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THE VIA Al'l'IA 372 





" A GAIN this date of Rome; the most solemn and 
interesting that my hand can ever write, and even 
now more interesting than when I saw it la?!t," wrote Dr. 
Arnold to his wife in 1840 — and how many thousands 
before and since have experienced the same feeling, who 
have looked forward to a visit to Rome as one of the great 
events of their lives, as the realization of the dreams and 
longings of many years. 

An arrival in Rome is very different to that in any other 
town of Europe. It is coming to a place new and yet most 
familiar, strange and yet so well known. When travellers 
arrive at Verona, for instance, or at Aries, they generally 
go to the amphitheatres with a curiosity to knoAv what they 
are like ; but when they arrive at Rome and go to the 
Coliseum, it is to visit an object whose appearance has 
been familiar to them from childhood, and, long ere it 
is reached, from the heights of the distant Capitol, they 
can recognize the well-knowTi form :■ — and as regards St. 
Peter's, who is not familiar with the aspect of the dome, of 
the wide-spreading piazza, and the foaming fountains, for 
long years before they come to gaze upon the reality ? 


" My presentiment of the emotions with which I should 
behold the Roman ruins, has proved quite correct," A\Tote 
Niebuhr. " Nothing about them is new to me ; as a cliild 
I lay so often, for hours together, before their pictures, 
that their images were, even at that early age, as dis- 
tinctly impressed upon my mind, as if I had actually seen 

Yet, in spite of the presence of old friends and landmarks, 
travellers who pay a hurried visit to Rome, are bewildered 
by the vast mass of interest before them, by the endless 
labyrinth of minpr objects, which they desire, or, still oftener, 
feel it a duty, to visit. Their Murray, their Baedeker, and 
their Bradshaw indicate appalling lists of churches, temples, 
and villas which ought to be seen, but do not distribute them 
in a manner which will render their inspection more easy. 
The promised pleasure seems rapidly to change into an end- 
less vista of labour to be fulfilled and of fatigue to be gone 
through ; henceforward the hours spent at Rome are rather 
hours of endurance than of pleasure — his cicerone drags 
the traveller in one direction,— his antiquarian friend, his 
artistic acquaintance, would fain drag him in others, — he is 
confused by accumulated misty glimmerings from historical 
facts once learnt at school, but long since forgotten, — of 
artistic information, which he feels that he ought to have 
gleaned from years of society, but which, from want of use, 
has never made any depth of impression, — by shadowy ideas 
as to the story of this king and that emperor, of this pope 
and that saint, whicli, from insufficient time, and the ab- 
sence of books of reference, he has no opportunity of 
clearing up. It is therefore in the hope of aiding some of 
these bewildered ones, and of rendering their walks in 


Rome more easy and more interesting, that the following 
chapters are written. They aim at nothing original, and 
are only a gathering up of the information of others, and 
a gleaning from what has been already given to the world 
in a far better and fuller, but less portable form ; while, in 
their plan, they attempt to guide the traveller in his daily 
wanderings through the city and its suburbs. 

It must not, however, be supposed, that one short re- 
sidence at Rome will be sufficient to make a foreigner 
acquainted with all its varied treasures ; or even, in most 
cases, that its attractions will become apparent to the 
passing stranger. The squalid appearance of its modern 
streets, the filth of its beggars, the inconveniences of its 
daily life, will leave an impression which will go far to 
neutralize the effect of its ancient buildings, and the 
grandeur of its historic recollections. It is only by return- 
ing again and again, by allowing th.Q feeling of Rome to gain 
upon you, when you have constantly revisited the same 
view, the same temple, the same picture, that Rome en- 
graves itself upon your heart, and changes from a dis- 
agreeable, unwholesome acquaintance, into a dear and 
intimate friend, seldom long absent from your thoughts. 
" Whoever," said Chateaubriand, " has nothing else left in 
life, should come to live in Rome ; there he will find for 
society a land which will nourish his reflections, walks which 
will always tell him something new. The stone which 
crumbles under his feet will speak to him, and even the 
dust which the wind raises under his footsteps will seem to 
bear with it something of human grandeur." 

" When we have once know^n Rome," wTote Hawthorne, 
'•' and left her where she lies, like a long-decaying corpse, 


retaining a trace of the noble shape it was, but with accu- 
mulated dust and a fungous growth overspreading all its 
more admirable features — left her in utter weariness, no 
doubt, of her narrow, crooked, intricate streets, so uncom- 
fortably paved with little squares of lava that to tread over 
them is a penitential pilgrimage ; so indescribably ugly, 
moreover, so cold, so alley-like, into which the sun never 
falls, and where a chill wind forces its deadly breath into 
our lungs — left her, tired of the sight of those immense 
seven-storied, yellow-washed hovels, or call them palaces, 
where all that is dreary in domestic life seems magnified 
and multiplied, and weary of climbing those staircases which 
ascend from a ground-floor of cook-shops, cobblers'-stalls, 
stables, and regiments of cavalry, to a middle region of 
princes, cardinals, and ambassadors, and an upper tier of 
artists, just beneath the unattainable sky, — left her, worn 
out with shivering at the cheerless and smoky fireside by 
day, and feasting with our own .substance the ravenous 
population of a Roman bed at night, left her sick at heart 
of Italian trickery, which has uprooted whatever faith in 
man's integrity had endured till now, and sick at stomach 
of sour bread, sour wine, rancid butter, and bad cookery, 
needlessly bestowed on evil meats, — left her, disgusted 
with the pretence of holiness and the reality of nasti- 
ness, each e(]ually omnipresent,- — left her, half lifeless 
from the languid atmosphere, the vital principle of which 
has been used up long ago or corrupted by myriads of 
slaughters, — left her, crushed down in spirit by the desola- 
tion of her ruin, and tlie hopelessness of her future, — left 
her, in short, hating her with all our might, and adding our 
individual curse to the infinite anathema which her old 


crimes have unmistakeatly brought down : — when we have 
left Rome in such mood as this, we are astonished by the 
discovery, by-and-by, that our heartstrings have mysteriously 
attached themselves to the Eternal City, and are drawing 
us thitherward again, as if if were more familiar, more in- 
timately our home, than even the spot where we were 

This is the attractive and sympathetic power of Rome 
which Byron so fully appreciated — 

" Oh Rome my country ! city of the soul ! 
The orphans of the heart must turn to thee, 
Lone mother of dead empires ! and controul 
In their shut breasts their petty misery. 
What are our woes and sufferance ? Come and see 
The cypress, hear the owl, and plod your way 
O'er steps of broken thrones and temples. Ye ! 
Whose agonies are evils of a day — 

A world is at our feet as fragile as our clay. 

" The Niobe of nations ! there she stands 

Childless and crownless, in her voiceless woe ; 

An empty urn within her withered hands, 

Whose sacred dust was scattered long ago ; 

The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now ; 

The very sepulchres lie tenantless 

Of their heroic dwellers : dost thou flow, 

Old Tiber ! through a marble wilderness ? 
Rise, with thy yellow waves, and mantle her distress ! " 

The impressiveness of an arrival at the Eternal City was 
formerly enhanced by the solemn singularity of the country 
through which it was slowly approaf^hed. " Those who arrive 
at Rome now by the railway," says Mrs. Craven in her ' Anne 
Severin,' " and rush like a whirlwind into a station, which 
has nothing in its first aspect to distinguish it from that of 


one of the most obscure places in the world, cannot imagine 
the effect which the words ' Ecco Roma ' formerly produced, 
when .on arriving at the point in the road from which the 
Eternal City could be descried for the first time, the pos- 
tillion stopped his horses, and pointing it out to the tra- 
veller in the distance, pronounced them with that Roman 
accent which is grave and sonorous, as the name of Rome 

" How pleasing," says Cardinal Wiseman, " was the usual 
indication to early travellers, by voice and outstretched 
whip, embodied in the well-known exclamation of every 
vetturino, ' Ecco Roma.' To one ' lasso maris et viarum,' 
like Horace, these words brought the first promise of ap- 
proaching rest. A few more miles of weary hills, every one 
of which, from its summit, gave a more swelling and majestic 
outline to what so far constituted ' Roma,' that is, the great 
cupola, not of the church, but of the city, its only discernible 
part, cutting, like a huge peak, into the clear winter sky, 
and the long journey was ended, and ended by the full 
realization of well-cherished hopes." 

Most travellers, perhaps, in the old days came by sea 
from Marseilles and arrived from Civita Vecchia, by the 
dreary road which leads through Palo, and near the base 
of tlie hills upon which stands Cervetri, the ancient Ccere, 
from tlie junction of whose name and customs the word 
'' ceremony " has arisen, — so especially useful in the great 
neighbouring city, " This road from Civita Vecchia," writes 
Miss Edwards, the talented authoress of ' Barbara's His- 
tory,' "lies among shapeless hillocks, shaggy with bush 
and briar. Ear away on one side gleams a line of soft 
blue sea — on the other lie mountains as blue, but not more 


distant. Not a sound stirs the stagnant air. Not a tree, 
not a housetop, breaks the wide monotony. The dust hes 
beneath the wheels Uke a carpet, and follows like a cloud. 
The grass is yellow, the weeds are parched ; and where 
there have been wayside pools, the ground is cracked and 
dry. Now we pass a cmmbling fragment of something 
that may have been a tomb or temple, centuries ago. Now 
we come upon a little wide-eyed peasant boy, keeping goats 
among the ruins, like Giotto of old. Presently a buffalo 
lifts his black mane above the neighbouring hillock, and 
rushes away before we can do more than point to the spot 
on which we saw it. Thus the day attains its noon, and 
the sun hangs overhead like a brazen shield, brilliant, but 
cold. Thus, too, we reach the brow of a long and steep 
ascent, where our driver pulls up to rest his weary beasts. 
The sea has now faded almost out of sight ; the mountains 
look larger and nearer, with streaks of snow upon their 
summits, the Campagna reaches on and on and shows no 
sign of limit or of verdure,^ — while, in the midst of the clear 
air, half way, so it would seem, between you and the purple 
Sabine range, rises one solemn solitary dome. Can it be 
the dome of St. Peter's ? " 

The great feature of the Civita Vecchia route was that 
after all the utter desolation and dreariness of many miles 
of the least interesting part of the Campagna, the traveller 
was almost stunned by the transition, when on suddenly 
passing the Porta Cavalleggieri, he found himself in the 
Piazza of St. Peter's, with its wide-spreading colonnades, 
and high-springing fountains ; indeed the first building he 
saw was St. Peter's, the first house that of the Pope, the 
palace of the Vatican, But the more gradual approach by 


land from Viterbo and Tuscany possessed equal if not 
superior interest. 

" ^Vhen we turned the summit above Viterbo," wrote Dr. 
Arnold, "and opened on the view on the other side, it 
might be called the first approach to Rome. At the 
distance of more than forty miles, it was of course impos- 
sible to see the town, and besides the distance was hazy ; 
but we were looking on the scene of the Roman history ; 
we were standing on the outward edge of the frame of the 
great picture, and though the features of it were not to be 
traced distinctly, yet we had the consciousness that they 
were before us. Here, too, we first saw the Mediterra- 
nean, the Alban hills, I think, in the remote distance, and 
just beneath us, on the left, Soracte, an outlier of the Apen- 
nines, which has got to the right bank of the Tiber, and 
stands out by itself most magnificently. Close under us 
in front, was the Ciminian lake, the crater of an extinct 
volcano, surrounded as they all are, with their basin of 
wooded hills, and lying like a beautiful mirror stretched 
out before us. Then there was the grand beauty of Italian 
scenery, the depth of the valleys, the endless variety of 
the mountain outline, and the towns perched upon the 
mountain summits, and this now seen under a mottled sky, 
which threw an ever-varying light and shadow over the 
valley beneath, and all the freshness of the young spring. 
We descended along one of the rims of this lake to Roncig- 
lione, and from thence, still descending on the whole, to 
Monterosi. Here the famous Campagna begins, and it 
certainly is one of the most striking tracts of country I ever 
beheld. It is by no means a perfect flat, except between 
Rome and the sea; but rather like the Bagshot Heath 


country, ridges of hills with intermediate valleys, and the 
road often running between high steep banks, and sometimes 
crossing sluggish streams sunk in a deep bed. All these 
banks are overgrown with broom, now in full flower ; and 
the same plant was luxuriant everywhere. There seemed 
no apparent reason why the country should be so desolate ; 
the grass was growing richly everywhere. There was no 
marsh any^vhere visible, but all looked as fresh and healthy 
as any of our chalk downs in England. But it is a wide 
wilderness ; no villages, scarcely any' houses, and here and 
there a lonely ruin of a single square tower, which I sup- 
pose used to serve as strongholds for men and cattle in 
the plundering warfare in the middle ages. It was after 
crowning the top of one of these lines of hills, a little on 
the Roman side of Baccano, at five minutes after six, 
according to my watch, that we had the first view of Rome 
itself. I expected to see St. Peter's rising above the line of 
the horizon, as York Minster does, but instead of that, it 
was within the horizon, and so was much less conspicuous, 
and from the nature of the ground, it looked mean and 
stumpy. Nothing else marked the site of the city, but the 
trees of the gardens and a number of white villas specking 
the opposite bank of the Tiber for some little distance 
above the town, and then suddenly ceasing. But the whole 
scene that burst upon our view, when taken in all its parts, 
was most interesting. Full in front rose the Alban hills, 
the white villas on their sides distinctly visible, even at that 
distance, which was more than thirty miles. On the left 
were the Apennines, and Tivoli was distinctly to be seen 
on the summit of its mountain, on one of the lowest and 
nearest parts of the chain. On the right and all before us 


lay the Campagna, whose perfectly level outline was suc- 
ceeded by that of the sea, which was scarcely more so. It 
began now to get dark, and as there is hardly any twilight, 
it was dark soon after we left La Storta, the last post before 
you enter Rome. The air blew fresh and cool, and we had 
a pleasant drive over the remaining part of the Campagna, 
till we descended into the valley of the Tiber, and crossed 
it by the Milvian bridge. About two miles further on we 
reached the walls of Rome, and entered it by the Porta del 

Niebuhr coming the same way says : — " It was with 
solemn feelings that this morning from the barren heights of 
the moory Campagna, I first caught sight of the cupola of 
St. Peter's, and then of the city from the bridge, where all 
the majesty of her buildings and her history seems to lie 
spread out before the eye of the stranger ; and afterwards 
entered by the Porta del Popolo." 

Madame de StaUl gives us the impression Avhich the 
.same subject would produce on a different type of 
cliaracter : — 

" Le comte d'Erfeuil faisait de comiques lamentations sur 
les environs de Rome. Quoi, disait-il, point de maison de 
campagne, point de voiture, rien qui annonce le voisinage 
d'une grande ville ! Ah ! bon Dieu, quelle tristesse ! En 
approchant de Rome, les postilions s'e'crierent avec trans- 
port : Voycz, voycz, c'rsf la coupole ik Saint-Pierre ! Les 
Napolitains montrent aussi le Vesuve ; et la mer fait de 
meme I'orgueil des habitans des cotes. On croirait voir 
le dome des Invalides, s'ccria le comte d'Erfeuil." 

It was by this approach that most of its distinguished 
pilgrims have entered the cai)ital of the Catholic world : 


monks, who came hither to obtain the foundation of their 
Orders ; saints, who thirsted to worship at the shrines of 
their predecessors, or who came to receive the crown of 
martyrdom ; priests and bishops from distant lands, — many- 
coming in turn to receive here the highest dignity which 
Christendom could offer ; kings and emperors, to ask coron- 
ation at the hands of the reigning pontiff; and among all 
these, came by this road, in the full fervour of Catholic 
enthusiasm, Martin Luther, the future enemy of Rome, then 
its devoted adherent. "When Luther came to Rome," 
says Ampere, in his ' Portraits de Rome \ Divers Ages,' 
" the future reformer was a young monk, obscure and 
fervent ; he had no presentiment, when he set foot in the 
great Babylon, that ten years later he would burn the bull 
of the Pope in the public square of Wittenberg. His heart 
experienced nothing but pious emotions ; he addressed to 
Rome in salutation the ancient hymn of the pilgrims ; he 
cried, 'I salute thee, O holy Rome, Rome venerable 
through the blood and the tombs of the martyrs.' But after 
having prostrated on the threshold, he raised himself, he 
entered into the temple, he did not find the God he looked 
for ; the city of the saints and martyrs was a city of mur- 
derers and prostitutes. The arts which marked this corrup- 
tion were powerless over the stolid senses, and scandalised 
the austere spirit of the German monk ; he scarcely gave a 
passing glance at the ruins of pagan Rome ; — and inwardly 
horrified by all that he saw, he quitted Rome in a frame of 
mind very different from that which he brought with him ; 
he knelt then with the devotion of the pilgrims, now he 
returned in a disposition like that of the frondairs of the 
Middle Ages, but more serious than theirs. This Rome of 


which he had been the dupe, and concerning which he was 
disabused, should hear of him again ; the day would come 
when, amid the merry toasts at his table, he would cry three 
tipies, ' I would not have missed going to Rome for a thou- 
sand florins, for I should always have been uneasy lest I 
should have been rendering injustice to the Pope.' " 

When one is in Rome life seems to be free from many 
of the petty troubles which beset it in other places ; there 
is no foreign town which offers so many comforts and ad- 
vantages to its English visitors. The hotels, indeed, are 
enormously expensive, and the rent of apartments is high ; 
but when the latter is once paid, living is rather cheap 
than otherwise, especially for those who do not object to 
dine from a trattoria, and to drive in hackney carriages. 

The climate of Rome is very variable. If the sirocco 
blows, it is mild and very relaxing ; but the winters are more 
apt to be subject to the severe cold of the tramontana, 
which requires even greater precaution and care than that 
of an English winter. Nothing can be more mistaken than 
the impression that those who go to Italy are sure to find 
there a mild and congenial temperature. The climate of 
Rome has been subject to severity, even from the earliest 
times of its history. Dionysius speaks of one year in the 
time of the republic when the snow at Rome lay seven feet 
deep, and many men and cattle died of the cold.* Another 
year, the snow lay for forty days, trees perished, and cattle 
died of hunger.f Present times are a great improvement 
on these : snow seldom lies upon the ground for many hours 
together, and the beautiful fountains of the city are only 
hung with icicles long enough to allow the photographers to 

• Dionysius, xii. 8. t L'vy, v. 13. 



represent them thus ; but still the climate is not to be trifled 
with, and violent transitions from the hot sunshine to the 
cold shade of the streets often prove fatal. " No one but 
dogs and Englishmen," say the Romans, " ever walk in 
the sun." 

The malaria^ which is so much dreaded by the natives, 
lies dormant during the winter months, and seldom affects 
strangers, unless they are inordinately imprudent in sitting 
out in the sunset. With the heats of the late summer this 
insidious ague-fever is apt to follow on the slightest exertion, 
and particularly to overwhelm those who are employed in 
field labour. From June to November the Villa Borghese 
and the Villa Doria are uninhabitable, and the more de- 
serted hills — the Coelian, the Aventine, and the greater part 
of the Esquiline, — are a constant prey to fever. The malaria, 
however, flies before a crowd of human life, and the Ghetto, 
which teems with inhabitants, is perfectly free from it. In 
the Campagna, — with the exception of Porto d'Anzio, which 
has always been healthy, — no town or village is safe after 
the month of August, and to this cause the utter desolation 
of so many formerly populous sites (especially those of Veii 
and Galera) may be attributed : — 

" Roma, vorax hominum, domat ardua colla viroi-um ; 
Roma, ferax febrium, necis est uberrima frugum : 
Romans febres stabili sunt jure fideles." 

Thus wrote Peter Damian in the loth centur)', and those 
who refuse to be on their guard will find it so still. 

The greatest risk at Rome is incurred by those who, 
coming out of the hot sunshine, spend long hours in the 
Vatican and the other galleries, which are filled with a 


deadly chill during the winter months. As March comes on 
this chill wears away, and in April and May the temperature 
of the galleries is delightful, and it is impossible to find a 
more agreeable retreat. It is in the hope of inducing 
strangers to spend more time in the study of these wonder- 
ful museums, and of giving additional interest to the hours 
which are passed there, that so much is said about their 
contents in these volumes. As far as possible it has been 
desired to evade any mere catalogue of their collections, — 
so that no mention has been made of objects Avhich possess 
inferior artistic or historical, interest ; while by introducing 
anecdotes connected with those to which attention is drawn, 
or by quoting the opinion of some good authority concern- 
ing them, an endeavour has been made to fix them in the 

So much has been written about Rome, that in quoting 
from the remarks of others the great difficulty has been 
selection, — and the rule has been followed that the most 
learned books are not always the most instructive or the 
most interesting. No endeavour has been made to enter 
into deep archaeological questions, — to define the exact 
limits of the Walls of Servius Tullius, — or to hazard a fresh 
opinion as to how the earth accumulated in the Roman 
Forum, or whence the pottery came, out of which the Monte 
Tcstaccio has arisen ; but it has rather been sought to 
gather up and present to the reader such a succession of 
word jjicturcs from various authors, as may not only make 
the scenes of Rome more interesting at the time, but may 
deepen their imj^ression afterwards. This was the work 
which the late illustrious M. Ampere intended to carry out, 

INTR on UC TOR Y. 23 

and which he would have done so much better and more 

From the experience of many years the writer can truly 
say that the more intimately these scenes become known, 
the more deeply they become engraven upon the inmost 
affections. Rome, as Goethe truly says, " is a world, 
and it takes years to find oneself at home in it." It is 
not a hurried visit to the Coliseum, with guide book and 
cicerone, which will enable one to drink in the fulness 
of its beauty ; but a long and familiar friendship with 
its solemn walls, in the ever-varying grandeur of golden 
sunlight and grey shadow — till, after many days' compa- 
nionship, its stones become dear as those of no other 
building ever can be ; — and it is not a rapid inspection of 
the huge cheerless basilicas and churches, with their gaudy 
marbles and gilded ceihngs and ill-suited monuments, 
which arouses your sympathy ; but the long investigation of 
their precious fragments of ancient cloister, and sculptured 
fountain, — of mouldering fresco, and mediaeval tomb, — of 
mosaic-crowned gateway, and palm-shadowed garden ; — and 
the gradually-acquired knowledge of the wondrous story 
which clings around each of these ancient things, and which 
tells how each has a motive and meaning entirely un- 
suspected and unseen by the passing eye. 

The immense extent of Rome, and the wide distances to 
be traversed between its different ruins and churches, is in 
itself a sufficient reason for devoting more time to it than to 
the other cities of Italy. Surprise will doubtless be felt 
that so few pagan ruins remain, considering the enormous 
number which are known to have existed even down to a 


comparatively late period. A monumental record of a.d. 
540, published by Cardinal Mai, mentions 324 streets, 2 
Capitols— the Tarpeian and that on the Quirinal, — 80 gilt 
statues of the gods (only the Hercules remains), 66 ivory 
statues of the gods, 46,608 houses, 17,097 palaces, 13,052 
fountains, 3785 statues of emperors and generals in bronze, 
22 great equestrian statues of bronze (only Marcus Aurelius 
remains), 2 colossi (Marcus Aurelius and Trajan), 9026 
baths, 3 1 theatres, and 8 amphitheatres ! 

It is impossible to speak too highly of the facilities 
afforded to strangers for seeing and enjoying everything, 
especially by the Roman nobility. The beautiful grounds 
of the Villa Borghese and the Villa Doria appear to be kept 
up at an enormous expense, solely for the use and pleasure 
of the public, and almost all the palaces and collections are 
thrown open on fixed days with unequalled liberality. In 
almost all these galleries, museums, and gardens the 
stranger is permitted to wander about and linger as he 
pleases, entirely unmolested by officious servants and ignor- 
ant ciceroni. 

Those will enjoy Rome most who have studied it tho- 
roughly before leaving their own homes. In the multiplicity 
of engagements in which a foreigner is soon involved, there 
is little time for historical research, and few are able to do 
more than " read up their Murray," so that half the i)leasure 
and all the advantage of a visit to Rome are thrown away : 
while those who arrive with the foundation already pre- 
j)arcd, easily and naturally acquire, amid the scenes around 
which the history of the world revolved, an amount of in- 
formation which will be astonishing even to themselves. 


" People out of Rome," says Goethe, '' have no idea how 
one is schooled there ; " but then, as the author of ' Vera * 
remarks, " that is true of Rome, which Madame Swetchine 
said of life, viz. that you find exactly what you put into it." 

The pagan monuments of Rome have been ^\Titten of 
and discussed ever since they were built, and the catacombs 
have lately found historians and guides both able and will- 
ing, — about the later Christian monuments far less has 
hitherto been said. In English, except in the immense 
collection of interest which is imbedded in the works of 
Hemans, and in the few beautiful notices of some of the 
early martyrs by Mrs. Jameson, very little has been written ; 
in French there is far more. There is a natural shrinking 
in the English Protestant mind from all that is connected 
with the story of the saints, — especially the later saints of 
the Roman Catholic Church. Many believe, with Addison, 
" that the Christian antiquities are so embroiled in fable and 
legend, that one derives but little satisfaction from searching 
into them." And yet, as Mrs. Jameson observes, when all 
that the controversialist can desire is taken away from 
the reminiscences of those, who to the Roman Catholic mind 
have consecrated the homes of their earthly life, how much 
remains ! — " so much to awaken, to elevate, to touch the 
heart ; — so much that will not fade from the memory, so 
much that may make a part of our after-life." 

IN^o attempt has been made in these pages to describe the 
country round Rome, beyond a few of the most ordinary 
drives and excursions outside the walls. The opening of the 
railways to Naples and Civita Vecchia have now brought a 
vast variety of new excursions within the range of a day's 


expedition — and the papal citadel of Anagni, the temples of 
Cori, the cyclopean remains of Segni, Alatri, Norba, Cervetri, 
and Corneto, and the wild heights of Soracte, will probably 
ere long become as well known as the oft-visited Tivoli, 
Ostia, and Albano. It is intended to supplement these 
" Walks in Rome " by a similar volume of *' Excursions 
round Rome." 



Hotels. — For passing travellers or bachelors, the best are: Hotel 
d'Angleterre, Bocca di Leone ; Hotel de Rome, Corso. For families, 
or for a long residence : Hotel des lies Britanniques, Piazza del 
Popolo ; Hotel de Russie (close to the last), Via Babuino ; Hotel de 
Londres, and Hotel Europa, Piazza di Spagna ; Hotel Costanzi, Via 
S. Nicolo in Tolentino, in a high airy situation towards the railway- 
station, and very comfortable and well managed, but further from the 
sights of Rome. Less expensive, are : Hotel d'Allemagne, Via Con- 
dotti ; Hotel Vittoria, Via Due Macelli ; Hotel d'ltalie. Via quattro 
Fontane ; Hotel della Pace, 8 Via Felice ; Hotel Minerva, Piazza della 
Minerva, very near the Pantheon ; Hotel del Globo, Via S. Nicolo in 

Pensions are much wanted in Rome. The best are those of Miss 
Smith and Madame Tellenbach, in the Piazza di Spagna ; Pension 
Suez, Via S. Nicolo in Tolentino ; and the small Hotel du Sud, in the 
Capo le Case. 

Apartments have lately greatly increased in price. An apartment 
for a very small family in one of the best situations can seldom be 
obtained for less than 300 to 500 francs a month. The English almost 
all prefer to reside in the neighbourhood of the Piazza di Spagna. 
The best situations are the sunny side of the Piazza itself, the Trinita de' 
Monti, the Via Gregoriana, and Via Sistina. Less good situations are, 
the Corso, Via Condotti, Via Due Macelli, Via Frattina, Capo le Case, 
Via Felice, Via Quattro Fontane, Via Babuino, and Via delle Croce, — 
in which last, however, are many very good apartments. On the other 
side of the Corso suites of rooms are much less expensive, but they are 
less convenient for persons who make a short residence in Rome. In 
many of the palaces are large apartments which are let by the year. 


Tfattorie (Restaurants) send out dinners to families in apartments in 
a tin box with a stove, for which the bearer calls the next morning. A 
dinner for six francs ought to be amply sufficient for three persons, and 
to leave enough for luncheon the next day. Restaurants where 
luncheons or dinners may be obtained upon the spot, are those of 
Bedeau, Via della Croce, and Nazzari, Piazza di Spagna. Those who 
wish for a real Roman dinner of Porcupine, Hedgehog, and other such 
delicacies, find it at the Falcone, where Ariosto used to lodge when in 

English Church. — Just outside the Porta del Popolo, on the left. 
Services at 9 a.m., ii a.m., and 3 p.m. on Sundays; daily service 
twice on week-days. The Atnerican Chuixh is in the same building, 
with an entrance further on. 

Post Office. — In the Piazza Colonna. The English mail leaves daily 
at 8 P.M. 

Telegraph Office. — 121 Piazza Monte-Citorio. A telegraph of 20 
words to England, including name and address, costs 1 1 francs. 

Bankers. — Hooker, 20 Piazza di Spagna ; Macbean, 3 78 Corso ; 
Plowden, 50 Via Mercede ; Spada and Flamini, 20 Via Condotti. 

For sending Boxes to England. — Welby, Strada Papala. (His agents 
in London, Messrs. Scott, 1 1 King William St. ) 

English Doctors. — Dr. (Irigor, 3 Pa di Spagna ; Dr. Small, 56 Via 
Babuino ; Dr. Gason, 82 Via della Croce. German : Dr. Taussig, 144 
Via Babuino. American : Dr. Gould, 107 Via Babuino. Italian : Dr. 
Valeri, 138 Via Ijabuino. 

Ilomccopaihic Doctor. — Dr. Liberali, 69 Via della Frezza. 

Dentist.— \)x. Parniby, 93 Piazza di Spagna. 

Sick-nurses. — Mrs. Meyer, 44 Via delle Carozzc ; the Nuns of the 
Bon-Secours at the convent in the Via dei Banchi. 

Chemists. — English Pharmacy, 498 Corso; Sininberghi, 134 Via 
Frattina ; and Borioni, Via Babuino, are those usually employed by the 
English ; but the chemists' shops in the Corso are as good, and much 
less expensive. 


En^^Hsh I/oHse Agcnf. — Shea, 11 Piazza di Spagna. 

English Lh't'iy Stables. — Jarrett, 3 Piazza del Popolo ; Ranucci, 
Vicolo Aliberti. 

Circulating Library. — Piale, i, 2, Piazza di Spagiia. 

Booksellers. — Monaldini, Piazza di Spagna ; Spithover, Piazza di 
Spagna; Bocca, 216 Corso ; Loesther, 346 Corso. 

Italian Masters. — Vannini, 31 Via Condotti (in the summer at the 
Bagni di Lucca) ; Monachesi (a Roman), 8 Via S. Sebastianello ; Goi- 
dini, 374 Corso ; N. Lucantini, 17 Via della Stamperia. 

PJiotographers. — For vieivs of Rome. — Watson, Via Bahuino ; Mac- 
pherson, 12 Vicolo Aliberti ; Mang, 104 Via Felice ; Anderson (his 
photographs sold at Spithover's) ; Joseph Phelps, 169 Via Babuino ; 
Maggi, 329 Corso. For Artistic Bits, very much to be recommended, 
De Bonis, 11 Via Felice. For Portraits. — Suscipi, 48 Via Condotti (the 
best for medallions) ; Alessandri, 12 Corso (excellent for Cartes de Visite) ; 
Lais, 57 Via del Campo-Marzo ; Ferretti, 50 Via Sta. Maria in Via. 

Drawing Materials. — Dovizelli, 136 Via Babuino ; Corteselli, 150 
Via Felice. For commoner articles and stationery, the "Cartoleria," 
214 Corso, opposite the Piazza Colonna. 

Engravings. — At the Stamperia Nazionale (fixed prices), 6 Via della 
Stamperia, near the fountain of Trevi. 

Antiquities. — Depoletti, 31 Via Fontanella Borghese ; Innocenti, 118 
Via Frattina ; Santelli, 141 Via Frattina ; Capobianchi, 152 Via Babuino. 

Bronzes. — RiJhrich, 104 Via Sistina ; Chiapanelli, 92 Via Babuino; 
Dressier, 17 Via Due JMacelli. 

Cameos. — Saulini, 96 Via Babuino ; Neri, 72 Via Babuino. 

Mosaics. — Rinaldi, 125 Via Babuino ; Boschetti, 74 Via Condotti. 

yewellers. — Castellani, 88 Via Poll (closed from 12 to i), verj' beau- 
tiful, but very expensive ; Pierret, 20 Piazza di Spagna ; Lmocenti, t,2, 
Piazza Trinita de' Monti. 

Roman Pearls. — Rev, 122 Via Babuino ; Lacchini, 70 Via Condotti. 


Bookbinder. — Olivieri, I Via Frattina. 

Engraver. — (For visiting cards, &c.), Martelli, 139 Via Frattina. 

Tailors. — Mattina (the "Poole" of Rome), Corso, opposite S. Carlo, 
entrance 2 Via delle Carozze ; Vai, 60 Piazza di Spagna ; Reanda, 61 
Piazza S. Apostoli ; Evert, 77 Piazza Borghese. 

Shoemakers. — Rubini, 223 Corso (none good). 

Dress}naker.-^C\2iusse, 166 Corso. 

Shops for Ladies' Dress. — Massoni, Palazzo Simonetti ; the Ville de 
Lyon, 48 Via dei Prefetti (behind S. Lorenzo in Lucina) ; Sebastiani, 
8 Via. del Campo-Marzo ; Giovannetti, 50 to 53 Campo-Marzo. 

Roman Ribbons and Shazvls. — Arvotti, 66 Piazza Madama (fixed 
prices) ; Bianchi, 82 Via della Minerva. 

Gloi'es. — Cremonesi, 420 Corso ; 4 Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina. 

Carpets and small Household Articles. — Cagiati, 250 Corso. 

German Baker. — Colalucci, 88 Via della Croce (excellent). 

English Grocer. — Lowe, 76 Piazza di Spagna. 

Italian Grocer and JFine A/erehant. — Giacosa, Via della INIaddalena. 

Oil, Candles and Wood, <Sr=c — Lnigioni, 70 Piazza di Spagna. 

English Dairy. — Palmcgiani, 66 Piazzi di Spagna. 

Artists'' Studios. — 

Benonviiic, 61 Via Babuino, — landscapes. 

Brennan, 76 Via Borghetlo. 

Coleman, 16 Via dci Zucchclli, — very good for animals. 

Corrodi, 25 Angelo-Custode, — water-colour landscapes, very higlily 

Desoulavy, ^^ Via Margutla, — landscapes. 


Fattorini, Via Margutla, — a very beautiful copyist. 

Flatz, 3 Mario di Fiori, — sacred subjects. 

Haseltine, J. H., 59 Via Babuino. 

*Joris, 33 Via Marj^utta,— quite first-rate for figure subjects in water- 

Garelli, 217 Ripetta, — an admirable copyist, generally to be found in 
the Capitoline Gallery. 

*Glennie, 17 Piazza Margana, — water-colour, first-rate. 

Knebel, 33 Via Margutta, — oil landscapes. 

Maes, 33 Via Margutta. 

*Marianecci, 53 Via Margutta, — the prince of copyists. 

MuUer, 60 Piazza Barberini, — water-colour landscapes. 

Podesti, 55 Via Margutta, — oil : large historical and sacred subjects. 

Poingdestre, 36 Vicolo dei Greci — oil : landscapes. 

Buchanan Read, 55 Via Margutta. 

*Riviere, 36 Vicolo dei Greci, — water-colour. 

De Sanctis, 33 Via Margutta. 

Strutt (Arthur), 81 Via della Croce, — landscapes and figures, both oil 
and water-colour. 

Tapiro (Spanish), 72 Sistina, — admirable for figures. 

Tilton, 20 Via S. Basilio, — remarkable for his drawings of the Nile. 

Vertunni, 53 Via Margutta. 

Wedder, 55A Via Margutta. 

*Penry Williams, 12 Piazza Mignanelli. 

Sculptors' Studios. — 

D'Epinay, 57 Via Sistina. 

Fabj-Altini, 4 S. Nicolo in Tolentino. 

Miss Foley, 53 Via RIargutta, — admirable for medallion portraits and 

busts, also the author of a beautiful fountain. 
*Miss Hosmer, 118 Via Margutta — (Gibson's studio). 
Miss Lewis, 8 Via S. Nicolo in Tolentino. 
Macdonald, 7 Piazza Barberini. 
Rosetti, 55 Via Margutta. 


Story, 2 Via S. Nicolo in Tolentino. 

Tadolini, 150A Via Babuino. 

Wood (Shakspeare), 504 Corso, — excels in medallion portraits. 

Wood (Warrington), 7 Piazza Trinita de' Monti. 

It is impossible for a traveller who spends only a week or 
ten days in Rome to see a tenth part of the sights which it 
contains. Perhaps the most important objects are : 

CJmrches. — S. Peter's, S. John Lateran, Sta. Maria Maggiore, S. 
Lorenzo fuori Mura, S. Paoli fuori Mura, S. Agnese fuori Mura, Ara 
Cceli, S. Clemente, S. Pietro in Montorio, S. Pietro in Vincoli, Sta. 
Sabina, Sta. Prassede and Sta. Pudentiana, S. Gregorio, S. Stefano 
Rotondo, Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, Sta. Maria del Popolo. 

Palaces. — Vatican, Capitol, Borghese, Barberini (and, if possible, 
Corsini, Colonna, Sciarra, Rospigliosi, and Spada). 

Villas. — Albani, Doria, Borghese, Wolkonski, and, though less 
important, Ludovisi. 

Kiiins. — Palace of the Caesars, Temples in Forum, Coliseum, and, if 
possible, the ruins in the Ghetto, and the Baths of Caracalla. 

It is desirable for the traveller who is pressed for time 
to apply at once to his Banker for orders for any of the 
villas for which they are necessary. The following scheme 
will give a good general idea of Rome and its neighbourhood 
in a few days. The sights printed in italics can only be seen 
on tlic days to which they are ascribed : — 

Afoiiday. — General view of Capitol, Gallery of Sculpture, Ara Cocl'. 
Genera! view of Forum, Coliseum, St. John Lateran (with cloisters), 
and drive out to tlie \'ia I.atiiia and the atiueducls at 'I'avolato. 

7//r.«Ay'.— Morning : St. Pcler's and Ihe Vatican Stanze. Afternoon: 
I'illa Albani, St. Agnese, and drive to the Pontc Nomentana. 


IVed/tcsday. — Go to Tivoli (llie Cascades, Cascatelle, and Villa 

Thursday. — Morning : Palace of ike Ca:sars. Afternoon : drive on the 
Via Appia as far as Torre Mezzo Strada ; in returning, see the Baths 

of Caracalla. 

Friday. — Morning : Palazzo Borghese, Palazzo Spada, The Ghetto, 
The Temple of Vesta, cross the Ponte Rotto to Sta. Cecilia ; and end 
in the afternoon at St. Pietro in Montorio and the Villa Doria (or on 

Saturday. — Frascati and Albano. Drive to Frascati early, take 
donkeys, by Rocca di Papa to Mte. Cavo ; take luncheon at the Temple, 
and return by Palazzuolo and the upper and lower Galleries to Albano, 
whither the carriage should be sent on to await you at the Hotel de 
Russie. Drive back to Rome in the evening. 

Sunday. — Morning : Sta. Maria del Popolo on way to English Church. 
Afternoon : St. Peter's again ; drive to Monte Mario (Villa Mellini), or 
in the Villa Borghese, and end with the Pincio. 

2d Monday. — Morning: Sta. Prassede, Sta. Pudentiana, Sta. Maria 
Maggiore. Afternoon : Sta. Sabina, Priorato Garden, English Ceme- 
tery, S. Paolo, and the Tre Fontane. 

2d Tuesday. — Morning : Vatican Sculptures. Afternoon : S. 
Gregorio, S. Stefano Rotondo, S. Clemente, S. Pietro in Vincoli, 
Sta. Maria degli Angeli, S. Lorenzo fuori Mura, and drive out to the 
Torre dei Schiavi, returning by the Porta Maggiore. 

2d J Wednesday. — Morning: Palazzo Barberini, Palazzo' /\osJ>igliosi, 
(and on .Saturdays) Vatican Pictures. Afternoon: Forum in detail, 
SS. Cosmo and Damian, and ascend the Coliseum. 

The following list may be useful as a guide to some of the 
best subjects for artists who wish to draw at Rome, and 
have not much time to search for themselves : — 


Morning Light : 

Temple of Vesta with the fountain. 

Arch of Constantine from the Coliseum (early). 

Coliseum from behind Sta. Francesca Romana (earl)'). 

Temples in the Forum from the School of Xanthus. 

View from the Garden of the Rupe Tarpeia. 

In the Garden of S. Giovanni e Paolo. 

In the Garden of S. Buonaventura. 

In the Garden of the S. Bartolomeo in Isola. 

In the Garden of S. Onofrio. 

On the Tiber from Poussin's Walk. 

From the door of the Villa Medici. 

At S. Cosimato. 

At the back entrance of Ara Coeli. 

At the Portico of Octavia. 

Looking to the Arch of Titus up the Via Sacra. 

In the Cloister of the Lateran. 

In the Cloister of the Certosa. 

Near the Temple of Bacchus. 

On the Via Appia, beyond Cecilia Metella. 

Torre Mezza Strada on the Via Appia. 

Torre Nomentana, looking to the mountains. 

Ponte Nomentana, looking to the Mons Sacer. 

Torre dei Schiavi, looking towards Tivoli. 

Aqueducts at Tavolato. 

Evening Light : 

From St. John Lateran. 

From the Ponte Rotto. 

From the Terrace of the Villa Doria (St. Peter's). 

Palace of the Caesars — Roman side — looking to Sta. r!all)ina. 

Palace of the Caesars — French side — looking to the Coliseum. 

Apse of .S. Giovanni e Paolo. 

Near tlie Naviculia. 

Garden of the Villa ]\Iattei. 

Garden of llie Villa Wolkouski. 

Garden of tlie Priorato. 

Porta S. Lorenzo. 

Torre dei Schiavi, looking towards Rome. 

Via Latina, looking towards the Aqueducts. 

\'ia Latina, looking towards Rome. 


The montlis of November and December are the best for 
drawing. The colouring is then magnificent ; it is enhanced 
by the tints of the decaying vegetation, and the shadows are 
strong and clear. January is generally cold for sitting out, 
and February wet ; and before the end of March the vegeta- 
tion is often so far advanced that the Alban Hills, which 
have retained glorious sapphire and amethyst tints all winter, 
change into commonplace green English downs ; while the 
Campagna, from the crimson and gold of its d}"ing thistles 
and fenochii, becomes a lovely green plain waving with 

Foreigners are much too apt to follow the nati\-e custom 
of driving constantly in the Villa Borghese, the Villa Doria, 
.and on the Pincio, and getting out to walk there during 
their drives. For those who do not care always to see the 
human world, a delightful variety of dri\es can be found ; 
and it is a most agreeable plan for invalids, Avithout carriages 
of their own, to take a " course to the I'arco di San Gre- 
gorio," or to the sunny avenues near the Lateran, and 
walk there instead of on the Pincio. A carriage for the 
return may almost always be found in the Forum or at the 



The Piazza del Popolo — Obelisk — Sta. Maiia del Popolo — (The Pincio 
— Villa Medici — Trinita de' Monti) (Via Babuino — Via jMai_c;utta — 
Piazza di Spagna — Propaganda) (Via Ripetta — SS. Rocco e Martino 
- — S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni) — S. Giacomo degli Incurabili — Via 
Vittoria — Mausoleum of Augustus — S. Carlo in Corso — Via Con- 
dotti — Palazzo Borghese — Palazzo Ruspoli — S. Lorenzo in Lucina 
• — S. Sylvestro in Capite — S. Andrea delle Fratte — Palazzo Chigi — • 
I'iazza Colonna — Palace and Obelisk of Monte-Citorio — Temple of 
Neptune — Fountain of Trevi — Palazzo Poli — Palazzo Sciarra — The 
Caravita— S. Ignazio— S. Marcello — Sta. Maria in Via Lata — Pa- 
lazzo Doria Pamtili — Palazzo Salviati — Palazzo Odescalchi — Pa- 
lazzo Colonna — Church of SS.Apostoli — Palazzo Savorelli — Palazzo 
Buonaparte — Palazzo di Venezia— Palazzo Torlonia — Ripresa del 
Barberi — S. Marco — Church of II Gesu — Palazzo Altieri. 

''T^HE first object of every traveller will naturally be to 
reach the Capitol, and look clown thence upon anciei>t 
Rome ; but as he will go down to the Corso to do' this, and 
must daily pass most of its surrounding buildings, we will 
first speak of those objects which will, ere long, become the 
most familiar. 

A stranger's first lesson in Roman geography should be 
learnt standing in the J'ltTzza dil J\>po/(), whence tlirce streets 
I)ranch off — the Corso, in the centre, leading towards the 
Capitol, beyond which lies ancient Rome ; the Babuino, on 


the left, leading to the Piazza di Spagna and the English 
quarter ; the Ripetta, on the right, leading to the Castle of 
St. Angelo and St. Peter's. The scene is one well known 
from pictures and engravings. The space between the 
streets is occupied by twin churches, erected by Cardinal 

" Les deux eglises elevees au Place du Peiiple par le Cardinal Gas- 
taldi a Tentrce du Corso, sont d'un effet mediocre. Comment un cardi- 
nal n'a-t-il pas senti qu'il ne faut pas elever une eglise pour /aire pe7i- 
t/ff«^ a quelque chose ? C'est ravaler la majcste divine." Stcndlial ,\. 172. 

It is in the church on the left that sermons are preached 
every winter on Sunday afternoons by some of the best 
Roman Catholic controversialists, just at the right moment 
for catching the Protestant congregations as they emerge 
from their chapels outside the Porta del Popolo. 

These churches are believed to occupy the site of the 
magnificent tomb of Sylla, who died at Puteoli B.C. 82, but 
was honoured at Rome with a public funeral, at which the 
patrician ladies burnt masses of incense and perfumes on 
his funeral pyre. 

The Obelisk of the Piazza del Popolo was placed on this 
site by Sixtus V. in 1589, but was originally brought to 
Rome and erected in honour of Apollo by the Emperor 

" Ai)ollo was the patron of the spot which had given a name to the 
great victory of Actium ; Apollo himself, it was proclaimed, had fought 
for Rome and for Octavius on that auspicious day ; the same Apollo, the 
Sun-god, had shuddered in his bright career at the murder of the Dic- 
tator, and terrified the nations by the eclipse of his divine countenance." 
. . . . Therefore, "besides building a temple to Apollo on the 
Palatine hill, the Emperor Augustus sought to honour him by trans- 
planting to the Circus Maximus, the sports of which were under his 


special protection, an obelisk from Heliopolis, in Egj'pt. This flame- 
shaped column was a symbol of the sun, and originally bore a blazing 
orb upon its summit. It is interesting to trace an intelligible motive for 
the first introduction into Europe of these grotesque and unsightly 
monuments of eastern superstition." — Merivale, Hist, of the Romans. 

*' This red granite obelisk, oldest of things, even in Rome, rises in 
the centre of the piazza, with a four-fold fountain at its base. All 
Roman works and ruins (whether of the empire, the far-off republic, or 
the still more distant kings) assume a transient, visionary, and impalpable 
character, when we think that this indestructible monument supplied one 
of the recollections which Moses and the Israelites bore from Egj'pt into 
the desert. Perchance, on beholding the cloudy pillar and fiery column, 
they whispered awe-stricken to one another, ' In its shape it is like that 
old obelisk which we and our fathers have so often seen on the borders 
of the Nile.' And now that very obelisk, with hardly a trace of decay 
upon it, is the first thing that the modern traveller sees after entering 
the Flaminian Gate." — Hwwthorne' s Ti-ansformaiion. 

It was on the left of the Piazza, at the foot of what was 
even then called " the Hill of Gardens," that Nero Avas 
buried (a.d, 68). 

" When Nero was dead, his nurse Eclaga, with Alexandra, and Acte 
the famous concubine, having wrapped his remains in rich white stuff, 
embroidered with gold, deposited them in the Domitian monument, 
which is seen in the Campus-Martius under the Hill of Gardens. The 
tomb was of porphyry, having an altar of Luna marble, surrom;ded by 
a balustrade of Thasos marble." — Sudoiiiits. 

Church tradition tells that from the tomb of Nero after- 
wards grew a gigantic walnut-tree, which became the resort 
of inmiinerable crows, — so numerous as to become quite a 
l^est to the neighbourhood. In the eleventh century, Pope 
Pasclial II. dreamt that these crows were demons, and that 
the Blessed Virgin coniniandod liiiii to cut down and burn 
tlie tree (" albcro malnato "), and build a sanctuary to her 
honour in its i)lace. A church was then built by means of 


a collection amongst the common people ; hence the name 
which it still retains of " St. Mary of the People." 

Sta. Maria del Popolo was rebuilt by Bacio Pintelli for 
Sixtus IV. in 1480, and very richly adorned. It was mo- 
dernized by Bernini for Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi, 
1655-67), of whom it was the family burial-place, but it 
still retains many fragments of beautiful fifteenth century 
•work (the principal door of the nave is a fine example of 
this) ; and its interior is a perfect museum of sculpture antl 

Entering the church l)y the west door, and following the 
right aisle, the first chapel (Venuti, formerly Delia Rovere*) 
is adorned Avith exquisite paintings by Fhituricc/iio. Over 
the altar is the Nativity — one of the most beautiful frescoes 
in the city ; in the lunettes are scenes from the life of vSt. 
Jerome. Cardinal Christoforo della Rovere, who built 
this chapel and dedicated it to " the Virgin and St. Jerome," 
is buried on the left, in a grand fifteenth century tomb ; on 
the right is the monument of Cardinal di Castro. Both of 
these tombs and many others in this church have interesting 
and greatly varied lunettes of the Virgin and Child. 

The second chapel, of the Cibo family, rich in pillars of 
nero-antico and jasper, has an altarpiece representing the 
Assumption of the Virgin, by Carlo Maraita. In the cupola 
is the Almighty, surrounded by the heavenly host.f 

The third chapel is also painted by Piuturicchio. Over 
the altar, the Ivladonna and four saints ; above, God the 
Father, surrounded by angels. In the other lunettes, scenes 

* Observe. — Here and elsewhere the arms of the Delia Rovere — an oak-tree. Ro- 
biir, an oak, — hence Rovere. 

t The beautiful 15th century altar of four virgin saints at S. Cosimato in Trastcvere, 
is said to have been brought from this chapel. 


in the life of the Virgin ; — that of the Virgin studying in tlie 
Temple, a very rare subject, is especially beautiful. In a 
frieze round the lower part of the wall, a series of martyr- 
doms in grisaille. On the right is the tomb of Giovanni 
della Rovere, ob. 1483. On the left is a fine sleeping bronze 
figure of a bishop, unknown. 

The fourth chapel has a fine fifteenth century altar-relief 
of St. Catherine between St. Anthony of Padua and St. 
Vincent. On the right is the tomb of Marc-Antonio 
Albertoni, ob. 1485 ; on the left, that of Cardinal Costa, of 
Lisbon, ob. 1508, erected in his lifetime. In this tomb is 
an especially beautiful lunette of the Virgin adored by 

Entering the right transept, on the right is the tomb of 
Cardinal Podocanthorus of Cyprus, a very fine specimen of 
fifteenth century work. A door near this leads into a 
cloister, where is preserved, over a door, the Gothic altar- 
piece of the church of Sixtus IV., representing the Corona- 
tion of the Virgin, and two fine tombs — Archbishop Rocca, 
ob. 1482, and Bishop Gomiel. 

The choir (shown when there is no service) has a ceiling 
by rinturiuhio. In the centre, the Virgin and Saviour, 
surrounded by the Evangelists and Sibyls ; in the corners, 
the Eathers of the Church — Gregory, Ambrose, Jerome, and 
Augustine. 13encath are the tombs of Cardinal Ascanio 
Sforza, and Cardinal Girolamo Basso, nephews of Sixtus 
IV. (Francesco della Rovere), beautiful works of Andrea di 
Sansovino. These toml)s were erected at the expense of 
Julius 11., himself a Della Rovere, who also gave the 
windows, painted by Claude and Gnillaiiinc de Marseilles, 
the only good s[)ecimens of stained glass in Rome. 


The high-altar is surmounted by a miraculous image of the 
Virgin, inscribed, "In honorificentia popuh nostri," which was 
placed in this church by Gregory IX., and which, having 
been "successfully invoked" by Gregory XIII., in the great 
plague of 1578. has ever since been annually adored by the 
pope of the period, who prostrates himself before it upon 
the 8th of September. The chapel on the left of this has 
an Assumption, by Aiuiibalc Caracci. 

In the left transept is the tomb of Cardinal Bernardino 
Lonati, with a fine fifteenth century relief of the Resurrec- 

Returning by the left aisle, the last chapel but one is that 
of the Chigi family, in which the famous banker, Agostino 
Chigi (who built the Farnesina) is buried, and in which 
Raphael is represented at once as a painter, a sculptor, and 
an architect. He planned the chapel itself; he drew the 
strange design of the Mosaic on the ceiling (carried out by 
Aloisio dclla Pace), which represents an extraordinary mix- 
ture of Paganism and Christianity, Mercury, Venus, Mars, 
Jupiter, and Saturn (as the planets), conducted by angels, 
being represented with and surrounding Jehovah; and he 
modelled the beautiful statue of Jonah seated on the whale, 
which was sculptured in the marble by Lofoizdto. The 
same artist sculptured the figure of Elijah, — those of Daniel 
and Habakkuk being by Bernini. The altarpiece, repre- 
senting the Nativity of the Virgin, is a fine Avork of Sebastian 
del Piombo. On the pier adjoining this chapel is the strange 
monument by Fosi (I'j^i) of a Princess Odescalchi Chigi, 
who died in childbirth, at the age of twenty, erected by her 
husband, who describes himself, " In solitudine ct luclu 


The last chapel contains two fine fifteenth century ciboria, 
and the tomb of CarcUnal Antonio Pallavicini, 1507. 

On the left of the principal entrance is the remarkable 
monument of Gio. Batt. Gislenus, the companion and friend 
of Casimir I. of Poland (ob. 1670). At the top is his portrait 
while living, inscribed, " Neque hie vivus "; then a medallion 
of a chrysalis, "In nidulo meo moriar"; opposite to which 
is a medallion of a buttei'fly emerging, " Ut Phoenix multi- 
plicabo dies " : below is a hideous skeleton of giallo antico 
in a white marble winding-sheet, " Neque hie mortuus." 

Martin Luther "often spoke of death as the Christian's true birth, 
and this life as but a growing into the chiysalis-shell in which the spirit 
lives till its being is developed, and it bursts the shell, casts off the web, 
struggles into life, spreads its wings, and soars up to God." 

The Augustine Convent adjoining this church was the 
residence of Luther while he was in Rome. Here he 
celebrated mass immediately on his arrival, after he had 
prostrated himself upon the earth, saying, " Hail sacred 
Rome ! thrice sacred for the blood of the mart}TS shed 
here ! " Here, also, he celebrated mass for the last time 
before he departed from Rome to become the most terrible 
of her enemies. 

" Lui pauvrc t'colicr, tlevc si durcmcnt, qui souvcnt, pendant son 
enfance, n'avait pour oreiller qu'une dalle froide, il passe devant des 
temples tout de marbre, devant des colonnes d'albatre, des gigantesques 
obtlisques de granite, des fontaines jaillissantes, d_es vilhis fraiches et 
embcllies de jardins, de flcurs, de cascades ct de grottes. Veut-il prier? 
il cntre dans unc cglise qui lui semble uu monde veritable, oil les dia- 
mants scinlillent sur I'autel, Tor aux soffites, le marbre aux colonnes, la 
mosa'ique aux chapelles, au lieu d'un de ces temples rustiques qui n'ont 
dans sa patrie jwur tout ornement que quelques roses qu'une main 
pieuse va deposcr sur I'autel le jour du dimanche. Est-il fatigue de la 
route ? il trouve sur son chemin, non plus un modesle banc de bois, 


mais un siege d'albatre antique recemnient dctene. Cherche-t-il une 
sainte image ? il n'apergoit que des fantaisies pai'ennes, des divinitcs 
olympiques, Apollon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, auxquelles travaillent 
mille mains de sculpteurs. De toutes ces merveilies, il ne comprit rien, 
il ne vit rien. Aucun rayon de la couronne de Raphael, de Michel- 
Ange, n'eblouit ses regards ; il resta froid et muet devant tous les 
trcsors de peinture et de sculpture rassembles dans les eglises ; son 
oreille fut fermee aux chants du Dante, que le peuple repetait autour 
de lui. II etait entre a Rome en pelerin, il en sort comme Coriolan, et 
s'ecrie avec Bembo : ' Adieu, Rome, que doit fuir quiconque veut vivre 
saintement ! Adieu, ville ou tout est permis, excepte d'etre homme de 
bien.' " — Audin, Histoirc de Lnther, c. ji. 

It was in front of this church that the cardinals and mag- 
nates of Rome met to receive the apostate Christina of 
Sweden upon her entrance into the city. 

On the left side of the piazza rise the terraces of the 
Pincio, adorned with rostral-columns, statues, and marble 
bas-reliefs, interspersed with cypresses and pines. A wind- 
ing road, lined with mimosas and other flowering shrubs, 
leads to the upper platform, now laid out in public drives 
and gardens, but, till twenty years ago, a deserted waste, 
where the ghost of Nero was believed to wander in the 
middle ages. 

Hence the Eternal City is seen spread at our feet, and 
beyond it the wide-spreading Campagna, till a silver line 
marks the sea melting into the horizon beyond Ostia. All 
these churches and tall palace roofs become more than mere 
names in the course of the winter, but at first all is bewilder- 
ment. Two great buildings alone arrest the attention : 

" Westward, beyond the Tiber, is the Castle of St. Angelo, the im- 
mense tomb of a pagan emperor with the archangel on its summit. . . 


Still further off, a miglity pile of buildings, surmounted by a vast dome, 
vhich all of us have shaped and swelled outward, like a huge bubble, 
to the utmost scope of our imaginations, long before v^e see it floating 
over the worship of the city. At any neaier view the grandeur of 
St. Peter's hides itself behind the immensity of its separate parts, so 
that we only see the front, only the sides, only the pillared length and 
loftiness of the portico, and not the mighty whole. But at this distance the 
entire outline of the world's cathedral, as well as that of the palace of the 
world's chief priest, is taken in at once. In such remoteness, moreover, 
the imagination is not debarred from rendering its assistance, even 
while we have the reality before our eyes, and helping the weakness of 
human sense to do justice to so grand an object. It requires both faith 
and fancy to enable us to feel, what is nevertheless so true, that yonder, 
in front of the purple outline of the hills, is the grandest edifice ever 
built by man, painted against God's loveliest sky." — Ha-wthornc. 

Here the band plays under the great pahn-tree every 
afternoon except Friday. On Sunday afternoons the Pincio 
is in what Miss Thackeray describes as " a fashionable halo of 
sunset and pink parasols " — when immense crowds collect, 
showing every phase of Roman life ; and disperse again as 
the Ave-Maria bell rings from the cliurches, either to de- 
scend into the city, or to hear benediction sung by the nuns 
in the Trinity de' Monti. 

"When the fasliionable hour of rendezvous arrives, the same spot, 
which a few minutes before was immersed in silence and solitude, 
changes as it were with the rapidity of a scene in a pantomime to an 
animated panorama. The scene is rendered not a little ludicrous by the 
miniature representation of the Ring in Myde Park in a small compass. 
An entire revolution of the carriage-drive is performed in the short 
period of three minutes as near as may be, and the perpetual occurrence 
of the same physiognomies and the same carriages trotting round and 
round fur two successive hours, necessarily reminds one uf the proceed- 
ings of a country fair, and children whirling in a roundabout." — Sir G. 
Jlciufs ' Tour in Rome.'' 

"ThePincian Hill is the favourite ]iromcnade of the Roman aris- 
tocracy. At the ]irescnt day, however, like most other Roman 
possessions, it belongs less to the native inhabitants than to the, 


barbarians from Gaul, Great Britain, an'l lieyond the sea, who have 
established a peaceful usurpation over all that is enjoyable or memor- 
able in the Eternal City. These foreign guests are indeed ungrateful, if 
tliey do not breathe a prayer for Pope Clement, or whatever Holy 
Father it may have been, who levelled the summit of the mount 
so skilfully, and bounded it with the parapet of the city wall ; who 
laid out those broad walks and drives, and overhung them witli 
the shade of many kinds of tree ; who scattered the flowers of all 
seasons, and of every clime, abundantly over those smooth, central 
lawns ; who scooped out hollows in fit places, and setting great basons 
of marble in them, caused ever-gushing fountains to fill them to the 
brim ; who reared up the immemorial obelisk out of the soil that had 
long hidden it ; who placed pedestals along the borders of the avenues, 
and covered them with busts of that multitude of worthies, — statesmen^ 
heroes, artists, men of letters and of song, — whom the whole world 
claims as its chief ornaments, though Italy has produced them all. In a 
word, the Pincian garden is one of the things that reconcile the stranger 
(since he fully appreciates the enjoyment, and feels nothing of the cost,) 
to the rule of an irresponsinle dynasly of Holy Fathers, who seem 
to have arrived at making life as agreeable an affair as it can 
well be. 

" In this pleasant spot the red-trousered French soldiers are always 
to be seen ; bearded and grizzled veterans, perhaps, with medals of 
Algiers or the Crimea on their breasts. To them is assigned the peaceful 
duty of seeing that children do not trample on the flower-beds, nor any 
youthful lover rifle them of their fragrant blossoms to stick in his 
beloved one's hair. Here sits (drooping upon some marble bench, in 
the treacherous sunshine,) the consumptive girl, whose friends have 
brought her, for a cure, into a climate that instils poison into its very 
purest breath. Here,' all day, come nursery maids, burdened with rosy 
English babies, or guiding the footsteps of little travellers from the for 
western world. Here, in the sunny afternoon, roll and rumble all 
kinds of carriages, from the Cardinal's old-fashioned and gorgeous 
purple carriage to the gay barouche of modern date. Here horsemen 
gallop on thorough-bred steeds. Here, in short, all the transitory 
population of Rome, the world's great watering-place, rides, drives, or 
promenades ! Here are beautiful sunsets ; and here, whichever way 
you turn your eyes, are scenes as well worth gazing at, both in them- 
selves and for their historical interest, as any that the sun ever rose and 
set upon. Here, too, on certain afternoons in the week, a French 
military band flings out rich music over the poor old city, floating her 
with strains as loud as those of her own echoless triu:nphs." — Ilan'tltoriie. 


The garden of the Pincio is very small, but beautifully- 
laid out. At a crossroads is placed an Obelisk, brought 
from Egypt, and which the late discoveries in hierogly- 
phics show to have been erected there, in the joint names of 
Hadrian and his empress Sabina, to their beloved Antinous, 
Avho was drowned in the Nile a.d. 131. 

From the furthest angle of the garden we look down upon 
the strange fragment of wall known as the Mtiro-Torto. 

" Le Muro-Torto ofifre un souvenir curieux. On nomme ainsi un pan 
de muraille qui, avant de faire partie du rempart d'Honorius, avait 
servi a soutenir la tenasse du jardin du Domitius, et qui, du temps 
de Belisaire, etait deja incline comma il I'est aujourd'liui. Procope 
racconte que Belisaire voulait le rebatir, mais que les Remains I'en em- 
pecherent, affirmant que ce point n'etait pas expos^, parce que Saint 
Pierre avait promis de le defendre. Procope ajoute : ' Personne n'a ose 
reparer ce mur, et il reste encore dans le meme etat.' Nous pouvons 
en dire autant que Procope, et le mur, detache de la colline a laquelle 
il s'appuyait, reste encore incline et semble pres de tomber. Ce detail du 
siege de Rome est confirme par I'aspect singulier du Muro-Torto, qui 
senii'U toiijoiirs pris de tomber, et subsiste dans le meme etat depuis 
quatorze siecles, comme s'il etait soutenu miraculeusement par la main 
de Saint Pierre. On ne saurait guere trouver pour I'autoxute temporel 
des papes, un meilleur symbole." — Ampere, Etnp. ii. 397. 

" At the furthest point of the Pincio, you look dovi^n from the parapet 
upon the Muro-Torto, a massive fragment of the oldest Roman wall, 
which juts over, as if ready to tumble down by its own weight, yet 
seems still the most indestructible piece of work that men's hands ever 
piled together. In the blue distance rise Soracte, and other heights, 
which have gleamed afar, to our imagination, but look scarcely real to 
our bodily eyes, because, being dreamed about so much, they have taken 
the aerial tints which belong only to a dream. These, nevertheless, are 
the solid framework of hills that shut in Rome, and its broad surround- 
ing Campagna ; no land of dreams, but the broadest page of history, 
crowded so full with memorable events, that one obliterates another, as 
if Time had crossed and rccrosscd his own records till they grew 
illegible. " — Jlinvthorne. 

\\\ early imperial times the site of the Pincio garden was 


occupied by the famous villa of Lucullus, who had gained 

his enormous wealth as general of the Roman armies \n 

"The life of Lucullus was like an ancient comedy, where first we sec 
great actions, both political and military, and afterwards feasts, de- 
bauches, races by torchlight, and every kind of frivolous amusement. 
For among frivolous amusements, I cannot but reckon his sumptuous 
villas, walks, and baths ; and still more so the paintings, statues, and 
other works of art which he collected at immense expense, idly squan- 
dering away upon them the vast fortune he amassed in the wars. Inso- 
much that now, when luxury is so much advanced, the gardens of 
Lucullus rank with those of the kings, and are esteemed the most mag- 
nificent even of these." — riularch. 

Here, in his Pincian villa, Lucullus gave his celebrated 
feast to Cicero and Pompey, merely mentioning to a slave 
beforehand that he should sup in the hall of Apollo, which 
was understood as a command to prepare all that was most 

After Lucullus — the beautiful Pincian villa belonged to Valerius 
Asiaticus, and in the reign of Claudius was coveted by his fifth wife, 
Messalina. She suborned Silius, her son's tutor, to accuse him of a 
licentious life, and of corrupting the army. Being condemned to death, 
"Asiaticus declined the counsel of his friends to starve himself, a course 
which might leave an interval for the chance of pardon ; and after 
the lofty fashion of the ancient Romans, bathed, perfumed, and 
supped magnificently, and then opened his veins, and let himself bleed 
to death. Before dying he inspected the pyre prepared for him in his 
own gardens, and ordered it to be removed to another spot, that an 
umbrageous plantation which overhung it might not be injured by the 

As soon as she heard of his death, Messalina took possession of the 
villa, and held high revel there Avith her numerous lovers, with the 
most favoured of whom, Silius, she had actually gone through the 
religious rites of marriage in the lifetime of the emperor, who was 
absent at Ostia. But a conspiracy among the freednien of the royal 
household informed the emperor of what was taking place, and at last 
even Claudius was aroused to a sense other enormities. 


" In her suburban palace, Messalina was abandoning herself to volup- 
tuous transports. The season was mid-autumn; the vintage was in full 
progress ; the wine-press was groaning ; the ruddy juice was streaming ; 
women girt with scanty fawnskins danced as drunken Bacchanals around 
her : while she herself, with her hair loose and disordered, brandished 
the thyrsus in the midst, and Silius by her side, buskined and crowned 
with ivy, tossed his head to the flaunting strains of Silenus and the 
Satyrs. Vettius, one, it seems, of the wanton's less fortunate paramours, 
attended the ceremony, and climbed in merriment a lofty tree in the 
garden. When asked what he saw, he replied, ' an awful storm from 
Ostia ' ; and whether there was actually such an appearance, or whether 
the words were spoken at random, they were accepted afterwards as an 
omen of the catastrophe which quickly followed. 

"For now in the midst of these wanton orgies the rumour quickly 
spread, and swiftly messengers arrived to confirm it, that Claudius knew 
it all, that Claudius was on his way to Rome, and was coming in anger 
and vengeance. The lovers part : Silius for the forum and the tribunals ; 
Messalina for the shade of her gardens on the Pincio, the price of the 
blood of the murdered Asiaticus." Once the empress attempted to go 
forth to meet Claudius, taking her children with her, and accompanied 
by Vibidia, the eldest of the vestal virgins, whom she persuaded to 
intercede for her, but her enemies prevented her gaining access to 
her husband ; Vibidia was satisfied for the moment by vague pro- 
mises of a later hearing ; and upon the arrival of Claudius in Rome, 
Silius and the other principal lovers of the empress were put to death. 
"Still Messalina hoped. She had withdrawn again to the gardens of 
Lucullus, and was there engaged in composing addresses of supplication 
to her husband, in which her pride and long-accustomed insolence still 
faintly struggled into her fears. The emperor still paltered with the 
treason, lie had retired to his palace ; he had bathed, anointed, and 
lain down to suj^per ; and, warmed with wine and generous cheer, he 
had actually despatched a message to the poor creature, as he called 
her, bidding her come the next day, and plead her cause before him. 
Uut her enemy Narcissus, knowing how easy might be the passage 
from compassion to love, glided from the chamber, and boldly 
ordered a tribune and some centurions to go and slay his victim. 
'Such,' he said, 'was the cm]ieror's command'; and his word was 
obeyed without hesitation. Under the direction of the freedman 
I''uodus, the armed men sought the outcast in her gardens, where she 
lay ]irostratc on the ground, by the side of her mother Lcpida. While 
thiir fortunes flourished, dissensions had existed between the two ; but 
now, in her last distress, the mother had refused to desert her child, 



and only strove to nerve her resolution to a voluntary death. ' Life,' she 
urged, 'is over ; nought remains but to look for a decent exit from it.' 
But the soul of the reprobate was corrupted by her vices ; she retained 
no sense of honour ; she continued to weep and groan as if hope still 
existed ; when suddenly the doors were burst open, the tribune and his 
swordsmen appeared before her, and Euodus assailed her, dumb-stricken 
as she lay, with contumelious and brutal reproaches. Roused at last to 
the consciousness of her desperate condition, she took a weapon from 
one of the men's hands and pressed it trembling against her throat and 
bosom. Still she wanted resolution to give the thrust, and it was by a 
blow of the tribune's falchion that the horrid deed was finally accom- 
plished. The death of Asiaticus was avenged on the very spot ; the 
hot blood of the wanton smoked on the pavement of his gardens, and 
stained with a deeper hue the variegated marbles of LucuUus." — Men- 
vale, IList. of the Romans wider the E?iipire. 

From the garden of the Pincio a terraced road (beneath 
which are the long-closed catacombs of St. Fehx) leads to 
the Villa Medici, built for Cardinal Ricci da Montepulciano 
by Annibale Lippi in 1540. Shortly afterwards it passed 
into the hands of the Medici family, and was greatly 
enlarged by Cardinal Alessandro de Medici, afterwards Leo 
XL In 1 80 1 the Academy for French Art-Students, founded 
by Louis XIV., was established here. The villa contains a 
fine collection of casts, open every day except Sunday. 

Behind the villa is a beautiful Gardcji (which can be 
visited on application to the porter). The terrace, which 
looks down upon the Villa Borghese, is bordered by ancient 
sarcophagi, and has a colossal statue of Rome. The garden 
side of the villa has sometimes been ascribed to Michael 

" La plus grande coquetterie de la maison, c'est la facade posterieure. 
Elle tient son rang parmi les chefs-d'oeuvre de la Renaissance. On 
dirait que I'architecte a epuise une mine de bas-reliefs grecs et romains 
pour en tapisser son palais. Le jardin est de la meme epoque : il date 
du temps oil I'aristocratie romaine professait le plus profond dedain pour 
VOL. I. 4 


les fleurs. On n'y voit que des massifs de verdure, aligne's avec un soin 
scrupuleux. Six pelouses, entourees de haies a hauteur d'appui, s'eten- 
deiit devant la villa et laissent courir la vue jusqu'au mont Soracte, qui 
ferme I'horizon. A gauclie, quatre fois quatre carres de gazon s'en- 
cadrent dans de hautes muvailles de lauriers, de buis gigantesques et de 
chenes verts. Les murailles se rejoignent au-dessus des allees et les 
enveloppent d'une ombre fraiche et mysterieuse. A droite, une ter- 
rasse d'une style noble encadre un bois de chenes verts, tordus et 
eventres par le temps. J'y vais quelquefois travailler a 1' ombre ; et le 
merle rivalise avec le rossignol au-dessus de ma tete, comme un beau 
chantre de village pent rivaliser avec Mario ou Roger. Un peu plus 
loin, une vigne toute rustique s'etend jusqu'a la porte Pinciana, ou 
Belisaire a mendie, dit-on. Les jardins petits et grands sont semes de 
statues, d'Hermes, et de marbres de toute sorte. L'eau coule dans des 
sarcophages antiques ou jaiilit dans des vasques de marbre : le marbre et 
l'eau sont les deux luxes de Rome." — About, Ro7ne Cojitetjiporaine. 

" The grounds of the Villa Medici are laid out in the old fashion of 
straight paths, vi'ith borders of box, which form hedges of great height 
and density, and are shorn and trimmed to the evenness of a wall of 
stone, at the top and sides. There are green alleys, with long vistas, 
overshadowed by ilex-trees ; and at each intersection of the paths the 
visitor finds seats of lichen-covered stone to repose upon, and marble 
statues that look forlornly at him, regretful of their lost noses. In the 
more ojjen portions of the garden, before the sculptured front of the 
villa, you see fountains and flower-beds ; and, in their season, a profu- 
sion of roses, from which the genial sun of Italy distils a fragrance, to 
be scattered abroad by the no less genial breeze." — HaiutJiorne. 

A second door will admit to the higher terrace of the 
BoscJietto ; a tiny wood of ancient ilexes, from which a steep 
flight of steps leads to the " Belviderc," whence there is a 
beautiful view. 

" They asked the porter for the key of the Bosco, which was given, 
and they entered a grove of ilexes, whose gloomy sliade effectually shut 
out the radiant sunshine that still illuminated the western sky. They 
then ascended a long and exceedingly steep (light of steps, leading up 
to a high mound covered with ilexes. 

"Here both stood still, side by side, gazing silently on the city, 
where dome and bell-tower stood out against a sky of gold ; the deso- 


late Monte Mario and its stone pines rising dailc to the right. Behind, 
close at hand, were sombre ilex woods, amid which rose here and tliere 
the spire of a cypress or a ruined arch, and on the highest point, the 
white Villa Ludovisi ; beyond, stretched the Campagna, girdled by hills 
melting into light under the evening sky." — Mademoiselle Mori, 

From the door of the Villa Medici is the scene famihar to 
artists, of a fountain shaded by ilexes, which frame a 
distant view of St. Peter's. 

"Je vois (de la Villa Medici) les quatre cinquiemes de la ville ; je 
compte les sept coUines, je parcours les rues regulieres qui s'etendent 
entre le cours et la place d'Espagne, je fais le d'enombrement des palais, 
des eglises, des domes, et des clochers ; je m'egare dans le Ghetto et 
dans la Trastevere. Je ne vois pas des ruines autant que j'en voudrais : 
elles sont ramassees la-bas, sur ma gauche, aux environs du Forum. Ce- 
pendant nous avons tout pres de nous la colonne Antonine et la mau- 
solee d'Adrien. La vue est fermee agreablement par les pins de la villa 
Pamphili, qui reunissent leurs larges parasols et font comme une table a 
mille pieds pour un repas de geants. L'horizon fuit a gauche a des 
distances infinies ; la plaine est nue, onduleuse et bleue comme la mer. 
Mais si je vous mettais en presence d'un spectacle si etendu et si divers, 
en seul objet attirerait vos regards, un seul frapperait votre attention : 
vous n'auriez des yeux que pour Saint Pierre. Son dome est moitie 
dans la ville, moitie dans la ciel. Quand j'ouvre ma fenetre, vers cinq 
heures du matin, je vois Rome noyee dans les brouillards de la fievre : 
seul, le dome de Saint-Pierre est colore par la lumiere rose du soleil 
levant." — About. 

The terrace (" La Passeggiata ") ends at the Obelisk of the 
Trinita dtf Monti., erected here in 1822 by Pius VII., who 
found it near the Church of Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme. 

"When the Ave Maria sounds, it is time to go to the church of 
Trinita de' Monti, where French nuns sing ; and it is charming to hear 
them. I declare to heaven that I am become quite tolerant, and listen 
to bad music with edification ; but what can I do ? The composition is 
perfectly ridiculous, the organ-pkiying even more absurd : but it is 
twilight, and the whole of the small bright church is filled with persons 
Ivneeling, lit up by the sinking sun each time that the door is opened ; 


both the singuig nuns have the sweetest voices in the world, quite 
tender and touching, more especially when one of them sings the 
responses in her melodious voice, which we are accustomed to hear 
chaunted by priests in a loud, harsh, monotonous tone. The impres- 
sion is very singular ; moreover, it is well known that no one is per- 
mitted to see the fair singers, so this caused me to form a strange 
resolution. I have composed something to suit their voices, which I 
have observed very minutely, and I mean to send it to them. It will 
be pleasant to hear my chaunt performed by persons I never saw, 
especially as they must in turn sing it to the 'barbaro Tedescho,' whom 
they also never beheld." — Mendelssohn^ s Letters. 

" In the evenings people go to the Trinita to hear the nuns sing from 
the organ-gallery. It sounds like the singing of angels. One sees in 
the choir troops of young scholars, moving with slow and measured 
steps, with their long white veils, like a flock of spirits. "^/r^- 
derika Bremer. 

The CJnirch of the Trinita de^ Monti was buik in 1495 by 
Charles VIII. of France, at the request of S. Francesco di 
Paola. At the time of the French revokition it was plun- 
dered, but was restored by Louis XVIII. in 1S17. It con- 
tains several interesting paintings. 

In the second chapel on the left is the Descent from the 
Cross, the masterpiece of Da?tiele da Volterra, declared by 
Nicholas Poussin to be the third picture in the world, but 
terribly injured by the French in their attempts to remove 

" We might almost fancy ourselves spectators of the mournful scene, 
— the Redeemer, while being removed from the cross, gradually sinking 
down with all that relaxation of limb and utter heljjlessness which 
belongs to a dead body ; the assistants engaged in their various duties, 
and thrown into different and contrasted attitudes, intently occupied 
with the sacred remains which they so reverently gaze upon ; the 
mother of the Lord in a swoon amidst her afflicted companions ; the 
disciple whom he loved standing with outstretched arms, absorbed in 
contemplating the mysterious spectacle. The truth in the representa- 
tion of the exposed parts of the body appears to be nature itself The 
colouring of the heads and of the whole picture accords precisely with 


the subject, displaying strength rather than dehcacy, a harmony, and in 
short a degree of skill, of which M. Angelo himself might have been 
proud, if the picture had been inscribed with his name. And to this I 
believe the author alluded, when he painted his friend with a looking- 
glass near it, as if to intimate that he might recognize in the picture a 
reflection of himself." — Laiizi. 

•' Daniele da Volterra's Descent from the Cross is one of the cele- 
brated pictures of the world, and has very grand features. The body is 
not skilfully sustained ; nevertheless the number of strong men employed 
about it makes up in sheer muscle for the absence of skill. Here are 
four ladders against the cross, stalwart figures standing, ascending, and 
descending upon each, so that the spate between the cross and the 
ground is absolutely alive with magnificent lines. The Virgin lies on 
one side, and is like a grand creature struck down by a sudden death- 
blow. She has fallen, like Ananias in Raphael's cartoon, with her head 
bent backwards, and her arm under her. The crown of tliorns has been 
taken from the dead brow, and rests on the end of one of the ladders." _ 
• — Lady Eastlake. 

The third chapel on the right contains an Assumption 
of the Virgin, another work of Danidc da Volfcrra. The 
fifth chapel is adorned with frescoes of his school. The 
sixth has frescoes of the school of Fcn/gino. The frescoes 
in the right transept are by F. Zuccaro and Picrino del Vaga; 
in that of the Procession of St. Gregory the mausoleum of 
Hadrian is represented as it appeared in the time of Leo X. 

The adjoining Convent of the Sacre Cccur is much fre- 
quented as a place of education. The nuns are all persons 
of rank. When a lady takes the veil, her nearest relations 
inherit her property, except about 1000/., which goes to the 
convent. The nuns are allowed to retain no personal pro- 
perty, but if they wish still to have the use of their books, 
they give them to the convent library. They receive visitors 
every afternoon, and quantities of people go to them from 
curiosity, on the plea of seeking advice. 

From the Trinita the two popular streets — Sistina and 


Gregoriana — branch off; the former leading in a direct Hne 
(though the name changes) to Sta. Maria Maggiore, and 
thence to St. John Lateran and Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme. 
The house adjoining the Trinita was that of Nicholas 
Poussin ; that at the angle of the two streets, called the 
Ihnpietto, was once inhabited by Claude Lorraine. The 
adjoining house (64 Sistina) — formerly known as Palazzo 
della Regina di Polonia, from Maria Casimira, Queen of 
Poland, who resided there for some years — was inhabited 
by the Zuccari family, and has paintings on the ground- 
floor by Fcderigo Zuccaro. One of the rooms on the first- 
floor was adorned with frescoes by modern German artists 
at the expense of the Prussian consul Bartholdy, viz. : — 

The Selling of Joseph : Ovej-beck. 

Joseph and Potiphar's Wife : Veit. 

Meeting of Joseph and his Brethren : Cornelius. 

The Seven Lean Years : Ovcrbeck. 

Joseph interprets the Dreams in Prison : Schadam. 

The Bretliren bring Joseph's Coat to Jacob : Schadow. 

Joseph interprets tlie Dreams of Pharaoh : Cornelius. 

The Seven Plentiful Years : Veil. 

On the left of the Piazza del Popolo, the Via Babtiino 
branches off, deriving its name from the mutilated figure on 
a fountain halfway down. On the right is the Greek 
Cliurch of S. Atajiasio, attached to a college founded by 
Gregory XIII. in 1580. 

"To-day, the feast of the Epiphany, I have witnessed mass accord- 
ing to the Greek rite. The ceremonies appear to be more stately, more 
severe, more significant, and at the same time more popular, than those 
of the Latin rite." — Goethe, Romische Brief e. 

Behind this street is the Via Margutta, almost entirely 
inhabited l)y artists and sculptors. 


"The Via Margutta is a street of studios and staliles, crossed at the 
upper end by a little roofed gallery with a single window, like a shabby 
Bridge of Sighs. Horses are continually being washed and currycombed 
outside their stable doors ; frequent heaps of immondczzajo make the air 
unfragrant ; and the perspective is frequently damaged by rows of linen 
suspended across the i-oad from window to window. Unsightly as they 
are, however, these obstacles in no wise affect the popularity of the Via 
Margutta, either as a residence for the artist, or a lounge for the amateur. 
Fashionable patrons leave their carriages at the corner, and pick their 
way daintily among the gutters and dust-heaps. A boar-hunt by Val- 
latti compensates for an unlucky splash ; and a campagna sunset of 
Desoulavey glows all the richer for the squalor through which it is ap- 
proaclied. " — Barbara! s History. 

In this street also is situated the Costume Academy. 

" Imagine a great barn of a room, with dingy walls half covered with 
chalk studies of the figure in all possible attitudes. Opposite the door 
is a low platform with revolving top, and beside it an ecorche, or 
plaster figure bereft of skin, so as to exhibit the muscles. Ranges 
of benches, raised one above the other, occupy the remainder of the 
room ; and if you were to look in at about eight o'clock on a winter's 
evening, you would find them tenanted by a multitude of young artists, 
mostly in their shirt sleeves, with perhaps three or four ladies, all 
disposed around the model, who stands upon the platform in one of the 
picturesque costumes of Southern Italy, with a cluster of eight lamps, 
intensified by a powerful reflector, immediately above his or her unlucky 

The costumes are regulated by Church times and seasons. During 
Lent the models were mediaeval dresses ; during the winter and carnival, 
Italian costumes of the present day ; and with Easter begin mere drape- 
ries, pieghe, or folds, as they are technically called. 

Every evening the subject for the next night is chalked up on a 
black board beside the platform ; for the next hvo nights rather ; for 
each model poses for two evenings ; the position of his feet being 
chalked upon the platform, so as to secure the same attitude on the 
second evening. Consequently, four hours are allowed for each drawing. 
TYiQ picghe are only for a single time, as it would be impos- 
sible to secure the same folds twice over The expense of 

attending the Academy, including attendance, each person's share in 
the model, and his own especial lamp, amounts to 2\d. an evening, or 


a scudo and a half (about 6s. 6d. ) a month ; marvellously cheap, it must 
be confessed." — H. M. B., in Once a Week. 

The Babuino ends in the ugly but central square of the 
Piazza di Spagna, where many of the best hotels and 
shops are situated. Hence the Trinita is reached by a 
magnificent flight of steps (disgracefully ill kept), which 
was built by Alessandro Specchi at the expense of a private 
individual, M. Gueffier, secretary to the French embassy 
at Rome, under Innocent XIII. 

" No art -loving visitor to Rome can ever have passed the noble flight 
of steps which leads from the Piazza di Spagna to the Church of the 
Trinita de' Monti without longing to transfer to his sketch-book the 
picturesque groups of models who there spend their day, basking in the 
beams of the wintry sun, and eating those little boiled beans whose 
yellow husks bestrew every place where the lower class Romans congre- 
gate — practising, in short, the 'dolce farniente.' Beppo, the celebrated 
lame beggar, is no longer to be seen there, having been banished to the 
steps of the Church of St. Agostino ; but there is old Felice, with 
conical hat, bro\\'n cloak, and bagjiipes, father of half the models on the 
steps. He has been seen in an artist's studio in Paris, and is reported to 
have performed on foot the double journey between Rome and that 
capital. There are two or three younger men in blue jackets and goat- 
skin breeches ; as many women in folded linen head-dresses, and red 
or blue skirts ; and a sprinkling of children of both sexes, in costumes 
the miniature fac-similcs of their elders. All these speedily learn to 
recognise a visitor who is interested in that especial branch of art which 
is embodied in models, and at every turn in the street such a one is met 
by the flash of white teeth, and the gracious sweetness of an Italian 
smile."— //.;I/.j9. 

"Among what may be called the cubs or minor lions of Rome, there 
was one that amused me mightily. It is always to be found there ; and 
its den is on the great flight of steps that lead from the Piazza di Spagiia 
to the Church of the Triniti de' Monti. In plainer words, these steps 
arc the great place of resort for the artists' ' Models,' and there they are 
constantly waiting to be hired. The first time I went up there, I could 
not conceive why the faces seemed so familiar to me ; why they appeared 
to have beset me, for years, in every possible variety of action and cos- 


tume ; and how it came to pass that they started up before me, in Rome, 
in the broad day, like so many saddled and bridled nightmares. I soon 
found that we had made acquaintance, and improved it, for several years, 
on the walls of various Exhibition Galleries. There is one old gentle- 
man with long white hair, and an immense beard, who, to my know- 
ledge, has gone half-through the catalogues of the Royal Academy. 
This is the venerable or patriarchal model. He carries a long staff; 
and every knob and twist in that staff I have seen, faithfully delineated, 
innumerable times. There is another man in a blue cloak, who always 
pretends to be asleep in the sun (when there is any), and who, I need 
not say, is always very wide awake, and very attentive to the disposi- 
tion of his legs. This is the dolce far ttiente model. There is another 
man in a brown cloak, who leans against a wall, with his arms folded 
in his mantle, and look out of the corners of his eyes, which are just 
visible beneath his broad slouched hat. This is the assassin model. 
There is another man, who constantly looks over his own shoulder, and 
is always going away, but never goes. This is the haughty or scornful 
model. As to Domestic Happiness, and Holy Families, they should 
come very cheap, for there are heaps of them, all up the steps ; and the 
cream of the thing is, that they are all the falsest vagabonds in the 
world, especially made up for the purpose, and having no counterparts 
in Rome or any other part of the habitable globe." — Dickens. 

"Climb these steps when the sun is setting. From a hundred 
belfries the bells ring for Ave Maria, and there, across the town, and in 
a blaze of golden glory, stands the great dome of St. Peter's : and from 
the terrace of the Villa Medici you can see the whole wonderful view, 
faintly pencilled Soracte far to your right, and below you and around 
you the City and the Seven Hills." — Vera. 

The Barcaccia, the fountain at the foot of the steps, exe- 
cuted by Bernini, is a stone boat commemorating the 
naumachia of Domitian, — naval battles which took place in 
an artificial lake surrounded by a kind of theatre, which 
once occupied the site of this piazza. In front of the Pa- 
lazzo di Spagna (the residence of the Spanish ambassador), 
which gives its name to the square, stands a Cohan n of ci- 
polHno, supporting a statue of the A'irgin, erected by 
Pius IX. in 1854, in honour of his new dogma of the Im- 


maculate Conception. At the base are figures of Moses, 
David, Isaiah, and Ezekiel. 

The Piazza di Spagna may be considered as the centre 
of the English quarter, of Avhich the Corso forms the 

"Every winter there is a gay and pleasant English colony in Rome, 
of course more or less remarkable for rank, fashion, or agreeability, 
with every varying year. Thrown together every day and night after 
night, flocking to the same picture-galleries, statue-galleries, Pincian 
drives, and church functions, the English colonists at Rome perforce 
become intimate, and in many cases friendly. They have an English 
library where the various meets for the week are placarded : on such a 
day the Vatican galleries are open ; the next is the feast of Saint so-and- 
so ; on Wednesday there will be music and vespers at the Sistine 
Chapel ; on Thursday the pope will bless the animals — sheep, horses, 
and what-not ; and flocks of English accordingly rush to witness the 
benediction of droves of donkeys. .^ In a word, the ancient city of the 
CEesars, the august fanes of the popes, with their splendour and cere- 
mony, are all mapped out and arranged for English diversion." — 
Thackeray, The Newcomes. 

The Piazza is closed by the Collcgio di Propaganda Fcde, 
founded in 1622 by Gregory XV., but enlarged by Urban 
VIII., Avlio built the present edifice from plans of Bernini, 
Like all the buildings erected by this pope, its chief deco- 
rations are the bees of the Barberini. The object of the 
college is the education of youths of all nations as mis- 

" The origin of the Propaganda is properly to be sought in an edict of 
Gregory XIII., by which tlie direction of eastern missions was confided 
to a certain number of cardinals, who were commanded to promote the 
printing of catechisms in tlic less known tongues. But the institution 
was not firmly established ; it was unprovided with the requisite means, 
and was by no means comprehensive in its views. It was at the sug- 
gestion of the great jireachcr Giroiamo da Narni that the idea was first 
conceived of extending tlic above-named institution. At his suggestion, 
a congregation was established in all due form, and by this body regular 


meetings were to be held for the guidance and conduct of missions in 
every part of the world. The first funds were advanced by Gregory ; 
his nephew contributed from his private property ; and since this insti- 
tution was in fact adapted to a want, the pressure of which was then felt, 
it increased in prosperity and splertdour. Who does not know the 
services performed by the Propaganda for the diffusion of philosophical 
studies ? and not this only ; — the institution has generally laboured (in 
its earliest years most successfully, perhaps) to fulfil its vocation in a 
liberal and noble spirit." — Raiikc, Hist, of the Popes. 

" On y rejoit des jeunes gens nes dans lespays ultramontains et orien- 
taux, ou sont les inhdeles et les heretiques ; ils y font leur education 
religieuse et civile, et retoument dans le'ur pays comme missionnaires 
pour pro pager la loi." — A. Du Pays. 

"Le college du Propaganda Fede, ou Ton engraisse des missionnaires 
pour donner a manger aux cannibales. C'est, ma foi, un excellent 
ragout pour eux, que deux peres franciscains \ la sauce rousse. Le 
capucin en daube, se mange aussi comme le renard, quand il a ete gele. 
II y a a la Propagande une bibliotheque, une imprimerie fournie de toutes 
sortes de caracteres des langues orientales, et de petits Chinois qu'on y 
eleve ainsi que des alouettes chanterelles, pour en attraper d'autres." 
— De Brasses. 

In January a festival is held here, when speeches are 
recited by the pupils in all their different languages. The 
pubhc is admitted by tickets. 

The Via Ripdta leaves the Piazza del Popolo on the 
right. Passing, on the right, a large building belonging to the 
Academy of St. Luke, we reach, on the right, the Quay of 
the Ripetta, a pretty architectural construction of Clement 
XI. in 1707. 

Hence, a clumsy ferry-boat gives access to a walk which 
leads to St. Peter's (by Porta Angelica) through the fields at 
the back of S. Angelo. These fields are of historic in- 
terest, being the Frata Qiunctla of Cincinnatus. 

" L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, the only hope of the Roman people, lived 
beyond the Tiber, opposite the place where the Navalia are, where he 


cultivated the four acres of ground which are now called the Quinctian 
meadows. There the messengers of tlie senate found him leaning on his 
spade, either digging a trench or ploughing, but certainly occupied in 
some field labour. The salutation, ' May it be well with you and the 
republic,' was given and returned in the usual form, and he was re- 
quested to put on his toga to receive a message from the senate. 
Amazed, and asking if anything was wrong, he desired his wife Racilia 
to fetch his toga from the cottage, and having wiped off the sweat and 
dust with which he was covered, he came forward dressed in his toga to 
the messengers, who saluted him as dictator, and congratulated him." — 
Livy, iii. 26. 

The churches on the left of the Ripetta are, first, SS. 
Rocco e Martino, built 1657, by Antonio de Rossi, with a 
hospital adjoining it. 

" The lying-in hospital adjoins the Church of San Rocco. It contains 
seventy beds, furnished with curtains and screens, so as to separate 
them effectually. Females are admitted without giving their name, 
tlieir country, or their condition in life ; and such is the delicacy 
observed in their regard, that they are at liberty to wear a veil, so as to 
remain unknown even to their attendants, in order to save the honour 
of their families, and prevent abortion, suicide, or infanticide. Even 
should death ensue, the deceased remains unknown. The children are 
conveyed to Santo Spirito ; and the mother who wishes to retain her 
offspring, affixes a distinctive mark, by which it may be recognised and 
recovered. To remove all disquietude from the minds of those who 
may enter, the establishment is exempt from all civil, criminal, and 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and its threshold is never crossed except by 
persons connected with the establishment." — Dr. Donovan. 

Then, opposite the quay, S. Girolaino dcgll Schiavoni, built 
for Si^-tus V. by Fontana. It contains, near the altar, a 
striking figure of St. Jerome, seated, with a book uj^on his 

We will now follow the Corso, whicli, in spite of its 
narrowness and bad side-pavements, is the finest street in 
Rome. It is greatly to be regretted that this street, which 


is nearly a mile long, should lead to nothing, instead of 
ending at the steps of the Capitol, which would have pro- 
duced a striking effect. It follows the line of the ancient 
Via Flaminia, and in consequence was once spanned by 
four triumphal arches — of Marcus Aurelius, Domitian, Clau- 
dius, and Gordian — but all these have disappeared. The 
Corso is perfectly lined with balconies, which, during the 
carnival, are filled with gay groups of maskers flinging 
confetti. These balconies are a relic of imperial times, 
having been invented at Rome, where they were originally 
called " Mceniana," from the tribune Moenius, who de- 
signed them to accommodate spectators of processions in 
the streets below. 

" The Corso is a street a mile long ; a street of shops, and palaces, 
and private houses, sometimes opening into a broad piazza. There are 
verandahs and balconies, of all shapes and sizes, to almost every house 
— not on one story alone, but often to one room or another on every story 
■ — put there in general with so little order or regularity, that if, year 
after year, and season after season, it had rained balconies, hailed bal- 
conies, snowed balconies, blown balconies, they could scarcely have 
come into existence in a more disorderly manner." — Dickens. 

On the left of the Corso is the Augustine Church of Gesu 
e Maria, with a fagade by Rinaldi. Almost opposite, is the 
Church of S. Giacomo degli Incurahili, by Carlo Maderno. 
It is attached to a surgical hospital for 350 patients. In 
the adjoining Strada S. Giacomo was the studio of Canova, 
recognizable by fragments of bas-reliefs engrafted in its 

Three streets beyond this (on right) is the Via dd Ponte- 
fici (so called from a series of papal portraits, now destroyed, 
which formerly existed on the walls of one of its houses), 


where (No. 57R) is the entrance to the remains of the 
Mausoleum of Augustus. 

" Hard by the banks of the Tiber, in the grassy meadows where the 
Roman youths met in athletic and martial exercises, there rose a lofty 
marble tower with three retiring stages, each of which had its terrace 
covered with earth and planted with cypresses. These stages were 
pierced with numerous chambers, destined to receive, row within row, 
and story upon story, the remains of every member of the imperial 
family, with many thousands of their slaves and freedmen. In the centre 
of that massive mound the great founder of the empire was to sleep his 
last sleep, while his statue was ordained to rise conspicuous on its 
summit, and satiate its everlasting gaze with the view of his beloved 
city. " — Merivale. 

The first fi.nieral here was that of INIarcellus, son of Octa- 
via, the sister of Augustus, and first husband of his daughter 
Juha, who died of malaria at Bai^, B.C. 23. 

" Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem' 
Campus aget gemitus ! vel qure, Tiberine, videbis 
Funera, cum tumulum prreterlabere recentem ! 
Nee puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 
In tantum spe toilet avos ; nee Romula quondam 
UUo se tantum tellus jactabit alumno. 
Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello 
Dextera ! non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 
Obvius arniato, seu quum pedes iret in hostem, 
Seu spumantis equi fodcret calcaribus armos. 
Heu, miserande puer ! si qua fata aspcra rumpas, 
Tu Marcellus eris." 

JEncid, vi. 873. 

The next member of the' family buried here was Agrippa, 
the second husband of Julia, ob. 12 B.C. Then came Octavia, 
sister of the emperor and widow of Antony, honoured by a 
])ublic. funeral, at which orations were delivered by Augustus 
himself, and Drusus, son of the empress Tivia. Her body 
was carried to the tomb by Tiberius (afterwards emperor) 


and Dnisus, the two sons of the empress. Drusus (r.c. 9) 
died in a German campaign by a fall from his horse, and 
was brought back hither for interment. In a.b. 14 the great 
Augustus died at Nola, and his body was burnt here on a 
funeral pile so gigantic, that the widowed Livia, dishevelled 
and ungirt, with bare feet, attended by the principal Roman 
senators, had to watch it for five days and nights, before it 
cooled sufficiently for them to collect the ashes of the em- 
peror. At the moment of its being lighted an eagle was let 
loose from the summit of the pyre, under which form a 
senator, named Numerius Atticus, was induced, by a gift 
from Livia equivalent to 250,000 francs, to swear that he 
saw the spirit of Augustus fly away to heaven. Then came 
Germanicus, son of the first Drusus, and nephew of Tibe- 
rius, ob. A.D. 19, at Antioch, where he was believed to have 
been poisoned by Piso and his wife Plancina. Then, in a.d. 
23, Drusus, son of Tiberius, poisoned by his wife, Livilla, 
and her lover, Sejanus : then the empress, Livia, who died 
A.D. 29, at the age of 86. Agrippina, widow of Germanicus 
(ob. A.D. 33), starved to death, and her two sons, Nero and 
Drusus, also murdered by Tiberius, were long excluded from 
the family sepulchre, but were eventually brought hither by 
the youngest brother Caius, afterwards the emperor Caligula. 
Tiberius, who died a.d. 37, at the villa of Lucullus at 
Misenum, was brought here for burial. The ashes of 
Caligula, murdered a.d. 41, and first buried in the Horti 
Lamiani on the Esquiline, were transferred here by his 
sisters. In his reign, Antonia, the widow of Drusus, and 
mother of Germanicus, had died, and her ashes were laid 
up here. The Emperor Claudius, a.d. 54, murdered by 
Agrippina; his son, Britannicus, a.d. 55, murdered by 


Nero; and the Emperor Nerva, a.d. 98, were the latest 
inmates of the mausoleum. 

The last cremation which occurred here was long after 
the mausoleum had fallen into ruin, when the body of the 
tribune Rienzi, after having hung for two days at S, 
Marcello, was ordered to be burnt here by Jugurta and 
Sciaretta, and was consumed by a vast multitude of Jews 
(out of flattery to the Colonna, their neighbours at the 
Ghetto), "in a fire of dry thistles, till it was reduced to 
ashes, and no fibre of it remained." 

There is nothing now remaining to testify to the former 
magnificence of this building. The area is used in summer 
as an open-air theatre, where very amusing little plays are 
very well acted. Among its massive cells a poor washer- 
woman, known as " Sister Rose," established, some ten years 
ago, a kind of hospital for aged women (several of them 
centagenarians), whom she supported entirely by her owm 
exertions, having originally begun by taking care of one old 
woman, and gradually adding another and another. The 
English church service was first performed in Rome in the 
Palazzo Correa, adjoining this building. 

Opposite the Via de' Pontefici, the Via Vittoria leaves 
the Corso. To the Ursuline convent in this street (founded 
by Camilla Borghese in the seventeenth century) Madame 
Victoire and Madame Adelaide ("tantes du Roi") fled in 
the beginning of tlie great French revolution, and here they 

The ChurcJi of S. Carlo in Corso (on right) is the 
national church of the Lombards. It is a handsome build- 
ing with a fine dome. The interior was commenced by 
Lunglii in 1614, and finished by Pietro da Cortona. It 


contains no objects of interest, unless a picture of the 
Apotheosis of S. Carlo Borromeo (the patron of the 
church), over the high altar, by Carlo Maratta, can be called 
so. The heart of the saint is preserved under the altar. 

Just beyond this on the left, the Via Coiidotti — almost 
lined with jewellers'-shops — branches off to the Piazza di 
Spagna. The Trinita de' Monti is seen beyond it. The 
opposite street. Via Fontanella, leads to St. Peter's, and in 
five minutes to the magnificent — 

Palazzo Borghese, begun in 1590 by Cardinal Deza, from 
designs of Martino Lunghi, and finished by Paul \. 
(Camillo Borghese, 1605 — 21), from those of Flaminio 
Ponzio. The apartments inhabited by the family are hand- 
some, but contain few objects of interest. 

" In the reign of Paul V. the Borghese became the wealthiest and 
most powerful family in Rome. In the year 1612, the church benefices 
already conferred upon Cardinal Scipione Borghese were computed to 
secure him an income of 150,000 scudi. The temporal offices were 
bestowed on Marc- Antonio Borghese, on whom the pope also conferred 
the principality of Sulmona in Naples, besides giving him rich palaces 
in Rome and the most beautiful villas in the neighbourhood. He 
loaded his nephews with presents ; we have a list of them through his 
whole reign down to the year 1620. They are sometimes jewels or 
vessels of silver, or magnificent furniture, which was taken directly from 
the stores of the palace and sent to the nephews ; at other times car- 
riages, rich arms, as muskets and falconets, were presented to them ; 
but the principal thing was the round sums of hard money. These 
accounts make it appear that to the year 1620, they had received in 
ready money 689,627 scudi, 31 baj ; in luoghi di monte, 24,600 scudi, 
according to their nominal value ; in places, computing them at the sum 
their sale would have brought to the treasury, 268,176 scudi ; all which 
amounted, as in the case of the Aldobrandini, to nearly a million. 

"Nor did the Borghese neglect to invest their wealth in real property. 

They acquired eighty estates in the Campagna of Rome ; the Roman 

nobles suffering themselves to be tempted into the sale of their ancient 

hereditary domain by the large prices paid them, and by the high rate 

VOL. I. 5 


of interest home by the luoghi di monte, which they purchased with 
the money thus acquired. In many other parts of tlie ecclesiastical 
states, the Borghese also seated themselves, the pope facilitating their 
doing so by the grant of peculiar privileges. In some places, for 
example, they received the right of restoring exiles ; in others, that of 
holding a market, or certain exemptions were granted to those who 
became their vassals. They were freed from various imposts, and even 
obtained a bull, by virtue of which their possessions were never to be 
confiscated." — Raiike, Hist, of the Popes. 

"Si I'on peut reprocher a Paul, avec Muratori, ses liberalites envers 
ses neveux, envers le cardinal Scipion, envers le due de Sulmone, il est 
juste d'ajouter que la plupart des membres de cette noble famille rivalise- 
rent avec le pape de magnificence et de generosite. Or, chaque annee, 
Paul V. distribuait un million d'ecus d'or aux pelerins pauvres et un 
million et demi aux autres necessiteux. C'est a lui que remonte la 
fondation de la banque du Saint-Esprit, dont les riches immeubles 
servirent d'hypotheques aux depots qui lui furent confies. Mais ce fut 
surtout dans les constructions qu'il entreprit, que Paul V. deploya una 
royal e magni ficence. " — Gotirnerie. 

" The Palazzo Borghese is an immense edifice standing round the four 
sides of a quadrangle ; and though the suite of rooms, comprising the 
picture-gallery, forms an almost interminable vista, they occupy only a 
part of the ground-floor of one side. We enter from the street into a 
large court surrounded with a corridor, the arches of which support a 
second series of arches above. The picture-rooms open from one into 
another, and have many points of magnificence, being large and lofty, 
with vaulted cielings and beautiful frescoes, generally of mythological 
subjects, in the flat central parts of the vault. The cornices are gilded ; 
the deep embrasures of the windows are panelled with wood-work j the 
doorways are of polished and variegated marble, or covered with a com- 
position as hard, and seemingly as durable. The whole has a kind of 
splendid shabbiness thrown over it, like a slight coating of rust ; the 
furniture, at least the damask chairs, being a good deal worn ; though 
there are marble and mosaic tables which may serve to adorn another 
l)alace, when this has crumbled away with age." — Ildiothonic. 

The Borghese Picture Gallery is the best private collec- 
tion in Rome, and is open to the ptiblic daily from 9 to 2, 
except on Saturdays and Sundays. The gallery is entered 
from the side of the palace towards the Piazza Borghese. 


It contains several gems, vhich are here marked witli an 
asterisk ; noticeable pictures are : — 

\st Room. — Schools of Milan and Perugia. 

1. Holy Family : Sandra Botticelli. 

2. Holy Family : Lorenzo di Credi. 

3. Holy Family : Paris Alfani Periigino. 

4. Portrait : Lorenzo di Credi. 

5. Vanity: School of Leonardo da Vinci. 
27, 28. Petrarch and Laura. 

32. St. Agatha : School 0/ Leonai'do. 

33. The Young Christ. School of Leonardo. 

34. Madonna : School of Periigino. 

35. Raphael as a boy : Raphael? 

43. Madonna : Francesco Francia ? 

44. Calvario : C. Crivelli. 
48. St. Sebastian : Periigino. 

49, 57. History of Joseph : Pinturicchio. 

59. Presepio : Sketch attributed to Raphael ivhen young. 
61. St. Antonio. Francesco Francia. 

66. Presepio : Mazzolino. 

67. Adoration of the Child Jesus : Ortolano. 

68. Christ and St. I'homas : Mazzolino ? 

69. Holy Family : Pollajiiolo. 

2nd Room. — Chiefly of the school of Garofalo. 

6. Madonna with St. Joseph and St. Michael : Garofalo. 
9. The mourners over the dead Christ : Garofalo.* 

18. Portrait of Julius H. : Giulio Romano, after Raphael. 

22. Portrait of a Cardinal : Bronzino ? called Raphael. * 

23. ' Madonna col diviu' amore' : School of Liaphael.* 

26. Portrait of Ca:sar Borgia : Bronzino, attributed to Raphael.*^ 
28. Portrait of a (naked) woman : Bronzino. 

36. Holy Family : Andrea del Sarto. 
38. Entombment : Raphael.* 

This picture was the last work of Raphael before he went to Rome. 
It was ordered by Atalanta Baglioni for a chapel in S. Francesco de' 
Conventuali at Perugia. Paul V. bought it for the Borghese. The 

t All authorities agree that this beautiful portrait is not the work of Raphael. 
Kugler also denies that it is the likeness of Casar Borgia. 


' Faith, Hope, and Charity ' at the Vatican, formed a predella for this 

" Raphael's picture of ' Bearing the Body of Christ to the Sepulchre,' 
though meriting all its fame in respect of drawing, expression, and 
knowledge, has lost all signs of reverential feeling in the persons of the 
bearers. The reduced size of the winding-sheet is to blame for this, by 
bringing them rudely in contact with their precious burden. Nothing 
can be finer than their figures, or more satisfactory than their labour, if 
we forget what it is they are carrying ; but it is the weight of the burden 
only, and not the character of it, which the painter has kept in view, 
and we feel that the result would have been the same had these figures 
been carrying a sack of sand. Here, from the youth of the figure, the 
bearer at the feet appears to be St. John." — Laiiy Eastlake. 

40. Holy Family : Fra Bartolomeo. 

43. Madonna : Fr. Francia. 

44. Madonna : Sodoina. 

51. St. Stephen: Francesco Francia.* 

59. Adoration of the Magi : Mazzolitto. 

60. Presepio : Garofalo. 

65. The Fornarina : Copy of Raphael, Giiilio Romano? 
69. St. John Baptist in the Wilderness : Giiilio Romano. 

■^rd Room. — Chiefly of tlie school of Andrea del Sarto. 
(The works of this painter are often confounded with those 
of his disciple, Domenico Puligo.) 

1. Christ bearing the Cross : Andrea Solaria. 

2. Portrait : Parmigianino. 

5. ' Noli me tangere ' : Bronzino ? 
II. The Sorceress Circe : Dosso Dossi. 
13. Mater Dolorosa : Solano ? 
22. Holy Family : School of Raphael. 
24. Madonna and Child with three children : A. del Sarto. 

28. Madonna, Child, and St. John : A. del Sarto. 

29. Madonna, Child, St. John, and St. Elizabeth. Fierino del 

33. Holy Family : Fierino del Faqa. 
35. Venus and Cupids : A. del Sarto. 
40. Danae : Correggio. * 

In the corner of this picture arc the celebrated Cupids 
sharpening an arrow. 


42. Cosmo de' Medici : Bronziuo. 

46. Tlie Reading Magdalene : School of Corirggio. 

47. Holy Family : Pomaraiicio. 

48. The Flagellation : Sebastian del Pmnbo* 

49. St. M. Magdalene: A. del Sarto. 

/^th Room. — Bolognese school. 

1. Entombment : Ann. Carracci. 

2. Cumccan Sibyl : Doinenichino.* 
18. St. Francis : Cigoli. 

20. St. Joseph : Guido Reni. 

23. St. Francis : Ann. Carracci. 

29. St. Domenic : Ann. Car7-acci. 

36. Madonna : Carlo Dolce. 

37- Mater Dolorosa : Carlo Dolce. 

3S, 4r. Two heads for an Annunciation ; Fiiriuo. 

42. Head of Christ : Carlo Dolce. 

43. Madonna : Sassofcrraio. 

^th Room. — 

II, 12, 13, 14 The Four Seasons : Fr. Albani. 
"The Seasons, by Francesco Albani, were, beyond all others, my 
favourite pieces ; the beautiful, joyous, angel-children — the Loves, 
were as if creations of my own dreams. How deliciously they were 
staggering about in the picture of Spring ! A crowd of them were 
sharpening arrows, whilst one of them turned round the great grind; 
stone, and two others, floating above, poured water upon it. In Sum- 
mer, they flew about among the tree-branches, which were loaded with 
fruit, which they plucked ; they swam in the fresh water, and played 
with it. Autumn brought the pleasures of the chase. Cupid sits, with 
a torch in his hand, in his little chariot, which two of his companions 
draw ; while Love beckons to the brisk hunter, and shows him the 
place where they can rest themselves side by side. Winter has lulled 
all the little ones to sleep ; soundly and fast they lie slumbering around. 
The Nymphs steal their quivers and arrows, which they throw on the 
fire, that there may be an end of the dangerous weapons." — Andersen, 
in The Iviprovisatore. 

15. La Caccia di Diana : Doinenichino. 

25. The Deposition, with Angels : F. Zuccari. 

6th Room. — 

5. Return of the Prodigal Son : Guercino. 

7. Portrait of G. Ghislieri : Pietro da Cortona. 

70 IV. 1 LA'S IN ROME. 

lo. St. Stanislaus with the Child Jesus : Rihera* 

12. Joseph Interpreting the Dreams in Prison : Valentin. 

13. The Three Ages of Man. Copy from Titian by .Sassoferrafo.'\ 

18. Madonna: Sassofcrrato. 

22. Flight of yEneas from Troy : Batvccio. 

1th Room. — Richly decorated widi mirrors, painted with 
Cupids by Girqfiri, and wreaths of flowers by Mario di 

Wi Room. — Contains nothing of importance, except a 
mosaic portrait of Paul V. by Maj-cdlo Froz'euzaH. 

gth Room.- — Containing several interesting frescoes. 

1. The Nuptials of Alexander and Roxana. 

2. The Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona. 

3. 'II Bersaglio dei Dei.' 

These three frescoes were brought hither from the Casino of Raphael, 
in the Villa Borghese (destroyed in the siege of Rome in 1849), and are 
supposed to have been painted by some of Raphael's pupils from his 
designs. The other frescoes in this room are by Giulio Romano, and 
were removed from the Villa Lante, when it was turned into a convent. 

\oth Rootn. — 

2. Cupid blindfolded by Venus : Titian. 

4. Judith: ScJiool of Titian. 
9. Portrait : Pordoione. 

13. David with the head of Goliath : Giorq-ione.* . 

14. St. John the Baptist preaching (unlinislied) : Paul Veronese. 
16. St. Domenic : 7itian. 

19. Portrait; Giac. Bassano. 

21. 'Sacred and Profane Love' : Titian.* 
" Out of Venice there is nothing of Titian's to compare to his Sacretl 
and Profane Love. It represents two figures : one, a heavenly and 
youthful form, unclothed, except with a light drapery ; the other, a 
lovely female, dressed in the most splendid attire ; both are sitting on 
the brink of a well, into which a little winged Love is groping, appa- 
rently to find his lost dart. . . . Descrijition can give no idea of 
the consummate beauty of this composition. It lias all Titian's match- 
less warmth of colouring, with a correctness of design no other painter 

\ Sec Kiiglcr, ii. 449. 


of the Venetian school ever attained. It is nature, hut not indivichial 
nature : it is ideal beauty in all its perfection, and breathing life in 
all its truth, that we behold. " — £ato)Ps Home. 

" Two female forms are seated on the edge of a sarcophagus-shaped 
fountain, the one in a rich Venetian costume, with gloves, flowers in 
her hands, and a plucked rose beside her, is in deep meditation, as if 
solving some difficult question. The other is unclothed ; a red drapery 
is falling behind her, while she exhibits a form of the utmost beauty and 
delicacy ; she is turning towards the other figure with the sweetest 
persuasiveness of expression. A Cupid is playing in the fountain ; in 
the distance is a rich, glowing landscape." — Kiigler. 

30. Madonna : Giov. Bellini. 

34. St. Cosmo and Damian : Venetian School. 

nth Room. — Veronese school. 

1. jMadonna with Adam (?) and St. Augustine: Lorenzo Lotto, 


2. St. Anthony preaching to the Fishes : P. Veronese? 

3. Madonna : Pitian ? 

II. Venus and Cupid on Dolphins : Luc. Cambiaso. 

14. Last Supper : And. Schiavone. 

15. Christ and the Mother of Zebedee's Children: Bonifazio.* 

16. Return of the Prodigal Son : Bonifazio.* 

17. Samson: Pitian. 

18. Christ and the Woman taken in Adultery : Bonifazio. 

19. Madonna and Saints : Palma Vecchio. 

In this picture the donors are introduced— the head of the man is 
grandly devout and beautiful. 

25. Portrait of Himself : Pitian? 
27. Portrait : Giffv. Bellini. 

31. Madonna and St. Peter : Gicnj. Bellini. 

32. Holy Family : Palma Vecchio. 

33. Portrait of the Family of Licini da Pordenone : Bart. Licini 

da Pordenone. 

\2th Room. — Dutch and German school. 
I. Crucifixion : Vandyke. 

7. Entombment : Vandyke. 

8. Tavern Scene : Peniers. 

9 . Interior : Brouerer. 


19. Louis VI. of Bavaria : Albert Diircr ? 
21. Portrait: Holbein. 

21. Landscape and Horses : Wouvej-maiin. 

22. Cattle-piece : Paul Potter. 
24. Portrait : Holbein. 

26. Skating (in brown) : Berghem. 

2.1. Portrait : Vandyke. 

35. Portrait : Lucas von Leyden ? 

44. Venus and Cupid : Lucas Cranach. 

The Palazzetto Borghese on the opposite side of the piazza, 
originally intended as a dower-house for the family, is now 
let in apartments. It is this house which is described as the 
" Palazzo Clementi," in Madanoisclle Mori. 

At the corner of the Via Fontanella and the Corso is the 
handsome Palazzo RiispoU, built by Ammanati in 1586. It 
has a grand white marble staircase erected by Lunghi in 
1750. Beyond this are the palaces Fia?io, Vcrospi, and 

" Les palais de Rome, bien que n'ayant pas un caractere onginal 
comme ceux de Florence oude ^ enise n'ensontpas moinscependant un 
des traits de la ville des papes. lis n'appartiennent ni au moyen age, ni a 
la renaissance (la Palais de Venise seul rappelle les constructions mas- 
sives de Florence) ; ils sont des modeles d 'architecture civile moderne. 
Les Bramante, les Sangallo, les Balthazar Peruzzi, qui les ont batis, 
sont des maitres qu'on ne se lasse pas d'etudier. La magnificence de 
ces palais reside principalement dans leur architecture et dans les col- 
lections artistiques que quelques-uns contiennent. Un certain nombre 
sont malheureusement dans un triste etat d'abandon. De plus, a 1' ex- 
ception d'un tres petit nombre, ils sont restes inacheves. Cela se 
conceit ; presque tous sont le produit du luxe celibataire des papes ou 
des cardinaux ; tres-peu de ces personages ont pu voir la fin de ce 
qu'ils avaient commence- Leurs heritiers, pour le plupart, se souciaient 
fort peu de jeter les richesses qu'ils venaient d'acquerir dans les Edifices 
de luxe ct de vanitc. A I'intcricur, le plus souvent, est un mobilier 
rare, surannc, et mesquin.' — A. Du Pays.* 

• Of llic many Handbooks for Italy which have appeared, perhaps that of Du 


The Palazzo Bernini (151 Corso), on the left, has, inside 
its entrance, a curious statue of " Calumny" by Bernini, with 
an inscription relative to his own sufferings from slander. 

On the right, the small piazza of S. Lorenzo opens out of 
the Corso. Here is the Church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, 
founded in the fifth century, but rebuilt in its present form 
by Paul V. in 1606. The campanile is of an older date, 
and so are the lions in the portico. 

"When the lion, or other wild beast, appears in the act of preying 
on a smaller animal or on a man, is implied the severity of the Church 
towards the impenitent or heretical ; but when in the act of sporting 
with another creature, her benignity towards the neophyte and the 
docile. At the portal of St. Lorenzo in Lucina, this idea is carried out 
in the figure of a mannikin affectionately stroking the head of the 
terrible creature who protects, instead of devouring him." — Hemans" 
Chrisiian Art. 

