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Author of "A New Harmony of the Oospels," etc. 




1420 Chestnut Street 

Copyright 1897 by the 
American Baptist Publication Socibtt 

If com tbe Society's own press 


The following work was conceived by the author, several years ago, when 
preparing his Harmony of the Gospels ; and is a continuation and result of 
studies pursued at that time. As the life of Christ can be best gathered from 
the study of the four Gospels in connection, so the lives of Peter and Paul, 
and the planting and training of the early churches, can be best understood by 
comparing the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles. The study, too, of the 
numerous quotations from the Old Testament, and of the contact of the first 
missionaries with the heathen world, helps to perfect our knowledge of 
primitive Christianity ; while a comparison of the Acts with itself, as in 
the three accounts of Paul's conversion, giv-es a clearer view of separate 
characters. To the Scripture harmonist, therefore, the book of the Acts 
affords an interesting field, of great variety and fruitfulness. 

The design of this work is to help intelligent Sunday-school teachers, and 
others, to thus study, fundamentally and independently, this very important 
and central book of the New Testament. The increased attention now given 
to the relation between the Acts and the Epistles, especially in Sunday- 
schools, encourages the belief that this effort is in the right direction. 

In carrying out this plan, the Scripture text of the Acts is arranged into 
sections, with parallel passages below, the broad-face type guiding the eye to 
the more important similarities or divergences. In addition, many passages 
more distantly related are given in references at the end of verses. 

Before each section is an analysis made from the original, giving in their 
order the topics and events of each section, and often containing an interpre- 
tation of some disputed point. 

The notes are mainly chronological and harmonic, and only such references 
to persons and places are made as seemed demanded by the character of the 
work. To facilitate reference, the subjects of the sections are indicated by 
capital letters. In many instances the quotations in the notes are from the 


Kevised Version, especially where that version is more faithful to the 

To those using this volume as a Sunday-school help, it is suggested that a 
general view of the whole work be first obtained from the table of The 
Synopsis of the Hatrmonic Arrangement of the Acts, and from the Intro- 
duction to the Notes. The analysis of the section under consideration should 
be studied ; the Scripture text and parallels carefully noted ; the notes on the 
section read; and last of all, the Scripture references at the end of verses 
examined. Let no one approach the work expecting a commentary, but 
rather by its faithful use make one of his own. 

HiGHTSTOWN, N. J., January^ 188U. 


Corrections and additions have been made and a chronological arrangement of 
the Epistles and Revelation added for reading and study in connection with the 
Acts. The text used in this addition is that of the Improved Version published 
by the American Baptist Publication Society. The Northern Galatian theory is 
retained (p. 78). Prof. W. M. Ramsay ably advocates the Southern Galatian 
theory, in " The Church in the Roman Empire before A. D. 170," but it seems to 
me that further explanation and discovery in Asia Minor are necessary to 
establish it. So also I incline to the later date of Revelation while appreciating 
the force of much that is said for the earlier. The order, however, given to 
Galatians and Revelation will suit either of the above theories. Should any 
desire companion volumes for reference and study, Dean Howson Bohlen Lect- 
ures, 1880, on " The Evidential Value of the Acts," and " The Dawn of Christi- 
anity," by Prof. H. C. Vedder, are recommended. For the exposition of par- 
ticular passages see Author on the " Acts " in "A People's Commentary." 

HiGHTSTOWN, N. J., June, 1896. 






About five years, from A. D. 30 to A. D. 35. 
Sect. Page. 

1. Introduction. Our Lord's Last Words to his Disciples. His Ascen- 

sion. Jerusalem 21 

2. Appointment of an Apostle in Place of Judas. Jerusalem 23 

3. The Descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Jerusalem 25 

4. Peter's Address to the Multitude. Jerusalem 26 

5. The Effect of Peter's Discourse. Benevolence. Joy and Increase of 

the Disciples. Jerusalem 29 

6. Healing of the Lame Man by Peter and John. Peter's Address to 

the People. Jerusalem 31 

7. The Imprisonment of Peter and John. Their Arraignment Before 

the Sanhedrim. Their Defence and Eelease. Jerusalem. 33 

8. United and Prosperous Condition of the Church. W^ith the Open 

Liberality of Joseph and others, is contrasted the Lying Covetous- 
ness of Ananias and Sapphira. Jerusalem 36 

9. Great Increase of the Church. The Imprisonment and Miraculous 

Escape of the Apostles. Their Bold Conversation and Eelease. 
Jerusalem 37 

10. Appointment of Alms-Distributers in the Church at Jerusalem. 

Jerusalem 40 

11. Stephen's Zeal, and Violent Apprehension. Jerusalem 41 

12. Defence of Stephen Before the Sanhedrim. Jerusalem 42 

13. Death and Burial of Stephen. Persecution and Scattering of the 

Disciples. Jerusalem 48 

A2 6 




About four years. A. D. 35-39. Page. 

14. The Gospel Preached in Samaria by Philip, Peter, and John. Simon 

the Sorcerer. Samaria 50 

15. Conversion of the Ethiopian Eunuch. Between Jerusalem and Gaza. 52 

16. Paul's Conversion and Commission. Damascus 55 

17. Paul's Flight from Damascus. Brief Visit at Jerusalem. With- 

drawal to his Native City, Tarsus... 57 

18. Peace and Prosperity of the Church. Peter Visits Lydda and Joppa. 58 




About Jive years. A. D. 39-44- 

19. Cornelius, Divinely Directed, Sends for Peter, who is Divinely Di- 

rected to Go to Him. Cesarea and Joppa 60 

20. Peter Goes to Cesarea, Preaches to Cornelius, and Receives Believing 

Gentiles into the Church. Cesarea 62 

21. Peter Defends Himself at Jerusalem for his Visit to Cornelius. Jeru- 

salem 63 

22. Gospel at Antioch. Ministry of Barnabas and Saul in that City. 

Antioch 66 

23. Renewed Persecution. Death of James. Miraculous Deliverance of 

Peter. Jerusalem 67 

24. Death of Herod Agrippa. Barnabas and Saul Return to Antioch. 

Cesarea 69 



About two years and a half. A. D. 45-4S. 
25. Barnabas and Saul Sent to Preach to the Heathen. Their Labors in 

Cyprus. Antioch and Cyprus 76 


Sect. Page, 

26. Paul and Barnabas at Antioch in Pisidia 71 

27. Paul and Barnabas at Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. Their Return to 

Antioch. Close of Paul's First Missionary Tour 75 




About three years. A. D. 4^-51. 

28. The Apostolic Council at Jerusalem 79 

29. Paul and Barnabas Return to Antioch. Their Separation in Mission- 

ary Work 82 



About three years and a-half. A. D. 51-54. 

30. Paul and Silas Revisit the Churches and Deliver the Decrees. They 

Visit Phrygia, and Come to Troas 84 

31. Paul and his Companions Arrive in Europe, and Begin their Labors 

at Philippi. Conversion of Lydia and her Household. Of the 
.Jailer and his Family 86 

32. Paul and Silas at Thessalonica and Berea 88 

33. Paul at Athens. His Speech on Mars' Hill 91 

34. P^l at Corinth. His Labors there, and his Arraignment Before Gallio. 92 

35. Paul Returns to Antioch by way of Ephesus, Cesarea, and Jerusalem. 94 



About three years and a half. A. D. 54-58. 

36. Paul Visits Galatia and Phrygia. Apollos C/omes to Ephesus 96 

37. Paul Comes to Ephesus. Rebaptizes Certain Disciples of John. 

Preaches and Performs Miracles. Jewish Exorcists 97 

38. Paul Proposes to Leave Ephesus, but Tarries Awhile. Demetrius 

Excites a Tumult 99 

39. Paul Again Visits Macedonia and Greece. Returns through Mace- 

donia, and Spends a Week at Troas 101 

40. Paul and his Companions Prosecute their Journey to JVIiletus, where 

he Sends for and Addresses the Elders of the Church of Ephesus... 103 

41. The Voyage of Paul to Tyre. Visit to Cesarea. Journey to Jerusalem. 106 




Two years. A. D. 58-60. 
Sect. Page. 

42. Paul at Jerusalem, Assumes a Vow to Conciliate the Hebrew Chris- 

tians 108 

43. Paul's Seizure by the Jews, and his First Rescue by the Roman 

Commander 109 

44. Paul's Address to the People on the Stairs of the Castle of Antonia. 110 

45. Paul Pleads his Roman Citizenship, and Escapes Scourging 112 

46. Paul's Defence Before the Sanhedrim. His Second Rescue from the 

Jews by the Roman Soldiers 113 

47. A Conspiracy of the Jews to Slay Paul. Its Disclosure to the 

Roman Commander 114 

48. Paul Sent to Felix at Cesarea. The Letter of Lysias, the Roman 

Commander 116 

49. Paul's Trial Before Felix. Cesarea 117 

50. Paul Before Felix and Drusilla. Imprisoned Two Years at Cesarea... 119 

51. Paul Before Festus. Appeals to Cesar. Cesarea 119 

52. Festus Confers with Agrippa Concerning Paul. Paul Brought Before 

Agrippa 121 

53. Paul's Defence Before Agrippa. Cesarea 122 



About two years and a half. A. D. 60-63. 

54. Paul Embarks at Cesarea for Rome, and Proceeds as Far as Fair 

Havens 126 

55. Continuing the Voyage along Crete, a Violent Storm Occurs. The 

Ship is Caught by a Violent Storm, and she Drifts Many Days 127 

56. The Discovery of Land and the Shipwreck 1 28 

57. Abiding During the Winter at Melita v 130 

58. The Journey from Melita to Rome 131 

59. Paul at Rome. Interview with the Jews. His Condition During his 

Captivity 131 

60. Paul's Subsequent Labors, and Second Imprisonment. About Four 

Years. A. d. 63-67 134 



Introductory Kemarks 137 

The Book of The Acts and the Gospel of Luke. The Design of the Acts. 137 
The External Contact of the Acts 137 

1. With the Old Testament 137 

2. With the Gospels 138 

3. AVith the Epistles 138 

Table of the Time When, and Places Where, Written 139 

4. Contact of the Acts with Profane History 139 

The Chronology of the Acts 139 

Chronological Table for the Acts. Scripture History. Events in Pales- 
tine and Contemporaneous Events 140 

Synoptical Table of Dates by Leading Chronologists 145 



1. Introduction of the Acts 146 

Time of our Lord's Ascension. 

The Exact Time of. 

Time of our Lord's Baptism. 

Duration of our Lord's Public Ministry. 

Time of our Lord's Crucifixion. 

Place of the Ascension. 

2. The Appointment of an Apostle in Place of Judas 147 

The Death of Judas. 

The Quotation from Psalm 69 : 25. 

The Upper Koom. 

The Number of Discipleship Before Pentecost. 

3. The Feast of Pentecost 149 

The Day of the Week on which Pentecost Fell. 

The Sadducees' View of the Day. 

The Early Christian Commemorations of the Day. 

The Modes of Eeckoning the Day. 

The Day Probably Sunday. 

The Place Where the Spirit Descended. 

The Different Nations Represented. 

The Number of Languages Spoken. 


Sect. Page. 

4. Peter's Address to the Multitude 154 

Quotations from Joel 2: 28-32; Psalm 110: 1. 

5. The Effect of Peter's Address 155 

Community of Goods. 

6. The Healing of the Lame Man by Peter and John 155 

The Time of the Healing. 

Peter's Address. 

Comparison of Acts 2 : 15, 16 ; 2 Peter 1 : 21. 

Quotation from Deuteronomy 18: 15, 19. 

7. The Time of the Imprisonment of Peter and John 156 

Sadducean Persecution. 

The Sanhedrim. 

Annas and Caiaphas. 

Eapid Increase of Believers, Especially Among Men. 

Comparison of Peter's Address with 2 Peter 2 : 4-8. 

Quotations from Old Testament in Peter's Address. 

Herod Antipas. 

Pontius Pilate. 

8. The United and Prosperous Condition of the Church 157 

The "Community of Goods" Continued, and Peculiar to the 

Church at Jerusalem. 
Joseph Barnabas, Ananias, and Sapphira. 

9. The Great Increase of the Church 158 

Women Mentioned Among the Converts. 

The Second Organized Persecution of the Apostles. 

Peter and John Imprisoned. 



Judas of Galilee. 

Another Period of Prosperity. 

The Time Occupied During this Section. 

Quotation from Deuteronomy 21 : 22. 

10. The First Appointment of Alms-Distributers 159 

The Grecian Jews. 

The Hebrews. 

The Names of the Seven. 

Nicolas " the Proselyte." 

Stephen and Philip. 

Further Increase of the Church. 

11. The Apprehension of Stephen 160 

The Foreign Synagogues. 


Sect. ^ ^ , Page. 

The Beginning of Pharisaic Persecution. 

Stephen's Contact with Foreign Jews. 

Stephen a Link Between Peter and Paul. 

12. Stephen's Defence Before the Sanhedrin 161 

Time and Place of Defence. 
The Language of Stephen. 
Stephen the Forerunner of Paul. 
Alleged Historical Discrepancies : 

: 2, and Genesis 12 : 1. 
4, and Genesis 11: 26, 32; 12: 4. 

14, and Genesis 46: 27. 

16, and Genesis 50 : 1-14, 24-26. 

16, and Genesis 23 : 15. 

20, and Exodus 2 : 2. 

22, and Exodus 4 : 10. 

22, and Exodus 4: 10. 

23, 30, 36; Num. 14: 33; Deut. 2: 14; Joshua 5: 6. 
" 32, and Exodus 3 : 3. 

42, 43, and Exodus 32 : 4 ; Deut. 32 : 17 ; Lev. 17 : 7 ; 
Amos 5 : 27. 
12. " " 53, and Exodus 19 : 16. 

13. The Death and Burial of Stephen 166 

Saul of ^ Tarsus. 

Time of the Persecution and Scattering of Disciples. 


Acts 7 


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14. A New Era in the Jerusalem Church , 168 

Philip Preaching in Samaria. 
What City in Samaria. 
Peter and John in Samaria. 

15. The Conversion of the Ethiopian Eunuch 169 

Time and Place of his Conversion. 


Quotation from Isaiah 53 : 7, 8. 

Situation of Gaza. 

The Place of Baptism. 

The Kesult of the Eunuch's Conversion. 

Omission of Chapter 8 : 37. 


Sect. Page. 

16. Paul's Conversion. Time of. 170 


Authority of the High Priest. 

The Place of the Lord's Appearance to Saul. 

The Three Accounts of Paul's Conversion. 

A Few Apparent Discrepancies. 

1. In Chapter 9: 7, and Chapter 26 : 14. 

2. " " 9:7, and Chapter 22 : 9. 

3. " " 9 : 15, 16, and Chapter 26 : 15-18. 
Jesus Seen of Paul in the Heavens. 

Not Seen by him During his Public Ministry. 
The Wonderful Grace in Paul's Conversion. 

17. Paul's Stay at Damascus, and Visit to Arabia 174 

The Time of his Return to Damascus. 
Paul's First Visit to Jerusalem. 
The Reason for Leaving Jerusalem. 
His Withdrawal to Tarsus. 
His Work There. Churches in Cilicia. 
How he Went to Tarsus. 

18. The Peace and Prosperity of the Church 176 

Reasons for the Decline of Persecution. 

Peter's Visit to Lydda and Joppa. 

The Time of Peter's Residence at Joppa. 

PART in, 

19. The Time of Cornelius Sending for Peter 177 

The Name Cornelius. 

Comparison of Luke's Account with that of Cornelius. 

1. Cornelius' Vision. Chapter 10 : 3-8 ; 30-33. 

2. Peter's Vision. Chapter 10: 9-19; 11: 4-12. 

20. Peter's Journey to Cesarea 179 

Comparison of Chapter 10: 28, with 11 : 3. 
Comparison of Chapter 10 : 34, with 1 Pet. 1 : 17. 
The Receiving of Believing Gentiles into the Church. 
Incidental Harmony Between Chapters 8 : 40, and 10 : 37. 

21. Peter's Defence at Jerusalem 180 

22. The Gospel at Antioch 181 

Its Introduction and Progress. 


Sect. Page. 

The Greeks, or Grecian Jews. 
Barnabas is Sent for, to Go to Jerusalem. 
Barnabas Goes to Tarsus to Seek Saul. 
The Eelation of Paul and Barnabas. 
Paul's Last Stay at Tarsus. 
The Time of Paul's Visit to Antioch. 
Prediction of General Famine. 
When Fulfilled. 
The Name Christian. 

Antioch, the Centre of Gentile Christianity. 
The Second Visit of Paul to Jerusalem. 

23. The Death of James. Peter Imprisoned 183 

Mission of Paul and Barnabas. 

Herod Agrippa. 

Kenewed Persecution of the Church. 

The Time of Peter's Deliverance from Prison. 

Peter's Departure from Jerusalem. 

24. The Death of King Agrippa. The Accounts of Luke and Josephus 

Compared 185 

Discussions Regarding Paul's Second Visit to Jerusalem. 

The Exact Time of the Visit. 

Paul Caught Up into Paradise. 

End of First Division of the Book of Acts. 


25. Second General Division of Acts 189 

Sending of Barnabas and Saul to the Heathen. 

Prosperity of the Church at Antioch. 

Simeon, Lucius, Manaen. 

Herod the Tetrarch. 

The First Missionary Field, Cyprus. 

Salamis, Paphos. 

The Accuracy of Luke Illustrated. 

Saul Called Paul. 

26. The Time of Paul and Barnabas Leaving Cyprus 191 

At Perga, Asia Minor. 

Their Perils in Pisidia. 

At Antioch in Pisidia. 

A Model of Paul's Working. 

Paul's Address. 



Sect. Page. 

Its Quotations From the Old Testament. 

A Church at Antioch 

Iconium, the Next Mission Station. 
27. The Time when Paul and Barnabas Visit Iconium 193 

Lycaonia. The Language Thereof. 

Lystra and Derbe. 

Luke's Accuracy in Chapter 14 : 11. 

Luke's Account Compared with Paul's Epistles. 

The Extreme Limit of the First Missionary Tour. 

How Long Engaged in Pisidia and Lycaonia. 

The Time of their Eeturn to Antioch and Syria. 

How Long they Remained There. 


28. The Apostolic Council at Jerusalem 197 

A Difficult Chronological Question. 

The Visits of Paul to Jerusalem. 

The First and Second Galatian Visit. 

Paul's Second Visit to Jerusalem not his Second Galatian Visit. 

Paul's Fourth Visit to Jerusalem not his Second Galatian Visit. 

Paul's Second Galatian, his Third to Jerusalem. 

Objections Answered. 

The Second Galatian Visit not an Unrecorded One. 

The "Fourteen Years" in Galatians 2 : 1. 

The Quotation from Amos 9:11, 12. 

Comparison of Acts 15 : 23, and James 1:1. 

29. Time of the Return of Paul and Barnabas to Antioch 202 

Judas and Silas. 

Time of the Separation of Paul and Barnabas. 

Paul and Barnabas after this. 

Paul's Encounter with Peter not to be Regarded at this Time. 


30. The Second Missionary Tour of Paul. The Mission of Barnabas 203 

The Route of Paul and Silas. 

Timothy at Lystra. 

The Question of Circumcision of Timothy and Titus. 


Sect. Page. 

Timothy Ordained. 

Comparison of Chapter 16 : 1, with 2 Tim. 1 : 5, 6 ; 3 : 15. 
Extension of the Work. 
The Route Through Asia Minor. 
Paul's Successful Labors in Galatia. 

31. Paul and his Companions Arrive in Europe 206 

Their Journey from Troas to Philippi. 

Luke Joins the Company at Troas. 

Luke's Accuracy in Contact with Profane History. 

Confirmed by Paul's Epistles. 

Luke Remains at Philippi. 

32. The Time of Paul's Going to Thessalonica 208 

Persecution of Paul and Silas. 

The History Supplemented and Confirmed by Paul's Epistles, 
The Accuracy of Luke Again Illustrated by Profane History. 
Thessalonica. Jason. 

33. The Time of Paul's Arrival at Athens 210 

The Account Compared with 1 Thessalonians 3 : 1, 2. 
Profane History Confirming Luke : 

1. In Regard to the Number of Idols. 

2. The Schools of Philosophy. 

2. The Character of the Athenians. 

4. Their Religiousness. 

5. The Quotation from the Poet Aratus. 
Athens. Areopagus. 

Partial Quotations from Old Testament. 

34. Paul's Stay at Athens and Arrival at Corinth 213 

Time of his Going to Corinth. 

Comparison of Luke's Account of his Visit with Paul's Epistles : 

1. In Regard to Aquila. 

2. Regarding Tent-making. 

3. The Great Theme of Paul's Preaching. 

4. The Coming of Silas and Timotheus to Corinth. 

5. The Baptism of Corinthians. 

6. Sosthenes, the Ruler of the Synagogue. 
Luke again Illustrated by History. 
Gallio's Reputed Character. 

Paul Writes the First and Second Epistles to Thessalonians. 
Did Paul Make Two or Three Visits to Corinth ? 
Objections to Three Visits Answered. 
The Time of his Second Visit. 


Sect. Page. 

A Probable Second Visit to Athens. 

Time it Occurred. 

Arrangement of Dates. 

35. The Time of Leaving Corinth for Jerusalem 218 

Paul's First Visit at Ephesus. 
Paul's Fourth Visit to Jerusalem. 


36. Paul's Visit to Antioch 219 

His Encounter with Peter. 

Barnabas Again at Antioch. 

Paul's Third Missionary Tour. 

Visits Galatia and Phrvgia. 

Luke's Account and 1 Corinthians 16 : 1, 2. 

Apollos at Ephesus. 

He is Instructed by Aquila and Priscilla. 

37. Paul's Second Visit to Ephesus 220 

He Writes his Epistle to the Galatians. 
Paul's Lost Epistle to the Corinthians. 
Acts in Contact with Secular History : 

1. Magical Arts. 

2. In Regard to the Widely Extended Work. 

3. Tyrannus. 

Acts in Contact with John Baptist's Followers. 

Striking Coincidence. 

Paul Writes his First Epistle to Corinthians. 

38. Paul Tarries at Ephesus 223 

Paul Decides to Visit Eome. 
Accuracy of Luke Again Illustrated. 

1. Demetrius. 

2. Various Officers Named. 

3. The Temple of Diana. 

4. In Eegard to Diana. 

5. The Theatre. 

6. Danger of Being Called to Account. 
The Acts, and the Epistle to Ephesians. 
Erastus, Alexander, Aristarchus. 

39. Paul's Visit to Macedonia and Greece 226 

To Macedonia in the Autumn. 


Sect. Page. 

1. Paul Probably Delayed at Ephesus a Time After Pentecost. 
Timothy's Visit to Macedonia and Greece. 

The Visit of Titus to Corinth. 
Paul Often Changed his Plans. 

2. Paul's Journey to Macedonia Kapid. His Visit Brief. 
Paul's Epistles Confirmatory. 

His Preaching Round About Unto Illyricum. 

3. Notes of Time Favoring this View. 
Paul Writes his Second Epistle to Corinthians. 
The "Fourteen Years" in 2 Cor. 12: 2. 
The Acts in Contact with Paul's Epistles. 

1. Paul at Troas and Philippi. 

2. Paul Goes Through Macedonia. 

3. Paul's Visit to Greece ; at Corinth. 

4. Compare Romans 15 : 30, 31, with Chapter 20 : 23. 

5. Compare Chapter 20 : 3-5, with Romans 16 : 1, 21-23. 
SecundiLs, Gains, Tychicus, Trophimus. 

The Epistle to the Romans, When Written. 
Paul's Journey From Corinth to Philippi. 
Luke Again his Companion. 

40. Paul's Journey lo Miletus 232 

Mytilene and Chios. 

Samos and Trogyllium. 

Address to the Elders at Miletus. 

Comparison of this Address with Paul's Epistles. 

41. Paul Continues his Journey From Miletus 234 

Cos, Rhodes, Patara, and Tyre. 
Embark for Ptolemais, 
At Cesarea " Some Days." 
The Beach at Tyre. 


42. Paul's Fifth Visit to Jerusalem 236 

43. Paul's Seizure by the Jews 236 

His First Rescue by the Chief Captain. 
Claudius Lysias. 

44. Paul's Address to the People 236 

The Assassins, and the Egyptian Impostor. 


Sect. P^ge 

45. Paul Escapes Scourging 237 

Pleads his Roman Citizenship. 
Historical Illustrations and Confirmations. 

46. Paul's Defence Before the Sanhedrim 237 

Ananias, the High Priest. 
Paul's Rebuke and Apology. 

47. The Jews' Conspiracy to Slay Paul 238 

48. Paul Conveyed to Cesarea by a Band of Soldiers 238 


The Letter of Claudias Lysias to Felix. 


Roman Law Confirmatory of Luke's Account. 

49. Time of Paul's Trial Before Felix 239 

Table of Events Between Paul's Arrival at Jerusalem, and his 

Trial at Cesarea. 
Compare Chapter 24: 17-19, and Romans 15: 25, 26, etc. 
TertuUus, and his Address Before Felix. 
An Accurate Representation of Legal Procedure. 

50. Paul Before Felix and Drusilla 241 

Taking of Bribes. 

Paul's Two Years' Imprisonment. 

Gospel of Luke Probably Now Written. 


The Time Felix Recalled, Festus Appointed. 

Reasons for Preferring a. d. 60. 

51. The Time of Paul's Trial and Defence Before Festus 244 

Luke's Account Compared with Festus' Own Account. 
The Council of Festus. 

52. Festus Confers with Agrippa 245 

The Title of Lord Applied to the Roman Emperor. 

Agrippa, the King. 


53. Paul's Defence Before Agrippa 245 

Comparison of his Address with his Epistles. 
Luke's Accuracy Again Illustrated. 

1. Concerning Bonds or Chains. 

2. In Regard to Appealing to Cesar. 



Sect, Page. 

The Acts in Contact with Sea-faring Life. 
Proof of Luke's Authenticity. 

54. The Time of Paul's Embarkation at Cesarea 248 

Prisoners Sent on Merchant Vessels. 

Prisoners Sent from Judea to Rome for Trial. 

A Nautical Expression : " Under the Lee." 

Grain Ships of Alexandria. 

Other Nautical Expressions. 

Crete, Salmone, Fair Havens, and Lasea. 

55. "The Much Time" Spent Since Leaving Cesarea 250 

Leaving Fair Havens. Seeking Winter Quarters. 

The Master. 

The Situation of Phenix. 

The South Wind not Trustworthy. 

A Typhonic Wind Called Euraquilo. 

At Clauda. Securing the Boat. Undergirding the Ship, and 

Lowering the Gear. 
" The Many Days." 

Throwing Out Freight. Casting Out the Tackling. 
Josephus Shipwrecked on his Way to Pome. 

56. The Time of Shipwreck 252 

The Sea of Adria. 

The Anchors of Ancient Ships. 

The Fourteenth Day. Fasting. 

The Rudders and Foresail. 

The Place of Shipwreck Disputed. 

The Island of Malta. 

1. The Traditional Place. 

2. From the Direction and Probable Speed of Ship. 

3. The Conditions of Narrative Met in St. Paul's Bay. 

4. Indications of Land, Soundings, and Anchorage. 

5. In the Track of Ships Between Alexandria and Italy. 
Objections Answered. 

57. Paul at Melita 255 

Accuracy of Luke in Regard to Publius. 

58. The Time of Paul's Journey From Melita to Rome 256 

Luke's Description that of an Eye Witness. 


Sect. Page. 

They Touch at Syracuse. 
By Circuitous Route to Rhegium. 
Puteoli. They Tarry Seven Days. 
They Journey on the Appian Way. 
The Market of Appius. 
The Three Taverns. 

Paul's Treatment Upon his Arrival at Rome. 
His Opportunity of Preaching the Gospel. 
The Pretorium Camp. 
The Church at Rome. 

59. The Time of Paul's Arrival and Imprisonment at Rome 258 

The Jews at Rome. 

Quotation from Isaiah 6 : 9, 10. 

A Comparison with Paul's Epistles. 

Epistles to Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, and Philemon. 

The Lost Epistle to the Laodiceans. 

The Companions of Paul During Captivity. 

Seneca and the Apostle Paul. 

60. Paul's Subsequent Labors, and Second Imprisonment 260 

1. A Fair Inference from Luke's Account. 

2. His Expected Visit to Macedonia. 

3. Journeys and Incidents Not Mentioned in Acts. 

4. The Testimony of Tradition. 

The Scripture Arrangement of the Section. 

A Scheme of his Supposed Labors. 

The Probable Time of his Second Imprisonment and Martyrdom. 

Final Note on Luke as a Historian. 


Galatia 78 

Council at Jerusalem 83 

Paul's Second Visit to Corinth 95 

Luke and his Gospel 107 

On Acts 26:28 125 

The Gospels and the Acts 144 

Introductory to the Epistles 265 






About five years, from A. D. 30 to A. D. 35. 

^1. Introduction; Our Lord's Last Instructions to his Disciples; 
His Ascension. 

Jerusalem. — April and May, A. D. 30. 

ACTS 1 : 1-11. :MATT. 3 : 11. MARK 16 : 19, 20. LUKE 1:1-4; 3:16; 
24 : 50-53. 1 COE. 15 : 3-8. DAN. 7 : 27. 
(1) A former treatise, Acts 1:1; Luke 1 : 3, 4. (2) What he did in that narrative, Acts 
1: 1, 2; Luke 1:2-1. (3) Our Lord's appearances to his disciples, after his suflFerings, 
during forty days, Acts 1 : 3, 4; 1 Cor. 15: 3-7. (4) They are to wait for the promise of the 
Father, Acts 1:4; Luke 24 : 49 ; and the baptism in the Spirit, Acts 1:5; Matt. 3:11; Mark 
1:8; Luke 3 : 16. (5) The last appearance of Jesus to his disciples. Acts 1:6; Luke 24 : 50 : 
1 Cor. 15 : 7. (6) Their question, regarding the kingdom of Israel, xVcts 1 : 7. (7) Our Lord's 
answer; his last words; not for them to know ; they are to receive power; and be his wit- 
nesses, Acts 1 : 7, 8 ; Mark 16 : 20 ; Luke 24 : 53, (8) His ascension, Acts 1:9; Mark 1 : 19 ; 
Luke24; 51,52. 

ACTS 1. 

1 The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus 
began both to do and to teach, (a) 

2 Until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy 
Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen. 


(a) Luke 1: 1 Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set fortli in 
order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed 
among us, 

2 Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were 
eye-witnesses, and ministers of the word; 

3 It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all 



ACTS 1. 

3 To whom also he she-wed himself alive after his passion by 
many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the 
things pertaining to the kingdom of God. (a) 

4 And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they 
should not depart from Jerusalem, but -wait for the promise of 
the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. (6) 

5 For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be bap- 
tized with the Holy G-host not many days hence, (c) 

6 When they therefore were come together, they asked of him, saying, 
Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel ? 
{d) [Ch. 2:1-4; Joel 3: 28; John 14: 16, 17, 26; 15: 26.] 


things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent 

4 That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou 
hast been instructed. 

(a) 1 Cor. 15: 3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I 
also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures ; 

4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day 
according to the Scriptures; 

5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve : 

6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at 
once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are 
fallen asleep. 

7 After that he was seen of James ; then of all the apostles. 

8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one bom out of due 

(6) Luke 24: 49 And, behold, I send the promise of my Father 
upon you ; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be 
endued with power from on high. 

{c) Matt. 3: 11 I indeed baptize you with water unto re- 
pentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier tlian I, whose shoes I 
am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, 
and with fire: 

Luke 3 : 16 John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize 
you with water ; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of wliose 
shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the 
Holy Ghost, and with fire: 

{d) Dan. 7 : 27 And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the 
kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the 
saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting king- 
dom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him. [Amos 9: 11; Isa. 
1: 2.5-27; Gen. 49: 10; Deut. 29: 29; Matt. 24: 36; 1 Thess. 5:1, 2.] 


ACTS 1. 

7 And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the 
seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power. 

8 But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: 
and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and 
in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth. 

9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was 
taken up ; and a cloud received him out of their sight, (a) 

10 And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, 
two men stood by them in white apparel : 

11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into 
heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so 
come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven. [Luke 24: 4; 
John 20: 12; Dan. 7 : 13, 14; Luke 21 : 27; Kev. 1 : 7; 1 Thess. 4: 16, 17.] 

§2. Appointment of an Apostle in Place of Judas. 

Jerusalem. — May 18, A. D. SO. 

ACTS 1:1^26. MATT. 10 : 2-5 ; 27 : 3-10. MAKK 3: 16-19. LUKE 

6: 14-16. PS. 41: 9; 69: 25; 109: 8. 

(1) The disciples return from Olivet to Jerusalem, Acts 1 : 12. (2) They go to the 

upper room, ver. 13. (3) Who were abiding there, ver. 13, 14. (4) The twelve, ver. 13, 26; 

Matt. 10: 2-5; Mark 3: 16-19; Luke 6 : 14-16. (5) Peter addresses his brethren. Acts 1: 15. 

(6) The Scripture fulfilled concerning Judas, ver. 16, 17, 20; P$. 35:8. (7) The terrible 

death of Judas, Acts 1 : 18 ; Matt. 27 : 3-t5. (8) The purchase of the field of blood. Acts 1 : 18, 

19 ; Matt. 27 : 6-10. (9) The necessary qualifications of an apostle, Acts 1 : 21, 22. (10) Two 

nominated, ver. 23. (11) The prayer that God would guide their lot, ver. 24, 25. (12) Judas 

had forfeited his former position, and gone to his own place, his eternal doom, ver. 25. 

(13) Matthias is chosen, ver. 26. 

ACTS 1. 

12 Then returned they unto Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which 
is from Jerusalem a sabbath day's journey. [Luke 24 : 50.] 

13 And when they were come in, they went up into an upper room, where 


(a) Luke 24 : 50 And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he 
lifted up his hands, and blessed them. [Acts 1 : 12.] 

51 And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he "was parted from 
them, and carried up into heaven. 

52 And they Avorshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy: 

53 And were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen. 
Mark 16: 19 So then, after the Lord had spoken unto them, he 

was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of 

20 And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working 
with them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen. 


ACTS 1. 
abode both Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, Philip, and 
Thomas, Bartholomew, and Matthew, James the son of Alpheus, and ij^iuion 
Zelotes, and Judas the brother of James, (a) 

14 These all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication, with 
the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren. 

15 And in those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, and said, 
(the number of names together were about a hundred and twenty,) 

16 Men and brethren, this Scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which, 
the Holy G-host by the mouth of David spake before concern- 
ing Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus. (6) 

17 For he was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry. 

18 Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity ; and 
falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed 
out. (c) 

19 And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem ; insomuch as that 
field is called, in their proper tongue, Aceldama, that is to say. The field 
of blood, (c) 


(a) Matt. 10: 2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are 

these : The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother ; James 
the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; 

3 Philip, and Bartholo new ; Thomas, and Matthew the publican ; James 
the son of Alpheus, and Lebbeus, whose surname was Thaddeus; 

4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. 
Mark 3 : 16 And Simon he surnamed Peter ; 

17 And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and 
he surnamed them Boanerges, Avhich is. The sons of thunder : 

18 And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, 
and James the son of Alpheus, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Canaanite, 

19 And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him: 

Luke 6: 14 Simon, (whom he also named Peter,) and Andrew 
his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, 

15 Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alpheus, and Simon called 

16 And Judas the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, Avhich also was the 

(h) Ps. 41 : 9 Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, 
wliich did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me. [John 
13: 18.] 

(c) Matt. 27 : 3 Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw 
that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces 
of silver to the chief priests and elders, 

4 Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And 
they said. What is that to us? see thou to that. 


ACTS 1. 

20 For it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation be 
desolate, and let no man dwell therein : and, His bishoprick 
let another take, (a) 

21 Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time 
that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, 

22 Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was 
taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his 

23 And they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed 
Justus, and Matthias. 

24 And they prayed, and said. Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts 
of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen, 

25 That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which 
Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. 

26 And they gave forth their lots ; and the lot fell upon Matthias ; and he 
was numbered with the eleven apostles, 

§3. The Descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. 

Jerusalem. — Probably Sunday, May 28, A. D. SO. 

ACTS 2: 1-13. MATT. 10: 20. MARK 16: 17. 

(1) The disciples together in oue place, (see ch. 1 : 14), Acts 2 : i. (2) Astonishing signs 
attending the descent of the Holy Spirit— the sound from heaven and tongues as of fire, 
ver. 2, 3. (3) Ail filled with the Spirit, and si>eak with other tongues, ver. 4. (4) The devout 
Jews at Jersualem, ver. 5. (o) The impression of the miracle upon them— confounded and 
amazed, ver. 6, 7. (6) They utter their amazement, ver. 7-11. (7) The tongues of the na- 


5 And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and 
went and hanged himself. 

6 And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for 
to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood. 

7 And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, 
to bury strang-ers in. 

8 Wherefore that field was called. The field of blood, unto this 

9 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, sapng, 
And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was 
valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value : 

10 And gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me. [Zech. 

(a) Ps. 69 : 25 Let their habitation be desolate ; and let none 
dwell in their tents. 

Ps. 109: 8 Let his days be few; and let another take his 


tions which are heard, ver. 9-11. (8) What they heard—" the mighty works of God," ver. 11. 
(9) The astonishment and perplexity general, ver. 12. (10) Others, perhaps native Jews 
who did not understand these languages, scoff at it, ver. 13. 

ACTS 2. 

1 And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one 
accord in one place. 

2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty 
wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. [Ch. 1 : 5, and par- 
allel passages in ^ 1. Also ch. 10: 46 ; 19 : 6; 1 Cor. 14: 2, 4, 13, 14, 19, 27.] 

3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat 
upon each of them. 

4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak 
■with other tong-ues, as the Spirit gave them utterance, (a) 

5 And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every 
nation under heaven. [Luke 2: 25.] 

6 Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were 
confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. 

7 And they were all amazed and marvelled, saying one to another. Behold 
are not all these which speak Galileans ? 

8 And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born ? 

9 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia 
and in Judea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, 

10 Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about 
Cyrene, and strangers of Kome, Jews and proselytes, [1 Pet. 1:1; Acts 
18: 2; 16: 6; 13: 13; 11: 20; 18: 2; 6: 5; 13: 43; Tit. 1: 5, 12; Gal. 1: 17.] 

11 Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the won- 
derful works of God. 

12 And they were all amazed, and were in doubt, saying one to another. 
What meaneth this ? 

13 Others mocking said, These men are full of new wine. [1 Cor. 14: 23.] 

^4. Peter's Address to the Multitude. 
Jerusalem. — May, A. D. SO. 
ACTS 2: 14-36. JOEL 2: 28-32. PS. 16: 8-11; 110: 1. PS. 39: 3, 4. DAN. 
9:26. LUKE 24: 44-49. 1 COR. 15: 6. 1 PET. 1 : 10-12. 

(1) Peter speaks in the name of the apostles. Acts 2: 14. (2) Defends their character, 
and repudiates the charge of drunkenness, ver. 15. (3) Explains the miracles as a fulfill- 


(o) i\lATT. 10: 20 For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your 
Father Tvhich speaketh in you. 

Mark 16: 17 Thoy shall speak with new tongues. 


ment of prophecy, ver, 16-21. (4) A season of mercy, ver. 17, 18; Joel 2: 28, 29. (5) Also 
of judgment. Acts 2: 19, 20; Joel 2: 30, 31. (6) Salvation free to all who accept the condi- 
tion. Acts 2 : 21 ; Joel 2 : 32. (7) Peter at once points to Jesus, approved of God, and witnessed 
by men, Acts 2 : 22. (8) Delivered up by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, 
ver. 23; Dan. 9. 26; Luke 24: 44-19; 1 Pet. 1: 20. (9) Crucified, Acts 2:23; Dan. 9: 29; 
Luke 24: 46. (10) Raised from the dead, Luke 24: 46. (11) Foretold by David, Acts 2: 
25-28; Ps. 16: 8-11. (12) The prophecy not applicable to David, Acts 2 : 29, 34. (13) But to 
the Christ as promised to David, ver. 30, 31 ; Ps. 89 : 34. (14) Jesus raised from the dead, 
Acts 2 : 32 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 6. (15) And exalted to God's right hand, Acts 2 : 33. (16) And has 
poured forth the Spirit, ver. 33. (17) Having ascended on high, ver. 34, 35; Ps. 110: 1. (18) 
Presses the claim that Jesus is the true Messiah, Acts 2 : 36. 

ACTS 2. 

14 But Peter, standing up with tlie eleven, lifted up his voice, and said 
unto them. Ye men of Judea, and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem, be this 
known unto you, and hearken to my words: 

15 For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third hour 
of the day. [Isa. 5: 11.] 

16 But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel: 

17 And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith Grod, I 
■will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh : and your sons and your 
daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old 
men shall dream dreams: (a) 

18 And on ray servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those 
days of my Spirit ; and they shall prophesy : 

19 And I will shew wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth 
beneath ; blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke : 

20 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before 
that great and notable day of the Lord come : 

21 And it shall come to pass, that -whosoever shall call on 
the name of the Lord shall be saved, (a) Ver. 22, 36; Matt. 1 : 21 ; 
Kom. 10: 13.] 


(a) Joel 2 : 28 And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will 
pour out my Spirit upon all flesh ; and your sons and your daughters 
shall prophesy ; your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see 
visions : 

29 And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will 
I pour out my Spirit. 

^ 30 And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and 
fire, and pillars of smoke. 

31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before 
the great and terrible day of the Lord come. 

32 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name 
of the LORD shall be delivered : for in mount Zion and in Jerusa- 
lem shall be deliverance, as the Lord hath said, and in the remnant whom 
the Lord shall call. 


ACTS 2. 

22 Ye men of Israel, hear these words : Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved 
of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him 
in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know: 

23 Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and fore- 
kno'wledg'e of G-od, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified 
and slain : (a) [1 Pet. 1 : 20.] 

24 Wlioru God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because 
it was not possible that he should be holden of it. (6) 

25 For David speaketh concerning him: I foresaw the Lord al- 
ways before my face ; for he is on my right hand, that I should not be 
moved: (c) 

26 Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad ; moreover 
also my flesh shall rest in hope ; 

27 Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer 
thine Holy One to see corruption. [Ch. 13 : 35-37.] 

28 Thou hast made known to me the ways of life ; thou shalt 
make me full of joy with thy countenance, (c) 

29 Men and brethren, let me freely speak unto you of the patriarch 


(a) Dan. 9: 26 And after threescore and two weeks shall 
Messiah be cut off, but not for himself. 

(6) Luke 24: 44 And he said unto them, These are the words which I 
spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be ful- 
filled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the pro- 
pliets, and in tlie psalms, concerning me. 

45 Then opened he tlieir understanding, that they might understand the 

46 And said unto them. Thus it is written, and thus it behooved 
Christ to suff'er, and to rise from the dead the third day : 

47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his 
name among all nations, beginning at .Jerusalem. 

48 And ye are witnesses of these things. 

46 And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you : but tarry ye 
in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high. 

(c) Ps. 16: 8 I have set the LORD always before me; because he 
is at my right hand, I shall not he moved. 

9 Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth : my flesh also shall 
rest in hope. 

10 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell: neither wilt thou suflfer thine 
Holy One to see corruption. 

11 Thou wilt shew me the path of life: in thy presence is fulness 
of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore. 


ACTS 2. 
David, that he is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us unto 
this day. 

30 Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had S"WOrn "with 
an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he 
"would raise up Christ to sit on his throne; (a) [1 Kings 2: 10; 
Neh. 3: 16.] 

31 He, seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul 
was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption. [Ch. 13 : 35-37 ; Ps. 
72; 79: 3, 4; 132: 11; also 2 Sam. 7: 11-16.] 

32 This Jesus hath God raised up, "whereof "we all are "witnesses. (6) 

33 Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received 
of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which 
ye now see and hear. [Ch. 1 : 4, 5.] 

34 For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself. The 
Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, 

35 Until I make thy foes thy footstool, (c) 

36 Therefore let all the house of Israel kno"w assuredly, that 
God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and 
Christ, (d) [Col. 3: 1; Heb. 1:3; 10: 12; Matt. 22: 42; 1 Pet. 3: 22; Rom. 8: 
34; Mark 16: 19; Phil. 2: 6-11; Eph.l: 20-23; 1 Cor. 15: 23-28; ver.21,31.] 

§ 5. The Effect of Peter's Discourse. — Benevolence, Joy, and 

Increase of the Disciples. 

Jerusalem. — 3fay and June, A. D. 30. 

ACTS 2: 37-47. 

(1) The people awakened, convicted, and inquiring, ver. 37. (2) Peter exhorts them 

to repentance and baptism, ver. 38. (3) Encourages their faith, ver. 38, 39. (4) Further 

exhorts them to earnestness for their salvation, ver. 40. (5) About three thousand receive 

the word and are baptized, ver. 41. (G) They continue earnest and steadfast, ver. 42. 

(7) Many miracles done by the apostles, ver. 43. (8) Benevolence of the first Christiana 


(a) Ps. 39: 3 I have made a covenant with my chosen, I lia"ve S'WOrn 
unto David my servant, 

4 Thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all 

(6) 1 Cor. 15: 6 After that, he "was seen of above five hundred 
brethren at once ; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, 
but some are fallen asleep. 

(c) Ps. 110: 1 The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right 
hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. 

(d) 1 Pet. 1 : 10 Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and 


ver. 44, 45. (9) Their steadfastness, joy, and singleness of purpose, ver. 46. (10) Their 
favor with the people, ver. 47. (11) The increase of the church, ver. 47. 

ACTS 2. 

37 Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said 
unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we 
do? [John 16 : 8-10.] 

38 Then Peter said unto them, Kepent, and be baptized every one of you 
in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive 
the gift of the Holy Ghost. [Ch. 3:19; Luke 24:47; Matt. 28:19; 
Mark 1 : 4, 15. 

39 For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are 
afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call. [Jer. 32: 39, 40; Isa. 
44 : 3 ; Zech. 6:15; Isa. 57 : 19 ; Eph. 2 : 13, 17 ; Mic. 4 : 1, 2 ; Gen. 22 : 18.] 

40 And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save 
yourselves from this untoward generation. 

41 Then they that gladly received his word were baptized : and the same 
day there were added unto them about three thousand souls. [2 Cor. 6:17; 
Deut. 32 : 5.] 

42 And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, 
and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. [Matt. 28:20; ch. 20: 7, 10; 
1 Cor. 10 : 16.] 

43 And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done 
by the apostles. 

44 And all that believed were together, and had all things common ; [Ch. 
4 : 32-35 ; 5 : 4 ; Gal. 2:10; 1 Tim. 6 : 8, 17-19.] 

45 And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as 
every man had need. 

46 And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking 
bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness 
of heart, [Ch. 3: 1; 1 Cor. 11 : 20-21.] 

47 Praising God, and having favour with all the people. And the Lord 
added to the church daily such as should be saved. [Ch. 5: 13, 14; 11 : 21.] 


searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should 
come unto you : 

11 Searching what, or wliat manner of time the Spirit of Christ which 
was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ 
and the glory that should follow. 

12 Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they 
did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have 
preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Qhost sent down from 
heaven; which things the angels desire to loolc into. 



Address to the People. 

Jerusalem. — Autumn, A. D. 30. 

ACTS 3 : 1-26. GEN. 22 : 18. EX. 3 : 6. LEV. 17 : 29. DEUT. 15: 18, 19. 

(1) Peter and John going into the temple, Acts 3 : 1. (2) A lame man carried, asked alms 
of them, ver. 2, 3. Peter and John heal him in the name of Jesus, ver. 4-7. (3) The man 
leaping, walking, and praising God, ver. 8. (4) The astonishment of the people, ver. 9, 10. 
(5) The people run together unto them, ver. 11. (6) Peter addresses them, ver. 12. (7) The 
miracle not hy their own power, ver. 12. (8) But by the power of him whom the people 
had slain, but whom God had glorified, ver. 13-16. (9) Through faith in his name,ver. 16. 
(10) Done indeed in ignorance of their full criminality, ver. 17. (11) But in fulfillment of 
prophecy, ver. 18. (12) Exhorts them to repentance, in order that they may enjoy the 
blessings of Christ's kingdom, ver. 19. (13) And share in the future blessedness of true 
Israel, foretold by all the prophets, ver. 20, 21. (14) Thus Moses indeed predicted a Prophet 
and Mediator, ver. 22,23; Deut. 18: 15-19. (15) And Samuel and the prophets after him 
predicted these days. Acts 3 : 24. (16) The people the sons of the prophets and of God's 
covenant with the patriarchs, ver. 25. (17) Especially with Abraham, ver. 25 ; Gen. 22 : 18. 
(18) In accordance with which Jesus had been raised up to bless and save them, Acts 3 : 26. 

ACTS 3. 

1 Now Peter and John went up together into the temple at the hour of 
prayer, being the ninth hour. [Ch. 8 : 14 ; Luke 22 : 8 ; John 20 : 3 ; 21 : 7, 20.] 

2 And a certain man lame from his mother's womb was carried, whom they 
laid daily at the gate of the temple which is called Beautiful, to ask alms of 
them that entered into the temple ; 

3 Who, seeing Peter and John about to go into the temple, asked an alms. 

4 And Peter, fastening his eyes upon him with John, said, Look on us. 

5 And he gave heed unto them, expcQting to receive something of them. 

6 Then Peter said. Silver and gold have I none ; but such as I have give I 
thee : In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth rise up and walk. [Ch. 4 : 7, 
10; Mark 16: 17, 18; John 14: 12. 

7 And he took him by the right hand, and lifted him up : and immediately 
his feet and ankle bones received strength. 

8 And he leaping up stood, and walked, and entered with them into the 
temple, walking, and leaping, and praising God. 

9 And all the people saw him walking and praising God : 

10 And they knew that it was he which sat for alms at the Beautiful gate 
of the temple: and they were filled with wonder and amazement at that 
which had happened unto him. 

11 And as the lame man which was healed held Peter and John, all the 
people ran together unto them in the porch that is called Solomon's, greatly 
wondering. [Ch. 5 : 12 ; John 10 : 23.] 

12 And when Peter saw it, he answered unto the people, Ye men of 


ACTS 3. 

Israel, why marvel ve at this ? or why look ye so earnestly on us, as though 
by our own power or holiness we had made this man to walk ? 

13 The Grod of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the 
GrOd of our fathers, hath glorified his Son Jesus ; whom ye delivered up, 
and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let him 
go. (a) [Isa. 42: 1; 52: 13; 53: 13; ver. 26; ch. 4: 27, 30; Matt.27 : 24-26.] 

14 But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be 
granted unto you ; 

15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead ; 
whereof we are witnesses. [Heb. 12: 2; John 1:4; 5: 26; 10: 11, 2S.] 

16 And his name, through faith in his name, hath made this man strong, 
whom ye see and know : yea, the faith which is by him hath given 
him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all. (6) 

17 And now, brethren, I wot that through ignorance ye did it, as did also 
your rulers. [Ch. 1 : 22; 2: 32; 14: 9; 1 Tim. 1 : 13, 14; ch. 13: 27; Luke 
23:34; 1 Cor. 2:8.] 

18 But those things, which God before had shewed by the mouth 
of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he hath so 
fulfilled, {b) [Ps. 22; Isa. 50: 6; 53: 5; Dan. 9: 25; 1 Pet. 1: 10, 11.] 

19 Kepent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted 
out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord ; 

20 And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you: 
[Ps. 72: 6-17 ; Isa. 61 : 1-3, 10.] 

21 Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all 
things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since 
the world began. [Isa. 1: 2.5-27; Mai. 3: 1-4; Rom. 8: 18-25.] 

22 For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A Prophet shall the Lord 
your Grod raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me ; him 
shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. (c) 


(a) Ex. 3 : 6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the GrOd 
of Abraham, the Grod of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. 

(b) 1 Pet. 1 : 20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the 
world, but was manifest in these last times for you^ 

21 Who by hi^ do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, 
and gave him glory ; that your faith and hope might be in God. 

(c) Deut. 18: 15 The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a 
Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto 
him ye shall hearken. 

18 I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto 


23 And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that 
Prophet, shall be destroyed frora among the people, (a) 

24 Yea, and all the prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as 
many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days. [Ch. 2: 23, 24; 
Isa. 25: 1, 6; 26: 1, 19; Ezek. 37: 1-14; Luke 1: 70.] 

25 Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God 
made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the 
kindreds of the earth be blessed. (6) 

26 Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless 
you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities. [Isa. 59: 20, 21; 
Tit. 2: 11-14.] 

^7. The Imprisoxmext of Peter and John. — Their Arraignment 


Jerusalem. — Autumn, A. D. 30. 
ACTS 4: 1-31. 1 PET. 2: 4-8. PS. 2: 1, 2; 118: 22; 146: 6. 

(1) The Jewish rulers imprison Peter and John, Acts 4: 1-3. (2) Many believe, ver. 4, 
(3) The next morning they are brought before the Sanhedrim, ver. 5, 6. (4) The question 
of the chief priests, elders, and scribes, ver. 7. (5) Peter answers them, ascribing all the 
power in performing the miracle to Jesus, whom they had crucified, but whom God had 
raised from the dead, ver. 8, 9, 10. (6) Pointing to him as the author, the corner-stone, the 
only foundation of salvation, ver. 11, 12; Ps. 118: 22. (7) The Sanhedrim marvel at the 
boldness of the apostles, and can say nothing in their presence, and before the man who 
had been healed. Acts 4: 1.3, 14. (8) Command them to go aside, ver. 15. (9) Acknowledge 
a notable miracle, but resolve to threaten the apostles, ver. 16, 17. (10) Charge Peter and 
John not to teach in the name of Jesus, ver. 18. (11) Who reply that they must obey God 
rather than man, ver. 19, 20. (12) Unable to punish them, the Sanhedrim let them go, 
threatening them, ver.21. (1.3) The age of the man healed, ver. 22. (14) Their release occa- 
sions united praise to God among the disciples', ver. 23, 24 ; Ps. 146 : 6. (15) The words of 
David fulfilled, Acts 4: 25-28; Ps. 2: 1, 2. (16) They pray for greater courage and greacter 
powers, Acts 4 : 29, 30. (17) God at once, by miraculous signs, grants their prayer, ver. 31. 

ACTS 4. 
1 And as they spake unto the people, the priests, and the captain of the 
temple, and the Sadducees, came uix)n them, [Ch. 23:8; Matt. 22:23; 
23 : 6-8.] 


thee, and will put my words in his mouth ; and he shall speak unto them all 
that I shall command him. 

19 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words 
which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. 

(a) Lev. 23 : 29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that 
same day, he shall be cut ofif from among his people. 

(b) Gen. 22: 18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the 
earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice. [Gal. 3: 16.] 


ACTS 4. 

2 Being grieved that they taught the people, and preaclied through Jesus 
the resurrection from the dead. [Ch. 1 : 22; 2 : 24; 3 : 15.] 

3 And they laid hands on them, and put them in hold unto the next day : 
for it was now eventide. 

4 Howbeit many of them which heard the word believed ; and the number 
of men was about five thousand. [Ch. 2:41; Gal. 3 : 28.] 

5 And it came to pass on the morrow, that their rulers, and elders, and scribes, 

6 And Annas the high, priest, and Caiaphas, and John, and Alexander, 
and as many as were of the kindred of the high priest, were gathered 
together at Jerusalem. [Luke 3:2; John 11 : 49; 18 : 13, 14.] 

7 And when they had set them in the midst, they asked, By what power, 
or by what name, have ye done this? [Ch. 3 : 6, 16.] 

8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Ghost, said unto them, Ye rulers of 
the people, and elders of Israel, [Mark 13 : 11.] 

9 If we this day be examined of the good deed done to the impotent man, 
by what means he is made whole ; 

10 Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the 
name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from 
the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole. [Ch. 3:13. 

11 This is the stone which was set at nought of you 
builders, which is become the head of the corner, (a) 

12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name 
under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. [John 14 : 6 ; 
1 Cor. 3 : 11.] 

13 Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived 
that they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marvelled ; and they took 
knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus. [John 7 : 15; John 
18: 15; Matt. 21: 23.] 


(a) Ps. 118: 22 The stone which the builders refused is 
become the head stone of the corner. 

1 Pet. 2: 4 To whom coming, as unto a living stone, disal- 
lowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious, 

5 Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, 
to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. 

6 Wherefore also it is contained in the Scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion 
a chief corner stone, elect, precious : and he that belie veth on 
him shall not be confounded. [Matt. 21 : 42; Eph. 2 : 20.] 

7 Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which 
be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is 
made the head of the comer, 

.8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which 
stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed. 


ACTS 4. 

14 And beholding the man which was healed standing with them, they 
could say nothing against it. [Ver. 9, 10.] 

15 But when they had conmianded them to go aside out of the council, 
they conferred among themselves, 

16 Saying, What shall we do to these men? for that indeed a notable 
miracle hath been done by them is manifest to all them that dwell in Jeru- 
salem ; and we cannot deny it. [Ch. 3: 9, 11.] 

17 But that it spread no further among the people, let us straitly threaten 
them, that they speak henceforth to no man in this name. 

18 And they called them, and commanded them not to speak at all nor 
teach in the name of Jesus. [Ch. 5 : 29 ; Dan. 3 : 16-18 ; 6 : 10, 11.] 

19 But Peter and John answered and said unto them. Whether it be right 
in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye. 

20 For we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard. 

21 So when they had further threatened them, they let them go, finding 
nothing how they might punish them, because of the people; for all men 
glorified God for that which was done. [Ch. 5 : 26.] 

22 For the man was above forty years old, on whom this miracle of healing 
was shewed. 

23 And being let go, they went to their own company, and reported all that 
the chief priests and elders had said unto them. [Ch. 16 : 25.] 

24 And when they heard that, they lifted up their voice to God with one ac- 
cord, and said, Lord, thou art Grod, "which hast made heaven, and 
earth, and the sea, and all that in them is ; (a) [2 Kings 19 : 15 ; Ex. 20 : 11. 

25 Who by the mouth of thy servant David hast said, "Why did the 
heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things ? (6) 

26 Tlie kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together 
against the Lord, and against his Christ. 

27 For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, 
both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, 
were gathered together, [Ver. 30 ; ch. 3 : 13, and references ; ch. 2 : 23 ; Luke 
23: 1,12; Isa. 10:7.] 

28 For to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to 
be done. 


(a) Ps. 146: 6 "Which made heaven, and earth, the sea, and 
all that therein is : which keepeth truth for ever : 

(6) Ps. 2: 1 "WTiy do the heathen rage, and the people im- 
agine a vain thing ? 

2 The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel 
together, against the Lord, and against his Anointed. 


ACTS 4. 

29 And now, Lord, behold their threatenings : and grant unto thy servants, 
that with all boldness they may speak thy word, 

30 By stretching forth thine hand to heal ; and that signs and wonders may 
be done by the name of thy holy child Jesus. [Ch. 3 : 6, 16, 26.] 

31 And when they had prayed, the place was shaken where they Avere 
assembled together ; and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and they 
spake the word of God with boldness. [Ch. 2 : 2, 4 ; 10 : 44.] 

^ 8. The United and Prosperous Condition of the Church. With 
THE Open Liberality of Joseph and Others, is Contrasted the 
Lying Covetousness of Ananias and Sapphira. 

Jerusalem.— A. D. 30, 31. 
ACTS 4: 32-37; 5: 1-11. 

(1) The unity and the mutual love of the believers, Acts 4: 32. (2) Great power with 
the apostles, and great grace upon all, ver. 33. (3) Through great liberality of wealthier 
brethren, the wants of all supplied, ver. 34, 35. (4) The generous and open liberality of 
Joseph, surnamed Barnabas, ver. 36, .37. (o) The pretended generosity of Ananias and 
Sapphira, ch. 5 : 1. (6) Peter first charges Ananias with lying to the Holy Spirit, ver. 2. 
(7) Shows him that there was no palliation for his sin, ver. 3, 4. (8) Ananias falls down 
and dies, ver. 5. (9) The younger men of the assembly bury him, ver. 6. (10) Sapphira 
afterward comes in, ver. 7. (11) By a single question Peter shows her complicity with her 
husband, ver. 8. (12) Rebukes her for her terrible sin, and intimates her immediate death, 
ver. 9. (13) She, too, falls down and dies, ver. 10. (14) The young men just coming in, 
carry her out to burial, ver. 10. (14) Great fear comes upon all, ver. 11. 

ACTS 4. 

32 And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one 
soul : neither said any of them that aught of the things which he possessed 
Avas his own ; but they had all things common. [Ch. 2 : 44, 45, 47.] 

33 And with great power gave the apostles witness of the resurrection of 
the Lord Jesus: and great grace was upon them all. [2 Cor. 9:7-9; 
Luke 2 : 52.] 

34 Neither was there any. among them that lacked: for as many as were 
possessors of lands or houses sold them, and brought the prices of the things 
that were sold, 

35 And laid them down at the apostles' feet: and distribution was made 
unto every man according as he had need. 

36 And Joses, who by the aix)stles was surnamed Barnabas, (which is, 
being interpreted, The son of consolation,) a Levite, and of the country of 
Cyprus, [Ch. 9 : 27; 11 : 22-25; Gal. 2: 9.] 

37 Having land, sold it, and brought the money, and laid it at the apostles' 
feet. [Dent. 10 : 8, 9.] 


ACTS 5. 

1 But a certain man named Ananias, Avith Sapphira his wife, sold a 

2 And kept back j3ar^ of the price, his wife also being privy to it, and 
brought a certain part and laid it at the apostles' feet. [1 Tim. 6 : 10.] 

3 But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the 
Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land? [Jas. 4:7; 
2 Pet. 2 : 15; Num. 22 : 31-35.; 31 : 8.] 

4 While it remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it 
not in thine own power? why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart? 
thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God. [Ver. 9.] 

5 And Ananias hearing these words fell down, and gave up the ghost : and 
great fear came on all them that heard these things. [Num. 15 : 32-36 ; 
16 : 31-35; Lev. 10 : 1, 2; 2 Sam. 6 : 6, 7.] 

6 And the young men arose, wound him up, and carried him out, and 
buried him. [Lev. 10 : 5.] 

7 And it was about the space of three hours after, when his wife, not 
knowing what was done, came in. 

8 And Peter answered unto her. Tell me whether ye sold the land for so 
much ? And she said. Yea, for so much. 

9 Then Peter said unto her. How is it that ye have agreed together to 
tempt the Spirit of the Lord? behold, the feet of them which have buried 
thy husband are at the door, and shall carry thee out. 

10 Then fell she down straightway at his feet, and yielded up the ghost: 
and the young men came in, and found her dead, and, carrying her forth, 
buried her by her husband. 

11 And great fear came upon all the church, and upon as many as heard 
these things. [Ch. 2: 43; 19: 17.] 

I 9. Great Increase of the Church. The Imprisonment and Mi- 
raculous Escape of the Apostles. Their Bold Confession and 

Jerusalem. — A. D. 31-34. 

ACTS 5 : 12-42. DEUT. 21 : 22, 23. 

(1) Many miracles wrought by the apostles, Acts 5 : 12. (2) An awe impresses unbelievers, 
ver. 13. (3) The people extol them, and believers were the more added to the Lord, ver. 14. 

(4) "Wonderful miracles performed upon the sick who are brought for healing, ver. 15, 16. 

(5) The rulers are enraged, and seize and imprison the apostles, ver. 17, 18. (6) An angel 
delivers them, ver. 19. (7) Commands them to preach in the temple, ver. 20. (8) They obey 
at day-break, ver. 21. (9) The rulers perplexed at not finding them in prison, ver. 21-24. (10) 
Their presence and teaching in the temple announced, ver. 25. (11) Arrested again with- 
out violence and brought before the Sanhedrim, ver. 2fi, 27. (12) Sternly questioned by the 
high priest, ver. 28. (13) Thev boldiv rcplv, repeating their testimony to Jesus and their 


charges against his murderers, ver. 29-32. (14) The rulers, convulsed with rage, propose to 
kill them, ver. 33. (15) They are saved from death by the wise advice of Gamaliel, ver. 
34-39. (16) Scourged and threatened, and let go, ver. 40. (17) The apostles rejoice in their 
sufferings, and continue preaching both publicly and privately, ver. 41. 

ACTS 5. 

12 And by the hands of the apostles were many signs and wonders 
wrought among the people ; (and they were all with one accord in Solomon's 
porch. [Ch. 14: 3; Mark 16: 17, 18.] 

13 And of the rest durst no man join himself to them ; but the people 
magnified them. [Ch. 2: 42, 46; 3: 11.] 

14 And believers were the more added to the Lord, multitudes of both men 
and women ; ) [Ch. 2 : 47 ; 4 : 21 ; Gal. 3 : 28.] 

15 Insomuch that they brought forth the sick into the streets, and laid 
them on beds and couches, that at the least the shadow of Peter passing by 
might overshadow some of them. [John 14: 12.] 

16 There came also a multitude out of the cities round about unto Jeru- 
salem, bringing sick folks, and them which were vexed with unclean spirits : 
and they were healed every one. [Ch. 19 : 10-12 ; Num. 21 : 8 ; Matt. 9 : 20.] 

17 Then the high priest rose up, and all they that were with him, (which 
is the sect of the Sadducees,) and were filled with indignation, [Ch. 4 : 1, 2, 5.] 

18 And laid their hands on the apostles, and put them in the common 

19 But the angel of the Lord by night opened the prison doors, and 
brought them forth, and said, [Ch. 12 : 7-10 ; 16 : 26.] 

20 Go, stand and speak in the temple to the people all the Avords of this 
life. [Ch. 11:14; 13:26.] 

21 And when they heard that, they entered into the temple early in the 
morning, and taught. But the high priest came, and they that were with 
him, and called the council together, and all the senate of the children of 
Israel, and sent to the prison to have them brought. 

22 But when the officers came, and found them not in the prison, they 
returned, and told, 

23 Saying, the prison truly found we shut with all safety, and the keepers 
standing without before the doors: but when we had opened, we found no 
man within. 

24 Now when the high priest and the captain of the temple and the chief 
priests heard these things, they doubted of them whereunto this would grow. 

25 Then came one and told them, saying. Behold, the men whom ye put 
in prison are standing in the temple, and teaching the people. [Ch. 4:1.] 

26 Then went the captain with the officers, and brought them without 
violence: for they feared the people, lest they should have been stoned. 


ACTS 5. 

27 And when they had brought them, they set them before the council : 
and the high priest asked them, 

28 Sajang, Did not we strait ly command you that ye should not teach in 
this name? and, behold ye have filled Jerusalem with your doctrine, and 
intend to bring this man's blood upon us. [Ch. 4: 10, 11; 7: 52; Matt. 23: 
35; 27: 25; Mark 13: 11.] 

29 Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to obey 
God rather than men. [Ch. 4: 19, 20.] 

30 The Grod of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and 
hanged on a tree, (a) [1 Pet. 2 : 4.] 

31 Him hath God exalted Avith his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, 
for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. [Ps. 2: 6-12; 110: 
1, 2; Dan. 9: 25, 26; Ezek. 36: 26, 27; Zech. 12: 10.] 

32 And we are his witnesses of these things; and so is also the Holy 
Ghost, whom God hath given to them that obey him. 

33 When they heard that, they were cut to the heart, and took counsel to 
slay them. [Ch. 2: 37; 7: 54.] 

34 Then stood there up one in the council, a Pharisee, named Gamaliel, a 
doctor of the law, had in reputation among all the people, and commanded 
to put the apostles forth a little space; [Ch. 22: 3.] 

35 And said unto them, Ye men of Israel, take heed to yourselves what ye 
intend to do as touching these men. 

36 For before these days rose up Theudas, boasting himself to be some 
body; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves: 
who was slain ; and all, as many as obeyed him, were scattered, and brought 
to nought. [Probably about B. c. 4.] 

37 After this man rose up Judas of Galilee in the days of the taxing, and 
drew away much people after him : he also perished ; and all, even as many as 
obeyed him, were dispersed. [Probably about A. D. 7.] 

38 And now I say unto you, Refrain from these men, and let them alone : 
for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought : 

39 But if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it ; lest haply ye be found even 
to fight against God. [Ch. 23 : 9.] 


(a) Deut. 21. 22 And if a man have committed a sin worthy of 
death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a 

23 His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in 
any wise bury him that day ; (for he that is hanged is accursed of 


ACTS 5. 

40 And to him they agreed: and when they had called the apostles, and 
beaten them, they commanded that they should not speak in the name of 
Jesus, and let them go. [Mark 13: 9; Deut. 25: 2.] 

41 And they departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they 
were counted worthy to suffer shame for his name. [Ch. 16: 23-25 j Matt. 5: 

42 And daily in the temple, and in every house, they ceased not to teach 
and preach Jesus Christ. [Ch. 9: 20, 29; 17 : 3.] 

g 10. Appointment of Alms-distributers in the Church at Jerusalem. 

Jerusalem. — A. D. 34. 

ACTS 6 : 1-7. 1 TIM. 5 : 9, 10. 

(1) Dissensiou in the church; the widows of Jews said to be neglected, Acts 6: 1. 
(2) The apostles assemble the disciples, ver. 2. (3) And suggest the appointment of seven 
men to attend to the distribution of alms, ver. 3, 4. (4) The disciples approve and ai>- 
poiut, ver. 5, 6. (5) The apostles confirm the appointment by prayer and laying on of 
hands, ver. 6. (6) Followed by great prosperity of the church, 7. 

ACTS 6. 

1 And in tliose days, when the number of the disciples was multiplied, 
there arose a murmuring of the Grecians against the Hebrews, because 
their widcws were neglected in the daily administration, (a) [Ch. 9 : 
29; 11: 20; 1 Tim. 5: 3-11; Ex. 22: 22; Acts 2: 45; 4: 35. 

2 Then the twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, and said, 
It is not reason that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables. [Ch. 
1 : 26.] 

3 Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest 
report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this 
business. [Neh. 6: 3; 1 Tim. 4: 14-16; 2 Tim. 2: 4; 1 Tim. 3: 7-10. 

4 But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of 
the word. 

5 And the saying pleased the whole multitude : and they chose Stephen, a 
man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and 


(o) 1 Tim. 5: 9. Let not a widow be taken into the number 
under threescore years old, having been the wife of one man, 

10 Well reported of for good works ; if slie have brought up children, if 
she have lodged strangers, if she have Avashed the saints' feet, if she have 
relieved the afHicted, if she have diligently followed every good work. 


ACTS 6. 
Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch; 
[Ch. 15: 22; 11: 24; 8: 5-13, 26-40; 21: 8.] 

6 Whom they set before the apostles : and when they had prayed, they laid 
their hands on them. [Ch. 1: 24; 8: 17; 9: 17; 13: 3; 2 Tim. 1 : 6.] 

7 And the word of God increased : and the number of the disciples multi- 
plied in Jerusalem greatly ; and a great company of the priests were obedient 
to the faith. [John 12 : 42.] 

g 11. Stephen's Zeal and Violent Apprehension. 

Jerusalem. — A. D. 34; lyrohabhj near its dose. 

ACTS 6:8-15. 

(1) Stephen's eminent character and usefulness, Acts. 6 : 8. (2) Certain foreign Jews 
dispute with him, ver. 9. (3) Not able to cope with him in argument, ver. 10. (4) Charge 
him with blasphemies, ver. 11. (5) They stir up the people, who before this had sided with 
the disciples, (ch. 4: 21; 5: 13); and the rulers who seize him and bring him before the 
Sanhedrim, ver. 12. (6) False witnesses, ver. 13, 14. (7) The preternatural lustre of Ste- 
phen's countenance, ver. 15. 

ACTS 6. 

8 And Stephen, full of faith and power, did great wonders and miracles 
among the people. [Ver. 3, 5 ; John 1:19; 1 Cor. 15 : 10.] 

9 Then there arose certain of the synagogue, which is called the synagogue 
of the Libertines, and Cyrenians, and Alexandrians, and of them of Cilicia 
and of Asia, disputing with Stephen. 

10 And they were not able to resist the Avisdom and the spirit by which he 

11 Then they suborned men, which said. We have heard him speak blas- 
phemous words against Moses, and against God. [Matt. 26 : 59 ; 1 Kings 21 : 
10-14; Deut. 13 : 6-10.] 

12 And they stirred up the people, and the elders, and the scribes, and 
came upon him, and caught him, and brought him to the council, 

13 And set up false witnesses, which said. This man ceaseth not to speak 
blasphemous words against this holy place, and the law: [Ch. 5: 28; 21 : 28.] 

14 For we have heard liim say, that this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy 
this place, and shall change the customs which Moses delivered us. [Ch. 7 : 
48-50; Matt. 24: 1, 2; 26: 60, 16.] 

15 And all that sat in the council, looking steadfastly on him, saw his face 
as it had been the face of an angel. [Exod. 35 : 29, 35 ; Matt. 28 : 3 ; Luke 


^12. Defense of Stephen Before the Sanhedrim. 

Jerusalem. — A. D. 34. 

ACTS 7:1-53. GEN. 12:1; 15:13-16. EX. 1:7, 8, 22; 2:11-14. 

3 : 2-10, 12; 7 : 3, 4; 25 : 9, 40; 32 : 1, 9. NUM. 14 : 3, 4. DEUT. 18 : 15. 

JOSH. 24: 32. PS. 132: 1-5. ISA. 48: 4; 66: 1, 2. AMOS 5: 22-27; 

MATT. 23 : 29-31. 
A twofold object appears in Stephen's defense: First, to show that his accusers had 
false views of the Old Dispensation. Second, that in their rejection of the Prophet whom 
Moses foretold, they were manifesting the unbelieving and rebellious spirit of their 

(1) The high priest's question, Acts 7: 1. (2) The Defense: I. History of the patri- 
archal age, in which was foretold bondage and deliverance, ver. 2-16. II. Fulfillment of 
the promise, and the treatment of Moses, the deliverer, ver. 17-36. III. This Moses, who 
continued to be ill-treated, foretold another prophet, ver. 37-43. IV. The typical nature 
and temporal existence of the tabernacle. The same true of the temple, ver. 44-50. 
V. The concluding charge, that the Jews were exhibiting the spirit of their fathers in 
their disobedience to the law, and their rejection and slaying of him, whom Moses fore- 
told, ver. 51-53. 

Further Analysis. — (3) The call of Abraham, and his entrance into Canaan, ver. 
2-4. (2) The prediction of the bondage in Egypt, and the deliverance, ver. 5-8. (3) The 
treatment of Joseph by his brethren, and the going of Israel to Egypt, ver. 9-16. (4) The 
bondage in Egypt, ver. 17-19. (5) The birth and appearance of Moses the deliverer, ver. 
20-23. (6) Moses at first rejected by his brethren, ver. 23-29. (7) The Lord sends him 
back into Egypt to his brethren, ver. 30-34; he brings the people out of Egypt into the 
wilderness, ver. 35-37. (8) Foretells another Prophet, and receives the Law, which their 
fathers did not keep, ver. 38-41. (9) God gave them over to their wickedness, and to the 
Babylonish captivity, ver. 42, 43. (10) The tabernacle was typical of a heavenly and 
spiritual worship, and was temporary, ver. 44-46. (11) The temple, of like nature, was 
not intended to limit the gracious presence of God, ver. 47-50. (12) Stephen charges upon 
the Sanhedrim the ignorance and the disobedience of their fathers, ver. 51-53. 

ACTS 7. 

1 Then said the high priest. Are these things so? 

2 And he said, Men, brethren, and fathers, hearken: The God of glory 
appeared unto our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he 
dwelt in Charran, [Ch. 21 : 1 ; Ps. 29 : 3, "God of glory" ; Gen. 11 : 31.] 

3 And said unto him, Ctet thee out of thy country, and from thy 
kindred, and come into the land which I shall shew thee, (a) 

4 Then came he out of the land of the Chaldeans, and dwelt in Charran : 
and from thence, when his father was dead, he removed him into this land, 
wherein ye now dwell. [Gen. 12 : 4, 5.] 


(a) Gen. 12: 1 Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of 
thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's 
house, unto a land that I will shew thee: 


ACTS 7. 

5 And he gave him none inheritance in it, no, not so much as to set his 
foot on: yet he promised that he would give it to him for a possession, and to 
his seed after him., when as yet he had no child. [Gen. 12: 7; 13: 15; 
15:13,18; 17:8; 23:4; 26:3; 48:4.] 

6 And God spake on this wise. That his seed should sojourn in a 
strange land ; and that they should bring them into bondage, and entreat 
them evil four hundred years, (a) [Ex. 14 : 28, 29; Ps. 136 : 10-15.] 

7 And the nation to whom they shall be in bondage "will I judge, said 
God: and after that shall they come forth, and serve me in this 
place, (a) 

8 And he gave him the covenant of circumcision : and so Abraham begat 
Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day ; and Isaac begat Jacob ; and Jacob 
begat the twelve patriarchs. [Gen. 17 : 1-14; 21 : 4.] 

9 And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into 
Egypt : but God was with him, (6) [Gen. 37 : 27, 28; 39 : 2, 21-23.] 

10 And delivered him out of all his afflictions, and gave him favour and 
wisdom in the sight of Pharaoh king of Egypt ; and he made him governor 
over Egypt and all his house. [Gen. 41 : 38-41 ; Ps. 105 : 21.] 

11 Now there came a dearth over all the land of Egypt and Chanaan, and 
great affliction ; and our fathers found no sustenance. [Gen. 41 : 54r-57.] 

12 But when Jacob heard that there vras corn in Egjrpt, he sent 
out our fathers first, (c) 

* 13 And at the second time Joseph was made known to his 
brethren ; and Joseph's kindred was made known unto Pharaoh. ((/) 


(a) Gen. 15 : 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that 
thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and 
shall serve them ; and they shall afflict them four hundred years ; 

14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge : and 
afterward shall they come out with great substance. 

15 And thou shalt go to thy fathers in f)eace; thou shalt be buried in a 
good old age. 

16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again : 
for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full: 

Ex. 3: 12 And he said. Certainly I will be with thee; and this 
shall be a token unto thee, that I have sent thee : When thou hast brought 
forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain. 

(b) Gen. 37: 11 And his brethren envied him. 
Gen. 39 : 2 And the Lord was with Joseph. 

Gen. 45 : 54 I am Joseph, your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. 

(c) Gen. 42: 5 Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt. 

(d) Gen. 45 : 1 While Joseph made himself known to his brethren. 


ACTS 7. 

14 Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him, and all his 
kindred, threescore and fifteen souls. [Gen. 45 : 9; 46 : 27 ; Deut. 10 : 22.] 

15 So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he, and our fathers, [Gen. 
49: 33; 50: 13, 26; Ex. 1: 6; 13: 19.] 

16 And were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the 
sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the 
sons of Emmor, the father of Sychem. (a) 

17 But when the time of the promise drew nigh, which God had sworn to 
Abraham, the people grew and multiplied in Egypt. 

18 Till another king arose, which knew not Joseph. (6) 

19 The same dealt subtilely with our kindred, and evil entreated our 
fathers, so that they cast out their young children, to the end 
they might not live, (f) 

20 In which time Moses was born, and was exceeding fair, and nourished 
up in his father's house three months: [Ex. 2: 2, "a goodly child" ; 2 : 3-7.] 

21 And when he was cast out, Pharaoh's daughter took him up, and 
nourished him for her own son. [Ex. 2 : 10.] 

22 And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was 
mighty in words and in deeds. [Heb. 11 : 24-27.] 

23 And when he was fuU forty years old, it came into his heart to 
visit his brethren the children of Israel, {d) 

24 And seeing one of them suffer wrong, he defended him, and avenged him 
that was oppressed, and smote the Egyptian : (d) 

25 For he supposed his brethren would have understood how that God by 
his hand would deliver them ; but they understood not. 

26 And the next day he shewed himself unto them as they 
strove, and would have set them at one again, saying, Sirs, ye are brethren; 
why do ye wrong one to another? (d) 


(a) Josh. 24 : 32 And the bones of Joseph, which the children 
of Israel brought up out of Egjrpt, buried they in Shechem, in 
a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of 
Shechem for a hundred pieces of silver ; and it became the inheritance of 
the children of Joseph. 

(h) Ex. 1 : 7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased 
abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty ; and tlie 
land was filled with them. 

8 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew 
not Joseph. 

(r) Ex. 1 : 22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying. Every son 
that is bom ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye 
shall save alive. 

{d) Ex. 2: 11 And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was 


ACTS 7. 

27 But he that did his neighbour wrong thrust him away, saying, Who 
made thee a ruler and a judge over us ? (a) 

28 Wilt thou kill me, as thou didst the Egyptian yesterday? [Ex. 2 : 22; 
4:20; 18: 3,4.] 

29 Then fled Moses at this saying, and was a stranger in the land of 
Madian, where he begat two sons. 

30 And when forty years were expired, there appeared to 
him in the wilderness of mount Sina an angel of the Lord in a flame 
of fire in a bush. (6) 

31 When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight : and as he drew near to 
behold it, the voice of the Lord came unto him, 

32 Saying, I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham, and the God 
of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, Then Moses trembled, and durst not behold. 
[Jud. 6: 22; 13: 22; Isa. 6 : 5.] 

33 Then said the Lord to liim, Put oflF thy shoes from thy feet : 
for the place where thou standest is holy ground, [c) 

34 I have seen, I have seen the afiBiction of my people which 


grown, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their 
burdens: and he spied an Egyptian smiting a Hebrew, one of his brethren. 

12 And lie looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was 
no man, he slew the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand. 

13 And when he went out the second day, behold, two men 
of the Hebrews strove together : and he said to him that did the 
wrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow? 

(o) Ex. 2 : 14 And he said, Who made thee a prince and a judge 
over us ? intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyp- 
tian ? And Moses feared and said, Surely this thing is known. 

(b) Ex. 3 : 2 And the Angel of the LORD appearad unto him 
in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush : and he looked, 
and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was 
not consumed. 

3 And ]\loses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the 
bush is not burnt. 

4 And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto 
liim out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said. 
Here am I. 

G Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, tlie God of Abraham, tlie 
God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was 
afraid to look upon God. 

(c) Ex. 3: 5 And he said. Draw not nigh hither: put ofif thy shoes 
from off thy feet ; for the place whereon thou standest is holy 


ACTS 7. 

is in Eg-ypt, and I have heard their groaning, and am come down 
to deliver them. And now come, I will send thee into Egypt, (a) 

35 This Moses whom they refused, saying. Who made thee a ruler and a 
judge? the same did God send to he a ruler and a deliverer by the hand of 
the angel which appeared to him in the bush. [Ex. 2: 14; John 5: 46, 47.] 

36 He brought them out, after that he had shewed wonders 
and signs in the land of Egypt, and in the Ked sea, and in the wilder- 
ness forty years. (6) 

37 This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel, A Prophet 
shall the Lord your Grod raise up unto you of your brethren, 
like unto me; him shall ye hear, (c) [Deut. 18: 8.] 

38 This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel 
which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received 
the lively oracles to give unto us: [Ex. 19: 1 ff; Gal. 3: 19.] 

39 To whom our fathers would not obey, but thrust him from 
them, and in their hearts turned back again into Egypt, 

40 Saying" unto Aaron, Make us gods to go before us: for as 
for this Moses, which brought us out of the land of Egypt, we wot 
not what, is become of him. {d) [Ex. 32: 4-6, 23.] 


(a) Ex. 3: 7 And the Lord said, I have surely seen the aflaiction 
of my people, which are in Egypt, and have heard their 
cry by reason of their taskmasters; for 1 know their sorrows; 

8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, 
and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a 
land flowing with milk and honey ; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the 
Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the 

9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto 
me : and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress 

10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou 
mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt. 

(6) Ex. 7 : 3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs 
and my wonders in the land of Egypt. 

4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand 
upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the chil- 
dren of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments. 

(c) Deut. 18 : 15 The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a 
Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; 
unto him ye shall hearken. 

[d) Ex. 32 : 1 And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down 
out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto 


ACTS 7. 

41 And they made a calf in those days, and offered sacrifice unto the idol, 
and rejoiced in the works of their own hands. 

42 Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven ; as 
it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have 
ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices by the space of 
forty years in the wilderness? (a) [2 Kings 17: 16-18; 21: 1-9; 
Isa. 63: 10; Jer. 7: 18; 19: 33, "the host of heaven."] 

43 Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch and the star of your 
god Kemphan, figures which ye made to worship them : and I will carry 
you away beyond Babylon. [Ps. 81: 11, 12; 95: 7-11; Heb. 3: 7-11.] 

44 Our fathers had the tabernacle of "witness in the wilderness, 
as he had appointed, speaking unto Moses, that he should make it accord- 
ing to the fashion that he had seen, (b) [Heb. 8 : 5.] 

45 Which also our fathers that came after brought in with Jesus into the 
possession of the Gentiles, whom God drave out before the face of our fathers, 
unto the days of David; [Gen. 48: 4, "for a possession."] 

46 Who found favoiu* before G-od, and desired to find a taber- 
nacle for the God of Jacob, (c) [2 Sam. 7 : 1-16 ; 1 Chron. 22: 7.] 

47 But Solomon built him a house. [1 Kings 6: 1, 2.] 


Aaron, and said unto him. Up, make us g-ods, which shall go 
before us ; for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the 
land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him. 

Num. 14 : 3 And wherefore hath the Lord brought us unto this land, to 
fall by the sword, that our wives and our children should be a prey? were it 
not better for us to return into Egypt? 

4 And they said one to another. Let us make a captain, and let us 
return into Egypt. 

(a) Amos 5 : 25 Have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings 
in the wilderness forty years, O house of Israel ? 

26 But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your 
images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves. 

27 Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith 
the Lord, whose name is The God of hosts. 

(6) Ex. 25 : 9 According to all that I shew thee, after the pat- 
tern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, 
even so shall ye make it. 

40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was 
shewed thee in the mount. 

(c) Ps. 132: 1 Lord, remember David, and all his afflictions: 

2 How he sware unto the Lord, and vowed unto the mighty God of Jacob ; 

3 Surely I will not come into the tabernacle of my house, 
nor go up into my bed; 


ACTS 7. 

48 Howbeit tlie Most High dwelleth not in temples made with liands; 
as saith the prophet, 

49 Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool : what 
house will ye build me ? saith the Lord : or what is the place 
of my rest? 

50 Hath not my hand made all these things ? (a) 

51 Ye stifFnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do 
always resist the Holy Gliost : as your fathers did, so do ye. (6) 

52 Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted ? 
and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming 
of the Just One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and mur- 
derers: (e) [2 Chron. 36: 16; Jer. 2: 30; Matt. 22: 32-35; Gal. 3: 19; 
Heb. 3 : 2.] 

53 Who have received the law by the disposition of angels, and have not 
kept it. 

1 13. The Death and Burial of Stephen. Persecution and Scat- 
tering THE Disciples. 

Jerusalem.— A. D. 34, 35. 

ACTS 7 : 54-60 ; 8:1-3; 22 : 19, 20. 

(1) The rulers convulsed with rage, ver. 54. (2) The Spirit reveals to Stephen a scene of 
heaven— God's glory, and Jesus at God's right hand, ver. 55. (3) Stephen declares the 
vision, ver. 56. (4) The exasperated rulers utter cries of rage and horror, tumultuously 
east him from the city, and stone him, ver. 57, 58. (5) Stephen dies, committing himself 
to the Lord Jesus, and praying for his murderers, ver. 59, 60. (6) Saul consenting to his 
death, ver. 58; 8: 1. (7) A great persecution, the first result of Stephen's death, ver. 1. 
(8) The burial of Stephen, ver. 2. (9) Saul bitterly persecuting the church, ver. 3, 


4 T will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine eyelids, 

5 Until I find out a place for the LORD, a habitation for the 
mighty God of Jacob. 

(a) IsA. 66 : 1 Thus saith the Lord, The heaven is my throne, 
and the earth is my footstool : where is the house that ye build 
unto me ? and where is the place of my rest ? 

