 
albo-marginata, F. Sieboldi, Galax aphylla, Galega officinalis, 
G. persica lilacina, Gentiana acaulis, G. asclepiadea, G. Burseri, 
G. cruciata, G. gelida, Geranium argenteum, Gillenia trifoliata, 
Hesperis matronalis flore-pleno, Heuchera, H. americana, H. 
cylindrica, H. Drummondi, H. glabra, H. lucida, H. metallica, H. 
micrantha, H. purpurea, H. ribifolia, H. Richardsoni, Houstonia 
ccerulea, Hydi'angea paniculata grandiflora, Hypericum calyci- 
mum, Iris foetidissima, Isopyrum gracilis, Kalmia latifolia, 
Lathyrus grandiflorus, L. latifolius, Leucojum aastivum, Litho- 
spermum prostratum, Lychnis chalcedonica, L. Yiscaria flore- 
pleno, LysimacMa clethroides, Margyricarpus setosus, Mazus 
pumiHo, Melittis melissophyllum, Monarda didyma, M. fistulosa, 
M. Russelliana, Morina longifolia, Muhlenbeckia complexa, 
Nierembergia rivularis, CEnothera speciosa, (E. taraxacifolia, 
Ononis rotundifolia, Onosma tauiica, Orcnis foliosa, Ourisia 
coccinea, Pentstemons, Physalis Alkekengi, Polygonum cuspi- 
datum, Potentilla fructicosa, Pratia repens, Primula sikkimensis, 
E-amondia pyrenaica, Ranunculus aconitifolius flore-pleno, Rud- 
beckia californica, Saponaria ocymoides, Saxifraga longifolia, 
S. Macnabiana, S. mutata, S. pyramidalis, S. umbrosa, S. Wallacei, 
Sempervivum Laggeri, Spiraea palmata, S. ulmaria variegata, 
S. venusta, Stenactis speciosus, Umbillicus chrysanthus, Yac- 
cinium Yitis-Idsea, Yeronica gentianoides, Y. pinguifolia, Y. 
prostrata. 

August. 

Acaena Novae Zealandiaa, AcHllea aegyptiaca, A. filipendula, 
A. millefolium, A. Ptarmica, Aconitum autumnale, Allium Moly, 
A. neapolitanum, Ancliusa italica, A. sempervirens, Anemone 
japonica, Apios tuberosa, Asters, A. ptarmicoides, Bocconia 



FLOWERING PERIODS. 315 

cordata, Calystegia pubescens flore-pleno, Campanula persicifolia, 
C. pyramidalis, C. Waldsteiniana, Centaurea montana, Cen- 
trantlius ruber, Chrysanthemum, Cichorium Intybus, Clethra 
alnifolia, Coreopsis auriculata, C. grandiflora, C. lanceolata, C. 
tenuifolia, Cornus canadensis, Corydalis lutea, Dianthus del- 
toides D. hybridus, Edraiantlms dalmaticus, Erigeron caucasicus, 
E. glaucum, Eryngium giganteum, Erysimum pumilum, Festuca 
glauca, Funkiaalbp-marginata,F. Sieboldi, Galax aphylla, Galega 
officinalis, G. persica liliacina, Gentiana asclepiadea, G. Burseri, 
G. gelida, Gillenia trifoliata, Gynerium argenteum, Harpalium 
rigidum, Helianthus multifloms, Hesperis matronalis flore-pleno, 
Heuchera, H. americana, H. cylindrica, H. Drummondi, H. glabra, 
H. lucida, H. metallica, H. micrantha, H. purpurea, H. ribifolia, 
H. Bichardsoni, Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, Hypericum 
calycinum, Iris fpetidissima, Isopyrum gracilis, Kalmia latifolia, 
Lathyrus grandiflorus, L. latifolius, Linum flavum, Lobelia 
cardinalis, Lychnis chalcedonica, L. Yiscaria flore-pleno, Ly- 
simachia clethroides, Margyricarpus setosus, Mazus pumilio, 
Melittis melissophyllum, Monarda didyma, M. fistulosa, M. 
Busselliana, Miihlenbeckia complexa, Nierembergia rivularis, 
(Enothera sneciosa, (E. taraxacifolia, Ononis rotundifolia, 
Onosma taurica, Ourisia coccinea, Pentstemons, Phlox, Physalis 
Alkekengi, Polygonum Brunonis, P. cuspidatum, P. filiformis 
variegatum, P. vaccinifolium, Potentilla fmticosa, Pratia 
repens, Pyrethum uliginosum, Budbectia calif ornica, Saponaria 
ocymoides, Saxifraga mntata, S. "Wallacei, Sedum Sieboldi, 
S. spectabile, Sempervivum Laggeri, Senecio pulcher, Spiraea 
palmata, S. ulmaria variegata, S. venusta, Statice latifolia, S. 
profnsa, Stenactis speciosus, Tropseolum tnberosum, Umbilicus 
chrysanthus, Yaccinium Vitis-Idsea. 



September. 

Acsena Novae Zealandiae, Achillea aegyptiaca, A. filipendula, 
A. millefolium, Aconitum autumnale, Anchusa italica, A. semper- 
virens, Anemone japonica, Apios tuberosa, Asters, A. ptar- 
micoides, Bocconia cordata, Calystegia pubescens flore-pleno, 
Campanula persicifolia, C. pyramidalis, Centaurea montana, 
Centranthus ruber, Chrysanthemum, Cichorium Intybus, Clethra 
alnifolia, Colchicum autumnale, C. variegatum, Coreopsis 
auriculata, C. grandiflora, C. lanceolata, C. tenuifolia, Cornus 
canadensis, Corydalis lutea, Cyananthus lobatus, Daphne 
cneorum, Dianthus deltoides, Dianthus hybridus, Echinacea 
purpurea, Erigeron caucasicus, E. glaucum, Eryngium gigan- 
teum, Erysimum pumilum, Festuca glauca, Funkia Sieboldii, 
Galega officinalis, G. persica liliacina, Gynerium argenteum, 
Harpalium rigidum, Helianthus multiflorus, H. orygalis, Hy- 



316 HARDY PERENNIALS. 

drangea paniculata grandiflora, Hypericum calycinum, Lactuca 
sonchifolia, Lilium auratum, Linum flavum, Lobelia cardinalis, 
Lysimachia clethroides, Margyricarpus setosus, Mazus pumilio, 
Monarda didyma, M. fistulosa, M. Russelliana, Ononis rotundi- 
folia, Onosma taurica, Origanum pulchellum, Ourisia coccinea, 
Phlox, Physalis Alkekengi, Polygonum Brunoni, P. filiformis 
variegatum, P. vaccinif olium, Potentilla f rusticpsa, Pratia repens, 
Pyrethrum uliginosum, Rudbeckia californica, B. serotina, 
Salix reticulata, Sedum Sieboldi, S. spectabile, Senecio pulcher, 
Statice latifolia, S. profusa, Stenactis speciosus, Tritpma uvaria, 
Tropseolum tuberosum, Umbilicus chrysanthus, Yaccinium Vitis- 
Idaea. 