No one should omit seeing the grand picture of Guido 
Reni, over the high altar of this church, — the Crucifixion, 
seen against a wild, stormy sky. Niccolas Poussin, ob. 
1660, is buried here, and one of his best known Arcadian 
landscapes is reproduced in a bas-relief upon his tomb, 
which was erected by Chateaubriand, with the epitaph, — 

" Parce piis lacrymis, vivit Pussinus in urna. 
Vivas qui dederat, nescius ipse mori. 
Hie tamen ipse silet ; si vis audire loquentem, 
Mirum est, in tabulis vivit, et eloquitur." 

In "The Ring and the Book" of Browning, this church 
is the scene of Pompilia's baptism and marriage. She is 
made to say : — 

Pays (in one volume) is the most comprehensive, and — as far as its very condensed 
form allows — much the most interesting. 


— "This St. Lorenzo seems 
My own particular place, I always say. 

I used to wonder, when I stood scarce high 
As the bed here, what the marble lion meant, 
Eating the figure of a prostrate man." 

Here tlie bodies of her parents are represented as being ex- 
posed after the murder : 

— "beneath the piece 

Of Master Guido Reni, Christ on Cross, 
Second to nought observable in Rome." 

On the left, where the Via della Vite turns out of the 
Corso, an inscription in the wall records the destruction, 
in 1665, of the triumphal arch of Marcus Aurelius, which 
existed here till that time. The magnificence of this arch 
is attested by the bas-reliefs representing the history of the 
emperor, which were removed from it, and are preserved on 
the staircase of the palace of the Conservators. 

" Les Barbares n'en savaient pas assez et n'avaient pas assez de 
patience pour demolir les monuments remains ; mais, avec les ressources 
de la science moderne et a la suite d'une administration reguliere, on est 
venu a bout de presque tout ce que le temps avait epargne. II y'avait, 
par exemple, au commencement du xvi^. siecle, quatre arcs de triomphe 
qui n'existent plus ; le dernier, celui de Marc Aurele, a ete enleve par 
le pape Alexandre VII. On lit encore dans le Corso I'inconcevable 
inscription dans laquelle le pape se vante d'avoir debarrasse la pro- 
menade publique de ce monument, qui, vu sa date, devait etre d'un beau 
style." — Ainpire, Voyage Daittcsqitc. 

A little further down the Corso, on the left, the Via delle 
Convertite leads to 6". Sylvestro in Capite, one of three 
churches in Rome dedicated to the sainted pope of the 
time of Constantine. This, like S. Lorenzo, has a fine 
mediaeval campanile. The day of St. Sylvester's death, 
December 31 (a.d. 335), is kept here with great solemnity, 
and is cclebraled by magnificent musical services. This pope 


was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla, whence his remains 
were removed to S. Martino al Monte. The title " \\\ 
Capite " is given to this church on account of the head of 
St. John Baptist, which it professes to possess, as is nar- 
rated by an inscription engrafted into its walls. 

The convent attached to this church was founded in 
13 1 8, especially for noble sisters of the house of Colonna 
who dedicated themselves to God. Here it was that the 
celebrated Vittoria Colonna, Marchesa di Pescara, came to 
reside in 1525, when widowed in her thirty-sixth year, and 
here she began to write her sonnets, a kind of " In Memo- 
riam," to her husband. It is a curious proof of the value 
placed upon her remaining in the world, that Pope Cle- 
ment VII. was persuaded to send a brief to the abbess and 
nuns, desiring them to offer her " all spiritual and temporal 
consolations," but forbidding them, under pain of the greater 
excommunication, to permit her to take the veil in her 

At the end of this street, continued under the name of 
Via de Mercede (No. 11 was the residence of Bernini), and 
behind the Propaganda, is the Church of S. Andrea dcUe 
Fratte, whose brick cupola by Borromini is so picturesque 
a feature. The bell-tower beside it swings when the bells 
are rung. In the second chapel on the right is the beautiful 
modern tomb of Mademoiselle Julie Falconnet, by Miss 
Hosmer. The opposite chapel is remarkable for a modern 
miracle (?) annually commemorated here. 

"M. Ratisbonne, un juif, appartenant a une tres-riche famille d'Alsace, 
qui se trouvait accidentellement a Rome, se promenant dans I'eglise de 
S. Andrea delle Fratte pendant qu'on y faisait les preparatifs pour 

* See Trollope's Life of Vittoria Colonna. 


les obseques de M. de la Ferronays, s'y est converti subitement. II se 
trouvait debout en face d'une chapelle dediee a I'ange gardien, a quel- 
ques pas, lorsque tout-a-coup il a eu una apparition lumineuse de la 
Sainte Vierge qui lui a fait signe d'aller vers cette chapelle. Une force 
irresistible I'y a entraine, il y est tombe a genoux, et il a ete a I'instant 
Chretien. Sa premiere parole a celui qui I'avait accompagne a ete, en 
relevant son visage inonde de larmes : ' II faut que ce monsieur ait beau- 
coup prie pour moi.' ^'—Rdcit d^une Seen?: 

"Era un istante ch' io mi stava in chiesa allora che di colpo mi 
sentii preso da inesprimibile conturbamento. Alzai gli occhi ; tutto 
1' edifizio s' era dileguato a' miei sguardi ; sola una cappella aves'a come 
in se raccolta tutta la luce, e di mezzo di raggianti splendori s' e mos- 
trata diritta suU' altare, grande, sfolgoreggiante, plena di maesta, e di 
dolcezza, la Vergine Maria. Una forza irresistibile m' ha sospinto 
verso di lei. La Vergine m' ha fatto della mano segno d'inginocchi- 
armi ; pareva volermi dire, ' Bene ! ' Ella non mi ha parlato ma io ho 
inteso tutto." — Recital of Alfonse Ratisbonue* 

M. de la Ferronays, whose character is now so well known 
from the beautiful family memoirs of Mrs. Augustus Craven, 
is buried beneath the altar where this vision occurred. 
In the third chapel on the left is the tomb of Angelica 
Kaufifmann ; in the right aisle that of the Prussian artist, 
Schadow. The two angels in front of tlie choir are by 
Bcrnbti, who intended them for the bridge of S. Angelo. 

Returning to the Corso, the Via S. Claudio (left) leads 
to the pretty litde church of that name, adjoining the 
Palazzo Parisani. Behind, is the Church of Sta. Maria in 

At the corner of the Piazza Colonna is the Palazzo 
Chigi, begun in 1526 l)y Giacomo della Porta, and finished 
by Carlo Maderno. It contains several good pictures and a 
fine library, but is seldom shown. t 

• See "Un Figliuol' di Maria, ossia un Ni:ovo nostra Fratello," edited by the 
Earon di Russicre. 1842. 

t It is more wortli while to visit the Palazzo Chigi at Lariccia, near Albano, which 


The most remarkable members of tlie great family of 
Chigi have been the famous banker Agostino Chigi, who 
lived so sumptuously at the Farnesina (see chap. 20), and 
Fabio Chigi, who mounted the papal throne as Alexander 
VII., and who long refused to have anything to do with the 
aggrandisement of his family, saying that the poor were the 
only relations he would acknowledge, and, like Christ, he 
did not wish for any nearer ones. To keep himself in mind 
of the shortness of earthly grandeur, this pope always kept a 
coffin in his room, and drank out of a cup shaped like a 

The side of the Piazza Colon?ia, which faces the Corso, 
is occupied by the Post-Office. On its other sides are the 
Piombino and Ferrajuoli palaces, of no interest. In the 
centre is placed the fine Column, which was found on the 
Monte Citorio in 1709, having been originally erected by 
the senate and people a.d. 174, to the Emperor Marcus 
Aurelius Antoninus (adopted son of the Emperor Hadrian, — 
husband of his niece, Annia Faustina, — father of the Emperor 
Commodus). It is surrounded by bas-reliefs, representing 
the conquest of the Marcomanni. One of these has long 
been an especial object of interest, from being supposed to 
represent a divinity (Jupiter?) sending rain to the troops, 
in answer to the prayers of a Christian legion from Mity- 
lene. Eusebius gives the story, stating that the piety of 
these Christians induced the emperor to ask their prayers in 
his necessity, and a letter in Justin Martyr (of which the 
authenticity is much doubted), in which Aurelius allows the 

retains its stamped leather hangings, and much of its old furniture. Here may be 
seen, assembled in one room, the portraits of the twelve nieces of Alexander VII., 
who were so enchanted when their uncle was made pope, that lliey all took the veil 
immediately to please him ! 


fact, is produced in proof. The statue of St. Paul on the 
top of the cokunn was erected by Sixtus V. ; the pedestal 
also is modern. 

Behind the Piazza Colonna is the Piazza Monte Citorio, 
containing an Obelisk which was discovered in broken frag- 
ments near the Church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. It was 
repaired with pieces of the column of Antoninus Pius^ the 
pedestal of which may still be seen in the Vatican garden. 
Its hieroglyphics are very perfect and valuable, and show 
that it was erected more than 600 years before Christ, 
in honour of Psammeticus I. It was brought from Helio- 
polis by Augustus, and erected by him in the Campus 
Martius, where it received the name of Obeliscus Solaris, 
from being made to act as a sun-dial. 

" Ei, qui est in campo, divus Augustus addidit mirabilem usum ad de- 
prehendendas solis umbras, dienimque ac noctium ita magiiitudines, 
strato lapide ad magnitudinem obelisci, cui par fieret umbra, brumse 
confectre die, sexta hora ; paulatimque per regulas (qua; sunt ex die 
exclusoe) singulis diebus decresceret ac rursus augesceret : digna cognitu 
res et ingenio fcecundo. Manilius mathematicus apici auratam pilam 
addidit, cujus umbra vertice colligeretur in se ipsa alias enormiter jacu- 
lante apice ratione (ut ferunt) a capite hominis intellecta. Haec obser- 
vatio triginta jam fere annos non congruit, sive solis ipsius dissono 
cursu, et coeli aliqua ratione mutato, sive universa tellure a centro suo 
aliquid emota ut deprchendi et in aliis locis accipio : sive urbis tremor- 
ibus ibi tantum gnomone intorto, sive inundationibus Tiberis sedi- 
mento molls facto : quanquam ad altiludinem impositi oneris in 
terram quoque dicantur acta fundamcnta." — /Y/«. Nat. Hist. lib. 
xxxiv. 14. 

lite Palace of the Afofite Citorio (designed by Bernini) 
contains inil)]ic offices connected with police, passports, &c. 
On the oijpositc side of the piazza arc the Railway and 
Telegraph Offices. 


Proceeding up tlie Corso, the Via di Pietra (right) leads 
into the small Piazza di Pietra, one side of which is occu- 
pied by the eleven remaining columns of the Temple of 
Neptune, built up by Innocent XII. into the walls of the 
modern Custom-house. It is worth while to enter the court- 
yard in order to look back and observe the immense 
masses of stone above the entrance, part of the ancient 
temple, — which are here uncovered. 

Close to this, behind the Palazzo Cini, in the Piazza 
Orfanelli, is the Teatro Capranica, occupying part of a 
palace of r. 1350, with gothic windows. Phe opposite 
church, Sta. Maria in Aqiiiro, recalls by its name the 
column of the Equina, celebrated in ancient annals as the 
place where certain games and horse races, instituted by 
Romulus, were celebrated. Ovid describes them in his 
Fasti. The church was founded c. 400, but was re-built 
under Francesco da Volterra in 1590. 

A small increase of width in the Corso is now dignified by 
the name of the Piazza Sciarra. The street which turns off 
hence, under an arch (Via de Muratte, on the left), leads 
to the Fotintain of Trevi, erected in 1735 by Niccolo Salvi 
for Clement XII. The statue of Neptune is by Pietro 

" The fountain of Trevi draws its precious water from a source 
far beyond the walls, whence it flows hitherward through old sub- 
terranean aqueducts, and sparkles forth as pure as the virgin who first 
led Agrippa to its well-springs by her father's door. In the design of 
the fountain, some sculptor of Bernini's school has gone absolutely mad, 
in marble. It is a great palace-front, with niches and many bas-reliefs, 
out of which looks Agrippa's legendary virgin, and several of the alle- 
goric sisterhood ; while at the base appears Neptune with his flounder- 
ing steeds and tritons blowing their horns about him, and twenty other 
artificial fantasies, which the calm moonlight soothes into better taste 


than is native to them. And, after all, it is as magnificent a piece of 
■work as ever human skill contrived. At the foot of the palatial fa5ade, 
is strewn, with careful art and ordered regularity, a broad and broken 
heap of massive rock, looking as if it may have lain there since the 
deluge. Over a central precipice falls the water, in a semicircular 
cascade ; and from a hundred crevices, on all sides, snowy jets gush up, 
and streams spout out of the mouths and nostrils of stone monsters, 
and fall in glistening drops ; while other rivulets, that have run wild, 
come leaping from one rude step to another, over stones that are mossy, 
shining and green with sedge, because, in a centuiy of their wild play, 
nature has adopted the fountain of Trevi, with all its elaborate devices, 
for her own. Finally the water, tumbling, sparkling, and dashing 
with joyous haste and never ceasing murmur, pours itself into a great 
marble basin and reservoir, and fills it with a quivering tide ; on which 
is seen, continually, a snowy semi-circle of momentary foam from the 
principal cascade, as well as a multitude of snow-points from smaller 
jets. The basin occupies the whole breadth of the piazza, whence 
flights of steps descend to its border. A boat might float, and make 
mimic voyages, on this artificial lake. 

"In the daytime there is hardly a livelier scene in Rome than the 
neighbourhood of the fountain of Trevi ; for the piazza is then filled 
with stalls of vegetable and fruit dealers, chestnut-roasters, cigar- 
vendors, and other people whose petty and wandering traffic is trans- 
acted in the open air. It is likewise thronged with idlers, lounging 
over the iron railing, and with forestieri, who come hither to see the 
famous fountain. Here, also, are men with buckets, urchins with cans, 
and maidens (a picture as old as the patriarchal times) bearing their 
pitchers upon their heads. For the water of Trevi is in request, far 
and wide, as the most refreshing draught for feverish lips, the plea- 
santest to mingle with wine, and the wholcsomest to drink in its 
native purity, that can anywhere be found. But, at midnight, the 
piazza is a solitude ; and it is a delight to behold this untameable water, 
sporting by itself in the moonshine, and compelling all the elaborate 
trivialities of art to assume a natural aspect, in accordance with its own 
powerful simplicity. Tradition goes, that a parting draught at the 
fountain of Trevi ensures a traveller's return to Rome, whatever ob- 
stacles and improbabilities may seem to beset him." — Ilaiat/tonic's 
Trans fo rm alio n . 

" Le bas-relief, place au-dcssus de cettc fontaine, rcpresente la jeune 
fiile indiquant la source precieuse, comme dans I'antiquite une peinture 
representait le memo cvenement dans une ciiapellc construite au lieu oil 
il s'ctait passe." — Ampbx, Enip. i. 264, 


In this piazza is the ratlier handsome front of Sia. Maria 
in Trivia, formerly Sta. Maria in Fornica, erected by Car- 
dinal Mazarin, on the site of an older church built by 
Belisarius — as is told by an inscription : — 

" Hanc vir patricius Belisarius urbis amicus 
Ob culpiE veniam condidit ecclesiam. 
Hanc, idcirco, pedem qui sacram ponis in cedem 
Ut miseretur eum saspe precare Deum." 

The fault which Belisarius wished to expiate, was the exile 
of Pope Sylverius (a.d. 536), who was starved to death in 
the island of Ponza. The crypt of the present building, 
being the parish church of the Quirinal, contains the 
entrails of twenty popes (removed for embalmment) — from 
Sixtus V. to Pius VIII. — who died in the Quirinal Palace ! 

The little church near the opposite corner of the piazza 
is that of The Crocifcri, and is still (1S70) served by the 
Venerable Don Giovanni Merlini, Father General of the 
Order of the Precious Blood, and the personal friend of its 
founder, Gaspare del Buffalo. 

The Fountain of Trevi occupies one end of the gigantic 
Palazzo Foii, which contains the English consulate. At 
the other end is the shop of the famous jeweller, Castellani, 
well worth visiting, for the sake of its beautiful collection of 
Etruscan designs, both in jewellery and in larger works of 

"Castellani est rhomme qui a ressuscite la bijouterie romaine. Son 
escalier, tapisse d'inscriptions et de bas-reliefs antiques, fait croire que 
nous entrons dans un musee. Un jeune marchand aussi erudit que 
les archeologues fait voir une collection de bijoux anciens de toutes les 
epoques, depuis les origines de I'Etrurie jusqu'au siecle de Constantin. 
C'est la source oil Castellani puise les elements d'un art nouveau qui 
detronera avant dix ans la pacotille du Palais-Royal." — About, Rome 

VOL. 1. 6 


"C'est ens'inspirant desparuresretrouveesdansles tombesdel'Etrurie, 
des bracelets et des colliers dont se paraient les femmes etrusques et 
sabines, que M. Castellani, guide par le gout savant et ingenieux d'un 
homme qui porte dignement I'ancien nom de Caetani, a introduit dans 
la bijouterie uii style a la fois classique et nouveau. Parmi les artistes 
les plus originaux de Rome sent certainement les orfevres Castellani et 
D. Miguele Caetani, due de Sermoneta." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. i. 388. 

The Palazzo Sciarra (on left of the Corso), built in 
1603 by Labacco, contains a gallery of pictures. Its six 
celebrated gems are marked with an asterisk. We may 
notice : — ■ 

\st Room. — 

5. Death of St. John Baptist : Valentin. 
13. Holy Family: Innoccnza da Imola. 
15. Rome Triumphant : Valentin. 

20. Madonna : Titian. 

23. Sta. Francesca Romana : Carlo Veneziano. 

2nd Room. — 

1 7. Flight into Egypt : Claude Lorrain. 

18. Sunset: Claude Lorrain. 

2,rd Room. — 

6. Holy Family : Franda. 
9. Boar Hunt : Garofalo. 

II. Holy Family: Andrea del Sarto. 

17. A Monk led by an Angel to the Heavenly Spheres : Gandenzio 

2,(i. The Vestal Claudia drawing a boat with the statue of Ceres up 

the Tiber : Garofalo. 
29. Tavern Scene : Teniers. 

33. Tlie Fornarina : Co/>y of Raphael by Giulio Rotnano.^ 
36. Holy Family with Angels: Lucas Cranach, 1504- 

dfili Room. — 

I. Holy Family : Fra Bartolomeo.* 
"The glow and freshness of colouring in this admirable painting, the 
softness of the skin, the beauty and sweetness of the expression, the look 


with which the mother's eyes are bent upon the baby she holds in 
her arms, and the innocent fondness with which the other child gazes 
up in her face, are worthy of the painter whose works Raphael delighted 
to study, and from which, in a great measure, he formed his principles 
of colouring." — EatoiUs Rome 

5. St. John the Evangelist : Guercino. 

6. The Violin Player (Andrea Marone ?) : Raphael* 

" The Violin Player is a youth holding the bow of a violin and a 
laurel wreath in his hand, and looking at the spectators over his 
shoulder. The expression of his countenance is sensible and decided, 
and betokens a character alive to the impressions of sense, yet severe. 
The execution is excellent, — inscribed with the date 15 18." — Kugler. 

7. St. Mark : Guercino. 

8. Daughter of Herodias : Guercino. 
12. Conjugal Love: Agostino Caracci. 

16. The Gamblers: Caravaggio.* 

"This is a masterpiece of the painter. A sharper is playing at cards 
with a youth of family and fortune, whom his confederate, while pre- 
tending to be looking on, is assisting to cheat. The subject will remind 
you of the Flemish School, but this painting bears no resemblMce to it. 
Here is no farce, no caricature. Character was never more strongly 
marked, nor a tale more inimitably told. It is life itself, and you almost 
forget it is a picture, and expect to see the game go on. The colouring 
is beyond all praise." — Eatoii's Rome. 

17. Modesty and Vanity : Leonardo da Vinci.* 

"One of Leonardo's most beautiful pictures is in Rome, in the 
SciaiTa Palace — two female half-figures of Modesty and Vanity. The 
former, with a veil over her head, is a particularly pleasing, noble 
profile, with a clear, open expression ; she beckons to her sister, who 
stands fronting the spectator, beautifully arrayed, and with a sweet 
seducing smile. This picture is remarkably powerfiil in colouring, and 
wonderfully finished, but unfortunately has become rather dark in the 
shadows . " — Kiiglcr. 

19. Magdalen: Giiido Rent. 
24. Family Portrait : Titian. 
35. Portrait : Broizino. 
26. St. Sebastian : Penigino. 
29. Bella Donna: Titian.* 


Sometimes supposed to represent Donna Laura Eustachio, the peasant 
Duchess of Alphonso I. of Ferrara. 

"When Titian or Tintoret look at a human being, they see at a 
glance the whole of its nature, outside and in ; all that it has of form, 
of colour, of passion, or of thought ; saintliness and loveliness ; fleshly 
power, and spiritual power ; grace, or strength, or softness, or whatso- 
ever other quality, those men will see to the full, and so paint, that, 
when narrower people come to look at what they have done, every one 
may, if he chooses, find his own special pleasure in the work. The 
sensualist will find sensuality in Titian ; the thinker will find thought ; 
the saint, sanctity ; the colourist, colour ; the anatomist, form ; and yet 
the picture will never be a popular one in the full sense, for none of 
these narrower people will find their special taste so alone consulted, as 
that the qualities which would ensure their gratification shall be sifted 
or separated from others ; they^are checked by the presence of the other 

qualities, which ensure the gratification of other men Only 

there is a strange undercurrent of everlasting murmur about the name of 
Titian, which means the deep consent of all great men that he is greater 
than they." — RuskiiCs Two Paths, Lcct. 2. 

31. Death of the Virgin : Albert Durer. 

32. .^laddalena della Radice : Giiido Keni.* 

" The two Magdalens by Guido are almost duplicates, and yet one 
is incomparably superior to the other. She is reclining on a rock, and 
her tearful and uplifted eyes, the whole of her countenance and attitude, 
speak the overwhelming sorrow that penetrates her soul. Her face 
might charm the heart of a stoic ; and the contrast of her youth and 
enchanting loveliness, with the abandonment of grief, the resignation of 
all earthly hope, and the entire devotion of herself to penitence and 
heaven, is most affecting." — EatoiCs Rome. \ 

Near the Piazza Sciarra, the Corso (as Via Flaminia) 
was formerly spanned by the Arch of Claudius, removed in 
1527. Some reliefs from this arch are preserved in the por- 
tico of the Villa Borghese, and thougli much mutilated are of 
fine workmanship. The inscription, which commemorated 
the erection of tiie anh in honour of the conquest of Britain, 
is preserved in the courtyard of the Barbcrini Palace. 

t 'J'hi.'i G:ill'-Ty lia.'. li'.-cii closed .since the S:ii'Juu;ui occupation. 


On the right of tlie Piazza Sciarra is the Via della Caravita, 
containing the small but popular CliiircJi of tJic Caravita* 
used for the peculiar religious exercises of the Jesuits, espe- 
cially for their terrible Lenten " flagellation " services, which 
are one of the most extraordinary sights afforded by Catholic 

*' The ceremony of pious whippings, one of the penances of the con- 
vents, still takes place at the time of vespers in the oratory of the Padre 
Caravita and in another church in Rome. It is preceded by a short 
exhortation, during which, a bell rings, and whips, that is, strings of 
knotted whipcord, are distributed quietly amongst such of the audience 
as are on their knees in the nave. On a second bell, the candles are 
extinguished — a loud voice issues from the altar, which pours forth an 
exhortation to think of unconfessed, or unrepented, or unforgiven crimes. 
This continues a sufficient time to allow the kneelers to strip off their 
upper garments ; the tone of the preacher is raised more loudly at each 
word, and he vehemently exhorts his hearers to recollect that Christ and 
the martyrs suffered much more than whipping. ' Show, then, your 
penitence — show your sense of Christ's sacrifice — show it with the whip.' 
The flagellation begins. The darkness, the tumultuous sound of blows 
in every direction — ' Blessed Virgin ]Mai7, pray for us ! ' bursting out at 
intervals, — the persuasion that you are surrounded by atrocious culprits 
and maniacs, who know of an absolution for every crime — so far from 
exciting a smile, fixes you to the spot in a trance of restless horror, pro- 
longed beyond bearing. The scourging continues ten or fifteen 
minutes." — Lord Broitghton. 

" Each man on entering the church was supplied with a scourge. 
After a short interval the doors were barred, the lights extinguished ; 
and from praying, the congregation proceeded to gi^oaning, crying, and 
finally, being worked up into a kind of ecstatic fur)', applied the scourge 
to their uncovered shoulders without mercy." — Whiteside's Italy in the 
Nineteenth Century. 

Beyond the Caravita is the Chu7-ch of S. Igiiazio, built by 
Cardinal Ludovisi. The facade, of 1685, is by Algardi. 
It contains the tomb of Gregory XIV. (\icolo Sfondrati, 

* So called from the Jesuit father of that name, who lived in the 17th century. 


1590 — 91), and that of S. Ludovico Gonzaga, both sculp- 
tured by Le Gros. 

"In S. Igiiazio is the chapel of San Luigi Gonzaga, on whom not a 
few of the young Roman damsels look with something of the same kind 
of admimtion as did Clytie on Apollo, whom he and St. Sebastian, 
those two yomig, beautiful, graceful saints, very fairly represent in 
Christian mythology. His festa falls in June, and then his altar is 
embosomed in flowers, arranged with exquisite taste ; and a pile of 
letters may be seen at its foot, written to the saint by young men and 
maidens, and directed to Paradiso. They are supposed to be burnt 
unread, except by San Luigi, who must find singular petitions in these 
pretty little missives, tied up now with a green ribbon, expressive of 
hope, now with a red one, emblematic of love, or whatever other 
significant colour the writer may prefer." — Mademoiselle Mori. 

The frescoes on the roof and tribune are by the Padre 

" Amid the many distinguished men whom the Jesuits sent forth to 
every region of the world, I cannot recollect the name of a single artist 
unless it be the Father Pozzi, renowned for his skill in perspective, and 
who used his skill less as an artist than a conjuror, to produce such 
illusions as make the vulgar stare ; to make the impalpable to the grasp 
appear as palpable to the vision ; the near seem distant, the distant near ; 
the unreal, real ; to cheat the eye ; to dazzle the sense ; — all this 
has Father Pozzi most cunningly achieved in the Gesii and the Sant' 
Ignazio at Rome ; but nothing more, and nothing better than this. I 
wearied of his altar-pieces and of his wonderful roofs which pretend to 
be no roofs at all. Scheme, tricks, and deceptions in art should all be 
kept for the theatre. It appeared to me nothing less than profane to 
introduce shams into the temples of God." — Mrs. Jameson. 

On the left of the Corso — opposite the handsome Palazzo 
Simonetti — is the Church of S. MarccUo (Pope, 308 — 10), 
containing some interesting modern monuments. Among 
them are those of Pierre (iilles, the traveller (ob. 1555), and 
of the English Cardinal Weld. Here, also, Cardinal Gon- 


salvi, the famous and liberal minister of Pius VII., is buried 
in the same tomb with his beloved younger brother, the 
Marchese Andrea Gonsalvi. Their monument, by Rinaldi, 
tells that here repose the bodies of two brothers — 

" Qui cum singular! amore dum vivebant 
Se mutuo dilexissent 
Corpora etiam sua 
Una eademque urna condi voluere." 

Here are the masterpieces which made the reputation 
of Pierino del Vaga (1501 — 1547). In the chapel of the 
Virgin are the cherubs, whose graceful movements and 
exquisite flesh-tints Vasari declares to have been unsur- 
passed by any artist in fresco. In the chapel of the Crucifix 
is the Creation of Eve, which is even more beautiful. 

" The perfectly beautiful figure of the naked Adam is seen lying, 
overpowered by sleep, while Eve, filled with life, and with folded hands, 
rises to receive the blessing of her Maker, — a most grand and solemn 
figure standing erect in heavy drapery."— Vasari, iv. 

This church is said to occupy the site of a house of the 
Christian matron Lucina, in which Marcellus died of 
wounds incurred in attempting to settle a quan-el among his 
Christian followers. It was in front of it that the body of 
the tribune Rienzi, after his murder on the Capitol steps, 
was hung up by the feet for two days as a mark lor the 
rabble to throw stones at. 

The next street to the right leads to the CoUcgio Romano, 
founded by St. Francis Borgia, Duke of Gandia (a descend- 
ant of Pope Alexander VI.), who, after a youth spent 
amid the splendours of the court of jNIadrid, retired to Rome 
in 1550, in the time of Julius III., and became the successor 


of Ignatius Loyola as general of the Jesuits. The buildings 
were erected, as we now see them, by Ammanati, in 15S2, 
for Gregory XIII. The college is entirely under the super- 
intendence of the Jesuits. The library is large and valuable. 
The Kircherian Miistum (shown to gentlemen from ten to 
eleven on Sundays) is worth visiting. It contains a number 
of antiquities, illustrative of Roman and Etruscan customs, 
and many beautiful ancient bronzes and vases. The most 
important object is the " Cista Mistica," a bronze vase and 
cover, which was given as a prize to successful gladiators, 
and which was originally fitted up with everything useful for 
their profession. 

The Observatory of the Collegio Romano has obtained a 
European reputation from the important astronomical re- 
searches of its director, the Padre Secchi. 

The Collegio Romano has produced eight popes — Urban 
VIII., Innocent X., Clement IX., Clement X., Innocent 
XII., Clement XL, Innocent XIII., and Clement XII. 
Among its other pupils have been S. Camillo de Lellis, 
the Blessed Leonardo di Porto-Maurizio, the Venerable 
Pietro Berna, and others. 

" Ignace, Fran9ois Borgia, ont passe par ici. Leur souvenir plane, 
comnic un encouragement et une benediction, sur ces salles ou lis pre- 
siderent aux etudes, sur ces chaires ou peut-etre retentit leur parole, 
sur ces modestes cellules qu'ils ont haliitees. A la fin du seizieme siecle, 
Ics eleves du college Romain pcrdirent un de leurs condisciples que 
sa douce amenite et ses vertus angeliques avaient rendu I'objet d'un 
affectueux respect. Ce jeune homme avait etc page de Philippe II. ; 
il etait allie aux maisons royales d'Autriche, de Bourbon et de Lorraine. 
Mais au milieu de ces illusions d'une grande vie, sous ce brillant 
costume de cour qui semblait lui promettre honneurs et fortune, il ne 
voyait jamais que la picuse figure de sa mere agenouillee au pied des 
autels, et priant pour lui. A peine age de seize ans, il s'echappe de 


Madrid, il vient frapper a la porte du college Romain, et dcmande 
place, au dortoir et a I'etude, pour Louis Gonzague, fils du comte de 
Castiglione. Pendant sept ans, Louis donna dans cette maison le 
touchant exemple d'une vie celeste ; puis ses jours dt'clinercnt, comme 
parle I'Ecriture ; il avait assez vecu." — Gourneric, Home Chrctiemic, 
ii. 211. 

We now reach (on right) the ChiDxh of Sta. Maria in 
Via Lata, which was founded by Sergius I., in the eighth 
century, but twice rebuilt, the second time under Alexander 
VII., in 1662, when the fagade was added by Pietro da 

In this church " they still show a little chapel in which, as hath been 
handed down from the first ages, St. Luke the Evangelist wrote, and 
painted the effigy of the Virgin Mother of God." — Sec JatnesojUs Sacred 
Art, p. 155. 

The subterranean church is shown as the actual house in 
which St. Paul lodged when he was in Rome. 

" And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners 
to the captain of the guard : but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself 
with a soldier that kept him." 

"And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him 
into his lodging ; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of 
God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, 
and out of the prophets, from morning till evening." . . . 

" And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and 
received all that came in unto him, preaching the kingdom of God, 
and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with 
all confidence, no man forbidding him." — Acts xxviii. 16, 23, 30, 31. 

" St. Paul after his arrival at Rome, having made his usual effort, in 
the first place, for the salvation of his own countrymen, and as usual, 
having found it vain, turned to the Gentiles, and during two whole 
years, in which he was a prisoner, received all that came to him, preach- 
mg the kingdom of God. It was thus that God overruled his im- 
prisonment for the furtherance of the gospel, so that his bonds in 
Christ were manifest in the palace, and in all other places, and 


many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by his bonds, 
wei"e much more bold to speak tlie word without fear. Even in 
the palace of Nero, the most noxious atmosphere, as we should have 
concluded, for the growth of divine truth, his bonds were manifest, 
the Lord Jesus was preached, and, more than this, was received to the 
saving of many souls ; for we find the Apostle writing to his Phil- 
ippian converts : ' All the saints salute you, chiefly they which are 
of Caesar's household.' The whole Church of Christ has abundant 
reason to bless God for the dispensation which, during the most matured 
period of St. Paul's Christian life, detained him a close prisoner in the 
imperial city. Had he, to the end of his course, been at large, occu- 
pied, as he had long been, 'in labours most abundant,' he would, 
humanly speaking, never have found time to pen those epistles which 
are among the most blessed portion of the Church's inheritance. It 
was from within the walls of a prison, probably chained hand to hand 
to the soldier who kept him, that St. Paul indited the Epistles to the 
Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Hebrews." — Bh<nfs Lectures 
on St. Paul. 

"In writing to Philemon, Paul chooses to speak of himself as the 
captive of Jesus Christ. Yet he went whither he would, and was free 
to receive those who came to him. It is interesting to remember amid 
these solemn vaults, the different events of St. Paul's apostolate, during 
the two years that he lived here. It was here that he converted 
Onesimus, that he received the presents of the Philippians, brought by 
Epaphroditus ; it was hence that he wrote to Philemon, to Titus, to the 
inhabitants of Philippi and of Colosse ; it was here that he preached 
devotion to the cross with that glowing eagerness, with that startling 
eloquence, which gained fresh power from contest and which inspiration 
rendered sublime. . 

" Peter addressed himself to the Circumcised ; Paul to the Gentiles,* — 
to their silence that he miglit confound it, to their reason that he might 
humble it. Had he not already converted the proconsul .Sergius Paulus 
and Dionysius the Areopagite ? At Rome his word is equally powerful, 
and among the courtiers of Nero, perhaps even amongst his relations, are 
those who yield to the power of God, who reveals himself in each of 
the teachings of his servant. + Around the Apostle his eager disciples 
group themselves — Onesi])horus of Ephesus, who was not ashamed of 
his chain ; % Epapliras of Colosse, who was captive with him, coucap- 
tivus meus ;% Timotliy, who was one with his master in a holy union of 

• Galat. ii. 7. t Pliillpp. iv. 22. 

X 2 Timothy i. 16. I'hilciuon 23. 


every thought, and M-ho was attached to him like a son, siait patri fdiits ;* 
Hernias, Aristarchus, Marcus, Demas — and Luke the physician, the 
faithful companion of the Apostle, his well-beloved disciple — ' Lucas 
medicus carissimus.' " — From Goiirncrie, Rome C/uvtieinie. 

"I honour Rome for this reason ; for though I could celebrate her 
praises on many other accounts — for her greatness, for her beauty, for 
her power, for her wealth, and for her warlike exploits, — yet, passing 
over all these things, I glorify her on this account, that Paul in his life- 
time wrote to the Romans, and loved them, and was present with and 
conversed with them, and ended his life amongst them. Wherefore the 
city is on this account renowned more than on all others — on this 
account I admire her, not on account of- her gold, her columns, or her 
other splendid decorations." — St. John Chrysostom, Homily on the Ep. 
to the Romans. 

" The Roman Jews expressed a wish to hear from St. Paid himself a 
statement of his religious sentiments, adding that the Christian sect was 
everywhere spoken against. ... A day was fixed for the meeting 
at his private lodging. 

" The Jews came in great numbers at the appointed time. Then fol- 
lowed an impressive scene, like that at Troas (Acts xxi. )— the Apostle 
pleading long and earnestly, — bearing testimony concerning the kingdom 
of God, — and endeavouring to persuade them by arguments drawn from 
their own Scriptures, — 'from morning till evening.' The result was a divi- 
sion among the auditors — ' not peace, but a sword,' — the division which 
has resulted ever since, when the Truth of God has encountered, side 
by side, earnest conviction with v»'orldly indifference, honest investiga- 
tion with bigoted prejudice, trustful faith with the pride of scepticism. 
After a long and stormy discussion, the unbelieving portion departed ; 
but not until St. Paul had warned them, in one last address, that they 
were bringing upon themselves that awful doom of judicial blindness, 
which was denounced in their own Scriptures against obstinate un- 
believers ; that the salvation which they rejected would be withdrawn 
from them, and the inheritance they renounced would be given to the 
Gentiles. The sentence with which he gave emphasis to this solemn 
warning was that passage in Isaiah, which recurring thus with solemn 
force at the very close of the Apostolic history, seems to bring very 
strikingly together the Old Dispensation and the New, and to connect 
the ministry of Our Lord with that of His Apostles : — ' Go unto this 
people and say : Hearing ye shall hear and shall not understand, and 
seeing ye shall see and shall not perceive : for the heart of this people is 

* Philipp. ii. 22. 


waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they 
closed ; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, 
and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should 
heal them.' 

". . . During the long delay of his trial St. Paul was not 
reduced, as he had been at Csesarea, to a forced inactivity. On the 
contrary, he was permitted the freest intercourse with his friends, and 
was allowed to reside in a house of sufficient size to accommodate the 
congregation which flocked together to listen to his teaching. The 
freest scope was given to his labours, consistent with the military 
custody under which he was placed. We are told, in language pecu- 
liarly emphatic, that his preaching was subjected to no restraint what- 
ever. And that which seemed at first to impede, must really have 
deepened the impression of his eloquence ; for who could see with- 
out emotion that venerable form subjected by iron links to the coarse 
control of the soldier who stood beside him ? how often mnst the 
tears of the assembly have been called forth by the upraising of that 
fettered hand, and the clanking of the chain whicli checked its energetic 

" We shall see hereafter that these labours of the imprisoned Con- 
fessor were not fruitless ; in his own words, he ' begot many children in 
his chains.' Meanwhile, he had a wider sphere of action than even the 
metropolis of the world. Not only ' the crowd which pressed upon him 
daily,' but also 'the care of all the churches ' demanded his constant 
vigilance and exertion. . . . To enable him to maintain this super- 
intendence, he manifestly needed many faithful messengers ; men who 
(as he says of one of them) ' rendered him profitable service '; and by 
some of whom he seems to have been constantly accompanied, whereso- 
ever he went. Accordingly we find him, during this Roman imprison- 
ment, surrounded by many of his oldest and most valued attendants. 
Luke, his fellow-traveller, remained with him during his bondage ; 
Timotheus, his beloved son in the faith, ministered to him at Rome, as 
he had done in Asia, in Macedonia, and in Achaia. Tychicus, who 
had formerly borne him company from Corinth to Ephesus, is now at 
hand to carry his letters to the shores which they had visited together. 
But there are two names amongst his Roman comi)anions which excite 
a peculiar interest, tliough from opposite reasons, — the names of Demas 
and of Mark. The latter, when last we heard of him, was the unhappy 
cause of the separation of Barnabas and Paul. He was rejected by 
Paul, as unwortiiy to attend him, because he had previously abandoned 
the work of the Ciosjicl out of timiditv or indolence. It is delightful to 
find him now ministering obediently to the very Apostle who had then 


repudiated his services ; still more to know that he jiersevercd in this 
fidehty even to the end, and was sent for by St. Paul to cheer his dying 
hours. Demas, on the other hand, is now a faithful ' fellow-labourer ' 
of the Apostle ; but in a few years we shall find that he had ' forsaken ' 
him, having ' loved this present world.' 

"Amongst the rest of St. Paul's companions at this time, there were 
two whom he distinguishes by the honourable title of his ' fellow- 
prisoners.' One of these is Aristarchus, the other Epaphras. With 
regard to the former, we know that he was a Macedonian of Thessa- 
lonica, one of 'Paul's companions in travel,' whose life was endangered 
by the mob at Ephesus, and who embarked with St. Paul at Caesarea 
when he set sail for Rome. The other, Epaphras, was a Colossian, 
who must not be identified with the Philippian Epaphroditus, another 
of St. Paul's fellow-labourers during this time. It is not easy to say in 
what exact sense these two disciples were peculiarly fellcnv- prisoners of 
St. Paul. Perhaps it only implies that they dwelt in his house, which 
was also his prison. 

"But of all the disciples now ministering to St. Paul at Rome, none 
has a greater interest than the fugitive Asiatic slave Onesimus. He 
belonged to a Christian named Philemon, a member of the Colossian 
Church. But he had robbed his master, and fled from Colosse, and at 
last found his way to Rome. Here he was converted to the faith of 
Christ, and had confessed to St. Paul his sins against his master." — 
Conybeare and Hoivsoii, Life of St. Paul. 

A fountain in the crypt is shown, as having miraculously 
sprung up in answer to the prayers of St. Paul, that he 
might have wherewithal to baptize his disciples. At the 
end of the crypt are some large blocks of peperino, said 
to be remains of the arch erected by the senate in honour 
of the Emperor Gordian III., and destroyed by Inno- 
cent VIII. 

Far along the right side of the Corso now extends the 
fagade of the immense Palazzo Doria, built by Valwisori 
(the front towards the CoUegio Romano being by Pietro da 
Cortona, and that towards the Piazza Venezia by Amati). 
Entering the courtyard^ one must turn left to reach the 


Picture Gallery (which is open on Tuesdays and Fridays, 
from ten till two) — a vast collection, which contains some 
grand portraits and a few other fine paintings. 

The \st Room entered is a great hall — to which pictures 
are removed for copying. It contains four fine sarcophagi, 
with reliefs of the Hunt of Meleager, the Story of Marsyas, 
Endymion and Diana, and a Bacchic procession. Of two 
ancient circular altars, one serves as the pedestal of a 
bearded Dionysus. The pictures are chiefly landscapes, 
of the school of Poussin and Salvator Rosa, — that of the 
Deluge is by IppoUto Scarselliiio. 

2nd Room. — In the centre a Centaur (restored), of basalt 
and rosso-antico. On either side groups of boys playing. 

Pictures : — 

4. Caritas Romana : Valentin. 

5. Circumcision : Giov. Bellini ? 
7. Madonna and Saints : Basaiti. 

15. Temptations of St. Anthony : Sc7wla di Mantegna. 

19. St. John in the Desert: Gnercino? 

35 . Birth of St. John : Vittore Pisancllo. 

21. Spozalizio : V. Pisancllo. 

23. .St. Sylvester before Maximin II. : Pesellino. 

24. Madonna and Child : F. Francia ? 
28. Annunciation : Fil. Lippi. 

2^. St. Sylvester and the Dragon : Pesellino (see the account of 

Sta. Maria Liberatrice). 
33. St. Agnes on the burning pile : Giiercino. 
37. Magdalen : Copy of the Titian in the Pitti Palace. 

/^th Room. — 

A bust of Innocent X. (with whose ill-acquired -wealth this 
palace was built) in rosso-antico, with a bronze head : 

^tli Room. — 

17. The Money-changers : Quentin Matsys. 


25. St. Joseph : Guercino. 

In the centre, a group of Jacob wrestling with the Angel : 
School of Bernini. 

6th Room. — 

8. Portrait of Olympia Maldacchini, the sister-in-law of Inno- 
cent X., who ruled Rome in his time. 
13. Madonna : Carlo Maratta. 
30. Sketch of a Boy : Incognito. 

From this room we enter a small cabinet, hung with y>\c- 
tuxes, oi Breiighel 3X^6. Fiamniifigoj dind containing a bust by 
Algardi, of Olympia Maldacchini-Pamfili, who built the Villa 
Doria Pamfili for her son. 

"jth Room. — 

8. Belisarius in the desert : Salvator Rosa. 

19. Slaughter of the Innocents : Alazzolino. 

We now enter the Galleries — which begin towards the 

\st Gallery. — 

2. Holy Family in glor}', and two Franciscan Saints adoring: 


3. Magdalen: Annibale Caracci. 

8. Two Heads : Quentin Matsys. 

9. Holy Family : Sassoferrato. 

10. Story of the conversion of S. Eustachio (see the description 
of his church) : School of Alberi Dnrer. 

14. A Portrait: Titian. 

15. Holy Family : Andrea del Sarto. 

20. The Three Ages of Man : Titian.* 

21. Return of the Prodigal Son : Guercino. 

25. Landscape with the Flight into Eg>'pt : Clande Lorraine. 

26. The meeting of Mary and Elizabeth : Garofalo. 
38. Copy of the " Nozze Aldobrandini : " Poussin. 
45. Madonna: Gnido Reni. 

50. Holy Family : Giulio Romano, from Raphael. 


2nd Gallery. — 

6. IMadonna : Fran. Francia. 
14. " Bartolo and Baldo : " Raphael.* 
17. Portrait: Titian. 
21. Portrait of a Widow : Vandyke. 

24. Three Heads, called Calvin, Luther, and Catherine : Giorgioize. 
26. Sacrifice of Isaac : Titian. 
33. Portrait of a Pamfili : Vandyke. 
40. Herodias with the Head of John the Baptist : Pordenone. 

A grand bust of Andrew Doria. 
50. "The Confessor : " Rubens. 

53. Joanna of Arragon : School of Leonardo da Vinci.* 
56. Magdalene : School of Titian. 
61, Adoration of the Infant Jesus : Gio. Batt. Benvemiti {'■ V Or- 

66. Holy Family : Garofalo. 

69. Glory crowning Virtue (a sketch) : Correggio. 
80. Portrait of Titian and his Wife : Titian. 

Also a number of pictures of the Creation : Breughel. 

yd Gallery. — 

I, 6, 28, 34. Landscapes (with figures introduced) : Ann. 

5. Landscape, with Mercury stealing cattle : Claude Lorraine. 

10. Titian's Wife : Titian. 

11. "Niccolaus Macchiavellus Historian Scriptor:" Bronzino. 

12. " The Mill : " Claude Lorraine.* 

" The foreground of the picture of ' the Mill ' is a piece of very lovely 
and perfect forest scenery, with a dance of peasants by a brook-side ; 
quite enough subject to form, in the hands of a master, an impressive 
and complete picture. On the other side of the brook, however, we 
have a piece of pastoral life ; a man with some bulls and goats tumbling 
head foremost into the water, owing to some sudden paralytic affection 
of all their legs. Even this group is one too many ; the shepherd had 
no business to drive his flock so near the dancers, and the dancers 
will certainly frighten the cattle. But when we look farther into the 
picture, our feelings receive a sudden and violent shock, by the unex- 
pected appearance, amidst things pastoral and musical, of the military ; 
a number of Roman soldiers riding in on hobby-horses, with a leader on 
foot, ajiparcntly encouraging them to make an immediate and decisive 
charge on the musicians. Beyond the soldiers is a circular temple, in 


exceedingly bad repair ; and close beside it, built against its very walls, 
a neat water-mill in full work ; by the mill flows a large river with a weir 
across it. . . . At an inconvenient distance from the water-side 
stands a city, composed of twenty-five round towers and a pyramid. 
Beyond the city is a handsome bridge ; beyond the bridge, part of the 
Campagna, with fragments of aqueducts ; beyond the Campagna the 
chain of the Alps ; on the left, the cascades of Tivoli. 

" This is a fair example of what is commonly called an ' ideal' land- 
scape ; i.e. a group of the artist's studies from nature, individually 
spoiled, selected with such opposition of character as may insure their 
neutralizing each other's effect, and united with sufiP.cient unnaturalness 
and violence of association to insure their producing a general sensation 
of the impossible."- — RuskuCs Alodcrn Painters. 

'.' jVIanv painters take a particular spot, and sketch it to perfection ; 
but Claude was convinced that taking nature as he found it, seldon^ 
produced beauty. Neither did he like exhibiting in his pictures acci- 
dents of nature. He professed to pourtray the style of general nature, 
and so his pictures were a composition of the various draughts which he 
had previously made from beautiful scenes and prospects." — Sir y. 

18. Pieta : Ann. Caracci. 

23. Landscape, with the Temple of Apollo : Claude Lorraine. 

26. Portrait : Maszolino. 

27. Portrait : Giorgione. 

33. Landscape, with Diana hunting : Claude Lorraine. 

At the end of tliis gallery is a small cabinet, containing 
the gems of the collection : — 

1. Portrait of a " Lettcrato :" Lucas V. l^eyden?* 

2. Portrait of Andrea Doria : Sebastian dd Pionibo.* 

3. Portrait of Giannetto Doria : Pronzino.* 

4. Portrait of S. Filippo Neri, as a boy : Parocci. 

5. Portrait of Innocent X. ; Gio. Battista Pamfili (1644 — 55): 

Velasquez. * 

6. Entombment : yolin Emelingk.* 

Here, also, is the bust of the late beloved Princess Doria 
(Lady Mary Talbot), which has always been veiled in crape 
since her death. 

VOL. I. 7 


The ^th Gallery is decorated with mirrors, and with 
statues of no especial merit. 

"In the whole immense range of rooms of the Palazzo Doria, I saw 
but a single fire-place, and that so deep in the wall that no amount of 
blaze would raise the atmosphere of the room ten degrees. If the 
builder of the palace, or any of his successors, have committed crimes 
worthy of Tophet, it would be a still worse punishment to him to 
wander perpetually through this suite of rooms, on the cold floors of 
polished brick tiles, or marble, or mosaic, growing a little chiller and 
chiller through every moment of eternity — or at least, till the palace 
crumbles down upon him." — Hawthoiiic, Notes on Italy. 

Opposite the Palazzo Doria is the Palazzo Salviati. The 
next two streets on the left lead into the long narrow square 
called Piazza Sajtti Apostoli, containing several handsome 
palaces. That on the right is the Palazzo Odescalchi, built 
by Bernini, in 1660, for Cardinal Fabio Chigi, to whose 
family it formerly belonged. It has some fine painted and 
carved wooden ceilings. This palace is supposed to be the 
scene of the latest miracle of the Roman Catholic Church. 
The present Princess Odescalchi had long been bedridden, 
and was apparently dying of a hopeless disease, when, while 
her family were watching what they considered her last 
moments, tlie pope (Pius IX.) sent, by the hands of a nun, 
a little loaf (j)anetello), which he desired her to swallow. 
With terrible effort, the sick woman obeyed, and was imme- 
diately healed, and on the following day the astonished 
Romans saw her go in person to the pope, at the Vatican, 
to return thanks for her restoration ! 

The building at the end of the square is the Palazzo 
Valaitini, which once contained a collection of antiquities. 

Near this, on the left, but separated from the piazza 
by a courtyartl, is tlie vast Palazzo Coloii/ia, begun, in the 


fifteentli century, by Martin V., and continued at various 
later periods. Julius II. at one time made it his residence, 
and also Cardinal (afterwards San Carlo) Borromeo. Part 
of it is now the residence of the French ambassadors. The 
palace is built very near the site of the ancient fortress of 
the Colonna family — so celebrated in times of mediaeval 
warfare with the Orsini — of which one lofty tower still re- 
mains, in a street leading up to the Quirinal. 

The Gallery is shown every day, except Sundays and 
holidays, from 11 to 3. It is entered by the left wing. 
The first room is a fine, gloomy old hall, containing the 
family dais, and hung with decaying Colonna portraits. 
Then come three rooms covered with tapestries, the last 
containing a pretty statue of a girl, sometimes called 
Niobe. Hence we reach the pictures. The \st Room 
has an interesting collection of the early schools, includ- 
ing Madonnas of Filippo Lippl ; Luca Longhi ; Botticelli; 
Gentile da Fabriano ; Iimoceiiza da Imola ; a curious Cruci- 
fixion, by Jacopo d' Avanzo ; and a portrait by Giovanni 
Sanzio, father of Raphael. 

The ceiling of the yd Room has a fresco, by Battoni and 
Luti, of the apotheosis of Martin V. (Oddone Colonna, 
1 41 7 — 24). Among its pictures, are St. Bernard, Giovanni 
Bellini; Onuphrius Pavinius, Titian; Holy Family, Bro7i- 
zifio; Peasant dining, Annibale Caracci ; St. Jerome, Spagna ; 
Portrait, Paul Veronese ; Holy Family, Bonifazio. 

Hence we enter the Great Hall, a truly grand room, hung 
with mirrors and painted with flowers by Mario dc' Fiori, and 
with genii by Maratta. The statues here are unimportant. 
The ceiling is adorned with paintings, by Coli and Glierardi, 
of the battle of Lepanto, Oct. 8, 1571, which Marc- Antonio 


Colonna assisted in gaining. The best pictures are the 
family portraits: — Federigo Colonna, Sustermanns ; Don 
Carlo Colonna, Vandyke; Card. Pompeio Colonna, Lorenzo 
Lotto ; Vittoria Colonna, Muziano ; Lucrezia Colonna, Van- 
dyke; Pompeio Colonna, Agostino Caracci ; Giacomo Sciarra 
Colonna, Giorgione. We may also notice an extraordinary 
picture of the Madonna rescuing a child from a demon, by 
Nlccolo d'Alufino, with a double portrait, by Tintoret, on the 
right wall, and a Holy Family of Pahna Vecchio at the end 
of the gallery. Near the entrance are some glorious old 
cabinets, inlaid with ivory and lapis-lazuli. On the steps 
leading to the upper end of the hall is a bomb left on the 
spot where it fell during the siege of Rome in 1848. 

(Through the palace access may be obtained to the 
beautiful Colonna Gardens ; but as they are generally visited 
from the Quirinal, they will be noticed in the description of 
that hill.) 

"On parle d'un Pierre Colonna, depouille de tous ses biens en iioo 
par le pape Pascal II. II fallait que la famille fut deja passablement 
ancienne, car les grandes fortunes ne s'elevent pas en un jour." — 

"Si n'etoit le different des Ursins et des Colonnois (Orsini and 
Colonna) la terre de TEglise seroit la plus heureuse habitation pour les 
subjects, qui soit en tout le monde. " — Philippe de Coiiiincs. 1500- 

" Gloriosa Colonna, in cui s' appoggia 

Nostra speranza, e'l gran nome Latino, 
Ch'ancor non torte del vero cammino 
L'ira di Giove per ventosa l^ioggia." 

Petrarca, Sonnetto x. 

Adjoining the Palazzo Colonna is the fine Church of the 
Santi Apostoli, founded in the sixth century, rebuilt by 
Martin V., in 1420, and modernized, c. 1602, by Fontana. 

SS. ArOSTOLI. loi 

The portico contains a magnificent bas-relief of an eagle 
and an oak-wreath (frequently copied and introduced in 
architectural designs). 

"Entrez sous la portique de I'eglise des Saints- Apotres, et vous 
trouverez la, encadre par hasard dans le mur, un aigle qu'entoure une 
couronne d'lm magnifique travail. Vous reconraitrez facilement dans 
cet aigle et cette couronne la representation d'une ensigne romaine, 
telle que les bas-reliefs de la colonne Trajane vous en ont montre 
plusieurs ; seulement ^e qui etait la en petit est ici en grand." — Ampere, 
Enip. ii. 1 68 

Also in the portico, is a monument, by Canova, to Vol- 

pato, the engraver. Over the .sacristy door is the tomb of 

Pope Clement XIV. (Giov. Antonio GanganelH, 1769 — 74), 

also by Canova, executed in his twenty-fifth year. 

" La mort de Clement XIV. est du 22 Septembre, 1774. A cette 
epoque, Alphonse de Liguori etait eveque de .Sainte-Agathe des Goths, 
au royaume de Naples. Le 22 Septembre, au matin, Teveque tomba 
dans une espece de sommeil lethargique apres avoir dit la messe, et, 
pendant vingt-quatre heures, il demeura sans mouvement dans son 
fauteuil. Ses serviteurs s'etonnant de cet etat, le lendemain, avec lui: 
— ' Vous ne savez pas, leur dit-il, que j'ai assiste le pape qui vient de 
mourir.' Peu apres, la nouvelle du deces de Clement arriva a Sainte 
Agathe." — Gonrnerie, Rome Chritienne, ii. 362. 

In 1873 the traditional grave of St. Philip and St. James, 
the "Apostoli" to whom this church is dedicated, was opened 
during its restoration. Two bodies were found, enclosed in 
a sarcophagus of beautiful transparent marble, and have 
been duly enshrined. In the choir are monuments of the 
fifteenth century, to two relations of Pope Sixtus IV., Pictro 
Riario, and Cardinal Raffaelo Riario. To the right is the 
tomb of the Chevalier Girard, brother-in-law of Pope Julius 
XL, and maitre d'hotel to Charles VIII. and Louis XII. of 
France. The tomb of Cardinal Bessarion was remo\ed 
from the church, in 1702, to the cloisters of the adjoining 
Convent, which is the residence of the General of the 


Order of " Minori Conventuali " (Black Friars). The altar- 
piece represents the martyrdom of SS. Philip and James, 
by Muratori. 

The heart of Maria Clementina Sobieski (buried in St. 
Peter's), -wafe of James III., called the First Pretender, is 
also preserved here, as is shown by a Latin inscription. 

" Le roi d'Angleterre est devot a I'exces ; sa matinee se passe en 
prieres aux Saints- Apotres, pres du tombeau de sa femme." — De 
Brasses, 1739. 

In 1552 this church was remarkable for the sermons of 
the monk Felix Peretti, afterwards Sixtus V. 

" Suivant un manuscrit de la bibliotheque Alfieri, un jour, pendant 
qu'il etait dans la chaire des Saints-Apotres, un billet cachete lui fut 
remis ; Frere Felix I'ouvre et y lit, en face d'un certain nombre de propo- 
sitions que Ton disait etre extraites de ses discours, ce mot ecrit en gros 
caracteres : Mentiris (tu mens). Le fougueux orateur eut peine \ 
contenir son emotion ; il termina son sermon en quelques paroles, et 
courut au palais de I'lnquisition presenter le billet mysterieux, et de- 
mander qu'on examinat scrupuleusement sa doctrine. Cet examen lui 
fut favorable, et il lui valut I'amitie du grand inquisiteur, Michael 
Ghislieri, qui comprit aussitot lout le parti qu'on pouvait tirer d'un 
honime dont les moindres actions etaient empreintes d'une inebranlable 
force de caractcre." — Gouriierie. 

In this church is buried the young Countess Savorelli, 
the story of whose love, misfortunes, and death, has been 
celebrated by About, under the name of ToHa (the J>ello of 
the story having been one of the Doria-Pamfili family). 

"The convent which Tolla had sanctified by her death sent three 
embassies in turn to beg to preserve her relics : already the people 
spoke of her as a saint. But Count Feraldi (Savorelli) considered that 
it was due to his honour and to his vengeance to bear her remains with 
pomp to the tomb of his family. lie had sufficient influence to obtain 
that for which permission is not granted once in ten years : the right of 


tiansporting her uncovered, upon a bed of white velvet, and of sparhig 
her the horrors of a coffin. The beloved remains were wrapped in the 
white muslin robe which she wore in the garden on the day when she 
exchanged her sweet vows with Lello. The Marchesa Trasimeni, ill 
and wasted as she was, came herself to arrange her hair in the manner 
she loved. Every garden in Rome despoiled itself to send her its 
flowers ; it was only necessary to choose. The funeral procession 
quitted the church of S. Antonio Abbate on Thursday evening at 7.30 
for the Santi Apostoli, where the Feraldis are buried. The body was 
preceded by a long file of the black and white confraternities, each bear- 
ing its banner. The red light of the torches played upon the counte- 
nance of the beautiful dead, and seemed to animate her afresh. The 
piazza was filled with a dense and closely packed but dumb crowd ; 
no discordant sound troubled the grief of the relations and friends of 

Tolla, who wept together at the Palazzo Feraldi 

" The Church of the Apostoli and the tomb of the poor loving 
girl, became at certain days of the year an object of pilgrimage, and 
more than one young Roman maiden adds to her evening litany the 
words, ' St. Tolla, virgin and martyr, pray for us.' " — About. 

Just beyond the church is the Palazzo Miito-SavorcUi (the 
home of Tolla, "Palazzo Feraldi") long the residence of 
Prince Charles Edward ("the last Pretender "), who died 
here in 1788. Hence the Via delle Verghii, with its dismal 
lines of latticed convent-windows, leads to the Fountain of 

Returning to the Corso, we pass (right) Palazzo Biiona- 
J>a}'te, built by Giovanni dei Rossi in 1660. Here LcXtitia 
Buonaparte — " Madame Mere" — ^the mother of Napoleon I., 
died February 2nd, 1836. The present head of the family 
is Cardinal Lucien-Louis Buonaparte, son of Prince Charies 
(son of Lucien) and of Princess Zenaide, daughter of King 
Joseph of Spain. His only surviving brother is Prince 
Napoleon Buonaparte. 

This palace forms one corner of the Piazza di Vc/iezia, 
which contains the ancient castellated Palace of the Republic 


of Venice, built in 1468 by Giuliano da Majano (with 
materials plundered from the Coliseum) for Paul II., who 
was of Venetian birth. On the ruin of the republic the 
palace fell into the hands of Austria, and is still the resid- 
ence of the Austrian ambassador, to whom it was spe- 
cially reserved on the cession of Venice to Italy. 

Opposite this, on a line with the Corso, is the Palazzo 
Torlonia, built by Fontana in 1650, for the Bolognetti 

" Nobility is certainly more the fruit of wealth in Italy than in 
England. Here, where a title and estate are sold together, a man who 
can buy the one secures the other. From the station of a lacquey, an 
Italian who can amass riches, may rise to that of duke. Thus Torlonia, 
the Roman banker, purchased the title and estate of the Duca di Brac- 
ciano, fitted up the ' Palazzo Nuovo di Torlonia ' with all the magnifi- 
cence that wealth commands ; and a marble gallery, with its polished 
floors, modern statues, painted ceilings, and gilded furniture, far out- 
shines the faded splendour of the halls of the old Roman nobility." — 
Eaton's Home. 

" Un ancien domestique de place, devenu speculateur et banquier, 
achete un marquisat, puis une principaute. II cree un majorat pour son 
fils aine et une seconde geniture en faveur de I'autre. L'un Spouse une 
Sforza-Cesarini et marie ses deux fils a une Chigi et une Ruspoli ; 
I'autre obtient pour femme une Colonna-Doria. C'est ainsi que la 
famille Torlonia, par la puissance de I'argent et la faveur du saint-pere, 
s'est elevee presquc subitemcnt h la hauteur des plus grands maisons 
nepotiqucs et iiloAaXc^." —■ About. 

The most interesting of the antiquities preserved in this 
palace is a bas-relief, rej)resenting a combat between men 
and animals, brought hither from the Palazzo "Orsini, and 
probably pourtraying the famous dedication of the theatre 
of Marcellus on that site, celebrated by the slaughter of six 
hundred nniinals. 

The end of the Corso — narrowed by a projecting wing of 
the Venetian Palace — is known as the Ri^rcsa del Bar- 


bcri, because there the horses, wliich run in the races 
during the Carnival, are caught in large folds of drapery let 
down across the street to prevent their dashing themselves 
to pieces against the opposite wall. 

Close to the end of this street, built into the wall of a house 
in the Via di Marforio, is one of the few relics of repub- 
lican times m the city,— a Doric Tomb, bearing an inscrip- 
tion which states that it Avas erected by order of the people 
on land granted by the Senate to Caius Publicius Bibulus, 
the plebeian ?edile, and his posterity. Petrarch mentions 
in one of his letters that he wrote one of his sonnets leaning 
against the tomb of Bibulus. 

This tomb has a secondary interest as marking the com- 
mencement of the Via Flaminia, as it stood just outside the 
Porta Ratumena from whence that road issued. There are 
some obscure remains of another tomb on the other side of 
the street. The Via Flaminia, like the Via Appia, was once 
fringed with tombs. 

From the Ripresa dei Barberi, a street passing under an 
arch on the right, leads to the back of the Venetian Palace, 
where is the Church of S. Marco, originally founded in the 
time of Constantine, but rebuilt in 833, and modernized by 
Cardinal Quirini in 1744. Its portico, which is lined with 
early Christian inscriptions, contains a fine fifteenth cen- 
tury doorway, surmounted by a figure of St. Mark. The 
interior is in the form of a basilica, its naves and aisles 
separated by twenty columns, and ending in an apse. 
The best pictures are S. Marco, " a pope enthroned, by 
Carlo CrivcUi, resembling in sharpness of finish and indi- 
viduality the works of Bartolomeo Viviani," * and a Resur- 
rection by Paliua Giovanc. 

* Kugler. 


" Tlie mosaics of .S. Marco, executed under Pope Gregory IV. 
(A.d. 827 — 844), with all their splendour, exhibit the utmost poverty of 
expression. Above the tribune, in circular compartments, is the portrait 
of Christ between the symbols of the Evangelists, and further below 
SS. Peter and Paul (or two prophets) with scrolls ; within the tribune, 
beneath a hand extended with a wreath, is the standing figure of Christ 
with an open book, and on either side, S. Angelo and Pope Gregory IV. 
Further on, but still belonging to the dome, are the thirteen lambs, 
forming a second and quite uneven circle round the figures. The 
execution is here especially rude, and of true Byzantine rigidity, while, 
as if the artist knew that his long lean figures were anything but secure 
upon their feet, he has given them each a separate little pedestal. The 
lines of the drapery are chiefly straight and parallel, while, with all this 
rudeness, a certain play of colour has been contrived by the introduction 
of high lights of another colour." — Kiigler. 

This church is said to have been originally founded in 
honour of the Evangelist in 337 by Pope Marco, but this 
pope, being himself canonized, is also honoured here, and 
is buried under the higli altar. On April 25 th, St. Mark's 
Day, a grand procession of clergy starts from this church. 
It was for the most part rebuilt under Gregory IV. in 

Behind the Palazzo Venezia is the vast Church of II 
Gesii, begun in 1568 by the celebrated Vignola, but the 
cupola and fa^'ade completed in 1575 by his scholar Gia- 
como della Porta. In the interior is the monument of 
Cardinal Pellarmin, and various pictures representing events 
in the lives or deaths of the Jesuit saints, — that of the 
death of St. Francis Xavier is by Carlo Maratta. The 
high altar, by Giacomo della Porta, has fine columns of 
giallo-antico. The altar of St. Ignatius at the end of the 
left transept is of gaudy magnificence. It was designed by 
Padre Pozzi, the group of the Trinity being by Bernardino 
Ludovisi ; the globe in the hand of the Almighty is said to 

THE GESU. 107 

be the largest piece of lapis-lazuli in existence. Beneath 
this altar, and his silver statue, lies the body of St. Ignatius 
Loyola, in an urn of gilt bronze, adorned with precious 
stones. A great ceremony takes place in this church on 
July 31st, the feast of St. Ignatius, and on December 31st 
a Te Deum is sung here for the mercies of the past year, in 
the presence of the pope, cardinals, and the people of Rome, 
— a really solemn and impressive service. 

The Convent of the Gesu is the residence of the General of 
the Jesuits ("His Paternity"), and the centre of religious 
life in their Order. The rooms in which St. Ignatius lived 
and died are of the deepest historic interest. They consist 
of four chambers. The first, now a chapel, is that in which 
he wrote his " Constitutions." The second, also a chapel, 
is that in which he died. It contains the altar at which 
he daily celebrated mass, and the autograph engagement 
to live under the same laws of obedience, poverty, and 
chastity, signed by Laynez, Francis Xavier, and Ignatius 
Loyola. On its walls are two portraits of Ignatius Loyola, 
one as a young knight, the other as a Jesuit father, and 
portraits of S. Carlo Borromeo and S. Filippo Neri. It was 
in this chamber also that St. Francis Borgia died. The third 
room was that of the attendant monk of St. Ignatius ; the 
fourth is now a kind of museum of relics containing portions 
of his robes and small articles which belonged to him and 
to other saints of the Order. 

Facing the Church of the Gesu is the Palazzo Altieri, 
built by Cardinal Altieri in 1670, from designs of Giov. 
Antonio Rossi. 

"Quand le palais Altieri fut acheve, les Altieri, neveux de Clement 
X., inviterent leur oncle a le venir voir. II s'y fit porter, et d'aussi loin 


qu'il aperfut la magnificence et I'etendue de cette superbe fabrique, il 
reboussa chemin le cceur serre, sans dire un seul mot, et mourut peu 
apres." — De Brasses. 

" On the staircase of the Palazzo Altieri, is an ancient colossal marble 
finger, of such extraordinary size, that it is really worth a visit." — 
EatoiCs Rome. 

This palace was the residence of the late noble-hearted 
vicar-general, Cardinal Altieri, who died a martyr to his de- 
votion to his flock (as Bishop of Albano) during the terrible 
visitation of cholera at Albano in 1867. 

The Piazza del Gesii is considered to be the most draughty 
place in Rome. The legend runs that the devil and the 
wind were one day taking a walk together. When they 
came to this square, the devil, who seemed to be very de- 
vout, said to the wind, "Just wait a minute, mio caro, 
while I go into this church." So the wind promised, and 
the devil went into the Gesu, and has ne\'er come out 
■ again — and the wind is blowing about in the Piazza del 
Gesu to this day. 



The Story of the Hill — Piazza del Campidoglio— Palace of the Senator 
— View from the Capitol Tower — The Tabulariura — The Museo 
Capitolino — Gallery of Statues — Palace of the Conservators — 
Gallery of Pictures — Palazzo Caffarelli — Tarpeian Rock — Convent 
and Church of Ara-Coeli — J^Iamertine Prisons. 

* I "HE Capitoline was the hill of the kings and the 
republic, as the Palatine was of the empire. 
Entirely composed of tufa, its sides, now concealed by 
buildings or by the accumulated rubbish of ages, were abrupt 
and precipitous, as are still the sides of the neighbouring 
citadels of Corneto and Cervetri. It was united to the Quirinal 
by an isthmus of land cut away by Trajan, but in every other 
direction was isolated by its perpendicular cliffs : — 

"Arduus in valles et fora clivus erat." 

Ovid, Fast. i. 264. 

Up to the time of the Tarquins, it bore the name of Mons 
Saturnus,* from the mythical king Saturn, who is reported to 
have come to Italy in the reign of Janus, and to have made 
a settlement here. His name was derived from sowing, and 
he was looked upon as the introducer of civilization and 
social order, both of Avhich are inseparably connected with 

* V.-irro, Dc Ling, Lat. v. 42. 


agriculture. His reign here was thus considered to be tlie 
golden age of Italy. His wife was Ops, the representative of 

" C'est la tradition d'un age de paix represente par le regne paisible 
de Saturne ; avant qu'il y eut une Roma, ville de la force, 11 y eut une 
Saturnia, ville de la paix." — Ainph-c, Hist. Rom. i. 86. 

Virgil represents Evander, the m}-thical king of the Pala- 
tine, as exhibiting Saturnia, already in ruins, to ^neas. 

" Hsec duo prteterea disjectis oppida muris, 
Reliquias veterumque vides monumenta virorum. 
Hanc Janus pater, hanc Saturnus condidit arcem : 
Janiculum liuic, illi fuerat Saturnia nomen." 

ALti. viii. 356. 

When Romulus had fixed his settlement upon the Pala- 
tine, he opened an asylum for fugitive slaves upon the then 
deserted Saturnus, and here, at a sacred oak, he is said to 
have offered up the spoils of the Czecinenses, and their king 
Acron, who had made a war of reprisal upon him, after the 
rape of their women in the Campus Martins ; here also he 
vowed to build a temple to Jupiter Feretrius, where spoils 
should always be offered. But in the mean time, the Sabines, 
under Titiiis Tatus, besieged and took the hill, having a gate 
of its fortress (said to have been on the ascent above the spot 
where the arch of Severus now stands) opened to them by 
^rarpeia, who gazed willi longing upon the golden bracelets 
of the warriors, and, obtaining a promise to receive that 
which they wore upon their arms, was crushed by their 
shields as they entered. Some authorities, however, main- 
tain that she asked and obtained the hand of king Tatius. 
I'Vom lliis time the hill was completely occupied by the 

• Sinilli's Rumaii Mythology. 


Sabines, and its name became partially merged in that of 
Mons Tarpeia, which its southern side has always retained. 
Niebuhr states that it is a popular superstition that the 
beautiful Tarpeia still sits, sparkling with gold and jewels, 
enchanted and motionless, in a cave in the centre of the hill. 

After the death of Tatius, the Capitoline again fell under 
the government of Romulus, and his successor, Numa Pom- 
pilius, founded here a Temple of Fides Publica, in which 
the flamens were always to sacrifice with a fillet on their 
right hands, in sign of fidelity. To Numa also is attributed 
the worship of the god Terminus, who had a temple here in 
very early ages. 

Under Tarquinius Superbus, B.C. 535, the magnificent 
Temple of yiipiter Capitolbms, which had been vo^^•ed by his 
father, was built with money taken from the Volscians in 
war. In digging its foundations, the head of a man was 
found, still bloody, an omen which was interpreted by an 
Etruscan augur to portend that Rome would become the 
head of Italy. In consequence of this, the name of the hill 
was once more changed, and has ever since been Mons 
Capitolifuis, or Capitolium. 

The site of this temple has always been one of the vexed 
questions of history. At the time it was built, as now, the 
hill consisted of two peaks, with a level space between 
them. Niebuhr and Gregoro^'ius place the temple on the 
south-eastern height, but Canina and other authorities, with 
more probability, incline to the north-eastern eminence, the 
present site of Ara-Creli, because, among many other 
reasons, the temple faced the south, and also the Forum, 
which it could not have done upon the south-eastern 
summit; and also because the citadel is always repre- 


seated as having been nearer to the Tiber than the temple : 

for when Herdonius, and the Gauls, arriving by the river, 

scaled the heights of the Capitol, it was the citadel which 

barred their path, and in which, in the latter case, Manlius 

was awakened by the noise of the sacred geese of Juno. 

The temple of Jupiter occupied a lofty platform, the 

summit of the rock being levelled to receive it. Its facade 

was decorated with three ranges of columns, and its sides 

by a single colonnade. It was nearly square, being 200 

Roman feet in length, and 185 in width. '"^ The interior was 

divided into three cells ; the figure of Jupiter occupied that 

in the centre, Minerva was on his right, and Juno on his 

left. The figure of Jupiter was the work of an artist of the 

Volscian city of Fregellse,t and was formed of terra-cotta, 

painted like the statues which we may still see in the 

Etruscan museum at the Vatican, and clothed with the tunica 

palmata, and the toga picta, the costume of victorious 

generals. In his right hand was a thunder-bolt, and in his 

left a spear. 

" Jupiter angusta vix totus stabat in yEde ; 
Inque Jovis dextra fictile fulmen erat. " 

Oz'id, Fast. i. 202. 

At a later period the statue was formed of gold, but this 
figure had ceased to exist in the time of Pliny. ;{: When 
Martial wrote, the statues of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, 
were all gilt. 

" ScripUis cs a'tcino nunc piinium, Jupiter, auro, 
Et soror, et sunnni (ilia tota patris. " 

Martial, xi. Ep. 5. 

In the wall adjoining the cella of Minerva, a nail was 

* Vitruvius, iv. 7, i. + Pliny, .\xxv. 12. % Pliny, vii, 39. 


fastened every year, to mark the lapse of time.* In the 
centre of the temple was the statue of Terminus. 

" The sumptuous fane of Jupiter Capitolinus had peculiar claims 
on the veneration of the Roman citizens ; for not only the great lord of 
the earth was worshipped in it, but the conservative principle of 
property itself found therein its appropriate symbol. While the statue 
of Jupiter occupied the usual place of the divinity in the furthest recess 
of the building, an image of the god Terminus was also placed in the 
centre of the nave, which was open to the heavens. A venerable legend 
affirmed, that when, in the time of the kings, it was requisite to clear a 
space on the Capitoline to erect on it a temple to the great father of the 
gods, and the shrines of the lesser divinities were to be removed for the 
purpose, Terminus alone, the patron of boundaries, refused to quit his 
place, and demanded to be included in the walls of the new edifice. 
Thus propitiated he was understood to declare that henceforth the 
bounds of the republic should never be removed ; and the pledge was 
more than fulfilled by the ever increasing circuit of her dominion." 
— Merivale, Romans Under the Empire. 

The gates of the temple were of gilt bronze, and its pave- 
ment of mosaic ; t. in a vault beneath were preserved the 
Sibylline books placed there by Tarquin. The building of 
Tarquin lasted 400 years, and was burnt down in the civil 
wars, B.C. 83. It was rebuilt very soon afterwards by Sylla, 
and adorned with columns of Pentelic marble, which he 
had brought from the temple of Jupiter Olympus at 
Athens.:}: Sylla, however, did not live to rcdedicate it, 
and it was finished by Q. Lutatius Catulus, B.C. 62. 
This temple lasted till it was burnt to the ground by 
the soldiers of Vitellius, who set fire to it by throwing 
torches upon the portico, a.d. 69, and dragging forth 
Sabinus, the brother of Vespasian, murdered him at the foot 
of the Capitol, near the Mamertine Prisons. § Domitian, 

* I-ivy, vii. 3. t Pliny, xxxiii. iS. % Pliny, x.\.\vi. 5. § Tacitus. Hist. iii. 74. 
VOL. I. S 


the younger son of Vespasian, was, at that time, in the 
temple with his uncle, and escaped in the dress of a priest ; 
in commemoration of which, he erected a chapel to Jupiter 
Conservator, close to the temple, with an altar upon which 
his adventure was sculptured. The temple was rebuilt by- 
Vespasian, who took so great an interest in the work, that 
he carried away some of the rubbish on his own shoulders ; 
but his temple was the exact likeness of its predecessor, 
only higher, as the aruspices said that the gods would not 
allow it to be altered.'^ In this building Titus and Vespasian 
celebrated their triumph for the fall of Jerusalem. The ruin 
of the temple began in a.d. 404, during the short visit of the 
youthful Emperor Honorius to Rome, when the plates of 
gold which lined its doors were stripped off by Stilicho.t It 
was finally plundered by the Vandals, in a.d. 455, when its 
statues were carried off to adorn the African palace of 
Genseric, and half its roof was stripped of the gilt bronze 
tiles which covered it ; but it is not known precisely when 
it ceased to exist, — the early fathers of the Christian Church 
speak of having seen it. The story that the bronze statue 
of Jupiter, belonging to this temple, was transformed by Leo I. 
into the famous image of St. Peter, is very doubtful. 

Close beside this, the queen of Roman temples, stood the 
Temple of Fides, said to have been founded by Numa, where 
the senate were assembled at the time of the murder of 
Tiberius Gracchus, 13. c. 133, who fell in front of the temple 
of Jupiter, at the foot of the statues of the kings: his 
blood being the first spilt in Rome in a civil war.J 
Near this, also, were the twin Tcvipks of Mars and Venus 
Erycina, vowed after the battle of Thrasymene, and con- 

• Tacitus, Hist. iv. 53. t Zosimus, lib. v. c. 38. % Valerius Maximus, ii. 3. 3. 

THE ARX. 115 

secrated, B.C. 215, by the consuls Q. Fabius Maximus and 
T. Otacilius Crassus. Near the top of the Chvus was the 
Tanple of yiipitcr Tona?is, built by Augustus, in consequence 
of a vow which he made in an expedition against the Cantabri 
when his litter was struck, and the slave who preceded him 
was killed by lightning. This temple was so near, that it 
was considered as a porch to that of Jupiter Capitolinus, 
and in token of that character, Augustus hung some bells 
upon its pediment. 

On the Arx, or opposite height of the Capitol, was the 
Temple of Ho mm r and Virtue, built B.C. 103, by Marius, with 
the spoils taken in the Cimbric wars. This temple was of suf- 
ficient size to allow of the senate meeting there, to pass the 
decree for Cicero's recall.* Here Nardini places the ancient 
Temple of Jupiter Feretrius, in which Romulus dedicated the 
first spolia opima. Here, on the site of the house of Manlius, 
was built the Temple of "yiuio Afoneta, B.C. 345, in accordance 
with a vow of L. Furius Camillus.t On this height, also, was 
the Altar of 'yupitcr Fistor, which commemorated the stra- 
tagem of the Romans, who threw down loaves into the camp 
of the besieging Gauls, to deceive them as to the state of 
their supplies.:}: 

"Nomine, quam pretio celebratior, arce Tonantis, 
Dicam Pistoris quid velit ara Jovis." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 349. 

It was probably also on this side of the hill that the gigantic 
Statue of Jupiter stood, which was formed out of the armour 
taken from the Samnites, b.c. 293, and which is stated by 
Pliny to have been of such a size that it was \isible from 
the top of Monte Cavo. 

* Vitruvius, iii. 2, 5 ; Propertius, iv. 11, 45 : Cic. pro Plane. 32. 
t Livy, vi. 20. % Li%*y, v. 4S. 


Two cliffs are now rival claimants to be considered as the 

Tarpeian Rock ; but it is most probable that the whole of 

the hill on this side of the Intermontium was called the 

Mons Tarpeia, and was celebrated under that name by the 


"In summo custos Tarpeias Manlius arcis 
Stabat pro templo, et Capitolia celsa tenebat : 
Romuleoque recens horrebat legia culmo. 
Atque hie auratis volitans argenteus anser 
Porticibus, Gallos in limine adesse canebat." 

Virgil, ^'En. viii. 652. 

" Aurea Tarpeia ponet Capitolia rupe, 
Et junget nostro templorum culmina coelo." 

Sil. Ital. iii. 623. 

"juvat inter tecta Tonantis, 
Cemere Tarpeia pendentes rupe Gigantes." 

Claud, vi. Cons. Hon. 44. 

Among the buildings upon the Iiitcnnontiiim., or space 
between the two heights, were the Tabularium, or Record 
Office, part of which still remains ; a portico, built by 
Scipio Nasica,'*" and an arch which Nero built here to his 
own honour, the erection of which upon the sacred hill, 
hitherto devoted to the gods, was regarded even by the sub- 
servient senate as an unparalleled act of presumption. + 

In mediaeval times the revolutionary government of Arnold 
of Brescia establislied itself on this hill (1144), and Pope 
Lucius II., in attempting to regain his temporal power, was 
slain with a stone in attacking it. Here Petrarch received his 
laurel crown (1341); and here the tribune Rienzi promul- 
gated the laws of the "good estate." At this time nothing 
existed on the Capitol but the church and convent of Ara- 

• VcUcius Patcrc. ii. 3. t Sec Mcnvale, Hist, of the Romans, vol. vj. 


Coeli, and a f.'W ruins. Yet the cry of tlie people at the 
coronation of Petrarch, " Long hfe to iJie Capitol and the 
poet ! " shows that the scene itself was then still more present 
to their minds than the principal actor upon it. But, when 
the popes returned from Avignon, the very memory of the 
Capitol seemed effaced, and the spot was only known as the 
Goat's Hill, — Monte Caprvio. Pope Boniface IX. (1389 — 94) 
was the first to erect on the Capitol, on the ruins of the 
Tabularium, a residence for the senator and his assessors, 
Paul III. (1544 — 50) employed Michael Angelo to layout 
the Piazza del Campidoglio ; when he designed the Capito- 
line Museum and the Palace of the Conservators. Pius IV., 
Gregory XIII., and Sixtus V. added the sculptures and other 
monuments which now adorn the steps and balustrade.* 

Just beyond the end of the Corso, the Via dcUa PedaccJiia 
turns to the right, under a quaint archway in the secret pass- 
age constructed as a means of escape for the Franciscan 
Generals of Ara-Cccli to the Palazzo Venezia, as that in the 
Borgo is for the escape of the popes to S. Angelo. In 
this street is a house decorated with simple but elegant 
Doric details, and bearing an inscription over the door 
which shows that it was that of Pietro da Cortona. 

The street ends in the sunny open space at the foot of 
the Capitol, with Ara-Coeli on its left, approached by an 
immense tlight of steps, removed hither from tlie Temi)le of 
the Sun, on the Quirinal, but marking the site of the famous 
staircase to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which Julius 
Csesar descended on his knees, after his truimph for his 
Gallic victories. t 

* Dyer's Rome, 407, 408, 409. t Ampjre, Enip. i. 22. 


The grand staircase, " La Cordouuata" was opened in its 
present form on the occasion of the entry of Charles V., in 
1536.* At its foot are two Uons of Egyptian porphyry, which 
were removed hither from the Church of S. Stefano in 
Cacco, by Pius IV. It was down the staircase which 
originally existed on this site, that Rienzi the tribune fled in 
his last moments, and close to the spot where the left-hand 
lion stands, that he fell, covered with wounds, his wife wit- 
nessing his death from a window of the burning palace above. 
A small space between the two staircases has lately been 
transformed into a garden, through which access may be 
obtained to four vaulted brick chambers, remnants of the 
substructions of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. A living 
wolf is kept here in commemoration of the nurse of Romulus 
and Remus. 

At the head of the stairs are colossal statues of the twin 
heroes, Castor and Pollux (brought hither from the Ghetto), 
commemorating the victory of the Lake Regillus, after which 
they rode before the army to Rome, to announce the joyful 
news, watered their horses at the Aqua Argentina, and 
then passed away from the gaze of the multitude into 
celestial spheres. Beyond these, on either side, are two 
trophies of imperial times discovered in the ruin on the 
Esquiline, misnamed the Trophies of Marius. Next come 
statues of Constantine the Great and his son Constan- 
tine II., from their baths on the Quirinal. The two ends 
of the parapet are occupied by ancient Milliaria, being the 
first and seventh milestones of the A))pian Way. The first 
milestone was found /// ,v////',an(l showed that tlie miles counted 
from the gates of Rome, and not, as was formerly sup- 

• VVlien 400 houses .ind three or four churches were levelled to the ground to make 
a road for liib triumphal approach. — Rabelais, Lcttre viii. p. 21. 


posed, from the Milliarium Aureiim, at the foot of the Capitol. 
We now fiiul ourselves in the Piazza del Cauipidoglio, 
occupying the Intemiontium, where Brutus harangued the 
people after the murder of Julius Caesar. In the centre of the 
square is the famous Statue of Marcus Aurelius, the only per- 
fect ancient equestrian statue in existence. It was originally 
gilt, as may still be seen from marks of gilding upon the 
figure, and stood in front of the arch of Septimius-Severus. 
Hence it was removed by Sergius III. to the front of the 
Lateran, where, not long after, it was put to a singular use 
by John XIII. , who hung a refractory prefect of the city 
from it by his hair.* During the rejoicings consequent 
upon the elevation of Rienzi to the tribuneship in 1347, one 
of its nostrils was made to flow with water and the other 
with wine. From its vicinity to the Lateran, so intimately 
connected with the history of Constantine, it was supposed 
during the middle ages to represent that Christian emperor, 
and this fortunate error alone preserved it from the destruc- 
tion which befell so many other ancient imperial statues. 
Michael Angelo, when he designed the buildings of the 
Capitoline Piazza, wished to remove the statue to its present 
site, but the canons of the Lateran were unwilling to part 
with their treasure, and only consented to its removal upon 
an annual acknowledgment of their proprietorship, for which 
a bunch of flowers is still presented once a year by the senators 
to the chapter of the Lateran. Michael Angelo, standing in 
fixed admiration before this statue, is said to have bidden the 
horse "Cammina." Even until late years an especial guardian 
has been appointed to take care of it, with an annual stipend 
of ten scudi a year, and the title of " II custode del Ca\ alio." 

* Dyer's City of Rome, p. 379. 


"They stood awhile to contemplate the bronze equestrian statue of 
Marcus Aurelius. The moonlight glistened upon traces of the gilding 
•which had once covered both rider and steed ; these were almost gone, 
but the aspect of dignity was still perfect, clothing the figure as it were 
with an imperial robe of light. It is the most majestic representation 
of the kingly character that ever the world has seen. A sight of the 
old heathen emperor is enough to create an evanescent sentiment of 
loyalty even in a democratic bosom, so august does he look, so fit to 
rule, so worthy of man's profbundest homage and obedience, so inevit- 
ably attractive of his love. He stretches forth his hand with an air of 
proud magnificence and unlimited authority, as if uttering a decree from 
which no appeal was permissible, but in which the obedient subject 
would find his highest interests consulted : a command that was in itself 
a benediction." — HawtJiorne. 

" I often ascend the Capitoline Hill to look at Marcus Aurelius and 
his horse, and have not been able to refrain from caressing the lions of 
basalt. You cannot stand on the Aventine or the Palatine without 
grave thoughts, but standing on the spot brings me very little nearer the 
image of past ages." — AHebiihr's Letters. 

" La statue equestre de Marc-Aurele a aussi sa legende, et celle-la 
n'est pas du moyen age, mais elle a ete recueillie il y a peu d'annees de 
la bouche d'un jeune Romain. La dorure, en partie detruite, se voit 
encore en quelques endroits. A en croire le jeune Romain, cependant, 
la dorure, au lieu d'aller s'effa^ant toujours davantage, etait en voie de 
progres. ' Voyez, disait-il, la statue de bronze commence a se dorer, et 
quand elle le sera entierement, le monde finira.' — C'est toujours, sous una 
forme absurd e, la vieille idee romaine, que les destinees et 1' existence de 
Rome sont liees aux destinees et a I'existence du monde. C'est ce qui 
faisait dire au septieme siecle ; ainsi que les pelerins saxons I'avaient 
entendu et le repetaient ; ' Quand le Colisee tombera, Rome et le 
monde finiront.' " — Ampere, Emp. ii. 228. 

The building at the back of the piazza is The Palace of 
the Senator, originally built by Boniface IX. (1389), but 
altered by Michael Angelo to correspond with his buildings 
on cillicr side. The fountain at the foot of the double 
staircase was erected by Sixtus V., and is adorned with 
statues of river gods found in the Colonna Gardens, and a 
curious porphyry figure of Minerva — adapted as Rome. The 


body of tliis statue was found at Cori, but tlie head and arms 
are modern additions. 

" Rome personnifiee, cette deesse a laquelle on erigea des temples, 
voulut d'aboid etre une Amazone, ce qui se confoit, car elle etait 
guerriere avant tout. C'est sous la forme de Minerve que Rome est 
assise sur la place du Capitole." — Ampere, Hist. Rotiiainc, iii. 242. 

In the interior of this building the Hall of the Senators 
contains some papal statues, and that of Charles of 
Anjou, -who was made senator of Rome in the thirteenth 

The Toii'cr of the Gr//V^/ contains the great bell of A'^iterljo, 
carried off from that to\Tn during the wars of the middle 
ages, which is never rung except to announce the death of a 
pope, or the opening of the carnival. During the closing 
years of the temporal power of the popes, it has been difficult 
to obtain admission to the tower, but the ascent is well 
repaid by the view from the summit, which embraces not 
only the seven hills of Rome, but the various towns and 
villages of the neighbouring plain and mountains which 
successively fell under its dominion. 

" Pour suivre les vicissitudes des luttes exterieures des Remains 
contre les peuples qui les entourent et les pressent dc tous cotes, 
nous n'aurons qu'a regarder a I'horizon la sublime campagne romaine 
et ces montagnes qui I'encadrent si admirablement. Elles sont encore 
plus belles et I'oeil prend encore plus de plaisir a les contempler quand 
on songe a ce qu' elles ont vu defforts et de courage dans les premiers 
temps de la republique. II n'est presque pas un point de cette 
campagne qui n'ait ete temoin de quelque rencontre glorieuse ; il n'est 
presque un rocher de ces montagnes qui n'est ete pris et repris vingt 

" Toutes ces nations sabelliques qui dominaient la ville du Tibre et 
semblaient placees la sur des hauteurs disposees en demi-cercle pour 
Tenvelopper et I'ecraser, toutes ces nations sont devant nous et a la 
portee du regard. 


" Voici de cote de la mer les montagnes des Volsques ; plus a I' est 
sont les Herniques et les /Eques ; au nord, les Sabins ; a I'ouest, d'autres 
ennemis, les Etrusques, dont le mont Ciminus est le rempart. 

" Au sud, la plaine se pvolonge jusqu'a la mer. Ici sont les Latins, 
qui, n'ayant pas des montagnes pour leur servir de citadelle et de refuge, 
commenceront par etre des allies. 

" Nous pouvons done embrasser le panorama liistorique des premiers 
combats qu'eurent a soutenir et que soutinrent si vaillamment les 
Remains affranchis." — Avipcrc, Hist. Rom. ii. 373. 

Beneath the Palace of the Senator (entered by a door 
in the street on the right), are the gigantic remains of the 
Tabulariuin, consisting of huge rectangular blocks of 
peperino supporting a Doric colonnade, which is shown by 
an inscription still preserved to have been that of the 
public Record Office, where the Tabulae, engraved plates 
bearing important decrees of the Senate, were preserved, 
having been placed there by Q. Lutatius Catulus in B.C. 79. 
A gallery in the interior of the Tabularium has been fitted 
up as a museum of architectural antiquities collected from 
the neighbouring temples. This building is as it were the 
boundary between inhabited Rome and that Rome which 
is a city of ruins. 

" I came to the Capitol, and looked down on the other side. There 
before my eyes opened an immense grave, and out of the grave rose a 
city of monuments in ruins, columns, triumphal arches, temples, and 
palaces, broken, ruinous, but still beautiful and grand, — with a solemn 
mournful beauty ! It was tlie giant apparition of ancient Rome." — 
Frederika Brenicr. 

The traces of an ancient staircase still exist, which led 
down from the Tabularium to tlic l""orum. This is believed 
by many t(j have been the path by which the besiegers under 
Vitellius, A.jj. 69, attacked the Cajiitol. 

The east side of the piazza — on the left as one stands 
at the head of the steps — is the Musco Capitolino (open daily 


from 9 to 4, for a fee ; and on Mondays and Thursdays 
gratis, from 2\ to 4I). 

Above the fountain in the court, opposite the entrance, 
reclines the colossal statue of a river-god, called Marforio, 
removed hither from the end of the Via di Marforio (Forum 
Martis ?) near the arch of Severus. This figure, according to 
Roman fancy, was the friend and gossip of Pasquin (at the 
Palazzo Braschi), and lively dialogues, merciless to the follies 
of the government and the times, used to appear with early 
morning, placarded on their respective pedestals, as passing 
between the two. Thus, when Clement XI. mulcted Rome 
of numerous sums to send to his native Urbino, Marforio 
asked, " What is Pasquino doing ? " The next morning 
Pasquin answered, " I am taking care of Rome, that it 
does not go away to Urbino." In the desire of putting an 
end to such inconvenient remarks, the government ordered 
the removal of one of the statues to the Capitol, and, since 
Marforio has been shut up, Pasquino has lost his spirits. 

From the corridor on the ground floor open several 
rooms devoted to ancient inscriptions and sarcophagi with 
bas-reliefs. The first room on the left has some bronzes — 
in the centre a mutilated horse, found, 1849, in the 

" Calamis, venu un peu avant Phidias, n'eut point de rival pour les 
chevaux. Calamis, qui fut fondeur en bronze, serait-il I'auteur du cheval 
de bronze du Capitole, qui, en effet, semble plutot un peu anterieur que 
posterieur ^ Phidias ? " — Ampere, Hist. Rout. iii. 234. 

At the foot of the staircase is a colossal statue of the 
Emperor Hadrian, found on the Coelian. 

The Staircase is lined with the fragments of the Pianta 
Capitolina, a series of marble slabs of imperial date (found 


in the sixteenth century under S3. Cosmo and Damian), 
inscribed with ground plans of Rome, and exceedingly- 
important from the light they throw upon the ancient 
topography of the city. 

The upper Corridor is lined with statues and busts. 
Here and elsewhere we will only notice those especially 
remarkable for beauty or historic interest.* 

L. 12. Satyr playing on a flute. 
R. 13. Cupid bending his bow. 
R. 20. Old woman intoxicated. 

" Tout le monde a remarque dans le musee du Capitole una vieille 
femme serrant des deux mains une bouteille, la bouche entr'ouverte, les 
yeux mourants toumes vers le ciel, comme si, dans la jubilation de 
Vivresse, elle savourait le vin qu'elle vient de boire. Comment ne pas 
voir dans cette caricature en marbre une reproduction de la Vielle Femme 
ivre de Myron, qui passait pour une des curiosites de Smyrne." — 
Aiiiph-e, Hist. Rom. iii. 272. 

L. 26. The infant Hercules strangling a serpent. 

L. 28. Grand Sarcophagus — the Rape of Proseipine. 

R, 33. Satyr playing on a flute. 

(In the wall on the left inscriptions from tJie columbarium of Livia.) 

R. 43. Head of Ariadne. 

L. 48. Sarcophagus — the birth and childhood of Bacchus. 

L. 56. Statue, draped. 

R. 64. Jupiter, on a cippus with a curious relief of Claudia drawing 
the boat with the image of the Magna Malcr up the Tiber. 

L. 69. Bust of Caligula. 

R. 70. Marcus Aurelius, as a boy — a very beautiful bust. 

R. 70. Statue of Minerva from Vellctri. The same as that in the 
Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican. 

R. 72. Trajan. 

76. In tlic window, a magnificent vase, found near the tomb 
of Cecilia Metella, standing on a puteal adorned with reliefs of the 
twelve principal gods and goddesses. 

From the right of this corridor open two chambers. The 

• R, ri-ht ; L, left. 


first is named the Room of the Doves., from the famous 
mosaic found in the ruins of Hadrian's villa near Tivoli, 
and generally called Pliiifs Doves, because Pliny, when 
speaking of the perfection to which the mosaic art had 
attained, describes a wonderful mosaic of Sosus of Per- 
gamos, in which one dove is seen drinking and casting 
her shadow on the water, while others are pluming them- 
selves on the edge of the vase. As a pendant to this is 
another Mosaic, of a Tragic and. Comic Mask. In the 
farther window is the Iliac Tablet, an interesting relief in 
the soft marble called palombino, relating to the story of 
the destruction of Troy, and the ilight of yEneas, and found 
at Bovill^. 

" L' ensemble de la giierre contre Troie est contenu dans un abrege 
figure qu'on appelle la Table Iliaqiie, petit bas-relief destine a offrir un 
resunne visible de cette guerre aux jeunes Remains, et i servir dans 
les ecoles soit pour X Lliade, soit pour les poemes cycliques comme d'un 
Index parlattt. 

" La Table Iliaque est im ouvrage remain fait a Rome. Tout ce qui 
touclie aux origines troyennes de cette ville, inconnues k Homere et 
celebrees surtout par Stesichore avant de I'etre par Virgile, tient dans 
ce bas-relief une place importante et domine dans sa composition." — 
Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 431. 

In the centre of the room is a pretty statuette of a girl 
shielding a dove. 

The second chamber, known as The Reserved Cabinet, 
contains the famous Venus of the Capitol — a Greek statue, 
found immured in a wall upon the Quirinal. 

" La verite et la complaisance avec lesquelles la nature est rendue 
dans la Venus du Capitole faisaient de cette belle statue, — qui pourtant 
n'a rien d'indecent bien que par une pruderie peu chaste on I'ait 
releguee dans un cabinet reserve, — faisaient de cette belle statue un sujet 
de scandale pour I'austerite des premiers chretiens. C'etait sans doute 


afin de la soustraire a leurs mutilations qu'on I'avait enfouie avec soin, 
ce qui I'a conservee dans son integrite ; ainsi son danger I'a sauvee. 
Comme on I'a trouvee dans le quartier suspect de la Suburra, on peut 
supposer qu'elle ornait Fatrium elegant de quelque riche courtisane. " 
— Ampere, iii. 318. 

The two smaller sculptures of Leda and the Swan, and 
Cupid and Psyche — two lovely children embracing (most 
needlessly secluded here), were found on the Aventine. 

From the end of the gallery we enter 

TJie Hall of the Emperors. In the centre is the beautiful 
seated statue of Agrippina (grand-daughter of Augustus — 
wife of Germanicus — and mother of Caligula). 

"On s'arrete avec respect devant la premiere Agrippine, assise avec 
una si noble simplicite et dont le visage exprime si bien la fermete virile." 
— Arnpere, iv. 

" Ici nous la contemplons telle que nous pouvons nous la figurer 
apres la mort de Germanicus. Elle semble mise aux fers par le destin, 
mais sans pouvoir encore renoncer aux pensees superbes dont son ame 
etait remplie aux jours de son bonheur." — Braiin. 

Round the room are ranged 83 busts of Roman emperors, 
empresses, and their near relations, forming perhaps the 
most interesting portrait gallery in the world. Even viewed 
as works of art, many of them are of the utmost importance. 
They are — 

1. Julius Ctcsar, nat. B.C. 100 ; ob. B.C. 44. 

2. Augustus, Imp. B.C. 12 — A.D. 14. 

3. Marccllus, his nephew and son-in-law, son of Octavia, ob. B.C. 
23, aged 20. 

4. 5. Tiberius, Imp. A.D. 14-37. 

6. Drusus, his brother, son of Livia and Claudius Nero, ob. B.C. 10. 

7. Drusus, son of Tiberius and Vipsania, ob. A.D. 23. 

8. Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, wife of the 
elder Drusus, mother of Germanicus and Claudius. 

9. Germanicus, son of Drusus and Antonia, ob. A.D. 19. 


10. Agrippina, daughter of Julia and Agrippa, granddaughter of 
Augustus, wife of Germanieus. Died of starvation under Tiberius, 
A.u. 33. 

11. Caligula, Imp. a.d. 37-41, son of Germanieus and Agrippina. 
Murdered by the tribune Cheroea (in basalt). 

12. Claudius, Imp. a.d. 41-54, younger son of Drusus and Antonia. 
Poisoned by Agrippina. 

13. Messalina, third wife of Claudius. Put to death by Claudius, 

A.D. 48. 

" Una grosse commere sensuelle, aux traits boufifis, a I'air assez 
commun, mais qui pouvait plaire a Claude." — Ampere, Eiiip. ii. 32. 

14. Agrippina the younger, sixth wife of Claudius, daughter of 
Germanieus and Agrippina the elder, great-granddaughter of Augustus. 
I^Iurdered by her son Nero, A.D. 60. 

" Ce buste la montre avec cette beaute plus grande que relle de sa 
mere, et qui etait pour elle un moyen. Agrippine a les yeux leves vers le 
del, on dirait qu'elle craint, et qu'elle attend."- — EmJ>. ii. 34. 

15. 16. Nero, Imp. a.d. 54-69, son of Agrippina the younger by 
her first husband, Ahenobarbus. Died by his own hand. 

17. Poppsea Sabina (?), second wife of Nero. Killed by a kick from 
her husband, a.d. 62. 

"Ce visage a la delicatesse presque enfantine que pouvait offrir celui 
de cette femme, dont les molles recherches et les soins curieux de toilette 
etaient celebres, et dont Diderot a dit avec verite, bien qu'avec un pea 
d'emphase, ' C'etait une furie sous le visage des graces.' " — Emp. 
ii. 38. 

18. Galba, Imp. A.d. 69. Murdered in the Forum. 

19. Otho, Imp. A.D. 69. Died by his own hand. 

20. Vitellius (?), Imp. A.D. 69. Murdered at the Scala; Gemonice. 

21. Vespasian, Imp. a.d. 70-79. 

22. Titus, Imp. A.D. 79-81. Supposed to have been poisoned by 

23. Julia, daughter of Titus. 

24. Domitian, Imp. A.D. 81-96, son of Vespasian. Murdered in the 
I'alace of the Ccesars. 

" Domitien est sans comparaison le plus beau des trois Flavians: 
mais c'est une beaute formidable, avec un air farouche et faux." — 
E»tp. ii. 12. 

128 WALK'S /y ROME. 

25. Longina (?). 

26. Nerva (?), Imp. A.D. 96. 

27. Trajan, Imp. AD 98-118. 

28. Plotina, wife of Trajan. 

29. Marciana, sister of Trajan. 

30. Matidia, daughter of Marciana, niece of Trajan. 

31. 32. Hadrian, Imp. A.D. nS-138, adopted son of Trajan. 

33. Julia Sabina, wife of Hadrian, daughter of Matidia. 

34. Elius Verus, first adopted son of Hadrian. 

35. Antoninus Pius, Imp. A.D. 138-161, second adopted son of 

36. Faustina the elder, wife of Antoninus Pius and sister of Elius 

37. Marcus Aurelius, Imp. A. D. 161-180, son of Serv'ianus by 
Paulina, sister of Hadrian, adopted by Antoninus Pius, as a boy. 

38. Marcus Aurelius, in later life. 

39. Annia Faustina, wife of Marcus Aurelius, daughter of Antoninus 
Pius and Faustina the elder. 

40. Galerius Antoninus, son of Antoninus Pius. 

41. Lucius Verus, son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius. 

42. Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus, daughter of Marcus Aurelius and 
Faustina the younger. Put to death at Capri for a plot against her 

43. Commodus, Imp. a.d. 180-193, ^o'^ of Marcus Aurelius and 
Faustina. Murdered in the Palace of the Ctesars. 

44. Crispina, wife of Commodus. Put to death by her husband at 

45. Pertinax, Imp. a.d. 193, successor of Commodus, reigned three 
months. Murdered in the Palace of the Ccesars. 

46. Didius Julianus, Imp. A. D. 193, successor of Pertinax. Murdered 
in the Palace of the Ca'sars. 

47. Manlia Scantilla (?), wife of Didius Julianus. 

! rival candidates (after murder of Didius 
Julianus, A.D. 193) for the Empire, which 
tliey failed to obtain, and were both put to 
50, 51. Soptimius .Sevcrus, Imp. .\.D. 193-21 1, successor of Didius 

52. Jidia Pia, wife of Scplimius .Scverus. 

53. Caracalla, Imp. a.d. 211-217, son of Sept. Severus and Julia Pia. 


54. Geta, brotlier of Caracalla, by whose order he -w as murdered in 
the arms of Julia Pia. 

55. Macrinus, Imp. A.d. 217, murderer and successor of Caracalla. 

56. Diadumenianus, son of Macrinus. Murdered with his father. 

57. Heliogabalus, Imp. A.D. 218-222, son of Julia Soemis, daughter 
of Julia Moesa, who was sister of Julia Pia. Murdered. 

58. Annia Faustina, third wife of Heliogabalus, great-granddaughter 
of Marcus Aurelius. 

59. Julia Moesa, sister-in-law of Septimius Severus, aunt of Caracalla, 
and grandmother of Alexander Severus. 

60. Alexander Severus, Imp., son of JuliA Mammea, second daughter 
of Julia Mcesa. Murdered at the age of 30. 

61. Julia Mammea, daughter of Julia Mcesa, and mother of Alexander 
Severus. Murdered with her son. 

62. Julius Maximinus, Imp. 235-238 ; elected by the army. Mur- 

63. Maximus. Murdered with his father, at the age of 1 8. 

64. Gordianus Africanus, Imp. 238 ; a descendant of Trajan. Died 
by his own hand. 

65. (Antoninus) Gordianus, Junior, Imp. 238, son of Gordianus 
Africanus and Fabia Orestella, great-granddaughter of Antoninus Pius. 
Died in battle. 

66. Pupienus, Imp. 238, ) reigned together for four months and then 

67. Balbinus, Imp. 238, ) were murdered. 

68. Gordianus Pius, Imp. 238, grandson, through his mother, of 
Gordianus Africanus. Murdered. 

69. Philip II., Imp. 244, son of, and co-emperor with Philip I. 

70. Decius (?), Imp. 249-251. Forcibly elected by the army. 
Killed in battle. 

71. Quintus Herennius Etruscus, son of Decius and Ileremiia 
Etruscilla. Killed in battle with his father. 

72. Hostilianus, son or son-in-law of Decius, Imp. 251, with Treb. 
Gallus. Murdered. 

73. Trebonianus Gallus, Imp. 251-254. Murdered. 

74. 75. Volusianus, son of Trebonianus Gallus. Murdered. 

76. Gallienus, Imp. 261-268. Murdered. 

77. Salonina, wife of Gallienus. 

78. Saloninus, son of Gallienus and Salonina. Put to death by 
Postumus, A.D. 259, at the age of 17. 

VOL. I. 9 


79. Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Imp. 2S3, son of the Emperor Carus. 

80. Diocletian, Imp. 284-305 ; elected by the army. 

81. Constantinus Chlorus, Imp. 305-306, son of Eutropius and 
Claudia, niece of the Emperor Claudius and Quintilius, father of 
Constantine the Great. 

82. Julian the Apostate, Imp. 361-363, son of Julius Constantius 
and nephew of Constantine the Great. Died in battle. 

83. Magnus Decentius, brother of the Emperor Magnentius. Strangled 
himself, 353. 

"In their busts the lips of the Roman emperors are generally closed, 
indicating resei-ve and dignity, free from human passions and emotions." 

— Winckdinami. 

"At Rome the emperors become as familiar as the popes. Who 
does not know the curly-headed Marcus Aurelius, with his lifted brow 
and projecting eyes — from the full round beauty of his youth to the 
more haggard look of his latest years ? Are there any modem portraits 
more familiar than the severe wedge-like head of Augustus, with his 
sharp cut lips and nose, — or the dull phiz of Hadrian, with his hair 
combed down over his low forehead, — or the vain, perking face of 
Eucius Verus, with his thin nose, low brow, and profusion of curls, — 
or the brutal bull head of Caracalla, — or the bestial, bloated features of 
Vitellius ? 

"These men, who were but lay figures to us at school, mere pegs 
of names to hang historic robes upon, thus interpreted by the living 
history of their portraits, the incidental illustrations of the places where 
they lived and moved and died, and the buildings and monuments they 
erected, become like men of yesterday. Art has made them our con- 
temporaries. They are as near to us as Pius VII. and Napoleon." — 
Story's Roba di Roma. 

"Nerva est le premier des bons, et Trajan le premier des grands 
empercurs remains ; apres lui il y en eut deux autres, Ics deux Antonins. 
'i'rois sur soixante-dix, tel est k Rome le bilan des gloires morales de 
I'empire." — Ainphr, Hist. Ro»i. liii. 

Among tlic reliefs round the upper walls of this room 
arc two, — of Endymion sleeping, and of Perseus delivering 



Andromeda, which belong to the set in the Palazzo Spada, 
and are exceedingly beautiful. 

The Hall of Illustrious Mai contains a seated statue of 
M. Claudius Marcellus (?), the conqueror of Syracuse, b.c. 
212. Round the room are ranged 93 busts of ancient 
l)hilosophers, statesmen, and warriors. Among the more 
important are : — 





Cneius Domitius Cor- 


Aristides, the orator. 

bulo, general under 


Seneca (?). 

Claudius and Nero. 


Marcus Agrippa. 


Scipio Africanus. 




Cato Minor. 




Aspasia (?). 


Til eon. 


Cleopatra (?). 




Thucydides (?). 


Alexanderthe Great(?). 











Epicurus and Metro- 


Aratus . 




Democritus of At 












Julian the Apostate. 

44. 45. 








yEschylus (?). 

Among the interesting bas-reliefs in this room is one 
of a Roman interior with a lady trying to persuade her 
cat to dance to a lyre — the cat, meanwhile, snapping, on 
its hind legs, at two ducks ; the detail of the room is given 
— even to the slippers under the bed. 

77/1? Saloon contains, down the centre, 

I. Jupiter (in nero-antico), from Porto d'Anzio, on an altar with 
figures of Mercury, Apollo, and Diana. 


2, 4. Centaurs (in bigio-morato), by Arisicas and Fajnas (ihcir 
names are on the bases), from Hadrian's villa. 

3. The young Hercules, found on the Aventine. It stands on an 
altar of Jupiter. 

" On voit au Capitole une statue d'Hercule tres-jeune, en basalte, qui 
frappe assez desagreablement, d'abord, par le contraste, habilement 
exprime toutefois, des formes moUes de I'enfance et de la vigueur carac- 
teristique du heros. L'imitation de la Grece se montre meme dans la 
matiere que I'artiste a choisie ; c'est un basalt verdatre, de couleur 
sombre. Tisagoras et Alcon avaient fait un Hercule en fer, pour 
exprimer la force, et, comme dit Pline, pour signiher I'energie persc- 
verante de dieu." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 406. 

5. ^sculapius (in nero-antico), on an altar, representing a sacrifice. 

Among the statues and busts round the room the more 
important are : — 

9. Marcus Aurelius. 
14. A Satyr. 

21. Hadrian, as Mars, from Ceprano. 

24. Hercules, in gilt bronze, found in the Forum-Boarium (the columns 
on either side come from the tomb of Cecilia Metella). 

" On cite de Myron trois Hercules, dent deux a Rome ; I'un de ces 
demiers a probablement servi de modele a I'Hercule en bronze dore du 
Capitole. Cette statue a ete trouvee dans le marche aux Boeufs, non 
loin du grand cirque. L'Hercule de Myron etait dans un temple eleve 
par Pompee et sitae pres du grand cirque ; mais la statue du Capitole, 
dont le geste est manicre, quel que soit son merite, n'est pas asscz 
parfaite qu'on puisse y reconnaitre une oeuvre de Myron. Peut-etre 
Pompee n'avait place dans son temple qu'une copie de I'un des deux 
Hercules dc Myron et la donnait pour I'original ; peut-etre aussi Pline y 
a-t-il etc trompc. La vanile que I'un montre dans tons les actes de sa 
vie et le peu dc sentiment vrai que trahit si souvent la vaste composi- 
tion de I'autre s'accordent egalement avec cette supposition et la rcn- 
dent assez vraisemblable. " — Aniphr, Hist. Kom. iii. 273. 

28. Hecuba. 

"Nous avons le persoimage mcmc d'llccubc dans la Pleureuse du 
Capitole. Cette prctenduc pleureuse est une Hccube furieuse et une 
Hccube en scene, car cllc porte le costume, die a le geste et la vivaciic 


du theatre, je dirais volontiers de la pantomime Son regard est 

tourne vers le ciel, sa bouclie lance des imprecations ; on voit qu'elle 
pourra faire entendre ces hurlements, ces aboiements de la douleur effrcnee 
que I'antiquite voulut exprimer en supposant que la malheureuse Hecube 
avait ete nietamorphosee en chienne, une chienne a laquelleona arrache 
ses petits." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 46S. 

31. Colossal bust of Antoninus Pius. 

The Hall of the Faiin derives its name from the famous 
Faun of rosso-antico, holding a bynch of grapes to his 
mouth, found in Hadrian's Villa. It stands on an altar 
dedicated to Serapis. Against the right wall is a magnificent 
sarcophagus, whose reliefs (much studied by Flaxman) 
represent the battle of Theseus and the Amazons. The 
opposite sarcophagus has a relief of Diana and Endymion. 
We should also notice — 

15. A boy with a mask. 

21. A boy with a goose (found near the Lateran). 

Let into the wall is a black tablet — the Lex Regia, or 
Senatus-Consultum, conferring imperial powers upon Ves- 
pasian, being the very table upon which Rienzi declaimed 
in favour of the rights of the people. 

The Hall of the Dying Gladiator contains the three gems 
of the collection — " the Gladiator," " the Antinous of the 
Capitol," and the " Faun of Praxiteles." Besides these, we 
s?iould notice — 2. Apollo with the lyre, and 9. a bust of M. 
Junius Brutus, the assassin of Julius Ccesar. 

In the centre of the room is the grand statue of the 
wounded Gaul, generally known as the D)'ing Gladiator. 

" I see before me the gladiator lie : 
lie leans upon his hand — his manly brow 


Consents to death, but conquers agony, 

And his drooped head sinks gradually low,— 

And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow 

From the red gash, fall heavy, one by one, 

Like the first of a thunder-shower ; and now 

The arena swims around him— he is gone. 

Ere ceased the inhuman shout which hailed the wretch who won. 

" He heard it, but he heeded not — his eyes 
Were with his heart, and that was far away ; 
He reck'd not of the life he lost, nor prize. 
But where his rude hut by the Danube lay 
There were his young barbarians all at play. 
There was their Dacian mother — he, their sire, 
Butchered to make a Roman holiday. 
All this rushed with his blood — shall he expire, 
And unavenged ? Arise, ye Goths, and glut your ire ! " 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

It is delightful to read in this room the description in 
Transformation : — 

"It was that room in the centre of which reclines the noble and 
most pathetic figure of the dying gladiator, just sinking into his death- 
swoon. Around the walls stand the Antinous, the Amazon, the Lycian 
Apollo, the Juno ; all famous productions of antique sculpture, and 
still shining in the undiminished majesty and beauty of their ideal life, 
although the marble that embodies them is yellow with time, and 
perhaps corroded by the damp earth in which they lay buried for cen- 
turies. Here, likewise, is seen a symbol (as apt at this moment as it 
was two thousand years ago) of the Human Soul, with its choice of 
Innocence or Evil close at hand, in the pretty figure of a child, clasping 
a dove to her bosom, but assaulted by a snake. 

" From one of the windows of this saloon, we may see a broad flight of 
stone steps, descending alongside the antique and massive foundation of 
the Cajiitol, towards the battered triumphal arch of Septimius Severus, 
right below. Farther on, the eye skirts along the edge of the desolate 
Forum (where Roman washerwomen hang out their linen to the sun), 
passing over a shapeless confusion of modern edifices, piled rudely up 
with ancient brick and stone, and over the domes of Christian churches, 


built on the old pavements of heathen temples, and supported by the 
very pillars that once upheld them. At a distance beyond — yet but a 
little way, considering how much history is heaped into the intervening 
space — rises the great sweep of the Coliseum, with the blue sky 
brightening through its upper tier of arches. Far off, the view is shut 
in by the Alban mountains, looking just the same, amid all this decay 
and change, as when Romulus gazed thitherward over his half-finished 

" In this chamber is the Faun of Praxiteles. It is the marble image of 
a young man, leaning his right arm on the trunk or stump of a tree : 
one hand hangs carelessly by his side, in the other he holds a fragment 
of a pipe, or some such sylvan instrument of music. His only garment, 
a lion's skin with the claws upon the shoulder, falls half-way down his 
back, leaving his limbs and entire front of the figure nude. The form, 
thus displayed, is marvellously graceful, but has a fuller and more 
rounded outline, more flesh, and less of heroic muscle, than the old 
sculptors were wont to assign to their types of masculme beauty. The 
character of the face corresponds with the figure ; it is most agreeable 
in outline and feature, but rounded and somewhat voluptuously devel- 
oped, especially about the throat and chin ; the nose is almost straight, 
but very slightly cui-ves inward, thereby acquiring an mdescribable 
charm of geniality and humour. The mouth, with its full yet delicate 
lips, seems so really to smile outright, that it calls forth a responsive 
smile. The whole statue — unlike anything else that ever was wrought 
in the severe material of marble — conveys the idea of an amiable and 
sensual creature, easy, mirthful, apt for jollity, yet not incapable of 
being touched by pathos. It is impossible to gaze long at this stone 
image, without conceiving a kindly sentiment towards it, as if its sub- 
stance were warm to the touch, and imbued with actual life. It comes 
very near to some of our pleasantest sympathies." — Hawthorne. 