2 For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have 
been, saith the Lord: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and 
of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word. 

(6) Ex. 32: 9 And the Lord said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, 
behold, it is a stiffnecked people : 

IsA. 48 : 4 Because I knew that thou art obstinate, and thy neck 
is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass. 

(c) Matt. 23: 29 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! be- 


ACTS 7. 

54 When they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they 
gnashed on him with their teeth. [Ch. 5 : 33.] 

55 But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up steadfastly into heaven, 
and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, 
[Ch. 6:5; Isa. 6:1-3; Matt. 3:16; 26 : 64, 65.] 

56 And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man stand- 
ing on the right hand of God. 

57 Then they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped their ears, and ran 
upon him with one giccord, [Lev. 24 : 14 ; 1 Kings 21 : 13 ; Luke 4 : 29.] 

58 And cast Mm out of the city, and stoned kim : and the witnesses laid 
down their clothes at a young man's feet, whose name was Saul. 
(a) [Deut. 17 : 7 ; Ch. 9 : 1-13.] 

59 And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, 
receive my spirit. [Ch. 9 : 6, 17.] 

60 And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice. Lord, lay not this 
sin to their charge. And Avhen he had said this, he fell asleep. [Ps. 31 : 5 ; 
Luke 23 : 34, 46 ; Matt. 5 : 44 ; John 11 : 11.] 

ACTS 8. 

1 And Saul was consenting unto his death. And at that time there was a 
great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem ; and they were 
all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, except the 
apostles, (a) [Ch. 11: 19-21; 1 Cor. 15: 18, 51; 1 Thess. 4: 13, 14.] 

2 And devout men carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamenta- 
tion over him. [Gen. 50 : 10.] 

3 As for Saul, he made havoc of the church, entering into every house, and 
haling men and women committed them to prison. [Ch. 9:1,2; Gal. 1 : 13, 
14; Acts 26 : 10, 11 ; 1 Tim. 1 : 13-16. 


cause ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the 

30 And say. If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have 
been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. 

31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children 
of them which killed the prophets. 

(a) Acts 22 : 19 And I said, Lord, they know that I imprisoned and beat 
in every synagogue them that believed on thee : 

20 And' when the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed, I 
also was standing by, and consenting unto his death, and kept 
the raiment of them that slew him.] 



About four years, A. D. 35-39. From the first Jewish persecution to Peter^s 
sojourn in Joppa. 

1 14. The Gospel Preached in Samaria by Philip, Peter, and John. 
Simon the Sorcerer. 

Samaria. — A. D. 35. 

ACTS 8: 4-25. PS. 78: 37. 

(1) The persecution results in scattering the disciples, and the preaching of the word, 
Acts 8 : 4. (2) Philip, one of the Seven, goes to the city of Samaria, preaches, and performs 
miracles, ver. 5-8. (3) Heard with attention and joy, ver. 5, 8, (4) Simon the Sorcerer, ver. 
9-11. (5) The people believe and are baptized, ver. 12. (6) Simon professes faith and is 
baptized, ver. 13. (7) The apostles at Jerusalem send Peter and John, ver. 14. (8) Who 
pray for the gift of the Holy Spirit, which is granted, in connection with laying on of 
hands, to those who had been baptized, ver. 15-17. (9) Simon otFers money, in order that 
he may possess like power, ver. 18. (10) Peter's rebuke, warning, and admonition, ver. 
19-23. (11) Simon's reply, ver. 24. (12) Peter and John preach in Samaria, and return to 
Jerusalem, 25. 

ACTS 8. 

4 Therefore they that were scattered abroad went every where preaching 
the word. [Ch. 11 : 19-21.] 

5 Then Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and preached Christ unto 
them. [Ch. 6:5; 21 :8; 1:8; John 4: 5, 35-88.] 

6 And the people with one accord gave heed unto those things which Philip 
spake, hearing and seeing the miracles which he did. 

7 For unclean spirits, crying with loud voice, came out of many that were 
possessed with them : and many taken with palsies, and that were lame, were 
healed. [Ch. 5 . 16.] 

8 And there was great joy in that city. 

9 But there was a certain man, called Simon, which beforetime in the same 
city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that him- 
self was some great one : [Ch. 13:6; 2 Tliess. 2 : 10.] 


ACTS 8. 

10 To whom they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying, 
This man is the great power of God. 

11 And to him they had regard, because that of long time he had be- 
witched them with sorceries. 

12 But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the 
kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men 
and women. [Ch. 1 : 3.] 

13 Then Simon himself believed also ; and when he was baptized, he con- 
tinued with Philip, and wondered, beholding the miracles and signs which 
were done. [Psa. 78 : 35-37.] 

14 Now when the apostles which were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria 
had received the word of God, they sent unto them Peter and John : [Matt. 

15 AVho, when they were come down, prayed for them, that they might 
receive the Holy Ghost : 

16 (For as yet he was fallen upon none of them ; only they were baptized 
in the name of the Lord Jesus.) [Ch. 2 : 38.] 

17 Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost. 

18 And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the 
Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money, [Ch. 19 : 6.] 

19 Saying, Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he 
may receive the Holy Ghost. 

20 But Peter said unto him. Thy money perish with thee, because thou 
hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money. [2 Kings 
5 : 16, 26, 27.] 

21 Thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter : for thy heart is not 
right in the sight of God. (a) [2 Tim. 2 : 24-26.] 

22 Repent therefore of this thy wickedness, and pray God, if perhaps the 
thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee. 

23 For I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of 
iniquity. [Job 20 : 14 ; Eom. 3:13; Prov. 5 : 22.] 

24 Then answered Simon, and said. Pray ye to the Lord for me, that none 
of these things which ye have spoken come upon me. [Num. 21 : 7 ; 23 : 10 ; 
Ex. 10:27, 28,30.] 

25 And they, when they had testified and preached the word of the Lord, 
returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel in many villages of the 
Samaritans. [Ch. 1 : 8.] 


(a) Ps. 78 : 37 For their heart was not right vnth him, neither 
were they steadfast in his covenant. 


^15. Conversion - OF the Ethiopian Eunuch. 

Between Jerusalem and Gaza. — A. D. 35. 

ACTS 8:26-40. ISA. 53:7, 8. 
(1) Philip is directed to go to the road hetween Jerusalem and Gaza, Acts 8: 26. 
(2) Going, he finds an Ethiopian Eunuch, a proselyte, on the road, returning from Jeru- 
salem, and reading the prophecy of Isaiah, ver. 27, 28. (3) The Spirit commands Philip 
to go near the chariot, ver. 29. (4) What he did, heard, and asked, ver. 30. (5) The Eunuch's 
answer and questions, ver. 31, 32. (6) The passage of Scripture read, ver. '62, 33; Isa. 53: 
7, 8. (7) The Eunuch's question regarding the prophecy. Acts. 8 : 34. (8) Philip preached 
from it Jesus, ver. 35. (9) They come to a certain water, ver. 36. (10) The Eunuch re- 
quests baptism, ver. 36. (11) The baptism, ver. 38, (12) The Spirit caught away Philip 
ver. 39. (13) The Eunuch on his way rejoicing, ver. 39. (14) Philip preaching from 
Azotus to Cesarea, A^er. 40. 

ACTS 8. 

26 And the angel of the Lord spake unto Philip, saying, Arise, and go 
toward the south, unto the way that goeth down from Jerusalem unto Gaza, 
which is desert. 

27 And he arose and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of 
great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the cliarge 
of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem for to worship, [Ps. 68 : 29, 
31; John 12: 20.] 

28 Was returning, and sitting in his chariot read Esaias the prophet. 

29 Then the Spirit said unto Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this 
chariot. [Ch. 16 : 6, 7.] 

30 And Philip ran thither to him, and heard him I'ead the prophet Esaias, 
and said, Understandest thou what thou readest? 

31 And he said. How can I, except some man should guide me ? And he 
desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him. [Rom. 10: 14; 
Ps. 25 : 9.] 

32 The place of the Scripture which he read was this. He "was led as a 
sheep to the slaughter ; and like a lamb dumb before his shearer, so 
opened he not his mouth : (a) 

33 In his humiliation his judgment was taken away: and who shall declare 
his generation? for his life is taken from the earth, (a) 


(a) Isa. 53 : 7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not 
his mouth : he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a 
sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his 

8 He was taken from prison and from judgment : and who shall declare his 
generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for 
the transgression of my people was he stricken. 


ACTS 8. 

34 And the eunuch answered Philip, and said, I pray thee, of whom 
speaketh the prophet this? of himself, or of some other man? 

35 Then Philip opened his mouth, and began at the same Scripture, and 
preached unto him Jesus. [Ch. 17 : 3; Luke 24 : 27.] 

36 And as they went on their way, they came unto a certain water : and 
the eunuch said. See, here is water; what doth hinder me to be baptized? 
[Ch. 9: 18; 22: 16; 10:47.] 

37 And Philip said. If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. 
And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. 

38 And he commanded the chariot to stand still: and they went down 
both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him. 
[Isa. 56:3-6; Mark 1 : 9.] 

39 And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord 
caught away Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more : and he went on his 
way rejoicing. [1 Kings 18 : 12; 2 Kings 2 : 16; Ezek. 3 : 12, 14.] 

40 But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached in 
all the cities, till he «ame to Cesarea. [Ch. 21 : 8.] 

g 16. Paul's Conversiox and Commission. Compare I 44. Harmony of 
THE Several Accounts. 

Damascus. — A. D. 35. 

ACTS 9 : 1-22; 22 : 2-16; 26 : 4-20. GAL. 1 : 13-16. 

(1) Paul's birth, Acts 22 : 3. (2) His religious education and manner of life, 22 : 3 ; 26 : 4, 5. 
(3) A Pharisee, 26 : 5-7. (4) His bitter persecution of Christians, which he did from sincere 
convictions of duty, but in ignorance of the heinous nature of his acts, 22 : 4 ; 26 : 9-11 ; 
1 Tim. 1 : 13. (5) Breathing out rage and slaughter against the disciples, he goes to 
strange cities, and with letters from the Sanhedrim, to Damascus, Acts 9:1,2; 22:5; 
26 : 11, 12. (6) At midday, near Damascus, a great light from heaven shines about him, 
9:3; 22 : 6 ; 26 : 13. (7) All fall to the earth, 9 : 4 ; 22 : 7 ; 26 ; 14. (8) The voice, " Saul, Saul," 
etc., 9 . 4; 22 : 7 ; 26 : 14. (9) His question, " Who art thou. Lord?" 9 : 5 ; 22 : 8 ; 26 : 15. (10) 
Jesus answers, declaring himself to be the one persecuted, 9:5; 22 : 8 ; 26 : 15. (11) Jesus 
further declares his intention concerning him, 26: 16-18. (12) Those with Saul speechless 
and afraid, seeing a light, and hearing the voice or sound, 9:7; 22: 9. (13) Saul's prayer, 
*' What shall I do, Lord " ? 22 : 10. (14) Commanded to go into Damascus, where it should 
be told him, 9:6; 22: 10. (15) Unable to see, he is led into the city, 9:8; 22: 11. (16) 
Without sight, and fasting three days, 9 : 9. (17) The Lord directs and encourages Ananias 
to visit Saul, 9 : 10-16 ; 22 : 12. (18) Ananias declares to Saul his future mission, and 
restores him to sight, 9 : 17, 18 ; 22 : 13-15. (19) He is baptized, 9 : 18 ; 22 : 16. (20) Remains 
a time at Damascus ; his first preaching, 9 : 19-21 ; 26 : 19, 20. (21) Increases in faith and 
in power, 9 : 22. 


ACTS 9. 

1 And Saul, yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter, 
against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest, (a) 

2 And desired of him letters to Damascus to the synagogues, that if he 
found any of this way, whether they were men or women, he might bring 
them bound unto Jerusalem, (6) 

3 And as he journeyed, he came near Damascus: and suddenly there 
shined round about him a light from heaven: (6) 

4 And he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, 
•why persecutest thou me ? (6) 


(a) Acts 22 : 3 I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in 
Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the £eet of Gamaliel, and taught ac- 
cording to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and 
was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day. 

Acts 26 : 4 My manner of life from my youth, which was at the first 
among mine own nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews; 

5 Which knew me from the beginning, if they would testify, that after 
the most straitest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee. 

6 And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of 
God unto our fathers : 

7 Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and 
night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of 
the Jews. 

8 Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should 
raise the dead? 

(6) Acts 22 : 4 And I persecuted this way unto the death, bind- 
ing and delivering into prisons both men and women. 

5 As also the high priest doth bear me witness, and all the estate of the 
elders: from wiiom also I received letters unto the brethren, and went 
to Damascus, to bring them which were there bound unto Jerusalem, for 
to be punished. 

6 And it came to pass, that, as I made my journey, and was come nigh 
unto Damascus about noon, suddenly there shone from heaven a 
great light round about me. 

Acts 26 : 9 I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do many things 
contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. 

10 Which thing I also did in Jerusalem: and many of the saints 
did I shut up in prison, having received authority from the chief 
priests; and when they were put to death, I gave my voice against them. 

11 And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to 
blaspheme ; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even 
unto strange cities. 

12 Whereupon as I went to Damascus with authority and commission from 
the chief priests, 

13 At midday, O king, I saw in the way a light from heaven, above 
the brightness of the sun, shining round about me and them 
which journeyed with me. 


ACTS 9. 

5 And he said, Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus 
whom thou persecutest : H is hard for thee to kick against the pricks, (a) 

6 And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what wilt thou have me to 
do? And the Lord said unto him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be 
told thee what thou must do. 

7 And the men which journeyed with him stood speechless, hear- 
ing a voice, but seeing no man. (b) 

8 And Saul arose from the earth ; and when his eyes were opened, he saw 
no man : but they led him by the hand, and brought him into Dama.scus. 

9 And he was three days without sight, and neither did eat nor drink. 

10 And there was a certain disciple at Damascus, named Ana- 


(a) Acts 22 : 7 And I fell unto the ground, and heard a voice 
saying unto me, Saul, Saul, "why persecutest thou me? 

8 And I answered. Who art thou. Lord? And he said unto me, I am 
Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest. 

Acts 26 : 14 And when we were all fallen to the earth, I heard 
a voice speaking unto me, and saying in the Hebrew tongue, Saul, Saul, 
why persecutest thou me ? It is hard for thee to kick against the 

15 And I said. Who art thou. Lord? And he said, I am Jesus whom 
thou persecutest. [1 Cor. 9:1; 15 : 8.] 

16 But rise, and stand upon thy feet: for I have appeared unto thee 
for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of these things 
which thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto 
thee: [Ch. 9:15.] 

17 Delivering thee from the people, and fi^om the Gentiles, unto whom now 
I send thee, 

18 To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from 
the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and 
inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me. 

(6) Acts 22 : 9 And they that were with me saw indeed the light, and were 
afraid : but they heard not the voice of him that spake to me. 

10 And I said. What shall I do. Lord? And the Lord said unto me. 
Arise, and go into Damascus: and there it shall be told thee of all things 
which are appointed for thee to do. 

11 And when I could not see for the glory of that light, being led by the 
hand of them that were with me, I came into Damascus. 

1 Tim. 1 : 12 And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, 
for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry ; 

13 Who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injuri- 
ous: but I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. 

14 And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love 
which is in Christ Jesus. 


ACTS 9. 
nias ; and to him said the Lord in a vision, Ananias. And he said, Behold, 
I am here, Lord, (a) 

11 And the Lord said unto him. Arise, and go into the street which is 
called Straight, and inquire in the liouse of Judas for one called Saul, of 
Tarsus : for, behold, he prayeth, 

12 And hath seen in a vision a man named Ananias coming in, and putting 
his hand on him, that he might receive his sight. 

13 Then Ananias answered. Lord, I have heard by many of this man, how 
much evil he hath done to thy saints at Jerusalem : 

14 And here he hath authority from the chief priests to bind all that call 
on thy name. 

15 But the Lord said unto him, Go thy way: for he is a chosen 
vessel unto me, to bear my name before the G-entiles, and 
king's, and the children of Israel : (6) 

16 For I will shew him how great things he must suffer for my name's sake. 

17 And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house ; and putting 
his hands on him Baid, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that 
appeared unto thee in the way as thou earnest, hath sent me, that thou 
mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost, (c) 

18 And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales : and he 
received sight forthAvith, and arose, and was baptized, (c) 


(«) Acts 22: 12 And one Ananias, a devout man according to 
the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt there. 

(b) 1 Tim. 1 : 15 This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, 
that Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners ; of whom I am 

16 Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first 
Jesus Christ might shew forth all longsuftering, for a pattern to 
them which should hereafter believe on him to life everlasting. 

17 Now unto the king eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be 
honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

(c) Acts 22 : 13 Came unto me, and stood, and said unto me, 
Brother Saul, receive thy sight. And the same hour I looked up 
upon liim. 

14 And lie said. The God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou 
shouldest know his v;ill, and see that Just One, and shouldest hear the voice 
of his mouth. 

15 For thou shalt be his witness unto all men of what thou hast seen and 

16 And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and 
wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord. 


ACTS 9. 

19 And when he had received meat, he was strengthened. Then was Saul 
certain days with the disciples which were at Damascus. 

20 And straightway he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is the 
Son of God. 

21 But all that heard him were amazed, and said : Is not this he that 
destroyed them which called on this name in Jerusalem, and came hither for 
that intent, that he might bring them bound unto the chief priests ? (a) 

22 But Saul increased the more in strength, and confounded 
the Jews which dwelt at Damascus, proving that this is very 
Christ, (a) 

^17. Paul's Flight from Damascus, Brief Visit at Jerusalem, and 
Withdrawal to his Native City, Tarsus. [Compare § 44.] 

Damascus, Jerusalem, and Tarsus. — A. D. 35-38. 

ACTS 9 : 23-30 ; 22 : 17-21 ; 26 : 20. 2 COR. 11 : 32, 33. GAL. 1 : 18-24. 

(1) Saul visits Arabia and returns to Damascus, Gal. 1 : 17. (2) The Jews at Damascus 

plot to kill Saul, Acts 9:23,24; 2 Cor. 11:32. (3) His escape, Acts 9:25; 2 Cor. 11:33 

(4) Goes to Jerusalem, visits Peter, and tarries fifteen days. Acts 9 : 26 ; 22 : 17 ; Gal. 1 : 18.' 

(5) Barnabas introduces him to the brethren at Jerusalem, Acts 9:27; Gal. 1:19, 20. 

(6) Preaches, and disputes against the Grecian Jews, Acts 9 : 28, 29 ; 26:20. (7) The Jews 
attempting to kill him. Acts 9 : 29. (8) The Lord commands Saul, in a trance, to depart 
from Jerusalem, Acts 22 : 17-21. (9) He leaves Jerusalem, goes by way of Cesarea, to Tarsus 
and Cilicia, Acts 9 : 30 ; 22 : 21 ; 26 : 20 ; Gal. 1 : 21-24. 

ACTS 9. 

23 And after that many days were fulfilled, the Jews took counsel to 
kill him: (6) 

24 But their laying wait was known of Saul. And they watched the gates 
day and night to kill him. 

25 Then the disciples took him by night, and let him down 
by the wall in a basket. (6) 


(a) Gal. 1 : 15 But when it pleased God, who separated me from my 
mother's womb, and called me by his grace, 

16 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the 
heathen ; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood : 

Acts 26 : 19 Whereupon, O King Agrippa, I was not disobedient 
unto the heavenly vision : 

20 But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, 
and throughout all the coasts of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, that they 
should repent and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance. 

(6) 2 Cor. 11 : 32 In Damascus the governor under Aretas the king kept 


26 And when Saul was come to Jerusalem, he assayed to join 
himself to the disciples : but they were all afraid of him, and believed 
not that he was a disciple, (o) 

27 But Barnabas took him, and brought him to the apostles, and declared 
unto them how he had seen the Lord in the way, and that he had spoken to 
him, and how he had preached boldly at Damascus in the name of Jesus. 

28 And he was with them coming in and going out at Jerusalem. 

29 And he spake boldly in the name of the Lord Jesus, and disputed 
against the Grecians : but they went about to slay him. 

30 Which when the brethren knew, they brought him down to 
Cesarea, and sent him forth to Tarsus. (6) 

^ 18. Peace and Prosperity of the Church. Peter Visits Lydda 
and joppa. 

Judea, Lydda, and Joppa. — A. D. 38, 39. 

ACTS 9 : 31-43. 

(1) Peace and increase of the church, A'er. 31. (2) Peter visits the saints in all parts of 
the country, ver. 32. (3) He heals Eneas at Lydda, ver. 33, 34. (4) A general turning to 
the Lord there, and at Sharon, ver. 35. (5) Concerning Dorcas at Jopp-, ver. ."5, 36. (6) 
She sickens and dies, ver. 37. (7) Peter sent for, ver. 38. (8) ITo comes, prays, and raises 
Dorcas to life, ver. 39-41. (9) Many believe ; Peter tarries a long time with Simon, the 
tanner, ver, 42, 43. 


the city of the Damascenes with a garrison, desirous to apprehend me. 

33 And through a window in a basket was I let down by the 
wall, and escaped his hands. 

Gal. 1 : 17 Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles 
before me ; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus. 

(a) Acts 22 : 17 And it came to pass that, when I was come again to 
Jerusalem, even while I prayed in the temple, I w^as in a 
trance : 

18 And saw him saying unto me, Make haste, and get thee quickly out of 
Jerusalem : for they will not receive thy testimony concerning me. 

19 And I said, Lord, they know that I imprisoned and beat in every syna- 
gogue them that believed on thee : 

20 And when the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed, I also was 
standing by, and consenting unto his death, and kept the raiment of them that 
slew him. 

Gal. 1 : 18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to 
see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days. 

19 But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother. 

20 Now the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lie not. 

(6) Acts 22 : 21 And he said unto me. Depart : for I will send thee 
far hence unto the Gentiles. 

Acts 26 : 20 But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at 
Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judea, and then 



31 Then had the churches rest throughout all Judea and Galilee and 
Samaria, and were edified ; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the 
comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied. [John 14 : 16-18 ; 16 : 13-15 ; 
Rom. 8 : 15-17.] 

32 And it came to pass, as Peter passed throughout all quarters, he came 
down also to the saints which dwelt at Lvdda. 

33 And there he found a certain man named Eneas, which had kept his 
bed eight years, and was sick of the palsy. 

34 And Peter said unto him, Eneas, Jesus Christ maketh thee whole: 
arise, and make thy bed. And he arose immediately . [Ch. 3 : 6, 16.] 

35 And all that dwelt at Lydda and Saron saw him, and turned to the Lord. 

36 Now there was at Joppa a certain disciple named Tabitha, which by 
interpretation is called Dorcas: this woman was full of good works and 
alms-deeds which she did. [1 Tim. 2:10; Tit. 3 : 8.] 

37 And it came to pass in those days, that she was sick, and died : whom 
when they had washed, they laid her in an upper chamber. 

38 And forasmuch as Lydda was nigh to Joppa, and the disciples had 
heard that Peter was there, they sent unto him two men, desiring him that 
he would not delay to come to them. [Jonah 1 : 3.] 

39 Then Peter arose and went with them. When he was come, they 
brought him into the upper chamber : and all the widows stood by him 
weeping, and shewing the coats and garments which Dorcas made, while she 
was with them. 

40 But Peter put them all forth, and kneeled down, and prayed : and 
turning him to the body said, Tabitha, arise. And she opened her eyes: 
and when she saw Peter, she sat up. [Mark 5 : 41, 42 ; 2 Kings 4 : 33.] 

41 And he gave her his hand, and lifted her up ; and when he had called 
the saints and widows, he presented her alive. 

42 And it was known throughout all Joppa; and many believed in the 

43 And it came to pass, that he tarried many days in Joppa Avith one 
Simon a tanner. [Ch. 10 : 6.] 


to the Q-entiles,that they should repent and turn to God, and do works 
meet for repentance. 

Gal. 1 : 21 Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and 
Cilicia : 

22 And was unknown by face unto the churches of Judea 
which were in Christ : 

23 But they had heard only. That he which persecuted us in times past 
now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed. 

24 And they glorified God in me. 





About five years, A. D. 39-44- From Peter^s sojourn at Joppa to PauVs call to 

Gentile work.. 

1 19. Cornelius, by Divine Direction, Sends for Peter, Who is also 
Divinely Directed to go to Him. 

Cesarea and Joppa. — A. D. 39. Cesarea, about thirty miles north of Joppa. 

ACTS 10: 1-23; 30-33; 11 : 4-12. 
(1) Who Cornelius was, ver. 1. (2) His character, ver. 2, (3) He sees a vision, in which 
he is directed to send to Joppa for Peter, ver. 3-6, 30, (4) Sends a devout soldier and two 
of his household, ver. 7, 8, 33. (5) As they approach Joppa, Peter is at prayer on the 
housetop, ver. 9, 10; 11 : 5. (6) Falls into a trance, and is taught not to make common that 
which God had cleansed, ver. 10-14; 11: 5-9. (7) The lesson thrice given, ver. 16; 11: 10. 
(8) Arrival of the men from Cornelius, ver. 17 ; 11 : 11. (9) The Spirit comrpands Peter to 
go with them, ver. 18-20 ; 11 : 12. (10) The men make known their errand, ver. 21, 22. (11) 
Peter lodges them, in order to return with them on the morrow, ver. 23. 


1 There was a certain man in Cesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the 
band called the Italian hand, 

2 A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave 
much alms to the people, and prayed to God always. [Luke 7 : 2-5 ; Acts 
27 : 3.] 

3 He saw in a vision evidently, about the ninth hour of the 
day, an angel of G-od coming in to him, and saying unto him, Cor- 
nelius, (rt) 

4 And when he looked on him, he was afraid, and said. What is it, Lord ? 
And he said unto him. Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memo- 
rial before God. 

5 And noAV send men to Joppa, and call for one Simon, vrhose 
surname is Peter : (a) 

(o) Acts 10: 30 And Cornelius said. Four days ago I was fasting 



ACTS 10. 

6 He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose liouse is by the sea side : he 
shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do. 

7 And when the angel which spake unto Cornelius was departed, he called 
two of his household servants, and a devout soldier of them tliat waited on 
him continually ; 

8 And when he had declared all these things unto them, he sent them to 

9 On the morrow, as they went on their journey, and drew nigh unto the 
city, Peter went up upon the housetop to pray, about the sixth hour : 

10 And he became very hungry, and would have eaten : but while they 
made ready, he fell into a trance, 

11 And saw heaven opened, and a certain vessel descending 
unto him, as it had been a great sheet knit at the four corners, and let 
down to the earth : (a) 

12 Wherein were all manner of fourfooted beasts of the earth, and wild 
beasts, and creeping things, and fowls of the air. * 

13 And there came a voice to him. Rise, Peter : kill, and eat. 

14 But Peter said. Not so. Lord ; for I have never eaten any thing that is 
common or unclean. 

15 And the voice spake unto him again the second time. What God hath 
cleansed, that call not thou common. 

16 This was done thrice : and the vessel was received up again into heaven. 

17 Now while Peter doubted in himself what this vision wliich he had 
seen should mean, behold, the men which were sent from Cornelius had made 
inquiry for Simon's house, and stood before the gate, 

18 And called, and asked whether Simon, which was surnamed Peter, were 
lodged there. 

19 While Peter thought on the vision, the Spirit said unto him. Behold, 
three men seek thee. 

20 Arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, 
doubting nothing : for I have sent them, (a) 


until this hour : and at the ninth hour I ]irayed in my house, and, 
behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing, 

31 And said, Cornelius, thy prayer is heard, and thine alms are had in 
remembrance in the sight of God, 

32 Send therefore to Joppa, and call hither Simon, whose 
surname is Peter ; he is lodged in the house of one Simon a tanner by the 
sea side : who, when he cometh, shall speak unto thee. 

33 Immediately therefore I sent to thee. 

(a) Acts 11 : 4 But Peter rehearsed the matter from the beginning, and ex- 


ACTS 10. 

21 Then Peter went down to the men which were sent unto him from 
Cornelius ; and said, Behold, I am he whom ye seek : what is the cause where- 
fore ye are come ? 

22 And they said, Cornelius the centurion, a just man, and one that feareth 
God, and of good report among all the nation of the Jews, was warned from 
God by a holy angel to send for thee into his house, and to hear words of thee. 

^ 20. Peter Goes to Cesarea, Preaches to Cornelius, and Receives 
Believing Gentiles into the Church. 

Cesarea.— A. B. 39. 

ACTS 10 : 23-48 ; 11 : 12-17. DEUT. 10 : 17. ISA. 61 : 1. 
(1) Peter, with six brethren, go to Csesarea, Acts 10 : 23; 11 : 12. (2) Welcomed by Corne- 
lius and his assembled friends, ver. 24. (3) Cornelius pays homage to Peter, which the 
latter cannot accept, ver. 25, 26. (4) Peter explains how his prejudices were overcome, and 
asks why he was sent for, ver. 28, 29. (5) Cornelius relates his vision, what he had done, 
and their readiness to hear the word of God, ver. 30-34; ch. 11 : 1.3, 14. (6) Peter's address : 
God no respecter of persons, ver. 34, 35. (7) Jesus Christ the Lord of all, ver. 36. (8) Of 
his preaching, his works, and his miracles, Cornelius and his friends were not ignorant, 
ver. 37, 38. (9) Peter and his company, witnesses not only of what Jesus did and suffered, 
but of his resurrection, ver. 39, 41. (10) Jesus the Judge of all, and the .Saviour of believers, 
ver. 42, 43. (11) While Peter is speaking, the Holy Spirit, to the surprise of the Jewish 
Christians, falls on the Gentile believers, ver. 44-46; 11: 15. (12) The Gentiles who had 
not submitted to Jewish rites, are baptized, ver. 47, 48; 11 : 16, 17. 


pounded it bv order unto them, saving, [Ch. 22: 17; 2 Cor. 12: 2-4; Acts 
7: 56; Rev. 19: 11.] 

5 I was in the city of Joppa praying : and in a trance I sa"w a vision, 
A certain vessel descend, as it had been a great sheet, let do^wn 
from heaven by four corners ; and it came even to me : 

6 Upon the which when I had fastened mine eyes, I considered, and saw 
fourfooted beasts of the earth, and wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls 
of the air. 

7 And I heard a voice saying unto me, Arise, Peter ; slay and eat. 

8 But I said. Not so. Lord : for nothing common or unclean hath at any 
time entered into my mouth. [Dent. 14 : 3-20.] 

9 But the voice answered me again from heaven. What God hath cleansed, 
that call not thou common. [Ch.'lo : 9 ; Rom. 14 : 14 ; Gal. 3 : 29.] 

10 And this was done three times: and all were drawn up again into 
heaven. [Gen. 41 : 32.] 

11 And, behold, immediately there were three men already come unto the 
house where I was, sent from Cesarea unto me. 

12 And the Spirit bade me go with them, nothing doubting. 
Moreover these six brethren accompanied me, and we entered into the man's 


ACTS 10. 

23 Then called he them in, and lodged them. And on the morrow Peter 
went away with them, and certain brethren from Joppa accompanied 
him. (a) 

24 And the morrow after they entered into Cesarea. [Thirty miles north 
of Joppa.] And Cornelius waited for them, and had called together his 
kinsmen and near friends. 

25 And as Peter was coming in, Cornelius met him, and fell down at his 
feet, and worshipped him. [Ch. 14 : 14, 15 ; Rev. 19 : 10 ; 22 : 9.] 

26 But Peter took him up, saying. Stand up ; I myself also am a man. 

27 And as he talked with him, he went in, and found many that were 
come together. 

28 And he said unto them. Ye know how that it is an unlawful thing for 
a man that is a Jew to keep company, or come unto one of another nation ; 
but God hath shewed me that I should not call any man common or unclean. 
[Ch. 11 : 2, 3 ; John 4:9; Gal. 2 : 12-14 ; Deut. 7 : 1-6.] 

29 Therefore came I unto you without gainsaying, as soon as I was sent for : 
I ask therefore for what intent ye have sent for me? [Ver. 9-16; ch. 15: 
8,9; Eph. 3:6.] 

30 And Cornelius said. Four days ago I was fasting until this hour ; and at 
the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in 
bright clothing, 

31 And said, Cornelius, thy prayer is heard, and thine alms are had in 
remembrance in the sight of God. 

32 Send therefore to Joppa, and call hither Simon, -whose 
surname is Peter ; he is lodged in the house of one Simon a 
tanner by the sea side : who, when he cometh, shall speak unto thee. (6) 

33 Immediately therefore I sent to thee ; and thou hast well done that thou 
art come. Now therefore are we all here present before God, to hear all 
things that are commanded thee of God. 

34 Then Peter opened his mouth, and said, Of a truth I perceive that 
God is no respecter of persons, (c) [2 Chron. 19:7; Rom. 2 : 10.] 


(a) Acts 11 : 12 And the Spirit bade me go with them, nothing doubting. 
Moreover these six brethren accompanied me, and we entered into 
the man's house : 

(6) 13 And he shewed us how he had seen an angel in his house, which stood 
and said unto him. Send men to Joppa, and" call for Simon, whose 
surname is Peter ; 

14 Who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be 

(c) Deut. 10 : 17 For the Lord your God is God of gods, and Lord of 


ACTS 10. 

35 But in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is 
accepted with him. [Ps. 2 : 7, 8 ; 72 : 8-11 ; Isa. 55 : 4, 5 ; Dan. 2 : 44 ; 
7 : 13, 14] 

36 The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace 
by Jesus Christ : (he is Lord of all :) [Isa. 52 : 7, " Good tidings of good " ; 
Nah. 1 : 13, " Good tidings— peace."] 

37 That word, / say, ye know, which was published throughout all Judea, 
and began from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached : [Mark 1 : 
14 ; John 4 : 1-3.] 

38 How Grod anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy 
Ghost and with power : who went about doing good, and healing 
all that were oppressed of the devil ; for God was with him. (a) 

39 And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the 
Jews, and in Jerusalem ; whom they slew and hanged on a tree. 

40 Him God raised up the third day, and shewed him openly ; 

41 Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to 
us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. [Luke 24 : 
30, 36-43; John 20: 19, 26, 27; 21: 1-17.] 

42 And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it 
is he which was ordained of God to he the Judge of quick and dead. [Matt. 
28: 18-20; Mark 16: 15-18.] 

43 To him give all the prophets witness, that througli liis name whosoever 
believeth in him shall receive remissions of sins. [Isa. 53 : 11 ; Dan. 9 : 24 ; 
Zech. 13 : 1.] 

44 While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all 
them which heard the word. (6) 

45 And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many 


lords, a great God, a mighty, and a terrible, which regardeth not per- 
sons, nor taketh reward. 

(a) IsA. 61 : 1 The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me ; because 
the Lord hatli anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek ; he hatli 
sent me to bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to 
the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are 

(6) Acts 11 : 15 And as I })egan to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on 
them, as on us at the beginning. 

16 Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John 
indeed baptized with water ; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy 

17 Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who 
believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, what was I, that I could withstand God? 


ACTS 10. 

as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the 
gift of the Holy Ghost. 

46 For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then 
answered Peter, 

47 Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which 
have received the Holy Ghost as well as we? [Ch. 15: 7-9; Rom. 10: 12.] 

48 And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord. 
Then prayed they him to tarry certain days. [John 4 : 2 ; 1 Cor. 1 : 17.] 

§21. Peter Defends Himself at Jerusalem for His Visit to Cor- 

Jerusalem. — A. D. 39. 

ACTS 11 : 1-18. 

(1) The Jewish Christians hear that the Gentiles had received the gospel, Acts 11: 1. 
(2) They question the propriety of Peter's conduct, ver. 2, 3. (3) Peter defends himself by 
relating the facts in their order, ver. 4. (5) How he was praying at Joppa, and saw a 
vision, ver. 5-10. (6) And was taught not to regard that common or unclean, which God 
had cleansed, ver. 8-10. (7) Whereupon three men from Cesarea came, ver. 11. (8) And 
the Spirit bade him go with them, ver. 12. (9) Six brethren accompany him, ver. 13. (10) 
They visit Cornelius, and hear from him the vision he had seen, ver. 13, 14. (11) Peter 
speaks and the Spirit falls upon them, reminding him of Pentecost, ver. 15. (12) And the 
promised baptism in the Spirit, ver. 16. (13) Regards it as an expression of the divine 
will, ver. 17. (14) The Jewish believers are satisfied, and praise God, ver. 18. 


1 And the apostles and brethren that were in Judea heard that the 
Gentiles had also received the word of God. [Ch. 10 : 45 ; 15 : 2 ; Gal. 1 : 22.] 

2 And when Peter was come up to Jerusalem, they that were of the 
circumcision contended with him, 

3 Saying, Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with them. 

4 But Peter rehearsed the yiatter from the beginning, and expounded it 
by order unto them, saying, [| 19, ch. 10 : 9-16.] 

5 I was in the city of Joppa, praying : and in a trance I saw a vision, A 
certain vessel descend, as it had been a great sheet, let down from heaven by 
four cornei-s ; and it came even to me : 

6 Upon the which when I had fastened mine eyes, I considered, and saw 
iburfooted beasts of the earth, and wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls 
of the air. 

7 And I heard a voice saying unto me, Arise, Peter ; slay and eat. 

8 But I said. Not so. Lord : for nothing common or unclean hath at any 
time entered into my mouth. 


ACTS 11. 

9 But the voice answered me again from heaven, What God hath cleansed, 
that call not thou common. 

10 And this was done three times: and all were drawn up again into 

11 And, behold, immediately there were three men already come unto the 
house where I was, sent from Cesarea unto me. 

12 And the Spirit bade me go with them, nothing doubting. Moreover 
these six brethren accompanied me, and we entered into the man's house : 
[^ 20, ch. 10 : 23-25.] 

13 And he shewed us how he had seen an angel in his house, which stood 
and said unto him. Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, whose surname is 
Peter ; [§ 20, ch. 10 : 30-34 ; Heb. 1 : 14.] 

14 Who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be 
saved. [^ 20, ch. 10 : 44-48.] 

15 And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the 
beginning. [§ 1, ch. 1 : 5.] 

16 Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John 
indeed baptized with water ; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost. 

17 Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who 
believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, what was I, that I could withstand God ? 

18 When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified 
God, saying^ Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto 
life. [Rom. 10 : 12-14 ; 15 : 9-12 ; 2 Cor. 7 : 10.] 

§ 22. The Gospel at Antioch. Ministry of Barnabas and Saul in 
THAT City. 

Antioch.— A. D. 40-44. 

ACTS 11 : 19-30. 

(1) Another result of persecution ; the gospel preached in Phoenicia, Cyprus, and Aur 
tioch, hut to Jews only. Acts 11 : 19. (2) Some from Cyprus and Cyrene preach to the 
Greeks (Gentiles), ver. 20. (3) Great numbers believe, ver. 21. (4) Barnabas sent from 
Jerusalem, ver. 22. (5) His character and his success at Antioch, ver. 23, 24. (6) He goes to 
Tarsus and brings Saul to Antioch, ver. 25, 26. (7) They labor for a whole year; the 
disciples called Christians, ver. 26. (8) Agabus foretells a famine, ver. 27, 28. (9) The 
disciples determine to send help to their brethren at Jerusalem, ver. 29. Which they did 
by Barnabas and Saul, ver. 30. 

ACTS 11. 

19 Now they which, were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose 
about Stephen travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preach- 
ing the word to none but unto the Jews only. [Ch. 8 : 1-4.) 


ACTS 11. 

20 And some of them were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, which, when they 
were come to Antioch, spake unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus. 

21 And the hand of the Lord was with them: and a great number be- 
lieved, and turned unto the Lord. 

22 Then tidings of these things came unto the ears of the church which 
was in Jerusalem ; and they sent forth Barnabas, that he should go as far as 
Antioch. [Ch. 4:36, 37; 9:27.] 

23 Who, when he came, and had seen the grace of God, was glad, and 
exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the 
Lord. [Ch. 13 : 43 ; 14: 22 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 58 ; Dan. 1 : 8.] 

24 For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith : and 
much people was added unto the Lord. [Ch. 6:5; Gal. 5 : 22, 23.] 

25 Then departed Barnabas to Tarsus, for to seek Saul : [Ch. 9 : 27-30.] 

26 And when he had found him, he brought him unto Antioch. And it 
came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, 
and taught much people. And the disciples were called Christians first in 
Antioch. [Ch. 26 : 28; 1 Pet. 4 : 16.] 

27 And in these days came prophets from Jerusalem unto Antioch. [Ch. 
13: 1; 15:32; 21:9."] 

28 And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the 
Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which 
came to pass in the days of Claudius Cesar. [Ch. 21 : 10.] 

29 Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to 
send relief unto the brethren which dwelt in Judea: [1 Cor. 16 : 1 ; 2 Cor. 
8:2-4, 12-14.] 

30 Which also they did, and sent it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas 
and Saul. [Ch. 20 : 17, 28 ; 1 Pet. 5:1; Acts 26 : 20.] 

^ 23. Kenewed Persecution at Jerusalem. Death of James. Mi- 
raculous Deliverance of Peter. 

Jerusalem. — A. D. 44- 

ACTS 12 : 1-19. 
(1) Renewed persecution under Herod Agrippa I. James put to death, Acts 12: 1. (2) 
Peter imprisoned at the Passover, immediately after which he was to be executed, ver. 2-4. 
(3) Incessant prayer in his behalf, ver. 5. (4) His deliverance by an angel, ver. 6-10. (5) 
Thought he saw a vision, ver. 9. (6) Convinced that his deliverance was a reality, ver. 11. 
(7) He comes to the house of Mary, mother of Mark, where he is received with astonish- 
ment, ver. 12-16. (8) He relates how the Lord had delivered him, ver. 17. (9) He leaves 
Jerusalem, ver. 18. (10) The guard examined and sentenced to death, ver. 18,19, (11) 
Herod goes down to Cesarea, ver. 19. 


ACTS 12. 

1 Now about that time Herod the king stretched forth hia liaiids to vex 
certain of the church. 

2 And he killed James the brother of John with the sword. [Ch. 1 : 13.] 

3 And because he saw it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to take 
Peter also. (Then were the days of unleavened bread.) [Ch. 24 : 27 ; 25 : 9 ; 
Ex. 12 : 18-20.] 

4 And when he had apprehended him, he put hiin in prison, and delivered 
him to four quaternions of soldiers to keep him ; intending after Easter to 
bring him forth to the people. 

5 Peter therefore was kept in prison : but prayer was made without ceas- 
ing of the church unto God for him. [Ver. 12; 2 Cor. 1: 11.] 

6 And when Herod would have brought him forth, the same night Peter 
was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains : and the keepers 
before the door kept the prison. 

7 And, behold, the angel of the Lord came upon him, and a light shined in 
the.prison : and he smote Peter on the side, and raised him up, saying, Arise 
up quickly. And his chains fell off from his hands. [Ch. 5 : 19; Ps. 34 : 7 ; 
Luke 2: 9; 24:4.] 

8 And the angel said unto him. Gird thyself, and bind on thy sandals : and 
so he did. And he said unto him. Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me. 

9 And he went out, and followed him: and wist not that it was true which 
was done by the angel : but thought he saw a vision. 

10 When they were past the first and the second ward, they came unto the 
iron gate that leadeth unto the city; which opened to them of his own 
accord: and they went out, and passed on through one street; and forth wit li 
the angel departed from him. [Ch. 16 : 25, 26.] 

11 And when Peter was come to himself, he said. Now I know of a surety, 
that the Lord hath sent his angel, and hath delivered me out of the hand of 
Herod, and from all the expectation of the people of the Jews. [Ver. 3; 
Heb. 1 : 14.] 

12 And when he had considered the thing, he came to the house of Mary 
the mother of John, whose surname was Mark ; where many were gathered 
together praying. [Ver. 25; 15:37; Col. 4 : 10; 2 Tim. 4: 11; Acts 11: 5; 
Isa. 65 : 24; James 5 : 16 ; 1 John 5 : 14, 15.] 

13 And as Peter knocked at the door of the gate, a damsel came to hearken, 
named Rhoda. 

14 And when she knew Peter's voice, she opened not the gate for gladness, 
but ran in, and told how Peter stood before the gate. 

15 And they said unto her, Thou art mad. But she constantly affirmed 
that it was even so. [Luke 24 : 37 ; Matt. 18 : 10.] 


ACTS 11. 

16 But Peter continued knocking : and when they had opened the door, and 
saw him, they were astonished. 

17 But he, beckoning unto them with the hand to hold their peace, 
declared unto them how the Lord had brought him out of the prison. And 
he said, Go shew these things unto James, and to the brethren. And he 
departed, and went into another place. [Ch. 4 : 23-30; 15 : 13; 21 : 18.] 

18 Now as soon as it was day, there was no small stir among the soldiers, 
what was become of Peter. 

19 And when Herod had sought for him, and found him not, he examined 
the keepers, and commanded that they should be put to death. And he went 
down from Judea to Cesarea, and there abode. 

§ 24. Death of Herod Agrippa. Barnabas and Paul Eeturn to 

Cesarea. — A. D. 44' 

ACTS 12 : 20-25. 2 COR. 12 : 2. 
(1) Herod Agrippa I. displeased with them of Tyre and Sidon, Acts 12 : 20. (2) They 
desire peace, ver. 20. (3) Herod's oration and vanity, ver. 21, (4) The people cry. It is 
the voice of a God, ver. 22. (5) An angel smites him, and he dies, ver. 23. (6) The mother 
church growing, ver. 24. (7) Barnabas and Saul return to Antioch, ver. 25. 

ACTS 12. 

20 And Herod was highly displeased with them of Tyre and Sidon : but 
they came with one accord to him, and, having made Blastus the king's 
chamberlain their friend, desired peace ; because their country was nourished 
by the king's country. [2 Sam. 5 : 1 ; 1 Kings 5:9-11; Ezra 3 : 7.] 

21 And upon a set day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his 
throne, and made an oration unto them. 

22 And the people gave a shout, saying, It is the voice of a god, and not 
of a man. 

23 And immediately the angel of the Lord smote him, because he gave 
not God the glory: and he was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost. [1 
Sam. 25 : 38; 2 Sam. 24 : 15-18; 2 Chron. 21 : 18, 19.] 

24 But the word of God grew and multiplied. [Ch. 6:7; 19 : 20.] 

25 And Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem, when they 
had fulfilled their ministry, and took with them John, whose surname was 
Mark, (a) [Ch. 11 : 29, 30; 13: 5, 13; 15 : 37.] Comp. Col. 4 : 10.] 


(a) 2 Cor. 12: 2 I kne-w a man in Christ above fourteen years 
ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell; or Avhether out of the body, I 
cannot tell : God knoweth;) such a one caught up to the third heaven. 




About three years. — A. D. 43-4S. 

g 25. Baknabas and Saul Sent to Preach to the Heathen. Their 
Labors in Cyprus. 

Antioch and Cyprus. — A. D. 45. 

ACTS 13 : 1-12. 

(1) The prophets and teachers at Antioch, Acts 13 : 1. (2) The Holy Spirit commands 
them to separate Barnabas and Saul to their work, ver. 2. (3) They do so with prayer and 
the laying on of hands, ver. 3, (4) Barnabas and Saul go down to Seleucia, the port of 
Antioch, ver. 4. (5) Going to Cyprus, they preach at Salamis, ver. 5. (G) At Paphos they 
meet with a Jewish sorcerer, and with Sergius Paulus, ver. 6, 7. (7) The latter would hear 
Barnabas and Saul, but the former opposes them, ver. 8. (8) Paul (for so he is now called) 
rebukes the impostor, who is smitten with blindness, ver. 9-11. (e) Divinely approved of 
his apostleship by the Spirit, and in working a miracle, ver. 9-11. (10) Sergius Paulus 
converted, ver. 12. 

ACTS 13. 

1 Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and 
teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of 
Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, 
and Saul. [Ch. 11.27; 15:32; 4:36; 11:22-26; Kom. 16:21; Matt. 
14 : 1-10. ' 

2 As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said. 
Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. 
[^6, ch9:15; 22: 15; 26: 16-18.] 

3 And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, 
they sent them away. [Ch. 6:6;8:17;9:17;1 Tim. 4 : 14 ; 5 : 22.] 

4 So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; 
and from thence they sailed to Cyprus. [Ch. 4 : 36; 11 : 19, 20.] 

5 And when they were at Salamis, they preached the word of God in the 
synagogues of the Jews: and they had also John to their minister. [Ver. 46; 
ch. 12: 25; 15:37.] 

6 And when they had gone through the isle unto Paphos, they found a 



ACTS 13. 
certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar-jesus: 
[Ch. 8 : 9.] 

7 Which was with the deputy of the country, Sergius Paulus, a prudent 
man; who called for Barnabas and Saul, and desired to hear the word of 
God. [Ch. 18 : 12.] 

8 But Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation) withstood 
them, seeking to turn away the deputy from the faith. 

9 Then Saul, (who also is called Paul,) filled with the Holy Ghost, set his 
eyes on him, [2 Tim. 3:8; Ex. 7 : 11 ; ch. 4 : 8.] 

10 And said, O full of all subtilty and all mischief, thou child of the devil, 
thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways 
of the Lord ? [Matt. 3:7; 13 : 38 ; John 8 : 44 ; Hos. 14 : 9, " the ways of 
the Lord are right."] 

11 And now, behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thee, and thou shalt be 
blind, not seeing the sun for a season. And immediately there fell on him a 
mist and a darkness ; and he went about seeking some to lead him by the 
hand. [Ch. 9:9; Luke 4 : 13 ; 2 Cor. 12 : 12.] 

12 Then the deputy, when he saw what was done, believed, being aston- 
ished at the doctrine of the Lord. [Mark 1 : 27.] 

§ 26. Paul and Barnabas at Antioch in Pisidia. 

A. D. 46. 

ACTS 13 : 13-52. 2 COK. 11 : 26. JOHN 1 : 19-27. DEUT. 1 : 31 ; 7 : 1. 
1 SAM. 13 : 14. PS. 2 : 7 ; 16 : 10 ; 89 : 20. ISA. 49 : 6 ; 55 : 3. HAB. 1 : 5. 
(1) Paul and his company come to Perga in Pamphylia. Mark returns to Jerusalem, 
Acts 13 : 13. (2) They come to Antioch in Pisidia, ver. 14. (3) Being in the synagogue, 
they are invited to speak, ver. 15. (4) Paul's address — God's dealings with Israel in Egypt, 
ver. 16, 17. (5) In the wilderness, ver. 18. (6) Under Joshua, ver. 19. (7) Under the 
Judges, ver. 20. (8) Under Saul, ver. 21. (9) Under David, ver. 22. (10) According to the 
promise to him, God had raised up a Saviour, even Jesus, ver. 23. (11) Whom John the 
Baptist had proclaimed, ver. 24, 25. (12) Salvation offered, ver. 26. (13) Their rulers had 
ignorantly put Jesus to death, but in so doing had fulfilled the Scriptures, ver. 27-30. (14) 
But God had raised him from the dead, according to ancient prophecy, ver. 31-37. (15) 
On these great facts Paul founds an offer of salvation, ver. 38, 39. (16) And a warning 
against despising the gospel, ver. 40, 41. 

(17) The people request a repetition of the discourse the next Sabbath, ver. 42. (18) 
Many Jews and proselytes seek from Paul further instructions, ver. 43. (19) A large 
congregation the next Sabbath, ver. 44. (20) The Jews oppose and blaspheme, ver. 45. 
(21) Paul declares them to be unworthy of everlasting life, and turns to the Gentiles, 
grounding his act upon Scripture, ver. 46, 47. (22) The Gentiles glad, and many believe, 
ver. 48. (23) The gospel preached throughout that region, ver. 49. (24) The Jews stir up 
persecution and drive Paul and Barnabas from that region, ver. 50. (25) Who shake off 
the dust from their feet and go into Iconium. The disciples rejoice, ver. 51, 52. 


ACTS 13. 

13 Now when Paul and his company loosed from Paphos, they came to 
Perga in Pamphylia : and John departing from them returned to Jerusalem. 
[Ch. 15: 38; 12: 12; Col. 4: 10; 2 Tim. 4: 11.] 

14 But when they departed from Perga, they came to Anti- 
och in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and sat 
down, (a) [Ch. 16 : 13 ; 17 : 2; 18 : 4; Luke 4 : 16-19 ; 2 Cor. 11 :'26.] 

15 And after the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the 
synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word 
of exhortation for the people, say on. 

16 Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, Men of Israel, 
and ye that fear God, give audience. [Ch. 12. 17 ; 21 : 40; 26: 1.] 

17 The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the 
people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with a high 
arm brought he them out of it. [Deut. 4: 37; 7 : 6, 7.] 

18 And about the time of forty years suffered he their man- 
ners in the wilderness. (6) 

19 And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land 
of Chanaan, he divided their land to tliem by lot. (c) 

20 And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred 
and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet. [Judges 2 : 16 ; 1 Sam. 3 : 20 ; 
8:5-22; 10: 1.] 

21 And afterward they desired a king : and God gave unto them Saul the 
son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty 
years, (d) [1 Sam. 13: 1; 15: 23, 26, 28; 16: 1, 13; 2 Sam. 2: 4; 5: 3.] 


(a) 2 Cor. 11: 26 In journeyings often, in perils of rivers, in 
perils of robbers, in perils from my countrymen, in perils from the 
Gentiles, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, 
in perils among false brethren. 

(h) Deut. 1 : 31 And in the wilderness, where thou hast seen 
how that the LORD thy God bare thee, as a man doth bear his son, in 
all the way that ye went, until ye came into this place. [Num. 11 : 12.] 

(c) Deut. 7 : 1 When the Lord thy God shall bring thee into the land 
whither thou goest to possess it, and hath cast out many nations before thee, 
the Hittites, and the Grirgashites, and the Amorites, and the 
Oanaanites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebu- 
sites, seven nations greater and miglitier than thou. [Josh. 14 : 1, 2.] 

(d) 1 Sam. 13 : 14 But now thy kingdom shall not continue ; 
the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the 
Lord hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast 
not kept that which the Lord commanded thee. 


ACTS 13. 

22 And when he had removed him, he raised up unto them David to 
be their king ; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have found 
David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfil 
all my will, (a) 

23 Of this man's seed hath God, according to his promise, raised unto Israel 
a Saviour, Jesus : [Luke 1 : 32, 69 ; Matt. 1:22; Rom. 1:3; 11 : 26.] 

24 When John had first preached before his coming the baptism of repent- 
ance to all the people of Israel. [Matt. 3 : 1.] 

25 And as John fulfilled his course, he said, "Whom think ye 
that I am? I am not he. But, behold, there cometh one after me, 
whose shoes of his feet I am not worthy to loose, (b) 

26 Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham, and whosoever 
among you feareth God, to you is the word of this salvation sent, (c) 

27 For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they knew 
him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every sabbath day, 
they have fulfilled them in condemning him. [Ch. 3 : 17.] 

28 And though they found no cause of death in him, yet desired they Pilate 
that he should be slain. 

29 And when they had fulfilled all that was written of him, they took him 
down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre. 

30 But God raised him from the dead : 


(a) Ps. 89 : 20 I have found David my servant ; with my holy 
oil have I anointed him. 

(6) John 1 : 19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent 
priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who art thou ? 

20 And he confessed, and denied not ; but confessed, I am not the 

21 And they asked him. What then ? Art thou Elias ? And he saith, I 
am not. Art thou that Prophet ? And he answered, No. 

22 Then said they unto him. Who art thou ? that we may give an answer 
to them that sent us. What say est thou of thyself? 

23 He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight 
the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias. 

24 And they which were sent were of the Pharisees. 

25 And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if 
thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that Prophet ? 

26 John answered them, saying, I baptize with water : but there standeth 
one among you, whom ye know not ; 

27 He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose 
shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose- 

(c) Ps. 107 : 20 He sent his word and healed them. 


ACTS 13. 
81 And he was seen many days of them which came up with him from 
Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses unto the people. [Ch. 1:3; 2: 
24 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 5-7.] 

32 And we declare unto you glad tidings, how that the promise which was 
made unto the fathers, [Gen. 3 : 15; 12 : 3; 22 : 18; Kom. 4 : 13.] 

33 God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, ip that he hath 
raised up Jesus again ; as it is also written in the second psalm. Thou art 
my Son, this day have I begotten thee, (a) 

34 And as concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to 
return to corruption, he said on this wise, I will give you the sure 
mercies of David. (6) 

35 Wherefore he saith also in another psalm, Thou shalt not suffer 
thine Holy One to see corruption, (c) 

36 For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, 
fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption: (d) 

37 But he, whom God raised again, saw no corruption. [1 Cor. 15: 20; 
Heb. 7 : 23, 24.] 

38 Be it knoAvn unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this 
man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins: [Ch. 5 : 31; Luke 24 : 47.] 

39 And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye 
could not be justified by the law of Moses. [Isa. 53 : 11; Gal. 2 : 16; 3 : 8-11; 
Kom. 3 : 19, 20, 28.] 

40 Beware therefore, lest that come upon you, which is spoken of in the 
prophets ; 

41 Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish : for I work a work 
in your days, a work which ye shall in no wise believe, 
though a man declare it unto you. (e) 

42 And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles 
besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath. 


(a) Ps. 2 : 7 I will declare the decree : the Lord hath said unto me. Thou 
art my Son ; this day have I begotten thee. 

(6) IsA. 55 : 3 I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the 
sure mercies of David. 

(c) Ps. 16: 10 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt 
thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. 

(d) Kings 2 : 10 So David slept with his fathers. 

(e) Hab. 1 : 5 Behold ye among the heathen, and regard, and Avonder 
marvellously : for I will work a work in your days, which ye vdll 
not believe, though it be told you. 


ACTS 13. 

43 Now when the congregation was broken up, many of the Jews and 
religious proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, 
persuaded them to continue in the grace of God. [Ch. 11 : 22; 14 : 22; 2 Cor. 
6:1; Heb. 6: 11-12; 12: 15.]. 

44 And the next sabbath day came almost the whole city together to hear 
the word of God. 

45 But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy, and 
spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and 
blaspheming. [Ch. 18 : 16; 1 Thess. 2 : 14-16.] 

46 Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said, It was necessary that 
the word of God should first have been spoken to you: but seeing ye put 
it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn to 
the Gentiles. [Matt. 10: 6; Rom. 1: 16; Matt. 16 : 37; 22: 8; Acts 18 : 6; 28: 
28; Rom. 11: 11.] 

47 For so hath the Lord commanded us, saying, I have set thee to be 
a lig-ht of the G-entiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the 
ends of the earth, (a) 

48 And when the Gentiles heard this, they were glad, and glorified the 
word of the Lord : and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed. 
[John 10 : 16, 26, 27 ; Rom. 8 : 30; 2 Thess. 2 : 13, 14.] 

49 And the word of the Lord was published throughout all the region. 

50 But the Jews stirred up the devout and honourable Avomen, and the 
chief men of the city, and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and 
expelled them out of their coasts. [2 Tim. 3 : 10.] 

51 But they shook off' the dust of their feet against them, and came unto 
Iconium. [Ch. 18 : 6; Matt. 10: 14.] 

52 And the disciples were filled with joy, and with the Holy Ghost. [Ch. 2 : 
46; Matt. 5: 12.] 

§ 27. Paul and Barnabas at Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. Their 
Return to Antioch. Close of Paul's First Missionary Tour. 

A. D. 46, 47, 4S. 

ACTS 14 : 1-28. EX. 20 : 11. PS. 146 : 6. 2 COR. 11 : 25. 2 TIM. 3 : 10, 11. 

(1) The success of Paul and Barnabas at Iconium, Acts 14: 1. (2) The opposition ot 
the disobedient Jews, ver. 2, 3. (3) They escape stoning by fleeing into Lycaonia, ver. 4-7. 
(4) At Lystra, Paul heals a cripple, ver. 8-10. (5) The Lycaonians take Paul and Barnabas 


(a) IsA. 49 : 6 I -will also give thee for a light to the G-entiles, 
that thou may est be my salvation unto the end of the earth. 


to be gods, ver. 11, 12. (6) And prepare to offer sacrifices to them, ver. 13. (7) They, with 
great promptness and earnestness, restrain the people, ver. 14-18. (8) Jews from Antioch 
and Iconium excite the people against them, ver. 19. (9) Paul stoned, and left as dead, ver. 
19. (10) He rises most unexpectedly, and with Barnabas goes to Derbe, ver. 20. (11) There 
they preach the gospel, ver. 21. (12) They begin their journey homeward by visiting 
Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, confirming the disciples, and appointing elders, ver. 21-23. 
(13) They pass through Pisidia, Pamphylia, by way of Perga and Attalia, and sail to 
Antioch, Syria, ver. 24-26. (14) They report to the church, and remain with the disciples 
no little time, ver. 27, 28. 

ACTS 14. 

1 And it came to pass in Iconium, that they went both together into the 
synagogues of the Jews, and so spake that a great multitude both of the Jews 
and also of the Greeks believed. [Ch. 13 : 43, 48.] 

2 But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles, and made their minds 
evil affected against the brethren. [Ch. 18 : 5, 6.] 

3 Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave 
testimony unto the word of his grace, and granted signs and wonders to be 
done by their hands. [Ch. 4 : 29-31.] 

4 But the multitude of the city was divided : and part held with the Jews, 
ard part with the apostles. 

5 And when there was an assault made both of the Gentiles, and also of 
the Jews -with their rulers, to use them despitefully, and to 
stone them, (a) [Ch. 13 : 2; 2 Cor. 8 : 21.] 

6 They were ware of it, and fled unto Lystra and Derbe, cities cf 
Lycaonia, and unto the region that lieth round about : (a) 

7 And there they preached the gospel. 

8 And there sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent in his feet, being a cripple 
from his mother's womb, who never had walked : [Ch. 3 : 2-4.] 

9 The same heard Paul speak : who steadfastly beholding him, and per- 
ceiving that he had faith to be healed, [Matt. 8 : 10; 9 : 22.] 

10 Said, with a loud voice. Stand upright on thy feet. And he leaped and 
walked. [Ch. 3:6-8; Isa. 35 : 6.] 

11 And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their 
voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the 
likeness of men. [Ch. 8 : 10; 28 : 6.] 

12 And they called Barnabas, Jupiter ; and Paul, Mercurius, because he 
was the chief speaker. 


(a) 2 Tim. 3 : 10 But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, 
purpose, faith, longsuffering, charity, patience, 

1 1 Persecutions, afiELictions, which came unto me at Antioch, 
at Iconium, at Lystra ; what persecutions I endured : but out of them all 
the Lord delivered me. 


ACTS 14. 

13 Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen 
and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people. 
[Dan. 2 : 46.] 

14 Which when the apostles Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their 
clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out, 

15 And saying. Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like 
passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vani- 
ties unto the living God, -which made heaven, and earth, and the 
sea, and all things that are therein : (o) 

16 Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways. [Ch. 
17 : 30.] 

17 Nevertheless he left not himself without witness, in that he did good, 
and gave us rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with 
food and gladness. [Rom. 2 : 15 ; Matt. 5 : 45.] 

18 And with these sayings scarce restrained they the people, that they had 
not done sacrifice unto them. 

19 And there came thither certain Jews from Antioch and Iconium, who 
persuaded the people, and having stoned Paul, drew him out of the city, 
supposing that he had been dead, (b) [Ver. 5 ; ch. 13 : 45.] 

20 Howbeit, as the disciples stood round about him, he rose up and came 
into the city : and the next day he departed with Barnabas to Derbe. 

21 And when they had preached the gospel to that city, and had taught 
many, they returned again to Lystra, and to Iconium, and Antioch, [Ch. 
20 : 4.] 

22 Confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in 
the faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom 
of God. [Ch. 18 : 23 ; 1 Thess. 3 : 2, 3 ; Matt. 10 : 21, 22, 28 ; Rom. 8 : 17.] 

23 And when they had ordained them elders in every church, and had 
prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on wliom they be- 
lieved. [Ch. 6 • 5 6 ; 2 Cor. 8 : 19.] 


(a) 11 Ex. 20 : 11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, 
the sea, and all that in them is. 

Ps. 146 : 6 WTiich made heaven and earth, the sea, and all 
that therein is ; which keepeth truth forever. 

(6) 2 Cor. 11 : 25 Once I was stoned. 


ACTS 14. 
24 And after they had passed throughout Pisidia, they came to Pam- 
phylia. [Ch. 13 : 13.] 

25 And when they had preached the word in Perga, they went down into 
Attalia : 

26 And thence sailed to Antioch, from whence they had been recommended 
to the grace of God for the work which they fulfilled. [Ch. 13 : 2, 3.] 

27 And when they were come, and had gathered the church together, they 
rehearsed all that God had done with them, and how he had opened the door 
of faith unto the Gentiles. [Ch. 15 : 12 ; 21 : 17-19.] 

28 And there they abode long time with the disciples. 


About 278 B. C. a large immigration of Gauls from AVestern Europe entered, 
and for a time overran Asia Minor. But about 230 B. C. they were repulsed and 
confined near the center of Asia Minor. They thus formed an Eastern Gaul, 
which the Greeks called Galatia. In 189 B, c. the country fell under the power 
of Rome,but it still continued to be governed by Galatian kings. More than a 
century later the Romans granted to the Galatians Lycaonia, Pisidia, Pamphylia, 
and a part of Phrygia. About B. C. 25 the Romans reduced this country to a 
Roman province, under the name of Galatia. Lightfoot (" Commentary on 
Galatians " ) and others hold that Paul on his second missionary journey gathered 
churches in the Northern and older Galatia. But Ramsay lately maintains that 
the Galatian churches were those gathered on Paul's first journey at Pisidian 
Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. But Paul appears to use the older 
designations in a general way in Acts 13 : 14 ; 14 : 8 ; 16 : 6, 7. The question is 
a difficult one. As yet it does not seem best to give up the former view, but 
rather wait for further investigation and discovery. 



About three years. 

^28. The Apostolic Council at jERrsALEM. 

Antioch, Jerusalem. — Autumn, A. D. 50; or perhaps in the Spring A. D. 51. 
Inten^al between PauVs First and Second Missionary Journey. 

ACTS 15: 1-29. GAL. 2: 1-10. JAMES 1:1. ISA. 45: 21. JER. 12: 15. 
AMOS 9 : 11, 12. 

(1) Certain men from Judea, or false brethren, come to Antioch, and insist that Gen- 
tiles submit to the Law of Moses in order to salvation. Acts 15: 1 ; Gal. 4. (2) After much 
discussion the brethren send Paul, Barnabas, and others to the apostles and elders at Jeru- 
salem, Acts 15: 2; Gal. 1. (3) Their journey to Jerusalem, Acts 15: 3. (4) At Jerusalem 
they recount the blessing of God upon their labors, ver. 4; Gal. 2-10. (5) Again some 
Pharisaic Christians insist on circumcision and the observance of the Law of Moses, Acts 
15 : 5. (6) Much questioning or debate in the assembly, ver. 6, 7. (7) Peter's speech, show- 
ing that the question had been settled by Divine authority, ver. 7-10. (8) That they should 
not therefore try God in putting a needless yoke upon the Gentiles, ver. 10, 11. (9) Paul 
and Barnabas rehearse the work of God among the Gentiles, ver. 12 ; Gal. 8, 9. (10) James 
shows that Peter's account agrees with ancient prophecy, Acts 15: 13-18; Amos 11, 12. 
(11) And proposes that they trouble not the Gentiles about these matters, only requiring 
them to abstain from certain practices which would reasonably call forth complaint from 
Jewish Christians, Acts 15: 19-21, (12) His course is approved by the whole church, ver. 
22. (13) Certain brethren chosen to accompany Paul and Barnabas to Antioch, ver. 22. 
(14) The letter conveying the decision of the Council, ver, 23-29. 

ACTS 15. 

1 And certain men which came down from Judea taught tiie brethren, and 
said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved. 

2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputa- 
tion with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain 
other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles 
and elders about this question, (a) 


(a) Gal. 2 : 1 Then fourteen years after I "went up again to Jerusa- 
lem -with Barnabas, and took Titus "with me also. 

2 And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that 


ACTS 15. 

3 And being brought on their way by the church, they passed tlirou-^h 
Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles: and they 
caused great joy unto all the brethren. 

4 And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the 
church, and o/ the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God 
had done with them. [Ch. 8:5; 11:19; 21 : 7 ; 14 : 27.] 

5 But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which 
believed, saying-, That it was needful to circumcise them, and 
to command them to keep the law of Moses, (a) 

6 And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this 
matter. (6) 

7 And when there had been much disputing, Peter rose up, and said untt) 
them, Men and brethren, ye know how that a good while ago God made 
choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the 
gospel, and believe. 

8 And God, which knoweth the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the 
Holy Ghost, even as he did unto us ; 

9 And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith. 

10 Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the 
disciples, which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear ? 

11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall 
be saved, even as they. 

12 Then all the multitude kept silence, and gave audience to 
Barnabas and Paul, declaring what miracles and wonders 
God had wrought among the Gentiles by them. (6) [Ch. 13 : 11 ; 
14 : 8-10, 20, 27.] 


gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were 
of reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain. 

(a) Gal. 2 : 3 But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was 
compelled to be circumcised : 

4 And that because of false brethren unawares brought in, who 
came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, 
that they might bring us into bondage : 

5 To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour; that the truth 
of the gospel might continue with you. 

6 But of those who seemed to be somewhat, whatsoever they were, it 
maketh no matter to me : God accepteth no man's person : for they who 
seemed to be somewhat in conference added nothing to me : 

7 But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision 
was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter ; 

8 (For he that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the cir- 
cumcision, the same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles ; ) 

(6) 9 And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to 


ACTS 15. 

13 And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying. Men and 
brethren, hearken unto me: [Ver. 7-10; ch. 10: 20; 11 : 1-18.] 

14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take 
out of them a people for his name. 

15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 

16 After this I -will return, and will build again the tabernacle 
of David, which is fallen down ; and I will build again the ruins 
thereof, and I will set it up : (a) 

17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gren- 
tiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all 
these things, (a) 

18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of 
the world. (6) 

19 Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among 
the Gentiles are turned to God : 

20 But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, 
and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood. [Ver. 29 ; 
1 Cor. 8: 1, 4-13; 10: 20; Eph. 5 : 3.] 

21 For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being 
read in the synagogues every sabbath day. [1 Thess. 4:3; Gen. 9 : 4.] 

22 Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send 
chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas ; 
namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren : 
[Ver. 40 ; ch. 18 : 5 ; 2 Cor. 1 : 19.] 

23 And they wrote letters by them after this manner: The apostles and 


be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they 
gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship ; that we should 
go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision. 

10 Only they ivould that we should remember the poor ; the same which I 
also was forward to do. 

(a) Amos 9: 11 In that day "will I raise up the tabernacle of 
David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up 
his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old : 

12 That they may possess the remnant of Edom, and of all the heathen, 
which are called by my name, saith the Lord that doeth this. 

Jer. 12: 15 And it shall come to pass, after that I have plucked them out, 
I will return, and have compassion on them, and will bring 
them again, every man to his heritage, and every man to his land. 

(6) IsA. 45 : 21 Tell ye, and bring them near ; yea, let tliem take counsel 
together: who hath declared this from ancient time? ivho hath 
toid it from that time ? have not I the LORD ? 


ACTS 15. 
elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the 
Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia: (a) [Jas. 1 : 1.] 

24 Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have 
troubled you with words, subverting your souls, saying. Ye must be circum- 
cised, and keep the law ; to whom we gave no such commandment : [Ver. 1 ; 
Gal. 2:4; Tit. 1 : 10, 11.] 

25 It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen 
men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, 

26 Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. [Ch. 13:50; 14:19.] 

27 We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the 
same things by mouth. 

28 For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no 
greater burden than these necessary things ; 

29 That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from 
things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves,. ye 
shall do well. Fare ye well. [Ver. 20; ch. 21 : 25 ; Kev. 2 : 20 ; Lev. 17 : 12.] 

§ 29. Paul and Barnabas Keturn to Antioch. Their Separation in 
Missionary Work. 

Antioch. — A. D. 51. 

ACTS 15 : 30-39. 

(1) The delegates return to Antioch, with the messengers from Jerusalem, and the letter 
from the Council, Acts 15 : 30. (2) How it was received at Antioch, ver. 31. (3) Judas and 
Silas confirm the brethren, ver. 32, (4) They are dismissed to return to Jerusalem, ver. 33. 
(5) Paul and Barnabas tarry and preach at Antioch, ver. 35. (6) Paul proposes to Barnabas 
a second missionary tour, ver. 36. (7) The dispute about taking Mark with them, ver, 
37-39. (8) They separate in their missionary work, ver. 39. (9) Barnabas with Mark go to- 
Cyprus, ver. 39. 

ACTS 15. 

30 So when they were dismissed, they came to Antioch : and when tliey 
had gathered the multitude together, they delivered the epistle : 

31 Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation. 

32 And Judas and Silas, being prophets also themselves, exhorted the 
brethren with many words, and confirmed them. [Ch. 11:27; 14:22; 
1 Cor. 14 : 3.] 

33 And after they had tarried there a space, they were let go in peace from 
the brethren unto the apostles. 


(a] Jas. 1:1. James, a servant of God, and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to 
the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting. 


ACTS 15. 

34 Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still. 

35 Paul also and Barnabas continued in Antioch, teaching and preaching 
the word of the Lord, with many others also. [Ch. 13 : 1.] 

36 And some days after, Paul said unto Barnabas, Let us go again and 
visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the 
Lord, and see how they do. [Ch. 13 : 4, 13, 14, 50 ; 14 : 1, 6, 24, 25 ; 2 
Cor. 11 : 28.] 

37 And Barnabas determined to take with them John, whose surname was 
Mark. [Ch. 12: 12, 25; 13: 5.] 

38 But Paul thought not good to take him with them, who departed from 
them from Pamphylia, and went not with them to the work. [Ch. 13 : 13.] 

39 And the contention was so sharp between them, that they departed 
asunder one from the other : and so Barnabas took Mark, and sailed unto 

The conference or council proper begins with Acts 16 : 6. What precedes 
is preliminary. Paul and his companions are warmly received by the church 
at Jerusalem. The work of God is rehearsed, but Pharisaic opposition is 
aroused. There seems to have been a public meeting before the conference ; 
and between these two public meetings a private interview of Paul with the 
apostles, recorded in Gal. 2 : 2-10. The only record of the meeting of Paul and 
John is recorded in Gal. 2 : 9. See Clark's "Acts" [ch. 15 : 1, 6, 20, 29], 
" A People's Commentary." 



About three years and a half from A. D. 51-54. 

\ SO. Paul and Silas Eevisit the Churches and Deliver the De- 
crees. They Visit Phrygia, and Come to Troas. 

Ada Minor. — A. D. 51. 

ACTS 15 : 40, 41 ; 16 : 1-10. GAL. 4 : 13-15, 19, 20. 1 COR. 9 : 20. 1 TIM. 
4: 14. 2TIM. 1:5, 6; 3: 15. 

(1) Paul and Silas pass through Syria, and Cilicia, confirming the churches, Acts 15 : 40, 
41. (2) Visit Derbe and Lystra, ch. 16: 1. (3) At Lystra Paul circumcised Timothy, and 
chose him as a companion in his labors, ver. 1-3; (ch. 17 : 14). (4) .Tourneying through the 
cities where Paul had before preached, they deliver the decrees of the Council at Jerusa- 
lem, ver. 4, 5. (5) They pass' through Phrygia and Galatia, ver. 6. (G) The Spirit forbids 
them to preach in the Roman province of Asia, ver. 6. (7) Hindered by the Spirit from 
going into Bithynia, ver. 7. (8) They come to Troas, ver. 8. (9) Paul is directed in a 
vision to go to Macedonia, ver. 9, 10. 

ACTS 15. 

40 And Paul chose Silas, and departed, being recommended by the breth- 
ren unto the grace of God. [Ch. 15 : 22; 14 : 26; Gal. 1 : 26.] 

41 And he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches. [Ch. 
9:30; 14:6.] 

ACTS 16. 

1 Then came he to Derbe and Lystra : and, behold, a certain dis- 
ciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, 
which was a Jewess, and believed; but his father was a Greek: (a) 


(a) 2 Tim. 1 : 5 When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that 
is in thee, -which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy 
mother Eunice ; and I am persuaded that in thee also. 

6 Wherefore I put thee in remembrance, that thou stir up the gift of God, 
which is in thee by the putting on of my hands. 

2 Tim. 3 : 15 And that from a child thou hast known the holy 
Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith 
which is in Christ Jesus. 



ACTS 16. 

2 Which was well reported of by the brethren that were at Lystra and 

3 Him would Paul have to go forth with him ; and took and circum- 
cised him because of the Jews which were in those quarters: for they 
knew all that his father was a G-reek. (o) 

4 And as they went through the cities, they delivered them the decrees for 
to keep, that were ordained of the apostles and elders which were at Jeru- 
salem. [Ch. 15 : 22-29.] 

5 And so were the churches established in the faith, and increased in 
number daily. [Ch. 15: 41.] 

6 Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of 
Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy G-host to preach the 
word in Asia, [Ch. 8: 29; 10: 19; 13 : 2; 18 : 22; Rom. 1 : 13.] (b) 

7 After they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia : but the 
vSi)irit suffered them not. 

8 And they passing by Mysia came down to Troas. [Ch. 20 ; 6 ; 2 Cor. 2 : 
12, 13.] 

9 And a vision appeared to Paul in the night: There stood a man of 
Macedonia, and prayed him, saying, Come over into Macedonia, and help us. 

10 And after he had seen the vision, immediately we endeavoured to go 
into Macedonia, assuredly gathering that the Lord had called us for to preach 
the gospel unto them. [Ch. 9 : 10-12; 22 : 17; 2 Cor. 12 : 1-4.] 


(a) 1 Cor. 9 : 20 And unto the Jews, I became as a Jew, that 
I might gain the Jews ; to them that are under the law, as under the 
law, that I might gain them that are under the law; 

1 TiiNi. 4 : 14 Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given 
thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the 

(6) Gal. 4 : 13 Ye know how through infirmity of the fiesh I 
preached the gospel unto you at the first. 

14 And my temptation which was in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected ; 
but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. 

15 Where is then the blessedness ye spake of? for I bear you record, tliat, 
if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have 
given them to me. 

19 My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be 
formed in you, 

20 I desire to be present with you now, and to change my voice ; for I stand 
in doubt of you. 



§ 31. Paul and his Companions Arrive in Europe, and Begin their 
Labors at Philippi. Conversion of Lydia and her House- 
hold. Of the Jailer and his Family. 

Philippl—A. D. 52. 

. ACTS 16 : 11-40. 2 COK. 11 : 25. PHIL. 1 : 29, 30; 4 : 2, 3. 
1 THESS. 2 : 2. 

(1) Paul and his associates land in Europe at Neapolis, and begin their mission at 
Philippi, Acts 16: 11, 12. (2) On the Sabbath, at the place of prayer, Lydia and her house- 
hold are converted and baptized, ver 13-15. (3) She entertains Paul and his companions, 
ver. 15. (4) Paul casts out an evil spirit from a certain maid, ver. 16-18. (5) Which excites 
bitter persecution, ver. 19-21. (6) Paul and Silas beaten with rods, and cast into prison, 
ver. 22-24. (7) The songs of the prisoners heard at midnight, ver. 25. (S) An earthquake; 
the prison doors opened, and the prisoner's bonds loosed, ver. 26. (9) The jailer, about to 
kill himself, is restrained by Paul, ver. 27, 28. (10) He, in great fear and solicitude, inquires : 
" What must I do to be saved?" ver. 29, 30. (11) The answer of Paul and Silas, ver. 81. (12) 
The gospel preached to all his house, ver. 32. (13) The jailer and family are baptized, and 
all rejoice, believing, ver. 33, 34. (14) The magistrates, on the morrow, propose to let the 
prisoners go informally, ver. 35, 36. (15) Having borne persecution meekly, Paul asserts 
their Roman citizenship, ver. 37, 38. (16) And constrains the magistrates to give them an 
honorable discharge, ver. 38, .39. (17) They visit the house of Lydia, after which Paul and 
Silas depart, leaving, it would seem, Luke at Philippi, perhaps to watch over the church 
there, ver. 40. 

ACTS 16. 

11 Therefore loosing from Troas, we came with a straight course to Sarao- 
tliracia, and and the next day to Neapolis ; [Ver. 17 ; ch. 1 : 1 ; Luke 1 : 2.] 

12 And from thence to Philippi, which is the chief city of that part of 
Macedonia, and a colony : and we were in that city abiding certain days. 
[Phil. 1 : 1.] 

13 And on the sabbath we went out of the city by a river side, where prayer 
was wont to be made ; and we sat down, and spake unto the women 
which resorted thither, (a) 

14 And a certain Avoman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of 
Thyatira, Avhich worshipped God, heard «s ; whose heart the Lord opened, 
that she attended unto the things which were spoken of Paul. [Rev. 2 : 18 ; 
Luke 24: 45; Eph. 1 : 17, 18 ; Matt. 11 : 25.] 

15 And when she was baptized, and her household, she besought ws, saying, 


(a) Phil. 4:21 beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche, that 
they be of the same mind in the Lord. 

3 And I entreat thee also, true yokefelloAv, help those women which 
laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and xi^ith other of 
my felloAV labourers, whose names are in the book of life. 


ACTS 16. 

If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come into my house, and 
abide there. And she constrained us. [Ver. 34, 40; 18: 8.] 

16 And it came to pass, as we went to prayer, a certain damsel possessed 
with a spirit of divination met us, which brought her masters much gain by 
soothsaying: [Ver. 13; 1 Sam. 28: 7.] 

17 The same followed Paul and us, and cried, saying, These men are the 
servants of the most high God, which shew unto us the way of salvation. 
[Mark 1 : 23-25.] 

18 And this did she many days. But Paul, being grieved, turned and said 
to the spirit, I command thee in the name of Jesus Christ, to come out of her. 
And he came out the same hour. [Ch. 3:6; Luke 13 : 16.] 

19 And when her masters saw that the hope of their gains was gone, they 
caught Paul and Silas, and drew them into the market-place unto the rulers, 
[Ch. 19 : 24-27.] 

20 And brought them to the magistrates, saying, These men, being Jews, do 
exceedingly trouble our city, 

21 And teach customs, which are not lawful for us to receive, neither to 
observe, being Romans. 

22 And the multitude rose up together against them : and the magistrates 
rent off their clothes, and commanded to beat them. [Ver. 37.] 

23 And -when they had laid many stripes upon them, they 
cast them into prison, charging- the jailer to keep them 
safely: (o) 

24 Who, having received such a charge, thrust them into the inner 
prison, and made their feet fast in the stocks. [ Jer. 20 : 2.] (6) 

25 And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and sang praises unto God : and 
the prisoners heard them. [Ch. 5 : 41 ; Job 35: 10.] 

26 And suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of 
the prison were shaken: and immediately all the doors were opened, and 
every one's bands were loosed. [Ch. 5 : 19 ; 12:7, 10.] 

27 And the keeper of the prison, awaking out of his sleep, and seeing the 


(a) Phil. 1 : 29 For unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only 
to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake ; 

30 Having the same conflict which ye saw in me, and now 
hear to be in me. 

2 Cor. 11 : 25. Thrice was I beaten with rods. 

(6) 1 Thess. 2 : 2 But even after tliat we had suffered before, and were 
shamefully entreated, as ye know, at Philippi. 


ACTS 16. 
prison doors open, he drew out his sword, and would have killed himself, sup- 
posing that the prisoners had been fled. [Ch. 12 : 19.] 

28 But Paul cried with a loud voice, saying, Do thyself no harm : for we are 
all here. 

29 Then he called for a light, and sprang in, and came trembling, and fell 
down before Paul and Silas, 

30 And brought them out, and said. Sirs, what must I do to be saved? 
[Ch. 2 : 37.] 

31 And they said. Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou slialt be 
saved, and thy house. [Ch. 2 : 38, 39 ; 13 : 38, 39.] 

32 And they spake unto him the word of the Lord, and to all that were in 
his house. 

33 And he took them the same hour of the night, and washed their stripes ; 
and was baptized, he and all his, straightway. [Matt. 28 : 19.] 

34 And when he had brought them into his house, he set meat before 
them, and rejoiced, believing in God w'ith all his house. [Ch. 8 : 39.] 

35 And when it was day, the magistrates sent the Serjeants, saying, Let 
those men go. 

36 And the keeper of the prison told this saying to Paul, The magistrates 
have sent to let you go : now therefore depart, and go in peace. 

37 But Paul said unto them, They have beaten us openly uncondemned, 
being Romans, and have cast us into prison ; and now do they thrust us out 
privily ? nay verily ; but let them come themselves and fetch us out. [ Ver. 
22,23; ch. 22: 25-29.] 

38 And the Serjeants told these words unto the magistrates: and they 
feared, when they heard they were Romans. 

39 And they came and besought them, and brought them out, and desired 
them to depart out of the city. [Ch. 22 : 29 ; Matt. 8 : 34.] 

40 And they went out of the prison, and entered into the house of Lydia : 
and when they had seen the brethren, they comforted them, and departed. 
[Ver. 14, 15.] 

§ 32. Paul and Silas at Thessalonica and Berea. 

A. D. 52. 

ACTS 17 : 1-15. PHIL. 4 : 14-16. 1 THESS. 1 : 4, 5, 9, 10; 2 : 9, 14^18; 

3:1,2,4. 2 THESS. 3 : 7, 8. 

(1) Paul and Silas proceed to Thessalonica, Acts 16 : 1. (2) Some success among the Jews, 

ver. 2-4. (3) But far greater among the Gentiles, ver. 4. (4) The unbelieving Jews excite 

the populace against the missionaries, ver. 5; 1 Thess. 14, 15, 16. (5) Assault and persecute 

Jason their host, Acts 16 : 5-9. (6) Paul and Silas sent away by night to Berea, ver. 10. (7) 

They find candid hearers, who search alter the truth, ver. 11. (8) Many believe, both 


Jews and Gentiles, ver. 12. (9) Hostile Jews came from Thessaloniea, ver. 13. (10) Paul 
goes to Athens, leaving Silas and Timothy at Thessaloniea, ver. 1-1, 15. (11) But desiring 
them to come to him, ver. 15. 

ACTS 17. 

1 Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they 
came to Thessaloniea, where was a synagogue of the Jews : [Ch. 9 : 20 ; 13 ; 5, 
14; 14:1, etc.] 

2 And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them, and three sabbath days 
reasoned with them out of the Scriptures, 

3 Opening- and alleging, that Christ must needs have suf- 
fered, and risen again from the dead, and that this Jesus, whom I 
preach unto you, is Christ, (a) 

4 And some of them believed, and consorted with Paul and Silas ; and of the 
devout Greeks a great multitude, and of the chief women not a few. 

5 But the Jews which believed not, moved with env}', took unto them 
certain le-wd fello^ws, of the baser sort, and gathered a com- 
pany, and set all the city on an uproar, and assaulted the 
house of Jason, and sought to bring them out to the people, (a) 

6 And when they found them not, they drew Jason and certain brethren 
unto the rulers of the city, crying. These that have turned the world upside 
down are come hither also ; [Eph. 6 : 13.] 


(a) 1 Thess. 1 : 4. Knowing, brethren, beloved, your election of God. 

5 For our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also 
in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance ; as ye know 
what manner of men we were among you for your sake. 

9 For they themselves shew of us what manner of entering in we 
had unto you, and how ye turned to God from idols to serve 
the living and true Grod ; 

10 And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, 
even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come. 