October. 

Achillea millefolium, Aconitum autumnale, Anemone japonica, 
Apios tuberosa, Asters, A. ptarmicoides, Campanula pyramidalis, 
Chrysanthemum, Colchicum autumnale, C. variegatum, Core- 
opsis lanceolata, Cornus canadensis, Corydalis lutea, Cyananthus 
lobatus, Dianthus deltoides, Echinacea purpurea, Erigeron cau- 
casicus, E. glaucum, Erysimum pumilum, Gynerium argenteum, 
Helianthus orygalis, Lactuca sonchifolia, Lilium auratum, 
Lobelia cardinalis, Onosma taurica, Origanum pulchellum, 
Phlox, Physalis Alkekengi, Polygonum Brunonis, P. filiformis 
variegatum, P. vaccinifolium, Potentilla fruticosa, Pratia 
repens, Primula vulgaris flore-pleno, Budbeckia serotina, Salix 
reticulata, Saxifraga Fortunei, Sedum spectabile, Senecio puL 
cher, Statice latifolia, S. profusa, Stokesia cyanea, Tritoma 
uvaria, Tropseolum tuberosum, Umbilicus chrysanthus, Vacci- 
nium Yitis-Idsea. 

November. 

Achillea millefolium, Anemone japonica, Aralia Sieboldi, 
Asters, Chrysanthemum, Lilium auratum, Origanum pulchellum, 
Petasites vulgaris, Physalis Alkekengi, Primula vulgaris flore- 
pleno, Saxifraga Fortunei, Stokesia cyanea. 

December. 

Aralia Sieboldi, Eranthis hyemalis, Helleborus foatidus, H. 
niger, H. orientalis, H. olympicus, Jasminum nudiflorum, Pe- 
tasites vulgaris, Physalis Alkekengi, Stokesia cyanea. 



COLOURS OF FLOWERS. 



The following list will be found useful to those who wish to 
select flowers of any particular colour: 



Blue (including some of the shades 
inclining to Purple). 

Aconitum autumnale, 5. 

Anemone Apennina, 12 ; A. 
blanda, 12 ; A.coronaria, 13 ; 
A. japonica vitifolia, 16. 

Anchusa italica, 8 ; A. semper- 
virens, 9. 

Campanula grandis, 49 ; C. lati- 
folia, 50 ; C. persicifolia, 
50; C. pyramidalis, 51. 

Centaurea montana, 54. 

Chionodoxa Lucilise, 58. 

Cichorium Intybus, 61. 

Cyananthus lobatus, 74. 

Eryngium giganteum, 96. 

Galega officinalis, 110. 

Gentiana acaulis, 111 ; G. cru- 
ciata, 114 ; G. verna, 115. 

Hepatica triloba, 140. 

Housfconia coerulea, 146. 

Lactuoa sonchifolia, 158. 

Lithospermum prostratum, 165. 

Muscari botryoides, 179; M. 
racemosum, 180, 

Omphalodes verna, 185. 

Orobus vernus, 192. 

Primula, 212 ; P. capitata, 213. 

Pulmonarias, 224; P. azurea, 225. 

Scilla campanulata, 267 

Soldanella alpina, 276 ; S. mon- 
tana, 276. 

Stokesia cyanea, 284. 

Symphytum caucasicum, 286. 

Veronica gentianoides, 300 ; V. 
prostrata, 301. 



BLUE (continued). 

Viola pedata,303; V.tricolor,305. 

Brown. 

Cheiranthus Cheiri, 56. 
Corydalis nobilis, 71. 
Chrysanthemum, 59. 
Gillenia trifoliata, 117. 
Orchis fusca, 189. 
Trillium erectum, 291. 

Green. 

Helleborus abchasicus, 126; H. 
Bocconi, 128 ; H. dume- 
torum, 131 ; H. foatidus, 
131 ; H. odorus, 136 ; H. 
orientalis elegans, 138. 

Heuchera Bichardsoni, 146. 

Margyricarpua setosus, 171. 

Lilac. 

Asters or Michaelmas daisies, 37. 
Bulbocodium trigynum, 45 ; B. 

vernum, 46. 

Campanula Waldsteiniana, 53. 
Crocus medius, 74. 
Erigeron glaucum, 94. 
Erythronium dens canis, 98. 
Funkia albo-marginata, 102; F. 

Sieboldii, 103. 

Galega persica liliaoina, 110. 
Phlox, 202. 
Statice latifolia, 280 ; S. profusa, 

281. 

Triteleia uniflora liliacina, 293. 
Helleborus cupreus, 130. 



318 



HARDY PERENNIALS. 



Fink (including shades of Blush 

and Eose). 

Achillea millefolium, 4. 
Anemone japonica, 16. 
Calystegia pubescens flore- 

pleno, 48. 

Centaurea montana, 54. 
Centranthus ruber coccinea, 56. 
Chrysanthemum, 69. 
Daphne cneorum, 78. 
Dianthus deltoides, 81, 152 ; D. 

hybridus, 82. 

Geranium argentenm, 116. 
Helleborous orientalis, 137. 
Hepatica triloba, 140. 
Heuchera glabra, 144. 
Lathy rus grandiflorus, 159; L. 

latifolius, 160. 

Lychnis Viscaria flore-pleno, 170. 
Melittis Melissophyllum, 174. 
Morina longifolia, 176. 
Origanum pulchellum, 191. 
Phlox, 202 
Polygonnm Brunonis, 207 ; P. 

vaccinifolium, 209. 
Primula denticulata amabilia, 

217. 
Pulmonarias, 224; P. saccha- 

rata, 225. 

Saponaria ocymoides, 237. 
Saxifraga cordifolia, 245; S. 

ligulata, 249; S. peltata, 

259 ; S. purpurascens, 261. 
Scilla campanulata carnea, 268. 
Sedum Sieboldi, 269 ; S. specta- 

bile, 269. 

Sempervivum Laggeri, 270. 
Spring Beauty, 152. 

Purple (including shades Lilac 
Purple, Eosy and Eeddish 
Purple, Purple Blue, &c). 

Anemone coronaria, 13 ; A. pul- 
satilla, 18 ; A. stellata, 20 ; 
A. vernalis, 24. 

Anthyllis montana, 27. 