" Praxitele avait dit a Phryne de choisir entre ses ouvrages celui 
qu'elle aimerait le mieux. Pour savoir lequel de ses chefs-d'cEuvre 
I'artiste preferait, elle lui fit annoncer que le feu avait pris a son atelier. 
' Sauvez, s'ecria-t-il, mon Satyre et mon Amour ! ' " — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. iii. 309. 

The west or right side of the CapitoUne Piazza is occupied 
\iy the Palace of the Conservators, which contains the Proto- 
moteca, the Picture Gallery, and various other treasures. 


The little court at the entrance is full of historical relics, 
including remains of two gigantic statues of Apollo ; a colos- 
sal head of Domitian ; and the marble pedestal, which once 
in the mausoleum of Augustus supported the cineraiy urn 
of Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, with a very perfect inscrip- 
tion. In the opposite loggia are a statue of Rome Triumph- 
ant, and a group of a lion attacking a horse, found in the 
bed of the Almo. In the portico on the right is the only- 
authentic statue of Julius Caesar ; on the left, a statue of 
Augustus, leaning against the rostrum of a galley, in allusion 
to the battle of Actio m. 

The Frofoniohra, a suite of eight rooms on the ground 
floor, contains a collection of busts of eminent Italians, 
with a few foreigners considered as naturalised by a long 
residence in Rome. Those in the second room, representing 
artists of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, 
were entirely executed at the expense of Canova. 

At the foot of the staircase is a restoration by Michael 
Angelo of the column of Caius Duilius. On the upper 
flight of the staircase is a bas-relief of Curtius leaping into 
the gulf, here represented as a marsh. 

*' Un bas-relief d'un travail ancien, dont le style ressemble a celui des 
figures peintes sur les vases dits archai'ques, represente Curtius engage 
dans son marais ; le cheval haisse la tete et flaire le marecage, qui est 
indique par des roseaux. Le guerrier penche en avant, presse sa 
nionturc. On a vivement, en presence de cette curieuse sculpture, le 
sentiment d'un incident licroique probablement reel, et en nicme temps 
de I'aspect priniiiif du lieu (jui en fut temoin. " — Avip'crc, Hist. Koin. 
i. 321. 

On the first and second landings are magnificent reliefs, 
representing events in the life of Marcus Aurclius, Imp., 


belonging to the arch dedicated to him, which was wan- 
tonly destroyed, in order to widen the Corso, by Alex- 
ander VII. 

"Jusqu'au legne de Commode Rome est representee par une 
Amazone ; dans I'escalier du palais des Conservateurs, Rome, en 
tunique courte d' Amazone et le globe a la main, re9oit Marc Aurele ; 
le globe dans la main de Rome date de Cesar." — Ampere, iii. 242. 

The Halls of ihc Conservators consist of eight rooms. 
The ist, painted in fresco from the history of the Roman 
kings, by the Cavaliere d'Arpi/io, contains statues of Urban 
VIII., by Bernini ; Leo X., by the Sicilian Giacomo della 
Duca;* and Innocent X., in bronze, by Algardi. The 
2nd room, adorned with subjects from republican history 
by Latiretti, has statues of modern Roman generals — Marc 
Antonio Colonna, Tommaso Rospigliosi, Francesco Aldo- 
brandini, Carlo Barberini, brother of Urban VIII., and 
Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma. The 3rd room, 
painted by Daniele di Vol/erra, with subjects from the wars 
with the Cimbri, contains the famous Bronze JFo/f of the 
Capitol, one of the most interesting relics in the city. The 
figure of the wolf is of unknown antiquity ; those of 
Romulus and Remus are modern. It has been doubted 
whether this is the wolf described by Dionysius as "an 
ancient work of brass " standing in the temple of Romulus 
under the Palatine, or the wolf described by Cicero, who 
speaks of a little gilt figure of the founder of the city 
sucking the teats of a wolf. The Ciceronian wolf was 
struck by lightning in the time of the great orator, and a 

* The statue of Leo X. is interesting as having been erected to this popular art- 
loving pope in his lifetime. It is inscribed — " Optimi liberalissimiquc ponlificis 


fracture in the existing figure, attributed to lightning, is 
adduced in proof of its identity with it. 

" Geminos huic ubera circum 
Ludere pendentes pueros, et lambere matrem 
Impavidos : illam tereti cervice reflexam 
Mulcere alternos, et corpora fingere lingua." 

Virgil, ^TZn. viii. 632. 

" And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome ! 
She-wolf! whose brazen-imaged dugs impart 
The milk of conquest yet within the dome 
Where, as a monument of antique art, 
Thou standest : — mother of the mighty heart, 
Which the great founder sucked from thy wild teat, 
Scorch'd by the Roman Jove's ethereal dart, 
And thy limbs black with lightning — dost thou yet 
Guard thy immortal cubs, nor thy fond charge forget?" 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

Standing near the wolf is the well-known and beautiful 
figure of a boy extracting a thorn from his foot, called the 
Shepherd Martins. 

"La ressemblance du type si fin de I'Apollon au lezard et du 
charmant bronze du Capitole le tireur d'epine est trop frappante pour 
qu'on puisse se refuser a voir dans celui-ci une inspiration de Praxitele 
ou de son ecole. C'est tout simplement un enfant arrachant de son 
pied une epine qui I'a blesse, sujet naif et champetre analogue au 
Satyre se faisant rendre ce service par un autre Satyre. On a voulu y 
voir un athlete blesse par une epine pendant sa course et qui n'en est 
pas moins arrive au but ; mais la figure est trop jeune et n'a rien 
d'athletique. Le moyen age avait donne aussi son explication et invente 
sa legende. On raccontait qu'un jeune berger, envoye k la decouverte 
de I'ennemi, ctait revenu sans s'arreter et ne s'etait permis qu'alors 
d'arraclier une epine qui lui blessait le pied. Le moyen age avait senti 
le charme de cette composition qu'il interprctait a sa maniere, car elleest 
sculptee sur im arceau de la cathedralc de Zurich qui date du siecle de 
Charlemagne." — Ampere, iii. 315. 

Forming part of the decorations of this room are two fine 


pictures, a dead Christ with a monk praying, and Sta. 
Francesca Romana, by Romanclli. Near the door of exit 
is a bust said to be that of Junius Brutus. 

"II est permis de voir dans le buste du Capitole un vrai portrait de 
Brutus ; il est difficile d'en douter en le contemplant. Voila bien le visage 
farouche, la barbe hirstite, les cheveux roides colles si rudement sur le 
front, la physiognomie inculte et terrible du premier consul romain ; la 
bouche serree respire la determination et I'energie ; les yeux, formes 
d'une matiere jaunatre. se detaclient en clair sur le bronze noirci par 
les siecles et vous jettent un regard fixe et farouche. Tout pres est la 
louve de bronze. Brutus est de la meme famille. On sent qu'il y a du 
lait de cette louve dans les veines du second fondateur de Rome, comma 
dans les veines du premier, et que lui atissi, pareil au Romulus de la 
legende, marchera vers son bul a travers le sang des siens. 

" Le buste de Brutus est place sur un piedestal qui le met a la hauteur 
du regard. La, dans un coin sombre, j'ai passe bien des moments 
face a face avec I'impitoyable fondateur de la liberte romaine." — Amphr, 
Hist. Rom. ii. 270. 

The 4th Room contains the Fasti Consiilarcs, tables 
found near the temple of Minerva Chalcidica, and in- 
scribed with the names of public officers from Romulus to 
Augustus. The 5th Room contains two bronze ducks 
(formerly shown as the sacred geese of the Capitol) and a 
female head — found in the gardens of Sallust, a bust of 
Medusa, by Bernini, and many others. The 6lh, or 
Throne Room, hung with faded tapestry, has a frieze in 
fresco, by Annibalc Caracci, representing the triumphs of 
Scipio Africanus. The 7th Room is painted by Danic/e da 
, Voltcrra (?) with the history of the Punic Wars. The 8th Room 
(now used as a passage) is a chapel, containing a lovely 
fresco, by Pinturicchio, of the Madonna and Child with Angels. 

"The Madonna is seated enthroned, fronting the spectator ; her large 
mantle forms a grand cast of drapery ; the child on her lap sleeps in the 


loveliest attitude ; she folds her hands and looks down, quiet, serious, 
and beautiful : in the clouds are two adoring ar.gels."- — Kugler. 

The four Evangelists are by Caravaggio ; the pictures of 
Roman saints (CeciHa, Alexis, Eustachio, Francesca-Ro- 
mana), by RoinancUi. 

By the same staircase, passing on the left a wonderful 
relief of the apotheosis of the wicked Faustina, we may 
arrive at the Picture Gallery of the Capitol (which can also 
be approached by a separate staircase, entered from an alley 
at the back of the building), reached by two rooms inscribed 
with the names of the Roman Conservators from the 
middle of the sixteenth century. This gallery contains very 
few first-rate pictures, but has a beautiful St. Sebastian, by 
Gindo, and several fine works of Guercitio. The most 
noticeable pictures are — 

\st Room. — 

2. Disembodied Spirit (unfinished) : Guido Ron. 

13. St. John Baptist : Gnerciito. 

16. Mary Magdalene : Giiido Rcni. 

20. The Cumtean Sibyl : DotncnkJiino. 

26. Mary Magdalene : Ti>ito!-dlo. 

27. Presentation in the Temple : Fra. Bartolomeo. 
30. Holy Family : Garofalo. 

52. Madonna and Sainls : Botticelli ? 

61. Portrait of himself : Guido Roti. 

78. Madonna and Saints: F. Francia, 1513. 

80. Portrait : Velasquez. 

87. St. Augustine: Gioz'aiiiii Bellini. 

89. Romulus and Remus : Rnbois. 

2nd Room. — 

100. Two male ])ortraits : Vandyke. 

104. Adoration of the Shepherds : Mazzolino 


106. Two Portraits : Vandyke. 

116. St. Sebastian: Gtiido Rent. 

117. Cleopatra and Augustus : Gnercino. 
119. St. Sebastian: Liid. Caracci. 

128. Gipsy telling a fortune : Caravaggio. 
132. Portrait: Gioz^anni Bellini. 
134. Portrait of Michael Angelo : M. Vcmisti? 
136. Petrarch: Gio. Bellini ? 

142. Nativity of the Virgin : Albani. 

143. Sta. Petronilla : Gnercino. An enormous picture, brouglit 

hither from St. Peter's, where it has been replaced by a 
mosaic copy. The composition is divided into two pans. 
The lower represents the burial of Sta. Petronilla, the upycr 
the ascension of her spirit. 

" The Apostle Peter had a daughter, born in lawful wedlock, who 
accompanied him in his journey from the East. Petronilla was won- 
derfully fair ; and Valerius Flaccus, a young and noble Roman, who 
was a heathen, became enamoured of her beauty, and sought her for his 
wife ; and he, being very powerful, she feared to refuse him ; she there- 
fore desired him to return in three days, and promised that he should 
then carry her home. But she prayed earnestly to be delivered from 
this peril ; and when Flaccus returned in three days, with great pomp, 
to celebrate the marriage, he found her dead. The company of nobles 
who attended him, carried her to the grave, in which they laid her, 
crowned with roses ; and Flaccus lamented greatly."- — Mrs. jfa meson, 
from (he Perfetto Legendario. 

199. Death and Assumption of the Virgin : Cola della UTafria'. 

" Here the death of the Virgin is treated at once in a mystical and 
dramatic style. Enveloped in a dark blue mantle, spangled with 
golden stars, she lies extended on a couch ; St. Peter, in a splendid 
scarlet cope as bishop, reads the service ; St. John, holding the palm, 
weeps bitterly. In front, and kneeling before the couch or bier, appear 
the three great Dominican saints as witnesses of the religious mystery ; 
in the centre St. Dominic ; on the left, St. Catherine of Siena ; and on 
the right, St. Thomas Aquinas. In a compartment above is the 
Assumption." — yameson's Legends of the Madonna, p. 315. 

123. Virgin and Angels: Paid Veronese. 

124. Rape of Europa : Paul Veronese. 


At the head of the Capitol steps, to the right of the ter- 
race, is the entrance to the Palazzo CaffarcHi, the residence 
of the Prussian minister. It has a small but beautiful 
garden, and the view from the windows is magnificent. 

" After dinner, Bnnsen called for us, and took us first to his house on 
the Capitol, the different windows of which command the different 
views of ancient and modern Rome. Never shall I forget the view of 
the former ; we looked down on the Forum, and just opposite were the 
Palatine and the Aventine, with the ruins of the Palace of the Ccesars 
on the one, and houses intermixed with gardens on the other. The 
mass of the Coliseum rose beyond the Forum, and beyond all, the wide 
plain of the Campagna to the sea. On the left rose the Alban hills, 
bright in the setting sun, which played full upon Frescati and Albano, 
and the trees which edge the lake, and further away in the distance, it 
lit up the old town of Labicum."- — Arnold's Letters. 

From the further end of the courtyard of the Caffarelli 
Palace one can look down upon part of the bare cliff of the 
Rupe Tarpeia. Here there existed till 1868 a small court, 
■ which is represented as the scene of the murder in Haw- 
thorne's Marble Faun, or " Transformation." The door, the 
niche in the wall, and all other details mentioned in the 
novel, were realities. The character of the place is now 
changed by the removal of the boundary-wall. The part of 
the rock seen from here is tliat usually visited from below by 
the Via Tor de' Specchi. 

To reach the principal portion of the south-eastern height 
of the Capitol, we must ascend the staircase beyond the 
Palace of the Conservators, on the right. Here we shall 
find ourselves u])()n the highest part of 

"The Tarpcian rock, the citadel 
Of great and glorious Rome, queen of the earth, 

So far rcn()\vn"cl,and with the spoils enriched 

Of nations." J'aradise Regained. 


"The steep 
Tarpeian, fittest goal of treason's race, 
The promontory whence the traitor's leap 
Cured all ambition." CJiildc Harold. 

The dirty lane, with its shabby houses, and grass-grown 
spaces, and filthy children, has little to remind one of the 
appearance of the hill as seen by Virgil and Propertius, who 
speak of the change in their time from an earlier aspect. 

" liinc ad Tarpeiam sedem, et Capitolia ducit, 
Aurea nunc, olim, silvestribus' horrida dumis, 
Jam turn religio pavidos terrebat agrestes 
Dira loci ; jam turn silvam saxumque tremebant." 

Virgil, yEn. viii. 347. 
"Hoc quodcumque vides, hospes, qua maxima Roma est, 
Ante Phrygem Aeneam collis et herba fuit." 

Propertius, iv. el eg. I. 

It was on this side that the different attacks were made 
upon the Capitol. The first was by the Sabine Herdonius 
at the head of a band of slaves, who scaled the heights 
and surprised the garrison, in b.c. 460, and from the heights 
of the citadel proclaimed freedom to all slaves who should 
join him, with abolition of debts, and defence of the plebs 
from their oppressors ; but his offers were disregarded, 
and on the fourth day the Capitol was re-taken, and he was 
slain with nearly all his followers. The second attack was 
by the Gauls, who, according to the well-kno\\ii story, 
climbed the rock near the. Porta Carmentale, and had 
nearly reached the summit unobserved — for the dogs neg- 
lected to bark — when the cries of the sacred geese of 
Juno aroused an oflicer named Manlius, who rushed to the 
defence, and hurled over the precipice the first assailant, 
who dragged down others in his fall, and thus the Capitol 
was saved. In remembrance of this incident, a goose was 


annually carried in triumph, and a dog annually crucified 
upon the Capitol, between the temple of Summanus 
and that of Youth.* This was the same Manlius, the 
friend of the people, who was afterwards condemned by 
the patricians on pretext that he wished to make himself 
king, and thrown from the Tarpeian rock, on the same spot, 
in sight of the Forum, where Spurius Cassius, an ex-consul, 
had been thrown down before. To visit the part of the 
rock from which these executions must have taken place, 
it is necessary to enter a little garden near the German 
Hospital, whence there is a beautiful view of die river and 
the Aventine. 

" Quand on veut visiter la roche Tarpeienne, on sonne a une porte de 
peu d'apparence, sur laquelle sont ecrits ces mots : Rocca Tarpeia. Une 
pauvre femme arrive et vous mene dans un carre de choux. Cast de la 
qu'on precipita Manlius. Je serais desole que le carre de choux man- 
quat." — Ainpdre, Portraits de Rome. 

This side of the Intermontium is now generally known as 
Monte Capriiio, a name which Ampere derives from the 
fact that Vejovis, the Etruscan ideal of Jupiter, was always 
represented with a goat.t On this side of the hill, the 
viaduct from the Palatine, built by Caligula (who afiected to 
require it to facilitate communication with his friend Jupiter), 
joined the Capitoline. 

We have still to examine the north-eastern height, the 
site of the most interesting of pagan temples, now occupied 
by one of tlic most interesting of Christian churches. The 
name of the famous Chunk of Ara-Coi/i is generally at- 
tributed to an altar erected by Augustus to commemorate 
the Delphic oracle respecting the coming of our Saviour, 

• I'lin. Nat. Hist. xxix. 14, i ; Pint. Fort. Rom. 12. \ Hist. Rom. i. 382. 

ARA-C(ELT. 145 

which is still recognised in tlie well-known hymn of the 

Church : 

Teste David cum Sibylla.* 

The altar bore the inscription "Ara Primogeniti Dei." 
Those who seek a more humble origin for the church, say- 
that the name merely dates from mediDsval times, when 
it was called " Sta. Maria in Aurocalio." It originally 
belonged to the Benedictine Order, but was transferred to 
the Franciscans by Innocent IV. in 1252, since which time 
its convent has occupied an important position as the 
residence of the General of the Minor Franciscans (Grey- 
friars), and is the centre of religious life in that Order. 

The staircase on the left of the Senators' palace, which 
leads to the side entrance of Ara-Coeli, is in itself full of 
historical associations. It was at its head that Valerius the 
consul was killed in the conflict with Herdonius for the 
possession of the Capitol. It was down the ancient steps 
on this site that Annius, the envoy of the Latins, fell (b.c. 
340), and was nearly killed, after his audacious proposition 
in the temple of Jupiter, that the Latins and Romans should 
become one nation, and have a common senate and consuls. 
Here also,t in v,. c. 133, Tiberius Gracchus was knocked 
down with the leg of a chair, and killed in front of the 
temple of Jupiter. 

It is at the top of these steps, that the monks of Ara- 
Coeli, who are celebrated as dentists, perfomi their hideous, 
but useful and gratuitous operations, which may be wit- 
nessed here every morning ! 

Over the side entrance of Ara-Coeli is a beautiful mosaic 
of the Virgin and Child. This, with the ancient brick arches 

* The " Dies Irse," by Tommaso di Celano, of the fourteenth century. 
t " Per gradus qui sunt super Calpurnium fornicem." 
VOL. I. 10 


above, framing fragments of deep blue sky — and the worn 
steps below — forms a subject dear to Roman artists, and is 
often introduced as a background to groups of monks and 
peasants. The interior of the church is vast, solemn, and 
highly picturesque. It was here, as Gibbon himself tells us, 
that on the 15th of October, 1764, as he sat musing amidst 
the ruins of the Capitol, while the bare-footed friars were 
singing vespers, the idea of writing the " Decline and Fall " 
of the city first started to his mind. 

" As we lift the great curtain and push into the church, a faint perfume 
of incense sahites the nostrils. The golden sunset bursts in as the curtain 
of the (west) door sways forward, illuminates the mosaic floor, catches 
on the rich golden ceiling, and flashes here and there over the crowd 
(gathered in Epiphany), on some brilliant costume or closely shaven 
head. All sorts of people are thronging there, some kneeling before 
the shrine of the Madonna, which gleams with its hundreds of silver 
votive hearts, legs, and arms, some listening to the preaching, some 
crowding round the chapel of the Presepio. Old women, haggard and 
wrinkled, come tottering along with their scaldini of coals, drop down 
on their knees to pray, and, as you pass, interpolate in their prayers a 
parenthesis of begging. The church is not architecturally handsome, 
but it is eminently picturesque, with its relics of centuries, its mosaic 
pulpits and floors, its frescoes of Pinturicchio and Pesaro, its antique 
columns, its rich golden ceiling, its gothic mausoleum to the Savelli, 
and its mediitval tombs. A dim, dingy look is over all — but it is the 
dimness of faded splendour ; and one cannot stand there, knowing the 
history of the church, its great antiquity, and the varied fortunes it has 
known, without a jjcculiar sense of interest and pleasure. 

"It was here that Romulus in the grey dawning of Rome built the 
temple of Jupiter Ferctrius. Here the spolia opima were deposited. 
Here the triumphal processions of the emperors and generals ended. 
Here the victors paused before making their vows, until, from the 
Mamertine prisons below, the message came to announce that their 
noblest prisoner and victim — while the clang of their triumph and his 
defeat rose ringing in his ears, as the procession ascended the steps — had 
expiated with death the crime of being the enemy of Rome. On the 
steps of Ara-Ca-li, nineteen centuries ago, the f)ri;t great Cassar climbed 


on his knees after his first triumph. At their base, Rienzi, the last of 
the Roman tribunes, fell — and if the tradition of the Church is to be 
trusted, it was on the site of the present high altar that Augustus erected 
the ' Ara Primogeniti Dei,' to commemorate the Delphic prophecy of the 
coming of our Saviour. Standing on a spot so thronged with memories, 
the dullest imagination takes fire. The forms and scenes of the past 
rise from their graves and pass before us, and the actual and visionary are 
mingled together in strange poetic confusion."— i?^/5a di Rofua, i. 73. 

The floor of the church is of the ancient mosaic known 
as Opus Alexandrinum. The nave is separated from the 
aisles by twenty-two ancient columns, of which two are of 
cipollino, two of white marble, and eighteen of Egyptian 
granite. They are of very different forms and sizes, and 
have probably been collected from various pagan edifices. 
The inscription " A Cubiculo Augustorum " upon the third 
column on the left of the nave, shows that it was brought 
from the Palace of the Caesars. The windows in this church 
are amongst the few in Rome which show traces of gothic. 
At the end of the nave, on either side, are two ambones, 
marking the position of the choir before it was extended 
to its present site in the sixteenth century. 

The transepts are full of interesting monuments. That 
on the right is the burial-place of the great family of Savelli, 
and contains — on the left, the monument of Luca Savelli, 
1266 (father of Pope Honorius IV.) and his son Pandolfo, — 
an ancient and richly sculptured sarcophagus, to which a 
gothic canopy was added by Agostiiio and Agjiolo da Siena 
from designs of Giotto. Opposite, is the tomb of the mother 
of Honorius, Vana Aldobrandesca, upon which is the statue 
of the pope himself, removed from his monument in the old 
St. Peter's by Paul III. 

On the left of the high altar is the tomb of Cardinal 


(iianbattista Savelli, oL. 1498, and near it — in the pavement, 
the half-effaced gravestone of Sigismondo Conti, whose 
features are so familiar to us from his portrait introduced 
into the famous picture of the Madonna di Foligno, whicli 
was painted by Raphael at his order, and presented b}' 
him to this church, where it remained over the high altar, 
till 1565, when his great niece Anna became a nun at the 
convent of the Contesse at Foligno, and was allowed to 
carry it away with her. In the east transept is another fine 
gothic tomb, that of Cardinal Matteo di Acquasparta (1302), 
a General of the Franciscans mentioned by Dante for his 
wise and moderate rule/' The quaint chapel in the middle 
of this transept, now dedicated to St. Helena, is supposed 
to occupy the site of the " Ara Primogeniti Dei." 

Upon the pier near the ambone of the gospel is the 
monument of Queen Catherine of Bosnia, Avho died at 
Rome in 1478, bequeathing her states to the Roman Church 
on condition of their reversion to her son, Avho had embraced 
Mahommedanism, if he should return to the Catholic faith. 
Near this, upon the transept wall, is the tomb of Felice de 
Fredis, ob. 1529, upon which it is recorded that he was the 
finder of the Laocoon. The Chapel of the Annunciation, 
opening from the west isle, has a tomb to G. Crivelli, by 
1 )onatello, bearing his signature, " Opus Donatelli Floren- 
tini." l"he Chapel of Santa Croce is the burial-place of the 
I'onziani family, and was the scene of the celebrated 
ecstasy of the favourite Roman saint Francesca Romana. 

" 'J'hc niort.'il icniains of Vaiiozzti Ponziaiii (sislcr-iu-law of Francesca) 
were laid in the cluircii of Ara-Ccdi, in the chapel of Santa Croce. 
'J'he Roman people resorted there in crowds to behold once more their 

* I'aradiso, canto xii. 


loved benefactress — tlie mother of the poor, tlie consoler of the afflicted. 
All strove to carry away some little memorial of one who liad gone 
about among them doing good, and during the three days which preceded 
the interment, the concourse did not abate. On the day of the funeral 
Francesca knelt on one side of the coffin, and, in sight of all tlie crowd, 
she was wrapped in ecstasy. They saw her body lifted from the ground, 
and a seraphic expression in her uplifted face. They heard her murmur 
several times with an indescribable emphasis the word ' Quando ? 
Quando ? ' When all was over, she still remained immoveable ; it seemed 
as if her soul had risen on the wings of prayer, and followed Vanozza's 
spirit into the realms of bliss. At last her confessor ordered her to rise 
and go and attend on the sick. She instantly complied, and walked 
away to the hospital which she had founded, apparently unconscious of 
everything about her, and only roused from her trance by the habit of 
obedience, which, in or out of ecstasy, never forsook her." — Lady 
Georgiana FtdlcrtoiCs Life of Sta. Fr. JRomana. 

There are several good pictures over tlie altars in the aisles 
of Ara-Coeli. In the Chapel of St. Margaret of Cortona 
are frescoes illustrative of her life by Filippo Evangelistic — in 
that of S. Antonio, frescoes by Nicolo da Pesaro ; — but no 
one should omit visiting the first chapel on the right of the 
west door, dedicated to S. Bernardino of Siena, and painted 
by Bernardino PinturiccJuo, who has put forth his best powers 
to do honour to his patron saint with a series of exquisite 
frescoes, representing his assuming the monastic habit, his 
preaching, his vision of the Saviour, his penitence, death, and 

Almost opposite this — closed except during Epiphany — is 
the Chapel of the Prescfio, where the famous image of the 
Santissimo Bambino d'Ara Cceli is shown at that season lying 
in a manger. 

" The simple meaning of the term Presepio is a manger ; but it is also 
used in the Church to signify a representation of the birth of Christ. In 
the Ara-Coeli the whole of one of the side-chapels is devoted to this 
exhibition. In the foreground is a grotto, in which is seated the Virgin 


Mary, with Joseph at her side and the miraculous Bambino in her lap. 
Immediately behind are an ass and an ox. On one side kneel the 
shepherds and kings in adoration ; and above, God the Father is seen 
surrounded by crowds of cherubs and angels playing on instruments, as 
in the early pictures of Raphael. In the background is a scenic repre- 
sentation of a pastoral landscape, on which all the skill of the scene- 
painter is expended. Sliepherds guard their flocks far away, reposing 
under palm-trees or standing on green slopes which glow in the sunshine. 
The distances and perspective are admirable. In the middle ground is 
a cr}^stal fountain of glass, near which sheep, pretematurally white, and 
made of real wool and cotton wool, are feeding, tended by figures of 
shepherds carved in wood. Still nearer come women bearing great 
baskets of real oranges and other fruits on their heads. All the nearer 
figures are full -sized, carved in wood, painted, and dressed in appro- 
priate robes. The miraculous Bambino is a painted doll swaddled in a 
white dress, which is cnisted over with magnificent diamonds, emeralds, 
and rubies. The Virgin also wears in her ears superb diamond pendants. 
The general effect of the scenic show is admirable, and crowds flock to 
it and press about it all day long. 

" While this is taking place on one side of the church, on the other is 
a very different and quite as singular an exhibition. Around one of the 
antique columns a stage is erected, from which little maidens are re- 
citing, with every kind of pretty gesticulation, sermons, dialogues, and 
little speeches, in explanation of the Prcsepio opposite. Sometimes two 
of them are engaged in alternate questions and answers about the mj-s- 
teries of the Incarnation and the Redemption. Sometimes the recitation 
is a piteous description of the agony of the Saviour and the sufferings of 
the Madonna, the greatest stress being, however, always laid upon the 
latter. All these little speeches have been written for them by their 
priest or some religious friend, committed to memory, and practised with 
appropriate gestures over and over again at home. Their little piping 
voices are sometimes guilty of such comic breaks and changes, that the 
crowd about them rustles into a murmurous laughter. Sometimes, 
also, one of the little preachers has a dispetto, pouts, shakes her 
shoulders, and refuses to go on with her part ; another, however, 
always stands ready on the platform to supply the vacancy, until 
friends have coaxed, reasoned, or threatened the little pouter into 
obedience. These children are often very beautiful and graceful, and 
their comical little gestures and intonations, their clasping of hands 
and rolling up of eyes, have a very amusing and interesting effect.'' — 
Stores Koba di Roma. 


At other times the Bambino dwells in the inner Sacristy, 
where it can be visited by admiring pilgrims. It is a fresh-co- 
loured doll, tightly swathed in gold and silver tissue, crowned, 
and sparkling with jewels. It has servants of its own, and a 
carriage in which it drives out with its attendants, and goes to 
visit the sick. Devout peasants always kneel as the blessed 
infant passes. Formerly it was taken to sick persons and 
left on their beds for some hours, in the hope that it would 
work a miracle. Now it is never left alone. In explanation 
of this, it is said that an audacious woman formed the design 
of appropriating to herself the holy image and its benefits. 
She had another doll prepared of the same size and appear- 
ance as the " Santissimo," and having feigned sickness, and 
obtained permission to have it left with her, she dressed the 
false image in its clothes, and sent it back to Ara-Coeli. 
The fraud was not discovered till night, when the Franciscan 
monks were awakened by the most furious ringing of bells 
and by thundering knocks at the west door of the church, 
and hastening thither could see nothing but a wee naked 
pink foot peeping in from under the door ; but when they 
opened the door, without stood the little naked figure of the 
true Bambino of Ara-Coeli, shivering in the wind and the 
rain, — so the false baby was sent back in disgrace, and the 
real baby restored to its home, never to be trusted away 
alone any more. 

In the sacristy is the following inscription relating to the 
Bambino : — 

" Ad hoc sacellum Ara Cceli a festo nativitatis domini usque ad fcstum 
EpiphanicE mas^a populi frequentia invisitur et colitur in piosepio 
Christ! nati infantuli simulacrum ex olece hgno apud montem olivarum 
Hierosolymis a quodam devoto Minorita sculptum eo animo, ut ad hoc 
festum celebrandum deponaretur. De quo in primis hoc accidit, quod 


deficiente colore inter harbaras gentes ad plenam infantuli figurationem 
et formam, devotus et anxius artifex, professione laicus, precibus et 
orationibus impetravit, ut sacrum simulacrum divinitus carneo colore 
perfunctum reperiretur. Cumque navi Italiam veheretur, facto naufragio 
apud Tuscite oras, simulacri capsa Libumum appulit. Ex quo, recognita, 
expectabatur, enim a Fratribus, et jam fama illius a Hierosolymis ad 
nostras families partes advenerat, ad destinatam sibi Capitolii sedem 
devenit. Fertur etiam, quod aliquando ex nimia devotione a quadam 
devo'.a fcemina sublatum ad suas redes miraculose remeaverit. Qua- 
propter in maxima veneratioiie semper est habitum a Romanis civibus, 
et universo populo donatum monilibus, et jocalibus pretiosis, liberaliori- 
busque in dies prosequitur oblationibus. " 

The outer Sacristy contains a fine picture of the Holy 
Family by Gin Ho Rotnano. 

The scene on the long flight of steps which leads to the 
west door of Ara-Cceli is very curious during Epiphany. 

" If any one visit the Ara-Coeli during an afternoon in Christmas or 
Epiphany, the scene is very striking. The flight of one hundred and 
twenty-four steps is then thronged by merchants of Madonna wares, 
who spread them out over the steps and hang them against the walls 
and balustrades. Here are to be seen all sorts of curious little coloured 
prints of the Madonna and Child of the most extraordinary quality, 
little bags, pewter medals, and crosses stamped with the same figures 
and to be worn on the neck — all offered at once for the sum of one 
baiocco. Here also are framed pictures of the saints, of the Nativity, 
and in a word of all sorts of religious subjects appertaining to the 
season. Little wax dolls, clad in cotton-wool to represent the Saviour, 
and sheep made of the same materials, are also sold by the basket-fidl. 
Children and Contadini are busy buying them, and there is a deafening 
roar all up and down the steps, of ' Mezzo baiocco, bello colorito, 
mezzo baiocco, la Santissima Concczione Incoronata,' — 'Diario Ro- 
mano, Lunario Romano nuovo,' — ' Ritratto colorito, medaglia e quad- 
ruccio, un baiocco tutli, un baiocco tutti,' — ' Bambinella di cera, un 
baiocco." None of the prices are higher than one baiocco, except 
to strangers, and generally several articles are held up together, 
enumerated, and proffered with a loud voice for this sum. Meanwhile 
men, women, children, priests, beggars, soldiers, and villain are crowd- 
ing up and down, and we crowd with them." — Roba di Roma, i. 72. 

"On the sixth of January tiie lofty stcjJS of Ara-Cceli looked like an 


ant-hill, so thronged were they with people. Men and boys who sold 
little books (legends and prayers), rosaries, pictures of saints, medallions, 
chestnuts, oranges, and other things, shouted and made a great noise. 
Little boys and girls were still preaching zealously in the church, and 
people of all classes were crowding thither. Processions advanced with 
the thundering cheerful music of the fire-corps. II Bambino, a painted 
image of wood, covered with jewels, and with a yellow crown on its 
head, was carried by a monk in white gloves, and exhibited to the people 
from a kind of altar-like erection at the top of the Ara-Coeli steps. 
Everybody dropped down upon their knees ; II Bambino was shown on 
all sides, the music thundered, and the smoking censers were swung." — 
Frederika Bremer. 

The Convent of Ara-CocU contains much that is picturesque 
and interesting. S. Giovanni Capistrano was abbot here in 
the reign of Eugenius IV. 

Let us now descend froin the Capitohne Piazza toAvards 
the Forum, by the staircase on the left of the Palace of the 
Senator. Close to the foot of this staircase is a church, 
very obscure-looking, with some rude frescoes on the ex- 
terior. Yet every one must enter this building, for here are 
the famous Maiucrtine Prisons, excavated from the solid rock 
under the Capitol. 

The prisons are entered through the low Church of S. 
Pietro in Carcere, hung round with votive offerings and 
blazing with lamps. 

'There is an upper chamber in the Mamcrtine Prisons, over what is 
said to have been — and very possibly may have been — the dungeon of 
St. Peter. The chamber is now fitted up as an oratory, dedicated to 
that saint ; and it lives, as a distinct and separate place, in my recollec- 
tion, too. It is very small and low-roofed ; and the dread and gloom of 
the ponderous, obdurate old prison are on it, as if they had come up in 
a dark mist through the floor. Hanging on the walls, among the 
clustered votive offerings, are objects, at once strangely in keeping and 
strangely at variance with the place — rusty daggers, knives, pistols, 
clubs, divers instruments of violence and murder, brought here, fresh 


from use, and hung up to propitiate offended Heaven ; as if the blood 
upon them would drain off in consecrated air, and have no voice to cry 
with. It is all so silent and so close, and tomblike ; and the dungeons 
below are so black, and stealthy, and stagnant, and naked ; that this 
little dark spot becomes a dream within a dream : and in the vision of 
great churches which come rolling past me like a sea, it is a small wave 
by itself, that melts into no other wave, and does not flow on with the 
rest. " — Dickens. 

Enclosed in the church, near the entrance, may be ob- 
served the outer frieze of the prison wall, with the inscription 


s . c, recording the names of two consuls of a.d. 22, who 
are supposed to have repaired the prison. Juvenal's descrip- 
tion of the time when one prison was sufficient for all the 
criminals in Rome naturally refers to this building : 

"Felices proavorum atavos, felicia dicas 
Sfficula, qua; quondam sub rcgibus atque tribunis 
Viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam." 

Sat. iii. 312. 

A modern staircase leads to the horrible dungeon of Ancus 
Martius, sixteen feet in height, thirty in length, and twenty- 
two in breadth. Originally there was no staircase, and the 
prisoners were let down there, and thence into the lower 
dungeon, through a hole in the middle of the ceiling. The 
large door at the side is a modern innovation, having been 
opened to admit the vast mass of pilgrims din-ing the festa. 
The whole prison is constructed of huge blocks of tufa with- 
out cement. Some remains arc shown of the Scalce Gcnionice, 
so called from the groans of the prisoners — by which the 
bodies were dragged forth to be exposed to tlie insults of 
the populace or to be thrown into the Tiber. It was by this 
staircase that Cicero came forth and announced the e.xecu- 


tion of the Catiline conspirators to the people in the Forum, 
by the single word Vixcninf, " they have ceased to li\e.' 
Close to the exit of these stairs the Emperor Vitellius was 
murdered. On the wall by which you descend to the 
lower dungeon is a mark, kissed by the faithful, as the spot 
against which St. Peter's head rested. The lower prison, 
called Robur, is constructed of huge blocks of tufa, fastened 
together by cramps of iron and approaching horizontally to 
a common centre in the roof It has been attributed from 
early times to Servius Tullius ; but Ampere* argues against 
the idea that the lower prison was of later origin than the 
upper, and suggests that it is Pelasgic, and older than any 
other building in Rome. It is described by Livy, and 
by Sallust, who depicts its horrors in his account of 
the execution of the Catiline conspirators, f The spot is 
sho\vn to which these victims were attached and strangled 
in turn. In this dungeon, at an earlier period, Appius 
Claudius and Oppius the decemvirs committed suicide (b.c, 
449). Here Jugurtha, king of Mauritania, was starved to 
death by Marius. Here Julius Csesar, during his triumph 
for the conquest of Gaul, caused his gallant enemy Vercinge- 
torix to be put to death. Here Sejanus, the friend and 
minister of Tiberius, disgraced too late, was executed for the 
murder of Drusus, son of the emperor, and for an intrigue 
with his daughter-in-law, Livilla. Here, also, Simon Bar- 
Gioras, the last defender of Jerusalem, suffered during the 
triumph of Titus. 

• Hist. Rome. 

t "Est locus in carcere quod TuUianum appellatur, ubi paulijum descenderis ad 
Isevam, circiter duodecim pedes humi depressus. Eum muniunt undique parietes, 
atque insuper camera lapideis fornicibus vincta ; sed incultu, tcnebris, odore fueu.i, 
atque terribilis ejus facies."^5a//. Catil. Iv. 


The spot is more interesting to the Christian world as 
the prison of SS. Peter and Paul, who are said to have been 
bound for nine months to a pillar, which is shown here. 
A fountain of excellent water, beneath the floor of the 
prison, is attributed to the prayers of St. Peter, that he might 
have wherewith to baptize his gaolers, Processus and Mar- 
tinianus ; but, unfortunately for this ecclesiastical tradition, 
the fountain is described by Plutarch as having existed at 
the time of Jugurtha's imprisonment. This fountain pro- 
bably gave the dungeon the name of Tulliampn, by which 
it was sometimes known, tiiUivs meaning a spring.* This 
name probably gave rise to the idea of its connection with 
Servius Tullius. 

It is hence that the Roman Catholic Church believes 
that St. Peter and St. Paul addressed their farewells to the 
Christian world. 

That of St. Peter :— 

".Shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus 
Christ hath showed me. Moreover I will endeavour that ye may be 
able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance. For 
we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known 
to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. . . . Never- 
theless we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new 
earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness." — z/id St. Peter. 

That of St. Paul:— 

•' God haih not given us a spirit of fear. . . Pe not thou, therefore, 
ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner; but be 
thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of 
God. ... I suffer trouble as an evil doer, even unto bonds ; but 
the word of God is not bound. Therefore I endure all things, for the 
elect's sake, that they also may obtain the salvation which is in Christ 
Jesus. ... I charge llice by (Jod and by the Lord Jesus Christ, who 
shall judge the quick and the dead . . . jireach the word ; be instant 

* Sec AmpOre, Hist. Rom. ii, 31. 


in season, out of season ; reprove, rebuke, exliort with all longsufTering 
and doctrine ; . . . watch in all things, endure aftlictions, do the 
work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry. For I am now 
ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have 
fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith." — 
2.iid Timothy. 

On Jtily 4, the prisons are the scene of a picturesque 
solemnity, when they are visited at night by the rehgious 
confraternities, who first kneel and then prostrate them.selves 
in silent devotion. 

Above the Church of S. Pietro in Carcere, is that of .5. 
Giuseppe del Fakgnami, St. Joseph of the Carpenters. 

" Pourquoi les guides et les antiquaires qui nous out si souvent montre 
la voie triomphale qui mene au Capitole et nous en ont lant de fois 
enumere les souvenirs ; pourquoi aucun d'eux ne nous a-t-il jamais parle 
de ce qui survint le jour du triomphe de Titus, la-bas, pres des prisons 
Mamertines ? Laisse-moi vous rappeler que ce jour-la le triomphateur, 
au moment de monter au temple, devant verser le sang d'une victime, 
s'arreta a cette place, tandis que Ton detachait de son cortege un captif 
de plus haute taille et plus richement vetu que les autres, et qu'on 
I'emmenait dans cette prison pour y achever son su])plice avec le lacet 
meme qu'il portait autour du cou. Ce ne fut qu'apres cette immola- 
tion que le cortege reprit sa marche et acheva de monter jusqu'au 
Capitole ! Ce captif dont on ne daigue nous parler, c'c'tait Simon Bar- 
Gioras ; c'etait un des trois demiers defenseurs de Jerusalem ; c'etait un 
de ceux qui la defendirent jusqu'au bout, mais helas ! qui la defendirent 
comme des demons maitres d'une ame de laquelle ils ne veulent pas se 
laisser chasser, et non point comme des champions herolques d'une cause 
sacree et perdue. Aussi cette grandeur que la seule infortune suffit 
souvent pour donner, elle manque a la calamite la plus grande que le 
monde ait vue, et les noms attaches a cette immense catastrophe ne 
demeurerent pas meme fameux ! Jean de Giscala, Eleazar, Simon 
Bar-Gioras ; qui pense a eux aujourd'hui ? L'univers entier proclame 
et venere les noms de deux pauvres juifs qui, quatre ans auparavant, 
dans cette meme prison, avaient eux aussi attendu la supplice ; mais le 
malheur, le courage, la mort tragique des autres, ne leur ont point 
donne la gloire, et un dedaigneux oubli les a effaces de la memoire des 
hommes ! " — {Anitc Scvcrin) Mrs. Augustus Craven. 


" Along the sacred way 
Hither the triumph came, and, winding round 
Witli acclamation, and the martial clang 
Of instruments, and cars laden with spoil, 
Stopped at the sacred stair that then appeared. 
Then thro' the darkness broke, ample, star-bright, 
As tho' it led to heaven. 'Twas night ; but now 
A thousand torches, turning night to day. 
Blazed, and the victor, springing from his seat, 
Went up, and, kneeling as in fervent prayer, 
Entered the Capitol. But what are they 
Who at the foot withdraw, a mournful train 
In fetters ? And who, yet incredulous. 
Now gazing wildly round, now on his sons. 
On those so young, well pleased with all they see, 
Staggers along, the last ? They are the fallen. 
Those who were spared to grace the chariot-wheels ; 
And there they parted, where the road divides. 
The victor and the vanquished — there withdrew ; 
He to the festal board, and they to die. 

" Well might the great, the mighty of the world. 
They who were wont to fare deliciously 
And war but for a kingdom more or less. 
Shrink back, nor from their thrones endure to look, 
To think that way ! Well might they in their pomp 
Humble themselves, and kneel and supplicate 
To be delivered from a dream like this I " 

Rogers' Italy. 



Forum of Trajan — (Sta. Maria di Loreto) — Temple of Mars Ultor — ■ 
Forum of Augustus— Forum of Nerva — Forum of Julius Cassar — 
(Academy of St. Luke) — Forum Romanum — Tribune — Comitium 
— Vulcanal — Temple of Concord — -Temple of Vespasian — Temple 
of Saturn — Arch of Septimius Severus — Temple of Castor and 
Pollux — Pillar of Phocas — Temple of Antoninus and Faustina 
— Basilica of Constantine — (Sta. Martina — S. Adriano — Sta. 
Maria — Liberatrice, SS. Cosmo and Damian — Sta. Francesca 
Romana)^Temple of Venus and Rome — Arch of Titus — (.Sta. 
Maria Pallara — .S. Buenaventura) — Meta Sudans — Arch of Con- 
stantine — Coliseum. 

'pOLLOWING the Corso to its end at the Ripresa dei 
Barberi, and turning to the left, we find ourselves at once 
amid the remains of the Forum of Trajan, erected by the 
architect Apollodorus for the Emperor Trajan on his return 
from the wars of the Danube. This forum now presents 
the appearance of a ravine between the Capitoline and 
Quirinal, but is an artificial hollow, excavated to facilitate 
the circulation of life within the city. An inscription over 
the door of the column, which overtops the other mins, 
shows that it was raised in order to mark the depth of 
earth which was removed to construct the forum. The 
earth was formerly as high as the top of the column, 
which reaches, loo Roman feet, to the level of the Pala- 

i6o WALKS I\' ROME. 

tine Hill. The forum was sometimes called the " Ulpian," 
from one of the names of the emperor. 

" Before the year a.d. 107 the splendours of the city and the Campus 
beyond it were still separated by a narrow isthmus, thronged perhaps by 
the squalid cabins of the poor, and surmounted by the remains of the 
Servian wall which ran along its summit. Step by step the earlier 
emperors had approached with their new forums to the foot of this ob- 
struction. Domitian was the first to contemplate and commence its 
removal. Nerva had the fortune to consecrate and to give his own name 
to a portion of his predecessor's construction ; but Trajan undertook to 
complete the bold design, and the genius of his architect triumphed 
over all obstacles, and executed a work which exceeded in extent and 
splendour any previous achievement of the kind. He swept away every 
building on the site, levelled the spot on which they had stood, and laid 
out a vast area of columnar galleries, connecting halls and chambers for 
public use and recreation. The new forum was adorned with two 
libraries, one for Greek, the other for Roman volumes, and it was 
bounded on the west by a basilica of magnificent dimensions. Beyond 
this basilica, and within the limits of the Campus, the same architect 
(Apollodorus) erected a temple for the worship of Trajan himself; but 
this work probably belonged to the reign of Trajan's successor, and no 
doubt the Ulpian forum, with all its adjuncts, occupied many years in 
building. The area was adorned with numerous statues, in which the 
figure of Trajan was frequently repeated, and among its decorations 
were groups in bronze or marble, representing his most illustrious 
actions. The balustrades and cornices of the whole mass of buildings 
flamed with gilded images of arms and horses. Here stood the great 
ecjuestrian statue of the emperor ; here was the triumphal arch decreed 
him by the senate, adorned with sculpture, which Constantine, two 
centuries later, transferred without a blush to his own, a barbarous act 
of this first Christian emperor, to which however we probably owe their 
preservation to this day from more barbarous spoliation." — Mcrivale, 
Romans under tlic Einpiiv, ch. Ixiii. 

'l"hc beautiful Column of Trajan was erected by the 
senate and people of Rome, a.d. 114. It is composed of 
thirty-four blocks of marble, and is covered with a spiral 
band of ba.s-rcliefs illustrative of the Dacian wars, and 
increasing in size as it ncars the top, so tliat it preserves 


throughout the same proportion wlien seen from below. It 
was formerly crowned by a statue of Trajan, holding a gilt 
globe, which latter is still preserved in the Hall of Bronzes 
in the Capitol. This statue had follen from its pedestal 
long before Sixtus V. replaced it by the existing figure 
of St. Peter. At the foot of the column was a sepulchral 
chamber, intended to receive the imperial ashes, which 
were however preserved in a golden urn, upon an altar in 
front of it. 

" And a[)ostolic statues climb 
To crush the imperial urn, whose ashes slept sublime." 

Childc Hcwold, ex. 

Tt was while walking in this forum, that Gregory the 
Great, observing one of the marble groups which told of a 
good and great action of Trajan, lamented bitterly that the 
soul of so noble a man should be lost, and prayed earnestly 
for the salvation of the heathen emperor. ?Ie was told 
that the soul of Trajan should be saved, but that to ensure 
this he must either himself undergo the pains of purga- 
tory for three days, or suffer earthly pain and sickness 
for the rest of his life. He chose the latter, and never 
after was in health. This incident is naiTated by his 
three biographers, John and Paul Diaconus, and John of 

The forum of Trajan was partly uncovered by Pope 

Paul in. in the sixteenth century, but excavated in its 

present form by the French in 1812. There is much still 

buried under the streets and neighbouring houses. 

"All over the surface of what once was Rome it seems to be the 
effort of Time to bury up the ancient city, as it were a corpse, and he> 
the sexton ; so that, in eighteen centuries, the soil over its grave has 

* 'J his story is most picturesquely told by D.inte. Purg. x. 72. 
VOL. I. H 


grown very deep, by the slow scattering of dust, and the accumulation 
of more modern decay upon older ruin. 

"This was the fate, also, of Trajan's forum, until some papal anti- 
quary, a few hundred years ago, began to hollow it out again, and dis- 
closed the whole height of the gigantic column, wreathed round with 
bas-reliefs of the old emperor's warlike deeds (rich sculpture, which, 
twining from the base to the capital, must be an ugly spectacle for his 
ghostly eyes, if he considers that this huge, storied shaft must be laid 
before the judgment seat, as a piece of the evidence of what he did in 
the flesh). In the area before the column stands a grove of stone, con- 
sisting of the broken and unequal shafts of a vanished temple, still 
keeping a majestic order, and apparently incapable of further demolition. 
The modem edifices of the piazza (wholly built, no doubt, out of the 
spoil of its old magnificence) look down into the hollow space whence 
these pillars rise. 

"One of the immense gray granite shafts lies in the piazza, on the 
verge of the area. It is a great, solid fact of the Past, making old Rome 
actually visible to the touch and eye ; and no study of history, nor force 
of thought, nor magic of song, can so vitally assure us that Rome once 
existed, as this sturdy specimen of what its rulers and people wrought. 
There is still a polish remaining on the hard substance of the pillar, 
the polish of eighteen centuries ago, as yet but half rubbed off."- — ■ 
Haivthorne, Transfoj-matiou . 

On the north of this forum are two churches : that 
nearest to the Corso is Sta. Afaria di Loi'eto (founded by 
the corporation of bakers in 1500), with a dome sur- 
mounted by a picturcscjue lantern by Giuhano di San- 
gallo, c. 1506. It contains a statue of Sta. Susanna {jiot 
the Susanna of the Elders) by Fiammingo (Frangois de 
Quesnoy), which is justly considered the chef-d'oeuvre of 
the Bernini School. The companion church is called Sta. 
Maria di Vienna, and (like Sta. Maria della Vittoria) com- 
memorates the liberation of Vienna from tlie Turks in 
1683, by Sobieski, king of Poland. It was built by Inno- 
cent XI. 

Leaving tlic forimi at the opposite corner by the Via 


Alessandrina, and passing under the high wall of the Con- 
vent of the Nunziatina, a street, opening on the left, discloses 
several beautiful pillars, which, after having borne various 
names, are now declared to be the remains of the Temple 
of Mars Uitor, built by Augustus in his new forum, which 
was erected in order to provide accommodation for the 
crowds which overflowed the Forum Romanum and Forum 

" The title of Ultor marked the war and the victory by which, agree- 
ably to his vow, Augustus had avenged his uncle's death. 

" 'Mars ades, et satia scelerato sanguine ferrum ; 
Stetque favor causa pro meliore tuus. 
Templa feres, et, me victore, vocaberis Ultor.'* 

The porticoes, which extended on each side of the temple with a 
gentle curve, contained statues of distinguished Roman generals. The 
banquets of the Salii were transferred to this temple, a circumstance 
which led to its identification, from the discovery of an inscription here 
recording the tnansiones of these priests. Like the priesthood in gen- 
eral, they appear to have been fond of good living, and there is a well- 
known anecdote of the Emperor Claudius having been lured by the 
steams of their banquet from his judicial functions in the adjacent forum, 
to come and take part in their feast. The temple was appropriated 
to meetings of the senate in which matters connected with wars and 
triumphs were debated. . . . Here while Tiberius was building a temple 
to Augustus upon the Palatine, his golden statue reposed upon a 
couch." — Dyer's City of Rotnc. 

" Up to the time of Augustus, the god Mars, the reputed father of 
the Roman race, had never, it is said, enjoyed the distinction of a temple 
within the walls. He was then introduced into the city which he had 
saved from overthrow and ruin ; and the aid he had lent in bringing the 
murderers of Ccesar to justice, was signalised by the title of Avenger, by 
which he was now specially addressed. . . . The temple of Mars 
Ultor, of gigantic proportions, 'Et deus est ingens et opus,' was erected 

* Ovid, Fasti, v. 575, 699. 


in the new fonim of Augustus at the foot of the Capitohne and Quirinal 
hills." — Merivalc, Romans under the Empire. 

"Ce temple etait particulierement cher a Auguste. II voulut que 
las magistrals en partissent pour aller dans leurs provinces ; que I'honneur 
du triomphe y fut decerne, et que les triomphateurs y fissent hommage a 
Mars Vengeur de leur couronne et de leur sceptre ; que les drapeaux 
pris a I'ennemi y fussent conserves ; que les chefs de la cavalerie 
executassent des jeux en avant des marches de ce temple ; enfip que 
les censeurs, en sortant de leur charge, y plantassent le clou sacre, vieil 
usage etrusque jusque-la attache au Capitole. Auguste desirait que ce 
temple fonde par lui prit I'importance du Capitole. 

"II fit dedier le temple par ses petit-fils Caius et Lucius ; et son 
autre petit-fils, Agrippa, a la tete des plus nobles enfants de Rome, y 
celebra le jeu de Troie, qui rappelait I'origine pretendue troyenne de 
Cesar ; deux cent soixante lions furent tgorges dans la cirque, c'etait 
leur place ; deux troupes de gladiateurs combattirent dans les Septa 
ou se faisaient les elections au temps de la republique, comme si 
Auguste eCit voulu, par ces combats qui se livraient en I'honneur 
des morts, celebrer les funerailles de la liberte romaine." — Ampire, 
Emp. i. 224. 

The temple of Mars stands at the north-eastern corner 
of the magnificent Forum of Augustus, which extended from 
here as far as the present Via Alessandrina, surpassing in size 
the forum of JuHus Caesar, to which it was adjoining. It 
was of sufficient size to be frequently used for fights of 
animals (venationcs). Among its ornaments were statues of 
Augustus triumpliant and of tlie subdued provinces — with 
inscrii)lions iUustralive of the great deeds he had accom- 
plished there ; also a pi(-turc by Apelles representing War 
with her hands bound behind her, seated upon a pile of arms. 
Part of the boundary wall exists, enclosing on two sides the 
remains of the temple of Mars Ultor, and is constructed of 
huge masses of peperino. The arch, in the wall close to 
the temple, is known as Arco dei Pantani. The sudden 
turn in the wall here is interesting as commemorating a 


concession made to the wish of some proprietors, who were 
unwilling to part withi their houses for the sake of the 

"C'est I'histoire chi moulin de Sans-Souci, qui du reste parait n'elrc 
pas vraie. 

"II est piquant d'assisler aujourdhui a ce menagement d'Augiiste 
pour I'opinion qu'il voulait gagner. En voyant le mur s'inflechir parce- 
qu'il a fallu epargner quelqucs maisons, on croit voir la toute-puissance 
d'Auguste gauchir a dessein devant les interets particuliers, seule puis- 
sance avec laquelle il reste a compter quand tout interet general a 
disparu. L'obliquite de la politique d'Auguste est visible dans I'obiiquite 
de ce mur, qui montre et rend pour ainsi dire palpable le manege adroit 
de la tyrannie, se deguisant pour se fonder. Le mur biaise, comma 
biaisa constanunent Fempereur." — Anipire, Emp. i. 233. 

(The street on the left — passing the Arco dei Pantani — • 
the Via della Salita del Grillo, commemorates the ap- 
proach to the castle of the great mediaeval family Del 
Grillo ; the street on the right leads through the ancient 

At the corner of the next street (Via della Croce Bianca) 
— on the left of the Via Alessandrina — is the ruin called the 
" Colonnace," being part of the Portico of Pallas Minerva, 
which decorated the Forum Prausitoriiim, begun by Domi- 
tian, but dedicated in the short reign of Nerva, and hence 
generally called the Forum of Iscrva^ on account of the exe- 
cration with which the memory of Domitian was regarded. 
Up to the seventeenth century seven magnificent columns of 
the temple of Minerva were still standing, but they were 
destroyed by Paul V., who used part of them in building the 
Fontana Paolina. The existing remains consist of two half- 
buried Corinthian columns with a figure of Minerva, and a 
frieze of bas-reliefs. 


" Les bas-reliefs du forum de Nerva representent des femmes occupees 
des travaux d'aiguille, auxquels presididt Minerve. Quand on se 
rappelle, que Domitien avait place a Albano, pres du temple de cette 
deesse, un college de pretres qui imitaient la parure et les mceurs de 
femmes, on est tente de croire qu'il y a dans le choix des subjets figures 
ici une allusion aux habitudes effeminees de ces pretres." — Ampere, 
Emp. ii. i6i. 

"The portico of the temple of jNIinerva is most rich and beautiful in 
architecture, but woefully gnawed by time, and shattered by violence, 
besides being buried midway in the accumulation of the soil, that rises 
over dead Rome like a flood-tide. Within this edifice of antique 
sanctity a baker's shop is now established, with an entrance on one 
side ; for everywhere, the remnants of old grandeur and divinity 
have been made available for the meanest neccessities of to-day." — 

It was in this forum that Nerva caused Vetronius Turinus, 
who had trafficked with his court interest, to be suffocated 
with smoke, a herald proclaiming at the time, " Fumo puni- 
tur qui vendidit fumum." 

Returning a short distance down the Via Alessandrina, 
and turning (left) down the Via Bonella, we traverse the site 
of the Forum of Julius Ccesar, upon which 4000 sestertia 
(800,000/.) were expended, and which is described by 
Dion-Cassius as having been more beautiful than the 
Forum Romanum. It was ornamented with a Temple of 
Venus Genetrix — from whom Julius Caesar claimed to 
be descended — which contained a statue of the goddess 
by Archesilaus, a statue of Caesar himself, and a group 
of Ajax and Medea by Timomacus. Here, also, Caesar 
had the effrontery to place the statue of his mis- 
tress, Cleopatra, by the side of that of the goddess. In 
front of the tem[)le stood a bronze figure of a horse — 
supj)osed to be the famous Bucephalus — the work of 


"Cedat equus Latise qui, contra templa Diones, 
Ctesarei stat sede Fori. Quern tradere es ausus 
Pellceo Lysippe Duci, mox Ctesaris ora 
Aurata cervice tulit." Statins, Silv. i. 84. 

The only visible remains of this forum are some courses 
of huge square blocks of stone (Lapis Gabinus), in a dirty 

Part of the site of the forum of Julius Csesar is now occu- 
pied — on the right near the end of the Via Bonella — by the 
Accademia di San Luca, founded in 1595, Federigo Zuccaro 
being its first director. The collections are open from 9 
to 5 daily. A ceiling representing Bacchus and Ariadne, is 
by Guido. The best pictures are : — 

Bacchus and Ariadne : Poitssin. 

Vanity : Paul Verotiese. 

Calista and the Nymphs : Titian. 

The murder of Lucretia : Guido Cagnacci. 

Fortune : Guido. 

Innocent XI. : Velasquez. 

The Saviour and the Pharisee : Titian. 

A lovely fresco of a child : Raphael. 

St. Luke painting the Virgin : Attributed to Raphael. 

"St. Luke painting the Virgin has been a frequent and favourite sub- 
ject. The most famous of all is a picture in the Academy of St. Luke, 
ascribed to Raphael. Here St. Luke, kneeling on a footstool before an 
easel, is busied painting the Virgin with the Child in her arms, who 
appears to him out of heaven, sustained by clouds ; behind St. Luke 
stands Raphael himself, looking on."- — Mrs. Jameson. 

A skull preserved here was long supposed to be that of 
Raphael, but his true skull has since been found in his 
grave in the Pantheon. 

"On a longtemps venere ici un crane que Ton croyait etre celui de 
Raphael ; crane etroit sur lequel les phrenologistes auront prononce de 


vains oracles, devant lequel on aura bien profondement reve et qui 
n'etait que celui d'un obscur chanoine bien innocent de toutes ces ima- 
ginations." — A. Dh Pays. 

Just beyond St. Luca, we enter the Forum Romanum. 

The interest of Rome comes to its chmax in the Forum. 
In spite of all that is destroyed, and all that is buried, so 
much still remains to be seen, and every stone has its story. 
Even without entering into all the vexed archaeological 
questions which have filled the volumes of Canina, Bunsen, 
Niebuhr, and many others, the occupation which a traveller 
interested in history will find here is all but inexhaustible; 
and, after the disputes of centuries, the different sites seem 
now to be verified with tolerable certainty. The study of 
the Roman Forum is complicated by the successmi of public 
edifices by which it has been occupied, each period of 
Roman history having a different set of buildings, and each 
in a great measure supplanting that which went before. 
Another difficulty has naturally arisen from the exceedingly 
circumscribed space in which all these buildings have to be 
arranged, and which shows that many of the ancient temples 
must have been mere chapels, and the so-called " lakes " 
little more than fountains. 

"This spot, where the senate had its assemblies, where the rostra 
were placed, where the destinies of the world were discussed, is the 
most celebrated and the most classical of ancient Rome. It was adorned 
with the most magnificent monuments, which were so crowded upon 
one another, that their heaped-up ruins are not sufficient for all the names 
which are handed down to us by histoiy. The course of centuries has 
overthrown the Forum, and made it impossible to define; the level of 
the ancient soil is twenty-four feet below that of to-day, and however 
great a desire one may feel to reproduce the past, it must be acknow- 
ledged that this very difference of level is a terrible obstacle to the 


powers of imagination ; again, the uncertainties of archreologists are 
discouraging to curiosity and the desire of illiision. For more than three 
centuries learning has been at work upon this field of ruins, without 
being able even to agree upon its bearings ; some describing it as 
extending from north to south, others from east to west. The origin 
of the Forum goes back to the alliance of the Romans and Sabines. 
It was a space surrounded by marshes, which extended between 
the Palatine and the Capitol, occupied by the two colonies, and 
serving as a neutral ground where they could meet. The Curtian 
Lake was situated in the midst. Constantly adorned under the re- 
public and the empire, it appears that it continued to exist until the 
eleventh century. Its total ruin dates from Robert Guiscard, who, 
when called to the assistance of Gregoiy VII., left it a heap of ruins. 
Abandoned for many centuries, it became a receptacle for rubbish, 
which gradually raised the level of the soil. About 1547, Paul III. 
began to make excavations in the Forum. Then the place became a 
cattle-market, and the glorious name of Forum Romanum changed 
into that of Campo Vaccino. 

"The Forum was surrounded by a portico of two stories, the lower 
of which was occupied by shops (tabernae). In the beginning of the 
sixth century of Rome, two fires destroyed part of the edifices with 
which it had been embellished. This was an opportunity for isolating 
the P'orum, and basilicas and temples were raised in succession along 
its sides, which in their turn were partly destroyed in the fire of Nero. 
Domitian rebuilt a part, and added the temple of Vespasian, and An- 
toninus that of Faustina." — A. Du Pays. 

The excavations which were made in the Forum be- 
fore 187 1 are for the most part due to the generosity of 
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. The papal govern- 
ment ahvaj'S displayed the most extraordinary apathy 
about extending them, and, when a large excavation was 
made in the winter of 1869-70, by the British Archceo- 
logical Society, in front of the Church of Sta. Martina, 
insisted on its being immediately filled up again, instead 
of extending it, as might easily have been done, to join 
the excavation which had long existed on the Clivus 
Capitolinus. Lately the excavations have been consider- 

170 WALKS /jV ROME. 

ably increased, but were the roads leading to the Forum 
to be closed, and a large body of efficient labourers set 
to work, the whole of the Roman Forum and its surround- 
ings might be laid bare in a month, without any injury to 
the interesting churches in its neighbourhood. At present, 
even that part which is disinterred is cut up by a number of 
raised causeways, which distract the eye and mar the general 
effect, and the excavations, recommenced by the Italian 
government, are slowly and inadequately carried on. 

If we stand on the causeway in front of the arch of 
Septimius Severus, and turn towards the Capitol, we look 
upon the Clivus Capitolinus, which is perfectly crowded with 
historical sites and fragments, viz. : — 

1. The modern Capitol, resting on the Tabidarmm. This 
is one of the earliest architectural relics in Rome. It is 
built in the Etruscan style, of huge blocks of tufa or 
peperino placed long- and cross-ways alternately. It was 
formerly composed of two stages called Camellaria. Only 
the lower now remains. It contained the tables of the 
laws. The corridor which remains in the interior is used 
as a museum of architectural fragments. The Tabularium 
probably communicated with the JErarmm in the temple 
of Saturn. 

2. On the riglit of the excavated space, and nearest the 
Tabularium, the site of the Tribune, in front of which were 
the Rostra, to which the head of Octavius was affixed by 
Marius, and the head and hand of Cicero by Antony, and 
where Fulvia, the widow of Clodius, spat in his dead face, 
and pierced his inanimate tongue with the pin which she 
wore in her hair. In front of the rostrum were the statues 
of the three Sibyls called Tria Fata. 

FOR UM ROM A NUM. 1 7 x 

3. Below, a lit le more to the right, is the site of the Co- 
mitium, where the survivor of the Horatii was condemned to 
death, and saved by the voice of the people. Here, also, 
was the trophied pillar which bore the arms of the Curiatii. 
In the area of the Comitium grew the famous fig-tree which 
was always preserved here in commemoration of the tree 
under which Romulus and Remus were suckled by the wolf, 
and beneath which was a bronze representation of the wolf 
and the children. 

4. A little more to the left, is the site of the Vukaual, so 
called from an altar dedicated to A'^ulcan, a platform (still 
defined) where, in the earliest times, Romulus and Tatius 
used to meet on intermediate ground and transact affairs 
common to both ; and where Brutus was seated, when, 
without any change of countenance, he saw his two sons 
beaten and beheaded. Adjoining the Vulcanal was the 
Gr(Bcostasis, where foreign ambassadors waited before they 
were admitted to an audience of the senate. 

5. Below the Vulcanal, and just behind the Arch of 
Severus, is the site of the Temple of Cor.cord, dedicated, 
with blasphemous inappropriateness, B.C. 121, by the consul 
Opimius, immediately after the murder of Caius Gracchus. 
Here Cicero pronounced his orations against Catiline before 
the senate. A pavement of coloured marbles remains. At 
its base are still to be seen some small remains of the Coloniia 
Mcenia, which was snrmounted by the statue of C. M^nius, 
who decorated the rostra with the iron beaks of vessels takers 
in war. 

6. The three beautiful columns which are still standing 
were attributed to a temple of Jupiter Tonans, but are now 
decided to belong to the Temple of Vespasian. The engrav- 


ings of Piranesi represent them as buried almost to their 
capitals, and they remained in this state until they were dis- 
interred during the first French occupation. The space was 
so limited in this part of Rome, that in order to prevent 
encroaching upon the street Clivus Capitolinus, which 
descends the hill between this temple and that of Saturn, 
the temple of Vespasian was raised on a kind of terrace, 
and the staircase which led to it was thrust in between the 
columns. This temple was restored by Septimius Severus, 
and to this the letters on the entablature refer, being part of 
the word Restitucrc. Instruments of sacrifice are sculptured 
on the frieze. 

7. On the left of the excavated space, close beneath the 
Tabularium, a low range of columns recently re-erected 
represents the building called the School of Xar.f/ius, cham- 
bers, for the use of the scribes and persons in the service of 
the curule sediles, which derived their name from Xanthus, 
a freedman, by whom they were rebuilt. 

8. The eight Ionic columns still standing, part of the 
Temple of Saturn, the ancient god of the Capitol. Before 
this temple Pompey sate surrounded by soldiers, listening 
to the orations which Cicero was delivering from the rostrum, 
when he received the personal address, " Te enim jam 
appello, et ea voce ut me exaudire possis." Here the tribune 
Metellus flung himself before the door and vainly attempted 
to defend the treasure of the yErariiim in this temple 
against Julius Caesar. The present remains are those of an 
indifferent and late renovation of an earlier temple, being 
composed of columns which differ in diameter, and a frieze 
put together from fragments which do not belong to one 
another, 'i'he original temple was built by Tarquin, and 


was supposed to mark the site of the ancient Sabine aUar of 
the god and the Hmit of the wood of refuge mentioned by 

9. Just below the Temple of Saturn is the site of the An/i 
of Tiberius, erected, according to Tacitus, upon tlie recovery 
by Germanicus of the standards which Varus had lost. 

10. The remains of the MilUarium Aureum, which formed 
the upper extremity of a wall faced with marbles, ending 
near the arch of Severus in a small conical pyramid. Dis- 
tances without the walls were inscribed upon the Milliarium 
Aureum, as distances within the walls were upon the 
pyramid (from which in this case they were also measured) 
which bore the name of Umbilicus Roma. The Via 
Sacra, which is still visible, descended from the Capitol 
between the temples of Saturn and Vespasian, — being 
known here as the Clivus Capitolinus, and passed to the 
left of— 

11. The Arch of Septimius Scvcrus, wliich was erected by 
the senate a.d. 205, in honour of that emperor and his two 
sons, Caracalla and Geta. It is adorned with bas-reliefs 
relating his victories in the east, — his entry into Babylon 
and the tower of the temple of Belus are represented. A 
curious memorial of imperial history may be observed in the 
inscription, where we may still discern the erasure made by 
Caracalla after he had put his brother Geta to death in a.d. 
213, for the sake of obliterating his memory. The added 
words are optimis fortissimisqve principibus — but the 
ancient inscription p. sept. lvc. fil. gette. nobiliss. 
C^SARi, has been made out by painstaking decipherers. In 
one of the piers is a staircase leading to the top of the arch 
which was formerly (as seen from coins of Severus and 


Caracalla) adorned by a car drawn by six horses abreast, and 
containing figures of Severus and his sons. It was in front 
of this arch that the statue of Marcus Aurehus stood, which 
is now at the Capitol. 

"Les proportions de Tare de Septime-Severe sont encore belles. 
L'aspect en est imposant; il est solide sans etre lourd. La grande 
inscription oil se lisent les epithetes victorieuses qui rappellent les succes 
militaires de I'empereur, Paithique, Dacique, Adiabenique, se deploie sur 
une vaste surface et donne a I'entablement un air de majeste qu'admirent 
les artistes. Cette inscription est doublement historique; elle rappelle 
les campagnes de Severe et la tragedie domestique qui apres lui ensang- 
lanta sa famille, le meurtre d'un de ses fils immole par I'autre, et 
I'acharnement de celui-ci a poursuivre la memoire du frere quil avait 
fait assassiner. Le nom de Geta a ete visiblement efface par Caracalla. 
La meme chose se remarque dans une inscription sur bronze qu'on voit 
au Capitole et sur le petit arc du Marche aux boeufs dont j'ai parle, , 
ou I'image de Geta a ete effacee comme son nom. Caracalla ne permit 
pas meme a ce nom proscrit de se cacher parmi les hieroglyphes. En 
Egypte, ceux qui composaient le nom de Geta ont ete grattes sur les 
monuments." — Ampere, Ei)ip. ii. 278. 

(The excavations in the Forum are open to the pubHc 
on the same days as the Palace of the Csesars — Thursdays 
and Sundays.) 

The platform on which we have been standing leads to 
the Via della Consolazione, occupying the site of the ancient 
Vicus y^ugariiis, where Augustus erected an altar to Ceres, 
and another to Ops Augusta, the goddess of wealth. (In this 
street, on the left, is a good cinquc-cento doorway.) Where 
this street leaves the Forum was the so-called Laciis Str- 
vi/iiis, a l)asin which jjrobably derived its name from Servilius 
Ahala (who slew the philanthroijist Sp. Ma^lius with a dagger 
near lliis very si)ot), and which was encircled with a ghastly 
row of heads in tlie massacres under Sylla. This fountain 


Avas adorned by M. Aggrippa with a figure of a hydra. The 
right side of the Forum is now occupied for a considerable 
distance by the disinterred remains of the Basilica Julia, 
begun by Juhus Caisar, and finished by Augustus, who 
dedicated it in honour of his daughter. A basiUca of this 
description was intended partly as a Law Court and partly 
as an Exchange. In this basilica the judges called Centum- 
viri held their courts, which were four in number : 

"Jam clamor, centumc[ue viri, dcnsumque coronoe 
Vulgus : et infanti Julia tecta placent." 

ALirtial, vi. Ep. 38. 

Beyond the basilica are three beautiful columns which 
belong to a restoration of the Ttmple of Castor and Pol- 
lux, dedicated by Postumius, B.C. 484. Here costly sacri- 
fices were always offered in the ides of July, at the 
anniversary of the battle of the Lake Regillus, after which 
the Roman knights, richly clothed, crowned with olive, and 
bearing their trophies, rode past it in military procession, 
starting from the temple of Mars outside the Porta Capena. 
The entablature which the three columns support is of great 
richness, and the whole fragment is considered to be one 
of the finest existing specimens of the Corinthian order. 
None of the Roman ruins have given rise to more discussion 
than this. It has perpetually changed its name. Bunsen 
and many other authorities considered it to belong to the 
temple of Minerva Chalcidica ; but as it is known that the 
position of the now discovered Basilica Julia was exactly 
between the temple of Saturn and that of Castor, and a 
passage of Ovid describes the latter as being close to the 
site of the temple of Vesta, which is also ascertained, it 


seems almost certain now that it belonged to the temple of 
the Dioscuri. Dion-Cassius mentions that Caligula made 
this temple a vestibule to his house on the Palatine. 

Here, on the right, branches off the Via dei Fienili, once 
the Vicus Tiiscus, or Etruscan quarter (see Chap. V.), leading 
to the Circus Maximus. At its entrance was the bronze 
statue of Vertumnus, the god of Etruria, and patron of the 
quarter. The long trough-shaped fountain here, at which 
such picturesque groups of oxen and buffaloes are constantly 
standing, is a memorial of the Lake of Juturna the sister of 
Turnus, or as she was sometimes described, the wife of 
Janus the Sabine war-god. This fountain, for such it must 
have been, was dried up by Paul V. 

" At quce venturas prcecedit sexta kalendas, 
Hac sunt Ledceis templa dicata deis. 
Fratribus ilia deis fratres de gente deorum 
Circa Juturnce composuere lacus." 

Ovid, Fast. i. 705. 

Here, close under the Palatine, is the site of the 
famous Teviple of Vesta., in which the sacred fire was pre- 
served, with the palladium saved from Troy. On the altar 
of this temple, blood was sprinkled annually from the tail of 
the horse which was sacrificed to Mars in the Campus- 
Martius. The foundation of the temple was attributed to 
Numa, but the worship must have existed in Pelasgic times, 
as the mother of Romulus was a vestal. It was burnt 
down in the fire of Nero, rebuilt and again burnt down 
under Comniodus, and probably restored for the last time 
by Heliogabalus. Here, during the consulate of the young 
Marius, the high jjriest Scccvola was murdered, splashing 
the image of Vesta with his blood, — and here (a.d. 68) 


Piso, the adopted son of Galba, was murdered in tlie 
sanctuary whither he had fled for refuge, and his head, being 
cut off, was affixed to the rostra. Behind the temple, along 
the lower ridge of the Palatine, stretched the sacred grove of 
Vesta, and the site of the Church of Sta. Maria Liberatrice 
was occupied by the Atrium Vcstce, a kind of convent for 
the vestal virgins. Here Numa Pompilius fixed his resid- 
ence, hoping to conciliate both the Latins of the Palatine 
and the Sabines of the Capitoline by occupying a neutral 
ground between them. 

*' QuKris iter? dicam, vicinum Castora, canae 

Transibis Vesta;, virgineamque domum, 

Inde sacro veneranda petes palatia Clivo." 

Martial, i. Ep. 70. 

" Hie focus est Vest«, qui Pallada servat et igiiem. 
liic fuit antiqui regia parva Numre." 

Ovid, Trist. iii. El. I. 

" Hie locus exiguus, qui sustinet atria Vestae, 

Tunc erat intonsi regia magna Numoe. 
Forma tamen templi, qua^ nunc manet, ante fuisse 

Dicitur ; et formas causa probanda subest. 
Vesta eadem est, et Terra ; subest vigil ignis utrique, 

Significant sedem terra focusque suam. 
Terra pilas similis, nullo fulcimine nixa. 

Acre subjecto tam grave pendet onus. 
Arte Syracosia suspensus in aere clauso 

Stat globus, immensi parva figura poli ; 
Et quantum a suramis, tantum seccssit ab imis 

Terra. Quod ut fiat, forma rotunda facit. 
Par facics templi : nullus procurrit ab illo 

Angulus. A pluvio vindicat imbre tholus." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 263. 

" Servat et Alba, Lares, et quorum. lucet in aris 
Ignis adhuc Phrygius, nullique adspecta virorum 
Pallas, in abstruso pignus memorabile templo." 

Ltican, ix. '}92. 
vot.. I. 12 

1 78 WALRUS nv ROME. 

Close to the temple of Vesta was the Rcgia, where Julius 
Caesar lived (as pontifex maximus) — where Pompeia his 
second wife admitted her lover Clodius in the disguise of a 
woman to the mysteries of the Bona Dea — whence Caesar went 
forth to his death^ — and from which his last wife Calpurnia 
rushed forth with loud outcries to receive his dead body. 

Somewhere in this part of the Forum was the famous 
Curtiati Lake, so called from Mettus Curtius, a Sabine 
warrior, who with difficulty escaped from its quagmires to 
the Capitol after a battle between Romulus and Tatius.* 
I'radition declares that the quagmire afterwards became a 
gulf, which an oracle declared would never close until that 
which was most important to the Roman people was sacri- 
ficed to it. Then the young Marcus Curtius, equipped in 
full armour, leapt his horse into the abyss, exclaiming that 
nothing was more important to the Roman people than 
arms and courage ; and the gulf was closed, t Two altars 
were afterwards erected on the site to the two heroes, and 
a vine and an olive tree grew there.]: 

"Hoc, ubi nunc fora sunt, udse tcnuere paludcs : 
Amne rcdundatis fossa madcbat aquis. 
Curtius ille lacus, siccas qui sustinet aras, 
Is'unc solida est tellus, sed lacus ante fuit." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 401. 

Some fountain, like those of Servilius and Juturna, bearing 
tlie name of Lacus Curtius must have existed on this site to 
imperial times, for the Emperor Galba was murdered there. 

"A single cohort slill surrounded Calba, when the standard-bearer 
tore the limperor's image from his spear-licad, and dashed it on the 
ground. The soldiers were at once decided for Otho ; swords were 

• Statius, i. 6. Livy, vii. 6. t Livy, vii. 6. Varr. iv. 32. 

X riiiiy, XV. 18. 


drawn, and every symptom of favour for Galba amongst the bystanders 
was repressed by menaces, till they dispersed and fled in horror from the 
Forum. At last, the bearers of the emperor's litter overturned it at the 
Curtian pool beneath the Capitol. In a few moments enemies swarmed 
around his body. A few words he muttered, which have been diversely 
reported : some said that they were abject and unbecoming ; others 
aftirmed that he presented his neck to the assassin's sword, and bade 
him strike ' if it were for the good of the republic ; ' but none listened, 
none perhaps heeded the words actually spoken ; Galba's throat was 
pierced, but even the author of his mortal wound was not ascertained, 
while his breast being protected by the duirass, his legs and arms were 
hacked with repeated gashes." — Merivale, vii. 73. 

At the foot of the CHvus Capitohnus, on the left (looking 

towards the Arch of Titus) stood the Temple of yanus 

Quiriniis, between the great Foruni and the Forum of Julius 

Caesar, and near the ascent to the Porta Janualis, by which 

Tarpeia admitted the Sabines to the Capitol. Procopius, 

in the sixth century, saw the litde bronze temple of Janus 

still standing. This was one of many temples of the great 

Sabine god. 

" Quum tot sint Jani ; cur stas sacratus in uno, 
Hie ubi juncta foris templa duobus habes ?" 

OviJ, Easf. i. 257. 

This was the temple which was the famous index of peace 
and war, closed by Augustus for the third time from its 
foundation after the victory of Actium.* 

" . . . et vacuum duellis 

Janum Quirini clausit, et ordinem 
Rectum, et vaganti frcena licentiae 
Injecit." Horace, Ode'w. 15. 

Besides this temple there were three arches, whose sites 
are unkno\\Ti, dedicated to Janus in different parts of the 

• Suetonius, Aug. 22. 


" . . Hsec Janus summus ab inio 

Perdocet " Horace, Ep. i. I, 54. 

The central arch was the resort of brokers and money- 

" . . Postquam omnis res mea Janum 

Ad medium fracta est." II or. Sat. ii. 3, 18. 

Along this side of the Forum stood the Tabernce Argen- 
tarice, the silversmiths' shops, and beyond them — probably 
in front of S. Adriano — were the Tabernae Novae, where 
Virginia was stabbed by her father with a butcher's knife, 
which he had seized from one of the stalls, saying, " This, 
my child, is the only way to keep thee free," as he plunged 
it into her heart.t Near this also was the statue of Venus 

The front of the Church of S. Adriano is a fragment of 
the Basilica of ^-Emilius Paulus, built with part of 1500 
talents which Caesar had sent from Gaul to win him over 
to his party. This basilica occupied the site of the famous 
Curia of Tullus Ilostilius. 

" La se rcunit, pour la premiere fois sous un toit, le conseil des 
anciens rois que le savant Properce, avec un sentiment vrai des anti- 
quitcs romaincs, nous montre tel qu'il etait dans I'origine, se rassem- 
blant au son de !a trompe pastorale dans un pre, comme le peuple dans 
certains petits cantons de la Suisse." — Aniphe, Hist. Rom. ii. 310. 

The Curia was capable of containing six hundred sena- 
tors, their number in the time of the Gracchi. It had no 
tribune, — each s])cakcr rose in turn and spoke in his place. 
Here was " the hall of asseml)ly in which the fate of the 
world was decided." The Curia was destroyed by fire, 
whicli it cauglit from the funeral pyre of Clodius. Around 
the Curia stood many statues of Romans who had rendered 

• Cicero de Off. ii. 25. t Livy, iii. 48. I Pliny, xv. 29. 


especial service to the state. The Curia Julia occupied the 
site of the Curia Hostilia in the early part of the reign of 
Augustus. Close by the old Curia was the Basilica Porcia, 
built by Cato the Censor, which was likewise burnt down 
at the funeral of Clodius. Near this, the base of the rostral 
column, Colonna Dtdlia, has been found. 

Opposite the Basilica Julia, in the depth of the Forum, is 
the Column of Pliocas, raised to that emperor by the exarch 
Smaragdus in 608. This is — 

" The nameless column with a buried base," 

of Byron, but is now neither nameless nor buried, its pedestal 
having been laid bare by the Duchess of Devonshire in 
1813, and bearing an inscription which shows an origin that 
no one ever anticipated. 

"In the age of Phocas (602—610), the art of erecting a column like 
that of Trajan or M. Aurelius had been lost. A large and handsome 
Corinthian pillar, taken from some temple or basilica, was therefore 
placed in the Forum, on a huge pyramidal basis quite out of proportion 
to it, and was surmounted with a statue of Phocas in gilt bronze. It 
has so little the appearance of a monumental column, that for a lo^g 
while it was thouglit to belong to some ruined building, till, in 1813, 
the inscription was discovered. The name of Phocas had, indeed, been 
erased ; but that it must have been dedicated to him is shown by the 
dale. . . . The base of this column, discovered by the excavations 
of 1 816 to have rested on the ancient pavement of the Forum, proves 
that this former centre of Roman life was still, at the beginning of the 
seventh century, unencumbered with ruins." — Dyci^s History of the City 
of Rome. 

" Ce monument et I'inscription qui I'accompagne sont precieux pour 
I'histoire, car ils montrent le dernier terme de I'avilissement oil Rome 
devait tomber. Smaragdus est le premier magistral de Rome, — mais 
ce magistral est un prefet, I'elu du pouvoir imperial et non de ses con- 
citoyens ; — il commande, non, il est vrai, a la capitale du monde, mais 
au chef-lieu du duclie de Rome. Ce prefet, qui n'est coimu de I'histoire 
que par ses laches menagements envers les Barbares, imagine de vokr 
une colonne a un beau temple, au temple d'un empereur de quelque 


merite, pour la dedier a iin execrable tyran monte sur le trone par des 
assassinats, au meurtrier de I'empereur Maurice, a I'ignoble Phocas, que 
tout le monde connait, grace a Corneille, qui I'a encore trop menage. 
Et le plat drole ose appeler tres-clement celui qui fit egorger sous les 
yeux de Maurice ses quatre fils avant de I'egorger lui-meme. II decerne 
le titre de triomphateur a Phocag, qui laissa conquerir par Chosroes une 
bonne part de 1' empire. II ose ecrire : ' pour les innombrables bienfaits 
de sa piete, pour le repos procure a I'ltalie et a la liberie.' Ainsi 
I'histoire monumentale de la Rome de I'empire finit honteusement par un 
hommage ridicule de la bassesse a la violence." — Avipirc, Evip. ii. 389. 

A little behind the Column of Phocas are the marble 
slabs commemorating the sacrifices called Suovetaurilia, 
consisting of a pig, a sheep, and an o.x, animals which are 
sculptured here in bold relief. On the side towards the 
Capitol a number of figures are represented, amongst them 
a woman presenting a child to the emperor, in reference to 
Trajan's asylum for orphans, or for those who were too poor 
to bring up their children. On the other side is a burning of 
deeds in reference to the famous remission of debts by Trajan. 

Beyond this, on the left, the base of the famous statue of 
Uomitian has been discovered as cicscribed by Statins : 

"Ipse loci custos, cujus sacrata vorago, 

Famosusque lacus nomen memorabile servat." Silv. i. 66. 

Here the Via Sacra turns, almost continuing the Vicus 
Tuscus. On its right, on a line with the Temple of the 
Dioscuri, has been discovered the base of the small Temple 
of Julius Caesar (ylules Divi Julii),* which was surrounded 
with a colonnade of closely-placed columns and surmounted 
by a statue of the deified triumvir. 'Hiis was the first temple 
in Rome which was dedicated to a mortal. 

" Fralribus assimilis, quos proxima tcmpla tcnentcs 

Divus ab cxccLsa Julius cede videt." Ovid, Pont. El. ii. 2. 

• Vitruvius, iii. 



Dion Cassius narrates that this temple was erected on the 
spot where the body of JuHus was burnt. It was adorned 
by Augustus with the beaks of the vessels taken in the 
battle of Actium, and hence obtained the name of Rostra 
Julia. He also placed here the statue of Venus Anadyo- 
mene of Apelles, because Csesar had claimed descent from 
that goddess. Here, in a.d. 14, the body of Augustus, 
being brought from Nola, where he died, was placed upon 
a bier, while Tiberius pronounced a funeral oration over it, 
before it was carried to the Campus Martius. 

The road turns again in front of the remains of the 
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, erected by the flattery of 
the senate to the memory of the licentious Empress Faus- 
tina, the faithless wife of Antoninus Pius, whom they ele- 
vated to the rank of a goddess. Her husband, dying before 
its completion, was associated in her honours, and the in- 
scription, which still remains on the portico, is " Divo an- 
TONINO ET DivyE FAUSTiN/E. EX. s. c." The front of the 
temple is adorned with eight columns of cipolino, forty-three 
feet high, supporting a frieze ornamented with griffins and 
candelabra. The effect of these remains would be mag- 
nificent if the modern road were removed, and the temple 
were laid bare in its full height, with the twenty-one steps 
which formerly led to it. It is also greatly injured by the 
hideous Church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda, which encloses 
the cella of the temple, and whose name, says Ampere, 
naively expresses the admiration in which its builders held 
these remains.* 

On the left we now reach the Church of SS. Cosmo and 
Damian, considered by Nibby and others to occupy the 

* Ajnpfere, Emp. ii. 223. 


site of a temple of Remus. Ampere has since proved that 
this temple never existed, and that the remains are those 
of a Temple of the Penates, rebuilt by Augustus. Here 
Valerius Publicola had a house, to which he removed 
from the Velia, in deference to the wishes of the Roman 

" Le sentiment d'effroi que la demeure feodale des Valerius causait, 
etait pareille a celui qu'inspiraient aux Romains du moyen age les tours 
des barons, que le peuple, des qu'il etait le maitre, se hatait de 
demolir. Valerius n'attendit pas qu'on se portat a cette extremite, 
et il vint habiler au pied de la Velia. C'est le premier triomphe des 
plebeiens sur I'aristocratie romaine et la premiere concession de cette 
aristocratie." — -Anipcre, Hist. Rom. ii. 274. 

A little further on are three gigantic arches, being all 
that remains of the magnificent Basilica of Cojistatitine, 
which was 320 feet in length and 235 feet in width. The 
existing ruins are those of one of the aisles of the basilica. 
There are traces of an entrance towards the Coliseum. 
The roof was supported by eight Corinthian columns, of 
which one, remaining here till the time of Paul V., was 
removed by him to the piazza of Sta. Maria Maggiore, 
where it still stands. This site was previously occupied by 
the Temple of Peace, burnt down in the time of Commodus. 
This temple was the great museum of Rome under the 
empire, and contained the seven-branched candlestick and 
other treasures brought from Jerusalem,* as well as all the 
works of art which had been collected in the palace of 
Nero and which were removed hither by Vespasian. A 
.statue of the Nile, with children playing around it, is 
mentioned by I'liny as among the sights in the temple 
of Peace, t 

• Josoi)hus, vii. 37. t riiny, xxxvi. 7. 


It was near this that the Via Sacra was crossed by the 
Arch of Fab ins, erected B.C. 121, in honour of the conqueror 
of the AUobroges, — the then inhabitants of Savoy. Close 
to this portion of the Via Sacra also stood a statue of 
Valeria, daughter of Publicola, by whom the honours of 
the virgin Clo^lia were disputed. 

Besides those v/hich we have noticed, there is mention 
in classical authors of many other buildings and statues 
which were once crowded into this narrow space ; but all 
trace of many even of those enumerated is still buried 
many feet below the soil. 

The modern name of Campo Vaccina, by which the Forum 
is now known, is supposed by some antiquaries to be derived 
from Vitruvius Vacco, who once had a house there. 

"La guerre aux habitants de Privernum (Piperno) rattaclie a une 
localite du Palatin. . . . Les habitants de Fondi avaient fait cause 
commune avec les habitants de Privemum. Lour chef, Vitmvius Vacca, 
possedait une maison sur le Palatin ; c'etait un homme considerable 
dans son pays et mcme k Rome. lis dcmanderent et obtinrent grace. 
Privernum fut pris, et Vitruvius Vacca, qui s'y etait refugic, conduit \ 
Rome, enferme dans le prison Mamertine pour y etre garde jusqu'au 
retour du consul, et alors battu de verges et mis a mort ; sa maison du 
Palatin fut rasee, et le lieu ou elle avait etc garda le nom de Prh de 
VaccaP — Ampere, Histoire Romaine, iii. 17. 

But the name will seem singularly appropriate to those 
who are familiar with the groups of meek-faced oxen of 
the Campagna, which are always to be seen lying in the 
.shade under the trees of the Forum, or drinking at its 

" ' Romanoque Foro et lautis mugire Carinis.' 

"Cavers m'a toujours profondement frappe, lorsque je traversais le 
Forum, aujourd'hui Campo-Vaccino (le champ du betail) ; je voyais en 


effet presque toujours a son extremite des boeufs couches au pied dii 
Palatin. Virgile, se reportant de la Rome de son temps a la Rome 
ancienne d'Evandre, ne trouvait pas d'image plus frappante du change- 
ment produit par les siecles, que la presence d'un troupeau de boeufs 
dans le lieu destine a etre le Forum. Eh bien, le jour devait venir 
ou ce qui etait pour Virgile un passe lointain et presque incroy- 
able se reproduirait dans la suite des ages ; le Forum devait etre de 
nouveau un lieu agreste, ses magnificences s'en aller et les boeufs y 

" J'aimais a les contempler a travers quelques colonnes moins vieilles 
que les souvenirs qu'ils me retracaient, reprenant possession de ce sol 
d'ou les avait chasses la liberte, la gloire, Ciceron, Cesar, et ou devait 
les ramener la plus grande vicissitude de I'historie, la destruction de 
I'empire romain per les barbares. Ce que Virgile trouvait si etrange 
dans le passe n'etonne plus dans le present ; les bceufs mugissent au 
Forum ; ils s'y couchent et y ruminent aujourd'hui, de meme qu'au 
temps d'Evandre et comme s'il n'etait rien arrive." — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. i. 211. 

" In many a heap the ground 
Heaves, is if Ruin in a frantic mood 
Had done his utmost. Here and there appears, 
As left to show his handy-work not ours, 
An idle column, a half-buried arch, 
A wall of some great temple. It was once, 
And long, the centre of their Universe, 
The Forum — whence a mandate, eagle- winged. 
Went to the ends of the earth. Let us descend 
Slowly. At every step much may be lost. 
The very dust we tread stirs as with life. 
And not a breath but from the ground sends up 
Something of human grandeur. 

• * * » * 

Now all is changed ; and here, as in the wild, 
The day is silent, dreary as the night ; 
None stirring, save the herdsman and his herd. 
Savage alike ; or they that would explore. 
Discuss, and learnedly ; or they that come, 
(And tliere are many who have crossed the earth,) 
'J'hat they may give the hours to meditation, 
And wander, often saying to themselves, 
'Tliis was the Roman Forum !'" 

Rogers' Italy. 


"We descended into the Forum, the light fast fading away and throw- 
ing a kindred soberness over the scene of ruin. The soil has risen from 
rubbish at least fifteen feet, so that no wonder that the hills look lower 
than they used to do, having been never very considerable at the first. 
There it was one scene of desolation, from the massy foundation-stones- 
of the Capitoline Temple, which were laid by Tarquinius the Proud, to 
a single pillar erected in honour of Phocas, the eastern emperor, in the 
fifth century. What the fragments of pillars belonged to, perhaps we 
can never know ; but that I think matters little. I care not whether 
it was a temple of Jupiter Stater or the Basilica Julia, but one knows 
that one is on the ground of the Forum, under the Capitol, the 
place where the tribes assembled, and the' orators spoke ; the scene, in 
short, of all the internal struggles of the Roman people." — Arnold'' s 

"They passed the solitary column of Phocas, and looked down into 
the excavated space, where a confusion of pillars, arches, pavements, 
and shattered blocks and shafts — the crumbs of various ruins dropt from 
the devouring maw of Time — stand, or lie, at the base of the Capitoline 
Hill. That renowned hillock (for it is little more) now rose abruptly 
above them. The ponderous masonry, with which the hillside is built 
up, is as old as Rome itself, and looks likely to endure while the world 
retains any substance or permanence. It once sustained the Capitol, and 
now bears up the great pile which the medijeval builders raised on the 
antique foundation, and that still loftier tower, which looks abroad upon 
a larger page of deeper historic interest than any other scene can show. 
On the same pedestal of Roman masonry, other structures will doubt- 
less arise, and vanish like ephemeral things. 

"To a spectator on the spot, it is remarkable that the events of 
Roman history, and of Roman life itself, appear not so distant as the 
Gothic ages which succeeded them. We stand in the Forum, or on the 
height of the Capitol, and seem to see the Roman epoch close at hand. 
We forget that a chasm extends between it and ourselves, m which lie 
all those dark, rude, unlettered centuries, around the birthtime of Christi- 
anity, as well as the age of chivalry and romance, the feudal system, and 
the infancy of a better civilization than that of Rome. Or, if we re- 
member these mediaeval times, they look further off than the Augustan 
age. The reason may be, that the old Roman literature survives, and 
creates for us an intimacy with the classic ages, which we have no means 
of forming with the subsequent ones. 

"The Italian climate, moreover, robs age of its reverence, and makes 
it look nearer than it is. Not the Coliseum, nor the tombs of the 


Appian Way, nor the oldest pillar in the Forum, nor any other Roman 
ruin, be it as dilapidated as it may, ever give the impression of venerable 
antiquity which we gather, along with the ivy, from the grey walls of an 
English abbey or castle. And yet every brick and stone, which we 
pick up among the former, had fallen, ages before the foundation of the 
latter was begun." — Hawthoi-ne, Transformation. 

"A Rome, vous marchez sur les pierres qui out ete les dieux de 
Cesar et de Pompee : vous considerez la ruine de ces grands ouvrages, 
dont la vieillesse est encore belle, et vous vous promenerez tous les jours 
parmi les histoires et les fables. ... II n'y a que Rome ou la vie 
soit agreable, ou le corps trouve ses plaisirs et I'esprit les siens, ou Ton 
est a la source des belles choses. Rome est cause que vous n'etes plus 
barbares, elle vous a appris la civilite et la religion. ... II est 
certain que je ne monte jamais au Palatin ni au Capitole que je n'y 
change d' esprit, et qu'il ne me vienne d'autres pensees que les miennes 
ordinaires. Cet air m'inspire quelque chose de grand et de genereux 
que je n'avais point auparavant : si je reve deux heures au bord du 
Tibre, je suis aussi savant que si j'avais etudie huit jours." — Balzac. 

Before leaving the Forum we must turn from its classical 
to its mediceval remains, and examine the very interesting 
group of churches which have sprung up amid its ruins. 

Almost opposite the Mamcrtine Prisons, surmounted by 
a handsome dome, is the Church of Sta. Alarthia, which 
contains the original model, bequeathed by the sculptor 
Thorwaldsen, of his Copenhagen statue of Christ in the act 
of benediction. The opposite transept contains a very in- 
ferior statue of Religion by Canova. The figure of Sta. 
Martina by Guervii reposes beneath the high altar. The 
subterranean church is well worth visiting. An ante-chapel 
adorned with statues of four virgin martyrs leads to a chapel 
erected at the cost and from the designs of Pietro da Cor- 
tona, whose tomb stands near its entrance, with a fine bust 
by Bernini. In the centre of the inner chapel lamps are 
burning round the magnificent bronze altar which covers the 
shrine of Sta. Martina, and beneath it, you can discover the 
martyr's tomb by the light of a torch which a monk lets down 


through a hole. In the tribune is an ancient throne. A side 

chapel contains the grave in which the body of the virgin 

saint, with three other martyrs, her companions, was found 

in 1634 : it is adorned with a fine bas-relief by Algardi. 

"At the foot of the Capitoline hill, on the left hand as we descend 
from the Ara Coeli into the Forum, there stood in very ancient times a 
small chapel dedicated to Sta. Martina, a Roman virgin, who was 
martyred in the persecution under Alexander Severus. The veneration 
paid to her was of very early date, and the Roman people were accus- 
tomed to assemble there on the first da,y of 'the year. This observance 
was, however, confined to the people, and not very general till 1634; an 
era which connects her in rather an interesting manner with the history of 
art. In this year, as they were about to repair her chapel, they discovered, 
walL'd into the foundations, a sarcophagus of terra-cotta, in which was 
the body of a young female, whose severed head reposed in a separate 
casket. These remains were very naturally supposed to be those of the 
saint who had been so long venerated on that spot. The discovery was 
hailed with the utmost exultation, not by tlie people only, but by those 
who led the minds and consciences of the people. The pope himself, 
Urban VIII., composed hymns in her praise ; and Cardinal Francesco 
Barberini undertook to rebuild her church. Amongst those who shared 
the general enthusiasm was the painter, Pietro da Cortona, who was at 
Rome at the time, who very earnestly dedicated himself and his powers 
to tlie glorification of Sta. Martina. Her diurch had already been given 
to the Academy of Painters, and consecrated to St. Luke, their patron 
saint. It is now ' San Luca and Santa Martina.' Pietro da Cortona 
erected at his own cost, the chapel of Sta. Martina, and when he died, 
endowed it with his whole fortune. He painted for the altarpiece his 
best picture, in which the saint is represented as triumphing over the 
idols, while the temple in which she has been led to sacrifice, is struck 
by lightning from heaven, and falls in ruins around her. In a votive 
picture of Sta. Martina kneeling at the feet of the Virgin and Child, she 
is represented as very young and lovely ; near her, a horrid instrument 
of torture, a two-pronged fork with barbed extremities, and the lictor's 
axe, signifying the manner of her death." — Jainesoii's Sao'cJ a^id 
Legendary Art. 

The feast of the saint is observed here on Jan. 30, with 

much solemnity. Then in all the Roman churches is sung 

the Hymn of Sta, Martina — 


" Martinse celebri plaudite nomini, 
Gives Romulei, plaudite glorise ; 
Insignem mentis dicite virginem, 
Christi dicite martyiem. 

Hsec dum conspicuis orta parentibus 
Inter delicias, inter amabiles 
Luxus illecebras, ditibus affluit 
FaustK muneribus domus. 

Vitas despiciens commoda, dedicat 
Se rerum Domino, et munifica manu 
Christi pauperibus distribuens opes 
Quaerit pra;mia coelitum. 

A nobis abigas hibrica gaudia 

Tu, qui martyribus dexter ades, 


Une et trine : tuis da famulis jubar, 

Quo clemens animos beas. Amen." 

There is nothing especial to notice in S. Adriafio, which 
is built in the ruins of the basilica of Emilius Paulus, or in 
S. Lorenzo in Miranda, which occupies the temple of Anto- 
ninus and Faustina, but Sta. Maria Liberatrice, built on 
the site of the house of Numa and the convent of the 
Vestals, commemorates by its name a curious legend of the 
fourth century. On this site, it is said, dwelt in a cave, a 
terrible dragon who had slain three hundred persons with 
the poison of his breath. Into this cave, instructed thereto 
by St. Peter, and entrusting himself to the care of the 
Virgin, descended St. Silvester the Pope, attended by two 
acolytes bearing torches, and here, having pronounced the 
name of Christ, he was miraculously enabled to bind the 
dragon, and to shut him up till the day of Judgment. But 
when he ascended in safety, he found at the mouth of the 
cave two magicians who had followed him in the hope of 


discovering some imposture, dying from the poison of the 
dragon's breath, — and these also he saved ahve. 

We now reach the circular building which has been so 
long known as the temple of Remus. To the right of the 
entrance are two pillars of cipolino, almost buried in the 
soil. The porphyry pillars at the entrance, supporting a 
richly sculptured cornice, were probably set up in their 
present position when the temple was turned into a church. 
The bronze doors were brought fronl Perugia. If, as is now 
supposed, the temple on this site was that of the Penates, 
the protectors against all kinds of illness and misfortune, 
the modern dedication to the protecting physicians Cosmo 
and Damian may have had some reference to that which 
went before. 

The Church of .SxS', Cosmo and Daviiano was founded 
within the ancient temple by Pope Felix IV. in 527, and 
restored by Adrian I. in 780. In 1633 the whole building 
was modernized by Urban VIII., who, in order to raise it to 
the present level of the soil, cut the ancient church in 
half by the vaulting which now divides the upper and lower 
churches. To visit the lower church a monk must be 
summoned, who will bring a torch. This is well worth 
while. It is of great size, and contains a curious well 
into which Christian martyrs in the time of Nero are said 
to have been precipitated. The tomb of the martyrs 
Cosmo and Damian is beneath the altar, which is formed 
of beautiful transparent marble. Under a side altar is 
the grave of Felix IV. The third and lowest church (the 
original crypt) which is very small, is said to have been a 
place of refuge during the early Christian persecutions. 
PI ere is shown the altar at which Felix IV. celebrated mass 


while his converts were hiding here — the grave in which the 
body of the pope was afterwards discovered — and a miracu- 
lous spring, still flowing, which is said to have burst forth 
in answer to his prayers that he might have wherewithal to 
baptize his disciples. A passage which formerly led from 
hence to the Catacombs of St. Sebastian, was walled up, 
twenty years ago, by the paternal government, because 
twenty persons were lost in it. In this crypt were found 
the famous " Pianta Capitolina," now preserved in the 
Capitol. In the upper church, on the right of the entrance 
from the circular vestibule into the body of the building is 
this inscription — • 

" L'imaj^nne di Madonna Santissima che esiste all' altar magg. parlo 
a S. Gregorio Papa dicendogli, ' Perche piu non mi saluti mentre pas- 
sando eri solito salutarmi ? ' II santo domando perdona e concesse a 
quelli che celebrano in quell' altare la liberazione dell' anima dal pur- 
gatorio, cioe per quell' anima per la quale si celebra la messa."* 

Another inscription narrates — 

"Gregorius primus concessit omnibus et singulis visitantibus eccle- 
siam islam sanctorum Cosmaa et Damiani mille annos de indulgentia, et 
in die stationis cjusdem ecclesice idem Gregorius concessit decem millia 
annorum de indulgentia." 

Among the many relics preserved in this church are, 
" Una ampulla lactis Beat^e Mariae Virginis " ; " De Domo 
Sanctoe Mariai Magdalenoe"; " De Domo Sancti Zacharia; 
profeta ! " 

Deserving of the most minute attention is the grand 
mosaic of Christ — coming on the clouds of sunset. 

"Tlic mosaics of .S..S. Cosmo and Damian (a. D. 526 — 530) are the 
finest of ancient Christian Rome. Above the arch appear, on each side 

• Sec Percy's Romanism. 


of the Lamb, four angels, of excellent but somewhat severe style ; then 
follow various apocalyptic emblems : a modern walling up having left 
but few traces of the four and twenty elders. A gold surface, dimmed by 
age, with little purple clouds, forms the background : though in Rome, 
at least, at both an earlier and later date, a blue ground prevailed. 
In the apsis itself, upon a dark blue ground, with golden-edged clouds, 
is seen the colossal figure of Christ ; the right hand raised, either in 
benediction or teaching, the left holding a written scroll ; above is the 
hand, which is the emblem of the First Person of the Trinity. Below, 
on each side, the apostles Peter and Paul are leading SS. Cosmo and 
Damiano, each with crowns on their heads, towards the Saviour, fol- 
lowed by St. Theodore on the right, and by'Pope Felix IV., the founder 
of the church, on the left. This latter, unfortunately, is an entirely 
restored figure. Two palm-trees, sparkling with gold, above one of 
whicli appears the emblem of eternity, the phosnix — with a star-shaped 
nimbus, close the composition on each side. Further below, indicated 
by water-plants, sparkling also with gold, is the river Jordan. The 
figure of Christ may be regarded as one of the most marvellous speci- 
mens of the art of the middle ages. Countenance, attitude, and drapery 
combine to give him an expression of quiet majesty, which, for many- 
centuries after, is not found again in equal beauty and freedom. The 
drapery, especially, is disposed in noble folds, and only in its somewhat 
too ornate details is a further departure from the antique observable. 
The saints are not as yet arranged in stiff parallel forms, but are ad- 
vancing forward, so that their figures appear somewhat distorted, while 
we already remark something constrained and inanimate in their step. 
The apostles Peter and Paul wear the usual ideal costume. SS. 
Cosmo and Damiano are attired in the late Roman dress : violet 
mantles, in gold stuff, with red embroideries of oriental barbaric effect. 
Otherwise the chief motives of the drapery are of great beauty, though 
somewhat too abundant in folds. The high lights are brought out by 
gold and other sparkling materials, producing a gorgeous play of colour 
which relieves the figures vigorously from the dark blue background. 
Altogether, a feeling for cijlour is here displayed, of which no later 
mosaics with gold grounds give any idea. The heads, with the excep- 
tion of the principal figure, are animated and individual, though without 
any particular depth of expression ; somewhat elderly, also, in physio- 
gnomy, but still far removed from any Byzantine stiffness ; St. Peter has 
already the bald head, and St. Paul the short brown hair and dark 
beard, by which they were afterwards recognizable. Under this chief 
composition, on a gold ground, is seen the Lamb upon a hill, with 
the four rivers of Paradise, and the twelve sheep on either hand. The 
VOL. I. 13 

1 94 Jr.lLA'S LV li OME. 

great care of execution is seen in the five or six gradations of tints whicli 
tlie artist has adopted." — Kuglcr, 

SS. Cosmo and Damian, to whom this church is dedi- 
cated, were two Arabian physicians who exercised their 
art from charity. They suffered under Diocletian. " First 
they were thrown into the sea, but an angel saved them ; 
and then into the fire, but the fire refused to burn them ; 
then they were bound to crosses and stoned, but the stones 
either fell harmless or rebounded on their executioners and 
killed them, so then the pro-consul Lycias, believing them 
to be sorcerers, comn:ianded that they should be beheaded, 
and thus they died." SS. Cosmo and Damian were the patron 
saints of the Medici, and their gilt statues were carried in 
state at the coronation of Leo X. (Giovanni de' Medici). 
Their fame is general in many parts of France, where their 
fete is celebrated by a village fair — children who ask for 
their fairing of a toy or gingerbread calling it their " St. 

" It is related that a certain man, who Avas afflicted with a cancer in 
his leg, went to perform his devotions in the Church SS. Cosmo and 
Damian at Rome, and he prayed most earnestly that these beneficent 
saints would be pleased to aid him. When he had prayed, a deep sleep 
fell upon him. Then he beheld St. Cosmo and St. Damian, who 
stood beside him ; and one carried a box of ointments, and the other 
a sharp knife. And one said, ' Wiiat shall we do to replace this 
diseased leg when we have cut it off?' And the other replied, 'There 
is a Moor who has been buried just now at St. Pietro in Vincoli ; let 
us take his leg for the purpose.' So they brought the leg of the dead 
man, and with it they replaced the leg of the sick man ; anointing it 
with celestial ointment, so that he remained whole. When he awoke 
he ahnost doubted vvhctlier it could be himself; but his neighbours, 
seeing that he was healed, looked into the tomb of the Moor, and found 
that lliere had been an exchange of legs : and thus the truth of this 
great miracle was jiroved to all beholders." — Mrs. jfamcsoit, from 
llie Lcirditda Aurea. 


Just beyond the basilica of Constantine, stands tlie 
Church of Sia. Francesca Romana, which is full of interest. 
It was first built by St. Sylvester on the site of the 
temple of Venus and dedicated to the Virgin, under the 
title of Sta. Maria Antica. It was rebuilt in a.d. 872 by 
John VIII., who resided in the adjoining monastery during 
his pontificate. An ancient picture attributed to St. Luke, 
brought from Troy in iioo, was the only object in this 
church which was preserved when the building was totally 
destroyed by fire in 12 16, after which the church, then 
called Sta. Maria Nuova, was restored by Honorius III. 
During the restoration, the ])icture was kept at S. Adriano, 
and its being brought back led to a contest amongst the 
people, which was ended by a child exclaiming — " What are 
you doing? the Madonna is already in her own church." 
She had betaken herself thither none knew how. 

In the twelfth century the church was given to the 
Lateran Canons, in the fourteenth to the Olivetan monks; 
under Eugenius IV., the latter extended their boundaries so 
fl;r that they included the Coliseum, but their walls were 
forced down in the succeeding pontificate. Gregory XL, 
Paul IL, and Csesar Borgia, were cardinals of Sta. Maria 
Novella. In 1440 the name was changed to that of Sta. 
Francesca Romana, when that saint, Francesca de' Pon- 
ziani, foundress of the Order of Oblates, was buried here. 
Her tomb was erected in 1640 by Donna Agata Pamfili, 
sister of Innocent X., herself an Oblate. It is from the 
designs of Bernini, and is rich in marbles. The figure 
was not added till 1S68. 

" After tlie death of Francesca, her body remained during a night 
and a day at the Ponziani Palace, the Oblates watching by turns over 


the beloved remains. . . . Francesca's face, which had recently 
borne traces of age and suffering, became as beautiful again as in the 
days of youth and prosperity; and the astonished bystanders gazed wiih 
wonder and awe at her unearthly loveliness. Many of them carried 
away particles from her clothes, and employed them for the cure of 
several persons who had been considered beyond the possibility of 
recovery. In the course of the day the crowd augmented to a degree 
which alarmed the inhabitants of the palace, Battista Ponziani took 
measures to have the body removed at once to the church, and a pro- 
cession of the regular and secular clergy escorted the venerated remains 
to Santa Maria Nuova, where they were to be interred. 

"The popular feeling burst forth on the occasion ; it was no longer 
to be restrained. Francesca was invoked by the crowd, and her 
beloved name was heard in every street, in every piazza, in every comer 
of the Eternal City. It flew from mouth to mouth, it seemed to float in 
the air, to be borne aloft by the grateful enthusiasm of a whole people, 
who had seen her walk to that church by her mother's side in her holy 
childhood ; who had seen her kneel at that altar in the grave beauty of 
womanhood, in the hour of bereavement, and now in death, carried 
thither in state, she the gentle, the humble saint of Rome, the poor 
woman of the Trastevere, as she was sometimes called at her own 
desire." — Lady G. Fullcrtoii^s IJfc of Sta. Francesca Romana. 

A chapel on the riglit of the chtirch contains the 
monument of Cardinal Vtilcani, 1322, supporting his 
figure, with Faith, Hope, and Charity sculptured in high 
rehcf below. Near the door is that of Cardinal Adimari, 
1432, who died here after an ineffectual mission to the 
anti-pope Pedro da' Luna. In the left transept was a 
fine Periigino (removed 1867); in the right transept is the 
tomb of Pope Gregory XL, by Pietro Paolo Olivieri, erected 
by the senate in gratitude for his having restored the papal 
court to Rome from Avignon. A bas-relief represents his 
triumplial entry, with SL Catherine of Siena, by whose en- 
treaties he was induced to return, walking before his mule. 
A breach in the walls indicates the ruinous state into which 
Rome had fallen, llie cliair of St. Peter is represented as 


floating back through the air, wliile an angel carries the 
papal tiara and keys ; a metaphorical figure of Rome is 
coming forth to welcome the pope. 

"The greatest part of the praise due to Gregory's return to Rome 
belongs to St. Catlierine of Siena, who, with infinite courage, travelled 
to Avignon, and persuaded the pope to return, and by his presence to 
dispel the evils which disgraced Italy, in consequence of the absence of 
the popes. Thus it is not to be wondered at, that those writers, who 
rightly understand the matter, should have said that Catherine, the 
virgin of Siena, brought back to God the abandoned apostolical chair 
upon her shoulders." — UglielU, Ital. Sacra, vi. col. 45. 

Near Pope Gregory's tomb some blackened marks in the 
wall are shown as holes made by the (gigantic) knees of St. 
Peter, when he knelt to pray that Simon Magus might be 
dropped by the demons he had invoked to support him in 
the air, which he is said to have done to show his power 
on this spot. 

"When the error of Simon was spreading farther and farther, the 
illustrious pair of men, Peter and Paul, the rulers of the Church, 
arrested it by going thither, who suddenly exliibited as dead, Simon, the 
putative God, on his appearance. For when Simon declared that he 
would ascend aloft into heaven, the servants of God cast him headlong 
to tlie earth, and though this occurrence was wonderful in itself, it was 
not wonderful under the circumstances, for it was Peter who did it, he 
who bears with him the keys of heaven. ... it was Paul who did it, he 
who was caught up into the third heaven." — St. Cyril of ycrusakin. 

"Simon promised to fly. and thus ascentl to the heavenly abodes. 
On the day agreed upon, he went to the Capitoline hill, and throwing 
himself from the rock, began his ascent. Then Peter, standing in the 
midst, said, 'O Lord Jesus, show him that his arts are in vain.' 
Hardly had the words been uttered, when the wings which Simon had 
made use of became entangled, and he fell. His thigh was fractured, 
never to be healed, — and some time afterwards, the unhappy man died 
at Aretia, whither he had retired after his discomfiture." — St. Ambrose.* 

* See the whole question of Simon Magus discussed in Watenvoith's "England and 


"There can be no doubt that there existed in the first century a 
Simon, a Samaritan, a pretender to divine authority and supernatural 
powers ; who, for a time, had many followers ; who stood in a certain 
relation to Christianity ; and who may have held some opinions more or 
less similar to those entertained by the most famous heretics of the early 
ages, the Gnostics. Irenaus calls this Simon the father of all heretics. 
'All those,' he says, 'who in any way corrujDt the truth, or mar the 
preaching of the Church, are disciples and successors of Simon, the 
Samaritan magician.' Simon gave himself forth as a God, and carried 
about with him a beautiful woman named Helena, whom he represented 
as the first conception of his — that is, of the divine — mind, the symbol 
and manifestation of that portion of spirituality which had become 
entangled in matter." — JainesoHs Sacred Art, p. 204. 

The vault of the tribune is covered with mosaics. 

"The restored tribune mosaics (a.d. 85S-SS7, during the ponti- 
ficate of Nicholas I.), close the list of Roman Byzantine works. By 
their time it had become apparent that such figures as the art of the 
day was alone able to achieve, could have no possible relation to each 
other, and therefore no longer constitute a composition ; the artists 
accordingly separated the Madonna on the throne, and the four saints 
with uplifted hands, by graceful arcades. The ground is gold, the 
nimbuses blue. The faces consist only of feeble lines — the cheeks are 
only red blotches; the folds merely dark strokes; nevertheless a certain 
flow and fulness in the forms, and the character of a few accessories 
(for instance, the exchange of a crown upon the Virgin's head for the 
invariable Byzantine veil), seem to indicate that we have not so much to 
do here with the decline of Byzantine art, as with a northern and 
probably Frankish influence." — Kuglcr. 

The convent attached to this church was tlie abode of 
Tasso during his first visit to Rome. 

behind Sta. Franccsca Romana, and facing the CoHseum, 
are the remains generally known as the Taiiple of Venus and 
Rome, also called Tcmplum Urbis (now sometimes called 
by objectors the " Portico of Livia"), which, if this name is 
the correct one, was originally planned by the Emperor 


Hadrian to rival the Forum of Trajan, erected by the archi- 
tect Apollodorus. It was built upon a site previously occu- 
pied by the atrium of Nero's Golden House. Little remains 
standing except a cella facing the Coliseum, and another 
in the cloisters of the adjoining convent (these, perhaps, 
being restorations by Maxentius, c. 307, after a fire had 
destroyed most of the building of Hadrian), Init the sur- 
rounding grassy height is positively littered with fragments 
of the grey granite columns which once formed the grand 
portico (400 by 200 feet) of the building. A large mass of 
Corinthian cornice remains near the cella facing the Colis- 
eum. This was the last pagan temple which remained in 
use in Rome.'^ It was only closed by Theodosius in 391, 
and remained entire till 625, when Pope Honorius carried 
off the bronze tiles of its roof to St. Peter's. 

" Ac sacram resonare viam mugitibus, ante 
Delubrum Roma; ; colitur nam sanguine et ipsa 
More dese, nomenqiie loci, ceu numen, habetur. 
Atque Urbis, Venerisque pari se culmine tollunt 
Templa, simul geminis adolentur thura deabus." 