1 Thess. 2 : 9 For ye remember, brethren, our labour and 
travail : for labouring night and day, because we would not be charge- 
able unto any of you, Ave preached unto you the gospel of God. 

14 For ve, brethren, became followers of the churches of God which in 
Judea are in Christ Jesus : for ye also have suffered like things of your 
own countrynien, even as they have of the Jews : 

15 Who both killed the Lord Jesus, and their own prophets, and have per- 
secuted us ; and they please not God, and are contrary to all men : 

16 Forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved, to fill 
up their sins always : for the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost. 

2 Thess. 3 : 7 For yourselves know how ye ought to follow us : for we be- 
haved not ourselves disorderly among you ; 

8 Neither did we eat any man's bread for naught ; but wrought 
with labour and travail night and day, that we might not be 
chargeable to any of you. 

1 Thess. 3 : 4 For verilv, when we were with you, we told you before that 



ACTS 17. 

7 Whom Jason hath received, and these all do contrary to the decrees of 
Cesar, saying that that there is another king, one Jesus. [John 19 : 15, 16 ; 
Matt. 2 : 3.] 

8 And they troubled the people and the rulers of the city, when they heard 
these things. 

9 And when they had taken security of Jason, and of the others, they let 
them go. [1 Thess. 2:17, 18.] 

10 And the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas 
by night unto Berea : who coming thither went into the synagogue of the 
Jews, (a) 

11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received 
the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, 
whetlier those things were so, [Isa. 34: 16 ; John 5 : 39.] 

12 Therefore many of them believed : also of honourable women which were 
Greeks, and of men, not a few. [ Ver. 4.] 

13 But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of 
God was preached of Paul at Berea, they came thither also, and stirred up 
the people. [Ch. 14: 19.] 

14 And then immediately the brethren sent away Paul to go 
as it were to the sea : but Silas and Timotheus abode there still. (6) 

15 And they that conducted Paul brought him unto Athens : and receiving 
a commandment unto Silas and Timotheus for to come to him 
with all speed, they departed, (c) 


we should suffer tribulation : even as it came to pass, and ye 

(a) Phil. 4 : 14 Notwithstanding, ye have well done that ye did communi- 
cate with my affliction. 

15 Now ye Philippians know also, that in the beginning of 
the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no church com- 
municated with me as concerning giving and receiving, but ye only. 

16 For even in Thessalonica ye sent once again unto my necessity. 

(6) 1 Thess. 2 : 17 But we, brethren, being taken from you for a short 
time in presence, not in heart, endeavoured the more abundantly to see your 
face with great desire. 

18 Wherefore we would have come unto you, even I Paul, once 
and again ; but Satan hindered us. 

(c) 1 Thess. 3 : 1 Wherefore when we could no longer forbear, we thought 
it good to be left at Athens alone ; 

2 And sent Timotheus, our brother, and minister of God, and 
our fellow labourer in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to 
comfort you concerning your faith. 


^ 33. Paul at Athens. — His Speech on Mars' Hill. 
A. D. 52. 

ACTS 17 : 16-34. PS. 9 : 8. ISA. 42 : 5. 
(1) How Paul was affected by the idolatry at Athens, Acts 17: 16. (2) Preaches to the 
Jews and proselytes in the synagogues, and daily to the people in the market-place, ver. 
17. (3) Opposes the prevailing forms of idolatry and philosophy, ver. 17, 18. (4) What was 
thought of him and his preaching, ver. 19, 20. (5) They bring him upon Mars' Hill, and 
ask him to explain his teaching, ver. 21. (6) The character of the Athenians, ver. 21. (7) 
Paul addresses them, ver. 22. (8) He first commends their regard for religion, ver. 22, 23- 
(9) He would make known to them the true God, ver. 24. (10) Who is independent of all 
and the Author of all, ver. 25; Isa. 42: 5. (11) The Creator of all mankind, Acts 17: 26. 
(12) And the Disposer of all, ver. 27. (13) In order that they might seek and serve him^ 
ver. 27, 28. (14) Since he is near them all, the Support and the Parent of all, ver. 28, 29. 
(15) Hence they should not think him like gold, silver, and stone, graven by man's art and 
device, ver. 29. (16) Thus far God had forborne, but now commands men to repent, ver. 
30. (17) No longer could men safely continue thus, because a day of judgment had been 
appointed (Ps. 9 : 8), and rendered certain by the resurrection of Jesus Christ, ver. 31. 
(18) At this point Paul is interrupted by the clamors of his hearers, ver, 32. (19) The 
effect of his address, ver. 32-34. 

ACTS 17. 

16 Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was stirred in 
him, when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry. [1 Thess. 3 : 1, 2 ; 
2 Pet. 2:8.] 

17 Therefore disputed he in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the 
devout persons, and in the market daily with them that met with him. 

18 Then certain philosophers of the Epicureans, and of the Stoics, encoun- 
tered him. And some said, What will this babbler say ? other some. He 
seemeth to be a setter forth of strange gods : because he preached unto them 
Jesus, and the resurrection. 

19 And they took him, and brought him unto Areopagus, saying, May we 
know what this new doctrine, whereof thou speakest, isf 

20 For thou bringest certain strange things to our ears : we would know 
therefore what these things mean. 

21 (For all the Athenians, and strangers which were there, spent their 
time in nothing else, but either to tell or to hear some new thing.) 

22 Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars' hill, and said. Ye men of Athens, 
I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. [2 Tim 2 : 16, 17.] 

23 For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with 
this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom therefore ye ignor- 
antly worship, him declare I unto you. 

24 God that made the "world and all things therein, seeing 


ACTS 17. 
that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made 
with hands ; (a) [Matt. 11 : 25 ; ch. 14 : 15 ; 7 : 48.] 

25 Neither is worshipped with man's hands, as though he needed any thing, 
seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things; [Xum. 16: 22; 
Zech. 12:1.] 

26 And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the 
face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the 
bounds of their habitation; [Gen. 3: 20; Deut. 32: 7, 8.] 

27 That they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him, 
and find him, though he be not far from every one of us : [Ch. 15 : 17 ; 14 : 17.] 

28 For in him we live, and move, and have our being ; as certain also of 
your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring. [Job 12: 10; Heb. 
1:3; Tit. 1: 12.] 

29 Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think 
that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and 
man's device. [Isa. 46 : 5-7 ; Hab. 2 : 19, 20.] 

30 And the times of this ignorance God winked at ; but now commandeth 
all men every where to repent : [Ch. 14 : 16 ; Rom. 3 : 25 ; Luke 24 : 47.] 

31 Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge 
the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; 
whereof he hath given assurance unto all ?n,ew, in that he hath raised him from 
the dead. (6) [Ch. 10: 42; Ps. 96: 13; 98: 9; 2 Cor. 5: 10.] 

32 And when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked : and 
others said, We will hear thee again of this matter. [Ch. 2 : 13 ; 24 : 25.] 

33 So Paul departed from among them. 

34 Howbeit certain men clave unto him, and believed : among the which 
was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with 
them. [Ch. 28 : 24, 29.] 

^ 34. Paul at Corinth. His Labors There ; and His Arraignment 
Before Gallic. 

A. D. 52-54. 

ACTS 18: 1-17. 1 COR. 1 : 1, 14, 16; 2: 2, 3; 4: 11, 12. 2 COR. 1: 19; 
11 : 8, 9. 1 THESS. 3 : 6, 7. ISA. 43 : 5. JER. 1 : 8. 
(1) Paul goes from Athens to Corinth, Acts 18 : 1. (2) Finds Aquila and Priscilla, ver. 2, 
(3) They work together as tent-makers, ver. 3. (4) Preaches in the synagogues, ver. 4. 


(«) IsA. 42 : 5 Thus saith God the Lord, he that created the heavens, 
and stretched them out: he that spread forth the earth, and that 
which Cometh out of it ; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and 
spirit to them that walk therein. 

(6) Ps. 9 : 8 And he shall judge the world in righteousness, 
he shall minister judgment to the people in uprightness. 


(5) Silas and Timothy come to him, ver. 5. (6) The Jews fiercely oppose, ver. (5. (7) Turns 
to the (ji entiles, ver. 6, 7. (8) Some success, ver. 8. (9) Receives a special divine assurance 
of safety and success, ver. 9, 10. (10) Continues a year and a half, ver. 11. (11) The Jews 
bring Paul before Gallio, ver. 12, 13. (12) Gallio refuses to have anything to do with the 
case, ver. 14-16. (13) The Jews become the objects of popular indignation, ver. 17. 

ACTS 18. 

1 After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth ; 
[1 Cor. 2 : 1.] 

2 And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come 
from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, (because that Claudius had commanded all 
Jews to depart from Rome,) and came unto them. [Ch. 2:9; 10 : 28 ; 18 : 26 ; 
Rom. 16 : 3, 4 ; 1 Cor. 16 : 19 ; 2 Tim. 4:19; 1 Pet. 1:1.] 

3 And because he was of the same craft, tie abode with them, 
and wrought: (for by their occupation they were tentm.akers.) (a) 

4 And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath, and persuaded the 
Jews and the Greeks. [Ch. 13 : 43 ; 14 : 1.] 

5 And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia, 
Paul was pressed in the spirit, and testified to the Jews that Jesus 
was Christ. (6) 

6 And when they opposed themselves, and blasphemed, he shook his 
raiment, and said unto them, Your blood be upon your own heads ; I am 
clean : from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles. 

7 And he departed thence, and entered into a certain man's 
house, named Justus, one that worshipped God, whose house joined 
hard to the synagogue, (c) 


(a) 1 Cor. 4: 11 Even unto this present hour we both hunger, and 
thirst, and are naked, and are bufleted, and have no certain dwelling- 
place: [1 Cor. 9 : 6-12 ; 2 Cor. 11 : 7-9 ; Acts 17 : 2, 3 ; 1 Thess. 2 : 9, 10 ; 4 : 11.] 

12 And labour, working with oiir own hands ; being reviled, 
we bless ; being persecuted, we suffer it. 

(6) 2 Cor. 1 : 19 For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was 
preached among you by us, even by me and Silvanus and Timotheus, 
was not yea and nay, but in him was yea. 

1 Cor. 2 : 2 For 1 determined not to know any thing among you, save 
Jesus Christ, and him crucified, 

3 And I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling. 

1 Thiss. 3 : 6 But now when Timotheus came from you unto us, 
and brought us good tidings of your faith and charity, and that ye have good 
remembrance of us always, desiring greatly to see us, as we also to see you : 

7 Therefore, brethren, we were comforted over you in all our 
aflBliction and distress by your faith. 

(c) 2 Cor. 11 : 8 1 robbed other churches, taking wages of them, to do 
you service. 

9 And when I was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable to 


ACTS 18. 

8 And Orispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on 
the Lord with all his house ; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, 
and were baptized. («) 

9 Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision, Be not afraid, 
but speak, and hold not thy peace : (6) 

10 For I am with thee, and no man shall set on thee to hurt thee : for I 
have much people in this city. 

11 And he continued there a year and six months, teaching the word of 
God among them. 

12 And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia, the Jews made insurrection 
with one accord against Paul, and brought him to the judgment seat, 
[Ch. 13: 7.] 

13 Saying, ThSs, fellow persuadeth men to worship God contrary to the law. 

14 And when Paul was now about to open Us mouth, Gallio said unto the 
Jews, If it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O ye Jews, reason 
would that I should bear with you : 

15 But if it be a question of words and names, and of your law, look ye to 
it; for I will be no judge of such matters. [Ch. 23 : 29 ; 25 : 19.] 

16 And he drave them from the judgment seat. 

17 Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes, the chief ruler of the 
synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. And Gallio cared for 
none of those things. ( c ) 

1 35. Paul Eeturns to Antioch by Way of Ephesus, Cesarea, and 

A. D. 54. 

ACTS 18 : 18-22. 

(1) Paul tarries still at Corinth, Acts 18: 18. (2) Departs for Syria, having taken a 
vow, ver, 18. (3) Stopped at Ephesus, reasons in the sj'uagogue, and then hastens on his 
journey towards Jerusalem, ver. 19, 20. (4) Arrives at Cesarea, visits Jerusalem, and then 
goes to Antioch, ver. 21, 22. 


no man : for that which was lacking to me the brethren which came from 
Macedonia supplied : 

(a) 1 Cor. 1 : 14 1 thank God tliat I baptized none of you, but 
Orispus and Gains ; [Ch. 16: 15, 34.] 

10 And I baptized also the houseliold of Stephanas: 

(b) Jer. 1 : 8 Be not afraid of their faces : for I am with thee 
to deliver thee, saith the LORD. 

IsA. 43: 5 "Fear not; for I am with thee." [2 Thess. 3: 2; 
1 Cor. 2 : 3.] 

( c ) 1 Cor. 1 : 1 Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the 
will of God, and Sosthenes our brother. 


ACTS 18. 

18 And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, and then 
took his leave of the brethren, and sailed thence into Syria, and with him 
Priscilla and Aquila ; having shorn his head in Cenchrea : for he had a vow. 
(a) [Ch. 21 : 24; Num. 6 : 5, 18 ; 1 Cor. 9 : 20.] 

19 And he came to Ephesus, and left them there : but he himself entered 
into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews. 

20 Vv'^hen they desired him to tarry longer time with them, he consented 

21 But bade them farewell, saying, I must by all means keep this feast that 
Cometh in Jerusalem : but I will return again unto you, if God will. And 
he sailed from Ephesus. [1 Cor. 4 : 19 ; James 4 : 15.] 

22 And when he had landed at Cesarea, and gone up, and saluted the 
church, he went down to Antioch. 


(a) About this time, at Corinth, Paul probably wrote the First and 
Second Epistles to the Thessalonians. [Ch. 18: 1, 5; 1 Thess. 1:1; 2: 17; 
3:1,6; 2 Thess. 1:1.] 

Some suppose that Paul made his second visit to Corinth (pp. 216-218) during 
his three years' ministry at Ephesus, somewhere after Acts 19 : 10. In that case 
the date of First Thessalonians would be a. d. 52, and of Second Thessalonians 
A. D. 53. But there are difficulties in putting Paul's second visit at that time. 
I still incline to the view that it occurred between this and the preceding section. 
See on p. 218, and Clark's " Acts " in " A People's Commentary." [Ch. 18 : 11, 



About three years and a half. — A. D. 54-58. 

§ 36. Paul Visits Galatia and Phrygia. Apollos Comes to Ephesus. 
Antioch and Asia Minor. — A. D. 54, 55. 

ACTS 18 : 23-28. 1 COE. 16 : 1, 2. GAL. 2 : 11-21. 
(1) Paul at Antioch, Acts 18: 23; Gal. 2:13-21. (2) His departure to Galatia and 
Phrygia, Acts 18 : 23. (3) Apollos comes to Ephesus, ver. 24. (3) Teaches ; hut knows only 
the baptism of John, ver. 25. (5) He is instructed by Priscilla and Aquila, ver. 26. (6) Goes 
to Achaia, and to Corinth, ver. 27 ; ch. 18 : 1. (7) His preaching to the Jews, ver. 28. 

ACTS 18. 

25 And after he had spent some time there, he departed, and went 
over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all 
the disciples, (a) 


(a) Gal. 2: 11 But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to 
the face, because he was to be blamed. 

12 For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: 
but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them 
which Avere of the circumcision. 

13 And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him ; insomuch that Bar- 
nabas also was carried away with their dissimulation. 

14 But when I saw that' they walked not uprightly according to the truth 
of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest 
after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the 
Gentiles to live as do the Jews ? 

15 We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, 

16 Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the 
faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might 
be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law : for by the 
works of the law shall no flesh be justified. 

17 But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found 
sinners, is therefore Christ the minister of sin? God forbid. 

18 For if I build again the things which I destroyed, I make myself a 

19 For I through the law am dead to the law, that I might live unto God. 

20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live: yet not 1, but Christ 



ACTS 18. 

24 And a certain Jew named Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, 
and mighty in the Scriptures, came to Ephesus. [1 Cor. 1:12; 3 : 5-7.] 

25 This man was instructed in the way of the Lord ; and being fervent in 
the spirit, he spake and taught diligently the things of the Lord, knowing 
only the baptism of John. [Ch. 19 : 3-5.] 

26 And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue : whom when Aquila 
and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him 
the way of God more perfectly. 

27 And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, ex- 
horting the disciples to receive him : who, when he was come, helped them 
much which had believed through grace : [2 Cor. 3:1.] 

28 For he mightily convinced the Jews, and that publicly, shewing by the 
Scriptures that Jesus was Christ. [Ver. 5.] 

^ 37. PAuii Comes to Ephesus. Rebaptizes Certain Disciples of 
John. Preaches and Performs Miracles. Jewish Exorcists. 

A. D. 56, 57, 

ACTS 19 : 1-20. 1 COR. 8 : 8, 9, 10. 
(1) Paul comes to Ephesus, Acts 19 : I. (2) Finds certain disciples ignorant of the Holy 
Spirit, ver. 2, (3) Who had heen baptized into John's baptism, ver. 3. (4) Paul instructs 
them more fully, after which they are baptized, ver. 4, 5, (5) Paul lays his hands on them, 
6, 7. (6) He preaches three months in the synagogue, ver. 8. (7) There being much oppo- 
sition, Paul separates the disciples, ver. 9. (8) Thus continuing for two years, the gospel is 
spread through the province of Asia, ver. 10. (9) Special miracles performed by Paul, ver. 
11, 12. (10) Attempt of certain exorcists to imitate the miracles of Paul, ver. 13. (11) Their 
defeat (the sons of one Sceva), by the evil spirit, ver. 14-16. (12) Thus the name of the 
Lord Jesus was magnified, ver. 17. (13) Many renounce their magical practices, and burn 
their books, ver. 18-20. 

ACTS 19. 

1 And it came to pass, that while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having 
passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain dis- 
ciples, [Ch. 18 : 24.] 


liveth in me : and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of 
the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me. 

21 I do not frustrate the grace of God : for if righteousness come by the 
law, then Christ is dead in vain, 

1 Cor. 16 : 1 Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have 
given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye. 

2 Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as 
God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come. 



ACTS 19. 

2 He said unto tliera, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? 
And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any 
Holy Ghost. [Ch. 11 : 15-17.] 

3 And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they 
said. Unto John's baptism. 

4 Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, 
saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come 
after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. [Matt. 3 : 11, 12; Acts 8 : 16, 17.] ; 

5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord 
Jesus. [Ch. 10: 45, 46, and 1 Cor. 14 : 22.] 

6 And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on 
them ; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied. 

7 And all the men were about twelve. 

8 And he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three 
months, disputing and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God. 
[2 Cor. 5:11.] 

9 But when divers were hardened, and believed not, but spake evil of that 
way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, 
disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus. [Ch. 9:2; 2 Cor. 2: 16.] 

10 And this continued by the space of two years; so that all they which 
dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks. [Ch- 
20: 31; 1 Cor. 16 : 9; Eev. 1 : 4, 11.] 

11 And God wrought special miracles by the hands of Paul: 

12 So that from his body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or 
aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went out of 
them. [Ch. 5 : 15, 16.] 

13 Then certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists, took upon them to call 
over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying. We 
adjure you by Jesus, whom Paul preacheth. [Matt. 12 : 27 ; 1 Sam. 28 : 7 ; Acts 
16: 16,17.] 

14 And there were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the priests, 
wliich did so. 

15 And the evil spirit answered and said, Jesus I know, and Paul I know; 
but who are ye? 

16 And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and over- 
came them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house 
naked and wounded. [Matt. 8 : 28, 29.] 

17 And this was known to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling at 
Ephesus: and fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was 
magnified. [Ch. 5:5-11; Luke 7 : 16.] 


ACTS 19. 

18 And many that believed came, and confessed, and shewed their deeds. 
[Matt. 3 : 6.] 

19 Many of them also which used curious arts brought their books together, 
and burned them before all men: and they counted the price of them, and 
found it fifty thousand y^f^ccs of silver. [Gen. 25: 4; Deut. 7: 5, 25.] 

20 So mightily grew the "word of Grod and prevailed. («) 

^38. Paul Proposes TO Leave Ephesus; but Tarries Awhile. Deme- 
trius Excites a Tumult. 

A. D. 57. 

ACTS 19: 21-41. ROM. 1 : 13-15. 1 COR 4: 17-19; 16: 19. EPH. 2: 19-22. 
(1) Paul purposes a journey to Jerusalem, and thence to Eome, Acts 19: 21; Eom. 1: 
13-15. (2) Sends Timothy and Erastus into Macedonia, the former to go to Corinth, if he 
could, Acts 19: 22; 1 Cor. 4: 17-19. (3) A tumult excited regarding the Christian way of 
life, etc., by Demetrius and his craftsmen, Acts 19 : 23-25. (4) Their motive — fear of losing 
their business and their wealth, ver. 25. (o) The address of Demetrius, ver. 26, 27. (fi) 
The effect— the craftsmen cry aloud; the city filled with confusion; the crowd rushing, 
with Gains and Aristarchus, into the theatre, ver. 28, 29. (7) The disciples and certain 
Asiarchs keep Paul from entering, ver. 30, 31'. (8) Great confusion, ver. .32. (9) At the 
appearance of Alexander, a Jew, all cry out again, ver. 33, 34. (9) The town clerk quiets 
the people, ver. 35. (10) His address — such excitement unbecoming the Ephesians, who 
were above all suspicion in religious matters; nothing could be proved against these men ; 
it was unnecessary, for the courts were open to Demetrius and his craftsmen ; liable to be 
called to an account by the Roman authorities, ver. 35-40. (11) The assembly dismissed, 
ver. 41. 

ACTS 19. 

21 After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, 
when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to 
Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome, {h) 

22 So he sent into Macedonia two of them that ministered unto him, 
Timotheus and Erastus : but he himself stayed in Asia for a 
season. (6) 

23 And the same time there arose no small stir about that way. [2 
Cor. 1 : 8.] 

24 For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, which made silver 


(o) 1 Cor. 16: 8 But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost. 

9 For a great door and effectual is opened unto me, and there 
are many adversaries. 

10 Now if Timotheus come, see that he may be with you without fear: for 
he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do. 

(6) Rom. 1 : 18 Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that often- 


ACTS 19. 
shrines for Diana, brought no small gain unto the craftsiiu-n ; [( h. 
16: 19; 17:5.] 

25 Whom he called together with the workmen of like occupation, and 
said. Sirs, ye know that by this craft we have our wealth. 

26 Moreover ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost 
tliroughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much 
people, saying that they be no gods, which are made with hands: [Ch. 
14: 15; 17:29.] 

27 So that not only tliis our craft is in danger to be set at nought ; but 
also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should- be 
despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all 
Asia and the world worshippeth. (a) 

28 And when they heard these sayings, they were full of wrath, and cried 
out, saying. Great is Diana of the Ephesians. [Eph. 6: 12, 13-17.] 

29 And the whole city was filled witli confusion : and having caught Gains 
and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel, they rushed 
with one accord into the theatre. [Ch. 20: 4; 27 : 2; Col. 4: 10; Philem. 24.] 

30 And when Paul would have entered in unto the people, the disciples 
suffered him not. 


times I purposed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto,) that 
I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles. 

14 I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the 
wise, and to the unwise. 

15 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that 
are at Eome also. 

1 Cor. 4: 17 For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my 
beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance 
of mv wavs which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every churcli. 
[Rom. 15: 23-28; 1 Cor. 16: 10.] 

18 Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come to you. 

19 But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will, and will 
know, not the speech of them which are puffed up, but the 

1 Cor. 16: 19 The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla 
salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house. 

(a) Eph. 2: 19 Now tlierefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, 
but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God ; 

20 And are built upon tlie foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus 
Christ liimself being tlie chief corner stone ; 

21 In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth 
unto a holy temple in the Lord : 

22 In wliom ye also are builded together for a habitation of 
God through the Spirit. 


ACTS 19. 

31 And certain of the chief of Asia, which were his friends, sent unto him, 
desiring him that he would not adventure himself into the theatre. 

32 Some therefore cried one thing, and some another : for the assembly 
was confused; and the more part knew not wherefore they were come 

33 And they drew Alexander out of the multitude, the Jews putting him 
forward. And Alexander beckoned with the hand, and would have made his 
defence unto the people. 

34 But when they knew that he was a Jew, all with one voice about the 
space of two hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians. 

35 And when the town clerk had appeased the people, he said. Ye men of 
Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the 
Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image 
which fell down from Jupiter ? 

36 Seeing then that these things cannot be spoken against, ye ought to be 
quiet, and to do nothing rashly. 

37 For ye have brought hither these men, which are neither robbers of 
churches, nor yet blasphemers of your goddess. 

38 Wherefore if Demetrius, and the craftsmen which are with him, have a 
matter against any man, the law is open, and there are deputies : let them 
implead one another. 

39 But if ye inquire any thing concerning other matters, it shall be 
determined in a lawful assembly. 

40 For we are in danger to be called in question for this day's uproar, 
there being no cause whereby we may give an account of this concourse. 

41 And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the assembly. 

1 39. Paul Again Visits Macedonia and Greece. Keturns Through 

Macedonia and Spends a Week in Troas. 

A. D. 57, 58. 

ACTS 20: 1-12. 2 COR 1 r 15, 16; 2: 12, 13; 7: 5, 6; 12: 14; 13: 1. KOM. 
15:18,19,25,26; 16:1,21-23. 

(1) Paul leaves the church at Ephesus and departs for Macedonia, Acts 20 : 1. (2) Comes 
to Troas, but finding not Titus, goes into Macedonia, ver. 1 ; 2 Cor. 2: 12, 13; 7: 5, 6. (3) 
Preaches as far as Illyricum, Acts 20 : 2 ; Rom. 15 : 18, 19. (4) Minded to go to Corinth, 

2 Cor. 1 : 15, IG. (5) Writes his Second Epistle to the Corinthians, and proposes to visit the 
Corinthian brethren the third time, 2 Cor. 12 : 14 ; 13 : 1, (6) Goes into Greece, and spends 
three months there. Acts 20: 2, 3. (7) Writes his Epistle to the Romans from Corinth, 
ver. 3; Rom. 16: 1, 21-23; 15: 25, 26. (8) On account of a plot against him by the Jews he 
determines to return through Macedonia to Syria, Acts 20: 3. (9) Who accompanied him, 
ver, 4, 5. (10) Sails from Philippi after the Passover to Troas, where they remain seven 


ACTS 20. 

days, ver. fi. (11) Breaks bread on the first day of the week, and prolongs his farewell 
meeting till break of day, ver. S-11. (12) Miraculously restores to life a young man who 
had fallen from a third story, ver. 9-12. (13) Departs from Troas at break of day, ver. 1. 

ACTS 20. 

1 And after the uproar was ceased, Paul called unto hhn the disciples, and 
embraced them, and departed for to go into Macedonia, (a) 

2 And when he had gone over those parts, and had given them much ex- 
hortation, he came into Greece. (6) 

3 And there abode three months. And when the Jews laid wait for 
him, as he was about to sail into Syria, he purposed to return 
through Macedonia, (c) 

4 And there accompanied him into Asia Sopater of Berea; and of the 
Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus ; and Gains of Derbe, and Timo- 
theus ; and of Asia, Tychicus and Trophimus. (c) [Ch. 19: 29 ; Eph. 6: 21 ; 
Col. 4 : 7 ; 2 Tim. 4 : 12, 20 ; Tit. 3:12; Acts 21 : 29.] 

5 These going before tarried for us at Troas. 


(a) 2 CoR. 2: 12 Furthermore, "when I came to Troas to preach 
Christ's gospel, and a door was opened unto me of the Lord, ^ 

13 I had no rest in my spirit, because I found not Titus my brother; but 
taking ray leave of them, I went from thence into Macedonia. 

2 Cor. 7: 5 For, when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh 
had no rest, but we were troubled on every side ; without were fightings, within 
v)ere fears. 

6 Nevertheless God, that comforteth those that are cast down, comforted 
lis by the coming of Titus. 

Rom. 15 : 18 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which 
Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and 

19 Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God ; 
so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully 
preached the gospel of Christ. 

{h) 2 Cor. 1 : 15 And in this confidence I was minded to come unto you 
before, that ye might have a second benefit ; 

1() And to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again out 
of Macedonia unto you, and of you to be brought on my way toward Judea. 

2 Cor. 12: 14 Behold, the third time I am ready to come to 

2 Cor. 13 : 1 This is the third time I am coming to you. 

(c) EoM. 16 : II commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a 
servant of the church ^v^hich is at Cenchrea : 

21 Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my 
kinsmen, salute you. 


ACTS 20. 

6 And we sailed away from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread, 
and came unto them to Troas in five days; where we abode seven days. [1 
Cor. 16 : 2; Rev. 1 : 10; ch. 2 : 42.] 

7 And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to 
break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow : and 
continued his speech until midnight. 

8 And there were many lights in the upper chamber, where they were 
gathered together. [Ch. 14: 19; 1 Kings 17: 21.] 

9 And there sat in a window a certain young man named Eutychus, being 
fallen into a deep sleep: and as Paul was long preaching, he sunk down with 
sleep, and fell down from the third loft, and Avas taken up dead. 

10 And Paul went down, and fell on him, and embracing him said. Trouble 
not yourselves ; for his life is in him. [2 Kings 4 : 34, 35 ; Mark 5 : 39.] 

11 When he therefore was come up again, and had broken bread, and eaten, 
and talked a long while, even till break of day, so he departed. 

12 And they brought the young man alive, and were not a little comforted. 

§ 40. Paul and his Companioxs Prosecute their Journey to Miletus, 

WHERE HE Sends For and Addresses the Elders of the Church 

at Ephesus. 

A. D. 58. 

ACTS 20: 13-38. ROM. 15: 30-32. 1 COR. 4: 11, 12. PS. 74: 2. 

(1) Paul's companious go before him by ship to Assos, Acts 20: 13. (2) Paul going 
thither on foot, sails with them down the ^gean Sea to Miletus, ver. 14-16. (3) Where he 
sends for the elders of the Ephesian Church, and takes leave of them in an impressive 
address, ver. 17, 18. 

The Address : — (4) He reminds them of the spirit and character of his ministry, ver. 
18-21. (5) He refers to his own expected sufferings, which he was ready to bear, and assures 
them that he will see them no more on earth, ver. 22-25. (6) He testifies to his own fidelity 
in the ministerial office among them, ver. 26, 27. (7) And exhorts them to a like faithful- 
ness and watchfulness over the flock which had been entrusted to them, and was to be 
exposed to ravages of false teachers, ver. 28-31. (8) He finally commends them to God, 
and enforces generous and disinterested labor by his own example, and a memorable 
saying of the Lord Jesus, ver. 32-35. (9) Having thus spoken, Paul prays with them, ver. 


22 I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord. 

23 Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus the 
chamberlain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a brother. 

Rom. 15 : 25 But now I go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the 

26 For it hath pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia to make a 
certain contribution for tlie poor saints Avhich are at Jerusalem. 


36. (10) The touching scene that followed, ver. 37, 38. (11) The elders escort Paul on his 
way to the ship, ver. 38. 

ACTS 20. 

13 And we went before to ship, and sailed unto Assos, there intending to 
take in Paul; for so had he appointed, minding himself to go afoot. [Ver. 11.] 

14 And when he met with us at Assos, we took him in, and came to Mity- 
lene. [Ver. 4; ch. 21: 29; 2 Tim. 4: 20.] 

15 And we sailed thence, and came the next day over against Chios; and 
the next day we arrived at Samos, and tarried at Trogyllium ; and the next 
day Ave came to Miletus. 

16 For Paul had determined to sail by Ephesus, because he would not 
spend the time in Asia : for he hasted, if it were possible for him, to be at 
Jerusalem the day of Pentecost. [Ch. 2:1.] 

17 And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the 

18 And when they were come to him, he said unto them. Ye know, from 
the first day that I came into Asia, after what manner I have been with vou 
at all seasons, [Ver. 31.] 

19 Serving the Lord with all humility of mind, and with many tears, and 
temptations, which befell me by the lying in wait of the Jews: [Phil. 2: 3; 
1 Pet. 5:5; 1 Cor. 2:4; Phil. 3: 18; 2 Cor. 1: 8-10.] 

20 And how I kept back nothing that was profitable unto you, but have 
shewed you, and have taught you publicly, and from house to house, [2 Cor. 
4: 2; Gal. 1: 10; 1 Thess. 2: 4; Acts 19: 8, 9.] 

21 Testifying both to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, repentance toward 
God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ. [Ch. 26: 20; Ps. 51 : 4.] 

22 And now, behold, I go bound in the spirit unto Jerusalem, not knowing 
the things that shall befall me there : [Ch. 19 : 21 ; 21 : 13.] 

23 Save that the Holy G-host witnesseth in every city, say- 
ing that bonds and aflaictions abide me. (a) 

24 But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto 
myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry, which I 
have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God. 
[2 Cor. 12:10; Phil. 2: 17.] 


(a) Koisr. 15: 30 Now T beseech you, brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ's 
sake, and for the love of the Spirit, that ye strive together with me 
in your prayers to God for me ; 

31 That I may be delivered from them that do not believe in 
Judea ; and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may 
be accepted of the saints ; 

32 That I may come unto you with joy by the will of God, and may with 
you be refreshed. 


ACTS 20. 

25 And now, behold, I know that ye all, among whom I have gone preach- 
ing the kingdom of God, shall see my face no more. 

26 Wherefore I take you to record this day, that I am pure from the blood 
of all men. 

27 For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God. 
[Ver. 20; Eph. 3: 2-11.] 

28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which 
the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, 
which he hath purchased with his own blood. («) [1 Tim. 4: 16; 
Acts 13: 2; 14: 23.] 

29 For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in 
among you, not sparing the flock. [Ver. 30; Matt. 7: 15.] 

30 Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to 
draw away disciples after them. [1 Tim. 4: 1-4; 2 Tim. 2: 17; Kev. 2: 2-7.] 

31 Therefore watch, and remember, that by the space of three years I 
ceased not to warn every one night and day with tears. [Ch. 19 : 8, 10, 22.] 

32 And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, 
which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them 
which are sanctified. [Ch. 26 : 18; Eph. 1: 18.] 

33 I have coveted no man's silver, or gold, or apparel. 

34 Yea, ye yourselves know, that these hands have ministered unto 
my necessities, and to them that were with me. (6) [Ch. 18: 3.] 

35 I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to 
support the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how 
he said. It is more blessed to give than to receive, (b) [2 Thess. 3: 7-9.] 

36 And when he had thus spoken, he kneeled down, and prayed with them 
all. [Ch. 7:60; 9:40.] 

37 And they all wept sore, and fell on Paul's neck, and kissed him, [Gen. 
45: 14; 46: 29.] 

38 Sorrowing most of all for the words which he spake, that they should 
see his face no more. And they accompanied him unto the ship. [Ch. 15:3; 


(a) Ps. 74: 2 Remember thy congregation, which thou hast 
purchased of old. 

(b) 1 Cor. 4: 11 Even unto this present hour we both hunger, and 
thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling place ; 

12 And labour, working with our own hands. 


^41. The Voyage of Paul to Tyre. Visit to Cesarea. Journey to 


April and 3fay. — A. D. 58. 

ACTS 21: 1-16. 
(1) Paul and his companions sail bj' the way of Coos and Rhodes to Patara, Acts 21 : 1, 
(2) Taking another ship they sail toward Phenicia, passing south of Cyprus, landing at 
Tyre in Syria, ver. 2, 3. (3) They tarry there with the disciples seven days, who warn 
Paul against going up to Jerusalem, ver. 4. (4) About to depart, Paul and his companions 
are escorted on their way out of the city. Prayer on the beach. Embarking in the ship, 
ver. 5, 6. (5) They complete their voyage at Ptolemais, where tarrying a day they go by 
land to Cesarea, and stop with Philip the evangelist, ver. 7-9. (6) "While remaining some 
days, a prophet, Agabus, foretells with emblematic action the arrest of Paul at Jerusalem, 
ver. 10, 11. (7) All unite in urging Paul not to go up to Jerusalem, ver. 12. (8) Paul's 
remonstrance and determination to go, according to God's will, ver. 13, 14. (9) They go to 
Jerusalem, and lodge with Mnason of Cyprus, an early disciple, ver. 16. 

ACTS 21. 

1 And it came to pass, that after we were gotten from them, and had 
launched, we came with a straight course unto Coos, and the day following 
unto Rhodes, and from thence unto Patara: [Ch. 20: 4; 21: 29; 27: 2.] 

2 And finding a ship sailing over unto Phenicia, we went aboard, and set 

3 Now when we had discovered C^-prus, we left it on the left hand, and 
sailed into Syria, and landed at Tyre: for there the ship was to unload her 

4 And finding disciples, we tarried there seven days: who said to Paul 
through the Spirit, that he should not go up to Jerusalem. [Matt. 15 : 21 ; 
Acts 11: 19; 15: 3; ver. 10-13. 

5 And when we had accomplished those days, we departed and went our 
way ; and they all brought us on our way, with wives and children, till we 
were out of the city : and we kneeled down on the shore, and prayed. [Ch. 

6 And when we had taken our leave of one another, we took ship ; and 
they returned home again. 

7 And when we had finished our course from Tyre, we came to Ptolemais, 
and saluted the brethren, and abode with them one day. 

8 And the next day we that were of Paul's company departed, and came 
unto Cesarea ; and we entered into the house of Philip the evangelist, which 
was one of the seven; and abode with him. [Ch. 9: 30; 8: 40; 18: 22; Eph. 
4 : 11 ; 2 Tim. 4 : 5.] 

9 And the same man had four daughters, virgins, which did prophesy. 

10 And as we tarried there many days, there came down from Judea a 
certain prophet, named Agabus. [Ch. 13 : 31 ; 27 : 20.] 


ACTS 21. 

11 And when he was come unto us, he took Paul's girdle, and bound liis 
own hands and feet, and said, Thus saith the Holy Ghost, So shall the Jews 
at Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle, and sliall deliver him 
into the hands of the Gentiles. [1 Kings 22 : 11 ; Isa. 20 : 2, 3; Jer. 13 : 1-11.] 

12 And when we heard these things, both we, and they of that place, be- 
sought him not to go up to Jerusalem. [Ch. 20 : 4.] 

13 Then Paul answered. What mean ye to weep and to break mine heart? 
for I am ready not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem for the 
name of the Lord Jesus. [Ch. 20: 22; 5: 41.] 

14 And when he would not be persuaded, we ceased, saying, The will of 
the Lord be done. 

15 And after those days we took up our carriages — {our baggage) — and 
went up to Jerusalem. 

16 There went Avith us also certain of the disciples of Cesarea, and brought 
with them one Mnason of Cyprus, an old disciple, with whom we should 


From Acts 21 : 16, 18, and 27 : 1 it appears that Luke was with Paul both in 
his coming into Judea and in his leaving it. It is natural to suppose that Luke 
continued the two years in Judea and in some connection with the apostle. 
The time and place were most favorable for " accurately tracing all things from 
the very first " concerning Jesus, and for writing his Gospel. If so, it was com- 
posed during the years 58-60 a. d. 



Two Years.— A. D. 5S-60. 

1 42. Paul at Jerusalem Assumes a Vow to Conciliate the Hebrew 

May.— A. D. 58. 

ACTS 21 : 17-26. 1 COR. 9 : 19-22. NUM. 6 : 5. 

(1) Paul's reception at Jerusalem by the brethren, Acts 21 : 17. (2) He goes in unto the 
elders, ver. 17. (3) Rehearses what God had wrought by him among the Gentiles, ver. 18. 
(4) They glorify God; and advise him to conciliate the Jews by joining some Nazarites in 
their devotions, ver. 20-24. (5) And this would not interfere with the liberty of Gentile 
Christians, ver. 25. (6) He accedes ; and enters at once upon the necessary ceremonies, 
ver. 26. 

ACTS 21. 

17 And when we were come to Jerusalem, the brethren received us gladly. 

18 And the day following Paul went in with us unto James ; and all the 
elders were present. [Ch. 12: 17 ; 15: 13; Gal. 2: 12.] 

19 And when he had saluted them, he declared particularly what things 
God had wrought among the Gentiles by his ministry. [Ch. 15: 4; 18: 22.] 

20 And when they heard it, they glorified the Lord, and said unto him, 
Thou seest, brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe : 
and they are all zealous of the law: [1 Cor. 4: 15; 14: 19.] 

21 And they are informed of thee, that thou teachest all the Jews which 
are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, saying that they ought not to cir- 
cumcise their children, neither to walk after the customs. [1 Cor. 7: 18; 
Rom. 14: 2-7; Gal. 3: 24, 25; 5: 3.] 

22 What is it the'-efore ? the multitude must needs come together : for they 
will hear that thou art come. 

23 Do therefore this that we say to thee : "We have four men 
which have a vow on them ; (a) [Num. 6 : 2-21.] 

24 Them take, and purify thyself with them, and be at 
charges with them, that they may shave their heads : and all 
may know that those things, whereof they were informed concerning thee, 
are nothing; but that thou thyself also walkest orderly, and keepest the 
law. (a) 


(a) 1 CoR. 9: 19 For though I be free from all men, yet have I made 
myself servant unto all, that I might gain the more. 

20 And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I mig-ht gain 


ACTS 21. 

25 As touching the Gentiles which believe, we have written and concluded 
that they observe no such thing, save only that they keep themselves from 
things offered to idols, and from blood, and from strangled, and from fornica- 
tion. [Ch. 15: 19-21.] 

26 Then Paul took the men, and the next day purifying himself 
■with them entered into the temple, to signify the accomplish- 
ment of the days of purification, until that an offering- should 
be offered for every one of them, (a) [Ver. 27; Num. 6: 13-17.] 

I 43. Paul's Seizure by the Jews, and his First Rescue by the Roman 


May.— A. D. 58. 

ACTS 21: 27-36; 23: 26, 27; 24: 17, 18. 

(1) Jews from the province of Asia stir up the people and lay hands on Paul, Acts 21 . 
27. (2) When they did this, ver. 27. (3) Their pretext, ver. 28. (4) Reason of this pretext, 
ver. 29. (5) The result — all the city moved; Paul dragged out of the temple, ver. 30. ( '>) 
The chief captain hears of the tumult, and with soldiers rescues Paul, and binds him with 
chains, ver. 31-33. (7) Amid great confusion, the chief captain orders him to be taken to 
the fortress, ver. 34, 35, (8) The multitude crying. Away with him, ver. 36. 

ACTS 21. 

27 And when the seven days were almost ended, the Jews which 
were of Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all 
the people, and laid hands on him, (6) 


the Jews ; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might 
gain them that are under the law ; 

21 To them that are without law, as without law, (being not without law 
to God, but under the law of Christ,) that I might gain them that are without 

22 To the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the 
weak : I am made all things to all men, that I might by all means save 

(a) Num. 6 : 5 All the days of the voav of his separation there shall no 
razor come upon his head : until the days be fulfilled, in the which 
he separateth himself unto the LORD, he shall be holy, and 
shall let the locks of the hair of his head grow. 

(6) Acts 24 : 17 Now after many years I came to bring alms to 
my nation, and offerings. [Ch. 20: 19.] 

18 Whereupon certain Jews from Asia found me purified in the 
temple, neither with multitude, nor with tumult. 



ACTS 21. 

28 Crying out, Men of Israel, help: This is the man, that teacheth all men 
everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place : and further 
brought Greeks also into the temple, and hath polluted this holy place. [Ch. 
6:13; 27r4.] 

29 (For they had seen before with him in the city Trophimus an Ephesian, 
whom they supposed that Paul had brought into the temple.) 

30 And all the city was moved, and the people ran together : and they took 
Paul, and drew him out of the temple : and forthwith the doors were shut. 

31 And as they went about to kill him, tidings came unto the chief cap- 
tain of the band, that all Jerusalem was in an uproar: [John 16: 2.] 

32 Who immediately took soldiers and centurions, and ran 
dO'wn unto them : and when they saw the chief captain and the soldiers, 
they left beating- of Paul, (a) 

33 Then the chief captain came near, and took him, and commanded him 
to be bound with two chains : and demanded who he w^as, and what he had 
done. [Ver. 11 : ch. 20 : 23.] 

34 And some cried one thing, some another, among the multitude : and when 
he could not knoAV the certainty for the tumult, he commanded him to be car- 
ried into the castle. 

35 And when he came upon the stairs, so it was, that he was borne of the 
soldiers for the violence of the people. 

36 For the multitude of the people followed after, crying. Away with him. 
[Ch.22:22; Luke 23: 18.] 

§ 44. Paul's Address to the People on the Stairs or the Castle of 
Antonia. Compare |§ 16, 17. 

May.— A. D. 58. 
ACTS 21:37-40; 22: 1-21. 
(1) Paul asks permission of the chief captain to address the people, Acts 21 : 37. (2) The 
captain supposes him to be a certain Egyptian impostor, ver. ;58. (:3) Paul declares who 
he is, obtains permission, and addresses the people below from the stairs of the castle, 
ver. :59, 40. (4) Speaks in Hebrew, or Aramcean, thereby obtaining more quiet and better 
attention, ch. 22: 1, 2. (5) Recites his early training, zeal, and activity as a Jew, ver. 3. 
(6) His persecutions of Christians, as the high-priest and elders then living knew, ver. 4, 5. 


(a) Acts 23 : 26 Claudius Lysias unto the most excellent governor 
Felix senfJeth greeting. 

27 This man was taken of the Jews, and should have been 
killed of them : then came I w^ith an army, and rescued him, 
having understood that he was a Koman. [Ch. 22 : 28, 29 ; 24 : 27.] 


(7) Relates his conversion: how Jesus appeared to him near Damascus; how he was led 
blind into the city; how Ananias, a devout man according to the law, and respected by all 
the Jews, visited him, restored his sight, instructed and baptized him, ver. 6-16. (8) After- 
ward he went to Jerusalem, and while praying was in a trance, or ecstacy, and saw Jesus, 
who commanded him to depart quickly from Jerusalem, as the Jews would not hear him, 
ver. 17, 18. (9) Paul wishes to remain, thinking that his former zeal against Christ, and 
his remarkable conversion, would fit him to work among his countrymen, ver. 19, 20. (10) 
But Jesus, knowing that this would not be the case, commissions him to go to the Gentiles, 
ver. 21. 

ACTS 21. 

37 And as Paul was to be led into the castle, he said unto the chief cap- 
tain, May I speak unto thee ? Who said, Canst thou speak Greek ? 

38 Art not thou that Egyptian, which before these days madest an uproar, 
and leddest out into the wilderness four thousand men that were murderers ? 

39 But Paul said, I am a man ivhich am a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, a 
citizen of no mean city : and, I beseech thee, suffer me to speak unto the people. 
[Ch. 22 : 3 ; Rom.- 11 : 1 ; 2 Cor. 11 : 22 ; Phil. 3 : 5.] 

40 And when he had given him license, Paul stood on the stairs, and 
beckoned with the hand unto the people. And when there was made a great 
silence, he spoke unto them in the Hebrew tongue, saying, [Ch. 12 : 17.] 

ACTS 22. 

1 Men, brethren, and fathers, hear ye my defence ivhich I make now unto 
you. [Ch. 7:2.] 

2 (And when they heard that he spake in the H«.brew tongue to them, they 
kept the more silence ; and he saith,) 

3 I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet 
brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, aiul taught according to the 
perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye 
all are this day. [Ch. 26 : 4, 5.] 

4 And I persecuted this way unto the death, binding and delivering into 
prisons both men and women. [Gal. 1 : 13.] 

5 As also doth the high priest bear me witness, and all the estate of the 
elders ; from whom also I received letters unto the brethren, and went to 
Damascus, to bring them which were there bound unto Jerusalem, for to be 
punished. [Acts 9 : 1-19. 1 16.] 

6 And it came to pass, that, as I made my journey, and was come nigh 
unto Damascus about noon, suddenly there shone from heaven a great light 
round about me. 

7 And I fell unto the ground, and heard a voice saying unto me, Saul, 
Saul, why persecutest thou me ? 

8 And I answered. Who art thou. Lord ? And he said unto me, I am 
Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest. 


ACTS 22. 

9 And they that were with me saw indeed the light, and were afraid ; hut 
they lieard not the voice of him that spake to me. 

10 And I said, What shall I do, Lord? And the Lord said unto me, 
Arise, and go into Damascus; and there it shall be told thee of all things 
which are appointed for thee to do. 

11 And when I could not see for the glory of that light, being led by the 
hand of them that were with me, I came into Damascus. 

12 And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, having a good 
report of all the Jews which dwelt there, 

13 Came unto me, and stood, and said unto me. Brother Saul, receive thy 
sight. And the same hour I looked up upon him. [Ch, 9:17, 18.] 

14 And he said, The God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou 
shouldest know his will, and see that Just One, and shouldest hear the voice 
of his mouth. [Ch. 7 : 52 ; Isa. 53 : 11.] 

15 For thou shalt be his witness unto all men of what thou hast seen and 
heard. [Gal. 1 : 16 ; 1 Tim. 1 : 12-16.] 

16 And now why tarriest thou ? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy 
sins, calling on the name of the Lord. 

17 And it came to pass, that, when I was come again to Jerusalem, even 
while I prayed in the temi3le, I was in a trance : [Ch. 10 : 10.] 

18 And saw him saying unto me, Make haste, and get thee quickly out of 
Jerusalem ; for they will not receive thy testimony concerning me. [Ch. 9 : 
29; 28: 29.] 

19 And I said. Lord, they know that I imprisoned and beat in every syna- 
gogue them that believed on thee : 

20 And when the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed, I also was stand- 
ing by, and consenting unto his death, and kept the raiment of them that 
slew him. 

21 And he said unto me. Depart : for I will send thee far hence unto the 
Gentiles. [Gal. 1 : 21 ; Acts 9 : 26-30. g 17.] 

^45. Paul Pleads his Koman Citizenship, and Escapes Scourging. 
May.— A. D. 58. 

ACTS 22: 22-29. 

(1) Paul's mention of his mission to the Gentiles causes a fresh outbreak of frantic 
rage, Acts 22 : 22. (2) Suspecting him of some great crime, the chief captain proposed to 
extort a confession by torture, ver. 23, 24. (3) Paul hints his Roman citizenship to the 
centurion, who conveys it to the chief captain, ver. 25, 20. (4) The latter draws from Paul 
a declaration of it, ver. 27, 28. (5) The chief captain's exclamation of surprise, and Paul's 
explanation, ver. 28. (6) The examiners desist ; the chief cajitain's fear, ver. 29. 


ACTS 22. 

22 And they gave him audience unto this word, and then lifted up their 
voices, and said, Away with such a fellow from the earth : for it is not fit that 
he should Uve. [Ver. 18 ; ch. 21 : 36 ; 26 : 21.] 

23 And as they cried out, and cast off their clothes, and threw dust into the 
air, [Ch. 7 : 58.] 

24 The chief captain commanded him to be brought into the castle, and 
bade that he should be examined by scourging ; that he might know where- 
fore they cried so against him. 

25 And as they bound him with thongs, Paul said unto the centurion that 
stood by, Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Koman, and uncon- 
demned ? 

26 When the centurion heard that, he went and told the chief captain, 
saying. Take heed what thou doest ; for this man is a Koman. 

27 Then the chief captain came, and said unto him, Tell me, art thou a 
Eoman ? He said. Yea . 

28 And the chief captain answered. With a great sum obtained I this free- 
dom. And Paul said. But I was free born. 

29 Then straightway they departed from him which sliould have examined 
him : and the chief captain also was afraid, after he knew that he was a 
Koman, and because he had bound him. [Ver. 25 : 30 ; ch. 21 : 33 ; 
23 : 27.] 

^46. Paul's Defence Before the Sanhedrim. His Second Kescue 

From the Jews by Koman Soldiers. 

May.— A. D. 5S. 

ACTS 22 : 30 ; 23 : 1-10. KOM. 13 : 1, 6, 7. EX. 22 : 28. 

(1) The chief captain brings Paul clown from the castle to the Sanhedrim, in order to 
ascertain more definitely the crime charged against him, Acts 22: 30. (2) Paul's decla- 
ration of his integrity, 23: 1. (3) The High Priest's unlawful command, ver. 2. (4) 
Paul's rebuke, ver. 3. (5) His apology when informed of the official character of the one 
he had addressed, ver. 4, 5. (6) Perceiving Pharisees and Sadducees in the Sanhedrim, 
he appeals to the former, in view of his hope in a resurrection, ver. 6. (7) A violent 
dissension arises, ver. 7-9. (8) Paul in danger of his life, is rescued by the Koman soldiers, 
ver. 10. 

ACTS 22. 

30 On the morrow, because he would have known the certainty Avherefore 
he was accused of the Jews, he loosed him from his bands, and commanded 
the chief priests and all their council to appear, and brought Paul down, and 
set him before them. [Ver. 23 ; ch. 21 : 33 • 21 : 17.] 



ACTS 23. 

1 And Paul earnestly beholding the council, said, Men and brethren, I 
have lived in all good conscience before God until this day. [Ch. 20 : 21 ; 24 : 
14, 16.] 

2 And the high priest Ananias commanded them that stood by him to 
smite him on the mouth. [1 Kings 22 : 24.] 

3 Then said Paul unto him, God shall smite thee, thou whited wall : for sittest 
thou to judge me after the law, and commandest me to be smitten contrary to 
the law ? [Matt. 23 : 24-28 ; John 7 : 50, 51.] 

4 And they that stood by said, Kevilest thou God's high priest ? 

5 Then said Paul, I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest : for it 
is written, Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy 
people, (a) 

6 But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees, and the 
other Pharisees, he cried out in the council. Men and brethren, I am a Phari- 
see, the son of a Pharisee : of the hope of the resurrection of the dead I am 
called in question. [Phil. 3 : 5, 6 ; Acts 24 : 15, 21.] 

7 And when he had so said, there arose a discussion between the Pharisees 
and the Sadducees : and the multitude was divided. 

8 For the Sadducees say there is no resurrection, neither angel nor spirit : 
but the Pharisees confess both. [Matt. 22 : 23, 41 ; Mark 12 : 28.] 

9 And there arose a great cry : and the scribes that were of the Pharisees' 
part arose, and strove, saying, We find no evil in this man : but if a spirit or 
an angel hath spoken to him, let us not fight against God. [Ch. 22 : 17, 18.] 

10 And when there aroge a great dissension, the chief captain, fearing lest 
Paul should have been pulled in pieces of them, commanded the soldiers to 
go down, and to take him by force from among them, and to bring him into 
the castle. [Ver. 27.] 

I AT. A Conspiracy of the Jews to Slay Paul. Its Disclosure to 
THE KoMAN Commander. 

May— A. D. 58. 
ACTS 23: 11-22. 

(1) In a vision Paul is assured, by Christ, that he shall bear witness of him at Rome, 
Acts 23: 11. (2) A plot by more than forty Jews to assassinate him, ver. 12-15. (3) A 
nephew of Paul makes known the plot first to him, and, by his direction, to the chief 
captain, ver. 16-21. (4) The chief captain's charge of secrecy upon the young man, ver. 22. 


(a) Ex. 22 : 28 Thou shalt not revile "the gods, nor curse the 
ruler of thy people. 
Rom. 13 : 1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. 


ACTS 23. 

11 And the night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good 
cheer, Paul : for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou bear 
witness also at Kome. [Ch. 18 : 9, 10 ; 19 : 21 ; Kom. 1 : 9-13.] 

12 And when it was day, certain of the Jews banded together, and bound 
themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink till 
they had killed Paul. 

13 And they were more than forty which had made this conspiracy. 

14 And they came to the chief priests and elders, and said. We have 
bound ourselves under a great curse, that we will eat nothing until we have 
slain Paul. [Ver. 6-10; ch. 4: 1, 2.] 

15 Now therefore ye with the council signify to the chief captain that he 
bring him down unto you to morrow, as though ye would inquire something 
more perfectly concerning him : and we, or ever he come near, are ready to 
kill him. [Ver. 21.] 

16 And when Paul's sister's son heard of their lying in wait, he went and 
entered into the castle, and told Paul. [Ch. 24 : 23.] 

17 Then Paul called one of the centurions unto 1dm, and said. Bring this 
young man unto the chief captain: for he hath a certain thing to tell him. 

18 So he took him, and brought him to the chief captain, and said, Paul 
the prisoner called me unto him, and prayed me to bring this young man 
unto thee, who hath something to say unto thee. 

19 Then the chief captain took him by the hand, and went with him aside 
privately, and asked him, What is that thou hast to tell me? 

20 And he said, The Jews have agreed to desire thee that thou wouldest 
bring down Paul to morrow into the council, as though they would inquire 
somewhat of him more perfectly. [Ver. 12.] 

21 But do not thou yield unto them : for there lie in wait for him of them 
more than forty men, which have bound themselves with an oath, that they 
will neither eat nor drink till they have killed him : and now are they ready, 
looking for a promise from thee. [Ch. 25 : 2, 3.] 

22 So the chief captain then let the young man depart, and charged him, 
See thou tell no man that thou hast shewed these things to me. 


For there is no power but of God : the powers that be are ordained of 

6 For, for this cause pay ye tribute also : for they are God's ministers, 
attending continually upon this very thing. 

7 Pender therefore to all their dues : tribute to wlioni tribute is due ; 
custom to whom custom : fear to whom fear : honour to whom honour. 


§ 48. Paul is Sent to Felix at Cesarea. The Letter of Lysi^^, the 
KoMAN Commander. 

May.— A. D. 58. 

ACTS 23 : 23-35. 

(1) The chief captain commands certain centurions to prepare an armed expedition, 
and start with Paul by night to Felix at Cesarea, Acts 23 : 23-25. (2) His letter to Felix. The 
innocence of Paul, and the hatred and prejudice of the Jews implied, ver. 2G-30. (3) The 
soldiers escort Paul as far as Antipatris, ver. 31. (4) After which the horsemen accompanj' 
him to Cesarea, ver. 32. (5) Delivered to Felix, ver. 33. (6) Confined as a prisoner, and 
promised a full hearing when his accusers should come, ver. 34, 35. 

ACTS 23. 

23 And he called unto him two centurions, saying, Make ready two 
hundred soldiers to go to Cesarea, and horsemen threescore and ten, and 
spearmen two hundred, at the third hour of the night : 

24 And provide them beasts, that they may set Paul on, and bring him safe 
unto Felix the governor. 

25 And he wrote a letter after this manner : 

26 Claudius Lysias unto the most excellent governor Felix sendeth 
greeting. [Ch. 24: 3; Luke 1:3.] 

27 This man was taken of the Jews, and should have been killed of them : 
then came I with an army, and rescued him, having luiderstood that he was 
a Eoman. [Ch. 21 : 31, 32, 33 ; 23 : 10 ; 24 : 7.] 

28 And when I would have known the cause wherefore they accused him, 
I brought him forth into their council : [Ch. 22 : 30.] 

29 Whom I perceived to be accused of questions of their law, but to have 
nothing laid to his charge Avorthy of death or of bonds. [Ch. 23 : 6-10 ; 
18 : 15 ; 25 : 18, 19.] 

30 And when it was told me how that the Jews laid wait for the man, I 
sent straightway to thee, and gave commandment to his accusers also to say 
before thee w^hat they had against him. Farewell. [Ver. 20.] 

31 Then the soldiers, as it was commanded them, took Paul, and brought 
him by night to Antipatris. 

32 On the morrow they left the horsemen to go with him, and returned to 
the castle : 

33 Who, when they came to Cesarea, and delivered the epistle to the 
governor, presented Paul also before him. 

34 And when the governor had read the letter, he asked of what province 
he was. And when he understood that he was of Cilicia ; 

35 I will hear thee, said he, when thine accusers are also come. And he 
commanded him to be kept in Herod's judgment hall. [Ch. 24: 1, 10; 25: 16.] 


I 19. Paul's Trial Before Felix. Tertullus' Accusation. Paul's 

Cesarea. — 3£ay, A. D. 58. 

ACTS 24 : 1-23. ROM. 15 : 25, 26. 1 COR. 16 : 3, 4. 2 COR. 8 : 1-4 ; 9 : 1, 2. 

(1) The Jewish authorities appear before Felix against Paul, Acts 24 : 1. (2) TertuUus, 
an advocate for the Jews, charges Paul with exciting insurrections, teaching heresy, and 
profaning the temple, ver. 2-6. (3) Which Felix could learn for himself, and which all 
the Jews present confirmed, ver. 8, 9. (4) Paul replies cheerfully, because Felix had been 
a long time governor and had opportunities for understanding matters, ver. 10. (5) Be- 
cause he could easily ascertain what had occurred within so short a time as twelve days, 
ver. 11. (6) Paul then denies the charges, and challenges proof, ver. 12, 13. (7) Acknowl- 
edges what is true in his case : a disciple of Jesus, ver. 14-16. (8) And had brought alms 
to his nation, and offerings in the temple, ver. 17, 18. (9) Certain Jews from the Province 
of Asia made the disturbance, and ought to be present, ver. 19. (10) Challenges the Jews 
to testify concerning any wrong-doing, ver. 20. (11) Except it was his appeal to the 
Pharisees, ver. 21. (12) Felix sees his innocence, but for fear of offending the Jews post- 
pones his decision, ver. 22. (13) But commands that Paul should be mildly treated, ver. 23. 

ACTS 24. 

1 And after five days Ananias tlie high priest descended with the elders, 
and with a certain orator named Tertullus, who informed the governor against 
Paul. [Ver. 11 ; ch. 23 : 1, 12, 24, 30, 35.] 

2 And when he was called forth, Tertullus began to accuse him, saying, 
Seeing that by thee we enjoy great quietness, and that very worthy deeds are 
done unto this nation by thy providence, 

3 We accept it always, and in all places, most noble Felix, with all thank- 

4 Notwithstanding, that I be not further tedious unto thee, I pray thee that 
thou wouldest hear us of thy clemency a few words. 

5 For we have found this man a pestilent /e//ow, and a mover of sedition 
among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the 
Nazarenes : [Ch. 21 : 27, 30 ; 17 : 5-9.] 

6 Who also hath gone about to profane the temple : whom we took, and 
would have judged according to our law. 

7 But the chief captain Lysias came upon us, and with great violence took 
him away out of our hands, 

8 Commanding his accusers to come unto thee: by examining of whom 
thyself may est take knowledge of all these things, whereof we accuse him. 

9 And the Jews also assented, saying that these things were so. [Ch. 
25: 16.] 

10 Then Paul, after that the governor had beckoned unto him to speak, 
answered, Forasmuch as I know that thou hast been of many years a judge 
unto this nation, I do the more cheerfully answer for myself: 


ACTS 24. 

11 Because that thou mayest understand, that there are yet but twelve 
days since I went up to Jerusalem for to worship. [Ver. 1 ; ch. 21 : 17, 27 ; 
20':16; 21:20-24,26.] 

12 And they neither found me in the temple disputing with any man, 
neither raising up the people, neither in the synagogues, nor in the city: 

13 Neither can they prove the things whereof they now accuse me. 

14 But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, 
so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written 
in the law and in the prophets: [Ch. 22 : 6-16 23 : 1, 6 ; 28 r 20, 23.] 

15 And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that 
there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. 

16 And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of 
oifence toward God, and toward men. 

17 Now after many years I came to bring alms to my 
nation, and offerings, (a) 

18 Whereupon certain Jews from Asia found me purified in the temple, 
neither with multitude, nor with tumult. 

19 Who ought to have been here before thee, and object, if they had 
aught against me. [Ch. 21 : 27.] 

20 Or else let these same here say, if they have found any evil doing in me, 
while I stood before the council, 

21 Except it be for this one voice, that I cried standing among them. 
Touching the resurrection of the dead I am called in question by you this 
day. [Ch. 23:6.] 

22 And when Felix heard these things, having more perfect knowledge 
of that way, he deferred them, and said. When Lysias the chief captain shall 
come down, 1 will know the uttermost of your matter. [Ver. 10.] 

23 And he commanded a centurion to keep Paul, and to let hhn have lib- 
erty, and that he should forbid none of his acquaintance to minister or come 
unto him. [Ch. 21 ; 8, 9, 16, 29 ; 27 : 2.] 


(a) Rom. 15 : 25 But now I go unto Jerusalem, to minister 
unto the saints. 

26 For it hath pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia to make 
a certain contribution for the poor saints which are at Jerusalem. 

1 Cor. 16: 3 And when I come, Avhomsoever ye shall approve by ynur 
letters, them will I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem. 

4 And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go witli me. 

2 Cor. 8 : 1 Moreover, brethren, we do you to wit of the grace of GrOd 
bestowed on the churches of Macedonia : 

2 How that in a great trial of affliction, the abundance of their joy 


§ 50. Paul Before Felix and Drusilla. Imprisonment for Two 
Years at Cesarea. 

Cesarea.—A. D. 58-60. 

ACTS 24 : 24-27. 

(1) Paul is again summoned to explain the Christian faith before Felix and his wife, 
Acts 24: 24. (2) Felix is alarmed by his preaching, but defers immediate attention, ver. 
25. (3) He hopes for, and seeks a bribe for, his liberation, ver. 26. (4) But being disap- 
pointed in this, he leaves Paul bound, in order to gain favor with the Jews, ver. 27. 

ACTS 24. 

24 And after certain days, when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, which 
was a Jewess, he sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith in Christ. 

25 And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to 
come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time ; when I have 
a convenient season, I will call for thee. [Eom. 2 : 2-9, 16 ; 6 : 12-14, 23 ; 2 
Cor. 5 : 10.] 

26 He hoped also that money should have been given him of Paul, that he 
might loose him : wherefore he sent for him the oftener, and communed with 
him. [Heb. 4:12, 13; 3:7-13.] 

27 But after two years Porcius Festus came into Felix' room : and Felix, 
willing to show the Jews a pleasure, left Paul bound. [Ch. 12:3; 25 : 9.] 

^ 51. Paul's Trial and Defence Before Festus. His Appeal to 


Cesarea.—A. D. 60. 

ACTS 25: 1-12; 14-21 compared. 

(1) The accession of Festus as governor gives occasion for a fresh plot against Paul's 
life. Acts 25 : 1-3. (2) Visiting Jerusalem, the Jews desire him to send Paul, plotting to 
kill him on the way, ver, 2, 3. (3) Festus, with straightforward honesty refuses, and com- 
mands Paul's accusers to appear before him at Cesarea, ver. 4, 5. (4) They come to Cesarea, 


and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches of their lib- 

3 For to their power I bear record, yea, and beyond their power they were 
willing of themselves ; 

4 Praying us with much entreaty that we would receive the gift, and take 
upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints. 

2 Cor. 9 : 1 For as touching the ministering to the saints, it is superfluous 
for me to write to you : 

2 For I know the forwardness of your mind, for which I boast of you to 
them of Macedonia, that Achaia was ready a year ago ; and your zeal hath 
provoked very many. 


and before Festus make grievous charges, without proof, ver. 6, 7. (5) Paul denies the 
three principal charges, ver. 8. (C) Festus asks Paul, Whether he would go to Jerusalem 
to be tried, ver. 9. (7) Paul asserts his innocence and his rights, declares his readiness for 
a fair trial, and appeals to Cesar, ver. 10, 11. (8) Festus decides that he shall go to Cesar, 
ver. 12. 

ACTS 25. 

1 Now when Festus was come into the province, after three days 
he ascended from Cesarea to Jerusalem. [Ch. 24: 1.] 

2 Then the high priest and the chief of the Jews informed him against 
Paul, and besought him, 

3 And desired favour against him, that he would send for him to Jerusa- 
lem, laying wait in the way to kill him. [Ch. 23: 15, 20, 21.] 

4 But Festus answered, that Paul should be kept at Cesarea, and that he 
himself would depart shortly thither. 

5 Let them therefore, said he, which among you are able, 
go down with me, and accuse this man, if there be any wickedness in 

6 And when he had tarried among them more than ten days, he went down 
unto Cesarea; and the next day sitting on the judgment seat commanded Paul 
to be brought. 

7 And when he was come, the Jcavs wliich came down from Jerusalem stood 
round about, and laid many and grievous complaints against Paul, 
which they could not prove. [Ch. 24 : .5-9.] 

8 While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, 
neither against the temple, nor yet against Cesar, have I offended anything 
at all. [Ch. 24 : 10-13 ; 28 : 17.] ' 

9 But Festus, willing to do the Jews a pleasure, answered Paul, and said, 
AVilt thou go up to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these things before 
me? [Ch. 12:3; 24:27.] 

10 Then said Paul, I stand at Cesar's judgment seat, where I 
ought to be judged : to the Jews have I done no wrong, as 
thou very well knowest. (a) [Ver. 7, 8.] 

11 For if I be an offender, or have committed anything worthy of death, I 
refuse not to die : but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse 
me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Cesar. [Ch. 23: 29; 

12 Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast 
thou appealed unto Cesar? unto Cesar sh alt thou go. [Ch. 26: 32; 28: 19; 
19: 21; 23: 11.] 


(a) Acts 25: 14 And when they had been there many days. 


^ 52. Festus Confers with Agrippa Concerning Paul. Paul Before 


CesarecL — A. D. 60. — Summer. 

ACTS 2e5 : 13-27. 

(1) King Agrippa pays Festus a visit of congratulation, Acts 25: 13. (2) Festus relates 
to Agrippa the trial of Paul ; his refusal to condemn Paul, or send him to Jerusalem ; the 
charges of the Jews at the trial, different from what he had supposed, pertaining to certain 
religious questions ; his perplexity, and how he endeavored to get out of it ; Paul's appeal 
to Cesar, ver. 1-4-21. (.3) Agrippa desires to hear Paul, ver. 22. (4) Accordingly Paul is 
brought before Agrippa and many distinguished attendants, ver. 23. (5) Festus' address 
to Agrippa: introduces Paul as one whom the Jews declared worthy of death, but in whom 
he found no such desert; he desired Agrippa to examine Paul, who had appealed to Cesar^ 
in order that he might better understand the case, and have something to write to the 
emperor, ver. 24-27. 

ACTS 25. 

13 And after certain days king Agrippa and Bernice came unto Cesarea to 
salute Festus. 

14 And when they had been there many days, Festus declared Paul's cause 
unto the king, saying. There is a certain man left in bonds by Felix : [Ch. 

15 About whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders 
of the Jews informed me, desiring to have judgment against him. [Ver. 2, 3.] 

16 To whom I answered, It is not the manner of the Komans to deliver 


Festus declared Paul's cause unto the king, saying. There is a certain 
man left in bonds by Felix, 

15 About whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the 
elders of the Jews informed me, desiring to have judgment against him, 

16 To whom I answered, It is not the manner of the Romans to 
deliver any man to die, before that he -which is accused have 
the accusers face to face, and have license to answer for himself con- 
cerning the crime laid against him. 

17 Therefore, when they were come hither, without any delay on the 
morrow I sat on the judgment seat, and commanded the man to be brought 

18 Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought none accu- 
sation of such things as I supposed : 

19 But had certain questions against him of their own super- 
stition, and of one Jesus, Tvhich was dead, whom Paul 
afBrmed to be alive. 

20 And because I doubted of such manner of questions, I asked him 
whether he would go to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these matters. 

21 But when Paul h*ad appealed to be reserved unto the hear- 
ing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send 
him to Cesar. 



ACTS 25. 

any man to die, before that he which is accused have the accusers face to face, 
and have license to answer for himself concerning the crime laid against him. 
[Ver. 4, 5 ; John 7 : 50.] 

17 Therefore, when they were come hither, without any delay on the mor- 
row I sat on the judgment seat, and commanded the man to be brought forth. 

18 Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation 
of such things as I supposed : 

19 But had certain questions against him of their own superstition, and 
of one Jesus, which was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive. [Ch. 18 : 14 ; 
17 : 22 ; 22 : 28, 29.] 

20 And because I doubted of such manner of questions, I asked him whether 
he would go to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these matters. 

21 But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augus- 
tus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Cesar. [Ch. 9 : 15.] 

22 Then Agrippa said unto Festus, I would also hear the man myself. 
To-morrow, said he, thou shalt hear him. [Ch. 12 : 21.] 

23 And on the morrow, when Agrippa was come, and Bernice, with great 
pomp, and was entered into the place of hearing, with the chief captains, 
and principal men of the city, at Festus' commandment Paul was brought 

24 And Festus said. King Agrippa, and all men which are here present 
with us, ye see this man, about whom all the multitude of the Jews have dealt 
with me, both at Jerusalem, and aho here, crying that he ought not to live 
any longer. [Ch. 21 : 36 ; 22 : 22.] 

25 But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, 
and that he himself had appealed to Augustus, I have determined to send 
him. [Ver. 11, 12; ch. 26: 31 ; 28: 18.] 

26 Of whom I have no certain thing to write unto my lord. Wherefore I 
have brought him forth before you, and specially before thee, O king Agrippa, 
that, after examination had, I might have somewhat to write. 

27 For it seemeth to me unreasonable to send a prisoner, and not withal to 
signify the crimes laid against him. 

g 53. Paul's Defence Before Agrippa. Compare |^ 16, 17. 
Cesar ea. — A. D. 60. — Summer. 

ACTS 26 : 1-32. KOM. 15 : 18, 19. 

(1) Permission being given by Agrippa to defend himself, Acts 26 : 1, (2) Paul ex- 
presses pleasure at the opportunity of so doing before one so familiar with Jewish mat- 
ters, ver. 2, 3. (3) Refers to his early life as a Pharisee, well known to the Jews, ver. 4, 5, 
(4) And points out the fact that he is accused of that very doctrine and hope which had been 


cherished and longed for by all Israel, ver. 6,7. (5) Surely, that God raises the dead, is 
not incredible, ver. 8. (6) He himself had been so incredulous as to feel it his duty to do 
many things against Jesus of Nazareth, ver. 9. (7) And this he did by persecuting his dis- 
ciples at Jerusalem, thoughout Judea, and even unto strange cities, ver. 10, 11. (8) While 
engaged in this, Jesus appears to him at midday near Damascus, ver. 12-15. (9) Appoints 
and commissions him as a witness of Christ and his resurrection, and a minister to the 
people and the Gentiles, ver. 16-18. (10) This commission he had faithfully performed, 
ver. 17, 18. (11) And for so doing he had been seized by the Jews and was in his present 
condition, ver. 19. (12) But through divine help he had continued to be a witness to the 
people and to the Gentiles, of the sufferings and resurrection of the Messiah, which was 
in strict accordance with the teachings of the ancient Scriptures, ver. 21-23. (13) At which 
point Festus interrupts him with a charge of madness, ver. 24 (14) Paul denies the asser- 
tion, and appeals to Agrippa, as one who had knowledge of these things, and was a believer 
in the Scriptures, ver. 25-27. (15) With apparent emotion Agrippa admits the power of 
the apostle's argument, and Paul wishes that all who heard liim were Christians, ver. 29. 
(16) Both Festus and Agrippa agree in pronouncing Paul innocent, ver. 30-32. 

ACTS 26. 

1 Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Thou art permitted to speak for thyself. 
Then Paul stretched forth the hand, and answered for himself: [Ch. 25: 16.] 

2 I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself 
this day before thee touching all the things whereof I am accused of the 

3 Especially because I know thee to be expert in all customs and questions 
which are among the Jews : wherefore I beseech thee to hear me patiently. 

4 My manner of life from my youth, which was at the first among mine 
own nation at Jerusalem, know all the Jews ; 

5 Which knew me from the beginning, if they would testify, that after the 
most straitest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee. [Ch. 22 : 3, 5 ; Phil. 
3:5, 6.] 

6 And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of 
God unto our fathers : [Ch. 13: 32-36, | 26.] 

7 Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and 
night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Aprippa, I am accused of 
the Jews. [Isa. 9 : 6, 7 ; Jer. 23 : 5, 6 ; Dan. 9 : 24; Luke 2: 25, 35-37.] 

8 Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should 
raise the dead ? [1 Cor. 15 : 35, 36, ? 16.] 

9 I verily thought with myself, that I ought to do many things contrary to 
the name of Jesus of Nazareth. [1 Cor. 15:9; 1 Tim. 1 : 13.] 

10 Which thing I also did in Jerusalem: and many of the saints did I shut 
up in prison, having received authority from the chief priests ; and when 
they were put to death, I gave my voice against them. 

11 And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to 


ACTS 26. 
blaspheme ; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even 
unto strange cities. [Ch. 7 : 58; 8:1; 22: 20; Matt. 10: 17; ch. 22: 19.] 

12 Whereupon as I went to Damascus with authority, and commission from 
the chief priests, 

13 At midday, O king, I saw in the way a light from heaven, above the 
brightness of the sun, shining round about me and them which journeyed 
with me. 

14 And when we were all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice speaking 
unto me, and saying in the Hebrew tongue, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou 
me ? it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks. 

15 And I said. Who art thou, Lord ? And he said, I am Jesus whom thou 
l^ersecutest. [Ezek. 2: 1, 3.] 

16 But rise, and stand upon thy feet : for I have appeared unto thee for 
this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of these things 
which thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto 
thee: [Ch. 18: 9, 10; 22: 16; Gal, 1: 12; Eph. 3: 3.] 

17 Delivering thee from the people, and fi^om the Gentiles, unto whom now 
I send thee, [Jer. 1: 7-10.] 

18 To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from 
the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and 
inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me. [Isa. 
42: 7, 16.] 

19 Whereupon, O king Agrippa, I was not disobedient unto the heavenly 
vision: [Gal. 1: 16, 17.] 

20 But shewed first unto them at Damascus, and at Jerusa- 
lem, and throughout all the coasts of Judea, and then to the 
G-entiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do 
works meet for repentance, (a) 

21 For these causes the Jews caught me in the temple, and went about to 
kill me. 

22 Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, wit- 
nessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which 
the prophets and Moses did say should come : [Ch. 21: 30, 31; 20: 27.] 


(a) EoM. 15: 18 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which 
Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by 
word and deed, 

19 Throug-h mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the 
Spirit of God ; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto 
J'lyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ. 


ACTS 26. 

23 That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should 
rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles. 

24 And as he thus spake for himself, Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, 
thou art beside thyself; much learning doth make thee mad. [Luke 24: 
25-27; Col. 1:18.] 

25 But he said, I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak forth the 
words of truth and soberness. [Ch. 17 : 32.] 

26 For the king knoweth of these things, before whom also I speak freely : 
for I am persuaded that none of these things are hidden from him ; for this 
thing was not done in a corner. [Ch. 24: 3.] 

27 King Agrippa, belie vest thou the i)rophets? I know that thou belie vest. 

28 Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a 

* 29 And Paul said, I would to God, that not only thou, but also all that 
hear me this day, were both almost, and altogether such as I am, except these 
bonds. [Rom. 9:1-3; 10: 1 ; Acts 21: 33.] 

30 And when he had thus spoken, the king rose up, and the governor, and 
Bernice, and they that sat with them : [Ch. 25: 23.] 

31 And when they were gone aside, they talked between themselves, saying, 
This man doeth nothing worthy of death or of bonds. [Ch. 23: 29.] 

32 Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, 
if he had not appealed unto Cesar. [Ch. 25: 11, 12.] 


The Improved Version gives the following excellent translation: "And 
Agrippa said to Paul, Thou somewhat persuadeth me to make me a Christian. 
^i.nd Paul said, I could pray God, that both in some degree and in a great 
degree, not only thou, but also all that hear me this day, may become such as I 
am, except these bonds." See comments on this passage in Clark's "Acts," 
" A People's Commentary." 



About two years and a half. — A. D. 60-63. 

1 54. Paul Embarks at Cesarea for Rome, and Proceeds as Far 
AS Fair Havens. 

A. D. 60. 

ACTS 27: 1-8. 
(1) Paul and other prisoners, in custody of a Roman officer, embark in a ship of Asia 
Minor, Acts 27 : 1, 2. (2) Aristarchus, a Macedonian, with them, ver, 3. (3) They make a 
short stop at Sidon, ver. 4. (4) Then sail east and north of Cyprus, and thence to Myra, a 
city of Lycia, ver. 5. (5) Here they are transferred to a large vessel bound for Italy, ver. 6. 
(6) They sail slowly many days, and by adverse winds are forced east and south of Crete> 
and at length find a harbor at Fair Haven, ver, 7, 8. 

ACTS 27. 

1 And when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they deliv- 
ered Paul and certain other prisoners unto one named Julius, a centurion of 
Augustus' band. [Ch. 21 : 18, where Luke last includes himself among the 
party; ch. 25:12, 21.] 

2 And entering into a ship of Adramyttium, we launched, meaning to sail 
by the coasts of Asia ; one Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being 
with us. [Ch. 19: 29; 20: 4; Col. 4: 10; Philem. 24.] 

3 And the next day we touched at Sidon. And Julius courteously entreated 
Paul, and gave him liberty to go unto his friends to refresh himself. [Ch. 
24:23; 28:16; 11:19.] 

4 And when we had launched from thence, we sailed under Cyprus, because 
the winds were contrary. 

5 And when we had sailed over the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia, we came 
to Myra, a city of Lycia. [Ver. 2, "on the coast of Asia."] 

6 And there the centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing into Italy ; 
and he put us therein. [Ch. 28: 11; 21: 2, transferring from one ship to 

7 And when we had sailed slowly many days, and scarce were come over 

against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed under Crete, over against 

Salmone ; 


ACTS 27. 

8 And, hardly passing it, came unto a place which is called the Fair 
Havens ; nigh whereunto was the city o/ Lasea. 

§55. Continuing the Voyage Along Crete, the Ship is Caught by 
A Violent Storm, and She Drifts Many Days. 

Autumn. — A. D. 60. 

ACTS 27 : 9-26. 

(1) The fast of the great Day of Atonement being past, Paul advised wintering there, 
Acts 27 . 9, 10. (2) But after consultation it was determined to reach Phoenice, westward, on 
the south of Crete, ver. 11, 12. (3) Taking advantage of a favorable wind, they start, sailing 
near the shore, ver. 13. (4) Shortly the ship is caught by a violent northeast wind, ver- 
14. 15. (5) And driven southeast of Clauda, ver. 16. (6) Securing the boat on deck, 
strengthening the ship, and lowering the sail, so that they be not stranded upon the Syrtis, 
on the north coast of Africa, the ship is driven a little north of westward, ver. 17. (7) They 
lighten the ship, but continuing cloudy and tempestuous for many days, they give up all 
for lost, ver. 18-20. (8) In the midst of their danger Paul reminds them of his advice at 
Fair Havens, ver. 21. (9) Bids them be of good cheer, since God had assured him by an 
angel that there should be no loss of life, but only of the ship, which would be cast upon a 
certain island, ver. 22-26. In all which, Paul attests his fidelity to God, and his confidence 
in his word, ver. 22-25. 

ACTS 27. 

9 Now when much time was spent, and when sailing was now dangerous, 
because the fast was now already past, Paul admonished them, [Lev. 16 : 29- 
34 ; 23 : 26-32.] 

10 And said unto them, Sirs, I perceive that this voyage will be with 
hurt and much damage, not only of the lading and ship, but also of our lives. 

11 Nevertheless the centurion believed the master and the owner of the 
ship, more than those things which were spoken by Paul. [Ver. 21.] 

12 And because the haven was not commodious to winter in, the more part 
advised to depart thence also, if by any means they might attain to Phenice, 
and there to winter ; which is a haven of Crete, and lieth toward the southwest 
and northwest. 

13 And when the south wind blew softly, supposing that they had obtained 
ihdr purpose, loosing thence, they sailed close by Crete. 

14 But not long after there arose against it a tempestuous wind, called 

15 And when the ship was caught, and could not bear up into the wind, 
we let her drive. 

16 And running under a certain island which is called Clauda, we had 
much work to come by the boat : 

17 Which when they had taken up, they used helps, undergirding the ship ; 


ACTS 27. 
and, fearing lest they should fall into the quicksands, strake sail, and so were 

18 And we being exceedingly tossed with a tempest, the next day they 
lightened the ship ; 

19 And the third day we cast out with our oAvn hands the tackling of the 

20 And when neither sun nor stars in many days appeared, and no small 
tempest lay on us, all hope that we should be saved was then taken away. 

21 But after long abstinence, Paul stood forth in the midst of them, and 
said, Sirs, ye should have hearkened unto me, and not have loosed from Crete, 
and to have gained this harm and loss, [Ver. 10-12.] 

22 And now I exhort you to be of good cheer : for there shall be no loss of 
any man's life among you, but of the ship. [Ver. 44.] 

23 For there stood by me this night the angel of God, whose I am, and 
whom I serve, [Ch. 22. 11 ; Kom. 1 : 9.] 

24 Saying, Fear not, Paul ; thou must be brought before Cesar : and, lo, 
God hath given thee all them that sail with thee. 

25 Wherefore, Sirs, be of good cheer : for I believe God, that it shall be 
even as it was told me. 

26 Howbeit we must be cast upon a certain island. [Ch. 28 : 1 ; 2 Tim. 
1 : 12.] 

§ 56. The Discovery of Land, and the Shipwreck. 

MdUa.—A. D. 60. 

ACTS 27 : 27-44. 
(1) On the fourteenth night after leaving Crete, they approach land, Acts 27 : 27-29. 
(2) And the sailors attempt to leave the ship, ver. 30. (3) But are prevented by the soldiers, 
at the instance of Paul, ver. 31, 32. (4) Between midnight and the dawn of day, Paul, both 
by exhortation and example, induced the whole company to partake of food, giving thanks 
to God in presence of all, ver. 3:3-37. (5) After which they lighten the ship the last time, 
ver. 38. (6) At daylight they see the land and run the ship aground, where the stern 
began to break up by the violence of the waves, ver. 39-41. (7) The soldiers propose to kill 
the prisoners, but are prevented by the centurion, from his respect of Paul, ver. 42, 43. 
(8) In the midst of great peril, all escape in safety to land, ver. 43, 44. 

ACTS 27. 

27 But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and 
down in Adria, about midnight the shipmen deemed that they drew near to 
some country; [Ver. 13, 18, 19; ch. 28: 1.] 

28 And sounded, and found it twenty fathoms : and when they had gone a 
little further, they sounded again, and found it fifteen fathoms. 


ACTS 27. 

29 Then fearing lest we slioiild have fallen upon rocks, they cast four 
anchors out of the stern, and wislied for the day. 

30 And as the shipmen were about to flee out of the ship, when they had 
let down the boat into the sea, under colour as though they would have cast 
anchors out of the foreship, 

31 Paul said to the centurion and to the soldiers. Except these abide in the 
ship, ye cannot be saved. [Yer. 22-24.] 

32 Then the soldiers cut off the ropes of the boat, and let her fall off. 

33 And while the day was coming on, Paul besought them all to take meat, 
saying. This day is the fourteenth day that ye have tarried and continued 
fasting, having taken nothing. 

34 Wherefore I pray you to take some meat ; for this is for your health : 
for there shall not a hair fall from the head of any of you. [1 Kings 1 : 52 ; 
Luke 21 : 18.] 

35 And when he had thus spoken, he took bread, and gave thanks to God 
in presence of them all ; and when he had broken it, he began to eat. [1 Cor. 
10:30, 31.] 

36 Then were they all of good cheer, and they also took some meat. [2 Cor. 

37 And we were in all in the ship two hundred threescore and sixteen souls. 

38 And when they had eaten enough, they lightened the ship, and cast 
out the wheat into the sea. [Ver. 18, 19; ch. 28: 1.] 

39 And when it was day, they knew not the land : but they discovered a 
certain creek with a shore, into the which they were minded, if it were 
possible, to thrust in the ship. 

40 And when they had taken up the anchors, they committed themselves 
unto the sea, and loosed the rudder bands, and hoisted up the mainsail to the 
wind, and made toward shore. [Ver. 29.] 