Apios tuberosa, 27. 

Arum crinitum, 35. 

Aster alpinus, 37 ; A. Amellus, 
37 ; A. Madame Soyance, 37. 

Bulbocodium vernum, 46. 



PURPLE (continued). 

Campanula speciosa, 53. 

Colchicum autumnale, 63 ; C. 
variegatum, 64. 

Corydalis solida, 73. 

Crocus medius, 74. 

Chrysanthemum, 59. 

Cyananthus lobatus, 74. 

Daphne Mezereum, 79. 

Dentaria digitata, 81. 

Dodecatheon Meadia, 84 ; D. 
Meadia eleganp, 85. 

Echinacea purpurea, 87. 

Edraianthus dalmaticus, 88. 

Erica carnea, 92. 

Erigeron caucasicus, 93. 

Erythronium dens-canis, 98. 

Gentiana gelida, 114. 

Helleborus abchasicus, 126 ; H. 
A. purpureus, 126 ; H. 
colchicus, 129 ; H. olympi- 
cus, 136 ; H. purpurascens, 
139. 

Hepatica triloba, 140. 

Hesperis matronalis flore-pleno, 
141. 

Heuchera americana, 143. 

Melittis Melissophyllum, 174. 

Monarda fistulosa, 176. 

Orchis foliosa, 189 ; O. fusca, 
189. 

Primula cashmeriana, 214; P. 
denticulata, 216; P. fari- 
nosa, 217; P. purpurea, 219 ; 
P. Scotica, 220. 

Prunella pyrenaica, 152. 

Saxifraga oppositifolia, 255 ; S. 
purpurascens, 261. 

Sisyrinchium grandiflorum, 274. 

Soldanella Clusii, 276 ; S. mini- 
ma, 276. 

Stenactis speciosus, 283. 

Viola pedata digitata, 304 ; V. p. 
flabellata, 304; V. tri- 
color, 305. 

Red (including Euby and shades 

of Crimson). 

Bellis perennis fistulosa, 40. 
Centranthus ruber, 55. 
Daisy, Sweep, 40. 



COLOURS OF FLOWERS. 



319 



BED (continued). 

Daphne Mezereum autumnale,80. 
Hepatica triloba splendens, 141. 
Hesperis matronalis flore-pleno, 

141. 

Lobelia cardinalis, 166. 
Lychnis Viscaria flore-pleno, 170. 
Primula acaulis, 211. 
Saxifraga mutata, 254. 
Senecio pulcher, 272. 
Spiraea palmata, 278 ; S. ve- 

nusta, 280. 
Tropaeolum tuberosum, 295. 

Scarlet. 

Anemone coronaria, 13 ; A. ful- 

gens, 15. 

Dianthus hybridus, 82. 
Lychnis chalcedonica, 168. 
Monarda didyma, 175. 
Ononis rotundifolia, 185. 
Ourisia cocoinea, 193. 
Papaver orientale, 195. 

Striped. 

Anemone coronaria, 13 ; A. stel- 

lata, 20. 

Arisaema triphyllum, 33. 
Gentiana asclepiadea, 112. 

Violet (including shades of Mauve). 
Colchicum autumnale, 63. 
Chrysanthemum, 59. 
Hepatica angulosa, 139. 
Mazus pumilis, 173. 
Pratia repens, 210. 
Primula, 211 ; P. capitata, 213 ; 

P. marginata, 218. 
Pulmonaria angustifolia, 225. 
Ramondia pyrenaica, 228. 

White (sometimes with delicate 
edgings of colour, or with 
pale tints). 

Achillea Ptarmica, 5. 

Allium neapolitanum, 6. 

Anemone coronaria, 13 ; A. 
decapetala, 15; A. japonica 
alba, 16 ; A. nemorosa flore- 
pleno, 17; A. stellata, 20; 
A. sylvestris, 22. 



WHITE (continued). 

Anthericum liliago, 25 ; A. liliaa- 

trum, 25 ; A. 1. major, 27. 
Aralia Sieboldi, 30. 
Aster alpinus albus, 39 ; A. 

ptarmicoides, 39. 
Bellis perennis hortensis, 44. 
Bocconia cordata, 42. 
Campanula persicifolia, 50; C. 

pyramidalis alba, 53. 
Centaurea montana, 54. 
Centranthus ruber albus, 56. 
Clethra alnifolia, 62. 
Cornus canadensis, 68. 
Daisy, Bride, 40. 
Daphne Mezereum alba, 80. 
Dianthus hybridus, 82. 
Dodecatheon Meadia albiflorum, 

85. 

Epigsea repens, 90. 
Erythronium dens canis, 98. 
Galax aphylla, 108. 
Galega officinalis alba, 110. 
Helleborus antiquorum, 127 ; H. 

guttatus, 132; H.niger, 132; 

fl. n. maximus, 134. 
Hepatica triloba, 140. 
Hesperis matronalis flore-pleno, 

141. 

Houstonia albiflora, 146. 
Hutohinsia alpina, 147. 
Hydrangea panioulata grand i- 

flora, 148. 

Iberis correaefolia, 151. 
Kalmia latifolia, 157. 
Lathyrus latifolius albus, 161. 
Leucojum sestivum, 161 ; L. 

vernum, 162. 
Lilium auratum, 162. 
Lychnis, 168. 

Lysimachia clethroides, 170. 
Monarda Eusselliana, 176. 
Muhlenbeckia complexa, 178. 
Muscari botryoides alba, 180. 
Nierembergia rivularis, 181. 
(Enothera speciosa, 182; (E. 

taraxacifolia, 183. 
Petasites vulgaris, 198. 
Phlox divaricata, 202 ; P. glaber- 

rima, 202 ; P. Nelsoni, 202. 
Physalis Alkekengi, 203. 



320 



HARDY PERENNIALS. 



WHITE (continued). 

Podophyllum peltatum, 205. 

Polygonum cuspidatum, 208. 

Pratia repens, 210. 

Primula, 211. 

Pulmonaria officinalis alba, 225. 

Puschkinia scilloides, 225. 

Pyrethrum uliginosum, 227. 

Banunculus aconitifolius, 229 ; 
E. amplexicaulis, 231. 

Sanguinaria canadensis, 235. 

Saxifragia Burseriana, 238; S. 
cassia, 238 ; S. ceratophylla, 
240; S. ciliata, 242; S. 
coriophylla, 245; S. For- 
tunei, 247; S. Macnabiana, 
253 ; S. oppositifolia alba, 
256 ; S. pectinata, 258 ; S. 
Eocheliana, 265 ; S. Wai- 
lacei, 266. 

Scilla campanulata alba, 268. 

Sisyrinchium grandiflornm al- 
bum, 276. 