Prndcntiiis contr. Symm. v. 214. 

"When about to construct his magnificent temple of Venus and 
Rome, Hadrian produced a design of his own and showed it with proud 
satisfaction to the architect Apollodorus. The creator of the Trajan 
column remarked with a sneer that the deities, if they rose from their 
seats, must thrust their heads through the ceiling. The emperor, we 
are assured, could not forgive this banter ; but we can hardly take to the 
letter the statement that he put his critic to death for it." — Merivak, 
ch. Ixvi. 

In front of this temple stood the bronze statue of Clojlia, 
mentioned by Livy and Seneca, and (till the sixth centur} ) 

• Prudentius contra Symmac. i. i, 25. 


the bronze elephants mentioned by Cassiodorus. Nearer 
the CoUseum may still be seen the remains of the founda- 
tion prepared by Hadrian for the Colossal Statue of Nero, 
executed in bronze by Zenodorus. This statue was twice 
moved, first by Vespasian, in a.d. 75, that it might face 
the chief entrance of his amphitheatre,* whose plan had 
been already laid out. At the same time — though it was a 
striking likeness of Nero — its head was surrounded with rays 
that it might represent Apollo. In its second position it 
is described by Martial : 

" Hie ubi sidereus propius videt astra colossus 
Et crescuiit media pegmata celsa via, 
Invidiosa feri radiabant atria regis, 

Unaque jam tola stabat in urbe domus." 

De Sped. ii. 

It was again moved (with the aid of forty-two elephants), 
a few yards further north, by Hadrian, when he built his 
temple of Venus and Rome. Pliny describes the colossus 
as no, Dion Cassias as 100 feet high. 

"Hadrian employed an architect named Decrianus to remove the 
colossus of Nero, the face of which liad been altered into a Sol. 
He does not seem to have accomplished the design of Apollodorus 
to erect a companion statue of Luna." — Mcrivalc, ch. Ixvi. 

Near the Cliurch of Sla. Franccsca the Via Sacra passes 
imdcr the Arch of I'/tiis, which, even in its restored con- 
dition, is the most beautiful monument of the kind remain- 
ing in Rome. Its Christian interest is unrivalled, from its 
liaving been erected by the senate to commemorate the 
taking of Jerusalem, and from its bas-reliefs of the seven- 
l)ranclied candlestick and other treasures of the Jewish 
'I'cmplc. In mediaeval times it was called the Arch of the 

* Dion Cassiiis, Ixvi. 15. 


Seven Candlesticks (septem lucernarum) from the bas- 
relief of the candlestick, concerning which Gregorovius 
remarks, that the fantastic figures carved upon it prove that 
it was not an exact likeness of that which came from Jeni- 
salcm. The bas-reliefs are now greatly mutilated, but they 
are shown in their perfect state in a drawing of GiuHano di 
Sangallo. On the frieze is the sacred river Jordan, as an 
aged man, borne on a bier. The arch, which was in a very 
ruinous condition, had been engrafted in the middle ages into 
a fortress tower called Turris Cartularia, and so it remained 
till the present century. This tower originally formed the 
entrance to tlie vast fortress of the powerful Frangipani 
family, which included the Coliseum and a great part of the 
Palatine and Coelian hills ; and here, above the gate, Pope 
Urban II. dwelt in 1093, under the protection of Giovanni 
Frangipani. The arch was repaired by Pius VII., who 
replaced in travertine the lost marble portions at the top 
and sides. 

" Standing beneath the arch of Titus, and amid so much ancient dust, 
it is difficult to forbear the commonplaces of enthusiasm, on which hun- 
dreds of tourists have ah^eady insisted. Over the half-worn pavement, 
and beneath this arch, the Roman armies had trodden in their outward 
march, to fight battles, a world's width away. Returning victorious, 
with royal captives, and inestimable spoil, a Roman triumph, that most 
gorgeous pageant of earthly pride, has streamed and flaunted in hundred- 
fold succession over these same flagstones, and through this yet stalwart 
archway. It is politic, however, to make few allusions to such a past ; 
nor is it wise to suggest how Cicero's feet may have stepped on yonder 
stone, or how Horace was wont to stroll near by, making his footsteps 
chime with the measure of the ode that was ringing in his mind. The 
very ghosts of that massive and stately epoch have so much density that 
the people of to-day seem the thinner of the two, and stand more ghost- 
like by the arches and columns, letting the rich sculpture be discerned 
through their ill-comi^acted substance." — Hawthorne, Transformation. 

202 WALK'S lY IWME. 

" We passed on to the arch of Titus. Amongst the rehefs there is 
the figure of a man bearing the golden candlestick from the Temple at 
Jerusalem, as one of the spoils of the triumph. Yet He who abandoned 
His visible and local temple to the hands of the heathen for the sins of 
His nominal worshippers, has taken to Him His great power, and has 
gotten Him glory by destroying the idols of Rome as He had done the 
idols of Babylon ; and the golden candlestick burns and shall bum 
with an everlasting light, while the enemies of His holy name, Babylon, 
Rome, or the carcass of sin in every land, which the eagles of His wrath 
will surely find out, perish for ever from before Him." — Arnold's 

"The Jewish trophies are sculptured in bas-relief on the inside of the 
arch beneath the vaulting. Opposite to these is another bas-relief repre- 
senting Titus in the quadriga, the reins borne by the goddess Roma. In 
the centre of the arch, Titus is borne to heaven by an eagle. It may be 
conjectured that these ornaments to his glory were designed after the 
death of Vespasian, and completed after his own. . . . These 
witnesses to the truth- of history are scanned at this day by Christians 
passing to and fro between the Coliseum and the Forum ; and at this 
day the Jew refuses to walk beneath them, and creeps stealthily by the 
side, with downcast eyes, or countenance averted." — Jllerivale, Romans 
under the Empire, vii. 250. 

"The restoration of the arch of Titus reflects the greatest credit on 
the commission appointed by Pius VII. for the restoration of ancient 
edifices. This, not only beautiful, but precious monument, had been 
made the nucleus of a hideous castellated fort by the Frangipani family. 
Its masonry, however, embraced and held together, as well as crushed, 
the marble arch ; so that on freeing it from its rude buttresses there was 
fear of its collapsing, and it had first to be well bound together by props 
and bracing beams, a process in which the Roman architects are un- 
rivalled. The simple expedient was then adopted by the architect 
Stern of completing liic arch in stone ; for its sides had been removed. 
Thus increased in solid structure, which continued all the architectural 
lines, and renewed its proportions to the mutiialed centre, the arch was 
both completely secured and almost restored to its pristine elegance." — 
Wiseman'' s Life of J'iiis I 'J I. 

']'hc proccssicjns of the popes going to the Latcran for 
tlieir solemn installation, used to halt beside the arch of 


Titus while a Jew presented a copy of tlie Pentateuch, with 
a humble oath of fealty. This humiliating ceremony was 
omitted for the first time at the installation of Pius IX. 

At this point it may not be inappropriate to notice two 
other buildings, which, though situated on the Palatine, are 
totally disconnected with the other objects occupying that 

A lane runs up to the right from the arch of Titus. On 
the left is a gateway, surmounted by a foded fresco of 
St. Sebastian. Here is the entrance to a wild and beau- 
tiful garden, possessing most lovely views of the various 
ruins, occupying the site of the gardens of Adonis. This 
is the place where St. Sebastian underwent his (so-called) 
martyrdom, and will call to mind the many fine pictures, 
scattered over Europe, of the youthful and beautiful 
saint, bound to a tree, and pierced with arrows. The 
finest of these are the Domenichino, in Sta. Maria degli 
Angeli, and the Sodoma at Florence. He is sometimes 
represented as bound to an orange tree, and sometimes, 
as in the Guido at Bologna, to a cypress, like those we still 
see on this spot. Here was an important Benedictine 
Convent, where Pope Boniface IV. was a monk before his 
election to the papacy, and where the famous abbots of 
Monte Casino had their Roman residence. Here, in 11 18, 
fifty-one cardinals took refuge, and elected Gelasius II. 
as Pope. The only building remaining is the Church of 
Sta. Maria Pallara or S. Scbastiano, containing some 
curious inscriptions relating to events which have occurred 
here, and — in the tribune, frescoes, of the Saviour in 


benediction with four saints, and below, two other groiijjs 
representing the Virgin with saints and angels, placed, as 
we learn by the inscription beneath, by one Benedict — 
probably an abbot. 

Further up the lane a " Via Crucis " leads to the Church 
of S. Buonavejitura, " the seraphic doctor " (Cardinal and 
Bishop of Albano, ob. July 14, 1274), who in childhood was 
raised from the point of death (122 1) by the prayers of St. 
Francis, who was so surprised when he came to life, that he 
involuntarily exclaimed, " O buona ventura "— ( " what a 
happy chance ") — whence the name by which he was after- 
wards known.* 

The little church contains several good modern monu- 
ments. Beneath the altar is shown the body of the Blessed 
Leonardo of Porto-Maurizio (ob. 1751), who arranged the 
Via Crucis in the Coliseum, and who is much revered by 
the ullra-Romanlsts for having prophesied the proclamation 
of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. The crucifix 
and the picture of the Madonna which he carried with him 
in his missions, are preserved in niches on either side of the 
tribune, and many other relics of him are shown in his cell 
in the adjoining convent of Minor Franciscans. Entered 
through the convent is a lovely little garden, whence there is 
a grand view of the Coliseum, and where a little fountain is 
shaded by two tall palm trees. 

"Oswald went next to llie monastery of S. Buonaventura, built on 
the ruins of Ncio's palace. There, where so many crimes had reigned 
remorselessly, poor friars, tormented by conscientious scruples, doom 
themselves to fasts and stripes for the least omission of duty. ' Our 
only hope,' said one, 'is that wlun w c die, our faults will not have ex- 

• .S. Huoiiavcntiira is pcrliaps best known to the existing Christian world as the 
author of the beautiful hymn, " Recordare sanctac crucis." 


cee.lcd our penances.' Nevill, as he entered, stumbled over a traj), and 
asked its purpose. ' It is through that we are interred,' answered one 
of the youngest, already a prey to the bad air. The natives of the 
south fear death so much that it is wondrous to find there these per- 
petual mementoes ; yet nature is often fascinated by what she dreads, 
and such an intoxication tills the soul exclusively. The antique sarco- 
phagus of a child serves as the fountain of this institution. The boasted 
palm of Rome is the only tree of its garden." — Madame dd Slat-I, 

The arch of Titus is spoken of as being "in summa Via 
Sacra," as the street was called which led from the southern 
gate of Rome to the Capitol, and by which the victorious 
generals passed in their triumphant processions to the 
temple of Jupiter. Between the arch of Titus and the Coli- 
seum, the ancient pavement of this famous road, composed 
of huge polygonal blocks of lava, has been allowed to 
remain. Here we may imagine Horace taking his favourite 


Ibam forte Via Sacra, sicut meus est mos, 
Nescio quid meditans nugarum, at lotus in illis." 

Sat. i. 9. 

It appears to have been the fa\-ourite resort of the fiancu?s 
of the day : 

" Videsne, Sacram metiente te viam 
Cum bis ter ulnarum toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Liberrima indiguatio?" Horace, Epod. 4. 

The Via Sacra was originally bordered with shops, some 
of which, together with some baths, have been unearthed on 
the right of the road. 0\id alludes frequently to the pur- 
chases which might be made there in his time. In this espe- 
cial part of the Via was the market for fruit and honey.* 

* Varro, dc R. Rust. i. 2, and iii. 16. 


" Dum bene dives ager, dum rami pondere nutant ; 
Adferat in calatho rustica dona puer. 
Rure suburbano poteris tibi dicere missa ; 
Ilia vel in Sacra sint licet empta Via." 

Ovid, A)i. Amaii. ii. 263. 

At the foot of the hill are the remains of the bason and 
the brick cone of a fountain called Meta Sudans, where the 
gladiators used to wash. Seneca, who lived in this neigh- 
bourhood, complains (Epist. Ivi.) of the noise which was 
made by a showman who blew his trumpet close to this 

On the right the Via Triumphalis leads to the Via Appia, 
passing under the A/r/i of Constantiiie. The lower bas- 
reliefs upon this arch, which are crude and ill-designed, 
refer to the deeds of Constantine ; but the upper, of fine 
workmanship, illustrate the life of Trajan, which has led 
some to imagine that the arch was originally erected in 
honour of Trajan, and afterwards appropriated by Constan- 
tine. They were, however, removed from an arch of Trajan 
(whose ruins existed in 1430*), and were appropriated by 
Constantine for his own arch. 

" Constantin a enleve a un arc de triomphe de Trajan les statues de 
prisonniers daces que I'on voit au sommet du sien. Ce vol a ete puni au 
seizicme siecle, car, dans ce qui semblc un acces de folie, Lorenzino, le 
bizarre assassin d' Alexandre de Mcdicis a decapite toutes les statues qui 
surmontaicnl I'arche Constantin, moins une, la seule dont la tete soit 
anli(iuc. Ilcureuscment on a dans les musees, a Rome et ailleurs, bon 
nomljrc de ces statues de captifs barbares avec le meme costume, c'est- 
a-dire le pantalon et le bonnet, souvent les mains liees, dans une attitude 
de soumission morne, quelque fois avec une expression de sombre fierlc, 
car I'art romain avait la noblesse de ne pas humilier les vaincus ; il ne 
les rei^rcsentail jioint a genoux, foules aux pieds par leurs vainqueurs ; 
on ne donnait jias U leurs traits etranges un aspect qu'on eCit pu rcndre 

* See Poggio, Dc Vanitate Fortunae. 


liideux ; on les placait sur le sommet des arcs de triomphc, dcbout, la 
tete baissee, I'air triste." 

" ' Summus tristis captivus in arcu.' " 

Ampin; Einf. ii. 169. 

The arch was furtlier plundered by Clement VIIL, who 
carried off one of its eight Corinthian columns to finish a 
chapel at the Lateran. They were formerly all of giallo- 
antico. But it is still the most striking and beautiful of the 
Roman arches. 

" L'inscription gravee sur Tare de Constantin est curieuse par le 
vague de 1' expression en ce qui louche aux idees religieuses, par I'inde- 
cision calculee des termes dont se servait un senat qui voulait eviter de 
se compromettre d^ns un sens comme dans I'autre. L'inscription porte 
que cet arc a ete dedie a I'empereur parcequ'il a delivre la republique 
d'un tyran (on dit encore la republique !) par la grandeur de son ame et 
line inspiration de la Divinite, instiiictn Diviuilatis. II parait meme que 
ces mots ont ete ajoutes apres coup pour remplacer une formule 
peut-etre plus explicitement paienne. Ce monument, qui celebre le 
triomphe de Constantin, ne proclame done pas encore nettement le 
triomphe du Christianisme Comment s'en etonner, quand sur les 
monnaies de cet empereur on voit d'un cote le monogramme du Christ 
et I'autre I'effigie de Rome, qui etait une divinite pour les paiens ? " — 
Amph-c, Emp. ii. 355. 

We now turn to the CoHsciiin, originally called The Flavian 
Amphitheatre. This vast building Avas begun in a.d. 72, 
upon the site of the reservoir of Nero, by the Emperor Ves- 
pasian, who built as far as the third row of arches, the last 
two rows being finished by Titus after his return from the 
conquest of Jerusalem. It is said that 12,000 captive Jews 
were employed in this work, as the Hebrews in building the 
Pyramids of Egypt, and that the external walls alone cost a 
sum equal to 1 7,000,000 francs. It consists of four stories, 
the first Doric, the second Ionic, the third and fourtli 


Corinthian. Its circumference is 1641 feet, its length is 287, 
its width 182, its height 157. The entrance for the emperor 
was between two arches facing the Esquihne, where there 
is no cornice. Here there are remains of stucco decoration. 
On the opposite side was a similar entrance from the 
Palatine. Towards S. Gregorio has been discovered the 
subterranean passage in which the Emperor Commodus 
was near being assassinated. The numerous holes visible 
all over the exterior of the building were made in the middle 
ages, to extract the iron cramps, at that time of great value. 
The arena was surrounded by a wall sufficiently high to pro- 
tect the spectators from the wild beasts, who were introduced 
by subterranean passages closed by huge gates, from the side 
towards the Ccelian. The podium contained the places of 
honour reserved for the Emperor and his family, the Senate, 
and the Vestal virgins. The places for the other spectators 
who entered by openings called ro/nitoria, were arranged in 
three stages (cavea:), separated by a gallery {prcecinctio). The 
first stage for knights and tribunes, had 24 steps, the second 
(for the common people) 16, the third (for the soldiery) 10. 
The women, by order of the emperor, sate apart from the 
men, and married and unmarried men were also divided. 
The whole building was probably capable of containing 
100,000 persons. At llie top, on the exterior, may be seen 
the remains of the consoles which sustained the velarium 
wOiicli was drawn over the arena to shelter the spectators 
from the sun or rain. 'I'he arena could on occasions be 
filled with water for the sake of naval combats. 

Nothing is known with certainty as to the architect of the 
Coliseum, though a tradition of the Church (founded on an 
inscriijlion in the crypt of S. Martino al Monte), ascribes it 


to Gaudentius, a Christian martyr, who afterwards suffered 
on the spot.* 

" The name of the architect to whom the great work of the Coli- 
seum was entrusted has not come down to us. The ancients seem them- 
selves to have regarded this name as a matter of little interest ; nor, in 
fact, do they generally care to specify the authorship of their most illus- 
trious buildings. The reason is obvious. The forms of ancient art in 
this department were almost wholly conventional, and the limits of 
design within which they were executed gave little room for the display 

of original taste and special character It is only in periods 

of eclecticism and renaissance, when the taste of the architect has wider 
scope, and may lead the eye instead of following it, that interest attaches 
to his personal merit. Thus it is that the Coliseum, the most con- 
spicuous type of Roman civilisation, the monument which divides the 
admiration qf strangers in modern Rome with St. Peter's itself, is 
nameless and parentless, while every stage in the construction of the 
great Christian temple, the creation of a modern revival, is appropriated 
with jealous care to its special claimants. 

" The dedication of the Coliseum afforded to Titus an opportunity 
for a display of magnificence hitherto unrivalled. A battle of cranes 
with dwarfs representing the pigmies was a fanciful novelty, and might 
afibrd diversion for a moment ; there were combats of gladiators, among 
whom women were included, though no noble matron was allowed to 
mingle in the fray ; and the capacity of the vast edifice was tested by 
the slaughter of five thousand animals in its circuit. The show was 
crowned with the immission of water into the arena, and with a sea-fight 
representing the contests of the Corinthians and Corcyreans, related 
by Thucydides. . . . When all was over, Titus himself was seen 
to weep, perhaps from fatigue, possibly from vexation and disgust ; but 
his tears were interpreted as a presentiment of his death, which was now 
impending, and it is probable that he was already suffering from a de- 
cline of bodily strength. . . . He lamented effeminately the prema- 
ture decease he too surely anticipated, and, looking wistfully at the 

* This inscription, fmind in the catacomb of S. Agnese, runs : 

" Sic praemia servas Vespasiane dire 
Premiatus es morte Gaudenti letare 
Civitatis ubi gloria; tu£e autori, 
Promisit iste Kristiis omnia tibi 
Qui alium paravit theatrum in coelo." 
VOL. I. 14 

210 II '.1 LA'S IN R OME. 

heavens, exclaimed that he did not deserve to die. He expired on the 
13th September, 81, not having quite completed his fortieth year." — 
Merivale, ch. Ix. 

"Hadrian gave a series of entertainments in honour of his birth-day, 
with the slaughter of a thousand beasts, including a hundred lions and 
as many lionesses. One magical scene was the representation of forests, 
when the whole arena became planted with living trees, shrubs, and 
flowers ; to complete which illusion the ground was made to open, and 
send forth wild animals from yawning clefts, instantly re-covered with 

" One may imagine the frantic excess to which the taste for gladia- 
torial combats was carried in Rome, from the preventive law of Augustus 
that gladiators should no more combat without permission of the senate ; 
that proetors should not give these spectacles more than twice a year ; 
that more than sixty couples should not engage at the same time ; and 
that neither knights nor senators should ever contend in the arena. The 
gladiators were classified according to the national manner of fighting 
which they imitated. Thus were distinguished the Gothic, Dacian, 
Thracian, and Samnite combatants ; the Retiarii, who entangled their 
opponents in nets thrown with the left hand, defending themselves with 
tridents in the right ; the Secutores, whose special skill was in pursuit ; 
the Laqiteatorcs, who threw slings against their adversaries ; \heDi>nach<s, 
aiTned with a short sword in each hand ; the Hoplotnachi, armed at all 
points ; the Myrmillones, so called from the figure of a fish at the crest 
of the Gallic helmet they wore ; the Biistitarii, who fought at funeral 
games ; the Bestiarii, who only assailed animals ; other classes who 
fought on horseback, called Andabates ; and those combating in chariots 
drawn by two horses, Essedarii. Gladiators were originally slaves, or 
prisoners of war ; but the armies who contended on the Roman arena in 
later epochs, were divided into compulsory and voluntary combatants, 
the former alone composed of slaves, or condemned criminals. The 
latter went through a laborious education in their art, supported at the 
l)ublic cost, and instructed bymasters called Lanistce, resident in colleges, 
called Ludi. To the eternal disgrace of the morals of Imperial Rome, 
it is recorded that women sometimes fought in the arena, without more 
modesty than hired gladiators. The exhibition of himself in this 
cliaracter by Commodus, was a degradation of the imperial dignity, per- 
haps more infamous, according to ancient Roman notions, than the 
llicatrical performances of Nero." — I/cinans' Story of Monuments in 

'I'lic ]'lmpcror Commodus (a.d. 1S0-1S2), frequently fought 


in the Coliseum himself, and killed both gladiators and 
wild beasts, calling himself Hercules, dressed in a lion's- 
skin, with his hair sprinkled with gold-dust. 

The gladiatorial combats came to an end, when, in a.d. 
403, an oriental monk named Telemachus, was so horrified 
at them, that he rushed into the midst of the arena and 
besought the spectators to renounce them : instead of 
listening to him, they stoned him to death. The first mar- 
tyrdom here was that of St. Ignatius, said to have been the 
child especially blessed by our Saviour — the disciple of John 
— and the companion of Polycarp — who was sent here from 
Antioch, where he was bishop. When brought into the 
arena, he knelt down, and exclaimed, " Romans who are 
present, know that I have not been brought into this place 
for any crime, but in order that by this means I may merit 
the fruition of the glory of God, for love of whom I have 
been made prisoner. I am as the grain of the field, and 
must be ground by the teeth of the lions, that I may become 
bread fit for His table." The lions were then let loose, 
and devoured him, except the larger bones, which the 
Christians collected during the night. 

"It is related of Ignatius that he grew up in sucli innocence of heart 
and purity of life, that to him it was granted to hear the angels sing ; 
hence, when he became bishop of Antioch, he introduced into the 
service of his church the practice of singing the praises of God in 
responses, as he had heard the choirs of angels answering each other. 
. . . . His story and fate are so well attested, and so sublimely 
affecting, that it has always been to me a cause of surprise as well as 
regret to find so few representations of him." — yameso)i's Sacreii 
Art, 693. 

Soon after the death of Ignatius, 115 Christians were 
shot down here with arrows. Under Hadrian, a.d. 218, a 

2 1 2 WALKS IN R OME. 

patrician named Placidus, his wife Theophista, and his t\\ o 
sous, were first exposed here to the wild beasts, but when 
these refused to touch them were shut up in a brazen bull, 
and roasted by a fire lighted beneath. In 253, Abdon 
and Sennen, two rich citizens of Babylon, were exposed 
here to two lions and four bears, but on their refusing to 
attack them, were killed by the swords of the gladiators. In 
A.D. 259, Sempronius, Olympius, Theodulus, and Exuperia, 
were burnt at the entrance of the Coliseum, before the 
statue of the Sun. In a.d. 272, Sta. Prisca was vainly ex- 
posed here to a lion, then starved for three days, then 
stretched on a rack to have her flesh torn by iron hooks, 
then put into a furnace, and — having survived all these tor- 
ments — was finally beheaded In a.d. 277, Sta. Martina, 
another noble Roman lady, was exposed in vain to the 
beasts and afterwards beheaded in the Coliseum. St. 
Alexander under Antoninus ; St. Potitus, 168; St. Eleuthe- 
rius, bishop of Illyria, under Hadrian ; St. Maximus, son of 
a senator, 284; and Vitus, Crescentia, and Modesta, under 
Domitian, were also martyred here.* 

"It is no fiction, but plain, sober, honest truth, to say : so suggestive 
and diblinct is il at this hour : that, for a moment — actually in passing 
in — they who will, may have the whole great pile before them, as it 
used to be, with thousands of eager faces staring down into the arena, 
and such a whirl of strife, and blood, and dust going on there, as no 
language can describe. Its solitude, its awful beauty, and its utter 
desolation, strike upon the stranger, the next moment, like a softened 
sorrow ; and never in his life, perhaps, will he be so moved and over- 
come by any sight, not immediately connected with his own affections 
and afllietions. 

*' To see it crumbling there, an inch a year; its walls and arches 
overgrown willi green, its corridors open to the day ; the long grass 

* Sec Hem,iiis' Catholic Italy. 


growing in its porches ; young trees of yesterday springing up on its 
ragged parapets, and bearing fruit — chance produce of the seeds dropped 
there by the birds who build their nests within its chinks and crannies ; 
to see its pit of fight filled up with earth, and the peaceful cross planted 
in the centre ; to climb into its upper halls, and look down on ruin, 
ruin, ruin, all about it ; the triumphal arches of Constantine, Septimius 
Severus, and Titus, the Roman Forum, the Palace of the Csesars, the 
tem.ples of the old religion, fallen down and gone ; is to see the ghost 
of old Rome, wicked, wonderful old city, haunting the very ground on 
which its people trod. It is the most impressive, the most stately, the 
most solemn, grand, majestic, mournful sight conceivable. Never, in 
its bloodiest prime, can the sight of the gigantic Coliseum, full and 
running over with the lustiest life, have moved one heart, as it must 
move all who look upon it now, a ruin. God be thanked : a ruin ! 

"As it tops all other ruins: standing there, a mountain among 
graves : so do its ancient influences outlive all other remnants of the old 
mythology and old butchery of Rome, in the nature of the fierce and 
cruel Roman people. The Italian face changes as the visitor approaches 
the city ; its beauty becomes devilish ; and there is scarcely one counten- 
ance in a hundred, among the common people in the streets, that would 
not be at home and happy in a renovated Coliseum to-morrow." — 

The spot where the Christian martyrs suffered is now 
marked by a tall cross, devoutly kissed by the faithful, — and 
all round the arena of the Coliseum, are the small chapels 
or " stations," used in the Via Crucis, which is observed 
here at 4 p.m. every Friday, when a confraternity clothed 
in grey, with only the eyes visible, is followed by a crowd 
of worshippers who chaunt and pray at each station in 
turn, — after which a Capuchin monk preaches from a 
pulpit on the left of the arena. These semions are often 
very striking, being delivered in a familiar style, and upon 
popular subjects of the day, but they also often border 
on the burlesque 

" Oswald voulut aller au Colisee pour entendre le Capucin quidevait 
y precher en plein air au pied de Fun des autels qui designent, dans Tin- 


terieur de I'enceinte, ce qu'on appelle la route dc la Croix. Quel plus 
beau sujet pour I'eloquence que Faspect de ce monument, que cette 
arene oil les martyrs ont succede aux gladiateurs ! Mais il ne faut rien 
esperer a cat egard du pauvre Capucin, qui ne connait de I'histoire des 
hommes que sa propre vie. Neanmoins, si I'on pai"vient a ne pas 
ecouter son mauvais sermon, on se sent emu par les divers objets dont il 
est entoure. La plupart de ses auditeurs sont de la confrerie des 
Camaldiiles ; ils se revetent, pendant les exercises religieux, d'une espece 
de robe grise qui couvre entierement la tete et le corps, et ne laisse que 
deux petites ouvertures pour les yeux ; c'est ainsi que les ombres pour- 
raient etre representees. Ces hommes, ainsi caches sous leurs vetements, 
se prostement la face contre terre, et se frappent la poitrine. Qiiand le 
predicateur se jette a genoux en criant miserkorde de pitie! le peiiple 
qui I'environne se jette aussi a genoux, et repete ce meme cri, qui va se 
perdre sous les vieux portiques du Colisee. II est impossible de ne pas 
eprouver alors une emotion profondement religieuse ; cet appel de la 
douleur a la bonte, de la terre au ciel, remue Fame jusque dans son. 
sanctuaire le plus intime." — Madame de Sta'eL 

" ' C'est aujourd'hui Vendredi,' dit Guy, ' il y aura foule au Colisee, 
il vaudrait mieux, je crois, y aller un autre jour.' 

"'Non, non,' dit Eveline, 'c'est precisement pour cela que je veux 
y aller. On m'a dit qu'il fallait le voir ainsi rempli de monde, et que 
d'ailleurs cette fete etait curieuse.' 

" ' Ce n'est pas une fete,' dit Guy gravement, ' c'est un simple acte de 
devotion qui se repete tous les Vendredis.' 

" ' En verite,' dit Eveline, ' et pourquoi le Vendredi ? ' 

"• Parceque c'est le jour oil Christ est mort pour nous; par cette 
raison, vous ne I'ignorez pas, ce jour est demeure consacre dans le 
monde chretien .... dans le monde catholique du moins,' repondit 

" ' Mais i quel propos choisit-on le Colisee pour s'y reunir ce jour 

" ' Parceque le Colisee a ete baigne du sang des martyrs et que leur 
souvenir se mele li plus qu'ailleurs a celui de la croix pour laquelle ils 
I'ont verse.' " — Mrs. Augustus Craven hi Anne Severin. 

The i)iili)it of the Coliseum was used for the stormy- 
sermons of Gavazzi, who called tlie i)eople to arms from 
thence in the revokilion of March, 1848. 

It is well worth while to ascend to the upper galleries 


(a man who lives near the entrance from the Fomm will 
open a locked door for the purpose), as then only is it 
possible to realize the vast size and grandeur of the 

^"^ May, 1827. — Lastly, we ascended to the top of the Cohseuni, 
Bunsen leaving us at the door, to go home ; and I seated myself 
above the main entrance, towards the Forum, and there took my fare- 
well look over Rome. It was a delicious evening, and everything was 
looking to advantage : — the huge Coliseum just under me, the tufts 
of ilex and aliternus and other shrubs that fringe the walls everywhere 
in the lower part, while the outside wall, with its top of gigantic stones, 
lifts itself high above, and seems like a mountain barrier of bare rock, 
enclosing a green and varied valley. I sat and gazed upon the scene 
with an intense and mingled feeling. The world could show nothing 
grander ; it was one which for years I had longed to see, and I was now 
looking at it for the last time. When I last see the dome of St. Peter's 
I shall seem to be parting from more than a mere town full of curiosi- 
ties, where the eye has been amused, and the intellect gratified. I never 
thought to have felt thus tenderly towards Rome ; but the inexplicable 
solemnity and beauty of her ruined condition has quite bewitched me, 
and to the latest hour of my life I shall remember the Forum, the sur- 
rounding hills, and the magnificent Coliseum." — ArnoLVs Letters. 

The upper arches frame a series of views of the Aventine, 
the Capitoline, the Coelian, and the Campagna, like a suc- 
cession of beautiful pictures. 

Those who visit the Coliseum by moonlight will realize 
the truthfulness of the following descriptions : — 

"I do remember me, that in my youth. 
When I was wandering, — upon such a night, 
I stood within the Coliseum's wall. 
Midst the chief relics of almighty Rome ; 
The trees which grew along the broken arches 
Waved dark in the blue midnight, and the stars 
Shone through the rents of ruin ; from afar 
The watch-dog bayed beyond the Tiber ; and 
More near from out the Cesar's palace came 


The owl's long cry, and, interruptedly, 

Of distant sentinels the fitful song 

Began and died upon the gentle wind : — 

Some cypresses beyond the time-worn breach 

Appeared to skirt the horizon, yet they stood 

Within a bowshot where the Csesars dwelt. 

And dwell the tuneless birds of night, amidst 

A grove which springs through levell'd battlements, 

And twines its roots with the imperial hearths ; 

Ivy usurps the laurel's place of growth ; — - 

But the gladiator's bloody circus stands, 

A noble wreck in ruinous perfection ! 

While Csesar's chambers, and the Augustan halls, 

Grovel on earth in indistinct decay. 

And thou didst shine, thou rolling moon, upon 

All this, and cast a wide and tender light, 

Which softened down the hoar austerity 

Of rugged desolation, and fill'd up. 

As 't were anew, the gaps of centuries ; 

Leaving that beautiful which still was so, 

And making that which was not, till the place 

Became religion, and the heart ran o'er 

With silent worship of the great of old : — 

The dead but scepter'd sovereigns, who still rule 

Our spirits from their urns." - Ma7ifred. 

" Arches on arches ! as it were that Rome, 
Collecting the chief trophies of her line, 
Would build up all her triumphs in one dome. 
Her Coliseum stands ; the moonbeams shine 
As 't were its natural torches, for divine 
Should be the light wiiich streams here, to illume 
Tlie long-explored but still exhaustless mine 
Of contemplation ; and the azure gloom 
Of an Italian night, where the deep skies assume 

" Hues which have words, and speak to ye of heaven. 
Floats o'er this vast and wondrous monument. 
And shadows forth its glory. There is given 
Under the things of earth, which Time hath bent, 
A spirit's feeling, and where he hath leant 
His hand, but broke his scythe, there is a power 
And magic in the ruined battlement, 


For which the palace of the present hour 

Must yield its pomp, and wait till ages are its dower." 

Childc Harold. 
"No one can form any idea of full moonlight in Rome who has not 
seen it. Every individual object is swallowed in the huge masses of 
light and shadow, and only the marked and principal outlines remain 
visible. Three days ago (Feb. 2, 1787) we made good use of a light 
and most beautiful night. The Coliseum presents a vision of beauty. 
It is closed at night ; a hermit lives inside in a little church, and beggars 
roost amid the ruined vaults. They had lighted a fire on the bare 
ground, and a gentle breeze drove the smoke across the arena. The 
lower portion of the ruin was lost, while the enormous walls above 
stood forth into the darkness. We stood at the gates and gazed upon 
this phenomenon. The moon shone high and bright. Gradually the 
smoke moved through the chinks and apertures in the walls, and the 
moon illuminated it like a mist. It was an exquisite moment!" — 

It is believed that the building of the Coliseum re- 
mained entire until the eighth century, and that its ruin 
dates from the invasion of Robert Guiscard, who destroyed 
it to prevent its being used as a stronghold by the Romans. 
During the middle ages it served as a fortress, and became 
the castle of the great family of Frangipani, who here gave 
refuge to Pope Innocent II. (Papareschi) and his family, 
against the anti-pope Anacletus II., and afterwards in the 
same way protected Innocent III. (Conti) and his brothers 
against the anti-pope Paschal II. Constantly at war with 
the Frangipani were the Annibaldi, who possessed a 
neighbouring fortress, and obtained from Gregory IX. a 
grant of half the Coliseum, which was rescinded by Inno- 
cent IV. During the absence of the popes at Avignon the 
Annibaldi got possession of the whole of the Coliseum, 
but it was taken away again in 13 12, and placed in the 
hands of the municipality, after which it was used for bull- 
fights, in which (as described by Monaldeschi) nobles of 


high rank took part and lost their lives. In 1381 the 
senate made over part of the ruins to the Canons of the 
Lateran, to be used as a hospital, and their occupation is still 
commemorated by the arms of the Chapter (our Saviour's 
head between two candelabra) sculptured in various parts 
of the building. From the fourteenth century it began to 
be looked upon as a stone-quarry, and the Palazzos 
Famese, Barberini, S. Marco, and the Cancellaria, were 
built with materials plundered from its walls. It is said 
that the first of these destroyers, Cardinal Farnese, only 
extorted permission from his reluctant uncle, Paul III., 
to quarry as much stone as he could remove in twelve 
hours, and that he availed himself of this permission 
to let loose four thousand workmen upon the building. 
Sixtus V. endeavoured to utilize it by turning the arcades 
into shops, and establishing a woollen manufactory, and 
Clement XI. (1700-1721) by a manufactory of saltpetre, but 
both happily failed. In the last century the tide of restor- 
ation began to set in. A Carmelite monk, Angelo Paoli, 
represented the iniquity of allowing a spot consecrated by 
such holy memories to be desecrated, and Clement XI. 
consecrated the arena to the memory of the martyrs 
who had suffered there, and erected in one of the arch- 
ways the still existing chapel of Sta. Maria della Pieta. 
The hermit appointed to take care of this chapel was 
stabbed in 1742, which caused Benedict XIV. to shut in 
the Coliseum with bars and gates. After this time de- 
struction became sacrilege, and the five last popes all con- 
tributed to strengthen and preserve the walls which remain. 
Even so late as thirty years ago, however, the interior was 
(like that of an English abbey) an uneven grassy space 


littered with masses of ruin, amid which large trees grew 
and flourished, and the clearing out of the arena, though 
exhibiting more perfectly the ancient form of the building, 
is much to be regretted by lovers of the picturesque. * 

Among the ecclesiastical legends connected with the 
Coliseum, it is said that Gregory the Great presented some 
foreign ambassadors with a handful of earth from the arena 
as a relic for their sovereigns, and upon their receiving the 
gift with disrespect, he pressed it, when blood flowed from the 
soil. Pius V, urged those who wished for relics to gather up 
the dust of the Coliseum, wet with the blood of the mart)Ts. 

In 1744 "the blessed Leonardo di Porto Maurizio," who 
is buried in S. Buonaventura, drew immense crowds to the 
Coliseum by his preaching, and obtained permission from 
Benedict XIV. to found the confraternity of " Amanti di 
Gesu e Maria," for whom the Via Crucis was established here. 
Recently the ruins have been associated with the holy 
beggar, Benoit Joseph Labre (beatified by Pius IX. in i860), 
who died at Rome in 1783, after a life spent in devotion. 
He was accustomed to beg in the Coliseum, to sleep at 
night under its arcades, and to pray for hours at its various 

The name Coliseum is first found in the waitings of 
the Venerable Bede, who quotes a prophecy of Anglo- 
Saxon pilgrims. 

" While stands the CoHseum, Rome shall stand ; 
When falls the Coliseum, Rome shall fall ; 
And when Rome falls, the world. " + 

* A work has been published by S. Deakin on the Flora of the Coliseum. This 
was very remarkable, but has greatly suffered during the so-called cleansing of the 
building by the Italian government in 1871. 

t Quamdiu stat Colysaeus, stabit et Roma ; quando cadet Colysseus, cadet Roma ; 
quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. 


The name was probably derived from its size ; the amphi- 
theatre of Capua was also called Colossus. 

" When one looks at the Coliseum everything else becomes small ; it 
is so great that one cannot keep its true image in one's soul ; one only 
remembers it on a smaller scale, and returning thither again finds it 
again grown larger." — Goethe, Romisehc Briefe. 

Once or twice in the course of every Roman winter the 
Coliseum is illuminated with Bengal lights. 

" Les etrangers se donnent parfois I'amusement d'eclairer le Colisee 
avec des feux de Bengale. Cela ressemble un peu trop a un finale de 
melodrame, et on peut preferer comme illumination un radieux soleil ou 
les douces lueurs de la lune. Cependant j'avoue que la premiere fois 
que le Colisee m'apparut ainsi, embrase de feux rougeatres, son histoire 
me revint vivement a la pensee. Je trouvais qu'il avait en ce moment 
sa vraie couleur, la couleur du sang." — Atiifere, Emf. ii. 156. 



S. Teodoro— Sta. Anastasia — Circus Maximus — S. Giorgio in Velabro 
— Arch of Septimius Severus — Arch of Janus— Cloaca-Maxima — 
Sta. Maria in Cosmedin — Temple of Vesta — Temple of Fortuna 
Virilis — House of Rienzi — Ponte-Rotto — Ponte Sublicio — S. Ni- 
cole in Carcere — Theatre of Marcellus — Portico of Octavia — Pes- 
cheria — ^Jewish Synagogue— Palazzo Cenci — Fontana Tartarughe — 
Palazzo Mattel — Palazzo Caetani — Sta. Caterina del Funari — -Sta. 
Maria Campitelli — Palazzo Margana — Convent of the Tor de' 

'T^HE second turn on the right of the Roman Forum is the 
Via dei FieniH, formerly the Viais Tusciis, so called from 
the Etruscan colony established there after the dr^'ing up of 
the marsh which occupied that site in the earliest periods of 
Roman history. During the empire, this street, leading from 
the Forum to the Circus iSIaximus, was one of the most 
important. Martial speaks of its silk-mercers ; from an in- 
scription on a tomb we know that the fashionable tailors 
were to be found there ; and the perfumers' shops were of 
such abundance as to give to part of the street the name of 
Vicus Thurarius, At its entrance was the statue of the Etnis- 
can god, Vertumnus, the patron of the quarter.* This was 
the street by which the processions of the Circensian games 

* See AmpOre, Hist. Rom. ii. 2S9 — 292. 


passed from the Forum to the Circus Maximus. In one of 
the Yerrine Orations, an accusation brought by Cicero 
against the patrician Verres, was that from avaricious mo- 
tives he had paved even this street — used for processions 
of the Circus — in such a manner that he would not venture 
to use it himself* 

All this valley was once a stagnant marsh, left by 
inundations of the Tiber, for in early times the river often 
overflowed the whole valley between the Palatine and the 
Capitoline hills, and even reached as far as the foot of 
the Quirinal, where the Goat's Pool, at which Romulus 
disappeared, is supposed to have fornied part of the same 
swamp. Ovid, in describing the processions of the games, 
speaks of the willows and rushes which once covered this 
ground, and the marshy places which one could not pass 
over except with bare feet : 

" Qua Velabra solent in Circum ducere pompas, 

Nil prreter salices crassaque canna fuit, 
Saepe suburbanas rediens conviva per undas 

Cantat, et ad nautas ebria verba jacit. 
Nondum conveniens diversis iste figuris 

Nomen ab averso ceperat amne deus. 
Ilic quocjue lucus erat juncis et arundine densus, 

Et pede velato non adeunda palus. 
Stagna recesserunt, et aquas sua ripa coercet : 

Siccaque nunc tellus. Mos tamen ille manet." 

Fast. vi. 405. 

We even know the price which was paid for being ferried 
across the Velabrum : " it was a quadrans, three times as 
much as one pays now for the boat at the Ripetta." t The 

* " Qiiis a signo Vci tiimiii in circum iiiaxiiimni vciiit, qiiin is unoquoquc gradu de 
avaritia tiia comiiKiticrctiir ? ciiiani tii viain tcnsariim atciue pomiia; ejus modi cxc- 
gisti, lit tu ipse ire non aiuleas." — /;/ Virrcm, i. 59. 

t Varro, dc Ling. Lat. v. 44. See Anipi!rc, Hist. Rom. ii. 32. 


creation of the Cloaca Maxima had probably done much 
towards draining, but some fragments of the marsh remained 
to a late period. 

According to Varro the name of the Velabrum \vas 
derived from vc/icfc, because of the boats which were 
employed to convey passengers from one hill to the other.* 
Others derive the name from vda, also in reference to the 
mode of transit, or, according to another idea, in reference 
to the awnings which were stretched across the street to 
shelter the processions,— though the name was in existence 
long before any processions were thought of 

It was the waters of the Velabrum which bore the cradle 
of Romulus and Remus from the Tiber, and deposited it 
under the famous fig-tree of the Palatine. 

On the left of the Via dei Fienili (shut in by a railing, 
generally closed, but which will be opened on appealing to 
the sacristan next door) is the round C/iurch of S. Teodoro. 
The origin of this building is unknown. It used to be 
called the temple of Romulus, on the very slight founda- 
tion that the famous bronze wolf, mentioned by Dionysius 
as existing in the temple of Romulus, was found near this 
spot. Dyer supposes that it may have been the Temple of 
Cybele ; this, however, was upon, and not under, the Pala- 
tine. Be they wOiat they may, the remains were dedicated 
as a Christian church by Adrian I., in the eighth century, 
and some well preserved mosaics in the tribune are of that 

" It is curious to note in Rome how many a modern superstition has 
its root in an ancient one, and how tenaciously customs still cling to the 

* Varro, de Ling. Lat. iv. 8. 


old localities. On the Capitoline hill the bronze she-wolf was once 
worshipped as the wooden Bambino is now. It stood in the Temple of 
Romulus, and there the ancient Romans used to carry children to be 
cured of their diseases by touching it. On the supposed site of the 
temple now stands the church dedicated to S. Teodoro, or Santo Toto, 
as he is called in Rome. Though names must have changed and the 
temple has vanished, and church after church has here decayed and been 
rebuilt, the old superstition remains, and the common people at certain 
periods still bring their sick children to Santo Toto, that he may heal 
them with his touch." — Story's Roba di Roma. * 

Further on the left, still under the shadow of the Palatine 
Hill, is the large Church of Sta. Anastasia^coxiidmmg., beneath 
the altar, a beautiful statue of the martyred saint reclining 
on a faggot. 

" Notwithstanding her beautiful Greek name, and her fame as one of 
the great saints of the Greek Calendar, Sta. Anastasia is represented as 
a noble Roman lady, who perished during the persecution of Diocletian. 
She was persecuted by her husband and family for openly professing the 
Christian faith, but being sustained by the eloquent exhortations of St. 

• " There is no doubt that many of the amusements, still more many of the reli- 
gious practices now popular in this capital, may be traced to sources in Pagan 
antiquity. The game of inorra, played with the fingers (the micare digitis of the 
ancients) ; the rural feasting before the chapel of the Madonna del divitio A more on 
Whit Monday ; the revelry and dancing sub diii for the whole night on the Vigil of 
St. John, (a scene on the Lateran piazza, riotous, grotesque, but not licentious) ; 
the divining by dreams to obtain numbers for the lottery ; hanging ex voto pictures 
in churches to commemorate escapes from danger or recovery from illness ; the offer- 
ing of jewels, watches, weapons, &c., to the Madonna ; the adorning and dressing of 
sacred images, sometimes for particular days ; throwing flowers on the Madonna's 
figure when borne in processions (as used to be honoured the image, or stone, of Cy- 
bele) ; burning lights before images on the highways : paying special honour to sacred 
pictures, under the notion of their having moved their eyes ; or to others, under the 
idea of their supernatural origin — made without hands ; wearing effigies or symbols 
as amulets (thus Sylla wore, and used to invoke, a little golden Apollo hung round 
his neck) ; suspending flowers to shrines and tombs ; besides other uses, in themselves 
blameless and beautiful, nor, even if objectionable, to be regarded as the genuine 
reflex of what is dogmatically taught by the Church. This enduring shadow thrown 
by Pagan over Christian Rome is, however, a remarkable feature in the story of that 
power whose eminence in ruling and influencing was so wonderfully sustained, nor 
destined to become e.\tinct after empire had departed from the Seven Hills." — 
Nematis' MonMinents of Rome. 


Chrysogonus, she passed triumphantly, receiving in due time the crown 
of martyrdom, being condemned to the flames. Chrysogonus was put to 
death with the sword and his body thrown into the sea. 

" According to the best authorities, these two saints did not suffer in 
Rome, but in lllyria ; yet in Rome we are assured that Anastasia, after 
her martyrdom, was buried by her friend Apollina in the garden of her 
house under the Palatine hill and close to the Circus Maximus. There 
stood the church, dedicated in the fourth century, and there it now 
stands. It was one of the principal churches in Rome in the time of 
St. Jerome, who, according to ancient tradition, celebrated mass at one 
of the altars, which is still regarded with peculiar veneration." — Mrs. 
Jameson s Sac7-ed and Legendary Art. 

It was the custom for the mediaeval popes to celebrate 
their second mass of Christmas night in this church, for 
which reason Sta. Anastasia is still especially commemor- 
ated in that mass. 

To the left of the high altar is the tomb of the learned 
Cardinal Mai, by the sculptor Benzoni, who owed every- 
thing to the kind interest with which this cardinal regarded 
him from childhood. The epitaph is remarkable. It is 
thus translated by Cardinal Wiseman : 

' ' I, who my life in wakeful studies wore, 
Bergamo's son, named Angelo, here lie. 
The empyreal robe and crimson hat I bore, 

Rome gave. Thou giv'st me, Christ, th' empyreal sky. 
Awaiting Thee, long toil I could endure : 
So with Thee be my rest now, sweet, secure." 

Through this church, also, we may enter some of the sub- 
terraneous chambers of the Palace of the Ccesars. 

The valley near this, between the Palatine and the 

Aventine, was the site of the Circus Maximus, of which the 

last vestiges were destroyed in the time of Paul V. Its 

ground plan can, however, be identified, with the assistance 

VOL. I. 15 


of the small circus of INIaxentius on the Via Appia, which 
still partially exists. It was intended for chariot-races and 
horse-races, and is said to have been first instituted by Tar- 
quinius Priscus after his conquest of the Latin town of 
Apiol?e. It was a vast oblong, ending in a semicircle, and 
surrounded by three rows of seats, termed collectively 
cavea. In the centre of the area was the low wall called 
the spina., at each end of which were the mdce., or goals. 
Between the metae were columns supporting the ova, egg- 
shaped balls, and Delphince, or dolphins, each seven in 
number, one of which was put up for each circuit made in 
the race. At the extremity of the Circus were the stalls for 
the horses and chariots called Career cs. This, the square 
end of the Circus, was termed oppiduni, from its external re- 
semblance to a town, with walls and towers. In the Circus 
Maximus, which was used for hunting wild beasts, Julius 
Caesar made a canal, called Euripzis* ten feet wide, 
between the seats and the racecourse, to protect the spec- 
tators. The Liidi Cireeuses Avere first established by Ro- 
mulus, to attract his Sabine neighbours, in order that he 
might supply his city with wives. The games were gener- 
ally at the expense of the a;diles, and their cost was so 
great, that Cresar was obliged to sell his Tiburtine villa, to 
defray those given during his a^dileship. Perhaps the most 
magnificent games known were those in the reign of Cari- 
nus (Imp. A.D. 283), when the Circus was transformed into 
an artificial forest, in which hundreds of wild beasts and 
birds were slaughtered. At one time this Circus was 
capable of containing .385,000 persons. 

At the western extremity of the Circus Maximus stood 

* Made lo fluu- uitli wiiic under Heliogabalus. 


the Temple of Ceres, Liber, and Libera (said to have been 
vowed by the Dictator Albus Postumius, at the battle of the 
Lake Regillus), dedicated by the Consul Sp. Cassius, B.C. 

"Quand le pere de Cassius I'eut immole de ses propres mains a 
I'avidite patricienne, il fit don du pecule de son fils — un fils n'avait que 
son pecule comme un esclave — a ce meme temple de Ceres que Spurius 
Cassius avait cortsacre, et par une feroce ironie, mit au bas de la statue 
faite avec cet argent, et qu'il dediait a la deesse : ' Don de la famille 

" L'ironie etait d'autant plus amere, que Ton vendait aupres du 
temple de Ceres ceux qui avaient offense au tribun. 

" Ce temple, mis particulierement sous la surveillance des ediles et 
oil ils avaient leurs archives, etait le temple de la democratie romaine. 
Le farouche patricien le choisit pour lui faire adresser par son fils mort 
au service de la democratie un derisoire hommage." — Amph-c, Hist. 
Ro))i. ii. 416. 

We must now retrace our steps for a short distance, and 
descend into a hollow on the left, which we have passed, 
between the churches of S. Teodoro and Sta. Anastasia. 

Here an interesting group of buildings still stands to mark 
the site of the famous ox-market. Forum Boariuni. In its 
centre a brazen bull, brought from Egina,* once commemor- 
ated the story of the oxen of Geryon, which Hercules left 
to pasture on this marshy site, and which were stolen hence 
by Cacus, — and is said by Ovid to have given a name to the 
locality : 

"Pontibus et magno juncta est celeberrima Circo 
Area, quce posito de bove nomen habet." 

Fast. vi. 478. 

The fact of this place being used as a market for oxen is 
mentioned by Livy.f 

* Pliny, x.wiv. 2. f Livy, x.\i. 62. 


The Forum Boarium is associated with several deeds of 
cruelty. After the battle of Cannae, a male and female Greek 
and a male and female Gaul were buried alive here ; * and 
here the first fight of gladiators took place, being intro- 
duced by M. and D. Brutus, at the funeral of their father in 
B.C. 264.t Here the Vestal virgins buried the sacred utensils 
of their worship, at the spot called Doliola, when they fled 
from Rome after the batde of the Allia. % 

Amongst the buildings which once existed in the Forum 
Boarium, but of which no trace remains, were the Temple 
of the Sabine deity Matuta, and the Temple of Fortune, 
both ascribed to Servius Tullius. 

" Hac ibi luce ferunt Matutae sacra parenti, 
Sceptiferas Servi templa dedisse manus." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 479. 

" Lux eadem, Fortuna, tua est, auctorque, locusque, 
Sed superinjectis quis latet jede togis ? 

Servius est : hoc constat enim " 

Fast. vi. 569. 

The Temple of Fortune was rebuilt by Lucullus, and 
Dion Cassius mentions that the axle of Julius Csesar's car 
broke down in front of it on occasion of one of his 
triumphs. § Another temple in this neighbourhood was 
that of Pudicitia Patricia, into which the noble ladies re- 
fused to admit Virginia, because she had espoused a 
plebeian consul || (see Chap. X.). Here, also, was the Tem- 
i;le of Hercules Victor, erected by Pompey.lT The two 
earliest triumphal arches were built in this forum, being 
in honour of L. Stertinius, erected B.C. 196, after his vic- 
tories in S])ain. 

• Ampfrc, Hist. Rom. i. t Dyer, 104. % Livy, v. 40. 

§ Dioii Cassius, Ixiii. 21. || Ampire, iii. 48. U Vitruvius, iii. 3. 


The building which first attracts attention, among those 
now standing, is the A)xh of yanus, the Sabine god. It has 
four equal sides and arches, turned to the four points of the 
compass, and forty-eight niches, probably intended for the 
reception of small statues. Bas-reliefs on the inverted 
blocks employed in the lower part of this edifice, show that 
they must have been removed from earlier buildings. This 
was probabl)'' used as a portico for shelter or business for 
those who trafficked in the Forum ; there were many similar 
porticoes in ancient Rome. 

On the left of the arch of Janus is a narrow alley, 
spanned by low brick arches, which leads first to the beau- 
tiful clear spring of the Aqua Argentina, which, according 
to some authorities, is the place where Castor and Pollux 
watered their horses after the battle of the Lake Regillus. 

"Then on rode those strange horsemen, \ 

With slow and lordly pace ; 
And none who saw their bearing 

Durst ask their name or race. 
On rode they to the Forum, 

While laurel boughs and flowers 
From house-tops and from windows, 

Fell on their crests in showers. 

" When they drew nigh to Vesta, 
They vaulted down amain. 
And washed their horses in the well 

That springs by Vesta's fane. 
And straight again they mounted 

And rode to Vesta's door ; 
Then, like a blast, away they passed, 
And no man saw them more." 

Macajilay' s Lays. 

The alley is closed by an arch of the celebrated Cloaca 
Maxima, the famous drain formed by Tarquinius Priscus, 


fifth king of Rome, to dry the marshy land of the 

"Infima urbis loca circa Forum, aliasque interjectas collibus con- 
valles, quia ex planis locis baud facile evehebant aquas, cloacis a fas- 
tigio in Tiberim ductis siccat." — Liz'}', Hb. i. c. 38. 

The Cloaca extended from the Forum to the Tiber, and 
is still, after 2,400 years, used, during the latter part of its 
course, for the purpose for which it was originally intended, 
though Pliny was filled with wonder that, in his time, it had 
already withstood the earthquakes, inundations, and acci- 
dents of seven hundred years. Strabo tells that the tunnel 
of the Cloaca was of sufficient height to admit a waggon 
laden with hay, but this probably supposes the water at its 
lowest. Agrippa, who cleaned out the Cloaca, navigated 
its whole length in a boat. The mouth of the Cloaca, com- 
posed of three concentric courses of blocks of peperino, 
without cement, is visible on the river a little to the right 
of the temple of Vesta. 

*' Ces lieux out encore un air et comme una odeur de marecage — 
quand on rode aux approches de la nuit dans ce coin desert de Rome 
oil fut placee la scene des premiers moments de son premier roi, on y 
retrouve, i present mieux qu'au temps de Tite-Live, quelque chose de 
I'impression que ce lieu devait produire il y a vingt-cinq siecles, a 
I'epotiue oil, selon la vieille tradition, le berceau de Romulus s'arreta 
dans les boues du Velabre, au pied du Palatin, pres de I'antre Lupercal. 
II faut s'ccarter un peu de cet endroit, qui etait au pied du versa^t 
occidental du Palatin, et faire quelques pas a droite pour aller chercher 
les traces du Velabre li oh les rues et les habitations modernes ne les 
ont pas entiercment effacecs. En s'avanjant vers la Cloaca Maxima, 
on rencontre un cnfoncement ou une vieille cglise, elle-meme au dedans 
humide et moisie, rappelle par son nom, San Giorgio in Velabro, que 
le Velabre a et^ Ml. On voit sourdre encore les eaux qui I'alimentaient 
sous une vofltc sombre et froide, tapissce dc mousses, de scolopcndres 
et de grandcs herbcs frissonnant dans la nuit. Alentour, tout a un aspect 


triste et abandonne, abandonne comme le furent au bord du marais, 
suivant I'antique recit, les eiifants dont on croit presque ouir dans le 
crepuscule les vagissements. L'imagination n'a pas de peine a se re- 
presenter les arbres et les plantes aquatiques qui croissaient sur le bord 
de cet enfoncement que voila, et a travers lesquelles la louve de la 
legende se glissait a cette heure pour venir boire a cette eau. Ces lieux 
sent assez peu frequentes et assez silencieux pour qu'on se les figure 
comme ils etaient alors, alors qu'il n'y avait ici, comme dit Tite-Live, 
vrai cette fois, que des solitudes desertes: VastcB tunc solitudines erant." 
— Ampere, Hist. Rom. i. 271. 

The church with the picturesque campanile near the arch 
of Janus, is S. Giorgio in Velabro, founded in the fourth 
century, as the BasiHca Sempronia, but repeatedly rebuilt. 
The architrave above its portico was that where Rienzi 
affixed his famous inscription, announcing the return to 
the Good Estate : " In brrce tempo g/i Romani torncranno 
al loro antico buono stato." The church is seldom open, 
except on its festival (Jan. 20), and during its station in 
Lent. The interior is in the basilica form, the long nave 
being lined by sixteen columns, of various sizes, and with 
strangely different capitals, showing that they have been 
plundered from ancient temples. The carving on some of 
the capitals is sharp and delicate. There is a rather hand- 
some ancient baldacchino, with an old Greek picture let 
into its front, over the high altar. Beneath is preserved a 
fragment of the banner of St. George. Some injured 
frescoes in the tribune replace mosaics which once existed 
here, and which were attributed to Giotto. In the centre 
is the Saviour, between the Virgin and St. Peter ; on one 
side, St. George with the martyr's palm and the warrior's 
banner, — on the other, St. Sebastian, with an arrow. Several 
fragments of carving and inscriptions are built into the side 
walls. The pictures are poor and ugly which relate to the 


saint of the church, St, George (the patron of England and 
Germany), the knight of Cappadocia, who dehvered the 
Princess Cleodohnda from the dragon. 

" Among good specimens of thirteenth century architecture is the 
portico of S. Giorgio, with Ionic columns and horizontal architrave, on 
which is a gothic inscription, in quaint Leonine verse, informing us that 
the Cardinal (or Prior) Stephen, added this detail (probably the cam- 
panile also), to the ancient church— about the middle of the thirteenth 
century, as is supposed, though no date is given here ; and in the 
midst of an age so alien to classic influences, a work in which classic 
feehng thus predominates, is remarkable." — Hcinans' Sacred Art. 

Partly hidden by the portico of this church, is the beau- 
tiful miniature Arch of Septimius Sevenis, erected to the 
emperor, his wife Julia Pia, and his sons Caracalla and 
Geta, by the silversmiths (argentarii) who had their shops 
in the Forum Boarium on this very spot (" cujus loci qui 
invehent "). The part of the dedication relating to Geta 
(as in the larger arch of Septimius) was obliterated after 
his murder, and the words Fortissimo felicissimoque 
PRiNCiPi engraved in its place. The architecture and 
sculpture, part of which represents a sacrifice by the im- 
perial family, pro\e the decadence of art at this period. 

Proceeding in a direct line from the Arch of Janus, we 
reach the Church of Sta. Maria in Cosmcdin, on the site of 
a I'emple of Ceres, dedicated by the consul Spurius Cassius, 
13. c. 493, and afterwards re-dedicated to Ceres and Proser- 
pine, probably by Augustus, who had been initiated into 
the Eleusinian mysteries in Greece. The church was built 
in the basilica form, in 7S2, by Adrian I., when the name 
Cosmedin, from the Greek Konf-ior, is supposed to have 
been given, from the ornaments with which he adorned it. 
It was intended for the use of the Greek exiles expelled 



from the East by the iconoclasts under Constanthie Co- 
pronimus, and derived the epithet of Sta. Maria in Scuola 
Greca, from a " Schola " attached to it for their benefit. 
Another reUc of the Greek colony which existed here is to 
be found in the name of the adjoining street, Via della 
Greca. In the middle ages the whole bank of the river 
near this was called Ripa Greca. 

The interior of this church is of great interest. The nave 
is divided from the aisles by twelve ancient marble columns, 
of which two have especially curious antique capitals, and 
are evidently remains of the temple which once existed here. 
The choir is raised, as at S. Clemente. The pavement is 
of splendid Opus Alexandrinum (11 20); the ambones are 
perfect ; there is a curious crypt ; the altar covers an 
ancient bason of red granite, and is shaded by a gothic 
canopy, supported by four Egyptian granite pillars \ behind 
it is a fine episcopal throne, with lions, said to have been 
used by St. Augustine, an ancient Greek picture of the 
Virgin, and a graceful tabernacle of marble inlaid with 
mosaic, by Dcodato Cosmati. In the sacristy is a very 
curious mosaic, one of the few relics preserved from the 
old St. Peter's, a.d. 705. (There is another in S. Marco at 
Florence.) Crescimbeni, the founder and historian of the 
Arcadian Academy (d. 1728), is buried in this church, of 
which he was a canon. On St. Valentine's Day the skull of 
St. Valentine, crowned with roses, is exhibited here. 

In the portico is the strange and huge mask of stone, 
which gives the name of Bocca della Verita to the neigh- 
bouring piazza. It was believed that if a witness, whose 
truthfulness was doubtful, were desired to place his hand in 
the mouth of this mask, he would be unable to withdraw it, 
if he were guilty of perjury. 


" Cette Bouche-de-Verite est une curieuse relique du moyen age. 
Elle servait aux jugements de Dieu. Figurez-vous une meule de moulin 
qui ressemble, non pas a un visage humain, mais au visage de la lune : 
on y distingue des yeux, un nez et une bouche ouverte ou I'accuse 
mettait la main pour preter serment. Cette bouche mordait les menteurs ; 
au moins la tradition I'assure. J'y ai introduit ma dextre en disant que 
le Ghetto etait un lieu de delices, et je n'ai pas ete mordu." — About, 
Rome Contemporaine. 

On the other side of the portico is the tomb of Cardinal 
Alfanus, ob. 1150. 

"The church was rebuilt under Calixtus II., about A.D. 1128, by 
Alfanus, Roman Chancellor, whose marble sepulchre stands in the 
atrium, with his epitaph, along a cornice, giving him that most com- 
prehensive title, 'an honest man,' vir probus. Some more than half- 
faded paintings, a Madonna and Child, angels, and two mitred heads, 
on the wall behind the canopy, give importance to this Chancellor's 
tomb. Though now disfigured exteriorly by a modem fafade in the 
worst style, interiorly by a waggon-vault roof and heavy pilasters, this 
church is still one of the mediaeval gems of Rome, and retains many 
olden details : the classic colonnades, probably left in their original 
place since the time of Adrian I. ; and the fine campanile, one of the 
loftiest in Rome ; also the sculptured doorway, the rich intarsio pave- 
ment, the high altar, the marble and mosaic-inlaid ambones, the marble 
episcopal throne, with supporting lions and a mosaic decoration above, 
&c., — all of the twelfth century. But we have to regret the destruction 
of the ancient choir-screens, and (still more inexcusable) the white-washing 
of wall surfaces so as entirely to conceal the mediaeval paintings which 
adorned them, conformably to that once almost universal practice of 
polychrome decoration in churches, prescribed even by law under Charle- 
magne. Ciampini (see his valuable history of this basilica) mentions the 
iron rods for curtains between the columns of the atrium, and those, 
still in their place, in the porch, with rings for suspending ; also a 
small chapel with paintings, at one end of the atrium, designed for 
those penitents who were not allowed to worship within the sacred 
building — as such, an evidence of disciplinary observance, retained till 
the twelfth century. Over the portal are some tiny bas-reliefs, so placed 
along the inner side of the lintel that many might pass underneath 
without seeing them : in the centre, a hand blessing, with the Greek 
action, between two sheep, laterally ; the four evangelistic emblems, and 


two doves, each pecking out of a vase, and one perched upon a dragon 
(more Uke a lizard), to signify the victory of the purified soul over mun- 
dane temptations." — Heinans' Christian Art. 

Close to this church stood the Palace of Pope Gelasius II. 

Opposite the church is a beautiful fountain, erected by 
one of the Medici, and beyond it the graceful round temple 
noAv called the Temple of Vesta, supposed by Canina to 
have been that of Mater Matuta, and by others to have 
been that of Hercules founded by Pompey. It is known 
to have existed in the time of Vespasian. It is very small, 
the circumference of the peristyle being only 156 feet, and 
that of the cella 26 feet, — the height of the surrounding 
Corinthian columns (originally twenty in number) 32 feet. 
This temple was first dedicated as a church under the name 
of S. Stefano delle Carrozze ; it is now called Sta. Maria 
del Sole. 

This is not the Temple of Vesta (which was situated 
near the Church of Sta. Maria Liberatrice in the Forum) 
of which Horace wrote : — 

"Vidimus flavum Tiberim, retortis 
Littore Etrusco violenter undis, 
Ire dejectum monumenta regum 

Templaque Vestce." 

Carm. i. 2. 

The modem overhanging roof of the temple has been 
much objected to, as it replaces an entablature like that 
on the temple of the Sibyl at Tivoli ; but artists admire the 
exquisite play of light and shade caused by its rugged tiles, 
and, finding it a perfect " subject," wish for no change. 

"C'est aupres de la Bouche-de-Verite, devant le petit temple de 


Vesta, que la justice romaine execute un meurtrier sur cent. Quand 
j'arrivai sur la place, on n'y guillotinait personne ; mais six cuisinieres, 
dont une aussi belle que Junon, dansaient la tarantelle au son d'un 
tambour de basque. Malheureusement elles divinerent ma qualite 
d'etranger, et elles se mirent a polker contre la niesure." — About. 

Close to this — overhanging a little hollow way — is the 
Temple of Foriiuia Virilis, built originally by Servius TuUius, 
but rebuilt during the republic, and, if the existing building 
is really republican, the most ancient temple remaining 
in Rome. It is surrounded by Ionic columns (one side 
being enclosed in other buildings), 28 feet high, clothed 
with hard stucco, and supporting an entablature adorned 
with figures of children, oxen, candelabra, tScc. The Roman 
matrons had a great regard for this goddess, who was sup- 
posed to have the power of concealing their personal imper- 
fections from the eyes of men. At the close of the tenth 
century this temple was consecrated to the Virgin, but has 
since been bestowed upon St. Mary of Egypt. 

Hard by, is a picturesque end of building, laden with rich 
but incongruous sculpture, at one time called " The House 
of Pilate," but now known as the House of Rienzi. It 
derives its present name from a long inscription over a 
doorway, which tallies with the bombastic epithets assumed 
by " The Last of the Tribunes " in his pompous letter of 
Aug. I, 1347, when, in his semi-madness, he sunmioned 
kings and emperors to appear before his judgment-seat. 
The inscription closes : — 

" Primus do ]iriniis maj^nus Nicolaus alj imis, 
Krexit jiatrum dccus oh rcnovare suoruni. 
Stat patris Crcscens matnsque Theodora nomen. 
Hoc culmcn clarum caro dc pignorc gessit, 
Davidi tribuit qui pater c.xhibuit." 


It is believed, from the inscription, that the house was 
fortified by Nicholas, son of Crescentius and Theodora, 
who gave it to David, his son ; that the Crescentius alluded 
to was son of the famous patrician who headed the populace 
against Otho III. ; and that, three centuries later, the house 
may have belonged to Cola di Rienzi, a name which is, in 
fact, only popular language for Niccola Crescenza It is, 
however, knowii that Rienzi was not born in this house, 
but in a narrow street behind S. Tommaso, in the Rione 
alia Regola, where his father Lorenzo kept an inn, 
and his mother, INIaddalena, gained her daily bread as a 
washerwoman and water-carrier — so were the Crescenzi 
fallen ! 

Here is the entrance to a suspension-bridge, which 
joins the remaining arches of the Ponte Rotto, and leads 
to the Trastevere. On this site was the Pons ^milius, 
begun, B.C. 180, by M. yEmilius Lepidus and Marcus 
Fulvius Nobilior, and finished by P. Scipio Africanus and 
L. Mummius, the censors, in B.C. 142. Hence the body 
of the Emperor Heliogabalus was thrown into the Tiber, 
The bridge has been three times rebuilt by different popes, 
but two of its arches were finally carried away in an inunda- 
tion of 1598, and have never since been replaced. The 
existing remains, which only date from the time of Julius 
III., are highly picturesque. 

" Quand on a etabli un pont en fil de fer, on lui a donne pour base les 
piles du P&nte-Rotto, eleve au moyen age sur les fondemcnts du Pons 
Palatinus, qui fut acheve sous la censure de Scipion I'Africain. ScipioJi 
I'Africain et un pont en fil de fer, voila de ces contrastes qu'on ne 
trouve qu'a Rome." — Ampere, Enip. ii. 209. 

From this bridge is the best view of the Isola Tiberina 

and its bridges, and hence, also, the Temple of Vesta is 


seen to great advantage. Just below is the mouth of the 
Cloaca Maxima. 

"Quand du Ponte-Rotto on considere le triple cintre de I'ouverture 
par laquelle la Cloaca Maxima se dechargeait dans le Tibre, on a devant 
les yeux un monument qui rappelle beaucoup de grandeur et beaucoup 
d'oppression. Ce monument extraordinaire est une page importante de 
I'histoire romaine. II est a la fois la supreme expression de la puissance 
des rois etnisques et le signe avant-coureur de leur chute. L'on croit 
voir Tare triomphal de la royaute par ou devait entrer la republique." 
— Amph-c, Hist. Rom. ii. 233. 

In the bed of the river a little lower down may be seen, 
at low water, some massive fragments of masonry. Here 
stood the Pons Sublicius, the oldest bridge in Rome, built 
by Ancus Martins (b.c. 639), on which Horatius Codes 
and his two companions " kept the bridge " against the 
Etruscan army of Lars Porsenna, till — 

•' Back darted Spurius Lartius ; 

Herminius darted back : 
And, as they passed, beneath their feet 

They felt the timbers crack. 
But when they turned their faces. 

And on the farther shore 
Saw brave Horatius stand alone, 

They would have crossed once more. 

" But with a crash like thunder 
Fell every loosened beam, 
And, like a dam, the mighty wreck 

Lay right athwart the stream : 
And a long shout of triumph 

Rose from the walls of Rome, 
As to the highest turret-tops 
Was splashed the yellow foam." 

MacaKlay's Lays. 

The name " Sublicius " came from the wooden beams of 
its construction, which enabled the Romans to cut it away. 


The bridge was rebuilt by Tiberius and again by Antoninus 
Pius, each time of beams, but upon stone piers, of which 
the present remains are fragments, the rest having been 
destroyed by an inundation in the time of Adrian I. 

On the Trastevere bank, between these two bridges, 
half hidden in shrubs and ivy (but worth examination in a 
boat), are two gigantic Heads of Lions, to which in ancient 
times chains were fastened, and drawn across the river to 
prevent hostile vessels from passing. 

Near this we enter the Via S. Giovanni DecoUato, decor- 
ated with numerous heads of John the Baptist in the dish, 
let into the walls over the doors of the houses. The 
" Confraternity, della Misericordia di S. Giovanni Decollato," 
founded in 1488, devote themselves to criminals condemned 
to death. They visit them in prison, accompany them to 
execution, receive their bodies, and ofter masses for their 
souls in their little chapel. Vasari gives the highest praise 
to two pictures of Francesco Salviati in the Church of S. 
Giov. Decollato, " before which all Rome stood still in 
admiration,"-^representing the appearance of the angel to 
Zacharias, and the meeting of the Virgin and Elizabeth. 

On the left is the Hospital of Sta. Galla, commemorating 
the pious foundation of a Roman matron in the time of 
John I. (523 — 526), who attained such celebrity, that she is 
still commemorated in the Roman mass by the prayer — 

"Almighty and merciful God, who didst adorn the blessed Galla 
with the virtue of a M'onderful love towards thy poor ; grant us, through 
her merits and prayers, to practise works of love, and to obtain Thy 
mercy, through the Lord, &c. Amen." 

On, or very near this site, stood the Porta Carmcntalis, 
which, with the temple beside it, commemorated Cannenta, 


the supposed mother of Evander, a Sabine prophetess, who 
is made by Ovid to predict the future grandeur of Rome.* 
Carmenta was especially invoked by women in childbirth. 
The Porta Carmentalis was reached from the Forum by the 
Vicus Jugarius. It was by this route that the Fabii went 
forth to meet their doom in the valley of the Crimera. 
The Porta had two gates — one for those who entered, the 
other for those who left it, so that in each case the passenger 
passed through the "Janus," as it was called, upon his 
right. After the massacre of the Fabii, the road by which 
they left the city was avoided, and the Janus Carmentalis 
on the right was closed, and called the Porta Scelerata. 

" Carmentis portas dextro via proxima Jano est. 
Ire per hanc noli, quisquis es ; omen habet." 

OviJ, Fast. ii. 20I. 

Just beyond the Porta Carmentalis was the district called 
Tarentufn, where there was a subterranean " Ara Ditis 
Patris et Proserpin^e." 

"We now reach (left) the Church of S. Nicolo in Car- 
iere. It has a mean front, with an inscription in honour 
of one of the Aldobrandini family, and is only interesting 
as occupying the site of the three Temples of Juno Matuta, 
Piety (?), and Hope, which are believed to mark the site of 
the Forum Olitorium. The vaults beneath the church 
contain the massive substructions of these temples, and 
fragments of their columns. 

The central temple is believed to be that of Piety, built 
by M. Acilius Glabrio, the duumvir, in B.C. 165 (though 
Pliny says that this temple was on the site afterwards occu- 

* Fasti, i. 515. 


pied by the theatre of Marcellus), in fulfihiient of a vow 
made by his father, a consul of the same name, on the day 
of his defeating the forces of Antiochus the Great, king of 
Syria, at Thermopylae. Others endeavour to identify it with 
the temple built on the site of the Decemviral prisons, to 
keep up the recollection of the famous story, called the 
" Caritas Romana," — of a woman condemned to die of 
hunger in prison being nourished by the milk of her own 
daughter. Pliny and Valerius Maximus tell the story as 
of a mother ; Festus only speaks of a father ; * — yet art 
and poetry have always followed the latter legend. A cell 
is shown, by torchlight, as the scene of this touching 

" There is a dungeon, in whose dim drear hght 
"What do I gaze on ? Nothing. Look again ! 
Two forms are slowly shadowed on my sight — - 
Two insulated phantoms of the brain : 
It is not so ; I see them full and plain — 
An old man, and a female young and fair, 
Fresh as a nursing mother, in whose vein 
The blood is nectar : — but what doth she there, 
With her unmantled neck, and bosom white and bare ? 

" But here youth offers to old age the food. 
The milk of his own gift :— it is her sire, 
To whom she renders back the debt of blood 
Bom with her birth. No, he shall not expire 
While in those warm and lovely veins the fire 
Of health and holy feeling can provide 
Great Nature's Nile, whose deep stream rises higher 
Than Egypt's river ; — from that gentle side 
Drink, drink, and live, old man ! Heaven's realm holds 
no such tide. 

* Plin. H. N. vii. 36 ; Val. Max. v. 4—7 ; Festus, p. 609. 
VOL. I. 16 


" The starry fable of the milky-way 
Has not thy story's purity ; it is 
A constellation of a sweeter ray, 
And sacred Nature triumphs more in this 
Reverse of her decree, than in the abyss 
Where sparkle distant worlds : — Oh, holiest nurse ! 
No drop of that clear stream its way shall miss 
To thy sire's heart, replenishing its source 
"With life, as our freed souls rejoin the universe." 

Childe Harold. 

A memorial of this story of a prison is preserved in the 
name of the church — S. Nicolo in Carcere. It was pro- 
bably owing to this legend that, in front of the Temple 
of Piety, was placed the Cohimna Ladaria, where infants 
were exposed, in the hope that some one would take pity 
upon and nurse them out of charity. 

A wide opening out of the street near this, with a pretty 
fountain, is called the Piazza Alontanara, and is one of the 
places where the country people collect and wait for hire. 

" Le dimanche est le jour ou les paysans arrivent a Rome. Ceux qui 
cherchent I'emploi de leurs bras viennent se louer aux marchands de 
campagne, c'est-a-dire aux fermiers. Ceux qui sont loues et qui 
travaillent hors des murs viennent faire leurs affaires et renouveler leurs 
provisions, lis entrent en ville au petit jour apres avoir marche une 
bonne partie de la nuit. Chaque famille amene un ane, qui porte le 
bagage. Hommes, femmes, et enfants, poussant leur ane devant eux, 
s'etablissent dans un coin de la place Farnese, ou de la place Montanara. 
Les boutiques voisines restent ouvertes jusqu'a midi, par un privilege 
special. On va, on vient, on achate, on s'accroupit dans les coins 
pour compter les pieces de cuivre. Cependant les anes se reposent sur 
leurs quatre pieds au bord dcs fontaines. Les femmes, vetues d'un 
corset en cuirasse, d'un tablier rouge, et d'une veste rayee, encadrent 
leur figure halee dans une draperic de linge trcs-blanc. Elles sont 
toutes a peindre sans cxcejjlion : quand ce n'cst pas pour la beaute de 
leurs traits, c'cst pour relcgance naive de leurs attitudes. Les hommes 
ont le long manteau bleu dc ciel ct le chapeau pointu ; la-dessous leur^ 


habits de travail font merveille, quoique roussis par le temps et couleur 
de perdrix. Le costume n'est pas uniforme; on voit plus d'un manteau 
amadou rapiece de bleu vif ou de rouge garance. Le chapeau de paille 
abonde en ete. La chaussure est tres-capricieuse ; Soulier, botte et 
sandale foulent successivement le pave. Les dechausses trouvent ici pres 
de grandes et profondes boutiques ou I'on vend des marchandises 
d'occasion. II y a des souliers de tout cuir et de tout age dans ces tresors 
de la chaussure ; on y trouverait des cothurnes de Fan 500 de la 
republique, en cherchant bien. Je viens de voir un pauvre diable qui 
essayait une paire de bottes a revers. Elles vont a ses jambes comme 
une plume a I'oreille d'un pore, et c'est plaisir de voir la grimace qu'il 
fait chaque fois qu'il pose le pied a terre. Mais le marchand le fortifie 
par de bonnes paroles : ' Ne crains rien,' lui dit-il, ' tu souffriras pendant 
cinq ou six jours, et puis tu n'y penseras plus.' Un autre marchand 
debite des clous a la livre : le chaland les enfonce lui-meme dans ses 
semelles ; il y a des bancs ad hoc. Le long des murs, cinq ou six 
chaises de paille servent de boutique a autant de barbiers en plein vent. 
II en coute un sou pour abattre une barbe de huit jours. Le patient, 
barbouille de savon, regarde le ciel d'un ceil resigne ; le barbier lui 
tire le nez, lui met les doigts dans la bouche, s'interrompt pour aiguiser 
le rasoir sur un cuir attache au dossier de la chaise, ou pour ecorner une 
galette noire qui pend au mur. Cependant I'operation est faite en un 
tour de main ; le rase se leve et sa place est prise. II pourrait aller se 
laver a la fontaine, mais il trouve plus simple de s'essuyer du revers de 
sa manche. 

" Les ecrivains publics alternent avecles barbiers. On leur apporte les 
lettres qu'on a re9ues ; ils les lisent et font la reponse : total, trois sous. 
Des qu'un paysan s'approche de la table pour dieter quelque-chose, cinq 
ou six curieux se reunissent officieusement autour de lui pour mieux 
entendre. II y a une certaine bonhomie dans cette indiscretion. Chacun 
place son mot, chacun donne un conseil : ' Tu devrais dire ceci.' — ' Non ; 
dis plutot cela.' — ' Laissez-le parler,' crie un troisieme, 'il sait mieux 
que vous ce qu'il veut faire ecrire.' 

" Quelques voitures chargees de galettes d'orge et de ma'is circulent au 
milieu de la foule. Un marchand de limonade, arme d'une pince de 
bois, ecrase les citrons dans les verres. L'homme sobre boit a la fontaine 
en faisant un aqueduc des bords de son chapeau. Le gourmet achete 
des viandes d'occasion devant un petit etalage, ou les rebuts de cuisine 
se vendent a la poignee. Pour un sou, le debitant remplit de boeuf 
hache et d'os de cotelettes un morceau de vieux journal ; une pincee 
de sel ajoutee sur le tout pare agreablement la denree. L'achcteur 


marchande, non sur le prix, qui est invariable, mais sur la quantite ; il 
prend au tas quelques bribes de viande, et on le laisse faire ; car rien ne 
se conclut a Rome sans marchander. 

" Les ermites et les moines passent de groupe en groupe en quetant 
pour les ames du purgatoire. M'est avis que ces pauvres ouvriers font 
leur purgatoire en ce monde ; et qu'il vaudrait mieux leur donner de 
I'argent que de leur en demander ; ils donnent pourtant, et sans se faire 
tirer I'oreille. 

" Quelquefois \m beau parleur s'amuse a raconter une histoire ; on fait 
cercle autour de lui, et a mesure que I'auditoire augniente il eleve la voix. 
J'ai vu de ces conteurs qui avaient la physionomie bien fine et bien 
heureuse ; mais je ne sais rien de channant comme I'attention de leur 
public. Les peintres du quinzieme siecle ont du prendre a la place 
Montanara les disciples qu'ils groupaient autour du Christ." — About, 
Rome Contemporaine. 

An opening on the left discloses the vast substructions of 
the Theatre of Alar celliis. This huge edifice seems to have 
been projected by Julius Csesar, but he probably made little 
progress in it. It was actually erected by Augustus, and 
dedicated {c. 13 b.c.) in memory of the young nephew 
whom he married to Iiis daughter Julia, and intended as 
his successor, but who was cut off by an early death. The 
theatre was capable of containing 20,000 spectators, and 
consisted of three tiers of arches, but the upper range has 
disappeared, and the lower is very imperfect. Still it 
is a grand remnant, and rises magnificently above the 
paltry houses which surround it. The perfect proportions 
of i^ Doric and Ionic columns served as models to 

" Le mur exterieur du portique demi-circulaire qui enveloppait les 
gradins offre encore a notre admiration deux etages d'arceaux et 
de colonncs doricjues ct ioniques d'une beaute presque grecque. L'etage 
su])crieur, qui devait ctre corinthicn, a disparu. 'L^s/orniccs, ou voiites 
du rez-de chaussce, sont liabitccs encore aujourd'hui comme elles I'etaient 
dans I'antiquite, mais plus honuctement, par de pauvres gens qui 


vendent des ferrailles. Au-dessous des belles colonnes de I'enceinte 
exterieure, on a construit des maisons modernes dans lesquelles soat 
pratiquees des fenetres, et a ces fenetres du theatre de Marcellus, on 
voit des pots a fleurs, ni plus ni moins qu'a une mansarde de la rue 
Saint Denis ; des chemises sechent sur I'entablement ; des cheminees sur- 
montent la ruine romaine, et un grand tube se dessine a I'extremite. 

"Dans les jeux celebres a I'occasion de la dedicace du theatre de Mar- 
cellus, on vit pour la premiere fois un tigre apprivoise, tigrim man- 
snefadiim. Dans ce tigre le peuple romain pouvait contempler son 
image." — Ampere, Etnp. i. 256. 

In the middle ages this theatre .was the fortress of the 
great family of Pierleoni, the rivals of the Frangipani, who 
occupied the Coliseum ; their name is commemorated by 
the neighbouring street, Via Porta Leone. The constant 
warfare in which they were engaged with their neighbours 
did much to destroy the building, whose interior became 
reduced to a mass of ruins, forming a hill, upon which 
Baldassare Peruzzi (1526) built the Palazzo SavcIIi, of 
which the entrance, flanked by the two armorial bears of 
the family, may be seen in the street (Via Savelli) v/hich 
leads to the Ponte Quattro Capi. 

" Au dix-septieme siecle, les Savelli exer9aient encore une jurisdiction 
feodale. Leur tribunal, aussi regulierement constitue que pas un, s'ap- 
pellait Corte Savella. * lis avaient le droit d'arracher tous les ans un 
criminel a la peine de mort : droit de grace, droit regalien reconnu par 
la monarchie absolue des papes. Les femmes de cette illustre famille 
ne sortaient point de leurs palais sinon dans un carosse bien ferme. 
Les Orsini et les Colonna se vantaient que pendant les siecles, aucun traite 
de paix n'avait ete conclu entre les princes chretiens, dans lequel ils 
n'eussent ete nominativement compris." — About. 

The palace has now passed to the family of Orsini- 
Gravina, who descended from a senator of a.d. 1200. The 

* Beatrice and Lucrezia Cenci were imprisoned in the Corte Savella, and led 
thence to execution. 


princes of Orsini and Colonna, in their quality as attendants 
on the throne {principi assistenti al soglio), take precedence 
of all other Roman nobles. 

" Nicolovius will remember the Theatre of Marcellus, in which the 
Savelli family built a palace. My house is half of it. It has stood 
empty for a considerable time, because the drive into the courtyard (the 
interior of the ancient theatre) rises like the slope of a mountain upon 
the heaps of rubbish ; although the road has been cut in a zig-zag, it is 
still a break-neck affair. There is another entrance from the Piazza 
Montanara, whence a flight of seventy-three steps leads up to the same 
story I have mentioned ; the entrance-hall of which is on a level with 
the top of the carriage-way through the courtyard. • The apartments in 
which we shall live are those over the colonnade of Ionic pillars forming 
the third story of the ancient theatre, and some, on a level with them, 
which have been built out like wings on the rubbish of the ruins. These 
enclose a little quadrangular garden, which is indeed very small, only 
about eighty or ninety feet long, and scarcely so broad, but so delightful ! 
It contains three fountains — an abundance of flowers : there are orange- 
trees on the wall between the windows, and jessamine under them. We 
mean to plant a vine besides. From this story, you ascend forty steps, 
or more, higher, where I mean to have my own study, and there are 
most cheerful little rooms, from which you have a prospect over the 
whole country beyond the Tiber, Monte Mario, and St. Peter's, and 
can see over St. Pietro in Montorio, indeed almost as far as the Aven- 
tine. It would, I think, be possible besides to erect a loggia upon the 
roof (for which I shall save money from other things), that we may 
have a view over the Capitol, Forum, Palatine, Coliseum, and all the 
inhabited parts of the city." — Niebiihi's Letters. 

Following the wall of the theatre, down a filthy street, 
we arrive at the picturesque group of ruins of the " Porticus 
Octavioc," erected by Augustus, in honour of his sister (the 
unhappy wife of Antony), close to the theatre to which 
he had given the name of her son. The exact form of 
the btiilding is known from the Pianta Capitolina, — that 
it was a parallelogram, surrounded by a double arcade 
of 270 columns, and enclosing the temples of Jupiter 



and Juno, built by the Greek architects, Batracus and 

With regard to these temples, Pliny narrates a fact which 
reminds one of the story of the Madonna of Sta. Maria 
Nuova.t The porters having carelessly carried the statues 
of the gods to the wrong temples, it was imagined that they 
had done so from divine inspiration, and the people would 
not venture to remove them, so that the statues always 
remained where they had been placed, though their sur- 
roundings were utterly unsuitable. 

The Portico of Odavia built by Augustus, occupied the 
site of an earlier portico — the Porticus Metelli — built by 
A. Csecilius Metellus, after his triumph over Andriscus in 
Macedonia, in b.c. 146. Temples of Jupiter Stator and 
Juno existed also in this portico, one of them being the 
earliest temple built of marble in Rome. Before these 
temples Metellus placed the famous group of twenty-five 
bronze statues, which he had brought from Greece, executed 
by Lysippus for Alexander the Great, and representing that 
conqueror himself and twenty-four horsemen of his troop 
who had fallen at the Granicus.J 

The existing fragment of the portico is the original en- 
trance to the whole. The building had suffered from fire 
in the reign of Titus, and was restored by Septimius Se- 
verus, and of this time is the large brick arch on one side 
of the ruin, 

"It was in this hall of Octavia that Titus and Vespasian celebrated 
their triumph over Israel with festive pomp and splendour. Among the 
Jewish spectators stood the historian Flavins Josephus, who was one of 

* See the account of the Basilica of St. Lorenzo fuori Mura. 

+ See Ch. IV. 

t See Dyer's City of Rome. 


the followers and flatterers of Titus .... and to this base Jewish 
courtier we owe a description of the triumph." — Gix'goroviiis, Wander- 
jahre in Italien. 

Within the portico is the Church of S. Angela in Pescheria. 
Here it was that Cola Rienzi summoned, at midnight — May 
20, 1347— all good citizens to hold a meeting for the 
re-establishment of " the good estate ; " here he kept the 
vigil of the Holy Ghost ; and hence he went forth, bare- 
headed, in complete armour, accompanied by the papal 
legate, and attended by a vast multitude, to the Capitol, 
where he called upon the populace to ratify the Good 

It is said that one of the causes which most incited the 
indignation of Rienzi against the assumption and pride of 
the Roman families, was the fact of their painting their arms 
on the ancient Roman buildings, and thus in a manner appro- 
priating them to their own glory. Remains of coats of arms 
thus painted may be seen on the front wall of the Portico of 
Octavia. It was also on this very wall that Rienzi painted 
his famous allegorical picture. In this painting kings and men 
of the people were seen burning in a furnace, with a woman 
half consumed, who personified Rome, — and on the right 
was a church, whence issued a white-robed angel, bearing 
in one hand a naked sword, while with the other he plucked 
the woman from tlic flames. On the church tower were 
SS. Peter and Paul, crying to the angel, " Aquilo, aquilo, 
succurri a I'albergatrice nostra," — and beyond this were 
represented falcons (typical of the Roman barons) falling 
from heaven into the flames, and a white dove bearing 
a wreath of olive, which it gave to a little bird (Rienzi), 
which was chased by the falcons. Beneath was in- 


scribed : " I see the time of great justice, do thou await 
that time." 

"Then turn we to her latest tribune's name, 
From her ten thousand tyrants turn to thee, 
Redeemer of dark centuries of shame — 
The friend of Petrarch — hope of Italy — 
Rienzi ! last of Romans ! While the tree 
Of Freedom's wither'd trunk puts forth a leaf, 
Even for thy tomb a garland let it be — 
The forum's champion, and the people'schief — 
Her newborn Numa thou — with reign, alas ! too brief." 

Childe Harold. 

Through the brick arch of the Portico we enter upon 
the ancient Fesc/tcria, with the marble fish-slabs of imperial 
times still remaining in use. It is a striking scene — the 
dark, many-storied houses almost meeting overhead and 
framing a narrow strip of deep blue sky, — below, the bright 
groups of figures and rich colouring of hanging cloths and 

" C'est une des ruines les plus remarquables de Rome, et une de celles 
qui offrent ces contrastes piquants entre le passe et le present, amuse- 
ment peipetuel de I'imagination dans la ville des contrastes. Le 
portique d'Octavie est, aujourd'hui, le marche aux poissons. Les 
colonnes et le fronton s'elevent an milieu de I'endroit le plus sale de 
Rome ; leur effet n'en est pas moins pittoresque, il Test peut-etre davan- 
tage. Le lieu est fait pour une aquarelle, et quand un beau soleil eclaire 
les debris antiques, les vieux murs sombres de la rue etroite ou la 
poisson se vend sur des tables de marbre blanc, et a travers laquelle des 
nattes sont tendues, on a, a cote du monument romain, le spectacle 
d'un marche du moyen age, et un peu le souvenir d'un bazar d' Orient." 
— Ampire, Emp. i. 179. 

" Who that has ever been to Rome does not remember Roman streets 
of an evening, when the day's work is done ? They are all alive in 
a serene and homelike fashion. The old town tells its story. Low 
arches cluster with life — a life humble and stately, though rags hang 
from the citizens and the windows. You realize it as you pass them — 
their temples are in ruins, their rule is over — their colonies have revolted 


long centuries ago. Their gates and their cohimns have fallen like the 
trees of a forest, cut down by an invading civilization." — Miss Thackeray. 

Here we are in the centre of the Jews' quarter — the 
famous Ghetto. 

The name " Ghetto " is derived from the Hebrew word 
chat, broken, destroyed, shaven, cut down, cast off, aban- 
doned (see the Hebrew in Isaiah xiv. 12; xv. 2; Jer. xlviii. 
25, 27; Zech. xi. 10 — 14; &c.). The first Jewish slaves 
were brought to Rome by Pompey the Great, after he had 
taken Jerusalem, and forcibly entered the Holy of Holies. 
But for centuries after this they lived in Rome in wealth 
and honour, their princes Herod and Agrippa being re- 
ceived with royal distinction, and finding a home in the 
Palace of the Caesars, — in which Berenice (or Veronica), the 
daughter of Agrippa, presided as the acknowledged mistress 
of Titus, who would willingly have made her empress of 
Rome. The chief Jewish settlement in imperial times was 
nearly on the site of their present abode, but they were not 
compelled to live here, and also had a large colony in the 
Trastevere ; and when St. Peter was at Rome (if the Church 
tradition be true), he dwelt, with Aquila and Priscilla, on 
the slopes of the Aventine. Julius, Augustus, and Tiberius 
Caesar treated the Jews with kindness, but under Caligula 
they already met with ill-treatment and contempt, — that 
emperor being especially irritated against them as the only 
nation which refused to yield him divine honours, and 
because they had successfully resisted the placing of his 
statue in the Holy of Holies at Jerusalem. On the de- 
struction of Jcnisalcm by Titus, thousands of Jewish slaves 
were brought to Rome, and were employed on the building 


of the Coliseum. At the same time Vespasian, while 
allowing the Hebrews in Rome the free exercise of their 
religion, obliged them to pay the tax of half a skekel, 
fomaerly paid into the Temple treasury, to Jupiter Capito- 
linus, — and this custom is still kept up in the annual tribute 
paid by the Jews in the Camera Capitolina. 

Under Domitian the Jews were banished from the city to 
the valley of Egeria, where they lived in a state of poverty 
and outlawry, which is described by Juvenal,* and occupied 
themselves with soothsaying, love-charms, magic-potions, 
and mysterious cures. t 

During the reigns of the earlier popes, the Jews at Rome 
enjoyed a great amount of liberty, and the anti-pope 
Anacletus II. (ob. 1 138) was even the grandson of a baptized 
Jew, whose family bore a leading part in Rome, as one of 
the great patrician houses. The clemency with which the 
Jews were regarded was, however, partly due to their skill 
as physicians^ — and long after their persecutions had begun 
(as late as Martin V., 141 7 — 31), the physician of the 
Vatican was a Jew, The first really bitter enemy of the 
Jews was Eugenius IV. (Gabriele Condolmiere, 143 1 — 39), 
who forbade Christians to trade, to eat, or to dwell with 
them, and prohibited them from walking in the streets, from 
building new synagogues, or from occupying any public 
post. Paul II. (1468) increased their humiliation by com- 
pelling them to run races during the Carnival, as the horses 
run now, amidst the hoots of the populace. This custom 
continued for two hundred years. Sprenger's " Roma 
Nuova" of 1667, mentions that "the asses ran first, then 
the Jews — naked, with only a band round their loins — then 

* Sat. iii. t Sat. xvi. 


the buffaloes, then the Barbary horses." It was Clement IX. 
(Rospigliosi), in 1668, who first permitted the Jews to pay 
a sum equivalent to 1500 francs annually instead of racing. 

" On the first Saturday in Carnival, it was the custom for the heads 
of the Jews in Rome to appear as a deputation before the Conservators 
in the Capitol. Throwing tliemselves upon their knees, they offered a 
nosegay and twenty scudi with the request that this might be employed 
to ornament the balcony in which the Roman Senate sate in the Piazza 
del Popolo. In like manner they went to the senator, and, after the 
ancient custom, implored permission to remain in Rome. The senator 
placed his foot on their foreheads, ordered them to stand up, and replied 
in the accustomed formula, that Jews were not adopted in Rome, but 
allowed from compassion to remain there. This humiliation has now dis- 
appeared, but the Jews still go to the Capitol, on the first Saturday of 
Carnival, to offer their homage and tribute for the pallii of the horses, 
which they have to provide, in memory that now the horses amuse the 
people in their stead." — Gregoroviiis, Wa)iderjahre. 

The Jews were first shut up within the walls of the Ghetto 

by the fanatical Dominican pope, Paul IV. (Gio. Pietro 

Carafifa, 1555 — 59), and commanded never to appear out- 

■ side it, unless the men were in yellow hats, or the women 

in yellow veils. " For," says the Bull Cum Nimis, 

" It is most absurd and unsuitable that the Jews, whose own crime 
has plunged them into everlasting slavery, under the plea that Christian 
magnanimity allows them, should presume to dwell and mix with 
Christians, not bearing any mark of distinction, and should have Chris- 
tian servants, yea, even buy houses." 

The Ghetto, or Vicus Judaiorum, as it Avas at first called, 
was shut in by walls which reached from the Ponte Quattro 
Capi to the Piazza del Pianto, or "Place of Weeping," 
whose name bears witness to the grief of the people on 
the 26th July, 1556, when they were first forced into their 

"Those Jews who were shut up in the Ghetto were placed in posses- 


sion of the dwellings of others. The houses in that quarter were the 
property of Romans, and some of them were inhabited by families of 
consideration, such as the Boccapaduli. When these removed they 
remained the proprietors and the Jews only tenants. But as they vyere 
to live for ever in these streets, it was necessary that the Jews should 
have a perpetual lease to defend them against a twofold danger, — 
negligence on the part of the owner to announce to his Jewish tenant 
when his possession expired, or bankruptcy if the owner raised his rent. 
Thus originated a law which established that the Romans should remain 
in possession of the dwellings let to the Jews, but that the latter should 
hold the houses in fee farm ; that is, the expiration of the contract cannot 
be announced to a Jewish tenant, and so long as he pays the lawful 
rent, the rent can never be raised ; the Jew at the same time may alter 
or enlarge his house as he chooses. This still existing privilege is 
called the Jus Gazzaga. By virtue of it a Jew is in hereditary possession 
of the lease, and can sell it to his relations or others, and to the present 
day it is a costly fortune to be in possession of a Jus Gazzaga, or a 
hereditary lease. Highly extolled is the Jewish maiden who brings her 
bridegroom such a dowry. Through this salutary law the Jew became 
possessed of a home, which to some extent he may call his own." — 

The Jews were kindly treated by Sixtus V. on the plea 
that they were " the family from whom Christ came," and he 
allowed them to practise many kinds of trades, and to have 
intercourse with Christians, and to build houses, libraries, 
and synagogues, but his mild laws were all repealed by 
Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini, 1592-1605), and under Cle- 
ment XI. and Innocent XIII. all trade was forbidden 
them, except that in old-clothes, rags, and iron, " stracci 
feracci." To these Benedict XIV. (Lambertini) added 
trade in drapery, with which they are still largely occupied. 
Under Gregory XIII, (Buoncompagni, 1572-85) the Jews 
were forced to hear a sermon every week in the church, 
first of S. Benedetto alia Regola, then in S. Angelo in 
Peschiera, and every Sabbath police-agents were sent into 
the Ghetto to drive men, women, and children into the 


church with scourges, and to lash them while there if they 
appeared to be inattentive. 

"Now was come about Holy Cross Day, and now must my lord 
preach his first sermon to the Jews : as it was of old cared for in the 
merciful bowels of the Church, that, so to speak, a crumb at least from 
her conspicuous table here in Rome, should be, though but once yearly, 
cast to the famishing dogs, undertrampled and bespitten upon beneath 
the feet of the guests ; and a moving sight in truth this, of so many of 
the besotted, blind, restive, and ready-to-perish Hebrews ! now ma- 
ternally brought — nay (for He saith, ' Compel them to come in '), haled, 
as it were, by the head and hair, and against their obstinate hearts, to 
partake of the heavenly grace. . . ." — Diary by the Bishofs Secretary, 

Though what the Jews really said, on thus being driven to church, 
was rather to this effect : — 


"Groan all together now, whee-hee-hee ! 
It's a-work, it's a-work, ah, woe is me ! 
It began, when a herd of us, picked and placed. 
Were spurred through the Corso, stripped to the waist ; 
Jew-brutes, with sweat and blood well spent 
To usher in worthily Christian Lent. 


*It grew, when the hangman entered our bounds, 
Yelled, pricked us out to his church like hounds. 
It got to a pitch, when the hand indeed 
Which gutted my purse, would throttle my creed. 
And it overflows, when, to even the odd. 
Men I helped to their sins, help me to their God." 

R. B. Brcnuning, Holy Cross Day. 

This custom of compelhng Jews to Hsten to Christian ser- 
mons was renewed by Leo XII., and was only abolished in 
the early years of Pius IX. The walls of the Ghetto also 
remained, and its gates were closed at night until the reign 
of the i)resent pope, who removed the limits of the Ghetto, 
and revoked all the oppressive laws against the Jews. The 
luiniune feeling with which he regarded this hitherto op- 


pressed race is said to have been first evinced, — when, on 
the occasion of his placing a Uberal alms in the hand of a 
beggar, one of his attendants interposed, saying, " It is a 
Jew ! " and the pope replied, " What does that matter, it is 
a man ? " 

"The present population of the Ghetto is estimated at 3800, a 
number out of all proportion, considering the small" size of the Ghetto, 
which covers less space than the fifth part of any small town of 3000 
inhabitants. The Jews are under the chief congregation of the Inquisi- 
tion, and their especial magistrate for all civil and criminal processes is 
the Cardinal Vicar. The tribunal which governs them consists of the 
Cardinal Vicar, the Prelato Vicegerente, the Prelate Luogo-tenente 
Civile, and the Criminal Lieutenant. In police matters, the President 
of the Region of S. Angela and Campitelli exercises the local police 
magistracy. The Jewish community has itself the right of regulating 
its internal order by the so-called Fattori del Ghetto, chosen every half- 
year. The common tribute of the Ghetto to the state, and to various 
religious bodies, amounts to about 13,000 francs." 

Opposite the gate of the Ghetto near the Ponte Quattro 
Capi a converted Jew erected a church, which is still to be 
seen, with a painting of the Crucifixion on its outside wall 
(upon which every Jew must look as he comes out of the 
Ghetto), and underneath an inscription in large letters of 
Hebrew and Latin from Isaiah, Ixv. 2 : — " All day long I 
have stretched out my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying 
people." The lower streets of the Ghetto, especially the 
Fiumara, which is nearest to the banks of the Tiber, are 
annually overflowed during the spring rains and melting of 
the mountain snows, which is productive of great misery and 
distress. Yet in spite of this, and of the teeming population 
crowded into its narrow alleys, the mortality was less here 
during the cholera than in any other part of Rome, and 
malaria is unknown here, a freedom from disease which may 


perhaps be attributed to the Jewish custom of whitewashing 
their dweUings at every festival. There is no Jewish hospital, 
and if the Jews go to an ordinary hospital, they must submit 
to a crucifix being hung over their beds. It is remarkable 
that the very centre of the Jewish settlement should be the 
Portico of Octavia, in which Vespasian and Titus celebrated 
their triumph after the fall of Jerusalem. Here and 
there in the narrow alleys the seven-branched candlestick 
may be seen carved on the house walls, a "yet living 
symbol of the Jewish religion." 

Everything may be obtained in the Ghetto : precious 
stores, lace, furniture of all kinds, rich embroidery from 
Algiers and Constantinople, striped stuffs from Spain, — but 
all is concealed and under cover. " Cosa cercate," the 
Jew shopkeepers hiss at you as you thread their narrow 
alleys, and try to entice you into a bargain with them. The 
same article is often passed on by a mutual arrangement 
from shop to shop, and meets you wherever you go. On 
Friday evening all shops are shut, and bread is baked 
for the Sabbath, all merchandise is removed, and the men 
go to the synagogue, and wish each other " a good Sab- 
bath," on their return.* 

In the Piazza della Scuola are five schools under one 
roof — the Scuola del Tempio, Catilana, Castigliana, Sici- 
liana, and the Scuola Nuova, " which show that the 
Roman Ghetto is divided into five districts or parishes, 
each of which represents a particular race, according to the 
prevailing nationality of the Jews, whose fathers have been 
either Roman-Jewish from ancient times, or have been 
brought hither from Spain and Sicily ; the Temple-district 

* See Dr. Philip's article on " The Jews in Rome." 


is said above all others to assert its descent from the Jews 
of Titus. In the same piazza is the chief synagogue, 
richly adorned with sculpture and gilding. On the external 
frieze are represented in stucco the seven-branched candle- 
stick, David's harp, and Miriam's timbrel. The interior is 
highly picturesque and quaint, and is hung with curious 
tapestries on festas. The frieze which surrounds it repre- 
sents the temple of Solomon with all its sacred vessels. A 
round window in the north wall, divided into twelve panes 
of coloured glass, is symbohcal of the twelve tribes of Israel, 
and a type of the Urim and Thummim. " To the west is 
the round choir, a wooden desk for singers and precentors. 
Opposite, in the eastern wall, is the Holy of Holies, with 
projecting staves (as if for the carrying of the ark) resting 
on Corinthian columns. It is covered by a curtain, on 
which texts and various devices of roses and tasteful ara- 
besques in the style of Solomon's temple are embroidered 
in gold. The seven-branched candlestick crowns the whole. 
In this Holy of Holies lies the sealed Pentateuch, a large 
parchment roll. This is borne in procession through the 
hall and exhibited from the desk towards all the points 
of the compass, whereat the Jews raise their arms and utter 
a cry." 

" On entering the Ghetto, we see Israel before its tents, in full rest- 
less labour and activity. The people sit in their doorways, or outside 
in the streets, which receive hardly more light than the damp and 
gloomy chambers, and grub amid their old trumpery, or patch and sew 
diligently. It is inexpressible what a chaos of shreds and patches 
(called Cejicl in Italian) is here accumulated. The whole world seems 
to be lying about in countless rags and scraps, as Jewish plunder. 
The fragments lie in heaps before the doors, they are of every kind and 
colour, — gold fringes, scraps of silk brocade, bits of velvet, red patches, 
VOL. I. 17 


blue patches, orange, yellow, black and white, torn, old, slashed and 
tattered pieces, large and small. I never saw such varied rubbish. 
The Jews might mend up all creation with it, and patch the whole 
world as gaily as harlequin's coat. There they sit and grub in their 
sea of rags, as though seeking for treasures, at least for a lost gold 
brocade. For they are as good antiquarians as any of those in Rome, 
who grovel amongst the ruins to bring to light the stump of a column, 
a fragment of a relief, an ancient inscription, a coin, or such matters. 
Each Hebrew Winckelmann in the Ghetto lays out his rags for sale 
with a certain pride, as does the dealer in marble fragments. The latter 
boasts a piece of giallo-antico, the Jew can match it with an excellent 
fragment of yellow silk ; porphyiy here is represented by a piece of 
dark red damask, verde-antico by a handsome patch of ancient green 
velvet. And there is neither jasper nor alabaster, black marble, or 
white, or parti-coloured, which the Ghetto antiquarian is not able to 
match. The history of eveiy fashion from Herod the Great to the 
invention of paletots, and of every mode of the highest as well as of the 
lower classes may be collected from these fragments, some of which are 
really historical, and may once have adorned the persons of ROmulus, 
Scipio Africanus, Hannibal, Cornelia, Augustus, Charlemagne, Pericles, 
Cleopatra, Barbarossa, Gregory VII., Columbus, and so forth. 

" Here sit the daughters of Zion on these heaps and sew all that is 
capable of being sewn. Great is their boasted skill in all work of 
mending, darning, and fine-drawing, and it is said that even the most 
formidable rent in any old drapery or garment whatsoever, becomes 
invisible under the hands of these Arachnes. It is chiefly in the 
Fiumara, the street lying lowest and nearest to the river, and in the 
street corners (one of which is called Argumille, i.e. of unleavened 
bread), that this business is carried on. I have often seen with a feeling 
of pain the pale, stooping, starving figures, laboriously plying the 
needle, — men as well as women, girls, and children. Misery stares 
forth from the tangled hair, and complains silently in the yellow-brown 
faces, and no beauty of feature recalls the countenance of Rachel, Leah, 
or Miriam, — only sometimes a glance from a deep-sunk, piercing black 
eye, that looks up from its needle and rags, and seems to say — ' From 
the daugliter of Zion, all her beauty is departed — she that was great 
among the nations, and princess among the provinces, how is she 
become tributary,! She weepeth sore in the night, and her tears are 
on her checks ; among all her lovers she hath none to comfort her : all 
her friends have dealt treacherously with her, they are become her 
enemies. Judah is gone into cajjlivity, because of affliction, and because 
of great servitude ; she dwcllcth among the heathen, she findcth no 


rest ; all her persecutors overtook hei between the straits. How Ii.itli 
the Lord covered the daughter of Zion with a cloud in his anger ! " — 
Giegorovius, Wanderjahre. 

The narrow street which is a continuation of the Pes- 
cheria, emerges upon the small square called Piazza dcUa 
Giudccca. In the houses on the left may be seen some 
columns and part of an architrave, being the only visible 
remains of the Theatre of Balbus, erected by C. Cornelius 
Balbus, a general who triumphed in the time of Augustus, 
with the spoils taken from the Garamantes, a people of 
Africa. It was opened in the same year as the Theatre of 
Marcellus, and though very much smaller, was capable of 
containing as many as 11,600 spectators. 

To the right, still partly on the site of the ancient 
theatre, and extending along one side of the Piazza delle 
Scuole, is the vast Palazzo Cenci, the ancient residence of 
the famous Cenci family (now represented by Count Cenci- 
Bolognetti), and the scene of many of the terrible crimes 
and tragedies which stain its annals. 

" The Cenci Palace is of great extent : and, though in part modern- 
ized, there yet remains a vast and gloomy pile of feudal architecture in 
the same state as during the dreadful scenes which it once witnessed. 
The palace is situated in an obscure corner of Rome, near the quarter 
of the Jews, and from the upper windows you see the immense ruins of 
Mount Palatine, half hidden under the profuse undergrowth of trees. 
There is a court in one part of the palace supported by columns, and 
adorned with antique friezes of fine workmanship, and built up, after 
the Italian fashion, with balcony over balcony of open work. One 
of the gates of the palace, formed of immense stones, and leading 
through a passage dark and lofty, and opening into gloomy sub- 
terranean chambers, struck me particularly." — ■Shdlty''s Preface to " The 
Cenci. " 

Opposite the further entrance of the Palace, is the tiny 


Church of S. Tommaso del Cenci, founded 1113 by Cencio, 
bishop of Sabina ; granted by JuHus II. to Rocco Cenci ; 
— and rebuilt in 1575 by the wicked Count Cenci. 

"In 1585, Francesco Cenci was the head of the family, a man of 
passions so ungovernable and heart so depraved, that he hesitated at no 
species of crime. His first wife was a Princess Santa Croce, whom he 
is believed to have poisoned in order to marry the beautiful Lucrezia 
Petroni. His domestic cruelties to his children, especially to his three 
elder sons, Giacomo, Christoforo, and Rocco, were so terrible, that they 
petitioned the reigning Pope Clement VHI. to interfere in their behalf, 
but he abruptly dismissed them as rebels against the paternal authority ; 
one daughter, Marguerita, alone escaped from her miserable home, 
being given in marriage by the pope to a Signor Gabrielli. 

" The escape of this daughter made Francesco the more emlnttered 
against the remainder of his family. His youngest child, Beatrice, he 
immured in a solitary chamber, to which no one but himself was 
admitted, and where he constantly starved and beat her severely. 
When he received the news that his sons Christoforo and Rocco were 
assassinated in the neighbourhood of Rome by an unknown hand, he 
expressed the utmost joy, declaring that no money of his should pur- 
chase masses for the repose of their souls, and that he could have no 
peace until his wife and every child he had were in their graves. 

" Lucrezia, believing that the monster whom she had espoused was 
possessed, in spite of his cruelty, by a criminal passion for his own 
daughter, attempted secretly to save her, by presenting a memorial to 
the pope imploring him to give her in marriage to a Signor Guerra, 
who had long been attached to her. But this petition was intercepted 
by Francesco, who then carried off Lucrezia and his two youngest 
children, Beatrice and Bernardo, to Petrella, a vast and desolate castle 
in the Apennines. Guerra, and Giacomo the eldest remaining brother 
of Beatrice, hired a band of banditti in the Sabine hills who were tt) 
attack the party on the way, and to carry off Francesco for a ransom, 
liberating the women ; — but the rescue arrived too late. 

" When they reached Petrella, Beatrice was incarcerated in a subter- 
ranean dungeon, where she was persuaded that her lover Guerra had 
been murdered, and was treated with such awful cruelty by her father, 
that, for a time, she was deprived of her reason. One day a servant, 
Marzio, whose betrothed had previously been seduced and murdered by 
Francesco, roused by llie shrieks of lieatrice, burst into the room, and 
i-ushing upon his master dealt a terrible thrust with a dagger on his 


neck, exclaiming, 'I murder thee, assassin of thy own blood.' But 
Cenci arose uninjured, to the horror of Marzio, who imagined that only 
a demon could avert such a blow, and who was ignorant that he wore 
under his vestments, even in bed, a coat of mail which covered his entire 

" At length Beatrice contrived to communicate with her brother Gia- 
como, who united with Guerra in hiring the services of Marzio and 
of Olympio, another servant, who was inspired with an equal thirst for 
vengeance upon Count Cenci. All felt that the death of Francesco 
was the only hope for his unhappy family. The assassins com- 
municated with Lucrezia, who administered an opiate to her husband, 
and then stole from him some keys which enabled her after mid- 
night to liberate Bernardo and Beatrice. The latter she found in a 
state of stupefaction, and vainly endeavoured to rouse her, signifying 
that the moment of escape had arrived. Beatrice showed no symptom 
of surprise at the announcement, or at the visit of her stepmother at 
that strange hour ; she asked not how they had opened her door, or 
how her liberty had been acquired. When they were all assembled in 
the hall, Lucrezia told them the project, and asked their aid. Bernardo 
at first hesitated, but Lucrezia roused him by every argument she could 
urge and obtained his consent. Beatrice made no reply. 

" . . . . Francesco Cenci was murdered in his sleep. Marzio 
placed a large nail or iron bolt on his right eye, which Olympio, with 
one blow of a hammer, drove straight into the brain. The deed thus 
accomplished, Marzio and Olympio wrapped the dead body in a sheet," 
and carried it to a small pavilion built at the end of a terrace-walk, 
overlooking an orchard. From this height they cast it down on an old 
gnarled elder-tree, in order that when the body should be found the 
next morning, it might appear that whilst walking on the terrace, the 
foot of the count had slipped, and that he had fallen head-foremost on 
one of the stunted branches of the tree, which, piercing through his eye 
to the brain, had caused his death. Returning to the hall, they received 
from Lucrezia a purse of gold ; Marzio, carrying with him a valuable 
cloak trimmed with gold lace, turned towards Beatrice (who still 
stood leaning against the table), and saying, ' I shall keep this as a 
memorial of you,' departed with Olympio. The report of Francesco's 
death was not spread through the castle until the next morning. Lu- 
crezia then rushed through the house uttering cries. In a day or two 
the funeral took place, and immediately after the family returned to 
Rome. Giacomo took possession of the Cenci palace, and Beatrice daily 
improved in health of body and mind. 

" Soon, however, the suspicious circumstances of Count Cenci's death 


excited attention ; the body was exhumed and examined, and the in- 
habitants of Petrella placed under arrest, when a washerwoman deposed 
to having received bloody sheets from one of the inhabitants of the 
castle — she thought from Beatrice^the day after the murder. On 
hearing this, the fear that he would turn against them, induced Signor 
Guerra to hire assassins to pursue Olympio, Avhom they despatched at 
Terni ; but Marzio was arrested, and confessed the circumstances of the 
murder, though when confronted with Beatrice, he proclaimed her inno- 
cence of it, and declared her incapable of crime. 

" Guerra made good his escape, but the whole Cenci family were 
thrown into prison and put to the torture. Giacomo, Bernardo, and 
Lucrezia, unable to endure the sufferings of the rack, confessed at 

"Such, however, was not the case Avith the young and beautiful 
Beatrice. Full of spirit and courage, neither the persuasions nor threats 
of Moscati the judge coidd extort from her the smallest confession. She 
endured the torture of the cord with all the firmness which the puiity of 
her heart inspired. The judge failed to extort from her lips a single 
word which could throw a shade over her innocence, and at length, 
believing it useless to pursue the torture further, he suspended the pro- 
ceedings, and reported them to the pope. But Clement VIII. suspecting 
that the unwillingness of Moscati to believe Beatrice guilty was induced 
by her extreme beauty, only replied by consigning the prosecution to 
another judge, and Beatrice was left in the hands of Luciani, 'a man 
whose heart was a stranger to every feeling of humanity.' Upon her 
renewed protestations of innocence, he ordered the torture of the 

"The torture of the Vigilia was as follows: — Upon a high joint- 
stool, the seat about a span large, and instead of being flat, cut in the 
form of pointed diamonds, the victim was seated : the legs were fastened 
together and without support ; the hands bound behind the back, and 
with a running knot attached to a cord descending from the ceiling : the 
body was loosely attached to the back of the chair, cut also into angular 
points. A wretch stood near, pushing the victim from side to side, and 
now and then, by pulling the rope from the ceiling, gave the arms most 
painful jerks. In this horrible position the sufferer remained forty hours, 
the assistants being changed every fifth hour. At the expiration of this 
time, Beatrice was carried into the prison more dead than alive. The 
judge was annoyed at the account he received of the fortitude of 
Beatrice, and, in a rage, he exclaimed, ' Never shall it be said that a 
weak girl can escape from my hands, while not one of those condemned 
liavc been able to resist my power ! ' 


• " On the tliird day the examination was renewed, and Beatrice was 
condemned to the tortura capillomm. ' At a given signal, the satel- 
lites of the tribunal carried Beatrice under a rope suspended from the 
ceiling, and twisting into a cord her long and beautiful hair, they 
attached it, with diabolical art, to the rope, so that the whole body 
could by this means be raised from the ground. The frightful prepara- 
tions over, and her protestations of innocence again disregarded, she was 
elevated from the ground by the hair of her head ; at the same time was 
added another torture, consisting of a mesh of small cords twined about 
the fingers, twisting them nearly out of joint and dragging the hand 
almost from the bone of the arm. The wretched girl screamed with 
agony, while the judge stood by, commanding the suspended rope to be 
tightened, and raising the body by the hair from the ground gave it a 
sudden jerk, exhorting her to confess. She cried out in a convulsion 
for water, rolling her eyes in agony, and exclaiming, ' I am innocent.' 
The torture being repeated with still greater cruelty, and the fortitude 
of the young girl remaining unshaken, the judge, believing it impossible 
that a young female could resist such torments, concluded, with the 
superstition of the times, that she carried about with her some witch- 
craft ; he ordered her to be examined, and finding no cause of suspicion, 
was about to have her hair cut off, when it was suggested the torment of 
the tortura capillomm could not then be renewed ; her hair was again 
fastened to the rope, and for a whole hour she was subjected to such a 
succession of cruelties as the heart shrinks from narrating : but not a 
word escaped from her lips, that could compromise her innocence. 