41 And falling into a place where two seas met, they ran the ship agroiind ; 
and the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmoveable, but the hinder part 
was broken with the violence of the waves. [Suffered shipwreck at least three 
times before this; 2 Cor. 11 : 25.] 

42 And the soldiers' counsel was to kill the prisoners, lest any of them 
should swim out, and escape. 

43 But the centurion, willing to save Paul, kept them from their purpose ; 
and commanded that they which could swim should cast themselves first into 
the sea, and get to land : 

44 And the rest, some on boards, and some on broken pieces of the ship. 
And so it came to pass, that they escaped all safe to land. [Ver. 22, 24, 34 ; 
and compare ver. 10, 26.] 


^ 57. Abiding During the Winter at Melita. 
A. D. 60, 61. 

ACTS 28: 1-10. MAEK 16: 18. LUKE 10: 19. 
(1) Having escaped, they find themselves on the island of Melita, Acts 28: 1. (2) And 
are treated kindly by the natives, ver. 2. (3) Who regard Paul first as a murderer, because 
a viper, aroused by the heat, had fastened on his hand, ver. 3, 4. (4) But afterward as a god^ 
because he took no harm, ver. 5, 6. (5) Paul and the company are hospitably entertained by 
the chief man of the island, ver. 7, 8. (6) After which Paul performs many miracles, and 
both he and his companions are treated with special kindn^s; and when they depart are 
presented with such things as they needed, ver. 9, 10. 

ACTS 28. 

1 And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called 

2 And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness : for they kindled 
a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of 
the cold. 

3 And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, 
there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand. [1 Sam. 27 : 

4 And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they 
said among themselves. No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he 
hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live. [Luke 13 : 2, 4 . 
John 9 : 12.] 

5 And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm, (a) 

6 Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead 
suddenly : but after they had looked a great ^^hile, and sa^w no 
harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a 
god. [Ch. 14:11.] 

7 In the same quarters were possessions of the chief man of the island, 
whose name was Publius; who received us, and lodged us three days 

8 And it came to pass, that the father of Publius lay sick of a fever and of 
a bloody fiux : to whom Paul entered in, and prayed, and laid his hands on 
him, and healed him. [James 5 : 14, 15 ; Acts 19 : 11, 12.] 

9 So when this was done, others also, which had diseases in the island, came, 
and were healed : 

10 Who also honoured us with many honours: and when we departed, 
laded us with such things as were necessary. [Heb. 13 : 2 ; 1 Kings 17 : 9-13.] 


(a) Luke 10 : 19 Behold, I give unto you power to tread on 


§ 58. The Journey from Melita to Kome. 
A. n. 61. 
ACTS 28 : 11-16. PHIL. 1 : 12-14. 
(1) After a three month's stay, they sail in a ship of Alexandria, Acts 28 : 11. (2) And 
touching Syracuse and Rhegium, they land at Puteoli, ver. 12, 13. (3) Where they found 
brethren, who courteously entertained them, ver. 14. (4) From thence they proceed by 
land, meeting two deputations from the Church at Rome, ver. 15. (5) And ariving there, 
Paul, though still a prisoner, was treated with great kindness, ver. 16. 

ACTS 28. 

11 And after three months we departed in a ship of Alexandria, which 
had wintered in the isle, whose sign was Castor and Pollux. [Ch. 27: 6.] 

12 And landing at Syracuse, we tarried there three days. 

13 And from thence we fetched a compass, and came to Khegium: and after 
one day the south wind blew, and we came the next day to Puteoli : 

14 Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven 
days : and so we went toward Rome. 

15 And from thence, when the brethren heard of us, they came to meet 
us as far as Appii Forum, and the Three Taverns : whom when Paul saw, he 
thanked God, and took courage. [Rom. 1:11; 15 : 23, 32.] 

16 And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to 
the captain of the guard : but Paul "was suffered to dwell by him- 
self -with a soldier that kept hira. («) 

§ 59. Paul at Rome. Interview ^\^TH the Jews. His Condition 
During his Captivity. 

A. D. 61-63. 

ACTS 28 : 17-31. JOHN 12: 39, 40. EPH. 6: 18-20. PHIL. 2: 23, 24. 
PHILEM. 8 : 9, 22. ISA. 6 : 9, 10. 

(1) After three days Paul calls together the chief men of the Jews, Acts 28 : 17. (2) And 
explains to them what brought him hither, ver. 17-20. (3) Having heard nothing against 
him, they desire to hear from him concerning his views and doctrines, ver. 21, 22. (4) A 
day being appointed, a great number gather at his lodgings, probably in some private 
house, ver. 23. (5) Where he expounds his Messianic doctrine from the Old Testament 
Scriptures, ver. 23. (6) Some believing and others disbelieving, ver. 24. (7) To the latter 


serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy ; and 
nothing- shall by any means hurt you. 

Mark 16 : 18 They shall take up serpents ; and if they drink any 
deadly thing, it shall not hurt them ; they shall lay hands on the sick, 
and they shall recover. 

(a) Phil. 1 : 12 "^ut I would ye should understand, brethren, that the 


Paul winds up his appeal with a prophetic description of the judicial blindness of their 
fathers, implying that it was a picture of their own, ver. 25-27. (8) On account of which 
he declares that this salvation is sent to the Gentiles, ver. 28. (9) At this point Luke con- 
cludes his history, by the brief statement, that for two years Paul lived in his own house, 
preaching and teaching without restraint, concerning the kingdom of God, ver. 29-31. 

ACTS 28. 

17 And it came to pass, that after three days Paul called the chief of tlie 
Jews together : and when they were come together, he said unto them, Men 
and brethren, though I have committed nothing against the people, or 
customs of our fathers, yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem 
into the hands of the Romans : (a) [Ch. 18 : 2 ; Kom. 16 .- 3; 23 : 1 ; 
24: 12, 13; 25 : 8, 10; 21: 26-33; 23: 27-29; 25: 8; 26: 32.] 

18 Who, when they had examined me, would have let me go, because there 
was no cause of death in me. [Ch. 25 : 10-12.] 

19 But when the Jcavs spa,ke against it, I was constrained to appeal unto 
Cesar ; not that I had aught to accuse my nation of. [Ch. 25 : 10-12.] 

20 For this cause therefore have I called for you, to see you, and 
to speak with you: because that for the hope of Israel I am 
bound with this chain, (a) [Ch. 26 : 6, 7, 29.] 

21 And they said unto him. We neitlier received letters out of Judea 
concerning thee, neither any of the brethren that came shewed or spake any 
harm of thee. 

22 But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest : for as concerning 
this sect, we know that every where it is spoken against. [Ch. 24: 5, 14; 
1 Pet. 2 : 12.] 

23 And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into 
his lodging: to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, 


things ivhich happened unto me have fallen out rather unto the fur- 
therance of the gospel ; 

13 So that my bonds in Christ are manifest in all the palace, 
and in all other places ; 

14 And many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by my bonds, 
are much more bold to speak the word without fear. 

(«) Eph. 6 : 18 Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the 
Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all 
saints : 

19 And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I 
may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of tlie 

20 For which I am an ambassador in bonds ; that therein I 
may speak boldly, as I ought to speak. 


ACTS 28. 
persuading them concerning Jesus, botli out of the law of Moses, and out of 
the prophets, from morning till evening. [Cli. 17 : 3 ; 26 : 22, 23 ; Luke 
24 : 27.] 

24 And some believed the things which were spoken, and some believed 
not. [Ch. 14:4; 17:4, 5.] 

25 And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that 
Paul had spoken one word. Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the 
prophet unto our fathers, [2 Pet. 1 : 21.] 

26 Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and 
shall not understand ; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive : (a) 

27 For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of 
hearing, and their eyes have they closed ; lest they should see 
with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, 
and should be converted, and I should heal them. (6) 

28 Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto 
the Gentiles, and that they will hear it. 

29 And when he had said these words, the Jews departed, and had great 
reasoning among themselves. 

30 And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, 
and received all that came in unto him, {d) [Ch. 13: 46; 18 : 6; 23: 11.] 

31 Preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those things 
which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence, no man 
forbidding him. (c ) 


(a) IsA. 6 : 9 And he said. Go, and tell tliis people, Hear ye indeed, 
but understand not ; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. 

10 Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears 
heavy, and shut their eyes ; lest they see with their eyes, and hear 
with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed. 

(6) John 12: 39 Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias 
said again, 

40 lie Jiath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; 
that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with 
their heart, and Le converted, and I should heal them. 

{c) Philem: 8 Wherefore, though I might be much bold in Christ to 
enjoin thee that which is convenient, 

9 Yet for love's sake I rather beseech thee, being such a one as Paul 
the aged, and now also a prisoner of Jesus Christ. 

22 But withal prepare me also a lodging: fori trust that through your 
prayers I shall be given unto you. 

Phil. 2: 23 Him therefore I hope to send presently, so soon as I 
shall see how it will go with me. ["Him," that is Timothy. See 
§58; Phil. 1: 12-14.] 

24 But I trust in the Lord that I also myself shall come shortly. 


^ 60. Paul's Subsequent Labors, and Second Imprisonment. 

A. D. 63-67. 

KOM. 15: 22-24. PHIL. 1: 24-26. 1 TIM. 1 : 3, 4, 19, 20; 3: 14, 15; 
4 : 13. TIT. 1 : 5, 10-14; 3 : 12-14. 2 TIM. 1 : 8, 12, 15-18 ; 4 : 6-22. 

(1) Paul's long desire to visit Rome, and purpose to go to Spain, Rom. 15 : 22-24. (2) After- 
ward, when a prisoner at Rome, his expectation of release, Phil. 1 : 25, 26. (3) Perhaps he 
carries out his purpose of visiting Spain, Rom. 15 : 24. (4) At Ephesus, and afterward in 
Macedonia, 1 Tim. 1 : 3, 4, 19, 20. (5) Writes his First Epistle to Timothy ; expects to return 
to him at Ephesus, 1 Tim. 3 : 14, 15 ; 4 : 13. (6) Labors in Crete, Tit. 1 : 5, 10-14. (7) Prob- 
ably visits Ephesus, and writes his Epistle to Titus. (8) Expects to winter at Nicopolis 
(of Epirus), Tit. 3: 12-14. (9) Imprisoned the second time at Rome, 2 Tim. 1: 8, 12. (10) 
The different treatment he received from brethren after this imprisonment, 2 Tim. 1 : 
15-18; 4:9, 10. (11) His late visits to Troas and Miletus, 2 Tim. 4: 13, 20. (12) Prospered 
at his first defence, 2 Tim. 4: 17, 18. (13) His expectation of martyrdom, and his readiness 
forit, 2Tim. 4: 6-8. 

KOM. 15. 

22 For which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you. 

23 But now having no more place in these parts, and having a great desire 
these many years to come unto you ; 

24 Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you : for I 
trust to see you in my journey, and to be brought on my way thitherward by 
you, if first I be somewhat filled with your company. 

PHIL. 1. 

24 Nevertheless to abide in the flesh is more needful for you. 

25 And having this confidence, I know that I shall abide and continue 
with you all for your furtherance and joy of faith ; [| 59 ; Phil. 2: 
23, 24; Phileni. 8, 9, 22; Heb. 13: 23.] 

26 That your rejoicing may be more abundant in Jesus 
Christ for me by my coming to you again. 

1 TIM. 1. 

3 As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into 
Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other 

4 Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister 
questions, rather than godly edifying Avliich is in faith : .so do. 

19 Holding faith, and a good conscience ; which some having put away, 
concerning faith have made shipwreck : 

20 Of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander ; whom I have delivered unto 
Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme. [See below, 2 Tim. 4 : 14.] 


.1 TIM. 3. 

14 These things write I unto thee, hoping to come unto thee 
shortly : 

15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou 
oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the cliurch of 
the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 

1 TIM. 4. 

13 Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to 


5 For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order 
the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had ap- 
pointed thee: 

10 For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially 
they of the circumcision : 

11 Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching 
things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake. 

12 One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said. The Cretians are 
always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. [Acts 17 : 28.] 

13 This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may 
be sound in the faith ; 

14 Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn 
from the truth. 


12 When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come 
unto me to Nicopolis : for I have determined there to winter. 

13 Bring Zenas the lawyer and ApoUos on their journey diligently, that 
nothing be wanting unto them. [Acts 18: 24; 19: 1.] 

14 And let ours also learn to maintain good works for necessary uses, that 
they be not unfruitful. 

2 TIM. 1. 

8 Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me 
his prisoner : but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according 
to the power of God ; 

12 For the wjiich cause I also suffer these things : nevertheless I am not 
ashamed ; for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able 
to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day. 

15 This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away 
from me ; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes. 


16 The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus ; for he oft 
refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain : 

17 But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very dili- 
gently, and found me. 

18 The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that 
day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou 
knowest very well. 

2 TIM. 4. 

9 Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me : [Ver. 6.] 

10 For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is 
departed unto Thessalonica ; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia. [Col. 
4: 14; Philem. 24.] 

11 Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: 
for he is profitable to me for the ministry. 

12 And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus. 

13 The cloak that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring 
with thee, and the books, but especially the parchments. 

14 Alexander the coj^persmith did me much evil : the Lord reward him 
according to his works: [Acts 19: 38; 1 Tim. 1 : 19.] 

15 Of whom be thou ware also ; for he hath greatly withstood our words. 

16 At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men 
forsook me : I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge. 

17 Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened 
me; that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles 
might hear : and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. 

18 And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve 
me unto his heavenly kingdom : to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

19 Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus. 

20 Erastus abode at Corinth : but Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick. 

21 Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus greeteth 
thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren. [Acts 21 : 29 ; 
27: 12.] 

22 The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you. 

2 TIM. 4. 

6 For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my de- 
parture is at hand. [2 Tim. 2 : 5.] 

7 I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I 
have kept the faith : 

8 Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the 
Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but 
unto all them also that love his appearing. 



The Book of the Acts is a continuation of the Gospel according to Luke. 
Both are addressed to the same person, and both exhibit the same peculiari- 
ties of style, narrative, and plan. 

In his former treatise — The Gospel — Luke gave an account of "all that 
Jesus began both to do and teach, until the day in which he was taken up " 
(Acts 1:2); in this he continues the narrative, and describes the beginnings 
of apostolic work, under the direction, and through the power, of the Holy 
Spirit. It was evidently not his design to give a full account of the labors of 
the apostles, but rather the beginnings of the work, the planting of the 
church, and its first developments. Hence he gives only such accounts as 
illustrate the origin and progress of Christianity from Jerusalem, the capital 
of Judaisn^ through various channels and sources of influence, to Eome, the 
capital of heathenism. In the first half of the book we have the planting 
and extension of churches among the Jews, in which Peter, to whom had 
specially been entrusted the Gospel of the Circiuncision, is the central figure ; 
in the second, we have the work among the Gentiles, and Paul pre-eminent, 
as the Apostle of the Uncircumcision. In the first, Jerusalem is the radiating 
centre ; in the second, Antioch. Yet not absolutely ; for Peter was com- 
missioned to preach the gospel first to the Gentiles ; and Paul, wherever he 
went, preached to the Jew first; and Antioch consulted with Jerusalem 
regarding circumcision. 

No book of the New Testament has so many points of external contact as that 
of the Acts, whether they be with the Old Testament, the Gospels, the 
Epistles, or profane history. 

Its contact with the Old Testament is principally through the Version 

of the Seventy, and is found in the numerous quotations and historical 

references. No less than one hundred and thirty passages are quoted directly 

or indirectlv, wholly or partiallv. The law and the prophets were the 
137 ' ' M2 


constant ground of appeal in apostolic preaching. Hence these quotations 
are found mostly in the addresses of Peter, Paul, and Stephen. 

The Book of the Acts touches not only the Gospel according to Luke, but 
all the Gospels. Their four-sided narratives unite, in the account of the 
appearances and the ascension of the risen Lord, in the first chapter of the 
Acts. The history of the latter in every part pre-supposes the life and work 
of Christ. The preaching of the apostles was " the good tidings of peace by 
Jesus Christ " ; how he " went about doing good, and healing all that were 
oppressed with the devil " ; how the Jews " denied the Holy and Kighteous 
One", and "killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead." 
The likeness to Matthew, may be seen in the frequent quotations from Moses 
and the prophets ; to Mark, in the labors of Peter ; to Luke, in the ministry 
of Paul ; and to John, in the work of the Holy Spirit. 

The contact of the Acts with the Epistles, though no more real, is more 
evident, and externally more frequent. The Book of the Acts presents the 
planting ; the Epistles, the training of the early churches. From the former, 
we catch views of the external history ; from the latter, of the inner life. 
Both mutually supplement and confirm each other in many undesigned 
coincidences, which are the more marked from their differences in minor 
details. Individuality is also as distinctly marked in the Acts as in the 
Epistles. The defence of Stephen is so characteristic that it bears evidence 
to its own genuineness. It is not the composition of either Peter, Paul, or 
Luke. The speeches of Peter exhibit the same ardent temperament as do his 
Epistles; and the addresses of Paul reveal the candor, the fervor, the 
tenderness, the courtesy, the sincerity, and moral earnestness, so largely 
displayed in his writings. The address of James at the Apostolic Conven- 
tion at Jerusalem, and the circular letter, probably written by him, bear the 
impress of the Apostle of Works, and are reflected in his Epistle. The strong 
individuality of Luke is deeply impressed on the narrative part of the Acts, 
and both in general and minor points, he- is the same as in his Gospel. About 
fifty words in the original, found nowhere else in the New Testament, are 
common to both. 

In order to understand fully the contact of the Acts with the Epistles, we 
should know the order, time, place, and author of each. The following 
table presents the probable dates of the Epistles, and the names of the 
places where they were probably written: 





A. D. 




1 Thessalonians, 



2 Thessalonians, 






1 Corinthians, 



2 Corinthians, 








62 or 63 



62 or 63 



62 or 63 



62 or 63 




1 Peter, 




Italv(Heb. 13:24), 


2 Peter, 

Rome, (?) 


1 Timothy, 


65 C^) 


Ephesus, (?) 


2 Timothy 



1 John, 



2 John, 



3 John, 



The Acts of the Apostles also touches profane history at many points, and 
admits of many illustrations from Avell-known facts of the ancient world. 
Paul visited countries and cities, renowned in ancient times, and met with 
persons who have played an important part in the world's history. In 
tracing the progress of the gospel in Palestine and Syria, in Cyprus and Asia 
Minor, in Macedonia and Greece, in Italy and Rome, Luke necessarily comes 
in contact with the surrounding world, and makes incidental allusions to 
persons, places, and events, to laws and customs, to the religious and political 
condition of the people. The study of these is in the highest degree 
interesting and important. On the one hand, the carefulness of Luke has 
revealed some facts to be found no where else ; and on the other, his narrative 
has been confirmed, illustrated, or invested with a new interest. 


The Acts of the Apostles evidently proceed in chronological order. The 
same accuracy which Luke proposed and evinced, in his Gospel, is manifested 
here. It is, however, extremely difficult to fix the dates of the different 
events recorded. The date which is the best determined is the death of 
Herod Agrippa I., A. d. 44. This settles the martyrdom of James, and the 
imprisonment and release of Peter (ch. 12) ; and very nearly the visit of 
Paul and Barnabas to Jerusalem with contributions from Antioch. 

It is also determined that Nero set fire to Rome in July, a. d. 64, after 



which occurred his fearful persecution of Christians. Paul's two years' 
imprisonment could not have ended later than the spring of that year, and 
probably a year earlier. 

Tlie next most certain date is that of A. d. 60, as the probable time of the 
recall of Felix, and the appointment of Festus to the Procuratorship of 
Judea. This fixes Paul's fifth visit to Jerusalem, in A. d. 58. 

The date of our Lord's death and resurrection is quite certainly fixed at 
A. D. 30. On Prof. Harnack's chronology, see Appendix B. 

The dates of other events are arrived at with greater or less probability, 
by taking account of such notes of time as Luke gives us, and of con- 
temporaneous history, and reckoning backward and forward from those dates 
which are established. The chronology of the Acts is thus partly certain, 
and partly conjectural. The labors of many eminent scholars, however, have 
cleared away much uncertainty, and rendered the dates of most of the 
leading events extremely probable. But it must be confessed that hardly 
two chronologists agree in all points. A fuller discussion, in its details, will 
be found in the following notes. The following table represents the dates 
which are regarded in this work as certain, or most probable : 

cheo:n"ological table foe the acts of the apostles. 



A. D, 




A. D. 

B. C. 

Death of Herod the 

Augustus, Emperor 


Birth of Christ. 

Great, b. c. 4. 

Judea made a Roman 

Caiaphas, High 

Pontius Pilate, Pro- 

of Rome, B. c. 27 
—A. D. 14. 

Tiberius colleague of 
Augustus dies. 

Tiberius sole Empe- 






Christ's Baptism. 


His Crucifixion and 

(April) ; and As- 
cension (May). 


Descent of the Spirit, 
Pentecost, May 2<S. 


Appointment of the 







A. D. 




A. D. 


Martyrdom of Ste- 


Peter and John in 


Conversion of Saul. 

Pilate sent to Kome 
by the Prefect of 

Marcellus Procura- 

Herod Agrippa I., 
Kingof Judea and 

Caligula, Emperor, 




Saul in Arabia. 


Saul's Escape from 
Damascus, and 
First Visit to Jeru- 
salem, after his 
Conversion (Gal. 
1: 18). Withdraws 
to Tarsus. 


Eest to the Judean 


Conversion of Cor- 

Expedition against 

Claudius, Emperor, 

Seneca Banished. 




Barnabas fetches 
Paul from Tarsus 
to Antioch. 


Death of James. Im- 
prisonment of 

Paul's Second Visit 

Herod Agrippa I. 

to Jerusalem, with 

dies at Cesarea. 


Alms from Antioch. 




The EpiMle of James. 

Cuspius Fadus, Pro- 

War in Britain A. d. 



Paul set apart as a 




Paul's First Mission- 
ary Tour, occupy- 
ing about two 
years and a-half. 






A. D. 




A. D. 


Tiberius Alexander, 



His Keturn to An- 

Ventidius Cumanus. 

Seneca Eecalled. 



Apostolic Council at 
Jerusalem. Paul's 

Herod Agrippa II. 
King of Chalcis, 

Third Visit. (Gal. 



2 : 1-10). 


Paul's Second Mis- 

Caractacus sent Pris- 

sionary Tour, oc- 

oner to Eome. 


cupying about 

three years and a 



He enters Europe. 

Antonius Felix, Pro- 

Claudius expels the 


Jews from Rome. 
Gallio, Proconsul of 




He writes First and 
Second Epistles to 
from Corinth. 


Paul's Fourth Visit 
to Jerusalem (au- 
tumn); and re- 
turns to Antioch. 

Paul begins his 

Nero, Emperor, 


Third Missionary 


Tour, occupying 

about three years 

and a haK. 


Paul writes to the 
Galatians from 

Revolt of the Saca- 


An Egyptian (ch. 



He writes First 
Epistle to Corinth- 
ians from Epliesus. 

21 : 38). 


AVrites Second Epis- 
tle to Corinthians 
from Philippi. 


He writes to Romans 
from Corinth. 


Paul's Fifth Visit to 
Jerusalem (Pente- 
cost). Apprehend- 
ed, brought before 
Felix, and impris- 
oned at Cesarea. 





A. D. 



A. D. 


Gospel of Luke. 


Paul before Festus. 
Sent to Italy. Ship- 

Felix recalled. 
Festus appointed 

wrecked at Malta. 




Paul arrives a Pris- 
oner at Kome. 

Embassy from Je- 
rusalem to 
Rome respect- 
ing the wall. 

61, 63 


He writes to Col- 

Albinus, Procur- 

osians, Philemon, 


Death of Burrus. 


and Ephesians from 

Nero marries Pop- 





To Philippians from 
Rome, and to He- 
breivs (?) from Italy. 

Seneca in retirement. 



The Acts written. 


Paul is released. 


First Peter. 

Great Fire in Rome 


Epistle of Jude, 

Gessius Flobus, 

(July 19); first per- 
secution of Chris- 



Paul in Asia Minor 
and Macedonia (?). 


Visit to Spain (?). 


First Timothy from 

Death of Seneca. 



Paul in Crete. 


To Titus, perhaps 
from Epliesus. 

Jewish "War be- 



Second Peter. 


Arrested perhaps at 
Nicopolis, and 
taken a Prisoner to 


Second Timothy from 


Paul's Martyrdom. 
Peter's Martyrdom, 
perhaps about the 
same time. 

Destruction of Je- 
rusalem by Titus. 

Death of Nero( June) 
Galba, Emperor. 
Otho and Vitellius, 

Vespasian, Emperor. 








Titus, Emperor. 



John writes his 
Gospel, about 


He writes his Epis- 
tles, about 

Domitian, Emperor, 



The Revelation, ohoyxi 

Persecution of 



Some put it 

Nerva, Emperor. 



Death of John. 

Trajan, Emperor. 



Notice : 

1 That the baptism of John is one of the connecting links between the Gospels 
and the Acts (Acts 10 : 37 ; 13 : 24 ; 19 : 4). 

2 The prominence given to the Holy Spirit in the Acts (ch. 1 : 5, etc.). 

3 That the Gospel narratives culminate in the resurrection of Christ, and that 
the Acts show how the risen Christ carried on his work through the Spirit l)y 
his disciples. Their preaching centered in a risen, living Christ (Acts 4 : 2, 
33 ; 17 : 18 ; 26 : 23). See Clark on the " Acts," "A People's Commentary." 



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^ 1. The Introduction is similar to, but less formal, than that to the 
Gospel according to Luke, and is addressed to the same friend, Theophilus, 
who appears to have been a person of rank, and a Gentile Christian. See 
author on Luke 1:3. It presents this book as a continuation of Luke's 
Gospel, and indicates the same author. 

Time of our Lord's Ascension. This occurred forty days after his resur- 
rection. During the intervening time, he appeared frequently to his disciples, 
and gave them his last instructions. At least ten appearances of our 
Lord, before his Ascension, are recorded in the New Testament* See author's 
" Harmony of the Gospels," p. 312. After to Paul, 1 Cor. 15 : 8; and to John, 
Rev. 1: 12-18. 

The exact time of our Lord's ascension was probably Thursday, May 18th, 
A. D. 30. In order to reach this conclusion, we must briefly review a few 
chronological points in the Life of Christ. 

The Roman abbot, Dionysius Exiguus, in the sixth century, fixed the birth 
of Christ in the 754th year of Rome. This is our common era, but chronolo- 
gists generally agree that it is too late by four or five years. Jesus was born 
during the reign of Herod the Great (Matt. 2: 1), who died in the year 
of Rome 750, a few days before the Passover. (Josephus, Ant., 16. 8. 
1-4). This has been confirmed by the astronomical calculation of an 
eclipse of the moon on March 13th, A. d. 750, a few days before Herod's 
death. But between the birth of Jesus and Herod's death must have occurred 
the purification in the temple, the visit of the wise men, the flight into 
Egypt, and the stay there, and the massacre of the children in Bethlehem. 
These events probably occupied at least six months. We may, therefore, 
place the birth of Jesus in the autumn of the year of Rome 749, or b. c. 5. 

Passing on to our iorrf's baptism, Luke says that Jesus "was about thirty 
years of age." Luke 3 : 33. This fixes his baptism in the year of Rome 779, 
or A. D. 26. This is confirmed by the statement of Luke (3 : 1, 2), that John 
entered his ministry in the fifteenth year of Tiberius. Now Tiberius was 
associated in the government with Augustus from the beorinning of 765 ; and 
the fifteenth year would be 749, or A. d. 26. And John probably began his 
ministry in the spring, and about six months earlier than Jesus. Luke 1 : 36. 
This would place the baptism of Jesus in the autumn, in the first year of 


Pontius Pilate, wlio was Governor of Judea from A. d. 26 to 36. See these 
and otiier i3oints discussed in author's " Harmony," ^ 9, pp. 242-245, 

Add to the above date the duration of our Lord's public ministry and we 
have the date of his death. The length of our Lord's ministry has been 
estimated at a little over one, two, or three years. The theory of one year 
and a few months must be set aside, in view of the fact that John mentions at 
least three Passovers during our Lord's ministry. John 2: 13, 23; 6: 4; 
12: 1 ; 13: 1. Against the theory of two years, and in favor of three years, it 
maybe said: (1) That the feast in John 5: 1 was also a Passover, making 
four during our Lord's ministry. The reading, according to most ancient 
authorities, led by the Vatican Manuscript, is without the article "feast" or 
"a feast." But other most ancient authorities, led by the Sinaitic Manu- 
script, have tlie article, " the feast." The latter reading was adopted by 
Tischendorf in his eighth edition of his Greek Testament ; the former is pre- 
ferred by Westcott and Hort, and by the Revision of the English Version. 
The definite article favors the Passover, the great feast of the Jews ; but its 
omission is hardly decisive against that feast ; for the article is wanting in 
the Greek in some places where the Passover is intended. Matt. 27 : 15 ; Mark 
15: 6. (2) The vast amount of labor which Jesus performed, favors the three 
years theory. Our Lord's extensive missionary tours, with his discourses and 
miracles, are more easily arranged. (3) In harmony with this theory is the 
prophecy of Daniel (9: 27) : "And he shall confirm the covenant with many 
for one week, and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and 
oblation to cease." The three years of the Parable of the Barren Fig-tree 
are significant. Luke 13: 6-9. For these and other reasons, the majority 
of Harmonists favor this theory. Compare author's " Harmony, " ^ 50, 
l>p. 259-262. 

If then our Lord's ministry continued about three years and a half, he was 
crucified at the Passover of A. d. 30. The day of his crucifixion was Friday, 
the 15th of Nisan, the day before the Jewish Sabbath. Mark 15: 41; Luke 
23: 54; John 18: 39. This is confirmed by astronomical calculation, which 
shows that the 15th day of Nisan, in A. D. 30, fell on Friday, April 7th, and 
that this occurred only once more (in A. d. 33), between A. d. 28 and 36. See 
author's "Harmony," pp. 296-301. 

Our Lord, therefore, was crucified on Friday, April 7th, and rose from the 
dead on Sunday morning, April 9th, A. d. 30. Matt. 28: 1, etc. Beginning 
with the day of his resurrection, the fortieth day was Thursday, jVIay 18th, 
which is the most probable day of his Ascension. 

The place of the Ascension was Mount Olivet, near Bethany, (ch. 1: 12 
Luke 24: 5); a mile, or a little more, east of Jerusalem. 

^ 2. The Appointment of an Apostle in the Place of Judas, 
occurred some time within the ten davs between the Ascension and the Pente- 


cost. Tlie note of time, in those days, is indefinite, often used with great 
latitude, (Matt. 3:1), but here restricted between the forty days in ver. 3, and 
the fifty denoted by tlie word Pentecost. Ch. 2:1. It is very natural to suppose 
that the appointment took place near the end of the ten days. 

For a classified arrangement of the Four Apostolic Catalogues of Matthew, 
Mark, Luke, and that in the Acts, see author's " Harmony of the Gospels," 
^ 72, p. 268, or his "Notes" on the Gospels, Matt. 10: 2-4, etc. 

Verses 18 and 19 are regarded by the majority of interpreters as an 
explanatory remark of Luke. There is no contradiction between it and Matt. 
27: 5-8. Neither denies w^hat the other affirms. Matthew records Judas' 
own act in hanging himself; Luke, in the Acts, the result, and the terrible 
condition in which he died. It has been supposed that Judas hung liimself 
from a limb of a tree on the edge of a precipice, perhaps near flie Valley of 
Hinnom. In throwing himself from the precipice, the limb or the rope may 
have broken, and he falling forward, may have thus met his fearful end. 
See Hackett on the Acts 1 : 18, and note. 

The quotations as recorded in ver. 20, are made from the Septuagint, with a 
slight and unimportant variation in that from Ps. 69 : 25. 

The upper room was the large uppermost room of some private house — a 
chamber under the flat roof of an Oriental house, often used for devotion and 
religious assemblies. Compare Acts. 20 : 8 ; Dan. 6 : 10. The definite article 
points to some room previously mentioned or already known, which makes it 
very probable that it was the " large upper room " which Jesus had chosen 
for the celebration of the Passover. Mark 14 : 15 ; Luke 22 : 12. It is very 
natural that the disciples should have retained this room, hallowed by such 
associations, while tarrying at Jerusalem, aAvaiting power from on high. Luke 
24 : 49. Some have supposed it to have been one of the chambers in the pre- 
cincts of the temple. But the Jewish rulers would hardly have allowed them to 
occupy an apartment of the temple ; nor would such a place have been prob- 
ably called "the upper room." That of a private house was retired, and better 
answered their purpose. The closing words of Luke's Gospel has been 
thought to require this — "were continually in the temple, praising God." 
But this would rather refer to the place where the people generally met in the 
temple, and not to a room or an upper room in its precincts. And with 
Hackett, Alexander, and others, Ave may regard the word continually as used to 
signify nothing more than a frequent resort — present at all the seasons when 
the people would naturally resort thither for worship. After the Pentecost, 
the disciples were doubtless more in the temple, though still much at home 
(1 : 46). It was fitting, also, under the New Dispensation, to be free from tlie 
local and ritual restrictions of the Old. John 4 : 23, 24. 

The number of disciples gathered together, about one hundred and twenty, is 
not inconsistent with the " five hundred " mentioned in 1 Cor. 15 : 6. The 


former were all at that time at Jerusalem ; the latter, the whole discipleship 
assembled in Galilee. Most of them were probably still there. 

^ 8. The name Pentecost means fifty, and is applied to one of the three 
j^reat festivals in the Jewish calendar, because it occurred fifty days after the 
Passover-Sabbath. It is styled "the feast of harvest" (Exod. 23: 16), and 
" the feast of wheat harvest " (Exod. 34 : 22), because it celebrated the com- 
pletion of the grain harvest. It is also called " the day of first fruits." As 
there was offered at the Passover a sheaf of barley, as the first fruit of the 
coming harvest ; so at the Pentecost, two loaves of the finest wheat flour were 
offered as the first fruits of a completed harvest, and as a token of thanks- 
giving to God. It is, moreover, styled " the feast of weeks " (Deut. 16 : 10), 
since it occurred a week of weeks, that is, seven weeks after the Passover. We 
learn from the Talmud and Maimonides of a Jewish tradition, making this 
feast a celebration of the giving of the Law from Mount Sinai, which is 
supposed to have taken place fifty days from the departure of Israel from the 
land of bondage. There is no reference to this in Josephus or Philo. The only 
possible allusion to it in the Scriptures is in Deut. 16 : 9-12, where, in connec- 
tion with Pentecost, the Israelite is admonished to remember his bondage in 
Egypt, and commanded to observe and do the statutes of the Lord. 

The Day of Pentecost was a fitting time for the Descent of the Spirit, and 
the birth of the first Christian Church. 

The observance of Pentecost lasted but a single day, but was prolonged by 
foreign Jews to two days, perhaps to avoid any errors in celebrating the true 
day. On the manner of its observance, see Lev. 23 : 17-20. 

The day of the week on which Pentecost and the Descent of the Spirit 
occurred has been a subject of much dispute, some holding that it was on 
Saturday, and some on Sunday. While the question is not one of vital 
moment, yet it is of interest, and has its significance. The settling of the 
question has been thought to depend largely upon the interpretation of " the 
morrow after the Sabjbath," from which the fifty days were to be counted 
(Lev. 23: 11, 15, 16) — whether the Sabbath was the first day of the Passover, 
the 15th of Nisan, which was a day of holy convocation (Lev. 23 : 7), or the 
weekly Sabbath in the Passover week. The first is the more general view. 
It is maintained that if the Friday on which Christ died was the 14th of 
Nisan, then the 16th, "the morrow after the Sabbath," would be Sunday, and 
the fiftieth day, or Pentecost, would also be Sunday; but, if Christ died on 
the 15th of Nisan (as has been shown in | 1), which Avas the day of holy 
convocation, that the "morrow," and the fiftieth day from the morrow, would 
be Saturday. 

But the Sadducees, in the time of the second temple, and the Karaites 

since the eighth centurv of the Christian era, have held to the second view — 



that the weekly Sabbath within the seven days of the Passover is meant, and 
since they were to count fifty days from the morrow after the Sabbath, Pente- 
cost would always fall on Sunday. While this seems a natural interpretation, 
and, perhaps, may be the true one, the general Jewish practice seems to be 
against it. 

All would be plain had we a more perfect knowledge of the facts and 
customs of the Jews, in the time of our Lord, respecting this feast. 
It is to be noted, however, that the earliest Christian traditions, and the 
Christian commemorations of the day, as far back as it is possible to trace 
them, have uniformly fixed uj)on Sunday as the day. A perfect harmonizing 
of the difficulties connected with the whole subject, may be impossible. The 
following suggestions are made, which may help toward reaching a solution : 

1. The day from which they were to count fifty was the one on which the 
first fruits were to be offered, specified as " the morrow after the Sabbath." 
Lev. 23 : 10-12. If we accept the loth of Nisan, the day of holy convocation, 
as the Sabbath intended, then at the Passover at which our Lord suflTered, the 
morrow after the ceremonial Sabbath was the regular weekly Sabbath. But 
may not the offering of the first fruits have been postponed to the day follow- 
ing, since the work of cutting it probably formed part of the ceremony, and 
the offering of it was regarded as the beginning of the harvest labor ? May 
not this have been a reason for beginning to count with Sunday, in that in- 
stance, making the fiftieth day fall on Sunday ? 

2. Or, we may adopt the mode of reckoning from the end of *' the morrow 
after the Sabbath." So Doddridge, Wordswortli, and others. This is, indeed, 
a very natural meaning of the words, ^^from the morrow," And it may afford 
an explanation of the much discussed passage in Josh. 5:11: "And they did 
eat of the old corn [rather, the produce] of the land on [rather, //-o?/!] the 
morrow after the passover, unleavened cakes, and parched corn [i. e., roasted 
ears] in the self same day." The words, "the morrow after the passover," 
mean naturally, and according to their usage in Num. 33: 3, the 15th of 
Nisan, the day of holy convocation ; and the Israelites are represented as 
eating parched corn and green ears of the new harvest a day at least before it 
was lawful to do so. Num. 23: 14. If, however, the words, "from the morrow," 
mean from the end of that day, then the passage evidently means that the 
manna ceased from or after the 15th of the month, and the people began to 
eat the new harvest on the 16th, the day of offering the first fruits unto the 
Lord, which was according to the law. 

" We must merely avoid being misled," says Olshausen, " by the different 
commencement of a Jewish day. Undoubtedly the Jewish Pentecost, in the 
year of our Lord's death, fell upon Saturday ; but it began at six o'clock in 
the evening, when the Sabbath was at a close, and it lasted till six o'clock on 
Sunday evening. As the church, therefore, has rpiite rightly fixed the day of 



the Redeemer's death upon Friday, althougli the Passover began on Thursday 
evening at six o'clock, so also has it with equal propriety fixed the first Pen- 
tecost upon the day which occurred just seven weeks after the resurrection." 

Dr. William Smith, in his New Testament History (p. 380), arrives at the 
same result : " Seven weeks were acknowledged from the 16th of Nisan, and 
the following day, the 6th of Sivan, was the Day of Pentecost." Since, there- 
fore, in A. D. 30, the 16th of Nisan fell on Saturday, April 8th, the Day of 
Pentecost, according to Dr. Smith's reckoning, fell on Sunday, May 28th. 

The following table presents the Jewish Calendar for a. d. 30. The Jewish 
year is strictly lunar, and contains three hundred and fifty-four, or twelve 
lunations of the moon. In a cycle of nineteen years an intercalary month, 
Veadar, is seven times introduced, which makes the average length of the 
year nearly correct. 


A, D. 30, 

March 24 

April 7, 8, 13,14, 

April 23 
May 17... 

May 18... 

May 23... 
May 28 . 

June 22. 

July 20 

August 19. 
August 25. 

September 17.. 
September 26.. 
October 1, 2 ... 

October 7 


October 9.—.... 

October 16., 

November 15., 
December 9..., 

December 14. 

A. D. 31. 
January 13.... 

February 11.. 
February 24.. 

Days of the "Week. 


Friday, Saturday, Thursday, Friday, 



Thursday. Ascension. 


Thursday , 
Friday , 




Sunday and Monday , 

Saturday , 



Monday , 




Jewish Calendar. 
(In the Sacred Order of the Months.) 

March 12 Monday 

March 24 [Saturday 

March 25, 26 ..... ISunday, Monday. 

1. New Moon. 

15, 16, 21, 22. Passover Days, 1, 2, 7, 

II. JYAR (Yiah.) 
1. New Moon. 
28. Death of Samuel. Fast. 

1. New Moon. 

6. Pentecost. 

1. New Moon. 

V. AB. 
1. New Moon. 

1, New Moon. 

7. Dedi. of Walls byNehemiah. Fea^. 


1. New Year and New Moon. 
10. Kipur. Day of Atonement. Fast. 
15, 16. Feast of Tabernacles. 

21. Feast of Branches or of Palms. 

22. End of Feast of Tabernacles. 

23. Feast of the Law. 

1. New Moon. 

1. New Moon. 
25. Hanuca. Dedication of Temple. 
1. New Moon. 

1. New Moon. 

1. New Moon. 
14. Little Purim. 

XII. VEADAR (Intercalary). Lastof 
March and beginning of April. 
1. New Moon. 

13. Feast of Esther. 

14, 15. Feast of Purini and Shusham 



Since preparing the above for press, I have received from my scholarly 
friend, Rev. C. W. Waterhouse, the following very able and impartial defence 
of Sunday as the Day of Pentecost : 

" That the Day of Pentecost of Acts 2:1, signalized by the outpouring of the 
Holy Spirit, occurred on Sunday, the first day of the week, seems to have 
been the prevailing opinion in the churches, until the present century. 

"But Wieseler (since followed by many), in his 'Chronologic,' p. 19, makes 
this Pentecost fall on the Sabbath. 

" If * our Lord celebrated his last Passover on the evening which began the 
15th of Nisan,' then the 15th of Nisan extended through that night and 
following day to 'the evening which began' the 16th of Nisan, or Abib, in 
liarmony with Jewish reckoning. Hence, our Lord was crucified on the 15th 
of Nisan, ' which was our Friday,' and was also ' the first day of the feast of 
unleavened bread,' when they were to * have a holy convocation,' and ' do no 
servile work therein,' (Lev. 23 : 6, 7) ; that is, they were to keep that ' first day' 
as a 'sabbath.' See ver. 11, 15. 'The seventh day' of the ' seven days' of the 
feast of unleavened bread, that is, the 21st day of Nisan, they were also to 
keep in the same manner as a sabbath. See ver. 8. These special feast-sab- 
baths are to be distinguished from the regular weekly sabbath, which is not 
spoken of in the chapter, except in ver. 3 and 38. But if the 15th day of 
Nisan was 'the first day of the feast of unleavened bread,' (ver. 6, 7), and was 
to be kept as a sabbath, then ' the morrow after the sabbath,' spoken of in 
ver. 11 and 15, was the 16th of Nisan, and the second day of the feast of 
unleavened bread. On this day the wave-sheaf was to be offered, (ver. 11), 
undoubtedly within the twelve hours of daylight, and perhaps mostly between 
the morning and the evening sacrifice, for some three hours before and three 
hours after noon. If, then, our Lord was crucified on Friday, the 15th of 
Nisan, the 16th day of Nisan was Saturday. Starting from this Saturday at 
noon, in the midst of the offering of the wave-sheaf, one week of seven days 
will reach to the next Saturday noon, and forty-nine days, or seven weeks 
complete, (ver. 15), will reach to the seventh Saturday at noon, and the next 
day, required to complete the ' fifty days,' (ver. 16), will be Sunday, the first day 
of the week, the day after the Jewish Sabbath. Beginning thus on the 
acknowledged basis of Friday, tlie 15th of Nisan, as the day of Christ's 
crucifixion, and the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, and reasoning 
from the direct teachings of Lev. 23 : 5-16, confirmed also by Num. 28 : 16-25, 
we are brought to the first day of the week as the Pentecost so signalized by 
the manifest power of the Holy Spirit. 

" In William Smith's large and critical ' Bible Dictionary,' Rev. Samuel 
Clark, of England, says : 'From the 16th of Nisan seven Aveeks were reckoned 
inclusively, and the next or fiftieth day was the Day of Pentecost. ... It was 
the legal paschal supper, on the 14th of Nisan, and the Sabbath during which 


our Lord lay in the grave was the day of the omer [wave-sheaf], Pentecost 
must have followed on the Sabbath.' 

" But Dr. William Smith himself, in his New Testament History, published 
in 1866, p. 380, counting ' from the 16th day of Nisan/ says, ' the Day of Pen- 
tecost fell on Sunday.^ 

"Besides, we are not authorized to assume that 'from the 16th of Nisan 
seven weeks were reckoned inclusively' ; that is, that the 16tli of Nisan was 
itself to be counted as the first of the forty-nine days. In loose, popular 
speaking, such a manner of reckoning may be admissible. But it would not 
be admissible in the select and precise language of legal enactment. Much 
less could we expect it when the words of the enactment came from a scholar, 
and were inspired. 

"Hence, in relation to the Day of Pentecost, or 'the feast of weeks' (Deut. 
16: 10), the words of the law are definite and specific. 'Ye shall count to 
you from [not, beginning ivithl the morrow after the sabbath, from the day 
when ye brought the sheaf of the wav^e-offering, seven sabbaths [or ' weeks,' 
Deut. 16 : 19] shall be complete ; even to the morrow after the seventh sabbath 
shall ye number ffty days.' Lev. 23 : 15, 16. 

" In Lange's learned and critical Commentary, Dr. J. V. Lechler says : ' It 
[Pentecost] consequently occurred, in the year in which Christ died, on the 
first day of the week, or our Sunday, if we assume that in the same year 
the first day of the Passover occurred on a Friday, and the second, from 
which the fifty days were counted, on a Saturday.' 

" This way of understanding and reckoning the ' seven weeks complete,' and 
the 'fifty days,' may be further illustrated by the Jubilee. Suppose the year 
before A. D. 1 had been the year of Jubilee. Then one week of years 
from the Jubilee would have included the year 7, seven weeks of years 
would have included the year 49, and 'the fiftieth year' from that Jubilee 
would have extended to the year 50 as the next Jubilee. See Lev. 15 : 

" Special provision was made for the forty -ninth as the sabbatic, and the 
fiftieth as the Jubilee year, in the promise that the year next before this 
sabbatic year should 'bring forth fruit for three years'; ver. 21." 

The "place" (2: 1) where the disciples were assembled at Pentecost is called 
the "house" in ver. 2, and was probably the "upper room" of the preceding 
chapter (1 : 13), which had been the usual meeting place of the disciples after 
the ascension, and the same " large upper room " in which our Lord observed 
the Passover with his disciples. Luke 22: 12. See Discussion in the preceding 
section. Many have supposed the place to have been one of the thirty build- 
ings in the precincts of the temple, which Josephus calls "houses." This 
view, it is said, agrees better with the custom of the apostles (Luke 24 : 53 . 
Acts 2: 46), with the time of the miracle, nine o'clock in the morning, the 


lioiir of prayer (ver. 15), witli the large multitude assembled, and with the 
sanctity of the place. But if it had been in the temple, why was it not so 
stated? The temple is not mentioned till ver. 46, and it would hardly have 
been called a house. The hostile Jewish authorities would scarcely have 
permitted it ; and the disciples, from their fear of the Jews, Avould very prob- 
ably assemble in some large room of a private house. Compare John 20 : 19_ 
It was also a long summer day. The people of the East are early risers. It 
was but the third hour of the day when Peter addressed the people. But the 
Spirit had descended before this, and a great multitude had assembled. It is 
possible that the disciples had been already together several hours. And it 
is not necessary to suppose that the vast assembly and the addresses of Peter 
and others were all in the upper room. We can suppose the early gathering 
of the disciples and the descent of the Spirit to have been there, but the 
crowd may have asseml)led outside in the open air. Nor may we call in the 
temple to give additional sanctity to the occasion. It was the Spirit, not the 
temple, that made the place and the whole event sacred ; and by his presence 
the humblest Christian becomes the temple of God. 1 Cor. 3: 16; John 
4 : 23, 24. 

The list of names in 9-11 presents a rapid view of the Roman Empire, and 
contains most of the countries in which the Jews were dispersed, beginning 
with the northeast and passing to the west and south. The whole multitude 
was divided into Jews — that is, by birth — and Proselytes, or Gentile converts 
to the Jewish religion. It has been estimated that as many as fifteen different 
languages or dialects must have been spoken by the disciples at this time. 
There were at Jerusalem separate synagogues for the accommodation of wor- 
shipers of different nationalities. Ch. 6: 1. The great multitude present at 
Jerusalem may be accounted for from the fact that Pentecost was the most 
largely attended of any of the Jewish feasts. 

^4. The quotation from the Prophet Joel (2: 28-32), in Peter's Address 
TO THE Multitude, is made from the Hebrew with several variations, and 
very nearly in tlie words of the Septuagint Version. " The two or three 
verbal deviations from the Hebrew serve either to unfold more distinctly the 
sense of the original passage, or to enforce it." — Hackett. " Some suppose 
this passage to have formed a part of the temple-service on the Day of Pente- 
cost, and allege that it is still so used by the Karaites, or Anti-talmudical 
Jews." — Alexander. Joel was one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of all the 
prophets, in the reign of Uzziah, about b. c. 800, or perhaps under Jehoash, 
during his minority, about b. c. 870. 

The quotations from Psalm 116 is from the Septuagint Version. The 
Hebrew in Ps. 110: 1, is, "Jehovah said unto my Lord," or Sovereign, etc. 
In the quotations from the Old Testament, Lord generally, as in the Septua- 


gint, corresponds with Jehovah, and tlius sometimes the distinction between 
that and other names applied to God is lost. 

It is interesting to compare the riper knowledge of Peter in his First Epistle, 
written about A. d. 63, and notice its agreement with this address on the Day 
of Pentecost. 

^ 5, The Effect of Peter's Address, in connnection with that of the 
others, was immediate in conviction and conversion; but continuous also in 
the growth of the church, and in the graces of the Spirit — benevolence, joy, 
etc. The condition of the infant church is described in ver. 42-47, covering 
a period, it may be, of several months. 

The sjKcial liberaUity of the converts should be noted. The disciples sold 
and parted with goods and possessions, according to the necessities of any of 
tlie brethren. No one acted as if his property was absolutely his own; but 
used it for the benefit of others also. In ver. 46, we get a view of their 
public worship in the temple, and their more private gatherings in their 
houses, or at their homes ; and also the connecting a social repast and the 
breaking of bread. Perhaps many of their private religious gatheiings were 
followed by a common meal, and then the Lord's Suj^per. 

§6. The Healing of the Lame Man by Peter and John is given, 
from among a large number of miracles (ch. 2 : 43), not merely because it 
was most wonderful ; but also because it gave occasion to the first hostile move- 
ment against the new church, and an opportunity for another telling discourse 
from Peter, resulting in a fresh impetus to the work, and in the further 
increase of believers. 

The time is not stated ; but it is implied that it was during the peaceful 
growth of the church that followed the Day of Pentecost. Ch. 2 : 44-47. Some 
have been disposed to put it into the next year. But it seems better to place 
it nearer Pentecost, while the disciples were still enjoying its influences, and 
the young believers were being instructed more fully in regard to the 
Kingdom of God. On account of the number of priests present in the 
temple (ch. 4 . 1), others have thought that the Feast of Pentecost had not 
yet terminated. But it would be better to suppose that now the Feast of 
Tabernacles had come and was in progress, which was early in October. A 
greater number of priests were on duty during that festival, since the work 
to be performed was greater. I incline to place this miracle in the autumn 
of A. D. 30. 

Notice how Peter and John are connected together in labor ; and consult 

In Peter's address, ver. 15, 16, and 1 Pet. 1 : 21, being both by the same 
apostle, are worthy of comparison: Christ raised up by the power of God; 


faith working through Christ as its author ; making believers, or those who 
receive his benefits, what they are. 

The quotation (ver. 22, 23) from Deut. 18: 15, 19, is partly the rendering 
of the Septuagint Version, and partly Peter's; giving the sense and special 
application of the original. The passage, ''I will require it of thee," is full 
of meaning. Peter emphasizes it, by defining the mode of the highest kind 
of punishment — "shall be utterly destroyed from among the people." The 
phrase, "shall be cut off from among his people," is of frequent occurrence 
(Lev. 23 : 29 ; Exod. 12 : 15, 19 ; Gen. 17 : 14), denoting— shall not be 
reckoned as one of them, deprived of all their privileges ; and, in aggravated 
cases, visited with the extremest punishment. 

^ 7. On the time of the Imprisonment of Peter and John, see pre- 
ceding section. 

The first organized opposition or persecution was begun by the Sadducees 
(ver. 2, 3, 5, 6), who were oflfended at the great central doctrine of apostolic 
preaching — the resurrection of Jesus. The Sadducees rightly rejected the 
tradition of the elders, but unfortunately denied many important truths, such 
as a resurrection, the existence of angels and spirits. They belonged to the 
wealthy and influential classes, and though they had not such popular power 
with the masses as the more numerous Pharisees, they were the most 
powerful politically. The opposition of the Sadducees would tend to make 
the Pharisees favorable to the body of believers. See ch. 23 : 7-10. The 
direct persecution by the Pharisees began much later — during the preaching 
of Stephen and at the disputation with him. Ch. 6 : 10. 

The captain of the temple (ver. 1) was the officer commanding the Levitical 
guard in the temple. See Josephus ( War, 6 : 5. 3), and compare Jer. 20 : 1 ; 
1 Chron, 9:11; 2 Chron. 31 : 13. 

The Sanhedrim is doubtless meant in ver. 5, which was the highest civil 
and ecclesiastical court of the Jews, composed of seventy persons, including 
elders, scribes, and the chief priests, who were the leaders of the twenty- 
four classes (1 Chron. 24), with the high priest as president. 

Annas (ver. 6) had been deposed from the high priesthood by the Roman 
Governor Valerius (Josephus, Antiq. 18 : 2. 2). His son-in-law, Caiaphas 
(ver. 6) was made high priest by the same Governor, about A. d. 25, and 
continued till A. d. 37. Annas appears to have been a man of great ability 
and influence, and retained the title, according to the custom of the Jews, 
who would naturally regard him as the rightful high priest, the office being 
for life. While Caiaphas was the acting high priest, Annas may have been 
his deputy. 

Notwithstanding so great opposition, the number of men who believed had 
increased to about five thousand (ver. 4). I am inclined to regard these as 


male converts; the word in the original being generally limited to males. 
The disciples came most in contact with men in the temple, and, as in modern 
missions, converts would at first be made largely from among men. That the 
one hundred and twenty in "the upper room" (ch. 1 : 15) were mostly men, 
is a fair inference from ch. 1: 14, "with the," or, "with certain women and 
Mary the mother of Jesus." Progress was doubtless constantly made among 
women, as private services were held at the homes, Ch. 2 : 46. And this 
progress, it would seem, was largely increased upon the death of Sapphira, 
when women are mentioned with men, as added to the Lord. Ch. 5 : 14. 

A comparison of Peter's address, especially ch. 4 : 11, 12, with his First 
Epistle (2 : 4-8), shows that he taught the same truths, both in his early and 
later ministry. But in the former he shows great simplicity ; in the latter he 
exhibits growth, maturity, and elaboration; in both, his knowledge of the 
Scriptures, fire, and vigor. 

The quotation in ver. 11 may be regarded as a free translation from the 
Hebrew, and applied, at this time, to the Sanhedrim. The text may have 
been so often quoted as to have become a proverb. 

The familiarity of the disciples with the Scriptures, is seen (ver. 24) in 
their free quotation of Ps. 146 : 6, and in citing the first two verses of the 
second Psalm (ver. 25, 26), which was regarded by the Jews as a Messianic 
prophecy. The latter is quoted quite closely from the Septuagint Version. 
Herod Antipas (ver. 27) was tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, from the death 
of Herod the Great, his father, A. d. 4, till his banishment, A. d. 39. Pontius 
Pilate (ver. 27) was Procurator of Judea fr©m a. d. 26 to A. d. 36. Both 
were associated together against Christ. Luke 23: 7, 11, 12. 

^8. The United and Prosperous Condition of the Church for 
several months, perhaps for a year or two after the first hostile movement 
against her, is described in ch. 4 : 32-35 ; similar to that enjoyed after the 
Pentecostal season. Ch. 2: 43-47. The community of goods is again brought to 
view as a peculiar feature of this period. It was plainly voluntary. Ch. 5: 4. 
Each one regarded himself as a steward entrusted with his Lord's money. 
Distribution was made " as any one had need." That all did not sell their 
entire property, may be inferred from ch. 12 : 12, where it appears that Mary, 
the mother of Mark, owned a house. This system does not appear to have 
been adopted by any of the other early churches. Gal. 2: 10; 1 Tim. 6: 8, 
17-19; 1 Cor. 16: 1, 2. It was adapted to the condition of the Church at 
Jerusalem, where many strangers and visitors, coming to the feasts, were con- 
verted, and needed to remain for a time to receive instruction. 

During this period, two opposite characters were brought into prominent 
notice. Joseph Barnabas, a Levite, afterward a companion of Paul and a 
missionary to his native island, Cyprus, which is situated toward the north- 



east corner of the Mediterranean Sea, and Ananias and Sapphira, of whom we 
know nothing, except their hypocritical profession of benevolence and their 
sad end recorded in ch. 5 : 1-10. Their severe punishment, near the beginning 
of Christianity, and as first transgressors, was a merciful warning to others. 
Compare the opening of the Mosaic institution. See reference on ver. 5. 

§ 9. The Great Increase of the Church (ch. 5 : 12-16), after the death 
of Ananias and Sapphira, appears to have continued for some time. Its peace 
and prosperity resulted not only from this judgment and the great miracles 
performed by the apostles, but also from the reverence begotten in the people 
for the company of believers. " But of the rest (of the people, that is, un- 
believers), durst no man join himself to them (associate with them, that is, 
with the disciples) : howbeit, the people magnified them," regarded them with 
wonder and reverence. Ver. 18 ; compare ch. 2 : 43. The discipleship became 
more distinct, were permitted more than ever to attend to their own worship 
in the temple and elsewhere, without molestation or intrusion of either hostile 
parties, or of those who by hypocritical profession would seek worldly gain. 
But true believers were largely multiplied, not only of men, but also of women 
(ver. 14), who are now mentioned among the converts for the first time since 
the Pentecostal season. 

The second organized movement or persecution against the apostles, origi- 
nated like the first (ch. 4: 1, 2, 5 ; see on ^ 7), among the Sadducees. It re- 
sulted only in the Imprisonment of the Apostles, in scourging them, and 
charging them no more to pret^ch in the name of Jesus. The Sadducean 
rulers were restrained by the miraculous deliverance of the apostles from 
prison, by fear of the people, and by the prudent counsel of Gamaliel. 

Gamaliel was doubtless the distinguished doctor of the law mentioned in 
the Talmud as the grandson of the famous Hillel, and at one time the teacher 
of Paul. Acts 22 : 3. See Josephus Antiq. 20 : 9, 4. He is reported to have 
died eighteen years before the destruction of Jerusalem, about A. d. 52. He 
is represented in the Talmud as being tolerant and charitable far beyond the 
mass of his countrymen. As a Pharisee, he may, with his sect, have looked 
favorably on the early disciples, who were constant worshipers in the temple, 
and strict observers of the law, and opposers of the skepticism of the Sad- 
ducees. The manner and the words of the apostles may have favorably im- 
pressed him, and the thought very likely occurred to him that possibly their 
cause might be of God. Ch. 5 : 39. Tradition makes him first a secret and 
afterwards an open disciple. But this is extremely doubtful. 

Theudas (ch. 5 : 36) was not the one mentioned hy Josephus (Antiq. 20 : 5, 1) 
as beheaded about A. d. 45, many years too late ; but one of the turbulent 
persons put to death during the last years of Herod the Great. 

Judas of Galilee (ch. 5: 37) is mentioned by Josephus as a Gaulonite of the 


city of Gamala, and probably took his name of Galilean from the insurrection 
which he began in Galilee. The enrolment was probably not that at the birth 
of Jesus (Luke 2 : 2), but a second one some years later, after the deposing 
of Archelaus, and when Cyrenius was the Governor of Syria the second time, 
about A. D. 6 or 7. Compare author's " Harmony of the Gospels," on § 9, 
(3) p. 243. See Josephus, who gives an interesting account of this Judas. 
Antiq. 18: 1. 6; 20: 5. 2; 17: 6. 2; War, 2: 8. 1. 

The threatening and scourging of the apostles were probably followed 
by another period of peace and prosperity to the Jerusalem Church. Ch. 

The time of this section, therefore, occupies a considerable period. The 
great increase of disciples and the prosperity enjoyed by them, described in 
ch. 5: 12-16, very probably lasted through the year A. D. 32. About the end 
of that year, or the beginning of A. d. 33, we may fix the imprisonment of 
Peter and John. The continued growth and activity of the discipleship after 
their release (ch. 5 : 42), may have continued through the year till A. d. 34. 

The phrase in ver. 30, " hanging him on the tree," is quoted from Deut. 
21 : 22. It there means the exposure of the body after being put to death in 
some way ; here it is applied to crucifixion. See in comparison. Gal. 3 : 13. 

^ 10. The first Appointment of Alms Distributers, or deacons, took place 
during the prosperous period of the church after the counsel of Gamaliel. Ch. 
5: 38-42. "These days" (ch. 6: 1) is an indefinite note of time, always 
implying some connection between what precedes and follows. It sometimes 
relates to a period of many years (Matt. 3 : 1) ; sometimes to a few days. Ch- 
1 :15. We may therefore suppose that the deacons were appointed in the 
first half of the year A. d. 34. 

The Grecian Jews (ch. 6:1) were those Jewish Christians of foreign birth 
who spoke the Greek language both in common life and in their worship, and 
used the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament. Their murmurings and 
the neglect of their widows were, doubtless, of gradual growth. The imperfect 
" were neglected," were being overlooked, implies that the neglect liad become 
common and was of some continuance. With the rapid increase of the disci- 
pleship, one after another of these widows were overlooked, till the evil 
probably became great. Jealousy of races, great sensitiveness on account of 
their foreign birth and language, doubtless contributed to the evil. The 
Hebrews (ver. 1) were Jewish Christians, natives of Palestine, and others, who 
used the Hebrew Scriptures and the vernacular Aramaean. 

The daily ministration of alms of which widows were important recipients, 
throws light on the community of goods as practiced by the Jerusalem Church. 
It originated with social meetings and repasts, and was extended to the needy 
and the dependent. Ch. 2 : 42-45 ; compare Neh. 8 : 10. 


By a comparison of 1 Tim. 5 : 9, we learn that widows continued to be 
objects of special care in all the early churches. 

The names of the Seven are all Grecian names, which indicates that they 
may have been chosen from among the Grecian Jews, to silence their com- 
plaints. Yet many Hebrew Jews had foreign names. Ch. 1 : 23. 

Nicolas of Antioch was a proselyte, a convert to the Jewish religion, and 
afterward to Christianity. This is obvious, as the views of the discipleship 
liad not yet been enlarged by the teaching of the conversion of Cornelius. He 
was what the Jews called " a proselyte of righteousness," circumcised, and 
observing all the ordinances of the Mosaic law. Thus he passed through tlie 
synagogue at Antioch, before he entered into the Church at Jerusalem. 
There is no probability that he was the founder of the Nicolaitans. Rev. 2 : 
6, 15. 

Of the seven, only Stephen and Philip (ch. 8 : 5) are elsewhere mentioned 
in the New Testament. What the other four did is unknown. 

The office of deacon probably arose from this appointment ; the name does 
not, however, occur in the Acts. Compare Phil. 1 : 1 ; 1 Tim. 3 : 8, 12. 

The appointment of the Seven is followed by a great increase in the churdi. 
Ch. 6 : 7. That a great company of priests believed, indicates the progress of 
the gospel among the most intelligent and influential. 

^ 11: The Violent Apprehension of Stephen took place some time after 
his appointment as one of the Seven, when his zeal had aroused the opposition 
and hatred of the foreign Jews. Several months probably passed during the 
progress of the church and the culmination of the opposition, narrated in ch. 
6 : 8, 9. We may, therefore, place the apprehension near the close of a. d. 
34. See on ^ 10, first paragraph. 

According to some only one synagogue is named — that of the Libertines, 
or freedmen ; Jews, or the sons of Jews, wlio had been carried into Italy by 
Pompey, B. c. 63, reduced to slavery, and afterward set free. According to 
this view, these freedmen were from Cyrene, Alexandria, Cilicia, and Asia. 
This interpretation, however, is forced and unlikely. 

Others suppose two synagogues : one including the first three names ; the 
other the last two. This is possible. 

But the simplest and most natural interpretation is that which supposes 
five synagogues to be named. And this accords with the fact that there were 
many foreign synagogues in Jerusalem. According to the Talmud, there were 
480 synagogues in the city. And though this is very probably an exaggeration, 
the statement was doubtless made from the very large number there. 

Alexandrians, from Alexandria, Egypt, where there were about 100,000 Jews. 
Cyrenians, froiu Cyrene, in Libya, west of Egypt, where about a fourth of the 
population were Jews. Cilicia was the southeastern province of Asia Minor, 


the chief city of which was Tarsus, the birth-place of Paul. Ch. 22 : 3. Asia 
was another province of Asia Minor, with Ephesus as its capital. 

In the disputing with Stephen, we see the beginning of the Pharisaic perse- 
cution against Christianity. Hitherto the organized opposition had centred 
around Sadduceeism. Ch. 4: 1 ; 5 : 17. See on §§ 7 and 9. Even the most 
learned of the Pharisees, Gamaliel, had stood forth as an apologist of the early 
church. Many things had hitherto restrained Sadducee opposition, and con- 
firmed the leniency of the Pharisees — such as the report of the watch at the 
resurrection of Jesus (Matt. 28: 11-15), the descent and miraculous gifts of 
the Holy Spirit, the continued worship of the disciples in the temple, and 
their pious observance of the law, their popularity among the people, and the 
reverence with which the apostles and Christian leaders were regarded by the 

The discipleship had been becoming more distinct, and in their worship 
more separate from the people, Ch. 5: 13. And now Stephen, advancing in 
grace, power, and wisdom, pierced into the very heart of Judaism, and brought 
into clearer view the distinctive lines of the New Dispensation — the passing 
away of the former, and the increase and the glorious sway of the latter. 
Doubtless he taught that justification was not through the law, but through 
Christ ; and that true worship was as acceptable to God in one place as 
another. See ch. 7: 48-53. In unfolding these doctrines, he came into 
contact with Phariseeism ; and in pressing them upon the foreign Jews, among 
whom he specially labored, he met very probably with Saul of Tarsus, from 
the synagogue of Cilicia, who may have been one of those "who were not able 
to withstand the wisdom and the Spirit by which he spake." Ch. 6 : 9, 10. 
Such doctrines were odious to the Pharisees, misunderstood, misrepresented, 
and distorted by them. Ch. 6: 11-14. From this time, therefore, the Phari- 
sees were leaders in persecuting Christians. That the first Pharisaic opposi- 
tion should have originated in the foreign synagogues, may be explained by 
the fact that strong nationality had brought these Jews to Jerusalem, very 
naturally making many of them the strongest adherents to Judaism, and to 
the strictest sect, the Pharisees. Compare Phil. 3 : 5, 6. 

The effect of foreign birth and foreign influence may have been quite 
different upon Stephen, in weakening his hold upon Jewish ideas and cere- 
monial forms. Thus he may have been prepared, when enlightened by the 
Spirit, to see more clearly the superseding of the Old by the New Dispensa- 
tion. He was, indeed, a connecting link between Peter and Paul. 

1 12. Stephen's Defence, showed from the Old Testament history that 
the external condition and organization of Israel had undergone repeated 
changes, under Abraham, Joseph, Moses, and David ; that the tabernacle was 
temporary, and so also the temple was designed to be, and must of necessity 
be, from the very nature of God himself. He thus proves what he had 


taught regarding the law, the temple, and the customs which Moses had 
delivered. Ch. 6: 11, 13, 14. At the same time he showed the unfaithfulness 
of the Israelites in every age, and charges upon the Sanhedrim the spirit and 
the wickedness of their fathers. 

On the time of this Defence, see on ^ 11. On Sanhedrim, see on ^ 7. 

Stephen probably spoke in Greek. He was probably a Grecian Jew. (Ch. 
6:1. See on ^10.) His disputing with the foreign Jews, and the agreement 
of his quotations from the Old Testament with the Septuagint Version, 
favors this view. The prevalence of the Greek language in Palestine, and 
especially at Jerusalem, was so general that he could be easily understood 
by the Sanhedrim. 

The place of the trial and defence was the temple building (ch. 6 : 13, 14) ; 
doubtless in the ancient room of the Sanhedrim, the hall Gazith, or the 
"Stone Chamber," supposed to have been situated in the southeast corner of 
one of the courts of the temple building. 

Stephen has justly been styled the fore-runner of Paul. He seems to have 
attained to clearer views of the Gospel Dispensation than Peter and the other 
apostles (ch. 6: 8-15), which were afterward so fully developed by Paul in 
his preaching and his Epistles. Stephen, in his defence, resembled Paul : 
(1) By employing the historical method. Ch. 13: 16-41. (2) By his strong 
attachment to the true principles of the Mosaic economy. Ch. 7: 37-52; 
23: 1 ; 26: 22; 28: 17, 18, 23. (3) In verbal and logical coincidences. Thus 
Stephen says, "who received living oracles" (ver. 38); Paul (Rom. 3: 2), 
"they were entrusted with the oracles of God." Stephen again (ver. 51), 
"uncircumcised in heart"; Paul (Rom. 2: 29), "circumcision is that of the 
heart." Stephen speaks (ver. 52) of the "law as it was ordained by angels" ; 
Paul (Gal. 3: 19), "it was ordained through angels." Stephen, in the 
temple, says (ver. 48-50), " Howbeit the Most High dwelleth not in houses 
made with hands," etc.; Paul, on Mars' Hill (ch. 17: 24, 25), "God that made 
the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, 
dwelleth not in temples made with hands," etc. Once more, Stephen 
prayed (ver. 60), " Lord, lay not this sin to their charge " ; Paul (2 Tim. 
4: 16), "May it not be laid to their account." Compare also ver. 5-8 with 
Rom. 4: 10-19. 

Without doubt, Stephen made a deep impression on Paul's mind, both 
in his discussions with him (ch. 6: 8-10) and in his defence. Indeed, Paul's 
address at Pisidia (ch. 13: 16 ff) seems born of Stephen's speech before the 
Sanhedrim. Doubtless Paul was present at the latter (ver. 58), and very likely 
furnished Luke with the account of the defence and the attendant circumstances. 

There are several historical discrepancies which have been alleged against 
Stephen's speech. That they are only apparent, will appear on careful exam- 
ination. They will be noted in the order that they occur in the chapter. 


1. In ch. 7 : 2, Stephen speaks of the call of Abraham before he went to 
Haran, while it is affirmed that the first call of Abraham was in Haran. 
(Gen. 12: 1.) But the'latter passage does not deny a previous command, when 
Abram and his company went forth "from Ur of the Chaldeans, to go to 
the land of Canaan." (Gen. 11 : 31.) There is therefore no contradiction. 
Moreover, a previous call is alluded to, or at least implied, in Gen. 15:7; 
Neh. 9 : 7. 

2. In ver. 4, it is said that Abram went from Haran after his father was 
dead; but by a comparison of Gen. 11 : 26, 32; 12 : 4, it would seem that 
Abram went from Haran sixty years before his father's death. This diffi- 
culty may be solved by supposing that Abram was not the oldest son of 
Terah, his father; but the youngest, and named first in Gen. 11 : 26, because 
of his importance in Hebrew history. Such was the case with Noah's son, 
with Isaac, Jacob, and Judah. So Napoleon, on account of his eminence, might 
be named first on a list of the Bonapartes, though not the oldest. If also 
Sarah was the daughter of Haran, the same as Iscah (Gen. 11 : 29), according 
to a Jewish tradition, and therefore a niece to Abram, then the latter must 
have been much younger than Haran, for Sarah was ten years younger than 
Abram. (Gen. 17 : 17. Compare Gen. 20: 12.) Thus the birth of Abram 
might have been so far distant from that of his eldest brother, as would bring 
the death of his father before his seventy-fifth year. A less probable explana- 
tion is founded on a Jewish tradition: that Terah relapsed into idolatry 
during his abode at Haran, which the Talmudists call his spiritual death; 
after which Abram left him on that account. 

3. In ver. 14 the company of Jacob's emigration is said to have been 
seventy-five souls; but in Gen. 46 : 27, it is put at seventy. Stephen follows the 
Septuagint Version, which has " seventy-five souls," both in Gen. 46 : 27 and 
in Ex. 1 : 5. This has been explained by supposing that the Septuagint adds 
the sons of Ephraim and Manasseh from the genealogy in 1 Chron. 7 : 14-21. 
It should be noted that Stephen speaks of all the kindred of Jacob, whereas in 
Genesis the lineal descendants are enumerated. Thus Stephen may have 
included the wives who came down into Egypt. Now Joseph's wife was in 
Egypt; Judah's wife was dead (Gen. 38: 12), and probably Simeon's wife 
also ; for his youngest son was born of a Canaanitish woman. (Gen. 46 : 10.) 
Thus the nine wives added to the sixty-six descendants of Jacob, in Gen. 46 : 
26, make the number seventy-five. Stephen doubtless used the number 
commonly accepted among the Jews, and we may well suppose that it was 
adopted for good reasons, all of which may not be known to us. There is no 
proof that he was wrong ; for we are uncertain as to the data of his reckoning. 

4. In ver. 16, Stephen speaks of the burial of the twelve patriarchs at Shechem; 
but the Old Testament records the burial of Jacob at Machpelah (Gen. 
50: 1-14), and that Joseph's body was embalmed (Gen. 50: 24-26), and 


carried out of Egypt (Ex. 13 : 10), and buried at Shechem, (Josh. 24 : 32.) 
The other sons of Jacob died, and nothing is said of their burial. (Ex. 1 : 6.) 
Stephen's account may be regarded as supplementing the Old Testament 
history. The sons of Jacob may liave been buried at Machpelah, and they, 
and their father also, may afterward have been removed to Shechem. 
Joseph's body would very likely be retained in Egypt, since he was a ruler, 
and, in accordance with his direction, taken with the Israelites into Canaan. 
Josephus {Antiq. 2. 8. 2) says that the sons of Jacob were buried at Hebron 
(Machpelah). Kabinnical traditions declare that their bones were carried to 
Palestine. Jerome, who died at Bethlehem, a. d. 420, says that the tombs of 
the eleven patriarchs were to be seen at Shechem in his day. It is very 
probable that when Joseph was buried at Shechem, the bodies of Jacob and 
his sons were also interred there. The practice of embalming among the 
Egyptians rendered this possible. 

5. Again, in ver. 16, it is said that Abram bought the tomb of the sons of 
Hamor in Shechem; but in Gen. 23: 15, it is said that Abram bought the 
cave of Mackpelah at Hebron, of Ephron the Hittite. But we need not assume 
that these transactions were the same. Neither statement contradicts the 
other. Abram may have purchased a plot of ground when residing at 
Shechem (Gen. 12: 6), for the purpose of building the altar which he there 
erected. On this ground there may have been a tomb, or one may afterwards 
been made there. Many years later, when residing over fifty miles south of 
Shechem, at Hebron, upon the death of Sarah, he purchased the cave of 
Machpelah. But a more serious difficulty is found in Gen. 33 : 19, where it 
is said that Jacob bought the part of the field where he stretched his tent, 
from the sons of Hamor, father of Shechem, and there he erected an altar. 
So also Josh. 24 : 32. It however may be said, that possession of ancestral 
property at Shechem may have been the reason why Jacob journeyed thither 
and purchased additional ground. Indeed, some have supposed that Abram 
had bought land for his altar at Shechem (Gen. 12 : 6, 7), and Jacob recovered 
it by force (Gen. 48 : 22), and bought more. Afterward it became a burial 
ground. (Josh. 24 : 32.) In so brief a reference to events, it is not strange that 
there should be difficulty in understanding it. Stephen passes rapidly over 
things which were familiar to his hearers ; but to us who know but little of 
the events of which he speaks, they seem hard to explain. But the trouble 
is in our ignorance — not in the error of Stephen and of those who heard him, 
nor of Luke, who penned the account. 

Other explanations have been offered. Some suppose that an error had 
crept into some very early manuscript — that the name Abraham had been sub- 
stituted for Jacob. Others, that neither Abraham or Jacob was originally in 
the text, and that it read, " in the tomb that one bought," etc. ; and that some 
officious transcriber, thinking the verb wanted a nominative case, put in the 


name of Abraham. Or, taking the verb impersonally, it may be translated, 
"in the tomb that, like Abraham, one bought," etc. So Doddridge. 

6. In ver. 20, Moses is spoken of as " exceeditig fair" — literally, "fair unto 
God" — a Hebrew superlative, the strongest expression of beauty. But in Ex. 
2: 2, it is simply said, "he ivas a goodly child," or, "he was fair." It is sur- 
prising that so much stress has been laid upon this diflference of statement. 
The modesty of Moses (Num. 12: 3) prevented him from making anything 
more than a single allusion to his beauty when a child. Stephen refers to it, 
since it induced the parents to use unusual precautions for the preservation of 
the child. (Heb. 11:23.) Similar allusions to the extraordinary beauty of 
Moses are found in Josephus and Philo. 

7. In ver. 22, it is said that " Moses w^as instructed in all the wisdom of the 
Egyptians"; yet Ex. 4: 10, and elsewhere, is silent on this point. But as in 
the preceding case, the modesty of Moses would have prevented him from 
speaking of it. Besides, the five books he has left give the best evidence of his 
learning, and the mental discipline he had received from it. It certainly 
does not follow that he was not highly instructed because he made no mention 
of it. All Jewish tradition agrees with Stephen as to his learning. Moses 
does not deny it. As the son of Pharoah's daughter, he would have the 
oj^portunity of the best instruction that Egypt afforded. 

8 But again in ver. 22, Stephen describes Moses as "mighty in his words" 
whereas Moses says (Ex. 4 : 10) : " I am not eloquent, . . . but I am slow of 
speech, and of a slow tongue." But in these statements there is no contradic- 
tion. The passage in Exodus refers to fluency and readiness of speech ; that 
in the Acts to force and energy, as his speeches show. (See Deut., ch, 28-33.) 
In his modesty and his anxiety to be relieved of his commission from God, 
Moses doubtless overestimated his defects (Ex. 4 : 10). It may be added that 
Rashbam, an eminent Jewish commentator, explains this passage to mean, 
that Moses, during his long sojourn in Midian, had forgotten the Egyptian 
tongue, which Aaron, who had continuously resided there, was, of course, 
versed in. 

9. In ver. 23, 30, 36, three periods of forty years each, in the life of Moses, 
are mentioned, while only the last is specified in the Pentateuch. (Num. 14: 33; 
Deut. 2: 11; Josh. 5: 6.) This cannot be called a contradiction, but rather 
should be regarded as another instance where Stephen has added a more exact 
Scriptural statement. It is in harmony with Ex. 7 : 7, that Moses was eighty 
years old when he, with Aaron, first spake unto Pharaoh, and with Deut. 34: 
7, that Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died. According 
to the Talmud, Moses was forty years in the Egyptian court, forty years in 
Midian, and forty years in the desert with Israel. 

10. In ver. 32, it is said, that " Moses trembled and durst not behold"; but in 
Ex. 3 : 3, "And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight." 


The trouble here is in not reading what follows (Ex. 3:6): "Moses hid his 
face, for he was afraid to look upon God," which is identical with Stephen's 

11. In ver. 42, 43, Stephen supplements the Mosaic narrative by quoting the 
allusions in Amos to Israel's neglect of the true worshij) in the desert. But 
Stephen distinctly makes it supplementary and confirmatory of facts, by 
prefacing it with the words, "as it is written in the book of the prophets," ver. 
42. In regard to idolatries in the desert, see Ex. 32 : 4 ; Deut. 32 : 17 ; Lev. 
17: 7. In Amos 5: 27, the captivity is "beyond Damascus"; but Stephen 
(ver. 43) naturally substitutes the actual place of exile, " beyond Babylon." 
The remoter place (Babylon) was beyond the nearer. 

12. In ver. 53, Stephen speaks of the connection of angels in the giving of 
the law, which is not mentioned in Ex. 19 : 16, nor in the Hebrew Scriptures. 
The language of Stephen is, " as it was ordained by angels," or, " as the ordi- 
nance of angels," that is, communicated through them. This is another 
instance where Stephen, with other writers in the New Testament, adds to 
our knowledge of the Old. " The presence of angels at the giving of the law 
is not expressly stated in the Old Testament, but is alluded to in Gal. 3 : 19, 
and Heb. 2: 2. Philo and Josephus testify to the same tradition. The 
Seventy translate Deut. 33 : 2, in such a manner as to assert the same fact. It 
is implied, perhaps, in Ps. 68 : 18. The Jews regarded this angelic mediation 
as both ennobling tlie law, and as conferring special honor on themselves, to 
whom it was given. For a striking proof of this Jewish feeling, see Josephus. 
Antiq. 15 : 5, 3." — Hackett. 

^13. The death and burial of Stephen may very properly be put near the 
close of A. D. 34. 

The place of his martyrdom is unknown. It was outside the city, (ver. 58.) 
The stoning of Stephen was an illegal proceeding. There seems to have 
been no formal sentence, but a sudden outburst of a blind, tumultuous rage. 
The Komans had taken from the Sanhedrim the power to inflict capital pun- 
ishment, without the consent of the governor or his proxy. Hence, to Pilate 
they said, at the trial of Jesus, " It is not lawful for us to put any one to death." 
(John 18: 31.) Josephus speaks [Antiq. 22: 9. 1), of a like act as unlawful 
when Albinus was governor, A. d. 63. According to the Talmud, the Jews 
lost this power forty years before the destruction of the temple, probably in 
the last year of our Lord's life. How, then, was the stoning of Stephen, and 
the persecuting of the disciples unto death (ch. 22 : 4 ; 26 : 10), to be explained ? 
This is best answered by saying, that the Roman governor, being desirous of 
the favor of the Jews, connived at such irregularities, provided the Eoman 
interest suffered no detriment. The influence of tlie Jewish leaders on Pilate 
is seen in the trial of Jesus. (John 19 : 12-16.) During the last year or more 


of his procuratorship, he had reasons for wishing the favor of the Jews with 
the Emperor. During some of the troubles of those times, also, the Jews may 
have occasionally taken unusual liberties. 

Saul of Tarsus appears here in Scripture history for the first time (ver. 58 
ch. 8 : 1). He is called "a young man," in ch. 7 : 58, and to Philemon (9) he 
styles himself "the aged," or "the elder," from which data attempts have 
been made to estimate his age. Philo gives the limits of seven periods of 
human life : The child to 7 years ; the boy to 14 ; the youth to 21 ; the young 
man to 28 : the man to 49 ; the elder to 56 ; the old man above 56. So, also, 
Hippocrates. But Mark (5 : 39, 40, 42), calls the girl of twelve a child. And 
Varro says a man is young until forty-five, and aged at sixty. Dio Cassius 
calls Cgesar a young man when he was about forty. The "young man," 
Absalom, must have been over thirty when he was killed ; he has been esti- 
mated at thirty-four. (2 Sam. 13: 23, 38 ; 14 : 28 ; 15 : 7 ; 18 : 5, 29, 32.) If 
Paul was sixty when he wrote to Philemon, near the beginning of A. d. 63, 
then he was thirty -one at the stoning of Stephen. Chrysostom states that 
Paul was thirty-five at that time. Nothing more than probability can be 
thus attained. We can hardly suppose that the Sanhedrim would have 
entrusted him with so important a commission as that to Damascus, under 
the age of thirty, even though he says, "I advanced in the Jews' religion 
beyond many of my own age, among my countrymen." (Gal. 1 1^14). 

He was probably not a member of the Sanhedrim at this time, though pos- 
sibly made one soon after, both on account of eminent learning, and his great 
zeal against Christians. Some infer this from ch. 26: 10, "when they were 
put to death I gave my vote against them," taking the words literally. If so, 
then Saul, at that time, must have been married, and the father of children, 
which was a necessary qualification for a member of the Sanhedrim. Even 
this was possible; marriages were contracted early among the Jews. He 
must also have lost his wife and children not long after, and remained a 
widower (1 Cor. 7 : 7, 8). It may farther be objected that men of years were 
chosen to the Sanhedrim, and that Saul was not of the proper age. The 
words, also, "I gave my vote against them," may mean, I gave my consent, or 
approval. It cannot, therefore, be proved that he belonged to that famous 
court ; but he appears as the most active agent in carrying out the views and 
wishes of that body. (Ch. 8 : 4 ; 22 : 19, 20.) 

The definite note of time, on that day (ch. 8:1), shows that the persecution 
against the disciples began on the very day of Stephen's death. It must have 
continued some time (ch. 8 : 4), extending into the year A. d. 36. 

The scattering abroad of the disciples was first tliroughout Judea and 
Samaria. (Ch. 8: 1.) How this continued, is told us in ch. 11: 19. The 
apostles may have remained at Jerusalem (ch. 8: 1) by divine direction. 
Doubtless they were protected by God's special providence. That some 


besides the apostles remained, or soon after returned, is evident from eh. 9 : 
26. At this time, also, began the emancipation of the disciples from the 
temple worship, with which they had thus far been outwardly connected. 

PART n. 


1 14. With tlie death of Stephen and the persecution that immediately 
followed, began a new era in the original church — its first extension throughout 
Judea and Samaria. See ^ 13, last paragraph. As an eminent example, Luke 
selects that of Philip, one of the Seven (ch. 6 : 5), preaching the Gospel in 
Samaria. This must have occurred soon after the martyrdom. The rage of 
the Jews, specially the foreign ones, Avould naturally be directed, first of all, 
against the Seven, of whom Stephen had been so prominent a member. They 
would likely be among the first who would find it necessary to leave Jerusalem^ 
Very probably, also, the persecution was hottest against the foreign Jewish 
Christians. We may therefore place this work in Samaria early in the year 35- 

There has been much doubt as to what city is meant where Philip preached. 
According to many manuscripts, it may be " a city of Samaria " (ch. 8 : 5), 
which has led some to suppose it was Sychar, the ancient Shechem, about 33 
miles north of Jerusalem, where Jesus tarried two days, and preached with 
great effect. (John 4 : 5, 39-45.) But Westcott and Hort, and the revisers of 
the New Testament (1881), following the most ancient authorities, read "the 
city of Samaria," the royal capital of Israel for two hundred years, about 38 
miles north of Jerusalem, founded by Omri, b. c. 925. It was utterly destroyed 
B. c. 109, but restored and rebuilt under the name Sebaste, the Greek equiva- 
lent of Augusta, in honor of Augustus Csesar. Its old name, however, clung 
to it, and it is called both Sebaste and Samaria by Josephus. Antiq. 20 : 6. 1, 2. 

It was natural that some of the disciples, in leaving Jerusalem, the ancient 
capital of Judea, should go to the capital city of Samaria. The success of 
Jesus in his visit at Sychar, and his prediction (ch. 1 : 8) that his disciples 
should be witnesses of him in Samaria, would also lead them thither. Peter 
and John, who were sent by the apostles to assist Philip, continued for a time 
afterward. They "preached," or "were preaching to many villages of the 
Samaritans." Yer. 25. Doubtless, Sychar was visited, and many places on or 


near the route of their return to Jerusalem. The Samaritans and the work 
among them was intermediate between that among the Jews, and that among 
the Gentiles. Ch. 1 : 8. 