Tiarella cordifolia, 288. 

Trientalis europaea, 288. 

Tritelia uniflora, 292. 

Umbilicus chrysanthus, 297. 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idsea, 298. 

Veronica pinguifolia, 301 ; V. 
repens, 301. 

Viola pedata alba, 304; V. 
p. ranunculifolia, 304. 

Yucca filamentosa, 306; Y. 
gloriosa, 307 ; Y. recurva, 
308. 

Yellow (all shades, from Cream 
to Deep Orange ; also shades 
of Greenish Yellow). 
Achillea segyptiaca, 3 ; A. fili- 
pendula, 4. 



YELLOW (continued). 
Allium Moly, 6. 
Alyssum saxatile, 7. 
Anemone sulphurea, 21. 
Calthua paluatris flore-pleno^ 

47. 

Cheiranthus Marshallii, 58. 
Coreopsis auriculata, 65, 68. 
Corydalis lutea, 70; C. nobilis, 

71. 

Chrysanthemum, 59. 
Cypripedium calceolus, 76. 
Dondia Epipactus, 85. 
Doronicum caucasicum, 86. 
Eranthia hyemalis, 91. 
Erysimum pumilum, 97. 
Erythronium dens-canis, 98. 
Fritillaria armena, 101. . 
Gentiana Burseri, 113. 
Harpalium rigidum, 121. 
Helianthus multiflorus, 123 - 

H. orygalis, 124. 
Heuchera micrantha, 145. 
Hypericum calycinum, 150. 
Jasminum nudiflorum, 1 55. 
Linum flavum, 164. 
Narcissus minor, 180. 
Onosma taurica, 187. 
Potentilla fruticosa, 209. 
Primula, 211 ; P. auricula mar- 

ginata, 218 ; P. sikkimensis, 

221 ; P. vulgaris flore-pleno, 

223. 
Eanunculus acris flore-pleno, 

231 ; E. speciosum, 232. 
Eudbeckia californica, 233 - r 

E. serotina, 234. 
Saxifraga mutata, 254. 
Tropseolum tuberosum, 295. 
Vesicaria graaca, 302. 
Viola tricolor, 305. 



>-*< 



INDEX. 



A. 

Acsana microphylla, 1. 

Novae Zealandise, 1. 
Achillea aegyptica, 3. 

filipendula, 4. 

millefolitim, 4. 

p tar mica, 4. 

slvestris, 4. 
Aconite, winter, 91. 
Aoonitnm autumnale, 5. 

japonicum, 6. 
Adamsia scilloides, 225. 
Adam's needle, 307. 
Alkanet, Italian, 8. 
Allium Moly, 6. 

neapolitanum, 6. 
Alum root, 142. 
Alyssum saxatile, 7. 
Anchusa italica, 8. 

sempervirens, 9. 
Andromeda tetragona, 10. 
Anemone alpina, 11. 

apennina, 12. 

apiifolia, 21. 

blanda, 12. 

blue Grecian, 12. 

coronaria, 13. 

decapetala, 15. 

double-wood, 17. 

fnlgens, 15. 

geranium-leaved, 12. 

Honorine Jobert, 16. 

hortensis, 15, 20. 

japonica, 16. 

nemorosa flore-pleno, 17. 

pavonina, 15. 

pulsatilla, 18. 

snowdrop, 22. 



Anemone atellata. 20. 

sulphur ea, 21. 

sylvestris, 22. 

triloba, 140. 

vernalis, 23. 
Anthericum liliago, 25. 

liliastrum, 25. 

liliastrum major, 27. 
Anthyllis montana, 27. 
Apios Glycine, 27. 

tuberosa, 27. 
Apple, May, 205. 
Aralia Sieboldi, 30. 
Arabis alpina, 29. 

lucida, 29. 

1. variegata, 29. 
Arisasma triphyllum, 33. 

zebrinum, 33. 
Arum crinitum, 35. 

hairy, 35. 

three-leaved, 33. 

triphyllum, 33. 
Asters, 37. 

alpinus, 37. 

amellus, 37. 

diversifoliue, 37. 

dumosus, 37. 

ericoides, 37. 

grandiflorus, 37. 

Mdtne. Soyance, 37. 

pendulus, 37. 

ptarmicoides, 39. 

Stokes', 284. 
Astrantia Epipactis, 85. 



B. 

Bachelor's buttons, 229. 



322 



INDEX. 



Bachelor's buttons, yellow, 231. 
Balm, bee, 175. 

large-flowered bastard, 174. 
Bay, dwarf, 79. 
Bellfiower, broad-leaved, 50. 

peach-leaved, 50. 

great, 49. 
Bellis perennis, 40. 

p. aucubsefolia, 40. 
p. prolifera, 40. 
Bergamot, wild, 176. 
Bloodroot, 235. 
Blandfordia cordata, 108. 
Bluebell, 267. 
Bluebottle, large, 54. 
Bluets, 146. 
Bocconia cordata, 42. 
Borago sempervirens, 9. 
Bruisewoorte, 42. 
Buglossum senapervirens, 9. 
Bulbocodium, spring, 46. 

trigynum, 45. 

vernum, 46. 
Butterbur, common, 198. 



C. 



Calthus palustris flore-pleno, 47. 
Calystegia pubescens flore-pleno, 

48. 
Campanula, chimney, 51. 

glomerata dahurica, 53. 

grandis, 49. 

latifolia, 50. 

muralis, 54. 

persicifolia, 50. 

pulla, 49. 

pyramidalis, 51. 

speciosa, 53. 

Waldsteiniana, 53. 

Zoysii, 54. 

Candytuft, everlasting, 151. 
Cardinal flower, 166. 
Cassiope tetragona, 10. 
Catchfly, 168. 

German, 170. 
Centaurea montana, 54. 
Centranthus ruber, 55. 
Chaixia Myconi, 228. 
Cheiranthus Cheiri, 56. 



Cheiranthus Marshallii, 58. 
Cherry, winter, 203. 
Chicory, 61. 

Chionodoxa Lucilise, 58. 
Chrysanthemum, 59. 
Ciohorium Intybus, 61. 
perenne, 61. 
sylvestre, 61. 
Cinquefoil, shrubby, 209. 
Claytonia, 151. 
Clethra, alder-leaved, 62. 

alnifolia, 62. 

Colchicum autumnale, 63. 

caucasicum, 45. 

variegatum, 64. 

Comfrey, Caucasian, 286. 

Cone-flower, Californian, 233. 

late, 234. 