" In the mean time Lucrezia, Giacomo, and Bernardo were taken into 
the hall Erculeo, and in their presence a repetition of the torture was 
ordered, to so awful an extent, that she fainted and lay senseless. A 
new cruelty was devised — the taxilla, — her feet were bared, and to the 
soles was applied a block of heated wood, prepared in such a way as to 
retain the scorching heat ; then did the unhappy girl utter piercing 
shrieks, and remained some minutes apparently dead. These accumu- 
lated tortures were repeated, until her relations, who were handcuffed 
lest they should render her any assistance, began to implore her with 
heart-rending tears and entreaties to yield. To this the judge mingled 
threats and the application of further torments, and enforced them with 
such rigour, that the victim shrieked in agony, and exclaimed, ' Oh ! 
cease this martyrdom, and I will confess anything.' 

"The tortures were at once suspended and restoratives applied, 
while her family on their knees implored Beatrice to adhere to her 
promise, Urging that the unnatural cruelties of her father would be a 
just defence for the crime imputed to her, and that by agreeing to their 

264 • WALK'S IN ROME. 

deposition, she might give them a hope of common liberation. The 
unhappy girl replied, ' Be it as you wish. I am content to die if I can 
preserve you ' — and to each interrogatory of the judge she replied, ' J£ 
vera,'' until asked whether she did not urge the assassins to kill her father, 
and, on their refusal, propose to commit the crime herself, when she 
involuntarily exclaimed, ' Impossible, impossible ! a tiger could not do 
it ; how much less a daughter ! ' Threatened anew with the torture, 
she answered not, but, raising her eyes to Heaven, and moving her lips 
in prayer, she said, ' Oh my God, Thou knowest if this be true ! ' Thus 
did the judge force from Beatrice an assent to a deed at which her very 
nature revolted. 

"Luciani hastened to the pope with the news that Beatrice had con- 
fessed. Clement VIII. was seized with one of those fits of anger to 
which he was subject, and exclaimed — 'Let them all be immediately 
bound to the tails of wild horses, and dragged through the streets until 
life is extinct.' The horror evinced by all classes at this sentence 
induced him to grant a respite of twenty-five days, at the end of which 
a trial took place, and the advocate Farinacci boldly pleaded the 
defence of the prisoners. But while their fate was hanging in the 
balance, the Marchesa Santa-Croce was murdered by her own son, 
which caused Clement to order the immediate execution of the whole 
Cenci family, and the entreaties of their friends only induced him to 
spare the life of Bernardo, with the horrible proviso that he was to 
remain upon the scaffold and witness the execution of his relations. 

" , . . . During the fearful and protracted transit to the scaffold, 
it was the custom of the satellites of the inquisition, at regular intervals, 
to tear from the body pieces of flesh with heated pincers, but in 
this instance the pope dispensed with this torture, but ordered that 
Giacomo should be beaten to death and then quartered. As the pro- 
cession passed the piazza of the Palazzo Cenci, Giacomo, who had 
appeared resigned, became dreadfully agitated, and uttered heart-rending 
cries of, ' My cliildrcn ! my children ! ' The people shouted, ' Dogs, 
give him his children ! ' The procession was proceeding, when the 
multitude assumed such a threatening aspect, that two of the Com- 
pagnia dei Confortati thought tliemselves authorised to pause, the 
unhappy man imploring tliem in accents of despair, to suffer him once 
more to behold his cliildren. The crowd became pacified on seeing 
Giacomo descend from the cart and conducted to the vestibule of his 
palace, where they brought to him his children and his wife. The 
latter fainted on the last step. 

"The scene that followed was the most affecting and painful that the 
imagination can picture. His three children clung around his legs, 


1 uttering cries that rent the hearts of all present. The unhappy man 

' embraced them, telling them that in Bernardo they would find a father ; 

then, fixing his eyes on his unconscious wife, he said, ' Let us go ! ' 

Reascending the cart, the procession stopped before the prison of the 

Corte Savella. 

" Here Beatrice and Lucrezia appeared before the gates, conducted 
by the Confortati. They knelt down and prayed for some time before 
the crucifix, and then walked on foot behind the carriage. Lucrezia 
wore a robe of black, and a long black veil covered her head and 
shoulders ; Beatrice in a dark robe and veil, a handkerchief of cloth of 
silver on her head, and slippers of white velvet, ornamented with 
crimson sandals and rosettes, followed. . . . Twice during the 
passage, an attempt was made to rescue Beatrice, but each failed, and 
she reached the chapel, where all the condemned were to receive the 
blessing of the Sacrament before execution. 

" The first brought out to ascend the scaffold was Bernardo, who, 
according to the conditions of his reprieve, was to witness the death of 
his relatives. The poor boy, before he had reached the summit, fell 
down in a swoon, and was obliged to be supported to his seat of torture. 
Preceded by the standard and the brethren of the Misericordia, the 
executioner next entered the chapel to convey Lucrezia. Binding her 
hands behind her back, and removing the veil that covered her head 
and shoulders, he led her to the foot of the scaffold. Here she stopped, 
prayed devoutly, kissed the crucifix, and taking off her shoes, mounted 
the ladder barefoot. From confusion and terror, she with difficulty 
ascended, crying out, ' Oh, my God ! oh, holy brethren, pray for my 
soul, oh, God, pardon me ! ' The principal executioner beckoned to 
her to place herself on the block ; the unhappy woman, from her 
unwieldy figure, being unable to do so, some violence was used, the 
executioner raised his axe, and with one stroke severed the head from 
the body ! Catching it by the hair, he exposed it, still quivering, to 
the gaze of the populace ; then wrapping it in the veil, he laid it on a 
bier in the corner of the scaffold, the body falling into a coffin placed 
underneath. The violence used towards the sufferer had so excited the 
multitude, that a universal uproar commenced. Forty young men 
rushed forward to the chapel to rescue Beatrice, but were again 
defeated, after a short struggle. . . . 

"Meanwhile Beatrice, kneeling in the chapel absorbed in prayer, 
heeded not the uproar that surrounded her. She rose, as the standard 
appeared to precede her to the block, and with eagerness demanded, ' Is 
my mother then really dead ? ' — Answered in the affirmative, she prayed 
with fervour ; then raising her voice, she said, ' Lord, thou hast called 


me, and I obey the summons willingly, as I hope for mercy ! ' Ap- 
proaching her brother, she bade him farewell, and with a smile of love, 
said, ' Grieve not for me. We shall be happy in heaven, I have 
forgiven thee.' Giacomo fainted ; his sister, turning round, said, ' Let 
us proceed ! ' The executioner appeared with a cord, but seemed 
afraid to fasten it round her body. She saw this, and with a sad smile 
said, ' Bind this body ; but hasten to release the soul, which pants for 
immortality ! ' 

" Scarcely had the victim arrived at the foot of the scaffold, when the 
square, filled with that vast multitude before so uproarious, suddenly 
assumed the silence of a desert. Each one bent forward to hear her 
speak ; with every eye riveted on her, and lips apart, it seemed as if 
their very existence depended on any words she might utter. Beatrice 
ascended the stairs with a slow but firm step. In a moment she placed 
herself on the block, which had caused so much fear to Lucrezia. She 
did not allow the executioner to remove the veil, but laid it herself upon 
the table. In this dreadful situation she remained a few minutes, a 
universal cry of horror staying the arm of the executioner. But soon 
the head of his victim was held up separated from the trunk, which was 
violently agitated for a few seconds. The miserable Bernardo Cenci, 
forced to witness the fate of his sister, again swooned away ; nor could 
he be restored to his senses for more than half an hour. 

" Meanwhile the scaffold was made ready for the dreadful punishment 
destined for Giacomo. Having performed some religious ceremonies, 
he appeared dressed in a cloak and cap. Turning towards the people, 
he said in a clear voice, ' Although in the agonies of torture I accused 
my sister and brother of sharing in the crime for which I suffer, I 
accused them falsely. Now that I am about to render an account of 
my actions to God, I solemnly assert their entire innocence. Farewell, 
my friends. Oh, pray to God for me.' 

"Saying these words, he knelt down; the executioner bound his 
legs to the block and bandaged his eyes. To particularise the details 
of this execution would be too dreadful ; suffice it to say, he was beaten, 
beheaded, and quartered in the sight of that vast multitude, and 
by the side of a brother, who was sprinkled with his blood. All was 
now over. 

" Near the statue of St. Paul, according to custom, 

were placed three biers, each with four lighted torches. In these were 
laid the bodies of the victims. A crown of flowers Iiad been placed 
around the head of Beatrice, who seemed as though in sleep, so calm, 
so peaceful was that placid face, while a smile such as she wore in life 
still hovered on her lips. Many a tear was shed over that bier, many a 


flower was scattered around her, whose fate all mourned — whose inno- 
cence none questioned. 

" On that night the bodies were interred. The corpse of Beatrice, 
clad in the dress she wore on the scaffold, was borne, covered with 
garlands of flowers, to the church of San Pietro in Montorio ; and 
buried at the foot of the high altar, before Raffaelle's celebrated picture 
of the Transfiguration." * 

Retracing our steps to the Piazza della Giudecca and 
turning left down a narrow alley, which is always busy with 
Jewish traffic, we reach the Piazza delle Tartarughc, so 
called from the tortoises which form part of the adornments 
of its lovely little fountain, — designed by Giacomo della 
Porta, the four figures of boys being by Taddeo Landini. 

At this point we leave the Ghetto, 

Forming one side of the Piazza delle Tartarughe is the 
Palazzo Costagtiti, celebrated for its six splendid ceilings 
by great artists, viz. : — 

1. Albani : Hercules wounding the Centaur Nessus. 

2. Dovienickino : Apollo in his car. Time discovering truth, &c., 

much injured. 

3. Gucrdiio : Rinaldo and Armida in a chariot drawn by- 


4. Cav. d Arpiiio : Juno nursing Hercules, Venus and Cupids. 

5. Lanfranco : Justice and Peace. 

6. Romanelli: Arion saved by the dolphin. 

In a corner of the piazza is a well-known Lace-Shop^ much 
frequented by English ladies, but great powers of bargaining 
are called for. Almost immediately behind this is one of 
the most picturesque mediaeval courtyards in the city. 

* This account is much abridged from the interesting translation in Whiteside's 
"Italy in the Nineteenth Century," from "Beatrice Ccnci Romana, Storia del 
Secolo xvL Raccotiiata dal D. A. A. Firenze." 


On the same line, at the end of the street, is the Palazzo 
Mattel, built by Carlo Maderno (1615) for Duke Asdrubal 
Mattel, on the site of the Circus of Flaminius. The small 
courtyard of this palace is well worth examining, and is one 
of the handsomest in Rome, being quite encrusted, as well 
as the staircase, with ancient bas-reliefs, busts, and other 
sculptures. It contained a gallery of pictures, the greater 
part of which have been dispersed. The rooms have fres- 
coes by Ponierancio, Laiifranco, Pietro da Cortona, Dome- 
nichino, and Albani. 

Behind this, facing the Via delle Botteghe Oscure, is the 
vast Palazzo Cactani, now inhabited by the learned Don 
Michael- Angelo Caetani (Duke of Sermoneta and Prince of 
Teano), whose family is one of the most distinguished in 
the medieval history of Rome, and which gave Boniface VIII. 
to the church : 

" Lo principe de' nuovi farisei." 

Dante, Inferno, xxvii. 

It claims descent from Anatolius, created Count of 
Gaieta by Pope Gregory II. in 730. 

Close to the Palazzo Mattel is the Church of Sta. Cate- 
rina dc' Funari, built by Giacomo della Porta, in 1563, ad- 
joining a convent of Augustinian nuns. The streets in this 
quarter are interesting as bearing witness in their names to 
the existence of the Circus Flaminius, the especial circus 
of the plebs, which once occupied all the ground near this. 
The Via delle Botteghe Oscnre, commemorates the dark 
shops whicli in mediaeval times occupied the lower part of 
the circus, as they do now that of the Theatre of Mar- 
ccUus. The Via dei Funari, the ropemakcrs who took ad- 
vantage for their work of the light and open space which 



the interior of the deserted circus afforded. The remains of 
the circus existed to the sixteenth century. 

Near this, turning right, is the Piazza di CampitcUi, 
which contains the Church of S. Maria in CampitcUi, 
built by Rinaldi for Alexander VII. in 1659, upon the site 
of an oratory erected by Sta. Galla in the time of John I. 
(523-6), in honour of an image of the Virgin, which one day 
miraculously appeared imploring her charity, in company 
with the twelve poor women to whom she was daily in the 
habit of giving alms. Tlie oratory of Sta. Galla was called 
Sta. Maria in Portico, from the neighbouring portico of 
Octavia, a name which is sometimes applied to the present 
church. The miraculous mendicant image is now enshrined 
in gold and lapis-lazuli over the high altar. Other relics 
supposed to be preserved here are the bodies of Sta. Cyrica, 
Sta. Victoria, and Sta. Vincenza, and half that of Sta. Barbara ! 
The second chapel on the right has a picture of the Descent 
of the Holy Ghost by Liica Giordano ; in the first chapel on 
the left is the tomb of Prince Altieri, inscribed " Umbra," 
and that of his wife. Donna Laura di Carpegna, inscribed 
"Nihil;" they rest on lions of rosso-andco. In the right 
transept is the tomb, by Pettrich, of Cardinal Pacca, who 
lived in the Palazzo Pacca, on the opposite side of the 
square, and was the faithful friend of Pius VII. in his exile. 
The bas-relief on the tomb, of St. Peter delivered by the angel, 
is in allusion to the deliverance from the French captivity. 

The name Campitelli is probably derived from Campus- 
teli, because in this neighbourhood (see Ch. XIV.) was the 
Columna Bellica, from which when war was declared a dart 
was thrown into a plot of ground, representing the hostile 
territory, — perhaps the very site of this church. 


In the street behind this, leading into the Via di Ara 
CoeH, are the remains of the ancient Palazzo Margajia, with 
a very richly-sculptured gateway oi c. 1350. 

Opening from hence upon the left is the Via Tor de' Spccchi, 
whose name commemorates the legend of Virgil as a necro- 
mancer, and of his magic tower lined with mirrors, in which 
all the secrets of the city were reflected and brought to light. 

Here is the famous Convent of the Tor de' Specchi, founded 
by Sta. Francesca Romana, and open to the public during 
the octave of the anniversary of her death (following the 
9th of ]\Iarch). At this time the pavements are strewn with 
box, the halls and galleries are bright with fresh flowers, and 
Swiss guards are posted at the different turnings, to facilitate 
the circulation of visitors. It is a beautiful specimen of a 
Roman convent. The first hall is painted with ancient fres- 
coes, representing scenes in the life of the saint. Here, on 
a table, is the large bowl in which Sta. Francesca prepared 
ointment for the poor. Other relics are her veil, shoes, &c. 
Passing a number of open cloisters, cheerful with flowers 
and orange-trees, we reach the chapel, where sermons or 
rather lectures are delivered at the anniversary upon the 
story of Sta. Francesca's life, and where her embalmed body 
may be seen beneath the altar. A staircase seldom seen, 
but especially used by Francesca, is only ascended by the 
nuns upon theif knees. It leads to her cell and a small 
chapel, black with age, and preserved as when she used 
them. The picturcscjue dress of the Oblate sisters who are 
everywhere visible, adds to the interest of the scene. 

" It is no {gloomy al)0(lc, the Convent of tlic Tordi Specchi, even in the 
eyes of those who cannot inKicrsl.ind the hnjijiiness of a nun. It is such 
a place as one loves to sec children in ; where relijjion is combined with 



everything that pleases the eye and recreates the mind. The beautiful 
chapel ; the garden with its magnificent orange-trees; the open galleries, 
with their fanciful decorations and scenic recesses, where a holy picture 
or figure takes you by surprise, and meets you at every turn ; the light 
airy rooms, where religious prints and ornaments, with flowers, birds, 
and ingenious toys, testify that innocent enjoyments are encouraged and 
smiled upon ; while from every window may be caught a glimpse of the 
Eternal City, a spire, a ruined wall, — something that speaks of Rome 
and its thousand charms. 

"It was on the 2ist of March, the festival of St Benedict, that 
Francesca herself entered the convent, not as the foundress, but as a 
humble suppliant for admission. At the .foot of the stairs, having taken 
off her customary black gown, her veil, and her shoes, and placed a 
cord around her neck, she knelt down, kissed the ground, and, shedding 
an abundance of tears, made her general confession aloud in the presence 
of all the Oblates ; she described herself as a miserable sinner, a grievous 
offender against God, and asked permission to dwell amongst them as 
the meanest of their servants ; and to learn from them to amend her 
life, and enter upon a holier course. The spiritual daughters of Fran- 
cesca hastened to raise and embrace her ; and clothing her with their 
habit, they led the way to the chapel, where they all returned thanks to 
God. While she remained there in prayer, Agnese de Lellis, the 
superioress, assembled the sisters in the chapter-room, and declared to 
them, that now their true mother and foundress had come amongst 
them, it would be absurd for her to remain in her present office ; that 
Francesca was their guide, their head, and that into her hands she 
should instantly resign her authority. They all applauded her decision, 
and gathering around the Saint, announced to her their wishes. As was 
to be expected, Francesca strenuously refused to accede to this pro- 
posal, and pleaded her inability for the duties of a superioress. The 
Oblates had recourse to Don Giovanni, the confessor of Francesca, who 
began by entreating, and finally commanded her acceptance of the 
charge. His order she never resisted ; and accordingly, on the 25th of 
March, she was duly elected to that office." — Lady Georgina Fullcrton' s 
Life of Sta. Francesca Komana. 

" Sta. Francesca Romana is represented in the dress of a Benedictine 
nun, a black robe and a white hood or veil ; and her proper attribute is 
an angel, who holds in his hand the book of the Office of the Virgin, 
open at the words, ' Tenuisti matmm dexteram vieatn, et in vohuitate 
tua deduxisfi me, et cum gloria suscepisti tne^ (Ps. Ixxiii. 23, 24) ; 
which attribute is derived from an incident thus narrated in the acts of 


her canonisation. Though unwearied in her devotions, yet if, during 
her prayers, she was called away by her husband on any domestic duty, 
she would close her book, saying that ' a wife and a mother, when called 
upon, must quit her God at the altar, and find him in her household 
affairs.' Now it happened once, that, in reciting the Office of Our Lady, 
she was called away four times just as she was beginning the same verse, 
and, returning the fifth time, she found that verse written upon the page 
in letters of golden light by the hand of her guardian angel. " — yamesotCs 
Sacred Art, p. 151. 

Almost opposite the convent is the Via del Monte Tar- 
peio, a narrow alley, leading up to the foot of the Tarpeian 
rock, beneath the Palazzo Cafifarelli, and one of the points 
at which the rock is best seen. This spot is believed to 
have been the site of the house of Spurius Maelius, who 
tried to ingratiate himself with the people, by buying up 
corn and distributing it in a year of scarcity (b.c. 440), but 
who was in consequence put to death by the patricians. 
His house was razed to the ground, and its site, being 
always kept vacant, went by the name of ^Equimselium.* 

* Livy, iv. i5 ; xxxviii. 28. 



The Story of the Hill — Orti Famesiani — The Via Nova — Roma 
Quadrata — The Houses of the early Kings — Temple of Jupiter 
Stator — Palace of Augustus — Palace of Vespasian — Crypto-Porticus 
— Temple of Jupiter- Victor — The Lupercal and the Hut of Faus- 
tulus — Palace of Tiberius — Palace of Caligula — Clivus Victorise — 
Ruins of the Kingly Period — Altar of the Genius Loci — House of 
Hortensius — Septizonium of Severus — Palace of Domitian. 

" "T^HE Palatine formed a trapezium of solid rock, two 
sides of which were about 300 yards in length, the 
others about 400 : the area of its summit, to compare it with 
a familiar object, was nearly equal to the space between 
Pall-Mail and Piccadilly in London," * 

The history of the Palatine is the history of the City of 
Rome. Here was the Roma Quadrata, the " oppidum," or 
fortress of the Pelasgi, of which the only remaining trace is 
the name Roma, signifying force. This is the fortress where 
the shepherd-king Evander is represented by Virgil as wel- 
coming ^neas. 

The Pelasgic fortress was enclosed by Romulus within the 
limits of this new city, which, " after the Etruscan fashion, he 
traced round the foot of the hill with a plough drawn by a 
bull and a heifer, the furrow being carefully made to fall 

* Merivale, Hist, of Romans under the Empire, chap. xl. 
VOL. I. I.S 


inwards, and the heifer yoked to the near-side, to signify that 
strength and courage were required without, obedience and 
fertihty within the city. . . . The locahty thus enclosed was 
reserved for the temples of the gods and the residence of the 
ruling class, the class of patricians or burghers, as Niebuhr 
has taught us to entitle them, which predominated over the 
dependent commons, and only suffered them to crouch for 
security under the walls of Romulus. The Palatine was 
never occupied by the plebs. In the last age of the republic, 
long after the removal of this partition, or of the civil dis- 
tinction between the great classes of the state, here was still 
the chosen site of the mansions of the highest nobility."* 

In the time of the early kings the City of Rome was 
represented by the Palatine only. It was at first divided 
into two parts, one inhabited, and the other called Velia, 
and left for the grazing of cattle. It had two gates, the 
Porta Romana to the north, and the Porta Mugonia — so 
called from the lowing of the cattle — to the south, on the 
side of the Velia. 

Augustus was born on the Palatine, and dwelt there in 
common with other patrician citizens in his youth. After he 
became emperor he still lived there, but simply, and in the 
house of Hortensius, till, on its destruction by fire, the people 
of Rome insisted upon building him a palace more worthy 
of their ruler. This building was the foundation-stone of "the 
Palace of the Cxsars," which in time overran the whole hill, 
and, under Nero, two of the neighbouring hills besides, and 
whose ruins are daily being disinterred and recognised, 
though much confusion still remains regarding their respective 
sites. In a.d. 663, part of the palace remained sufficiently 

* Merivalc, chap. xl. 


perfect to be inhabited by the Emperor Constans, and its 
plan is believed to have been entire for a century after, but 
it never really recovered its sack by Genseric in a.d. 455, in 
which it was completely gutted, even of the commonest fur- 
niture ; and as years passed on it became imbedded in tlie 
soil which has so marvellously enshrouded all the ancient 
buildings of Rome, so that till within the last ten years, only 
a few broken nameless walls were visible above ground. 

" Cypress and ivy, weed and wallflower grown 
Matted and mass'd together, hillocks heap'd 
On what were chambers, arch crush' d, columns strown 
In fragments, choked-up vaults, and frescoes steep'd 
In subterranean damps, where the owl peep'd, 
Deeming it midnight : — Temples, baths, or halls ? 
Pronounce who can ; for all that Learning reap'd 
From her research has been, that these are walls. — 
Behold the Imperial Mount ! 'Tis thus the mighty falls." 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

How different is this description to that of Claudian (de 
Sexto Consulat. Honorii). 

" The Palatine, proud Rome's imperial seat, 
(An awful pile) stands venerably gi^eat : 
Thither the kingdoms and the nations come, 
In supplicating crowds to learn their doom : 
To Delphi less th' inquiring worlds repair, 
Nor does a greater god inhabit there : 
This sure the pompous mansion was design'd 
To please the mighty rulers of mankind ; 
Inferior temples rise on either hand. 
And on the borders of the palace stand, 
While o'er the rest her head she proudly rears, 
And lodged amidst her guardian gods appears." 

Addisoii's Translation. 

After the middle of the sixteenth century a great part of 
the Palatine became the property of the Farnese family, 


latterly represented by the Neapolitan Bourbons, who sold 
the "Orti Farnesiani," m 1861, to the Emperor Napoleon 
III., for ^10,000. Up to that time this part of the Palatine 
was a vast kitchen-garden, broken here and there by pic- 
turesque groups of ilex trees and fragments of mouldering 
wall. In one corner was a casino of the Famese (still stand- 
ing) adorned in fresco by some of the pupils of Raphael. 
This and all the later buildings in the " Orti," are marked 
with the Yaxnese fleur-de-lis, and on the principal staircase of 
the garden is some really grand distemper ornament of their 
time. Since 1861 extensive excavations have been carried 
on here under the superintendence of Signor Rosa, which 
have resulted in the discovery of the palaces of some of the 
earlier emperors, and the substructions of several temples. 
After the revolution of 1870 the French portion of the 
Palatine was sold by the Ex-Emperor Napoleon to the 
Roman municipal government. 

In visiting the Palace of the Ccesars, it will naturally be 
asked how it is known that the different buildings are what 
they are described to be. In a great measure this has been 
ascertained from the descriptions of Tacitus and other histo- 
rians, — but the greatest assistance of all has been obtained 
from the Tristia of Ovid, who, while in exile, consoles him- 
self by recalling the different buildings of his native city, 
which lie mentions in describing the route taken by his book, 
which he had jjcrsuaded a friend to convey to the imperial 
library. He supposes the book to enter the Palatine by the 
CHvus Victoria: behind the Temple of Vesta, and follows its 
course, remarking the different objects it passed on the right 
or the left. 


If we enter the palace by the Farnese gateway, on the right 

of the Campo-Vaccino, opposite SS. Cosmo e Damiano, we 

had better only ascend the first division of the staircase and 

then turn to the left. Passing along the lower ridge of the 

Palatine, afterwards occupied by many of the great patrician 

houses, whose sites we shall return to and examine in detail, 

we reach that corner of the garden which is nearest to the 

Arch of Titus. Plere a paved road of large blocks of lava 

has lately been laid bare, and is identified beyond a doubt 

as part of the Via Nova, which led from the Porta Mugonia 

of the Palatine along the base of the hill to the Velabrum. 

In the reign of Augustus it appears to have been made to 

communicate also with the Forum. 

"Qua Nova Romano nunc Via juncta Fore est." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 396. 

At this point the road was called Suinma Via Nova. 

Near this spot must have been the site of the house where 
Octavius lived with his wife Afra, the niece of Julius Caesar 
(daughter of his eldest sister Juha), and where their son, 
Octavius, afterwards the Emperor Augustus, was bom. This 
house afterwards passed into the possession of C. Lsetorius, a 
patrician ; but after the death of Augustus, part of it was 
turned into a chapel, and consecrated to him. It was situated 
at the top of a staircase — " supra scalas annularias"* — which 
probably led to the Forum, and is spoken of as " ad capita 
bubula," perhaps from bulls' heads, with which it may have 
been decorated. 

Here we find ourselves, owing to the excavations, in a 
deep hollow between the two divisions of the hill. On the 
left is the Velia, upon Avhich, near the Porta Mugonia, the 

* Sueton. Aug. 72. 


Sabine king, Ancus Martius, had his palace. "Wlien Ancus 

died, he was succeeded by an Etruscan stranger, Lucius 

Tarquinius, who took the name of Tarquinius Priscus. This 

king also lived upon the Velia,* with Tanaquil his queen, and 

here he was murdered in a popular rising, caused by the sons 

of his predecessor. Here his brave wife Tanaquil closed 

the doors, concealed the death of the king, harangued the 

people from the windows, t and so gained time till Servius 

Tullius was prepared to take the dead king's place and 

avenge his murder. J 

Keeping to the valley, on our right are now some huge 

blocks of tufa, of great interest as part of the ancient Roma 

Q?iadrafa, anterior to Romulus. Beyond this, also on the 

right, are foundations of the Temple of Jiipitcr Stator, built 

by Romulus, who vowed that he would found a temple to 

Jupiter under that name, if he would arrest the flight of his 

Roman followers in their conflict with the superior forces of 

the Sabines.§ 

"Inde petens dextram, porta est, ait, ista Palati ; 
Hie Stator, hoc primum condita Roma loco est." 

Ovid, Trist. iii. El. I. 

"Tempus idem Stator scdis habet, quam Romulus olim 
Ante Palatini condidit ora jugi." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 793. 

The temple of Jupiter Stator has an especial interest from 
its connection with the story of Cicero and Catiline. 

"Ciceron rassembia le scnat dans le temple de Jupiter Stator. Le 
choix du lieu s'explirjue faciiement ; ce temple etait pres de la principale 

* I-ivy, i. 41. 
t Livy, i. 41. 

X The of Niima was close to the Temple of Vest.i ; that of Tulhis Ilostilius 
was on the Ccclian ; those of Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus on the Esquiline. 
§ Dionysius, ii. 50; Livy, i. 12. 


entree du Palatin sur le Velia, dominant, en cas d'emeute, le Fonini, 
que Ciceron et les principaux senateurs habitants du Palatin n'avaient 
pas k traverser comma s'il eut fallu se rendre k la Curie. D'ailleurs 
Jupiter Stator, qui avait arrete les Sabines a la porte de Romulus, 
arreterait ces nouveaux ennemis qui voulaient sa ruine. Lk Ciceron 
prononfa la premiere Catilinaire. Ce discours dut etre en grande partie 
improvise, car les evenements aussi improvisaient. Ciceron ne savait si 
Catilina oserait se presenter devant le senat ; en le voyant entrer, il 
con9ut son fameux exorde : 'Jusqu'a quand, Catilina, abuseras-tu de 
notre patience ! ' 

" Malgre la garde volontaire de chevaliers qui avait accompagne 
Ciceron et qui se tenait a la porte du temple, Catilina y entra et salua 
tranquillement I'assemblee ; nul ne lui rendit son salut, a son approche 
on s'ecarta et les places resterent vides autour de lui. II ecouta les 
foudroyantes apostrophes de Ciceron, qui, apres I'avoir accable des 
preuves de son orime, se bornait a lui dire : ' Sors de Rome. Va-t-en ! ' 

"Catilina se leva et d'un air modeste pria le senat de ne pas croire le 
consul avant qu'une enquete eut ete faite. 'II n'est pas vraisemblable, 
ajouta-t-il, avec une hauteur toute aristocratique, qu'un patricien, lequel, 
aussi bien que ses ancetres, a rendu quelques services a la republique, ne 
puisse exister que par sa ruine, et qu'on ait besoin d'un etranger d'Ar- 
pinum pour la sauver.' Tant d'orgueil et d'impudence revolterent 
I'assemblee; on cria a Catilina: 'Tu es un ennemi de la patrie, un 
meurtrier.' II sortit, reunit encore ses amis, leur recommanda de se 
debarasser de Ciceron, prit avec lui un aigle d'argent qui avait appar- 
tenu a une legion de Marius, et a minuit quitta Rome et partit par la 
voie Aurelia pour aller rejoindre son armee." — Ampire, Hist, Rom. 
iv. 445. 

Nearly opposite the foundations of Jupiter Stator, on the 
left, — are some remains considered to be those of the Porta 

The valley is now blocked by a vast mass of building 
which entirely closes it. This is the palace of Augustus, 
built in the valley between the Velia and the other eminence 
of the Palatine, which Rosa, contrary to other opinions, 
identifies with the Gcrinalc. The division of the Palatine 
thus named, was reckoned as one of " the seven hills " of 


ancient Rome. Its name was thought to be derived from 
Germani, owing to Romulus and Remus being found in its 

The Palace of Augustus was begun soon after the battle of 
Actium, and gradually increased in size, till the whole valley 
was blocked up by it, and its roofs became level with the 
hill-sides. Part of the ground which it covered had previ- 
ously been occupied by the villa of Catiline. t Here Sue- 
tonius says that Augustus occupied the same bed-room for 
forty years. Before the entrance of the palace it was 
ordained by the Senate, B.C. 26, that two bay-trees should be 
planted, in remembrance of the citizens he had preserved, 
while an oak wreath was placed above the gate in comme- 
moration of his victories. 

" Singula dum miror, video fulgentibus armis 
Conspicuos postes, tectaque digna deo. 
An Jovis hfec, dixi, domus est ? Quod ut esse putarem, 

Augurium menti querna corona dabat. 
Cujus ut accessi dominum, non fallimur, inquam : 

Et magni rerum est banc Jovis esse domum. 
Cur tamen apposita relatur janua lauro? 
Cingit et Augustas arbor opaca fores ?" 

Oznd, Trist. i. 33. 

"State Palatini laurus ; prcetextaque qu-ercu 
Stet domus ; seternos tres habet una deos." 

Fast. iv. 953. 

It was before the gate of this palace that Augustus upon 
one day in every year sate as a beggar, receiving alms from 
the passers-by, in obedience to a vision that he should thus 
appease Nemesis. 

Upon the top of tliis building of Augustus, Vespasian 
built his palace in a.d. 70, not only using the walls of 

• Varr. iv. 8. t Veil. Patcrc. ii. Si. 


the older palace as a support for his own, but filling the 
chambers of the earlier building entirely up with earth, so 
that they became a solid massive foundation. The ruins 
which we visit are thus for the most part those of the 
palace of Vespasian, but from one of its halls we can de- 
scend into rooms underneath excavated from the palace of 
Augustus. The three projecting rostra which we now see 
in front of the palace are restorations by Signor Rosa. 

The palace on the Palatine was not the place where the 
emperors generally lived. They resided at their villas, and 
came into the town to the Palace of the Cffisars for the 
transaction of public business. Thus this palace was, as it 
were, the St. James's of Rome. The fatigue and annoyance 
of a public arrival every morning, amid the crowd of clients 
who always waited upon the imperial footsteps, was natur- 
ally very great, and to obviate this the emperors made use 
of a subterranean passage which ran round the whole 
building, and by which they were enabled to arrive unob- 
served, and not to present themselves in public till their 
appearance upon the rostra in front of the building to receive 
the morning salutations of their people. 

If we ascend a Avinding path to the right, to the garden 
which now covers the greater part of the hill Germale, we 
shall find a staircase which descends on the left to join this 
passage, following which, we will ascend, with the emperor, 
into his palace. 

The passage, called Crypto-Porticus, is still quite perfect, 
and retains a great part of its mosaic pavements and much 
of its inlaid ceilings, from which the gilt mosaic has been 
picked out, but the pattern is still traceable. The passage 
was lighted from above. It was by this route that St. 


Laurence was led up for trial in the basilica of the 
palace. Turning to the left, we again emerge upon the 
upper level. 

The emperor here reached the palace, but as he did not 
yet wish to appear in public, he turned to the left by the 
private passage called Fauces, which still remains, running 
behind the main halls of the building. Here he was received 
by the different members of the imperial family, much as 
Napoleon III. was received by Princesses Mathilde, Clotilde, 
and the Murats, in a private apartment at the Tuileries, 
before entering the ball-room. Hence, passing across the 
end of the basilica, the emperor reached the portico in front 
of the palace, looking down upon the hollow space where 
were tlie Temple of Jupiter Stator and the other buildings 
connected with the early history of the Roman state. Here 
the whole Court received him and escorted him to the central 
rostra, where he had his public reception from the people 
assembled below, and whence perhaps he addressed to 
them a few words of morning salutation in return. The 
attendants meanwhile defiled on either side to the lower 
terraced elevation, which still remains. 

This ceremony being gone through, the emperor returned 
as he came, to the basilica, for the transaction of business. 

The name Basilica means " King's House." It was the 
ancient Law Court. It usually had a portico, was oblong 
in form, and ended in an apse for ornament. The Chris- 
tians adoi)tcd it for their places of worship because it was the 
largest type of building then known. They also adopted 
the names of the different parts of the pagan basilica, as 
the Confessional, from the Confession, the bar of justice at 
which the criminal was placed, — the Tribune, from the 


Tribunal of the Judge, &c. A chapel and sacristy added 
on either side produced the form of the cross. The 
Basilica here is of great width. A leg of the emperor's 
chair actually remains in situ upon the tribunal, and part of 
the richly wrought bar of the Confession still exists. This 
was the bar at which St. Laurence and many other Christian 
martyrs were judged. The basilica in the palace of the 
Caesars was also the scene of the trial of Valerius Asiaticus 
in the time of Claudius (see Chap. II.), when the Empress 
Messalina, who was seated near the emperor upon the 
tribunal, was so overcome by the touching eloquence of the 
innocent man, that she was obliged to leave the hall to 
conceal her emotion, — -but characteristically whispered as she 
went out, that the accused must nevertheless on no account 
be suffered to escape with his life,* — that she might take 
possession of his Pincian Garden, which was as Naboth's 
Vineyard in her eyes. An account is extant which describes 
how it was necessary to .increase the width of the seat 
upon the tribunal at this period, in consequence of a change 
in the fashion of dress among the Roman ladies. 

This basilica, though perhaps not then itself in existence, 
will always have peculiar interest as showing the form and 
character of that earlier basilica in the Palace of the Caesars, 
in which St. Paul was tried before Nero. But it is quite 
possible that it may be the same actual basilica itself, — and 
that the palace of Nero which overran the whole of the 
hill, may have had its basilica on this site, where it was 
preserved by Vespasian in his later and more contracted 

" The appeals from the provinces in civil causes were heard, not by 
* Tac. Ann. xi. 2. 


the emperor himself, but by his delegates, who were persons of consular 
rank : Augustus had appointed one such delegate to hear appeals from 
each province respectively. But criminal appeals appear generally to 
have been heard by the emperor in person, assisted by his council of 
assessors. Tiberius and Claudius had usually sat for this purpose in the 
Forum ; but Nero, after the example of Augustus, heard these causes in 
the imperial palace, whose ruins still crown the Palatine. Here, at one 
end of a splendid hall,* lined with the precious marbles of Egypt and 
of Libya, we must imagine Caesar seated in the midst of his assessors. 
These councillors, twenty in number, were men of the highest rank and 
greatest influence. Among them were the two consuls and selected 
representatives of each of the other great magistracies of Rome. The 
remainder consisted of senators chosen by lot. Over this distin- 
guished bench of judges presided the representatives of the most power- 
ful monarchy which has ever existed, — the absolute ruler of the whole 
civilised world. 

" Before the tribunal of the blood-stained adulterer Nero, Paul was 
brought in fetters, under the custody of his military guard. The prose- 
cutors and their witnesses were called forwai'd, to support their accus- 
ation ; for although the subject-matter for decision was contained 
in the written depositions forwarded from Judsea by Festus, yet the 
Roman law required the personal presence of the accusers and the 
witnesses, whenever it could be obtained. We already know the charges 
brought against the Apostle. He was accused of disturbing the Jews in 
the exercise of their worship, which was secured to them by law ; of 
desecrating their Temple ; and, above all, of violating the public peace 
of the empire by perpetual agitation, as the ringleader of a new and 
factious sect. This charge was the most serious in the view of a Roman 
statesman ; for the crime alleged amounted to niajcstas, or treason against 
the commonwealth, and was punishable with death. 

" These accusations were supported by the emissaries of the Sanhe- 
drim, and probably by the testimony of witnesses from Judaea, Ephesus, 
Corinth, and the other scenes of Paul's activity. . , . When the 
parties on both sides had been heard, and the witnesses all examined, 
tiie judgment of the court was taken. Each of the assessors gave his 
ojjinion in writing to the cmi)eror, who never discussed the judgment 
with his assessors, as had been the practice of better emperors, but after 
reading their opinion, gave sentence according to his own pleasure, 

• Dion Cassius mentions that the ceilings of Halls of Justice in the Palatine were 
painted by Severus to represent the starry sky. 'I'he old Roman pr.acticc was for the 
magistrate to sit under the open sky, which probably suggested this kind of ceiling. 


without reference to the judgment of the majority. On this occasion it 
might have been expected that he would have pronounced the condemn- 
ation of the accused, for the influence of Popptea had now reached its 
cuhninating point, and she was a Jewish proselyte. We can scarcely 
doubt that the emissaries from Palestine would have demanded her aid 
for the destruction of a traitor to the Jewish faith ; nor would any scruples 
have prevented her listening to their request, backed as it probably was, 
according to Roman usage, by a bribe. However this may be, the trial 
resulted in the acquittal of St. Paul. He was pronounced guiltless of 
the charges brought against him, his fetters were struck off, and he was 
liberated from his long captivity." — Conybcare and Hoivson. 

Beyond the basilica is the Tab/imiiu, the great hall of the 
palace, which served as a kind of commemorative domestic 
museum, where family statues and pictures were preserved. 
This vast room was lighted from above, on the plan which 
may still be seen at Sta. Maria degli Angeli, which was in 
fact a great hall of a Roman house. The roof of this hall 
was one vast arch, unsupported except by the side walls. 
We have record of a period when these walls were supposed 
insufficient for the great weight, and had to be strengthened, 
in interesting confirmation of which we can still see how 
the second wall was added and united to the first. 

Appropriately opening from the family picture gallery of 
the Tablinum, was the Larariwn, a private chapel for the 
worship of such members of the family — Livia and many 
others — as were deified after death. An altar, on the ori- 
ginal site, has been erected here by Signer Rosa, from bits 
which have been found. 

Hitherto the chambers Avhich we have visited were open 
to the public ; beyond this, none but his immediate family 
and attendants could follow the emperor. We now enter 
the Fcrisiyk, a courtyard, which was open to the sky, but 
surrounded with arcades ornamented with statues, where we 


may imagine that the empresses amused themselves with their 
birds and flowers. Hence, by a narrow staircase, we can 
descend into what is perhaps the most interesting portion of 
the whole, the one unearthed fragment of the actual Palace 
of Augustus, which still retains remains of gilding and 
fresco, and an artistic group in stucco. An original window 
remains, and it will be recollected on looking at it, that 
when this was built it was not subterranean, but merely in 
the hollow of the valley, afterwards filled up. In these 
actual rooms may have lived Livia, who in turn inhabited 
three houses on the Palatine, first that of her first husband 
Nero Drusus, Avhom Augustus compelled her to divorce ; 
then the imperial house of Augustus ; and lastly that of 
Tiberius, the son by her first husband, whom she was the 
means of raising to the throne. 

We now reach the Triclinium or dining-room, surrounded 
by a skirting of pavonazzetto with a cornice of giallo. 
Tacitus describes a scene in the imperial triclinium, in 
which the Emperor Tiberius is represented as reclining at 
dinner, having on one side his aged mother, the Empress 
Livia, and on the other his niece Agrippina, widow of 
Germanicus and granddaughter of the great Augustus.* 
It was while the imperial family were seated at a banquet 
in the triclinium, in tlie time of Nero, that his young 
step-brother Britannicus (son of Claudius and Messalina) 
swallowed the cup of poison which the emperor had caused 
Locusta to prepare and sank back dead upon his couch, his 
wretched sisters Antonia and Octavia, also seated at the 
ghastly feast, not daring to give expression to their grief and 
horror, — and Nero merely desiring the attendants to carry 

• Ann. iv. 54. 


the boy out, and saying that it was a fit to which he was 
subject.* Here it was that Marcia the concubine presented 
the cup of drugged wine to the wicked Commodus, on his 
return from a wild beast hunt, and produced the heavy 
slumber during which he was strangled by the wrestler 
Narcissus. In this very room also his successor Pertinax, 
who had spent his short reign of three months in trying to 
reform the State, resuscitate the finances, and to heal, as 
far as possible, ' the wounds inflicted by the hand of tyranny,' 
received the news that the guard, impatient of unwonted 
discipline, had risen against him, and going forth to meet 
his assassins, fell, covered with wounds, just in front of the 
palace, t 

Vitruvius says that every well-arranged Roman house has 
a dining-room opening into a nymphreum, and accordingly 
here, on the right, is a Nymphceum, with a beautiful fountain 
surrounded by miniature niches, once filled with bronzes 
and statues. Water was conveyed hither by the Neronian 
aqueduct. The pavement of this room was of oriental 
alabaster, of which fragments remain. 

Beyond the Triclinium is a disgusting memorial of Roman 
imperial life, in the Vomitorium, with its bason, whither the 
feasters retired to tickle their throats with feathers, and 
come back with renewed appetite to the banquet. 

We now reach the portico which closed the principal 
apartments of the palace on the south-west. Some of its 
Corinthian pillars have been re-erected on the sites where 
they were found. From hence we can look down upon 
some grand walls of republican times, formed of huge tufa 

* Tac. Ann. xiii. i8 ; Suet. Ncr. 33 ; Dion. Ixi. 7. t See Gibbon, i. 133. 


Passing a space of ground, called, without much author- 
ity, Bibliot/ieca, we reach a small Theatre on the edge of 
the hill, interesting as described by Pliny, and because the 
Emperor Vespasian, who is known to have been especially 
fond of reciting his own compositions, probably did so 
here. Hence we may look down upon the valley between 
the Palatine and Aventine, where the rape of the Sabines 
took place, and upon the site of the Circus Maximus. 
From hence, we may imagine, that the later emperors sur- 
veyed the hunts and games in that circus, when they did 
not care to descend into the amphitheatre itself. 

Beyond this, on the right, is (partially restored) the grand 
staircase leading to the platform once occupied by the 
Temple of 'yupiter- Victor, vowed by Fabius Maximus during 
the Samnite war, in the assurance that he would gain the 
victory. On the steps is a sacrificial altar, which retains its 
grooves for the blood of the victims, with an inscription 
stating that it was erected by " Cnasus Domitius C. Calvi- 
nus, Pontifex," — who was a general under Julius Caesar, and 
consul B.C. 53 and B.C. 40. 

Now, for some distance, there are no remains, because 
this space was always kept clear, for here, constantly re- 
newed, stood the Hut of Fmistidns and the Sacred Fig-tree. 

"The old Roman legend ran as follows: — Procas, king of Alba, left 
two sons. Numitor, the elder, being weak and spiritless, suffered 
Amulius to wrest the government from him, and reduce hira to his 
father's private estates. In the enjoyment of these he lived rich, and, 
as he desired nothing more, secure : but the usurper dreaded the claims 
that might be set up by heirs of a different character. He had Numi- 
lor's son murdered, and api)ointed his daughter, Silvia, one of the Vestal 

"Amulius had no children, or at least only one daughter: so that 
the race of Anchises and Aphrodite seemed on the point of expiring, 


when the love of a god prolonged it, in spite of the ordinances of man, 
and gave it a lustre worthy of its origin. Silvia had gone into the 
sacred grove, to draw water from the spring for the service of the temple. 
The sun quenched its rays : the sight of a wolf made her fly into a cave : 
there Mars overpowered the timid virgin, and then consoled her with 
the promise of noble children, as Posidon consoled Tyro, the daughter 
of Salmoneus. But he did not protect her from the tyrant ; nor could 
the protestations of her innocence save her. Vesta herself seemed to 
demand the condemnation of the unfortunate priestess ; for at the 
moment when she was delivered of twins, the image of the goddess hid 
its eyes, her altar trembled, and her fire died away. Amulius ordered 
that the mother and her babes should be drowned in the river. In the 
Anio Silvia exchanged her earthly life for that of a goddess. The river 
carried the bole or cradle, in which the children were lying, into 
the Tiber, which had overflowed its banks far and wide, even to the 
foot of the woody hills. At the root of a wild fig-tree, the Ficus 
Ruminalis, which was preserved and held sacred for many centuries, at 
the foot of the Palatine, the cradle overturned. A she-wolf came to 
drink of the stream : she heard the whimpering of the children, carried 
them into her den hard by, made a bed for them, licked and suckled 
them. When they wanted other food than milk, a woodpecker, the 
bird sacred to Mars, brought it to them. Other birds consecrated to 
auguries hovered over them, to drive away insects. This marvellous 
spectacle was seen by Faustulus, the shepherd of the royal flocks. The 
she-wolf drew back, and gave up the children to human nature. Acca 
Laurentia, his wife, became their foster-mother. They grew up, along 
with her twelve sons, on the Palatine hill, in straw huts which they built 
for themselves : that of Romulus was preserved by continual repairs, as 
a sacred relic, down to the time of Nero. They were the stoutest of the 
shepherd lads, fought bravely against wild beasts and robbers, main- 
taining their right against every one by their might, and turning might 
into right. Their booty they shared with their comrades. The followers 
of Romulus were called Quinctilii, those of Remus Fabii : the seeds 
of discord were soon sown amongst them. Their wantonness engaged 
them in disputes with the shepherds of the wealthy Numitor, who fed 
their flocks on Mount Aventine : so that here, as in the storj' of Evander 
and Cacus, we find the quarrel between the Palatine and the Aventine 
in the tales of the remotest times. Remus was taken by the stratagem 
of these shepherds, and dragged to Alba as a robber. A secret fore- 
boding, the remembrance of his grandsons, awakened by the story of 
the two brothers, kept Numitor from pronouncing a hasty sentence. 
VOL. I. 19 


The culprit's foster-father hastened with Romuhis to the city, and told 
the old man and the youths of their kindred. They resolved to avenge 
their own wrong and that of their house. With their faithful comrades, 
whom the dangers of Remus had brought to the city, they slew the 
king ; and the people of Alba again became subject to Numitor. 

" But love for the home which fate had assigned them drew the 
youths back to the banks of the Tiber, to found a city there, and the 
shepherds, their old companions, were their first citizens. . . . This 
is the old tale, as it was written by Fabius, and sung in ancient lays 
down to the time of Dionysius." — Niebuhr's Hist, of Rome. 

In the cliff of the Palatine, below the fig-tree, was shown 
for many centuries the cavern Lupercal, sacred from the 
earliest times to the Pelasgic god Pan. 

" Hinc lucum ingentum, quern Romulus acer Asylum 
Retulit, et gelida monstrat sub rupe Lupercal, 
Parrhasio dictum Panos de monte Lyca;i." 

Virgil, yEn. viii. 342. 

"La louve, nourrice de Romulus, a peut-etre ete imaginee en raison 
des rapports mythologiques qui existaient entre le loup et Pan defenseur 
des troupeaux. Ce qu'il y a de sur, c'est que les fetes lupercales 
garderent le caractere du dieu en I'honneur duquel elles avaient ete 
primitivement instituees et I'empreinte d'une origine pelasgique ; ces 
fetes au temps de Ciceron avaient encore un caractere pastoral en 
memoire de I'Arcadie d'ou on les croyait venues. Les Luperques qui 
represcntaient les Satyres, compagnons de Pan, faisaient le tour de 
I'antique sejour des Pelasges sur le Palatin. Ces homnies nus allaieat 
frappant avec les lanieres de peau de bouc, I'animal lascif par excellence, 
les femmes pour les rendre fecondes ; des fetes analogues se celebraient 
en Arcadie sous le nom de Lukeia (les fetes des loups), dont le mot 
/w/^rra/a est une traduction." — Ampere, Hist. Rome, i. 143. 

In the htit of Romulus were preserved several objects 
venerated as relics of him. 

" On conservait le baton augural avec lequel Romulus avait dessine 
sur le cicl, suivant le rite elrusquc, I'espace oJi s'ctait manifeste le grand 
auspice des douze vautours dans lesqucls Rome crut voir la promesse des 
douze siccles qu'en cffet le destin devait lui accorder. Tous les augiires 


se servirent par la suite de ce baton sacrc, qui fut trouve intact apres 
rincendie du monument dans lequel il etait conserve, miracle pa'ien dont 
I'equivalent pourrait se rencontrer dans plus d'une legende de la Rome 
chietienne. On montrait la comouiller ne du bois de la lance que 
Romulus, avec la vigueur surhumaine d'un demi-dieu, avait jetee de 
I'Aventin sur le Palatin, oil elle s'etait enfoncee dans la terre et avait 
produit un grand arbre. 

" On montrait sur le Palatin le berceau et la cabana de Romulus. 
Plutarque a vu ca berceau, la Santo- Presepio des anciens Romains, qui 
etait attache avec des liens d'airain, et sur lequel on avait trace des 
caracteres mysterieux. La cabane etait a un seul etage, en planches et 
couverte de roseaux, que Ton reconstruisait pieusement chaque fois qu'un 
incendie la detruisait ; car elle brula a diverses reprises, ce qua la nature 
des materiaux dont elle etait formee fait croire facilement. J'ai vu dans 
les environs de Rome un cabaret rustique dont la toiture etait ex- 
actement pareille a celle da la cabane de Romulus." — Ampere, Hist. 
Pom. i. 342. 

Turning along the terrace which overhangs the Velabrum 
we reach the ruins of the Palace of Tiberius* in which 
he resided during the eariier part of his reign, when he was 
under the influence of his aged and imperious mother 
Livia, Here he had to mourn for Dmsus, his only son, 
who fell a victim (a.d. 23) to poison administered to him 
by his wife Li villa and her lover the favourite Sejanus. 
Here also, in a.d. 29, died Livia, widow of Augustus, at the 
age of eighty-six, " a memorable example of successful 
artifice, having attained in succession, by craft if not by 
crime, every object she could desire in the career of female 
ambition." f 

The row of arches remaining are those of the soldiers' 
quarters. Li the fourth arch is a curious graffite of a ship. 
In another the three pavements in use at different times 
may be seen in situ, one above another. On the terrace 

♦ Tacitus, Hist. i. 77J Suet. Vitell. 15. t Merivale, ch. xlv. 


above these arches has recently been discovered a large 
piscina, or fish-pond, and the painted chambers of a build- 
ing, which is supposed to have been the House of Driisus 
(elder brother of Tiberius) and Antonia. Several of the 
rooms in this building are richly decorated in fresco, one 
has a picture of a street with figures of females going to a 
sacrifice, and of ladies at their toilette ; another of Mercury, 
lo, and Argus ; and a third of Galatea and Polyphemus. 
From the names of the characters in these pictures repre- 
sented being afiixed to them in Greek, we may naturally 
conclude that they are the work of Greek artists. 

The north-eastern comer of the area is entirely occupied 
by the vast ruins of the Palace of Caligula, built against 
the side of the hill above the Cliviis Victorlce, which still 
remains, and consisting of ranges of small rooms, communi- 
cating with open galleries, edged by marble balustrades, 
of which a portion exists. In these rooms the half-mad 
Caius Caligula rushed about, sometimes dressed as a 
charioteer, sometimes as a warrior, and delighted in 
astonishing his courtiers by his extraordinary pranks, or 
shocking them by trying to enforce a belief in his o\vn 

*' C'est clans ce palais que, tounnente par I'insomnie et par I'agitation 
de son ame furieuse, il passera une partie de la nuit a errer sous d'im- 
menses portiques, attendant et appellant le jour. C'est la aussi qu'il 
aura I'incroyable idee de placer un dieu infame. 

" Caligula se fit balir sur le Palatin deux temples. II avait d'abord 
voulu avoir une demeure sur le mont Capitolin ; mais, ayant rcflechi 
que Jupiter I'avait precede au Capitole, il en prit de I'humeur et retourna 
sur le Palatin. Dans les folies de Caligula, on voit se manifester cette 
pcnsee : Je suis dieu ! pensee qui n'etait peut-etre pas tres-extraordinaire 
chez un jcune hommc de vingt-cinq ans dcvcnu tout-i-coup maitre du 

♦ Suet. Cal. 22, 


monde. II pamt en efifet croire a sa divinite, prenant le nom et les 
attributs de divers dieux, et changeant de nature divine en changeant 
de perruque. 

" Non content de s'elever un temple a lui-meme, Caligula en vint a 
etre son propre pretre et a s'adorer. Le despotisme oriental avait 
connu cette adoration etrange de soi : sur les monuments de I'Egypteon 
voit Ramses-roi presenter son offrande a Ramses-dieu ; mais Caligula 
fit ce que n' avait fait aucun Pharaon ; il se donna pour collegue, dans ce 
culte de sa propre personne, son cheval, qu'il ne nomma pas, mais qu'il 
songea un moment de nommer consul." — Atnpcre, Emp. ii. 8. 

Here "one day at a public banquet, when the consuls were reclin- 
ing by his side, Caligula burst suddenly into a fit of laughter ; and 
when they courteously inquired the cause of his mirth, astounded them 
by coolly replying that he was thinking how by one word he could cause 
both their heads to roll on the floor. He amused himself with similar 
banter even with his wife Caesonia, for whom he seems to have had a 
stronger feeling than for any of his former consorts. While fondling 
her neck he is reported to have said, ' Fair as it is, how easily I could 
sever it.'" — Meiivale, ch. xlviii. 

After the murder of Caligula (Jan. 24, 794) by the tribune 
Cheraea, in the vaulted passage which led from the palace 
to the theatre, a singular chance which occurred in this 
part of the palace led to the elevation of Claudius to the 

" In the confusion which ensued upon the death of Caius, several of 
the prffitorian guards had flung themselves furiously into the palace and 
began to plunder its glittering chambers. None dared to offer them 
any opposition ; the slaves or freedmen fled and concealed themselves. 
One of the inmates, half-hidden behind a curtain in an obscure comer, 
was dragged forth with brutal violence ; and great was the intruder's 
surprise when they recognised him as Claudius, the long despised and 
neglected uncle of the murdered emperor.* He sank at their feet al- 
most senseless with terror : but the soldiers in their wildest mood still 
respected the blood of the Caesars, and instead of slaying or maltreating 

* Suet. Claitd. 10. " Prorepsit ad solarium proximum, interque pratenta foribus 
vela se abdidit." The solarium was the external terraced portico, and this stili 


the suppliant, the brother of Germanicus, they hailed him, more in jest 
perhaps than earnest, with the title of Imperator, and carried him off 
to their camp." — iMciivale, ch. xlix. 

In this same palace Claudius was feasting when he was 
told that his hitherto idolised wife Messalina was dead, 
■without being told whether she died by her o^\Tl hand or 
another's, — and asked no questions, merely desiring a servant 
to pour him out some more wine, and went on eating his 
supper.* Here also Claudius, who so dearly loved eating, 
devoured his last and fatal supper of poisoned mushrooms 
which his next loving wife (and niece) Agrippina prepared 
for him, to make way for her son Nero upon the throne. t 

The Clivus Victorise commemorates by its name the 
Temple of Victo?'y,X said to have been founded by the 
Sabine aborigines before the time of Romulus, and to be 
the earliest temple at Rome of which there is any mention 
except that of Saturnus. This temple Avas rebuilt by the 
consul L. Posthumius. 

Chief of a group of small temples, the famous Temple of' 
Cybele, " Mother of the Gods," stood at this corner of the 
Palatine. Thirteen years before it was built, the " Sacred 
Stone," the form under which the " Idaean Mother " was 
worshipped, had been brought from Pessinus in Phr}'gia, 
because, according to the Sibylline books, frequent showers 
of stones which had occurred could only be expiated by 
its being transported to Rome. It was given up to the 
Romans by their ally Attalus, king of Pergamus, and P. 
Cornelius Scipio, the young brother of Africanus — accounted 
the worthiest and most virtuous of the Romans — was sent 

• Tac. ylnn. xi. 37, 3S ; Dion. Ix. 31 ; Suet. Claud. 39. 
t Tac. Ann. xii. 67 ; Suet. Claud. 44. 
t Dionysius, i. 32 ; Livy, xxix. 14. 


to receive it. As the vessel bearing the holy stone came 
up the Tiber it grounded at the foot of the Aventine, when 
the anispices declared that only chaste hands would be able 
to move it. Then the Vestal Claudia drew the vessel up 
the river by a rope. 

" Ainsi Sainte Brigitte, Suedoise mortea Rome, prouva sa purete en 
touchant le bois de Taut el, qui reverdit soudain. Une statue fut erigee 
a Claudia, dans le vestibule du temple de Cybele. Bien qu'elle eCit ete, 
disait on, seule epargnee dans deux incendies du temple, nous n'avons 
plus cette statue, mais nous avons au Capitole un bas-relief on I'evene- 
ment miraculeux est represente. C'est un autel dedie par une affranchie 
de la ^^/zj Claudia ; il a ete trouve au pied de I'Aventin, pres du lieu 
qu'on designait comme celui ou avait ete opere le miracle." — Ampere, 
Hist. Rom. iii. 142. 

In her temple, which was round and surmounted by a 
cupola, Cybele was represented by a statue with its face 
to the east ; the building was adorned with a painting of 
Corybantes, and plays were acted in front of it.* 

" Qua madidi sunt tecta Lysei 
Et Cybeles picto stat Corybante domus." 

Martial, Ep. i. 71, 9. 

This temple, after its second destruction by fire, was 
entirely rebuilt by Augustus in a.d. 2. 

"Cybele est certainement la grande deesse, la grande mere, c'est-a- 
dire la personnification de la fecondite et de la vie universelle : bizarre 
idole qui presente le spectacle liideux de mamelles disposes par paires 
le long d'un corps comme enveloppe dans une gaine, et d'ou sortent des 
taureaux et des abeilles, images des forces creatrices et des puissances 
ordonnatrices de la nature. On honorait cette deesse de I'Asie par des 
orgies furieuses, par im melange de debauche effrenee et de rites cruels ; 
ses pretres effemines dansaient au son des flutes lydiennes et de ses 
crotales, veritables castagnettes, semblables a celles que fait resonner 

* Dyer's Hist, of die City of Rome. 


aujourd'hui la paysanne romaine en dansant la fougueuse saltarelle. On 
voit au musee du Capitole I'effigie bas-relief d'un airhigalle, d'un chef de 
ces pretres insenses, et pres de lui les attributs de la deesse asiatique, les 
flutes, les crotales, et la mysterieuse corbeille. Get archigalle, avec son 
air de femme, sa robe qui conviendrait a une femme, nous retrace I'espece 
de demence religieuse a laquelle s'associaient les delires pervers d'He- 
liogabale." — Ainpire, Emp. ii. 310. 

We have the authority of Martial* that in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the temple of Cybele, stood the Temple of 
Apollo, though Signor Rosa places it on the other side of 
the hill in the gardens of S. Buonaventura, Its remains 
have yet to be discovered, - 

' ' Nothing could exceed the magnificence of this temple, according 
to the accounts of ancient authors. Propertius, who was present at its 
dedication, has devoted a short elegy to the description of it, and Ovid 
describes it as a splendid structure of white marble. 

' Turn medium claro surgebat marmore templum, 
Et patria Phcebo carius Ortygia. 
Auro solis erat supra fastigia currus, 

Et valvse Libyci nobile dentis opus. 
Altera dejectos Parnassi vertice Gallos, 
Altera moerebat funera Tantalidos. 
Deinde inter matrem Deus ipse, interque sororem 
Pythius in longa carmina veste sonat.' 

Propel- tins, ii. El. 31. 

' Inde timore pari gradibus sublimia celsis 
Ducor ad intonsi Candida templa Dei.' 

Ovid, Trist. iii. El. I, 

" From the epithet aurca porticus, it seems probable that the cornice 
of the portico whicli surrounded it was gilt. The columns were of 
African marble, ox giallo-antico, and must have been fifty-two in number, 
as between them were the statues of liie fifty Danaids, and that of their 
fallicr, brandisliing a naked sword. 

• Ep i. 70; 


' Quaeris cur veniam tibi tardior ? aurea Phoebi 

Porticus a magno Cassare aperta fuit. 
Tota erat in speciem Poeiiis digesta columnis : 
Inter quas Danai foemina turba senis.' 

Propcrt. ii. El. 31. 

' Signa peregrinis ubi sunt altema columnis 
Belides, et stricto barbarus ense pater.' 

Ovid, Trlst. iii. I. 61. 

"Here also was a statue of Apollo sounding the lyre, apparently a 
likeness of Augustus ; whose beauty when a youth, to judge from his 
bust in the Vatican, might well entitle him to counterfeit the god. 
Around the altar were the images of four oxen, the work of Myron, so 
beautifully sculptured that they seemed alive. In the middle of the 
portico rose the temple, apparently of white marble. Over the pediment 
was the chariot of the sun. The gates were of ivory, one of them 
sculptured with the story of the giants hurled down from the heights of 
Parnassus, the other representing the destruction of the Niobids. 
Inside the temple was the statue of Apollo in a tunica talaris, or long 
garment, between his mother Latona and his sister Diana, the work of 
Scopas, Cephisodorus, and Timotheus. Under the base of Apollo's 
statue Augustus caused to be buried the Sibylline books which he had 
selected and placed in gilt chests. Attached to the temple was a library 
called BibliotJuca GriEca et Latina, apparently, however, only one 
structure, containing the literature of both tongues. Only the choicest 
works were admitted to the honour of a place in it, as we may infer from 
Horace : 

' Tangere vitet 
Scripta, Palatinus qurecunque recepit Apollo.' 

Ep. i. 3. 16. 

"The library appears to have contained a bronze statue of Apollo, 
fifty feet high ; whence we must conclude that the roof of the hall 
exceeded that height. In this library, or more probably, perhaps, in 
an adjoining apartment, poets, orators, and philosophers recited their 
productions. The listless demeanour of the audience on such occasions 
seems, from the description of the younger Pliny, to have been, in 
general, not over-encouraging. Attendance seems to have been con- 
sidered as a friendly duty." — Dyers City of Rome. 

The temple of Apollo was built by Augustus to com- 


memorate the battle of Actium. He appropriated to it part 
of the land covered with houses which he had purchased 
upon the Palatine ; — another part he gave to the Vestals ; 
the third he used for his own palace. 

" Phcebus habet partem, Vestse pars altera cessit : 
Quod superest illis, tertius ipse tenet. 

Stet domus, jeternos tres habet una deos." 

Ovid, Fast. iv. 951. 

Thus Apollo and Vesta became as it were the household 
gods of Augustus : 

" Vestaque Cffisareos inter sacrata penates, 
Et cum Csesarea tu, Phcebe domestice, Vesta." 

Ovid, i\Icfa?n. xv. 864. 

Other temples on the Palatine were that of y^uno Sospita : 

" Principio mensis Phrygias contermina Matri 
Sospita delubris dicitur aucta novis." 

Ovid, Fast. ii. 55. 
of Minerva : 

" Sexte, Palatini cultor facunde Minei"vce 
Ingenio frueris qui propiore Dei." 

Martial, \. Ep. $. 

a temple of Moonlight mentioned by Varro (iv. 10) and a 

shrine of Vesta. 

" Vestaque Ccesareos inter sacrata penates." 

Ovid, Met. i. 

From the Torrdta del Palatino which is near the house of 
Caligula, there is a magnificent view over the seven hills of 
Rome ; — the Palatine, Avcntine, Capitolinc, Calian, Quirinal, 
Viminal, and l'".squiline. From this point also it is very- 
interesting to remember that these were not the heights 
considered as "the Seven Hills" in the ancient history of 
Rome, when the sacrifices of the Scptimontiwn were offered 


upon the Palatine, Velia, and Germalc, the three divisions 
of the Palatine — of which one can no longer be traced ; 
upon the Fagutal, Oppius, and Cispius, the secondary 
heights of the Esquiline ; and upon the Suburra, which 
perhaps comprehended the Viminal.* Hence also we see 
the ground we have traversed on the Palatine spread before 
us like a map. 

If we descend the staircase in the Palace of Caligula, we 
may trace as far as the Porta Romana the piers of the 
Bridge of Caligula, which, half in vanity, half in madness, he 
threw across the valley, that he might, as he said, the more 
easily hold intercourse with his friend and comrade Jupiter 
upon the Capitol. One of the piers which he used for his 
bridge, beyond the limits of the palace, was formed by 
the temple of Augustus built by Tiberius. t This bridge, 
with all other works of Caligula, was of very short 
duration, being destroyed immediately after his death by 

Returning by the Clivus Victoriae, we shall find ourselves 
again on the eastern slope of the hill from which we started, 
the site once occupied by so many of the great patrician 
families. Here at one time lived Caius Gracchus, who to 
gratify the populace, gave up his house on the side of the 
Palatine, and made his home in the gloomy Suburra. Here 
also lived his coadjutor in the consulship, Fuhius Flaccus, 
who shared his fate, and whose house was razed to the ground 
by the people after his murder. At this corner of the hill also 
was the house of Q. Lutatius Catulus, poet and historian, 
who was consul B.C. 102, and together with Marius was 
conqueror of the Cimbri in a great battle near Vercelli. In 

* Festus, 340, 348. t Suet. Tib. 47 ; Cal. 21, 22 ; Tac. Ann. vi. 43. 


memory of this he founded a temple of the " Fortuna 
hujusce diei," and decorated the portico of his house with 
Cimbrian trophies. Varro mentions that his house had also 
a domed roof.* Here also the consul Octavius, murdered 
on the Janiculum by the partisans of Marius, had a house, 
which was rebuilt with great magnificence by Emilius 
Scaurus, who adorned it with columns of marble thirty- 
eight feet high.t These two last-named houses were bought 
by the wealthy Clodius, who gave 14,800,000 sesterces, or 
about 130,000/., for that of Scaurus, and throwing down 
the Porticus Catuli, included its site, and the house of 
E. Scaurus, in his own magnificent dwelling. Clodius 
was a member of the great house of the Claudii, and 
was the favoured lover of Pompeia, wife of Julius Caesar, 
by whose connivance, disguised as a female musician, he 
attempted to be present at the orgies of the Bona Dea, 
which were celebrated in the house of the Pontifex 
Maximus close to the temple of Vesta, and from which 
men were so carefully excluded, that even a male mouse, 
says Juvenal, dared not show himself there. The position 
of his own dwelling, and that of the pontifex, close to the 
foot of the Clivus Victoric'e, aftbrded every facility for this 
adventure, but it was discovered by his losing himself in the 
passages of the Regia. A terrible scandal was the result — 
Caesar divorced Pompeia, and the senate referred the matter 
to the pontifices, who declared that Clodius was guilty of 
sacrilege. Clodius attempted to prove an alibi, but Cicero's 
evidence showed that he was with him in Rome only three 
hours before he i)rctended to have been at Interarana. 
Bribery and intimidation secured his acquittal by a majority 

* Ijc re Rust. iii. 5. t Pliny, xxxvi. 2. 


of thirty-one to twenty-five,* but from this time a deadly 
enmity ensued between him and Cicero. 

The house of Clodius naturally leads us to that of Cicero, 
which was also situated at this corner of the Palatine, 
whence he could see his clients in the Forum and go to 
and fro to his duties there. This house had been built for 
M. Livius Drusus, who, when his architect proposed a plan 
to prevent its being overlooked, answered, " Rather build it 
so that all my fellow-citizens may behold everything that I 
do." In his acts Drusus seemed to imitate the Gracchi ; but 
he sought popularity for its own sake, and after being the 
object of a series of conspiracies was finally murdered in the 
presence of his mother Cornelia, in his own hall, where the 
image of his father was sprinkled with his blood. When 
dying he turned to those around him and asked, with 
characteristic arrogance, based perhaps upon conscious 
honesty of purpose, " when will the commonwealth have a 
citizen like me again ? " After the death of Drusus the 
house was inhabited by L. Licinius Crassus the orator, 
who lived here in great elegance and luxury. His house 
was called from its beauty " the Venus of" the Palatine," and 
was remarkable for its size, the taste of its furniture, and 
the beauty of its grounds. " It was adorned with pillars 
of Hymettian marble, with expensive vases, and triclinia 
inlaid with brass. His gardens were provided with fish- 
ponds, and some noble lotus-trees shaded his walks. Ahe- 
nobarbus, his colleague in the censorship, found fault with 
such corruption of manners, f estimated his house at a 
hundred million, or, according to Valerius ]Maximus,|. six 

* See Smith's Diet, of Roman Biography. 
t Plin. H. N. xvii. i. | U. i, 4. 


million sesterces, and complained of his crying for the 
loss of a lamprey as if it had been a daughter. It was a 
tame lamprey which used to come at the call of Crassus, 
and feed out of his hand. Crassus retorted by a pubhc 
speech against his colleague, and by his great powers of 
ridicule, turned him into derision ; jested upon his name,* 
and to the accusation of weeping for a lamprey, replied, that 
it was more than Ahenobarbus had done for the loss of any 
of his three wives." f Cicero purchased the house of Crassus 
a year or two after his consulate for a sum equal to about 
30,000/., and removed thither from the Carinje with his wife 
Terentia. His house was close to that of Clodius, but a 
little lower down the hill, which enabled him to threaten to 
increase the height, so as to shut out his neighbour's view of 
the city. Upon his accession to the tribuneship Clodius 
procured the disgrace of Cicero, and after his flight to 
Greece, obtained a decree of banishment against him. He 
then pillaged and destroyed his house upon the Palatine, as 
well as his villas at Tusculum and Formia, and obliged 
Terentia to take refuge with the Vestals, whose Superior 
was fortunately her sister. But in the following year, a 
change of consuls and revulsion of the popular favour led 
to the recall of Cicero, who found part of his house appro- 
priated by Clodius, who had erected a shrine to Libertas 
(with a statue which was that of a Greek courtezan carried 
off from the tomb) X on the site of the remainder, which he 
had razed to the ground. § 

" Clodius liad also destroyed the portico of Catulus ; in fact, he 

• Suet. Nero, 2. t Smith's Diet, of Roman Biography. 

% ToUam altius tectum, non ul ego te despiciam, sed ne tu aspicias urbem eam, 
quam delerc voluisti. — Dc Harusp. Res. 15. 
§ Cic. pro Dom. ad Pont. 42. 


appears to have been desirous of appropriating all this side of the Pala- 
tine. He wanted to buy the house of the a.xlile Seius. Seius having 
declared that so long as he lived, Clodius should not have it, Clodius 
caused him to be poisoned, and then bought his house under a feigned 
name ! He was thus enabled to erect a portico three hundred feet in 
length, in place of that of Catulus. The latter, however, was after- 
wards restored at the public expense. 

*' Cicero obtained public grants for the restoration of his house and of 
his Tusculan and Formian villas, but very far from enough to cover the 
losses he had suffered. The aristocratic part of the Senate appears to 
have envied and grudged the ncnins homo to whose abilities they looked 
for protection. He was advised not to, rebuild his house on the Pala- 
tine, but to sell the ground. It was not in Cicero's temper to take such 
a course ; but he was hampered ever after with debts. Clodius, who 
had been defeated but not beaten, still continued his persecutions. He 
organised a gang of street boys to call out under Cicero's windows, 
' Bread ! Bread ! ' His bands interrupted the dramatic performances 
on the Palatine, at the Megalesian games, by rushing upon the stage. 
On another occasion, Clodius, at the head of his myrmidons, besieged 
the Senate in the temple of Concord. He attacked Cicero in the streets, 
to the danger of his life ; and when he had begim to rebuild his house, 
drove away the masons, overthrew what part had been re-erected of 
Catulus' portico, and cast burning torches into the house of Quintus 
Cicero, which he had hired next to his brother's on the Palatine, and 
consumed a great part of it." — Dyeis City of Rome, 152. 

The indemnity which Cicero received from the state in 
order to rebuild his house on the Palatine, amounted to 
about 16,000/. The house of Quintus Cicero was rebuilt 
close to his brother's at the same time by Cyrus, the fashion- 
able architect of the day.* 

Among other noble householders on this part of the 
Palatine was Mark Antony,t whose house was afterwards 
given by Augustus to Agrippa and Messala, soon after 
which it was burnt down. 

A small Museum in this part of the garden contains some 

* See Ampere, Hist. Rom. iv. 528. t Dion Cass. liii. 27. 


of the smaller objects which have been found in the excava- 
tions, and specimens of the different marbles and alabasters. 
There is nothing of any great importance. The fragments 
of statues and some busts which have been found (including 
Flavia Domitilla, wife of Vespasian, and Julia, daughter 
of Titus), have been sent to Paris, but casts have been left 

We have now made the round of the French division of 
the Palatine. 

It has been decided that some remains which exist in the 
garden of the Villa Mills (now a Convent of Visitandine 
Nuns) are those of the House of Hortensius, an orator, 
" who was second only to Cicero in eloquence, and who, 
in the early part at least of their lives, was his chief 
opponent."* Cicero himself describes the extraordinary 
gifts of his rival t as well as the integrity with which he 
fulfilled the duties of a quaestor.:}: In the latter portion 
of his public career Hortensius was frequently engaged 
on the same side with Cicero, and then always recognised 
his superiority by allowing him to speak last. Hortensius 
died B.C. 50, to the great grief of his ancient rival. § The 
splendid villas of Hortensius were celebrated. He was 
accustomed to water his trees with wine at regular inter- 
vals, 1| and had huge fishponds at Bauli, into which the salt- 
water fish came to be fed from his hand, and he became 
so fond of them, that he wept for the death of a favourite 
mursena.lF But the house on the Palatine was exceedingly 

* Dyer, p. 143. t Pro Quinet. i, 2, 22, 24, 26. I Pro Verr. i. 14, 39. 

§ Ad Att. vi. 6. II Macrob. Saturn, ii. 9. 

1 Varr. R. R. iii. 17 ; Pliny, H. N. ix. 55. 


simple and bad no decorations but plain columns of Alban 
stone.* This was the chosen residence of Augustus, until, 
upon its destruction by fire, the citizens insisted upon raising 
the more sumptuous residence in the hollow of the Palatine 
by pubhc subscription. The subterranean chambers which 
have been discovered have some interesting remains of 
stucco ornament. 

The villa, which is now turned into a convent, possessed 
some frescoes painted by Giulio Romano from designs of 
Raphael, but these have been destroyed or removed in 
deference to the modesty of the present inhabitants. The 
neighbouring church and garden of S. Sebastiano occupy 
the site of the Gardens of Adonis. (See Chap. IV.) 

A large, and by far the most picturesque portion of the 
Palace of the Caesars (the only part which was not im- 
bedded in soil ten years ago), is now accessible either from 
the end of the lane of S. Buonaventura, or from a gate 
on the left of the Via dei Fienili just before reaching Sta. 
Anastasia. The excavations in the last-named quarter were 
begun by the Emperor of Russia, who purchased the site, 
but afterwards presented it to the city. 

Behind Sta. Maria Liberatrice, in some farm buildings, 
are remains which probably belong to the Regia of Julius 

Beyond this, against the escarpment of the Palatine, a part 
of the Walls of Romulus has been discovered, built in large 
oblong blocks. Here also are fegments of bases of towers 
of republican times. Behind S. Teodoro are remains of 
an early concrete wall, behind which the tufa rock is 

* Suet. Aug. 72. 


visible. The wall is only built where the tufa is of a soft 

"La systeme de constraction est le meme que dans les villes d'fitrurie 
et dans la muraille batie a Rome par les rois etrusques. Cependant 
I'appareil est moins regiilier. Les murs d'une petite ville du Latium 
fondee par un aventurier ne pouvaient etre aussi soignes que les murs 
des villes de I'Etrurie, pays tout autrement civilise. La petite cite de 
Romulus, boraee au Palatin, n'avait pas I'importance de la Rome des 
Tarquins, qui couvrait les huit coUines. 

"Du reste, la construction est etrusque et devait I'etre. Romulus 
n'avait dans sa ville, habitee par des patres et des bandits, personne qui 
fut capable d'en batir I'enceinte. Les Etrusques, grands batisseurs, etaient 
de I'autre cote du fleuve. Quelques-uns meme I'avaient probablement 
passe deja et habitaient le mont Coelius. Romulus dut s'adresser 
a eux, et faire faire cet ouvrage par des architects et des masons 
etrusques. Ce fut aussi selon le rite de I'Etrurie, pays sacerdotal, que 
Romulus, suivant en cela I'usage etabli dans les cites latines, fit con- 
sacer I'enceinte de la ville nouvelle. II agit en cette circonstance 
comma agit un paysan romain, quand il appelle un pretre pour benir 
I'emplacement de la maison qu'il veut batir. 

" Les details de la ceremonie par laquelle fut inauguree la premiere 
enceinte de Rome nous ont ete transmis par Plutarque,* et, avec un 
grand detail par Tacite, t qui sans doute avait sous les yeux les livres 
des pontifes. Nous connaissons avec exactitude le contour que tra^a la 
charrue sacree. Nous pouvons le suivre encore aujourd'hui. 

" Romulus attela an taureau blanc et une vache blanche a une charnie 
dont le soc etait d'airain.^ L'usage de I'airain a precede a Rome, 
comme partout, l'usage du fer. II partit du lieu consacre par I'antique 
autel d'llercule, au-dessous de Tangle occidental du Palatin et de la 
premiere Rome des Pelasges, et, se dirigeant vers le sud-est, traca son 
sillon le long de la base de la collinc. 

" Ceux qui suivaient Romulus, rejetaient les mottes de terre en 
dedans du sillon, image du Vallum fulur. Ce sillon etait I'Agger de 
Survius Tullius en petit. A rextremite de la vallee qui separe le 
Palatin de 1' Aventin, oi\ devait etre le grand cirque, et oil est aujourd'hui 
la rue des Ccrchi, il prit a gauche, et, contournant la colline, continua, 
en creusant toujours son sillon, \ tracer sans le savoir la route que 
devaient suivre un jour les triomphes, puis revint au point d'oii il etait 
parti. La charrue, I'instrument du labour, le symbole de la vie agricole 

* riut. Romul. xi. t Tac. Ann. xii. 24. J Prell. R. Myth. 456. 

VIA NOVA. 307 

des enfants tie Satume, avait dessine le contour de la cite guerriere de 
Romulus. De meme, quand on avait detruit une ville, on faisait passer 
la charrue sur le sol qu'elle avait occupe. Par la, ce sol devenait sacre, 
et il n'etait pas plus permis de I'habiter qu'il ne I'etait de franchir le 
sillon qu'on creusait autour des villes lors de leur fondation, comme le 
fit Romulus et comme le firent toujours depuis les fondateurs d'une 
colonie ; car toute colonic etait une Rome." — AtJtpire, Hist. Rome, 
i. 283. 

Close under this, the northern side of the walls of 
Romulus, ran the Via Nova, down which Marcus Ccedicius 
was returning to the city in the gloaming, when, at this spot, 
between the sacred grove and the temple of Vesta, he 
heard a supernatural voice, bidding him to warn the senate 
of the approach of the Gauls. After the Gauls had invaded 
Rome, and departed again, an altar and sanctuary recorded 
the miracle on this site.* 

At the corner near Sta. Anastasia, are remains of a 
private house of early times built against the cliff. Near 
this were the steps called the Stairs of Cacns, leading up to 
the hut of Faustulus. On the other side the Gf'adus Pidchri 
Littoris, the kuXt} Akttj of Plutarch, led to the river. f 

Here a remarkable altar of republican times has been dis- 
covered, and remains in situ. It is inscribed sei deo sei 


TENTiA RESTiTviT. Some supposc this to be the actual 
altar mentioned above as erected to the Genius Loci, in con- 
sequence of the mysterious warning of the Gallic invasion. 
The father of the tribune, C. S. Calvinus, mentioned in the 
inscription, was consul with C. Cassius Longinus, d.c. 124, 
and is described by Cicero as an elegant orator of a sickly 
constitution. J 

* Cic. de Div. i. 45 ; Livy, v. 32. t Pint. Ron. Sol. 2. X Cic. Brut. 34. 


Beyond this a number of chambers have been discovered 
under the steep bank of the Palatine, and retain a quantity 
of graffiti scratched upon their walls. The most interesting 
of these, found in the fourth chamber, has been removed to 
the museum of the CoUegio Romano. It is generally 
believed to have been executed during the reign of Sep- 
timius Severus, and to have been done in an idle mo- 
ment by one of the soldiers occupying these rooms, 
supposed to have been used as guard-chambers under that 
emperor. If so, it is perhaps the earliest existing pictorial 
allusion to the manner of our Saviour's death. It is a cari- 
cature evidently executed in ridicule of a Christian fellow- 
soldier. The figure on the cross has an ass's head, and by 
the worshipping figure is inscribed in Greek characters, 
Alexamenos worships his God. 

"The lowest orders of the populace were as intelligently hostile to it 
[the worship of the Crucified] as were the pliilosophers. "Witness that 
remarkable caricature of the adoration of our crucified Lord, which was 
discovered some ten years ago beneath the ruins of the Palatine palace. 
It is a rough slcetcli, traced, in all probability, by the hand of some 
pagan slave in one of the earliest years of the third century of our era. 
A human figure with an ass's head is represented as fixed to a cross, 
while another figure in a tunic stands on one side. This figure is ad- 
dressing himself to the crucified monster, and is making a gesture which 
was the customary pagan expression of adoration. Underneath there 
runs a rude inscription : Alexamenos ado7-es his God. Here we are face 
to face with a touching episode of the life of the Roman Church in the 
days of Severus or of Caracalla. As under Nero, so, a century and 
a half later, there were worshippers of Christ in the household of Caesar. 
But the paganism of the later date was more intelligently and bitterly 
hostile to the Church than the paganism which had shed the blood of 
the apostles. The Gnostic invective which attributed to the Jews the 
worship of an ass, was applied by pagans indiscnminately to Jews and 
Christians. Tacitus attriljutcs the custom to a legend respecting services 
rendered by wild asses to the Israelites in the desert ; ' and so, I sup- 
pose,' observes TertuUian, 'it was thence presumed that we, as border- 


ing upon the Jewish rehgion, were taught to worship such a figure.' 
Such a story, once current, was easily adapted to the purposes of a 
pagan caricaturist. Whether from ignorance of the forms of Christian 
worship, or in order to make his parody of it more generally intelligible 
to its pagan admii-ers, the draughtsman has ascribed to Alexamenos the 
gestures of a heathen devotee. But the real object of his parody is too 
plain to be mistaken. Jesus Christ, we may be sure, had other confess- 
ors and worshippers in the Imperial palace as well as Alexamenos. The 
moral pressure of the advancing Church was felt throughout all ranks 
of pagan society; ridicule was invoked to do the work of argument; 
and the moral persecution which crowned all true Christian devotion was 
often only the prelude to a sterner test of that loyalty to a crucified 
Lord, which was as insensible to the misrepresentations, as Christian 
faith was superior to the logic, of heathendom."* — Liddoji, Bampton 
Lectures of \%b^^ lect. vii. p. 593. 

These chambers acquire a great additional interest from 
the belief which many entertain that they are those once 
occupied by the Praetorian Guard, in which St. Paul was 

"The close of the Epistle to the Ephesians contains a remarkable 
example of the forcible imagery of St. Paul. Considered simply in 
itself, the description of the Christian's armour is one of the most 
striking passages in the sacred volume. But if we view it in connec- 
tion with the circumstances with which the Apostle was surrounded, we 
find a new and living emphasis in his enumeration of all the parts of 
the heavenly panoply, — the belt of sincerity and trath, with which the 
loins are girded for the spiritual war, — the breast-plate of that righteous- 
ness, the inseparable links whereof are faith and love, — the strong sandals, 
with which the feet of Christ's soldiers are made ready, not for such 
errands of death and despair as those on which the Prretorian soldiers 
were daily sent, but for the universal message of the gospel of peace, — 
the large shield of confident trust, wherewith the whole man is protected, 
and whereon the fiery arrows of the Wicked One fall harmless and dead, 
— the close-fitting lielmet, with which the hope of salvation invests the 
head of tha believer, — and finally the sword of the Spirit, the Word of 

t Padre Garucci, S. J., has published an exhaustive monograph on this now cele- 
brated "Graffito Blaspheme." Roma, 1857. 


God, which, when wielded by the Great Captain of our Salvation, 
turned the tempter in the wilderness to flight, while in the hands of His 
chosen Apostle (with whose memory the sword seems inseparably 
associated), it became the means of establishing Christianity on the 

'' All this imagery becomes doubly forcible if we remember that 
when St. Paul wrote the words he was chained to a soldier, and in the 
close neighbourhood of military sights and sounds. The appearance 
of the Praetorian Guards was daily familiar to him ; as his 'chains,' on 
the other hand (so he tells us in the succeeding Epistle), became well 
known throughout the whole Prato-iiim ! (Phil. i. 13). A difference of 
opinion has existed as to the precise meaning of the word in this pas- 
sage. Some have identified it, as in the authorised version, with the 
house of Csesar on the Palatine : more commonly it has been supposed 
to mean that permanent camp of the Praetorian Guards, which Tiberius 
established on the north of the city, outside the walls. As regards the 
former opinion, it is true that the word came to be used, almost as we 
use the word ' palace,' for royal residences generally or for any resid- 
ences of princely splendour. Yet we never find the word employed 
for the imperial house at Rome : and we believe the truer view to be 
that which has been recently advocated, namely, that it denotes here, 
not the palace itself, but the quarters of that part of the imperial guards, 
which was in immediate attendance upon the emperor. The emperor 
was prator or commander-in-chief of the troops, and it was natural 
that his immediate guard should be in z. prcetorium near him. It might, 
indeed, be argued that this military establishment on the Palatine 
would cease to be necessary, when the Praetorian camp was established: 
but the purpose of that establishment was to concentrate near the city 
those cohorts, which had previously been dispersed in other parts of 
Italy : a local body-guard near the palace would not cease to be neces- 
sary: and Josephus, in his account of the imprisonment of Agrippa, 
speaks of a 'camp' in connection with the ' royal house. ' Such we 
conceive to have been the barrack immediately alluded to by St. Paul : 
though the connection of these smaller quarters with the general camp 
was such that he would naturally become known to ^ all the rest' of the 
guards, as well as those who might for the time be connected with the 
imperial household. 

" St. I\iul tells us (in the Kpistle to the Pliilippians) that throughout 
the Praetorian quarter he was well known as a prisoner for the cause of 
Christ, and he sends special salutations to the Philippian Church from 
the Christians of the imperial household. These notices bring before 

PA LA CE OF NER 0. 311 

us very vividly the moral contrasts by which the Apostle was surrounded. 
The soldier to whom he was chained to-day might have been in Nero's 
body-guard yesterday ; his comrade who next relieved guard might have 
been one of the executioners of Octavia, and might have carried her 
head to Poppaea a few weeks before. 

"History has few stronger contrasts than when it shows tis Paul 
preaching Christ imder the walls of Nero's palace. Thenceforward 
there were but two religions in the Roman world ; the worship of the 
emperor, and the worship of the Saviour. The old superstitions had 
long been worn out ; they had lost all hold on educated minds. . . . 
Over against the altars of Nero and Poppa;a, the voice of a prisoner 
was daily heard, and daily woke in grovelling souls the consciousness of 
their divine destiny. Men listened, and knew that self-sacrifice was 
better than ease, humiliation more exalted than pride, to suffer nobler 
than to reign. They felt that the only religion which satisfied the needs 
of man was the religion of sorrow, the religion of self-devotion, the 
religion of the cross." — Conybcare and Howson. 

Hence, we may ascend through some gardens beneath the 
"Villa Mills, to the terrace which stirmounts the grand ruins 
at the end of the Palace of the Csesars, supposed to be re- 
mains of the Palace of Nero, but as no inscriptions have been 
discovered, no part of it can be identified.* These are by 
far the most picturesque portions of the ruins, and few com- 
positions can be finer than those formed by the huge masses 
of stately brick arches, laden with a wealth of laurustinus, 
cytizus, and other flowering shrubs, standing out against the 
soft hues and delicate blue and pink shadows of the distant 
Campagna. Beneath the terrace is a fine range of lofty 
chambers, with a broken statue at the end, through which 
there is a striking view. One of these ruined halls has 
been converted into a kind of museum of architectural 
fragments found in this part of the palace, many of them 
of great beauty. This was the portion of the palace ^yhich 

* The Palace of Nero is described in Tacitus, Ann. xv. 42, and Suetonius, Ner. 31. 


longest remained entire, and which was inhabited by Hera- 
clius in the seventh century. Some consider that these ruins 
were incorporated into the 

Septizonium of Severus, so called from its seven stories of 
building, erected a.d. 198, and finally destroyed by Sixtus V., 
who carried off its materials for the building of St. Peter's. 
It was erected by Severus at the southern corner of the 
palace, in order that it might at once strike the eyes of his 
African compatriots,* on their arrival in Rome. He built 
two other edifices which he called Septizonium, one on the 
Esquiline near the baths of Titus, and the other on the Via 
Appia, which he intended as the burial-place of his family, 
and where his son Geta was actually interred. 

The remaining ruins on this division of the hill, supposed 
to be those of a theatre, a library, &c., have not yet been 
historically identified. They probably belong to the Fa/ace 
of Domitian (Imp. a.d. 81 — 96), who added largely to the 
buildings on the Palatine. The magnificence of his palace 
is extolled in the inflated verses of Statius, who describes 
the imperial dwelling as exciting the jealousy of the 
abode of Jupiter — as losing itself amongst the stars by its 
height, and rising above the clouds into the full splendour 
of the sunshine ! Such was the extravagance displayed by 
Domitian in these buildings, that Plutarch compares him to 
Midas, who wished everything to be made of gold. This 
was the scene of many of the tyrannical vagaries of 

" ' Ilavinc; once made a pjreat feast for llie citizens, he proposed,' says 
Dion, ' to follow it up with an entertainment to a select number of the 

• Scptimius Severus was born a.d. 146, near Leptis in Africa. Statius addresses 
a poem to one of his ancestors, Sept. Severus of Leptis. 


highest nobility. He fitted up an apartment all in black. The ceiling 
was black, the walls were black, the pavement was black, and upon it 
were ranged rows of bare stone seats, black also. The guests were 
introduced at night without their attendants, and each might see at the 
head of his couch a column placed, like a tomb-stone, on which his 
own name was graven, with the cresset lamp above it, such as is sus- 
pended in the tombs. Presently there entered a troop of naked boys, 
blackened, who danced around with horrid movements, and then stood 
still before them, offering them the fragments of food which are com- 
monly presented to the dead. The guests were paralysed with terror, 
expecting at every moment to be put to death ; and the more, as the 
others maintained a deep silence, as though they vv'ere dead themselves, 
and Domitian spake of things pertaining to the state of the departed 
only.' But this funeral feast was not destined to end tragically. 
Caesar happened to be in a sportive mood, and when he had sufficiently 
enjoyed his jest, and had sent his visitors home expecting worse to 
follow, he bade each to be presented with the silver cup and platter on 
which his dismal supper had been served, and with the slave, now 
neatly washed and apparelled, who had waited upon him. Such, said 
the populace, was the way in which it pleased the emperor to solemnise 
the funereal banquet of the victims of his defeats in Dacia, and of his 
persecutions in the city." — Mcrivalc, ch. Ixii. 

It was in this palace that the murder of Domitian took 
place : 

"Of the three great deities, the august assessors in the Capitol, 
Minerva was regarded by Domitian as his special patroness. Her 
image stood by his bedside : his customary oath was by her divinity. 
But now a dream apprised him that the guardian of his person was dis- 
armed by the guardian of the empire, and that Jupiter had forbidden 
his daughter to protect her favourite any longer. Scared by these 
horrors he lost all self-control, and petulantly cried, and the cry was 
itself a portent : ' Now strike Jove whom he will ! ' From supernatural 
terrors he reverted again and again to earthly fears and suspicions. 
Henceforward the tyrant allowed none to be admitted to his presence 
without being previously searched ; and he caused the ends of the cor- 
ridor in which he took exercise to be lined with polished marble, to 
reflect the image of any one behind him ; at the same time he inquired 
anxiously into the horoscope of every chief whom he might fear as a 
possible rival or successor. 


" The victim of superstition had long since, it was said, ascertained 
too surely the year, the day, the hour which should prove fatal to him. 

He had learnt too that he was to die by the sword The 

omens were now closing about the victim, and his terrors became more 
importunate and overwhelming. 'Something,' he exclaimed, 'is about 
to happen, which men shall talk of all the world over. ' Drawing a 
drop of blood from a pimple on his forehead, 'May this be all,' he 
added. His attendants, to reassure him, declared that the hour had 
passed. Embracing the flattering tale with alacrity, and rushing at 
once to the extreme of confidence, he announced that the danger was 
over, and that he would bathe and dress for the evening repast. But 
the danger was just then ripening within the walls of the palace. The 
mysteries there enacted few, indeed, could penetrate, and the account 
of Domitian's fall has been coloured by invention and fancy. The story 
that a child, whom he suffered to attend in his private chamber, found 
by chance the tablets which he had placed under his pillow, and that 
the empress, on inspecting them, and finding herself, with his most 
familiar servants, designated for execution, contrived a plot for his assassin- 
ation, is one so often repeated as to cause great suspicion. But neither 
can we accept the version of Philostratus, who would have us believe 
that the murder of Domitian was the deed of a single traitor, a freed- 
man of Clemens, named Stephanus, who, indignant at his patron's 
death, and urged to fury by the sentence on his patron's wife, Domitilla, 
rushed alone into the tyrant's chamber, diverted his attention with a 
frivolous pretext, and smote him with the sword he bore concealed in 
his sleeve. It is more likely that the design, however it originated, was 
common to several of the household, and that means were taken among 
them to disarm the victim, and baffle his cries for assistance. Stephanus, 
who is said to have excelled in personal strength, may have been employed 
to deal the blow ; for not more, perhaps, than one attendant would be 
admitted at once into the presence. Struck in the groin, but not 
mortally, Domitian snatched at his own weapon, but found the sword 
removed from its scabbard. He then clutclied the assassin's dagger, 
cutting his own fingers to the bone ; then desperately thrust the bloody 
talons into the eyes of his assailant, and beat his head with a golden 
goblet, shrieking all the time for help. Thereupon in rushed Par- 
thenius, Maximus, and others, and despatched him as he lay writhing 
on the pavement." — Merivale, ch. Ixii. 

Trajan stripped the palace of his predecessors of all its 


ornaments to adorn the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus,* but 
it was restored by Commodus, after a fire which occurred 
in his reign,t and enriched by HeUogabakis,:|: and ahiiost 
every succeeding emperor, till the time of Theodoric. § 

"'Brickwork I found thee, and marble I left thee!' then- Emperor 
vaunted ; 
' Marble I thought thee, and brickwork I find tliee ! ' the Tourist may 

A. H. Cloiigh. 

* Martial, xii. Ep. 75. \ Dion Cass. Commod. 

X Lamprid. Elagab. 8. § Cassiod. vii. 5. 



S. Gregorio — S. Giovanni e Paolo — Arch of Dolabella — S. Tommaso 
in Formis — Villa Mattel — Sta. Maria della Navicella — S. Stefano 
Rotondo — I Santi Quattro Incoronati — S. Clemente. 

'T'HE Coelian Hill extends from St. John Lateran to the 
Vigna of the Porta Capena, and from the Fountain of 
Egeria to the Convent of S. Gregorio. It is now entirely 
uninhabited, except by monks of the Camaldolese, Passionist, 
and Redemptorist Orders, and by the Augustinian Nuns of 
the Incoronati. 

In the earliest times the name of this hill was Mons 
Querquetulanus, " The Hill of Oaks," and it was clothed with 
forest, part of which long remained as the sacred wood of the 
Camenoe. It first received its name of Calius from Ccelius 
Vibenna, an Etruscan Lucumo of Ardea, who is said to 
have come to the assistance of Romulus in his war against 
the Sal)ine king Tatius, and to have afterwards estab- 
lished himself here. In the reign of Tullus Hostilius the 
Coelian assumed some importance, as that king fixed his 
residence here, and transported hither the Latin population 
of Alba. 

As the Ccclian had a less prominent share in the history 
of Rome than any of the other hills, it preserves scarcely 

THE C (ELI AN. 317 

any historical monuments of pagan times. All those which 
existed under the republic were destroyed by a great fire 
which ravaged this hill in the reign of Tiberius,'^ except the 
Temple of the Nymphs, which once stood in the grove of 
the Camence, and which had been already burnt by Clodius, 
in order to destroy the records of his falsehoods and debts 
which it contained. t Some small remains in the garden 
of the Passionist convent ar-e attributed to the temple 
which Agrippina raised to her husband the Emperor 
Claudius, and in S. Stefano Rotondo some antiquaries 
recognize the Macellum of Nero. There are no remains 
of the palace of the Emperor Tetricus, who lived here, 
" between the two sacred groves," % in a magnificent cap- 
tivity under Aurelian, whom he received here at a banquet, 
at which he exhibited an allegorical picture representing 
his reception of the empire of Gaul, and his subsequent 
resignation of it for the simple insignia of a Roman 
senator. § 

To the Christian visitor, however, the Coelian will always 
prove of the deepest interest— and the slight thread of con- 
nection which runs between all its principal objects, as well 
as their nearness to one another, brings them pleasantly 
within the limits of a single day's excursion. Many of those 
who are not mere passing visitors at Rome, will probably 
find that their chief pleasure lies not amid the well-known 
sights of the great basilicas and palaces, but in quiet walks 
through the silent lanes and amid the decaying buildings 
of these more distant hills. 

" The recollection of Rome will come back, after many years, in 

* Dyer's Rome, p. 222. t Ampure, Hist. Rom. iv. 460. 

X Trebellius PoUio. § Gibbon, v. i. 


images of long delicious strolls, in musing loneliness, through the 
deserted ways of the ancient city ; of climbing among its hills, over 
ruins, to reach some vantage-ground for mapping out the subjacent terri- 
tory, and looking beyond on the glorious chains of greater and lesser 
mountains, clad in their imperial hues of gold and purple ; and then, 
perhaps, of solemn entrance into the cool solitude of an open basilica, 
where your thought now rests, as your body then did, after the silent 
evening prayer, and brings forward from many well-remembered nooks, 
every local inscription, every lovely monument of art, the characteristic 
feature of each, or the great names with which it is associated. The 
Liberian speaks to you of Bethlehem and its treasured mysteries ; the 
Sessorian of Calvary and its touching relics. Baronius gives you his 
injunctions on Christian architectui-e inscribed, as a legacy, in his title of 
Fasciola ; St. Dominic lives in the fresh paintings of a faithful disciple, 
on the walls of the opposite church of St. Xystus ; there stands the 
chair and there hangs the hat of St. Charles, as if he had just left his 
own church, from which he calls himself in his signature to letters ' the 
Cardinal of St. Praxedes ; ' near it, in a sister church, is fresh the 
memory of St. Justin Martyr, addressing his apologies for Christianity to 
heathen emperor and senate, and of Pudens and his British spouse ; 
and, far beyond the city gates, the cheerful Philip * is seen kneeling at 
S. Sebastiano, waiting for the door to the Platonia to be opened for 
him, that he may watch the night through in the martyr's dormitory." 
• — IViseinan's Life of Leo XII. 

" For myself, I must say that I know nothing to compare with a 
pilgrimage among the antique churches scattered over the Esquiline, the 
Coelian, and the Aventine Hills. They stand apart, each in its solitude, 
amid gardens, and vineyards, and heaps of nameless ruins ; — here a 
group of cypresses, there a lofty pine or solitary palm ; the tutelary 
saint, perhaps some Sant' Achilleo, or Santa Bibiana, whom we never 
heard of before, — an altar rich in precious marbles, — columns of por- 
phyry, — the old frescoes dropping from the walls, — the everlasting 
colossal mosaics looking down so solemn, so dim, so spectral ;— these 
grow upon us, until at each succeeding visit they themselves, and the 
associations by which they are surrounded, become a part of our daily 
life, and may be said to hallow that daily life when considered in a 
right spirit. True, what is most sacred, what is most poetical, is often 
desecrate'd to the fancy by the intrusion of those prosaic realities which 

• S. Filippo Neri. 


easily strike prosaic minds ; by disgust at tlie foolish fabrications which 
those who recite them do not believe, by lying inscriptions, by tawdry 
pictures, by tasteless and even profane restorations ; — by much that 
saddens, much that offends, much that disappoints ; — but then so much 
remains ! So much to awaken, to elevate, to touch the heart ; so much 
that will not pass away from the memory, so much that makes a part of 
our after-life." — Airs. Jameson. 

We may pass under the Arch of Constantine, or through 
the pleasant sunny walks known as the Parco di San Gre- 
gorio, — planted by the French during their first occupation 
of Rome, but which may almost be regarded as a remnant 
of the sacred grove of the Camense which once occupied 
this site. 

The further gate of the Parco opens on a small triangular 
piazza, whence a broad flight of steps lead up to the Church 
of S. G?'egorio, to the English pilgrim one of the most inter- 
esting spots in Rome, for it was at the head of these steps 
that St. Augustine took his last farewell of Gregory the 
Great, and, kneeling on this green-sward below, the first mis- 
sionaries of England received the parting blessing of the 
great pontiff, as he stood on the height in the gateway. As 
we enter the portico (built 1633, by Card. Scipio Borghese,) 
we see on either side two world-famous inscriptions. 

On the right : 

Adsta hospes 


Hie dim fuit M. Gregori domus 

Ipse in monasterium convertit, 

Ubi monasticen professus est 

Et diu abbas praefuit. 

Monachi primum Benedictini 

Mox Grceci tenuere 


Dein Benedictini iterum 

Post varies casos 

Quum jamdiu 

Esset commendatum 

Et poene desertum. 

Anno MDLXXiir 

Camaldulenses inducti 

Qui et industria sua 

Et ope plurium 

R. E. Cardinalium 

Quoram hie monumenta exstant, 

Favente etiam Clemente XI. P. M. 

Templum et adjacentes aedes 

In banc quam cernis formam 


On the left : 

Ex hoc monasterio 
S. Gregorius, M. Fundator et Parens 
S. Eleutherius, A.B. Hilarion, A.B. 
S. Augustinus. Anglor. Apostol. 
S. Laurentius. Cantuar. Archiep. 
S. Mellitus. Londinen. Ep. mox. 

Archiep. Cantuar. 
S. Justus. Ep. Roffensis. 
vS. Paulinus. Ep. Eborac. 
S. Maximianus. S)'racusan. Ep. 
SS. Antonius, Merulus, et Joannes, Monachi. 
St. Petrus. A.B. Cantuar. 

Marinianus. Archiep. Raven. 
Probus. Xenodochi. Jerosolymit. 
Curator. A. vS. Gregori. Elect. 
Sabinus Callipodit. Ep. 
Gregorius. Diac. Card. S. Eustach. 
Ilic . Etiam . TMu . Vixit . M. Gregori 
Mater . S. .Silvia . Hoc . Maxima 
Colenda . Quod . Tantum . Pietatis 
Sapicntioc . Et . Doctrinae . Lumen 


" Cette ville incomparable renferme peu de sites plus attrayants et plus 
dignes d'eternelle memoire. Le sanctuaire occupe I'angle occidental du 
mont Coelius. . . II est a egale distance du grand Cirque, des 
Thermes de Caracalla et du Colisee, tout proche de I'eglise des saints 
martyrs Jean et Paul. Le berceau du christianisme de I'Angleterre 
touche ainsi au sol trempe par le sang de tant de milliers de martyrs. En 
face s'eleve le mont Palatin, berceau de Rome paienne, encore couvert 
des vastes debris du -palais des Cesars. . . . Ou est done I'Anglais 
digne de ce nom qui, en portant son regard du Palatin au Colisee, 
pourrait contempler sans emotion ce coin de terre d'ou lui sont 
venus la foi, le nom chretien et la Bible dont il est si fier. Voila ou les 
enfants esclaves de ses a'ieux etaient recueilMs et sauves ! Sur ces pierres 
s'agenouillaient ceux qui ont fait sa patrie chretienne ! Sous ces voutes 
a et^ congu par une ame sainte, confie a Dieu, beni par Dieu, accepte et 
accompli par d'humbles et genereux chretiens, le grand dessein ! Par ces 
degres sont descendus les quarante moines qui ont porte a I'Angleterre la. 
parole de Dieu, la lumiere de I'Evangile, la succession apostolique et 
la regie de Saint-Benoit ! " — Montale/nbert, Moines d'' Occident. 

Hard by was the house of Sta. Silvia, mother of St. 
Gregory, of which the ruins still remain, opposite to the 
church of S. Giovanni e Paolo, and in the little garden 
which still exists, we may believe that he played as a child 
under his mother's care. Close to his mother's home he 
founded the monastery of St. Andrew, where he dwelt for 
many years as a monk, employed in \\T:iting homilies, and in 
the enjoyment of visionary conversation with the Virgin, 
whom he believed to answer him in person from her pic- 
ture before which he knelt. " To this monastery he pre- 
sented his own portrait, with those of his father and mother, 
which were probably in existence 300 years after his death ; 
and this portrait of himself probably furnished that peculiar 
type of physiognomy which we trace in all the best repre- 
sentations of him." -^ During the life of penance and poverty 

* Mrs. Jameson. 


which was led here by St. Gregory, he sold all his goods for 
the benefit of the poor, retaining nothing but a silver bason 
given him by his mother. One day a poor shipwrecked 
sailor came several times to beg in the cell where he was 
writing, and as he had no money, he gave him instead this 
one remaining treasure. A long time after, St. Gregory saw 
the same shipwrecked sailor reappear in the form of his 
guardian angel, who told him that God had henceforth 
destined him to rule his church, and become the successor 
of St. Peter, wliose charity he had imitated.* 

"Un moine (a.d. 590) va monter pour la premiere fois sur la chaire 
apostolique. Ce moine, le plus illustre de tous ceux qui ont compte 
parmi les souverains pontifes, y rayonnera d'un eclat qu'aucun de ses 
predecesseurs n'a egale et qui rejaillera comme une sanction supreme, sur 
I'institut dont il est issu. Gregoire, le seul parmi les hommes avec le Papa 
Leon 1^"^ qui ait regu a la fois, du consent ement universel, le double sur- 
nom de Saint et de Grand, sera I'eternel honneur de I'Ordre benedictin 
comme de la papaute. Par son genie, mais surtout par le charme et 
I'ascendant de sa vertu, il organisera le domaine tempore! des papes, il 
developpera et regularisera leur souverainete spirituelle, il fondera leur 
paternelle suprematie sur les royautes naissantes et les nations nouvelles 
qui vont devenir les grands peuples de I'avenir, et s'appeler la France, 
I'Espagne, I'Angleterre. A vrai dire, c'est lui qui inaugure le moyen 
age, la socicfte moderne et la civilisation cliretienne." — Montalembert. 

Tlie church of St. Gregory is approached by a cloistered 
court filled with monuments. On the left is that of Sir 
Edward Came, one of the commissioners to obtain the 
opinion of foreign universities respecting the divorce of 
Henry VIII. from Catherine of Arragon, ambassador to 
Charles V., and afterwards to the court of Rome. He was 
recalled when the embassy was suppressed by Elizabeth, 

* Montalcmbert, Moines d'Occident. 


but was kept at Rome by Paul IV., who had conceived a 
great affection for him, and he died here in 1561. Another 
monument, of an exile for the catholic faith, is that of 
Robert Pecham, who died 1567, inscribed : 

" Roberto Pecham Anglo, equite aurato, Philippi et Marije Anglia? 
et Hispan regibus olim a consiliis genera religione virtute prseclaro qui 
cum patriam suam a fede catholica deficientem adspicere sine summo 
dolore non posset, relicfis omnibus qu£e in hac vita carissima esse solent, 
in voluntarium profectus exilium, post gdx annis pauperibus Christi 
heredibus testamento institutis, sanctissime e vita migravit." 

The Church, rebuilt in 1734, under Francesco Ferrari, 
has sixteen ancient granite columns and a fine Opus-Alex- 
andrinum pavement. Among its monuments we may- 
observe that of Cardinal Zurla, a learned \\T:iter on geo- 
graphical subjects, who was abbot of the adjoining convent. 
It was a curious characteristic of the laxity of morals in the 
time of Julius II. (1503-13), that her friends did not hesitate 
to bury the famous Aspasia of that age in this church, and 
to inscribe upon her tomb : " Imperia, cortisana Romana, 
quae digna tanto nomine, rarse inter homines formse speci- 
men dedit. Vixit annos xxvi. dies xii. obiit 151 x, die 15 
Augusti," — but this monument has now been removed. 

At the end of the right aisle is a picture by Badalocchi, 
commemorating a miracle on this spot, when, at the moment 
of elevation, the Host is said to have bled in the hands of 
St. Gregory, to convince an unbeliever of the truth of tran- 
substantiation. It will be observed that in this and in most 
other representations of St. Gregory, a dove is perched upon 
his shoulder, and whispering into his ear. This is comme- 
morative of the impression that every word and act of the 
saint was directly inspired by the Holy Ghost ; a belief first 


engendered by the happy promptitude of Peter, his arch- 
deacon, who invented the story to save the beloved Ubrary 
of his master which was about to be destroyed after his 
death by the people, in a pitiful spirit of revenge, because 
they fancied that a famine which was decimating them, 
had been brought about by the extravagance of Gregory.* 
An altar beneath this picture is decorated with marble 
reliefs, representing the same miracle, ahd also the story of 
the soul of the Emperor Trajan being freed from purgatory 
by the intercession of Gregory. (Chap. IV.) 

A low door near this leads into the monastic cell of St. 
Gregory, containing his marble chair, and the spot where 
his bed lay, inscribed : 

"Nocte dieque vigil longo hie defessu labore 
Gregorius modica membra quiete levat." 

Here also an immense collection of minute relics of saints 
are exposed to the veneration of the credulous. 

On the opposite side of the church is the Salviati Chapel^ 
the burial-place of that noble family, modernized in 1690 
by Carlo Maderno. Over the altar is a copy of Annibale 
Caracci's picture of St. Gregory, which once existed here, 
but is now in England. On the right is the picture of the 
Madonna, " which spoke to St. Gregory," and which is said 
to have become suddenly impressed upon the wall after a 
vision in which she appeared to him ; — on the left is a beau- 
tiful marble ciborium. 

Hence a sacristan will admit the visitor into the Garden 
of Sta. Silvia, whence there is a grand view over the op- 
posite Palatine. 

• Milman's Latin Christianity, vol. ii. 


" To stand here on the summit of the flight of steps which leads 
to the portal, and look across to the ruined Palace of the Caesars, 
makes the mind giddy with the rush of thoughts. T/iere, before us, 
the Palatine Hill — pagan Rome in the dust ; here, the little cell, a 
few feet square, where slept in sackcloth the man who gave the last 
blow to the power of the Csesars, and first set his foot as sovereign 
on the cradle and capital of their greatness." — Airs, yamcson. 

Here are three Chapels, restored by the historian Car- 
dinal Baron ius, in the sixteenth century. The first, of Sta. 
Silvia, contains a fresco of the Almighty with a choir of 
angels, by Guido, and beneath it a beautiful statue of the 
venerable saint (especially invoked against convulsions), 
by Niccolo Cordieri — one of the best statues of saints 
in Rome. The second chapel, of St. Andreiv, contains 
the two famous rival frescoes of Guido and Domenichino. 
Guido has represented St. Andrew kneeling in reverent 
thankfulness at first sight of the cross on which he was 
to suffer ; Domenichino — a more painful subject — the 
flagellation of the saint. Of these paintings Annibale 
Caracci observed that " Guide's was the painting of the 
Master; but Domenichino's the painting of the scholar 
who knew more than the master." The beautiful group 
of figures in the corner, where a terrified child is hiding 
its face in its mother's dress, is introduced in several other 
pictures of Domenichino. 

*' It is a well-known anecdote that a poor old woman stood for a long 
time before the story of Domenichino, pointing it out bit by bit and 
explaining it to a child who was with her, — and that she then turned to 
the story told by Guido, admired the landscape, and went away. It is 
added that when Annibale Caracci heard of this, it seemed to him in 
itself a sufificient reason for giving the preference to the former work. 
It is also said that when Domenichino was painting one of the execu- 
tioners, he worked himself up into a fiiry with threatening words and 


gestures, and that Annibale, surprising him in this condition, embraced 
him, saying : ' Domenico, to-day you have taught me a lesson, which is 
that a painter, like an orator, must first feel himself that which he would 
represent to others.' " — Lanzi, v. 82. 

" In historical pictures Domenichino is often cold and studied, espe- 
cially m the principal subject, while on the other hand, the subordinate 
persons have much grace, and a noble character of beauty. Thus, in 
the scourging of St. Andrew, a group of women thrust back by the 
executioners is of the highest beauty. Guido's fresco is of high merit — 
St. Andrew, on his way to execution, sees the cross before him in the 
distance, and falls upon his knees in adoration, — the executioners and 
spectators regard him with astonishment." — Kiigler. 

The third chapel, of Sta. Barbara^ contains a grand statue 
of St. Gregory by Nlccolo Coniicri* (where the whispering 
dove is again represented), and the table at which he daily 
fed twelve poor pilgrims after washing their feet. The 
Roman breviary tells how on one occasion an angel ap- 
peared at the feast as the thirteenth guest. This story, 
— the sending forth of St. Augustine, — and other events of 
St. Gregory's life, are represented in rude frescoes upon the 
walls by Vlviani. 

The adjoining Convent (modern) is of vast size, and is 
now occupied by Camaldolese monks, though in the time 
of St. Gregory it belonged to the Benedictines. In its 
situation it is beautiful and quiet, and must have been 
so even in the time of St. Gregory, who often regretted 
che seclusion which he was compelled to c^uit. 

" Un jour, plus accablc que jamais par le poids dcs affaires seculieres, 
il setait retire dans un lieu secret pour s'y livrer dans un long silence a 

* Rome possesses at least eight fine modern of saints : — besides those of Sta. 
Silvia and .St. Gregory, arc the Sta. Agnese of Algardi, the Sta. Bibiana of Bernini, 
the Sta. Cecilia of Modcrno, the Sta. Susanna of Quesnoy, the Sta. Martina ol 
Mcnghino, and the S. Druno of Houdon. 


sa tristesse, et y fut rejoint par le diacre Pierre, son eleve, son ami 
d'enfance et le compagnon de ses cheres etudes. ' Vous est-il done 
arrive quelque chagrin nouveau,' lui dit le jeune homme, ' pour que 
vous soyez ainsi plus triste qu'a I'ordinaire.' 'Men chagrin,' lui re- 
pondit le pontife, 'est celui de tous mes jours, toujours vieux par I'usage, 
et toujours nouveau par sa croissance quotidienne. Ma pauvre ame se 
rappelle ce qu'elle etait autrefois, dans notre monastere, quand elle planait 
sur tout ce qui passe, sur tout ce qui change ; quand elle ne songeait 
qu'au ciel ; quand elle franchissait par la contemplation le cloitre de ce 
corps qui I'enserre ; quand elle aimait d'avance la mort comme I'entree 
de la vie. Et maintenant il lui faut, a cause de ma charge pastorale, 
supporter les mille affaires des hommes du -siecle et se souiller dans cette 
poussiere. Et quand, apres s'etre ainsi repandue au dehors, elle veut 
retrouver sa retraite interieure, elle n'y revient qu'amoindrie. Je medite 
sur tout ce que je souffre et sur tout ce que j'ai perdu. Me voici, battu 
par I'ocean et tout brise par la tempete ; quand je pense a ma vie 
d' autrefois, il me semble regarder en arriere vers le rivage. Et ce 
qu'il y a de plus triste, c'est qu'ainsi ballotte par I'orage, je puis 
a peine entrevoir le port que j'ai quitte.' " — Montalembcrt, Moines 
d' Occident. 