1 15. The Conversion of the Ethiopian Eunuch occurred soon after the 
incidents of the preceding section. Philip was evidently in Samaria when he 
received the command to go toward the south, unto the way that goetli down 
from Jerusalem unto Gaza. The latter was nearly sixty miles southwest of 
Jerusalem, and nearly a hundred from the city of Samaria. Philip probably 
fell in with the Eunuch on the second or third day of his journey. The 
Eunuch was a man of Ethiopia, probably a Gentile and a convert to Juda- 
ism. Like many devout Gentiles (ch. 10 : 1, 2), he had been to Jerusalem 
"for to worship" (ch. 8 : 27 ; John 12: 20), probably at one of the three 
great feasts. Having come several hundreds of miles from Ethiopia, which 
embraced Upper Egypt and corresponded to portions of modern Abyssinia and 
Nubia, he had probably attended the Feast of Pentecost, or perhaps the 
Feast of Tabernacles. The latter would have been somewhat late for making 
so long a journey in returning ; while the Passover would have been too early 
for such a journey in a bad season of the year for traveling. But if he 
attended Pentecost, he may not have returned immediately after the feast. 
His conversion may therefore be placed some time in the summer of a. d. 35. 

Candace was the hereditary title of the Queens of Ethiopia, who probably 
had their royal residence at Napata, in Upper Egypt, in about the same lati- 
tude as the modern Khartoom. 

The quotation in ch. 8 : 32, from Isa. 53: 7, 8, is from the Septuagint Version, 
which the Eunuch was doubtless reading, with a few unimportant verbal 

The words, "the same is desert" (ch. 8: 26), or a thinly inhabited region, 
are descriptive of a portion of the way between Jerusalem and Gaza, the 
southernmost of the five cities of the Philistines. ( Jud. 16 : 1-3.) They were 
either the words of the angel, or of Luke. The latter is to be preferred. 
Some think Luke refers to Gaza, which was destroyed about a. d. 65 ; but it 
can hardly be supposed that he wrote the Acts so late as thus to describe the 
desolation of that city. 

The " certain water " (ch. 8 : 36) can only be conjectured, since the way the 

Ennuch traveled is not certainly known. Eusebius and Jerome place it at 

Bethzur, near Hebron, about twenty miles south of Jerusalem. " The site 

has been identified, bearing still the ancient name. The water there at 

present issues from a perennial source, a part of which runs to waste in the 

neighboring fields, and a part is collected into a drinking trough on one side 

of the road, and into two small tanks on the other side." — Dr. Hackett. 

Dr. Eobinson (Bib. Ees. H., p. 515), thinks it was on the most southern road 



from Jerusalem, nearer Gaza, in the plain near Tell el Hasy. Dr. Thomson 
thinks it may have been the stream Murubbah, southwest of Latron, -which 
he says is "deep enough, even in June, to satisfy the utmost wishes of our 
Baptist friends." — Land and Book, Vol. II., p. 310. But the difliculties of 
identifying the place are increased by the many changes in the minor features 
of the country during eighteen centuries. 

The conversion of this son of Ham was a fulfillment of Isa. 56: 3-6; but 
whether it resulted in the introduction of the gospel into his country, we have 
no certain information. The conversion of the Abyssinians did not occur till 
the fourth century. Christianity may have been partially introduced before 
that time. — Neander, Planting and Training, Am. Ed., p. 64, note. 

The omission of ver. 37, in the Revised Version, is in accordance with the 
oldest and best manuscripts, in which it is not found. It is, however, quoted 
by Irenseus, Cyprian, Jerome, and Augustine. It is regarded by critics as an 
interpolation from some baptismal liturgy, or derived from the common 
Christian practice of the early church. "At the same time, let it be observed 
that even if the verse should be expunged, there would be nothing taken 
from the text that is not easily supplied from other places, and indeed im- 
plied in what immediately precedes and follows; not only in the act of 
baptism, but in the proposal of the Ennuch, as explained above, and really 
involving just such a profession of his faith in Jesus, as Philip, in the verse 
before us, more explicitly requires."— Dr. J. A. Alexander. 

§ 16. Paul's Conversion was the most important event in the history of 
the apostolic church since the miracle of Pentecost. Compare Appendix B. 

The date of this event is very uncertain. If Stephen was put to death near 
the close of A. d. 34 (see on ^ 10, 11, 13), then the autumn of A. d. 35 can 
very properly be assigned as the time of Paul's conversion. From six to nine 
months would be sufficiently long for the persecution at Jerusalem and its 
vicinity, and for maturing plans for carrying it into foreign cities. 

A comparison of Acts 9: 23-26; 2 Cor. 11: 32,33; Gal. 1: 18-20 (see 
Scripture arrangement of next section), is confirmatory of the above result. 
It appears from these passages that, three years after his conversion, Paul 
escaped from Damascus, when the governor under Aretas, the King of Arabia, 
guarded the city in order to take him^ and from thence he went up to Jerusa- 
lem. But as Damascus belonged to the Romans, it must have been wrested 
from them at this time, under very peculiar circumstances. Now there wtis 
a juncture of circumstances under which Aretas might have obtained posses- 
sion of the city. He had defeated an army of Herod Antipas, and the 
Emperor Tiberius had commanded Vitellius, the Governor of Syria, to get 
possession of him, dead or alive. But while Vitellius was preparing to exe- 
cute this order, news came that the emperor was dead, which occurred on 


March 16th, a. d. 37, and his military movements were suspended. Aretas 
might have taken advantage of this sudden respite, and got possession of 
the city. But we cannot suppose that it remained long in his hands ; and 
it is probable that as the affairs of Arabia were settled in the second year 
of Caligula, the successor of Tiberius (between March 16th, 38, and March 
IGth, 39), that Damascus was then restored to Roman Power. Making due 
allowance for the time occupied in the carrying of news and in adjusting 
matters, the possession of Damascus by Aretas would fall between the middle 
of A. D. 37 and the spring of A. d. 39. Even the first months of 39 should 
probably be excluded. If, therefore, we take the spring or the summer of 
A. D. 38 as the time of Paul's escape, and remember that according to Jewish 
reckoning the third year back would be counted as three years, we may fix 
upon the latter part of A. d. 35 as the date of Paul's conversion. 

Wieseler suggests that Caligula, whose policy was in many things opposite 
to that of his predecessor, assigned the city of Damascus as a free gift to 
Aretas. If so, the chronological calculation above might still hold true. But 
the suggestion of Wicseler is very improbable, and has very little in its 
favor. — See Smithes Bible Dictionary, Dr. Hackett's note. 

Damascus is probably the oldest city in the world. (Gen. 14 : 15 ; 15 : 2.) 
It was the capital of ancient Syria, and had so large a Jewish population, that 
Josephus relates that ten thousand of them were massacred there at one time, 
under Nero. It was about one hundred and forty-four miles northeast of 
Jerusalem, and would require, in those times, five or six days rapid traveling. 
The gospel had been carried there after the Day of Pentecost, or perhaps after 
the death of Stephen. 

The ecclesiastical authority of the high priest and the Sanhedrim was 
acknowledged by the synagogues in foreign countries, and was to some extent 
allowed by the Roman and other governments. 

Several routes of Paul on this expedition have been conjectured. He 
probably went by way of Bethel to Sychar (John 4: 5), and then either 
crossed the Jordan south of the Lake of Tiberias near Scythopolis, and 
thence to Gadara, and so to Damascus; or from Sychar he proceeded north- 
ward, crossing the Jordan a little above the Lake by Jacob's Bridge, and 
thence through the desert country on the east of Anti-Lebanon. 

The spot where the Lord appeared to Saul of Tarsus was near Damascus, 
doubtless in full view of the city, and the time at noon (ch. 9:3; 22: 6; 26: 
13). "When some eminence is gained, the vast horizon is seen stretching on 
all sides, like the ocean, without a boundary ; except where the steep sides of 
Lebanon interrupt it, as the promontories of a mountainous coast stretch out 
into a motionless sea. The fiery sun is over head, and that refreshing view is 
anxiously looked for — Damascus seen from afar, within the desert circum- 
ference, resting, like an island of Paradise, in the green enclosure of its 


beautiful gardens." — Conybeare and Howson, Vol. I., p. 86. A fit place, 
indeed, for one to be *^born out of due time." (1 Cor. 15 : 8.) Saul had prob- 
ably passed this point of view, and was nearing the city which contained the 
victims of his religious zeal. A local tradition points to a spot, not a half 
of a mile from the eastern gate of the town. It is in the midst of an unin- 
closed cemetery, and was evidently a portion of the ancient road, and is in 
full view of the city. There seems to be no reason why this might not be 
the true site. — Dr. H. C. Fish, Bihle Lands Illustrated, p. 598. 

Three accounts are given of Paul's Conversion — one by Luke and two by 
himself. (Ch. 9 : 22, and 26.) To these may be added references to this event 
in his Epistles. That by Luke is more historical. The two by Paul are in the 
form of addresses, and are of the nature of defences of belief and practice^ 
The incidents selected, abridged, or enlarged upon, were determined by the 
circumstances and the audiences at the time of speaking. His allusions in 
his Epistles are generally made to illustrate the wonderful grace of God, or in 
reference to his apostleship. All confirm each other, and contribute to the 
fullness of the narrative. 

In the three accounts are a few apparent discrepancies, which are not difficult 
to harmonize. 

1. In ch. 9: 7, it is said that the men with Paul "stood speechless"; but in 
ch. 26 : 14, Paul says, "when we were all fallen to the earth." The two, when' 
brought together, really explain each other. They at first were amazed, 
overpowered, fixed to the spot, immovable, and speechless. But in a moment, 
(and moments seem long and are well filled at such times), they fell to the 
earth, as Saul had done at the first under the greater revelation he heard and 
saw. The very words, "when we were," etc., give opportunity, if they do not 
imply just such an explanation as we have made. Bengel and some others 
suppose that they all fell to the earth first, but had risen before Saul, of their 
own accord. But I prefer the former explanation as the more natural, and in 
more exact accord with the language. On the word stood, Dr. Hackett says : 
" This verb often means to stand, not as opposed to other attitudes ; but to the 
fixed, stationary, as opposed to the idea of motion. (Comp. 8 : 38 ; Luke 5 : 2.") 

2. Again, in ch. 9: 7, the men are spoken of as "hearing the voice"; but in 
ch. 22: 9, it is said: "they heard not the voice of him that spake to me." 
This may be explained— yirsf, by supposing that the men heard the souiid 
of a voice; but did not discriminate the words, which were intended only for 
Saul, and were only heard by him. Thus, in ch. 26: 14, "I heard a voice 
saying unto me in the Hebrew language." But this may suggest a second and 
better solution, which is ably supported by Dr. Hackett. What Paul says in 
ch. 22: 9, may be translated: "But they understood not the voice of him 
that spake to me." The word hear has sometimes the meaning to understand, 
in English, Greek, and Hebrew. "We say that a person is not heard, or that 


we do not hear him, when, though we hear his voice, he speaks so low or 
indistinctly that we do not understand him." For examples of Greek and 
Hebrew usage, see 1 Cor. 14: 2; Mark 4 : 33; Gen. 42 : 23. Compare John 
6:60; Gal. 4 ; 20. The words added, who spake to me, confirm this view, by 
which, as Dr. Hackett says, "The writer shows that he had in mind the sense 
of voice, and not the mere sound." It should also be noted that the voice was 
not necessarily, nor probably, loud. We should rather conceive of it as 
tender and subdued, coming from a heart full of sympathy for his suffering 
followers, and of pity for the blinded Saul, who thought he was doing God's 
service. It was intended for him, and hence only distinctly heard and under- 
stood by him. 

3. In oh. 9: 15, 16, certain words are spoken to Ananias by the Lord con- 
cerning Saul; but in ch. 26: 15-18, nearly the same words are said to have 
been addressed by the Lord to Saul. But similar words, having the same 
essential meaning, may have been addressed to both. Under the circumstances 
it seems perfectly natural. Saul was divinely informed of his mission, and 
the hesitating Ananias needed the same information, for his encouragement 
to prompt action. But supposing it was Ananias, wlio thus by the divine com- 
mand first addressed these words to Saul, yet they were the words of the Lord 
to him through Ananias. Whatever one does through another, he does him- 
self. In Paul's compact and eloquent speech before Agrippa (ch. 26), it did 
not fall in with his plan to speak of Ananias. The historian, Luke, would 
be expected to mention him, and that, too, as a disciple; and Paul, in his 
address before the Jews (ch. 22 : 12), would have reason to speak of him as 
" a devout man according to the law, well reported of by all the Jews." 
This was strictly true. But he would have no reason, but the contrary, to 
speak of him as a Christian. So this additional fact he passes over in silence, 
though it is implied in what Ananias did and said. This is an illustration of 
Paul's wisdom. For another instance, see ch. 22 : 21 . 

In comparing the accounts of PauVs conversion with the allusions to himself in 
his Epistles, we see how they agree and confirm each other in his having seen the 
Lord. In 1 Cor. 9 : 1, he says : " Have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord ? " This 
was evidently not by vision, but by actual sight. And in 1 Cor. 15 : 8, he adds, 
" and last of all . . . he appeared to me also." In the light of tliese passages, 
the words in Acts 9 : 7, "And the men that journeyed with him stood speech- 
less, hearing the voice, but beholding no man," suggest, if they do not imply, 
that Saul then saw the Lord. That Jesus appeared to him then is also most 
certainly affirmed by Ananias. " The Lord, even Jesus, who appeared unto 
thee in the way," (ch. 9: 17), and, "to see the Righteous One, and to hear a 
voice from his mouth." — {Revision. Ch. 22: 14.) To the same eflfect are the 
words of Jesus to Saul (ch. 26 : 16) : " For I have appeared unto thee for this 
purpose." And also the fact that Barnabas declared unto the apostles, " how 


he had seen the Lord in the way." (Ch. 9 : 27.) Thus he became a witness oi 
Christ's resurrection. 

Some have thought it necessary to suppose that Paul saw Jesus during his 
public ministry. But this would have added nothing to his apostolic author- 
ity. It was not the earthly " Man of Sorrows," but the raised " Prince of 
Life " that Paul needed to see, in order to be a witness of our Lord's resurrec- 
tion, and his apostle. (Ch. 1 : 22.) 

The deeper view and the inner life is brought out in Gal. 1: 16 : "and called 
me through his grace, to reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him 
among the heathen." (Compare ch. 26 : 17 ; 1 Tim. 1 : 16.) 

His view of the wonderful grace of Christ in his conversion, and how, humanly 
speaking, it was possible, is brought to view in 1 Tim. 1 : 12-17. After speak- 
ing of himself as a blasphemer, he says : " I obtained mercy because I did it 
ignorantly in unbelief"; "for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me as chief 
might Jesus Christ show forth all his long suffering, for an ensample of them 
who should thereafter believe on him unto eternal life." — (Revision.) 

Tarsus was the most illustrious city of Cilicia, Asia Minor, on the Kiver 
Cydnus, about twelve miles from its mouth. It was made the capital of the 
Koman province of Cilicia by Pompey, b. c. 66. It was made a free city under 
Augustus. At the time of Paul's boyhood, it ranked with Athens and Alex- 
andria as one of the three centres of Greek thought and knowledge. The 
Stoics were especially prominent there. In the New Testament it is noted 
as the birthplace of Paul (Acts 9:11; 21 : 39 ; 22 : 3), who, according to an 
ancient tradition, was born there A. d. 2 — not an improbable date. At about 
the age of thirteen, when Jewish boys become "Children of the Law," he 
probably went up to Jerusalem, and for some years studied in the schools 
there, sitting at the feet of Gamaliel, enjoying his special instruction. (Acts 
22 : 1.) He must have returned to Tarsus at or before A. d. 26, as it does not 
appear that he was in Palestine during the public ministry of Jesus. There 
he learned and probably followed the occupation of tent-maker, a common 
employment of his native country. (Ch. 18: 3.) A little before the death of 
Stephen, he probably returned to Jerusalem, and made it his residence. 

§ 17. Paul's Stay at Damascus after his conversion, is spoken of, in ch. 
9. 19, as certain days, which in this case may have embraced a few weeks, or 
two or three months. After a time, he tells us in Gal. 1 : 17, that he went 
away into Arabia, which was not far to reach, and again returned unto Damas- 
cus. He needed retirement, meditation, and study. Perhaps part of his time 
was spent in the vicinity of Petra, amid the rocks of Edom, and from thence 
he may have gone into the great desert, as far as Mount Sinai. (Gal. 4 : 25.) 
Why this visit to Arabia is omitted in the Acts, has been often discussed. Luke 
could hardly been entirely ignorant of it. In his familiar intercourse with 


Paul, he must have heard him speak of it. The very notes of time, "certain 
days" and "many days" (ch, 9: 19, 23), indicate that he was aware of some 
interval which he, for certain reasons, passes over. The true reason, I think, 
is to be found in the fact that that sojourn in Arabia belonged to his private 
and inner life. He went there not to preach, but to study the Scriptures in 
their relation to Jesus of Nazareth, and for meditation and prayer. There 
was nothing in those years which came within the design of the Acts, or 
which the Holy Spirit intended especially for the instruction of the universal 
discipleship for all time. 

After his return to Damascus (Gal. 1 : 17), he remained sufficiently long to 
stir up the opposition of the Jews, who took counsel to kill him ; but he 
escaped by night through the wall in a basket. (Ch. 9 : 23-25; 22: 32, 33.) 

The time for these two brief preaching seasons at Damascus and his visit to 
Arabia, occupied about three years. " Then after three years," that is, from 
his conversion, " I came to Jerusalem." (Gal. 1 : 18.) This accords with the 
"many days" in ch. 9 : 23, which may well stand for two or three years. 
Indeed, the phrase is used for that very period in 1 Kings 2 : 38, 39 : " And 
Shimei dwelt at Jerusalem many days ; and it came to pass, at the end of three 
years, that two of the servants of Shimei ran away." In the Jewish mode of 
reckoning, portions of three successive years would be counted as three years. 

The Jewish civil year began about the first of October. If, then, Paul was 
converted a little later, and adjusting the Jewish and the Roman year, we have 
Paul's conversion in the latter part of A. d. 35, and his first visit to Jerusalem 
before October, a. d. 38 — a period of about two years and a half, and suffi- 
ciently long for all the events that occurred within that time. 

This would give his residence in Arabia at from one to two years, his first 
preaching at Damascus a few weeks ; and his second, about five or six months. 
(Compare on | 16, first three paragraphs.) 

That Paul's First Visit at Jerusalem was brief, is to be inferred from ch. 
9 : 26-30 ; 22 : 17-20. The exact length, fifteen days, is told us by Paul him- 
self. (Gal. 1 : 18.) This visit and other visits are simply referred to by the 
words "at Jerusalem," in ch. 26: 20, and what follows: "and throughout all 
the country of Judea, and also to the Gentiles, that they should repent," etc., 
is a bird's-eye view of subsequent labors. He continued " unknown by face 
unto the churches of Judea " (Gal. 1 : 22), perhaps during the " fourteen 
years" mentioned in Gal, 2:1. 

The departure of Paul from Jerusalem was, according to ch. 9 : 29, 30, to 
escape from the Jews who thought to kill him ; but, according to ch. 22 : 
17-20, in obedience to a divine command, given in a trance while praying in 
the temple. Both were true reasons, and consistent with each other, combin- 
ing a divine and human side. The two give a more complete solution of his 
brief visit and hasty departure. 


The Withdrawal of Paul to Tarsus is merely mentioned in this portion 
of the Acts (9 : 30) ; but his residence in Syria and Cilicia, and his preaching 
the faith of Christ, is told by himself in Gal. 1 : 21-23. For about four years 
he was at Tarsus, and in the other cities and villages of Cilicia, laboring, 
until Barnabas sought him out, and brought him to Antioch. (Ch. 11: 25.) 
That he planted churches here, partly Jewish and partly Gentile, during this 
period, is to be inferred: (1) That his first missionary journey did not include 
Cilicia (ch. 13 : 4 ; 14 : 26) ; (2) that there were churches in Cilicia before the 
Apostolic Convention at Jerusalem (ch. 15 : 23, 24) ; and (3) that on his second 
missionary journey, he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the 
churches (ch. 15 : 41). It thus appears that there were churches founded in 
Cilicia, of which we have no record ; and the most reasonable explanation is, 
that they were gathered there by Paul during this period of his life. 

It may also be noted that they were the Grecian Jews (ver. 29) who opposed 
Paul, of whom he himself was one, and the same class that opposed Stephen. 
(Ch. 6:1. See on n 10, 11.) 

According to Acts 9 : 30, the brethren brought Saul doivn from Cesarea and 
sent him forth to Tarsus ; but, in Gal. 1 : 21, he himself says : " I came unto the 
regions of Syria and Cilicia." Both agree in the objective point of his 
journey. Tarsus, the capital of Cilicia. The rest is best explained by sup- 
})Osing that he went through Syria to Cilicia. The brethren accompanied him 
as far as Cesarea, about sixty miles northwest of Jerusalem. From this point he 
probably took ship and landed at Seleucia, in Syria, about twelve miles west of 
Antioch, of which it served as its sea-port. And thence he passed northward 
through Syria, and westward into Cilicia to Tarsus. Some have supposed 
that Cesarea Philippi is meant, and that the brethren accompanied Paul some 
distance on his way toward that city. In that case, the name of that less 
important city would have been in full. Without any epithet, the more cele- 
brated one is meant. 

^18. The Peace and Prosperity of the Church (ch. 9: 31) followed 
the persecution and dispersion of the disciples. That persecution ceased, so 
far as foreign cities were concerned, to which Saul was commissioned, at his 
conversion. But it must have continued in Judea, for Saul was not the only 
persecutor. (Ch. 6:9; 9 : 29.) The report of his conversion must have been 
somewhat vague, and, doubtless, was prejudicial against him. The blind rage 
of persecution was probably increased for a time by the news of one, proving, 
as they would regard it, treacherous to their cause. We may suppose that it 
had subsided before Paul's first visit to Jerusalem, A. d. 38 ; and that, with 
the new impetus given it for a few days by his presence, it very generally 
subsided with his departure. (Ch. 9 : 28-30.) 

Some have assigned the attempt of Caligula to profane the temple at Jeru- 


salem (a. d. 39, 40), as a reason of the persecvtion ceasing. (Joseph. Antiq., 
18: 8, 2.) But this is unnecessary. The persecution had spent its force. 
Doubtless the attempt of Caligula afterward helped to divert the minds of the 
Jews from the growing Christian communities throughout Palestine, and thus 
contributed to their peace and prosperity, which continued uninterrupted till 
the martyrdom of James, A. d. 44. (Ch. 12 : 2.) It is most natural to conclude 
from the narrative, that Peter's Visit to Lydda and Joppa occurred after 
the departure of Saul for Tarsus. Churches had been planted by the disciples, 
who were scattered abroad in Judea, Galilee, and Samaria (ch. 9 : 31) ; per- 
secution had subsided, and peace and prosperity were enjoyed. 

Very probably Peter, soon after Saul left, began his visitation to the 
brethren and churches throughout all the country (ver 32). If he visited 
Galilee and Samaria, as well as Judea (ver. 31), it must have occupied, at 
least, the remainder of the year A. d. 38. A very probable date for his visit 
at Lydda and Joppa would be the winter of A. d. 38, 39. 

We may conceive of the work of the Lord extending through several 
weeks. " And all that dwelt at Lydda and in Sharon saw him " (that is, 
vEneas, whom Peter had healed), " and they turned to the Lord." 

The time of Peter's residence at Joppa is described as " many days" (9 : 43) ; 
the same words as used to specify the three years between Saul's conversion 
and his leaving Damascus for Jerusalem. (Ch. 9: 23. See on | 17, third para- 
graph.) Peter found the people prepared for the Lord, and a large field of 
usefulness. Perhaps he remained here till after the troublous times connected 
with the last two years of Caligula's reign, who was murdered at Eome, Jan. 
24th, A. D. 41. 





§ 19. It would seem that Corxelius Sent for Peter some time between 
A. D. 38 and 41, It was during the "many days" of Peter's residence at 
Joppa (ch. 9: 43). It is natural to suppose that it was not long after the 
Lord's command to Paul, " Depart : for I will send thee forth far hence unto 
the Gentiles" (ch. 22: 21), and his going to Tarsus, (ch. 9: 30). Peter 
appears to have been the first to preach and gather converts from among the 
Gentiles (ch. 11: 15-18; 15: 7), and we may suppose that Paul began to 
gather Gentile converts about the same time. We need not, however, con- 



elude that the conversion of Cornelius occurred before Paul's first visit to 
Jerusalem, and the command quoted above. Even at his conversion, his 
future mission to the Gentiles was made known to him (Acts 9 : 15 ; 26 : 17) ; 
but he began his work among the Jews (ch. 9 : 22), and even thought himself 
fitted by experience and former associations to work successfully at Jerusalem 
(ch. 9 : 28 ; 22 : 18-20). The fact that he received his commission from the 
Lord, and that he was taught the gospel, not by Peter nor by any other man, 
but through " revelation of Jesus Christ " (Gal. 1 : 1, 12, 16), leads to the 
same conclusion, that he received these revelations before Peter's commission 
to visit Cornelius. Doubtless, when he first went to Tarsus he labored among 
the Jews and proselytes, as at Damascus and Jerusalem, awaiting divine 
direction. It is not probable that he saw as clearly how he must work among 
Gentiles as he did later. Those, who, some time after this, spake to the 
Greeks at Antioch (ch. 11 : 20), seem to have been guided and blessed by the 
Spirit. And so we may believe that Paul enjoyed a like guidance when 
laboring at Tarsus, and in the cities and towns of Cilicia. In view of such 
considerations, the year A. d. 39 may be adopted as the date of the conversion 
of Cornelius, in accordance with the chronology adopted in preceding sections. 

Cornelius was the name of a large Koman clan, embracing several noble and 
distinguished families. He appears to have been one of those Gentiles (ch. 
10: 2) who were yearning for something better than idolatry afforded, and 
were turning toward Jehovah, as revealed in the Old Testament. That he was 
not regarded as a proselyte, is evident from the whole narrative. (See 10: 28, 
34 ; 11 : 1.) Perhaps in later times, he would have been ranged with what 
were styled Proselytes of the Gate. He was of that class of persons from 
whom most of the first Gentile converts were derived. His conversion, under 
Peter, prepared the Jerusalem Church for co-operating through Barnabas with 
the Gentile work at Antioch (ch. 11 : 22), and for approving the ministry of 
Paul among the Gentiles. 

For convenience of comparison, Luke's account of the appearance of the angel 
to Cornelius, and Cornelius' oivn account are placed side by side. So also 
Luke's account of Peter's vision, and Petefs own account. The variations are 
unimportant, yet they may prove valuable as illustrations of the manner in 
which the same events in Scripture are narrated with unessential differences 
in mere expression or minute details. 

Cornelius vision (ch. 10: 3-8, 30-33). Luke speaks of "the ninth hour"; 
Cornelius, of " the ninth hour of prayer." Luke says " an angel of God "; 
Cornelius, "a man in bright apparel." Luke uses the plural, "prayers"; 
Cornelius the singular, " thy prayer." By the former, prayers and alms are 
united with a single verb ; by the latter, the two are separated, each having 
its distinct verb. In the one, they had " gone up for a memorial before God"; 
in the other, they " are had in remembrance in the sight of God." Cornelius 


also omits the effect of the angel's appearance upon liim, and his question to 
the angel (ver. 4.) Other sliglit differences may be noted by careful 

2. Peter's vision (ch. 10: 9-19; 11: 4-12). Luke gives the exact time and 
place, and Peter's hunger, which Peter omits. Luke says simply that the 
vessel was " let down by four corners upon the earth " ; Peter says, " it came 
even unto me," And he adds, " upon the which when I had fastened mine 
eyes, I considered," which is not found in Luke's account. Again Peter 
says, "for nothing common or unclean hath ever entered into my mouth." 
But Luke has the simple, " I have never eaten anything," etc. So also the 
one has " received up " ; the other, " were drawn up." In these two accounts, 
we see the characteristics of the historian on the one hand, and the specific 
and more expressive forms of the personal narration, on the other. Both 
are put in by the historian with the feeling of conscious accuracy. The 
form in the eleventh chapter is modified by the fact that it was Peter's 
defence, adapted to his Jewish audience. The distance from Joppa to 
Cesarea was about thirty miles. The journey thither was northward along 
the sea-coast, through the plain of Sharon. 

^ 20. On Peter's Journey to Cesarea, and tlie vision of Cornelius, see 
on preceding section. 

By comparing ch. 10: 24, with 11: 12, Ave learn that Peter was accompanied 
by six brethren. 

Comparing ch. 10: 28, with 11: 3, we find the chief ground of complaint 
against Peter by the believing Jews at Jerusalem was, " Thou didst eat with 
them." Peter and his company enjoyed the hospitality of Cornelius, immedi- 
ately upon his arrival. The Jews did not consider all intercouse with Gentiles 
unlawful; but eating with them (Gal. 2: 12), entering their houses, as Peter 
did, enjoying their hospitality, and recognizing their equality. (Compare 
"Joseph us Against Apion," 2. 29.) 

Four days had elapsed (10: 30) since the angel appeared to Cornelius, count- 
ing that the first day. (See ch. 10: 3, 9, 23, 24.) Peter's arrival at Cesarea 
may have been a little after the sixth hour. (Compare ch. 10: 9.) Having 
enjoyed the hospitality of Cornelius, he proceeds to address him and his com- 
pany, when, from the language of Cornelius, it would seem to be about the 
ninth hour. " Four days ago until this hour, I was keeping the ninth hour of 
prayer." (See ch. 10 : 3.) 

What Peter says (1 Pet. 1: 17), "And if ye call on the Father, who 
without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work," was learned 
at this time (ch. 10: 34) : "Of a truth, I perceive that God is no respecter of 
persons," etc. Yet it was no new truth (Deut. 10: 17), but now seen in a 
clearer and broader lisrht 


The Keceiving of BelievinCt Gentiles (the uncircumcised) into the 
Church became now, for tlie first time, an authoritative and accomplished 
fact. The way and manner of their becoming Christians were contrary to the 
opinions and expectations of Peter and the apostles, and of believers gener- 
ally. (Ch. 10: 28, 47; 11 : 1, 2.) Probably Paul himself had not yet such clear, 
broad views. The Jews, however, expected the universality of the Messiah's 
reign. Christians, too, expected the conversion of the Gentiles. It had been 
foretold by the prophets. (Mic. 4: 1, 2, etc.) The gospel was to be preached 
to every creature. (Matt. 28: 19.) The promise was also "to all that are afar 
off." (Ch. 2: 39.) But thus far the apostles had expected to reach the Gentile 
world, to a certain extent, through Jewish rites. They expected them to be 
circumcised, and incorporated into external Israel. (Ch. 11: 3; 15: 1.) They 
would work through Judaism upon the heathen world. Doubtless, the visit 
of Paul at Jerusalem (ch. 9: 26-30), and his vision there (ch. 22: 17-21), had 
enlarged and emphasized his own views regarding the Gentile work, which 
he received from the Lord at his conversion (ch. 26: 17, 18) ; and at the same 
time had prepared Peter for the vision at Joppa, and thus in a measure for 
his work at Cesarea. Whatever-doubts Paul may have had, whatever scruples 
Peter and others might have entertained, God now had made it plain that 
the Gentiles were to receive the gospel as Gentiles. 

An incidental harmony may be discovered between ch. 8: 40 and 10: 37. In 
the former, we learn that Philip " preached the gospel to all the cities, till he 
came to Cesarea"; in the latter, Peter says to Cornelius and company, "that 
saying ye yourselves know, which was published throughout all Judea, begin- 
ning from Galilee," etc. Philip, by his preaching, had made the history and 
doctrine of Christ and his resurrection well known at Cesarea. (See last 
paragraph, § 13.) 

I 21. How soon after his visit to Cornelius Peter was called upon to 
Defend Himself at Jerusalem, is not told us. Without doubt Peter 
acceded to the request of Cornelius and his company (ch. 10 : 48), and 
remained several days at Cesarea, instructing them in things pertaining to 
the Kingdom of God. The report that the Gentiles had received the word of 
God, reached Jerusalem before Peter went up thither. The importance of 
the transaction, the great change it involved in the mode of evangelizing the 
world, the commotion it produced at Jerusalem and elsewhere, and the desire 
to put it in its true light and explain his conduct, may have hastened his 
return. It is natural, therefore, to suppose that he soon went to Jerusalem, 
at least for a short time, perhaps directly from Cesarea, though more 
probably from Joppa. But his work at Joppa, and throughout that whole 
region, did not necessarily cease at the conversion of Cornelius. (See on 
§ 18, last pai'agraph.) 


On Peter^s vision (ch. 11 : 4-12) see on | 19. Regarding his visit to Corne- 
lius (ver. 12-14), his preaching and its results (ver. 15-17), and the receiving 
of the uncircumcised into the church, see on ^ 20. 

^ 22. Tlie introduction and progress of the Gospel at Antioch forms a 
new and important event, preparatory to its general extension among both 
Jews and Gentiles. First of all, those who were driven from Jerusalem by 
the persecution about Stephen, preached the gospel to Jews only so far as 
Phenicia, Cyprus, and Antioch. (Ch. 11 : 19.) This work extended over several 
years, from the death of Stephen to about the time of the conversion of 
Cornelius. But with the latter event began a new era. The Lord, who 
directed Peter and Cornelius, doubtless guided certain brethren from Cyprus 
and Cyrene to preach to the Greeks, or Gentiles, at Antioch, resulting in 
the conversion of great numbers. (Ch. 11 : 20, 21.) Since Peter was the first 
to preach the gospel to the Gentiles (ch. 15 : 7), we must regard this work 
among the Gentiles at Antioch somewhat later, though not long after. 
A. D. 40 is a suitable date. 

Instead of Greeks, that is, Gentiles, some would read in the original text 
Grecians, that is, Grecian Jews, ;is in ch. 6 : 1. But the former is sustained 
by respectable manuscript authority, and is demanded by internal evidence. 
To have preached the gospel to the Grecian Jews, would not in any degree have 
been a novel or remarkable event. So Tischendorf, Meyer, and the majority 
of critics. "Internal reasons decide unconditionally in favor of the Greeks, 
for this reading alone constitutes an antithesis to the Jews of ver. 19." — Lanye 
Com. Acts, critical note. "It would have been nothing to have preached, 
at this time, to the Greek-speaking Jews. (See e. ^. 2: 9; 9 : 29.) . . . No 
other view accounts for Luke's discrimination as to the sphere of the two 
classes of preachers." — Dr. Hackett. 

The work had probably gone on for a considerable time, when Barnabas was 
sent from Jerusalem to look after the movement. (Ch. 11 : 22.) The year 
A. D. 40 was probably nearly gone, if indeed 41 had not already begun. 

Aware of Paul's call to the Gentile work, Barnabas went to Tarsus to seek 
him and bring him to Antioch. For about four years Paul had been laboring 
in Cilicia, and gathering churches. (See on ^ 17, paragraph on The Withdrawal 
of Paul to Tarsus.) His work among Gentiles very probably began about the 
time of the conversion of Cornelius, and was not dependent on hearing of 
the work of Peter at Cesarea ; for he had received his commission from the 
Lord. (Ch. 22 : 21.) 

The connection of the two, Paid and, Barnabas, in the Gentile work, and 
their intimate acquaintance which seems to have been of long standing (ch. 
9 : 27), is of great interest. It has been thought that Barnabas, the Levite 
of Cvprus, was most likelv sent to school at Tarsus, and that the two were 


together in early life. " When the two names are first brought together in 
the history of the Apostolic Church, there are, it is obvious, signs not to be 
mistaken, of early and intimate friendship. When all other members of the 
Church at Jerusalem shrunk in fear from the converted jDersecutor, .... 
it was Barnabas Avho took hira and brought him to the apostles, and declared 
unto them, how he had seen the Lord in the way (ch. 9 : 27), as though able, 
from personal knowledge, to guarantee the sincerity of a nature which he 
knew to be incapable of baseness. When the work of Barnabas in the Gentile 
Church at Antioch overtasked his strength, and he needed further help, it 
was not to the apostles and elders at Jerusalem that he turned for help ; but 
he departed to Tarsus for to seek Saul. (Ch. 11 : 25.) Together they went up, 
after some months of joint labor, to carry the bounty of the 'Christians' of 
Antioch to the suffering disciples at Jerusalem ; and together they returned. 
(Acts 11: 30; 12: 25.) When the voices of the prophets at Antioch were 
heard, giving as by special inspiration, the self-same oracle, 'Separate me 
Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them' (ch. 13: 2), 
we may well believe they recognized the claims of long-standing friendship 
as one, at least, of the elements of fitness in the association of the two 
names."— (Dr. E. H. Plumptre, The Heathen World and St. Paul, pp. 23, 24.) 

The last mention of Paul at Tarsus in the New Testament, is when Barnabas 
went thither to seek him (ch. 11 : 25). If he ever visited again the city of 
his birth, it must have been when he went through Syria and Cilicia, con- 
firming the churches (ch. 15: 41); or, again, when he, returning by land 
from Antioch to Ephesus, " went through the country of Galatia and Phrygia 
in order, stablishing all the disciples" (ch. 18: 23). His route would then 
have naturally led him through the province of Cilicia. 

The time of Paul's going with Barnabas to Antioch was probably A. d. 42 ; 
for in A. D. 44, they were sent to Jerusalem to bring relief to their suffering 
brethren. (See below.) But previous to this they labored a "whole year " at 
Antioch (ch. 11 : 26), after which (a. d. 43) propliets came from Jerusalem, 
and foretold the great famine which came to pass in the days of Claudius, who 
began his reign in January, 41, and died A. D. 54. 

The phrase " over all the earth," might be used by a Jewish writer for the 
Jewish world. Greek and Koman writers used it to denote the Greek and 
the Koman world. It is not necessary to suppose that Agabus uttered this 
prediction before Claudius began to reign. Its practical bearing had reference 
to the Church at Antioch, and especially to the brethren in Judea. We need 
only to regard the prophecy as preceding the Judean famine, without regard 
to any local dearth felt in Italy about A. d. 42. 

Different parts of the empire sufiered successively from great famine during 
this period. Josephus mentions one {Antiq. 20. 2. 5 ; 5. 2), which was local, 
but very severe, in Judea, in the fourth year of Claudius, A. d. 44, probably the 


one referred to by Luke. The whole reign of Claudius, indeed, was marked 
by local dearths, now in one country, and now in another. 

The name Christian was first applied to the followers of Jesus during the 
year of missionary labor by Paul and Barnabas at Antioch (ch. 11 : 26). It 
only occurs in two other passages of the New Testament (ch. 26 : 28 ; 1 Pet. 
4 : 16). It could not, therefore, have been given by themselves. Jews would 
not have applied a name derived from that of the Messiah. It probably 
originated with the heathen population of Antioch, or perhaps with the 
Koman inhabitants of the city — since the name is essentially Latin in its form — 
who wished a distinctive appellation. It was adopted as their fitting designa- 
tion (compare James 2:7); and was afterwards gloried in by Christians them- 
selves. The words of Peter (1 Pet. 4: 16) are here worthy of comparison: 
" If any man suflfer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed ; but let him glorify 
God in this name." Before this date they were called " brethren " (ch. 1 : 15), 
"believers" (5: 14), "disciples" (6: 1), "the saints" (9: 32), perhaps "Naz- 
arenes" (24: 5), and "the way" (9: 2). 

From this time Antioch occupied an important position as the head-quarters 
of Gentile, as Jerusalem did of Jewish, Christianity, and became the great 
centre of missionary operations throughout the heathen world. It was situated 
on the river Orontes, about fifteen miles from its mouth, and about 300 miles 
from Jerusalem, the capital of the Roman province of Syria, and the residence 
of the Proconsul of the province. It was one of the largest cities of the 
world. It was illustrious for men of great learning and high culture ; and the 
poet Archias owed his birth and education to this city. It had a mixed pop- 
ulation — the Greeks embracing the more wealthy ; the Latins, the officials, 
civil and military ; the Syrians, the working classes and slaves ; and the Jews, 
in great numbers, who resided in a separate quarter under their own governor. 
Nicolas, the proselyte, one of the Seven (Acts 6 : 5), was from that city, and may 
have been one of the disciples who came early to Antioch preaching the 

Agobus (ch. 11 : 28) is mentioned here, and later at Cesarea (ch. 21 ; 10 : 
11). Farther than this we know nothing of him. 

The second visit of Paul, after his conversion, to Jerusalem, when he and 
Barnabas brought relief to the suffering Christians there (ch. 11 : 30), occurred 
about the time of the events related in the following chapter (ch. 12 : 1, 25). 
This was A. d. 44. (See on ^ 24.) 

^ 23. The account of the Death of James, and the Deliverance of 
Peter, is closely connected with the mission of Paul and Barnabas to the 
brethren in Judea related in the preceding chapter, by the words, "Now 
about that time" (12 : 1), that is, of their official visit, just referred to. They 
may have arrived at Jerusalem a little before, or a little after. The latter is 


favored by ch. 12 : 25. For a time they may have been deterred from coming 
to Jerusalem by the persecution. Some suppose that they were there at the 
killing of James, and even at the meeting for prayer mentioned in ch. 12 : 12, 
and that to them we owe the full account given in the Acts. But this suppo- 
sition is unnecessary. The events here related were doubtless on the lipi of 
many. And Mark (ch. 12: 42, 25) doubtless often repeated them, and could 
have made Barnabas, Paul, and Luke familiar with them. (Col. 4 : 10, 14.) 
Mark also was most intimate Avith Peter (ch. 12 : 12 ; 1 Pet. 5 : 13). 

The death of James was a little before, and the imprisonment of Peter just 
on the eve of the Passover, which preceded the death of Herod, A. d. 44. The 
Passover fell this year on April 1st. 

This Herod was Herod Agrippa, son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and the 
grandson of Herod the Great. He was born about b. c. 10, and was educated 
at Rome. He received from Caligula, soon after the latter became emperor 
(a. d. 37), the tetrarchy of Philip and the tetrarchy of Lysanias, with the 
title of king. Soon after, when Herod Antipas was banished by Caligula to 
Gaul, he received Galilee and Perea. And in A. d. 41, when Claudius 
became emperor, Samaria and Judea were added by the latter to his dominion ; 
so that, like his grandfather, he ruled over all Palestine. 

Paley calls attention to "the accuracy" of Luke in styling Herod the 
king. (Ch. 12: 1, 20.) There was no person for over thirty years, before or 
ever afterward, exercising the government at Jerusalem, or in Judea, to 
whom this title could be applied, except during the last three years of Herod's 
life. And the events of this chapter relate to the last year of his life. Judea 
was not in the kingdom of Agrippa Second. (Ch. 25: 13.) 

The renewal of persecution, after several years of comparative rest, may be 
explained from the character of Herod. He was unprincipled, and licentious, 
and adopted many heathen customs ; but at the same time courted the Jews 
by professing to be zealous for the law, and was very popular among them. 
He also resided usually at Jerusalem, after Judea had been added to his 
dominion. Thus he had the opportunity and the motive " to afflict certain of 
the church." (Ch. 12: 1. See ver. 3.) 

The time of Peter's deliverance from prison has been discussed by chronolo- 
gists. AVieseler thinks it took place in the last watch of the night, not long 
before the break of day. If earlier, then his escape Avould have been discov- 
ered, when the soldiers, to whom Peter was bound, were changed at the end 
of the watch. The objection to this is that it would allow too little time 
for the visit to the house of Mary, and for the departure from the city. 
Walch supposes (and is favored by Dr. Hackett), that the two soldiers to 
whom Peter was bound were not included in the sixteen (ch. 12: 4), since their 
office would not require them to remain awake, and consequently to be 
changed during the night like the others. (See Hackett, on ver. 10.) This 


seems to agree the best with the circumstances related in the narrative. If 
this was so, then his deliverance may have been effected before or after 
midnight without danger of discovery before morning. (Ver. 18.) 

This seems to have ended the continued residence of Peter at Jerusalem. 
"He departed and went to another place " (ver. 17), that is, to some place 
of safety. We find him again at Jerusalem, a few years after this (ch. 
15 : 7), but apparently as a delegate at the Council which was convened there. 
Like the other apostles, he seems to have passed his life in missionary work 
in different places. There is no sufficient evidence that Peter visited Kome 
at this time. The tradition that he arrived at Kome a little before the 
outbreak of Nero's persecution, where he soon died as a martyr, is perhaps 
the most probable one. 

^ 24. The Death of King Agrippa, is one of the events, recorded in the 
Acts, the time of which can be fixed very accurately. It settles also the date 
of the martyrdom of James, the brother of John, the imprisonment and 
the release of Peter, and the return of Paul to Antioch from his second 
visit to Jerusalem. According to Josephus {Antiq., 19. 5. 1), Herod Agrippa 
received of Claudius, on his accession (January, A. d. 41), the addition of 
Judea and Samaria to his kingdom ; and at the time of his death he had 
completed three years after this increase of power. {Antiq., 19. 8. "2.) This 
brings us to January, A. d. 44. The Passover, mentioned in ch. 12: 4, must 
have been of the last named year, which took place after Herod had reigned 
three whole years. After the Passover, he wentdoAvn to Cesarea (ch. 12: 19), 
where he tarried for a time, was smitten of God, and died. The following 
is from the account given by Josephus : 

"Now, when Agrippa had reigned three years, he came to the city of 
Cesarea; .... and there he exhibited shows in honor of Cesar, upon being 
informed that there was a certain festival celebrated to make vows for his 
safety. At which festival a great multitude were gotten together of the 
principal persons, and such as were of dignity, through his province. On 
the second day of the shows, he put on a garment made wholly of silver, 
and of a contexture truly wonderful, and came into the theatre early in the 
morning ; at which time, the silver of his garment being illumined by the 
first reflection of the sun's rays upon it, shone out after a surprising man- 
ner, and was so resplendent as to spread a horror over those who looked 
intently upon him ; and presently his flatterers cried out, one from one place 
and another from another (though not for his good), that * he was a god ' ; and 
they added, * Be thou merciful to us ; for although we have hitherto rever- 
enced thee only as a man, yet we shall henceforth own thee as a superior to 
mortal nature.' Upon this the king did neither rebuke them, nor reject their 

impious flatterv. But as he presentlv afterward looked up, he saw an owl 



sitting on a certain rope over his head, and immediately understood that this 
bird was the messenger of ill tidings, as it had once been the messenger of 
good tidings to him ; and he fell into the deepest sorrow. A severe pain also 

arose in his bowels, and began in a most violent manner And when 

he had been quite worn out by the pain .... for five days, he departed this 
life, being in the fifty -fourth year of his age." 

Various conjectures have been made as to what festival Josephus here 
refers. Some suppose it was in honor of the emperor's safe return from 
Britain. Others think it was in honor of the birthday of Claudius, August 
first. Wieseler makes it more probable that it was the festival of the Quin- 
quennalia, observed on the same day of the same month in honor of Augustus, 
whose name the month had received. 

In comparing the two accounts of Luke and Josephus, we find that they 
agree — (1) That Herod's death occurred at Cesar ea, whither he had come 
not long before; (2) that the first attack of illness was at his public appearance 
at a grand assembly, when he wore a royal robe; (3) that immediately before 
this first attack, he was flattered by shouts that he was a god, which flattery 
he did not decline ; (4) that upon this he was suddenly attacked with a dis- 
ease of the bowels, of which he died. 

The two accounts differ as follows : (1) Luke speaks of an embassy of Tyre 
and Sidon (ch. 12: 21), being present on this public occasion. Josephus 
speaks nothing of them; but he does mention that distinguished personswere 
present. It was a fitting time for Herod to announce liis decision to those 
who had come asking for peace. So Josephus makes no mention of this dis- 
pleasure of Herod against the Tyrians and Sidonians. It had not probably 
resulted in any actual outbreak, but in violent feelings of hostility which 
threatened their commercial relations (1 Kings 5: 11; Ezek. 27: 17). And if 
there were beginnings of famine (ch. 12: 20), their desire of reconciliation 
would be naturally increased. (2) Luke speaks of the shouts of flattery fol- 
lowing the oration ; Josephus makes no mention of an oration, but of the 
splendor of the royal robe, as calling forth these acclamations. But Luke also 
speaks of Herod's display— " arrayed himself in royal apparel, and sat on the 
throne," or judgment-seat. It is very natural that he should have made some 
address to the people, and such discourse would naturally be applauded. 
(3) Luke does not mention an owl, nor Josephus an angel. But the story 
of an owl would naturally arise from heathenish and superstitious notions; 
and Josephus could not be expected to know of the agency of an angel, 
which might be revealed to Peter, or Paul. (4) Luke says, "He was eaten 
of worms" (ch. 12: 23); but Josephus speaks of severe and violent pains. 
The latter refers more generally to the disease ; Luke speaks, as a physician 
naturally would, more of its nature. Josephus speaks more definitely of its 
continuance — five days ; Luke does not say it was instantaneous, but his Ian- 


guage implies some interval between the beginning of the disease and his 
death : And becoming worm-eaten, or having been eaten with ivorms, he expired. 
As a result of this examination, it may be said that Luke's account does not 
suffer, but is rather enhanced, by a comparison with that of Josephus. 

Chronologists have not been in accord upon the Second Visit of Paul 
TO Jerusalem, after his conversion. (1) Some have thought that he did not 
visit Jerusalem at this time, on account of the persecution, but only parts of 
Judea (ch. 11: 30). But it is evident that he did so from ch. 12: 25: And 
Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem. (2) Some have argued from Gal. 
1: 18; 2: 1, that the two visits to Jerusalem, there mentioned, were the only 
visits of Paul during those years, and that a second one could not have inter- 
vened. But we cannot suppose that the one mentioned in Gal. 2: 1 ("Then 
after a space of fourteen years I went up to Jerusalem"), is the same as that in 
ch. 12: 25 ; for that would fix Paul's conversion at least four or five years too 
early. Besides, was it really necessary for Paul to mention all his visits to 
Jerusalem in his Epistle to the Galatians ? We think not. Certainly, a 
later visit to Jerusalem (ch. 18 : 22), is not mentioned with the others in his 
Epistle to the Galatians, though he made it before he wrote that Epistle. 
Dr. Hackett has well put it, in his admirable note on ch. 11: 30: "Paul's 
object in writing to the Galatians does not require him to enumerate all his 
journeys to Jerusalem. In the first chapter there, he would prove that as 
an apostle he Avas independent of all human authority, and in the second 
chapter that the other apostles had conceded to him that independence. He 
had no occasion, therefore, to recapitulate his entire history. ExamjDles of 
the facts in his life were all that he needed to bring forward. He was not 
bound to show how often he had been to Jerusalem, but only that he had 
gone thither once and again, under circumstances which showed in what 
character he claimed to act, and how fully the other apostles had acknowl- 
edged this claim." It might be added that the mention of this second visit in 
his Epistle would have added nothing to his argument ; for in this persecution 
the apostles were scattered, and very likely Paul saw none of them. (3) Others 
have objected to this visit occurring between the two mentioned in Galatians, 
because Paul declares in Gal. 1 : 22, "And I was still unknown by face unto 
the churches of Judea which were in Christ," etc. But this has reference to 
his continued ministry in Syria and Cilicia, referred to in the preceding 
verse (Gal. 1: 21), after his first visit to Jerusalem, and which might apply 
up to the time of this visit of Barnabas and Paul (ch. 11 : 30; 12: 25). Thus 
for eight or nine years Paul was unknown by face unto the churches of Judea. 
But at this time, as a bearer of supplies from the Church at Antioch, he 
must have become known to some of them. Indeed, he now had the op- 
portunity of preaching "at Jerusalem and throughout all the country of Judea," 
which he affirms that he had done in his address to King Agrippa (ch. 26 : 20.) 


The preceding discussions prepare the way for considering more exactly the 
time of this second visit. Without doubt, the return of Paul and Barnabas from 
Jerusalem to Antioch occurred after the death of Herod. This is the most 
natural inference from ch. 12: 25. But did they come to Judea with their 
offerings to the brethren (ch. 11 : 30), before, at the time, or after, the impris- 
onment of Peter? The famine, mentioned in ch. 11 : 28, is probably the one 
described by Josephus, as taking place when Cuspius Fadus and Tiberius 
Alexander were procurators {Antiq., 20. 2. 6 ; 5. 2). Noav, Herod's death 
occurred in August, A. D. 44, and Fadus was sent from Rome as a procurator 
on the death of Herod, and was succeeded by Tiberius Alexander. Both of 
their procuratorships lasted only from A. d. 44 to A. d. 48. The famine may 
have begun in a. d. 44, and continued three or four years. It is not improb- 
able that the Tyrians and Zidonians began to feel, or to fear it, in their 
country before the death of Herod. This may have increased their desire for 
peaceful relations; for "their country was fed from the king's country" (ch. 
12 : 20), which, at that time, was very extensive. The visit of Paul and 
Barnabas must have been at the beginning ; for Agabus had foretold it, and 
thereby had excited the Church at Antioch to send their mission of relief to 
their brethren in Judea. But as they were thus guided by prophecy and the 
Spirit, the action of the Antioch brethren must have been at the right time, 
and their donations timely. In view of such considerations, it may be sug- 
gested that Barnabas and Saul arrived in Judea after the imprisonment of 
Peter, but before the death of Herod ; that they remained for a time afterward 
and witnessed some of the prosperity related in ch. 12: 24: " But the word 
of God grew and multiplied." 

This view is consistent Avith the narrative in the twelfth chapter, which is 
a description of events pertaining to the Church at Jerusalem, and its condi- 
tion at the time of this mission from Antioch (ch. 12: 1). It also agrees with 
what is told by Josephus, that, about the time of the beginning of Fadus' 
government, Helena, Queen of Adiabene, in Syria, a Jewish proselyte, sent 
grain to the relief of the Jews in the famine {Antiq., 20. 2. 5; 5. 2). But the 
famine had not only commenced, but was severe, before Helena did this. 
This leads to the conclusion that it began A. D. 44. (Compare on | 22, note on 
the great faming.) 

The Avonderful vision, rapture, or trance, recorded in 2 Cor. 12: 1-4, occurred 
about this time. The date of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians is fixed 
at A. D. 57. Computing backward "fourteen years ago," according to the 
Jewish mode of reckoning, say thirteen years, we have a. d. 44, as the year 
of its occurrence. It may have been in the temple, like an earlier vision 
(ch. 22: 17). It was fitting now, or a little later, as he was about to go out 
on his mission to the Gentiles (ch. 13 : 1-3). 

The first grand division of the Acts, which narrates the progress of the 


gospel, principally among the Jews, by the ministry of Peter, very properly 
closes with this mission of Barnabas and Paul, who were to be henceforth 
prominent as laborers among the Gentiles. This movement of love for the 
relief of the suffering, brought Antioch and Jerusalem into contact, and 
helped to bridge over the chasm which was beginning to yawn between Jewish 
and Gentile Christians. The same means was used by Paul during the whole 
continuance of his ministry (ch. 24: 17 ; Gal. 2: 10). 



^ 25. With the thirteenth chapter, begins the Second General Division 
OF THE Acts, which narrates the diffusion of the gospel from Antioch till 
Paul is brought a prisoner to Rome. The work is principally among the 
Gentiles, and Paul is the leading character, as Peter had been in the pre- 
ceding history the foremost in extending the gospel among the Jews. 

The sending forth of Barnabas and Saul from Antioch, to preach to 
THE HEATHEN, could uot havc been long after their return from Jerusalem. 
The thirteenth chapter opens as if beginning an independent history ; but the 
last verse of the twelfth chapter forms a connecting link between what pre- 
cedes and what follows. We may, therefore, place this mission as beginning 
in the spring of the year, A. d. 45. 

The Church at Antioch hud become a great spiritual power; and perhaps, 
like the Church at Jerusalem, included several thousands in its membership. 
Five prophets and teachers were among them — two, Barnabas and Saul, who 
had come to them from abroad. The three others, also, were very probably of 
foreio-n origin. Of Simeon who icas called Niger (ch. 13: 1), we know nothing. 
Lucius of Cyrene was probably one of those "men of Cyprus and Cyrene" 
(ch. 11 : 20), who were the first to preach the gospel to the Greeks at Antioch, 
and was therefore one of the founders of the church there. Perhaps, also, 
he was a "kinsman" of Paul, mentioned in the salutations of Rom. IG: 21. 

The remaining name of Manaen, opens a field of great interest. He was 
foster-brother to Herod the tetrarch, that is, Herod Antipas, still designated by 
his well-known title, though now in exile on the banks of the Rhone. 
According to Josephus (Antiq., 15. 10. 5), a certain Essene, that bore the 
name Manaen, the later form of Manahem (2 Kings 15: 21), one day saluted 
the boy who afterward became Herod the Great, as King of the Jews, and 
foretold the future fortunes of his life. The youthful Herod paid but little 


attention to him then ; but when he became king he remembered the seer, 
and made him the object of his special favor, and above all other Jewish 
sects, he honored tlie Essenes. It is possible that he transferred his favor to 
this man's son, or grandson, who was nursed or educated with the king's son, 
and was converted afterward to Christianity. As his foster-brother, he may 
have continued at the court of Antipas, have heard the preaching of John 
the Baptist, have known the intrigues of Herodias, and the thoughts and 
expressions of Herod concerning Jesus of Nazareth. (Mark 6 : 14-29.) 

The Jirst field of inissionary labor was Cyprus, an island not far from the 
Syrian coast, and a Roman Province. The reason for its selection may have 
been partly its nearness to Antioch ; but more especially because it had been 
the home of Barnabas, who took the lead at the beginning of the mission ; 
and, perhaps, of John Mark (ch. 13 : 5), who was a cousin of Barnabas. 
(Col. 4 : 10.) 

The missionaries leave Antioch and come to Seleucia, the port of that city, 
about fifteen miles away, near the mouth of the river Orontes. Here they 
embark and sail in a southwesterly direction to Salamis, on the eastern coast 
of Cyprus, by far the most important town of that island, and the nearest 
sea-port to Seleucia. Many Jews resided here, and had " synagogues," in 
which Paul and Barnabas preached. Thus, in their Gentile work they 
preached first to the Jew, and through the synagogue reached the proselyte, 
and the devout Gentile, and the heathen world. They pass " through the 
whole island unto Paphos" (ch. 13: 6), the Roman capital of tlie province, 
situated on the west coast, a distance of about one hundred miles, doubtless 
preaching as they go. How long they continue the work on the island is not 
told; but probably for several months, and perhaps a year. There were 
Christians there already (ch. 11 : 19), and doubtless other congregations were 
gathered. So important was the field when Paul and Barnabas separated and 
divided their work, the latter chose Cyprus. (Ch. 15 : 36-39.) 

The accuracy of Luke is illustrated in ch. 13: 17, where he speaks of the 
■proconsul. Under the emperors from Augustus to Nero, the Roman prov- 
inces were divided into two classes. One class was nominally under the 
government of the Senate, and the governor was termed a proconsul. The 
other class required a military force, and were governed by the emperor's 
legate, who was a proprcetor. Augustus at first reserved Cyprus to himself as 
an imperial province, but afterward restored it to the Senate. Coins still 
exist, on which the governor of Cyprus is called a. proconsul. The very name 
of (Sergius) Paulus has been discovered by General di Cesnola, at Soli, 
Cyprus, in a mutilated inscription, which reads: "In the proconsulship of 
Paulus." (See SchafF History of the Christian Church, Vol. I., p. 734 
Corapai-e ch. 18: 12: 19: 38. See also a coin engraved in Conyheare and, 
Howson, chap. 5.) 


While at Paphos Paul becomes the leader, no longer secondary to Barnabas ; 
and he is publicly manifested as an Apostle to the Gentiles — (1) by the inspired 
words of apostolic authority, and (2) by his first miracle or sign of his 
apostleship, (2 Cor. 12: 12; ch. 13: 9-11. Compare Peter and Simon Magus, 
ch. 8 : 20-22.) It is to be noted, too, that from this time he is no more, in the 
Acts, called by his Hebrew name, Saul; but by his Koman name, Paid. 
Some have supposed that he took his name, at this time, from his distin- 
guished convert, Sergius Paulus (ch. 13: 7, 12); but this is hardly a sufficient 
reason. It was common for persons to have two names, and Jews often had 
Koman names. As Saul Avas free-born (ch. 22 : 28), he probably was also Paul 
from infancy. It has been suggested that he preferred the name Paul 
(meaning small) from feelings of humility. I prefer to regard his honorable 
Koman name as better becoming him, as the Apostle to the Gentiles. 

§ 26. The TIME WHEN Paul and Barnabas left Cyprus can only be 
surmised. If they did much missionary work, as was supposed in the preced- 
ing section, then they may have left Paphos in the spring of A. d. 46, having 
been on the island about ten months. They sail northwestward to Perga, an 
important city in Pamphilia (now in ruins), situated about seven miles from 
the sea, on the river Cestius. "A bar obstructs the entrance of this river at the 
present time; but Strabo (14: 4) says expressly, that it was navigable in his 
day as far up as Perga." — Hackett. 

The stay of Paul and Barnabas at Perga, seems to have been brief; on their 
return, they preach there (ch. 14: 25). The reason of their preaching to 
regions beyond, was probably that it was the best season for traveling into 
the mountainous district. "If we suppose him to have been at Perga in 
May, this would have been the most natural time for a journey to the moun- 
tains. Earlier in the spring, the passes would have been filled with snow. 
In the heat of summer, the weather would have been less favorable for the 
journey. In the autumn, the disadvantages would have been still greater 
from the approaching difficulties of winter." (Conybeare and Howson, Vol. I., 
p. 165.) At the beginning of the hot season, multitudes, Avith their flocks and 
herds, move from the plains to the mountains. 

On this journey, Paul may have encountered some of the perils alluded to in 
2 Cor. 11 : 26. In no part of Asia Minor would he have been exposed to such 
" perils of rivers " as in the mountainous districts of Pisidia, where water- 
floods are frequent, and swollen streams and rivers dash wildly through 
narrow ravines. The lawless character of the people was also notorious in all 
ancient history. "The highlands of Pisidia could only be penetrated by 
passes, subject to be swept by the sudden rise of the mountain torrents, and 
infested by the wildest banditti in the world ; and the apostles went forward 
through 'perils of rivers' and 'perils of robbers,' only to plunge into 


'perils from their kindred, perils from the heathen.'" — (Dr. Wm. Smith, 

N. T. History, p. 440, 441.) 

Paul and Barnabas are in due time at Antiocii of Pisidia, an impor- 
tant town, and a Koman colony, and inhabited by Greeks, Romans, and Jews, 
besides a native population. It was situated near the confines of Pisidia and 
Phrygia, on the high central table-lands of Asia Minor, about one hundred 
and fifteen miles north of Perga. This seems to have been their first important 
halting place. They may have tarried briefly at unimportant points on their 

An example or model of Paul's way of working at this time is given, as ex- 
emplified at Antioch. He preaches in the synagogue ; favorable impressions 
are made ; a request to repeat the address the next Sabbath ; certain Jews 
and proselytes seek further instruction ; the city, greatly aroused, gather the 
next Sabbath to hear the word of God ; the Jews filled with jealousy, oppose 
violently ; Paul turns to the Gentiles, who hear with gladness ; the work goes 
forward, spreading throughout that region ; persecution arises, and Paul and 
Barnabas are cast out of their borders. The incidents, so fully related, illus- 
trate how the gospel was rejected by the Jews, and received by the Gentiles, 
in many other cities. 

The address of Paul resembles that of Stephen in its historical basis (see on 
1 12). He proclaims the great doctrine which stands out in his preaching 
and his Epistles — justification by faith alone (ch. 13: 38, 39). In ver. 26, he 
addresses Jews, proselytes, and devout Gentiles, " those among you that fear 
God." See, also, ver. 16, "and ye that fear God." In his second address, we 
have the first recorded declaration, " Lo, we turn to the Gentiles" (ver. 46). 

"About four hundred and fifty years ^' (ch. 13: 19), may refer to the time 
between the birth of Isaac, when God showed that he had chosen the fathers 
(ver. 17), and the distribution of the land of Canaan. Thus Isaac was sixty 
years old at the birth of Jacob (Gen. 25: 26); and Jacob was one hundred 
and thirty on going into Egypt (Gen. 47: 9) ; the sojourn there was two hun- 
dred and fifteen years, and from thence forty -seven years to the settlement of 
the tribes, making four hundred aud fifty-two years in all. 

In ch. 13: 22, the quotation is not exact from any one passage, but it is sub- 
stantially what God did say, through Samuel and others, on different occasions. 
(Compare 1 Sam. 13: 14; Ps. 89: 20.) 

"The word of this salvation^^ (ver. 26), seems almost as if suggested by 
Ps. 107: 20: "He sent his word and healed them." 

The quotation (ver. 34) from Isa. 55: 3, expresses the sense, but varies 
somewhat from both the Hebrew and the Septuagint Version. 

That in ver. 4^1, from Hah. 1 : 5, is from the Septuagint,- and expresses the 
sense of the Hebrew. " Despisers," and " perish," are not in the Hebrew. 
The idea of " perish " is, however, involved in the Hebrew text. The remarks 


of J. A. Alexander are fitting on this, and to some other quotations from the 
Old Testament in the New : " The Septuagint Version is retained witliout 
correction, because no interpretation or application of the passage is intended, 
but a simple use of its expressions to convey the apostles' own ideas to the 

minds of his hearers in a striking manner This quotation, therefore, 

.... does prove that he thought himself at liberty to use the words of the 
Old Testament in application to new cases, and even in a version not entirely 
accurate. But let it be observed, that in neither of these things is he an 
example to us; because, in /)oth, he acted under the control of inspiration and 
by virtue of his apostolic authority, without which we are utterly incompetent 
to say what new application may be made of the words prophetically uttered, 
or how far an imperfect version may be used with safety. Let it also be 
observed, that no such use is made by the Apostle Paul of Scripture, where 
his doctrine or his argimient depends upon it, as in a previous portion of this 
very chapter". (See above on ver. 33-37.) 

A congregation of believers, Jews and Gentiles, are gathered at Antioch (ch. 
13 : 49) ; and the work spreads into the adjoining region (ver. 50). Paul and 
Barnabas may have visited neighboring places, and thus several weeks were 
probably occupied. Persecution arises ; the apostles are compelled to leave ; 
yet the disciples at Antioch, in the midst of persecution are prospered, and 
are " filled with joy and with tlie Holy Spirit" (ver. 52). 

The next place of missionary labor mentioned was Iconium (now Konieh), at 
this time the chief city of Lycaonia, situated at the foot of the Taurus, and 
about ninety miles southeast of the Pisidian Antioch. It was the centre of 
important roads, and especially on the line of (!oraraunication between the dis- 
trict of Ephesus on the west, and the district of Syrian Antioch on the east, 
Lycaonian Greeks and Jews residing there (ch. 14: 1). 

^ 27. When Paul and Barnabas came to Iconium it was summer, a. d. 
46, according to our chronological estimate in the preceding section. Their 
manner of procedure and their experience are similar to those in Antioch of 
Pisidia. " A great multitude, both of Jews and of Greeks, believe " (ch. 14 : 
1). Opposition is aroused. But "long fime," which may include a period of 
months, the apostles tarried there, " speaking boldly in the Lord," and their 
testimony was confirmed by many miracles (ch 14 : 2, 3). At length the city 
is divided into two factions, and an attempt is made to raise a riot and stone 
the apostles, who flee into the wilder parts of Lycaonia, where there appears 
to have been no Jewish settlements, and but little Greek civilization. 

Lycaonia was a district of Asia Minor, separated from Cilicia on the south 
by Mount Taurus, and extending to the Cappadocian Hills on the north. It 
was for the most part on extensive plain, bare, and poorly supplied with fresh 
water, but fitted for sheep raising. 



The speech of Lycaonia (ch. 14: 11) has been variously conjectured as either 
a Semitic dialect, or a corrupt form of tlie Greek. That the Lycaonians 
understood something of Greek mythology, is consistent with either supposition 
(ver. 12). The apostles doubtless addressed them in Greek (ver. 15-17). 

Lystra and Berbe were probably small towns northeast of Iconium. Their 
sites are not certainly known. Lystra was between Iconium and Derbe ; the 
latter between Lystra and Cilicia; for when Paul was on his way from Cilicia 
he reached Derbe first (ch. 16 : 1 ), and in going from Derbe to Iconium, he 
passed through Lystra (ch. 14: 22). There is no mention of a synagogue 
either at Lystra or Derbe. That some Jews resided in these towns, or their 
vicinity, is to be inferred from the fact that Timothy, a native of one of these 
places, probably Lystra (ch. 16 : 1, 2), and Gains, a companion of Paul (ch. 20 : 
4), was from Derbe. 

Luke's accuracy in ch. 14: 11, may be illustrated by the mythological notions 
of the Lycaonians. "According to the myth described by Ovid, the gods 
Jupiter and Mercury (Zeus and Hermes) had ap]3eared to the Lycaonians in 
the likeness of men. . . . How natural, therefore, was it for these 
idolaters, astonished by the miracle, to mistake the eloquent Paul for Hermes, 
and Barnabas, who may have been of a more imposing figure, for Zeus." — ( Dr. 
ScHAFF, Hist, of Christian Church,\o\. I. pp. 734, 735.) 

A comparison^ of PauFs Epistles with Luke's account of the apostle's labors in 
Pisidia and Lycaonia, is both instructive and mutually confirmatory of the 
accuracy and genuineness of both writers. Besides 2 Cor. 11 : 16, and ch. 13 : 
14, referred to in preceding sections, three more important ones may be 

1. In 2 Tim. 3: 10, 11, Paul writes to Timothy as one who liad heen familiar 
with his teaching, palience, sufferings, persecutions at Antioch, Iconium, and 
Lystra, and his deliverance from them all. This is perfectly plain and 
natural, when we learn that Timothy was a native of this region, probably of 
Lystra (Acts 16 : 1, 2), converted under Paul, probably during this first mis- 
sionary visit (2 Tim. 1 : 2, 5) ; and must have been a frequent attendant ujjon 
his preaching, and a witness of these very persecutions. Again, the order in 
which the verses are named, " at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra " (2 Tim. 3: 
11), was the order in which Paul is said by Luke to have traveled, and to 
have suffered persecution. It is also noticeable that Paul, in his Epistle, does 
not name Derbe, and that in the Acts no persecutions are alluded to in that 

2. In 2 Cor. 11: 25, Paul says: "Once I was stoned." Now the only 
account we have of Paul being stoned, in the Acts, is in ch. 14 : 19, which 
was several years prior to date of the Epistle. At Iconium he came near 
being stoned; but fled just in time to escape it (ch, 14: 5, 6.) In reference 
to this, Dr. Paley has very aptly remarked : " Now, had the assault been 


completed ; had the history related that a stone was thrown, as it relates that 
preparations were made, both by Jews and Gentiles, to stone Paul and his 
companions; or even had the account of this transaction stopped without 
going on to inform us that Paul and his companions were ' aware of their 
danger and fled' — a contradiction between the history and the Epistle 
would have ensued. Truth is necessarily consistent ; but it is scarcely possible 
that independent accounts, not having truth to guide them, should thus 
advance to the very brink of contradiction without falling into it." 
(Paley's Hone Paulince, Binnie's Ed.\}. 76. See pp. 75-79. Also on 2 Tim. 
3: 10, 11 above, see pp. 173-176.) 

3. Compare Paul's speech at Lystra to the rude Gentile populace (ch. 14 : 
15-17), with Eom. 1: 19, 20; and both, with his speech at Athens. (Ch. 17 : 
24^28). We discover the same truths in these, with that diversity of applica- 
tion which we should expect in the same speaker on diflferent occasions. By 
also comparing these with his address at Antioch, in Pisidia (ch. 13: 16-41), 
we see how different his method, in reaching the pure heathen, from that he 
pursued toward Jews, proselytes, and devout Gentiles. 

With the visit of Paul and Barnabas at Derbe, v:e reach the extreme limit of 
their first missionary journey. Although within about ninety miles of Tarsus, 
in Cilicia, they prefer not to return to Syria by that nearer route ; but to 
retrace their steps, and visit the churches, which they had been compelled, by 
persecution, to leave abruptly ; complete more nearly their work, and con- 
firm the converts in the faith. (Ch. 14 : 21-24.) 

The oft recurring questions arise. How long were the apostles engaged in 
this work in Pisidia and Lycaonia? And when did they return to Perga in 
Pami)hilia? No certainty, only probability, at most, can be attained. Cony- 
l)eare and Howson suppose that the apostles left Perga in May for the high- 
lands of Pisidia, with the caravans which were moving upward for the 
summer; and that in the autumn they returned to Perga, where they would 
enjoy the warm shelter of the plain by the sea-side. (Cony, and How., Vol., 
II., p. 200). But it seems evident that four, or even six months, were too 
short for the great work which Paul and Barnabas had accomplished. At least 
two months should be allowed from the leaving of Perga to their expulsion 
from Antioch. More than that, perhaps more than twice that time, was passed 
at Iconium; for "long time they tarried there, speaking boldly in the Lord." 
(Ch. 14: 3.) Then their visit at Lystra was no passing one. They had 
success in gathering "disciples." (Ver. 20.) Time must also be allowed for 
the change of feeling from that of worship to that of persecution ; and for 
the Jews at Antioch, more than a hundred miles distant, to learn where they 
were, and to come to Cystra. (Ver. 11, 19.) Besides, they preached at Derbe, 
and in " the region round about " Lystra and Derbe, which took in the small 
places in the vicinity of these cities. (Ver. 7, 20, 21.) With Wieseler, Ave are 


inclined to think that the events of this journey occupied more than one 
year. We would suggest, that the summer was spent at Antioch and Iconium, 
and their vicinity, and it was the autumn when Paul and Barnabas were 
driven from Iconium; that at Lystra they made the acquaintance of the 
family of the mother or grandmother of Timothy (2 Tim. 1 : 5), and perhaps 
in the early winter Paul was stoned ; that the rest of the winter was passed 
at Derbe and its vicinity, where they found Gains (ch. 20: 4), and "made 
many disciples" (ver. 21); and that in the spring of a. d. 47 they began 
to retrace their steps. In favor of this scheme it may be added, that it 
gives time for allowing the hostility aroused against the apostles to somewhat 
wear away, and for the churches that had been gathered to gain some 
experience, both in working and in trials, and also to make needful progress, 
and to develop character, before the appointment of elders. (Ch. 14: 22, 23.) 

We may then suppose that Paul and Barnabas occupied the summer of 
A. D. 47, in visiting the churches in Lystra, Iconium, Antioch, and in other 
places in Lycaonia and Pisidia; and then coming into Pamphylia, arrived at 
Perga in the autumn. (Ch. 14 : 21-25.) In the latter city they seem to have 
had no success worthy of mention. They then pass over the plain, sixteen 
miles, to Attalia, situated on the coast near the mouth of the river Catarrhactes. 
It is now the modern Satalia, and described " as beautifully situated round a 
small harbor, the streets appearing to rise behind each other like the seats 
of a theatre." — {Admiral Beaufort, in Hackett.) Nothing is said of their 
preaching here. From this port they sail to Antioch in Syria, very probably 
disembarking at Seleucia, its port, and going to Antioch by land, instead of 
the farther and winding way up the river Orontes. This may be fixed late in 
A. D. 47. 

Thus, according to the estimates already made, Paul arid Barnabas returned 
to Antioch after an absence of about two years and a half This is not too 
long a time to allow for this journey, in comparison, either with Paul's other 
missionary journeys, or with tlie time (about five years) which probably 
intervened between the second and third visits of Paul to Jerusalem. (Ch. 12 : 
25; 15: 2. See on ^28.) 

The time that Paul and Barnabas remained at Antioch icas not brief " They 
tarried no little time with the disciples " (ch. 14 : 28), which may take us 
through the years 48 and 49. Here in this large city there was enough 
to do, besides Avhat demands might be made from the regions round about. 
These were doubtless years of Inisy activity. After two or three years' ab- 
sence, they doubtless found many things and many points to be looked after, 
requiring long and incessant labor. 

Concerning officers of the church and their appointment, see Clark's "Acts" 
(eh. 14 : 23), in "A People's Commentary." 




The period of harmonizing Jewish and Gentile churches. This period 
begins with the return of Paul and Barnabas to Antioch (ch. 14: 27), and 
includes the " no little " time in ver. 28. 

^ 28. The Apostolic Council at Jerusalem brings us into contact with 
one of the most importani. and difficult chronological questions of Paul's 
history. Was this third visit of Paul at Jerusalem, the same as that recorded 
in Gal. 2:1? If not, when did the latter occur ? Upon the answer of these 
questions depends the arranging of several events and dates both before and 
after this Council. 

Five visits of Paul to Jerusalem, after his conversion, are mentioned in the 
Acts. The first in ch. 9 : 26 ; the second in 11 : 30, and 12 : 25 ; the third in 
ch. 15: 4; the fourth in ch. 18: 22; the fifth inch. 21: 17. Two are men- 
tioned in the Epistle to the Galatians, which for convenience may be styled 
the y?rs^ Galatian (Gal. 1 : 18), the second Galatian visit (Gal. 2 : 1). 

The first Galatian visit has already been shown to be the same as the first 
recorded in the Acts (ch. 9: 26; see on ^ 17), and is so regarded by Biblical 
critics generally. The second Galatian visit cannot be the fifth of the Acts (ch^ 
21 : 17), because the latter was too late in Paul's life, after the Epistle itself 
was written, and Paul did not return to Antioch, as he did after the former. 

Was, then, the second, the third, or thefourth visit in the Acts identical with 
the second Galatian visit ? It is now very generally conceded that the second 
was not. For (1) that was in a. d. 44 (see on § 24), which would fix Paul's 
conversion at too early a date. Notice that Paul says : " Then after three 
years," that is after his conversion (Gal. 1 : 18) ; and again : "Then after the 
space of fourteen years," either after his conversion, or more probably after the 
preceding visit (Gal. 2:1). Paul could not have been converted in the year 
of Christ's resurrection, nor the year after. (2) Again, Paul and Barnabas had 
been extensively useful among the Gentiles before the second Galatian visit 
(Gal. 2 : 2, 8), which was not the case before A. d. 44. The hand of fellow- 
ship could not have been given them at that time to go out as missionaries 
among the heathen (Gal. 2 : 9), for it was after this that they were divinely 
separated for that work (ch. 13 : 2). (3) Paul also appears subordinate both in 
age and discipleship, in the Acts, to Barnabas, not only at the second visit, 
A.. D. 44, but also up to the conversion of Sergius Paulus, of Cyprus, in his first . 


missionary journey (ch. 11: 25, 30; 12: 25; 13: 8); hut at the second Gcdatian 
visit, Paul occupies the leading position (Gal. 2: 1, 8, 9, 11) ; the same as he 
did after the above conversion and his leaving Cyprus (oh. 13 : 13, 16, 43, etc.) ; 
which leads to the conclusion that it occurred nfter the second visit in the 
Acts, and after the first missionary journey. (4) And, finally, there could 
hardly have been any Apostolic Conference at Jerusalem, such as described 
in the second chapter of Galatians in the year 44; for it Avas a time of severe 
persecution ; James, the brother of John, is put to death ; Peter is impris- 
oned and miraculously delivered, and then leaves the city. Thus the apostles 
and the church are scattered. Paul and Barnabas probably see none of the 
apostles. They bring their donations of relief to the " elders " (ch. 11 : 30). 

Is, then, the fourth visit in the Acts (ch. 18: 22) identical with the second 
Galatian visit ? So both Wieseler and Lewin most earnestly declare. But 
there are strong objections to this view. (1) The fourth visit appears to have 
been very bi'ief, and apparently unimportant. Having landed at Cesarea, " he 
went up and saluted the church, and went down to Antioch." (2) There is 
no probability that either Barnabas or Titus, who was with Paul at the second 
Galatian visit (Gal. 2 : 1) was with him at this time. Barnabas and Paul 
had separated just before the beginning of Paul's second missionary journey, 
and we have no intimation that they ever after journeyed together in mis- 
sionary labors. Neither is there any mention of Titus being with him on this 
journey, or at this time at Jerusalem. Great stress is laid upon a Titus Justus, 
whom Paul had found at Corinth (ch. 18 : 7) ; for such is the reading of the 
Greek, according to Westcott and Hort, and the text preferred by the Can- 
terbury revisers. But Titus Justus was a devout Gentile and an unbeliever, 
who opened his house for the use of Christians, and the preaching of Paul. 
We may easily conclude that he became a believer, but we are not told so, 
much less a preacher and a companion of Paul. That he was the Titus who 
was at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:1), and to whom Paul wrote his Epistle, is without 
proof. The name Titus was not uncommon ; and Luke, who must have known 
Titus, Paul's companion, may have purposely styled this one Justus, to dis- 
tinguish him from the other. (3) The whole tone of the second Galatian visit 
implies an earlier stage of Paul's ministry than that of his fourth visit to 
Jerusalem. It does not seem possible that after the decision of the Council at 
Jerusalem (ch. 15,) he should feel it necessary to go to Jerusalem to lay 
the gospel which he preached to the Gentiles, "privately before them who 
were of repute" (Gal. 2: 2) ; or that he could entertain any doubt, "lest by 
any means I should be running, or had run in vain." To have been in such 
a condition, or to have done this, after bearing the decrees of the Council to 
the churches, and after such success as he enjoyed in Galatia, Macedonia, and 
Greece, seems impossible. Moreover, it seems equally improbable that any 
(question of compelling Titus, being a Gentile, to be circumcised (Gal. 2: 3), 


could have arisen at Jerusalem, wliere a few years before the apostles, elders, 
and brethren had decided that Gentiles need not be subjected to that rite. For 
such reasons as these, it is now very generally conceded that the second 
chapter of Galatians is not to be referred to the eighteenth chapter of the 

Was then the second Galatian visit the same as the third visit in the Acts ? 
This is now the general view. For (1) the objects of the two were substantially 
the" same. The tJw-d visit was to consult in regard to the obligations of 
Christians to be circumcised, and to keep the law of Moses (ch. 15: 24). The 
second Galatian visit was to confer with the apostles in regard to the doctrines 
which Paul preached among the heathen, which were opposed to circumcision 
and the Mosaic law, as binding on the Gentiles (Gal. 2: 2, 3, 9; Acts 15: 2). 
(2) The circumstances connected with the two visits also agree. The journey 
in ch. 15 : 2, is performed by Paul, Barnabas, and certain others — in Gal. 2: 1, 
Paul says that he made the journey to Jerusalem with Barnabas and Titus. 
That Paul only mentions the two latter in his Epistle to the Galatians, by no 
means excludes other companions of travel. So, also, in the Acts, Paul and 
company "go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders," which agrees 
with "them who were of repute," in Gal. 2: 2. Indeed, the same positions 
are given to Peter and James in both. At the Council, Peter speaks as the 
Apostle of the Circumcision, and James closes the discussion as a pre-eminent 
leader in the Jerusalem Church, which agrees with the order in which their 
names are given in Gal. 2:9: "James, Cephas, and John, they who were 
reported to be pillars." James was the pastor of the church, and probably 
the president of the Council, and resided at Jerusalem; Peter no longer 
resided there, but was now present as an apostle and a delegate. Moreover, 
according to Gal. 2: 3, Titus was not required to be circumcised, which agrees 
with ch. 15: 10, 28, where Peter dissuades, and the Council relieves from all 
compulsion in regard to circumcision. Again, in Gal. 2 : 4, Paul speaks of 
" false brethren, . . . who came in privily to spy out our liberty, . . . that 
they might bring us into bondage: to whom we gave place in the way of 
subjection, no, not for an hour"; which agrees entirely with those who, at 
Antioch, and afterward at Jerusalem, endeavored to enforce circumcision as a 
condition of salvation, whom Paul and Barnabas, Peter and James, opposed 
at once, and successfully (ch. 15: 1, 2, 5, 10, 19, 28). (2) The independent 
position of Paul, as an apostle, is recognized in the two accounts. Notice the 
implied leadership of Paul in ch. 15: 2, 22; and compare Gal. 2: 1, 2, 8, 9. 

But it has been objected, (1) that Paul tells us that he "went up by reve- 
lation" (Gal. 2: 2), while in the Acts (15 : 2), he was sent by the Church at 
Antioch. But both are consistent with each other. The appointment of the 
Church at Antioch may have been in consequence of this special divine reve- 
lation, or Paul may have been divinely instructed to favor it, and to go, at 


tlieir request, as one of the delegates. Peter's visit to Cornelius was by both 
liuman request and by divine direction (ch. 11 : 11, 12). So, also, Jacob went 
down into Egypt by invitation of Pharaoh ; yet he also went by revelation 
(Gen. 46: 3). Again, (2) it is objected that Paul says in the Epistle that he 
laid before them the gospel which he preached privately ; but in the Acts he 
is represented as performing a public duty. But one does not really conflict 
with the other. Tliere would naturally be a private meeting before the 
public Council. As a historian, Luke would naturally have to do only with 
the hitter ; and Paul, in regard to his inner life and spiritual authority, only 
witli the former. It is also (3) objected that Paul, in the second chapter of 
tlie Epistle, makes no reference to the Council or the decrees. But neither 
does he in any part of the Epistle, in which he so fully discusses the subject 
of circumcision ; and yet it was evidently written after the Council. And 
further, Paul never refers to the Council, or the decrees, in any of his Epistles, 
yet all of them appear to have been written afterward. Indeed, Paul rested 
on principles which underlie the decrees of the Council, and were of wider 
application. As he was an apostle, " not from man, neither through man," 
and the gospel he preached came " through revelation of Jesus Christ," he 
would not likely appeal to the decrees of a Council, but rather to the princi- 
ples which had been revealed to him, on which, also, the decrees of that 
Council were founded. As the founder of the Galatian Churches, he urges on 
them his authority as a divinely commissioned apostle of Christ, and surely 
he would not seem to compromise his apostolic authority by appealing to a 
letter sent out by the apostles and elders, when he had the broader and firmer 
ground of revelation and gospel truth to stand upon. 

Thus, after considering the several visits of Paul to Jerusalem, recorded in 
the Acts and the Epistle to the Galatians, we are led, both by positive and 
negative considerations, to regard the third visit (ch. 15) as indentical with the 
second Galatian visit (Gal. 2 : 1-10). 

It should, hoAvever, be noticed that Paley, Schrader, and some others, have 
suggested that this second Galatian visit is one, either before or after the Council 
at Jerusalem, not recorded in the Acts at all. But such a suggestion seems unnec- 
essary in view of the above discussion. Besides, it could hardly have occurred 
before the Apostolic Council ; for if the apostles had already given their full 
consent and support to the liberty which Paul had sought for the gospel of 
the Uncircumcision (Gal. 2 : 7-10), there would have been no necessity for the 
Church at Antioch to send him to Jerusalem upon the same subject. And as 
already noticed, it could not well have occurred after, because Paul would not 
have needed to bring the subject again before the apostles ; and, also, because 
Paul and Barnabas, soon after the Council, ceased to work together, as mission- 
aries to the Gentiles. 

The argument for a later date from the injunction in Gal. 2 : 10, " that we 


should remember the poor," and from the fact that this principle was not 
fully carried out in systematic collections until the third missionary journey 
of Paul, is by no means convincing. For it does not follow that it had not 
been given before the second missionary journey, and acted upon so far as 
needful. Indeed, Paul declares (Gal. 2 : 10), " which very thing I was also 
zealous to do." As early as A. d. 44, Paul and Barnabas had brought dona- 
tions to the elders at Jerusalem. (Ch. 11 : 29, 30 ; 12 : 25.) 