Convolvulus, double, 48. 
Conyza, chilensis, 94. 
Coreopsis auriculata, 65. 
ear-leaved, 65. 
grandiflora, 66. 
lanceolata, 66. 
large-flowered, 66. 
slender- leaved, 67. 
spear-leaved, 66. 
tenuifolia, 67. 
Cornell, Canadian, 68. 
Cornflower, perennial, 54. 
Cornus canadensis, 68. 

suecica, 67. 
Corydalis lutea, 70. 

noble or great- flowered, 71. 
nobilis, 71. 
solida, 73. 
Coventry bells, 18. 
Cowberry, 298. 
Cowslip, 206, 211. 
American, 84. 
Crane's-bill, silvery, 116. 
Crocus, 202. 

autumnal, 63. 
medius, 74. 

Crowfoot, aconite-leaved, 229. 
double acrid, 231. 
English double white, 229. 
Cup, white, 181. 
Cypripedium calceolus, 76. 
Cyananthus lobatus, 74. 
Cynoglossum omphalodes, 185. 



INDEX. 



323 



D. 

Daffodil, smaller, 180 
Daisy, blue, 37. 

common perennial, 40. 

double, 40. 

Hen and Chickens, 40. 

little, 42. 

Michaelmas, 37. 
Daphne Cneorum, 78. 

mezerenm, 79. 

m. alba, 80. 

m. autnmnale, 80. 

m. trailing, 78. 
* Dentaria digitata, 81. 
Dianthus barbatus, 82. 

deltoides, 81, 152. 

hybridus, 82. 

multiflorns, 82. 

plumarius, 82. 
Dodecatheon Jeffreyanum, 83. 

meadia, 74. 

m. albiflorum, 85. 

m. elegans, 85. 

m. giganteum, 85. 
Dogwood, 68. 
Dondia Epipactis, 85. 
Doronicum caucasicum, 86. 

orientale, 86. 
Dragon's mouth, 35. 
Dock's foot, 205. 

E. 

Easter flower, 18. 
Echinacea purpurea, 87. 
Edraianthua dalmaticus, 88. 
Epigaea repens, 90. 
Eranthis hyemalis, 91. 
Erica carnea, 92, 166. 
Erigeron caucasicus, 93. 

glaucum, 94. 

speciosus, 283. 
Eryngium giganteum, 96. 
Eryngo, great, 96. 
Erysimum pumihim, 97. 
Erythronium dens-canis, 98. 
Euonymus japonicus radicans varie- 

gata, 99. 
Everlasting pea, large-leaved, 160. 

large-flowered, 159. 



EVERGREENS: Achillea aegyptica, 
3 ; Alyssum saxatile, 7 ; Anchusa 
sempervirens, 9 ; Andromeda 
tetragona, 10 ; Aralia Sie- 
boldi, 30 ; Campanula grandis, 
49 ; Cheiranthus Cheiri, 56 ; 
Daphne Cneorum, 78 ; Dian- 
thus hybridus, 82 ; Epigaea 
repens, 90 ; Erica carnea, 92 ; 
Erigeron glaucum, 94 ; Euony- 
mus japonicus radicans varie- 
gata, 99 ; Galax aphylla, 
108 ; Gentiana acaulis, 111 ; 
Hedera conglomerata, 122 ; 
Helleborus abchasicus, 126 ; H. 
fcetidus, 131 ; H. niger, 132 ; 
Heuchera, 142 ; Houstonia 
coarulea, 146 ; Hutchinsia 
alpina, 147 ; Iberis correae- 
folia, 151 ; Iris foetidissima, 
153 ; Kalmia latifolia, 157 ; 
Lithospermum prostratum, 
165 ; Margyricarpus setosus, 
171 ; Saxifraga Burseriana, 
238; S. ceratophylla, 240; S. 
purpurascens, 261 ; S. Boche- 
liana, 265 ; Umbillicus chry- 
santhus, 297 ; Vaccinium vitis- 
idaea, 298 ; Veronica gentia- 
noides, 300; V. pinguifolia, 
301 ; Vesicaria graeca, 302; 
Yucca gloriosa, 307; Y. re- 
curva, 308. 



F. 



February, Fair Maids of, 106. 
Felwoth, spring alpine, 115. 
Festuca glauca, 101. 
Feverfew, marsh, 227. 
Flame-flowers, 294. 
Flaw flower, 18. 
Flax, yellow, 164. 
Fleabane, Caucasian, 93. 

glaucous, 94. 

showy, 283. 
Flower, milk, 1 07. 
FOLIAGE PLANTS: Achillea 

aegyptica, 3 ; Arabis lucida 

variegata, 29 ; Aralia Siaboldi, 
Y2 



324 



INDEX. 



30 ; Arissema triphyllum, 33 ; 
Bocconia cordata, 42 ; Cornus 
canadensis, 68 ; Oorydalis 
lutea, 70 ; C. nobilis, 71 ; 
C. solida, 73 ; Dodecatheon 
Jeffreyanum, 83 ; Erica car- 
nea, 92; Euonyraus japoni- 
cus radicans variegata, 99; 
Festuca glauca, 101 ; Funkia 
albo-marginata, 102; F. Sie- 
boldii, 103; Galax aphylla, 

t 108; Galega officinalis, 110 ; 
Gentiana asclepiadea, 112 ; 
G. Burseri, 113 ; Geranium 
argenteum, 116 ; Gynerium 
argenteum, 119 ; Hedera con- 
glomerata, 122 ; Helleborus 
fcetidus, 131 ; Heuchera, 
142 ; H. glabra, 144 ; H. 
metallica, 145 ; H. purpurea, 
145 ; Iris fcetidissima, 153 ; 
Isopyrum gracilis, 153 ; 
Lactuca sonchifolia, 158 ; 
Lysimaohia clethroides, 170 ; 
Ononis rotundifolia, 185 ; 
Ourisia coccinea, 193 ; Podo- j 
phyllum peltatum, 205 ; j 
Polygonum Brunonis, 207 ; P. 
cnspidatum, 208 ; P. filiformis j 
variegatum, 209 ; Statice 
latifolia, 280 ; Saxifraga 
Burseriana, 238 ; S. cassia, 
238 ; S. ceratophylla, 240 ; 
S. ciliata, 242; S. ligulata, 
249 ; S. longifolia, 250 ; S. 
Macnabiana,253 ; S. paradoxa, 
257 ; S. pectinata, 258 ; S. 
peltata, 259 ; S. purpurascens, 
261 ; S. pyramidalis, 262 ; S. 
Rocheliana, 265 ; S. umbrosa 
variegata, 265 ; Sempervivum 
Laggeri, 270 ; Spiraea ulmaria 
variegata, 279 ; Tiarella cordi- 
folia, 287 ; Yucca gloriosa, 308. 

Forget-me-not, creeping, 185. 