Pope Gregory XYI. was for some years abbot of this 
convent, to which he was afterwards a generous benefactor ; 
— regretting always, like his great predecessor, the peace of 
his monastic life. His last words to his cardinals, who were 
imploring him, for political purposes, to conceal his danger, 
were singularly expressive of this — " Per Dio lasciatemi ! — 
voglio morire da frate, non da so\Tano." The last great 
ceremony enacted at S. Gregorio was when Cardinal Wise- 
man consecrated the mitred abbot of English Cistercians, 
— Ur. IManning preaching at the same time on the prospects 
of English Catholicism, 

Ascending the steep paved lane between S. Gregorio 
and the Parco, the picturesque church on the left with the 
arcaded apse and tall campanile {c. a.d. 1206), inlaid with 
coloured tiles and marbles, is that of SS. Giovanni e Faolo, 


two officers in the household of the Christian princess 
Constantia, daughter of the Emperor Constantine, in whose 
time they occupied a position of great influence and 
trust. When JuUan the Apostate came to the throne, he 
attempted to persuade them to sacrifice to idols, but they 
refused, saying, " Our lives are at the disposal of the 
emperor, but our souls and our faith belong to our God." 
Then Julian, fearing to bring them to public martyrdom, lest 
their popularity should cause a rebellion and the example 
of their well-known fortitude be an encouragement to others, 
sent off soldiers to behead them privately in their own 
house. Hence the inscription on the spot, " Locus martyrii 
SS. Joannis et Paoli in sedibus propriis." The church was 
built by Pammachus, the friend of St. Jerome, on the site 
of the house of the saints. It is entered by a portico 
adorned with eight ancient granite columns, interesting as 
having been erected by the English pope, Nicholas Break- 
spear, A.D. 1 158. The interior, in the basilica form, has 
sixteen ancient columns and a beautiful Opus-Alexan- 
drinum pavement. In the centre of the floor is a stone, 
railed off, upon which it is said that the saints were be- 
headed. Their bodies are contained in a porphyry urn 
under the high altar. In early times these were the only 
bodies of saints preserved within the walls of Rome (the 
rest being in the catacombs). In the Sacramentary of St. 
Leo, in the Preface of SS. John and Paul, it is said, "Of 
Thy merciful providence Thou hast vouchsafed to crown 
not only the circuit of the city with the glorious passions 
of the martyrs, but also to hide in the very heart of the 
city itself the victorious limbs of St. John and St. Paul."* 

• See Roma Sotterranea, p. 106, 


Above the tribune are frescoes by Fomerancio. A 
splendid chapel on the right was built 1868; — two of its 
alabaster pillars were the gift of Pius IX. Beneath the 
altar on the left of the tribune is preserved the embalmed 
body of St. Paul of the Cross (who died 1776), founder of 
the Order of Passionists, who inhabit the adjoining con- 
vent. The aged face bears a beautiful expression of 
repose ; — the body is dressed in the robe which clothed it 
when living.* 

Male visitors are admitted through the convent to its 
large and beautiful Garden, which overhangs the steep 
side of the Coelian towards the Coliseum, of which there 
is a fine view between its ancient cypresses. Here, on 
a site near the monastery, are some remains believed to 
be those of the temple built by Agrippina {c, a.d. 57), 
daughter of Germanicus, to the honour of her deified 
husband (and imcle) Claudius, after she had sent him 
to Olympus by feeding him with poisonous mushrooms. 
This temple was pulled down by Nero, who wished to 
efface the memory of his predecessor, on the pretext that 
it interfered with his Golden House ; but was rebuilt under 
Vespasian. In this garden also is the entrance to the vast 
substructions kno\vn as the Vivariinn, whence the wild 
beasts who devoured the early Christian martyrs were 
frightened by burning tow down a subterranean passage 
into the arena. 

The famous Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice 
was founded by emigrants from this convent. The memory 

* "Deus, qui sanctum Joannem confessorem tuum perfectas siise abnegationls, et 
dnicis amatorem eximium efficisti, concede : iit ejus imitationi jugiter inhserentes, 
gloriam assequamur aeternam." — Colled of Si. John of the Cross, Kotiiaii Ves/er- 


of these saints was so much honoured up to the time of 
Pope Gregory the Great, that the eve of their festival was 
an obhgatory fast. Their fete (June 26) is still kept with 
great solemnities on the Coelian, when the railing round 
their place of execution is wreathed and laden with flowers. 
When the "station" is held at their church, the apse is 

Continuing to follow the lane up the Coelian,- we reach- 
the richly tinted brick Arch of Dolabella, erected, a.d. 10, 
by the consuls P. Cornelius Dolabella and Caius Julius 
.Silanus. Nero, building his aqueduct to the palace of the 
Caesars, made use of this, which already existed, and in- 
cluded it in his line of arches. 

Above the arch is a Hermitage, revered as that where 
S. Giovanni di Matha lived, and where he died in 12 13. 
Before he came to reside here he had been miracuously 
brought from Tunis (whither he had gone on a mission) 
to Ostia, in a boat without helm or sail, in which he 
knelt without ceasing before the crucifix throughout the 
whole of his voyage ! 

Passing beneath the gateway, we emerge upon the 
picturesque irregular Piazza of the Navicella, the central 
point of the Coelian, which is surrounded by a most inter- 
esting group of buildings, and which contains an isolated 
fragment of the aqueduct of Nero, dear to artists from 
its colour. Behind this, under the trees, is the litde 
marble Navicella, which is supposed to have been origin- 
ally a votive offering of a sailor to Jupiter Redux, 
whose temple stood near this ; but which was adapted by 
Leo X. as a Christian emblem of the Church, — the boat of 
St. Peter. 


" Tlie allegory of a ship is peculiarly dwelt upon by the ancient 
Fathers. A ship entering the port was a favourite heathen emblem of the 
close of life. But the Christian idea, and its elevation from individual 
to universal or catholic humanity, is derived directly from the Bible, — ■ 
see, for instance, I Peter iii. 20, 21. ' Without doubt,' says St. Augus- 
tme, ' the ark is the figure of the city of God pilgrimising in this world, 
in other words, of the Church, which is saved by the wood on which 
hung the mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus.' The 
same interpretation was recognised in the Latin Church in the days of 
Tertullian and St. Cyprian, &c. The bark of St. Peter is similarly repre- 
sented on a Greek gem, found in the Catacombs, as sailing on a fish, 
probably Leviathan or Satan, while dovesj emblematical of the faithful, 
perch on the mast and stern, — two Apostles row, a third lifts up his hands 
in prayer, and our Saviour, approaching the vessel, supports Peter by the 

hand when about to sink But the allegory of the ship is carried 

out to its fullest extent in the fifty-seventh chapter of the second book of 
the 'Apostolical Constitutions,' supposed to have been compiled in the 
name of the Apostles, in the fourth century. " — Lord Lindsay s Christian 
Art, i. 18, 

On the right is (first) the gateway of the deserted con- 
vent of Redemptorists, called S. Ibmmaso in Formis, which 
was founded by S. Giovanni de Matha, who, when cele- 
brating his first mass at Paris, beheld in a vision, an angel 
robed in white, with a red and blue cross upon his breast, 
and his hands resting in benediction upon the heads of 
two captives, — a white and a black man. The bishop of 
Paris sent him to Rome to seek explanation from Innocent 
III., who was celebrated as an interpreter of dreams, — his 
foundation of the Franciscan order having resulted from 
one which befell him. S. Giovanni was accompanied to 
the pope by another hermit, Felix de Valois. They found 
that Innocent had himself seen the same vision of the 
angel between the two captives while celebrating mass at 
the Lateran, and he interpreted it as inculcating the duty 
of, charity towards Christian slaves, for which purpose he 


founded the Trinitarians, since called R.edemptorist.s. The 
story of the double vision is commemorated in a Mosaic, 
erected above the door, a.d. 1260, and bearing the name of 
the artist, Jacobus Cosmati. 

The next gate beyond the church is that of the Villa 
Mattel, the garden of the Redemptorists. (The villa is now 
the property of Baron Richard Hoffmann : visitors are gener- 
ally admitted upon writing down their names at the gate.) 

These grounds are well worth visiting — quite the ideal of 
a deserted Roman garden, a wealth of large Roman daisies, 
roses, and periwinkle spreading at \^^ll amid remains of 
ancient statues and columns. A grand little avenue of ilexes 
leads to a terrace whence there is a most beautiful view 
towards the aqueducts and the Alban Hills, with a noble 
sarcophagus and a quantity of fine aloes and prickly-pears 
in the foreground. There is an obelisk, of which only the 
top is Egyptian. It is said that there is a man's hand un- 
derneath ; — when the obelisk was lowered it fell suddenly, 
and one of the workmen had not time to take his hand 
away. In the grounds annexed to the lower part of the 
villa is the Fountain of Egeria (p. 375). 

Almost standing in the garden of the villa, and occupying 
the site of the house of Sta. Cyriaca, is the CJmrch of Sta. 
Maria ifi Domenica or delta Navicella. (If no one is here, 
the hermit at S. Stefano Rotondo will unlock it.) The 
portico is due to Raphael (his design is at Windsor). 
The damp interior (rebuilt by Leo X. from designs of 
Raphael) is solemn and striking. It is m the basihca form, 
the nave separated from the aisles by eighteen columns of 
granite and one (smaller, near the tribune) of porphyry. 
The frieze, in chiaroscuro, was painted by Giiilio Ro?tiano 
and ricrino del Vaga. Beneath tlie confessional are the 


bones of Sta. Balbina, whose fortress-like church stands on 
the Pseudo-Aventine, In the tribune are curious mosaics, 
in which the figure of Pope Paschal I. is introduced, the 
square nimbus round his head being an evidence of its 
portrait character, /. e., that it was done during his life- 

" Within the tinbune are mosaics of the Virgin and Child seated on 
a throne, with angels ranged in regular rows on each side ; and, at her 
feet, with unspeakable stiffness of limb, the kneeling figure of Pope 
Paschal I. Upon the walls of the tribune is the Saviour with a nimbus, 
surrounded with two angels and the twelve apostles, and further below, 
on a much larger scale, two prophets, who appear to point towards him. 
The most remarkable thing here is the rich foliage decoration. Besides 
the wreaths of flowers (otherwise not a rare feature) which are growing 
out of two vessels on the edge of the dome, the floor beneath the figures 
is also decorated with flowers — a graceful species of ornament seldom 
aimed at in the moroseness of Byzantine art. From this point, the 
decline into utter barbarism is rapid." — Kugler. 

"The Olivetan monks inhabited the church and cloisters of Sta. 
Maria in Domenica, commonly called in Navicella, from the rudely 
sculptured marble monument that stands on the grass before its portal, 
a remnant of bygone days, to which neither history nor tradition has 
given a name, but which has itself given one to the picturesque old 
church which stands on the brow of the Coelian Hill." — Lady Georgiaiia 

A tradition of the Church narrates that St. Lorenzo, 
deacon and martyr, daily distributed alms to the poor in 
front of this church — then the house of Sta. Cyriaca — with 
whom he had taken refuge. 

Opposite, is the roimd Church of S. Stefano Rotondo, 
dedicated by St. Simplicius in 467. It appears to have 

* A square nimbus indicates that a portrait was executed before, a round after 
the death of the person represented. 


been built on the site of an ancient circular build- 
ing, and to have belonged to the great victual market — 
Macellum Magnum — erected by Nero in this quarter.* It 
is seldom used for service, except on St. Stephen's Day 
(December 26), but visitors are admitted through a little 
cloister, in which stands a well of beautiful proportions, of 
temp. Leo X. — attributed to Michael Angelo. The interior 
is exceedingly curious architecturally. It is one hundred 
and thirty-three feet in diameter, with a double circle of 
granite columns, thirty-six in the outer and twenty in the 
inner series, enclosing two tall Corinthian columns, with two 
pilasters supporting a cross wall. In the centre is a kind 
of temple in which are relics of St. Stephen (his body is 
said to be at S. Lorenzo). In the entrance of the church 
is an ancient marble seat from which St. Gregory is said to 
have read his fourth homily. 

The walls are lined with frescoes by Pomerancio and 
Tempesta. They begin with the Crucifixion, but as the 
Holy Innocents really suffered before our Saviour, one of 
them is represented lying on each side of the cross. Next 
comes the stoning of St. Stephen, and the frescoes con- 
tinue to pourtray every phase of human agony in the most 
revolting detail, but are interesting as showing a historical 
series of what the Roman Catholic Church considers as the 
best authenticated martyrdoms, viz. : 

* See Emile Braun — the building of the Macellum is described by Dion Cassius, 
xi. 18; Notitia, Reg. ii. 



Under Nero 

( St. Peter, crucified. 

St. Paul, beheaded. 

St. Vitale, buried alive. 

St. Thecla, tossed by a bull. 

St. Gervase, beaten to death. 

SS. Protasius, Processus, and Martinianus, be- 

St. Faustus and others, clothed in skins of beasts 
and torn to pieces by dogs. 

Under Domitian 

' St. John, boiled in oil (which he survived) at the 
Porta Latina. 

St. Cletus, Pope, beheaded. 

St. Denis, beheaded (and carr>'ing his head). 

St. Domitilla, roasted alive, 
i. SS. Nereus and Achilles, beheaded. 

Under Trajan 

St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, eaten by lions in 

the Coliseum. 
St. Clement, Pope, tied to an anchor and thrown 

into the sea. 
St. Simon, Bishop of Jenisalem, crucified. 

( St. Eustachio, his wife Theophista, and his chil- 
dren Agapita and Theophista, burnt in a 
brazen bull before the Coliseum. 
Under Hadrian . -j St. Alexander, Pope, beheaded. 

St. Sinforosa, drowned, and her seven sons mar- 
tyred in various ways. 
^ St. Pius, Pope, beheaded. 

Under Antoninus- 
Pius and Marcus 
Aurelius . . . 

St. Felicitas and her seven sons martyred in 

various ways. 
St. Justus, beheaded. 
St. Margaret, stretched on a rack, and torn to 

pieces with iron forks. 

_^ , ^ ( St. Blandina, tossed by a bull, in a net. 

and vtni""'"''' j ^*- ^"''^'^^'' "°^'^'^'^ °" '''^"''°^ '''^''• 
■ *. St. Pothicus and others, burnt alive. 



Under Septimius 
Severus and 

Under Alexander 
Severus . . . 

' SS. Pei-petua and Felicitas, torn to pieces by lions 

in the Coliseum. 
SS. Victor and Zephyrinus, Leonida and Basil, 

^ St. Alexandrina, covered with boiling pitch. 

St. Calixtus, Pope, thrown into a well with a stone 

round his neck. 
St. Calepodius, dragged through Rome by wild 

horses, and thrown into the Tiber. 
St. Martina, torn with iron forks. 
St. Cecilia, who, failing to be suffocated with hot 

water, was stabbed in the throat. 
St. Urban the Pope, Tibertius, Valerianus, and 
1^ Maximus, beheaded. 

Under Valerianus 
and Gallienus .. 


Pontianus, Pope, beheaded in Sardinia. 
Agatha, her breasts cut off. 

Fabian and Cornelius, Popes, and St. Cyprian 

of Carthage, beheaded. 
Tryphon, burnt. 

Abdon and Sennen, torn by lions. 
Apollonia, burnt, after all her teeth were pulled 


Stephen, Pope, burnt in his episcopal chair. 
Cointha, torn to pieces. 
Sixtus, Pope, killed with the sword. 
Venantius, thrown from a wall. 
Laurence the deacon, roasted on a gridiron. 
Hippolytus, torn by wild horses. 

Rufina and Semula, drowned in the Tiber. 
. Protus and Iliacinthus, beheaded. 


r St. 




Three hundred Christians, burnt in a furnace. 

St. Tertullian, burnt with hot irons. 

St. Nemesius, beheaded. 

St. Sempronius, Olympius, and Thcodulus, burnt. 

St. Marias, hung, with a huge weight tied to his 

St. Martha, and her children, martyred in different 

St. Cyprian and Justinian, boiled. 
^ St. Valentine, killed with the sword. 



Under Aurelian 
and Numeri- 
anus . . 

St. Agapitus (aged 15), hung head downwards over 
a pan of burning charcoal. Inscribed above 
are these words from Wisdom, ' Properavit ut 
educeret ilium a seductionibus et iniquita- 
tibus gentis sua;.' 

St. Christina, transfixed through the heart. 

St. Columba, burnt. 

SS. Clirysanthus and Daria, buried alive. 

Under Diocletian 
and Maximi- 
anus .... 

St. Agnes, bound to a stake, afterwards beheaded. 

St. Caius, Pope, beheaded. 

St. Emerantia, stoned to death. 

Nearly the whole population of Nicomedia mar- 
tyred in different ways. 

St. Erasmus, laid in a coffin, into which boiling 
lead was poured. 

St. Blaise, bound to a column, and torn to pieces. 

St. Barbara, burnt with hot irons. 

St. Eustrathius and his companions, martyred in 
different ways. 

St. Vincent, burnt on a gridiron. 

SS. Primus and Felicianus, torn by lions. 

St. Anastasia, thrown from a rock ? 

SS. Quattro Incoronati, martyred in various ways. 

SS. Peter and Marcellinus, beheaded. 

St. Boniface, placed in a dungeon full of boiling 

St. Lucia, shut up in a well full of serpents. 

St. Euphemia, run through with a sword. 

SS. Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentius, boiled alive. 

St. Sebastian, shot with arrows (which he survived). 

SS. Cosmo and Damian, Pantaleon, Satuminus, 
Susanna, Gornius, Adrian, and others, in 
different ways. 

Under Maxeutius 

' St. Catherine of Alexandria, and others, broken 

on the wheel. 
SS. Faustina and Porfirius, burnt with a company 

of soldiers. 
^ St. Marcellus, Pope, died worn out by persecution. 


Under ]\Iaximinus 
and Licinius . 

Under Julian the 
Apostate . . 

vSt. Simon and 1600 citizens cut into fragments. 
St. Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, and forty soldiers, 
left to die, up to their waists in a frozen lake, 

' SS. John and Paul, beheaded. 
St. Artemius, crushed between two stones. 
St. Pigmenius, drowned in the Tiber. 
St Bibiana, flogged to death, and thrown for food 
to docis in the Forum. 

The last picture represents the reunion of eminent 
martyrs (in which the Roman Church incktdes English 
sufferers under Elizabeth), and above is inscribed this verse 
from Isaiah xxv., " Laudabit populus fortis, civitas gentium 

" Au-desstts du tableau de la Cracifixion se trouve cette inscription: 
' Roi glorieux des martyrs, s'il donne sa vie pour racheter la peche, ii 
verra une posterite sans fin.' Et quelle posterite ! Hommes, femmes, 
vieillards, jeunes hommes, jeunes fiUes, enfants ! Comme tous accourent, 
comme tous savent mourir." — Une Chretienne d, Home. 

" Les paiens avaient divinise la vie, les chretiens diviniserent la mort." 
— Madame de Stacl. 

"S. Stefano Rotondo exhibits, in a series of pictures all round the 
church, the martyrdoms of the Christians in the so-called persecutions, 
with a general picture of the most eminent martyrs since the triumph of 
Christianity. No doubt many of the particular stories thus painted will 
bear no critical examination ; it is likely enough, too, that Gibbon has 
tioily accused the general statements of exaggeration. But this is a thank- 
less labour, such as Lingard and others have undertaken with regard to 
the St. Bartholomew massacre, and the Irish massacre of 1642. Divide 
the sum total of reported martyrs by twenty, — by fifty, if you will, — 
but after all you have a number of persons of all ages and sexes suffering 
cruel torments and death for conscience' sake and for Christ's, and by 
their sufferings manifestly, with God's blessing, ensuring the triumph of 
Christ's gospel. Neither do I think that we consider the excellence of 
this martyr-spirit half enough. I do not think pleasure is a sin : the 
stoics of old, and the ascetic Christians since, who have said so (see the 
answers of that excellent man. Pope Gregory the Great, to Augustine's 
questions, as given at length by Bcdc), have, in saying so, outstepped 


the simplicity and wisdom of Cliristian truth. But, though pleasure is 
not a sin, yet surely the contemplation of suffering for Christ's sake is a 
thing most needful to us in our days, from whom, in our daily life, 
suffering seems so far removed. And, as God's grace enabled rich and 
delicate persons, women, and even children, to endure all extremities of 
pain and reproach in times past, so there is the same grace no less 
mighty now, and if we do not close ourselves against it, it might in us 
be no less glorified in a time of trial. And that such times of trial will 
come, my children, in your times, if not in mine, I do believe fully, 
both from the teaching of man's wisdom and of God's. And therefore 
pictures of martyrdom are, I think, very wholesome — not to be sneered 
at, nor yet to be looked on as a mere excitement, — but as a sober 
reminder to us of what Satan can do to hurt, and what God's grace can 
enable the weakest of His people to bear. Neither should we forget 
those who, by their sufferings, were more than conquerors, not for them- 
selves only, but for us, in securing to us the safe and triumphant 
existence of Christ's blessed faith — in securing to us the possibility, nay, 
the actual enjoyment, had it not been for the Antichrist of the priesthood 
— of Christ's holy and glorious ikkXijoiu, the congregation and common- 
wealth of Christ's people."— ^/v/i^Ai^'j- Letters. 

" On croit que I'eglise de Saint-Etienne-le-Rond est batie sur I'em- 
placement du Macellum Augiisti. S'il en est ainsi, les supplices des 
martyrs, hideusement representes sur les murs de cette eglise, rappel- 
lent ce qu'elle a remplace." — Amph-e, Emp. i. 270. 

The first chapel on the left, dedicated to SS. Primus and 
Felicianus, contains some delicate small mosaics. 

"The mosaics of the small altar of S. Stefano Rotondo, are of 
A.D. 642 — 649. A brilliantly-decorated cross is represented between two 
standing figures of St. Primus and St. Felicianus. On the upper end of 
the cross (very tastefldly introduced) appears a small head of Christ 
with a nimbus, over which the hand of the Father is extended in bene- 
diction." — Kitglcr. 

In the next chapel is a \Q.xy beautiful tomb of Bernardino 
Capella, Canon of St. Peter's, who died 1524. 

In a small house, which formerly stood among the gar- 
dens in this neighbourhood, Palestrina lived and ^^Tote. 


" Sous le regne de Paul IV., Palestrina faisait partie de la chapelle 
papale ; mais il fut oblige de la quitter, parce-qu'il etait marie. II se 
retira alors dans une cliaumiere perdue au milieu des vignes du Mont 
Coelius, et la, seul, inconnu au monde, il se livra, durant de longs jours, 
a cette extase de la pensee qui agrandit, au-dela de toute mesure, la 
puissance creatrice de I'homme. Le desir des Peres du concile lui ayant 
ete manifest e, il prit aussitot une plume, ecrivit en tete de son cahier, ' Mon 
Dieu, eclairez-moi,' et s? mit a I'oeuvre avec un saint enthousiasme. 
Ses premiers efforts ne repondirent pas a I'ideal que son genie s' etait 
forme ; mais peu a, peu ses pensees s'eclaircirent, et les flots de poesie 
qui inondaient son ame, se repandirent en melodies touchantes. Chaque 
parole du texte retentissait clairement, allait cherclier toutes les con- 
sciences, et les exaltait dans une emotion commune. La messe du pape 
Marcel trancha la question ; et Pie IV. s'ecria, apres I'avoir entendue, 
qu'il avait cru assister aux concerts des anges." — Cournerie, Roine 
Chretienne, ii. 195. 

Following the lane of S. Stefano Rotondo — skirted by 
broken fragments of Nero's aqueduct — almost to its de- 
bouchment near St. J. Lateran, and then turning to the left, 
we reach the quaint fortress like church and convent of the 
Sauti Qiiattro Incoronati crowned by a stumpy campanile 
of 1 1 12. The full title of this church is "I Santi quattro 
Pittori Incoronati e i cinque Scultori Martiri," the names 
which the Church attributes to the painters being Severus, 
Severianus, Carpoforus, and Vittorinus ; and those of the 
sculptors Claudius, Nicostratus, Sinforianus, Castorius, and 
Simplicius, — who all suffered for refusing to carve and paint 
idols for Diocletian. Their fcsta is kept on Nov. 8. 

This church was founded on the site of a temple of Diana 
by Honorius I., a.d. 622; rebuilt by Leo IV. a.d. 850; 
and again rebuilt in its present form by Paschal II., who 
consecrated it afresh in a.d. 1 1 1 1. It is approached through 
a douljle court, in which arc many ancient columns, — 
perhaps remains of the temple. Some antiquaries suppose 
that the churcli itself was once of larger size, and that the 


pillars which now form its atrium were once included in the 
nave. The interior is arranged on the English plan with a 
triforium and a clerestory, the triforium being occupied by 
the nuns of the adjoining convent. The aisles are groined, 
but the nave has a wooden ceiling. Behind the tribune is 
a vaulted passage, partly subterranean. The tribune con- 
tains a marble throne, and is adorned with frescoes by 
Giovanni di San Giovaimi.'^ In the right aisle are pre- 
served some of the verses of Pope Damasus. Another in- 
scription tells of the restoration of the church in the 
fifteenth century, and describes the state of desolation into 
which it had fallen. 

" Hjec qurecumque vides veteri prostrata ruina 
Obruta verberis, ederis, dumisque jacebant." 

Opening out of the court in front of the church is the 
little Chapd of S. Sylvesfro, built by Innocent II. in 1140. 
It contains a series of very curious frescoes. 

"Showing the influence of Byzantine upon Roman art is the little 
chapel of S. Silvestro, detailing the history of the conversion of Con- 
stantine witli a naivete which, witli the exception of a certain dignity in 
some of the figures, constitutes tlieir sole attraction. They are indeed 
little better than Cliinese paintings ; the last of the series, representing 
Constantine leading Pope Sylvester's horse by the bridle, walking 
beside him in his long flowing robe, with a chattah held over his head 
by an attendant, has quite an Asiatic character." — Lord Lindsay's 
Christian Art. 

" Here, as in so many instances, legend is the genuine reflex, not of 
the external, but the moral part of history. In this series of curious wall- 
paintings, we see Constantine dismissing, consoled and laden with gifts, 
the mothers whose children were to be slaughtered to provide a bath of 
blood, the remedy prescribed — but which he humanely rejected- — for his 
leprosy, his punishment for persecuting the Church wliile he yet lingered 
in the darkness of paganism ; we see the vision of St. Peter and 

* Best known by his comic pictures in the Uffizi at Florence. 


St. Paul, who appear to him in his dreams, and prescribe the infallible 
cure for both physical and moral disease through the waters of baptism ; 
we see the mounted emissaries, sent by the emperor to seek St. Sylvester* 
finding that pontiff concealed in a cavern on Mount Soracte ; we see 
that saint before the emperor, exhibiting to him the authentic portraits 
of the two apostles (said to be still preserved at St. Peter's), pictures in 
which Constantine at once recognises the forms seen in his vision, 
assuming them to be gods entitled to his worship ; we see the imperial 
baptism, with a background of fantastic architecture, the rite adminis- 
tered both by immersion (the neophyte standing in an ample font) and 
affusion ; we see the pope on a throne, before which the emperor is 
kneeling, to offer him a tiara — no doubt the artist intended thus to 
imply the immediate bestowal of temporal sovereignty (very generally 
believed the act of Constantine in the first flush of his gratitude and 
neophyte zeal) upon the papacy ; lastly, we see the pontiff riding into 
Rome in triumph, Constantine himself leading his hoi^se, and other 
mitred bishops following on horseback. Another picture — evidently 
by the same hand — quaintly represents the finding of the true cross by 
St. Helena, and the miracle by which it was distinguished from the 
crosses of the two thieves, — a subject here introduced because a portion 
of that revered relic was among treasures deposited in this chapel, as an 
old inscription, on one side, records. The largest composition on these 
walls, which completes the series, represents the Saviour enthroned, 
amidst angels and apostles. This chapel is now only used for the' 
devotions of a guild of marble-cutters, and open for mass on but one 
Sunday — the last — in every month. " — Hcmans^ Mcdiarjal Christian Art. 

In the fresco of the Crucifixion in this chapel an angel is 
represented taking off the crown of thorns and putting on a 
real cro^\ai, an incident nowhere else introduced in art. 

The castellated Convent of the Santi Quattro was built by 
Paschal II. at the same time as the church, and was used 
as a papal palace while the Lateran was in ruins, hence its 
defensive aspect, suited to the troublous times of the anti- 
popes. It is now iiihabitcd by Augustinian Nuns. 

At the foot of the Ccjelian beneath the Incoronati, and 
in the street leading from the Coliseum to the Lateran, is 
the Church of S. Clemaitc^ to which recent discoveries have 
given an extraordinary interest. 


■5-. CLEMENTE. 343 

The upper church, in spite of modernizations under 
Clement XL in the last century, retains more of the details 
belonging to primitive ecclesiastical architecture than any- 
other building in Rome. It was consecrated in memory of 
Clement, the fellow-labourer of St. Paul, and the third 
bishop of Rome, upon the site of his family house. It was 
already important in the time of Gregory the Great, who 
here read his thirty-third and thirty-eighth homilies. It was 
altered by Adrian I. in a.d. 772, and by John VIII. in a.d. 
800, and again restored in a.d, 1099 by Paschal II., who 
had been cardinal of the church, and who was elected to 
the papacy within its walls. The greater part of the ex- 
isting building is thus either of the ninth or the twelfth 

At the west end a porch supported by two columns, and 

attributed to the eighth century, leads into the qiiadriporticus, 

from which is the entrance to the nave, separated from its 

aisles by sixteen columns evidently plundered from pagan 

buildings. Raised above the nave and protected by a low 

marble wall is the cancdlum, preserving its ancient pavement, 

ambones, altar, and episcopal throne. 

"In S. Clemente, built on the site of his paternal mansion, and 
restored at the beginning of the twelfth century, an example is still to 
be seen, in perfect preservation, of the primitive church ; everything 
remains in statu quo — the court, the portico, the cancellum, the am- 
bones, paschal candlestick, crypt, and ciborium — virgin and intact ; the 
wooden roof has unfortunately disappeared, and a small chapel, dedi- 
cated to St. Catherine, has been added, yet even this is atoned for by 
the lovely frescoes of Masaccio. I most especially recommend this relic 
of early Christianity to your affectionate and tender admiration. Yet 
the beauty of S. Clemente is internal only, outwardly it is little more 
than a barn." — Lord Lindsay. 

On the left of the side entrance is the Chapel of the 
Passion, clothed with frescoes of Masaccio, which, though 


restored, are very beautiful — over the altar is the Crucifix 
ion, on the side walls the stories of St. Clement and St. 

"The celebrated series relating to St. Catherine is still most striking 
in the grace and refinement of its principal figures : 

" I. St. Catherine (cousin of the Emperor Constantine) refuses to 
worship idols. 

"2. She converts the empress of Maximin. She is seen through a 
window seated inside a prison, and the empress is seated outside the 
prison, opposite to her, in a graceful listening attitude. 

"3. The empress is beheaded, and her soul is caiTied to heaven by an 

" 4. Catherine disputes with the pagan philosophers. She is standing 
in the midst of a hall, the forefinger of one hand laid on the other, as in 
the act of demonstrating. She is represented fair and girlish, dressed 
with great simplicity in a tunic and girdle, — no crown, nor any other 
attribute. The sages are i-anged on each side, some lost in thought, 
others in astonishment, the tyrant (Maximin) is seen behind, as if 
watching the conference, while through an open window we behold the 
fire kindled for the converted philosophers, and the scene of their 

"5. Catherine is delivered from the wheels, which are broken by an 

" 6. She is beheaded. In the background three angels lay her in a 
sarcophagus on the summit of Mount Sinai." — See JamesoiUs Sacred 
Art, p. 491. 

" 'Masaccio,' says Vasari, 'whose enthusiasm for art would not 
allow him to rest contentedly at Florence, resolved to go to Rome, that 
he might learn there to surpass every other painter.' It was duiing this 
journey, which, in fact, added much to his renown, that he painted, in 
the Church of San Clemente — the chapel which now so usually dis- 
appoints the expectations of the traveller, on account of the successive 

restorations by which his work has been disfigured The 

heavy brush which has passed over each compartment has spared neither 
the delicacy of the outline, the roundness of the forms, nor the play of 
light and shade : in a word, notliing which constitutes the peculiar merit 
of Masaccio." — Rio, Poetry 0/ Christian Art. 

At the end of the right aisle is the beautiful tomb of 
Cardinal Rovarella, ob. 1476. A statue of St. John the 


Baptist is by Simone, brother of Donatello. Beneath the 
altar repose the reUcs of St. Clement, St. Ignatius of 
Antioch — martyred in the Coliseum, St. Cyril, and St. 

" ' The Fathers are in dust, yet live to God : ' 

So says the Truth ; as if the motionless clay 
Still held the seeds of life beneath the sod, 

Smouldering and struggling till the judgment-day. 

"And hence we leam with reverence to esteem 

Of these frail houses, though the grave confines : 
Sophist may urge his cunning tests, and deem 

That they are earth ; — but they are heavenly shrines." 

J. H. N't'wman, 1833. 

" St. Gregoire raconte que de son temps on voyait dans le vestibule de 
I'eglise Saint Clement un pauvre paralytique, priant et mendiant, sans 
que jamais une plainte sortit de sa bouche, malgre les vives douleurs 
qu'il endurait. Chaque fldele lui donnait, et le paralytique distribuait 
a son tour, aux maiheureux ce qu'il avait re9u de la compassion publique. 
Lorsqu'il mourut, son corps fut plac^ pres de celui de Saint Clement, 
pape, et de Saint Ignace d'Antioche, et son nom fut inscrit au martyro- 
loge. On le venere dans I'Eglise sous le nom de Saint Servulus." — Une 
Chretienne ci Rome. 

The mosaics in the tribune are well worth examination. 

"There are few Christian mosaics in which mystic meaning and 
poetic imagination are more felicitous than in those on the apse of 
S. Clemente, where the crucifix, and a wide-spreading vine-tree (allusive 
to His words, who said ' I am the True Vine'), spring from the same 
stem ; twelve doves, emblems of the apostles, being on the cross with 
the Divine Sufferer ; the Mother and St. John beside it, the usual hand 
stretched out in glory above, with a crown ; the four doctors of the 
Church, also other small figures, men and birds, introduced amidst 
the mazy vine-foliage ; and at the basement, the four mystic rivers, 
with stags and peacocks drinking at their streams. The figure of St. 
Dominic is a modem addition. It seems evident, from characteristics 
of style, that the other mosaics here, above the apsidal arch, and at the 
spandrils, are more ancient, perhaps by about a centuiy ; these latter 
representing the Saviour in benediction, the four Evangelic emblems, 


St. Peter and St. Clement, St. Paul and St. Laurence seated ; the two 
apostles designated by their names, with the Greek ' hagios ' in Latin 
letters. The later art-work M'as ordered (see the Latin inscription 
below) in 1299, by a cardinal titular of S- Clemente, nephew to 
Boniface VIII. ; the same who also bestowed the beautiful gothic 
tabernacle for the holy oils, with a relief representing the donor pre- 
sented by St. Dominic to the Virgin and Child — set against the wall 
near the tribune, an admirable, though but an accessorial, object of 
mediaeval art." — Hemans' Aledidval A7-t. 

From the sacristy a staircase leads to the Loiver Church 
(occasionally illuminated for the public) first discovered in 
1857. Here, there are several pillars of the rarest marbles in 
perfect preservation, and a very curious series of frescoes 
of the eighth and ninth centuries, parts of which are still 
clear and almost uninjured. These include — the Cruci- 
fixion, with the Virgin and St. John standing by the cross, — 
the earliest example in Rome of this well-known subject ; 
the Ascension, sometimes called by Romanists (in prepara- 
tion for their dogma of 1870), "the Assumption of the 
Virgin," because the figure of the Virgin is elevated above 
the other apostles, though she is evidently intent on watching 
the retreating figure of her divine Son — in this fresco the 
figure of a pope is introduced (with the square nimbus, 
showing that it was painted in his lifetime), and the inscrip- 
tion " Sanctissimus dominus, Leo Papa Romanus," pro- 
bably Leo in. or Leo IV.; the Maries at the sepulchre; 
the descent into Hades; the Marriage of Cana ; the Funeral 
of St. Cyril with Pope Nicholas I. (858 — 67) walking in the 
procession ; and, the most interesting of all — probably of 
somewhat later date, the story of S. Clemente, and that of 
S. Alexis, whose adventures are described in the account 
of liis church on the Aventine. An altar of Mithras was 
discovered during the excavations here. Beneath this crypt 


is still a third structure, discovered 1S67, — probably the 
very house of St. Clement, — (decorated with rich stucco 
ornament)— sometimes supposed to be the 'cavern near 
S. Clemente ' to which the Emperor Otho III., who died 
at the age of twenty-two, retired in a.d. 999 with his 
confessor, and where he spent fourteen days in penitential 

According to the Acts of the Martyrs, the Prefect Mamer- 
tinus ordered the arrest of Pope Clement, and intended to 
put him to death, but was deterred by a tumult of the 
people, who cried with one voice, " What evil has he done, 
or rather what good has he not done ? " Clement was then 
condemned to exile in the Chersonese, and Mamertinus, 
touched by his submission and courage, dismissed him with 
the words — " May the God you worship bring you relief in 
the place of your banishment." 

In his exile Clement received into the Church more than 
two hundred Christians who had been waiting for baptism, and 
miraculously discovered water for their support in a baiTen 
rock, to which he was directed by a Lamb, in whose form 
he recognised the guidance of the Son of God. The en- 
thusiasm which these marvels excited led Trajan to send 
executioners, by whom he was tied to an anchor and thrown 
into the sea. But his disciples, kneeling on the shore, 
prayed that his relics might be given up to them, when the 
waves retired, and disclosed a marble chapel, built by un- 
earthly hands — over the tomb of the saint. From the Cher- 
sonese the remains of St. Clement were brought back to 
Rome by St. Cyril, the Apostle of the Slavonians, who, 
dying here himself, was buried by his side. 



Jewish Burial-ground — Sta. Sabina — S. Alessio — The Priorato — Sta. 
Prisca— The Vigna dei Gesuiti — S. Sabba — Sta. Balbina. 

'T'HE Aventlne, which is perhaps the highest, and now — 
from its coronet of convents — the most picturesque 
of all the Roman hills, is of irregular form, and is divided 
into two parts by a valley ; one side, the higher, is crowned 
by the churches of Sta. Sabina, S. Alessio, and the Priorato, 
which together form "the Capitol of the Aventine;" the other, 
known as the Pseudo-Aventine, is marked by the churches 
of S. Sabba and Sta. Balbina. 

Virgil and Ovid allude repeatedly to the thick woods 
which once clothed the Aventine.* Dionysius speaks of 
the laurels or bays, an indigenous tree of ancient Rome, 
which grew there in abundance. Only one side of the hill, 
that towards the Tiber, iiow shows any of the natural cliff, 
but it was once remarkable for its rocks, and the Pseudo- 
Aventine obtained the name of Saxum from a huge solitary 
mass of stone which surmounted it. 

" Est moles nativa ; loco res iiomina fecit 
Appellant Saxura : pars bona montis ea est." "f" 

• Virg. yV.n. viii. 104, 108, 216; Ov. Fast. i. 551. t Ov. Fast. v. 149. 


The upper portion of the hill is of volcanic formation, 
and it is supposed that the legend of Cacus vomiting forth 
flames from his cave on the side of the Aventine had its 
origin in noxious sulphuric vapours emitted by the soil, as 
is still the case at the Solfatara on the way to Tivoli. The 
demi-god Faunus, who had an oracle at the Solfatara, had 
also an oracle on this hill.* 

Some derive the name of Aventine from Aventinus- 
Silvius, king of Alba, who was buried hereof others from 
Avens, a Sabine river ; while others say that the name simply 
means " the hill of birds," and connect it with the story of 
the foundation of the city. For when it became necessary 
to decide whether Romulus or Remus was to rule over the 
newly-built Rome, Romulus seated himself upon the Pala- 
tine to watch the auspices, but Remus upon the rock of the 
Pseudo-Aventine. Here Remus saw only six vultures, while 
Romulus saw twelve, but each interpreted the augury in his 
own favour, and Remus leapt across the boundary of the 
Palatine, whether in derision or war, and was slain by his 
brother, or by Celer, one of his followers. He was brought 
back and buried upon the Aventine, and the stone whence 
he had watched the vultures was thenceforth called the 
Sacred Rock. Ancient tradition places the tomb of Remus 
on the Pseudo-Aventine, but in the middle ages the tomb of 
Caius Ccstus was believed — even by Petrarch — to be the 
monument of Remus. 

Some authorities consider that when Remus was watching 
the vultures on the Pseudo-Aventine, that part of the hill 
was already occupied by a Pelasgic fortress called Romoria, 
but at this time and for long afterwards, the higher part of the 

* Ampire, Hist. Rom. i. 79. t V'arro, iv. 7. 


Aventine was held by the Sabines. Here the Sabine king 
Numa dedicated an altar to Jupiter Elicius,* and the 
Sabine god Consus had also an altar here. Hither Numa 
came to visit the forest-gods Faunus and Picus at their 
sacred fountain : 

Lucus Aventino suberat niger ilicis umbra, 

Quo posses viso dicere, numen inest. 
In medio gramen, muscoque adoperta virenti 

Manabat saxo vena perennis aquse. 
Inde fere soli Faunus Picusque bibebant.+ 

By mingling wine and honey with the waters of their 
spring, Numa snared the gods, and compelled them to tell 
him how he might learn from Jupiter the knowledge of his 
will, and to reveal to him a charm against thunder and 
lightning. % 

The Sabine king Tatius, the rival of Romulus, was 
buried on the Aventine " in a great grove of laurels," and, at 
his tomb, then called Armilustrum, it was the custom, every 
year, in the month of October, to hold a feast for the purifi- 
cation of arms, accompanied by martial dances. A horse 
was at the same time sacrificed to Janus, the Sabine war- 
god. § 

Ancus Martius surrounded the Aventine by a wall,|l and 
settled there many thousands of the inhabitants of Latin 
towns which he had subdued. This was the origin of the 
plebs, who were soon to become such formidable opponents 
of the first colonists of the Palatine, who took rank as patri- 
cians, and who at first found in them an important counter- 
poise to tlie power of the original Sabine inhabitants, against 

• Livy, i. 20. t OviJ, Fast. iii. 295. 

X " Onions, hair, and ]iilcliar(ls." — See Plutarch's Life of Numa. 
§ Anip6re, Hist. Kumi. i. 427. Diunysius, iii. 43. 


whom the little Latin colony of Romulus had hitherto been 
standing alone. The Aventine continued always to be the 
especial property and sanctuary of the plebs, the patricians 
avoiding it — in the first instance, it is supposed, from an im- 
pression that the hill was of evil omen, owing to the story 
of Remus. In B.C. 416, the tribune Icilius proposed and 
carried a law by which all the public lands of the Aventine 
were officially conferred upon the plebs, who forthwith 
began to cover its heights with houses, in which each family 
of the people had a right in one floor, — -a custom w-hich 
still prevails at Rome. At this time, also, the Aventine 
Avas included for the first time within the pomoerium or 
religious boundary of the city. Owing to its being the " hill 
of the people," the commons henceforth held their comitia 
and elected their tribunes here ; and here, after the murder 
of Virginia, to whom the tribune Icilius had been betrothed, 
the army assembled against Appius Claudius. 

Very little remains of the numerous temples which once 
adorned the hill, but their sites are tolerably well ascer- 
tained. We still ascend the Aventine by the ancient Clivus 
Publicius, originally paved by two brothers Publicii, who 
were eediles at the same time, and had embezzled a public 
sum of money, which they were compelled to expend thus — 

Parte locant clivum, qui tunc erat ardua rupes : 
Utile nunc iter est, Publiciumque vocant.* 

At the foot of this road was the temple of I.una, or Jana, in 
which Tatius had also erected an altar to Janus or the Sun. 

Luna regit menses ; hujus quoque tempora mensis 
Finit Aventlno Luna colenda jugo.t 

* Ovid, Fast. V. 293. + Fast. iii. 883. 


It was up this road that Caius Gracchus, a few hours 
before his death, fled to take refuge in a small Temple of 
Diana, which stood somewhere near the present site of S. 
Alessio, where, kneeling before the statue of the goddess, he 
implored that the people who had betrayed hira might never 
be free. Close by, singularly enough, rose the Temple of 
Liberty, which his grandfather Sempronius Gracchus had 
built. Adjoining this temple was a hall where the archives 
of the censors were kept, and where they transacted busi- 
ness ; this was rebuilt by Asinius PoUio, who added to it 
the first public library established in Rome, 

Nee me, qua; doctis patuerant prima libellis 
Atria, Libertas tangere passa sua est.* 

In the same group stood the famous sanctuary of Juno 
Regina, vowed by Camillus during the siege of Veii, and to 
which the Juno of the captured city was removed after she 
had given a verbal consent when asked whether she wished 
to go to Rome and inhabit a new temple, much as the 
modern queen of heaven is apt to do in modern times at 
Rome.t The Temples of Liberty and Juno were both 
rebuilt under Augitstus ; some imagine that they were under 
a common roof If they were distinct buildings, nothing of 
the former remains ; some beautiful columns built into the 
church of Sta. Sabina are all that remain of the temple 
of Juno, though Livy thought that her reign here would be 
eternal — 

. . . in Avcntinum, ajlcrnam sedcm suam. J 

* Ovid, Trist. iii. 71. 

t Sec the account of tlie Cli. of Sta. Franccsca Roinana, Chap. iv. 

X Livy, V. 22. 


Also belonging to this group was a Temple of Minerva. 

Sol abit a Geminis, et Cancri signa rubescunt : 
Ccepit Aventina Pallas in arce coli.* 

Here the dramatist Livius Andronicus, who lived upon 
the Aventine, was honoured after his death by a company 
of scribes and actors. Another poet who lived upon the 
Aventine was Ennius, who is described as inhabiting a 
humble dwelling, and being attended by a single female 
slave. The poet Gallus also lived here. 

Totis, Galle, jubes tibi me servire diebus, 
Et per Aventinum ter quater ire tuum ! t 

On the other side of the Aventine (above the Circus 
Maximus), which was originally covered with myrtle — a 
shrub now almost extinct at Rome — on the site now occu- 
pied by Sta. Prisca, was a more important Temple of Diana, 
sometimes called by the Sabine name of Murcia, — built in 
imitation of the temple of Diana at Ephesus. Propertius 
writes — 

Phyllis Aventince qiixdam est vicina Diance ; % 

and Martial — 

Quique videt propius magna certamina Circi 
Laudat Aventince vicinus Sura Diance. ^ 

Here till the time of Dionysius was preserved the pillar of 
brass on which Avas engraved the law of Icilius. 

Near this were the groves of Simila, the retreat of the 
infamous association discovered and terribly punished at the 
time of the Greek wars ; and — in the time of the empire — the 
gardens of Servilia, where she received the devotion of Julius 

* Ovid, Fast. vi. 727. t Martial, x. Ep. 56. 

+ Propert. iv. EI. 9. § Mart. vi. Ep. 64. 

VOL. I. 23 


Caesar, and in which her son Brutus is said to have con- 
spired his murder, and to have been interrogated by his 
wife Portia as to the mystery, which he refused to reveal to 
her, fearing her weakness under torture, until, by the con- 
cealment of a terrible wound which she had given to herself, 
she had proved to him that the daughter of Cato could suffer 
and be silent. 

The Aventine continued to be inhabited, and even popu- 
lous, until the sixth century, from which period its prosperity 
began to decline. In the eleventh century it was occupied 
by the camp of Henry IV. of Germany, when he came 
in war against Gregory VII. In the thirteenth century 
Honorius III. made a final effort to re-establish its popu- 
larity; but with each succeeding generation it has become 
— partly owing to the ravages of malaria — more and more 
deserted, till now its sole inhabitants are monks, and the 
few ague-stricken contadini who look after the monastic 
vineyards. In wandering along its desolate lanes, hemmed 
in by hedges of elder, or by walls covered with parasitical 
plants, it is difficult to realize the time when it was so 
thickly populated ; and except in the quantities of coloured 
marbles with which its fields and vineyards are strewn, 
there is nothing to remind one of the i6 gediculce, 64 baths, 
25 granaries, 88 fountains, 130 of the larger houses called 
domiis, and 2487 of the poorer houses called insidce, ^\hich 
occupied this site. 

The present interest of the hill is almost wholly ecclesi- 
astical, and centres around the story of St. Dominic, and 
the legends of the saints and martyrs connected with its 
different churches. 


The best approach to the Aventhic is behind the Churcli 
of Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, where the Via Sta. Sabi?ia, 
once the Chvus PubUcius (available for carriages), turns up 
the hill. 

A lane on the left leads to the Jewish burial-ground, used 
as a place of sepulture for the Ghetto for many centuries. 
A curious instance of the cupidity attributed to the Jewish 
race may be seen in the fact, that they have, for a remu- 
neration of four baiocchi, habitually given leave to their 
neighbours to discharge the contents of a rubbish cart into 
their cemetery, a permission of which the Romans have 
so abundantly availed themselves, that the le\el of the 
soil has been raised by many yards, and whole sets of 
older monuments have been completely swallowed up, and 
new ones erected over their heads. 

After we turn the corner at the hill top, with its fine view 
over the Palatine, and cross the trench of fortification formed 
during the fear of a Garibaldian invasion in 1867, we skirt 
■what appears to be part of a city wall. This is in fact the 
wall of the Honorian city, built by Pope Honorius III., of 
the great family of Savelli, whose idea was to render the 
Aventine once more the populous and favourite portion of 
the city, and who began great works for this purpose. Before 
his arrangements were completed St. Dominic arrived in 
Rome, and was appointed master of the papal household, 
and abbot of the convent of Sta. Sabina, where his minis- 
trations and popularity soon formed such an attraction, that 
the pope wisely abandoned his design of founding a new 
city which should commemorate himself, and left the 
field to St. Dominic, — to whom he made over the land on 
this side of the hill. Henceforward the convent of Sta. 


Sabina and its surroundings have become, more than any 
other spot, connected with the history of the Dominican 
Order, — there, all the great saints of the Order have received 
their first inspiration, — have resided, — or are buried ; there 
St Dominic himself received in a beatific vision the insti- 
tution of the rosary ; there he was ordered to plant the 
famous orange-tree, which, being then unknown in Rome, 
he brought from his native Spain as the only present which 
it was suitable for the gratitude of a poor monk to offer 
to his patron Honorius, who was himself one of the great 
botanists of his time, — an orange-tree which still lives, and 
which is firmly believed by the monks to flourish or fail 
with the fortunes of the Order, so that it has lately been 
greatly the worse for the suppression of the convents in 
Northern Italy, though the residence of Pere Lacordaire 
within the convent proved exceedingly beneficial to it, and 
his visit even caused a new sucker to sprout. 

The Church of Sta. Sabina was built on the site of the 
house of the saint — in which she suffered martyrdom under 
the Emperor Hadrian,* in a.d. 423 — by Peter, a priest of 
Illyria, "rich for the poor, and poor for himself" {paiiperibus 
lociiples, sibi pauper), as we read by the mosaic inscription 
inside the principal entrance. St. Gregory the Great read 
two of his homilies here. The church was rebuilt in 824, 
and restored and reconsecrated by Gregory IX. in 1238. 
Much of its interest, — ancient pavements, mosaics, &:c., — 
was destroyed in 1587 by Sixtus V., who took the credit 
of discovering the relics of the martyrs who are buried 
beneath the altar. 

* Tlicrc is a beautiful picture of Sta. Sabina by Vivariui of Murano, in St. Zacharia 
at Venice. 

STA. SAB IN A. 357 

On the west is a covered corridor containing several 
ancient inscriptions. It is supported on one side by ancient 
spiral columns of pavonazzetto, on the other these have 
been plundered and replaced by gi^anite. Hence, through a 
window, ladies are allowed to gaze upon the celebrated 
orange-tree, 665 years old, which they cannot approach ; 
a rude figure of St. Dominic is sculptured upon the low 
wall which surrounds it. The west door, of the twelfth 
century, in a richly sculptured frame, is cited by Kugler 
as an instance of the extinction of the Byzantine influence 
upon art. Its panels are covered with carvings from the 
Old and New Testament, referred by Mamaclii to the 
seventh, by Agincourt to the thirteenth century. Some 
of the subjects have been destroyed ; among those which 
remain are the Annunciation, the Angels appearing to the 
Shepherds, the Angel and Zachariah in the Temple, the 
Magi, Moses turning the rods into serpents, the ascent 
of Elijah, Christ before Pilate, the denial of Peter, and 
the Ascension. Within the entrance are the only remains 
of the magnificent mosaic, erected in 431, under Celes- 
tine I., which entirely covered the west wall till the time 
of Sixtus v., consisting of an inscription in large letters, 
with a female figure on either side, that on the left 
bearing the name " Ecclesia cum circumcisione," that on 
the right, " Ecclesia ex gentibus." Among the parts 
destroyed were the four beasts typical of the Evangelists, 
and St. Peter and St. Paul. The church was thus gor- 
geously decorated, because in the time of the Savelli popes, 
it was what the Sistine is now, the Chiesa Apostolica. 

The nave is lined by twenty-four Corinthian columns 
of white marble, relics of the temple of Juno Regina, which 


once stood here. Above, is an inlaid frieze of pietradura, 
of A.D. 431, which once extended up to the windows, but 
was destroyed by Sixtus V., who at the same time built up 
the windows which till then existed over each pier. In 
the middle of the pavement near the altar, is a very cu- 
rious mosaic figure over the grave of Munoz de Zamora, 
a General of the Dominican Order, who died in 1300. 
Nearer the west door are interesting incised slabs repre- 
senting a German bishop and a lady, benefactors of this 
church, and (on the left) a slab with arms in mosaic, to a 
lady of the Savelli family. In the left aisle is another 
monument of 13 12, commemorating a warrior of the im- 
perial house of Germany. The high altar covers the remains 
of Sabina and Seraphia, Alexander the Pope, Eventius and 
Theodulus, all martyrs. In the chapel beneath St Dominic is 
said to have flagellated himself three times nightly, " perche 
uno colpo solo non abbastava per mortificare la came." 

At the end of the right aisle is the Chapel of the Ro- 
sary, where a beautiful picture of Sassoferrato, called "I, a 
Madonna del Rosario," commemorates the vision of St, 
Dominic on that spot, in which he received the rosary from 
the hands of the Virgin. 

" St. Catherine of Siena kneels with St. Dominic before the throne 
of the Madonna ; the lily at her feet. The Infant Saviour is turned 
towards her, and with one hand he crowns her with thorns, with the 
other he presents the rosary. This is the master-piece of the painter, 
with all his usual elegance, without his usual insipidity." — Jaiiicsoii's 
Monastic Orders. 

Few Roman Catholic practices have excited more ani- 
madversion than the "vain repetition" of the worship of 
the Rosary. The Pcrc Lacordaire (a Dominican) defended 
it, saying— 

STA. SAB IX A. 359 

' ' Le rationaliste sourit en voyant passer de longues files de gens qui 
redisent une meme parole. Celui qui est eclaire d'une meilleure 
lumiere comprend que I'amour n'a qu'un mot, et qu'en le disant toujours, 
il ne le repete jamais." 

Grouped around this chapel are three beautiful tombs, — 
a cardinal, a bishop, and a priest of the end of the fifteenth 
century. That of the cardinal (which is of the well-known 
Roman type of the time), is inscribed " Ut moriens viveret, 
vixit est mori turns ;" the others are incised slabs. At the 
other end of this aisle is a marble slab, on which St. Dominic 
is said to have been wont to lie prostrate in prayer. One 
day while he was lying thus, the Devil in his rage is said to 
have hurled a huge stone (a round black marble, pieti-a di 
paragone,) at him, which missed the saint, who left the 
attack entirely unnoticed. The devil was frantic with dis- 
appointment, and the stone, remaining as a relic, is pre- 
served on a low pillar in the nave. A small gothic ciborium, 
richly inlaid with mosaic, remains on the left of the tribune. 

Opening from the left aisle is a chapel built by Elic of 
Tuscany — very rich in precious marbles. The frame of the 
panel on the left is said to be unique. 

It was in this church, in 1218, that St. Hyacinth, struck 
by the preaching of St. Dominic, and by the recollection 
of the barbarism, heathenism, and ignorance which pre- 
vailed in many parts of his native land of Silesia, offered 
himself as its missionary, and took the vows of the 
Dominican Order, together with his cousin St. Ceslas. 
Hither fled to the monastic life St. Thomas Aquinas, pur- 
sued to the very door of the convent by the tears and 
outcries of his mother, who vainly implored him to return 
to her. One evening, a pilgrim, worn out with travel and 

36o WALKS IN 1^0 ME. 

fatigue, arrived at the door of this convent mounted upon a 
^vretched mule, and implored admittance. The prior in 
mockery asked, " What are you come for, my father ? are 
you come to see if the college of cardinals is disposed 
to elect you as pope ? " "I come to Rome," repHed the 
pilgrim Michele Ghislieri, " because the interests of the 
Church require it, and I shall leave as soon as my task is 
accomplished ; meanwhile I implore you to give me a brief 
hospitality and a little hay for my mule." Sixteen years 
afterwards Ghislieri mounted the papal throne as Pius V., 
and proved, during a troubled reign, the most rigid follower 
and eager defender of the institutions of St. Dominic. One 
day as Ghislieri was about to kiss his crucifix in the eager- 
ness of prayer, " the image of Christ," says the legend, retired 
of its o^^^l accord from his touch, for it had been poisoned 
by an enemy, and a kiss would have been death. This 
crucifix is now preserved as a precious relic in the convent, 
where the cells both of St. Dominic and of St. Pius V. are 
preserved, though, like most historical chambers of Roman 
saints, their interest is lessened by their having been 
beautified and changed into chapels. In the cell of St. 
Dominic is a portrait by Bazzani, founded on the records 
of his personal appearance ; the lily lies by his side, — the 
glory hovers over his head, — he is, as the chronicler de- 
scribes him, " of amazing beauty." In this cell he is said 
frequently to have i)asscd the night in prayer with his rival 
St. Francis of Assist The refectory is connected with 
anotlier story of St. Dominic : — 

"It liappencd that wlicu lie was residing witli forty of his friars in 
the convent of Sta. Saljina at Rome, llie brotliers who had lieen sent to 
beg for provisions had returned with a very small quantity of broad, 

STA. SABhVA. 361 

and tliey knew not what they should do, for night was at hand, and 
they had not eaten all day. Then St. Dominic oi-dered that they should 
seat themselves in the refectory, and, taking his place at the head of the 
table, he pronounced the usual blessing : and behold ! two beautiful 
youths clad in white and shining garments appeared amongst them ; 
one carried a basket of bread, and the other a pitcher of wine, which 
they distributed to the brethren : then they disappeared, and no one 
knew how they had come in, nor how they had gone out. And the 
brethren sat in amazement; but St. Dominic stretched forth his hand, 
and said calmly, ' My children, eat what God hath sent you : ' and it 
was truly celestial food, such as they had never tasted before nor since. " 
— yamcsoiis Monastic Orders, p. 369. 

Other saints who sojourned for a time in this convent 
were St. Norbert, founder of the Premonstratensians (ob. 
1 134), and St. Raymond de Penaforte (ob. 1275), who left 
his labours in Barcelona for a time in 1230 to act as 
chaplain to Gregory IX. 

In 1287 a conclave was held at Sta. Sabina for the election 
of a successor to Pope Martin IV., but was broken up by 
the malaria, six cardinals dying at once within the convent, 
and all the rest taking flight except Cardinal Savelli, who 
would not desert his paternal home, and survived by keep- 
ing large fires constantly burning in his chamber. Ten 
months afterwards his perseverance was rewarded by his 
own election to the throne as Honorius IV. 

In the garden of the convent are some small remains of 
the palace of the Savelli pope, Honorius III. Here, on the 
declivity of the Aventine, many important excavations were 
made in 1856 — 57, by the French Prior Besson, a person of 
great intelligence, and he was rewarded by the discovery 
of an ancient Roman house — its chambers paved with black 
and white mosaic, and some fine fragments of the wall 
of Servius Tullius, formed of gigantic blocks of peperino. 


In the chambers which were found decorated in stucco with 
remnants of painting in figures and arabesque ornaments, 
" one httle group represented a sacrifice before the statue 
of a god, in an sedicula. Some rudely scratched Latin 
hnes on this surface led to the inference that this chamber, 
after becoming subterranean and otherwise uninhabitable, 
had served for a prison ; one unfortunate inmate having 
inscribed curses against those who caused his loss of 
liberty ; and another, more devout, left record of his vows 
to sacrifice to Bacchus in case of recovering that blessing."* 

Since the death of Prior Besson t the works have been 
abandoned, and the remains already discovered have been 
for the most part earthed up again. A nympheum, a well, 
and several subterranean passages, are still visible on the 

Just beyond Sta. Sabina is the Hieronymite Church and 
Convent of S. Alcssio, the only monastery of Hieronymites 
in Italy where meat was allowed to be eaten, — in con- 
sideration of the malaria. The first church erected here 
was built in a.d. 305 in honour of St. Boniface, martyr, by 
Aglae, a noble Roman lady, whose servant (and lover) he 
had been. It was reconsecrated in a.d. 401 by Innocent 
I., in honour of St. Alexis, whose paternal mansion was on 
this site. This saint, young and beautiful, took a vow of 
virginity, and being forced by his parents into marriage, 
fled on the same evening from his home, and was given 
up as lost. Worn out and utterly changed he returned 
many years afterwards to be near those who wiere dear to 
him, and remained, unrecognised, as a poor beggar, under 

• Hcmans' Monuments in Rome. 

t Commemorated in the beautiful Memoir of "A Dominican Artist" (Rivingtons, 

S. ALESSIO. 363 

the stairs which led to his father's house. Seventeen years 
passed away, when a mysterious voice suddenly echoed 
through the Roman churches, crying, " Seek ye out the 
man of God, that he may pray for Rome." The crowd 
was stricken with amazement, — when the same voice con- 
tinued, " Seek in the house of Euphemian." Then, pope, 
emperor, and senators rushed together to the Aventine, 
where they found the despised beggar dpng beneath the 
doorstep, with his countenance beaming with celestial light, 
a crucifix in one hand, and a sealed paper in the other. 
Vainly the people strove to draw the paper from the fingers 
which were closing in the gripe of death, but when Inno- 
cent I. bade the dying man in God's name to give it up, 
they opened, and the pope read aloud to the astonished 
multitude the secret of Alexis ; and his father Euphemian 
and his widowed bride, regained in death the son and the 
husband they had lost. 

S. Alessio is entered through a courtyard. 

"The courtyards in front of S. Alessio, Sta. Cecilia, S. Gregorio, 
and other churches, are like the vestibula of the ancient Roman houses, 
on the site of whicli they were probably built. This style of building, 
says Tacitus, was generally introduced by Nero. Beyond opened the 
prothyra, or inner entrance, with the ccUce for the porter and dog, both 
chained, on either side." 

In the portico of the church is a statue of Benedict XIII. 
(Pietro Orsmi, 1724). The west door has a rich border of 
mosaic. The church has been so much modernised as to 
retain no appearance of antiquity. The fine Opus-Alexan- 
drinum pavement is preserved. In the floor is the incised 
gothic monument of Lupi di Olmeto, General of the 
Hieronymites (ob. 1433). Left of the entrance is a shrine of 


S. Alessio, ■with his figure sleeping under the staircase — 
part of the actual wooden stairs being enclosed in a glass 
case over his head. Not far from this is the ancient well of 
his father's house. In a chapel which opens out of a 
passage leading to the sacristy is the fine tomb of Cardinal 
Guido di Balneo, of the time of Leo X, He is represented 
sitting, with one hand resting on the ground — the delicate 
execution of his lace in marble is much admired. The 
mosaic roof of this chapel was burst open by a cannon-ball 
during the French bombardment of 1849, but the figure 
was uninjured. The baldacchino (well known from Mac- 
pjherson's photographs) is remarkable for its perfect pro- 
portions. Behind, in the tribune, are the inlaid mosaic 
pillars of a gothic tabernacle. No one should omit to 
descend into the Crypt of S. Akssio, which is an early church, 
supported on stunted pillars, and containing a marble 
episcopal chair, green with age. Here the pope used to 
meet the early conclaves of the Church in times of perse- 
cution. The pillar under the altar is shown as that to 
which St. Sebastian was bound when he was shot with 
the arrows. 

The cloister of the convent, from which ladies are 
excluded, blooms with orange and lemon trees. There 
are only six Hieronymite brethren here now. The con- 
vent was at one time purchased by the ex-king Ferdi- 
nand of Spain, who intended turning it into a villa for 

A short distance beyond S. Alessio is a sort of little 
square, adorned with trophied memorials of the knights of 
Malta, and occupying the site of the laurel grove (Armi- 
lustrum) which contained the tomb of Tatius. Flere is the 


entrance of the Priorato garden, where is the famous Vircv 
of St. Peter's through the Keyhole, admired by crowds of 
people on Ash-Wednesday, when the " stazione " is held at 
the neighbouring churches. Entering the garden (which 
can always be visited) we find ourselves in a beautiful 
avenue of old bay-trees framing the distant St. Peter's. 
A terrace overhanging the Tiber has an enchanting \aew 
over the river and town. In the garden is an old pepper- 
tree, and in a little court a picturesque palm-tree and well. 
From hence we can enter the church, sometimes called 
6". Basilio, sometimes Sta. Maria Aventina, an ancient 
building modernized by Cardinal Rezzonico in 1765, from 
the very indifferent designs of Piranesi. It contains an 
interesting collection of tombs, most of them belonging 
to the Knights of Malta; that of Bishop Spinelli is 
an ancient marble sarcophagus, with a relief of Minerva 
and the Muses. A richly sculptured ancient altar con- 
tains relics of saints found beneath the pavement of the 

The' Priorato garden, so beautiful and attractive in itself, 
has an additional interest as that in which the famous 
Hildebrand (Gregory VII,, 1073 — 80) was brought up as a 
boy, under the care of his uncle, who was abbot of the 
adjoining monastery. A massive cornice in these grounds 
is one of the few architectural fragments of ancient Rome 
existing on the Aventine. It may perhaps have belonged 
to the smaller temple of Diana in which Caius Gracchus 
took refuge, and in escaping from which, down the steep 
hillside, he sprained his ankle, and so was taken by his 
pursuers. Some buried houses were discovered and some 
precious vases brought to light, when Urban VIII. built the 


Stately buttress walls which now support the hillside beyond 
the Priorato. 

The cliff below these convents is the supposed site of the 
cave of the giant Cacus, described by Virgil. 

" At specus et Caci detecta apparuit ingens 
Regia, et umbrosas penitus patuere cavernas ; 
Non secus, ac si qua penitus vi terra dehiscens 
Infemas reseret sedes, et regiia recludat 
Pallida, dis invisa ; superque immane barathrum 
Cematur, trepidentque immisso lumine manes." 

yEtieid, Jib. viii. 

Hercules brought the oxen of Geryon to pasture in 
the valley between the Aventine and Palatine. Cacus 
issuing from his cave while their owner was asleep, carried 
off four of the bulls, draggmg them up the steep side of 
the hill by their tails, that Hercules might be deceived by 
their foot-prints being reversed. Then he concealed them 
in his cavern, and barred the entrance with a rock. 
Hercules sought the stolen oxen every^vhere, and when he 
could not find them, he was going away with the remainder. 
But as he drove them along the valley near the Tiber one 
of his oxen lowed, and when the stolen oxen in the cave 
heard that, they answered ; and Hercules, after rushing three 
times round the Aventine boiling with fury, shattered the 
stone which guarded the entrance of the cave with a mass 
of rock, and, though the giant vomited forth smoke and 
flames against him, he strangled him in his arms. Thus 
runs the legend, which is explained by Ampere. 

"Cacus hal)ite unc cavcnie dc I'Avcnlin, monlagne en tout temps 
mal famce, montagne ancicnncment licrissce de rochers et couvcrte de 
forels, dont la furet Noivia, longtcmps ellc-mcme un repaire de bandits, 

STA. PR ISC A. 367 

etait une dependance et fut un reste qui suhsista dans les temps histo- 
riques. Ce Cacus etait sans doute un brigand celebre, dangereux pour 
les patres du voisinage dont il volait les troupeaux quand ils allaient 
paitre dans les pres situes au bord du Tibre et boire I'eau du fleuve. 
Les hauts faits de Cacus lui avaient donne cette celebrite qui, parmi les 
paysans remains, s'attache encore a ses pareils, et surtout le stratageme 
employe par lui probablement plus d'une fois pour derouter les bouviers 
des environs, en emmenant les animaux qu'il derobait, a maniere de 
cacher la direction de leurs pas. La caveme du bandit avait ete 
decouverte et forcee par quelque paire courageux, qui y avait penetre 
vaillamment, malgre la terreur que ce lieu souterrain et formidable 
inspirait, y avait surpris le voleur et I'avait etrangle. 

"Tel etait, je crois, le recit primitif ou il n'etait pas plus question 
d'Hercule que de Vulcain, et dans lequel Cacus n'etait pas mis a mort 
par un demi-dieu, mais par un certain Recaranus, patre vigoureux et de 
grande taille. A ces recits de bergers, qui allaient toujours exagerant 
les horreurs de I'antre de Cacus et la resistance desesperee de celui-ci, 
vinrent se meler peu a peu des circonstances merveilleuses." — Hist. 
Rom. i. 170- 

We must retrace our steps, as far as the summit of the 
hill towards the Palatine, and then turn to the right in 
order to reach the ugly obscure-looking Church of Sta. 
Frisca, founded by Pope Eutychianus in a.d. 280, but 
entirely modernised by Cardinal Giustiniani from designs 
of Carlo Lombardi, who encased its fine granite columns 
in miserable stucco pilasters. Over the high altar is a 
picture by Fassignafio of the baptism of the saint, which 
is said to have taken place in the ancient crypt beneath 
the church, where an inverted Corinthian capital, — a relic 
of the temple of Diana which once occupied this site, — 
is shown as the font in which Sta. Prisca was baptized by 
St. Peter. 

Opening from the right aisle is a kind of terraced loggia 
with a peculiar and beautiful view. In the adjoinmg vine- 
yard are three arches of an aqueduct. 


"According to the old tradition, this church stands on the site of the 
house of Aquila and Priscilla, where St. Peter lodged when at Rome, 
and who are the same mentioned by St. Paul as tent-makers ; and here 
is shown the font, from which, according to the same tradition, St. 
Peter baptized the first Roman converts to Christianity. The altar- 
piece represents the baptism of Sta. Prisca, whose remains being after- 
wards placed in the church, it has since borne her name. According to 
the legend, she was a Roman virgin of illustrious birth, who, at the age 
of thirteen, was exposed in the amphitheatre. A fierce lion was let loose 
upon her, but her youth and innocence disanned the fury of the savage 
beast, which, instead of tearing her to pieces, humbly licked her feet ; — 
to the great consolation of Christians, and the confusion of idolaters. 
Being led back to prison, she was there beheaded. Sometimes she is 
represented with a lion, sometimes with an eagle, because it is related 
that an eagle watched by her body till it was laid in the grave ; for 
thus, says the story, was virgin innocence honoured by kingly bird as 
well as by kingly beast." — Mrs. yameson. 

Opposite the door of tliis chtirch is the entrance of the 
Vlgna del Gesuiti, a wild and beautiful vineyard occupying 
the greater part of this deserted hill, and extending as far 
as the Porta S. Paolo and the p}Tamid of Caius Cestius. 
Several farm-houses are scattered amongst the vines and 
fruit trees. There are beautiful views towards the Alban 
mountains, and to the Pseudo-Aventine with its fortress- 
like convents. The ground is littered with fragments 
of marbles and alabaster, which lie unheeded among the 
vegetables, relics of unknown edifices which once ex- 
isted here. Just where the path in the vineyard descends 
a slight declivity towards S. Paolo, are the finest existing 
remains of the ] Vails of Scrvius TuUius^''' formed of large 
quadrilateral blocks of tufa, laid alternately long and cross- 
ways, as in the Etruscan buildings. The spot is beautiful, 

• Some antiquaries attribute them to the wall of tlie Avcntiiic, built by Ancus 
Martins. The arch, of course, is an addition. 

^. SABBA. 369 

and overgrown by a luxuriance of wild mignonette and 
other flowers in the late spring. 

Descending to the valley beneath Sta. Prisca, and crossing 
the lane Avhich leads from the Via Appia to the Porta S. 
Paolo, we reach, on the side of the Pseudo-Aventine, the 
Church of S. Sabba, which is supposed to mark the site of 
the Porta Randusculana of the walls of Servius Tullius. Its 
position is very striking, and its portico, built in a.d. 1200, 
is picturesque and curious. 

This church is of unknown origin, but is known to have 
existed in the time of St. Gregory the Great, and to have 
been one of the fourteen privileged abbacies of Rome. Its 
patron saint was St. Sabbas, an abbot of Cappadocia, who 
died at Jerusalem in a.d. 532. 

"The record of the artist Jacobus dei Cosmati, dated the third year of 
Innocent III. (1205), on the lintel of the mosaic-inlaid doonvay, justifies 
us in classing this church among monuments of the thirteenth century. 
From its origin a Greek monaster)', it was assigned by Lucius 11., in 
1 141, to the Benedictines of the Cluny rule. An epigraph near the 
sacristy mentions a rebuilding either of the cloisters or church, in 1325, 
by an abbot Joannes ; and in 1465 the roof was renewed in woodwork 
by a cardinal, the nephew of Pius II. 

" In 15 12 the Cistercians of Clairvaux were located here by Julius II. ; 
and some years later these buildings were given to the dermanic- 
Ilungarian College. Amidst gardens and vineyards, approached by a 
solitary lane between hedgerows, this now deserted sanctuary has a 
certain affecting character in its forlornness. Save on Thursdays, when 
the German students are brought hither by their Jesuit professors to 
enliven the solitude by their sports and converse, we might never succeed 
in finding entrance to this quiet retreat of the monks of old. 

" Within the arched porch, through which we pass into an outer 
court, we read an inscription telling that here stood the house and 
oratory (called cella nova) of Sta. Sylvia, mother of St. Gregory the 
Great, whence the pious matron used daily to send a porridge of legumes 
to her son, while he inhabited his monastery on the Clivus Scauri, or 
VOL. I. 24 


northern ascent of the Coehan. Within that court formerly stood the 
cloistral buildings, of which little now remains. The fa9ade is re- 
markable for its atrium in two stories : the upper with a pillared arcade, 
probably of the fifteenth century ; the lower formerly supported by six 
porphyry columns, removed by Pius VI. to adorn the Vatican library, 
where they still stand. The porphyry statuettes of two emperors em- 
bracing, supposed either an emblem of the concord between the East and 
West, or the intended portraits of the co-reigning Constantine II. and 
Constans — a curious example of sculpture in its deep decline, and 
probably imported by Greek monks from Constantinople — project from 
two of those ancient columns." — B'einans' Mediaeval Art. 

The interior of S. Sabba is in the basiUca form. It 
retains some fragments of inlaid pavements, some hand- 
some inlaid marble panels on either side of the high altar, 
and an ancient sarcophagus. The tribune has rude paintings 
of the fourteenth century — the Saviour between St. Andrew 
and St. Sabbas the Abbot ; and below the Crucifixion, the 
Madonna and the twelve Apostles. Beneath the tribune 
is a crypt, — and over its altar a beautifully ornamented 
disk with a Greek cross in the centre. 

Behind St. Sabbas is another delightful vineyard, but it is 
difficult to gain admittance. Here Flaminius Vacca de- 
scril)es the discovery of a mysterious chamber without door 
or window, whose pavement was of agate and cornelian, 
and whose walls were plated with gilt copper ; but of this 
nothing remains.* 

To reach the remaining church of the Aventine, we 
have to turn to tlie Via Appia, and then follow the lane 
which leads up the hillside from the Baths of Caracalla to 
the Church of Sia. Balhina, whose picturesque red brick 
tower forms so conspicuous a feature, as seen against the 
long soft lines of the flat Campagna, in so many Roman 

* Ilciiians' Story of Monuments in Rome, ii. 22S. 


^7'^. BALBINA. 371 

views. It was erected in memory of Sta. Balbina, a 
virgin martyr (buried in Sta. Maria in Domenica), who suf- 
fered under Hadrian, a.d. 132. It contains the remains 
of an ahar erected by Cardinal Barbo, in the old basilica 
of St. Peter's, a splendid ancient throne of marble inlaid 
with mosaics, and a fine tomb of Stefano Sordi, supporting 
a recumbent figure, and adorned with mosaics by one of the 

Adjoining this church Monsignor'de Merode established 
a house of correction for youthful offenders, to avert the 
moral result of exposing them to communication with other 



The Porta Capena — Baths of Caracalla — Vigna Guidi — SS. Nereo ed 
Achilleo — SS. Sisto e Domenico — S. Cesareo (S. Giovanni in Oleo 
— S. Giovanni in Porta Latina) — Columbarium of the Freedmen of 
Octavia — Tomb of the Scipios — ^Columbarium of the Vigna Codini 
— Arch of Drusus — Porta S. Sebastiano — Tombs of Geta and Pris- 
cilla — Church of Domine Quo Vadis (Vigna Marancia) — Catacombs 
of S. Calixtus, of S. Pretextatus, of the Jews, and SS. Nereo ed 
Achilleo — (Temple of Bacchus, i.e. S. Urbano — Grotto of Egeria 
— Temple of Divus Rediculus) — Basilica and Catacombs of S. 
Sebastiano — Circus of Maxentius — Temple of Romulus, son of 
Maxentius — Tomb of Cecilia Metella — Castle of the Caetani — 
Tombs of the Via Appia — Sta. Maria Nuova — -Roma Vecchia — 
Casale Rotondo — Tor di Selce, &c. 

'T^HE Via Appia, called Regina Viarum by Statius, was 
begun B.C. 312, by the Censor Appius Claudius the 
Blind, " the most illustrious of the great Sabine and Pa- 
trician race, of whom he was the most remarkable repre- 
sentative." It was paved throughout, and during the first 
part of its course served as a kind of patrician cemetery, 
being bordered by a magnificent avenue of family tombs. 
It began at the Porta Capena, itself crossed by the 
Claudian aqueduct, which was due to the same great 
benefactor, — 

" Substitit ad vctcrcs areas madidamque Capcnam," 


and was carried by Claudius across the Pontine Marshes 
as far as Capua, but afterwards extended to Brun- 

The site of the Porta Capena, so important as marking 
the commencement of the Appian Way, was long a dis- 
puted subject. The Roman antiquaries maintained that 
it was outside the present Walls, basing their opinion on 
the statement of St. Gregory, that the river Almo was in that 
Regio, and considering the Almo identical ^\'ith a small 
stream which is crossed in the hollow about half a mile 
beyond the Porta S. Sebastiano, and which passes through 
the Valle Cafifarelle, and falls into the Tiber near S. Paolo. 
This stream, however, which rises at the foot of the Alban 
Hills below the lake, divides into two parts about six miles 
from Rome, and its smaller division, after flowing close to 
the Porta San Giovanni, recedes again into the countr}', 
enters Rome near the Porta Metronia, a litde behind the 
Church of S. Sisto, and passing through the Circus Maxi- 
mus, falls into the Tiber at the Pulchrum Littus, below the 
temple of Vesta. Close to the point where this, the smaller 
branch of the Almo, crosses the Via San Sebastiano, Mr. 
J. H. Parker, in 1868-69, discovered some remains, on the 
original line of walls, which he has identified, beyond doubt, 
as those of the Porta Capena, whose position had been 
already proved by Ampere and other authorities. 

Close to the Porta Capena stood a large group of his- 
torical buildings, of which no trace remains. On the right 
of the gate was the temple of Mars : 

"Lux eadem Marti festa est; quern prospicit extra 
Appositum Tectas Porta Capena vice." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 191. 


It is probably in allusion to this temple that Propertius 
says : 

" Armaque quiim tulero portse votiva Capenae, 
Subscribam, salvo grata puella viro." 

Prop. iv. Eleg. 3. 

Martial alludes to a little temple of Hercules near this : 

" Capena grandi porta qua pluit gutta, 
Phrygiceque Matris Almo qua lavat ferrum, 
Horatiorum qua viret sacer campus, 
Et qua pusilli fervet Herculis fanum." 

Mart. iii. Ep. 47. 

Near the gate also stood the tomb of the murdered 
sister of the Horatii,* with the temples of Honour and 
Virtue, vowed by Marcellus and dedicated by his son,t 
and a fountain, dedicated to Mercury: 

" Est aqua Mercurii portce vicina Capenae ; 
Si juvat expertis credere, numen habet. 
Hue venit incinctus tunicas mercator, et uma 

Purus suffita, quam ferat, haurit aquam. 
Uda fit hinc laurus : lauro sparguntur ab uda 
Omnia, quae dominos sunt habitura novos." 

Ovid, Fast. v. 673. 

It was at the Porta Capena that the survivor of the 
Horatii met his sister. 

"Iloratius went home at the head of the army, bearing his triple 
spoils. But as they were drawing near to the Capenian gate, his sister 
came out to meet him. Now she had been betrothed in marriage to 
one of the Curiatii, and his cloak, which she had wrought with her own 
hands, was borne on the shoulders of her brother; and she knew it, 
and cried aloud, and wept for him she had loved. At the sight of her 
tears Horatius was so wrath that he drew his sword, and stabbed his 
sister to the heart ; and he said, ' So perish the Roman maiden who 
jliall weep for her country's enemy ! ' " — Arnold's Hist, of Rome, i. l6. 

• I. ivy, i. 10. + Livy, xxvii. 25 ; .\.\ix. 11. 

rilE MARAXNA. 375 

Among the many other historical scenes with which the 
Porta Capena is connected, we may remember that it was 
here that Cicero was received in triumph by the senate and 
people of Rome, upon his return from banishment B.C. 57. 

Two roads lead to the Via S. Sebastiano, one the Via 
S. Gregorio, which comes from the Coliseum beneath the 
arch of Constantine ; the other, the street which comes 
from the Ghetto, through the Circus' Maximus, between the 
Palatine and Aventine. 

The first gate on the left, after the junction of these roads, 
is that of the vineyard of the monks of S. Gregorio, in 
which the site of the Porta Capena was found. The remains 
discovered have been reburied, owing to the indifference or 
jealousy of the government; but the vineyard is worth 
entering on account of the picturesque view it possesses of 
the Palace of the Caesars. 

On the right, a lane leads up the Pseudo-Aventine to the 
Church of Sta. Balbina, described Chap. VIII. 

On the left, where the Via Appia crosses the brook of the 
Almo, now called Maranna, the Via di San Sisto Vecchio 
leads to the back of the Ccelian behind S. Stefano Rotondo. 
Here, in the hollow, in the grounds of the Villa Mattei, 
under some picturesque farm-buildings, is a spring which 
modern archaeology has determined to be the true Fountain 
of Egcria,\\\\ext Numa Pompilius is described as having his 
mysterious meetings with the nymph Egeria. The locality 
of this fountain was verified when that of the Porta Capena 
was ascertained, as it was certain that it was in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of that gate, from a passage in the 3d 
Satire of Juvenal, which describes, that when he was waiting 


at the Porta Capena with Umbritius while the waggon was 
loading for his departure to Cumae, they rambled into the 
valley of Egeria, and Umbritius said, after speaking of his 
motives for leaving Rome, " I could add other reasons to 
these, but my beasts summon me to move on, and the sun 
is setting. I must be going, for the muleteer has long been 
summoning me by the cracking of his whip." 

To this valley the oppressed race of the Jews was con- 
fined by Domitian, their furniture consisting of a basket 
and a wisp of hay : 

" Nunc sacri fontis nemus et delubra locantur 
Judccis, quorum cophinus foenumque supellex." 

Juvciial, Sat. iii. 13. 

On the right, are the Bat/is of Caracalia, the largest mass 
of ruins in Rome, except the Coliseum ; consisting for the 
most part of huge shapeless walls of red and orange- 
coloured brickwork, framing vast strips of blue sky, and 
tufted with shrubs and flowers. These baths, which could 
accommodate 1600 bathers at once, were begun in a.d. 212, 
by Caracalla, continued by Heliogabalus, and finished under 
Alexander Severus. They covered a space of 2,625,000 
square yards — a size which made Ammianus Marcellinus 
say that the Roman baths were like provinces — and they 
were supplied with water by the Antonine Aqueduct, which 
was l)rought hither for that especial purpose from the 
Claudian, over the Arch of Drusus. 

Antiquaries have amused themselves by identifying dif- 
ferent chambers, to which, with considerable uncertainty, 
the names of Calidarium, Laconicum, Tepidarium, Frigi- 
darium, t!\:c., have been affixed. 

The habits of luxury and inertion which were introduced 


with the magnificent baths of the emperors were among tlie 
principal causes of the decHne and fall of Rome. Thou- 
sands of the Roman youth frittered away their hours in 
these magnificent halls, which were provided with every- 
thing which could gratify the senses. Poets were wont to 
recite their verses to those who were reclining in the baths. 

"In medio qui 

Scripta foro recitent, sunt multi, — quique lavantes: 
Suave locus voci resonat conclusus." 

Horace, Sat. i. 4. 

"These 77it77«« of Caracalla, which were one mile in circumference, 
and open at stated hours for the indiscriminate service of the senators 
and the people, Contained above sixteen hundred seats of marble. The 
walls of the lofty apartments were covered with curious mosaics that 
imitated the art of the pencil in elegance of design and in the variety of 
their colours. The Egyptian granite was beautifully encrusted with the 
precious green marble of Numidia. The perpetual stream of hot water 
Avas poured into the capacious basons through so many wide mouths of 
bright and massy silver ; and the meanest Roman could purchase, with 
a small copper coin, the daily enjoyment of a scene of pomp and luxury 
which might excite the envy of the kings of Asia. From these stately 
palaces issued forth a swarm of dirty and ragged plebeians, without 
shoes and without mantle; who loitered away whole days in the street 
or Forum, to hear news and to hold disputes; who dissipated, in 
extravagant gaming, the miserable pittance of their wives and children; 
and spent the hours of the night in the indulgence of gross and vulgar 
sensuality." — Gibbon. 

In the first great hall was found, in 1S24, the immense 
mosaic pavement of the pugilists, now in the Lateran 
museum. Endless works of art have been discovered here 
from time to time, among them the best of the Farnese 
collection of statues, — the Bull, the Hercules, and the Flora, 
— which were dug up in 1534, when Paul III. earned off 
all the still remaining marble decorations of the baths to 
use for the Farnese Palace. The last of the pillars to be 


removed from hence is that which supports the statue of 
Justice in the Piazza Sta. Trinita at Florence. 

A winding stair leads to the top of the walL, which are 
worth ascending, as well for the idea which you there receive 
of the vast size of the ruins, as for the lovely views of the 
Campagna, which are obtained between the bushes of 
lentiscus and phillyrea with which they are fringed. It was 
seated on these walls that Shelley wrote his " Prometheus 

" This poem was chiefly written upon the mountainous ruins of the 
baths of Caracalla, among tlie flowery glades and thickets of odoriferous 
blossoming trees which are extended in ever-winding labyrinths upon its 
immense platforms and dizzy arches suspended in the air. The bright 
blue sky of Rome, and the effect of the vigorous awakening spring in 
that divinest climate, and the new life with which it drenches the spirits 
even to intoxication, were the inspiration of the drama." — Preface to the 

" Maintenant les murailles sont nues, sauf quelques fragments de 
chapiteaux oublies par la destruction ; mais elles conservent ce que 
seules des mains de geant pourraient leur oter, leur masse ecrasante, la 
grandeur de leurs aspects, la sublimite de leurs ruines. On ne regrette 
rien quand on contemple ces enormes et pittoresque debris, baignes a 
midi par une ardente lumiere ou se remplissant d'ombres a la tombee de 
la nuit, s'elan9ant a une immense hauteur vers un ciel eblouissant, ou 
se dressant, mornes et melancoliques, sous un ciel grisatre, — ou bien, 
lorsque, montant sur la plate-forme inegale, crevassee, couverte d'ar- 
bustes et tapissce de gazon, on voit, comme du haut d'une colline, 
d'un cote se derouler la campagne romaine et le merveilleux horizon de 
montagnes qui la termine, do I'autre apparaitre, ainsi qu'une montagne 
de plus, le dome de Saint-Pierre, la seule des oeuvres d'homme qui 
ait quelque chose de la grandeur des oeuvres de Dieu." — Ampere, Emp. 
ii. 286. 

'Flic name of the lane which leads to the baths ( Via 
air Antoiiiana) recalls the fact tliat, " with a vanity which 
seems like mockery, Caracalla dared to bear the name 


of Antoninus," which was ahvays dear to the Roman 

Passing under the wall of the government-garden for 
raising shrubs for the public walks, a door on the left of the 
Via Appia, with a sculptured marble frieze above it, is that 
of Guidi, the antiquity vendor, who has a small museum 
here of splendid fragments of marble and alabaster for sale. 
Opposite is the Vigna of Signor Guidi, who has unearthed 
a splendid mosaic pavement of Tritons riding on dolphins, 
and who has here also a collection of antique fragments to 
be disposed of. 

On the right, is SS. Ncreo ed Achilleo, a most interesting 
little church. The tradition runs that St. Peter, going to execu- 
tion, let drop here one of the bandages of his wounds, and 
that the spot was marked by the early Christians w\\\\ an 
oratory, which bore the name of Fasciola. Nereus and 
Achilles, eunuchs in the service of Clemens Flavius and 
Flavia Domitilla (members of the imperial family exiled to 
Pontia under Diocletian), having suffered martyrdom at 
Terracina, their bodies were transported here in 524 by 
John I., when the oratory was enlarged into a church, which 
was restored under Leo III., in 795. The church was 
rebuilt in the sixteenth century, by Cardinal Baronius, who 
took his title from hence. In his work he desired that the 
ancient basilica character should be carefully carried out, 
and all the ancient ornaments of the church were preserved 
and re-erected. His anxiety that his successors should not 
meddle with or injure these objects of antiquity is shown by 
the inscription on a marble slab in the tribune : 

" Presbyter, Card. Successor quisquis fueris, rogo te, per gloriam Dei, 
et per merita horum martyrum, nihil demito, nillil minuito, nee mutato ; 


restitutam antiquitatem pie servato ; sic Deus martyrum suomm precibus 
semper adjuvet ! " 

The chancel is raised and surrounded by an inlaid 
marble screen. Instead of ambones there are two plain 
marble reading-desks for the epistle and gospel. The 
altar is inlaid, and has " transennse," or a marble grating, 
through which the tomb of the saints Nereus and Achilles 
may be seen, and through which the faithful might pass 
their handkerchiefs to touch it. Behind, in the semicircular 
choir, is an ancient episcopal throne, supported by lions, 
and ending in a gothic gable. Upon it part of the twenty- 
eighth homily of St. Gregory was engraved by Baronius, 
under the impression that it was delivered thence, — though 
it was really first read in the catacomb, whence the bodies 
of the saints were not yet removed. All these decorations 
are of the restoration under Leo III., in the eighth centur)\ 
Of the same period are the mosaics on the arch of the 
tribune (pardy painted over in later times), representing, in 
the centre, the Transfiguration (the earliest instance of the 
subject being treated in art), with the Annunciation on one 
side, and the Madonna and Child attended by angels on 
the other. 

It is worth while remarking that when the relics of Flavia 
Domitilla (who was niece of Vesjjasian) and of Nereus and 
Achilles were brought hither from the catacomb on the 
Via Ardeatina, which bears the name of the latter, they 
were first escorted in triumph to the Capitol, and made to 
pass under the imperial arches which bore as inscriptions : 
" The senate and the Roman people to Sta. Flavia Domi- 
tilla, for having brought more honour to Rome by her death 
than her illustrious relations by their works." . . "To 

S. S/STO. 3S1 

Sta. Flavia Domitilla, and to the Saints Nereus and Acliilles, 
the excellent citizens who gained peace for the Christian 
republic at the price of their blood." 

Opposite, on the left, is a courtyard leading to the ChurcJi 
of S. Sisto, with its celebrated convent, long deserted on 
account of malaria. 

It was here that St. Dominic first resided in Rome, and 
collected one hundred monks under his rule, before he was 
removed to Sta. Sabina by Honorilis III. After he went to 
the Aventine, it was decided to utilize this convent by 
collecting here the various Dominican nuns, who had been 
living hitherto under very lax discipline, and allowed to 
leave their convents, and reside in their own families. The 
nuns of Sta. ]\Iaria in Trastevere resisted the order, and only 
consented to remove on condition of bringing with them a 
Madonna picture attributed to St. Luke, hoping that the 
Trasteverini would refuse to part Avith their most cher- 
ished treasure. St. Dominic obviated the difficulty by 
going to fetch the picture himself at night, attended by two 
cardinals, and a bare-footed, torch-bearing multitude. 

"On Ash-Wednesday, 1218, the abbess and some of her nuns went 
to take possession of their new monastery, and being in the chapter- 
house with St. Dominic and Cardinal Stefano di Fossa Nuova, sud- 
denly there came in one tearing his hair, and making great outcries, for 
the young Lord Napoleon Orsini, nephew of the cardinal, had been 
thrown from his horse, and killed on the spot. The cardinal fell 
speechless into the arms of Dominic, and the women and others who 
were present were filled with grief and horror. They brought the body 
of the youth into the chapter-house, and laid it before the altar ; and 
Dominic, having prayed, turned to it, saying, ' O adolescens Napoleo, 
in nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi tibi dico surge,' and thereupon 
he arose sound and whole, to the unspeakable wonder of all present." — 
Jameson s ATonastic Orders. 


After being convinced by this miracle of the divine 
mission of St. Dominic, forty nuns settled at S. Sisto, 
promising never more to cross its threshold.* 

There is very little remaining of the ancient S. Sisto, 
except the campanile, which is of 1500. But the vaulted 
Chapter-House, now dedicated to St. Dominic, is well worth 
visiting. It has recently been covered with frescoes by the 
Padre Besson, — himself a Dominican monk, — who received 
his commission from Father MuUooly, Prior of S. Clemente, 
the Irish Dominican convent, to which S. Sisto is now 
annexed. The three principal frescoes represent three 
miracles of St. Dominic — in each case of raising from the 
dead. One represents the resuscitation of a mason of the 
new monastery, who had fallen from a scaffold ; another, 
that of a child in a wild and beautiful Italian landscape ; 
the third, the restoration of Napoleone Orsini on this spot, 
— the mesmeric upspringing of the lifeless youth being most 
powerfully represented. The whole chapel is highly pic- 
turesque, and effective in colour. Of two inscriptions, one 
commemorates the raising of Orsini ; the other, a prophecy 
of St. Dominic, as to the evil end of two monks who de- 
serted tlieir convent. 

Just beyond S. Sisto, where the Via della Ferratella 
branches off on the left to the Lateran, stands a small 
sediculum, or Shrine of the Lares, with brick niches for 

Further, on the right, standing back from a kind of 
piazza, adorned with an ancient granite column, is the 
Church of S. Cesareo, which already existed in the time 
of St. Gregory the Oreat, but was modernized under 

♦ Ilcmans' Mcdia;val Sacred Art. 


Clement VII. (1523-34). Its interior retains many of its 
ancient features. The pulpit is one of the most exquisite 
specimens of church decoration in Rome, and is covered 
with the most delicate sculpture, interspersed with mosaic ; 
the emblems of the EvangeHsts are introduced in the 
carving of the panels. The high-altar is richly en- 
crusted with mosaics, probably by the Cosmati family; 
tiny owls form part of the decorations of the capitals of 
its pillars. Beneath is a " confession," where two angels 
are drawing curtains over the tomb of the saint. The 
chancel has an inlaid marble screen. In the tribune 
is an ancient episcopal throne, once richly ornamented with 

In this church St. Sergius was elected to the papal throne, 
in 68 7 ; and here, also, an Abbot of SS. Vincenzo ed 
Anastasio was elected in 1145, as Eugenius III., and was 
immediately afterwards forced by the opposing senate to 
fly to Montecelli, and then to the Abbey of Farfa, where 
his consecration took place. 

Part of the palace of the titular cardinal of S. Cesareo 
remains in the adjoining garden, with an interesting loggia 
of c. 1200. 

In this neighbourhood was the Piscina Fublica, which 
gave a name to the twelfth Region of the city. It was used 
for learning to swim, but all trace of it had disappeared 
before the time of Festus, whose date is uncertain, but who 
lived before the end of the fourth century — 

" In thennas fugio : sonas all anreni, 
Piscinam peto : non licet natare." 

Martial, iii. Ep. 44. 


Here a lane turns on the left, towards the ancient Porta 
Latina (through which the Via Latina led to Capua), now 

In front of the gate is a little chapel, of the sixteenth 
century, called S. Giovanni in Oko, decorated with indifferent 
frescoes, on the spot where St. John is said to have been 
thrown into a cauldron of boiling oil (under Domitian), 
from which " he came forth as from a refreshing bath." It 
is the suffering in the burning oil which gave St. John the 
palm of a martyr, with which he is often represented in 
art. The festival of " St. John ante Port. Lat." (May 6) 
is preserved in the English Church Calendar. 

On the left, is the Church of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, 
built in 1 1 90 by Celestine III. 

In spite of many modernizations, the last by Cardinal 
Rasponi in 1686, this building retains externally more of 
its ancient character than most Roman churches, in its fine 
campanile and the old brick walls of the nave and apse, 
decorated with terra-cotta friezes. The portico is entered 
by a narrow arch resting on two granite columns. The 
entrance-door and the altar have the peculiar mosaic 
ribbon decoration of the Cosmati, of 1190. The frescoes 
are all modern ; in the tribune, are the deluge and the 
baptism of Christ, — the type and antitype. Of the ten 
columns, eight are simple and of granite, two are fluted 
and of porta-santa, showing that they were not made for 
the church, but removed from some pagan building — pro- 
bably from the temple of Ceres and Proserpine. Near 
the entrance is a very picturesque marble Well, like those 
so common at Venice and Padua, decorated with an in- 
tricate pattern of rich carving. 


In the opposite vineyard, behind the chapel of the Oleo, 
very picturesquely situated under the Aurelian Wall, is the 
Columbarium of the Frcedmai of Odavia. A columbarium 
was a tomb containing a number of cinerary urns in niches 
like pigeon-holes, whence the name. Many columbaria 
were held in common by a great number of persons, and 
the niches could be obtained by purchase or inheritance ; 
in other cases, the heads of the great houses possessed 
whole columbaria for their families and their slaves. In the 
present instance the columbarium is more than usually 
decorated, and, though much smaller, it is far more worth 
seeing than the columbaria which it is the custom to visit 
immediately upon the Appian Way. One of the cippi, 
above the staircase, is beautifully decorated with shells and 
mosaic. Below, is a chamber, whose vault is delicately 
painted with vines and little Bacchi gathering in the 
vintage. Round the walls are arranged the urns, some of 
them in the form of temples, and very beautifully designed, 
others merely pots sunk into the wall, with conical lids, 
like pipkins let into a kitchen-range. A beautiful vase 
of lapis-lazuli found here has been transferred to the 

Proceeding along the Via Appia, on the left by a tall 
cypress (No. 13) is the entrance to tJiG Tomb of the SciJ>ios, a 
small catacomb in the tufa rock, discovered ia 17S0, from 
which the famous sarcophagus of L. Scipio Barbatus, and a 
bust of the poet Ennius,* were removed to the Vatican 
by Pius VII. 

* This bust has been supposed to represent the poet Ennius, the friend of Scipio 
VOL. I. 25 


" The Scipios' tomb contains no ashes now ; 
The very sepulchres He tenantless 
Of theu- heroic dwellers." 

Childe Harold. 

The contadino at the neighbouring farmhouse provides 
hghts, with which one can visit a labyrinth of steep narrow 
passages, some of which still retain inscribed sepulchral 
slabs. Among the Scipios whose tombs have been dis- 
covered here were Lucius Scipio Barbatus and his son, the 
conqueror of Corsica ; Aula Cornelia wife of Cneius Scipio 
Hispanis ; a son of Scipio Africanus ; Lucius Cornelius 
son of Scipio Asiaticus; Cornelius Scipio Hispanis and 
his son Lucius Cornelius. At the further end of these 
passages, and now, like them, subterranean, may be seen 
the pediment and arched entrance of the tomb towards 
the Via Latina. " It is uncertain whether Scipio Afri- 
canus was buried at Liternum or in the family tomb. In 
the time of Livy monuments to him were extant in both 

There is a beJiutiful view towards Rome from the vine- 
yard above the tomb. 

A little further on, left (No. 14), is the entrance of the 
Vigna Codini (a private garden with an extortionate cus- 
tode), containing three interesting Columhai'ia. Two of 
these are large square vaults, supported by a central pillar, 
wliich, as well as the walls, is perforated by niches for urns. 
The third has three vaulted passages. 

Africanus, because his last request that he might be burled by his side. Even in 
the time of Cicero, Eunius was believed to be buried in the tomb of the Scipios. 
" Carus fuit Afric.ano superior! noster Ennius : itaque etiam in sepulchre Scipionum 
putatur is esse constitutus i niarmore." — Cic. Orat. pro Arch. Pocta. 
* Dyer's Hist, of the City of Rome. 


We now reach the Arch of Drusus. On its summit are 
the remains of the aqueduct by which Caracalla carried 
water to his baths. The arch once supported an eques- 
trian statue of Drusus, two trophies, and a seated female 
figure representing Germany. 

The Arch of Drusus was decreed by the senate in honour 
of the second son of the empress Livia, by her first 
husband, Tiberius Nero. He was father of Germanicus 
and the emperor Claudius, and brother of Tiberius. He 
died during a campaign on the Rhine, B.C. 9, and was 
brought back to be buried by his step-father Augustus in 
his owm mausoleum. His virtues are attested in a poem 
ascribed to Pedo Albinovanus. 

"This arch, ' Marmoreum arcum cum tropreo Appia Via ' (Suet. 1), is, 
with the exception of the Pantheon, the most perfect existing monument 
of Augustan architecture. It is heavy, plain, and narrow, with all the 
dignified but stem simplicity which belongs to the character of its age." 

"It is hard for one who loves the very stones of Rome, to pass over 
all the thoughts which arise in his mind, as he thinks of the great 
Apostle treading the rude and massive pavement of the Appian Way, 
and passing under that Arch of Drusus at the Porta S. Sebastiano, 
toiling up the Capitoline Hill past the Tabularium of the Capitol, 
dwelling in his hired house in the Via Lata or elsewhere, imprisoned in 
those painted caves in the PrDstorian Camp, and at last pouring out his 
blood for Christ at the Tre Fontane, on the road to Ostia." — Dean 
Alford^s Study of the New Testament, p. 335. 

T/ie Porta San Sebastiano has two fine semicircular 
towers of the Aurelian wall, resting on a basement of 
marble blocks, probably plundered from the tombs on the 
Via Appia, Under the arch is a gothic inscription relating 
to the repulse of some unknown invaders. 


It was here that the senate and people of Rome re- 
ceived in state the last triumphant procession which has 
entered the city by the Via Appia, that of Marc-Antonio 
Colonna, after the victory of Lepanto in 1571. As in the 
processions of the old Roman generals, the children of 
the conquered prince were forced to adorn the triumph of 
the victor, who rode into Rome attended by all the Roman 
nobles, "in abito di grande formalita,"* preceded by the 
standard of the fleet. 

From the gate, the Clivus Martis (crossed by the railway 
to Civita Vecchia) descends into the valley of the Almo, 
where antiquaries formerly placed the Porta Capena. On 
the hillside stood a Temple of INIars, vowed in the Gallic 
war, and dedicated by T. Quinctius the " duumvir sacris 
faciundis," in B.C. 387. No remains exist of this temple. 
It was " approached from the Via Capena by a portico, 
which must have rivalled in length the celebrated portico at 
Bologna extending to the church of the Madonna di S. 
Luca."t Near this, a temple Avas erected to Tempestas in 
B.C. 260, by L. Cornelius Scipio, to commemorate the 
narrow escape of his fleet from shipwreck off" the coast of 
Sardinia. J Near this, also, the poet Terence owned a small 
estate of twenty acres, presented to him by his friend 
Scipio Emilianus.§ After crossing the brook, we pass 
between two conspicuous tombs. That on the left is the 
Tomb of Gcta, son of Septimius Severus, the murdered 
brother of Caracalla ; that on the right is the Tomb of 
Triscilhr, wife of Abascantius, a flivourite freedman of 

• Coppi, Memorie Colonnesi, p. 342. 

t Sec Dyer's Hist, of the City of Rome, p. 85. J Ibid. p. 97. 

§ Ibid. p. 122. 


*' Est locus, ante urhem, qua primum nascitur ingens 
Appia, quaque Italo gemitus Almone Cybele 
Ponit, et Idseos jam non reminiscitur amnes. 
Hie te Sidonio velatam molliter ostro 
Eximius conjux (nee enim fumantia bnsta 
Clamoremque rogi potuit perferre), beato 
Composuit, Priscilla, toro." 

Statins, lib. v. Syh. i. 222. 

Just beyond this, the Via Ardeatiiia branches off on the 
right, passing, after about two miles, the picturesque Vigna 
Marancia, a pleasant spot, with fine old pines and 

\Vhere the roads divide, is the Church of Do^nine Quo 
Vadis, containing a copy of the celebrated footprint said 
to have been left here by Our Saviour : the original being 
removed to S. Sebastiano. 

" After the burning of Rome, Nero threw upon the Christians the 
accusation of having fired the city. This was the origin of the first 
persecution, in which many perished by terrible and hitherto unheard-of 
deaths. The Christian converts besought Peter not to expose his life. 
As he fled along the Appian Way, about two miles from the gates, he 
was met by a vision of our Saviour travelling towards the city. Struck 
with amazement, he exclaimed, ' Lord, whither goest thou ? ' to which 
the Saviour, looking upon him with a mild sadness, replied, 'I go to 
Rome to be crucified a second time,' and vanished. Peter, taking this 
as a sign that he was to submit himself to the sufferings prepared for 
him, immediately turned back to the city.* Michael Angel o's famous 
statue, now in the Church of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, is supposed to 
represent Christ as he appeared to St. Peter on this occasion. A cast 
or copy of it is in the little church of ' Domine, quo vadis ? ' 

" It is surprising that this most beautiful, picturesque, and, to my 
fancy, sublime legend, has been so seldom treated ; and never, as it 
seems to me, in a manner worthy of its capabilities and high signifi- 
cance. It is seldom that a story can be told by two figures, and these 
two figures placed in such grand and dramatic contrast ; — Christ in His 

• This storj- is told by St. Ambrose. 


serene majesty, and radiant with all the joy of beatitude, yet with an 
expression of gentle reproach ; the Apostle at his feet arrested in his 
flight, amazed, and yet filled with a trembling joy ; and for the back- 
ground the wide Campagna, or towering walls of imperial Rome." — 
Mrs. yamesoji* 

Beyond the church is a second " Bivium," or cross-ways, 
where a lane on die left leads up the Valle Caffarelle. 
Here, feelmg an uncertainty which was the crossing where 
Our Saviour appeared to St. Peter, the English Cardinal 
Pole erected a second tiny chapel of " Domine Quo Vadis," 
which remains to this day. 

On the left, is the Cohimbarium of the Frccdmen of Augustus 
and Livia, divided into three chambers, but despoiled of 
its adornments. Other Columbaria near this are assigned 
to the Volusii, and the C^cilii. 

Over the wall on the left of the Via Appia now hangs in 
profusion the rare yellow berried i\y. Many curious plants 
are to be found on these old Roman walls. Their com- 
monest parasite, the Pellitory — '^ herb a paridina" calls to 
mind the nickname given to the Emperor Trajan in derision 
of his passion for inscribing his name upon the walls of 
Roman buildings Avhich he had merely restored, as if he 
were their founder ;t a passion in which the popes have 
since largely participated. 

We now reach (on the right) the entrance of the Cata- 
combs of St. Calixtus. 

(The Catacombs (except those at S. Sebastiano) can only be visited in 
company of a guide. For most of the Catacombs it is hecessary to 
obtain a permcsso at the office of the Cardinal-Vicar, 70 Via dclla 

* This story is represented in one of the ancient tapestries in the cathedral of 

t Amm. Marccll. lib. xxvii. c. 


Scrofa, before 12 a.m. ; upon which a day (generally Sunday) is fixed, 
which must be adhered to. The Catacombs of St. Calixtus are some- 
times superficially shown without a %'^ftzv^ pcrmcsso. It may be well for 
the visitor to provide himself with tajjers — ceriiu.) 

All descriptions of dangers attending a visit to the Cata- 
combs, if accompanied by a guide, and provided with 
" cerini," are quite imaginary. Neither does the visitor ever 
suffer from cold ; the temperature of the Catacombs is mild 
and warm ; the vaults are almost always dry, and the air 

"The Roman Catacombs — a name consecrated by long usage, but 
having no etymological meanitig, and not a very determinate geo- 
graphical one — are a vast labyrinth of galleries excavated in the bowels 
of the earth in the hills around the Eternal City ; not in the hills on 
which the city itself was built, but in those beyond the walls. Their 
extent is enormous ; not as to the amount of superficial soil which they 
underlie, for they rarely, if ever, pass beyond the third mile-stone from 
the city, but in the actual length of their galleries ; for these are often 
excavated on various levels, or piani, three, four, or even five — one 
above the other ; and they cross and recross one another, sometimes at 
short intei-vals, on each of these levels ; so that, on the whole, there are 
certainly not less than 350 miles of them ; that is to say, if stretched out 
in one continuous line, they would extend the whole length of Italy 
itself. The galleries are from two to four feet in width, and vary in 
height according to the nature of the rock in which they are dug. The 
walls on both sides are pierced with horizontal niches, like shelves in a 
bookcase or berths in a steamer, and every niche once contained one or 
more dead bodies. At various intervals this succession of shelves is 
interrupted for a moment, that room may be made for a doorway 
opening into a small chamber ; and the walls of these chambers are 
generally pierced with graves in the same way as the galleries. 

" These vast excavations once fonned the ancient Christian cemeteries 
of Rome ; they were begun in apostolic times, and continued to be 
used as burial-places of the faithful till the capture of the city by Alaric 
in the year 410. In the third centuiy, the Roman Church numbered 
twenty-five or twenty-six of them, corresponding to the number of her 
titles, or parishes, -within the city ; and besides these, there are about 


twenty others, of smaller dimensions, isolated monuments of special 
martyrs, or belonging to this or that private family. Originally they all 
belonged to private families or individuals, the villas or gardens in which 
they w^ere dug being the property of wealthy citizens who had embraced 
the faith of Christ, and devoted of th.eir substance to His service. Hence 
their most ancient titles were taken merely from the names of their 
lawful owners, many of which still survive. Lucina, for example, who 
lived in the days of the Apostles, and others of the same family, or at 
least of the same name, who lived at various periods in the next two 
centuries ; Priscilla, also a contemporary of the Apostles ; Flavia 
Domitilla, niece of Vespasian ; Commodilla, whose property lay on the 
Via Ostiensis ; Cyriaca, on the Via Tiburtina ; Pretextatus, on the Via 
Appia ; Pontiano, on the Via Portuensis ; and the Jordani, Maximus 
and Thraso, all on the Via Salaria Nova. These names are still 
attached to the various catacombs, because they were originally begun 
upon the land of those who bore them. Other catacombs are known by 
the names of those who presided over their formation, as that of St. 
Calixtus, on the Via Appia ; or St. Mark, on the Via Ardeatina ; or 
of the principal martyrs who were buried in them, as SS. Hermes, 
Basilla, Protus, and Hyacinthus, on the Via Salaria Vetus ; or, lastly, 
by some peculiarity of their position, as ad Catacumbas on the Via 
Appia, and ad ditas Lauras on the Via Labicana. 

" It has always been agreed among men of learning who have had an 
opportunity of examining these excavations, that they were used exclu- 
sively by the Christians as places of burial and of holding religious 
assemblies. Modem research has now placed it beyond a doiibt, that 
they were also originally designed for this purpose and for no other : 
that they were not deserted sand-pits [aroiariiz) or quarries, adapted to 
Christian uses, but a development, with important modifications, of a 
form of sepulchre not altogether unknown even among the heathen 
families of Rome, and in common use among the Jews both in Rome 
and elsewhere. 

" At first, the work of making the Catacombs was done openly, with- 
out let or hindrance, by the Christians ; the entrances to them were 
public on the high-road or on the hill-side, and the galleries and chambers 
v/ere freely decorated with paintings of a sacred character. But early 
in the third century, it became necessary to withdraw them as much as 
possible from the public eye ; new and often difficult entrances were 
now effected in the recesses of deserted arenaiicB^ and even the liberty 
of Christian art was cramped and fettered, lest M'hat was holy should 
fall under the profane gaze of theunbaptized. 


" Each of these burial-places was called in ancient times either 
hypogaum, i. e. generically, a subterranean place, or cccmetcriuni, a 
sleeping-place, a new name of Christian origin which the pagans could 
only repeat, probably without understanding; sometimes also mar- 
tyriiim, or confessio (its Latin equivalent), to signify that it was the 
burial-place of martyrs or confessors of the faith. An ordinary grave 
was called locus or loaihis, if it contained a single body ; or bisomum, 
trisomuin^ or quadrisojniun, if it contained two, three, or four. The 
graves were dug hy fossores, and burial in them was called depositki. The 
galleries do not seem to have had any specific name ; but the chambers 
were called cubicula. In most of these chambers, and sometimes also 
in the galleries themselves, one or more tombs are to be seen of a more 
elaborate kind ; a long oblong chasse, like a sarcophagus, either hol- 
lowed out in the rock or built up of masonry, and closed by a heavy 
slab of marble lying horizontally on the top. The niche over tombs of 
this kind was of the same length as the grave, and generally vaulted in a 
semicircular foi"m, whence they were called airosolia. Sometimes, 
however, the niche retained the rectangular form, in which case there 
was no special name for it, but for distinction's sake we may be 
allowed to call it a table-tomb. Those of the arcosolia, which were 
also the tomb of martyrs, were used on the anniversaries of their 
deaths {Natalitia, or birthdays) as altars whereon the holy mys- 
teries were celebrated ; hence, whilst some of the cithicula were only 
family-vaults, others were chapels, or places of public assembly. 
It is probable that the holy mysteries were celebrated also in the private 
vaults, on the anniversaries of the deaths of their occupants ; and each 
one was sufficiently.large in itself for use on these private occasions ; but 
in order that as many as possible might assist at the public celebra- 
tions, two, three, or even four of the ciibkida were often made close 
together, all receiving light and air through one shaft or air-hole 
(liimmare), pierced through the superincumbent soil up to the open 
air. In this way as many as a hundred persons might be collected in 
some parts of the catacombs to assist at the same act of public worship ; 
whilst a still larger number might have been dispersed in the ctibicula of 
neighbouring galleries, and received there the bread of life brought to 
them by the assistant priests and deacons. Indications of this arrange- 
ment are not only to be found in ancient ecclesiastical writings ; they 
may still be seen in the very walls of the catacombs themselves, epis- 
copal chairs, chairs for the presiding deacon or deaconess, and benches 
for the faithful, having formed part of the original design when 
the chambers were hewn out of the living rock, and still remain- 

394 TV J LA'S I.V ROME. 

ing where they were first made." — Roma Sotterranea, NortJuote and 

"To our classic associations, Rome was still, under Trajan and 
the Antonines, the city of the Caesars, the metropolis of pagan 
idolatry — in the pages of her poets and historians we still linger 
among the triumphs of the Capitol, the shows of the Coliseum ; or if we 
read of a Christian being dragged before the tribunal, or exposed to the 
beasts, we think of him as one of a scattered community, few in number, 
spiritless in action, and politically insignificant. But all this while 
there was living beneath the visible an invisible Rome — a population 
imheeded, unreckoned — thought of vaguely, vaguely spoken of, and 
with the familiarity and indifference that men feel who live on a 
volcano — ^yet a population strong-hearted, of quick impulses, nerved 
alike to suffer or to die, and in number, resolution, and physical force 
sufficient to have hurled their oppressors from the throne of the world, 
had they not deemed it their duty to kiss the rod, to love their enemies, 
to bless those that cursed them, and to submit, for their Redeemer's 
sake, to the 'powers that be.' Here, in these 'dens and caves of the 
earth,' they lived; here they died — a 'spectacle' in their lifetime 'to 
men and angels,' and in their death a ' triumph ' to mankind — a triumph 
of which the echoes still float around the walls of Rome, and over the 
desolate Campagna, while those that once thrilled the Capitol are 
silenced, and the walls that returned them have long since crumbled 
into dust." — Lord Lindsay' s Clwistian Art, i. 4. 

The name Catacombs is modem, having originally been 
only applied to S. Sebastiano " ad catacumbas." The early 
Christians called their burial-places by. the Greek name 
Ccemetcria, sleeping-places. Almost all the catacombs are 
between the first and third mile-stones from the Aurelian 
wall, to which point the city extended before the wall itself 
was built. This was in obedience to the Roman law which 
forbade burial within the precincts of the city. 

The fact that the Christians were always anxious not to 
burn their dead, but to bury them, in these ^ock-he^v]3 
sepulchres, was probably owing to the remembrance that 
our Lord was himself laid " in a new tomb hewn out of 


the rock," and perhaps also for this reason the bodies 
were wrapt in fine hnen cloths, and buried with pre- 
cious spices, of which remains have been found in the 

The Catacomb which is known as St. Calixtus, is 
composed of a number of catacombs, once distinct, but 
now joined together. Such were those of Sta. Lucina; 
of Anatolia, daughter of the consul ^milianus; and of 
Sta. Soteris, " a virgin of the family to which St Ambrose 
belonged in a later generation," and who was buried " in 
coemeterio suo," a.d. 304. The passages of these catacombs 
were gradually united with those which originally belonged 
to the cemetery of Calixtus. 