Having thus identified the visit of Paul in Gal. 2: 1, as that to the Apos- 
tolic Council (ch. 15), an important chronological question arises regarding 
the "fourteen years" in Gal. 2:1. Was it fourteen years after Paul's conver- 
sion, or after his first visit to Jerusalem ? (Gal. 1 : 18.) Hackett, Neander, 
Olshausen, and others, hold the former view ; Bengel, Hemsen, Meyer, Lewin, 
Conybeare and Howson, and others, hold to the latter. The argument for 
the former view is, that " the apostle's conversion is the governing epoch, to 
which the mind of the reader naturally turns back from Gal. 2 : 1, as well as 
from Gal. 1 : 18." But it is affirmed as strongly, by those holding the latter 
view, that it is most natural to reckon from the epoch last mentioned, which 
is Paul's first visit to Jerusalem (Gal. 1 : 18). To me this seems preferable. 
For having referred to his conversion in Gal. 1 : 15, 16, Paul says in ver. 18, 
"Then after three years" (that is, after his conversion), "I went up to Jeru- 
salem." After having tarried there fifteen days, he says (ver. 21) : " Then I 
came," (that is, immediately after this visit to Jerusalem), " into the regions of 
Syria and Cilicia." Referring to the fact that the churches of Judea were 
personally unacquainted with him while he was still in the regions of Syria 
and Cilicia, he says (Gal. 2:1): Then after the space of fourteen years" (that 
is, after the visit just named), "I went up to Jerusalem." " Then'' is repeated 
three times, and, in connection with other words, seems to point to successive 
events. Indeed, so natural is this view, that it seems to be the one which 
would most likely be taken, unless a person was unconsciously influenced by 
his own previous decision respecting the chronology of Paul's travels. That 
the other view might be justified, is admitted, if the other circumstances of 
the case rendered it necessary. But we can discover no such necessity. 

If, then, the first visit of Paul to Jerusalem was in the spring of A. d. 38 
(see on § 16), the fourteen years after, Judaically reckoned, would be in the 
autumn of A. d. 50 ; or, it might extend into A. d. 51. But since we cannot 
fix the time with exactness, we are at liberty to choose the autumn of a. d. 50, 
as fitting best with subsequent events, till a. d. 60, when Paul was sent a 
prisoner to Rome. The Council may have occurred at or just after the Feast 
of Tabernacles. 

Some would take after the space of "fourteen years" to mean fourteen 
complete years ; but the phrase may be, and would naturally be, used in the 
Hebrew way of reckoning by Paul. (Compare Mark 8 : 31), " after three days 


rise again " ; (Matt. 28 : 63), " after three days I rise again," which is explained 
in ver. 64, " Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the 
third day." (Compare Matt. 12: 40.) 

The quotation in ch. 15 : 16-18, is generally regarded as a free quotation 
from the Septnagint Version of Amos 9: 11, 12, illustrating by a single pas- 
sage what the prophets, as a class, had said concerning the calling of tlie 
Gentiles. It seems to me better to regard the quotation as the substance of 
several prophecies. Thus James quotes principally from Amos 9: 11, 12. 
But with the first part he combines a part of Jer. 12: 15, and with the last 
part Isa. 45 : 21. Thus he actually quotes, not from a prophet, but from 
"the prophets'' (ch. 15 : 15). (See Wescott and Hort Greek Test. Vol. II., p. 
178. Quotations from the Old Testament. Acts 15 : 16-18.) 

It should be noted that only in Acts 15 : 28, and in James 1 : 1, does the 
salutation "greeting" occur. It shows the influence of James, and suggests 
that he may have written the letter containing the decrees to tlie churches. 

^ 29. According to the chronological date of the Apostolic Conference, 
preferred in the preceding section, Paul and Barnabas returned to 
Antioch in the latter part of October, or early in November of A. d. 50. 
Judas, of whom we know nothing, and Silas, afterward a companion of Paul, 
accompany the delegation on their return to Antioch, and spend "some time" 
there. (Ch. 15 : 33.) According to the majority of best manuscripts, both 
return to Jerusalem. Some ancient authorities retain ver. 34, which states 
that Silas remained. He was there a little later. (Ver. 40.) But the com- 
munication between Antioch and Jerusalem had become so frequent, that 
there is no difficulty in supposing that Silas went to Jerusalem and back to 
Antioch, before the second missionary journey. Paul may have sent for him, 
when he found it necessary to separate from Barnabas. This may also 
explain how it was that Paul appears to have set out on the journey after 
Barnabas. (Ver. 39, 40.) 

After the departure of Judas and Silas, "Paul and Barnabas tarried in 
Antioch, teaching and preaching." (Ch. 15: 35.) It was "after some days" 
(ver 36), that Paul suggested to Barnabas that they visit the brethren in 
tlie cities where they had preached in their first missionary tour. 

If we make a proper allowance for the above notes of time, and the 
journeys taken, the work accomplished, and the discussions concerning 
another missionary journey, and John Mark as an attendant, the spring of 
A. D. 51 seems a probable date for the separation of Paul and Barnabas, and 
their going forth on separate missions. 

From this time Barnabas disappears from the narrative of Luke. Paul, 
liowever, speaks of him in his Epistles, with tlie highest respect. (Gal. 2 : 1, 
9, 13: 1 Cor. 9:6; Col. 4: 10.) He also commends Mark, mentions him 


among his fellow-laborers, and, in the last Epistle he ever wrote, expresses a 
desire to have Mark with him. (Col. 4: 10; Philemon 24; 2 Tim. 4: 11.) 

Chronologists are divided as to the time of PauUs encounter with Peter, related 
in Gal. 2: 11-17. Many place it here, supposing that it must have occurred 
soon after the Apostolic Conference at Jerusalem. Others suppose that it 
occurred on Paul's return to Antioch, from his second missionary tour. 
(Ch. 18 : 22, 23. See on 'i 36.) 

Those favoring the former view, suppose that Peter, soon after the 
Jerusalem Council, went to Antioch, perhaps to extend " the right-hand of 
fellowship" to the church and brethren there, as he had done to Paul and 
Barnabas at Jerusalem. (Gal. 2: 9.) In favor of this, it is said, (1) that 
Paul relates this scene between himself and Peter immediately after speaking 
of the second Galatian visit to Jerusalem. (Gal. 2 : 11.) (2) That both 
Paul and Barnabas were at Antioch, which agrees with ch. 15 : 35. (3) That 
the fact that Barnabas, being carried away by the dissimulation of others, 
was among the condemned and rebuked party (Gal. 2: 11, 13), may have 
affected the feelin..? of Barnabas toward Paul, and prepared the way for the 
dissension and separation which soon followed. So Conybeare and Howson, 
and many others. But in answer, it may be said, as to (1), that Gal. 2: 11 
does not necessarily connect the two events as near together; that, as Dr. 
Hackett says, it " affords no clue to the time." As to (2), that Luke closes 
his history of Barnabas here, and he has no farther need of speaking of him, 
though Paul may have met him many times afterward. Hence, it is an 
argument only from the silence of Luke, which amounts to little, when we 
remember how many things Luke passes over, even in regard to. Paul himself. 
As to (3), it may be said, with even a greater degree of probability, that the 
dissension may have so affected the mind of Barnabas, as to render Paul's 
influence over him less strong than formerly, and thus prepared him to follow 
Peter rather than himself, upon their first meeting and associating afterward. 
And finally, there are strong reasons for regarding this encounter of later 
occurrence, which will be noticed hereafter. (See on ^ 36.) 



A period of rest and of growth to Jewish and Gentile churches ; and of the 
extension of the gospel into remoter portions of Asia Minor, and into Europe. 

I 30. The dissension of Paul and Barnabas results in separate missions. The 
latter, with his cousin Mark (Col. 4 : 10), selects his native Cyprus, perhaps. 


from his love of country. Mark, too, was familiar with the brethren and 
places there (ch. 13 : 5). Soon after, Paul and Silas Kevisit the 
CnirRCHES in Syria and Cilicia (ch. 15 : 41), and deliver the decrees of the 
Council (ch. 16 : 4), and the churches are strengthened spiritually, and increased 
numerically (ver. 5). This journey began probably in the spring of A. d. 51. 
(See preceding section.) 

This route was by land, crossing the Taurus Mountain by one of the eastern 
passes, probably through the Cicilian gates, and entering Lycaonia, traveling 
westward, and visiting Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and other places where there 
were churches (ch. 16 : 1, 2, 4. See on ^ 27.) Instead of visiting Antioch in 
Pisidia (ch. 13 : 14; see on | 26), which was quite distant from their course, 
they may have forwarded the decrees Avithout going there themselves. Or 
they may have taken Antioch in their way, as they went into Phrygia 
(ch. 16 : 6). 

Timothy, converted probably during Paul's former visit, or as a result of that 
visit, is found at Lystra (1 Cor. 4: 17; 1 Tim. 1 : 2; 2 Tim. 1 : 2). Paul 
selects him as an attendant and fellow-worker, in which position he becomes 
pre-eminent (1 Cor. 16 : 10 ; Phil. 1 : 1 ; 2 : 19, etc). His father was a Greek, 
but his mother was a Jewess of eminent piety (2 Tim. 1 : 5 ; 3 : 15). Paul 
circumcised him, because of the Jews in those parts, who knew that his father 
was a Gentile. During this missionary journey Timothy accompanied Paul 
through Asia Minor (ch. 16: 6-10) to Philippi, and thence to Thessalonica and 
Berea. There he is left by Paul (ch. 17 : 14-16), but probably rejoined him at 
Athens. From here he appears to have been sent on a visit to Thessalonica, 
but soon after comes to Corinth, and is joined with Paul and Silas in the 
salutations of the two Epistles to the Thessalonians, written from that place 
(1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess: 1: 1). His further connection with Paul will be 
noticed as the history progresses. 

The question has often been ^sked, How could Paul voluntarily circumcise 
Timothy, when but little before he refused to circumcise Titus (Gal. 2:3)? The 
cases were entirely different. Titus was a Greek, and his was a test case. To 
have circumcised him, at that time, would have been to acknowledge circum- 
cision as a condition to salvation. There were those holding to that doctrine, 
who would compel him. To such he could not yield. But Timothy's mother 
was a Jewess. The decrees were promulgated and accepted by the churches. 
The Jews were not demanding Gentiles to keep the Mosaic law, nor circum- 
cision as necessary to salvation. There was no such claim threatening the 
liberty of Paul in his work. His act was voluntary, not of compulsion. 
Timothy would be more useful, as a fellow-helper of Paul, among the Jews. 
His conduct was understood. No principle was compromised in accommo- 
dating himself to Jewish feelings ; for it was not for his salvation, or to gain 
favor with God, but only to be more acceptable as a minister among the Jews, 


while he would be no less acceptable to the Gentiles. Paul acted on the 
principle: "To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews" 
(ICor. 9: 20). 

By comparing ch. 16 : 3, and 1 Tim. 4 : 14 ; 2 Tim. 1 : 6, it appears that 
Timothy was also set apart to the ministry " with the laying on of the hands of 
the presbytery." 

Paley has pointed out an accidental coincidence between ch. 16 : 1, and 
2 Tim. 1 : 5, 6 ; 3 : 15. In the Acts, the mother " was a Jewess and believed," 
but his father " was a Greek." In the Epistles the mother is spoken of as a 
woman of great piety, and as having educated her son, from a babe, in the Holy 
Scriptures. Thus in the latter the father is not mentioned, either because he 
was dead, or remained unconverted. And so praise is bestowed on one parent, 
and no notice is taken of the other. 

The visitation of the churches in Lycaonia, and perhaps Pisidia (ch. IG: 
1-5), must have occupied the summer of a. d. 51. The extension of the loork 
northward and westward in Galatia and Phrygia (ch. 16 : 6), would take at 
least what of the autumn remained, and the winter. Paul, Silas, and 
Timothy could not have arrived at Troas (ch. 16: 8) earlier than the spring 
of A. D. 52. Some suppose that Paul and Barnabas visited Galatia, and 
planted the gospel there on their first visit (ch. 14: 19-25). But this is not 
probable. Compare Prof. Ramsay's view, Appendix A. 

The route of Paul, tlirough these countries, has been much discussed. Dr. 
Ilackett gives an excellent summary : " The travelers, having passed through 
the eastern section of Phrygia into Galatia, proposed next to preach the word 
in Proconsular Asia. With that view, they turned their steps to the south- 
west, and, crossing the north part of Phrygia, came down to the frontier of 
Mysia, the first province of Asia which they would reach in that direction. 
Being informed here that they were not to execute this design, they turned 
again toward the north, and attempted to go into Bithynia, which was adja- 
cent to Mysia. Restrained from that purpose, they passed by Mysia — i. e., did 
not remain there to preach — and proceeded to Troas. This portion of the 
apostles' travels, though they embrace so wide a circuit, admits of very little 
geographical illustration. Phrygia and Galatia are parts of Asia Minor, of 
which the ancient writers have left but few notices, and which remain com- 
paratively unknown to the present day." 

That great success attended Paul's labors in Galatia and Phrygia, is to be 
inferred from Acts 18 : 23. From Gal, 4 : 13, 19, it is evident that the gospel 
was first preached in Galatia by Paul, and " that because of an infirmity of 
the flesh." It would seem that, as he was passing through Galatia, he was 
detained on account of sickness, or some bodily weakness, which gave him 
time and opportunity to preach the gospel. The meeting of Luke, the be- 
loved phvsician, at Troas, was doubtless most timely. (See next section.) 



^ 31. The arrival of Paul and his companions in Europe was prob- 
ably in the early spring of A. d. 52. It is often said that now the gospel was 
first preached in Europe. But this is not certain ; for the Church at Rome may 
have been established by some of the converts on the Day of Pentecost (ch. 
2 : 10). The Church at PhilijDpi was the first that Paul gathered in Europe 
(ch. 16: 12,40). 

From Troas, the apostle and his company have a -prosperous voyage, sailing 
before the wind, northwestward, to Samothracia, an island in the northern 
part of the ^gean Sea, where the ship appears to have anchored during the 
night, probably sheltered by the island, on the northern side. The next day, 
sailing in the same direction as before, they arrive at Neapolis, a sea-port 
town belonging, at that time, to Thrace, and then they proceed by land about 
ten miles to Philippi. During the third missionary journey, it took five days 
to go from Philippi to Troas (ch. 20: 6). 

From the use oi i\\e first person, in ch. 16: 10, it is inferred that Luke joins 
the company at Troas. We have no account of his conversion, or when he 
became acquainted with the apostle. But he here joins him in his travels, 
with all the naturalness of one who had met an old friend. It is quite 
probable that he was converted under the preaching of Paul. Dr. Plumptre 
argues very ingeniously that Paul met Luke as a fellow-student in the 
streets of Tarsus, where the latter had come for his medical education. 
Tarsus, and the whole region about it, was famous for its physicians. — {St. 
Paul in Asia Minor, p. 26.) 

The accuracy of Luke finds several illustrations in this section. Thus (1) it 
is said of PhiUppi, that it was " a city of Macedonia, the first of the district, 
a Eoman colony," which exactly expresses its status at that time. Though it 
was not the capital of that district, it was the first in importance, being a 
colony, which gave the city a special dignity. Upon the extensive plain, in 
the immediate neighborhood, Augustus gained a decisive victory over Brutus 
and Cassius (b. c. 42,) and hence he sent a colony, and conferred upon the 
city colonial privileges. The Roman colony was not a mere voluntary assem- 
blage of emigrants, but a foreign country or town, upon which had been 
formally conferred the privileges of Italian or Roman citizenship. Corre- 
sponding with the officers of such a colony, we find Luke speaking of the 
magistrates or prcetors (ver. 20, 22, 35, 36, 38), and of sergeants or lictors 
(ver. 35, 38). 

(2) Luke speaks of "Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira" 
(ch. 16 : 14). Now Thyatira, on the river Lycus, in the north of Lydia, in 
Asia Minor, was famous for dyeing purple or crimson. It was noted even in 
the time of Homer ; and an inscription, " the dyers," has been found in its 

(3) In speaking of the maid who had a soothsaying demon, Luke says she 


had "a spirit of divination," or, rather, "a spirit: a python" (cli. 16: 16). 
The term was applied to a soothsaying ventriloquist, and described the re- 
puted character of the maid. Luke's description is in exact harmony with 
the belief and language of his day. (See Plutarch, De. Def. Orac., p. 414. 
E. Cic. de Div., 2 : 87.) " The name was afterwards given to any soothsaying 
demon, and Hesychius specially states that a python means a ventriloquist, a 
soothsaying ventriloquist." — Lange. Paul treats her as she actually was, 
possessed with an evil spirit, and commanded it to come out of her. 

(4) Paul and Silas assert their Eoman citizenship (ch. 16 : 37), which results 
in their immediate deliverance, and terror to the officers who liad commanded 
them to be beaten and imprisoned. One of the rights of a Roman citizen 
was that he should be tried in due form before he was condemned. He was 
also exempted from the disgrace of being scourged with rods or whips. " How 
often," says Cicero, " has this exclamation, I am a Roman citizen, brought aid 
and safety even among barbarians in the remotest parts of the earth." {Cic. 
Verr., v. 57.) 

Luk(^s account of Paul's labors at Philippi is confirmed by PauCs Epistles: 

(1) In ch. 16 : 13-15, Luke relates how Paul preached to the women in the 
place of prayer, and how Lydia was converted. In Phil. 4 : 2, 3, Paul speaks 
of two pious women, Euodia and Syntyche, and of "those women" who 
" labored with me in the gospel." The Acts speaks of a class among whom 
Paul labored, and a noted convert; the Epistle implies labor among that 
class, by speaking of a number of believing women. Some of them may have 
been in Lydia's household. A work thus commenced would naturally spread 
among the women at Philippi. 

(2) In ch. 16: 22, it is said that Paul is beaten with rods. In 2 Cor. 11: 
15, Paul writes : " Thrice was I beaten with rods." Here we have one of the 
instances. The other two are not recorded. A spurious history, or a 
spurious epistle, would have tried to have made the two agree. The dis- 
agreement has the stamp of truth ; for Luke does not attempt to write a full 
history of the apostle, but only such things as shall answer the purpose of 
the book. 

(3) Again, in 1 Thess. 2 : 2, Paul wrote, " having suffered before, and been 
shamefully entreated, as ye know, at Philippi," which corresponds with Luke's 
account of Paul's persecution at Philippi, just before his going to Thessa- 
lonica(ch. 16: 22-24; 17: 1). 

(4) So, also, in Phil. 1 : 30, he refers to the " conflict," "suffering in behalf 
of Christ," which the Philippians "saw" in him. 

As the narrative proceeds from this chapter to ch. 20: 5, in the third 
person, it is supposed that Luke remained at Philippi till Paul's last visit to 
Macedonia. Hackett suggests that it might have been winter. See Smith, 
"Dict.,"H. on "Neapolis." 


§ 32. If Paul came to Philippi in the early spring of A. d. 52, and remained 
there six weeks or two months, then we may assign his going to Thessalonica 
to about the last of April or the first of May. Paul and his companions went 
on the great military, Egnatian road, which led from the Asiatic provinces 
to Kome. About thirty-two miles from Philippi they reached Amphipolis, a 
large commercial city, the capital of the first division of Macedonia. About 
thirty-two miles further they came to Apollonia, the site of which is in 
doubt ; and about thirty-six beyond, they entered Thessalonica, a large mari- 
time city, the capital of the second division of Macedonia, and the residence 
of a Roman governor. It very probably took them three days, remaining the 
nights at each of these towns. Thessalonica was about one hundred miles 
southwest of Philippi. 

Three Sabbaths, over two weeks, are spent in preaching in the synagogue to 
the Jews. (Ch. 17 : 2.) Besides this, they labor among the Gentiles with 
great success (ver. 4 ; 1 Thess. 1 : 9). At least a month must have been 
spent here. 

The Jews excite a mob, and arouse persecution. Paul and Silas go by night 
to Berea (now Verria), about forty-five miles southwest of Thessalonica (ch. 
17 : 10.) Timothy either goes with them, or follows a little after (ver. 14). 
They are well received by the Jews, and have success both among Jews and 
Gentiles. But after a brief stay of perhaps a few weeks, they are compelled 
to leave, because of persecution, instigated by the hostile Jews of Thessalonica. 
No great time probably elapsed before the Jews of Thessalonica heard, from 
those at Berea, concerning the preaching of the apostles — such was the ease of 
communication between Jewish synagogues. Sopater of Berea, afterward a 
companion of Paul (ch. 20 : 4), was probably converted at this time. 

The brethren of Berea sent forth Paul as far as the sea (ch. 17 : 14), prob- 
ably to Dium, about seventeen miles distant ; and there Paul and his con- 
ductors embark, and sail over two hundred and fifty miles to Athens. The 
conductors return, bearing a message to Silas and Timothy. 

This history in the Acts (ch. 17 : 1-19) is supplemented and confirmed by 
Paul's Epistles to the Thessalonians and the Philippians. (1) Paul supported 
himself while at Thessalonica (1 Thess. 2 : 9 ; 2 Thess. 3 : 7, 8.) He, doubtless, 
wrought at his trade, tent-making. (Ch. 18 : 3.) In connection with this, Phil. 
4 : 14-16 is of peculiar interest, in which Paul speaks of having received sup- 
plies at Thessalonica from Philippi, once and again. This was after his first 
visit to Philippi, after "the beginning of the gospel." The second visit to 
^Macedonia is recorded in ch. 20 : 1, 2. Thus, by his labor, and by the gifts of 
the Philippians, Paul could say : " Neither did we eat bread for naught at 
any man's hand." (2 Thess. 3 : 8.) (2) Paul not only gained some converts 
from the Jews, and many from devout Greeks (ch. 17 : 4), but also from 
idolaters. (1 Thess. 1 : 9.) AVhen the Jews opposed the truth, Paul probably, 


as at Antioch in Pisidia, turned to the Gentiles. (Ch. 14: 46.) (3) In cli. 17. 
4-9, is an account of a lawless persecution, instigated by the Jews. In 
1 Thess. 2: 14-16, Paul speaks of this Jewish persecution, and of their 
forbidding him and his associates to preach to the Gentiles. So, also, in 
1 Thess. 3 : 4, he says : " We told you beforehand that we are to suffer 
affliction ; even as it came to pass and ye know." Now if we connect with 
these 1 Thess. 2: 17, 18, where Paul states his strong desire and purpose to 
visit the Thessalonians at two different times, "once and again," but ''Satan 
hindered" him; we see how this may have been done "once" through the 
persecution at Berea, which led him to depart for Athens, instead of return- 
ing to Thessalonica, as he doubtless would have done, if he had been 
permitted to labor in peace. (Ch. 17 : 13-15.) The second hindrance doubt- 
less occurred later. (4) In Acts 17 : 14, 15, it is stated that Silas and Timothy 
abode still at Berea, while Paul departed for Athens. This fact is recognized 
in 1 Thess. 3 : 1, 2. Paul felt it was good to be left alone at Athens, and 
Timothy sent to Thessalonica. Silas and Timothy may have come to Athens, 
and then the latter have gone to Thessalonica, and Silas elsewhere. Or 
Timothy may have gone directly there from Berea. They came from 
Macedonia to Paul, at Corinth, a few months later. (Ch. 18 : 5. But see the 
discussion of Three Visits at Corinth, I 34.) 

Thus we find the agreements and differences which we would naturally 
expect in a brief history, and in affectionate letters. It is evident that no 
attempt was made to make them correspond with each other, and yet there 
are no contradictions. They confirm and supplement, and explain each other. 

The accuracy of Luke is again illustrated in ch. 17 : 5, 6, 8. Thessalonica 
was a free city ; but not a colony, as was Philippi. (Ch. 16 : 12.) The govern- 
ments differed accordingly. What Luke states, is in perfect harmony with 
what Ave know of the government of free cities. Tlius (ver. r3) the Jews with 
the crowd sought to bring Paul and Silas to the people, or to the assembly — the 
people in their corporate capacity — in order that they might be tried. So, 
also, they "dragged Jason and certain brethren before the rulers of the city'' 
(Greek, "politarchs''). This title for magistrates is said to occur in no other 
writing, and might easily be confounded with the more usual title poliarchs, 
the prcetors of a Roman colony. (Ch. 16 ; 22.) Luke's accuracy is further 
confirmed by an inscription on an ancient archway at Thessalonica, giving 
the name of seven politarchs, who governed the city before the visit of Paul. 
The names of three of them are the same as three of Paul's companions; 
Sopater of Berea (ch. 20: 4); Gains of Macedonia (ch. 19: 29); and Secundus 
of Thessalonica (ch. 20 : 4.) 

Concerning Thessalonica, it may be added, that it was situated on the north- 
eastern extremity of the Gulf of Saloniki, and on the great military road, 
the Egnatian. It was the most populous city of Macedonia, and rivaled 



Corinth and Ephesus in commerce. This gave it intercourse and great inllu- 
ence in Macedonia and Achaia, and accords with what Paul says in 1 Thess. 
1:8:" For from you hath sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in 
Macedonia and Achaia, but in every place your faith to God-ward is gone 
forth." — (Revision.) 

Jason may be the one mentioned in Rom. 16 : 21, as one of Paul's kinsmen, 
which may throw light upon the attack make on his house at Thessalonica, 
his conduct in entertaining " certain brethren," and in giving security (ch, 
17 : 5-9). 

^ 33. According to our chronology, Paul arrived at Athens in July, 
A..D. 52. The voyage from Troas to Neapolis (ch. 16: 11), and perhaps three 
or four months later, from Dium to Athens (ch. 17 : 15), shows that naviga- 
tion was open, and may indicate that the winter was past, and that it was 
summer, when Paul reached Athens. 

Paley notices that when Paul came out from Macedonia to Athens, Silas and 
Timothy stayed behind at Berea (ch. 17 : 14); and that Paul says, in 1 Thess. 
3 : 1, 2 : " Therefore when we could no longer forbear, we thought it good to be 
left behind at Athens alone, and sent Timothy ... to establish you and to 
comfort you concerning your faith." Paley supposes that Timothy joined 
Paul at Athens; because, (1) Paul sent for Timothy and Silas to come to him 
(ch. 17 : 15) ; (2) he waited for them at Athens (ch. 17 : 16) ; (3) he did not 
leave Athens abruptly. Paley also supposes that Paul sent Timothy from 
Athens back to Macedonia, and this accounts for his not having rejoined Paul 
at Corinth, until the latter had been there some time. This, indeed, har- 
monizes the history in the Acts and Paul's Epistles. 

But we may suppose that Paul had previously directed Timothy to go to 
Thessalonica froin Berea. It is not expressly stated that Timothy was sent 
from Athens to Thessalonica. Silas may have been sent on a similar mission ; 
and thus both Timothy and Silas would rejoin Paul somewhat later at Corintli 
(ch. 18. 5). After waiting a time at Athens, Paul could proceed to Corinth, 
knowing that Timothy and Silas could easily learn his movements whenever 
they arrived at Athens, and follow him to Corinth. And this may be inferred 
from 1 Thess. 2 : 18, which does not well apply to Paul's first stay at Athens 
(ch. 17 : 17) ; for he had left Thessalonica so recently, that he could not be 
longing to visit them before he reached Corinth, the main object of his jour- 
ney ; and he could hardly have already determined twice to visit them, but 
had been hindered by Satan, and then had sent Timothy in his stead. May 
not the visit to Athens, in 1 Thess. 3 : 1, be another one, somewhat later than 
this, after the arrival of Timothy and Silas at Corinth (ch. 18 : 5), which is 
not mentioned in the Acts ? (See on next section.) 


Profane history again conjinns and Ulustrates the accuracy of Luke in his 
account of Paul at Athens. 

1. Paul "beheld the city full of kloh:' (Ch. 17.) This was peculiarly 
appropriate to Athens, which is repeatedly described by ancient writers as 
crowded with idols and temples, and as containing more images than all the 
rest of Greece. Xenophon refers to it as one great altar, one great sacrifice. 
And Petronius says, satirically, that it was easier to find a god there than 
a man. 

2. In regard to the schools of philosophy. "And certain also of the Epicurean 
and Stoic philosophers encountered him." (Ver. 18.) That no one of the 
schools founded by Plato and Aristotle is mentioned, may be explained: 
(1) That these schools had less influence at this time. (2) That they were 
more employed in abstruse speculations, and took less interest in practical 
discussions ; and (3) from this smaller contrast of their doctrines with those 
of Christianity. The Stoic and Epicurean were also more limited than 
other philosophers to moral investigations. The former acknowledged the 
supremacy of moral good, the existence of God, and a Providence, but 
confounded God with the universe, and Providence with a fatal necessity. 
They were self-complacent, boasted their indifference to the world, and even 
pretended to deny the difference between pain and pleasure. The latter 
taught that serene enjoyment was the highest good and the great end of 
existence, which often led them into the grossest and most sensual pleasures. 
. . . The treatment which Paul received from the votaries of these two 
leading systems was just such as any one might expect. The frivolous spirit 
of the Epicurean might lead liim to ask, "What would this babbler say?" 

Talk of our souls and realms beyond the grave, 
The very boys will laugh and say you rave. 

And the more thoughtful Stoic might surmise him to be " a setter forth of 
strange gods." 

3. In regard to the character of the Athenians, Luke says of them, that they 
" spent their time in nothing else," or " had leisure for nothing else, but 
either to tell or hear some new thing" (ver. 21). The same description, and 
almost the same words, are found in ancient writings concerning the Athenians. 
"Tell me," says Demosthenes, "is it all your care, going around to ask 
throughout the market. Is there any news ? " — Philippic I. Again, " We sit 
here doing nothing but trifling, and noting, and inquiring in the market 
whether anything newer is reported." — Ep. Phil. 

Again, Luke gives this character of idle curiosity and inquisitiveness not only 
to the Atheijians, but also to the stranrjers — those who temporarily resided there. 
Students and distinguished men from abroad were very numerous at Athens, 
as the most famous seat of learning, and very naturally fell into tlie habits of 
the natives. Cicero spent much time here, at one j^eriod of liis life. 


4. In regard to their religiousness, Paul said, "I perceive that ye are very 
religious " (ver. 22) ; " I found also an altar with this inscription, To an un- 
known God" (ver. 23). Ancient writers represent the Athenians as the most 
religious of all the Greeks. It was a distinction of which they were proud. 
Thus, among others, Pausanias says, "The Athenians are, beyond others, 
devoted to religion." {Attic, c. 24.) 

Altars, "To an unknown God," are mentioned by two contemporary writers^ 
Pausanias and Philostratus, as existing in Athens. They, however, use the 
plural, both of altar and of god — " altars to unknown gods." This probably 
means that there were many altars inscribed to an unknown god, which would 
naturally be spoken of in the plural when a writer refers to them in a collec- 
tive way. So Winer, Meyer, Hackett, Gloag, and others. Diogenes Laertius 
speaks of "altars without name" in Athens. {Epimen., c. 3.) 

5. Paul's quotation from one of the Greek poets, ^^For we are also his off- 
spring." This is an exact quotation from Aratus of Cilicia. Cleanthes the 
Stoic also has almost the same words. Both poets were of the third century 
before Christ. It was quite natural for Paul to quote from Aratus, who was 
of his own native country, Cilicia, and whose fame had traveled far and wide. 
Cicero had, in early life, translated' the Phcenomena, from which this quotation 
was made ; and Paul quotes it as familiar to the Athenians, and as one occu- 
pying a place in Greek literature. The passage is as follows : 

From Zeus begin we ; never let us leave 
His name untold. With him, with Zeus, are filled 
All parts we tread, and all the marts of men ; 
Filled, too, the sea and everj- creek and bay ; 
And all in all things need we help of Zeus, 
For we, too, are his oSspring.— Phcenomena, 1-5. 

Athens was the capital of Attica, and formed part of the Roman province 
of Achaia. It had lost its military and political greatness, but it was still the 
metropolis of Grecian science, art, and wisdom. In the centre of the city was 
the Acropolis, a rocky eminence about one hundred and fifty feet high, on 
which were many temples, chief among them the Parthenon, and the Erec- 
theum. Slightly northwest of the Acropolis was Areopagus, or the Hill of 
Mars, where the supreme court held its sittings (ver. 19, 22). It has been 
thought by some that Paul was arraigned before this court, as Socrates had 
been 450 years before, for the offence of introducing strange gods. The word 
Areopagus is dubious, and can be applied to either the hill, or the court that 
held its sittings there. There is, however, no trace of judicial proceedings. 

Even in addressing a heathen audience of learned men, it is interesting to 
note how Paul imbued his speech with, or quoted from, the Old Testament 
Scriptures. (Compare ch. 17: 24, with Isa. 42: 5; and ch. 17: 31, with 
Ps. 9 : 8.) 


§ 34. Paul's stay at Athens appears to have been brief. Wieseler con- 
jectures it to have been fourteen days. His Arrival at Corlnth may have 
been early in August, a. d. 52. This date accords well with the edict of the 
Emperor Claudius, who "commanded all the Jews to depart from Eome," 
which led Aquila to Corinth. (Ch. 18 : 2.) Suetonius, who wrote a half 
century later, probably refers to this decree ( Claud, c. 25) : " The Jews ever 
making disturbance, Chrestus being the instigator, he expelled from Rome"; 
which seems to imply that Christianity had already reached Rome, and 
aroused the fears of an emperor peculiarly hostile to foreign superstitions. 
Aquila was probably a Christian, as we have no account of his conversion at 
Corinth. "Edicts of this nature, for the expulsion of any class of foreigners 
from Rome, were almost always prompted by some disturbance in their native 
country. Now such an outbreak took place at Jerusalem, at the Feast of 
Tabernacles, a. d. 51, and led to the recall of Ventidius Cumanus, and the 
appointment of Felix as his successor." — (Dr. Wm. Smith, New Testament 
History, p. 484.) Allowing time for the news to reach Rome, and necessary 
inquiry on the part of the emperor, the edict may be placed early in a. d. 52 ; 
and the arrival of Aquila in the spring of that year, if he came directly 
from Rome to Corinth. He was in the latter city when Paul came, and if 
this was the date proposed above, it could truly be said of him, that he had 
" lately come from Italy." (Ch. 18 : 2.) 

The distance from Athens to Corinth is about forty-five miles by land. 
The voyage could be made, in favorable weather, in five or six hours; in 
unfaA'orable weather, from two to five days. Corinth was the capital of the 
Roman province of Achaia. 

In comparing Luke's account of Paul's first insit at Corinth with his Epistles, 
we should note the following : 

1. In regard to Aquila (ch. 18 : 2), we learn from 1 Cor. 16 : 19, that he 
was probably at Ephesus, when Paul wrote the first Epistle to the Corinthians. 
(Compare ch. 18 : 24:-26.) And from Rom. 16 : 3, it appears that on some 
occasion, very probably at Ephesus, Aquila and his wife had risked their own 
lives in order to save Paul's life. 

2. In ch. 18 : 3, Luke records the fact that Paul was a tent^maker, and that 
he wrought at his trade at Corinth. To this he refers in 1 Cor. 4 : 11, where 
he says, "we toil, working with our own hands"; and in 1 Cor. 9: 12, after 
enforcing the principle that the spiritual laborer is worthy of wages, he adds : 
('Nevertheless we did not use this right" ; and in ver. 18 of the same chapter, 
he says: "That when I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel without 
charge." (Compare ^ 32 ; 2 Thess. 3 : 8, etc.) 

And this brings us into contact with profane history. Paul, according to 
the custom of his nation, had early learned a trade. That he learned tent- 
making was most natural, for Tarsus was conspicuous for that employment; 


and goat's hair, of which tent-cloth was made, was an important product of 

In connection with Paul's labor at Corinth, 2 Cor. 11 : 8, 9, gives us the 
interesting fact that gifts ivere sent him from the brethren of Macedonia; very 
probably by Silas and Timotheus, when they came to Corinth, " When I was 
present with you and was in want, I was not a burden on any man ; for the 
brethren when they came from Macedonia, supplied the measure of my want.'' 
And thus Paul may have been relieved of the necessity of working to sup- 
port himseK. 

3. The Acts and the Epistles to the Corinthians agree in regard to the 
great theme of Paul's preaching. This, according to Luke, was " that Jesus was 
the Christ" (ch. 18: 5). And Paul says, in 1 Cor. 2: 2: "I determined not 
to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ and him crucified " ; and in 
2 Cor. 1 : 19, he says: "Jesus Christ, who was preached among you." 

4. In regard to the coming of Silas and Timothy to Corinth, both the Acts and 
the Epistles are in accord (ch. 18: 5; 2 Cor. 1: 19; 11: 9; 1 Thess. 3: 6)- 
If all of these passages refer to one and the same arrival from Macedonia, 
they certainly agree ; or if we suppose that Silas and Timothy went after this 
to Macedonia, of which Luke, in the Acts, gives no account, and of which 
Paul, in his Epistles, speaks, still there is no contradiction. 

Bnt here, it should be noted, that their coming to Corinth, mentioned in 
ch. 18 : 5, was probably that for which Paul was waiting at Athens (ch. 17 : 
16), and for which he continued to wait till after his arrival at Corinth. From 
a comparison of the seventeenth and eighteenth chapters of the Acts, it seems 
to me most natural to suppose that Paul left Athens before Silas and Timothy 
came ; and that their coming to Corinth (ch. 17 : 5) was the first that he had 
seen them since he left them at Berea (ch. 17 : 14). Paul may have directed 
them at Berea to go to Thessalonica, and even to Philippi ; and by his 
message (ch. 17 : 15) to them from Athens, he may have desired them to 
finish their visit and Avork, and come to him quickly. (See on | 33, second 
paragraph.) Or Paul may have sent Silas and Timothy from Athens, or from 
Corinth, somewhat later, of which Luke gives no account. (See below in the 
discussion regarding Three Visits of Paul to Corinth). 

5. In ch. 18 : 8, the baptism of many Corinthians is recorded, among whom, 
it is to be inferred, was Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue. In 1 Cor. 1 : 14, 
Paul writes : " I baptized none of you save Crispus and Gains ; and I also 
baptized the household of Stephanus." The Acts states the fact of certain bap- 
tisms without naming the administrator. The Epistle names all the persons 
that Paul did baptize at Corinth, among whom was Crispus. The others were 
probably baptized by Silas and Timothy. Here is diversity, yet really perfect 

6. The history (ch. 18 : 17) speaks of " Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue," 


(perhaps the successor of Crispus, ver. 8), who was beaten, as it would seem, 
by the Gentiles; and Paul, in 1 Cor. 1: 1, joins, with his own name, 
"Sosthenes, our brother." The coincidence of the name has led some to 
suppose that the same person is meant in both places. This is possible. But 
he could not have been a Christian when he was beaten, for he would not have 
been merely mentioned as a ruler of a synagogue. Yet he may have been 
converted afterward. The beating he received may have humbled him ; and 
Paul, or some of the disciples, may have shown him especial kindness (Kom. 
12: 20, 21), and thereby have led him to Christ. 

The accuracy of Luke is again illustrated by history, in that he speaks of 
Gallio as proconsul of Achaia (a. d. 53), which indicates that it was a 
senatorial province (see on § 25, ch. 13: 17), which was the case under the 
Emperor Claudius (Jan., a. d. 41-Oct. 54) ; but under the preceding emperors, 
Tiberius and Caligula, Achaia was an imperial province, and its governor 
would have been a propraetor. Seneca, the celebrated moralist, was a brother 
of Gallio, and in one of his letters (104) speaks of him as having resided in 
Achaia, but does not say in what capacity he was there. PUny refers to his 
consulship, but does not say where it was (Plin. N. H., 31 : 33). The Roinan 
province of Achaia included the whole of Greece, lying south of Macedonia. 

The description of Gallio in ch. 18 : 1^17, is in harmony with his reputed 
character. He was popularly esteemed for his mild temper, "No mortal," 
says Seneca, "is as pleasant to one person as he was to all." {Qucest. Nat., 4, 
Pref.) Statins the poet gives to him the same character. (Sylv. 2 : 7.) Gallio 
did perfectly right in refraining from giving judgment on questions of the 
Jewish law and traditions ; but he was wrong in not using his authority in 
preventing violence, and keeping the peace. His careless indifference, 
brought to view by Luke — " Gallio cared for none of these things " — was an 
element of a mild and easy temper. Even this treatment of such questions 
would tend to make him popular among Gentiles and Christians, while the 
Jews could not find serious fault. 

Paul wrote the First and the Second Epistles to the Thessalonians during this 
missionary residence at Corinth. For (1) Paul joins the names of Silas, or 
Silvanus, and Timothy, with his own. (1 Thess. 1 : 1 ; 2 Thess. 1:1.) (2) 
Timothy was with Paul afterward on several occasions, but Silvanus is not 
mentioned wtth him at any time after this visit at Corinth. (Ch. 18:5; 
2 Cor. 1 : 19.) (3) It was after Paul had been at Athens (1 Thess. 3: 1), and 
after Timothy had made a visit (instead of Paul, who had been hindered 
twice) to Macedonia and returned. (1 Thess. 2: 18 ; 3: 2, 6.) But as Paul was 
about two years at Corinth, the question arises. At what time in this visit did 
he write them ? As the answer depends somewhat on another question, How 
many visits did Paul make to Corinth ? we postpone fixing the probable date 
to these Epistles, till that is considered. 


Did Paul make two or three visits to Corinth f It would seem that only one 
answer could be given, for Paul says in 2 Cor. 12: 14: "Behold, this is the 
third time I am ready to come to you;" and in 2 Cor. 13: 1, he repeats it: 
" This is the third time I am coming to you." It is generally admitted that 
Paul visited Corinth soon after writing his Second Epistle to them (ch. 20: 
2, 3), which would be the third time spoken of in that Epistle. 

But it is objected by Paley and some others : (1) That the Acts records only 
two visits, and does not allow time or room for the third. (2) That the pas- 
sage means only, This is the third time 7 am ready, that I am prepared to 
set out on this journey. Or, (3) That ch. 13 : 1, means, This was the third 
Epistle in which he had announced his intention of coming (1 Cor. 5:9). 
(4) That Paul speaks of it as a second visit in 2 Cor. 13:2; and a second 
benefit in 2 Cor. 1 : 15. (5) That Paul had once promised to visit the Corinth- 
ians, but had disappointed them (2 Cor. 1 : 15-18). 

To (1), it may be replied, that the Acts does not give a detailed account of 
Paul's work and travels. He made several journeys by land, and voyages not 
recorded. (2 Cor. 11 : 23-28.) He could easily have visited Corinth the second 
time before a. d. 50. As to (2), 2 Cor. 13 : 1, cannot have the meaning sug- 
gested; and in 2 Cor. 12: 14, Paul does not refer to his readiness the third 
time, but to his actual coming the third time, when he would not be burden- 
some to them. The suggested meaning in (3), is too far-fetched to deserve 
serious consideration. In regard to (4), Paul actually speaks of a second visit 
which he had already made, "when I was present the second time" (2 Cor. 
13 : 2). As to a " second benefit" (2 Cor. 1 : 15), Paul probably refers to pro- 
posed visits on his journey to and from Macedonia (2 Cor. 1 : 16). Each 
visit would be an occasion of many blessings. And, finally, (5), in 2 Cor. 1 : 
15-18, Paul states his plan or original intention with regard to a journey or 
journeys to Corinth, which he had not been able to accomijlish. But all this 
does not preclude a visit since his first visit. Indeed, all the objections really 
make nothing against the plain meaning of 2 Cor. 12: 14; 13: 1. No one 
without a previous bias, or a desire to avoid some difliculty, would be likely 
to think of anything but a third actual visit. 

If, then, Paul visited Corinth three times, when did he make his second visit f 
(1) It could not have been after the First Epistle to the Corinthians, which 
was written A. d. 57. For, in 1 Cor. 16 : 8, Paul says : " But I will tarry at 
Ephesus until Pentecost " ; and the whole tenor of the Second Epistle im- 
plies that he had not seen them since his previous writing (2 Cor. 1 : 23 ; 
2 : 3, etc.). (2) It could not have been a short time before either the First 
Epistle, or the lost Epistle referred to in 1 Cor. 5:9; for, in that case, he 
could have spoken of their condition from his own observation, and not have 
appealed to oral accounts (1 Cor. 1: 11 ; 11: 18; 16: 17, 18), and to written 
statements and questions (1 Cor. 7: 1; 8:1). Indeed, there would have 


probably been no necessity of their writing him regarding such matters, 
since he would have settled them when he was present with them. 

It may, however, be objected, that he did visit them at one time in 
sorrow (2 Cor. 2: 2), and therefore this second visit occurred after the exist- 
ence of the evils at Corinth, noticed in the First Epistle. But it may be 
replied (1), that even if this be the true interpretation of the passage, the 
conclusion here drawn does not necessarily follow. For we know so little 
about the history of the church. There may have been circumstances, in its 
early history, which caused a temporary sorrow, to which this is an incidental 
allusion. But (2), it may be affirmed that such a view of the passage mis- 
apprehends Paul's meaning. He had referred to a recent contemplated visit 
(2 Cor. 1: 15, 16, 23), which he had deferred making, because he determined 
not to make it in sorrow (2 Cor. 2:1). The last two verses of the first chap- 
ter are in close connection with the first verse of the second chapter. Paul 
says, " To spare you I forbore to come to Corinth But," or " for I de- 
termined this for myself, that I would not come again to you with sorrow. 
.... And I wrote this very thing" (in his .First Epistle) ''lest, when I 
came, I should have sorrow from them of whojn I ought to rejoice." (2 Cor. 
1: 23, 24; 2: 1-4). The reference is not so much to any past visit made 
in sorrow, as the avoidance of any such future visit. And this hopeful 
result he had accomplished by his First Epistle. (2 Cor. 7: 11, 12). 

If, then, the First and Second Epistles to the Corinthians were written in 
A. D. 57 (pp. 223, 230), and if the lost Epistle was written in a. d. 56, we 
may place the second visit to Corinth either in A. d. 55, during the first 
year's residence of Paul at Ephesus; or we may refer it to a return from 
a somewhat lengthened excursion, during the eighteen and more months 
of his stay in that city (ch. 18: 11, 18). The latter date I prefer; for (1) 
Apollos was probably at Corinth in A. d. 55 (ch. 19: 1), and from the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians, we can hardly suppose that Paul and Apollos 
were there at the same time. (2) Paul seems not to have been there after 
Apollos — "I planted, Apollos watered" (1 Cor. 3: 6). (3) A second visit 
thus early harmonizes better with all other events, so far as we know them, 
connected with this portion of the apostle's history. 

Now if we return and compare ch. 17: 16, with 1 Thess. 3: 1, we shall see 
that both cannot refer to the same visit to Athens ; for in the former Paul had 
left Silas and Timothy behind^ while in -the latter, Timothy had left Paul be- 
hind. In the former, Paul had been going away /ro7?i Thessalonica ; in the 
latter, he seems to have had his face set towards that city, but when hindered 
by Satan, he sent Timothy in his place (2 Thess. 2: 18; 3: 1). The latter 
passage seems to demand a somewhat later visit, either before the end of the 
eighteen months' stay at Corinth, or after it, before he left that city for his 

fourth visit to Jerusalem (ch. 18: 11, 18). The longintr of Paul to visit 



Tliessalonica (1 Thess. 2 : 17, 18), appears to be confirmatory of this view. 
(See on § 33, second and third paragraphs.) 

Dr. Volters of Tiibingen {Theologische Studien aus Wurtemberg, 1SS2, 2), 
places a visit of Paul to Athens immediately after ch. 18 : 11. And he sup- 
poses that ver. 12, "But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia," is the begin- 
ning of a new or second visit to Corinth, after his return from Athens. 
There is much to favor this view. It explains the difficulties and satisfies the 
demand of the several passages in Paul's Epistles, regarding a second visit. 
It agrees with the fact that Paul, in his First Epistle, did not know the con- 
dition of the church from personal observation, and that the Corinthians 
complained of not having seen him for so long a time. It was so connected 
with his first visit, being separated by only a short interval, that Paul himself 
writes at times as if he had only been there once (1 Cor. 2:1; 3: 1, 2, 6, 10). 
And the first visit being tlie longer, and the more important, the mind 
naturally reverts to that. Possibly in this visit to Athens, he went and re- 
turned by land, and visited other places in Achaia (2 Cor. 1:1). Some, also, 
have discovered in 1 Cor. 16: 7, an allusion to a second visit already made 
only "by the way," or, in passing. While I do not very clearly see such 
an allusion, yet if there be one to his second visit, Paul could have looked 
upon it as the much shorter and less important oncj as only an appendix to 
his first visit, and on his way in returning to Asia, Jerusalem, and Antioch. 

If then we accept the conclusion, that Paul made his second visit to 
Corinth, during his second missionary tour, and that we have an account of it 
in ch. 18 : 12-18, we may make the following arrangement of dates. We have 
supposed that Paul arrived at Corinth about the first of August, A. d. 52. 
Making due allowance for Jewish modes of reckoning, he closes his year and 
six months' labor at Corinth in December, A. d. 53, and goes to Athens, 
intending to proceed into Macedonia ; but is hindered the second time. He 
therefore sends Timothy in his place, while he visits various places in the 
vicinity and on his way back to Corinth, where he arrives after several 
week's absence, a. d. 54. In the early spring Timothy returns from :Mace- 
donia, where Paul writes his First Epistle to the Thessalonians. Paul " tarries " 
after this return "yet many days" (ch. 18 : 18), a fitting designation of five or 
six months, before leaving for Syria. While he still tarries at Corinth, 
probably in the summer of A. d. 54, he writes the Second Epistle to the 

§ 35. As Paul "had a vow" (ch. 18: 18), it is supposed that he attended 
the Feast of Pentecost, or of the Tabernacles, at Jerusalem, on his return 
TO Antioch. The arrangement which has been preferred in the preceding 
section favors the latter feast. It was then probably about the first of August, 
A. D. 54, when Paul left Corinth, which would give him suflficient time for 
reaching Jerusalem for the Feast of the Tabernacles, in September. It was 


on this journey that Paul made his first brief visit to Ejjhesus (ch. 18 : 19), 
having time to attend but one Sabbath service at the synagogue. He left, 
however, Aquila and Priscilla, to carry on the work there. 

We have no detailed account of this fourth visit of Paul to Jerusalem. (Ch. 
18 : 22). Some have even doubted whether Paul made a visit at this time. 
But the language, "he went up and saluted the church," is decisive. The 
going up points to the ascending journey to Jerusalem ; the church, to the 
church there, as the important one in Palestine; and the going down to 
Antioch is appropriate to the geographical relation of Jerusalem to that city. 
And these words and phrases Avould be inappropriate to Cesarea. Paul's 
visit must have been very brief, as he wished to reach Antioch, as the end of 
his journey. 



§ 36. It was probably during this short visit to Antioch that Paul's en- 
counter with Peter occurred (Gal. 2: 11-18. See last two paragraphs on ^ 29). 
Such is the view of Neander, Baumgarten, Hackett, Olshausen, and others. In 
favor of this view, it may be added: (1) Paul writes of it to the Galatians 
as of late occurrence and fresh in his mind. (2) The reaction in favor of 
Judaism was beginning to show itself, as in the churches of Galatia. Paul 
wrote his Epistle to them a little more than a year after this. But at the 
former visit to Antioch, immediately after the Apostolic Conference at Jeru- 
salem (ch. 15: 35), it was too early for such a Judaistic reaction. Peter 
would not so soon have opposed, or acted contrary to the principles he had so 
earnestly supported at Jerusalem. It is evident from ch. 15: 31, that the 
decision of the Council was accepted and rejoiced in by the brethren at 
Antioch; and from ch. 16: 4, 5, that the announcement of the decrees was 
followed by the peace and prosperity of the churches generally. Indeed, as 
Neander says, " If we fix this controversy of Paul and Peter .... exactly 
at this period, it will throw much light on the connection of events. Till 
now the pacification concluded at Jerusalem between the Jewish and the 
Gentile Christians had been maintained inviolate. Till now Paul had had to 
contend only with Jewish opponents, and with Judaizers, in the churches 
of Gentile Christians ; but now the oj^position between the Jewish and Gen- 
tile Christians, which the apostolic resolutions had repressed, again made its 
appearance." {Planting and Training, Amer. Ed., p. 206.) 

It would thus appear that Barnabas, having returned from his missionary 
labors in Cyprus, was again for a time at Antioch. This encounter with 


Peter, with the circumstances attending it, may have tended to shorten Paul's 
stay there. If he attended the Feast of Tabernacles at Jerusalem, he prob- 
bably arrived at Antioch in October, A. d. 54. His departure on his Third 
Missionary Tour may then be placed at about the beginning of December, 
A. D. 54. Luke's specification of time, " having spent some time there " (ch. 
18 : 23), may be regarded as about two months. 

His tour Through Galatia and Phrygia, visiting the churches in 
the order in which they were located on the road he traveled, would 
probably take the winter months. And thus, in the spring, he would reach 
Ephesus, whither he had promised to return. (Ch. 18: 20, 21; 19: 1.) "In 
accordance with the representation of Kiepert's map, we may suppose that 
Paul went first to Tarsus, thence in a northAvestern direction through Galatia, 
and then, turning to the southwest, passed through Phrygia, and so on to 
Ephesus." — Dr. Hackett. 

Luke's history, at this point, comes in contact with 1 Cor. 16 : 1, 2, in 
which Paul writes : " Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I gave 
order to the churches of Galatia, so also do ye," etc. He had passed about 
two years at Ephesus, when he wrote this Epistle, and it does not appear 
that he had visited any other churches during that period. It is therefore 
probable that he gave this order to the churches in Galatia and Phrygia at 
this time. He makes no special reference to it in his Epistle to the Galatians ; 
only a general reference to his custom in benevolent work. (Gal. 2 : 10.) 

Soon after Paul made his first visit to Ephesus (ch. 18: 19), on his way to 
Jerusalem and Antioch, Apollos, an Alexandrine Jew, and a follower of the 
doctrines of John the Baptist, came to Ephesus, a. d. 54. He was there 
instructed by Aquila and Priscilla in "the way of God more perfectly"; and 
soon after went into Achaia (ch. 18 : 27), and thence to Corinth, where he 
was in the spring of A. D. 55, when Paul returned to Ephesus. (Ch. 19 : 1.) 
His great work and influence there are confirmed by 1 Cor, 1:12; 3 : 5-7. 
About two years later he was with Paul, probably at Ephesus, when he 
wrote 1 Cor. 16: 12. And several years after, Paul requests Titus to set 
forward Apollos on his journey diligently. (Tit. 3 : 13.) 

§ 37. Paui. comes to Ephesus probably in the early spring of A. d. 55, 
having passed from Galatia and Phrygia, "through the upper country," the 
elevated central regions of the Koman province of Asia. (Ch. 19: 1.) He 
enters into the synagogue and speaks boldly "for the space of three months." 
(Ch. 19 : 8.) This may be regarded as a proximate expression, according to 
Jewish modes of reckoning; but probably coming nearer to three months 
than two. We may fix upon about the first of May as the date, when Paul 
left the synagogue and began his reasoning in the school-room of Tyrannus. 
(Ver. 9.) Here he "continued for the space of two years" (ver. 10), which 


takes us nearly to Pentecost of A. D. 57. (1 Cor. 16: 9). After this, Paul 
probably still tarried some time at Ephesus. (Ver. 21; ch. 20: 31. See 
brief reference to Ephesus in § 35, next to the last paragraph.) 

It was during the early portion of this residence at Ephesus, that Paul 
wrote his Epistle to the Galatians. He speaks of a first or former time, when 
he preached the gospel in Galatia, which implies a second visit, which he 
made just before coming to Ephesus. (Ch. 18 : 23.) That it was not long- 
after, is to be inferred from Gal. 1:6: "I marvel that you are so quickly 
removing from him who called you." Ephesus lay in the natural line of 
communication from the far east to Europe ; and so attracted very much of 
the commerce passing through those regions. It would thus be easy for Paul 
to hear from the Galatian churches, and of the false doctrine which occa- 
sioned the Epistle. Its date may be placed early in a. d. 56. 

Somewhat later in the same year may be referred the lost Epistle of Paul to 
the Corinthians (1 Cor. 5 : 9). " The Epistle of which he speaks is not at this 
day extant. Nor is there any doubt that many others are lost. It is enough, 
however, that those have been preserved to us which the Lord foresaw would 
suffice." — Calvin. So also the same view — Neander, Meyer, Alford, Ellicott, 
and many others. 

The history in the Acts, in this section, comes in contact with secular history 
in two or three places. 

1. In regard to magical arts (ch. 19 : 22). For these, Ephesus was famous. 
There were the charms or amulets known as the Ephesian letters, by which a 
person was assured of success in all his undertakings. They were sold by 
magicians or exorcists, at prices varying according to their supposed mysterious 
virtues. Appollonius of Tyana, a teacher and professed wonder-worker, had 
gone through the provinces of Asia, doubtless had been at Ephesus, and taught 
the practice of curious arts ; and very likely some of the books that were burnt, 
included some of his instructions (ch. 19: 13-20). The value of these books 
amounted to fifty thousand " pieces of silver," or about seven thousand and 
five hundred dollars. 

The influence of Ephesus, in its magic arts and superstition, was felt by the 
Jews as well as Gentiles. Thus there were " the strolling Jews, exorcists," 
among whom were the seven sons of Sceva (ch. 19 : 14) ; and there was 
Alexander the coppersmith (ver. 33; 2 Tim. 2: 14), whose occupation had 
brought him into contact with Demetrius and his craftsmen. It should be 
noted that the miracles of Paul were at this time of a special kind, by which 
the power of God was demonstrated as superior to all the curious arts of those 
who bewitched the people with their sorceries (ch. 19 : 11-17). 

2. In regard to widely-extended worJc — " so that all they that dwelt in Asia 
heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks" (ch. 19: 10). Tlie 
Roman province of Asia is meant, which occupied the western portion of the 


modern Asia Minor. The commerce of Ephesus brought it into commu- 
nication with all parts of the province. It was a great centre of business 
activity and religious worship. Thus Paul had great facility in bringing the 
gospel to the masses of tlie people, both of the city and from the country. 
Churches may have been planted in Miletus, Pergamos, Smyrna, and Sardis. 
Paul says in his first Epistle to the Corinthians, written from Ephesus : " The 
churches of Asia salute you." And years later, in the Kevelation of John, 
the seven churches in Asia are addressed. Only about forty years later, 
Pliny, in his celebrated letter to Trajan, says in regard to Christians in 
Bithynia, which lay northeast of the province of Asia : " The affair seems to 
be well worth consultation, especially on account of the number of those that 
are in danger ; for there are many of every age, of every rank, and of both 
sexes, which are now and hereafter likely to be called to account, and to be in 
danger ; for this superstition is spread like a contagion, not only into cities 
and towns, but into country villages also." 

3. Perhaps, also, in regard to Tyrannus, who appears to have been a Greek, 
and a public teacher. There is nothing said of his being a convert to Chris- 
tianity, although he very probably became one after this. The name is found 
in the inscriptions of the Columbarium of Livia, the burial-place in which 
were the deceased members of the Emperor's household, with mention of their 
names and vocation. There the name appears as a physician. As the name 
was unusual, Plumptre infers that the Tyrannus of Ephesus was perhaps a 
son, occupying a position of lecturer on medicine, a generation later. He sug- 
gests that through Luke, the '* beloved physician," who was still at Philippi, 
Paul was introduced to Tyrannus, and thus found, just at the right time, a 
place for carrying on his work as a teacher. The preaching of Paul, too, would 
come less into opposition to his instructions, than to those of a rhetorician and 

The history in the Acts is also brought into contact with the followers of 
John the Baptist (ch. 18 : 25 ; 19 : 1-7. This work is not intended for the 
discussion of such exegetical and other questions as must arise from the non- 
baptism of Apollos, and the probable baptism of the twelve men at Ephesus. 
A few words must suffice. Apollos was probably baptized before the last 
Commission (Matt. 28: 19, 20), and by John the Baptist himself, who was the 
baptizer, whose special work ended with himself, and who had no authority to 
commit the work to other hands. Apollos, having received baptism on a 
visit to Jerusalem, had only learned of Jesus as he had had opportunity at 
Alexandria. He had been but partially instructed, and had not received the 
gifts of the Holy Spirit. The twelve disciples at Ephesus had probably 
received baptism after the last Commission from some of the disciples of John. 
They were, however, ignorant of true Christianity, even as taught by John, 
who distinctly foretold the baptism of the Spirit. They, however, appeared 


to be sincere, and possessed the elements of true faith ; for they accept of 
Christ as soon as made known to them. There were thus evident reasons 
why they should receive baptism, while Apollos did not. 

A striking coincidence is found in comparing ch. 19 : 20 and 1 Cor. 16 : 9. 

It was during this great spiritual prosperity at Ephesus that Paul wrote 
his First Epistle to the Corinthians, at a time when he had determined to 
"tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost" (1 Cor. 16: 9), because a great door of 
usefulness was open before him ; and just after, or at the time of, sending 
Timothy to them by way of Macedonia (ch. 19: 22; 1 Cor. 4: 17; 16: 10). 
This would fix the date of the Epistle to the spring of A. d. 57, two or three 
months before Pentecost, which occurred that year on the 28th of May. (See 
next section.) 

^ 38. Paul Tarries at Ephesus, in the spring of a. d. 57. Instead of 
going to Jerusalem, by way of Macedonia and Achaia, he sends Timothy and 
Erastus into Macedonia in his place (ch. 19: 21, 22). Paul speaks of having 
just sent Timothy to Corinth, in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 
4: 17), which shows that he designed Timothy to make a flying visit through 
Macedonia, and Corinth the goal of his journey. He also writes (1 Cor. 
16 : 10), as if the coming of Timothy would be after the reception of the 
Epistle, which is in harmony with Timothy's visit into Macedonia, before 
reaching Achaia. Thus, while Timothy is in Macedonia, the Epistle is sent 
and received at Corinth. 

The first mention of Paul's determination to visit Rome, is found in Acts 
19: 21. By comparing Rom. 1: 13-15, written a year later, we learn that 
Paul had frequently purposed to do so, but had been hindered. 

By comparing 1 Cor. 16 : 19, with this portion of the Acts, it is seen that 
Aquila and Priscilla are still at Ephesus; and that a church was at their 
house. (Compare ch. 18 : 19, 26). Paul may have abode with them, as at 
Corinth, and wrought a portion of the time, as he did there, at tent-making 
(ch. 18: 3). 

The account of Demetrius and the Great Tumult illustrates the accu- 
racy of Luke. This has been very thoroughly done by tlie remarkable dis- 
coveries of J. T. AVood, F. A. S., made at Ephesus between 1863 and 1874, with 
the aid of the English Government. (Discoveries at Ephesus, published in 
1877). Dr. Lightfoot, who aided IVIr. Wood in explaining the inscriptions 
says: "We are justified in saying that ancient literature has preserved no 
picture of the Ephesus of imperial times — the Ephesus w^hich has been 
unearthed by the sagacity and perseverance of Mr. Wood — comparable for its 
life-like truthfulness to the narrative of St. Paul's sojourn there in the Acts." 

1. Luke speaks of Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines, or 
temples, of Diana (ch. 19: 24). Tlie manufacture of small silver medals of the 


temple, containing the image of the goddess, was a hicrative business. This is 
confirmed by ancient inscriptions. These shrines were in great demand even 
in distant countries, and were used as superstitious objects of worship in houses, 
and carried about the person as preventives of diseases and other dangers. 
''Pausanias tells us (4.31) that the Ephesian Diana was more honored pri- 
vately than any other deity, which accounts for the large manufacture and 
wide-spread sale of the 'silver shrines' mentioned by Luke (ver. 24), and not 
by him only." — {Smithes Bible Dictwnary. Compare the words : " Whom all 
Asia and the world Avorshipeth, ver. 27). 

2. In the various officers named. These are Asiarchs, the town clerk, proconsuls. 
There are also courts and regular assemblies (ch. 19: 31,35,38,39). The 
Asiarchs were ten officers chosen on account of their influence and wealth, to 
preside at and defray the expenses of the public games in honor of the emperor 
and the gods. Each city of the province of Asia elected a delegate, about the 
time of the autumnal equinox {Meyer) ; and these delegates met and elected 
ten who were to be Asiarchs for that year. One was probably chosen chief or 
president. The names of Asiarchs are found on ancient coins and inscriptions. 
Eusebius speaks of Philip, the Asiarch at Smyrna, declining to let loose a lion 
upon Poly carp, because he had already completed the games. {Hist. Eccl. IV. 
15). The Ephesian games were celebrated in the month of May, and the 
month was called Artemisian, in honor of Artemis or Diana. Many infer 
from the presence of the Asiarchs that the riot took place at the season of these 
games. Pentecost also occurred in this month, until whi(.h Paul had deter- 
mined to remain (1 Cor. 16 : 8). But Asiarchs would also be present at the 
autumnal election ; and doubtless some who had received the lionor and bore 
the title resided at Ephesus. 

The toivn-clerk (ver. 35), or city -secretary, had the care of the archives of the 
city, drew up the official decrees, and read them in the assemblies of the people. 
He was, next to the commander, the person of the greatest importance in 
Greek free cities. The title frequently occurs on coins and inscriptions. The 
character in which the town-clerk appears in Luke's account, is perfectly 
natural and true to history. 

The proconsul (ver. 38) is in harmony with the character of the Roman 
province of Asia, which was senatorial, and hence governed by a proconsul. 
(Compare on ^ 25, next to the last paragraph). The plural, proconsuls (ver. 
38), is doubtless used in a general sense, meaning, that there is always a pro- 
consul. It does not appear that they had more than one at a time. Ancient 
Ephesian coins show the authority of the proconsul there in the time of Nero, 
whose reign began in A. D. 54. The courts were held by the governors of 
Roman provinces in the chief cities, to which they repaired in circuit. 
Ephesus was one of these towns. {Pliny, V. 31. Compare the words of the 
town-clerk, " The courts are open," or " the court days are kept, and there are 


proconsuls." Ver. 38). The regular assembly was one held on a stated dav, 
according to law, and presided over by the magistrate of the city. Inscriptions 
make mention of both the regular assembly and the popular assembly, held in 
the very theatre where the people were now assembled (ver. 29, 30). 

3. In regard to the Temple of Diana. The magnificence of this temple was 
proverbial throughout the world. The exact site has lately been discovered 
by Mr. J. T. Wood. The temple was the life of Ephesus, attracting travelers 
frorli all parts of the world, and its revenues were probably enormous. (Com- 
pare ver. 27). Among the inscriptions published by Mr. Wood, is one which 
confirms the representation that Ephesus was called the temple keeper of Diana 
(ver. 35). 

4. In regard to Diana. This was different from the Grecian Diana, being 
an Asiatic goddess, worshiped under the name of Artemis. There are many 
coins with the figure of Artemis, one of Claudius, which represent a female 
figure, narrowing to the feet like the outline of a mummy, with many breasts, 
supposed to signify the fruitful attributes of nature. Her image was of wood, 
which the town-clerk says (ver. 35), "fell down from Jupiter." There are 
similar traditions in regard to Diana of Taurus {Eurip. Iph. 977), Minerva of 
Athens {Pans. 1 : 26, 6), Palladium of Troy (Apollod. 3:12, 3), and of several 
others. The inscriptions published by Mr. Wood represent Artemis as the 
"great goddess," and also " the greatest goddess." (Ver. 27, 28.) 

5. The theatre (ver. 29) was, according to Grecian usage, the place for 
public business and popular assemblies. It was of the usual semicircular or 
horse-shoe shape, the cord of the arc being estimated variously at from four 
hundred to six hundred and sixty feet ; and was built on the side of a hill, 
with the seats rising one above another in a long succession, and was entirely 
open to the sky. Its seating capacity was from thirty to fifty-seven thousand 
persons. The last of these estimates makes it the largest in the world. 
(Compare 1 Cor. 4: 19; 9: 26, 27; 15: 32.) 

6. The danger of being called to an account for that day's uproar (ver. 40) 
by the proconsul, gives a glimpse of a common feature of the Roman govern- 
ment. The Romans, while they granted much freedom to the provinces, 
watched the popular assemblies and every appearance of insubordination with 
a jealous eye. There was a Roman law which made it a capital offence to 
raise a riot ; and thousands were sometimes put to death in suppressing one. 

Further contrast of the Acts with the Epistles may be noticed here. 
Perhaps, at this time, Aquila and Priscilla incurred that imminent risk in 
behalf of Paul's life — "who for my life laid down their own necks." 
(Rom. 16 : 4.) 

The Epistle to the Ephesians, written about five years later, throws but little 
light upon the state of the church. He speaks of a temple more glorious 
than any earthly temple reared in that city. (Eph. 2 *. 19-22). He also 



describes the great conflict in which Christians are engaged (Eph. 6 : 12), and 
their armor. (Ver. 13-17.) In the First Epistle to the Corinthians, written 
but a few months before this great tumult, we have more distinct references 
to the scenes which Paul must have witnessed at Ephesus. (See references 

Erastus (ch. 19: 22) was probably the person mentioned in Rom. 16: 23, 
" the treasurer of the city," that is, of Corinth. 

Alexander (ch. 19 : 33), perhaps the coppersmith (1 Tim. 1 : 20 ; 2 Tim. 
4 : 14), was probably a Jew, whom the Jews put forward to disclaim, on their 
part, any participation in Paul's work. 

Aristarchus (ch. 19 : 29) was from Thessalonica, a companion of Paul on 
his return to Jerusalem, from his third missionary journey (ch. 20: 4); and 
to Rome. (Ch. 27: 2.) In Col. 4: 10, Paul calls him a fellow-prisoner; and 
in Philemon 24, his " fellow-worker." 

§ 39. It is important to fix upon the time, as near as possible, of Paul's 
departure from Ephesus, and his Visit to Macedonia and Greece. It 
appears from ch. 20 : 1, that Paul left Ephesus soon after the uproar caused 
by Demetrius. It has been plausibly inferred (see preceding section) that 
this occurred in the month of May, and as Pentecost was in the same month, 
(until which Paul had deterniined to tarry, 1 Cor. 16 : 8), it has been supposed 
that he left about Pentecost in a. d. 57, or 58. The majority of later 
chronologists prefer A. d. 57. From a very careful study of the whole 
question, it has seemed to me, that the autumn of A. d. 57, is to be preferred 
to the spring of that year, for the following reasons: 

1. There are indications in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, which 
was written from Philippi (ch. 20 : 2), that Paul delayed longer at Ephesus 
than Pentecost. When, a short time before, he was writing his First Epistle, 
he had determined to tarry till then. (1 Cor. 16 : 9.) But after writing, a great 
"affliction befell" him. (2 Cor. 1:8.) Some refer this to the tumult at 
Ephesus ; but Paul's life does not appear to have been in imminent danger 
then, and his language: ''We were weighed down exceedingly, beyond our 
power, insomuch that we despaired of life," does not suit his condition and 
state of mind at that time, when "he was minded to enter in unto the 
people," but "the disciples suffered him not" ; and when even "certain also of 
the Asiarchs, being his friends, sent unto him and besought him not to 
adventure himself into the theatre." (Ch. 19 : 31.) The language seems to 
apply to some severe illness which threatened to be, and which he thought 
would be, fatal. Indeed, he felt that he was doomed to death ; so that his 
deliverance was like a resurrection. " Yea, we ourselves have had the sentence 
of death within ourselves, that Ave should not trust in ourselves, but in God 
who raiseth the dead; who delivered us out of so great a death." (2 Cor. 1 : . 
9, 10.) The context (ver. 3, 4, 5, 11) is in harmony with this view. (Compare 


"in deaths oft," in 2 Cor. 11 : 23.) He was delayed by sickness in Galatia, on 
his second missionary journey. (Gal. 4 : 13, 14.) So now a severe attack from 
his chronic malady, or bodily infirmity, from which he sufiered, would 
interfere with his active work, and keep him longer at Ephesus. 

Again, about the time of his writing the First Epistle to the Corinthians, he 
sent Timothy to Corinth by way of Macedonia. (1 Cor. 4: 17; 16: 10.) But 
Timothy was at Philippi, in Macedonia, when Paul wrote the Second Epistle. 
(2 Cor. 1 : 1.) Now Paul must have gone to Philippi almost immediately 
after his writing his First Epistle, and have found Timothy still there, or 
Timothy must have gone to Corinth by way of Macedonia, and returned 
there before Paul's arrival. The former view can hardly be accepted, for 
Paul evidently remained at Ephesus some time, after sending Timothy ; and 
severe affliction or illness, if notliing else, must have delayed him a time. 
We are then led to the latter conclusion. "We can hardly suppose that 
Timothy remained in Macedonia, and did not go to Corinth at this time ; for 
this was the destination of his journey, (1 Cor. 4 : 17.) If then Timothy 
had visited the churches of Macedonia and had been to Corinth, attending to 
matters there, and returned again to Philippi, it is very probable that it was 
some time after Pentecost when Paul found him there. 

Paul also Avas disappointed when he arrived at Troas, because he found not 
Titus there, with news from Corinth; and therefore he hastened to Philippi in 
Macedonia, where, a little after his arrival, he was " comforted with the com- 
ing of Titus," bringing favorable reports from Corinth (2 Cor. 2: 12, 13; 
7: 5, 6.) We know comparatively little of Titus; but great interest gathers 
about him at this period of Paul's history. He appears to have borne an 
important part in settling matters at Corinth. After Paul wrote his First 
Epistla, he would naturally tarry at Ephesus, to hear of its effect on the 
Church at Corinth, before starting on his journey to visit them. AVeeks pass, 
his labors increase, and the word of the Lord grew mightily, and prevailed 
(ch. 19: 20.) But the deathly affliction or illness befalls him (2 Cor. 1: 8), 
and he is kept at Ephesus, while, still, there is the open door and many ad- 
versaries. His deep anxiety for the Corinthians increases, and he sends to them 
Titus, with the understanding that he will go to Troas, after attending to his 
mission at Corinth. Or, perhaps, better still, while Paul is waiting at 
Ephesus, word comes from Timothy, who had arrived at Corinth, regarding 
the state of the church there. The news is both favorable and unfavorable. 
Timothy's visit will be brief. Titus, having just the qualifications for the 
work, Paul sends him, and delays at Ephesus ; he would not come to them in 
sorrow (2 Cor. 2: 1). This much we do know that he himself said: "To 
spare you I forbore to come again to Corinth." (2 Cor. 1 : 23.) 

Such seem to be strong indications that Paul delayed longer than Pentecost 
at Ephesus. Nor was this singular. It was not uncommon for Paul to pur- 


pose journeys, and be delayed. So it was in revisiting Thessalonica (1 Thess. 
2: 17, 18; 3: 1). So, also, he had purposed often to visit Rome, but had been 
hindered. (Rom. 1: 13; 15: 22, 23.) 

2. The account in the Acts (ch. 20: 1-3), appears to indicate a somewliat 
rapid journey, and a brief visit in Macedonia. The statement that Paul 
" spent three months in Greece " seems to imply that this was the longest 
time he remained in any one country during this journey. If this be so, and 
Greece stands for the province of Achaia (ch. 19: 21), then Paul must have 
been in Macedonia less than three months. Now Paul must have left Corinth 
about the 1st of March, A. d. 58, in order to have been at Philippi during the 
Passover of that year, March 27th (ch. 20: 3, 5, 6.) Allowing, then, two 
months for Macedonia, and a month for going from Ephesus to Philippi, and 
a month from Berea, or some city of Macedonia, to Corinth, we have seven 
months from Paul's departure from Ephesus to his departure from Philippi 
for Jerusalem (ch. 20: 1, 6). Reckoning seven months back from the Passover 
of A. D. 58, which occurred March 27th, and Ave have about the first of Septem- 
ber, A. D. 57, as the date of Paul's leaving Ephesus 

With this agrees what Paul says regarding this journey in his Epistles. 
Thus, in 2 Cor. 2: 12, 13, he says that when he came to Troas, "I had no 
relief for my spirit, because I found not Titus my brother ; but taking my 
leave of them I went forth into Macedonia." Thus, although " a door was 
opened " unto him, he remained there but a brief time. He hastened into 
Macedonia, found Timotl y (2 Cor. 1: 1), and soon after Titus arrives with 
good news from the Church at Corinth (2 Cor. 7 : 5-7). Paul then writes the 
Second Epistle to the Corinthians, probably from Philippi, and sends it by 
Titus ; and near its close he says, " Behold, this is the third time I am ready to 
come to you," and again, "This is the third time I am coming to you" (2 Cor. 
12: 14; 13: 1). The language implies that he would himself follow the 
Epistle very shortly. If, then, he left Ephesus near the close of August, or 
about the first of September, he could have written and sent the Epistle in 
October. While remaining a month at Philippi, he could have made a 
preaching excursion, northward or westward. 

So also in Rom. 15: 19, Paul doubtless makes a reference to this journey 
when he writes: "So that from Jerusalem, and round about even unto Ilhjricum 
I have fully preached Christ." This could not refer to his first visit to Mace- 
donia (ch. 16 : 11 ; 17 : 15) ; nor to his third visit after this, when returning 
to Jerusalem (ch. 20: 5). The boundaries of Illyricum are not very well 
defined. It lay west of Macedonia, extending to the Adriatic Sea, and north- 
ward to the boundary of Italy. Paul probably speaks of Illyricum in a pop- 
ular sense, meaning an extensive region of country west of Macedonia and 
northwest of Achaia, including considerable portions of Epirus. Now Luke 
says (ch. 20: 2) of Paul's journey in Macedonia: "And when he had gone 


through those parts, and had given them much exhortation, he came into 
Greece." We would naturally expect him to visit Thessalonica and Berea, 
and these places he could take in his way on his journey toward Corinth. The 
language of Luke naturally implies that he took such a course as led him from 
Macedonia into Greece or Achaia. K he spent two weeks at each of these 
places, then he could have made a preaching excursion of three or four weeks 
westAvard and southward toward Achaia. Besides, it is not necessary to sup- 
pose that Paul was at Corinth the whole of the three months in Greece, 
though probably the larger jjart of the time. If we allow two months for his 
stay at Corinth, we have then two or three weeks longer for continuing his 
preaching tour towards Illyricum after he came into the province of Achaia. 
Indeed, Paul had expressed the hope in his second Epistle to the Corinthians, 
that their spiritual condition might be such as to enable him " to preach the 
gospel even unto the parts beyond you" (2 Cor. 10: 16). It seems very 
probable that he may have made preaching excursions into parts of Achaia, 
while he was making Corinth his head-quarters. 

But even these specifications may be unnecessary. In passing through 
Macedonia, making preaching excursions from Philippi, from Thessalonica, 
along the Egnatian Way, and from Berea, Paul would reach the leading cities 
of Macedonia ; and since the latter bordered upon Illyricum, he could truly 
say that he had preached the gospel ' ' round about even unto Illyricum.'' 
This he could have done as he was journeying along toward Greece, not 
delaying at any one place, except at Philippi, where he wrote the Second 
Epistle to the Corinthians. This he sends directly by Titus, while he follows 
somewhat circuitously, visiting the churches he had founded, and other places 
where he had not before preached the gospel. If it should be thought that 
the time allowed for this journey is too limited, that an additional month is 
necessary for its accomplishment, even then it fixes the date of Paul's departure 
from Ephesus at about the first of August, two months after Pentecost. 
This is entirely consistent with the indications of Paul's delay above noted. 

3. Several notes of time, in the Acts, rather favor the view that Paul left 
Ephesus somewhat later than Pentecost. Paul's two years' imprisonment at 
Cesarea (ch. 24: 27), his journey to Rome, and his two years' imprisonment 
there (ch. 28 : 30), must occupy nearly five years. But the extreme limit of his 
imprisonment at Rome could not have been later than the early part of a. d. 
64 ; for the persecution of Christians began in the latter half of that year. 
Reckoning back, we have A. d. 59 for the close of his third missionary tour 
and his arrival at Jerusalem (ch. 21 : 17) ; and a. d. 58 for leaving Ephesus 
(ch. 20 : 1.) This would assign a. d. 61 as the date of the entrance of Festus 
on his procuratorship (ch. 25 : 1), which has been the view of many. But 
more careful calculations have led recent chronologists to fix upon a. d. 60, as 
the date of the recall of Felix. (Ch. 24: 27.) If this be so, then Paul's 


arrival at Jerusalem must have been in A. d. 58, and his departure from 
Ephesus in A. d. 57, the date preferred at the beginning of this section. Now 
Luke says that Paul entered into the synagogue at Ephesus, "and spake 
boldly for the space of three months." And after this he "continued for 
the space of two years," reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus. But 
Paul, in addressing the elders of Ephesus at Miletus, speaks of being witli 
them "by the space of three years" (ch. 20: 31), from which we would infer 
that Paul must have continued a time after the two years and three months. 
Each of these notes of time may be regarded as proximate or general 
expressions ; still their relations to each other are the same, and the inference 
will be the same. The full expression " for the space of three years," may, 
perhaps, be counted Judaicly, covering a period of about two years and a 
half. If now Paul began his labors at Ephesus in the early spring of a. d. 
55, and closed them in August, a. d. 57, the demands of the passage are met. 
Beginning the year about the first of October, there are seven or eight 
months of the first year, the whole of the second, and about ten months of 
the third. 

In regard to the tumult at Ephesus being in the Artemesian month of 
public games, which answered to May, the month when Pentecost occurred, it 
may be said that there is nothing in the account which makes the supposition 
necessary. There were doubtless Asiarchs residing at Ephesus, for the term 
was applied both to the one actually holding office at Ephesus, and to all 
those who had ever held the office. Besides there may have been reasons, of 
which we are ignorant, why the Asiarchs of other cities might be present at 
other times than the celebration of the games. And in the large city of 
Ephesus, Demetrius might raise a tumult and gather a large multitude in the 
theatre, even at other times than when the place was crowded with strangers. 

In ch. 20: 1, "And after ^^ is simply a note of time. The expression does 
not imply that Paul hastened his departure, or left, because there was any 
necessity of his doing so. He acted with great deliberation, and may have 
remained several days. He, however, made this the occasion of immediate 
preparation for leaving. He had been for some time purposing to go, and 
now he doubtless saw, in the state of things at Epliesus, the indications of 
Providence. "Paul, having sent for the disciples and exhorted them, took 
leave of them" (ch. 20: 1). 

It has already been noted in the preceding discussion tliat Paul wrote his 
Second Epistle to the Corinthians probably from Philippi, after Titus had come 
from Corinth to Paul in Macedonia (2 Cor. 7 : 6, 13), and a little before his 
third and last visit to Corinth (2 Cor. 12: 14; 13: 1). It answers to Acts 
20 : 1, 2. Its date was in the autumn of A. D. 57. The only note of time in 
the Epistle is tlie "fourteen years " in ch. 12 : 2, in regard to a most wonderful 
revelation. According to the Jewish mode of reckoning, this takes us back to 


A. D. 44, when Paul, with Barnabas, visited Jerusalem, from Antioch. It may 
have occurred then (ch. 11:30; 12: 25); or after his return to Antioch, 
when he was separated for his apostolic work (ch. 13: 3). 

The contact of the Acts with PauPs Epistles^ in this section, are of special 

1. Paul's stopping at Troas ; his disappointment in not finding Titus ; his 
going to Macedonia, probably Philippi, finding Timothy ; and his joy at the 
coming of Titus, have already been noticed (ch. 20: 1; 2 Cor. 1: 1; 2: 12, 
13 ; 7 : 5, 6.) 

2. So also Paul's going through the parts of Macedonia (ch. 20 : 2), and 
round about unto Illyricum (Rom. 15 : 18, 19), has been noted. This coinci- 
dence is of so much importance, that it has been much dwelt upon by Paley 
and others ; and Dr. Lardner considers it as coufirmatory of the whole history 
of Paul's travels. 

3. The coming of Paul into Greece (ch. 20 : 2), regarded as his third visit 
to Corinth (2 Cor. 12: 14; 13: 1), has also been considered in this section. 
(See also | 34. Discussion on the three visits to Corinth. Compare also 
2 Cor. 1 : 15, 16, and see the reference to it in the above discussion in | 34.) 

4. By comparing Eom. 15: 25, 26, Avith ch. 20: 2, 3, we learn that Paul 
was gathering a contribution from Macedonia and Achaia for the saints at 
Jerusalem. (Compare 2 Cor. 8: 1, 6, 16, 17; 9: 1-5). 

5. By comparing ch. 20: 3-5, and Rom. 16: 1, 21-23, we learn that there 
was a church at Cenchrea, of which Phebe was a deaconess, who was probably 
the bearer of the Epistles to the Romans, to the church at Rome. So also two 
persons are named in both, Timothy and Sopater, the son of Pyrrhus, probably 
the same as Sosipater. Sopater was from Berea, and was one of the com- 
panions of Paul on his return to Asia, where he probably stopped. 

Aristarchus. (See on ^ 38, near the close). 

Secundus perhaps went with Paul to Jerusalem. Nothing more is known 
of him. 

Gaius of Derbe (ch. 20 : 9), is different from the" Macedonian (ch. 19 : 29). 
He traveled with Paul from Corinth to Asia. 

Tychicus was of the province of Asia, a companion of Paul, and afterward 
the bearer of two of Paul's Epistles written from Rome (Col. 4 : 7, 8 ; Eph. 6: 
21. Compare Tit. 3 : 12 ; 2 Tim. 4 : 12). 

Trophimus (ch. 20: 4), a Gentile Christian from Ephesus, the innocent occa- 
sion of Paul's arrest at Jerusalem (ch. 21 : 29). He is mentioned years later 
as left -sick at Miletus (2 Tim. 4: 20). 

The Epistle of Paul to the Romans was written during this sojourn at Corinth, 
in the winter of A. d. 58, and sent to Rome, in the spring, about the time of 
his leaving for Syria by the way of Macedonia (ch. 20 : 3). Dr. Hackett puts 
the case briefly and pointedly : " That it was written at Corinth, admits of 


being proved by several distinct arguments. One is, that Paul was the guest 
of Gaius at the time (Kom. 16 : 23), and Gains, as we learn from 1 Cor. 1 : 14, 
was one of the converts at Corinth, whom Paul baptized. Again, he com- 
mends to the church, Phebe, sir deaconess of the Church at Cenchrea (ch. 18 : 
18), who was on the point of proceeding to Eome (Kom 16: 1), and was 
probably the bearer of the letter. Further, the apostle's situation, as disclosed 
in the Epistle, agrees with that in the Acts at this time. Thus, he was on the 
eve of departing to Jerusalem (Rom. 15: 25), was going thither with a con- 
tribution for tlie Jewish believers (Rom, 15: 25, 26), and after that was 
meditating a journey to Rome." 

It was about the first of March, A. d. 58, when Paul left Corinth for Mace- 
donia (ch. 20: 3, 4). He was at Philippi at the Passover (ver. 6), Avhich 
began that year on March 27th. Luke says, "After the days of unleavened 
bread," that is, on the day following the eighth day of the feast, Paul sailed 
from Philippi, probably on Tuesday, April 4th, and reached Troas in five 
days, Saturday, April 8th, where he remained seven days (ch. 20: 6). On 
Sunday, April 16th, Paul preaches, and restores to life a young man who falls 
in sleep from a window, and is taken up for dead (ch. 20: 7-12). Luke's 
account here comes in contact with profane history, in the letter of Pliny, who 
states to Trajan that Christians were accustomed to meet on a certain day for 
divine worship, Pliny says before daylight ; on this occasion, before sunset. 

The change to the first person, in ch. 20: 6, shows that Luke joined Paul at 
Philippi. Paul had left him there on his second missionary journey, in 
A. D. 52 (ch. 16: 16,40). 