Fritillaria armena, 101. 

Fumitory, 73. 

"hollo we roote," 71, 73. 
yellow, 70. 

Funkia albo-marginata, 102. 
Sieboldii, 103. 



G. 

Galanthus Elwesii, 105. 

folded, 107. 

imperati, 105. 

nivalis, 106. 

plicatus, 107. 

redoutei, 107. 
Galax aphylla, 108. 

heart-leaved, 108. 
Galega officinalis, 110. 

persica liliacina, 110. 
Garland flower, 78. 
Garlic, large yellow, 6. 
Gentian, Burser's, 113. 

cross-leaved, 114. 

ice-cold, 114. 

lithospermum, 165. 

swallow-wort leaved, 112. 
Gentiana acaulis, 111. 

asclepiadea, 112. 

Burseri, 113. 

cruciata, 114. 

gelida, 114. 

verna, 115. 
Gentianella, 111. 
Geranium argenteum, 116. 
Gillenia trifoliata, 117. 
Gilloflower, 107. 

Queene's, 141. 

stock, 142. 

wild, 81. 
Gillyflower, 57. 
Gladdon or Gladwin, 153. 
Glory, Snowy, 58. 
Goats-rue, officinal, 110. 
Golden drop, 187. 
Goose-tongue, 4. 
Grandmother's frilled cap, 51. 
Grass, blue, 101. 

pampas or silvery, 119. 
Gromwell, prostrate, 165. 
Groundsel, noble, 272. 
Gynerium argenteum, 119. 



H. 

Hacquetia Epipaotis, 85. 
Harebell, showy, 53. 
Harpalium rigidutn, 121. 



INDEX. 



325 



Heath, winter, 92. 
Hedera conglomerata, 122. 
Helianthus multiflorns, 123. 

m. flore-pleno, 124. 

orygalis, 124. 

rigidus, 121. 
Heliotrope, winter, 198. 
Hellebore, abchasian, 126. 

ancient, 127. 

black, 132, 138. 

Boccon's, 128. 

bushy, 131. 

Colchican, 129. 

coppery, 130. 

eastern, 137. 

officinalia, 137. 

Olympian, 136. 

purplish, 139. 

spotted, 132. 

stinking, 131. 

sweet-scented, 136. 
Helleborns abchasicus, 126. 

a. purpureus, 126. 

antiquorum, 127. 

Bocconi, 128. 

B. angustifolia, 129. 

colchicus, 129. 

cuprous, 130. 

dumetorum, 131. 

fcetidus, 131. 

guttatus, 132. 

hyemalis, 91. 

multifidus, 128. 

niger, 132, 138. 

n. angustifolius, 134. 

n. maximus, 134. 

odorus, 136. 

olympicus, 136. 

orientalis, 137. 

o. elegans, 138. 

purpurascens, 139. 
Hepatica, anemone, 140. 

angulosa, 139. 

triloba, 140. 

t. splendens, 141. 
Herb, Christ's, 132. 
Hes peris matronalis flore-pleno, 

141. 
Heuchera, 142, 288. 

americana, 143. 

currant -leaved, 145. 



Heuchera cylindrica, 143. 

cylindrical-spiked, 143. 

Drummondi, 144. 

glabra, 141. 

luoida, 144 . 

metallica, 145. 

micrantha, 145. 

purpurea, 145. 

ribifolia, 145. 

Richardsoni, 146. 

shining-leaved, 144. 

small-flowered, 145. 

smooth, 144. 
Hill tulip, 18. 
Houseleek, Lagger's, 270. 
Houstonia albiflora, 146. 

coerulea, 146. 
Hutchinsia alpina, 147. 
Hyacinth, 267. 

grape, 179. 
Hydrangea, large-flowered, 148. 

paniculata grandiflora, 148. 
Hypericum calycinum, 150. 



I. 

Iberis correaefolia, 151. 
Indian cress, 295. 
Iris fcatidissima, 153. 
Isopyrum gracilis, 153. 

slender, 153. 
Ivy, conglomerate, 122. 



J. 

Jack in the pulpit, 33. 
Jasminum nudiflorum, 155. 



K, 

Kalmia, broad-leaved, 157. 

latifolia, 157. 
Knapweed, mountain, 54. 
Knotweed, 207, 209. 

cuspid, 208. 

vaccinium-leaved, 209. 



326 



INDEX. 



L. 



Lactuca sonchifolia, 158. 
Lathyrus grandiflorus, 159. 

latifolius, 160. 

1. albus, 161. 

Laurel, creeping or ground, 90. 
Leopard's bane, 86. 
Lepidium alpinum, 147. 
Lettuce, sow thistle-leaved, 158. 
Leucojum aestivum, 161. 

vernum, 162. 
Lilium auratum, 162. 
Lily, erect wood, 291. 

golden-rayed or Japanese, 162. 

rush, 274. 

St. Bernard's, 25. 

St. Bruno's, 25. 

Siebold's plantain-leaved, 103. 

white-edged, plantain-leaved, 

102. 

Lily wort, 226. 
Linaria pilosa, 237. 
Linum flavum, 164. 

narbonnense, 165. 

perenne, 165. 
Lithospermum fruticosum, 165. 

prostratum, 165. 
Lobelia cardinalis, 166. 

pratiana, 210. 

repens, 210. 

Loosestrife, clethra-like, 170. 
Lungworts, 224. 
Lychnis chalcedonica, 168. 

scarlet, 168. 

viscaria flore-pleno, 170. 
Lysimachia clethroides, 170. 



M. 

Macleaya cordata, 42. 
Madwort, rock, or golden tuft, 7. 
Margyricarpus setosus, 171. 
Marigold, double marsh, 47. 
Marjoram, beautiful, 191. 
Mazus, dwarf, 173. 

pumilio, 173. 
" Meadow bootes," 47. 
Meadowsweet, 279. 
Meadows, Queen of the, 279. 



Megasea ciliata, 242, 249. 

oordifolia, 245. 

ligulata, 249. 

purpurascens, 261. 
Melittis grandiflorum, 174. 

melissophyllum, 174. 
Merendera caucasicum, 45. 
Mertensia, 224. 
Mezereon, 79. 
Milfoil, common, 4. 
Milla uniflora, 292. 
Mitella, 288. 
Monarda affinis, 176. 

altissima, 176. 

didyma, 175. 

fistulosa, 176. 

kalmiana, 175. 

media, 176. 

oblongata, 176. 

purpurea, 176. 

rugosa, 176. 

Busselliana, 176. 
Monk's-hood, autumn, 5. 
Morina elegans, 176. 

longifolia, 176. 
Moss, silver, 238. 
Muhlenbeckia complexa, 178. 
Mullien, 228. 
Muscari botryoides, 179. 

b. alba, 180. 

racemosum, 180. 