The high mass of ruin which meets our eyes on first 
entering the vineyard of St. Calixtus, is a remnant of the 
tomb of the Csecilii, of which family a number of epitaphs 
have been found. Beyond this is another ruin, supposed 
by Marangoni to have been the basilica which St. Damasus 
provided for his own burial and that of his mother and 
sister; which Padre Marchi believed to be the church 
of St. Mark and St. Marcellinus ; — but which De Rossi 
identifies with the cella vie7norice, sometimes called of St. 
Sistus, sometimes of St. Ceciha (because built immediately 
over the graves of those martyrs), by St. Fabian in the third 

Descending into the Catacomb by an ancient staircase 
restored, we reach (passing a sepulchral cubiculum on the 
right) the Chapel of the Popes, a place of burial and of 
worship of the third or fourth century, (as it was restored 

* Roma Sotterranea, p. 130. 



after its discovery in 1854, but) still retaining remains of the 
marble slabs with which it was faced by Sixtus III. in the 
fifth century, and of marble columns, &c. with which it was 
adorned by St. Leo III. (795 — 816). The walls are lined 
with graves of the earliest popes, many of them martyrs — 
viz. St. Zephyrinus, (202 — 211); St. Pontianus, who died in 
banishment in Sardinia, (231 — 236); St. Anteros, martyred 
under Maximian in the second month of his pontificate, 
(236); St. Fabian, martyred under Decius, (236 — 250); 
St. Lucius, mart3Ted under Valerian, (253—255); St.. 
Stephen I., martyred in his episcopal chair under Va- 
lerian, (255 — 257); St. Sixtus II., martyred in the catacombs 
of St. Pretextatus, (257 — 260); St. Dionysius, (260 — 271); 
St. Eutychianus, mart3T, (275 — 283); and St. Caius, (284 
— 296). Of these, the gravestones of Anteros, Fabian, 
Lucius, and Eutychianus, have been discovered, with in- 
scriptions in Greek, which is acknowledged to have been 
the earliest language of the Church, — in which St. Paul and 
St. James wrote, and in which the proceedings of the first 
twelve Councils were carried on.* Though no inscriptions 
have been found relating to the other popes mentioned, 
they are known to have been buried here from the earliest 

Over the site of the altar is one of the beautifully-cut 
inscriptions of Pope St. Damasus (366 — 3S4), " whose labour 
of love it was to rediscover the tombs which had been 
blocked up for concealment under Diocletian, to remove the 
earth, widen the passages, adorn the sepulchral chambers 
with marble, and support the friable tufii walls with arches 
of brick and stone." t 

• Roma Sotterranca, p. 177. t Roma Sotteranea, p. 97. 


*' Hie congesta jacet qujcris si turba Piomm 
Corpora Sanctorum retinent veneranda sepulchra, 
Sublimes animas rapuit sibi Regia Cocli : 
Hie eomites Xysti portant qui ex hoste tropasa ; 
Hie numeiais procerum servat qui altaria Cliristi ; 
, Hie positus longa vixit qui in pace Sacerdos ; 
Hie Confessores saneti quos Graecia misit ; 
Hie juvenes, puerique, senes, castique nepotes, 
Quis mage virgineum plaeuit retinere pudorem. 
Hie fateor Damasus volui mea eondere membra, 
Sed eineres timui sanctos vexare Piorum. 

" Here, if you would kno'.v, lie heaped together a number of the holy, 
These honoured sepulchres inclose the bodies of the saints, 
Their lofty souls the palace of heaven has received. 
Here lie the companions of Xystus, who bear away the tropliies 

from the enemy ; 
Here a tribe of the elders which guards the altars of Christ ; 
Here is buried the priest who lived long in peace ; * 
Here the holy confessors who came from Greece ; + 
Here lie youths and boys, old men and their chaste descendants, 
Who kept their virginity undefiled. 
Here I Damasus wished to have laid my limbs, 
But feared to disturb the holy ashes of the saints. "J 

From this chapel we enter the Cnlncvluin of Sta Cecilia, 
where the body of the saint was buried by her friend Urban 
after her martyrdom in her own house in the Trastevere (see 
Chap. XVII.) A.D. 224, and where it was discovered in 820 by 
Pope Paschal I. (to whom its resting-place had been revealed 
in a dream), " fresh and perfect as when it was first laid in 
the tomb, and clad in rich garment^ mixed Avith gold, with 
linen cloths stained with blood rolled up at her feet, lying in 
a cypress coffin." § 

* St. Melchiades, buried in another part of the catacomb, who lived long in peace 
after the persecution had ceased. 

t Hippolytus, Adrias, I\L^rca, Neo, Paulina, and others. 

X St. Damasus was buried in the chapel above the entrance. 

§ "A more striking commentary on the divine promise, ' The Lord keepeth all the 

398 WALKS I.V 1^0 ME. 

Close to the entrance of the cubicuhim, upon the wall, is 
a painting of Cecilia, " a woman richly attired, and adorned 
with bracelets and necklaces." Near it is a niche for the 
lamp which burnt before the shrine, at the back of which is 
a large head of Our Saviour, " of the Byzantine type, and 
with rays of glory behind it in the form of a Greek cross. 
Side by side with this, but on the flat surface of the wall, is 
a figure of St. Urban (the friend of Cecilia, who laid her 
body here) in full pontifical robes, with his name inscribed." 
Higher on the wall are figures of three saints, " executed 
apparently in the fourth, or perhaps even the fifth century " — 
Polycamus, an unknown martyr, with a palm branch ; Sebas- 
tianus ; and Curinus, a bishop (Quirinus bishop of Siscia — 
buried at St. Sebastian). In the pavement is a gravestone 
of Septimus Pretextatus Csecilianus, " a servant of God, 
who lived worthy for three-and-thirty years ; " — con- 
sidered important as suggesting a connection between the 
family of Cecilia and that of St. Prsetextatus, in whose 
catacomb on the other side of the Appian Way her husband 
and brother-in-law were buried, and where her friend St. 
Urban was concealed. 

These two chapels are the only ones which it is necessary 
to dwell upon here in detail. The rest of the catacomb is 
shown in varying order, and explained in different ways. 
Three points are of historic interest, i. The roof-shaped 
tomb of Pope St. Melchiadcs, who lived long in peace and 
died A.D. 313. 2. The Cubiculum of Pope St. Euscbius, in 
the middle of which is placed an inscription, pagan on one 
side, on tiic other a restoration of the fifth century of one 

bones of his servants; He will not lisc one of them' (Ps. .\x.\iii. 24), it would be 
dirficiilt lo conceive." — Koma ^oticii mica. 


of tlie beautiful inscriptions of Pope Damasus, which is thus 
translated :~ 

" Heraclius forbade the lapsed to grieve for their sins. Eusebius 
taught those unhappy ones to weep for their crimes. The people were 
rent into parties, and with increasing fury began sedition, slaughter, 
fighting, discord, and strife. Straightway both (the pope and the 
heretic) were banished by the cruelty of the tyrant, although the pope 
was preserving the bonds of peace inviolate. He bore his exile with joy, 
looking to the Lord as his judge, and on the shore of Sicily gave up the 
world and his life." 

At the top and bottom of the tablet is the 'following 
title :— 

" Damasus Episcopus fecit Eusebio episcopo et martyri," 

and on either side a single file of letters which hands do\\-n 
to us the name of the sculptor who executed the Damasine 

"Furius Dionysius Filocalus scripsit Damasis pappDS cultor atque 
amatot. ' 

3. Near the exit, properly in the catacomb of Sta. Lucina, 
connected with that of Calixtus by a labyrinth of galleries, 
is the tomb of Pope St. Cornelius (251, 252) the only 
Roman bishop down to the time of St. Sylvester (314) who 
bore the name of any noble Roman family, and whose 
epitaph (perhaps in consequence) is in Latin, while those of 
the other popes are in Greek. The tomb has no cliapel of 
its own, but is a mere grave in a gallery, with a rectangular 
instead of a circular space above, as in the cubicula. Near 
the tomb are fragments of one of the commemorotive inscrip- 
tions of St. Damasus, which has been ingeniously restored 
by De Rossi thus : — 


" Aspice, descensu extructo tenebrisque fugatis 
Cornell monumenta vides tumulumque sacratum 
Hoc opus aegrotl Damasl prrestantla fecit, 
Esset ut accessus niellor, populisque paratum 
AuxUlum sanctl, at valeas si fundere puro 
Corde preces, Damasus melior consurgere posset, 
Quern non lucls amor, tenult mage cura laboris." 

" Behold ! a way down has been constructed, and the darkness dis- 
pelled ; you see the monuments of Cornelius, and his sacred tomb. 
This work the zeal of Damasus has accomplished, sick as he is, in 
order that the approach might be better, and the aid of the saint might 
be made convenient for the people ; and that, if you will pour forth 
your prayers from a pure heart, Damasus may rise up better in health, 
though it has not been love of life, but care for work, that has kept him 
(here below)." * 

St. Cornelius was banished under Callus to Centumcellss 
— now Civita Vecchia, and was brought back thence to 
Rome for martyrdom Sept. 14, a.d. 252. On the same day 
of the month, in 258, died his friend and correspondent 
St. Cyprian, archbishop of Carthage,t who is consequently 
commemorated by the Church on the same day with St. 
Cornelius. Therefore also, on the right of the grave, are 
two figures of bishops with inscriptions declaring them to be 
St. Cornelius and St. Cyprian. Each holds the book of the 
Gospels in his hands and is clothed in pontifical robes, 
" including the pallium, which had not yet been confined 
as a mark of distinction to metropolitans. J Beneath the 
picture stands a pillar which held one of the vases of oil 
which were always kept burning before the shrines of the 
martyr. Beyond the tomb, at the end of the gallery, is 
anotlicr painting of two bishoj)s, St. Sistus II., martyred in 

* Roma Sutterranea, p. i8o. f Alban Butler, viii. 204. 

X Roma Sottcrranea, p. 182. 


the catacomb of Pretextatus, and St. Optatus who was buried 
near him. 

In going round this catacomb, and in most of the others, 
the visitor will be shown a number of rude paintings, which 
will be explained to him in various ways, according to the 
tendencies of his guide. The paintings may be considered 
to consist of three classes, symbolical ; allegorical and 
biblical ; and liturgical. There is little variety of subject, — 
the same are introduced over and over again. 

The symbols most frequently introduced on and over 
the graves are : — 

The Anchor, expressive of hope. Ileb. vi. 19. 

The Dove, symbolical of the Christian soul released from its eartlily 
tabernacle. Ps. Iv. 6. 

The Sheep, symbolical of the soul still wandering amid the pastures 
and deserts of earthly life. Ps. cxix. 176. Isaiah liii. 6. Jolm 
X. 14 ; xxl 15, 16, 17. 

The Phcenix, " the palm bird," emblematical of etcmity and tlie 

The Fish — typical of Our Saviour — from tlie word ix'^vq, fomied by 
the initial letters of the titles of Our Lord — Ijjto'jc Xpiorof Qtov 
Yioc 2wr?7p — "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Saviour." 

The Ship — representing the Church militant, sometimes seen carried 
on the back of the hsli. 

Bread, represented with fish, sometimes carried in a basket on its 
back, sometimes with it on a table — in allusion to the multipli- 
cation of the loaves and fishes. 

A Female Figure Praying, an " Orante " — in allusion to the Church. 

A Vine — also in allusion to the Church. Ps. Ixxx. S. Isaiali v. I. 

An Olive branch, as a sign of peace. 

A Palm branch, as a sign of victory and martyrdom. Rev. vii. 9. 

Allegorical and Biblical Representations. 

Of these The Good Shepherd requires an especial notice 
from the importance which is giA-en to it and its frequent 
VOL. I. 26 


introduction in catacomb art, both in sculpture and 

"By far the most interesting of the early Christian paintings is that 
of Our Saviour as the Good Shepherd, which is almost invariably 
painted on the central space of the dome or cupola, subjects of minor 
interest being disposed around it in compartments, precisely in the 
style, as regards both the arrangement and execution, of the heathen 

"He is represented as a youth in a shepherd's frock and sandals, 
carrying the ' lost sheep ' on his shoulders, or leaning on his staff (the 
symbol, according to St. Augustine, of the Christian hierarchy), while 
the sheep feed around, or look up at him. Sometimes he is represented 
seated in the midst of the flock, playing on a shepherd's pipe, — in a few 
instances, in the oldest catacombs, he is introduced in the character of 
Orpheus, surrounded by wild beasts enrapt by the melody of his lyre, — 
Orpheus being then supposed to have been a prophet or precursor of 
the Messiah. The background usually exhibits a landscape or meadow, 
sometimes planted with olive-trees, doves resting on their branches, 
symbolical of the peace of the faithful ; in others, as in a fresco pre- 
served in the Museum Christianum, the palm of victory is introduced, 
— but such combinations are endless. In one or two instances the 
surrounding compartments are filled with personifications of the Seasons, 
apt emblems of human life, whether natural or spiritual. 

" The subject of the Good Shepherd, I am sorry to add, is not of 
Roman but Greek origin, and was adapted from a statue of Mercury 
carrying a goat, at Tanagra, mentioned by Pausanias. The Christian 
composition approximates to its original more nearly in the few instances 
where Our Saviour is represented carrying a goat, emblematical of 
the scapegoat of the wilderness. Singularly enough, though of Greek 
parentage, and recommended to the By/antines by Constanline, who 
erected a statue of the Good Shepherd in the forum of Constantinople, 
the subject did not become popular among them ; they seem, at least, 
to have tacitly abandoned it to Rome." — Lord Lindsay's Christian Art. 

" The Good Shepherd seems to have been quite the favourite subject. 
We cannot go through any part of the Catacombs, or turn over any 
collection of ancient Christian monuments, without coming across it 
again and again. We know from Tertullian that it was often designed 
upon chalices. We find it ourselves painted in fresco upon the roofs 
and walls of the sepulchral chambers ; rudely scratched upon grave- 
stones, or more carefully sculptured on sarcophagi ; traced in gold 



upon glass, moulded on lamps, engraved on rings ; and, in a word, 
represented on every species of Christian monument that has come 
down to us. Of course, amid such a multitude of examples, there is 
considerable variety of treatment. We cannot, however, appreciate the 
suggestion of Kiigler, that this frequent repetition of the subject is 
probably to be attributed to the capabilities which it possessed in an 
artistic point of view. Rather, it was selected because it expressed the 
whole sum and substance of the Christian dispensation. In the language 
even of the Old Testament, the action of Divine Providence upon the 
world is frequently expressed by images and allegories borrowed from 
pastoral life ; God is the Shepherd, and njen are His sheep. But in a 
still more special way our Divine Redeemer offers Himself to our 
regards as the Good Shepherd. He came down from His eternal 
throne into this wilderness of the world to seek the lost sheep of the 
whole human race, and having brought them together into one fold 
on earth, thence to transport them into the ever-verdant pastures of 
Paradise." — Roma Sotterranea. 

Other biblical subjects are : — from the Old Testament 
(those of Noah, Moses, Daniel, and Jonah being the only 
ones at all common) — 

1. The Fall. Adam and Eve on either side of the Tree of Know- 

ledge, round which the serpent is coiled. Sometimes, instead of 
this, "Our Saviour (as the representative cf the Deity) stands 
between them, condemning them, and offering a lamb to Eve 
and a sheaf of corn to Adam, to signify the doom of themselves 
and their posterity to delve and to spin through all future ages." 

2. The Offering of Cain and Abel. They present a lamb and sheaf 

of corn to a seated figure of the Almighty. 

3 . Noah in the Ark, represented as a box — a dove, bearing an olive- 

branch, flies towards him. Interpreted to express the doctrine 
that " the faithful having obtained remission of their sins through 
baptism, have received from the Holy Spirit the gift of divine 
peace, and are saved in the mystical ark of the church from the 
destruction which awaits the world." * (Acts ii. 47.) 

4. Sacrifice of Isaac. 

5. Passage of the Red Sea. 

* Roma Sotterranea, p. 242. 


6. Moses receiving the Law. 

7. Moses striking water from the rock — (very common). 

8. Moses pointing to the pots of manna. 

9. Elijah going up to heaven in the chariot of fire. 

10. The Three Children in the fiery furnace ; — very common as sym- 

bolical of martyrdom. 

11. Daniel in the lions' den; — generally a naked figure with hands 

extended, and a lion on either side ; most common — as an 
encouragement to Christian sufferers. 

12. Jonah swallowed up by the whale, represented as a strange kind 

of sea-horse. 

13. Jonah disgorged by the whale. 

14. Jonah under the gourd ; or, according to the Vulgate, under 

the ivy. 

15. Jonah lamenting for the death of the gourd. 

These four subjects from the story of Jonah are constantly re- 
peated, perhaps as encouragement to the Christians suffering 
from the wickedness of Rome — the modern Nineveh, which 
they were to warn and pray for. 

Subjects from the Nc7a Testament are : 

1. The Nativity— the ox and the ass kneeling. 

2. The Adoration of the Magi— repeatedly placed in juxtaposition 

with the story of the Three Children. 

3. Our Saviour turning water into wine. 

4. Our Saviour conversing with the woman of Samaria. 

5. Our Saviour healing the paralytic man — who takes up his bed. 

This is very common. 

6. Our Saviour healing the woman with the issue of blood. 

7. Our Saviour multiplying the loaves and fishes. 

8. Our Saviour healing the daughter of the woman of Canaan. 

9. Our Saviour healing the blind man. 

10. The raising of Lazarus, who appears at a door in his grave- 

clothes, while Christ with a wand stands before it. This is the 
New Testament subject oftenest introduced. It is constantly 
placed in juxtaposition Vvitli a picture of Moses striking the 
rock. "These two subjects may be intended to represent the 
beginning and end of the Christian course, 'the fountain of 
water springing up to life everlasting.' God's grace and the gift 
of faith being typified by the water flowing from the rock, 



' which was Christ,' and life everlasting by the victory over death 
and the second life vouchsafed to Lazarus." * 

1 1 . Our Saviour's triumphal entry into Jerusalem. 

12. Our Saviour giving the keys to Peter — very rare. 

13. Our Saviour predicting the denial of Peter. 

14. The denial of Peter. 

15. Our Saviour before Pilate. 

16. St. Peter taken to prison. 

These last six subjects are only represented on tombs. + 

The class of paintings shown as Lititrgical are less de- 
finite than these. In the Catacombs of Calixtus several 
obscure paintings are shown (in cubicula anterior to the 
middle of the third century), which are said to have re- 
ference to the sacrament of baptism. Pictures of the 
paralytic carrying his bed are identified by some Roman 
Catholic authorities with the sacrament of penance. (!) 
Bosio believed that in the Catacomb of Sta. Priscilla he 
had found paintings which illustrated the sacrament of or- 
dination. Representations undoubtedly exist which illus- 
trate the agape or love-feast of the primitive Church. 

On the opposite side of the Via Appia from St. Calixtus 
(generally entered from the road leading to S. Urbano) is 
the Catacomb of St. Fniextatus, interesting as being the 
known burial-place of several martyrs. A large crypt was 
discovered here in 1857, built with solid masonry and 
lined with Greek marble. 

"The workmanship points to early date, and specimens of pagan 
architecture in the same neighbourhood enable us to fix the middle of 
the latter half of the second century (a.d. 175) as a very probable date 
for its erection. The Acts of the Saints explain to us why it was built 
with bricks, and not hewn out of the rock — viz. because the Christian 
who made it (Sta. Marmenia) had caused it to be excavated immediately 

* Roma Sotterranea, p. 247. 

t Lord Lindsay's Christian Art, i. 46. 


below her own house; and now that we see it, \ve understand the precise 
meaning of the words used by the itineraries describing it — viz. ' a large 
cavern, most firmly built.' The vault of the chapel is most elaborately 
painted, in a style by no means inferior to the best classical productions 
of the age. It is divided into four bands of wreaths, one of roses, 
another of corn-sheaves, a third of vine-leaves and grapes (and in all 
these, birds are introduced visiting their young in nests), and the last or 
highest, of leaves of laurel or the bay-tree. Of course these severally 
represent the seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The last 
is a well-known figure or symbol of death ; and probably the laurel, as 
the token of victory, was intended to represent the new and Christian 
idea of the everlasting reward of a blessed immortality. Below these 
bands is another border, more indistinct, in which reapers are gathering 
in the corn ; and at the back of the arch is a rural scene, of which the 
central figure is the Good Shepherd carrying a sheep upon his shoulders. 
This, however, has been destroyed by graves pierced through the wall 
and the rock behind it, from the eager desire to bury the dead of a later 
generation as near as possible to the tombs of the martyrs. As De 
Rossi proceeded to examine these graves in detail, he could hardly 
believe his eyes when he read around the edge of one of them these 
words and fragments of words : — Ali Refrigeri Janiiarius Agatopos 
Felicissim Martyres — ' Januarius, Agapetus, Felicissimus, martyrs, refresh 
the soul of . . . . ' The words had been scratched upon the 
mortar while it was yet fresh, fifteen centuries ago, as the prayer of some 
bereaved relative for the soul of him whom they were burying here, and 
now they revealed to the antiquarian of the nineteenth century the 
secret he was in quest of— viz. the place of burial of the saints whose 
aid is here invoked ; for the numerous examples to be seen in other 
cemeteries warrant us in concluding that the bodies of the saints, to 
whose intercession the soul of the deceased is here recommended, 
•were at the time of his burial lying at no great distance." — Roma 

Tlie St. Januarius buried here was the eldest of the 
seven sons of St. Felicitas, martyred July lo, a.d. 162. St. 
Agapitus and St. Felicissimus were deacons of Pope Sixtus 
II., who were martyred together with him and St. Pretex- 
tatus* in this very catacomb, because Sixtus II. " had set 
at nought the commands of the Emperor Valerian." t 

♦ Alban Butler, viii. 148. t Lib. Pont. 



A mutilated inscription of St. Damasus, in the Catacomb 
of Calixtus, near the tomb of CorneHus, thus records the 
death of this pope: 

" Tempore quo gladius secuit pia visura Matris 
Hie positus rector ca^lestia jussa docebam ; 
Adveniunt subito, rapiunt qui forte sedentem ; 
Militibus missis, populi tunc colla dedere. 
Mox sibi cognovit senior quis lollere vellet 
Palmam seque suumque caput prior obtulit ipse, 
Impatiens feritas posset ne laedere quemquam. 
Ostendit Christus reddit qui prcemia vitce 
Pastoris meritum, numerum gregis ipse tuetur." 

"At the time when the sword pierced the heart of our Mother 
(Church), I, its ruler, buried here, was teaching the things of heaven. 
Suddenly they came, they seized me seated as I was ;— the soldiers being 
sent in, the people gave their necks (to the slaughter). Soon the old 
man saw who was willing to bear away the palm from himself, and was 
the first to offer himself and his own head, fearing lest the blow should 
fall on any one else. Christ who awards the rewards of life recognises 
the merit of the pastor, he himself is preserving the number of his 

An adjoining crypt, considered to date from a.d. 130, is 
beheved to be the burial-place of St. Quirinus. 

Above this catacomb are ruins of two basilicas, erected 
in honour of St. Zeno; and of Tiburtius, Valerian, and 
Maximus, companions of Sta. Cecilia in martyrdom. 

In the road leading to S. Urbano is the entrance to the 
Jewish Catacomb. It is entered by a chamber open to the 
sky, floored with black and white mosaic, which is sup- 
posed to have formed part of a pagan dwelling. The 
following chamber has remains of a well. Hence a low 
door forms the entrance of a gallery out of which open six 
cubicula, one of them containing a fine white marble sar- 
cophagus, and decorated -with a painting of tlie seven- 


branched candlestick. A side passage leads to other cubi- 
cula, and to an open space which seems to have been an 
actual arenarium. A winding passage at the end of the 
larger gallery leads to the graves in the floor divided into 
different cells for corpses, and called Cocim by Rabbinical 
WTiters. A cubiculum at the end of the catacomb has 
paintings of figures — Plenty, with a cornucopia ; Victory, 
with a palm leaf, &c. The inscriptions found show that 
this cemetery was exclusively Jewish. They refer to officers 
of the synagogue, rulers (a^^ovTtq), and scribes (ypaiufiaTtiQ), 
&c. The inscriptions are in great part in Greek letters, 
expressing Latin words. 

Another small Jewish catacomb has been discovered 
behind the basilica of St. Sebastian. Behind the Catacomb 
of St. Calixtus, on the right of the Via Ardeatina, is the 
Catacomb of SS. Ncreo ed Achilleo. Close to its entrance is 
the farm of Tor Maraucia, where are some ruins, believed 
to be remains of the villa of Flavia Domitilla. This cele- 
brated member of the early Christian Church was daughter 
of the Flavia Domitilla who was sister of the Emperor 
Domitian, — and wife of Titus Flavins Clemens, son of the 
Titus Flavius Sabinus who was brother of the Emperor 
Vespasian, Her two sons were, Vespasian Junior and 
Domitian Junior, who were intended to succeed to the 
throne, and to whom Quinctilian was appointed as tutor by 
the emperor. Dion Cassius narrates that " Domitian put to 
death several persons, and amongst them Flavius Clemens 
the consul, although he was his nephew, and although he 
had Flavia Domitilla for his wife, who was also related to 
the emperor. They were both accused of atheism, on 
which charge many others also had been condemned, 



going after the manners and customs of the Jews ; and 
some of them were put to death, and others had their goods 
confiscated ; but Domitilla was only banished to Pandata- 
ria."* This Flavia Domitilla is frequently confused with her 
niece of the same name,t whose banishment is mentioned 
by Eusebius, when he says : — " The teaching of our faith 
had by this time shone so far and wide, that even pagan 
historians did not refuse to insert in their narratives some 
account of the persecution and the martyrdoms that were 
suffered in it. Some, too, have marked the time accur- 
ately, mentioning, amongst many others, in the fifteenth 
year of Domitian (a.d. 97), Flavia Domitilla, the daughter 
of a sister of Flavius Clemens, one of the Roman consuls 
of those days, who, for her testimony for Christ, was 
punished by exile to the island of Pontia." It was this 
younger Domitilla who was accompanied in her exile by 
her two Christian servants, Nereus and Achilles ; Avhose 
banishment is spoken of by St. Jerome as " a life -long 
martyrdom," — whose cell was afterwards visited by Sta. 
Paula, X and who, according to the Acts of SS. Nereus and 
Achilles, was brought back to the mainland to be burnt 
ahve at Terracina, because she refused to sacrifice to idols. 
The relics of Domitilla, witli those of her servants, were 
preserved in the catacomb under the villa which had 
belonged to her Christian aunt. 

Receiving as evidence the story of Sta. Domitilla, this 
catacomb must be looked upon as the oldest Christian 
cemetery in existence. Its galleries were widened and 
strengthened by John I. (523 — 526). A chamber near the 

• Now Santa Maria, an island near Gaieta. t Alban Butler, v. 205. 

X Alban Butler, v. 205. 


entrance is pointed out as the burial-place of Sta. Pe- 

" The sepulchre of SS. Nereus and Achilles was in all probability 
in that chapel to which we descend by so magnificent a staircase, and 
which is iUuminated by so fine a luminare; for that this is the central 
point of attraction in the cemetery is clear, both from the staircase and 
the luminare just mentioned, as also from the greater width of the ad- 
jacent galleries and other similar tokens." Here then St. Gregory the 
Great delivered his twenty-eighth homily (which Baronius erroneously 
supposes to have been delivered in the Church of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, 
to which the bodies of the saints were not yet removed), in which he 
says — " These saints, before whose tomb we are assembled, despised 
the world and trampled it under their feet, when peace, plenty, riches, 
and health gave it charms." 

" . . . . There is a higher and more ancient //i?;/^, in which coins 
and medals of the first two centuries, and inscriptions of great value, have 
been recently discovered. Some of these inscriptions may still be seen 
in one of the chambers near the bottom of the staircase ; they are both 
Latin and Greek ; sometimes both languages are mixed ; and in one or 
two instances Latin words are written in Greek characters. Many of 
these monuments are of the deepest importance both in an antiquarian 
and religious point of view ; in archceology, as showing the practice of 
private Christians in the first ages to make the subterranean chambers at 
their own expense and for their own use, e. g. — ' ^L Aurelius Restutus 
made this subterranean for himself, and those of his family who believed 
in the Lord,' — where, both the triple names and the limitation intro- 
duced at the end (which shows that many of his family were still 
pagan), are unquestionably proofs of very high antiquity." — Northcote s 
Roman Catacombs, p. 103, &c. 

Among the most remarkable paintings in this catacomb 
are, Orpheus with his lyre, surrounded by birds and beasts 
who are charmed with his music ; Elijah ascending to 
heaven in a chariot drawn by four horses ; and the portrait 
of Our Lord. 

"The head and bust of our Lord form a medallion, occupying the 
centre of the roof in the same cubiculum where Orpheus is represented. 


This painting, in consequence of the description given of it by Kiigler 
(who misnamed the catacomb St. Calixtus), is often eagerly sought after 
by strangers visiting the catacombs. It is only just, however, to add, 
that they are generally disappointed. Kiigler supposed it to be the 
oldest portrait of Our Blessed Saviour in existence, but we doubt if 
there is sufficient authority for such a statement. He describes it in 
these Vi^ords : — ' The face is oval, with a straight nose, arched eyebrows, 
a smooth and rather high forehead, the expression serious and mild ; 
the hair, parted on the forehead, flows in long curls down the shoulders ; 
the beard is not thick, but short and divided ; the age between thirty 
and forty.' But this description is too minute and precise, too artistic, 
for the original, as it is now to be seen. A lively imagination may, 
perhaps, supply the details described by our author, but the eye certainly 
fails to distinguish them." — Roma Sotterraiica, p. 253. 

Approached by a separate entrance on the slope of the 
hill-side is a sepulchral chamber, which De Rossi considers 
to have been the Burial-place of Sta. Domitilla. 

" It is certainly one of the most ancient and remarkable Christian 
monuments yet discovered. Its position, close to the highway ; its 
front of fine brickwork, with a cornice of terra-cotta, with the usual space 
for an inscription (which has now, alas, perished) ; the spaciousness of 
its gallery, with its four or five separate niches prepared for as many 
sarcophagi ; the fine stucco on the wall ; the eminently classical cha- 
racter of its decorations ; all these things make it perfectly clear that it 
was the monument of a Christian family of distinction, excavated at 
great cost, and without the slightest attempt at concealment. In pass- 
ing from the vestibule into the catacomb, we recognise the transition 
from the use of the sarcophagus to that of the common locidiis ; for the 
first two or three graves on either side, though really mere shelves in the 
wall, are so disguised by painting on the outside as to present to passers- 
by the complete outward appearance of a sarcophagus. Some few of 
these graves are marked with the names of the dead, written in black on 
the largest tiles, and the inscriptions on the other graves are all of the 
simplest and oldest form. Lastly, the whole of the vaulted roof is 
covered with the most exquisitely graceful designs, of branches of the 
vine (with birds and winged genii among them) trailing with all the 
freedom of nature over the whole walls, not fearing any interruption by 
graves, nor confined by any of those lines of geometrical symmetry 
which characterise similar productions in the next centuiy. Traces also 


of landscapes may be seen here and there, which are of rare occurrence 
in the catacombs, though they may be seen in the chambers assigned by 
De Rossi to SS. Nereus and Achilles. The Good Shepherd, an agape, 
or the heavenly feast, a man fishing, and Daniel in the lions' den, 
are the chief historical or allegorical representations of Christian 
mysteries which are painted here. Unfortunately they have been almost 
destroyed by persons attempting to detach them from the wall." — 
Roma Sotterranea, p. 70- 

A road to the left now leads to the Via Appia Nuova, 
passing about a quarter of a mile hence, a turn on the left 
to the ruin generally known as the Temple of Bacchus, from 
an altar dedicated to Bacchus which was found there, but 
considered by modem antiquaries as a temple of Ceres and 
Proserpine. This building has been comparatively saved 
from the destruction which has befallen its neighbours by 
having been consecrated as a church in a.d. 820 by Pope 
Pascal I., in honour of his sainted predecessor Urban I., 
A.D. 226 — whose pontificate was chiefly passed in refuge in 
the neighbouring Catacomb of St. Calixtus — because of a 
belief that he was wont to resort hither. 

A chapel at a great depth below the church, is shown as 
that in which St. Urban baptized and celebrated mass. A 
curious fresco here represents the Virgin between St. 
Urban and St. John. 

Around the upper part of the interior are a much injured 
series of frescoes, comprising — the life of Christ from the 
Annunciation to the descent into Hades, — and the life 
of St. Cecilia and her husband Valerian, ending in the 
buri;d of Cecilia by Pope Urban in the Catacombs of 
CaHxtus, and tlie story of the martyred Urban I. In the 
picture of the Crucifixion, the thieves have their names, 
'■ Calpurnius and Longinus." The frescoes were altered in 


the seventeenth century to suit the views of the Roman 
Church, keys being placed in the hand of Peter, &c. Sets 
of drawings taken before and after the alterations, are pre- 
served in the Barberini Library, and curiously show the 

A winding path leads from S. Urbano into the val- 
ley. Here, beside the Almo rivulet, is a ruined Nym- 
phaeum containing a mutilated statue of a river-god, which 
was called " the Grotto of Egeria," till a iow years ago, 
when the discovery of the true site of the Porta Capena fixed 
that of the grotto within the walls. The fine grove of old 
ilex-trees on the hillside, was at the same time pointed out as 
the sacred grove of Egeria. 

" Egeria ! sweet creation of some heart 
Which found no mortal resting-place so fair 
As thine ideal breast ; whate'er thou art 
Or wert, — a young Aurora of the air, 
The nympholepsy of some fond despair ; 
Or, it might be, a beauty of the earth, 
Who found a more than common votary there 
Too much adoring ; whatsoe'er thy birth, 
Thou wert a beautiful thought, and softly bodied forth. 

*' The mosses of thy fountain still are sprinkled 
With thine Elysian water-drops ; the face 
Of thy cave-guarded spring, with years unwrinkled, 
Reflects the meek-eyed genius of the place, 
Whose green, wild margin now no more erase 
Art's works ; nor must the delicate waters sleep, 
Prisoned in marble, bubbling from the base 
Of the cleft statue, with a gentle leap 
The rill runs o'er, and round, fern, flowers, and ivj', creep, 

"Fantastically tangled ; the green hills 
Are clothed with early blossoms, through the grass 
The quick-eyed lizard rustles, and the bills 
Of summer-birds sing welcome as ye pass ; 


Flowers fresh in hue, and many in their class, 

Implore the pausing step, and with their dyes 

Dance in the soft breeze in a fairy mass ; 

The sweetness of the violet's deep blue eyes, 

Kiss'd by the breath of heaven, seems coloured by its skies." 

Byi-on, Childe Harold, 

It is now known that this nymphaeum and the valley in 
which it stands belonged to the suburban villa called Triopio, 
of Herodes Atticus, whose romantic story is handed down 
to us through two Greek inscriptions in the possession of the 
Borghese family, and is further illustrated by the writings of 
Filostratus and Pausanias. 

A wealthy Greek named Ipparchus offended his government and 
lost all his wealth by confiscation, but the family fortunes were re- 
deemed, through the discovery by his son Atticus of a vast treasure, 
concealed in a small piece of ground which remained to them, close to 
the rock of the Acropolis. Dreading the avarice of his fellow-citizens, 
Atticus sent at once to Nerva, the then emperor, telling him of the disco- 
very, and requesting his orders as to what he was to do with the trea- 
sure. Nerva replied, that he was welcome to keep it, and use it as he 
pleased. Not yet satisfied or feeling sufficiently sure of the protection of 
the emperor, Atticus again applied to him, saying that the treasure was 
•far too Vast for the use of a person in a private station of life, and 
asking how he was to use it. The emperor again replied that the 
treasure was his own and due to his own good fortune, and that "what 
he could not use he might abuse." Atticus then entered securely into 
possession of his wealth, which he bequeathed to his son Herodes, who 
used his fortune magnificently in his bountiful charities, in the encour- 
agement of literature and art throughout both Greece and Italy, and 
(best appreciated of all by the Greeks) in the splendour of the public 
games which he gave. 

Early in the reign of Antoninus Pius, Herodes Atticus removed to 
Rome, where he was appointed professor of rhetoric to Marcus Aurelius 
and Lucius Verus, tlie two adopted sons of the emperor, and where he 
attained the consulsliip in A.U. 143. Soon after his arrival he fell in 
love willi Annia Regilia, a beautiful and wealthy heiress, and in spite 
of tlie violent ojiposilion of her brother, Annius Attilius Braduas, who, 
belonging to the Julian family, and claiming an imaginary descent from 


Venus and Andiises, looked upon the marriage as a mesalliance, he 
succeeded in obtaining her hand. Part of the wealth which Annia 
Regilla brought to her husband was the Valle Caffarelli and its 

For some years Herodes Atticus and Annia Regilla enjoyed the per- 
fection of married happiness in this beautiful valley ; but shortly before 
the expected birth of her fifth child, she died very suddenly, leaving her 
.husband almost frantic with grief and refusing every consolation. He 
was roused, however, from his first anguish by his brother-in-law Annius 
Braduas, who had never laid aside his resentment at the marriage, and 
who now accused him of having poisoned his wife. Herodes demanded 
a public trial, and was acquitted. Filostratus records that the intense 
grief he showed and the depth of the mourning he wore, were taken as 
signs of his innocence. Further to clear himself from imputation, 
Herodes offered all the jewels of Annia Regilla upon the altar of the 
Eleusinian deities, Ceres and Proserpine, at the same time calling down 
the vengeance of the outraged gods if he were guilty of sacrilege. 

The beloved Regilla was buried in a tomb surrounded by "a sepul- 
chral field " within the precincts of the villa, dedicated to Minerva and 
Nemesis, and (as recorded in one of the Greek inscriptions) it was made 
an act of the highest sacrilege, for any but her own descendants to be 
laid within those sacred limits. A statue was also erected to Regilla 
m the Triopian temple of Ceres and Proserpine, which is now supposed 
to be the same with that usually called the temple of Bacchus. Not 
only did Herodes hang his house with black in his affliction, but 
all gaily coloured marbles were stripped from the walls, and replaced 
with the dark grey marble known as "bardiglic," — and his depth 
of woe made him so conspicuous, that a satirical person seeing his 
cook prepare white beans for dinner, wondered that he could dare to do 
so in a house so entirely black. 

The inscriptions in which this story is related (one of 
them containing thirty-nine Greek verses) are engraved on 
slabs of Pentelic marble — and Philostrattis and Pausanias 
narrate that the quarries of this marble were the property of 
Herodes, and that in his magnificent buildings he almost 
exhausted them.* 

* For these and many other particulars, see an interesting lecture by Mr. Shake- 
spere Wood, on "The Fountain of Egeria," given before the Roman Archaeological 


The field path from hence leads back to the Church of 
Domine Quo Vadis, passing on the right a beautifully- 
finished tomb (of the time of Septimius Severus) known as 
the Temple of Divus Redicuhis, and formerly described as 
having been built to commemorate the retreat of Hannibal, 
who came thus far in his intended attack upon Rome. The 
temple erected in memory of this event was really on the 
right of the Via Appia. It was dedicated to Rediculus, 
the god of Return. The folly of ciceroni often cites this 
name as " Ridiculous." 

The neighbourhood of the Divus Rediculus (which he however places 
on the right of the Via Appia) is described by Phny in connection with 
a curious story of imperial times. There was a cobbler who had his 
stall in tlie Roman Forum, and who possessed a tame raven, which was 
a great favourite with the young Romans, to whom he would bid good 
day as he sate perched upon the rostra. At length he became quite a 
public character, and the indignation was so great when his master 
killed him with his hammer in a fit of rage at his spoiling some new 
leather, that they slew the cobbler and decreed a public funeral to the 
bird ; who was carried to the grave on a bier adorned with honorary 
crowns, preceded by a piper, and supported by two negroes in honour 
of his colour, — and buried — "ad rogum usque, qui constructus dextra 
Vise Appias ad secundum lapidem in campo Rediculo appellato fuit."-^- 
PUny, N'at. Hist. lib. x. c. 6o. 

Returning to the Via Appia, we reach, on the right, the 
Basilica of S. Sebastiano, rebuilt in 1611 by Flaminio 
Ponzio for Cardinal Scipio Borghese on the site of a 
church which had been founded by Constantine, where 
once existed the house and garden of the matron Lucina, 
in which she had buried the body of Sebastian, after his 
(second) martyrdom under Diocletian. The basilica con- 
tains nothing ancient, but the six granite columns in the 



portico. The altar covers the relics of the saint (a Gaul, a 
native of Narbonne, a Christian soldier under Diocletian) 
and the chapel of St. Sebastian has a statue of him in his 
youth, designed by Bernini and executed by Antonio 

" The almost colossal form lies dead, the head resting on his helmet 
and armour. It is evidently modelled from nature, and is perhaps the 
finest thing ever designed by Bernini. . . . It is probably from the 
association of arrows with his form and stoiy that St. Sebastian has been 
regarded from the first ages of Christianity as the protecting saint against 
plague and pestilence ; Apollo was the deity who inflicted plague, 
and therefore was invoked with prayer and sacrifice against it ; and to 
the honour of Apollo, in this particular character, St. Sebastian has 
succeeded." — Jameson s Sacred Art, p. 414. 

The original of the footprint in the Domine Quo Vadis 
is said to be preserved here. 

On the left of the entrance is the descent into the cata- 
combs, with the inscription : 

"In hoc sacrosancto loco qui dicitur ad Catacumbas, ubi sepulta 
fuerunt sanctorum martyrum corpora 174,000, ac 46 summorum pon- 
tificium pariterque martyrum. In altare in quo corpus divi Sebastiani 
Christi athletce jacet celebrans summus Pontifex S. Gregorius Magnus 
vidit angelum Dei candidiorem nive, sibi in tremendo sacrificio mini- 
strantem ac dicentem, ' Hie est locus sacratissimus in quo est divina 
promissio et omnium peccatorum remissio, splendor et lux perpetua, 
sine fine laetitia, quam Christi martyr Sebastianus habere promeruit.' 
Prout Severanus Tom. P°. pagina 450, ac etiam antiquissimse lapidcDs 
testantur tabulre. 

"Ideo in hoc insigne privilegiato altari, tarn missa: cantatce quam 
privatte, dum celebrantur, animse quae sunt in purgatorio pro quibus 
sacrificiura offertur plenariam indulgentiam, et omnium suorum pecca- 
torum remissionem consequuntur prout ab angelo dictum fuit et summi 
pontifices confirmarunt." 

These are the catacombs which are most frequently 
visited by strangers, because they can always be seen on 
VOL. I. 27 


application to the monks attached to the church, — though 
they are of greatly inferior interest to those of St. Calixtus. 

" Though future excavations may bring to light much that is interest- 
ing in this cemetery, the small portion now accessible is, as a specimen 
of the Catacombs, utterly without value. Its only interest consists in 
its religious associations : here St. Bridget was wont to kneel, rapt in 
contemplation ; here St. Chai-les Borromeo spent whole nights in prayer ; 
and here the heart of .St. Philip Neri was so inflamed with divine love 
as to cause his very bodily frame to be changed." — Northcotc's Rcniaii 

" Philip, on thee the glowing ray 

Of heaven came down upon thy prayer, 
To melt thy heart, and burn away 
All that of earthly dross was there. 

" And so, on Philip when we gaze. 
We see the image of his Lord ; 
The saint dissolves amid the blaze 

Which circles round the Living Word. 

" The meek, the wise, none else is here, 
Dispensing light to men below; 
His awful accents fill the ear, 

Now keen as fire, now soft as snow." 

J. H. Newman, 1850. 

Owing to the desire in the early Christian Church of 
saving the graves of their first confessors and martyrs from 
desecration, almost all tlie catacombs were gradually 
blocked up, and by lapse of time their very entrances were 
forgotten. In the fourteenth century very few were still 
open. In the fifteenth century none remained except this 
of St. Sebastian, wliich continued to be frequented by 
jjilgrims, and was called in all ancient documents " cceme- 
terium ad catacumbas." 

At the back of the higli-altar is an interesting half- 
subterranean building, attributed to Pope Liberius (352 — 
355, and afterwards adorned by Pope Damasus, who briefly 


tells its history in one of his inscriptions, which may still be 
seen here : 

"Hinc habitasse prius sanctos cognoscere debes, 
Nomina quisque Petri pariter Paulique requiris. 
Discipulos Oriens misit, quod sponte fatemur, 
Sanguinis ob meritum Christumque per astra sequuti, 
Aetherios petiere sinus et regna piorum. 
Roma suos potius meruit defendere cives. 
Hsec Damasus vestras referat sidera laudes." 

" Here you should know that saints dwelt. Their names, if you ask 
them, were Peter and Paul. The East sent disciples, which we freely 
acknowledge. For the merit of their blood they followed Christ to the 
stars, and sought the heavenly home and the kingdom of the blest. 
Rome however deserved to defend her own citizens. May Damasus 
record these things for your praise, O new stars." 

"The two Apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, were originally buried, 
the one at the Vatican, the other on the Ostian Way, at the spot where 
their respective basilicas now stand ; but, as soon as the Oriental 
Christians had heard of their death, they sent some of their brethren to 
remove their bodies, and bring them back to the East, where they con- 
sidered that they had a right to claim them as their fellow-citizens and 
countrymen. These so far prospered in their mission as to gain a 
momentary possession of the sacred relics, which they carried off, along 
the Appian Way, as far as the spot where the church of St. Sebastian 
was afterwards built. Here they rested for a while, to make all things 
ready for their journey, or, according to another account, were detained 
by a thunderstorm of extraordinary violence, which delay, however 
occasioned, was sufficient to enable the Christians of Rome to overtake 
them and recover their lost treasure. These Roman Christians then 
buried the bodies, with the utmost secrecy, in a deep pit, which they 
dug on the very spot where they were. Soon, indeed, they were 
restored to their original places of sepulture, as we know from contem- 
porary authorities, and there seems reason to believe the old ecclesiast- 
ical tradition to be correct, which states them to have only remained in 
this temporary abode for a year and seven months. The body of 
St. Peter, however, was destined to revisit it a second time, and for a 
longer period ; for when, at the beginning of the third century, Helio- 
gabalus made his circus at the Vatican, Calixtus, who was then pope, 
removed the relics of the Apostle to their former temporary resting- 
place, the pit on the Appian Way. But in .\.D. 257, St. Stephen, the 


pope, having been discovered in this very cemetery and having suffered 
martyrdom there, the body of St. Peter was once more removed, and 
restored to its original tomb in the Vatican." — Northcotis Roman 

In the passages of this catacomb are misguiding inscrip- 
tions placed here in 1409 by WiUiam, Archbishop of 
Bourges, caUing upon the faithful to venerate here the 
tombs of Sta. Cecilia and of many of the martyred popes, 
who are buried elsewhere. The martyr St. Cyrinus is known 
to have been buried here from very early itineraries, but his 
grave has not been discovered. 

" When I was a boy, being educated at Rome, I used every Sunday, 
in company with other boys of my own age and tastes, to visit the 
tombs of the apostles and martyrs, and to go into the crypts excavated 
there in the bowels of the earth. The walls on either side as you enter 
are full of the bodies of the dead, and the whole place is so dark, that 
one seems almost to see the fulfilment of those words of the prophet, 
'Let them go down alive into Hades.' Here and there a little light, 
admitted from above, suffices to give a momentary relief to the horror 
of the darkness ; but as you go forwards, and find yourself again im- 
mersed in the utter blackness of night, the words of the poet come 
spontaneously to your mind : ' Thevery silence fills the soul with dread.' " 
— St. Jerome (a. I). 354), /« Ezek. ch. Ix. 

"A gaunt Franciscan friar, with a wild bright eye, was our only 
guide down into this profound and dreadful place. The narrow ways 
and ojienings hither and thither, coupled with the dead and heavy air, 
soon blotted out, in all of us, any recollection of the track by which we 
had come ; and I could not help thinking, 'Good Heaven, if in a sudden 
fit of madness he should dash the torches out, or if he should be seized 
with a fit, what would become of us ! ' On we wandered, among 
martyrs' graves: passing great subterranean vaulted roads, diverging in 
all directions, and choked up with heaps of stones, that thieves and 
murderers may not take refiige there, and form a population under 
Rome, even worse tlian tiiat which lives between it and the sun. 
Graves, graves, graves ; graves of men, of women, of little children, 
who ran crying to the persecutors, ' We are Christians ! we are 
Clirisliaiis ! ' that tlicy might be murdered with their jiarcnts ; graves 


with the pahn of martj'rdom roughly cut into their stone boundaries, 
and little niches, made to hold a vessel of the martyr's blood ; graves 
of some who lived down here, for years together, ministering to the 
rest, and preaching truth, and hope, and comfort, from the rude altars, 
that bear witness to their fortitude at this hour ; more roomy graves, 
but far more terrible, where hundreds, being surprised, were hemmed 
in and walled up ; buried before death, and killed by slow starvation. 

" 'The triumphs of the Faith are not above-ground in our splendid 
churches,' said the friar, looking round upon us, as we stopped to rest 
in one of the low passages, with bones and dust surrounding us on every 
side. ' They are here ! among the martyrs' graves ! ' He was a gentle, 
earnest man, and said it from his heart ;' but when I thought how 
Christian men have dealt with one another ; how, perverting our most 
merciful religion, they have hunted down and tortured, burnt and 
beheaded, strangled, slaughtered, and oppressed each other ; I pictured 
to myself an agony surpassing any that this Dust had suffered with the 
breath of life yet lingering in it, and how these great and constant 
hearts would have been shaken — how they would have quailed and 
drooped — if a foreknowledge of the deeds that professing Christians 
would commit in the great name for which they died, could have rent 
them with its own unutterable anguish, on the cruel wheel, and bitter 
cross, and in the fearful fire." — Dickens. 

" Countless martyrs, they say, rest in these ancient sepulchres. In 
these dark depths the ancient Church took refuge from pei^secution ; 
there she laid her martyrs, and there, over their tombs, she chaunted 
hymns of triumph, and held communion with Him for whom they died. 
In that church I spend hours. I have no wish to descend into those 
sacred sepulchres, and pry among the graves the resurrection trump will 
open soon enough. I like to think of the holy dead, lying undisturbed 
and quiet there ; of their spirits in Paradise ; of their faith triumphant 
in the city that massacred them. 

"No doubt they also had their perplexities, and wondered why the 
wicked triumph, and sighed to God, 'How long, O Lord, how long?'" 
—Schonherg Cotta Family. 

"And when he had opened the fifth seal, I .saw under the altar the 
souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony 
which they held : and they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, 
O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on 
them that dwell on the earth ? And white robes were given unto eveiy 
one of them ; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a 
little season, until their fellow-servants also and their brethren, that 
should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled." — Rev. vi. 9 — 11. 


In the valley beneath S. Sebastiano are the ruins of the 
Circus of Maxenfius, near those of a villa of that emperor. 
The circus was 1482 feet long, 244 feet broad, and was 
capable of containing 15,000 spectators, yet it is a miniature 
compared with the Circus Maximus, though very interesting 
as retaining in tolerable preservation all the different parts 
which composed a circus. The circular ruin near it was a 
Temple dedicated by INIaxentius to his son Romulus. 

" Le jeune Romulus, etant mort, fut place au rang des dieux, dans 
cet olympe qui s'ecroulait. Son pere lui eleva un temple dont la partie 
inferieure se voit encore, et le cirque lui-meme fut peut-etre une de- 
pendance de ce temple funebre, car les courses de chars etaient un des 
honneurs que I'antiquite rendait aux morts, et sont souvent pour cela 
representees sur les tombeaux." — Ampere, £»ip. ii. 360. 

These ruins are very picturesque, backed by the peaks 
of the Sabine range, which in winter are generally covered 
with snow. 

The opposite hill is crowned by the Tomb of Cecilia 
Metella, daughter of Quintus Metellus Creticus, and wife of 
Crassus. It is a round tower, seventy feet in diameter. 
The bulls' heads on the frieze gave it the popular name of 
Capo di Bove. The marble coating of the basement was 
carried off by Urban VIII. to make the fountain of Trevi. 
The battlements were added when the tomb was turned 
into a fortress by the Caetani in the thirteenth century. 

" Al)()ut two miles, or more, from the city gates, and right upon the 
roadside, is an immense round )iile, sepulchral in its original purpose, 
like those already mentioned. It is built of great blocks of hewn stone, 
on a vast, square foundation of rough, agglomerated material, such as 
composes the mass of all the other ruinous tombs. But, whatever 
might be the cause, it is in a far better state of preservation than they. 
On its l)road summit rise the battlements of a mediaeval fortress, out of 
the midst of which (so long since had time begun to crumble the supple- 
mental structure, and cover it with soil, by means of wayside dust) grow 



trees^, bushes, and thick festoons of ivy. This tomb of a woman has 
become the dungeon-keep of a castle; and all the care that Cecilia 
Metella's husband could bestow, to secure endless peace for her beloved 
relics, only sufficed to make that handful of precious ashes the nucleus 
of battles, long ages after her death." — Ilazvthorm, Transformation. 

" There is a stem round tower of other days, 
Firm as a fortress, with its fence of stone, 
Such as an army's baffled strength delays, 

Standing with half its battlements alone, 1 

And with two thousand years of ivy grown. 
The garland of eternity, where wave 
The green leaves over all by time o'erthrown ; — 
What was this tower of strength ? within its cave 
What treasure lay so lock'd, so hid ? — a woman's grave. 

" But who was she, the lady of the dead, 
Tomb'd in a palace ? Was she chaste and fair ? 
Worthy a king's — or more — a Roman's bed ? 
What race of chiefs and heroes did she bear ? 
What daughter of her beauties was the heir ? 
How lived — how loved — how died she ? Was she not 
So honoured — and conspicuously there. 
Where meaner relics must not dare to rot, 
Placed to commemorate a more than mortal lot ? 

" Perchance she died in youth : it may be, bow'd 
With woes far heavier than the ponderous tomb 
That weigh'd upon her gentle dust, a cloud 
Might gather o'er her beauty, and a gloom 
In her dark eye, prophetic of the doom 
Heaven gives its favourites — early death; yet shed 
A sunset charm around her, and illume 
With hectic light, the Hesperus of the dead, 
Of her consuming cheek the autumnal leaf-like red. 

" Perchance she died in age — surviving all. 
Charms, kindred, children — with the silver grey 
On her long tresses, which might yet recall. 
It may be, still a something of the day 
When they were braided, and her proud array 
And lovely form were envied, praised, and eyed 
By Rome — but whither would Conjecture stray ? 


Thus much alone we know — Metella died, 

The wealthiest Roman's wife : Behold his love or pride ! " 

Childe Harold. 

Close to the tomb are the ruins of a Gotliic church of 
the Caetani. 

"Le tombeau de Cecilia-Metella etait devenu un chateau fort alors 
aux mains des Caetani, et autour du chateau s' etait forme un village 
2H&Z son eglise, dont on a recemment retrouve les restes."-— yiw/^r^ 
Voyage Daiitesque. 

It is at Cecilia Metella's tomb that the beauties of the 
Via Appia really begin. A very short distance further, we 
emerge from the walls which have hitherto shut in the road 
on either side, and enjoy uninterrupted views over the 
Latin plain, strewn with its ruined castles and villages — and 
the long lines of aqueducts, to the Sabine and Alban 

"The Via Appia is a magnificent promenade, amongst ruinous 
tombs, the massive remains of which extend for many miles over the 
Roman Campagna. The powerful families of ancient Rome loved to 
build monuments to their dead by the side of the public road, probably 
to exhibit at once their affection for their relations and their own power 
and affluence. Most of these monuments are now nothing but heaps of 
ruins, upon which are placed the statues and sculptures which have 
been found in the earth or amongst the rubbish. Those inscriptions 
which have been found on the Via Appia bear witness to the grief of the 
living for the dead, but never to the hope of reunion. On a great 
number of sarcophagi or the friezes of tombs may be seen the dead 
sitting or lying as if they were alive, some seem to be praying. Many 
heads have great individuality of character. Sometimes a white marble 
figiu-e, beautifully draped, projects from these heaps of ruins, but with- 
out head or hands ; sometimes a hand is stretched out, or a portion of 
a figure rises from the tomb. It is a street through monuments of the 
dead, across an immense churchyard ; for the desolate Roman Campagna 
may be regarded as such. To the left it is scattered with the ruins of 
colossal aqueducts, which, during tlie time of the emperors, conveyed 
lakes and rivers to Rome, and which still, ruinous and destroyed. 



delight the eye by the beautiful proportions of their arcades. To the 
right is an immense prairie, without any other limit than that of the 
ocean, which, however, is not seen from it. The country is desolate, 
and only here and there are there any huts 'or trees to be seen." — 
Fredcrika Bremer. 

"P'or the space of a mile or two beyond the gate of S. Sebastiano, 
this ancient and famous road is as desolate and disagreeable as most of 
the other Roman avenues. It extends over small, imcomfortable 
paving-stones, between brick and plastered walls, which are very 
solidly constructed, and so high as almost to exclude a view of the 
surrounding country. The houses are of the most uninviting aspect, 
neither picturesque, nor homelike and social ; they have seldom or 
never a door opening on the wayside, but are accessible only from the 
rear, and frown inhospitably upon the traveller through iron-grated 
windows. Here and there appears a dreary inn, or a wine-shop, desig- 
nated by the withered bush beside the entrance, within which you 
discover a stone-built and sepulchral interior, where guests refresh 
themselves with sour bread and goat's-milk cheese, washed down with 
wine of dolorous acerbity. 

"At frequent intervals along the roadside, up rises the ruin of an 
ancient tomb. As they stand now, these structures are immensely 
high, and broken mounds of conglomerated brick, stone, pebbles, and 
earth, all molten by time into a mass as solid and indestructible as if 
each tomb were composed of a single boulder of granite. When first 
erected, they were cased externally, no doubt, with slabs of polished 
marble, artfully wrought, bas-reliefs, and all such suitable adornments, 
and were rendered majestically beautiful by grand architectural de- 
signs. This antique splendour has long since been stolen from the 
dead, to decorate the palaces and churches of the living. Nothing 
remains to the dishonoured sepulchres, except their massiveness. 

' ' Even the pyramids form hardly a stranger spectacle, or a more alien 
from human sympathies, than the tombs of the Appian Way, with their 
gigantic height, breadth, and solidity, defying time and the elements, 
and far too mighty to be demolished by an ordinary earthquake. Here 
you may see a modern dwelling, and a garden with its vines and olive- 
trees, perched on the lofty dilapidation of a tomb, which forms a preci- 
pice of fifty feet in depth on each of the four sides. There is a house on 
that funeral mound, where generations of children have been born, 
and successive lives have been spent, undisturbed by the ghost of the 
stem Roman whose ashes were so preposterously burdened. Other 
sepulchres wear a crown of grass, shrul)bery, and forest-trees, which 
throw out a broad sweep of branches, having had 'ime, twice over, to 


be a thousand years of age. On one of them stands a tower, which, 
though immemorially more modern than the tomb, was itself built by 
immemorial hands, and is now rifted quite from top to bottom by a vast 
fissure of decay; the tomb-hillock, its foundation, being still as firm as 
ever, and likely to endure until the last trump shall rend it wide 
a-sunder, and summon forth its unknown dead. 

"Yes, its unknown dead! For, except in one or two doubtful 
instances, these mountainous sepulchral edifices have not availed to 
keep so much as the bare name of an individual or a family from ob- 
livion. Ambitious of everlasting remembrance as they were, the 
slumberers might just as well have gone quietly to rest, each in his 
pigeon-hole of a columbarium, or under his little green hillock, in a 
grave-yard, without a headstone to mark the spot. It is rather satis- 
factory than otherwise, to think that all these idle pains have turned out 
so utterly abortive." — HawtJiornc. 

Near the fourth milestone, is the tomb of Marcus ServiHus 
Quartus (with an inscription), restored by Canova in 1808. 
A bas-rehef of the death of Atys, killed by Adrastus, a 
short distance beyond this, has been suggested as part of 
the tomb of Seneca, who was put to death " near the fourth 
milestone" by order of Nero. An inscribed tomb beyond 
this is that of Sextus Pompeius Justus. 

Near this, in the Campagna on the left, are some small 
remains, supposed to be those of a Temple of Juno. 

Beyond this a number of tombs can be identified, but 
none of any importance. Such are the tombs of Plinius 
Eutychius, erected by Plinius Zosimus, a freedman of 
Pliny the younger ; of Caius Licinius ; the Doric tomb of 
the tax-gatherer Claudius Philippanus, inscribed " Tito , 
Claudio . Secundo , Philippiano . Coactori . Flavia . Irene. 
Vxori Indulgentissimo ; " of Rabinius, with three busts in 
relief; of Hermodorus ; of I^lsia Prima, priestess of Isis ; of 
Marcus C. Cerdonus, will) the bas-relief of an elephant 
bearing a burning altar. 

Beyond the fifth milestone, two circular mounds with 


basements of peperino, were considered by Canina to be 
the tombs of the Horatii and Curiatii. 

On the opposite side of the road is the exceedingly pic- 
turescjue medireval fortress, known as Torre Mczza Strada, 
into which are incorporated the remains of the Church of 
Sta. Maria Nuova, or della Gloria. Behind this extend a 
vast assemblage of ruins, which form a splendid foreground 
to the distant mountain view, and whose size has led to 
their receiving the popular epithet of Roma Vccchia. Here 
was the favourite villa of the Emperor Commodus, where 
he was residing, when the people, excited by a sudden im- 
pulse during the games of the Circus, rose and poured out 
of Rome against him — as the inhabitants of Paris to Ver- 
sailles — and refused to depart, till, terrified into action by 
the entreaties of his concubine Marcia, he tossed the head 
of the unpopular Cleander to them out of the window, and 
had the brains of that minister's child dashed out against 
the stones. This villa is proved by the discovery of a 
number of pipes bearing their names to have been that of 
the brothers Condianus and Maximus, of the great family 
of the Quintilii, which was confiscated by Commodus. 

" L'histoire des deux freres est interessante et romanesque. Condi- 
anus at Maximus Quintilius etaient distingues par la science, les talents 
militaires, la richesse, et surtout par une tendresse mutuelle qui no 
s'etait jamais dementie. Servant toujours ensemble, Fun se faisait le 
lieutenant de I'autre. Bien qu'etrangers a toute conspiration, leur vertu 
les fit soupconner d'etre pen favorables a Commode ; ils furent proscrits 
et moururent ensemble comme ils avaient vccu. L'un d'eux avait un 
fils nomme Sextus. Au moment de la mort de t-on pere et de son oncle, 
ce fils se trouvait en Syrie. Pensant bien que le meme sort I'attendait, 
il feignit de mourir poursauver sa vie. Sextus, apres avoir bu sang du 
lievre, monta a cheval, se laissa tombcr, vomit le sang qu'il avait pris et 
qui pariit etre son propre sang. On mit dans sa biere le corps d'un 
belier qui passa pour son cadavre, et il disparut. Depuis ce temps, il 


erra sous divers deguisements ; mais on sut qu'il avait echappe, et on se 
mit a sa recherche. Beaucoiip fiirent lues parce-qu'ils lui ressemblaient 
ou parce-qu'ils etaient soup9onnes de lui avoir donne asile. II n'est pas 
bien siir qu'il ait ete atteint, que sa tete se trouvat parmi cclles qu'on 
apporta a Rome et qu'on dit etre la sienne. Ce qui est certain, c'est 
qu'apres la mort de Commode, un aventurier, tente par la belle villa et 
par les grandes richesses des Quintilii, se donna pour Sextus et reclama 
son heritage. II parait ne pas avoir manque d'adresse et avoir connu 
celui pour lequel il voulut qu'on le prit, car par ses reponses il se tira 
tres-bien de toutes les enquetes. Peut-etre s'etait-il lie avec Sextus et 
I'avait-il assassine ensuite. Cependant I'empereur Pertinax, succes- 
seur de Commode, I'ayant fait venir, eut I'idee de lui parler grec. Le 
vrai Sextus connaissait parfaitement cette langue. Le faux Sextus, 
qui ne savait pas le grec, repondit tout de travers, et sa fraude fut ainsi 
decouverte." — Ampere, Emp. ii. 253. 

On the left of the Via Appia, appears a huge monu- 
ment, on a narrow base, called the Tomb of the MeteUi. 
Beyond this, after the fifth milestone, are the tombs of 
Sergius Demetrius, a wine merchant ; of Lucius Arrius ; 
of Septimia Gallia ; and of one of the C^cilii, in whose 
sepulchre, according to Eutropius, was buried Pomponius 
Atticus, the friend of Cicero, whose daughter Vipsania 
was the first wife of Agrippa, and whose granddaughter 
Vipsania Agrippina was the first wife of Tiberius. 

Close to the sixth milestone is the mass of masonry 
sometimes called " Casale Rotondo," or " Cotta's Tomb," 
from that name being found there inscribed on a stone, 
but generally attributed to Messala Corvinus, the poet, and 
friend of Horace, and believed to have been raised to him 
by his son Valerius Maximus Cotta, mentioned in Ovid. 

" Te aulem in turlia non ausim, Cotta, silcrc, 
Picriduni lumen, jircvsidiumquc fori." 

Epist. xvi. 

This tomb was c\cn larger than that of Cecilia Metella, 


and was turned into a fortress by the Orsini in the fifteenth 

Beyond this are tombs identified as those of P. Quin- 
tius, tribune of the sixteenth legion ; Marcus JuHus, 
steward of Claudius ; Publius Decumius Philomusus (with 
appropriate bas-reliefs of two mice nibbling a cake) ; and 
of Cedritius Flaccianius. 

Passing on the left the Tor di Schr, erected upon a huge 
unknown tomb, are the tombs of Titia Eucharis, and of 
Atilius Evodus, jeweller (margaritarius) on the Via Sacra, 
with the inscription, " Hospes resiste — aspice ubi continen- 
tur ossa hominis boni misericordis amantis pauperis." Near 
the eighth milestone are ruins attributed to the temples of 
Silvanus and of Hercules, — of which the latter is mentioned 
in Martial's Epigrams, beyond which were tlie villas of 
Bassus and of Persius. The last tomb identified is that of 
Quintus Verranius. Near the ninth milestone is a tomb 
supposed to be that of Gallienus (Imp. 268), who lived 
close by in a villa, amid the ruins of which " the Disco- 
bolus " was discovered. 

From the stream called Pontecello, near the tenth mile- 
stone, the road gradually ascends to Albano, passing 
several large but unnamed tombs. At the Osteria delle 
Frattocchie it joins the Via Appia Nuova. Close to the 
gate of Albano, it passes on the left the tall tomb attributed 
to Pompey the Great, in accordance with the statement of 
Plutarch, and in spite of the epigram of Varro Atacinus, 
which says : — ■ 

" Marmoreo Licinius tumulo jacet ; at Cato parvo ; 
Pompeius uuUo : quis putet esse Deus." 

Among the many processions which have passed along 


this road, perhaps the most remarkable have been that 
bearing back to Rome the dead body of Sylla, who died 
at Pozzuoh, " in a gilt litter, with royal ornaments, trumpets 
before him, and horsemen behind ; " * and the funeral of 
Augustus, who dying at Nola (a.d. 14), was brought to 
Bovillce, and remained there a month in the sanctuary of 
the Julian family, after which the knights brought the body 
in solemn procession to his palace on the Palatine. 

But throughout a walk along the Appian Way, the one 
great Christian interest of this world-famous 'oad, will, to 
the Christian visitor, overpower all others. 

" And so we went toward Rome. 

"And from thence, when the brethren heard of us, they came to 
meet us as far as Appii-forum, and the Three Taverns : wliom when 
Paul saw, he thanked God, and took courage 

"And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners 
to the captain of the guard ; but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself, 
with a soldier that kept him." — Acts xxviii. 14 — 16. 

"It is not without its manifold uses to remember that, amidst the 
dim and wavering traditions of later times, one figure at least stands out 
clear and distinct and undoubted, and this figure is the Apostle Paul. 
He, whatever we may think concerning any other apostle or apostolic 
man in connection with Rome, he, beyond a shadow of doubt, appears 
in the New Testament as her great teacher. No criticism or scepticism 
of modern times has ever questioned the perfect authenticity of that last 
chapter of the Acts, which gives the account of his journey, stage by 
stage, till he set foot within the walls of the city. However much we 
may be compelled to distrust any particular traditions concerning special 
localities of his life and death, we cannot doubt for a moment that his 
eye rested on the same general view of sky and plain and mountain; 
that his feet trod the pavement of the same Appian road ; that his way 
lay through the same long avenue of ancient tombs on which we now 
look and wonder ; that he entered (and there we have our last authentic 
glimpse of iiis progress) through the arch of Drusus, and then is lost to 
our view in llic great Babylon of Rome." — A. P. Stanleys Sermons. 

* Ainixrc, Hist. Rom. iv. 402. 


" When St. Paul was approaching Rome, all the bases of the moun- 
tains were (as indeed they are partially now) clustered round with the 
villas and gardens of wealthy citizens. The Appian Way climbs and 
then descends along its southern slope. After passing Lanuvium it 
crossed a crater-like valley or immense substructions, which still remain. 
Here is Aricia, an easy stage from Rome. The town was above the 
road, and on the hillside swarms of beggars beset travellers as they 
passed. On the summit of the next rise, Paul of Tarsus would obtain 
his first view of Rome. There is no doubt that the prospect was, in 
many respects, very different from the view which is now obtained from 
the same spot. It is true that the natural features of the scene are 
unaltered. The long wall of blue Sabine mountains, with Soracte in 
the distance, closed in the Campagna, which stretched far across to the 
sea and round the base of the Alban hills. But ancient Rome was not, 
like modern Rome, impressive from its solitude, standing alone, with 
its one conspicuous cupola, in the midst of a desolate though beautiful 
waste. St. Paul would see a vast city, covering the Campagna, and 
almost continuously connected by its suburbs with the villas on the hill 
where he stood, and with the bright towns which clustered on the sides 
of the mountains opposite. Over all the intermediate space were the 
houses and gardens, through which aqueducts and roads might be traced 
in converging lines towards the confused mass of edifices which formed 
the city of Rome. Here no conspicuous building, elevated above the 
rest, attracted the eye or the imagination. Ancient Rome had neither 
cupola nor campanile, still less had it any of those spires which give 
life to all the capitals of northern Christendom. It was a widespread 
aggregate of buildings, which, though separated by narrow streets and 
open spaces, appeared, when seen from near Aricia, blended into one 
indiscriminate mass : for distance concealed the contrasts which divided 
the crowded habitations of the poor and the dark haunts of filth and 
misery — from the theatres and colonnades, the baths, the temples, and 
palaces with gilded roofs, flashing back the sun. 

" The road descended into the plain at Bovilloe, six miles from Aricia : 
and thence it proceeded in a sti^aight line, with the sepulchres of illus- 
trious families on either hand. One of these was the burial-place of the 
Julian gens, with which the centurion who had charge of the prisoners 
was in some way connected. As they proceeded over the old pavement, 
among gardens and modern houses, and approached nearer the busy 
metropolis — the ' conflux issuing forth or entering in ' in various cos- 
tumes and on various errands, — vehicles, horsemen, and foot-passengers, 
soldiers and labourers, Romans and foreigners, — became more crowded 
and confusing. The houses grew closer. They were already in Rome. 


It was impossible to define the commencement of the city. Its populous 
portions extended far beyond the limits marked out by Servius. The 
ancient wall, with its once sacred pomoerium, was rather an object for 
antiquarian interest, like the walls of York or Chester, than any pro- 
tection against the enemies, who were kept far aloof by the legions on 
the frontier. 

" Yet the Porta Capena is a spot which we can hardly leave without 
lingering for a moment. Under this arch — which was perpetually dripping 
with the water of the aqueduct that went over it — had passed all those 
who, since a remote period of the republic, had travelled by the Appian 
Way, — victorious generals with their legions, returning from foreign 
service, — emperors and courtiers, vagrant representatives of every form 
of heathenism, Greeks and Asiatics, Jews and Christians. From this 
point entering within the city, Julius and his prisoners moved on, with 
the Aventine on their left, close round the base of the Coelian, and 
through the hollow ground whicli lay between this hill and the Palatine : 
thence over the low ridge called Velia, where afterwards was built the 
arch of Titus, to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem ; and then 
descending, by the Via Sacra, into that space which was the centre of 
imperial power and imperial magnificence, and associated also with the 
most glorious recollections of the republic. The Forum was to Rome, 
what the Acropolis was to Athens, the heart of all the characteristic 
interest of the place. Here was the Alillianiim Aitreum, to which the 
roads of all the provinces converged. All around were the stately 
buildings, which were raised in the closing years of the republic, and by 
the earlier emperors. In front was the Capitoline Hill, illustrious long 
before the invasion of the Gauls. Close on the left, covering that hill, 
whose name is associated in every modern European language with the 
notion of imperial splendour, were the vast ranges of the palace — the 
'house of Ca:sar' (Philipp. iv. 22). Here were the household troops 
quartered in z. pratorinm attached to the palace. And here (unless, in- 
deed, it was in the great Prastorian Camp outside the city wall) Julius 
gave up his prisoner to Burrus, the Pratorian Prefect, whose official duly 
it was to keep in custody all accused persons who were to be tried before 
the Emperor." — Coiiybeare and Ilowson. 


Palazzo Baiberini — Palazzo Albani — S. Carlo a Quattro Fontane — 
S. Andrea a Monte Cavallo— Quirinal Palace — Palazzo della Con- 
sulta — Palazzo Rospigliosi — Colonna Gardens and Temple of the 
Sun— S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo — Sta. Caterina di Siena — SS. 
Domenico e Sisto — Sta. Agata dei Goti — Sta. Maria in Monte — • 
S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna — Sta. Pudenziana — S. Paolo Primo 
Eremita — S. Dionisio — S. Vitale. 

TT is difficult to determine the exact limits of what in 
ancient times were regarded as the Quirinal and 
Viminal hills. They, like the Esquiline and Coelian, are 
" in fact merely spurs or tongues of hill, projecting inwards 
from a common base, the broad table-land, which slopes on 
the other side almost imperceptibly into the Campagna."* 
That, which is described in this chapter as belonging to 
these two hills, is chiefly the district to the right of the Via 
Quattro Fontane, and its continuations — which extend in a 
straight line to Sta. Maria Maggiore. 

The Quirinal, like all the other hills, except the Palatine 
and the Coelian, belonged to the Sabines in the early period 
of Roman history, and is full of records of their occupation. 
They had a Capitol here which is believed to have been 
long anterior to that on the Capitoline, and which was 

* Merivale, Romans under ths Empire, ch. xi. 


crowned by a temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. This 
Sabine capitol occupied the site of the present Palazzo 

The name Quirinal is derived from the Sabine word 
Quiris — signifying a lance, which gave the Sabines their 
name of Quirites, or lance-bearers, and to their god the 
name Quirinus.* After his death Romu'lus received this 
title, and an important temple was raised to him on the 
Quirinal by Numa,t under this name, thus identifying him 
with Janus Quirinus, the national god. This temple was sur- 
rounded by a sacred grove mentioned by Ovid. | It was 
rebuilt by the consul L. Papirius Cursor, to commemorate 
his triumph after the third Samnite war, B.C. 293, when he 
adorned it with a sun-dial {solarium horologium), the first set 
up in Rome, which, however, not being constructed for the 
right latitude, did not show the time correctly. This defect 
was not remedied till nearly a century aftenvards, when 
Q. Marcius Philippus set up a correct dial.§ In front of this 
temple grew two celebrated myrtle-trees, one called Patricia, 
the other Flebeia, which shared the fortunes of their re- 
spective orders, as the orange-tree at Sta. Sabina now does 
that of the Dominicans. Thus, up to the fifth century, 
Patricia flourislied gloriously, and Plebeia pined ; but from 
the time when the plebeians completely gained the upper 
hand, Patricia withered away.H The temple was rebuilt by 
Augustus, and Dion Cassius states that the number of pillars 
by which it was surrounded accorded with that of the years 
of his 

* Ampere, Hist. Rom. i. 141. t Dionysius, 11. 63. 

J Ovid, Mot. xiv. 452, 453. § Dyer's Rome, p. 95. 

II Pliny, Hist. Nat. xv. 35, 2. 1| Dion Cass. liv. 


Adjoining the temple was a portico : 

" Vicini pete porticum Quirini : 
Turbam non habet otiosiorem 
Pompeius." litartial, xi. Ep. i. 

"Officium eras 

Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini.' 

Juvenal, Sat. ii. 132. 

Hard by was a temple of Fortuna Publica, 

' ' Qui dicet, Quondam sacrata est colle Quirini 
Hac Fortuna die Publica; verus erit." 

Ovid, Fast. iv. 375. 

also an altar to Mamurius, an ancient Sabine divinity, pro- 
bably identical with Mars, and a temple of Salus, or 
Health, which gave a name to the Porta Salutaria, which 
must have stood nearly on the site of the present Quattro 
Fontane, and near which, not inappropriately, was a temple 
of Fever, in the Via S. Vitale, where fever is still prevalent. 

The site of the temple of Quirinus is ascertained to have 
been nearly that now occupied by S. Andrea a Monte 
Cavallo. On the opposite side of the street, where part of 
the papal palace now stands, was the temple of Semo- 
Sanctus, the reputed father of Sabinus. Between these two 
temples was the House of Pomponius Atticus (the friend 
and correspondent of Cicero), a situation which gave an 
opportunity for the witticism of Cicero when he said that 
Caesar would rather dwell with Quirinus than with Salus, 
meaning that he would rather be at war than be in good 

In the same neighbourhood lived INIartial the epigram- 

• " De Caesare vicino scripseram ad te, quia cognoram ex tuis literis, eum (rivva-ov, 
Quirino malo, quam Saluti." Ad Att. xii. 45. 


matist, " on the third floor, in a narrow street," whence he 
had a view as far as the portico of Agrippa, near the Fla- 
minian Way. Below, probably on the site now occupied by 
the Piazza Barberini, was a Circus of Flora. 

" Mater, ades, florum, ludis celebranda jocosis : 
Distuleram partes mense priore tuas. 
Incipis Aprili : transis in tempora ]\Iaii. 

Alter te, fugiens ; cum venit, alter habet. 
Quum tua sint cedantque tibi confinia mensum, 

Convenit in laudes ille vel ille tuas. 
Circus in hunc exit, clamataque palma theatris : 
Hoc quoque cum Circi munere cai'men eat." 

Oz'id, Fast. v. I S3. 

Among the great families who lived on the Quirinal were 
the Cornelii, who had a street of their own, Viais Conie- 
liorum, probably on the slopes behind the present Colonna 
Palace ; and the Flavii, who were of Sabine origin.* Domi- 
tian Avas born here in the house of the Flavii, afterwards con- 
secrated by him as a temple, in which Vespasian, Titus, and 
Domitian himself were buried, and Julia the ugly daughter 
of Titus — well known from her statues in the Vatican. 

As some fragments remain of the two buildings erected 
on the Quirinal during the later empire, Aurelian's Temple of 
the Sun, and the Baths of Constantine, they will be noticed 
in the regular course. 

On the ascent of the hill, just above the Piazza del 
Tritone, is the noble Inirhcriiii Palace, built by Urban VIII. 
from designs of Carlo Madcrno, continued by Borromini, 
and finished by Bernini, in 1640, It is screened from the 

• had a brother named Sabinus ; his son's name recalls that of 'i'itiis 


street by a magnificent railing between columns, erected 
1865 — 67, and if this railing could be continued, and the 
block of houses towards the piazza removed, it would be>far 
the most splendid private palace in Rome. 

This immense building is a memorial of the magnificence 
and ambition of Urban VIII. Its size is enormous, the 
smallest apartment in the palace containing forty rooms. 
The Prince at present inhabits the right wing ; with him 
lives his elder brother the Duke, who abdicated the family 
honours in his favour. In the left wing— occupied in the 
beginning of this century by the ex-king (Charles VII.) and 
queen of Spain, and the " Prince of Peace " — is the huge 
apartment of the late Cardinal Barberini, now uninhabited. 
On this side is the grand staircase, upon which is placed a lion 
in high relief, found on the family property at Palestrina. 
It is before this lion that Canova is said to have lain for 
hours upon the pavement, studying for his tomb of Clement 
XIII. in St. Peter's. 1!\\q gi/arda-roba , badly kept, contains 
many curious relics of family grandeur ; amongst them is a 
sedan-chair, painted by Titian. 

The Library (opoji on Thursdays from nine to two) con- 
tains a most valuable collection of MSB., about 7000 in 
number, brought together by Cardinal Francesco Barberini, 
nephew of Urban VIII. They include collections of 
letters of Galileo, Bembo, and Bellarmine ; the official 
reports to Urban VIII., relating to the state of Catholicism 
in England in the time of Charles I. ; a copy of the Bible 
in the Samaritan character ; a Bible of the fourth century ; 
several MSS. copies of Dante ; a missal illuminated by 
Ghirlandajo; and a book of sketches of ancient Roman 
edifices, of 1465, by Giulianode Sangallo, — most interesting 


to the antiquarian and architect, as preserving the forms 
of many pubUc buildings which have disappeared since that 
date. Among the 50,000 printed books is a Hebrew Bible 
of 1788, one of the twelve known copies of the complete 
edition of Soncino ; a Latin Plato, by Ficino, with marginal 
notes by Tasso and his father Bernardo; a Dante of 1477, 
with notes by Bembo, &c. 

In the right wing is a huge Hall (adorned with second- 
rate statues), with a grand ceiling by Pidro da Cortona 
(1596 — 1669), representing " II Trionfo della Gloria," the 
Forge of Vulcan, Minerva annihilating the Titans, and 
other mythological subjects — much admired by Lanzi, and 
considered by Kugler to be the most important work of 
the artist. Four vast frescoes of the Fathers of the Church 
are preserved here, having been removed from the dome 
of St. Peter's, where they were replaced with mosaics by 
Urban VIII. Below are other frescoes by Pietro da Cortona, 
a portrait of Urban VIII., and some tapestries illustrative of 
the events of his reign and of his own intense self-esteem — 
thus the Virgin and Angels are represented bringing in the 
ornaments of the papacy at his coronation, &c. But the 
conceit of Pope Urban reaches its climax in a room at 
the top of the house, which exhibits a number of the 
Barberini bees (the family crest) flocking against the sun, 
and eclipsing it — to typify the splendour of the family. The 
Will of Pope Urban VIII. is a very curious document, pro- 
viding against the extinction of the family in every apparent 
contingency ; this, however, now seems likely to take place ; 
the heir is a Sciarra. The jjillars in front of the palace, and 
all the surrounding buildings, teem with the bees of the 
Barberini, which may also be seen on the Propaganda and 


many other great Roman edifices, and which are creeping 
up die robe of Urban VIII. in St Peter's. 

" The Barberini were the last papal nephews who aspired to independ- 
ent principalities. Urban VIII., though he enriched them enormously, 
appears to have been but little satisfied with them. He used to com- 
plain that he had four relations who were fit for nothing, the first, Car- 
dinal Francesco, was a saint, and worked no miracles : the second, Car- 
dinal Antonio, was a monk, and had no patience : the third, Cardinal 
Antonio the younger, was an orator {i.e. an ambassador), and did not 
know how to speak : and the fourth was a general, who could not draw 
a sword." — Goethe, Romische Briefe. 

On the right, on entering the palace, is the small Collection 
of Pictures (open when the custode chooses to be there), 
indifferently lodged for a building so magnificent. We may 
notice : — 

2nd Room. — 

34. Urban VIII.: Andrea SaccJii. 

35. A Cardinal : Titian. 

48. Madonna and Child, St. John, and St. Jerome : Francia. 

54. Madonna and Child : Sodoina. 

58. Madonna and Child : Giovanni Bellini. 

63. Daughter of Raphael Mengs : Mengs. 

67. Portrait of himself : Masaccio. 

74. Adam and Eve : Doinenichino. 

T,rd Room. — 

73. The "Schiava:" Palma VeccJdo. 
"The so-called Slave (a totally unmeaning name) is probably a mere 
school picture, of grand beauty, but with too clumsy a style of drapery, 
too cold an expression, and too brown a carnation for Titian — to 
whom it is attributed." — Kngler. 

76. Castel Gandolfo : Claude Lorraine. 

78. Portrait : Bronzino. 

79. Christ among the Doctors— painted in five days, in 1506: 

Albert Durer. 

81. " The mother of Beatrice Cenci " ? Caravaggio. 

82. The Fornarina (^^•ith the painter's name on the armlet) : 



" The history of this person, to whom Raphael was attached even to 
his death, is obscure, nor are we very clear with regard to her likenesses. 
In the tribune at Florence there is a portrait, inscribed with the date 
1512, of a very beautiful woman holding the fur trimming of her mantle 
with her right hand, which is said to represent her. The picture is 
decidedly by Raphael, but can hardly represent the Fornarina ; at least 
it has no resemblance to this portrait, which has the name of Raphael 
on the armlet, and of the authenticity of which (particularly with respect 
to the subject) there can hardly be a doubt. In this the figure is seated, 
and is uncovered to the waist ; she draws a light drapery around her ; a 
shawl is twisted round her head. The execution is beautiful and deli- 
cate, although the lines are sufficiently defined ; the forms are fine and 
not without beauty, but at the same time not free from an expression of 
coarseness and common life. The eyes are large, dark, and full of 
fire, and seem to speak of brighter days. There are repetitions of this 
picture, from the school of Raphael, in Roman galleries." — Kiigle7: 

86. Death of Germanicus : Poussiii. 
88. Seaport: Claude Lorraine. 
90. Holy Family : Andrea del Sarto. 
93. Annunciation : Botticelli. 

But the interest of this collection centres entirely around 
two portraits — that (81) of Lucrezia, the unhappy wife of 
Francesco Cenci, by Scipione Gactimi, and that (85) of 
Beatrice Cenci, by Gnido Rcni. 

''The portrait of Beatrice Cenci is most interesting as a just repre- 
sentation of one of the loveliest specimens of the workmanship of nature. 
There is a fixed and pale composure upon the features ; she seems sad 
and stricken down in spirit, yet the despair thus expressed is lightened 
by the patience of gentleness. Her head is bound with folds of white 
drapery, from which the yellow strings of her golden hair escape, and 
fall about her neck. The moulding of her face is exquisitely delicate ; 
the eyeljrows are distinct and arched ; the lips have that permanent 
meaning of imagination and sensibility which suffering has not repressed, 
and which it seems as if death scarcely could extinguish. Her forehead 
is large and clear ; her eyes, which we are told were remarkable foi 
their vivacity, are swollen with weeping, and lustreless, but beautifully 
tender and serene. In the whole mien there is a simplicity and dignity, 
which, united with her exquisite loveliness and deep sorrow, is inex- 
pressibly pathetic. Beatrice Cenci appears to have been one of those 


persons in wTiom energy and gentleness dwell together without destroy- 
ing one another ; her nature simple and profound. The crimes and 
miseries in which she was an actor and sufferer, are as the mask and the 
mantle in which circumstances clothed her for her impersonation on the 
scene of the world." — Shdleys Preface to the Ceiici. 

"The picture of Beatrice Cenci represents simply a female head ; a 
very youthful, girlish, perfectly beautiful face, enveloped in white dra- 
pery, from beneath which strays a lock or two of what seems a rich, 
though hidden luxuriance of auburn hair. The eyes are large and 
brown, and meet those of the spectator, evidently with a strange, in- 
effectual effort to escape. There is a little redness about the eyes, very 
slightly indicated, so that you would question whether or no the girl 
had been weeping. The whole face is very quiet ; there is no distor- 
tion or disturbance of any single feature ; nor is it easy to see why 
the expression is not cheerful, or why a single touch of the artist's 
pencil should not brighten it into joyousness. But, in fact, it is the very 
saddest picture ever painted or conceived ; it involves an unfathomable 
depth of sorrow, the sense of which comes to the observer by a sort of 
intuition. It is a sorrow that removes this beautiful girl out of the 
sphere of humanity, and sets her in a far-off region, the remoteness of 
which, while yet her face is so close before us,- — makes us shiver as at 
a spectre. You feel all the time you look at Beatrice, as if she were 
trying to escape from your gaze. She knows that her sorrow is so 
strange and immense, that she ought to be solitary for ever both for 
the world's sake and her own ; and this is the reason we feel such a 
distance between Beatrice and ourselves, even when our eyes meet hers. 
It is infinitely heart-breaking to meet her glance, and to know that 
nothing can be done to help or comfort her, neither does she ask help 
or comfort, knowing the hopelessness of her case better than we do. 
She is a fallen angel — fallen and yet sinless : and it is only this depth 
of sorrow with its weight and darkness, that keeps her down to earth, 
and brings her within our view even while it sets her beyond our reach." 
— Hazvthonic, Transforniation. 

" The portrait of Beatrice Cenci is a picture almost impossible to be 
forgotten. Through the transcendent sweetness and beauty of the face, 
there is a something shining out that haunts me. I see it now, as I 
see this paper, or my pen. The head is loosely draped in white ; the 
light hair falling down below the linen folds. She has turned suddenly 
towards you ; and there is an expression in the eyes — although they 
are very tender and gentle — as if the wildness of a momentary terror, or 
distraction, had been struggled with and overcome, that instant ; and 



nothing but a celestial hope, and a beautiful sorrow, and a desolate 
earthly helplessness remained. Some stories say that Guido painted 
it the night before her execution ; some other stories, that he painted 
it from memory, after having seen her on her way to the scaffold. I 
am willing to believe that, as you see her on his canvas, so she turned 
towards him, in the crowd, from the first sight of the axe, and stamped 
upon his mind a look which he has stamped on mine as though I had 
stood beside him in the concourse. The guilty palace of the Cenci : 
blighting a whole quarter of the town, as it stands withering away by 
grains : had that face, to my fancy, in its dismal porch, and at its black 
blind windows, and flitting up and down its dreary stairs, and growing 
out of the darkness of its ghostly galleries. The history is written in 
the painting ; written, in the dying girl's face, by Nature's own hand. 
And oh ! how in that one touch she puts to flight (instead of making 
kin) the puny world that claims to be related to her, in right of poor 
conventional forgeries ! "• — Dickens. 

" Five days had been passed by Beatrice in the secret prisons of the 
Ton-e Savella, when, at an early hour in the morning, her advocate, 
Farinacci, entered her sad abode. With him appeared a young man of 
about twenty-five years of age, dressed in the fashion of a writer in the 
courts of justice of that day. Unheeded by Beatrice, he sat regarding 
her at a little distance with fixed attention. She had risen from her 
miserable pallet, but, unlike the wretched inmate of a dungeon, she 
seemed a being from a brighter sphere. Her eyes were of liquid softness, 
her forehead large and clear, her countenance of angelic purity, mys- 
teriously beautiful. Around her head a fold of white muslin had been 
carelessly wrapped, from whence in rich luxuriance fell her fair and 
waving hair. Profound sorrow imparted an air of touching sensibility 
to her lovely features. With all the eagerness of hope, she begged 
Farinacci to tell her frankly if his visit foreboded good, and assured him 
of her gratitude for the anxiety he evinced, to save her life and that of 
her family. 

" Farinacci conversed with her for some time, while at a distance sat 
his companion, sketching the features of Beatrice. Turning round, she 
observed this with displeasure and surprise; Farinacci explained that 
this seeming writer was the celebrated painter, Guido Reni, who, earn- 
estly desiring her picture, had entreated to be introduced into the 
prison for the purpose of obtaining so rich an acquisition. At first 
unwilling, but afterwards consenting, she turned and said, ' Signer 
Guido, your renown might make me desirous of knowing you, but how 
will you undervalue mc in my present situation. From the fatality 


tliat surrounds me, you will judge me guilty. Perhaps my face will 
tell you I am not wicked ; it will show you, too, that I now languish 
in this prison, which I may quit, only to ascend the scaffold. Your 
great name, and my sad story, may make my portrait interesting, and,' 
she added, with touching simplicity, 'the picture will awaken com- 
passion if you write on one of its angles the word, innoceiite.'' The 
great artist set himself to work, and produced the picture now in the 
Palazzo Barberini, a picture that rivets the attention of every beholder, 
which, once seen, ever after hovers over the memory with an interest the 
most harrowing and mysterious." — From " Beatrice Catci, Sioria del 
Sccolo XVI., Raccontata dal D.A.A., Fireiize." Whiteside's Traiislatioii. 

There is a pretty old-fashioned garden belonging to this 
palace, at one corner of which — overhanging an old statue 
— was the celebrated Barberini Fine, often drawn by artists 
from the Via Sterrata at the back of the garden, where 
statue and pine combined well with the Church of S. Caio j 
but, alas, this magnificent tree was cut down in 1872. 

At the back of the palace-court, behind the arched bridge 
leading to the garden, is — let into the wall — an inscription 
which formed part of the dedication of an arch erected to 
Claudius by the senate and people, in honour of the con- 
quest of Britain. The letters were inlaid with bronze. 
It was found near the Palazzo Sciarra, where the arch is 
supposed to have stood. 

Ascending to the summit of the hill, we find four ugly 
statues of river-gods, lying over the Qiiattro Fontane, from 
which the street takes its name. 

On the left is the Falazzo Albani, recently restored by 
Queen Christina of Spain. 

" In one of its rooms is a very ancient painting of Jupiter and Gany- 
mede, in a very uncommon style, uniting considerable grandeur of 
conception, great force and decision, and a deep tone and colour which 
produce great effect. It is said to«be Grecian." — Eaton's Rome. 

The opposite church, 6'. Carlo a Qua f fro Fontane, is worth 


observing from the fact that the whole building, church and 
convent, corresponds with one of the four piers supporting 
the cupola of St. Peter's. Here was formed the point of 
attack against the Quirinal Palace, November i6, 1848, 
which caused the flight of Pius IX., and the downfall of his 
government. From a window of this convent the shot was 
fired which killed iVlonsignor Palma, one of the pontifical 
secretaries, and a writer on ecclesiastical history — who had 
unfortunately exposed himself at one of the windows oppo- 
site. The church contains two pictures by Mignard re- 
lating to the history of S. Carlo. 

Turning down Via del Quirinale, on the left is S. Andrea 
a Afonte Cavallo (on the supposed site of the temple of 
Quirinus), erected, as it is told by an inscription inside, 
by Camillo Pamphili, nephew of Innocent X., from designs 
of Bernini. It has a Corinthian facade and a projecting 
semicircular portico with Ionic columns. The interior is 
oval. It is exceedingly rich, being almost entirely lined with 
red marble streaked with white (Sicilian jasper), divided by 
white marble pillars supporting a gilt cupola. The high 
altar — supposed to cover the body of St. Zeno — between 
really magnificent pillars, is surmounted by a fine picture, 
by Borgog/iouc, of the crucifixion of St. Andrew. Near this 
is the tomb, by Fcsta, of Emmanuel IV., king of Sardinia, 
who abdicated his throne in 1802, to become a Jesuit 
monk in the adjoining convent, where he died in 18 18. 
On the right is the chapel of Santa Croce, with three pictures 
of the passion and death of Christ by Brandini ; and that 
of St. Francis Xavicr, with three i)ictures by Baciccio, repre- 
senting the .saint preaching, — b^iptizing an Indian queen, — 
and lying dead in the island of Sancian in China. On the 


left is tlie chapel of the Virgin, witli pictures, by David^ of 
the three great Jesuit saints — St. Ignatius Loyola, St. 
Francis Borgia, and St. Luigi Gonzaga — adoring the Virgin, 
and, by Gerard de la Nuit, of the Adoration of the Shep- 
herds and of the Magi ; and lastly the chapel of S. 
Stanislas Kostka, containing his shrine of gold and lapis- 
lazuli, under an exceedingly rich altar, which is adorned 
with a beautiful picture by Carlo Maratta, representing the 
saint receiving the Infant Jesus frpm the arms of his mother. 
At the sides of the chapel are two other pictures by 
Maratta, one of which represents S. Stanislas " bathing 
with water his breast inflamed with divine love," the 
other his receiving the host from the hands of an angel. 
These are the three principal incidents in the story of the 
young S. Stanislas, who belonged to a noble Polish family 
and abandoned the world to shut himself up here, saying, 
" I am not born for the good things of this world ; that 
which my heart desires is the good things of eternity." 

" I have long ago exhausted all my capacity of admiration for splen- 
did interiors of churches ; but methinks this httle, little temple (it is not 
more than fifty or sixty feet across) has a more perfect and gem-like 
beauty than any other. Its shape is oval, with an oval dome, and above 
that another little dome, both of which are magnificently frescoed. 
Around the base of the larger dome is wreathed a flight of angels, and 
the smaller and upper one is encircled by a garland of cherubs — chemb 
and angel all of pure white marble. The oval centre of the church is 
walled round with precious and lustrous marble, of a red-veined variety, 
interspersed with columns and pilasters of white ; and there are arches, 
opening through this rich wall, forming chapels, which the architect 
seems to have striven hard to make even more gorgeous than the main 
body of the church. The pavement is one star of various tinted marble." 
— Hawthorne, A'oies on Italy. 

The adjoining Convent of^ the Noviciate of the Order of 
yesus contains the room in which S. Stanislas Kostka 


died, at the age of eighteen, with his rechning statue by 
Le Gros, the body in white, his dress (that of a novice) in 
black, and the couch upon which he hes in yellow marble. 
Behind his statue is a picture of a celestial vision which 
consoled him in his last moments. On the day of his 
death, November 13, the convent is thrown open, and 
mass is said without ceasing in this chamber, which is 
visited by thousands. 

"La petite chambre de S. Stanislas Kostka, est un de ces lieux ou la 
priere nait spoiitanement dans le coeur, et s'en echappe comma par un 
cours naturel." — Vcuillot, Parfitm de Rome* 

In the convent garden is shown the fountain where " the 
angels used to bathe the breast of S. Stanislas burning with 
the love of Christ." 

Passing the Benedictine convent, with a courtyard con- 
taining an old sarcophagus as a fountain, and a humble 
church decorated with rude frescoes of St. Benedict and 
Sta. Scholastica, we reach a small and popular church, rich 
in marbles, belonging to the Pa-pdna Adoratricc del Divin 
Sacramento del Altatr, founded by sister Maddalena of the 
Incarnation, who died 1829, and is buried on the right of 
the entrance. Here the low monotonous chant of the per- 
petual adoration may be constantly heard. 

The Piazza of the Monte Cavallo has in its centre the red 
granite obelisk (ninety-hve feet high with its base) erected 
here by Antinori in 1781, for Pius VI, It was originally 
brought from Egypt by Claudius, a.d. 57, together with the 
obelisk now in front of Sta. Maria Maggiore, and they were 

* "Deus, qui inter cxtera sapientijE tua: miracula etiam in tenera setatc maturje 
sanctitatis gratiam contulisti ; da, qiia;siimiis, ut beati Staiiislai exemplo, tenipus, 
instantcT opcrando, rcdimcntcs, in n;lcTnawi ingi'cdi requiem fcstincrmis." — Collect of 
Si. S. Kostka, Roman Vcspcr-Book. 


both first placed at the entrance of the mausoleum of 
Augustus. At its base are the colossal statues found in the 
baths of Constantine, of the Dioscuri Castor and Pollux 
reining in their horses. These statues give a name to the 
district. Their bases bear the names of Phidias and Praxi- 
teles, and though their claim to be the work of such distin- 
guished sculptors is doubtful, they are certainly of Greek 
origin. Copies of these statues at Berlin have received 
the nicknames of Gehemmter Fortschritt, and Beforderter 
Riickschritt, — Progress checked and Retrogression en- 

"At the time when the Mirahilia Romcz were published, that is, 
about the thirteenth century, these statues were beheved to represent 
the young philosophers, Praxiteles and Phidias, who came to Rome 
during the reign of Tiberius, and promised to tell him his most secret 
words and actions provided he would honour them with a monument. 
Having pei^formed their promise, they obtained these statues, which 
represent them naked, because all human science was naked and open 
to their eyes. From this fable, wild and absurd as it is, we may never- 
theless draw the inference that the statues had been handed down from 
time immemorial as the works of Phidias and Praxiteles, though those 
artists had in the lapse of ages been metamorphosed into philosophers. 
May we not also assume the existence of a tradition that the statues 
were brought to Rome in the reign of Tiberius ? In the middle ages 
the group appears to have been accompanied by a statue of Medusa, 
sitting at their feet, and having before her a shell. According to the 
text of the Mirabilia, as given by Montfaucon in his Diariiim Italiaim, 
this figure represented the Church. The snakes which surrounded her 
typified the volumes of Scripture, which nobody could approach unless 
he had first been washed — that is, baptized — in the water of the shell. 
But the Prague MS. of the Mu-abilia interprets the female figure to 
represent Science, and the serpents to typify the disputed questions with 
which she is concerned." — Dyer's Hist, of the City of Rome. 

" L'imitation du grand style de Phidias est visible dans plusieurs 
sculptures qu'il a inspirees, et surtout dans les colosses de Castor et 
Pollux, domptant des chevaux, qui ont fait donner a une partie du 
mont Qiiirinal le nom de Aloiite Cavallo. 


" U ne faut faire aucune attention aux inscriptions qui attribuent iin 
des deux colosses a Phidias et I'autre a Praxitele, Praxitele dont le style 
n'a rien a faire ici ; son nom a ete inscrit sur la base de I'une des deux 
statues, comme Phedre le reprochait deja a des faussaires du temps 
d'Auguste, qui croj'aient augmenter le merite d'un nouvel ouvrage en y 
mettant le nom de Praxitele. Quelle que soit I'epoque ou les colosses 
de Monte Cavallo ont ete executes, malgr^ quelques differences, on doit 
affirmer que les deux originaux etaient de la meme ecole, de I'ecole de 
Phidias." — Ampere, Hist. Rotnaine, iii. 252. 

" Chacun des deux heros dompte d'une seule main un cheval fougueux 
qui se cabre. Ces formes colossal es, cette lutte de I'homme avec les 
animaux, donnent, comme tous les ouvrages des anciens, une admirable 
idee de la puissance physique de la nature humaine. " — Mad. de Sta'cl. 

" Ye too, marvellous Twain, that erect on the Monte Cavallo 
Stand by your rearing steeds in the grace of your motionless move- 
Stand with your upstretched arms and tranquil regardant faces, 
Stand as instinct with life in the might of immutable manhood, — • 
O ye mighty and strange, ye ancient divine ones of Hellas." 

A. II. C lough. 

" Before me were the two Monte Cavallo statues, towering gigantically 
above the pygmies of the present day, and looking like Titans in the 
act of threatening heaven. Over my head the stars were just beginning 
to look out, and might have been taken for guardian angels keeping 
watch over the temples below. Behind, and on my left, were palaces ; 
on my right, gardens, and hills beyond, with the orange tints of sunset 
over them still glowing in the distance. Within a stone's throw of 
me, in the midst of objects thus glorious in themselves, and thus in 
harmony with each other, was stuck an unplaned post, on which glim- 
mered a paper lantern. Such is Rome." — Guesses at Truth. 

Close by is a fountain playing into a fine bason of 
Egyptian granite, brought hither by Pius VI I. from the 
Forum, where it had long been used for watering cattle. 

On the left, is the Palace of the Co/isulta, built in 1730 
by Clement XII. (Corsini), from designs of Fuga. Before 
its gates, under the old regime, some of the Papal Guardia 
Nobile were always to be seen sunning themselves in a 


uniform so resplendent that it could scarcely be believed 
that tlie pay of this " noble guard " of the Pope amounted 
only to £^ ds. 2,d, a month ! 

On the right, is the immense Palace of the Qidrinal, which 
also extends along one whole side of the street we have been 

" That palace-building, ruin-destroying pope, Paul IV., began to 
erect the enormous palace on the Quirinal Hill ; and the prolongation 
of his labours, by a long series of successive pontiffs, has made it one of 
the largest and ugliest buildings extant." — Ealon^s Rome. 

The chief, indeed almost the only, interest of this palace arises from 
its having been the favourite residence of Pius VII. (Chiaramonte). It 
was here that he was taken prisoner by the French. General Radet 
forced his way into the pope's room on the night of June 6, 1809, and, 
while excusing himself for being the messenger, hastily intimated to the 
pontiff, in the name of the emperor, that he must at once abdicate his 
temporal sovereignty. Pius absolutely refused, upon which he was forced 
to descend the staircase, and found a coach waiting at the entrance of 
the palace. Here the pope paused, his face streaming with tears, and, 
standing in the starlit piazza, solemnly extended his arms in benediction 
over his sleeping people. Then he entered the carriage, followed by 
Cardinal Pacca, and was hurried away to exile. . . . " Whirled 
away through the heat and dust of an Italian summer's day, without an 
attendant, without linen, without his spectacles — fevered and wearied, 
he never for a moment lost his serenity. Cardinal Pacca tells us, that 
when they had just started on this most dismal of journeys, the pope 
asked him if he had any money. The secretary of state replied that he 
had had no opportunity of providing himself. ' We then drew forth 
our purses,' continues the cardinal, ' and notwithstanding the state of 
affliction we were in at being thus torn away from Rome, and all that 
was dear to us, we could hardly compose our countenances, on finding 
the contents of each purse to consist — of the pope's, of a papetto [lod.), 
and of mine, of three grossi [TYzd.). We had precisely thirty-five 
baiocchi between us. The pope, extending his hand, showed his 
papetto to General Radet, saying, at the same time, ' Look here 
—this is all I possess.' "*.... Six years after, Napoleon 
was sent to St. Helena, and Pius VII. returned in triumph to 
Rome ! 

* Cardinal Wiseman's Life of Pius VII. 

VOL. r. 29 


It was from this same palace that Pius IX. — who has 
never inhabited it since — made his escape to Gaeta during 
the revolution of 1848, when the siege of the Quirinal by 
the insurgents had succeeded in extorting the appointment 
of a democratic ministry 

" On the afternoon of the 24th of November, the Due d'Harcourt 
had arrived at the Quirinal in his coacli as ambassador of France, and 
craved an audience of the sovereign. The guards wondered that he 
stayed so long ; but they knew not that he sat reading the newspapers 
in the papal study, while the pope had retired to his bed-room to change 
his dress. Here his major-domo, Filippani, had laid out the black 
cassock and dress of an ordinary priest. The pontiff took off his purple 
stole and white pontifical robe, and came forth in the simple garb he 
had worn in his quiet youth. The Due d'Harcourt threw himself on his 
knees exclaiming, ' Go forth, holy Father ; divine wisdom inspires this 
counsel, divine power will lead it to a happy end.' By secret passages 
and narrow staircases, Pius IX. and his trusty servant passed imseen to 
a little door, used only occasionally for the Swiss guards, and by which 
they were to leave the palace. They reached it, and bethought them 
that the key had been forgotten ! Filippani hastened back to the papal 
apartment to fetch it ; and returning unquestioned to the wicket, found 
the pontiff on his knees, and quite absorbed in prayer. The wards were 
rusty, and the key turned with difficulty ; but the door was opened at 
last, and the holy fugitive and his servant quickly entered a poor 
hackney coach that was waiting for them outside. Here, again, they 
ran risk of being discovered through the thoughtless adherence to old 
eliqueite of the other servant, who stood by tJie coach, and who, having 
let down the steps, knelt, as usual, before he shut the door. 

"The pope wore a dark great coat over his priest's cassock, a low- 
crowned round hat, and a broad brown woollen neckcloth outside his 
straight Roman collar. Filippani had on his usual loose cloak ; but 
imderthis he carried the three-cornered hat of the pope, a bundle of the 
most private and secret papers, the papal seals, the breviary, the cross- 
embroidered slippers, a small quantity of linen, and a little box full of 
gold medals stamped with the likeness of his Holiness. From the 
inside of the carriage, he directed the coachman to follow many winding 
and diverging streets, in the hope of misleading the spies, who were 
known to swarm at every corner. Beside the Church of SS. Pietro e 
Marcellino, in the deserted quarter beyond the Coliseum, they found 
tlie Bavarian minister, Count Spaur, wailing in his own private car- 


riage, and imagining every danger which could have detained them so 
long. The sovereign pressed the hand of his faithful Filippani, and 
entered the Comit's carriage. Silently they drove on through the old 
gate of Rome, — Count Spaur having there shown the passport of the 
Bavarian minister going to Naples on affairs of state. 

"Meanwhile the Due d'Harcourt grew tired of reading the news- 
papers in the pope's study; and when he thought that his Holiness 
must be far beyond the walls of Rome, he left the palace, and taking 
post-horses, hastened with all speed to overtake the fugitive on the road 
to Civita Vecchia, whither he believed him to be flying. As he left the 
study in the Quirinal, a prelate entered with a large bundle of eccle- 
siastical papers, on which, he said, he had to confer with the pope ; 
then his chamberlain went in to read to him his breviary, and the office 
of the day. The rooms were lighted up, and the supper taken in as 
usual ; and at length it was stated that his Holiness, feeling somewhat 
unwell, had retired to rest ; and his attendants, and the guard of honour, 
were dismissed for the night. It is true that a certain prelate, who 
chanced to see the little door by which the fugitive had escaped into the 
street left open, began to cry out, ' The pope has escaped ! the pope 
has escaped ! ' But Prince Gabrielli was beside him ; and, clapping 
his hand upon the mouth of the alarmist, silenced him in time, by 
whispering, ' Be quiet, Monsignore ; be quiet, or we shall be cut to 
pieces ! ' 

"Near La Riccia, the fugitives found Countess Spaur (who had 
arranged the whole plan of the escape) waiting with a coach and six 
Lurses — in which they pursued their journey to Gaeta, reaching the 
Neapolitan frontier between five and six in the morning. The pope 
throughout carried with him the sacrament in the pyx which Pius the 
Seventh carried when he was taken prisoner to France, and which, as 
if with prescience of what would happen, had been lately sent to him as 
a memorial by the Bishop of Avignon." — Beste. 

It is in the Quirinal Palace that the later conclaves have 
always met for the election of the popes. 

' ' In the afternoon of the last day of the novendiali, as they are called, 
after the death of a pope, the cardinals assemble (at S. Sylvestro a 
Monte Cavallo), and walk in procession, accompanied by their concla- 
visti, a secretary, a chaplain, and a servant or two, to the great gate of 
the royal residence, in which one will remain as master and supreme 
lord. Of course the hill is crowded by persons, lining the avenue kept 
open for the procession. Cardinals never before seen by them, or not 


for many years, pass before them ; eager eyes scan and measure them, 
and try to conjecture, from fancied omens in eye, in figure, or in 
expression, who will be shortly the sovereign of their fair city; and, 
what is much more, the head of the Catholic Church, from the rising to 
the setting sun. They all enter equal over the threshold of that gate : 
they share together the supreme rule, spiritual and temporal : there is 
still embosomed in them all, the voice yet silent, that will soon sound 
from one tongue over all the world, and the dormant germ of that 
authority which will soon again be concentrated in one man alone. To- 
day they are all equal ; perhaps to-morrow one will sit enthroned, and 
all the rest will kiss his feet ; one will be sovereign, and others his sub- 
jects; one the shepherd, and the others his flock. 


" From the Quiiinal Palace stretches out, the length of a whole street, 
an immense wing, divided in its two upper floors into a great number 
of small but complete suites of apartments, occupied permanently, or 
occasionally, by persons attached to the Court. During conclave these 
are allotted, literally so, to the cardinals, each of whom lives apart with 
his own attendants. His food is brought daily from his own house, and 
is overhauled, and delivered to him in the shape of ' broken victuals,' by 
the watchful guardians of the turns and lattices, through which alone ^ 
anything, even conversation, can penetrate into the seclusion of that 
sacred retreat. For a few hours, the first evening, the doors are left open, 
and the nobility, the diplomatic body, and, in fact, all presentable persons, 
may roam from cell to cell, paying a brief compliment to its occupant, 
perhaps speaking the same good wishes to fifty, which they know can 
only be accomplished in one. After that, all is closed ; a wicket is left 
accessible for any cardinal to enter, who is not yet arrived ; but every 
aperture is jealously guarded by faithful janitors, judges and prelates of 
various tribunals, who relieve one another. Every letter even is opened 
and read, that no communications may be held with the outer world. 
Tiie very street on which the wing of the conclave looks is barricaded 
and guarded by a picquet at each end ; and as, fortunately, opposite there 
are no private residences, and all the buildings have access from the 
back, no inconvenience is thereby created. ... In the mean time, 
within, and unseen from without, fei-vet opus. 

" Twice a day the cardinals meet in the chapel belonging to the palace, 
included in the enclosure, and there, on tickets so arranged that the 
voter's name cannot be seen, write the nameof him for whom they give 
their suffrage. These papers are examined in their presence, and if the 
number of votes given to any one do not constitute the majority, they 
arc burnt in such a manner that the smoke, issuing through a flue, is 

quirIaVal palace. 453 

visible to the crowd usually assembled in the square outside. Some day, 
instead of this usual signal to disperse, the sound of pick and hammer is 
heard, a small opening is seen in the wall which had temporarily blocked 
up the great window over the palace gateway. At last the masons of 
the conclave have opened a rude door, through which steps out on the 
balcony the first Cardinal Deacon, and proclaims to the many, or to the 
few, who may happen to be in waiting, that they again possess a sove- 
reig;n and a pontiiT." — Cardinal IViscnian. 

" Sais-tu ce que c'est qu'un conclave ? Une reunion de vieillards, 
moins occupes du ciel que de la terre, et dont quelques-uns se font plus 
maladifs, plus goutteux, etplus cacochymes qu'ilsne le sont encore, dans 
I'esperance d'inspirer un vif interet a leurs partisans. Grand nombre 
d'eminences ne renonfant jamais a la possibilite d'une election, le rival 
le plus pres de la tombe excite toujours le moins de repugnance. Un 
ihumatisme est ici un titre a la confiance ; I'hydropisie a ses partisans : 
car I'ambition et la mort comptent sur les memes chances. Le cercueil 
sert comme de marchepied au trone; et il y a tel pieux candidat qui 
negocierait avec son concurrent, si la duree du nouveau regiie pouvait 
avoir son terme obligatoire comme celui d'un effet de commerce. Eh ! ne 
sais-tu pas toi-meme que le patre d'Ancone briila gaiement ses bequilles 
des qu'il eut ceint la tiare; et que Leon X., elu a trente-huit ans, avait 
eu grand soin de ne guerir d'un mal mortel que le lendemain de son 
couronnement?" — Lorenzo Ganganelli {Clement XLV.) h Carlo Ber- 
tinazzi, Avril 1 6, 1769. 

Under the rule of the Popes the palace was shown from 
12 A.M. to 4 P.M. on presentation of a ticket, which could 
easily be obtained through a banker. It was stripped of all 
historical memorials and contained very few fine pictures, 
so was little worth visiting. Since the winter of 1870 — 71 
the palace has been appropriated as the residence of the 
Sardinian Royal Family. 

On the landing of the principal staircase, in a bad light, ' 
is a very important fresco by Mdozzo da Forli, a rare master 
of the Paduan school.* 

* By this same master is the interesting fresco of Sixtus IV. and his nephews — now 
in the Vatican gallery. 


" On the vaulted ceiling of a chapel in tne Church of the SS. Apostoli 
at Rome, Melozzo executed a work (1472) which, in those times, can 
have admitted of comparison with few. When the chapel was rebuilt 
in the eighteenth century some fragments were saved. That compre- 
hending the Creator between angels was removed to a staircase in the 
Quirinal palace, while single figures of angels were placed in the sacristy 
of St. Peter's. These detached portions suffice to show a beauty and 
fulness of form, and a combination of earthly and spiritual grandeur, 
comparable in their way to the noblest productions of Titian, although 
in mode of execution rather recalling Coreggio. Here, as in the cupola 
frescoes of Coreggio himself, half a century later, we trace that constant 
effort at true perspective of the figure, hardly in character, perhaps, with 
high ecclesiastical art ; the drapery, also, is of a somewhat formless 
description ; but the grandeur of the principal figure, the grace and 
freshness of the little adoring cherubs, and the elevated beauty of the 
angels are expressed with an easy naivete, to which only the best works 
of Mantegna and Signorelli can compare." — Kiigler. 

Passing through a great hall, one hundred and ninety- 
feet long, we are shown a number of rooms fitted up by- 
Pius VII. and Gregory XVI. for the papal summer resi- 
dence. They contain few objects of interest. In one 
chamber is a Last Supper by Baroccio ; — in the next a 
fine tapestry representing the marriage of Louis XIV. 
The following rooms contain some good Gobelin tapes- 

Several apartments have mosaic pavements, brought 
hither from pagan edifices. The chamber is shown in 
which Pius VII. died, — the bed has been changed. In the 
next room — an audience chamber — -he was taken prisoner. 
Here is a curious ancient pietra-dura of the Annunciation, 
— the ceiling is painted by Overbeck. In one of the 
following rooms are some pictures, including — 

S. Giorgio : Pordenone. 

"One picture especially attracted me at the Quirinal; a St. George, 
the conqueror of the dragon, and deliverer of the maiden. No one 


could tell me the name of the master, till a modest little man stepped 
fonvard, and told me the picture was by Pordenone the Venetian, one 
of his best works, showing all his merits. This quite explained my 
liking for it ; the picture had struck me, because being best acquainted 
with the Venetian school, I could best appreciate the meiuts of one of 
its masters." — Goethe, Roinische Briefe. 

Marriage of S. Catherine : Battoni. 

St. Peter and St. Paul : Fra Bartolomeo. 

" The two standing figures of St. Peter and St. Paul, as large as life, 
were executed during a short residence in Rome. The first was com- 
pleted by Raphael after Fra Bartolomeo's departure." — Kiigler. 

The room which is decorated with a fine modern tapestry 
of the martyrdom of St. Stephen, has a plaster frieze, being 
the original cast of the Triumph of Alexander the Great, 
modelled for Napoleon by Thorwaldsen. One of the last 
rooms shown is a kind of picture gallery. Among the best 
works here are : — 

Saul and David : Giiercino, 
Ecce Homo : Doinenkhino. 
St. Jerome : Spagnoletto. 
The Flight into Egypt : Baroccio. 

Here also is a worthless picture of the Battle of INIentana, 
presented to Pius IX. by the English Catholic ladies. 

The Private Chapel of the Pope, opening from this 
gallery, contains a magnificent picture of the Annuncia- 
tion by Giiido, and frescoes of the Hfe of the Virgin by 
Albani. The great hall of the Consistorj^, a bare room 
with benches, has a fresco of the Virgin and Child by Carlo 
Maratfa, over an altar. 

The Gardens of the Qidrinal can be visited with an order 
from 8 to 12 a.m. They are in the stiff style of box hedges 
and clipped avenues, which seems to belong especially 


to Rome, and which we know to have been popular here 
even in imperial times. Pliny, in his account of his Tus- 
culan villa, describes his gardens decorated with "figures 
of different animals, cut in box : evergreens clipped into 
a thousand different shapes ; sometimes into letters form- 
ing different names ; walls and hedges of cut box, and 
trees twisted into a variety of forms." But the Quirinal 
gardens are also worth visiting, on account of the many 
pretty glimpses they afford of St. Peter's and other distant 
buildings, and the oddity of some of the devices — an organ 
played by water, &c. The Casino, built by Fuga, has fres- 
coes by Orizonti, PoDipco Baftoni, and Paji7iini. 