^40. In prosecuting the journey to Miletus, Paul delayed and com- 
pleted his farewell services at Troas, and took the shorter route by land to 
Assos, while his companions took the ship a little before, doubling the prom- 
ontory of Lectum (ch, 20 : 13). Assos was a town on the coast of Mysia, twenty 
miles south of Troas. The distance by sea was about forty miles. A 
paved road extended from one place to the other. A friend of Dr. Hackett 
told him that he himself had walked between the two places in five hours. 
Paul would have thus reached Assos, and have joined his companions in 
the ship, at about noon on Monday, April 17th (ver. 14). They sail south-/ 
ward about thirty miles to Mitylene, the chief city of the island of Lesbos, 
lying west of the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by a 
strait of no great breadth. Here they appear to have stopped over night 
(ch. 20: 14, 15). On Tuesday, they proceed about forty miles in the same 
direction, and at night lay off the coast opposite Chios, the modern Scio, in 
the strait that separates the island from Asia Minor. Here, perhaps, in- 
the latter part of the day, "they were becalmed. An English traveler, 
under similar circumstances, has described himself as 'engrossed from day- 


light till noon ' hj the beauty of the prospect with which he was surrounded, 
as his vessel floated idly in this channel between Scio and the continent." — 

(CONYBEAEE AND HOWSON, Vol. II., p. 211.) 

On Wednesday, they continue their voyage from Chios, in a southeasterly 
direction, about fifty miles, and touch at the island Samos, not stopping long 
(ch. 20: 15). They pass along the strait between the island and Asia Minor, 
and tarry over night at Trogyllium (ch. 20: 15). At that place, on the 
mainland, the apostle was nearer to Ephesus than he was at Miletus. 
Perhaps the better harbor at the latter place, or some unknown reason for 
delaying there three or four days, led Paul to choose the more distant place 
for his interview with the Ephesian elders (ch. 20 : 17). Paul evidently had 
some control of the vessel. (Yer. 16.) 

On Thursday, April 20th, they sail a few miles southward to Miletus, where 
they stop for a few days (ch. 20 : 16). Miletus was about twenty -eight miles 
south of Ephesus. Here Paul sends for the elders of the Church at Ephesus, 
who would arrive by Saturday night. Thus, very probably, Sunday, April 
23d, was spent in solemn social intercourse and religious services, closing with 
Paul's remarkable farewell addrsss (ch. 20 : 17-35). Paul could have gone to 
Ephesus and returned, but he might have been delayed there. He was 
hastening to be at Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (ver. 16). About 
twenty-three of the fifty days between the Passover and Pentecost had already 
elapsed, when they arrived at Miletus. (Ch. 20 : 6. 7, 13-16.) 

The farewell address (ch. 20 : 17-35) bears many characteristic marks of 
Paul, found in his Epistles. 

1. Notice the same and similar words and expressions. "Loivliness of miner' 
(ver. 19, and Phil. 2 : 3). With tears (ver. 19 ; 2 Cor. 2 : 4). " I wrote unto 
you with many tears" (compare Phil. 3: 18). "I shrank not from declaring 
unto you anything that was profitable " (ver. 20 ; 2 Cor, 4:2); " nor handling 
the word of God deceitfully," etc. (1 Thess. 2 : 4). " So that I might accom- 
plish my course " (ver. 24) ; " I have finished my course." 2 Tim. 4 : 7. 

2. His appeals to their memory of him and of his work. (Compare ver. 
18-21 with 1 Thess. 2 : 10-12, and 2 Cor. 6 : 3, 4. Also 1 Cor. 11:1; 
Phil. 3 : 17.) 

3. Compare his apostolic commendation to "God and the word of his grace, 
who is able to build you up," etc. (ver. 32, and Eom. 16 : 25), " now to him 
that is able to establish you," etc., which he had recently written. (Compare 
Eph. 1 : 18). 

4. His warning of false teachers and heresies (ver. 29, 30) ; seven years later, 
in 1 Tim. 4: 1, he says, "But the Spirit saith expressly, that in later times 
some shall fall away from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doc- 
trines of demons." (Compare Rev. 2 : 2-7.) 

5. His appeal to working with his own hands to supply his necessities, as 



a proof of his disinterestedness (ver. 34, 35). Compare 1 Cor. 4: 12: "And 
we toil, working with our own hands," which Paul wrote while at Ephesus. 
(Compare 1 Thess. 2 : 9 ; 2 Thess. 3:6-8; 2 Cor. 12: 14.) He seems to have 
wrought at tent-making, when not assisted by churches where he had labored 
(ch. 18: 3; 2 Cor. 11. 7-9). This appeal of Paul to his manual labor, in 
ver. 34, and his incidental reference to it in 1 Cor. 4 : 12, while Luke makes 
no reference to it in his account of Paul at Ephesus in the 19th chapter, 
presents no contradiction; but rather such undesigned agreement as we 
would expect to find under the circumstances. Such harmonious diversity is 
an illustration of the truthfulness of Paul and Luke. 

The note of time, "by the space of three years" (ver. 31) has been briefly 
considered in the preceding section. Compare the two periods, " the space of 
three months," and " the space of two years," included in his residence at 
Ephesus (ch. 19 : 8, 9). Or, as there were some from Macedonia and Corinth 
present, Conybeare and Howson suggest that the " all " in ver. 25 includes 
them, and that Paul refers to the whole time since he first came to Ephesus^ 
which was a little over three years. This, however, is not a view which a 
person would naturally take ; but only as it might appear necessary. 

By comparing ch. 20: .22-24, with Kom. 15 : 30-32, Which Paul had 
recently written, we discover the forebodings of evils and persecutions which 
at this time rested on his spirit. 

In ch. 20 : 28, "' the church {congregation) of the Lord which he purchased 
with his own blood," we discover a quotation, or the influence upon him of 
Ps. 74 : 2, " the congregation which thou hast purchased of old." 

§ 41. Paul and his companions continue their voyage from Miletus, prob- 
ably on Monday, April 24th, sailing before a gentle wind about forty miles 
southward to the island Cos, which is separated by a narrow channel from the 
southwest point of Asia Minor, and now called Stanchio (ch. 21 : 1). It was 
celebrated for its wine, silk, and cotton. On Tuesday they reach the island 
Rhodes, about fifty miles to the southeast, situated oflf the coast of Caria, in 
Asia Minor. It was noted for the huge Colossus, a brazen statue of Phoebus, 
which had stood across the harbor, but was then in ruins. On Wednesday 
they proceed about sixty miles further east to Patara, a flourishing city and 
sea-port of Lycia, Asia Minor, where there was a famous oracle of Apollo. It 
is now in ruins. Here they find at once a ship bound direct for Phoenicia, and 
they embark in it, probably early Thursday morning, sailing in a southeasterly 
direction. They discover the lofty highlands of the island Cyprus, leaving it 
on the left, as they pass south of it, and arrive at Tyre, a distance of about 
three hundred and forty miles from Patara, where the ship was to unload 
(ver. 3). It is said that the voyage, with a favorable wind, takes about forty- 
eight hours. " The writer embarked at Beirut (on the coast, to the north of 


Tyre), at half past six o'clock p. M. ; the next day at ten o'clock, Ave arrived off 
against Larnica, on the island of Cyprus, and on the following night, at two 
o'clock A. M. came to anchor in the harbor of Rhodes. This is very nearly 
the apostle's route, except in the inverse order. An ancient vessel, under 
circumstances entirely favorable, would almost equal the speed of a Levant 
steamer." — Dr. Hackett. It is apparent from the whole narrative that Paul 
and his companions had a favorable voyage. They probably arrived at Tyre 
by or before Saturday night, and thus Paul had Lord's Day, April 30th, with 
the disciples there (ver. 3). 

Having remained there seven days (ver 4), and after an early morning 
service upon the beach (ver. 5, 6), probably on Sunday, May 7th, they 
embark, sailing south about thirty miles to Ptolemais, arriving perhaps the 
same day, where they end their sea-voyage (ver. 7). Paul and his com- 
panions abide with the brethren a day, and then proceed by foot to Cesarea, 
about thirty -five miles south, where they would arrive Monday or Tuesday. 
As their journey from Troas had been quite rapid, and they were within two 
days of Jerusalem, they have " some days " to spare before Pentecost. 

From the note of time, some days (ver. 10), we would naturally, though not 
necessarily, infer that Paul remained longer at Cesarea than at the other 
places on his journey. It is, however, quite indefinite, literally, more days, 
more than one, and is equivalent to our use of the word several. Now Pentecost 
in A. D. 58 came on Thursday, May 18th, and Paul and his company would 
probably leave Cesarea on Tuesday morning, May 15th, arriving at Jerusalem 
on the 17th. This would allow about six days for his visit, which could well 
be styled " some days." The phrase in ch. 13 : 31 is applied to forty days, 
and in ch. 27 : 20, to about ten or twelve days. It would exj^ress more or less 
according to circumstances, and the length of time allotted, or common to any 

Syria (ver. 3) Avas the Roman province of that name of Avhich Phoenicia 
formed a part. Tyre was the most important commercial city of the latter. 
The accuracy of Luke is illustrated in speaking of the beach or smooth shore 
at Tyre, which extends for a considerable distance on both sides of the ancient 
site. (See Hackett's Acts, Am. Bap. Pub. Society's Edition. Edited by Dr. 

Ptolemais, the modern Acre, is only mentioned liere (ch. 21: 7) in the New 
Testament, but was one of the most important cities of Phoenicia, situated on 
the bay, north of Mount Carmel. Paul had probably been there before 
(ch. 15: 3). 

On evangelists and on the daughters of Philip who prophesied, see Clark's 
"Acts" (ch. 21 : 8, 9), in "A People's Commentary." 


PART vni 

^ 42. Paui/s Fifth Visit to Jerusalem was on Pentecost, a. d. 58, 
which occurred that year on May 18th. (See on ^ 39). It appears to have 
been the day after Pentecost, when, at the request of James and the elders, 
Paul connects himself with four brethren who had a vow, purifying himself 
with them in the temple (ver. 18-26). This was a striking example of the 
extent to which Paul would go in conciliating the prejudices of Jewish 
believers, and an illustration of 1 Cor. 9: 19-22. (Compare Kom. 14: 2-7; 
1 Cor. 7 : 18). It was entirely consistent '^vith the decrees of the Ajiostolic 
Conference (ver. 25 ; ch. 15 : 19-21). 

§ 43. Paul's Seizure by the Jev^'s occurred on the sixth day after his 
arrival at Jerusalem (ch. 21 : 27 ; see on ch. 24: 11). '' The Jews of Asia" 
were from the province of Asia, probably from Ephesus, its capital (ch. 20 : 19)^ 
Trophimus, a Gentile Christian of Ephesus (ch. 20: 4; see on § 39). A report 
of these tumultuous proceedings went up immediately to the chief captain of 
the Koman garrison, in the " castle " or tower of Antonia, which overlooked 
the temple on the northwest side, and communicated with it by flights of 
steps ; who liastened down with soldiers, took charge of Paul, and brought him 
to the castle. 

By comparing ch. 23 : 26, 27, with ch. 21 : 31, we learn that the chief 
captain's name was Claudias Lysias. We know nothing of him out of the 
Acts. The name of Lysias reminds us of his Greek origin, and Claudius of 
the assumption of his rights of Koman citizenship. He probably obtained his 
citizenship from the Emperor Claudius. 

^ 44. Paul's Address to the People (ch. 22 : 1-21), should be com-, 
pared with Luke's account of Paul's conversion in ch. 9 : 1-30. (See the 
Harmonized Arrangement in ^§ 16 and 17, and the notes on those sections.) 

The account of 'Luke is here illustrated and confirmed by history. Under 
the cruel government of Felix, the disafFected Jews increased in num- 
ber and desperation. Jonathan the high-priest had been murdered in the 
temple, in a. d. 57 ; and this was followed by the organization of the terrorists 
called Sicarii or Assassins. An Egyptian impostor arose, and gathered a large 
ibrce. Notice that Lysias refers to it as a recent occurrence : " Art thou not 
then the Egyptian, who before these days," etc. (ch. 21 : 38). Josephus gives 
two accounts, \> hich need to be reconciled with each other as well as with 
Luke. — Jewish War, 2. 13. 5; Antiq. 20. 7. 6. From all these accounts it 


would appear that this impostor led out 4,000 of the Assassins into the desert, 
returning with a much larger force ; that he increased it from the populact 
at Jerusalem to about 30,000 men, whom he deluded into the belief that he 
was the Messiah ; that he encamped on the Mount of Olives, and promised 
that the walls of Jerusalem should fall down at his command. Felix 
attacked and dispersed them, slaying four hundred, and taking two hundred 
prisoners, the Egyptian himself escaping. This may have occurred at the 
Passover of A. d. 58. (Compare Hackett, Meyer, and Gloag on ch. 21: 38). 
Some fix these dates a year or two earlier. 

I 45. Paul Escapes Scourging by pleading liis Koman citizenship (ch. 
22 : 22-29). The word of Paul is taken by the chief captain (ver. 27), for it 
was death for any falsely to assert the privileges of a Roman citizen. " Claudius 
prohibited foreigners from adopting Roman names, especially those which 
belonged to families. Those who falsely pretended to the freedom of Rome 
he beheaded on the Esquiline." — Suetonius, Claud. XXV. The law was being 
violated in two respects: (1) They were about to scourge a Roman citizen ; 
and (2) that without examination. (Compare on ^ 31). Lysias had purchased 
his citizenship, but Paul was born a Roman (ch. 22 : 27). For some reason 
citizenship had been conferred upon Paul's father, or some ancestor. Josephus 
mentions several Jews at Ephesus who were Roman citizens (Antiq., 14: 10. 
13) ; and certain others of the equestarian order, who were illegally scourged 
and crucified by Florus, shortly before the Jewish war {Jewish War, 2: 11. 9). 
Thus the privilege was not unfrequently enjoyed by Jews. 

§ 46. Paul's Defence Before the Sanhedrim, appears to have occurred 
on the seventh day after his arrival at Jerusalem (oh. 22 : 30. See on ch. 
24: 11). According to the Talmud, the place of meeting for the Sanhedrim 
was changed, forty years before the destruction of Jerusalem, from their 
council room within the temple precints, to a hall on Mount Zion, near the 
bridge over the Tyrr poeon. This was doubtless caused by the Romans, so 
that they could have more complete control. This also explains how Lysias 
could send his soldiers into the place of meeting (ch. 23: 10). For the 
Romans conceded to the Jews that no foreigner should pass the sacred limits 
of the temple on pain of death. 

Ananias (ch. 23: 2) was appointed high priest by Herod,. King of Chalcis 
{Antiq., 20: 5. 2), A. D. 48. In A. d. 52, he was sent to Rome to be tried 
on a charge of oppression, brought against him by the Samaritans, but was 
acquitted. His after history is somewhat obscure. He appears to have re- 
sumed his office on his return ; but was deposed a little before Felix left the 
province. The rebuke of Paul to Ananias was indeed prophetic. He was 
assassinated by the Sacarii at the beginning of the last Jewish war. {Jewish 
War, 2: 17. 9.) 


Many explanations have been given of Paul's rebuke and apology. It is 
best to take the passage just as it reads. There had been frequent changes 
of high priests. Paul's visit to Jerusalem, a. d. 50, was such that he did 
not probably come to know Ananias, so as to recognize him years after; and 
his brief visit in A. d. 54, probably gave him no chance of seeing him, 
even if he had then returned from Rome. And the high priest did 
not always preside at the sessions of the Sanhedrim. And such an unexpected 
and unlawful command might lead Paul to suppose that some other one, than 
the high priest, was at that time officiating. He could truthfully say, "I 
knew not, brethren, that he was high priest." Paul's conduct on the occasion 
was in perfect keeping with the principle he had but a little before enforced 
in his letter to the Romans — " Render to all their dues .... honor to whom 
honor." (Rom 13 : 1, 6, 7.) 

^ 47. The Conspiracy of the Jews to Slay Paul (ch. 23: 12), was in 
keeping with the times. According to Josephus, murders Avere frequent ; the 
country was filled with robbers, ancl impostors deluded the people {Antiq., 20: 
8. 6). Years before, ten men conspired to slay Herod the Great, and swore 
to undergo any dangers in the attempt ; they were discovered and put to 
death {Antiq., 15 : 8. 3, 4). In case of failure, the Jews making such an oath 
could get a release, or absolution. Regarding this, Lightfoot quotes from the 
Talmud : " He that hath made a vow not to eat anything, woe to him if he 
eat, and woe to him if he eat not. If he eat, he sinneth against his vow ; if 
he eat not, he sinneth against his life. What must a man do in his case ? 
Let him go to the wise men, and they will loose hig vow ; according as it is 
written. The tongue of the wise is health." [Horce Hebraicce, Vol. IV., p. 147.) 
Philo justifies assassination in the case of apostates. Long before, Mattathias, 
the father of the Maccabees, put to death apostate Jews. (1 Mace. 2 : 23-26). 

§ 48. The strong guard, four hundred and seventy soldiers, appointed to 
convey Paul to Cesarea, the hour of their departure, nine o'clock in the 
evening, and the haste with which they went, are all in keeping with the 
disturbed state of Judea, and the fanaticism of the Jews. ''Ch. 23: 23, 24. 
See preceding section.) 

Antipatris was about thirty-eight miles — a little west of north — from 
Jerusalem. Two military roads led from Jerusalem to Antipatris; the 
northern one by Gophna, was shorter and more direct, along which the 
Roman pavement may now frequently be seen. It has been thought by 
some that the journey could not have been performed in a single night. 
But on the latter route there would have been no difficulty. The journey 
was evidently made with all possible haste. At about four miles an hour 
they could arrive at Antipatris by six o'clock the next morning. After 


resting several hours they could start afresh and travel the twenty-five miles 
to Cesarea by sundown. 

The letter of Claudius Lysias to Felix contains a misstatement. He says 
that he rescued Paul, " having learned that he was a Koman " (ch, 23 : 27) ; 
whereas Lysias did not learn Paul's rank until he had bound him, and had 
commanded that he should be put to torture. It was natural that Lysias 
should wish to pass over any unlawful act he had committed, and appear as 
well as possible to the governor. But this very deceit is an evidence of the 
genuineness of the letter, and the accuracy of Luke. 

Felix was appointed procurator, or governor, of Judea in A. d. 52 {Antiq., 
20: 7. 1), and had now been about six years in office. Tactitus {Ann. 12: 54) 
says that about four years earlier Felix and Cumanus were appointed joint 
procurators, Cumanus having Galilee, and Felix Samaria. Josephus, who 
had abundant opportunity of knowing the facts, makes no mention of this 
procuratorship of Felix. It is possible that the latter at first held some 
military relation to Cumanus, and may have had, for a time, much to do with 
Samaria. He was cruel, arrogant, and vicious. Tacitus says {Hist. 5 : 9. 7) : 
"He exercised the authority of a king with the spirit of a slave, through 
every kind of cruelty and lust " ; and again {Ann. 12 : 54), " Eelying upon 
such powerful protection," the influence of his brother Pallas, " he thought 
he might perpetrate every kind of villany." According to Josephus, he was 
cruel, tyrannical, and avaricious. He was recalled by Nero, and succeeded 
by Festus in A. d. 60. 

In Luke's account of Felix's treatment of Paul, we have what Dr. Hackett 
styles " a singular conformity to the processes of Roman law " ; according to 
which a governor of a province was not to be satisfied with a statement of a 
case sent by his subordinate, but to examine it himself. The rule was, 
" those who are sent with an elogium " — with a specified charge of an offence 
— " must be fiilly heard." And Felix said : " I will hear thee fiilly, when 
thy accusers also are come." (Ch. 23 : 35.) 

1 49. Paul's Trial Before Felix occurred on the fifth day after his 
departure from Jerusalem (ch. 24: 1), and twelve days after his arrival there 
from Cesarea. (Ver. 11.) "After five days" may be reckoned Judaically, the 
fifth day. (Matt. 27 : 63.) A great amount of calculation and discussion has 
been spent upon the question, how these " twelve days " are to be reckoned. 
Some begin with Paul's departure from Cesarea (ch. 21 : 15) ; others with his 
arrival at Jerusalem. (Ch. 21 : 17.) So also some include the day of trial 
(ch. 24 . 1, 2) ; others exclude it. There is also considerable difference as to 
how many of the ^even days (ch. 21 : 27) had elapsed before Paul was arrested. 
It seems that the days and events can be most satisfactorily arranged by 
reckoning from the day of Paul's arrival at Jerusalem from Cesarea. If he 



made the journey of about sixty-five miles in two days, he probably arrived 
at Jerusalem in the evening which began the Day of Pentecost. He was 
probably arrested on the fifth of the seven days, mentioned in ch. 21: 27, 
which fully satifies the language there. So also the supposition, that twelve 
days had elapsed since his arrival at Jerusalem, best accords with the 
accuracy that Paul would naturally use before a civil tribunal. The follow- 
ing arrangement presents the whole matter at once before the eye. Let it be 
borne in mind that the Jewish day began with sunset. 


























Fri. ■ 













Pentecost. Arrival at Jerusalem Wednesday 
evening. Welcomed by the brethren ; lodges Avith 
Mnason. (Ch. 21 : 15-17.) The following morning, 
or during the dav, meets with James and the 
elders. (Ch. 21 : 18-25.) ^ 

Undertakes the Nazarite vow and offering. (Ch. 
21 : 26.) 

The seven day's time of offering broken off by 
the arrest. (Ch. 21 : 27.) 

Arrest of Paul. (Ch. 21 : 27.) 

Paul before the Sanhedrim. (Ch. 22:30; 23: 

The Jewish conspiracy. 

In the night following Thursday and during the 
day Paul is taken to Cesarea ; and his accusers are 
commanded to appear against him. (Ch. 23: 30, 
31, 33.) 

Paul confined in Herod's palace. 

The trial. (Ch. 24 : 2.) ; after five days. (Ch. 24 : 1.) 

This makes twelve complete days, without counting the day on which he 
was making his defence. "According to Koman usage a case referred like 
this should be tried on the third day, or as soon after that as might be 
possible." — Haekett. If the above arrangement of the days of the week is 
correct, then the date fixed for the trial was as early as Ananias and others 
of the Sanhedrim could conveniently get to Cesarea. They would hardly 
start the day before the Jewish Sabbath, upon a two days' journey. But 
leaving early Sunday morning, they could arrive at Cesarea on Monday 
afternoon or evening, and be in readiness for the trial on Tuesday morning. 

Paul, in his defence, speaks of having come to Jerusalem to bring alms to his 
nation (ch. 24 : 17-19), the only place in the Acts where these collections are 
mentioned. But this incidental reference of Paul is very fully confirmed in 
his Epistles. Thus in Kom. 15 : 25, 26, he speaks of the journey he was then 


about to make to Jerusalem, and the contributions from Macedonia and 
Achaia, for the poor among the saints at Jerusalem. In 1 Cor. 16 : 3, 4, he 
mentions a collection intended for Jerusalem. In 2 Cor. 8 : 1-4, he commends 
the liberality of the Macedonians ; and in 2 Cor. 9 : 1, 2, the liberality of the 
Achaians. These Epistles, as has been already noticed, had all been written 
within a little more than a year ; that to the Romans just before leaving 
Corinth on the last journey to Jerusalem. Thus the collections, their object, 
and the time of taking to Jerusalem, are the same. AVe have here one of 
those incidental and undesigned coincidences which exist between the Acts 
and the Epistles. In each the reference is perfectly apt and natural. There 
is evidently no attempt to make any one conform to the others. Paley has 
treated these passages well, deducing from them unmistakable evidences of 
the credibility of the writings of both Paul and Luke. 

TertuUus was an advocate in the courts of law. He probably spoke in 
Latin. His speech was a shrewd and eloquent piece of flattery and misrepre- 
sentation, with only a grain of truth. Felix had indeed shown considerable 
vigor in suppressing robberies and rebellion. " As to the number of robbers 
whom he caused to be crucified, and of those whom he brought to be pun- 
ished, they were a multitude not to be enumerated." (Josephus, Jewish War, 
2. 13, 2.) Yet he was one of the most corrupt and oppressive governors that 
Judea ever had. He even used the Sicarii or Assassins when it answered his 
purpose, as was the case in the murder of Jonathan the high priest. " Felix, 
by applying unseasonable remedies, inflamed the dissatisfaction." (Tacitus, 
Ann. 12 : 54. Hist. 5 : 9. See on Felix, in preceding section.) 

In this section we have a brief but accurate representation of procedure 
according to the forms of Eoman law. The accusers lay information against 
the defendant ; he is summoned ; the advocate brings forward the charges, 
and Paul defends in person ; but could have done so through an advocate. 

Ananias. (See on | 46.) Lysias. (See on § 43.) 

g 50. Not long after the trial (" certain days," ch. 24 : 24), Paul is called 
BEFORE Felix and Drusilla, his wife. DrusiUa was ".a Jewess," the 
daughter of Herod Agrippa I. (ch. 12 : 1, 21), and sister of Agrippa II. (ch. 
25 : 13). She had been previously married to Azizus, king of Emesa, but 
Felix, enamored with her beauty, induced her to desert her husband and 
marry him. 

Felix hoped for a bribe (ch. 24 : 26), though contrary to Eoman law. A 
judge was expressly prohibited by the Julian law from receiving anything for 
a person's imprisonment or liberation. Josephus relates how Albanus, one of 
the successors of Felix, liberated those who gave him money, and filled the 
country with robbers. — (Antiq., 20: 9. 5.) 

The phrase when " two years were completed," implies that Paul was im- 



prisoned two full years, during which time he continued in chains (ch. 24 : 27). 
In A. D. 59 a fearful tumult occurred at Cesarea, between the Jews and the 
Syrian Greeks. Felix was accused by the Jews of Cesarea to the Emperor, 
and was recalled in a. d. 60 to answer for his conduct, and would have suffered 
the penalty of his crimes, had not his brother Pallas induced Nero to spare 

It is probable that during these two years Luke wrote his Gospel, under the 
advice of Paul. Luke came with him to Jerusalem (ch. 21 : 15), and at the 
close of his imprisonment joined him on his voyage to Rome (ch. 27 : 1). It is 
therefore probable that he was much at Cesarea during these two years, and 
in frequent communication with the apostle. Thus he had a most favorable 
opportunity of "accurately tracing all things from the very first," and sub- 
mitting his manuscript to the inspection of Paul. (See Author's Luke, Dr. 
Conant's Introduction, page 7.) 

Nothing is known of Festus previous to his appointment as procurator of 
Judea (ch. 24: 27). He is regarded as a just and moderate ruler, and sup- 
pressed tumults and insurrections with a vigorous hand. He continued in his 
office until his death in A. d. 62. 

The time of the recall of Felix and the appointment of Festus, has been 
assigned to every one of the years between A. d. 55 and 62. Most critics, 
however, assign them to the year A. d. 60 or 61. Indeed, no chronological 
fact in Paul's life is better ascertained than this; and some prefer to stop here, 
without trying to determine exactly the year. It is important, however, to 
fix the date, as the arrangement of Paul's third missionary journey, his fifth 
visit to Jerusalem, and his imprisonment at Cesarea, depends quite largely 
upon it. "It is important," says Dr. Hackett, "for the purpose of laying up 
in the mind a connected view of the history, to settle upon the precise years 
as nearly as possible ; and we ought not to deprive ourselves of this advantage, 
merely because some of the conclusions, or the grounds of them, cannot be 
placed entirely beyond doubt." 

I prefer A. d. 60 for the following reasons: 

1. The recall of Felix could not have been before A. d. 60. Now Felix 
was appointed procurator of Judea, according to Josephus {Antiq., 20: 7, 1), 
in the twelfth year of Claudius, a, d. 52. But Paul, in his defence, speaks of 
him as having been " many years a judge unto this nation " (ch. 24 : 10), two 
years before he was succeeded by Festus (ch. 24: 27.) The "many years" 
and the "two years" could hardly been less than seven or eight years. If so, 
the recall could not have occurred before a. d. 60. 

2. After Festus had been in office for a time, he permitted a deputation to 
visit Nero at Rome, in regard to the high wall which the Jews had built 
near the temple. Through the influence of Poppgea, the wife of Nero, it was 
decided in favor of the Jews. (Josephus, Antiq., 20: 8, 11.) But Nero was not 


married to Poppsea till May, A. d. 62 ; and Festus died in a. d. 62 ; for 
Albanus, his successor, was at the Feast of Tabernacles (October) of the same 
year. {Jewish War, 6 : 5, 3.) Hence, the Jewish deputation must have gone 
to Rome, probably, in the autumn of a. d. 61, before the close of naviga- 
tion. The building of the wall, and the controversy regarding it, must have 
occupied several months. These considerations make it probable that Festus 
was appointed as early as A. d. 60. 

3. Paul was a Sunday at Troas (ch. 20 : 7), twelve days after leaving 
Philippi, which departure was after the days of unleavened bread. Eeckon- 
ing back, we find that the fifteenth of Nisan fell on Tuesday. According to 
Wieseler, the only year on which this could occur, between A. d. 56 and 59 
inclusive, is A. d. 58, which we have already fixed upon as the year of Paul's 
arrival at Jerusalem. Add to this the two years of Paul's imprisonment; 
and we have a. d. 60 as the time of Felix's removal. 

4. Wieseler has also noted that when the propretors of Syria were changed 
the procurators of Judea Avere generally changed. Now, Corbulo succeeded 
Quodratus in Syria in a. d. 60 ; hence, it is natural to suppose that the recall 
of Felix occurred in that year. 

5. According to some ancient authorities, Paul was delivered to " the captain 
of the pretorian guard," when he arrived at Rome (cli. 28 : 16), from which 
it is inferred that there was a single prefect in command at that time. Now 
Burrus, who held that office, died in January or February, a. d. 62, and was 
succeeded by two joint prefects. Hence it is argued that it was the spring of 
A. D. 61, when Paul arrived at Rome, and the summer before, a. d. 60, that 
Festus assumed his procuratorship over Judea. The above reading is regarded 
by some as spurious ; by others as doubtful. Both Alford and Meyer accepted 
it as genuine. It has strong internal evidence in its favor. The inference 
that there was but one prefect at the time, is a possible one, though not 
necessary, for Luke may have only meant the one who acted at that particular 
time and case. But when we take all the circumstances together, it assumes 
a degree of probability. The coincidence would be a striking one. This 
point, however, is of value only in connection with other arguments. 

6. Felix was followed to Rome by a deputation of the Jews, who accused 
him before the emperor of maladministration. He was saved from punish- 
ment through the intercession of his brother Pallas, who stood high at that 
time in the favor of Nero. (Josephus, Antiq., 20 : 8. 9.) But Pallas was poi- 
soned by Nero in A. d. 62, and it is not probable that he stood high in the 
emperor's favor either that or the preceding year. Tacitus says that Pallas 
lost favor with Nero at the very beginning of his reign, A. d. 54. In A. d. 55, 
he was tried for treason, and acquitted. After this he seems to have re- 
gained the favor of the court, and may have had the influence, accorded to 
him by Josephus, in the autumn or winter of A. d. 60. This argument by 


itself has not much force ; but in connection with others, favors the date of A. d. 

60, for the removal of Felix. 

7. Josephus relates that in the twenty-sixth year of his age he made a 
voyage to Kome, in which he suffered shipwreck ; and through the influence 
of Poppaea, he obtained the release of certain priests who had been sent 
thither for trial by Felix before his removal, {Life, 3.) Now Josephus was 
born in the first year of Caligula, who began liis rfeign March 16, A. D. 37. 
The twenty-sixth year of Josephus would begin between March 16, A. d. 62, 
and end March 16, A. d. 63. Hence, he probably took this voyage in the 
summer of a. d. 62. His narrative implies that Felix had been recalled for 
some time ; justice moved slowly ; and these priests were continuing as pris- 
oners. Josephus is indelinite ; but the facts related, while not decisive, are in 
harmony with the supposition that Felix was recalled in a. d. 60. 

8. Albinus was procurator of Judea at the Feast of Tabernacles (autumn) 
A. D. 62 ; and Festus must have died a little before this, making the duration 
of his government only about a year, if we suppose he was appointed in A. d 

61. But this would seem too short a time for all that transpired, according 
to Josephus. {Antiq., 20 : 8, 9, 10, 11.) The time required for suppressing 
tumults and insurrectionists, for Agrippa II. to build his large dining-hall, and 
the Jews to build their wall to intercept his vdew of the temj^le ; for the dis- 
pute arising from it, and for an embassy to go to Rome, attend to their matter 
there, and return, Avould very probably occupy about two years. The voyage 
to Eome and back would require at least six months, and some time would be 
required at Rome. It would seem that they probably went in a. d. 61, 
arriving at Rome before the close of navigation, and returned a little before 
the death of Festus, in a. d. 62. If so, then Festus must have been appointed 
procurator in a. d. 60. 

9. Wieseler has argued that the events recorded by Josephus, from the 
accession of Nero as emperor, in October, a. d. 54, till the appointment of 
Festus, could not have all transpired before A. d. 60. (Josephus, Antiq., 
20: 8. Jewish War, 2: 13.) 

While no one of the above arguments may be decisive, yet takfm together 
they form, to my mind, a strong probability, amounting almost to certainty, 
that Felix was recalled, and Festus appointed in A. d. 60. As Paul started 
in the autumn for Rome (ch. 27 : 9), and arrived there the following spring 
(ch. 28: 11), the arrival of Festus into his province must have been in the 

§ 51. On Festus, and his appointment to be procurator of Judea, see pre- 
ceding section. If Felix was recalled about Pentecost, May, a. d. 60, Festus 
would reach Cesarea about July. After three days, he goes to Jerusalem, 
which would take two days. There he remains eight or ten days, when he 


returns to Cesarea, and the day after occurs Paul's Trial, and Defence 
before him (ch. 25 : 1, 6). Thus the trial was about seventeen days after the 
arrival of Festus in his province. 

Luke's account (ver. 1-12) should be carefully comjDared with Festus' own 
account of the matter to Agrippa (ver. 12-21). For this purpose, the Scrip- 
ture text is brought together. Festus shows the justice of his character, in 
the answer which he gave the Jews' demand for immediate judgment against 
Paul : " That it is not the custom of the Komans to deliver any man, before 
that the accused have the accusers face to face," etc. (Ver. 16.) 

The Council (ver. 12) was not the Jewish Council, or any portion of them, 
but his own council of assessors, appointed to advise him in questions of diffi- 
culty. (Compare Josephus, Antiq., 20 : 5. 4. Jewish War, 2 : 16. 1.) 

^ 52. After "certain days" (ch. 25: 13), and "many days" (ver. 14), liter- 
ally, more dmjs, that is, some days (see ch. 21 : 10), Festus Confers with 
Agrippa, concerning Paul. (Compare ver. 12-21 with ver. 1-12. See pre- 
ceding section.) 

The accuracy of Luke is again illustrated in ver. 25 — Festus applying the 
title of lord to the emperor. It was refused by the first two emperors. Of 
Augustus (.4 a^r. 55), Suetonius says: "He always abhorred the title lord, 
as ill-omened and offensive ; and he would not suffer himself to be addressed 
in that manner, even by his own children or grandchildren, either in jest or 
in earnest." And of Tiberius he says {Tib. £7) : "Being once called lord 
by some person, he desired that he might no more be affronted in that 
manner." The emperors who followed, however, did not refuse the appella- 
tion. But Antoninus Pius, who reigned from. a. d. 138 to 161, was the first 
to put it on his coins. 

Agrippa the king (Agrippa II.), was the only son of the Herod whose terri- 
ble death is recorded in ch. 12: 20-23, and the great-grandson of Herod the 
Great. In a. d. 48, his uncle Herod, King of Chalcis, died, and the Emperor 
Claudius, A. D. 49, conferred on him the kingdom of Chalcis, with the over- 
sight of the temple and the power of appointing high priests (Antiq., 20: 5. 2). 
In A. D. 53, Claudius enlarged his kingdom, giving him the title of king. 
Nero, on his accession, increased his dominion by the addition of several 
cities (Antiq., 20: 8. 4). In the Jewish war, he sided with the Eomans, and 
died at Rome a. d. 100. 

Bernice was a sister of Agrippa II., and of Drusilla the wife of Felix, and 
the eldest daughter of Agrippa I. She was celebrated for her beauty and 
profligacy. She resided at this time with her brother Agrippa. (See Josephus 
concerning her, Antiq., 19: 5. 1 ; 20: 5. 1 ; 7. 3. Jewish War, 2: 15. 1.) 

53. Paul's Defence Before Agrippa (ch. 26 : 1-32), should be 



carefully compared with his address to the people (ch. 22 : 3-21 ) ; and both 
with Luke's account of Paul's conversion and mission. (Ch. 9 : 1-22.) (See 
^ 16, 17, the arrangement of the Scripture texts, and also the notes on the 

But notice, further: (1) King Agrippa is more intelligent, and less bigoted 
than was his audience at Jerusalem (ch. 22) ; and hence Paul enters more 
fully into the connection between his former views and his new faith, and 
dwells more upon the divine authority of his message and mission. 

(2) Notice how the brief summary of his labors in ver. 20, finds a parallel in 
Rom. 15 : 18, 19. In the first, he makes the time of his conversion the 
starting-point, beginning at Damascus ; in the second, he makes Jerusalem a 
centre of a circle of missionary operations, which extended unto Illyricum. 

Notice (3) Paul says that he declared the gospel "at Jerusalem, and 
throughout all the country of Judea;" but in Gal. 1: 22, he says: "I was 
still unknown by face unto the churches of Judea." He was personally 
unknown to the Judean churches until after his residence in Cilicia, when 
Barnabas went to Tarsus and brought him to Antioch. But when, in A. d. 
44, he and Barnabas brought supplies to the elders of Judea, then he became 
personally acquainted with them and the churches. And soon after he was 
commissioned to go to the Gentiles. (See ch. 11 : 25-30; 12: 25; 13 : 2-4.) 

Luke's accuracy is further illustrated : 

1. In ver. 29, Paul says, except these bonds, or chains. Now it was not 
unusual for a prisoner to be bound when he plead before the judges. Tacitus 
mentions the case of a father accused by his son, and both led into the Senate : 
" He (the father) had been brought back from exile, and then was bound with 
a chain, the son arguing against him. On the other hand, the accused, his 
spirit in no degree broken, turned toward his son, shook his chain, and called 
on the gods as his avengers." {Ann. 4 : 28.) 

2. In ver. 32, Agrippa said : " This man might have been set at liberty, if 
he had not appealed unto Csesar." This states the exact fact of the case. 
When an appeal was made and accepted, it could not be withdrawn. Paul 
was now placed beyond the jurisdiction of Festus, who could now neither 
condemn nor acquit; but must refer the matter to the emperor. 

See note on page 125. The prison life of Paul at Cesarea was interspersed 
with a trial before Felix (Acts 24 : 10), several private interviews with Felix 
(24 : 24, 26), the trial before Festus (25 : 8), and his public appearance before 



At this point the Acts (ch. 27) comes in contact with ancient seafaring life. 
In no writing that has come down to us from ancient times, can we find in so 
small a compass such a minute description of a voyage, or so much informa- 
tion about ancient navigation. Luke uses no less than sixteen technical 
terms in describing the motion and management of a ship. His description 
of localities has been found to be strictly correct. His account of the motion 
and effect of the wind called Euraquilo, is like that of the northeast in the 
Mediterranean. All this has been so thoroughly tested and illustrated by 
Mr. James Smith of Scotland, a seaman and a scholar, in his Voyage and 
Shijnureck of St. Paul (London, 1848 and 1856), that all modern commentaries 
derive their information largely from his work, and appeal to it as their 
authority. A similar investigation, but less minute and elaborate, had been 
made by the late Admiral Sir Charles Penrose, whose manuscript was placed 
in the hands of Dr. J. S. Howson, and was used by him in preparing the 
twenty-third chapter of The Life and Epistles of St. Paul. Dr. Howson is 
largely indebted to the work of Mr. Smith, who also examined the sheets of 
the chapter as they passed through the press. Dr. Hackett also, in his 
commentary, is especially full and minute, and is to be preferred to any other 
on this portion of the Acts. We have frequently referred to the accuracy of 
Luke, as illustrated by ancient coins and monuments; by profane history and 
recent discovery. But nowhere do we find such an irresistible vindication of 
his historical exactness and truthfulness as here. " Indeed," says Dr. William 
Smith, "if the life of St. Paul is of itself a sufficient moral evidence of the 
truth of Christianity, the narrative of his labors by St. Luke is a critical 
evidence no less conclusive. And as the former has been summed up in the 
narrow issue of Paul's conversion, so we might even be content to stake the 
latter on the story of his voyage and shipwreck. It is just where a landsman 
makes the most ridiculous exposure of his ignorance, that the historian has 
ventured on details as minute as those of a Marryat or a Cooper; but with 
the addition of other allusions to matters of fact, as to places, seasons, winds, 
and currents ; without, in either case, exposing one single flaw to the keenest 
professional criticism. Of this there can be but one explanation ; that being 
an eye-witness of all the incidents, and an observer as intelligent as he was 
honest, he simply recorded, in plain words, what he saw and heard. Nor can 
we doubt that the Spirit, under whose guidance he wrote, led him to place 
these minute details upon the record, expressly to afford a test of the record 
itself." — {Neiv Testament History, pp. 559, 560.) 


§ 54. The time of Paul's Embarkation at Cesarea can be determined 
with sufficient exactness for all desirable purposes. The narrative of Luke, 
" And when it was determined that we should sail for Italy " (ch. 27 : 1), im- 
plies the fixing upon the precise time and mode of their departure, the general 
determination having been previously formed (ch, 25: 12). The natural im- 
plication from the two passages is, that not a very long time intervened. It 
was necessary that there should be an opportunity for sending Paul and others 
by ship, and that there should be sufficient time for making the necessary 
preparations. One month would seem sufficient for this. For if " certain days " 
in ch. 25 : 13, be taken as twelve days, and " the many " or some days (ch. 25 : 
14) as six or eight days, and about ten days be allowed between Paul's 
defence before Agrippa and his sailing away as prisoner, then we have thirty 
days. But it has before been shown that about seventeen days were occupied 
between the arrival of Festus into his province, and the trial of Paul before 
him (ch. 25 : 1, 6 ; see on ^ 51). This would make the departure of Paul as 
prisoner from Cesarea about forty -seven days> or a little more than a month 
and a half after the arrival of Festus in Judea as procurator. 

A more definite note of time is found in ch. 27 : 9 : " Because the fast was 
already gone by." The fast was the great day of atonement, which occurred 
on the tenth day of the seventh month (Lev. 23 : 27), about the time of the 
autumnal equinox. In A. d. 60 it fell on September 23d, which was already 
passed when the ship bearing Paul was at Fair Havens. Now the voyage from 
Cesarea to Sidon (about seventy miles), occupied over a day (ch. 27 : 3) ; eight 
days may be allowed for the circuitous voyage to Myra (ver. 5), twelve days 
for sailing "slowly many days," till they came over against Cnidus (ver. 7), 
and five days till they came to Fair Havens — making twenty-seven days in all 
from Cesarea. Taking September 25th as the probable date of the time when 
the fast was " already gone by," we have August 29th as the date of sailing 
from Cesarea, and July 13tli as the time when Festus entered upon the duties 
of procurator in Judea (ch. 25 : 1). This must be regarded only as an esti- 
mate ; yet the dates must approximate very nearly. 

It accords with the practice of the Romans that Paul and the other prisoners 
were sent by a ship engaged in commerce. The one that was shipwrecked 
appears to have had a cargo of grain (ver. 38). Rome had no packet service 
for conveying passengers or prisoners from the provinces. A few years later 
\\^spasian went from Alexandria to Ehodes, and afterward Titus from Alex- 
andria to Italy, in merchant ships. 

It has also been frequently observed that ch. 27 : 1, implies that it was a 
common practice to send prisoners from Judea to Rome for trial. Josephus con- 
firms this, who says: "Felix, for some slight oflTence, bound and sent to Rome 
several priests of his acquaintance, honorable and good men, to answer for 
themselves to Cesar." (See Dr. Hackett). 


In ver. 4 we have a nautical expression : " We sailed under \_the lee of] Cyprus" ; 
that is, under tlie protection of Cyprus, the island being between the wind and 
the ship. Instead of taking the direct course and sailing south of Cyprus, 
leaving it on the right, they sail east and north of the island, leaving it on the 
left, "because the winds were contrary." Mr. Smith and others have noted 
the fact that western and northwestern winds prevail in this part of the Med- 
iterranean, at the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. "The reason 
why this course was taken will be easily understood by those who have navi- 
gated these seas in modern times. By standing to the north, the vessel would 
fall in with the current, which sets in a northwesterly direction past the 
eastern extremity of Cyprus, and tlien westerly along the southern coast of 
Asia Elinor, till it is lost at the opening of the Archipelago. And besides 
this, as the land was neared, the wind would draw off the shore, and the water 
would be smoother ; and both of these advantages would aid the progress of 
the vessel." — {Conybeare and Howson, Vol. II., 314). 

The ship of Alexandria (ver. 6), into which the centurion transferred the 
prisoners, was one of the large merchant vessels of that day. Besides its 
cargo of grain (ver. 38), it had on board two hundred and seventy-six persons 
(ver. 37). Admiral Penrose estimates her burden at upwards of 500 tons. 
And the one in which they sailed from Melita, whose sign was The Ticin 
Brothers (ch. 28 : 11), was also from Alexandria, and perhaps as large. 
Josephus relates that there were six hundred in the ship in which he was 
wrecked, from which he and about eighty were saved {Life, | 3). Egypt, at 
that time, was the granary of Italy; and hence there was a large traffic in 
grain between Alexandria and Rome. 

He put us therein (ver. 6), is another nautical expression, meaning he put us 
on board of it. The precision with which Luke uses nautical phrases, and his 
minuteness of detail, have led some to suppose that he kept a diary during 
the voyage, and used it in his history. 

They sail "slowly many days" from Myra west to a point opposite Cnidus, 
a distance of 130 miles, which, under favorable circumstances, they could have 
accomplished in a day. The wind does not permit them to put into the 
excellent harbor of Cnidus ; so they proceed south and make for the island of 
Crete, sailing under the lee, or east and south of it (ver. 7, 8). Mr. Smith has 
shown that the wind must have been northwest. According to Pliny, these 
winds begin in August, and continue forty days {Plin. N. H., 2 : 4), Another 
nautical expression is found in ver. 8, coasting along, sailing near or along a 

Orete (ver. 7), the modern Candia, is one of the largest islands of the 
Mediterranean. Salmone, a cape and promontory forming the eastern point 
of Crete. Fair Havens is mentioned by no other ancient writer; but a pl?ce 
of the same name is found in the south of Crete, about six miles east of Cape 


Matala, and sheltered by it from the west, and northAvest wind. Mr. Smith 
says that it is so well protected by islands and reefs that " it must be a very 
fair winter harbor." Lasea is about five miles east of Fair Havens, and 
still bears the same name. Two white pillars and other remains, are said to 
mark the spot. ' 

§ 55. The much time spent (ch. 27 : 9), embraces the whole period since leav- 
ing Cesarea. The Fast, or great Day of Atonement, in a. d. 60, occurred on 
September 23d. (See preceding section.) The ship appears to have been de- 
layed at Fair Havens. It was probably about the middle of October, when 
they attempt to reach Phoenix for winter quarters. The season had already 
begun when it was regarded too late to begin a long voyage. " The Greeks 
and Komans considered the period of safe navigation as closing in October, 
and recommencing about the middle of March." — Dr. Hackett. 

The master was the steersman, who had the sole direction of the ship — very 
much like our captain. 

The situation of Fhcenix is not certainly determined. It was somewhere on 
the south of Crete. I^Ir. Smith maintains that it is the present Lutro, about 
forty miles west of Fair Havens. It is said to be the only port on the south 
coast of Crete, in which a vessel can find security for the whole season. But 
the bay opens to the east, and therefore does not answer to the plain descrip- 
tion of Luke, "looking northeast and southeast" — ratlier, looking toward the 
southwest and the northwest. So Hackett, Meyer, Gloag, Wordsworth, and others. 
Captain Spratt tells us that a bay, a little to the west of Lutro, is still known 
by the name of Phoenix, and opens to the west. "According to Captain 
Spratt, though his language is not very clear, there is a promontory, on the 
eastern side of which is Lutro, with its port looking toAvard the east, and on 
the western side a wide bay looking toward the Avest, knoAvn by the name of 
Phenice ; and on the promontory itself are the ruins of the city Phenice." — 
(Gloag, Com. Acts.) Humphrey and WordsAA'orth also hold this to be the place. 
(See Spratt's Crete, Vol. II., pp. 250-254.) The coast line may have changed, 
since upheavals and submergences haA'e been frequent in Crete. 

The gentle south wind (ver. 13) seemed favorable for their going round Cape 
Matala, and thence northwest to Phoenix. But modern voyagers on these 
Avaters have not found the south Avind trustAvorthy. Captain J. Stewart says 
that southern Avinds " almost iuA-ariably ■ shift to a violent northerly wind.'* 
Such Avas the case at this time. Probably soon after turning the cape, AA'hile 
keeping close to the shore, " there Ijeat doAvn from it a tempestuous, a typhonic, 
Avind, Avhich is called Euraquilo," or northeaster ; the common name given to 
the wind by the sailors. Typhonic describes the character of the Avind — a vio- 
lent whirling of the air and clouds — a sudden squall, a whirhvind. Pliny, 
speaking of such, says, "they cause a vortex, Avhich is called a typhoon." 


Tlie whole account of this sudden blast, and of its long continuance, are re- 
markably confirmed by Mr. Smith and others. Such a wind, too, would 
drive the ship near Clauda, the modern Gozzo, about twenty miles southwest 
of Cape Matala. It would also run the ship upon the Syrtis (ver. 17), doubt- 
less the Syrtis Major, now called the Gulf of Sidra, a dangerous shallow on 
the coast of Africa, southwest of Crete, dreaded by ancient mariners. 

And so run the ship under the lee of Clauda (ver. 16), having the island 
between them, and the wind being thus south or southwest of it. Here they 
were somewhat sheltered from the fearful tempest, and were enabled to do 
three things preparatory to a long and dangerous voyage: (1) They get the 
boat on board, which they could not do when driving before the wind ; and as 
the boat was doubtless quite full of water, it was accomplished " with 
difficulty." (2) "They used helps, under-girding the ship" (ver. 17), passing 
ropes or chains around the hull at right angles, the ends being secured on the 
deck, thus adding strength to the ship. The imperfection of construction, 
and the strain upon the hull, caused by the single mast with its large, square 
sail, rendered the ancient merchant ship especially liable to the loosening of 
its frame-work, or the yielding of its planks. This mode of strengthening 
ships was common in ancient times, nor is it unknown among modern navi- 
gators. (3) " They lowered the gear," which probably means that they 
lowered the top-sails on the mast and all, except what was necessary in the 
storm. For to escape the Syrtis, they must have had some sail. It is 
supposed that they brought the vessel round, with the right side to the wind ; 
and that thus she would drift a little to the north of west at the rate of a 
mile and a half an hour, or thirty -six miles a day, 

Thus ends the first day from Fair Havens. The second and third days are 
described in ver. 18, 19. The " many days " (ver. 20) probably cover nine or 
ten days ; for fourteen days elapsed between the time they left Crete, and the 
time when they were stranded on the coast of Melita ; and three days had 
already passed. 

On the second day from Fair Havens " they began to throw the freight over- 
board'^ (ver. 18) — literally, "they made a casting out," a nautical expression 
of the ancients, in order to lighten the ship. The mariners of Jonah's 
vessel " cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea to lighten it." 
(Jon. 1 : 5.) AVhat they threw overboard, we are not told. Probably some 
of the heavier articles which came to hand — of spars and riggings, and of 
merchandise, but not the wheat. (Ver. 38.) 

They cast out on the third day the tacJding or furniture of the ship (ver. 19), 
a doubtful expression, meaning probably, beds, tables, chests, and such articles 
as were not absolutely essential. Mr. Smith supposes that the ship had 
sprung a leak, and they were in extreme danger of foundering at sea — a 
frequent occurrence in that day. About two years later, Josephus, on his 


way to Kome, suffered shipwreck from foundering. "Accordingly," he says, 
" I came to Rome, though it were through a great number of hazards at sea ; 
for our ship was drowned in the Adriatic Sea, and we that were in it, being 
about six hundred in number, swam for our lives all the night ; when upon 
the first appearance of the day, and upon our sight of a ship of Cyrene, I and 
some others, eighty in all, by God's providence, having got a start of the rest, 
were taken up into the other ship." — {Life, g 3.) 

" Neither sun nor stars shone upon us for many days " (ver. 20), describes 
the overcast sky, which often accompanies a northeastern gale, on the 
Mediterranean, at the present day. 

§ 56. The Shipwreck occurred on "the fourteenth night" and the morn- 
ing following, after leaving the "Fair Havens." (Ver. 8, 13, 27.) 

The Sea of Adria (ver. 27) at first was a part, and then the whole, of the 
Gulf of Venice. In the apostolic age it embraced that division of the 
Mediterranean which was bounded by the coasts of Sicily, Italy, Greece, and 
Africa. Ptolomy says that Crete is bounded on the west by Adria. It was 
in that part of the sea between Crete and Sicily, the ship containing Paul 
was driven up and down. Somewhere in this sea Josephus was shipwrecked 
(see above) ; and was picked up by a ship from Cyrene and taken to Puteoli. 
(Ch. 28 : 13.) 

In ver. 27, we have the graphic language of seamen, " they were drawing 
near some country" — literally, some country was drawing near them; according 
to the optical illusion, when sailing to a place, the land appears to approach ; 
in sailing away, the land recedes. 

It appears from ver. 29, 30, that the ship had more than four anchors; for 
that number was cast out of the stern, to stop the progress of the ship, and at 
the same time keep it headed toward the land, ready to push forward when 
the day came (ver. 40) ; and there were anchors in the foreship, which the 
sailors pretended to be preparing to cast forth. Ancient ships of considerable 
size had several anchors. Cesar speaks of ships having four. Athenteus 
mentions one that had eight. The anchors, as seen on ancient coins, were 
similar in form to modern ones. The ancients generally anchored from the 
bow, though they sometimes anchored from the stern. Nelson anchored his 
fleet from the stern, at the Battle of Copenhagen, in order to keep the vessels 
in proper position ; and it is said that this measure was suggested to him by 
his having read, that morning, the twenty-seventh chapter of the Acts. 
(Conybeare and Howson, Vol. II., p. 335.) 

The strong language of Paul (ver. 33) : " This is the fourteenth day that 
ye wait, and continue fasting, having taken nothing," was understood by his 
hearers, and means that they had taken no regular meals, nor taken anything 
adequate to their support. "Appian speaks of an army, which for twenty 


days took neither food nor sleep ; by which he must mean that they neither 
took reguhir meals, nor slept whole nights together." — {Doddridge, Hackett, 
and Gloag.) 

In ver. 40, Luke speaks of "loosing the bands of the rudders," using the 
plural ; for the ships of the ancients generally had two rudders, like large and 
broad oars or paddles, one on each side of the stern. These were joined 
together at the extremity by a pole, and when necessary they could be raised 
up out of the water and fastened with bands to the ship. This had been 
done, when the anchors were cast out at the stern (ver 29) ; but now having 
cut off the anchors, they must loosen the bands and lower the rudders, in 
order to control the ship, when making for the beach. 

The word translated foresail (ver. 40) has been applied to almost every 
sail which a vessel carries; but it is now generally regarded as the foresail, 
which would be the most useful in driving the ship forward. They did just 
what a sailor would do at the present day. 

The Place of the Shipwreck. Formerly, this was supposed to have 
been on the island of Meleda, in the Gulf of Venice, founded on the erroneous 
view that the Sea of Adria, in which the ship was driven up and down, was 
identical with that gulf. But we have seen above, that the Adriatic also 
included that portion of the Mediterranean between Sicily and Greece, ex- 
tending down to the Syrtis on the African coast. Moreover, a northeast wind 
would not drive a ship from the island of Crete to Meleda ; nor would a ship 
from Alexandria naturally winter there (ch. 28: 11); nor would it likely 
continue its voyage afterwards to Puteoli ; nor go to Syracuse before it went 
to Rhegium. This opinion was first advanced in the tenth century, but is 
now generally given up. 

The island of Malta, about fifty-six miles south of Cape Passaro, the south 
promontory of Sicily, is, without doubt, the Melita of the Acts ; and St. Paul's 
Bay, on the northeastern extremity of the island, the place of the shipwreck. 
Malta is sixty miles in circumference, twenty miles in length, and twelve 
miles in breadth. The name of St. Paul's Bay has been given to the place where 
the shipwreck is supposed to have occurred. This bay is an inlet about two 
miles deep, and one mile broad, formed in part by the small island, Salmo- 
netta, on the northwest, and the Koura Point on the southeast. The ship is 
supposed to have passed this point, and to have been wrecked within the bay, 
near the channel which separates Salmonetta from Malta. The reasons may 
be stated as follows : 

1. It is the traditionary place. The belief has been rooted in the Maltese 
mind from generation to generation. "The present writer's personal ac- 
quaintance with the island would enable him greatly to extend .... the 
Pauline associations which it contains. There ii,!, perhaps, no piece of land, 

of the same extent in the world, which is made to contain references so diver- 



sified and so numerous, to any one person, as the island of Malta to Paul, who 
is, in fact, the tutelary saint of the island." — (Alexander's Kitto.) 

2. From the direction and probable speed of the ship. The wind was a 
northeastern gale. Mr. Smith has shown that the seamen probably did what 
experienced sailors now would do, under their circumstances — they bring the 
Jiead of the vessel very near to the north, with the right side to the wdnd. 
They would thus avoid the dreaded Syrtis of Africa, and tend as much as 
possible toward Italy. It is also generally agreed that they would drift a 
little north of west, at the rate of thirty-six miles a day as a fair average. 
The distance from Clauda to Malta is about 477 miles. At the above rate " a 
ship starting late in the evening from Clauda," says Mr. Smith, " would, by 
midnight on the fourteenth, be less than three miles from the entrance of St. 
Paul's Bay. I admit that a coincidence, so very close as this is, is to a certain 
extent, accidental ; but it is an accident which could not have happened had 
there been any great inaccuracy on the part of the author of the narrative 
with regard to the numerous incidents upon which the calculations are 
founded, or had the ship been wrecked anywhere but at Malta." 

3. From the place of the shipwreck, "they perceived a certain bay with a 
beach " ; one having a smooth shore (ver. 39), implying that the coast adja- 
cent was unsafe, or unsuited for running the ship upon it with the hope of 
saving their lives. Again it is said : " Lighting upon a place where two seas 
met, they ran the vessel aground" (ch. 27 : 41). 

These conditions are met in St. Paul's Bay, which is formed on the north 
by the island Salmonetta. Near the place w^here the shipwreck is supposed to 
have occurred, the shore is rocky and rugged, interrupted only at two points, 
which exhibit a smooth or sandy shore. " The island of Salmonetta is so 
placed that the sailors, looking from the deck when the vessel was at anchor, 
could not possibly be aware that it was not part of the mainland ; whereas, 
while they were running her aground, they could not help observing the 
opening of the channel, which would appear ' a place between tivo seas,' and 
would be more likely to attract their attention, if some current resulting from 
tliis juxtaposition of the island and the coast interfered with the accuracy of 
their steering." — Dr. Howson. 

4. From the indications of land, the soundings, and the anchorage. If the 
ship was borne a little north of west, as above supposed, toward the little island 
of Salmonetta, then it would come so near to Koura Point, the southeast head- 
land of St. Paul's Bay, that the breakers striking upon its rocks could be 
heard, which may explain how it was that " about midniglit the sailors sur- 
mised that they were drawing near to some country" (ver. 27). The sound- 
ings also have been found to be the same as those mentioned by Luke, first, 
" twenty fathoms " ; and after a little space, " fifteen fathoms" (ver. 28). The 
anchorage in the bay is said to be good : " Vriiile the cables hold there is no 


danger, as the anchors will never start." Mr. Smith describes the bottom at 
the place of the shipwreck, " as of mud, graduating into tenacious clay." And 
so it was that when the ship ran aground, " the fore-ship struck, and remained 
immovable" (ver. 41), in the muddy clay, and the stern was exposed to the 
fury of the waves. 

" From this place (Salmonetta), the ancient capital of Malta (now Citta 
Vecchia, Old City), is distinctly seen at the distance of about five miles; and 
on looking toward the bay from the top of the church on the summit of the hill 
whereon the city stands, it occurred to the present writer that the people of 
the town might easily from this spot have perceived in the morning that a 
wreck had taken place ; and this is a circumstance Avhich throws a fresh light 
on some of the circumstances of the deeply interesting transactions which 
ensued." — Alexander's Kitto. (See ch. 28 : 2). 

5. Malta was also in the track of ships between Alexandria and Puteoli 
(ch. 28 : 11) ; and a ship in going from Malta might very naturally touch at 
Syracuse, and at Khegium, on its way to Puteoli (ch. 28 : 12, 13). 

It has been objected that the inhabitants are called barbarians ; that there 
are no venomous serpents on the island, and that dysentery is there unknown 
(ch. 28 : 2, 3, 8). But the term " barbarians" does not necessarily mean that 
those thus designated were uncivilized ; but that they spoke neither Latin or 
Greek. The inhabitants of Malta at this time spoke a Semitic dialect, prob- 
ably the Phoenician ; that spoken by the people of Carthage. As to serpenU, 
it is not strange that they have been exterminated from a small island, where 
the population has become exceedingly dense. But this by no means proves 
that there were none when the island was more sparsely inhabited, and some 
of the forests were still standing. In regard to dysentery, Mr. Smith states, on 
the authority of a physician in the island, that such a disease is not uncommon 
in Malta. But such objections are of small moment, while the positive argu- 
ments really amount to a demonstration. 

^ 57. It was about the first of November when Paul was shipwrecked at 
Melita. The "three days," in ver. 7, indicate the time that Paul, Luke, 
Aristarchus, and probably the centurion Julius, were guests of Publius, 
before the miracle of healing occurred. 

Concerning Melita and the place of shipwreck, see preceding section. It 
may be added, that Malta was originally colonized by the Phoenicians, and at 
this time constituted a part of the Roman province of Sicily, and was 
governed by a deputy under the governor of Sicily. It illustrates the 
accuracy of Luke that he speaks of Publius, as the chief, or first man of the 
island (ver. 7.) This does not occur, as the title of any governor of Malta, 
in any ancient author ; but it has been found in two inscriptions, one in Greek 
and the other in Latin, which were discovered at Citta Vecchia (Old City), 


near St. Paul's Bay, the very place where Publius probably resided, and enter- 
tained Paul and others. A few years before Paul's visit, corsairs from Cilicia 
made Melita a frequent resort, which is an evidence tliat it may have been 
thinly inhabited, and well wooded (ver. 3.) 

^ 58. From the note of time, " after three months," it may be inferred that 
Paul began his Journey from Melita to Rome about the first of 
February, A. d. 61. The three months probably embraced November, 
December, and January. 

Luke continues the narrative with the minuteness and accuracy of an eye- 
witness. Thus the ship in which they sailed from Melita was from Alexan- 
dria, which is in harmony with the grain and other trade between that c-ity and 
Italy. It had the sign, The Twin Brothers, that is, of Castor and Pollux^ 
fabled as the twin sons of Jupiter and Leda, and regarded as the guardian 
deities of sailors. Their figure heads were very frequently painted or carved 
on the prow of ancient vessels. 

They touch at Syracuse, the capital of Sicily, situated on the east coast of 
that island, about eighty miles, or a day's sail, north of Melita. It was made 
up of five cities, and hence probably its plural termination in the original. 
They tarry three days, perhaps, for purposes of trade. 

From thence, they "made a circuit,'" and arrive at Khegium (ver. 13), which 
probably means that on account of contrary or unfavorable winds they sailed 
in a zigzag course by tacking. Mr. Smith supposes a northwest wind, and that 
they worked windward, following the windings of the coast. Mr. Lewin thinks 
the wind was westerly, and that they stood out to sea, and came to Rhegium 
in a circuitous course. He had a friend who once made the voj'^age by a 
similar circuit for a similar reason. But there is nothing in the word, used 
by Luke, to determine the case with exactness. 

Rhegium, now called Reggio, stands on the Italian side of the Straits of 
Messina, which are here about six miles wide. Here they remain a day, as it 
would seem, waiting for more favorable weather. 

Then a south wind sprang up (ver. 13), which was favorable both for taking 
them through the Straits of Messina, and to Puteoli, about one hundred and 
eighty miles north. Dr. Howson estimates that the voyage could be accom- 
plished in twenty -six hours, which accords with the account of Luke, Avho 
says that "on the second day we came to Puteoli." From Strabo, Heroditus, 
and Pliny, we learn that the rate of sailing among the ancients, witli a favor- 
able wind, was from six to seven miles an hour. So the voyage would take 
more than one day ; but not necessarily more than two. 

Puteoli, now Pozzuoli, was the principal sea-port of southern Italy, situated 
near the north extremity of the Bay of Naples, and about seven miles north- 
west of the city of that name. Its extensive grain trade is largely illustrated in 
ancient writers. Seneca informs us that the grain vessels of Alexandria had 


the peculiar privilege of coming into the harbor of Puteoli with all the sails 
set, whereas other vessels were compelled to lower their topsails. Thus, it 
has been said, we know the very manner in which this vessel, bearing Paul, 
entered into port. Titus, at one time, came to Khegium from Alexandria, 
and from thence sailed in a merchant vessel to Puteoli. (Suet. Tit. V.) The 
Jews were accustomed to land and embark here, in their journeys to and from 
Kome. (Josephus Antiq., 18 : 7. 2.) The commercial relations with Alexan- 
dria, and the large number of Jews there, would lead us to expect a colony of 
Jews at Puteoli. And so we are positively informed by Josephus, who speaks 
of the Jews at Dicearchia, the original name of Puteoli. {Antiq., 17 : 12. 1.) 
Accordingly, Paul found brethren there (ch 28: 14), who entreated them to 
tarry seven days ; and it would appear that the invitation was accepted. This 
accounts for the intelligence of Paul's landing having reached the disciples at 
Rome, so long before his arrival there. 

On leaving Puteoli, the centurion and his company would naturally go to 
Capua, eighteen miles, where they would come upon the celebrated Appian 
Way, which led direct to Rome. From Capua to Rome was about one 
hundred and twenty-five miles. 

The Market of Appius (ver. 15) was a small inland town, named after 
Appius Claudius, the constructor of this part of the road. It is mentioned 
by both Cicero and Horace. It was forty-three miles southeast of Rome. 
Indeed the forty -third mile-stone is preserved there. 

The Three Taverns, or shops (ver. 15), was another obscure toAvn on the 
Appian Way, ten miles from the ]\Iarket of Appius, and thirty-three miles 
southeast of Rome. It was near the modern Cisterrea, just at a point where 
a road came in from Antium on the coast. This was a convenient meeting- 
place of travelers. 

Upon Paul's arrival at Rome, he was delivered by the centurion to the 
prefect of the pretorian or imperial guard, who, in the spring of A. d. 61, 
was the celebrated Burrus. (See on | 50. Time of the recall of Felix, etc., 5.) 
The pretorian camp was first organized by Sejanus, the favorite of Tiberius ; 
its commander was a person of great influence ; but, generally, there were two 
commanders, as its power was regarded too great to be entrusted to one 
person. According to Pliny, prisoners from the provinces were usually 
entrusted to the pretorian prefect. This was the case with Herod Agrippa I., 
when a prisoner at Rome. (Josephus Antiq., 18 : 6. 6.) The latter was per- 
mitted to dwell in a house by himself. {Antiq., 18 : 6. 11.) The same privilege 
was accorded Paul (ch. 28 : 16, 30), Probably the favorable report of Festus 
and Agrippa, the story of Julius the centurion about their shipwreck, and his 
influence in Paul's behalf, resulted in according him this privilege. 

Thus Paul had the opportunity of preaching the gospel to all who came 
to him. He was, however, under the charge of the guard, and by frequent 



changes would become acquainted with pretorian soldiers generally. Thus, 
in Phil. 1 : 12-14, Paul says " that the things which happened unto me, have 
fallen out rather unto the progress of the gospel ; .so that my bonds became 
manifest in Christ throughout the whole pretorian guard, and to all the 

The pretorian guard embraced the officers and the soldiers of the imperial 
guard. There were " the saints .... of Caesar's household " (Pliil. 4 : 22), 
which may indicate high officials and courtiers, as well as slaves and freed- 
men ; but the latter are probably meant. 

The pretorian camp was, at that time, situated outside of the city walls. It 
is " still visible in the great rectangular projection in the walls, on the north- 
east of the city." 

The Church at Rome was probably organized by the "sojourners from 
Eome," converted on the Day of Pentecost (ch. 2 : 10). It was first composed 
chiefly of Jews ; but when Claudius banished all Jews from Kome, it became 
mostly Gentile. After the edict was reversed, many Christians came and 
settled there. Aquila and Priscilla, and others of Paul's friends, were among 
the leading workers. (Rom. 16: 3-14.) 

I 59. Paul arrived at Rome near the end of February, or about the first 
of March, A. d. 61. His imprisonment continued " two whole years," during 
which time he abode in his own hired dwelling, doubtless within, or near, 
the precincts of the pretorium (ch. 28: 30). There is the best reason for 
believing the tradition that Paul's case then came before the emperor, and 
was decided in his favor. Nero was noted for the precision which he de- 
manded of the pleaders, and his carefulness in delivering his judgments, 
after consulting competent advisers. The language of Luke (ver. 30), im- 
plies that a change occurred in Paul's condition after two years. If he had 
been martyred, Luke certainly would have recorded the fact ; if his impris- 
onment had continued longer than two years, he would hardly have stated 
the time with so much precision; the conclusion is that Paul was set at 
liberty. This occurred probably in the spring of A. d. 63. 

The "three days" (ver. 17) were very probably spent in resting, and receiv- 
ing visits from Christian brethren. In his words to the chief of the Jews — 
rulers in the synagogues and other influential men among them — Paul affirms, 
as he had before to King Agrippa, that it was for " the hope of Israel " he 
suffered (ch. 26: 6). Similar to this language are his words to the Ephesians, 
which he wrote during this imprisonment : " I am an ambassador in chains." 
(Eph. 6 : 20). 

Jews at this time were numerous in Borne; some of them wealthy and influ- 
ential. There were so many of them at Rome in the days of Archelaus, 
the son of Herod the Great, that when ambassadors came from Jerusalem 


to petition the emperor against him, they were supported by over eight 
thousand Jews, resident in Eome (Josephus Antiq., 17 : 2. 1). In the apos- 
tolic age, they have been estimated as high as twenty or thirty thousand. 
They were, indeed, banislied by Claudius ; but this decree was reversed on 
the accession of Nero, if not before. Multitudes returned, and enjoyed tolera- 
tion and prosperity, under the mild government of the early years of Nero. 
The marriage of Nero to Poppsea, a Jewess, was somewhat favorable to the 
Jews. Still their situation was not as secure as they could desire, and they 
were anxious not to displease the authorities. Their considerate treatment 
of Paul, at first, may be partly explained by their having seen the favorable 
treatment he was receiving from the prefect of the imperial body-guard. 

The quotation from Isa. 6 : 9, 10, is almost exactly from the Septuagint 
Version. This passage is quoted oftener than any other from the Old Testa- 
ment, being found six times. (Ch. 28 : 26, 27 ; Matt. 13: 4; Mark 4: 12; 
Luke 8 : 10 ; John 12 : 40 ; Eom. 11 : 8.) 

By comparing ver. 31 with Eph. 6 : 18-20; Phil. 2: 23, 24; and Philemon 
8, 9, 22, we find a general agreement in regard to the freedom and boldness 
with which he preached the gospel as a prisoner. So also in Col. 4: 2, 3, 18. 
From the last two references it appears that Paul was expecting to be set at 
liberty soon. From these and other passages it is evident that he wrote his 
Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, to the Ephesians, and to the PhiUppians 
during this imprisonment, probably in the last year — the first three in the 
autumn of A. D. 62, and the last in the early part of A. d. 63. About the 
time of writing to the Colossians Paul wrote an Epistle to the Laodiceans, 
which has been lost. (Col. 4 : 16.) 

It was during these two years that Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles. 
While at Cesarea, writing his Gospel (a. d. 58-60), he had opportunity for 
gathering materials for the first part of the Acts, and at Rome he enjoyed 
constant intercourse with Paul, and his assistance in narrating any portion 
of his labors. 

The companions of Paul during his imprisonment were Luke, who came 
with him (ch. 28 : 16), and who was still with him, when he wrote to the 
Colossians (ch. 4 : 14), and to Philemon (ver. 24) ; Aristarchus, a companion 
from Philippi, and Epaphras, and Onesimus from Colosse (Col. 1 : 7 ; 4: 9, 10; 
Philem. 24) ; Epaphroditus from Phillippi (Phil. 2 : 25-30 ; 4 : 18) ; Timothy, 
who came to him after his arrival at Rome (Col. 1:1; Phil. 1:1; 2:19; 
Philem. 1); Mark, cousin of Barnabas and Demas (Philem. 24; Col. 
4 : 10) ; and Tychicus of Asia, a companion from Corinth and the bearer 
back of Epistles to his native province. (Ch. 20: 4; Col. 4:7; Eph. 6: 21.) 

On Paul's preaching at Rome, see on ^ 58, near its close. Tacitus speaks 
of "a great multitude" of Christians who perished in the Neronian persecu- 
tion of A. D. 64. Clement testifies to tlie same. 


Much ingenuity has been spent upon the possible acquaintance of Paul 
with Seneca, the 'Stoic philosopher, the teacher of Nero, and the friend of 
Burrus. Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was then at Kome; and when 
proconsul at Corinth, had known Paul, and had protected him from the 
malice of the Jews (ch. 18: 12-17). He probably had official relations 
with Burrus as prefect of the pretorian guard. Christians were numerous, 
or became so, before the persecution in a. d. 64, when "vast multitudes" 
suffered tortures and death. Paul was known among the whole of the 
imperial guard, and among some of Cesar's household, as a noted Christian 
leader. He came favorably recommended to Burrus, and was accorded 
special privileges. It would seem probable that both Gallio and Seneca 
knew of his presence in Kome ; and possibly both may by chance have met 
him there. But that Seneca, the proud, wealthy, and eloquent philosopher, 
should have cultivated the acquaintance of Paul, is quite improbable. The 
correspondence of Paul and Seneca, mentioned by Jerome, is unworthy of 
either, and is doubtless a forgery ; and the story of the conversion of Seneca a 
pious fiction. See Lightfoot, " Com. on Epistle to Philippians," p. 271 f. 

^ 60. Commentators and chronologists are divided as to Paul's Subsequent 
Labors and Second Imprisonment. Some hold that Paul was never 
released, but that his imprisonment terminated with his martyrdom. So 
Eichhorn, Winer, De Wette, Wieseler, Meyer, Davidson, and others. But 
Hug, Gieseler, Neander, Olshausen, Lange, Alford, Lewin, Howson, Hackett, 
EUicott, Lightfoot, and others, hold that Paul was acquitted; and that he visited 
Macedonia, Achaia, Crete, proconsular Asia, preaching the gospel, and per- 
haps accomplished his intended journey to Spain ; that he was imprisoned a 
second time at Eome, and there suffered martyrdom. 

The latter seems to be the true view. (1) In the preceding section we 
noticed that Paul's release from his imprisonment was a fair inference from 
Luke's account (ch. 28 : 30). (2) It was certainly his expectation, when he 
wrote to the Philippians, that he would come to them shortly, and to Philemon, 
requesting him to prepare for him a lodging (Phil. 2: 24; Philem. 22), 
(3) In his Epistles to Titus and Timothy, he speaks of journeys and a visit to 
the east, not mentioned in the Acts. Thus he appears to have gone to Ephe- 
sus and Macedonia (1 Tim. 1:3); to have been at Crete, and probably at Ni- 
copolis (Tit. 1: 5; 3: 12); at Corinth, and at Miletus (2 Tim. 4: 20). 
Various attempts have been made to harmonize these statements with the nar- 
native in the Acts, but with poor success. For example, Paul wrote his Second 
Epistle to Timothy when he was expecting martyrdom (2 Tim. 4: 6-8) ; and 
near its end, he says : " Trophimus I left at Miletus sick " (ver. 20). Now 
this could not have been on his fifth visit to Jerusalem ; for Trophimus then 
went with him (ch. 20 : 4, 15), and proved the innocent occasion of Paul's 
arrest (ch. 21 : 29). The natural inference is that Paul was at Miletus after- 


ward ; and since it could not have been during his imprisonments at Cesarea 
and Rome, we are led to infer his acquittal. To place it earlier seems unnatural 
and arbitrary. 

(4) The testimony of ecclesiastical tradition concurs in this view. Clement 
of Eome, who wrote about a. d, 95, says of Paul : " Having gone to the 
boundary of the west, and borne witness before the governors, he departed 
from the world." — (Ad. Corinth, c. 5). As Clement wrote from Eome, "the 
boundary of the west " refers naturally to Spain or Britain. (Compare Eom. 
15 : 24). In the Muratorian Canon, written about A. d. 180, a fragmentary 
passage seems to imply a journey of Paul from Eome to Spain. Eusebius 
(died A. D. 340) informs us that " Paul, after pleading his cause, is said to have 
gone forth again to preach the gospel, and afterward came to Rome a second 
time, where he finished his life with martyrdom. {Hist. Ecd. 2: 22). Jerome 
(died A. D. 419) tells us that "Paul was dismissed by Nero, that he might 
preach the gospel in the west." To the same effect, Chrysostom, Theodoret, 
and others of the fathers. If Paul had not been released, we would naturally 
expect some reference to it in the early traditions of the church ; but no such 
reference has come down to us. 

In the Scripture arrangement of this section are several passages, bearing 
upon Paul's labors after his release, and on his record and final imprisonment. 
To these might be added Heb. 13: 23 (if with a number of authorities we 
regard Paul as the more probable writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews), 
" Know ye that our brother Timothy has been set at liberty ; with whom, if 
he come shortly, I will see you." 

If Paul was liberated in the spring of A. d. 63, he probably went to Mace- 
donia and Asia Minor, accompanied, perhaps, by Timothy (Phil. 1 : 23-26 ; 
Philem. 1 : 22.) In the spring of A. d. 64, he may have undertaken his long 
intended visit to Spain. (Eom. 15: 22-24.) This visit rests on a tradition, 
and has no Scripture support except Paul's intention and expectation, as 
expressed in his Epistle to the Eomans. It may be regarded as probable. 
Eeturning in the spring of A. d. 65, he may have avoided Eome, on account 
of the persecution of Christians, going to Ephesus, and thence to Macedonia 
(1 Tim. 1:3). Here he probably wrote his First Epistle to Timothy, whom 
he had left in charge of the Ephesian Church. After this he visits Crete, in 
company with Titus, whom he left in that island (Tit. 1 : 5). About the 
spring of A. v. 66, he may have left Crete, and visited Ephesus again (1 Tim. 
3: 14), where Alexander the coppersmith did him much evil (2 Tim. 4: 14); 
then passing through Miletus, he left Trophimus there sick (2 Tim. 4 : 20) ; 
touching at Troas, he left his cloak with Carpus (2 Tim. 4: 13); and passing 
on to Corinth, Erastus, who had been a companion in travels, remained 
there. Probably at one of these places Paul wrote his Epistle to Titus. 
From Corinth he proceeded to Nicopolis, where he had determined to pass 


the winter (Tit, 3 : 12). Here he may have been arrested, and sent to Eome a 
second time for trial. 

He is treated with greater severity in his second imprisonment than in his 
first (2 Tim. 1 : 16 ; 2 : 9). In his first defence he appears to have been suc- 
cessful (2 Tim. 4 : 16, 17) ; but he foresaw approaching danger, and as he 
drew near his final hearing he had a presentiment of approaching martyrdom 
(2 Tim. 4: 6,8). Eusebius says: "Paul is said to have been beheaded at 
Eome, and Peter to have been crucified under Nero. This account is con- 
firmed by the fact that the names of Peter and Paul still remain in the ceme- 
teries of that city, even to this day." According to the chronicle of Eusebius, 
Paul's martyrdom occurred in the thirteenth year of Nero, or a. d. 67. But 
Jerome informs us that Paul was beheaded in the fourteenth year of Nero 
A. D. 68, on the road to Ostia. Epiphanius places it in the twelfth year of Nero, 
A. D. 66. And with him agrees the unknown author of the " Martyrdom of 
St. Paul." If he was martyred on June 29th, the day assigned by tradition, it 
could not have been in a. d. 68, for Nero committed suicide on June 11th of 
that year. Jerome probably intended to follow the notation of Eusebius, and 
was in some way misled in the date. If Paul made his intended visit to Spain, 
his martyrdom may be placed in A. d. 67 ; but if not, then we may fix the date 
in A. D. 66. The probability of this visit makes the former date the more 

In concluding these brief and fragmentary notes, it is but right that we 
should again emphasize the accuracy of Luke. The book of the Acts contains 
its OAvn evidence to the truthfulness of its narrative. Whether we examine 
its contact with the Old Testament Scriptures, or with the Epistles of Peter, 
James, or Paul, or with the writings of profane historians, or with the coins 
and monuments of the apostolic age, or with recent discovery and the latest 
scientific investigations, the result is always the same. Luke wins your confi- 
dence and keeps it. 

" Minute usages, topographical peculiarities, and kindred points may be 
found in nearly every paragraph, and each and every such reference can be 
used as a test of accuracy. The test has been applied. Volume after volume 
has been written on the subject. Every journey has been retraced ; every 
voyage has been remade, for the express purpose of verifying the narrative. 
Sometimes it has been thought that the writer made a mistake ; but in nearjy 
every such instance renewed investigation, in a few cases new discoveries by 
travelers, have shown the accuracy of the record. It has fairly stood every 
test, and may well be regarded as the book of history (of all times) which has 
been proven the most exact." — Mattheiv B. Riddle. 

" Examine and compare the secular historians from Herodotus to Macaulay, 
and the church historians from Eusebius to Neander, and Luke -need not fear 
a comparison. No history of thirty years has ever been written so truthful and 



impartial ; so important and interesting ; so healthy in tone and hopeful in 
spirit ; so aggressive and yet so genial ; so cheering and inspiring ; so replete 
with lessons of wisdom and encouragement for work in spreading the gospel 
of truth and peace ; so simple and modest, as the Acts of the Apostles." — Dr. 
P. Schaff, Church Hist. Vol. I., p. 739. 


Acts of the Apostles, its external contact and 

relations, 137, 138. 
Acts and tlie Epistles, 138; 1 Peter 1 : 21, 

155; 1 Peter 2 : 4-8, 157 ; 1 Tim. 5 : 9, 160 ; 

1 Cor. 9:1; 15 : 8, 173 ; Gal. 1 : 18-24, 175, 
176 ; 2 Cor. 12 : 1-4, 188 ; 2 Cor. 11 : 26, 191 ; 

2 Tim. 3 : 10, 11 ; 2 Cor. 11 : 25, 194; Gal. 
2 : 1-10, 197-200 ; 2 Tim. 1:5, 6; 3 : 15, 
205 ; Gal. 4 : 13-19, 205 ; Phil. 4 : 2, 3 ; 1 : 
30, 207; 2 Cor. 11 : 15; 1 Thess.2 : 2, l07 ; 
1 Thess. 2 : 14-:8 ; 3 : 4, 209 ; 1 Cor. 4 : 11 ; 
9 : 12 ; 16 : 19, 213 ; 2 Cor. I : 19 ; 11 : 8, 9, 
214; 1 Cor. 1 : 14; 2 : 2, 214; 1 Cor. 16 : 9, 
223 ; 2 Cor. 12 : 14 ; 13 : 1, 216 ; Eph. 2 : 19- 
22, 225 ; Rom. 16 : 23, 226 ; 2 Cor. 2 : 12 ; 
7:5, 227, 228; Rom. 15 : 18, 19, 231 ; Rom. 
16 : 1, 21-23, 231 ; 1 Tim. 4:1, 233; 1 Cor. 
16 : 3, 4, etc., 241 

Acts and profane history, 139, 1S2, 185, 186, 
194, 206, 209, 211, 213, 215, 223, 232, 236, 242, 
244, 253, 258, etc. 

Alms-distributors, deacons, 159, 160. 

Autioch and Christianity, 181-183. 

Aiitioch in Pisidia, 192. 

Apostolic conference, 202. 

Athens, 212; did Paul visit it twice, 217, 

Barnabas, 157, 203. 

Barnabas and Paul, 181, 189-196. 

Chronology of the Acts, 139-144. 
Chronoloj;y of our Lord's life, 146, 1 17. 
Chronologies, leading, 145. 
Circumcision of Timothy, but not of Titus, 

Cornelius, conversion of, 177 ; two accounts, 

178, 179. 
Corinth, did Paul make two, or three visits 

to, 216-218, 
Corinthians, epistles to, 227, 2.S0 

Ephesus, 220-226. 
Ephesus and magical arts, 221. 
Ephesians, epistle to, 225, 259. 
Epistles, when and where written, 139. 
Eunuch, conversion of, 169, 170. 

Galatia, gospel in, 205. 

Galatians, epistle to, 221. 

Gentiles, received into the church, 180. 

ilerod, death of, 1S5. 

Luke's accuracy illustrated, 262; in the use 
of proconsul in Cyprus, 190, and in 
Achaia, 2i5; of Politarchs at Thessalo- 
nica, 209; of Asiarchs, town clerk, and 
proconsuls at Epliesus, 224 ; in styling 
Herod, king, 184, the emperor, lord, and 
Agrippa, king, 24r) ; in the mythological 
notions of the Lycaonians, 194 ; in the ac- 
count of Philippi, 206 ; of Athens, 210- 
212; of Ephesus, 221,223-225; in the use 
of nautical terms, 247, 249, 251; in the 
voyage and shipwreck of Paul, 248-255; 
in confirmations of the Epistles, 138, 191, 
207, 208, 213, 214, 231, 259, etc. 

Luke the beloved physician, 206, 222. 

Melita or Malta, 253. 

Model of Paul's working, 192. 

Moses and Stephen, 165. 

Navigation, ancient, 247. 

Old Testament in Peter's addresses, 148, 154, 
155; in Stephen's address, 161-166; in 
James' address, 202 ; in Paul's addresses. 
192, 212, 234, 259. 

Paul and Stephen. 102, 192. 
Paul's conversion, time of, 170. 



Paul's conversion, accounts of, 172, 174. 

Paul in Arabia, 174. 

Paul in Cilicia, 176. 

Paul sent to the heathen, 189. 

Paul's visits to Jerusalem, 197. 
First after conversion, 175. 
Second, 187, 188. 
Third, 197-201. 
Fourth, 219. 
Fifth, 236. 

Paul's first missionary tour, 190-196. 

I'aiil's second missionary tour, 203-219. 

I'aul's third missionary tour, 219-235. 

Paul's first arrival in Eurojie, 206 ; a Roman 
citizen, 207, 237, 246; at Athens, 2;0; 
three times at Coriuth, 210; delaying at 
Ephesus, 226-230; addresses at Miletus, 
233; defense before the people, 2.36; be- 
fore theSauhedrin, 237 ; before Felix, 240; 
before Festus, 245; before king Agrippa, 

Paul's voyage and shipwreck, 247-255. 

Paul at Rome, 258. 

Paul's second imprisonment, and death, 

Pentecost, on Saturday or Sunday, 149-158. 

Persecutions of Christians, ]5'i, 158, 167, 168, 

Persecutions of Paul, 175, 193, 194, 207, 208, 
215, 223, 236, 238. 

Peter, 155, 179, 18o, 188, 189, 203, 219. 

Peter at Joppa, 177. 

Peter and Paul, 203, 219, 262. 

Philip the evangelist, 169, 180. 
Pheuice, 2.50. 

Philippi, a Roman colony, 206. 
Proconsul, propraetor, 190. 
Politarchs, 209. 

Roman provinces, two classes, 190. 

Romans, epistle to, 231. 

Rome, from Malta to, 256. 