N. 

Narcissus minor, 180. 
Nasturtium, 295. 
Nierembergia rivularis, 181. 

water, 181. 
Nightshade, red, 204. 



O. 

(Enothera speciosa, 182. 

taraxacifolia, 183. 
Omphalodes verna, 185. 
Ononis rotundifolia, 185. 
Onosma taurica, 187. 
Orchis, brown, 189. 

foliosa, 189. 

fusca, 189. 



INDEX. 



327 



Orchis, leafy, 189. 

militaris, 189. 

soldier or brown man, 189. 
Origanum pulchellum, 191. 
Orobus vernns, 192. 
Oswego tea, 175. 
Ourisia coccinea, 193. 
Oxlips, 211. 

P. 

Paigles, 211. 

Pansy, 306. 

Papaver bracteatum, 195. 

orientale, 195. 
Pasque-flower, 18. 
Passe-flower, 18. 
Peachbels, 50. 
Pearl-fruit, bristly, 171. 
Peaseling, 192. 
Pellitory, wild, 4. 
Pentstemons, 197. 
Petasites vulgaris, 198. 
Phlox, 199. 

decussata, 199. 

early and late flowering, 199. 

frondosa, 201. 

omniflora, 200. 

ovata, 200. 

paniculata, 200. 

procumbens, 200. 

stolonifera, 200. 

suffruticosa, 199. 
Physalis Alkekengi, 203. 
Pinguicula vulgaris, 173. 
Pink, maiden, 81, 152. 

mule, 82. 
Pinke, maidenly, 81. 

virgin -like, 81. 
Podophyllum peltatum, 205. 
Polyanthus, 206. 
Polygonum Brunonis, 207. 

cuspidatum, 208. 

c. compactum, 208. 

filiformis variegatum, 209. 

vaccinifolium, 209. 
Poppy, oriental, 195. 
Potentilla fruticosa, 209. 
Prairie, Queen of the, 280. 
Pratia, creeping, 210. 

repens, 210. 



Primrose, Cashmere, 214. 

dandelion-leaved evening, 183. 
double-flowered, 223. 
margined, 217. 
mealy or bird's-eye, 217. 
Scottish, 220. 
showy evening, 182. 
Primula acaulis, 211. 
Allioni, 213. 
amcena, 213. 
auricula, 213. 
a. marginata, 218. 
capitata, 213. 
carniolica, 213. 
cashmeriana, 124. 
crenata, 217. 
decora, 213. 
denticulata, 213, 216. 
d. amabilis, 217. 
d. major, 217. 
d. nana, 217. 
elatior, 211. 

farinosa, 213, 217, 220. 
glaucescens, 213. 
glutinosa, 213. 

grandiflora, 211. 
grandis, 213. 

latifolia, 213. 

longifolia, 213. 

lateola, 213. 

marginata, 213, 217. 

minima, 213. 

nivalis, 213. 

purple-flowered, 219. 

purpurea, 219. 

round headed, 213. 

scotica, 213, 220. 

sikkimensis, 221. 

sinensis, 213. 

spectabilis, 213. 

sylveatris, 211. 

tyrolensis, 213. 

toothed, 216. 

veris, 206, 211. 

villosa, 213. 

viscosa, 213. 

vulgaris, 211. 

v. flore-pleno, 223. 

Wulfeniana, 213. 
Prunella pyrenaica, 152. 
Ptarmica vulgaris, 4. 



INDEX. 



Pnlmenarias, 224. 

maculata, 225. 

mollis, 225. 

officinalis, 225. 
Puschkinia libanotica, 225. 

acilla-like, 225. 

sciUoides, 225. 

a. compacta, 226. 
Pyrethrum uliginosum, 227. 

R. 

Ramondia pyrenaica, 228. 

Ranunculua aconitifoliua, 229. 
aoria flore-pleno, 231. 
albus multiflorua, 229. 
amplexicaulis, 231. 
speciosnm, 232. 
stem -clasping, 231. 

Red-hot poker, 294. 

Rest-arrow, round-leaved, 185. 

Rocket, double sweet, 141. f 

ROCKWORK PLANTS: Acaena Novse 
Zealandiae, 1 ; Alyssum saxa- 
tile, 7 ; Andromeda tetragona, 
10 ; Anthyllis montana, 27 ; 
Arabia lucida, 29 ; Aralia 
Sieboldi, 30; Aster alpinus, 
37; Campanula Waldsteiniana, 
53 ; Cardamine trifolia, 70 ; 
Colchicum variegatum, 64 ; 
Cornus canadensis, 68 ; Cory- 
dalia nobilis, 71 ; C. solida, 
73 ; Cyananthus lobatus, 74 ; 
Dentaria digitata, 81 ; Dode- 
catheon Jeffreyanum, 83 ; 
Dondia Epipactis, 85 ; Doroni- 
cum caucasicum, 86 ; Edrai- 
antb.ua dalmaticus, 83 ; Erica 
carnea, 92 ; Erigeron glaucum, 
94 ; Erysimum pumilum, 97 ; 
Festuca glauca, 101 ; Funkia 
Sieboldii, 103 ; Galax aphylla, 
70, 108 ; Gentiana acaulia, 
111 ; G. Buraeri, 113 ; G. 
gelida, 114; G. verna, 115; 
Geranium argenteum, 116 ; 
Hedera conglomerata, 122 ; 
Houstonia cozrulea, 146 ; 
Iberis correaefolia, 151 ; Linum 
flavum, 164 ; Lithospermum 



prostratum, 165 ; Lychnis 
Viscaria flore-pleno, 170 ; 
Margyricarpua setosus, 171 ; 
Muhlenbeckia complexa, 178; 
Nierembergia rivularis, 181 ; 
Onoama taurica, 188 ; Origa- 
num pulchellum, 191 ; Orobus 
vernus, 192 ; Phlox, 202 ; 
Polygonum vaccinifolium, 209; 
Pratia repena, 210 ; Primula, 
213, 216, 218, 222; Pyrola 
rotundifolia, 70 ; Ramondia 
pyrenaica, 228 ; Ranunculus 
amplexicaulis, 231 ; Salix re- 
ticulata, 70, 235; Saponaria 
ooymoidea, 237 ; Saxifraga 
Burseriana, 238 ; S. csesia, 
238 ; S. ceratophylla, 240 ; 
S. ciliata, 242 ; S. coriophylla, 
246; S. Fortunei, 247; S. 
longifolia, 250 ; S. mutata, 
254; S. oppositifolia, 255 ; S. 
paradoxa, 257; S. pectinata, 
258 ; S. pyramidalis, 262 ; S. 
umbrosa variegata, 265 ; S. 
WaUacei, 266; Sedum apec- 
tabile, 269 ; Sempervivum 
Laggeri, 270 ; Symphytum 
caucaaicum, 286 ; Tropseolum 
tuberoaum, 295 ; Umbilicus 
chryaanthus, 297 ; Veronica 
pinguifolia, 301 ; V. prostrata, 
301 ; Vesicaria grseca, 302 ; 
Viola pedata, 303 ; Yucca 
filamentosa, 306. 