If we turn to the left on issuing from the palace, we 
reach — on the left — the entrance to the courtyard of the vast 
Palazzo Rospigliosi, built by Flaminio Ponzio, in 1603, for 
Cardinal Scipio Borghese, on a portion of the site of the 
Baths of Constantine. It was inhabited by Cardinal Benti- 
voglio, and sold by him to Cardinal Mazarin, who enlarged 
it from designs of Carlo Maderno. From his time to 1704 
it was inhabited by French ambassadors, and it then passed 
to the Rospigliosi family. The present Prince Rospigliosi 
inhabits the second floor, his brother, Prince Pallavicini, 
the first. 

The palace itself (well known from its hospitalities) is not 
shown, but the Casino is open on Wednesdays and Satur- 
days. It is situated at the end of a very small but pretty 
garden planted with magnolias, and consists of three cham- 
bers. On the roof of the central room is the famous Aurora 
of Guide. 

" Guido's Aurora is the very type of haste and impetus ; for surely 
no man ever imagined such hurry and tumult, such sounding and clash- 



ing. Painters maintain that it is lighted from two sides, — they have my 
full permission to light theirs from three if it will improve them, but the 
difference lies elsewhere." — McnddssoJu^ s Letters, p. 91. 

"This is the noblest work of Guido. It is embodied poetry. The 
Hours, that hand in hand encircle the car of Phoebus, advance with 
rapid pace. The paler, milder forms of those gentle sisters who rule 
over declining day, and the glowing glance of those who bask in the 
meridian blaze, resplendent in the hues of heaven, — are of no mortal 
grace and beauty ; but they are eclipsed by Aurora herself, who sails on 
the golden clouds before them, shedding ' showers of shadowing roses ' 
on the rejoicing earth ; her celestial presence diffusing gladness, and 
light, and beauty around. Above the heads of the heavenly coursers, 
hovers the morning star, in the form of a youthful cherub, bearing his 
flaming torch. Nothing is more admirable in this beautiful composition 
than the motion given to the whole. The smooth and rapid step of the 
circling Hours as they tread on the fleecy clouds ; the fiery steeds ; the 
whirling wheels of the car ; the torch of Lucifer, blown back by the 
velocity of his advance ; and the form of Aurora, borne through the 
ambient air, till you almost fear she should float from your sight." — 
Eaton's Rome. 

"The work of Guido is more poetic than that of Guercino, and 
luminous, and soft, and harmonious. Cupid, Aurora, Phoebus, form a 
climax of beauty, and the Hours seem as light as the clouds on which 
they dance." — Forsyth. 

Lanzi points out that Guido always took the Venus de IMedici and 
the Niobe as his favourite models, and that there is scarcely one of his 
large pictures in which the Niobe or one of her sons is not introduced, 
yet with such dexterity, that the theft is scarcely perceptible. 

The frescoes of the frieze are by Te.mpesta ; the land- 
scapes by Paul Brill. In the hall are busts, statues, and 
a bronze horse found in the ruins of the Baths. 

There is a small collection of pictures — the only work 
of real importance being the beautiful Danicle di Volterra 
of our Saviour bearing his cross, in the room on the left. 
In the same room are two large pictures, David triumph- 


ing with the head of GoHath, Domcnichino ; and Perseus 
rescuing Andromeda, Guido. In the room on the right 
are, Adam gathering fig-leaves for Eve, in a Paradise 
which is crowded with animals like a menagerie, Domeni- 
cJiino ; and Samson pulling down the pillars upon the 
Philistines, Liidovico Caracci. 

A second small garden belonging to this palace is well 
worth seeing in May from the wealth of camellias, azaleas, 
and roses, with which it is filled. 

Opposite the Rospigliosi Palace, by ringing at a gate in 
the wall, we gain admission to the Coloniia Gardens (con- 
nected with the palace in the Piazza SS. Apostoli, by a 
series of bridges across the intervening street). Here, on 
a lofty terrace which has a fine view towards the Capitol, and 
overshadowed by grand cypresses, are the colossal remains 
of the Temple of the Sun (huge fragments of cornice) built 
by Aurelian (a.d. 270 — 75). At the other end of the terrace, 
looking down through two barns into a kind of pit, we 
can see some remains of the Baths of Constantme — built 
A.D. 326 — and of the great staircase which led up to them 
from the valley below. The portico of these baths re- 
mained erect till the time of Clement XII. (1730 — 40), and 
was adorned with four marble statues, of which two — those 
of the two Constantines — may now be seen on the terrace 
of the Capitol. 

Beneath the magnificent cypress-trees on the slope of 
the hill are several fine sarcophagi. Only the stem is 
preserved of the grand historical pine-tree, which was 
planted on the day on which Cola di Rienzi died, and 
which was one of the great ornaments of the city till 1848, 
when it was broken in a storm. 


Just beyond the end of the garden, are the great Convent 
and Church of S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo — belonging to 
the Missionaries of St. Vincent de Paul — in which the Car- 
dinals meet before going in procession to the Conclave. 
It contains a few rather good pictures. The cupola of the 
second chapel has frescoes by Domenichino, of David 
dancing before the Ark, — the Queen of Sheba and Solomon, 
— Judith with the head of Holofemes, — and Esther fainting 
before Ahasuerus. These are considered by Lanzi as some 
of the finest frescoes of the master. In the left transept 
is a chapel containing a picture of the Assumption, painted 
on slate, considered the masterpiece of Scipione Gactani. 
The last chapel but one on the left has a ceiling by Cav. 
d'ArJ>ino, and frescoes on the walls by Polidoro da Cara- 
vaggio. The picture over the altar, representing St. 
Dominic and St. Catherine of Siena, is by Mariotto Alberti- 
nellL Cardinal Bentivoglio — who wrote the history of the 
wars in Flanders, and lived in the Rospigliosi Palace— is 
buried here. 

We now reach the height of Maganaopoli, from which 
the isthmus which joined the Quirinal to the Capitoline 
was cut away by Trajan. Here is a cross-ways. On the 
right is a descent to the Forum of Trajan, at the side of 
which is the villa of Cardinal Antonelli, and beyond it, the 
handsome modern palace of Count Trapani, cousin to the 
King of Naples. 

Opposite, is the Church of Sta. Caterina di Siena, pos- 
sessing some frescoes attributed, on doubtful grounds, to 
the rare master Timoteo delta Vite. Adjoining, is a large 
convent, enclosed within the precincts of which is the tall 
brick mediaeval tower, sometimes called the Tower of Nero, 


but generally known as the Torre dclle Milizie, i.e. the 
Roman Militia. It was erected by the sons of Peter Alexius, 
a baron attached to the party of the Senator Pandolfo de 
Suburra. The lower part is said to have been built in 1210, 
the upper in 1294 and 1330. 

"People pass through two regular courses of study at Rome, — the 
first in learning, and the second in unlearning. 

' ' ' This is the tower of Nero, from which he saw the city in flames, — 
and this is the temple of Concord, — and this is the temple of Castor and 
Pollux, — and this is the temple of Vesta, — and these are the baths of 
Paulus-^milius,' — and so on, says your lacquey. 

" ' This is not the tower of Nero, — nor that the temple of Castor and 
Pollux, — nor the other the temple of Concord, — nor are any of these 
things what they are called,' says your antiquary." — Eato/i's Rome. 

The Convent of Sta. Caterina was built by the celebrated 
Vittoria Colonna, who requested the advice of Michael 
Angeio on the subject, and was told that she had better 
make the ancient " Torre " into a belfry, A very curious 
account of the interview in which this subject was dis- 
cussed, and which took place in the Church of S. Silvestro 
a Monte Cavallo, is left us in the memoirs of Francesco 
d'Olanda, a Portuguese painter, who was himself present at 
the conversation. 

Near this point are two other fine mediaeval towers. One 
is to the right of the descent to the Forum of Trajan, being 
that of the Colonnas, now called Tor di Bahcic, ornamented 
with three beautiful fragments of sculptured frieze, one of 
them bearing the device of the Colonna, a crowned column 
rising from a wreath. The other tower, immediately facing 
us, is called Torre del Grillo, from the ancient flmiily of that 


Opposite Sta. Caterina is the handsome Church of SS. 
Domenico e Sisto, approached by a good double twisted 
staircase. Over the second altar on the left is a picture 
of the marriage of St. Catherine by AUcgrani, and, on the 
anniversary of her (visionary) marriage (July 19), the dried 
hand of the saint is exhibited here to the unspeakable 
comfort of the faithful. 

Turning by this church into the Via Maganaopoli 
(formerly Baganaopoli, a corruption of Balnea Pauli— Baths 
of Emilius Paulus), we pass on the left the Palazzo Aldo- 
hrandini, with a bright pleasant-looking court and handsome 
fountain. The present Prince Aldobrandini is brother of 
Prince Borghese. Of this family was S. Pietro Aldo- 
brandini, generally known as S. Pietro Igneo, who was 
canonized because, in 1067, he walked unhurt, crucifix in 
hand, through a burning fiery furnace ten feet long before 
the church door of Settimo, near Florence, to prove an 
accusation of simony Avhich he had brought against Pietro 
di Pavia, bishop of that city. 

In the Via di Mazzarini, in the hollow between the 
Quirinal and Viminal, is the Convent of Sta. Agata in 
Subufra, through the courtyard of which we enter the 
Church of Sta. Agata del Goti. A tradition declares that 
this (like S. Sabba on the Aventine) is on the site of a 
house of Sta. Silvia, mother of St. Gregory the Great, who 
consecrated the church after it had been plundered by the 
Goths, and dedicated it to Sta. Agata. It was rebuilt by 
Ricimer, the king-maker, in a.d. 472. Twelve ancient 
granite columns and a handsome opus-alexandrinum pave- 
ment are its only signs of antiquity. The church now 
belongs to the Irish Seminary. In the left aisle is the 


monument of Daniel O'Connell, with bas-reliefs by Benzoni, 
inscribed : — 

"This monument contains the heart of O'Connell, who dying at 
Genoa on his way to the Eternal City, bequeathed his soul to God, his 
body to Ireland, and his heart to Rome. He is represented at the bar 
of the British House of Commons in MDCCCXXIIL, when he refused 
to take the anti-catholic declaration, in these remarkable words — ' I at 
once reject this declaration ; part of it I believe to be untrue, and the 
rest I know to be false.' He was born vi. Aug. MDCCLXXVI., and 
died XV. May, MDCCCXLVIH. Erected by Charles Bianconi, the 
faithful friend of the immortal liberator, and of Ireland the land of his 

At the end of the left aisle is a chapel, which Cardinal 
Antonelli (who has his palace near this) decorated, 1863, 
with frescoes and arabesques as a burial-place for his 
family. In the opposite chapel is a gilt figure of Sta. Agata 
carrying her breasts — showing the manner in which she 

"Agatha was a maiden of Catania, in Sicily, whither Decius the 
emperor sent Quintianus as governor. He, inflamed by the beauty of 
Agatha, tempted her with rich gifts and promises, but she repulsed 
him with disdain. Then Quintianus ordered her to be bound and 
beaten with rods, and sent two of his slaves to tear her bosom with iron 
shears, and as her blood flowed forth, she said to him, ' O thou cruel 
tyrant ! art thou not ashamed to treat me thus — hast thou not thyself 
been fed at thy mother's breasts ? ' Thus only did she murmur. And 
in the night a venerable man came to her, bearing a vase of ointment, 
and before him walked a youth bearing a torch. It was the holy 
apostle Peter, and the youth was an angel ; but Agatha knew it not, 
though such a glorious light filled the prison, that the guards fled in 
terror. . . . Tiien St. Peter made himself known and ministered to her, 
restoring with heavenly balm her wounded breasts. 

" Quintianus, infuriated, demanded who had healed her. She re- 
plied, ' He whom I confess and adore with heart and lips, he hath sent 
his aposlle who hath healed me.' Then Quintianus caused her to be 
thrown bound upon a great fire, but instantly an earthquake arose, and 
the people in terror cried, ' This visitation is sent because of the suffer- 


ings of the maiden Agatha.' So he caused her to be taken from the 
fire, and carried back to prison, where she prayed aloud that having 
now proved her faith, she might be freed from pain and see the glory of 
God ; — and her prayer was answered and her spirit instantly departed 
into eternal glory, Feb. 5, A.D. 251." — From the ^' Legende dclle SS. 

Agatha (patroness of Catania) is one of the saints 
most reverenced by the Roman people. On the 5 th of 
February her vespers are sung here, which contain the 
antiphons : — 

"Who art thou that art come to heal my wounds? — I am an apostle 
of Christ, doubt not concerning me, my daughter. 

"Medicine for the body have I never used; but I have the Lord 
Jesus Christ, who with his word alone restoreth all things. 

"I render thanks to thee, O Lord Jesus Christ, for that thou hast 
been mindful of me, and hast sent thine apostle to heal my wounds. 

"I bless thee, O Father of my Lord Jesus Christ, because through 
thine apostle thou hast restored my breasts to me. 

" Him who hath vouchsafed to heal me of every wound, and to re- 
store to me my breasts, him do I invoke, even the living God. 

" Blessed Agatha, standing in her prison, stretched forth her hands 
and prayed unto the Lord, saying, ' O Lord Jesus Christ, my good 
master, I thank thee because thou hast given me strength to overcome 
the tortures of the executioners ; and now. Lord, speak the word, that I 
may depart hence to thy glory which fadcth not away." 

The tomb of John Lascaris (a refugee from Con- 
stantinople when taken by the Turks) has — in Greek — the 
inscription : — 

"Lascaris lies here in a foreign grave; but, stranger, that does not 
disturb him, rather does he rejoice ; yet he is not without sorrow, as a 
Grecian, that his fatherland will not bestow upon him the freedom of a 

Passing the great Convent of S. Bernardino Senensis, 
we reach the Via dei Serpenti, interesting as occupying 


the supposed site of the ValHs Quirinalis, where Julius 
Procukis, returning from Alba Longa, encountered the 
ghost of Romulus : 

"Sed Proculus Longa veniebat Julius Alba; 
Lunaque fulgebat ; nee faeis usus erat : 
Cum subito motu nubes erepuere sinistrse : 
Retulit ille gradus, horrueruntque comae. 
Pulcher, et humano major, trabeaque decorus, 
Romulus in media visus adesse via." 

Ovid, Fast. ii. 498. 

Turning to the right down the Via dei Serpenti, we 
reach the Piazza Sta. Maria in Monti, containing a fountain, 
and a church dedicated to SS. Sergius and Bacchus, two 
martyrs who suffered under Maximian at Rasapha in Syria. 

One side of this piazza is occupied by the Church of 
Sfa. Maria in Monti, in which is deposited a figure of the 
beggar Labre (canonized by Pius IX. in i860), dressed in 
the gown of a mendicant-pilgrim, which he wore when 
living. Over the altar is a picture of him in the Coliseum, 
distributing to his fellow-beggars the alms which he had 
obtained. His fete is observed here on April 16. (At 
No. 3 Via dei Serpenti, one may visit the chamber in which 
Labre died — and in the Via dei Crociferi, near the fountain 
of Trevi, a chapel containing many of his relics, — the 
bed on which he died, the crucifix which he wore in his 
bosom, (Sec.) 

"Benott Joscpli I,abrc naquit en 1 748 dans Ic diocese de Boulogne 
(France) de parents chretiens ct jouissant d'une modeste aisance. D'une 
piete vive et tendrc, il voulut d'al:)ord se faire religieux ; mais sa sante 
ne put rcsister, ni aux regies des Chartreux, ni a celles des Trappistes, 
chcz lesquels il cntra successivement. // fiit alors soUicite inth-icure- 
vimt, est il dit dans la notice sur sa vie, de inciicr une vie de phiitence et 
de charite an milieu du siccle. Pendant sept annees, il parcourut en 


pelerin-mendiant, les sanctuaires de la Vierge les plus veneres de toute 
I'Europe ; on a calcule qu'il fit, a pied, plus de cinq mille lieucs, pen- 
dant ces sept annees. 

"En 1777, il revint en Italic, pour ne plus en sortir. II habitait 
Rome, faisant seulement une fois chaque annee, le pelerinage de Lorete. 
II passait une grande partie de ses journees dans les eglises, mendiait, 
et faisait des ceuvres de charite. II couchait quelquefois sous le portique 
des eglises, et le plus souvent au Colysee derriere la petite chapelle de 
la cinquieme station du chemin de la croix. L'eglise qu'il frequentait le 
plus, etait celle de Ste. Marie des Monts; le 16 Avril, 1783, apres y 
avoir prie fort longtemps, en sortant, il tomba, comme evanoui, sur 
les marches du peristyle de l'eglise. On le transporta dans une maison 
voisine, ou il mourut le soir." — Une AmiSe a Rome. 

Almost opposite this church, a narrow alley, which ap- 
pears to be a cul-de-sac ending in a picture of the 
Crucifixion, is in reality the approach to the carefully 
concealed Convent of the Farjiesiani JVwis, generally known 
as the Sepolte Vive. The only means of communicating 
Avith them is by rapping on a barrel which projects from 
a wall on a platform above the roofs of the houses, — when 
a muffled voice is heard from the interior, — and if your 
references are satisfactory, the barrel turns round and 
eventually discloses a key by which the initiated can admit 
themselves to a small chamber in the interior of the 
convent. Over its door is an inscription, bidding those 
Avho enter that chamber to leave all worldly thoughts behind 
them. Round the walls are inscribed, — ■" Qui non diligit, 
manet in morti." — " Militia est vita hominis super terram." 
— " Alter alterius onera portate " ; and, on the other side, 
opposite the door, 

"Vi esorto a rimirar 
La vita del mondo 
Nella guisa che la mira 
Un moribondo." 


In one of the walls is an opening with a double grille, be- 
yond which is a metal plate, pierced with holes like the rose 
of a watering-pot. It is beyond this grille and behind this 
plate, that the abbess of the Sepolte Vive receives her 
visitors, but she is even then veiled from head to foot in 
heavy folds of thick bure. Gregory XVI., who of course 
could penetrate within the convent and who wished to try 
her, said, " Sorella mia, levate il velo." " No, mio padre," 
she replied, " E vietato dalla nostra regola." 

The nuns of the Sepolte Vive are never seen again after 
they once assume the black veil, though they are allowed 
double the ordinary noviciate. They never hear anything 
of the outer world, even of the deaths of their nearest 
relations. Daily, they are said to dig their own graves 
and lie down in them, and their remaining hours are occu- 
pied in perpetual and monotonous adoration of the Blessed 

Returning as far as the Via Pane e Perna (a continuation 
of the Via Maganaopoli) we ascend the slope of the Viininal 
Hill, now with difficulty to be distinguished from the 
Quirinal. It derives its name from vhniiia, osiers, and was 
once probably covered with woods, since a temple of Syl- 
vanus or Pan was one of several which adorned its principal 
street — the Vicus Longus— the site of which is now marked 
by the countrified lane called Via S. Vitale. This end 
of the hill is crowned by the Church of S. Lorenzo Pane e 
Perna, built on the site of tlie martyrdom of the deacon St. 
Laurence, who suffered under Claudius II., in a.d. 264, for 
refusing tf^ give up the goods of the Church. Over the 
altar is a huge fresco, representing the saint extended upon 
a red-hot gridiron, and below — entered from the exterior of 


the church — a crypt is shown as the scene of his cruel 

"Blessed Laurentius, as he lay stretched and burning on the gridiron, 
said to the impious tyrant, ' The meat is done, make haste hitlier and 
eat. As for the treasures of the Church which you seek, the hands 
of the poor have carried them to a heavenly treasury.' " — Aiitiphon of 
St. Laurence. 

The funeral of St. Bridget of Sweden took place in this 
church, July 1373, but after resting here for a year, her 
body was removed by her son to the monastery of Wastein 
in Sweden. 

Under the second altar on the right are shown the relics 
of St. Crispin and St Crispinian, " two holy brothers, who 
departed from Rome with St. Denis to preach the Gospel in 
France, where, after the example of St. Paul, they laboured 
with their hands, being by trade shoemakers. And these 
good saints made shoes for the poor without fee or reward 
(for which the angels supplied them with leather), until, 
denounced as Christians, they suffered martjTdom at Sois- 
sons, being, after many tortures, beheaded by the sword 
(a.d. 300)." t The festival of St. Crispin and St. Crispinian 
is held on October 25, the anniversary of the battle of 

"And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by, 
From this day to the ending of the world, 
But we in it shall be remembered." 

Shakespeare, Hemy V. 

Throughout the middle ages the statues of Posidippua 
and INIenander, now in the gallery of statues at the Vatican, 

• The body of this saint is said to repose at S. Lorenzo fuori Mura ; his head is at 
the Quirinal ; at S. Lorenzo in Luciiia his gridiron and chains are shown, 
t Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art. 


were kissed and worshipped in this church under the im- 
pression that they represented saints (see Ch. XV.). They 
were found on this site, which was once occupied by the 
baths of Olympias, daughter-in-law of Constantine. 

The strange name of the church, Pane e Pema, is sup- 
posed to have had its origin in a dole of bread and ham 
once given at the door of the adjacent convent. In the 
garden belonging to the convent is a mediaeval house of 
c. 1 200. The campanile is of 1450. 

The small neighbouring Church of S. Lorenzo in Fonte 
covers the site of the prison of St. Lawrence, and a foun- 
tain is shown there as that in which he baptized Vicus 
Pati-icius and his daughter Lucilla, whom he miraculously 
raised from the dead. 

Descending the hill below the church — in the valley 
between the Esquiline and Viminal — we reach at the corner 
of the street a spot of preeminent historical interest, as that 
where Servius Tullius was killed, and where TuUia (b.c. 535) 
drove in her chariot over the dead body of her father. The 
Vicus Urbius by which the old king had reached the spot 
is now represented by the Via Urbana ; the Vicus Cyprius, 
by which he was about to ascend to the palace on the hill 
Cispius, by the Via di Sta. Maria Maggiore. 

•' Sei-vius-Tullius, aprcs avoir piis Ic chcmin laccourci qui paitait du 
pied de la Vclia et allait du cote des Carines, atteiynit le Vicus-Cyprius 
(Via Urbana). 

" Parvenu a Fextrcmite du Vicus-Cyprius, le roi fut atteint et assas- 
sine par les gens de Tarquin auprcs d'un temple de Diane. 

"C'est arrives en cet endroit, au moment de tourner a droite et de 
gagner, en remontant le Vicus-Virbius, le Cispius, ou habitait son pere, 
que les chevaux s'arretcrent ; que Tullie, poussee par rimpatience 
ficvrcuse de I'ambition, et n'ayant plus que quelques pas h. faire pour 


arriver an terme, avertie par le cocher que le cadavrc dc son pcre etait 
la gisant, s'ecria : ' Eh bien, pousse le char en avant.' 

" I.e meurtre s'est accompli au pied du Viminal, a I'extremite du 
Vicus-Cyprius, la ou fut depuis le Vicus-Sceleratus, la rue Funeste. 

" Le lieu oil la tradition placait cette tragique aventure ne peut etre sur 
I'Esquilin : mais necessairement au pied de cette colline et du Viminal, 
puisque, parvenu a I'extremite du Vicus-Cyprius, le cocher allait tourner 
a droite et remonter pour gravir I'Esquilin. II ne faut done pas chercher, 
comme Nibby, la rue Scelerate sur une des pentes, ou, comme Canina et 
M. Dyer, sur le sommet de I'Esquilin, d'oii Ton ne pouvait monter sur 

"Tullie n'allait pas sur I'Oppius (San-Pietro in Vincoli), dans la 
aemeure de son mari, mais sur le Cispius, dans la demeure de son pere. 
C'etait de la demeure royale qu'elle allait prendre possession pour le 
Tiouveau roi. 


"Je n'oublierai jamais le soir oil, apres avoir longtemps cherche le 
lieu qui vit la mort de Servius et le crime de Tullie, tout-a-coup je 
decouvris clairement que j'y etais arrive, et m'arretant plein d'horreur, 
comme le cocher de la parricide, plongeant dans 1' ombre un regard qui, 
malgre nioi, y cherchait le cadavre du vieux roi, je me dis : ' C'etait la ! ' " 

Ampere, Hist. Rom. ii. 153. 

Turning to the left, at the foot of the Esquihne, we find 
the interesting CJiurch of Sta. Fudeiiziana, supposed to be 
the most ancient of all the Roman churches (" omnium 
ecclesiarum urbis vetustissima"). Cardinal Wiseman, who 
took his title from this church, considers it was the prin- 
cipal place of worship in Rome after apostolic times, being 
founded on the site of the house where St. Paul lodged, 
A.D. 41 to 50, with the senator Pudens, whose family- 
were his first converts, and who is said to have himself 
suffered martyrdom under Nero. On this ancient place of 
worship an oratory was engrafted by Pius I. {c. a.d. 145), in 
memory of the younger daughter of Pudens, Pudenziana, 
perhaps at the request of her sister Prassede, who is believed 
to have survived till that time. In very early times two 


small churches existed here, known as " Titulus Pudentis " 
and " Titulus Pastoris," the latter in memory of a brother 
of Pius I. 

The church, which has been successively altered by 
Adrian I. in the eighth century, by Gregory VII., and by 
Innocent II., was finally modernised by Cardinal Caetani 
in 1597. Little remains of ancient external work except the 
graceful brick campanile {c. 1130) with triple arcades of 
open arches on every side separated by bands of terra-cotta 
moulding, — and the door adorned with low reliefs of the 
Lamb bearing a cross, and of Sta. Prassede and Sta. Puden- 
ziana with the vases in which they collected the blood of 
the martyrs, and two other figures, probably St. Pudens and 
St. Pastor. 

The chapel on the left of the tribune, which is regarded 
as the " Titulus Pudentis," has an old mosaic pavement, said 
to have belonged to the house of Pudens. Here is a bas- 
relief by Giacomo della Porta, representing our Saviour 
delivering the keys to St. Peter ; and here is preserved part 
of the altar at which St. Peter is said to have celebrated 
mass (the rest is at the Lateran), and which was used by all 
the early popes till the time of Sylvester. Among early 
Christian inscriptions let into the walls, is one to a Cornelia, 
of the family of the Pudenziani, with a rude portrait. 

Opening from the left aisle is the chapel of the Caetani 
family, with tombs of the seventeenth century. Over the 
altar is a bas-relief of the Adoration of the Magi, by Paolo 
Olivieri. On each side are fine columns of Lunachella 
marble. Over the entrance from the nave are ancient 
mosaics, — of the Evangelists and of Sta. Pudenziana collect- 
ing the blood 'of the martyrs. Peneath, is a gloomy and 


neglected vault, in which all the sarcophagi and coffins of 
the dead Caetani are shown by torchlight. 

In the tribune are magnificent mosaics, ascribed by some 
to the eighth, by others to the fourth century, and con- 
sidered by De Rossi,* as the best of all ancient Christian 

" In conception and treatment this work is indeed classic : seated 
on a rich throne in the centre, is the Saviour with one arm extended, 
and in the other hand holding a book open at the words, Consa-oator 
EcclesicB Fudentiancz ; laterally stand SS., Praxedis and Pudentiana with 
leafy crowns in their hands ; and at a lower level, but more in front, 
SS. Peter and Paul with eight other male figures, all in the amply- 
flowing costume of ancient Romans ; while in the background are seen, 
beyond a portico with arcades, various stately buildings, one a rotunda, 
another a parallelogram with a gable-headed front, recognizable as a 
baptistery and basilica, here, we may believe, in authentic copy from 
the earliest types of the period of the first Christian emperors. Above 
the group, and hovering in the air, a large cross, studded with gems, 
surmounts the head of our Saviour, between the four symbols of the 
Evangelists, of which one has been entirely, and another in the greater 
part, sacrificed to some wretched accessories in woodwork actually 
allowed to conceal portions of this most interesting mosaic ! As to 
expression, a severe solemnity is that prevailing, especially in the prin- 
cipal head, which alone is crowned with the nimbus — one among other 
proofs, if but negative, of its high antiquity." — Hemans' Ancient Chris- 
tian Art. 

Besides Sta. Pudenziana and St. Pudens, — St. Novatus and 
St. Siricius are said to be buried here. Those who visit this 
sanctuary every day obtain an indulgence of 3000 years, with 
remission of a third part of their sins ! Excavations made 
by INIr. J. H. Parker, in 1865, have laid bare some interest- 
ing constructions beneath the church, — supposed to be those 
of the house of Pudens — a part of the public baths of 
Novatus, the son of Pudens, which were in use for some 

* Roma Christiana. 

472 n^ALKS IN ROME. 

centuries after his time, and a chamber in which is supposed 
to have been the oratory dedicated by Pius I. in a.d. 145. 

" Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and 
all the brethren." — 2 Timothy iv. 21. 

The following account of the family of Pudens is received 
as the legacy of Pastor to the Christian Church. 

' ' Pudens went to his Saviour, leaving his daughters strengthened 
with chastity, and learned in all the divine law. These sold their goods, 
and distributed the produce to the poor, and persevered strictly in the 
love of Christ, guarding intact the flower of their virginity, and only 
. seeking for glory in vigils, fastings, and prayer. They desired to have a 
baptistery in their house, to which the blessed Pius not only consented, 
but with his own hand drew the plan of the fountain. Then calling in 
their slaves, both from town and country, the two virgins gave liberty 
to those who were Christians, and urged belief in the faith upon those 
who had not yet received it. By the advice of the blessed Pius, the 
affranchisement was declared, with all the ancient usages, in the oratory 
founded by Pudens ; then, at the festival of Easter, ninety-six neophytes 
were baptized ; so that thenceforth assemblies were constantly held in 
the said oratory, which night and day resounded with hymns of praise. 
Many pagans gladly came thither to find the faith and receive baptism. 

"Meanwhile the Emperor Antonine, being informed of what was 
taking place, issued an edict commanding all Christians to dwell apart 
in their own houses, without mixing with the rest of the people, and 
that they should neither go to the public shops, nor to the baths. 
Praxedis and Pudentiana then assembled those whom they had led to the 
faith, and housed them. They nourished them for many days, watching • 
and praying. The blessed bishop Pius himself frequently visited us with 
joy, and offered the sacrifice for us to the Saviour. 

"Then Pudentiana went to God. Her sister and I wrapped her in 
perfumes and kept her concealed in the oratory. Then, at the end of 
twenty-eight days, we carried her to the cemetery of Priscilla, and laid 
her near her father Pudens. 

" Eleven months after, Novatus died in his turn. He bequeathed his 
goods to Praxedis, and she then begged of St. Pius to erect a titular (a 
cliurch) in the baths of Novatus, which were no longer used, and where 
there was a large and spacious liall. The bishop made the dedication in 
the name of the blessed virgin Praxedis. In the same place he conse- 
crated a baptistery. 


"Bat, at tlie end of two years, a great persecution was declared 
against the Cliristiaus, and many of them received the crown of martyr- 
dom. Praxedis concealed a great number of them in her oratory, and 
nourished them at once with the food of this world and with the word of 
God. But the Emperor Antonine, having learnt that these meetings took 
place in the oratory of Priscilla, caused it to be searched, and many 
Christians were taken, especially the priest Simetrius and twenty-two 
others. And the blessed Praxedis collected their bodies by night, and 
buried them in the cemetery of Priscilla, on the seventh day of the calends 
of June. Then the virgin of the Saviour, worn out with sorrow, only 
asked for death. Her tears and her prayers reached to heaven, and fifty- 
four days after her brethren had suffered, she passed to God. And I, 
Pastor, the priest, have buried her body near that of her father Pudens." 
— From the iVarration of Pastor. 

Returning by the main line of streets to the Quattro 
Fontane, we skirt on the right the wall of the Villa Negroni 
(see Ch. XL). Beyond this, on the left, is the Church of S. 
Paolo Frii/io Erciiiita. The strange-looking palm-tree over 
the door, with a raven perched upon it and two lions be- 
low, commemorates the story of the saint, who, retiring to 
the desert at the age of 22, lived there till he was 112, 
eating nothing but the dates of his tree for twenty-two years, 
after which bread was daily brought to him by a raven. 
In his last hours St. Anthony came to visit him and was 
present at his burial, when two lions his companions came 
to dig his grave. The sustaining palm-tree and the three 
animals who loved S. Paolo are again represented over the 
altar. Further on the left, we pass the Via S. Vitale, occupy- 
ing the site of the Vicus Longus, considered by Dyer to have 
been the longest street in the ancient city. Here stood the 
temples of Sylvanus, and of Fever, with that of Pudicitia 
Plebeia, founded c. B.C. 297, by Virginia the patrician, wife 
of Volumnius, when excluded from the patrician temple of 
Pudicitia in the Forum Boarium, on account of her plebeian 
VOL. I. , 31 


marriage. " At its altar none but plebeian matrons of un- 
impeachable chastity, and who had been married to only 
one husband, were allowed to sacrifice." *" 

The Church of S. Vitalc on the Viminal, which now 
stands here, was founded by Innocent I, in a.d. 416. The 
interior is covered with frescoes of martyrdoms. It is 
seldom open except early on Sunday mornings. S. Vitale, 
father of S. Gervasius and S. Protasius, was the martyr and 
patron saint of Ravenna who was buried alive under Nero. 

Beyond this, on the left of the Via delle Quattro Fontane, 
is the Church of S. Dionisio, belonging to the Basilian 
nuns, called Apostoline di S. Basilio. It contains an Ecce 
Homo of Luca Giordano., and the gaudy shrine of the virgin 
martyr Sta. Coraola. 

* Dyer, p. 94. 





Academy for French Art-students, i. 

49 ; costume described, 55 ; of St. 

Luke, 59, 167 
Accademia, annual entertainment in 

honour of Tasso at, ii. 437 
^sculapius, temple of, ii. 364 
Agger of Ser\^ius TuUius, remains of, 

ii. 38 
Agnese, St., martyrdom of, ii. 193, 

Agrippa, baths ot, ii. 211 
Alban Hills, i. 368, 373 
Albani, Fra, i. 6g, 141, 267, 268, 455 ; 

ii- 443 
Alberteschi family, Castle of the, ii. 

Albertinelli, Mariotto, i. 459 
Aldobrandini family, burial-place of, 

ii. 214 
Alexis, St., legend of, i. 362 
Algardi, ii. 167, 265 
Allegrani, i. 461 

Almo, the, i. 373, 375, 413 ; ii. 408 
Altieri family, burial-place of, ii. 216 
Alunno, Niccolo, ii. 357 
Amici, ii. 260 
Ammanati, i. 72 ; ii. 450 
Amphitheatrum Castrense, ii. 131 
Angelico, Fra, ii. 216, 324, 348, 444 
Angelo, St., Castle of, i. 37 ; view of, 
43 ; its original use, 227 ; its archi- 
tecture, 228 ; its history, as a fort- 
ress, 229 — 232 ; alterations in it, 
caused by popes, 232 ; interior, 
233 ; prisons, 234 ; sculptures, 234 ; 
passage intended for the escape of 
popes to the Castle, 234 ; Ponte, 
ii. 225, 226 

Anicii, Castle built by the family of 

the, ii. 362 
Anio, river, ii. 31 ; Castle of Rustica 

on banks of, 135 
Antemnae, site of, ii. 420 
Antinous, the, most beautiful statue 

in the world, ii. 308 
Antiquities, shops at which to buy, i. 
29 ; in Kircherian Museum, 88 ; in 
Palazzo Torlonia, 104 ; in Museum 
of Guidi, 379 ; principal receptacle 
in Rome for, ii. 114 ; in Palazzo 
Vidoni, 185 ; collection of, in the 
Vatican, 300 ; chair used at the in- 
stallation of mediEeval popes, 316 ; 
in the Vatican library, 324 ; in the 
Egyptian Museum, 333 
Apollo, Temple of, i. 296 ; ii. 134 

Belvedere, ii. 311 
Appia, Via, i. 372 ; beginning of 

beauty of, 424 
Aqua Acetosa, ii. 420 

Alexandrina, ii. 133 
Argentina, used by Castor and 

Pollux, i. 229 
Bollicnnte, ii. 133 
Claudia, ii. 113 
Felice, ii. 124 
Marcia, remains of, ii. 95 
Aqueduct, Claudian, ii. 125. 
Arches — 

of Ancient Basilica, ii. 405 
of Aqua Claudia, ii. 123 
TArco deir Annunziata, ii. 380 
Arco di S. Lazzaro, ii. 393 
Arco Oscuro, ii. 420 
Arco dei Pantani, i. 165 
of Cloaca Maxima, i. 229 
of Constantine, i. 206, 319, 375 
of Doljibelia, i. 330 



Arches — con tin t/ed. 

of Drusus, i. 376, 387 

of Gallienus, ii. 71 

of Janus, i. 229 

of Septiniius Severus, i. 170, 173 ; 

miniature, 232 
three gigantic, i. 184 
of Tiberius, i. 173 
in Palace of Tiberius, i. 291 
of Titus, i. 2QO 

Architecture, Museum of antiqui- 
ties of, i. 122, 170, 311 ; decadence 
of, 232 ; primitive ecclesiastical, 
343 ; specimens of pagan, 405 ; 
of street, ii. 63 ; of tenth centur}', 
remains of, in the Lateran, 102 ; 
relics of, 104 ; of St. Peter's, 244 ; 
of the interior of Sistine Chapel, 
288 ; remnants of mediaeval, 379 ; 
remains of ancient, in cloister of 
Basilica, 405 

Arnolphus, ii. 373 

Arpino, Cav. d', i. 267, 459 ; ii. 43, 
88 ; tomb of, 105 ; works of, 119, 
252, 381 

Art, Museum of, i. 39 ; specimen of, 
of the Middle Ages, 193 ; de- 
cadence of, 232 ; influence of By- 
zantine upon Roman, 341 ; earliest 
instance of the Transfiguration 
treated in, 380 ; catacomb, 402 ; 
encouragement of, by Herodes, 
414 ; criticisms, showing the differ- 
ence of French and English taste 
in, ii. 43 ; remains of ancient pic- 
torial, 53 ; relics of, 212 ; finest 
specimen in Rome of ancient pic- 
torial, 326 

Artists, studios of, i. 30 ; lists of sub- 
jects for, 34 ; frescoes by modern 
German, 54 ; models for, 56 ; view 
familiar to, ii. 62; casino decorated 
by modern German, 122 ; pic- 
turesque subjects for, 124, 134 ; 
Festa degli Artiste, 135; points in 
Sta. Maria in Trastevcre interesting 
to, 387 

Ar.x, i. 115 

Atticus, Ilcrodcs, romantic story of, 
i. 414, 415 

Augustine, St., place of departure 
from Rome of, i. 319 

Augustus, Palace of, i. 279 ; Cryjito- 
Porticus, 281 ; Tablinum, 285 ; 
Lararium, 285 ; Peristyle, 285 ; 
'I'riclinium, 286 ; Nympha;um, 

287 ; Bibliotheca, Theatre, Sacri- 
ficial Altar, 2S8 

Aurehan, Wall of, i. 385 ; Temple of 
the Sun, 436 ; favourite residence 
of, ii. 12 

Ave-Maria bell, i. 44, 57 

Aventine, the, i. 348 ; origin of name, 
and story of, 349 ; temples on, 
351 — 353 ; reason of decline of its 
popularity, 354 ; best approach to, 
355 ; Jewish burial-ground, 355 ; 
Convent and Church of Sta. Sa- 
bina, 356 ; Church and Convent of 
S. Alessio, 362; view of St. Peter's 
from, 365 ; legend of Cacus, 366 ; 
Church of S. Sabba, 369 


Babuino, the, i. 36 

Baciccio, i. 444 ; ii. 213, 379, 443 

Badalocchi, i. 323 

Baglioni, ii. 41 

Balconies, in Corso, i. 61 ; of house 
of Lucrezia Borgia, ii. 62 ; in 
vestibule of the Torso, 307 

Bambino, II Santissimo, story of, i. 

Bandinelli, Baccio, ii. 219 
Baptistery of the Lateran, ii. 96 
Barberini, Piazza, i. 436 ; Palazzo, 
436 ; library, 437 ; bees of the, 
438, ii. 262 ; collection of pictures, 
i. 439; pine, celebrated, 443 ; Car- 
dinal, ii. 9 ; casino of the, 12 ; 
castle, 34 ; garden, 45 ; tomb of 
Urban VIII., 261 
Barcaccia, the, i. 57 
Barigione, Filippo, ii. 266 
Baroccio [Barocci], i. 70, 97, 454, 
455 ; ii. 167, 214, 221, 335, 358, 

442, 443 
Bartolomeo, Fra, i. 68, 82, 140, 455 ; 

ii. 442 
Basaiti, i. 94 
Basilicas {p(J,^<T') — 

of yEmilius Paulus, i. 181 
Constantine, remains of, i. 184 ; 

ii. 80 
Julia, i. 175 
Palace of the Caesars, in the, i. 

Porcia, i. 182 
Sessorian, ii. 131 
Basilicas [Christiau) 

St' Agnese fuori le Mura, ii. 26 



Basilicas [Christian) — continued. 

S. Alessandro, ii. 32 

Sta. Croce, ii. 128 

Eudoxian, ii. 54 

St. John Lateran, ii. 98 

S. Lorenzo, ii. 136 

Sta. Maria Maggiore, ii. 81 

Original building on site of St. 
Peter's, story of the, ii. 242 

S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 402 

S. Sebastiano, i. 416 

S. Stefano, ii. 124 
Bassano, Giac, i. 70 ; ii. 201 
Baths — 

of Agrippa, only remaining frag- 
ment, ii. 211 

of Caracalla, i. 376 

of Constantine, i. 436 

of Diocletian, ii. 36, 38 

discoveries amongst ruins of, i. 

enervating influence of, i. 377 
of Nero, ii. 202 
ofTitus, ii. 52 
Battoni, i, 456 ; ii. 41 
Befana, festival of the, ii. 202 
Bellini, Giov. , i. 71, 94, 140, 141, 439 
Behidere, view from, i. 50 
Benedict, St., house inhabited by, ii. 

Benvenuti, Gio. Batt., i. 96 
Benzoni, i. 225 
Berghem, i. 72 ; ii. 442 
Bernini, i. 41, 57, 76, 78, 98, 137, 
139; ii. 14, 43, 69, 75, 89, 103, 
157, 196, 206, 211, 238, 246, 251, 
252, 257, 261, 264, 2S3, 298, 379, 
Bianchi, P., ii. 41 
Bivium, i. 390 
Bocca della Verita, in Sta. Maria in 

Cosmedin, i. 233 
Bologna, Pellegrino da, ii. 200 
Bonifazio, i. 71, 99; ii. 348 
Borghese, Camillo, tomb of, ii. 87 
Cervaletto, property of the, ii. 87 
Chapel, legend commemorated 
in, ii. 81 ; picture attributed to 
St, Luke in, 85 
Inscriptions, in possession of the 

family, i. 414 
Palazzo, i. 65 
Piazza, i. 66 
Picture Gallery, i. 66-^ 
Princess, funeral of, ii. 88 ' 
Villa, unhealthiness of, i. 21 ; 

Borghese — continued. 

entrance and gardens of, ii. 

411, 412 ; casino in, 413 
Borgia, burial-place of family, ii. q3 
Cassar, ii. 325 
Lucrezia, ii. 62 
Rodrigo, Pope Alexander VL, 

grave of, ii. 170 ; empty tomb 

of, 269 ; representations of the 

life of, 325 
Borgo, the, or Leonine City, ii. 23 ^ 
Borgognone, i. 444 
Borromeo, S. Carlo, ii. 63 
Borromini, ii. 99, 175, 17B 
Boschetto, the, i. 50 
Both, ii. 442 
Botticelli Sandro, i. 67, 99, 140, 440; 

ii. 287 
Bracci, Pietro, ii. 259 
Bramante, ii. 244, 284, 298, 308 
Brandini, i. 444 
Brescia, Moretto da, ii. 358 
Bresciano, Prospero, ii. 42 
Breughel, i. 96 
Brill, Paul, i. 457 ; ii. 41, 298 
Bronzes, i. 29 ; in Kircherian Mu- 
seum, 88 
Bronzino, i. 67, 69, 83, 96, 97, 99, 

439 ; ii- 444. 445 
Burial-ground, New, Prati del Popolo 

Romano, ii. 397 
Burial-place of Sta. Domitilla, i. 41 1 


Ccesars, Palace of the, i. 250 ; found- 
ation of, 274 ; its ruins, 275 ; ex- 
cavations and discoveries in, 276, 

Caff^i Nuovo, i. 72 
Cagnacci, Guido, i. 167 
Caius Gracchus, spot where he was 

killed, ii. 377 
Calendar, Paschal, ii. 118 ; New, in- 
vented in reign of Gregory XIII., 

Caligula, Palace of, i. 292 ; bridge 

of, 299 ; obelisk brought to Rome 

by, ii. 238 ; circus of, 283 
Camassei, ii. 96 
Cambiaso, Luc, i. 71 
Cameos, i. 29 
Camosci, Pietra, ii. 62 
Campagna, i. 43, 51 ; view of, 378 ; 

ruins of tombs in, 424 ; infection 

by malaria of, 403, 408 



Campaniles of — 

Sta. Cecilia, ii. 372 

S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, i. 

S. Lorenzo in Lucina, i. 73 
S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna, i. 468 
Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, i. 234 
Sta. Maria in Monticelli, ii. 182 
S. Sisto, i. 382 
Campo, Militare, ii. 34 ; di Fiore, 

the scene of Autos da Fd, 176 
Campus Esquilinus, ii. 36 
Campus Martins, situation, extent, 
and origin of, ii. 148 — 150 ; earliest 
buildings of, 150 — 155 ; remains of 
buildings of, 155 ; its interest and 
condition, 155 
Camuccini, ii. iig, 407 
Canaletti, ii. 442 
Canova, i. loi ; ii. 251, 266, 308, 

347. 415 
Cantharus, specimen of a Roman 

vase, ii. 372 
Capena, Porta, site of, i. 373 ; his- 
torical interest of, 432 
Capitol, the, i. 36 ; story of the Hill, 
109 ; temples on, iii — 115 ; Piazza 
del Campidoglio, 119 ; Tower of, 
121 ; Tabularium, 122 ; Museo 
Capitolino, 122 ; Galleiy of Sculp- 
ture, 125 ; Picture-Gallery, 140 ; 
Tarpeian Rock, 143 ; Church of 
Ara-Cosli, 144 — 152 ; Mamertine 
Prisons, 153 
Cappuccini, Piazza, ii. 7; Cemetery, 10 
Caravaggio, i. 83, 140, 141, 439, 459; 

ii. 120, 121, 201, 345, 356, 442 
Carinse, ii. 47 
Caritas Romana, i. 241 
Carracci, Agostino, i. 83, 100 
Carracci, Ann., i. 41, 69, 95 — 97, 99, 
139. 324. 325 ; i'- 174 ; tomb of, 
in the Pantheon, 210 ; paintings 

by. 379. 436 

Carracci, Lud., i. 141, 458 ; ii. 442 — 


Casale dci Pazzi, ii. 32 

Casino — 

in Villa Albani, ii. 17 

in Villa Borghcse, ii. 413 

del Pajja, ii. 335 

of Papa Giulio, ii. 418 

in Quirinal Palace, i. 456 

in I'alazzo Rospigliosi, i. 456 

of .Sculpture, ii. 14 

Castel (jiul)clco, ii. 425 

Castelli, licrnardo, ii. 221 

Castles of — 

St. Angelo, i. 37, 43 ; ii. 227 — 

the Alberteschi family, ii. 368 
the Anicii family, ii. 368 
the Anquillara, ii. 379 
Crescenza, ii. 423 
Rustica, ii. 135 
Catacombs — ■ 

ad Nymphas, ii. 33 
of St' Agnese, ii. 29 
of Calepodius, ii. 453 
of St. Calixtus, origin and cha- 
racter of, i. 390—399 ; paint- 
ings in, 401 — 405 
of Sta. Ciriaca, destruction of, ii. 

142, 145 
of S. Felicitas, ii. 20 
of SS. Gianutus and Basilla, ii. 

of St. Hippolytus, ii. 147 
Jewish, i. 407 

of SS. Xereo ed Achilleo, i. 408 
of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, ii. 133 
of St. Pretextatus, i. 405 
of S. Ponziano, ii. 453 
of Sta. Priscilla, graves of mar- 
tyrs in, ii. 20 — 2,^ 
of the Santi Quattro, ii. 125 
of S. Sebastiano, i. 417 
of St. Valentin, ii. 418 
Cathedra Petri, in St. Peter's, ii. 261 
Catherine, St., of Siena, life of, ii. 217 
CavaUini, Pietro, ii. 246, 256, 384, 

386, 406 
Cavaluccio, ii. 63 

Cecilia, Sta., account of, ii. 371 ; re- 
lics and tomb of, 373 ; house of, 
375 ; Festa of, 375 
Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, painting 

of, ii. 288 — 292 
Cemeteries — 

oldest Christian, i. 409 

ruins of early Christian, ii. 29 

of S. l^orenzo, ii. 144 

old Protestant, graves of Keats 

and Hare in, ii. 395, 396 
of S. Zeno, site of, ii. 399 
Cenci, tragedies in the family of the, 
i. 260 — 267 ; portraits of Lucrezia 
and Beatrice, 440 ; grave of Bea- 
trice, ii. 450 
Centocelloe, ii. 133 
Chapels — 

of .Sant' Agnese, ii. 195 
of St. Andrew, i. 325; in honour 
of St. Andrew's head, ii. 421 



Chapels — continued. 
in Ara-Cceli, i. 148 
of St. Barbara, i. 326 
in Baths of Titus, ii. 53 
Borghese, ii. 85 
of Caetani family, i. 470 
Cappella Borgia, ii. 98 
of 6. Carlo Boiromeo, ii. 6g 
in Catacomb of S. Agnese, ii. 30 
Corsini, ii. 103 
of S. Cosimato, ii. 388 
of Santa Croce, i. 444 ; ii. 89 
of S. Filippo Neri, ii. 166 
of Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 196 
of S. Giovanni in Oleo, i. 384 
of Sta. Helena, ii. 130 
of the Holy Sacrament, ii. 89 
of St. John the Baptist, ii. 96 
of St. John the Evangelist, ii. 96 
of San Luigi Gonzaga, i. 86 
in which St. Luke wrote, i. 89 
of the Madonna di Strada Cupa, 

ii- 38s 
of Sta. Maria degli Angeli, ii. 41 
of Sta. Maria in Campitelli, i. 269 
of Sta. Maria in Cappella, ii. 370 
of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, ii. 

213 — 221 
in Sta. Maria del Popolo, i. 39 — 

of Sta. Martina, i. 189 
Orto del Paradiso, ii. 66 
in Palazzo Altemps, ii. 160 
of the Passion, i. 343 
commemorating the parting of 

St. Peter and St. Paul, ii. 398 
of the Patrizi family, ii. 88 
containing St. Peter's chains, ii. 61 
of S. Pietro in Montorio, ii. 449 
of the Popes, i. 395 
of the Presepio, i. 149 
Private, of the Pope, i. 455 
Protestant, i. 37 
of the Rosary, i. 358 
Salviati, i. 324 
series of small, remains of ancient 

basilica, ii. 405 ; in modem 

basilica, 407 
Sistine, i. 58 

of S. Stanislas Kostka, i. 445 
Subterranean, i. 188 
of S. Sylvestro, i. 341 
of the Virgin, i. 445 
In St. Peter's — 
Baptistery, ii. 267 
del Canonici, ii. 276 
Cappella Clementine, ii. 264 

Chapels — continued. 

Cappella della Colonna, ii. 263 
Capella della Colonna Santa, ii. 

del Coro, ii. 265 
of the Madonna, ii. 259 
Sta. Maria in Portico, Sta. Maria 

delle Partoriente, and Cappella 

del Salvatore, ii. 268 
Pieta of Michael Angelo, ii. 256 
della Presentazione, ii. 266 
of the Santissimo Sacramento, 

ii. 258 
In the Vatican — 
Cappella di San Lorenzo, ii. 346 
Pauline, ii. 285 
■ of St. I'ius v., ii. 324 
Sistine, ii. 286 
Chapter House, of Convent of S. 

Sisto, i. 382 ; of Lateran, ii. 99 
Chigi, Agostini, great art patron in 

the reign of Leo X., ii. 446 
Churches of — 

S. Adriano, i. 190 

Sta. Agata dei Goti, i. 461 

St' Agnese, ii. 193 

St' Agnese fuori le Mura, ii. 26 

S. Agostino, ii. 157 

S. Alessio, i. 362 

Sta. Anastasia, i. 224 

S. Andrea a Monte Cavallo, i. 444 

S. Andrea delle Fratte, i. 75 

S. Andrea della Valle, ii. 184 

St. Andrew, ii. 421 

S. Angelo in Pescheria, i. 248 

S. Antonio Abbate, ii. 78 

S. Apollinare, ii. 159 

SS. Apostoli, i. 100 

Ara-Cceli, i. 117, 144 

Sta. Balbina, i. 370 

S. Bartolomeo, ii. 363 

S. Benedetto a Piscinuola, ii. 368 

S. Bernardo, ii. 39, 45 

Sta. Bibiana, ii. 74 

Sta. Brigitta, ii. 173 

S. Buenaventura, i. 204 

S. Caio, i. 443 ; ii. 45 

S. Calisto, ii. 387 

S. Cappuccini, ii. 7 

La Caravita, i. 85 

S. Carlo a Catinari, ii. 183 

S. Carlo in Corso, National 

Church of the Lombards, i. 64 
S. Carlo a Quattro Fontane, i. 43 
Sta. Catcrina de' Funari, i. 268 , 
Sta Caterina di Siena, i. 459 ; ii. 




Churches of — contimted. 
Sta. Cecilia, ii. 370 
San Celso in Banchi, ii. 224 
S. Cesareo, i. 382 
S. Claudio, i. 76 4^ 

S. Clemente, i. 342 ; ii. gf 
S. Cosimato, ii. 388 
SS. Cosmo e Damiano, i. 183, 

Sta. Costanza, ii. 28 
S. Crisogono, ii. 381 
S. Crispino al Ponte, ii. 369 
Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme, i. 
54 ; Ji- 127 

I Crociferi, i. 81 

SS. Domenico e Sisto, i. 461 
S. Dionisio, i. 474 
Domine Quo Vadis, i. 389 
Sta. Dorotea, ii. 388 
Enghsh and American, ii. 410 
S. Eusebio, ii. 77 
S. Eustachio, ii. 203 
S. Francesco di Paola, ii. 62 
a Ripa, ii. 379 
Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 195 
Gesu e Maria, i. 61 
S. Giacomo degli Incurabili, i. 61 
S. Giacomo Scossa Cavalli, ii. 

S. Giorgio in Velabro, i. 231 
S. Giovanni Decollate, i. 239 
S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, Na- 
tional Church of the Tuscans, 
ii. 225 
S. Giovanni alia Lungara, ii. 439 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, i. 321, 327 
S. Giovanni della Pigna, ii. 209 
S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, i. 

S. Girolamo della Carita, ii. 172 
S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, i. 60 
S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, i. 157 
Gothic, of the Caetani, i. 424 
Greek, i. 54 
S. Gregorio, i. 319, 322 
important to sight-seers, i. 32 
S. Ignazio, i. 85 

II Gcsii, i. 106 
S. Isidore, ii. 11 

S. Ivo of Brittany, ii. 155 
SS. Lorenzo e Damaso, ii. 178 
S. Lorenzo in Fonte, i. 468 
in Lucina, i. 73 
fuori le Mura, ii. 136 
Pane e Pcrna, i. 466 
S. Luigi dei Francesi, ii. 200 
S. Marccllo, i. 87 

Churches o{— continued. 
S. Marco, i. 105 
Sta. Maria degli Angeli, ii. 40 
dell' Anima, ii. 160 
in Aquiro, i. 79 
Aventina, i. 365 
in CampiteUi, i. 269 
in Cappella, ii. 370 
della Concezione, ii. 7 
in Cosmedin, i. 232 
in Domenico, i. 332 
delle Fornaci, ii. 456 
Liberatrice, i. 190 
di Loreto, i. 162 
Maggiore, i. 54 
sopra Minerva, ii. 212 
di Monserrato, ii. 170 
in Montecelli, ii. 182 
in Monti, i. 464 
del Orto, ii. 378 
della Pace, ii. 163 
della Pieti in Campo Santo, 

ii. 278 
del Popolo, i. 39 
Scala Ccfili, ii. 399 
Traspontina, ii. 236 
in Trastevere, ii. 382 
in Trivia, i. 81 
in Valicella, ii. 166 
in Via Lata, i. 89 
di Vienna, i. 162 
della Vittoria, ii. 43 
Sta. Marta, ii. 278 
Sta. Martina, i. 188 
S. Martino al Monte, ii. 63 
S. Michaele in Sassia, ii. 280 
SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, i. 379 
S. Nicolo in Carcere, i. 240 

in Tolentino, ii. 12 
S. Onofrio, ii. 434 
S. Onofrio in Campagna, ii. 428 
deir Orazione, ii. 175 
S. Pancrazio, ii. 452 
S. Pantaieone, ii. 188 
S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 403 
Primo Eremita, i. 473 
allc Tro Fontane, ii. 401 
the Porpetua Adoratrice del Di- 
vin Sacramento del Altare, i. 
S. Pietro in Carcere, ii 153 
SS. Pietro c Marcellino, ii. 122 
S. Pietro in Montorio, ii. 449 

in Vmcoli, ii. 54 
Sta. Prassede, ii. 65 
Sta. Prisca, i. 367 
Sta. Prudcnziana, i, 469 



Churches of — contimtcd. 

SS. Quattro Incoronati, i. 340 

SS. Rocco e Martino, i. 60 

S. Sabba, i. 369 

Sta. Sabina, i. 356 

S. Salvatore in Lauro, ii. 224 

S. Salvatore in Torrione, ii. 280 

II Santissimo Redentore, ii. 71 

S. Sebastiano, i. 203 

S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo, i. 

S. Sisto, 1. 381 
S. Stefano, ii. 278 
S. Stefano Rotondo, i. 333 
Sta. Susanna, ii. 44 
on the site of Sylla's tomb, i. 37 
S. Sylvestro in Capite, i. 74 
S. Teodoro, i. 223 
Sta. Teresa, ii. 45 
S. Tommaso dei Cenci, i. 260 
S. Tommaso degh Inglesi, ii. 170 
the Triniti de' Monti, i. 52 
Triniti dei Pellegrini, ii. 181 
S. Urbano, i. 413 
SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, ii. 400 
S. Vitale, i. 474 
S. Vito, ii. 71 

Ciampelli, Agostino, ii. 75 

Cicero, House of, i, 301 ; place of 
reception on return from banish- 
ment, 375 

Cignani, ii. 445 

Cigoli, i. 69 ; ii. 88, 225 

Cimeterio dei Tedeschi, oldest Chris- 
tian burial-ground, ii. 278 

Circus of — 

Caligula, ii. 283 
Flaminius, site of, i. 268 
Maxentius, i. 422 
Nero, ii. 283 

Claude, i. 40 

Clement, St., Church of, i. 342 ; 
house of, 347 ; e.xile of, 347 

Clivus Capitolinus, i. 170, 172 
Martis, i. 388 
Victoria;, i. 292 

Cloaca Ma.xima, celebrated drain, i. 

Cloisters — 

of the Convent, ii. 165 
of the Monastery, ii. 105, 144 
of the twelfth century, ii. 405 
Villino, Casino of Papa Giulio, 
ii. 418 

Clovis, G., Tomb of, ii. 56 

Club, French Military, i. -j-j 

Ccelian Hill, its e.xtent, and origin of 

name, i. 3r6 ; Parco di San Gre- 
gorio, 319 ; world-famous inscrip- 
tions, 319 ; Church of St. Gregory, 
322 ; Church of SS. Giovanni e 
Paolo, 329 ; the Navicella, 330 ; S. 
Stefano Rotondo, 333 ; frescoes re- 
cording martyrdoms, 334 ; SS. 
Quattro Incoronati, 340 ; S. Cle- 
mente, 342 
Coliseum, building of, i. 207, 20S ; 
architect unknown, dedication, 209 ; 
gladiatorial combats in arena of, 

210 ; death of Christian martyrs in, 

211 ; its size, grandeur, and ex- 
tensive view, 215 ; history of its 
destruction and present preserv^a- 
tion, 217, 218 ; ecclesiastical le- 
gends connected with it, 219 ; 
origin of name, 220 

Collatia, ruins of the, ii. 135 

Colle, Raffaello da, ii. 337, 339, 340 

College for English missionaries, ii. 

CoUegio di Propaganda Fede, object 

of, i. 58 
CoUegio Romano, i. 87 
Colonna, Agnese Gaetani, funeral urn 
of ii. 273 
Gardens, i. 458 
Lorenzo, murder of, ii. 224 
Oddone, tomb of, ii. 100 
Palazzo, i. 98 ; Picture Gal- 
lery in, 99 
Piazza, i. 77 

Princess, tomb of, ii. 213 
Vittoria, death of ii. 387 
Colonnades, of St. Peter's, ii. 238 
Columbaria, i. 385, 386, 390 

of the Arruntia family, ii. 77 
of the Freedmen of Octavia, i. 385 
Columna Lactaria, i. 242 
Columns — • 

Colonna delle Virgine, ii. 80 
Corinthian, si.xteen, from Ha- 
drian's Villa, ii. 317 
Corinthian, si.\teen, of the Pan- 
theon, ii. 206 
Corinthian, twenty-four marble, 

i- 357 ; ii- 63 
Ionic, in S. Lorenzo, ii. 141 
Ionic, of Temple of Saturn, i. 173 
Ionic, tvventy-two ancient, ii. 334 
marble, twelve ancient, i. 233 
in front of Palazzo di Spagna, i. 

from Palestrina, twenty ancient, 
ii. 319 



Columns — contitiued. 

Pavonazzetto, ii. 118 

of Phocas, i. 179 

in Piazza Colonna, i. 77 

relics, to which Peter and Paul 

were bound, ii. 236 
relic, to which our Saviour is 

reputed to have been bound, 

ii. 63 
of Temple of Castor and Pollux, 

i- 175 
of Temple of Minerva, i. 165 
of Temple of Vespasian, i. 171 
in Theatre of Marcellus, i. 244 
of Trajan, i. 160 
Connell, Daniel O', monument of, i. 

Constantine, statue of, i. 118 ; ba- 
silica of, 184 ; arch of, 206 ; fres- 
coes representing the conversion of, 
341 ; baths of, 458 ; last remaining 
column of basilica of, ii. 80 ; fres- 
coes of legendary history of, 99 ; 
erection of a basilica on the site of 
St. Peter's, by, 242 ; Cimeterio dei 
Tedeschi, set apart by, 278 ; Saxe 
Rubra, site of decisive victory by, 

Contadmo, i. 386 
Conte, Giacomo del, ii. 200 
Conti, extinction of the family of the, 

ii- 54 
Convents of — 

Sta. Agate in Suburra, i. 461 

S. Alessio, i. 362 

Ara-Coili, i. 153 

Augustine, temporary residence 

of Luther, i. 42 
S. Bartolomeo, ii. 363 
S. Bernardo, ii. 45 
the Buon Pastore, ii. 439 
S. Buonaventura, i. 204 
Camaldolcse monks, i. 326 
Carthusian, ii. 42 
Sta. Caterina, i. 460 
Sta. Cecilia, ii. 370 
Cloister of the, ii. 165 

the Minerva, ii. 122 
S. Eusebio, ii. 'j'j 
Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 198 
S. Francesco a Ripa, ii. 379 
tlie Gcsii, i. 107 
Group of, ii. 65 
Maronitcs monks, ii. 62 
Monachc Polacche, ii. 72 
the Noviciate of the order of 

Jesus, i. 445 

Convents of — co7itinued. 
S. Onofrio, ii. 435 
the Oratorians, ii. 166 
S. Pancrazio, ii. 452 
S. Paolo, ii. 387 
S. Pietro in Vincoli, ii. 53 
Poor Clares, ii. 388 
the Pregatrici, ii. 12 
Sta. Sabina, i. 355 
Sacre Coeur, i. 53 
Santi Quattro Incoronati, i. 340, 

Sepolte Vive, of the Famesiani 

nuns, i. 465 
S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo, i. 

S. Sisto, i. 381 

S. Tommaso in Formis, i. 331 
Tor de' Specchi, i. 270 
Ursuline, i. 64 
Visitandine nuns, i. 304 
Coppi, Jacopo, ii. 56 
Cordieri, Niccolo, i. 325, 326 ; ii. 99, 

Cordonnata, La, i. 118 
Cornacchini, ii. 246 
Correggio, i. 68, 96 ; ii. 359 
Corsini, Palazzo, the residence of 

distinguished personages, ii. 439 
Corso, the, i. 36, 58, 60, 105 ; ii. 222 
Cortile del Belvidere, ii. 308 

S. Damaso, 337, 347, 359 
Cortona, Pietro da, i. 69, 188, 268, 
438 ; li. 8, 75, 163, 166, 167, 183, 
196, 224, 258 
Cosmati, Deodatus, ii. 113 
Giovanni, ii. 216 
Costanzi, P., ii. 41, '"261 
Cranach, Lucas, i. 72, 82 
Credi, Lorenzo di, i. 67 
Crivelli, Carlo, i. 67, 105 ; ii. 120, 348 
Cross, formed by cannon reversed, 
ii. 78 ; in form of Corsini Chapel 
Crypts — 

of S. Alessio, i. 364 

in catacomb of St. Pretextatus, 

i. 405 
only remains of the basilica on 

the site of St. Peter's, ii. 243 
of St. Peter's, ii. 267 
CryjHo-Porticus, i. 281 
Cubiculum of Sta. Cecilia, i. 397 

of Pope St. Eusebius, i.398 
Cybele, Temple of, i. 294 ; Sacred 
vStone, 294; place of washing of 
tlie statue of, ii. 408 




Dalmatica di Papa San Leone, in 
Treasury of St. Peter's, ii. 276 

Damasus, Pope St., inscriptions of, 
i. 396, 407, 418 

David, i. 445 

Diana, Temple of, i. 353 

Diavolo, Casa del, ii. 124 

Diocletian, Baths of, ii. 36, 38 

Doctors in Rome, i. 28 

Dolce, Carlo, i. 69 ; ii. 443 

Domenichino, i. 69, 140, 203, 267, 
268, 325, 439, 455, 458, 459 ; ii. 8, 
IS- 41. 43. 57. 61, 120, 174, 183, 
200, 349, 384, 385, 435, 444 

Dominic, St., Convent of, i. 355 ; 
orange-tree of, 356 ; vision of, 358 ; 
legends of, 359, 360 ; first residence 
of, 381 ; Divine mission of, 382 ; 
place of first meeting with St. 
Francis, ii. 105 

Domitian, Palace of, i. 312 ; tyran- 
nical vagaries of, 312 ; murder of, 
313 ; martyrs under, 334 

Doria, Palazzo, i. 93 ; Picture-Gallery 
in, 93 — 98 ; memorial of Princess, 

Dorotea, Sta., legend of, ii. 390 
Drawing, materials, shops for, i. 29 ; 

list of subjects for, for artists, 34 ; 

best months for, in Rome, 35 
Dossi Dossi, i. 68 
Durante, Alberti, ii. 167 
Diirer, Albert, works of, i. 72, 84, 

439 : ii- 443 

Easter benediction, ceremony of the, 
ii. 240, 241 

Egeria, Fountain of, i. 375 ; Grotto 
and grove of, 413 

Emelingk, i. 97 

Esquiline Hill, derivation of name, 
situation of, ii. 46 ; Cispius, and 
Oppius, 47 ; Carina;, 47, 49 ; Sub- 
urra, 49 ; Tigellum Sororis, 49 ; 
residences of poets on the, 50 ; 
Septimius, 51 ; Nero's Golden 
House, 52 ; S. Pietro in Vincoli, 
54; S. Martino al Monte, 63 ; Sta. 
Prassede, 65 ; Arch of Gallienus, 
71 ; residence of Madre Makrena, 
73 ; Sta. Bibiana, 74 ; Temple of 
Minerva Medica, 77 ; S. Antonio 

Abbate, 78 ; Sta. Maria Maggiore, 
81 — 92 ; Obelisk, 93 
Eustace, St., legend of the conversion 
of, ii. 204 

Fabii, site of the destruction of the, 
ii. 424 

Fabris, de, ii. 246, 257, 436 

Faenza, Marco da, ii. 337 

Farnese, Palazzo, paintings and fres- 
coes of, ii. 174 ; Palazzetto, 178 

Faustulus and the Sacred Figtree, 
Hut of, legend of, i. 288 

Ferrari, Gaudenzio, i. 82 

Ferrata, Ercole, ii. 194, 261 

Festa, i. 444 

Festa degh Artisti, ii. 135 

Flamingo, Arrigo, ii. 40, 287 

Fiesole, Fra Angelico da, ii. 348 

Mino da, ii. 221, 273, 3S4 

Filarete, Antonio, ii. 100 

Filomena, Sta., popular saint, ii. 22 

Fiori, Mario di, ii. 442 

Fontana, ii. 89, 93, 96, 114, 238, 257, 

Fontana Paolina, ii. 451 
Footprint of our Saviour, i. 3S9, 417 
Forums — • 

of Augustus, i. 164 
Boarium, i. 227 
of Nerva, i. 165 

Romanum, origin and formation 
of, i. 168, 169 ; historical sites 
and remains of, 170 — 185 ; 
modern name of, 185 
of Trajan, origin and construc- 
tion of, i. 159, 160 
Fountains — 
antique, 388 

in Carthusian Convent, ii. 41 
of Egeria, i. 375 
Lacus Orphei, ii. 51 
near Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, i. 

of the Mascherone, ii. 175 
of Palazzo Aldobrandini, i. 461 
in Palace of the Senator, i. 120 
in Piazza Navona, ii. 196 
in Piazza Pia, ii. 236 
in Piazza delle Tartarughe, i. 267 
of the Ponte Sisto, ii. 391 
attributed to the prayers of Peter 

and Paul in prison, i. 156 
of the Termini, ii. 42 
of Trevi, i. 79 



Fracassini, ii. 141, 345 

Francia, Francesco, i. d'j, 68, 82, 94, 
96, 140, 439 ; ii. 348 

Francis, St., relics of, ii. 379 ; cele- 
bration of Christmas by, 380 

Frangipani family, castle of the, i. 
217 ; fortress of the, ii. 62 

Frescoes, i. 39, 53, 54, 86, 99, 137, 
139, 149, 153, 203, 231, 268, 270, 
276, 286, 292, 325, 326, 329, 334, 
341, 342, 343, 346, 382, 384, 412, 
438, 446, 453, 455, 456, 457, 459, 
462, 466, 474 ; ii. 8, 15, 19, 26, 30, 
43. 44. 53. 56, 62, 63, 65, 68, 75, 
78, 88, 96, 99, 100, 104, III, 118, 
124, 128, 138, 141, 158, 160, 163, 
183, 200, 204, 215, 220, 232, 276, 
285, 286, 313, 324, 326, 337, 340 — 
346, 374, 384, 388, 400, 407, 416, 
423, 426, 435, 436, 446, 452 

Friezes, i. 139, 165, 172, 201, 257, 
259. 332, 358. 379. 384. 422, 424, 
455. 457. 460 ; n. 98, 99, 104, 137, 
224. 372. 383. 448 

Fuga, ii. 439 

Funeral, Roman, ii. 145 

Furino, i. 69 


Gaetani, Scipione, i. 440, 459 ; ii. 

102, 166, 323 
Gagliardi, ii. 224 
Galiardi, ii. 407 
Galileo, place of trial of, ii. 222 
Galleria — 

degli Arazzi, ii. 321 

dei Candelabri, ii. 320 

Lapidaria, ii. 300 

dalle Statue, ii. 313, 315 
Gallery. .See Picture. 
Garbo, Raffaelino del, ii. 215 
Gardens — 

of Adonis, i. 203 

of Barberini Palace, i. 443 

Botanic, ii. 439 

Colonna, i. 458 

containing Columbaria, i. 386 

Government, i. 379 

Hill of, i. 38 

on the Janiculan, ii. 445 

Monastery, i. 329 

of tlic Pincio, i. 46 

Priorato, i. 365 

of the Quirinal, i. 455 

of .Scrvilia, i. 353 

of Sta. Silvia, i. 324 

Gardens — continued. 
of Sallust, ii. 12 
of Villa Medici, i. 49 
of Villa Wolkonski, ii. 123 

Garofalo, i. 67, 68, 82, 95, 96, 140 ; 
ii. 444 

Genga, Girolamo, ii. 224 

Germale, the, i. 279 

Gesii Narazeno, miracle-working pic- 
ture, ii, 182 

Ghetto, the, i. 250 ; first used as place 
of captivity, 252 ; limits of, re- 
moved, 254 ; population and mor- 
tality of, 255 ; merchandise in, 
256 ; division of parishes, 256 ; 
chief synagogue, 257 ; sketch of 
life in, 257 ; burial-ground for, 355 

Giacometti, ii. no 

Giardino della Pigna, ii. 305, 333 ; 
relics preserved in, 333 ; celebrated 
Pigna, 334 

Gimignano, ii. 96 

Giordano, Luca, i. 269, 474 ; ii. /\\\ 

Giorgione, i. 70, 96, 97, 100 ; ii. 444, 

Giotto, ii. 104, 215, 246, 277, 324 
Giovanni di San Giovanni, i. 341 
Gobelin tapestries, i. 454 
Gozzoli, Benozzi, ii. 120, 213, 348 
Gr^costasis, i. 171 
Grandi.'Ercole, ii. 444 
Gregory, St., legend of, i. 322 ; 

Church of, 322 ; monastic cell of, 

324 ; statue of, 326 ; family to 

which he belonged, 363 
Gros, Le, i. 86, 446 
Grottoes of Cerbara, ii. 135 
Guercino, i. 69, 83, 94, 95, 140, 141, 

267, 455 ; ii. 15, 43, 57, 157, 168, 

348, 355. 356, 442, 444 
Guidi, antiquity vendor, i. 379 
Guido, i. 140, 167, 325, 455, 456 ; ii. 

7, 43, 62, 88, 103, 166, 174, 181, 

183, 200, 359, 374, 443 



in Barberini Palace, i. 438 
discovered in ruins of Baths of 

Caracalla, i. 377 
of Busts, in the Vatican, ii. 315 
in Casino of Villa Borgliese, ii. 

of the Conservators, i. 137 
of the Dying Gladiator, 1. 133 
of the Emperors, i. 126 



Halls — continued. 

of the Faun, i. 133 
of Illustrious Men, i. 131 
in Library of Vatican, ii. 323 
Heads of Lions, on bank of Traste- 

vere, i. 239 
Heintius, ii. 454 
Hermitage, i. 330 
Holbein, i. 72 ; ii. 443, 444 
Horti Lamiana, ii. 76 
Hospitals — 

for aged women, i. 64 
Foundling, ii. 237 
Sta. Galla, i. 239 
S. Gallicano, ii. 3S2 
German, ii. 161 

of S. Giovanni Calabita, ii. 365 
for incurable diseases, ii. 370 
S. Michaele, ii. 376 
for receiving and nourishing Pil- 
grims, ii. 181 
of San Rocco, i. 60 
of Santo Spirito, ii. 237 
Surgical, i. 61 
for Women, ii. 95 
Hotels, i. 27 

Costanzi, ii. 12 
del Globo, ii. 12 
Houses — ■ 

of Aquila and Priscilla, i. 36S 
Cicero, i. 301 
Claude Lorraine, i. 54 
S. Clement, i. 347 
Dni.sus and Antonia, i. 292 
the Fornarina, ii. 368 
Hortensius, i. 304 
Lucrezia Borgia, ii. 62 
Marchese Campana, ii. 95 
Mark Antony, i. 303 
Nero's Golden, ii. 52 
of Nicholas Poussin, i. 54 
Octavius and Afra, i. 277 
Palestrina, i. 339 
Patiician families, i. 299 
Poets, ii. 50 
Pompey, ii. 48 
Pomponius Atticus, i. 435 
Raphael, ii. 225 
Rienzi, formerly of Pilate, i. 

Sta. Silvia, i. 321 
Spurius Mtelius, i. 272 
the " Violinista," ii. 225 


Ignatius, St., rooms in which he 
hved, i. 107; his martyrdom, 211 

Imola, Innocenza da, i. 82, 99 
Inquisition, Palace of the. Inquisition 
established at, ii. 278 ; abolished 
and re-established, 279 
Inscriptions — 

ancient, in S. Alessandro, ii. 33 
in Catacomb of S. Sebastian, i. 

ancient, in Cvypt of St. Peter's, 

ii. 268 
in Cloister of the Monastery, ii. 

Early Christian and Pagan, ii. 

121, 300, 384 
in Garden of Barberini Palace, i. 


in Jewish Catacomb, i. 408 

in. St John Lateran, ii. 99 

on Lunatic Asylum, ii. 439 

on Pantheon, ii. 204 

in S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 405 

St. Peter and St. Paul, com- 
memorating the farewell of, ii. 

on Ponte S. Bartolomeo, ii. 367 

on Ponte Sisto, ii. 399 

of Pope St. Damasus, i. 396, 
407, 418 

on Porta Maggiore, ii. 132 

on remains of Pons Fabricius, ii. 

remarkable, in Portico of St. Pe- 
ter's, ii. 247 

in S. Sisto, i. 382 

on Tomb of Baker Eurysace, ii. 

World-famous, i. 319 
Intermontium, the, i. 116 
Island in the Tiber, the, tradition of 
its formation, its ancient name, ii. 
361 ; temples on, 362 ; use of, in 
early and middle ages, ii. 362 

Janiculan, the, situation, formation, 
and early history of, ii. 432 — 434 ; 
S. Onofrio, 434 ; Palazzo Corsini, 
439 ; Farnesina Villa, 445 

Jesuits, Order of the, established, ii. 
262 ; re-established, 264 

Jews, quarter of the, i. 250 ; history 
of, in Rome, from early times, 250 ; 
persecution of, 251, 252 ; terms of 
occupation of houses by, 253 ; re- 
vocation of laws against, 254 ; their 
population, government, and mor- 



tality, 255 ; Synagogue of, 256 ; 
burial-ground of, 355 ; cupidity 
ofi 355 I catacomb of, 407 ; cus- 
tom of, on the election of a pope, 
Jupiter, Capitolinus, temples of, i. 
Ill ; ii. 366 ; — Tonans, — Fere- 
trius, — Pistor, temples of, i. 115 ; 
Statue of, 115; — Stator, temple 
of, 247, 278 ; — Redux, temple of, 
330 ; — Inventor, temple of, ii. 392 


Kircherian Museum, i. 

La Madonna Consolatrice degli af- 

flitti, miraculous picture, ii. 221 
Lace-shop, well-known, i. 267 
Lake of Juturna, i. 176 
Servilius, i. 174 
Landini, ii. 97 

Lanfranco, i. 267, 268 ; ii. 88, 183, 
225 ; tomb of, 385 ; works of, 443 
Laocoon, the, in the Vatican, ii. 309 
Lares, Shrine of the, i. 382 
Lateran, the, i. 207 ; obelisk of, ii. 
95 ; baptistery of, 96 ; oratory, 
97 ; basilica, 98 ; derivation of 
name of, 98 ; coronation of popes 
in, 99 ; tabern.acle, 100 ; Tabula 
Magna Lateranensis, 102 ; Cappella 
del Coro, 102 ; Corsini Chapel, 
103 ; cloisters of, 104 ; five Ge- 
neral Councils held at, 105 ; an- 
cient Palace of, 108 ; Santa Scab, 
no ; modern Palace of, 114 ; ob- 
jects of interest in, 114 — 117 ; 
Christian Museum, 117 ; Picture 
Gallery, 118 ; School of Music, 121 
Leyden, Lucas van, i. 72, 97 
Library, i. 29 

Barberini, i. 413, 437 
Bibliotheca Casanatensis, ii. 222 
of Cistercian Monastery, ii. 131 
in Collegio Romano, i. 88 
Corsini, ii. 445 
in Monastery of the Chicsa 

Nuova, ii. 167 
in Palazzo Chigi, i. 76 
Papal, ii. 322 

in the Vatican, ii. 300 ; entrance 
of, 322 
Ligorio, Pirro, ii. 335 
Lippi, I'il., i. 94. 99 '^ "• 120, 215 

Locanda dell' Orso, ii. 223 
Loggie of Raphael, ii. 337 
Lorenzetto, i. 41 ; ii. 354 
Lorenzo, St., sketch of life of, ii. 137 ; 

and St. Stephen, burial-place of, 

143 ; cemetery of, 144 
Lorraine, Claude, works of, i. 82, 95 

—97, 439, 440 
Lottery, Roman, weekly drawing of 

the, ii. 198, 199 
Lotto, Lorenzo, i. 71, 100 
Loyola, Ignatius, residence of, i. 107 ; 

picture of, 445 ; church where he 

was wont to preach, ii. 170 
Lucenti, ii. 82 
Lunatic Asylum, ii. 439 
Lunghezza, ii. 135 
Lunghi, i. 64, 72 ; ii. 160, 378 
Lupercal, the, i. 290 
Luther, residence of, in Rome, i. 42 
Luti, Benedetto, ii. 443 


Macellum Magnum, i. 334 
Maderno, Carlo, i. 436, 455 ; ii. 43, 

44, 225, 244, 407 
Maderno, Stefano, ii. 373 
Maini, ii. 194 
Malaria, parts infected by, i. 21, 354, 

381 ; ii. 387, 399, 408, 413 
Maldacchini, Olympia, iniluence of, 

over Innocent X., ii. 197 ; \'illa 

built by, 455 
Mamertine Prisons, i. 153 ; accoimt 

of prisoners in, 155, 156 
Mantegna Andrea, ii. 348 
Scuola di, i. 94 
Manufactory, Papal, of Mosaics, ii. 

Maranna, i. 375 

Maratta, Carlo, i. 95, 99, 106, 445 ; 
monument of, ii. 40 ; works of, 41, 
216, 267, 443 
Marmorata, the ancient, ii. 393 
Mars, temples of, i. 164, 373, 388 
Martyrdoms — 

best authenticated, i. 334 — 338 
of Christians, place of, ii. 390 
graves of Martyrs, i. 396, 420 
paintings representing, i. 474 ; 

ii. 141, 201, 225 
of St. Paul, scene of the, ii. 395, 

399. 402 _ 

Pictra di Paragone, used m the, 
ii. 278 
Marucclli, ii. 167 



Masaccio, i. 343, 439 

Massei, ii. 201 

Matsys, Quentin, i. 94 

Mausoleum of Augustus, i. 62 ; Sta- 
tues at entrance of, 447 
of Hadrian, ii. 334 

Mazzolino, i. 67, 68, 95, 97 

Medici, Villa, i. 49 ; view from, i. 51 
Leo X. Giovanni de, and Cle- 
ment VII., Giulio de, tombs 
of, ii. 218, 219 

Melozzo da Forli, i. 453 ; ii. 276, 357 

Memento Mori, tomb awaiting the 
living Pope, ii. 266 

Mengs, i. 439 ; ii. 77, 324 

Mentana, ii. 33 

Meta Sudans, i. 206 

Michael Angelo, i. 117, 119, 332, 
334, 389 ; ii. 42, 58, 60, 163, 174, 
210, 218 ; design of, for St. Peter's, 
244 ; statue by, in St. Peter's, 256 ; 
frescoes by, 285 ; his most perfect 
work, 2S8 ; drawing of, 449 

Milliarium Aureum, i. 173 

Mills, floating, ii. 366 

Miserere, of Passion Week, ii. 296 

Modena, Pellegrino da, ii. 337, 338, 

Monastery — 

of St. Andrew, i. 321 

of St. Anna, ii. 387 

of the Chiesa Nuova, ii. 167 

Cistercian, ii. 131 

Cloister of the, ii. 105, 144 

of S. Eusebio, ii. 77 

of the Order of Passionists, i. 329 
Monot, Etienne, ii. 265 
Mons Sacer, ii. 32 
Monte Caprino, i. 117 

Cavallo, ii. 34 

Giordano, ii. 166 

del Grano, ii. 124 

Mario, ii. 427 

Parione di Pieti, ii. 181 

Rotondo, ii. 19, 34 

Sacro (Mons Sacer), ii. 32 

Testaccio, view from, ii. 397 
Morra, national game of the Traste- 

verini, ii. 367 
best of ancient Christian, i. 471 

in Sta. Cecilia, i. 374 

in S. Cesareo, i. 407 

in Chapel of Sant' Agnese, ii. 165 
S. Antonio, ii. 79 
Caetani family, i. 470 
Sta. Helena, ii. 130 

M sai c s — cont'm tied. 

in S. Clemente, i. 345 

in Convent of Redemptorists, i. 

of SS. Cosmo and Daniian, i. 192 
in CiTpt of St. Peter's, ii. 268, 273 
fragments of ancient, ii. 405 
in Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 198 
in Gabinetto dalle Maschere, ii. 

in Jewish Catacomb, i. 407 
in Lateran, ii. 100 
in S. Lorenzo, ii. 138 
in Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, i. 233 
in Domenico, i. 333 
Maggiore, ii. 82, 83 
Scala CocH, ii. 400 
in Trastevere, 383, 

in S. Martino al Monte, ii. 64 
of the Navicella, -ii. 246 
in SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, i. 380 
in Oratory of S. Venanzio, ii. 97 
in the Orto del Paradise, ii. 67 
in S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 

405, 406 
Papal Manufactory of, ii. 359 
in St. Peters, ii. 252, 256, 259, 

260, 261, 263, 264 
in S. Pietro in Vincoli, ii. 57 
in Sta. Prassede, ii. 70 
in Quirinal Palace, i. 454 
in Sta. Sabina, i. 357 
in Sala Rotonda, ii. 318 
in Sancta Sanctorum, ii. 113 
in S. Stefano Rotondo, i. 339 
in S. Teodoro, i. 223 
at Torre Nuova, ii. 414 
in Triclinium of Palace of La- 
teran, ii. 109 
Mosca, Simone, ii. 62 
Murano, Antonio da, ii. 121 
Murillo, ii. 348, 444 
Muro-Torto, description of, i. 46 
Museo, Chiaramonte, ii. 300, 305, 


Pio-Clementino, ii, 305, 331 
Museums — 

Christian, ii. 117 

of Christian Antiquities, ii. 324 

Egyptian, ii. 305, 332 

Etruscan, ii. 327 — 331 

Kircherian, i. 88 

of Relics of art and histoiy, ii. 212 

of Statues, ii. 300 
Muziano, ii. 41, 213, 276 




Navicella, i. 330 ; Mosaic of, ii. 246 ; 
Terrace of the, 334 

Navona, Piazza, used as a market, ii. 
197 ; custom of occasionally con- 
verting it into a lake, 198 ; tourna- 
ment held in, 198 

Naumachia, remnant of the pleasures 
of the, ii. 198 

Nebbia, Cesare, ii. 8g, 167, 323 

Neri, S. Filippo, chapel of, ii. 166 ; 
library founded by, 167 ; founda- 
tion of Oratorians laid by, 169 ; 
hospital foimded by, 181 ; portrait 
of, 18 r ; resuscitation to life by, 

Nero, Tomb of, i. 38 ; Statue of, 200 ; 
Palace of, 311 ; Aqueduct of, 330 ; 
Martyrs under, 335 ; Tower of, 
459 ; house in which he died, ii. 
20 ; Golden House of, 52 ; site of 
Baths of, 202 

Nocchi, Pietro, ii. 120 

Notte Vaticane, ii. 336 

Nuit, Gerard de la, i. 445 ; ii. 444 

Nymphaeum, i. 413 ; remains of an- 
cient, ii. 430 


Obeliscus Solaris, i. 78 

of tlT£ Esquihne, ii. 93 

in the Garden of the Redemptor- 

ists, i. 332 
of the Lateran, ii. 95 
of the Monte Cavallo, i. 446 

Citorio, i. 78 
of the Pantheon, ii. 211 
of St. Peter's, ii. 238, 239 
in the Piazza della Minerva, ii. 

of the Piazza Navona, ii. ig6 
of the Pincio, i. 46 
of the Piazza del Popopolo, i. 37 
dclla Rotonda, ii. 
of the Trinita dc' Monti, i. 51 
Observatory, celebrated, i. 88 
Olivieri, Paolo, i. 470 
Oratory, dedicated by Pius I., i. .-^72 
of Sta. Galla, i. 269 
of S. Venanzio, ii. 97 
Orti Famcsiani, i. 276 
Ortolano, i. 67, 68 
Osa, Castcllo del, ii. 135 

Osteria delle Frattocchie, i. 429 ; of 
Tavolato, ii. 125 

Ostia, ii. 394 ; past and present con- 
dition of, 409 

Ostian Gate, ii. 394., 399 

Overbeck, i. 454 ; Studio of, ii. 45 

Paintings — 

in S. Angelo in Pescheria, i. 248 
in Appartamenti Borgia, ii. 324 

in Ara-Coeli, i. 149 
Architectural, ii. 448 
in Barberini Palace, i. 439 
in Baths of Titus, ii. 53 
in Borghese Picture Gallery, i. 

67 — 72 
in Capitoline Gallery, i. 140 
in Catacombs, i. 401, 410 ; ii. 21 
in Catacomb of S. Ponziano, ii. 

of Sta. Cecilia, i. 398 
in Chapel of S. Sylvestro, i. 341 
in the Chiesa Nuova, ii. 167 
Communion of St. Jerome, ii. 349 
in CrjTDt of St. Peter's, ii. 274, 276 
in S. Francesco a Ripa, ii. 379 
in S. Giovanni Decollato, i. 239 
La Madonna del Rosario, i. 358 
Last Judgment, the, ii. 293 
in Loggie of Raphael, ii. 337 — • 

in S. Lorenzo in Lucina, i. 73 
in S. Luigi dei Frances!, ii. 200 
Madonna di Foiigno, the, ii. 350 
Madonna and Saints, ii. 355 
in Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, ii. 

213 — 222 
in Sta. Maria del Popolo, i. 39 

in Trastevere, ii. 384 
Miracle-working, ii. 221 
Miraculous, of the Cmcifi.xion, 

ii. 122 
in Palace of the Lateran, ii. 118 
in Palazzo Albani, i. 443 
Colonna, i. 99 
Corsini, ii. 442 
Doria, i. 94 
dclla Regina di Po- 

lonia, i. 54 
Sciarra, i. 82 
Spada, ii. 180 
in Picture Gallery of the Vatican, 

ii- 347—359 
, in S. I'ictro in Vincoli, ii. 57 



Paintings — coniin ued. 
in S. Prassede, ii. 69 

Prophets and Sibyls, ii. 290 — 292 

Rapiiael's best worlv, ii. 164 

in S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo, 

i. 459 
in Sistine Chapel, ii. 287 

Transfiguration, the, ii. 351 — 354 
in Trinita de' Monti, i. 52 

in Vatican Library, ii. 324 

in Villa Albani, ii. 19 
Palaces — 

of Augustus, i. 280 

Barberini, i. 436 

of the Caesars, i. 250 

of Caligula, i. 292 

of the Cancelleria, ii. 177 

of the Conservators, i. 135 

of the Consulta, i. 448 

Corsini, i. 388 

of Count Trapani, i. 459 

of Domitian, i. 312 

Farnese, i. 377 

Farnesina, ii. 388 

Giustiniani, ii. 202 

important to sight-seers, i. 32 

ancient, of the Lateran, ii. 108 

modern, of the Lateran, ii. 114 

of Nero, i. 311 

Orsini, ii. 360 

Papal, i. 435 

Patrizi, ii. 202 

of the Ponziani family, ii. 369 

of Pope Honorius III., i. 361 

of the Quirinal, i. 449 

of the Republic of Venice, i. 103 

of the Senator, i. 120 

of Tiberius, i. 291 

Venetian, i. 105 

of Vespasian, i. 281 
Palatine, the, story of the Hill, i. 
273 ; Palace of the Ccesars, 274 ; 
Orti Farnesiani, 276 ; guide in ex- 
ploring, 276 ; the Velia, 277 ; Pa- 
lace of Augustus, 280 ; Hut of 
Faustulus and the Sacred Fig-tree, 
288 ; Cavern of Lupercal, 290 ; 
Palaces of Tiberius and Caligula, 
291, 292 ; Temple of Cybele, 294 ; 
other temples, 298 ; site of houses 
of great patrician families on, 299 — 
303 ; Convent, 304 ; Walls of Ro- 
mulus, 305 ; Via Nova, 307 ; 
chambers once occupied by Pras- 
torian Guard, 309 
Palazzetto, Farnese, sometimes called 
Linote, ii. 178 

Palazzos — 

Albani, i. 443 

Aldobrandini, i. 461 

Altemps, ii. 160 

Altier^ i. 107 

Bernini, i. 73 

Borghese, i. 65 ; gallery in, 66 

Braschi, ii. 1S8 

Buonaparte, i. 103 

Caetani, i. 268 

Caffarelli, i. 142 

Cardelli, ii. 155 

Cenci, i. 259 

Chigi, i. 76 

Colonna, gallery in, i. 98 

Corsini, ii. 439 

Costaguti, i. 267 

Doria, i. 93 ; gallery in, 94 

Falconieri, ii. 175 

Farnese, ii. 174 

Gabrielli, ii. 166 

Galitzin, ii. 155 

Giraud, ii. 236 

del Govemo Vecchio, ii. 165 

Lancellotti, ii. 197 

Madama, ii. 198 

Margana, i. 270 

Massimo alle Colonne, ii. 186 

Mattel, i. 268 

Moroni, ii. 387 

Muto-Savorelli, i. 103 

Odescalchi, legend relating to, i. 

Pamfili, ii. 196 

Parisani, i. 76 

Poll, famous jeweller's shop in, 
i. 81 

Pio, ii. 184 

della Regina di Polonia, i. 54 

Rospigliosi, i. 434, 456 

Ruspoli, i. 72 

Sacchetti, ii. 176 

Salviati, ii. 439 

Santa Croce, ii. 182 

Sciarra, gallery in, i. 82 

Spada alia Regola, the porter at, 
ii. 178, 179 

di Spagna, i. 57 

Torlonia, i. 104 

del Santo Uffizio, ii. 278 

Valentini, i. 98 

Vidoni, ii. 185 
Pantheon, the, ii. 204 ; its early his- 
tory, 205 ; its present state, 206 : 
its inteiior, 206 ; burial-place of 
painters in, 209 ; service held in, 
on day of Pentecost, 210 



Paolo, ii. 385 

Parco di San Gregorio, i. 319 

Parmigianino, i. 68 

Pasquinades, ii. 188 — 192 

Pasquino, ii. 188 

Passignano, i. 367 

Paul, St., house in which he lodged, 
i. 89 ; trial of, in Basilica, 284 ; 
chambers in which he was con- 
fined, 309 ; burial-place of, 419 ; 
the aspect of Rome to his eye, 
430, 431 ; picture of, 455 ; relic of, 
ii. 100 ; statue of, 226 ; shrine of, 
273 ; only existing witness of the 
martyrdom of, 395 ; parting of, 
with St. Peter, 398 ; martyrdom 
of, 399, 402 ; authenticated, i. 335 ; 
pillars to which he was bound, ii. 
40 1 ; festivals of, 408 

Penni, Francesco, ii. 276, 337, 338, 
340. 356, 446 

Perretti, Cardinal, relic of residence 
of, ii. 35 

Penigino, i. 53, 67, 83, 196 ; ii. 
19, 159, 286, 287, 345, 348, 356, 


Peruzzi, Baldassare, ii. 160, 162, 165, 
178, 186 ; tomb of, in the Pan- 
theon, 209 ; design of, for St. Pe- 
ter's, 244 ; frescoes by, 448 

Pescheria, the, i, 249 

Pesellino, i. 94 

Peter, St., dungeon occupied by, in 
Mamertine Prisons, i. 153 ; legend 
relating to, concerning Simon Ma- 
gus, 197 ; martyrdom of, authen- 
ticated, 335 ; tradition of, 379 ; 
legend relating to persecution of, 
389 ; burial-place of, 419, ii. 242 ; 
picture of, i. 455 ; preservation of 
his chains, ii. 54, 61 ; bas-relief of, 
57 ; relics of, 61, 100 ; fresco of, 
204 ; statues of, 226, 254 ; epis- 
copal chair of, 261 ; shrine and 
sarcophagus of, 273 ; parting of, 
with St. Paul, 398 ; crucifixion of, 

Pettrich, ii. 40 
Phidias, i. 447 
Photogra]ihers, i. 29 
Pianta Capitolina, i. 123 
Piazzas — 

Harberini, i. 436 

of S. IJencdetto a Piscinuola, ii. 
368 • 

Bocca flella Vcritii, ii. 393 

Borghcsc, i. 66 ; ii. 223 

Piazzas — con tin ucd. 

del Campidoglio, i. 119 
di Campitelli, i. 269 
Campo di Fiore, ii. 176 
Capitoline, i. 135 
Capo di Ferro, ii. 178 
of the Cappuccini, ii. 7 
Colonna, i. 76 
di S. Eustachio, ii. 202 
del Gesu, legend of, i. 10 
di S. Giovanni, ii. 95 
della Guidecca, i. 259 
of Sta. Maria Maggiore, ii. 80 
in Monti, i. 464 
della Minerva, ii. 211 
Montanara, i. 242 
of the Monte Cavallo, i. 446 
Monte Citorio, i. 78 
of the Navicella, i. 330 
Navona, ii. 187, 196, 19B 
del Orologio, ii. 166 
of St. Peter's, ii. 225, 240 
Pia, ii. 236 

del Popolo, i. 36 ; obelisk of, 37 
della Rotonda, ii. 211 
Rusticucci, ii. 225, 238 
Scossa Cavalli, ii. 236 
della Scuola, i. 256 
di Spagna, i. 56, 58 
delle Tartarughe, i. 267 
del Tritone, i. 436 
Picture Galleries — 

in Barberini Palace, i. 439 
Borghese, i. 66 
Capitoline, i. 140 
in Sta. Maria degli Angeli, ii. 40 
Palace of the Lateran, ii. 118 
Quirinal, i. 455 
Palazzo Colonna, i. 99 
Corsini, ii. 442 
Doria, i. 94 
Mattel, i. 268 
the Vatican, ii. 347 — 3S9 
Pierleoni, fortress of the, i. 245 
Piet^, in Sta. Croce, ii. 130 
in Lateran, ii. 103, 104 
in Sta. Maria dell' Anima, 163 
Pietra di Paragone, ii. 278 
Pietro in Montorio, St., hill of, ii. 388 
Pig-Market, Roman mode of killing 

pigs, ii. 417 
Pigiia, in garden of the Vatican, ii. 


I'incio, description of, i. 43 ; fashion- 
able resort, 44 

Pinturicchio, i. 39, 67, 139, 1-119; "■ 

i 128, 313, 325, 356, 436 


Piombo, Sebastian del, i. 41, 69, 97 ; 

ii. 102, 293, 355, 448, 449 
Pisanello Vittore, i. 94 
Piscina Publica, i. 383 
Plautilla, legend of, ii. 398, 399 
Podesti, ii. 407 
Pollajuolo, Antonio, i. 67 ; ii. 61, 

Pomarancio, i. 69, 26S, 329, 334 ; ii. 

Pompey, statue of, ii. 179 ; theatre 

of, 184 
Ponte — 

S. Angelo, ii. 225, 226 

S. Bartolomeo, ii. 366 

Molle, ii. 421, 424 

Nomentana, ii. 31 

di None, ii. 134 

Quattro Capi, ii. 360 

Rotto, i. 237 ; ii. 369 

Salara, i. 19 

Sisto, ii. 390 

Suhlicius, i. 238 
Pontecello, stream of, i. 429 
Popes, eight, educated at Collegio 
Roniana, i. 88 ; latest miracle of 
the Romish Church, 98 ; desecra- 
tion and restoration of the Coli- 
seum by, 218 ; Chapel of the, 395 ; 
graves of early, 396 ; election of, 
451 ; Private Chapel of the, 455 ; 
Pallium of the, ii. 28 ; place of 
coronation of, 99 ; favourite walk 
of mediceval, 107 ; the residence 
of, at Palace of the Lateran, 108 ; 
Sancta Sanctorum of, 11 1 ; monu- 
ment of Papal history of the tenth 
century, 129 ; custom of newly- 
elected, in relation to Jews, i. 203, 
ii. 166 ; passage intended for the 
escape to St. Angelo of the, 234 ; 
the Borgo, or sanctuarj' of the Pa- 
pacy, 235 ; the Easter benediction, 
240 ; additions to the building of 
St. Peter's by, 244 ; ceremony of 
destrucdon of the Wall of Porta 
Santa, 248 ; Memento Mori, 266 ; 
Sarcophagi of, 270 — 274 ; the 
Vatican, built by successive, 283, 
284 ; Papal residence at the Va- 
tican, 283, 298 ; prophecy respect- 
ing the line of, 299 ; daily walk or 
ride of the, 335 ; inscription com- 
memorating the pope who defended 
Rome against Attila, 406 ; tolera- 
tion of the Papal government in re- 
ligion, 411 

Popes — • 

Adrian VI., tomb of, ii. 161 

Alexander VI., Rodrigo Borgia, 
grave of, ii. 170 ; paintings rej^re- 
senting the life of, 325 ; pasquinade 
against, 189 ; empty tomb of, 269 ; 
death of, 428, 429 

Alexander VII., his humility, i. 77 

Boniface VI II., life and charac- 
ter of, ii. 269, 270 ; double crown 
first worn by, 270 

Clement, St., exile and death 
of, i. 347 

Clement VII., pasquinades 
against, ii. 190; " the Transfigura- 
ation " painted by order of, 351 

Clement VIII., torturer and exe- 
cutioner of the Cenci family, i. 
260, ii. 87 ; builder of the new pa- 
lace of the Vatican, 87 ; punish- 
ment of parricides by, 183 

Clement XII., founder of Cor- 
sini Chapel, ii. 103 

Clement XIII., Order of the Je- 
suits attacked in the reign of, ii. 260 

Cornelius, St., tomb of, i. 399 

Damasus, St., inscriptions of, i. 
396, 399. 4071 418, 419 ; ii. 21 

Gregory I. (the Great), founder 
of Church music, ii. 122 

Gregory XL, restoration of the 
Papal Court to Rome by, i. 196 

Gregory XIII., New Calendar 
invented in the reign of, ii. 258 

Gregory XVI., frescoes repre- 
senting the life of, ii. 326 ; statue 
of, 405 

Hilary, Chapels built by, Ii. 9.6 

Plildebrand, seizure of, ii. 92 

Innocent X., pasquinade against, 
ii. 191, desertion of, at his death, 
194 ; sale of bishoprics and bene- 
fices in the reign of, 197 

Innocent XL, pasquinadeagainst, 
ii. 191 

Innocent XII., last pope who 
wore beard and moustache, tomb 
of, ii. 257 

Joan, life, and legend of, ii. 94 

Julius II., magnificent tomb of, 
ii. 59 ; introduction of the beard 
by, 60 ; destruction of the Old Ba- 
silica, and commencement of the 
building of St, Peter's, by, 244 ; 
grave of, 258 

Julius III., Villa of Papa Giulio, 
designed and built by, ii. 418 



Popes — con tin ucd. 

Leo X., pasquinades against, ii. 
190 ; early destination to the Pa- 
pacy of, 218 ; tomb of, 218 ; his 
share in the building of St. Peter's, 
244 ; St. Peter's statue cast by, 
254 ; brilliant reign of, 336 

Leo XL, short reign of, ii. 265 

Leo XIL, Vatican Picture Gal- 
lery built by, ii. 284 

Martin V., tomb of, ii. 100 

Nicholas V., Vatican Library 
founded by, ii. 271, 322 

Paschal L, his account of his 
finding the burial-place of Sta. 
Cecilia, ii. 373 

Paul IL, remarkable beauty of, 
ii. 271 ; remains of his tomb, 271, 

Paul III., Order of Jesuits found- 
ed in the reign of ; his character, 
ii. 262 ; Inquisition est.ablished by, 
278 ; Sala Regia of the Vatican 
built in the reign of, 285 

Paul IV., imprisonment of the 
Jews by, i. 252 ; his aspect and 
character, ii. 215 

Pelagius II., Basilica of, ii. 142 ; 
his munificence, 143 

Pius II., tomb and epitaph of, 
ii. 1S5; instance of relique-worship 
in the reign of, 421 

Pius IV., his retiring nature ; 
Villa Pia built by, ii. 335 

Pius v., eventful reign of, ii. 89 

Pius VI., pasquinades against, 
ii. 191, 192 

Pius VII., exile of, i. 449 ; re- 
turn of, to the Quirinal ; re-estab- 
lishment of the Order of Jesuits by, 
ii. 264 ; collection of pictures in 
the Vatican formed by, 347 

Pius VIII., tomb of, the, last 
erected in St. Peter's, ii. 264 

Pius IX., escape of, in the revo- 
lution of 1848, i. 450 ; i)rcparation 
of his own monument, ii. 84 

Si.\'tus IV., political reign of, ii. 
258 ; Sistine Chapel built by, 284 ; 
Vatican Library increased by, 322 

Si.\tus v., eventful life of, ii. 90 ; 
the enemy of antiquities, 108 ; 
completion of the building of St. 
Peter's in the reign of, 244 ; Va- 
tican Library increased by, 322 

Sylvester II., memorial slab of, 
ii. 103 

Popes — conlin ucd. 

Urban II., refuge of, i. 201 ; ii. 

Urban VI. ,hiscruelty, and death, 
ii. 272 

Urban VIII., ambition and mag- 
nificence of, i. 437 ; curious Will 
of, 438 ; pasquinade against, ii. 
190 ; his passion for building, and 
his tomb, 261 
Popolo, Piazza del, starting-point for 
exploring Rome, i. 36 
Porta del, i. 37 ; ii. 422 
Church of Sta. Maria del, i. 39 
Pordenone, i. 70, 71, 96, 454 
Porta, Giacomo della, ii. 174, 244, 
251, 400, 401 
Giuseppe, ii. 285 
Guglielmo della, ii. 262 

Angelica, ii. 427, 430 
Asinaria, ii. 107 
Capena, i. 373 
Carmentalis, i. 239 
Cavalleggieri, ii. 280, 456 
Collina, ii. 16 
Furba, ii. 124 
S. Giovanni, ii. 107 
Latina, i. 384 
S. Lorenzo, ii. 35 
Maggiore, ii. 132 
S. Marta, ii. 264, 278 
Mugonia, i. 274 
Nomentana, ii. 24 
Ostiensis, Ancient, ii. 394 
Palatii, i. 279 
S. Pancrazio, ii. 452 
S. Paolo, i. 368 ; ii. 393 
Pia, ii. 24 
Pinciana, ii. 16 
Portese, ii. 377 
Roniana, i. 274 
Salara, ii. 16 
Salutaria, i. 435 

Santa, ii. 83 ; ceremony of the 
destruction of the wall of, 24S 
S. Sebastiano, i. 387 
Settimiana, ii. 3S8, 448 
Sto. Spirito, ii. 434 
Trigemina, ii. 392 
Porticos — 

of Baths of Constantine, i. 43S 

Doric, ii. 421 

of St. John Lateran, ii. 99 

Loonino, ii. ro2 

of Livia, i. 198 

of S. Lorenzo, ii. 138 



Porticos — continued. 
of Octavia, i. 247 
of Pallas Minerva, i. 165 
of tlie Pantheon, ii. 206 
of S. Sabba, i. 369 
of Temple of Mars, i. 388 

to Romulus, i. 435 
in Theatre of Pompey, ii. 184 

Post-office, General, ii. 199 

Potter, Paul, i. 72 

Poussin, Caspar, ii. 63, 442, 444 

Poussin, Niccolas, i. 52 ; house of, 
54 ; tomb of, 73 ; works of, 95, 
167, 440 ; ii. 63, 326, 358 

Pozzi, Giobattista, ii. 89 
Padre, i. .86 

Prata Quinctia, i. 59 

Praxiteles, i. 447 

Presepio, origin of the, ii. 380 

Pretorian Camp, remains of, ii. 34 

Prima Porta, ii. 423 

Prisons — 

Carceri Nuove, ii. 176 

in Castle of St. Angelo, ii. 234 

the Island in the Tiber used as, 

in imperial times, ii. 362 
for Women, ii. 42 

Promenade, ancient Papal, ii. 127 

Propaganda, the, i. 59 

Protestant Cemetery, ii. 395 
Churches, ii. 410 

Protomoteca, i. 136 

Pseudo-Aventine, i. 368 

Pyramid, site of, ii. 236 

of Caius Cesdiis, ii. 394 


Quattro Fontane, ii. 34, 45 

Quirinal, parish church of, i. 8r ; 
hill, limit of, 433 ; origin of name, 
temple to Romulus, 434 ; houses 
of great families on, 436 ; Palace, 
444 ; residence of popes, 449 ; 
Gardens of the, 455 


Raggi, Antonio, ii. 194 

Railway Station, ii. 35 

Raphael, painter, sculptor, and ar- 
chitect, i. 41 ; Works of, 67, 83, 
96, 167, 305, 439 ; ii. 102, 158, 
164, 185 ; tomb of, in the Pan- 
theon, 209 ; house of, 225 ; design 
of, foi St. Peter's, 244 ; cartoons 
of, 321 ; Loggie of, 337 ; frescoes 

i^y. 338, 340—343. 345. 446, 448 ; 

pictures by, 348, 350, 356; his 
last, 351 ; Villa of, 416 
Regia, site of, i. 78 
Relics — 

of St' Agnese, ii. 31 

of Ancient Basilica, ii. 407 

of Ancient Basilica of Lateran, 

ii. 102 
Architectural and traditional, ii. 

Arm of St. Thomas a Becket, ii. 

of .-\rt and History, ii. 212 
of the Barberini family, i. 437 
Brains of St. Thomas a Becket, 

ii. 92 
Body of St. Bartholomew, ii. 364 
in Catacomb of Sta. Priscilla, 

ii. 23 
Chains of St. Peter, ii. 6r 
ancient Chair of St. Peter, ii. 261 
Column to which our Saviour is 
reputed to have been bound, 
ii. 68 
Earliest architectural, i. 170 
of S. Francesca Romana, i. 270 
of St. Francis, ii. 379 
in Giardino della Pigna, ii. 333 
of Ignatius Loyola, i. 107 
list of, in Lateran, ii. 102 
in S. Martino al Monte, ii. 64 
in Monastery of the Chiesa 

Nuova, ii. 167 
in Sta. Prassede, ii. 71 
Pedestal of the Column of An- 
toninus Pius, ii. 334 
of St. Peter's, exhibition of, ii. 

253. 254 
of Republican times, i. 105, 307 
in Sancta Sanctomm, ii. 112, 113 
Sancta Culla, ii. 91 
Santa Scala, ii. no 
of Tasso, ii. 437 

Title of the True Cross, exhibi- 
tion of, ii. 129 
in Treasury of St. Peter's, ii. 276 
of works of Art from the Ba- 
silica on the site of St. Peter's, 
ii. 243 
Rembrandt, ii. i\ \ \ 
Remus, temple of, i. 191 ; and 

Romulus, legend of, 288 
Reni, Guido, i. 69, 73, 83, 84, 95, 

140, 141, 440 ; ii. 358, 443, 444 
Ribera, i. 70 
Ricciolini, ii. 40 
Rinaldi, ii. 407 



Ripetta, the, i. 37 ; Quay of the, 59 

Ripresa dei Barberi, i. 105 

Roman Pearls, i. 29 

Romana, Sta. Francesca, favourite 
saint of the Romans, i. 148 ; ii. 
136 ; her death, i. 195 ; ii. 370 ; 
miracle attributed to, 378 ; vine- 
yard of, 398 

Romanelli, i. 139, 267 ; ii. 41, 266 

Romano, Guilo, i. 67, 68, 82, 305, 
332; ii. 19, 71, 118, 161, 244, 276, 

337—340, 345. 354. 356, 378, 425, 
426, 443, 446, 452 .- 
Rome, statue called by that name, ii. 

Description of neighbourhood, i. 
17 ; first view of city, 17 ; Ma- 
dame de Stael's impression con- 
cerning, 18 ; climate, 20 ; life 
agreeable in, 21 ; Museums, 22 ; 
scarcity of Pagan ruins, 23 ; 
Mai's monumental record of, A.D. 
540, 24 ; facilities afforded to 
strangers, 24; objects of attraction 
in the neighbourhood of, 26 ; Ho- 
tels, Pensions, Apartments, 27 ; 
Trattorie (Restaurants), English 
Church, Post-office, Telegraph- 
office, Bankers, Conveyance of | 
goods to England, Doctors, Eng- 
hsh and Homoeopathic, Dentist, 
Sick -Nurses, Chemists, English 
House -Agent, English Livery- 
Stables, 28 ; Library, Booksellers, 
Italian Masters, Photographers, 
Drawing Materials, Engravings, 
Antiquities, Bronzes, Cameos, Mo- 
saics, Jewellers, Roman Pearls, 29 ; 
Bookbinder, Engraver, Tailors, 
Shoemakers, Dressmaker, Shops 
for Ladies' Dresses, Roman Rib- 
bons and Shawls, Gloves, Carpets, 
and small Household Articles, 
German Baker, linglish Grocer, 
Italian Grocer and 'Wine-Merchant, 
Oil, Candles, and 'Wood, &c., Eng- 
lish Dairy, 30 ; Artists' Studios, 30, 
31; Sculptors' Studios, 31, 32; 
Churches, Palaces, 'Villas, Ruins, 
Sights for each day in the week, 
32, 33 ; Guide for travellers in, 36 ; 
favourite resort for Models, 56 ; 
English colony, 58 ; first English 
seivice in, 64 ; pious whipj)ings, 
85 ; celebrated Observatory, 88 ; 
Jesuit College, eight Popes cdu- 

Rome — continued. 
cated at, 88 ; Church in which St. 
Paul lodged, 89 ; Capitoline Hill, 
109 ; Foram Romanum, great his- 
torical interest attached to, 168 ; 
interesting sites and classical re- 
mains, 170 — 185 ; description of 
Mosaics, 192 ; decadence of Art 
in, 232 ; Mediaeval gem of, 234 ; 
sketch of Jewish history in, 250 — 

255 ; rich merchandise in Ghetto, 

256 ; Palatine Hill, 273 ; recent 
discoveries among the ruins of the 
Palace of the Caesars, 276 ; St. 
Paul's trial in BasiUca, 283 ; Seven 
Hills of, 298 ; houses of great pa- 
tricians of, 299 ; earliest pagan 
caricature of our Saviour's death, 
308 ; CcKlian Hill, 316 ; place of 
departure of St. Augustine from, 
319 ; grand view of Palatine, 324 ; 
ideal garden, 332 ; frescoes repre- 
senting best authenticated martyr- 
doms in, 334 — 338 ; influence of 
Byzantine upon Roman Art, 341 ; 
ancient ecclesiastical architecture, 
343 ; the Aventine, 348 ; Malaria, 
21. 354. 356; Appian Way, course 
of, 372, 430 ; Baths of Caracalla, 
largest mass of ruins in, 376 ; 
Columbaria, 385 ; rare parisitical 
plants, 390; Catacombs, 390 — 411, 
ii. 20 ; paintings in Catacombs, sym- 
bolical, allegorical, and liturgical, 
i. 401 ; oldest Christian cemetery, 
409 ; graves of Christian martyrs, 
420 ; extensive view, 424 ; the ap- 
pearance of, to St. Paul, 430, 431 ; 
the Quirinal and 'Viminal, 433 ; 
Saint most reverenced by people 
of, 463 ; spot of historical interest, 
468 ; most ancient church in, 469 ; 
loveliest view in, ii. 17 ; Railway 
Station, 35 ; Esquiline Hill, 46 ; 
St. Peter's chains, 6i ; tallest palm- 
tree in, 62 ; one of the principal 
objects of pilgrimage in, 68 ; me- 
morials of middle-age warfare, 72 ; 
unique doorway, 78 ; consecration 
of animals after the feast of St. 
Anthony, 79 ; Obelisk, oldest ob- 
ject in, 95 ; beautiful view, io5 ; 
principal receptacle for antiquities 
in, 114 ; fine specimen of Roman 
scenery, 127 ; residence assigned 
to Patriarchs of Jerusalem visiting, 
144 ; moilcrn burial-ground of, 



Rome — con tin ued. 

144 ; Roman funeral, 145 ; Roman 
Catholic Meeting-house for tlie 
lower orders, 158 ; Government 
establishment for the lending of 
money, 181 ; haunted house, 183 ; 
first printing-office in, 187; finest 
staircase in, 188 ; unique window, 
197 ; most perfect pagan building 
in, 204 ; resort of bird-fanciers, 
211 ; largest library in, 222 ; relic 
of siege of, 226 ; effect produced 
by the entrance of St. Peter's, 249 ; 
one of the few examples of Gothic 
architecture in, 280 ; view of, from 
balcony in the Vatican, 307 ; re- 
sults of excavations, 327, 393 ; pe- 
culiar beauty of the Vatican Gar- 
den, 335 ; supply of water during 
the siege, 366 ; character of Tras- 
teverini in contrast to the other 
Romans, 367 ; house of temporary 
retirement for young men, 369 ; 
principal remains of mediaeval ar- 
chitecture, 379 ; first Church dedi- 
cated to the Virgin, 382 ; fine views 
from Ponte Sisto, 390 ; interest at- 
tached to the Pyramid of Caius 
Cestius, 395 ; facilities afforded for 
Protestant worship in, 410 ; view 
across the Campagna, 420 ; mag- 
nificent view of, 428 ; evening scene 
in the streets, 431 ; unrivalled view, 
451 ; only perfect extant specimen 
of primitive subterranean baptistery, 

Romulus and Remus, legend of, i. 
288 ; walls of, 305 ; connection with 
Aventine, 349 ; temple to, 434 
Rosa, Salvator, i. 94, 95 ; monument 
of, ii. 40 ; w'orks of, 225, 442, 445 
Rospigliosi, Palace of, i. 456; col- 
lection of pictures in, 457 
Rosselli, Cosimo, ii. 287 
Rossi, ii. 261, 263, 413 
Rubens, i. 96, 140 ; ii. 167, 444 
Ruins — 

of Agger of Servius Tullius, ii. 38 
Aqua Marcia, ii. 95 
Arco di Ciambella, ii. 21 r 
Basilica of Constantine, i. 184 
Basilica of S. Stefano, iii 124 
Bath built by Augustus, ii. 77 
Baths of Caracalla, i. 375 
Baths of Constantine, i. 436, 

Baths of Diocletian, ii. 38 

Ruins — continued. 

of Baths of S. Helena, ii. 132 
Baths of Titus, ii. 52 
Campus Martins, ii. 155 
early Christian cemetery, ii. 

Circus of Maxentius, i. 422 
Circus Maximus, i. 225 
Coliseum, i. 213 
Colonnace, i. 165 
Emporium, ii. 393 
Forum Boarium, i. 22