Rose, Christmaa, 132, 138. 
lenten, 137. 
of Sharon, 150. 

Rudbeckia californica, 233. 
purpurea, 87. 
serotina, 234. 

Rues, maidenhair- like, 153. 

S. 

Saffron, meadow, 63. 

spring, 46. 
Saint John's Wort, cup, 150. 

large calyxed, 150. 
Salix reticulata, 235. 
Sanguinaria canadensis, 235. 



INDEX. 



329 



Saponaria ocymoides, 237. 

ocymoidea splendens, 237. 
Satin-flower, 274. 
Saxifraga Aizoon, 258, 259. 

alpina ericoides flore coeruleo, 
255. 

australis, 257, 258. 

Burseriana, 238, 246. 

cassia, 238. 

carinthiaca, 257, 258. 

ceratophylla, 240. 

ciliata, 242, 249. 

cordifolia, 245, 261. 

coriophylla, 245. 

cornutnm, 241, 266. 

cotyledon, 253, 254, 262. 

craseifolia, 261. 

crustata, 257. 

fortunei, 247. 

geranioides, 266. 

japonica, 247. 

ligulata, 242, 249, 257. 

longifolia, 250, 254, 257. 

macnabiana, 253. 

mutata, 254. 

nepalensis, 253. 

oppositifolia, 246, 255. 

o. alba, 256. 

paradoxa, 257. 

pectinata, 258. 

peltata, 259. 

pentadaotylis, 240, 266. 

pryamidalis, 262. 

purpurascens, 261. 

rocheliana, 265. 

umbrosa, 265. 

variegata, 265. 

sarmentosa, 243. 

WaUacei, 266. 
Saxifrage, blue, 255. 

Burser's, 238, 246. 

Fortune's, 247. 

grey, 238. 

hairy margined, 242. 

horn-leaved, 240. 

large-leaved purple, 261. 

long-leaved, 250. 

Mac Nab' s, 253. 

opposite-leaved, 255. 

paradoxical, 257. 

purple mountain, 255. 



Saxifrage, Queen of, 250. 

Rochel's, 265. 
Scilla, bell-flowered, 267. 

campannlata, 267. 
Sea lavender, broad-leaved, 280. 

profuse, 281. 
Sedum Fabarium, 269. 

spectabile, 269. 

Sieboldi, 269. 
Self heal, 152. 
Sempervivum Laggeri, 270. 
Senecia pulcher, 272. 
Sibthorpia europaea, 237. 
Sisyrinchium grandiflorum, 274. 

Grandiflorum album, 276. 
Slipper, English lady's, 76. 
Sneeze wort, 4. 
Snowdrop, common, 106. 

Elwes's, 105. 

imperial, 105. 
Snowflake, spring, 162. 

summer, 161. 
Soap wort, basil-leaved, 237. 

rock, 237. 

Solannm Halicacabnm, 204. 
Soldanella alpina, 276. 

Clusii, 276. 

minima, 276. 

montana, 276. 
Speedwell, fat-leaved, 301. 

gentian-leaved, 300. 

prostrate, 301. 
Spikenard, 94. 

Spindle tree, variegated, rooting, 99. 
Spiraea odorata, 279. 

palmata, 278. 

palm-like, 278. 

trifoliata, 117. 

triloba, 117. 

ulmaria variegata, 279. 

venusta, 280. 
Spring beauty, 152. 
Spurge-flax, 79. 

German olive, 79. 

wort, 153. 
Squiil, striped, 225. 
Star-flower, 288. 

lilac, 293. 

Star-flower, spring, 292. 
Star, shooting, 84. 
Starwort, 37, 283. 



330 



INDEX. 



Starwort, alpine, 37. 

bouquet, 39. 
Statice latifolia, 280. 

profusa, 281. 

varieties of, 281. 
Steeple-bells, 50. 
Stenactis speciosus, 283. 
Stokesia, jasper blue, 284. 

cyanea, 284. 
Stonecrop, showy, 269. 

Siebold's, 269. 
Succory, wild, 61. 
Sunflower, graceful, 124. 

many-flowered, 123. 

rigid, 121. 
Symphytum caucasicum, 286. 

T. 

Teazel, 176. 
Thistle, 284. 
Tiarella cordifolia, 287. 
Tirentalis europaea, 288. 
Toothwort, 81. 
Treacle-mustard, dwarf, 97. 
Trillium erectum, 291. 
Triteleia, one-flowered, 292. 

uniflora, 292. 

u. liliacina, 292. 
Tritoma, great, 294. 

uvaria, 294. 
Tropaeolum tuberosum, 295. 

tuberous, 295. 
Trophy plant, 295. 
Tussilago fragraris, 198. 

petasites, 198. 

U. 
Umbillicus chrysanthus, 297. 

V. 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea, 298. 
Valerian red, 55. 
Valeriana ruber, 55. 
Verbascum Myconi, 228. 
Veronica gentianoides, 300. 



Veronica pinguifolia, 301. 

prostrata, 165, 301. 

repens, 301. 
Vesicaria grseca, 302. 
Vetch, mountain kidney, 27. 

spring bitter, 192. 
' Viola pedata, 303. 

pedata bicolor, 304. 

tricolor, 305. 
Violet, Dame's, 141. 

dog's tooth, 98. 

early bulbous, 106. 

pedate-leaved, or bird's -foot, 
303. 

W. 

Wallflower, common, 56. 

fairy, 97. 

Marshall's, 58. 
Whorl flower, 176. 
Whortleberry, red, 298. 
Willow, wrinkled or netted, 235. 
Windflower, 141. 

alpine, 11. 

double, 17. 

fair, 12. 

Japan, 16. 

mountain, 12. 

poppy-like, 13. 

shaggy, 23. 

shining, 15. 

star, 20. 

stork's-bill, 12. 

sulphur-coloured, 21. 
Wintergreen, English, 288. 



T. 

Yarrow, Egyptian, 3. 

wild, 4. 
Yucca filamentosa, 306. 

filamentosa variegata, 306. 

gloriosa, 307. 

reourva, 308. 

thready-leaved, 306. 

weeping, 308. 






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