Routes from Jerusalem to Damascus, 171. 

Sea of Adria, 252. 

Ships, ancient, 249, 252. 

Shipwreck of Paul, 252. 

St. Paul's bay, 253. 

Salmonetta, 255. 

Seneca and Paul, 260. 

Speed of Patil's ship, 2r4. 

Stephen, 160 ; defense of, 161-166 ; death of, 

Stephen and Paul, 162. 
Stoics and Epicureans, 211. 

Thessalonica, 209. 
Thes'salouians, epistles to, 215 
Tyranuus, 222 

Upper room, 148, 153. 

Year of Paul's conversion, 170. 
" of Herod's death, 185. 
" of Festus' coming into Judea, 242-244. 



In the Improved Version of 1891 



The Epistles and the Revelation are added in the following pages, in their 
most probable chronological order, to facilitate the study of them in connection 
with that of the Acts. Each book in the New Testament has its historical set- 
ting, and is best understood in its historical relations. The Gospels prepare the 
way for the Acts of the Apostles, and the Acts is introductory to the writings 
of James and Peter, John and Paul. The Gospel of John, however, with its 
higher spiritual truth, is closely connected with his Epistles, and may be profit- 
ably read in connection with those Epistles. In reading the four Gospels, the 
common order of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John is excellent and perhaps the 
best for practical purposes, and for studying their historical relations. Some 
would prefer to begin with Mark, which has advantages as a vivid summary 
and chronological outline. 

In reading the Epistles the necessity of a historic arrangement becomes 
more apparent. It does not seem fitting to delay the simple teachings and 
practical lessons of James to near the end of the New Testament writings, nor 
to defer the earlier Epistles of Paul to the Thessalonians to the last of his 
Epistles to the churches, nor to read his most elaborate Epistle to the Romans 
before the preparatory and earlier Epistle to the Galatians. But while the 
Epistles should be read in their historical relation to one another, they should 
also be read in their connection with the Acts. These various demands, from 
both the "historic narrative and the epistolary teaching, can best be met, I think, 
by arranging the Epistles in chronological order. Thus we shall best be able to 
trace the progress of revelation and the growth of doctrine in the New Testa- 

In the Harmonic Arrangement of the Acts, which was prepared a few years 
ago, such passages from other parts of the New Testament were placed at the 
bottom of the pages of the Acts as seemed necessary to confirm or supplement 
the narrative. But more than this is often desirable. It will be found .helpful 
to read the Epistles in connection with the history of the time and occasion when 
each was written. To meet these requirements the following chronological 
arrangement of the Epistles and the Revelation has been made. It is not 
presented as the best that can be made, for there are historic and chronological 
questions not fully settled, but it is one which will be found serviceable in put- 
ting the Epistles into their true historic relations, and upon the whole is pre- 
ferred for the purposes intended. 





I. The General Epistle of James. 
II. Paul's First Thessalonians. ) 
III. Paul's Second Thessalonians. j ^^^^^'^ missionary journey. 



I. Galatians. 
II. First Corinthians. 

III. Second Corinthians. 

IV. Romans. 


I. Philippians. 
II. Colossians. 

III. Philemon. 

IV. Ephesians. 


I. First Timothy. 
II. Titus. 



I. First Epistle of Peter. 
II. The Epistle to the Hebrews. 

III. The Epistle of Jude. 

IV. Second Epistle of Peter. 

V. Paul's Second Epistle to Timothy. 


I. First John. 
II. Second John. 

III. Third John. 

IV. The Revelation. 


All these Epistles are addressed to Christians, either to churches or individ- 
uals, and they throw light upon the condition of their inner and outer Christian 
and church life. In the first group we have the practical truths taught to early 
Jewish and Gentile believers. Christian living is emphasized ; and in suffer- 
ing and conflict there is a hopeful looking forward to the return of the Lord. 
In the second group we are ushered in upon the conflicts arising from tlie 
conversion of the Gentiles, and the placing of them on an equal footing with 


Jewish Christians. We have the great fundamental doctrines which are the 
antidote of Judaism, and a practical illustration of settling doctrinal or other 
differences in a church. In the third group we view the middle M'all of partition 
broken down between Jew and Gentile. Christians are new men, redeemed by 
Christ, belonging to heaven yet living on the earth, though not of it. Christ is 
their Head, and a perfect church is his ideal. The conflict is waged with spiritual 
powers, and Christians are clad in the whole armor of God. In the fourth group 
you come upon the local church as it existed for work in the world, founded 
upon God's word, sound in faith, sound in doctrine, with its chosen godly pastors 
and deacons. In the fifth group we behold Christians in the midst of sufferings, 
persecutions, and discouragements, yet cheered by the promises of God, by the 
sufferings and risen life of Christ. The shadows of the old dispensation are 
passing away ; the glories of the new are filling the vision. The overthrow of 
all opposition is assured, and the victory and the crown. In the sixth group 
we are brought to the highest Christian realization, fellowship with the Father 
and with his Son, Jesus Christ, through the indwelling of the Eternal Spirit. 
That we may enjoy this highest state and guard against marring its fellowship, 
comes the final warning, "Little children, keep yourselves from idols." Fail- 
ures in enjoying this fellowship are illustrated in the Epistles to the seven 
.churches. The conflict of Christianity in the world, the overthrow of the 
powers of darkness, the complete deliverance of Christ's people, and the blessed 
realization of final and everlasting victory, closes the scene, and leaves the wait- 
ing disciple longing for his Lord. 

Some after reading the Acts and the Epistles in the chronological order 
marked out, may desire to modify the order a little by a different grouping. 
This can be done by reading — First, those Epistles written from a Jewish point 
of view, James, First Peter, Hebrews, Jude, Second Peter, Revelation. Second, 
those written from the Gentile standpoint, which would include all the 
Epistles of Paul. Third, those from the higher point of John's view. All of 
these groups may properly be followed by the Eevelation, a fitting conclusion 
of them all. 

These remarks, and those preceding each Epistle, are merely suggCvStive, 
designed to help facilitate the use of the book and the reading of the Epistles in 
connection with the Acts. 

The Improved version of 1891 is chosen for the Epistles and Pvevelation, 
because it represents the best Greek text, and is upon the whole the best popular 
expression of the original in English. Every good translation throws light 
upon Scripture truth. The reading of this and of the excellent version of 1881 
in connection with the Common version will prove a profitable exercise to the 
painstaking student. To general readers, however, the one version will be all- 
sufficient. What we especially need to know is what the writers say, what they 
mean, and what that meaning has to do with us and the world around us. 

HiGHTSTOWN, N. J., 1897. 


I. The General Epistle of James. 


II. First Thessalonians. 
III. Second Thessalonians. 


James the brother of our Lord was the leader of the church at Jerusalem 
from A. D. 44 (Acts 12 : 17; 15 : 13; 21 : 18 ; Gal. 1 : 19), till his martyrdom in 
A. D. 63, after the death of Festus. His Epistle appears to be the earliest in date 
and in spirit of the New Testament Epistles. He writes as a Jewish Christian, 
and presents the law of the new faith as a complete revelation of the will of God. 
He makes no reference to the later controversies about circumcision and the 
Mosaic law, or to the place of Gentiles in the church. It was written at Jerusa- 
lem, and intended to help Jewish believers who still shared in the worship of the 
synagogue. Some would place it later, but its probable date is A. d. 45-50. It 
should be read after the twelfth chapter of the Acts, and compared with Acts 
15 : 13-18, 23-26. See note, § 28, p. 202. 

T 1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve 
-■-• tribes which are in the Dispersion, greeting, 

2 Account it all joy, my brethren, when ye fall into manifold temptations, 
3 knowing that the proving of your faith works patience. * And let patience 
have a perfect work, in order that ye may be mature and complete, in nothing 
lacking. * 

5 But if any one of you is lacking in wisdom, let him ask from God, who 
gives to all simply, and upbraids not, and it will be given him, ^ But let him 
ask in faith, nothing doubting ; for he that doubts is like a wave of the sea 
driven by the wind and tossed. "^ For let not that man suppose tliat he will 
receive anything from the Lord ; ^ a man of two minds, unstable in all his ways. 

9 But let the lowly brother glory in his exaltation ; i^and the rich, in his 
humiliation ; because as the flower of grass he will pass away. ^^ For the sun 
rises with the burning heat, and withers the grass, and its flower falls off, and the 
beauty of its appearance perishes ; so also will the rich man fade in his goings. 

12 Happy is a man that endures temptation ; because, when he becomes 
approved, he will receive the crown of life, which He has promised to those who 
love him. ^^ Lg^ ^q o^e say when he is tempted, I am tempted from God ; for 
God can not be tempted with evil, and himself tempts no one. i* But each one 
is tempted, when by his own desire he is drawn away and enticed, i^xhen 



desire, having conceived, bears sin; and sin, when completed, brings foilh 
death. ^^ gg not deceived, my beloved bretliren. ^^ Every good gift and every 
perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the lights, with 
whom there is no variableness, or a shadow caused by turning. ^^ Qf his own 
will he brought us forth with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of 
first-fruits of his creatures. 

1^ Ye know this, my beloved brethren. But let every man be swift to hear, 
slow to speak, slow to wrath ; '^'^ for a man's wrath works not God's righteous- 
ness. 21 Wherefore, putting oif all filthiness and excess of wickedness, receive 
with meekness the implanted word, which is able to save your souls. 

2^ But become doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourselves. 
23 Because if any one is a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like a man 
beholding his natural face in a mirror. ^4 por he beheld himself, and has gone 
away ; and straightway he forgot what manner of man he was. ^5 g^t he who 
looks into a perfect law, the law of freedom, and remains by it, becoming not a 
forgetful hearer, but a doer of work, this man shall be happy in his doing. ^6 jf 
any one thinks that he is religious, while he bridles not his tongue, but deceives 
his heart, this man's religious service is vain. ^7 ^ pnve and uudefiled religious 
service before God and the Father is this : To visit orphans and widows in their 
affliction ; to keep himself unspotted from the world. 

ni My brethren, hold not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of 
• glory, with respect of persons. ^ Por if there enter into your synagogue a 
man with a gold ring, in bright clothing, and there enter in also a poor man in 
mean clothing ; ^ and ye show regard to him that wears the gay clothing, and 
say, Sit thou here in a good place, and say to the poor man. Stand thou there, or. 
Sit under my footstool; *are ye not partial in yourselves, and become evil 
thinking judges? ^ Hearken, my beloved brethren. Did not God choose the 
poor as to the world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he 
promised to those who love him? ^'Bnt ye dishonored the poor man. Do not 
the rich oppress you, and is it not they that drag you before the judgment-seats ? 
"^ Do not they blaspheme the woi'thy name by which ye are called ? 

^ If however ye fulfill the royal law, according to the scripture. Thou shalt 
love thy neighbor as thyself, ye do well. ^ But if ye have respect to persons, ye 
commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. ^^ For whoever keeps 
the whole law, and yet sins in one point, has become guilty of all. ^^ For he who 
said. Do not commit adultery, said also. Do not kill. Now if thou dost not 
commit adultery, but killest, thou hast become a transgressor of the law. -^ So 
speak, and so do, as men that are about to be judged through a law of freedom. 
13 For judgment is merciless to him that showed no mercy. Mercy glories over 

i*What does it profit, my brethren, if any one say that he has faith, and 
have not works ? Can the faith save him ? ^^ jf ^ brother or a sister be naked, 
and in lack of daily food, i^and one of you say to them. Go in peace, be 
warmed, and be filled, but ye give them not the things needful for the body, what 
does it profit ? ^"^ Even so faith, if it has not works, is dead in itself. ^^ But 
some one will say. Thou hast faith, and I have works ; show me thy faith apart 


from the works, and I will show thee the faith by my works. i9 Thou believest 
that God is one. Thou doest well; even the demons believe, and shudder. 
2" But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith apart from works is idle ? ^^ AVas 
not Abraham our father justified by works, when he offered Isaac his son on the 
altar ? 22 Thou seest that faith wrought with his works, and by works was faith 
perfected. ^3 ^^(j ^he scripture was fulfilled which says, And Abraham believed 
God, and it was reckoned to him for righteousness ; and he was called, God's 
Friend. ^^Ye see that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only. 
23 And in like manner, was not also Eahab the harlot justified by works, when 
she received the messengers, and sent them out by another way ? ^6 por 
as the body apart from the spirit is dead, so also faith apart from Avorks is dead. 

ml My brethren, become not many of you teachers, knowing that we 
• shall receive greater condemnation, ^por in many things we all sin. 
If any one sins not in word, this is a perfect man, able to bridle also the whole 
body. 3 Now if we put the bridles into the horses' mouths, that they may obey 
us, we turn about their whole body also. * Behold also the ships, though they 
are so great, and driven by fierce winds, are turned about by a very small helm, 
whithersoever the helmsman wishes. ^ So the tongue also is a little member, 
and boasts great things. Behold, how great a forest is kindled by how small a 
fire ! 6 ^n(j the tongue is a fire : that world of iniquity among our members is 
the tongue, which defiles the whole body, and sets on fire the course of life, and 
is set on fire by hell. "^ For every nature of wild beasts and birds, of creeping 
things and things in the sea, is tamed, and has been tamed, by human nature. 
8 But the tongue no man can tame ; a restless evil, full of deadly poison. 
^Therewith we bless the Lord and Father; and therewith we curse men, who 
have been made after the likeness of God. ^^ Out of the same mouth comes 
forth blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not so to be. 
11 Does the fountain, out of the same opening, send forth the sweet and the 
bitter ? ^^ (^an a fig-tree, my brethren, yield olives, or a vine figs ? Neither can 
salt water yield sweet. 

13 Who is wise and intelligent among you ? Let him show, by his good con- 
duct, his works in meekness of wisdom. 1* But if ye have bitter jealousy and 
party spirit in your hearts, do not glory and lie against the truth. i^This wis- 
dom is not one that comes down from above, but earthly, natural, demoniacal. 
16 For where there is jealousy and party spirit, there is tumult and every bad 
deed, i" But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, yielding, easily 
persuaded, full of mercy, and good fruits, without partiality, unfeigned, i^ And 
the fruit of righteousness is being sown in peace, by those who are working 

TT7 1 Whence are wars, and whence are battles among you? Are they not 

J- ' • hence, from your pleasures that war in your members? ^ Ye desire, and 
have not ; ye kill, and envy, and cannot obtain ; ye fight and war. Ye have 
not, because ye ask not ; ^ ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye 
may spend it in your pleasures. * Adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship 
of the world is enmity with God ? Whoever therefore wishes to be a friend of 
the world makes himself an enemy of God. ^Or do ye think that the Scripture 



*says in vain, the Spirit he made to dwell in us has jealous longings? «Bu( he 
gives the more grace. Wherefore he says, 

God resists the proud, 
But gives grace to the lowly. 
■^Submit yourselves therefore to God. But resist the devil, and he will flee from 
you. 8 Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, 
ye sinners ; and purify your hearts, ye double-minded. ^ Sorrow, and mourn, 
and weep ; let your laughter be turned into mourning, and your joy into 
heaviness, i" Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and he will exalt 

^^ Do not speak against one another, brethren. He that speaks against a 
brother, or judges his brother, speaks against the law, and judges the law. But 
if thou judgest the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge. i^Q^g jg 
the lawgiver and judge, he who is able to save and to destroy. But who art 
thou that judgest thy neighbor ? 

13 Come now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we will go into this city and 
spend one year there, and trade, and get gain; (i* whereas ye know not what 
belongs to the morrow ; what is your life ? for ye are a vapor, that appears for a 
little time, and then vanishes;) '^instead of your saying. If the Lord will, we 
shall both live, and do this or that. ^^ jj^t now ye glory in your boastings. All 
such glorying is evil. ^^ To one therefore that knows to do good, and does it not, 
to him it is sin. 

TT 1 Come now, ye rich, weep, howling, for your sorrows that are coming 
' • on you. 2 Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are become 
moth-eaten. ^ Your gold and silver are rusted ; and the rust of them will be a 
testimony against you, and will eat your flesh as fire. Ye heaped up treasure, 
in the last days. * Behold, the wages of the workmen who reaped your fields, 
which is fraudulently kept back by you, cries out ; and the cries of those who 
reaped have entered into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth. ^Ye have been 
luxurious on the earth, and lived in pleasure ; ye have nourished your hearts in 
a day of slaughter. ^ Ye have condemned, ye have killed the righteous one ; 
he does not resist you. 

' Be patient, therefore, brethren, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the 
husbandman waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, till 
it receive the early and latter rain. ^ ge ye also patient ; establish your hearts, 
because the coming of the Lord has drawn nigh. ^ Murmur not one against 
another, brethren, that ye be not judged. Behold, the judge stands before the 
doors. 10 Take, brethren, the prophets, who spoke in the name of the Lord, for 
an example of affliction, and of long-suffering, ii Behold, we count those happy 
who patiently endured. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen 
the end of the Lord's dealings ; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender 

12 But above all things, my brethren, swear not ; neither by the heaven, nor 

» Or, speaks in vain? Does the Spirit which he made to dwell in us long unto 
envying ? 


by the earth, nor by any other oath ; but let yours be the yea, yea, and the nay, 
nay ; that ye fall not under condemnation. 

13 Is any afflicted among you? let him pray. Is any cheerful ? let him sing 
praise. ^* Is any sick among you ? let him call for the elders of the church : 
and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. 
'^ And the prayer of faith will save the sick and the Lord will raise him up; 
and if he have committed sins, it will be forgiven him. 

16 Confess therefore your sins to one another, and pray for one another, that 
ye may be healed. The prayer of a righteous man avails much in its working. 
1^ Elijah was a man of like nature with us ; and he prayed earnestly that it 
might not rain, and it rained not on the land for three years and six months. 
18 And again he prayed, and the heaven gave rain, and the earth brought forth 
its fruit. 

19 My brethren, if any one among you be led astray from the truth, and one 
turn him ; 20 let him know, that he who turns a sinner from the error of his way, 
will save a soul from death, and will cover a multitude of sins. 


The two Epistles to the Thessalonians are the earliest we have of Paul's 
writings, and differ from his later ones in the elementary principles discussed 
and applied. They needed these instructions, since they had been largely gath- 
ered from those who had turned from idols to the living and true God, and had 
been taught to look for the speedy coming of the Lord. In the First Epistle, 
Paul encourages them to bear hopefully their severe trials and persecutions ; he 
warns them against impurity and idleness, unruliness and strife ; further he 
instructs them regarding the second coming of Christ, and exhorts them to the 
practice of Christian virtues. The letter was written from Corinth (see on p. 
215, last paragraph), probably in a. d. 53, or early a. d. 54. The reasons for 
preferring the later date are given on pp. 215-218. In regard to Thessalonica, 
see § 32, pp. 208, 209. It should be read after Acts 18 : 1-11. 

II Paul, and Silvanus, and Timothy, to the church of the Thessalonians in 
• God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ : Grace to you, and peace. 
2 We give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you in our 
prayers; 3 remembering without ceasing your work of faith, and labor of love, 
and patience of *hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before God and our Father; 
* knowing, brethren beloved by God, your election; ^ because our gospel came 
not to you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and in much 
fullness ; even as ye know what manner of men we became toward you, for 
your sake. ^ And ye became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received 
the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit ; '^so that ye became an 
example to all that believe in Macedonia and in Achaia. ^ por from you has 
sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but in 

' Or, of the hope of. 


every place your faith toward God has gone forth ; so that we have no need to 
speak anything. ^ For they themselves report concerning us, what manner of 
entrance we had to you, and how ye turned to God from idols, to serve a living 
and true God, ^^ and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the 
dead, Jesus, Avho delivers us from the coming wrath. 

ni For yourselves, brethren, know our entrance to you, that it has not be- 
• come vain. ^ g^t after we suffered before and were shamefully treated, 
as ye know, in Philippi, we were bold in our God to speak to you the gospel of 
God in much conflict. ^ For our exhortation is not of error, nor of uncleanness, 
nor in guile ; * but even as we have been approved by God to be intrusted with 
the gospel, so we speak ; not as pleasing men, but God, who proves our hearts. 
5 For neither at any time used we flattering words, as ye know, nor a cloak for 
covetousness ; God is witness ; ^ nor from men sought we glory, neither from you, 
nor from others, though able to claim authority, as Christ's apostles. "^ But we 
became gentle in the midst of you, as a nurse cherishes her own children ; ^ so, 
being affectionately desirous of you, we Avere well pleased to impart to you, not 
only the gospel of God, but also our own souls, because ye became dear to us. 
9 For ye remember, brethren, our labor and toil ; working night and day, in 
order not to burden any of you, we preached to you the gospel of God. ^^ Ye are 
witnesses, and God, how holily and righteously and blamelessly we behaved 
ourselves toward you that believe ; ^^ as ye know how we dealt with each one of 
you, as a father with his own children, exhorting you, and encouraging you, and 
testifying, ^^that ye should walk worthy of God, who is calling you into his 
kingdom and glory. 

13 And for this cause we also thank God without ceasing, that when ye 
received the word of God heard from us, ye received not the word of men, but, 
as it truly is, the word of God, which also v/orks in you that believe, i* For ye, 
brethren, became imitators of the churches of God which are in Judsea in Christ 
Jesus ; because ye also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, as 
they have from the Jews ; ^^ who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets, 
and drove us out, and please not God, and are hostile to all men ; ^^ hindering us 
from speaking to the Gentiles that they may be saved, in order to fill up their 
sins always ; and the wrath came on them to the utmost. 

I'' But we, brethren, having been bereft of you for a short time, in presence, 
not in heart, endeavored the more abundantly to see your face, with great desire. 
18 Because we wished to come to you, even I, Paul, once and again ; and Satan 
hindered us. i^For what is our hope, or joy, or crown of glorying? Are not 
even ye, in the presence of our Lord Jesus at his coming ? ^o Yor ye are our 
glory and joy. 

ml Wherefore, when we could no longer forbear, we were well pleased 
• to be left behind at Athens alone ; ^ and sent Timothy, our brother, and 
a minister of God in the gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to exhort you 
concerning your faith ; ^ that no one should be shaken by these afflictions, for 
yourselves know that to this we are appointed. *For even when we were with 
you, we told you beforehand that we are to suffer affliction ; as also it came to 
pass, and ye know. ^ For this cause, when I too could no longer forbear, I sent 


to know your faith, lest by some means the tempter tempted you, and our labor 
should become in vain. 

6 But now, when Timothy came to us from you, and brought us good tidings 
of your faith and love, and that ye have good remembrance of us always, long- 
ing to see us, as we also to see you ; "^ for this cause we were consoled, brethren, 
over you in all our affliction and distress, through your faith ; « because now we 
live, if ye stand fast in the Lord. ^ For what thanks can we render to God for 
you, for all the joy wherewith we rejoice for your sakes before our God ; ^^ night 
and day praying exceedingly that we may see your face, and may perfect that 
which is lacking in your faith ? 

11 Now^ may bur God and Father himself, and our Lord Jesus, guide our way 
to you. i2^^ii(j the Lord make you increase and abound in love one toward 
another, and toward all, as we also do toward you; i^to the end that he may 
establish your hearts blameless in holiness before God and our Father, at the 
coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints. 

TT7 1 Finally then, brethren, we beseech you, and exhort you in the Lord 
-L T • Jesus, that as ye received from us how^ ye ought to walk and to please 
God, as also ye are walking, ye would abound yet more. ^ Por ye know what 
charges we gave you, through the Lord Jesus. ^ For this is the will of God, your 
sanctification, that ye abstain from fornication ; * that each one of you know how 
to obtain his own vessel in sanctification and honor ; ^ not in the passion of de- 
sire, like the Gentiles who know not God. ^That no one go beyond and defraud 
his brother in the matter ; because the Lord is an avenger for all these things, 
as we also told you before, and solemnly testified. '' For God did not call us for 
uncleanness, but in sanctification. » Therefore he that rejects, rejects not man, 
but God, who giveth to you his Holy Spirit. 

^ But concerning brotherly love ye need not that I write to you ; for ye 
yourselves are taught by God to love one another, lo por ye are also doing it, 
toward all the brethren who are in all Macedonia. But we beseech you, 
brethren, to abound yet more ; " and to make it your aim to be quiet, and to 
do your own business, and to work with your own hands, as we charged you ; 
12 that ye may walk becomingly toward those without, and may have need of 

13 But we wish you not to be ignorant, brethren, concerning those who are 
sleeping, in order that ye sorrow not, as do the rest who have no hope, i'* For if 
we believe that Jesus died and rose again, so also those who fell asleep through 
Jesus will God bring with him. i^ For this we say to you, by the word of the 
Lord, that we the living, who remain to the coming of the Lord, shall by no 
means precede those who fell asleep, i^ Because the Lord himself will descend 
from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet 
of God; and the dead in Christ will rise first. I'^Then we the li\'ing, who 
remain, will be caught up together with them in clouds into the air to meet the 
Lord ; and so shall we ever be with the Lord, i^ So then, * comfort one another 
with these words. 

» Or, exhort. 


VI But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that 1 
• write to you. ^ Yor ye yourselves know perfectly well that the day of the 
Lord so comes as a thief at night. ^ When they are saying, Peace and safety, 
then sudden destruction comes on them, as birth-pangs on a woman with child ; 
and they shall not escape. 

* But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that the day should overtake you as 
a thief. ^ For all ye are sons of light, and sons of day ; we are not of night, nor 
of darkness. 6 Therefore let us not sleep, as do the rest ; but let us watch and 
be sober. '' For they that sleep, sleep at night ; and they that get drunk, get 
drunk at night. ^ g^t let us, being of the day, be sober, putting on a breast- 
plate of faith and love, and for a helmet, hope of salvation ; ^'because God did 
not appoint us to wrath, but to gain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ; 
1" who died for us, that, whether we watch or sleep, we should live together with 
him. 11 Wherefore * exhort each other, and build one another up, as also ye do. 

12 And we ask you, brethren, to know those who labor among you, and 
are over you in the Lord, and admonish you ; and to esteem them very highly 
in love for their work's sake. Be at peace among yourselves. 

1* But we exhort you, brethren, admonish the disorderly, encourage the 
faint-hearted, support the weak, be long-suftering toward all. i» See that none 
render e%'il for evil to any one ; but always pursue that which is good, toward 
one another, and toward all. 

1^ Rejoice always, i^ Pray without ceasing. ^^In everything give thanks; 
for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus, toward you. i^ Quench not the Spirit. 
20 Despise not prophesyings ; 21 but prove all things, hold fast that which is 
good. 22 ^^ijg^fjin from every form of evil. 23^n(j ^jig Qq^ ^f peace himself 
sanctify you wholly ; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved 
Avhole without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 24 Faithful is he 
who calls you, who also will do it. 25 Brethren, pray for us. 26Salute all the 
brethren with a holy kiss. 

2^1 adjure you by the Lord, that this letter be read to all the ''holy brethren. 

28 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 


The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians is an advance upon the first. They 
had progressed in faith, love, and patience, under persecutions. But they mis- 
understood some expressions in the first Epistle regarding our Lord's immediate 
coming, and the apostle hastens to correct such erroneous impressions. The 
Thessalonians were living among the lawless, and opposition to Christ centered 
in the Lawless One, who must be revealed before the second coming of the Lord. 
They must stand fast in the truth they had believed, and maintain discipline 
with idle and disorderly members. This Epistle was written while Paul was 
still at Corinth not later than the summer of A. D. 54. See page 218. It should 
be read in connection with Acts 18 : 12-18. 

» Or, comfort. •> Many ancient documents omit holy. 


11 Paul, and Silvanus, and Timothy, to the church of the Thessalonians, 
• in God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ : ^ Grace to you, and peace, 
from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 We ought to thank God always for you, brethren, as it is meet, because 
your faith grows exceedingly, and the love of each one of you all toward one 
another abounds ; * so that we ourselves glory in you in the churches of God, for 
your patience and faith in all your persecutions and the afflictions which ye en- 
dure ; ^a token of the righteous judgment of God, to the end that ye may be 
accounted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also are suffering ; 
6 since it is a righteous thing with God to recompense affliction to those Avho 
afflict you, "^ and to you who are afflicted rest with us, at the revelation of the 
Lord Jesus from heaven with the angels of his power, ^ in flaming fire, taking 
vengeance on those who know not God, and those who obey not the gospel of 
our Lord Jesus; ^who will suffer justice, eternal destruction from the presence 
of the Lord and from the glory of his power ; ^o when he shall come to be glori- 
fied in his saints, and to be admired in all who believed (because our testimony 
to you was believed), in that day. 

11 To which end we also pray for you always, that our God may account you 
worthy of the calling, and accomplish every desire for goodness and work of 
faith, with power ; 12 that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, 
and ye in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

ni Now we ask you, brethren, * concerning the ^ coming of our Lord Jesus 
• Christ, and our gathering together to him, 2 that ye be not quickly shaken 
in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter, purporting 
to be from us, as that the day of the Lord is present. ^ Let no one deceive you in 
any way ; because [that day will not come] , unless there come first the falling 
away, and the man of ^'sin be revealed, the son of perdition ; *he that opposes 
himself against and exalts himself above all that is called God, or that is wor- 
shiped ; so that he sits in the temple of God, exhibiting himself as God. 

5 Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I used to tell you these 
things ? 6 And now ye know what restrains, in order that he may be revealed in 
his own season. "^ For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work ; only until 
he who now restrains shall be out of the way. ^ And then will the lawless one 
be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will slay with the breath of his mouth, and 
will bring to naught by the manifestation of his ^ coming ; ^ [him] whose ^ coming 
is according to the working of Satan, in all power and signs and lying wonders, 
10 and in all deceit of unrighteousness for the perishing ; because they received 
not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. 11 And for this cause God sends 
them a working of delusion, in order that they may believe ^ the lie ; 12 that they 
may all be judged, who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteous- 

13 But we ought to give thanks to God always for you, brethren beloved by 
the Lord, because God from the beginning chose you to salvation, in sanctifica- 

» Or, for the sake of. *> Or, presence. 

Many ancient documents read lawlessness. ^ Or, falsehood. 


tion of the Spirit and belief of the truth ; i* whereunto he called you through 
our goypel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. ^^80 then, 
bretliren, stand fast, and hold the instructions which ye were taught, whether 
through word, or through letter of ours. 

16 Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God and our Father, who loved 
us, and gave us eternal comfort and good hope through grace, ^'^ comfort your 
hearts, and establish you in every good work and word. 

TTT ^ Finally, brethren, pray for us, that the word of the Lord may run, 

-'--'--'-• and be glorified, as also it is with you ; ^and that we may be delivered 
from unreasonable and evil men ; for not all have faith. ^ g^t the Lord is faith- 
ful, who will establish you, and guard you from the evil one. *And we have 
confidence in the Lord in respect to you, that ye both do, and will do, the things 
which we charge you. ^^^nd the Lord guide your hearts into the love of God, 
and into the patience of Christ. 

6 Nov>^ we charge you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
withdraw yourselves from every brother walking disorderly, and not after the 
instruction which ye received from us. "^ For yourselves know how ye ought to 
imitate us; that we were not disorderly among you, ^nor did we eat any one's 
bread '^for nothing, but in labor and toil, working night and day that we might 
not be burdensome to any of you ; ^ not because we have not the right, but to make 
ourselves an example to you, that ye should imitate us. ^^ For even when we 
were with you, this we charged you : If any one is not willing to work, neither 
let him eat. ^^ For we hear of some who walk among you disorderly, who work 
not at all, but are busy-bodies, i2;j^ow such we charge, and exhort, in the Lord 
Jesus Christ, that with quietness working, they eat their own bread. 

1-^ But ye, brethren, be not weary in well doing. ^* And if any one obeys not 
our word by this letter, mark that man, to keep no company with him, that he 
may be made ashamed. ^^ ^n(j yet account him not as an enemy, but admonish 
him as a brother. 

16 Now the Lord of peace himself give you peace always, in everyway. The 
Lord be with you all. 

1'^ The salutation of Paul with my own hand, which is a token in every let- 
ter ; so I write. 

18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. 

a Or, gratuitously. 


I. Galatians. 
II. First Corinthians. 

III. Second Corinthians. 

IV. Romans. 


The Epistle to the Galatians brings into view the fierce antagonism of Juda- 
izing Christians against Paul and the doctrines he preached. His apostleship 
was questioned. It was afiirmed that unless men entered into the everlasting 
covenant with Abraham by circumcision, and kept the law, they could not be 
saved ; and that the freedom that Paul preached was subversive of morality. 
In opposition to these Paul asserts and proves his Divine call as an apostle ; es- 
tablishes the doctrine that justification is by faith, not by the works of the law ; 
and exhibits the Christian life as one in the spirit and not in mere outward ob- 
servances. The view here taken is that Galatia was in Central Asia Minor, and 
its people a Celtic race, generous, impressible, and fickle. Paul visited them 
first in A. D. 51, and the second time probably in the winter of a. d. 54-5 (see 
pp. 205, 220). The Epistle appears to have been written at Ephesus, according" 
to some in a. d. 57, after First Corinthians, but better, earlier, before that 
Epistle, in a. D. 56. See p. 221. It would be well to compare the second chap- 
ter with the fifteenth chapter of the Acts. See discussion on pp. 197-201, 219. 
It should be read after Acts 19 : 8-10. On Prof Ramsay's view, see Appendix A. 

II Paul, an apostle, not from men, nor through man, but through Jesus 
• Christ, and God the Father who raised him from the dead, 2 and all the 
brethren who are with me, to the churches of Galatia: ^ Grace to you, and 
peace, from God the Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ ; * who gave himself for 
our sins, that he might deliver us out of the present evil age, according to the 
will of our God and Father ; 5 to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen. 

6 1 wonder that ye are so quickly removing from him who called you in the 
grace of Christ, to a diiferent gospel ; ^ which is not another, only there are some 
who trouble you, and wish to pervert the gospel of Christ. ^ But even if we, or 
an angel from heaven, should preach a gospel to you other than tliat which we 
preach to you, let him be accursed. ^ As we have said before, so I now say again, 
if any one preaches a gospel to you contrary to that which ye received, let him 
be accursed. 1° For am I now seeking the favor of men, or of God ? Or am I 



seeking to please men ? If I were still pleasing men, I should not be Christ's 

11 For I make known to you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached 
by me is not according to man ; 12 for I also did not receive it from man, nor was 
I taught it, but I received it through revelation of Jesus Christ. ^^ Yor ye heard 
of my conduct formerly in Judaism ; that beyond measure I persecuted the 
church of God, and was destroying it, 1* and pressed forward in Judaism beyond 
many companions of the same age in my nation, being more exceedingly a 
zealot for the traditions of my fathers. ^^ But when God, he who set me apart 
from my mother's womb, and called me through his grace, ^^ was pleased to re- 
veal his Son in me, that I should make known the glad news of him among the 
Gentiles ; straightway I did not confer with flesh and blood, 1^ nor go up to Jeru- 
salem to those who were apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia, and 
returned again to Damascus. ^^ Then, after three years, I went up to Jerusalem 
to become acquainted with Cephas, and abode with him fifteen days. ^^ But no 
other of the apostles did I see, but only James, the brother of the Lord. 20 j^ow 
as to the things which I write to you, behold before God, I lie not. 21 Then I 
came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia ; 22 and was unknown by face to the 
churches of Judsea which were in Christ ; ^^ but they were only hearing. He 
who was once our persecutor now preaches the faith which once he was destroy- 
ing ; 24 and they glorified God in me. 

ni Then, after fourteen years, I went up again to Jerusalem with Barna- 
• bas, taking also Titus with me. .2 And I went up according to a revela- 
tion, and laid before them the gospel which I preach among the Gentiles ; 
but privately, before those of repute, lest by any means I should be running, or 
had run in vain. ^3\it not even Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was 
compelled to be circumcised ; * and that because of the false brethren stealthily 
brought in, who crept in to spy out our freedom which we have in Christ 
Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage ; ^ to whom not even for an hour did 
we yield by the [required] subjection, that the truth of the gospel might abide 
-with you. ^But from those reputed to be somewhat, — whatever they were, it 
matters not to me, God accepts not man's person, — to me I say those of repute 
imparted nothing. '' But, on the contrary, when they saw that I had been in- 
trusted with the gospel of the uneircumcision, as Peter was with that of the cir- 
cumcision ; (8 for he who wrought for Peter in respect to the apostleship of the 
circumcision, wrought for me also in respect to the Gentiles ; ) ^and ha\ing 
learned the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were 
reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas right hands of fellowship, that 
we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcision ; i" only, that we 
should remember the poor, which very thing I was also zealous to do. 

11 But when Cephas came to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because 
he stood condemned. ^^ Yor before certain ones came from James he ate with the 
Gentiles; but when they came, he drew back and separated himself, fearing 
those who were of the circumcision, i^ ^^j ^^g ^est of the Jews also dissembled 
with him, so that Barnabas even was carried away with their dissimulation. 
i*But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the 


gospel, I said to Cephas in the presence of all : If thou, being a Jew, livest aft€r 
the manner of Gentiles and not that of Jews, how dost thou compel the Gen- 
tiles to Judaize ? ^^ We being Jews by nature, and not sinners from among the 
Gentiles, ^^ yet knowing that a man is not justified by works of law, but only 
through faith in Jesus Christ, even we believed on Christ Jesus, that we might 
be justified by faith in Christ, and not by works of law ; because by works of 
law no flesh shall ])e justified. ^'' But if, -while seeking to be justified in Christ, 
we ourselves also were found sinners, is then Christ a minister of sin ? Far be 
it ! 1^ For if I build up again the things which I pulled down, I show myself a 
transgressor. ^^ For I through law died to law, that I might live to God. ^o j 
have been crucified with Christ ; and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me ; 
and the life which I now live in the flesh I live in the faith of the Son of God, 
who loved me, and gave himself for me. ^^ I do not set aside the grace of God ; 
for if through law there is righteousness, then Christ died » without cause. 

ml O foolish Galatians, who bewitched you, before whose eyes Jesus 
. Christ was openly set forth as crucified ? ^ This only I wish to learn 
from you : Was it from works of law that ye received the Spirit, or from 
the hearing of faith? ^ Are ye so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, 
are ye now being made perfect in the flesh ? * Did ye suffer so many things in 
vain ? If indeed it be in vain. ^ Does he, therefore, who supplies to you the Spirit, 
and works miracles among you, do it from works of law, or from the hearing of 
faith ? 6 Even as Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him for right- 
eousness. "> ^ Know then that they who are of faith, these are sons of Abraham. 
8 And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by fiiith, an- 
nounced beforehand the glad tidings to Abraham, saying. In thee shall all the 
nations be blessed. ^So that they who are of faith are blessed with believing 

10 For as many as are of works of law are under a curse ; for it is written, 
Cursed is every one that continues not in all the things written in the book of 
the law, to do them. ^^ But that by law no one is justified with God, is evident j 
because, the righteous shall live by faith. ^^ Xow the law is not of faith ; but, he 
that does them shall live in them, i^ Christ redeemed us from the curse of the 
law, having become a curse for us ; because it is written, Cursed is every one 
that hangs on a tree ; i* that to the Gentiles the blessing of Abraham might come 
in Christ Jesus, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. 

'5 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men. If a covenant has been rati- 
fied, though it be a man's, no one sets it aside or adds thereto. ^^ Now to Abra- 
ham were the promises spoken, and to his seed. He says not, and to seeds, as of 
many ; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ, i" But this I say ; a cov- 
enant before ratified by God, the law, which came four hundred and thirty years 
after, does not annul, to make the promise of no effect. ^^ For if the inheritance 
is from law, it is no more from promise ; but God has freely given it to Abraham 
through promise. 

19 What then is the law ? It was added for the sake of the transgressions, until 

» Or, gratuitously. *> Or, ye perceive. 


the seed should come to whom the promise has been made ; having been arranged 
through angels, by the hand of a mediator. ^^ Now a mediator is not a mediator 
of one; but God is one. 21 is then the law against the promises of God? Far 
be it ! For if a law had been given which is able to make alive, truly righteous- 
ness would have been from law. " But the Scripture shut up all under sin, that 
the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe. " But 
before faith came, we were guarded under law, shut up to the faith about to be 
revealed. 24 go that the law has become our tutor, unto Christ, that we may be 
justified by faith. ^5 g^t faith having come, we are no longer under a tutor. 
^6 For ye are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. ^' For all ye who 
were baptized into Christ, did put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, 
there is neither bond nor free, there is no male and female ; for ye are all 
one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if ye are Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, heirs 
according to the promise. 

TTT 1 Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he differs in nothing from a 

-L ' • servant though he is lord of all ; ^ but is under guardians and stewards, 
until the time appointed by the father. ^ go also we, when we were children, 
were held in bondage under the rudiments of the world. * But when the fullness 
of the time came, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under law, 
s that he might redeem those under law, that we might receive the adoption of 
sons. 6 An(j because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our 
hearts, crying, Abba, Father. "^ So that thou art no longer a servant, but a son : 
and if a son, also an heir through God. 

8 Then however when ye knew not God, ye served those which by nature 
are not gods. ^ But now, after having known God, or rather having been known 
by God, how is it that ye turn back again to the weak and poor rudiments, to 
which ye wish to be in bondage again ? ^^ Ye are carefully observing days, and 
months, and seasons, and years. " I am afraid of you, lest by any means I have 
toiled over you in vain. 

12 Become as I am, because I also have become as ye are brethren, I beseech you. 
Ye did me no wrong. ^^ Nay, ye know that because of an infirmity of the flesh 
I preached the gospel to you the first time; 1* and your trial in my flesh, ye 
despised not nor spurned, but received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus. 
1^ Where then is that happiness of which ye spoke ? For I testify for you, that 
if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your eyes, and given them to 
me. i^So then, have I become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? 
1^ They zealously seek you in no good way ; nay, they wish to shut you out, that 
ye may zealously seek them. ^^ 3^^ it is good to be zealously sought in a good 
matter always, and not only when I am present with you. ^^My little children, 
of whom I travail again in birth, until Christ be formed in you ! 20 ^j^j j 
could wish to be present with you now, and to change my voice ; because I am 
perplexed about you. 

21 Tell me, ye who wish to be under the law, do ye not hear the law ? 22 For 
it is written, that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman, and one by 
the freewoman. 23 g^t the one by the bondwoman was born after the flesh, and 
the one by the freewoman through promise. 24 "Which things are an allegory. 


For these women are two covenants, one from mount Sinai, bearing children in- 
to bondage, ^'^ which is Hagar (for the word Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia), 
and answers to the Jerusalem that now is, for she is in bondage with her 
children. 26 But the Jerusalem that is above is free, which is our mother. 
^^ For it is written : 

Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not ; 
Break forth and cry, thou that travailest not ; 
Because many are the children of the desolate, 
rather than of her who has the husband. 

28 But '^ ye, brethren, after the manner of Isaac, are children of promise. 
29 But as then, the one born after the flesh persecuted the one born after the 
spirit, so also is it now. ^o g^t what says the Scripture ? Cast out the bond- 
woman and her son ; for the son of the bondwoman shall not inherit with the 
son of the freewoman. ^i Wherefore, brethren, we are not children of a bond- 
woman, but of a freewoman. 

TT 1 With freedom did Christ make us free ; stand fast, therefore, and be 

* • not held again with a yoke of bondage. 

2 Behold, I Paul say to you, that if ye become circumcised, Christ will profit 
you nothing. ^ And I testify again to every man who becomes circumcised that 
he is a debtor to do the whole law. * Ye are separated from Christ, whoever of 
you are being justified by law; ye are fallen away from grace, ^por we 
through the Spirit by faith wait for the hope of righteousness. ^ For in Clirit:t 
Jesus neither circumcision avails any thing, nor uncircumcision, but faith work- 
ing through love. 

■^ Ye were running well ; who hindered you, that ye should not obey the 
truth? 8 The persuasion is not from him who calls you. ^A little leaven 
leavens the whole lump, ^oj have confidence as to you in the Lord, that ye will 
be no otherwise minded ; but he that troubles you shall bear his judgment, who- 
ever he may be. ^^ But as for me, brethren, if I still preach circumcision, why 
am I still persecuted ? Then has the stumbling-block of the cross been taken 
away. 12 j ^vould that they who are unsettling you would even ^'cut themselves 

13 Yor ye were called to freedom, brethren ; only use not your freedom for an 
occasion to the flesh, but through love serve one another. ^* For the whole law 
is fulfilled in one word, in this : Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. ^^ But 
if ye bite and devour one another, beware lest ye be consumed by one another. 

^6 But T say, walk by the Spirit, and ye will not fulfill the desire of the flesh. 
^^ For the flesh has desires against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh ; 
and these are contrary the one to the other, that ye may not do those things that 
ye wish, i^gut if ye are led by the Spirit, ye are not under law. 

19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest; which are, fornication, unclean- 
ness, wantonness, 20 idolatry, sorcery, enmities, party spirit, jealousy, wraths, 
contentions, divisions, factions, 2ienvyings, murders, drunkenness, revelings, 
and things like these ; of which I tell you beforehand, as I also said before, that 

» Many ancient documents read we. ^ Or, mutilate themselves. 


they who practice such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. 22 }^^i tj^g 
fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, kindness, goodness, faith, 
^^ meekness, self-control ; against such things there is no laAV. 2* And they that 
are of Christ Jesus crucified the flesh with its passions and desires, ^sjf ^e live 
by the Spirit, by the Spirit let us also walk, ^^ Let us not become vainglorious, 
provoking one another, envying one another. 

T7T ^Brethren, if a man be even caught in any trespass, ye who are 

' -L« spiritual restore such a one in a spirit of meekness ; considering thyself, 
lest thou also be tempted. ^ Bear one another's burdens, and so fulfill the law 
of Christ. 3 For if any one thinks himself to be something, when he is nothing, 
lie deceives himself. * But let each one prove his own work, and then will he 
Iiave ground of glorying in reference to himself alone, and not to another. 
^ For each one shall bear his own load. 

^But let him that is taught in the word share with him that teaches, in all 
good things. "^ Be not deceived ; God is not mocked ; for whatever a man sows, 
that shall he also reap. ^ Because he that sows to his flesh shall of the flesh 
reap corruption ; but he that sows to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life eter- 
nal. ^ And let us not be weary in well doing ; for in due season we shall reap, 
if we faint not. ^^ g^ then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to all, but 
especially to those who are of the household of the faith. 

11 See with what large letters I have written to you with my own hand. 

12 As many as wish to make a fair show in the flesh, these constrain you to 
be circumcised ; only in order that they may not suffer persecution for the cross 
of Christ. 15 For neither do they themselves who are circumcised keep the law ; 
but they wish that ye should be circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh. 
1* But far be it from me to glory, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
through whom the world is crucified to me, and I to the world. ^^ For in Jesus 
Christ neither is circumcision anything, nor uneircumcision, but a new * crea- 
tion. 16 And as many as shall walk by this rule, peace be on them, and mercy, 
and on the Israel of God. 

IT Henceforth let no one trouble me ; for I bear in my body the brand-marks 
of Jesus. 

18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen. 


Corinth was the capital of the Roman province of Achaia, and a commercial 
metropolis midway between Ephesus and Rome. The First Epistle to the Cor- 
inthians presents us a church composed of Jewish, proselyte, and Gentile con- 
verts, troubled internally with disputes and factions, and suffering from 
the influences and opposition generated in a wicked, licentious city. Paul 
necessarily in his letter comes in contact with the same. The disorders had 

»0r, creature. 


been reported to him. Also a letter was brought him asking certain ques- 
tions, but saying nothing of these disorders. In the first six chapters of the 
Epistle he speaks of these divisions and troubles, and then in the last part answers 
their questions. The Epistle was written at Ephesus in the spring of A. D. 57 
(p. 223). It should be read in connection with Acts 19 : 11-22. 

II Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, 
• and Sosthenes our brother, ■^ to the church of God which is in Corinth, 
those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that call on 
the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in every place, theirs and ours : ^ Grace to 
you, and peace, from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

* I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which was 
given you in Christ Jesus ; ^ that in everything ye were made rich in him, in all 
speech and in all knowledge ; ^ even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed in 
you; ■^so that ye fall short in no gift, waiting for the revelation of our Lord 
Jesus Christ ; ^ who will also confirm you unto the end, unaccused in the day of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. ^God is faithful, through whom ye were called into the 
fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord. 

1*^ But I beseech you, brethren, through the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; 
but that ye be made complete in the same mind, and in the same judgment. 
^^ For it has been made manifest to me concerning you, my brethren, by those of 
the house of Chloe, that there are contentions among you. ^^ ^^j^d j mean this, 
that each of you says, I am of Paul, and I of Apollos, and I of Cephas, and I 
of Christ. 13 Is Christ divided ? Was Paul crucified for you ? Or were ye 
baptized * into the name of Paul? ^^I give thanks that I baptized no one of 
you, but Crispus and Gains ; ^^ lest any one should say that ye were baptized 
*into my name. ^^And I baptized also the household of Stejihanos; besides, I 
know not whether I baptized any other. ^'^For Christ did not send me to 
baptize, but to preach the gospel; not in wisdom of speech, lest the cross of 
Christ should be made of no effect. ^^ For the word of the cross is to those who 
are perishing, foolishness ; but to us who are being saved, it is the power of God. 
1^ For it is written, 

I will destroy the wisdom of the wise. 

And will reject the discernment of the discerning. 

^ Where is the wise ? Where is the scribe ? Where is the disputer of this 
age? Did not God make foolish the wisdom of the world? ^ipor since, in 
the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdom knew not God, God was 
pleased through the foolishness of preaching to save those who believe ; 22 since 
both Jews ask for signs, and Greeks seek after wisdom, 23 but we preach Christ 
crucified, to Jews a stumbling-block, and to Gentiles foolishness, 2* but to those 
who are the called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wis- 
dom of God. 25 Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men ; and the 
weakness of God is stronger than men. 

» O7; unto. 


26 For see your calling, brethren, that not many are wise after the flesh, not 
many mighty, not many noble ; 2" but the foolish things of the world God chose 
that he might put to shame the wise ; and the weak things of the world God 
chose that he might put to shame the things which are strong ; ^s and the base 
things of the world, and the things which are despised, God chose, and the 
things which are not, that he might bring to naught things that are ; ^ that no 
flesh should glory before God. ^o gut Qf \^{j^ ^re ye in Christ Jesus, who from 
God was made wisdom to us, both righteousness and sanctification, and re- 
demption ; 31 that, as it is written. He that glories, let him glory in the Lord. 

ni And I, when I came to you, brethren, camje not according to excel- 
• lency of word or of wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony of God. 
2 For I determined not to know anything among you, but Jesus Christ, and him 
crucified. ^ And I was with you in weakness and in fear and in much trembling. 
* And my word and my preaching was not in persuasive words of wisdom, but 
in demonstration of the Spirit and of power; ^that your faith might not be in 
the wisdom of men, but in the power of God. 

6 But we speak wisdom among the perfect; yet a wisdom not of this age, 
nor of the rulers of this age, who are coming to naught. "^ But we speak God's 
wisdom in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God predestined before the ages 
to our glory ; ^ which no one of the rulers of this age knows ; for had 
they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory; ^but (as it is 

Things which eye saw not, and ear heard not, 
And that entered not into man's heart, 
Whatsoever things God prepared for those who love him ; 
10 but to us God revealed them through the Spirit, for the Spirit searches all 
things, even the depths of God. ^^ For who among men knows the things of the 
man, but the spirit of the man, which is in him ? So also the things of God no 
one knows, but the Spirit of God. i^ \n(j ^^g received, not the spirit of the 
world, but the Spirit which is from God ; that we might know the things that 
were freely given to us by God. i^^yhi^,}! things also we speak, not in words 
taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit ; combining spirit- 
ual things with spiritual. 

1* But a natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God, for they 
are foolishness to him ; and he can not know them, because they are spiritually 
judged. 13 But he that is spiritual judges all things ; but he himself is judged 
by no one. ^^ For who has known the mind of the Lord, that he should instruct 
him ? But we have the mind of Christ. 

TTT lAndl, brethren, was not able to speak to you as spiritual, but as 
-'--■--'-• carnal, as babes in Christ. ^ j fed you with milk, and not with solid 
food ; for ye were not yet able to bear it ; nay, not even now are ye able ; ^ for ye 
are yet carnal. For whereas there is among you envjang and strife, are ye not 
carnal, and do ye not walk as men ? * For whenever one says, I am of Paul ; and 
another, I am of Apollos ; are ye not men ? 5 What then is Apollos ? and what 
is Paul? Servants through whom ye believed, and that as the Lord gave to each 
one. 61 planted, Apollos watered ; but God made it grow. ''So then neither is 


he that plants anything, nor he that waters ; but God who makes it grow. 
8 And he that plants and he that waters are one ; but each will receive his own 
wages according to his own labor. ^ For we are God's fellow-workers ; ye are 
God's field, God's building. 

10 According to the grace of God which was given to me, as a wise master- 
builder I laid a foundation, and another builds thereon. But let each one take 
heed how he builds thereon. ^^For other foundation can no one lay than that 
which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. ^^ ^^^j jf a^y q^^. builds on the foundation 
gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, stubble ; ^^ the work of each one will be made 
manifest ; for the day will show it, because it is revealed in fire, and the fire 
itself will prove of what sort is each one's work, i* If any one's work which he 
builds thereon shall remain, he will receive wages, i^jf ^ny one's work 
shall be burned up, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved ; yet so as 
through fire. 

16 Know ye not that ye are God's temple, and that the Spirit of God dwells 
in you ? i^ If any one destroys the temple of God, him will God destroy ; for 
the temple of God is holy, and that ye are. 

18 Let no one deceive himself. If any one among you thinks that he is wise 
in this age, let him become a fool, that he may become wise, i^ For the wisdom 
of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He that takes the wise 
in their craftiness. 20 \n(j again, 

The Lord knows the reasonings of the wise, 
That they are vain. 

21 So then, let no one glory in men. For all things are yours; 22 -^-j^gti^gj. 
Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or 
things to come, all are yours ; 23and ye are Christ's, and Christ is God's. 
TT7 iLet a man so account us, as servants of Christ and stewards of the 

-■- ' • mysteries of God. ^ Here moreover, it is required in stewards, that one 
be found faithful. ^But with me it is a very little thing that I should be judged 
by you, or by man's day ; nay, neither do I judge myself. *For I am conscious 
to myself of nothing ; yet am I not hereby justified, but he that judges me is the 
Lord. 5 go then do not judge anything before the time, until the Lord 
come, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and make 
manifest the counsels of the hearts ; and then will each one have his praise 
from God. 

6 And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and 
Apollos for your sakes ; that in us ye may learn not to go beyond the things 
which are written, that ye be not puffed up each for the one against the other. 
■'For who makes thee to differ? And what hast thou which thou didst not 
receive ? But if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not 
received it? ^ ^i^-eady ye are filled full, already ye become rich, apart from us 
ye reigned as kings ; yea I wish that ye did reign, that we also might reign with 
you. 9 For I think, God set forth us the apostles last, as condemned to death ; 
because we have become a spectacle to the world, both to angels and to men. 
K' We are fools for Christ's sake, but ye are wise in Christ ; we are weak, but ye 
are strong ; ye are glorious, but we are without honor, n Even until this pres- 



ent hour we both hunger and thirst and are naked and are buffeted and have no 
fixed abode; 12 and labor, working with our own hands; being reviled, we 
bless ; being persecuted, we endure it ; ^^ being defamed, we beseech ; we have 
become as the filth of the world, the offscouring of all things until now. 

1*1 am not writing these things to shame you, but to admonish you as 
my beloved children. ^^ For if ye have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yet not 
many fathers ; for in Christ Jesus it was through tne gospel I that begot you. 
16 1 beseech you therefore, become imitators of me. i^ For this very cause I sent 
to you Timothy, who is my child, beloved and faithful in the Lord, who will 
bring to your remembrance my ways which are in Christ, even as I teach every- 
where in every church, is Now some were puffed up, as though I were not 
coming to you. i^ But I will come to you quickly, if the Lord will, and will 
know, not the word of those who are puffed up, but the power. 20 For the king- 
dom of God is not in word, but in power. 21 What do ye wish ? Shall I come to 
you with a rod, or in love and the spirit of gentleness ? 

VI It is generally reported that there is fornication among you, and such 
• fornication as is not even among the Gentiles, that one of you has his 
father's wife. 2 And ye are puffed up, and did not rather mourn, that he who 
did this deed might be taken away from among you. ^For I verily, being 
absent in body but present in spirit, have already, as if present, judged him who 
has so wrought this ; * in the name of our Lord Jesus, when ye are gathered to- 
gether, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus, ^ to deliver such a one 
to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day 
of the Lord. ^ Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven 
leavens the whole mass ? "^ Cleanse out the old leaven, that ye may be a new 
mass, even as ye are unleavened. For our passover also, Christ, was sacrificed ; 
8 therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven 
of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and 

9 1 wrote to you, in my letter, not to keep company with fornicators ; i" yet 
not, altogether, with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous and ex- 
tortioners, or idolaters ; for then ye must needs go out of the world, n But as it 
is, I wrote to you not to keep company, if any one called a brother be a fornica- 
tor, or covetous, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, 
with such a one not even to eat. 

12 For what have I to do with judging those who are without ? Do not ye 
judge those who are within ? i^ But those who are without God judges. Put 
away that wicked man from among yourselves, 

T7T iDare any one of you, having a matter against another, go to law 

' -L» before the unrighteous, and not before the saints? 2 Or, know ye not 
that the saints will judge the world ? And if the world is judged by you, are ye 
unworthy to judge the least matters ? 3 KnoAv ye not that we shall judge angels ? 
How much more the things of this life? * If then ye have judgments about 
things of this life, set those to judge who are of no esteem in the church. ^I 
speak to your shame. Is it so, that there can not be among you even one wise 
man who will be able to judge between his brethren, 6 but brother goes to law 


with brother, and that before unbelievers ? ' Already, it is indeed a defect in 
you, that ye have law-suits one with another. Why not rather suffer wrong ? 
Why not rather be defrauded ? ^ gut ye yourselves do wrong, and defraud, and 
that your brethren. ^Qr know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the 
kingdom of God ? Be not deceived ; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adul- 
terers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with men, I'^nor thieves, nor 
covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, will inherit the kingdom 
of God. ^1 And such were some of you; but ye were washed, but ye were 
sanctified, but ye were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the 
Spirit of our God. 

12 All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable ; all things 
are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the control of anything. 
13 Foods for the belly, and the belly for foods ; but God will bring to nought both 
it and them. Now the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord ; and the 
Lord for the body. i*And God both raised the Lord, and will raise up us 
through his power, 

15 Know ye not that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take 
away the members of Christ, and make them members of a harlot ? Far be it ! 
16 Or know ye not that he who is joined to the harlot is one body ? For the two, 
says he, shall be one flesh, i'^ But he that is joined to the Lord is one spirit. 
18 Flee fornication. Every sin that a man commits is outside the body ; but he 
that commits fornication, sins against his own body. i^Or know ye not that 
your body is the Holy Spirit's temple, who is in you, whom ye have from God, 
and ye are not your own ? '^o For ye were bought witli a price ; glorify God 
therefore in your body. 

™i Now concerning the things of wliich ye wrote : It is good for a 
• man not to touch a woman ; ^ but because of fornications, let each 
man have his own wife, and let each woman have her own husband. ^Let the 
husband render to the wife her due ; and in like manner the wife also to the 
husband. ^The wife has not autbority over her own body, but the husband; 
and in like manner the husband also has not authority over his own body, but the 
wife. 5 Defraud not one the other, unless it be by agreement for a season, that 
ye may give yourselves to prayer, and may again be together, that Satan may 
not tempt you on account of your incontinency. ^ But this I say by way of per- 
mission, not of command. "^ And I wish all men to be even as myself. But 
each one has his own gift from God, one after this manner, and another after 

8 Now I say to the unmarried and the widows, it is good for them if they 
remain as I also am. ^ But if tbey have not self-control, let them marry ; for it 
is better to marry tlian to burn. i° And to the married I give command, not I, 
but the Lord, — That the wife depart not from the husband, n but if she even 
depart, let her remain unmarried, or let her be reconciled to lier husband ; and 
that the husband leave not his wife, i^ And to the rest say I, not the Lord : If 
any brother has an unbelieving wife, and she agrees to dwell with him, let him 
not leave her. i' And if any wife has an unbelieving husband, and he agrees to 
dwell with her, let her not leave her husband, i* For the unbelieving husband 


is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified in the brother ; 
else, your children are unclean ; but as it is they are holy. ^^ But if the unbe- 
lieving departs, let him depart. The brother or the sister is not under bondage 
in such cases ; but God has called us in peace. ^« For what knowest thou, O 
wife, whether thou shalt save thy husband ? Or what knowest thou, O husband, 
whether thou shalt save thy wife ? i'' Only, as the Lord has di^aded to each one, 
as God has called each one, so let him walk. And so I ordain in all the churches. 
i« Was any one called being circumcised? Let him not become uncircumcised. 
Has any one been called in uncircumcision ? Let him not be circumcised. 
*9 Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing ; but the keeping of 
the commandments of God. ^oLet each one abide in that calling in which he 
was called. 21 Wast thou called being a servant ? Care not for it ; but if thou 
even canst become free, use it rather. 22 p^^ he that was called in the Lord, 
being a servant, is the Lord's freedman ; in like manner also the freeman, when 
he is called is Christ's servant, ^sye were bought with a price; become not 
servants of men. 2^ Brethren, let each one abide with God in the condition in 
which he was called. 

25 Now concerning virgins I have no commandment of the Lord's ; but I 
give a judgment, as having received mercy from the Lord to be faithful. 26 j 
think therefore that this is good on account of the impending necessity, that it 
is good for a man to be thus. 27 ^^j-t thou bound to a wife ? Seek not to be 
loosed. Art thou loosed from a wife ? Seek not a wife. 28 g^t if thou even 
marry, thou hast not sinned ; and if a virgin marry, she has not sinned. Yet 
such shall have afiliction in the flesh ; and I am sparing you. 29 But this I say, 
brethren, the time is shortened ; that henceforth both they who have wives be as 
though they had none ; ^^ and they that weep, as though they wept not ; and they 
that rejoice, as though they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as though they 
possessed not ; ^^ and they that use the world, as not abusing it ; for the fashion of 
this world is passing away. ^2 But I wish you to be free from anxieties. The 
unmarried man is anxious for the things of the Lord, how he may please the 
Lord ; ^3 but he that is married is anxious for the things of the world, how he 
may please his wife, ^i There is a difference also between the wife and the vir- 
gin. The unmarried woman is anxious for the things of the Lord, that she may 
be holy both in body and spirit ; but she that is married is anxious for the things 
of the world, how she may please her husband. 

35 And this I say for your own profit ; not that I may put a constraint on 
you, but for that which is seemly, and that ye may attend upon the Lord with- 
out distraction. 36But if any one thinks that he behaves himself unseemly 
toward his virgin, if she be past the flower of her age, and need so require, let 
him do what he wishes, he sins not ; let them marry. ^7 But he that stands 
steadfast in his heart, having no necessity, but has authority concerning his 
own wish, and has determined this in his own heart that he will keep his virgin, 
will do well. 38 go that both he that gives his own virgin in marriage does well, 
and he that gives her not in marriage will do better, 

39 A wife is bound as long as her husband lives ; but if her husband be fallen 
asleep, she is at liberty to be married to whom she wishes ; only in the Lord. 


« But she is happier if she abides as she is, according to my judgment; and I 
think that I also have the Spirit of God. 

T7TTT ^Xow concerning the things offered to idols we know, — because 
' -L J- J-» we all have knowledge ; knowledge puffs up, but love builds up ; ^ if 
any one thinks that he knows anything, he has not yet known as he ought to 
know ; ^ but if any one loves God, this one is known by him ; 

* Concerning then the eating of the things offered to idols, we know that 
there is no idol in the world, and that there is no God but one. ^ For though there 
are gods so-called, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are gods many, and 
lords many), 6 yet to us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things, 
and we unto him ; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and 
we through him. 

^ Yet the knowledge is not in all ; but some, being accustomed to the idol 
until now, eat it as a thing offered to an idol ; and their conscience being weak 
is defiled. ^But food will not commend us to God; for neither, if we eat not, 
are we lacking ; nor, if we eat, do we abound. ^ But take heed, lest in any way 
this liberty of yours become a stumbling-block to the weak. ^^For if any one 
sees thee, who hast knowledge, reclining at table iu an idol's temple, will not his 
conscience if he is weak be built up to eat the things offered to idols? ^^ For in 
thy knowledge he that is weak perishes, the brother on account of whom Christ 
died ! ^^ And thus sinning against the brethren, and wounding their weak con- 
science, ye sin against Christ. ^^ Wherefore, if food makes my brother to 
stumble, I will eat no flesh for ever more, that I may not make my brother to 

T^^ 1 Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our 
J--^* Lord? Are not ye my work in the Lord ? ^jf to others I am not an 
apostle, yet to you at least I am ; for the seal of my apostleship are ye in the 
Lord. 3 My defense to those who examine me is this. *Have we no right to eat 
and drink ? 5 Have we no right to lead about a wife who is a sister, as also the 
rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas? ^Or have only 
I and Barnabas no right to forbear working ? "^ Who ever serves as a soldier at 
his own charges ? Who plants a vineyard, and eats not of its fruit? Or who 
shepherds a flock, and eats not of the milk of the flock? ^ Am I saying these 
things after the manner of men ? Or does not the law also say these things? 
8 For in the law of Moses it is written. Thou shalt not muzzle an ox while tread- 
ing out the grain. Is it for the oxen that God cares? i^Or does he say it alto- 
gether for our sake ? Yes, for our sake it was written ; because he that plows 
ought to plow in hope ; and he that threshes, in hope of partaking, ii If we 
sowed for you spiritual things, is it a great matter if we shall reap your carnal 
things? 12 If others partake of this right over you, do not we still more? But 
we used not this right ; but we bear all things, that we may not cause any hin- 
drance to the gospel of Christ. 

I'Know ye not that they who minister about the holy things eat of the 
things of the temple, and they who wait at the altar partake with the altar? 
1* Even so did the Lord appoint for those who proclaim the gospel, to live by the 
gospel. 15 1 however have used none of these things ; and I write not these 


things, that it may be so done in my case ; *for it were better for me to die, than 
that any one should make my glorying void. ^^ Yov if I preach the gospel, I 
have nothing to glory of; for a necessity is laid on me ; for, woe is to me, if I 
preach not the gospel ! ^'' For if I do this willingly, I have a reward ; but if un- 
willingly, I have a stewardship intrusted to me. ^^ What then is my reward ? 
That, in preaching the gospel, I may make the gospel without charge, so as not 
to use to the full my right in the gospel. ^^ For being free from all men, I made 
myself servant to all, that I might gain the most. 20 ^^^ to the Jews I became 
as a Jew, that I might gain Jews ; to those under law, as under law, not 
being myself under law, that I might gain those under law; 21 to those Avithout 
law, as without law (not being without law to God, but under law to Christ), that 
I might gain those without law, 22 Xo the weak I became weak, that I might 
gain the weak. I have become all things to all, that I may by all means save 
some. 23 ^nd all things I do for the gospel's sake, that I may become a partaker 
thereof with others. 

2* Know ye not that they who run in a race, all indeed run, but one receives 
the prize? Thus run, in order that ye may obtain. 25 ^nj everyone who 
strives in the games is temperate in all things ; they indeed to obtain a corruptible 
crown, but we an incorruptible. 26 j therefore thus run, as not uncertainly; 
thus fight I as not beating the air. 27 g^t I buffet my body, and bring it into 
bondage ; lest by any means, after having preached to others, I myself should be 

XI For I do not wish you to be ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were 
• all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea ; 2 and were all baptized 
^ into Moses in the cloud and in the sea ; ^ and all ate the same spiritual food, 
* and all drank the same spiritual drink ; for they drank of a spiritual rock that 
followed them, and the rock was the Christ. 5 g^t in the most of them God had 
no pleasure ; for they were overthrown in the wilderness. 

6 Now these things came to pass as examples to us, in order that we might 
not desire evil things, as they also desired them. '' Nor become ye idolaters, as 
were some of them ; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and 
rose up to play. ^jSTor let us commit fornication, as some of them did, and fell 
in one day three and twenty thousand. ^ Nor let us <= tempt the Lord, as some of 
them '^tempted, and perished by the serpents. i^Nor murmur ye, as some of 
them murmured, and perished by the destroyer. i^Now these things happened 
to them by way of example, and they Avere written for our admonition, on whom 
the ends of the ages are come. i2\yherefore let him that thinks he stands, take 
heed lest he fall. ^^ There has no temptation taken you but such as belongs to 
man ; and God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above what ye 
are able, but will with the temptation make also the way of escape, that ye may 
be able to bear it. 

^* Wherefore, my beloved, flee from idolatry. ^^I am speaking as to wise 
men ; judge ye what I say. ^^ xhe cup of blessing which we bless, ia it not a 

» Gr., for it is well for me to die rather than my glorying— no one shall make it void. 
»> Or, unto. « Or, test. * or, tested. 


partaking of the blood of Christ ? The loaf which we break, is it not a par- 
taking of the body of Christ? ^'^ Because we, the many, are one loaf, one body; 
for we all share in the one loaf. ^^ Behold Israel according to the flesh. Are not 
they who eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar ? ^^ What then do I say ? 
That what is oflfered to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything ? 20 -^^j . 
but that what they sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and not to God ; and I do 
not wish you to become partakers with the demons. 21 Ye can not drink the cup 
of the Lord, and the cup of demons ; ye can not share in the table of the Lord, 
and the table of demons. 22 Qj. ([q ^e provoke the Lord to jealousy ? Are we 
stronger than he ? 

23 All things are lawful, but not all things are profitable ; all things are law- 
ful, but not all things build up. 24Lg|; ^q Q^g ^qq^ i^ig own, but his neighbor's 
good. 25\yiiatever is sold in the market eat, asking no question because of 
conscience; ^efor the earth is the Lord's, and the fullness thereof. 27 jf Qjjg ^f 
the unbelieving invites you to a feast, and ye choose to go, whatever is set before 
you eat, asking no question because of conscience. ^8 gn^ jf any one say to you, 
This has been offered in sacrifice, eat it not, for his sake that showed it, and 
because of conscience. 29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but that of the other ; 
for why is my liberty condemned by another conscience? ^ojf j partake with 
tiiauks, why am I evil spoken of, for that for which I give thanks? ^^ Whether 
therefore ye eat or drink, or wliatever ye do, do all to the glory of God. '^ (jiye 
no occasion of stumbling, either to Jews or Greeks, or to the church of God ; 
33 as I also please all in all things, not seeking my own profit, but that of the 
'V^T many, that they may be saved. ^ Become imitators of me, even as I also 
-A.1. am of Christ. 

2 Now I praise you, that ye remember me in all things, and hold fast the instruc- 
tions, as I delivered them to you. ^ ^nd I wish you to know, that the head of 
every man is Christ ; and the head of the woman is the man ; and the head of 
Christ is God. * Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, 
puts shame on his head. ^ But every woman praying or prophesying with the 
head unveiled, puts shame on her head ; for it is one and the same as if she were 
shaven. ^For if a woman is not veiled, let her also .be shorn; but if it is a 
shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be veiled. ' For a man indeed 
ought not to veil his head, being God's image and glory; but the woman is 
man's glory. ^ por man is not from woman ; but woman from man. ^ For man 
was also not created on account of the woman, but woman on account of the 
man. K'For this cause ought the woman to have [the token of] authority on her 
head, because of the angels. ^^ Nevertheless, neither is woman apart from man, 
nor man apart from woman, in the Lord. 12 Yot as the woman is from the man, 
so is also the man through the woman ; but all things from God. ^^ Judge in 
your own selves ; is it becoming that a woman pray to God unveiled ? 1* Does 
not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a dishonor 
to him? 15 But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is 
given her for a covering. ^^ But if any man seems to be contentious, we have no 
such custom, nor the churches of God. 

I'And while I enjoin this, I praise you not, that ye come togethernot for 


the better, but for the worse. ^^For first of all, when ye come together in 
a church, I hear that divisions exist among you ; and I partly believe it. ^^ For 
there must be also factions among you, that they who are approved may be made 
manifest among you. 

20 When therefore ye assemble yourselves together, it is not to eat a supper 
of the Lord ; 21 for in eating, each takes before others his own supper ; and 
one is hungry, and another is drunken. 22 ^yhat ! have ye not houses to eat 
and to drink in ? Or despise ye the church of God, and put shame on those 
who have not ? What shall I say to you ? Shall I praise you in this ? I praise 
you not. 

23 For I received from the Lord, what I also delivered to you, that the Lord 
Jesus, in the night in Avhich he was betrayed, took a loaf; 2* and having given 
thanks, he broke it, and said. This is my body, which is for you ; this do in 
remembrance of me. 25 1^ h^q manner also the cup, after they had supped, say- 
ing, This cui) is the new covenant in my blood ; this do, as often as ye drink it, 
in remembrance of me. 26 Yoy as often as ye eat this bread, and drink the cup, 
ye proclaim the Lord's death till he come. 27 go that whoever eats the bread or 
drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily, will be guilty of the body and the blood 
of the Lord. 28^^^ let a man prove himself, and so let him eat of the bread, 
and drink of the cup, 29 For he that eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgment 
to himself, if he discern not the body. ^opoj. this cause many among you are 
weak and sick, and not a few sleep. ^^ But if we discerned ourselves, we should 
not be judged, '^g^^ being judged, we are chastened by the Lord, that we may 
not be condemned with the world. 

33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, wait one for another. 
3* If any one is hungry, let him eat at home; that ye come not together unto 
judgment. And the rest I will set in order when I come. 

V'TT iNow concerning the spiritual gifts, brethren, I do not wish you to 
-^J- J-» be ignorant. 

2 Ye know that when ye were Gentiles ye were carried away to the dumb 
idols, in whatever way ye were led. ^ Wherefore I make known to you, that no 
one speaking in the Spirit of God says, Jesus is accursed ; and no one can say, 
Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy Spirit. 

* Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. ^ And there are 
diversities of services, and the same Lord. ^A^nd ther« are diversities of work- 
ings, but the same God who works all in all. ^ But to each one is given the 
manifestation of the Spirit, for profiting. » por to one is given through the 
Spirit a word of wisdom ; and to another a word of knowledge, according to the 
same Spirit ; ^ to another faith, in the same Spirit ; and to another gifts of heal- 
ings in the one Spirit; ^''and to another workings of miracles; to another 
prophecy ; to another discerning of spirits ; to another various kinds of tongues ; 
and to another interpretation of tongues. ^^ But all these works the one and the 
same Spirit, dividing to each one severally even as he will. 

^2 For as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the 

» Or, an assembly. 


body, being many, are one body, so also is the Christ, ^^poj. jj^ Qjje Spirit we 
were all baptized ^^ into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether bond or free ; 
and were all made to drink of one Spirit, i* For the body also is not one mem- 
ber, but many. ^5 if the foot say, Because I am not a hand, I am not of the 
body ; it is not therefore not of the body. ^^ And if the ear say. Because I am 
not an eye, I am not of the body ; it is not therefore not of the body, i'^ If 
the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were 
hearing, where were the smelling? i^ g^t as it is, God has set the members each 
one of them in the body, even as he wished. ^^ And if they were all one mem- 
ber, where Avere the body ? 20 g^^t now there are many members, but one body. 
2^ And the eye can not say to the hand, I have no need of thee; nor again the 
head to the feet, I have no need of you. 22 Nay, much more the members of the 
body which seem to be more feeble, are necessary ; 23 and those parts of the body 
which we think to be less honorable, on these we bestow more abundant honor, 
and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness; 24]t)ut our comely 
parts have no need. But God tempered the body together, giving more abundant 
honor to that which lacked ; ^5 that there might be no division in the body, but 
that the members might have the same care one for another. 26 j^j^d whether 
one member suffers, all the members suffer with it ; or one member is honored, 
all the members rejoice with it. 

27 Now ye are Christ's body and severally members of it. 28 j^^^^ Qod set 
some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, then mira- 
cles, then gifts of healings, helps, governings, various kinds of tongues. 29^j-e 
all apostles? Are all prophets ? Are all teachers ? Are all workers of miracles ? 
^f* Have all gifts of healings ? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret? 
*^ But desire earnestly the greater gifts ; and a still more excellent way I show 

^V'TTT 1 If I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but have not 

-^-'--L-L* love, I am become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 2^\n{j jf 
I have prophecy, and know all mysteries, and all knowledge ; and if I have all 
faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. ^ And if I 
bestow all my goods in food, and if I give up my body ^ to be burned, but have 
not love, it profits me nothing. 

*Love suffers long, is kind, love envies not, love vaunts not itself, is not 
puffed up, 5 does not behave unseemly, seeks not its own, is not provoked, imputes 
no evil, ^ rejoices not at unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth, ''bears all 
things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things. ^ Love never 
fails; but whether there are prophecies, they will be done away; whether 
tongues, they will cease ; whether knowledge, it will be done away. ^ For we 
know in part, and we prophesy in part: ^^but when that which is perfect is 
come, that which is in part will be done away. 

11 When I was a child, I talked as child, I thought as a child, I reasoned as 
a child ; since I have become a man, I have done away with the things of the 
child. 12 YoT we see now through a mirror, obscurely ; but then face to face. 

a Or, unto. *> ifany ancient documents read that I may glory. 


Now I know in part ; but then I shall know fully, even as I was also fully 
known. ^^ ^^^d now abides faith, hope, love, these three ; and the greatest of 
these is love. 

■^TTT 1 Pursue love ; and desire earnestly the spiritual gifts, but rather 
-'-^ J- » • that ye may prophesy. ^ For he that speaks in a tongue speaks not 
to men, but to God ; for no one understands; but with the spirit he speaks mys- 
teries. 3 But he that prophesies, speaks to men upbuilding and exhortation and 
comfort. * He that speaks in a tongue builds up himself ; but he that prophe- 
sies builds up the church. ^ i ^ish you all to speak with tongues, but rather 
that ye should prophesy ; and greater is he that prophesies than he that speaks 
with tongues, unless he interpret, that the church may receive upbuilding. 
6 And now, brethren, if I come to you speaking with tongues, what shall I profit 
you, unless I speak to you either in revelation, or in knowledge, or in prophesy- 
ing or teaching ? "^ Even the lifeless things giving sound, whether pipe or harp, 
if they give no distinction in the sounds, how shall that which is piped or that 
which is harped be know^n ? ^ For even if a trumpet give an uncertain sound, 
-who will prepare for war? ^So also ye, unless ye utter through the tongue 
speech easy to be understood, how will that which is spoken be known ? For 
ye will be speaking into the air. 

10 There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and no one is 
without meaning, ii If then I know not the force of the voice, I shall be to him 
that speaks a barbarian, and he that speaks a barbarian to me. ^^ So also ye, 
since ye are eager for spiritual gifts, seek that ye may abound in them to the 
upbuilding of the church. ^^ Wherefore let him that speaks in a tongue pray 
that he may interpret. ^^ For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays, but my 
understanding is unfruitful. ^^ What is it then ? I will pray with the spirit, 
and I will pray with the understanding also; I will^sing with the spirit, and I 
will sing with the understanding also, i^ Else, if thou bless with the spirit, how 
will he that fills the place of the ungifted say the Amen at thy thanksgiving, 
since he knows not what thou sayest ? ^' For thou indeed givest thanks well, 
but the other is not built up. i^j thank God, I speak with tongues more than 
ye all. ^^But in » church I had rather speak five w^ords with my understanding, 
that I may instruct others also, than ten thousand words in a tongue. 

20Bretliren, be not children in understanding; yet in evil be babes, but in 
your understanding be full grown. 

21 In the law it is written. 
With men of other tongues, and by lips of strangers, 
I will speak to this people ; 
And not even so will they listen to me, saith the Lord. 

22 So that the tongues are for a sign, not to those who believe, but to the 
unbelieving ; but prophecy is not for the unbelieving, but for those who believe. 
23 If therefore the whole church is assembled together, and all are speaking with 
tongues, and there come in those who are ungifted, or unbelievers, will they not 
say that ye are mad ? 24 But if all are prophesying, and there come in one tliat 

• Or, an assembly. 


is an unbeliever, or ungifted, he is convicted by all, he is judged by all. 25 -phe 
secrets of his heart become manifest ; and so falling on his face he will worship 
God, reporting that God is indeed among you. 

26 What is it then, brethren ? When ye come together, each of you has a 
psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has a tongue, has an interpretation. 
Let all things be done to upbuilding. 2T jf any one speaks in a tongue, let it be 
by two, or at the most by three, and in turn ; and let one interpret. 28 gu^ if 
there be no interpreter, let him keep silence in ^ church ; and let him speak to 
himself, and to God. 

29 And let prophets speak by two or three, and the others ^ judge, ^^g^t if 
a revelation be made to another sitting by, let the first keep silence, ^ipor ye 
all can prophesy one by one, that all may learn, and all be exhorted. 32^jj^ 
spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. ^^ Yqj. Qq([ jg jjqj- ^ Qq^ ^f confusion, 
but of peace, as in all the « churches of the saints. 

3* Let your women keep silence in the churches ; for it is not permitted to 
them to speak, but let them be in subjection, as the law also says. 35^n,j[ jf 
they wish to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home ; for it 
is shameful for a woman to speak in church. ^^ Qr, was it from you that the 
word of God went forth ? Or did it come unto you alone ? 

3'' If any one thinks himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him recognize 
the things which I write to you that they are the Lord's commandment. ^^But 
if any one is ignorant, let him be ignorant. ^^ Wherefore, my brethren, desire 
earnestly to prophesy, and forbid not to speak with tongues. ^ But let all things 
be done becomingly and in order. 

X^'TT 1 Now I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached 
■^ ^ • to you, which also ye received, in which also ye stand; ^ through 
which also ye are saved, if ye hold fast with what word I preached to j^ou, unless 
ye believed in vain. ^ For I delivered to you first of all wbat I also received, 
that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures; *and that he was 
buried, and that he has been raised on the third day, according to the Scriptures ; 
5 and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve; ^then he appeared to 
above five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain until now, 
but some are fallen asleep. ^ After that, he appeared to James ; then to all the 
apostles. 8 And last of all, as if to the one born out of due time, he appeared to me 
also. 9 For I am the least of the apostles, who am not fit to be called an apostle, 
because I persecuted the church of God. 1° But by God's grace I am what I am ; 
and his grace which was bestowed upon me did not prove vain ; but I labored 
more abundantly than they all; yet not I, but the grace of God with me. 
*i Whether then it be I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed. 

12 But if Christ is preached that he has been raised from the dead, how say 
some among you that there is no resurrection of dead men ? ^^ 3^^ if there is no 
resurrection of dead men, then neither has Christ been raised; i*and if Christ 
has not been raised, then is our preaching vain, vain also your faith. ^^ ^nd we 
are found also false witnesses of God ; because we testified in respect to God, 

» Or, an assembly. •> Or, discern. " Or, assemblies. 


that he raised up the Christ ; whom he raised not, if it be so that no dead are 
raised up. ^^ por if no dead are raised up, neither has Christ been raised ; ^^ and 
if Christ has not been raised, your faith is vain ; ye are yet in your sins, is Then 
they also who have fallen asleep in Christ have perished. ^^ If in this life only 
we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most pitiable. 

20 But as it is, Christ has been raised from the dead, a first-fruit of those who 
have fallen asleep, ^i For since through men came death, through man came 
also the resurrection of the dead. 22 poj. ^s in Adam all die, so also in Christ will 
all be made alive. ^3 g^t each in his own rank ; Christ a first-fruit ; then they 
who are Christ's at his coming, 24 Then comes the end, when he delivers up the 
kingdom to God and the Father ; when he has done away every rule, and every 
authority and power. 25 por he must reign, till he has put all the enemies under 
his feet. ^^As the last enemy, Death is done away with. For he subjected 
all things under his feet. 27 g^t even when he says. All things are subjected, 
it is manifest that he is excepted, who subjected all things to him. 28 ^^d 
whenever all things have been subjected to him, then will the Son also him- 
self be subjected to him who subjected all things to him, that God may be all 
in all. 

29 Else what will they do who are baptized for the dead ? If no dead are 
raised at all, why then are they baptized for them ? ^o Why are we also in peril 
every hour ? ^i Daily do I die, I protest by the glorying in you, brethren, which 
I have in Christ Jesus our Lord. ^2 if after the manner of men I fought with 
wild beasts at Ephesus, what is the profit to me ? If the dead rise not, 
Let us eat and drink ; 
For to-morrow we die. 

33 Be not led astray ; evil companionships corrupt good morals. ^4 Awake 
righteously, and sin not; for some have not knowledge of God. I say it to 
shame you. 

35 But some one will say. How are the dead raised ? And with what kind of 
body do they come ? 36 Thou fool, what thou thyself sowest is not made alive, 
except it die ; 37 and what thou sowest, not the body that will be sowest thou, 
but a bare grain, it may be of wheat, or of some other kind. 38 g^t God gives it 
a body just as he willed, and to each of the seeds a body of its own. 39^.11 flesh 
is not the same flesh ; but there is one flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, an- 
other flesh of birds, another of fishes. *o There are also heavenly bodies and 
earthly bodies ; but the glory of the heavenly is one, and that of the earthly is 
another. *^ There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and 
another glory of the stars ; for star differs from star in glory. *2 go also is the 
resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption. 
*3 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is 
raised in power. ^ It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If 
there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual. ^^So also it is written. The 
first man Adam became a living soul ; the last Adam a life-giving spirit. *6 Yet 
the spiritual is not first, but the natural ; then the spiritual. *'' The first man is 
of the earth, earthy ; the second man is from heaven. *8^\s jg the earthy, such 
are they also that are earthy ; and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are 


heavenly. ^^Andaswe bore the image of the earthy, ''we shall also bear the 
image of the heavenly. 

50 And this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood can not inherit the kingdom 
of God ; nor does corruption inherit incorruption. ^i Behold, I tell you a mys- 
tery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, ^2 in a moment, in the 
twinkling of an eye, at the last trump ; for the trumpet will sound, and the 
dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. ^^ Yqj. ^i^jg corrupt- 
ible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. 
5* And when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal 
shall have put on immortality, then will come to pass the word, that is written, 
Death has been swallowed up in victory. ^5 Where, O death, is thy victory ? 
Where, O death, is thy sting? ^^xhe sting of death is sin; and the power of 
sin is the law. ^"^ But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our 
Lord Jesus Christ. »8 therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, 
always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in 
vain in the Lord. 

VT7T ^Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I directed the 

■^ ' J-» churches of Galatia, so also do ye. 2 On the first day of the week, 
let each one of you lay by him in store, according as he is prospered, that there 
may be no collections made when I come. ^ And when I arrive, whomsoever ye 
shall approve, them I will send with letters to carry your benefaction to Jerusa- 
lem. *And if it be worth while for me also to go, they shall go with me. 

5 And I will come to you, when I have passed through Macedonia. For I 
pass through Macedonia ; ^ and it may be that I will remain, or even pass the 
winter with you, that ye may bring me on my journey whithersoever I go. 
■^ For I am unwilling to see you now, in passing ; for I hope to remain some 
time with you, if the Lord permit. ^ But I shall remain at Ephesus until the 
Pentecost. ^ For a great and effectual door is open to me, and there are many 

^0 Now if Timothy come, see that he may be with you without fear ; for he 
works the work of the Lord, as I also do. ^^ Let no one therefore despise him ; 
but send him forward in peace, that he may come to me ; for I look for him 
with the brethren. 12 j^^^ concerning Apollos the brother, I besought him much 
to come to you with the brethren ; and it was not at all his will to come at this 
time, but he will come when he shall have opportunity. ^^ Watch, stand fast 
in the faith, acquit you like men, be strong. ^* Let all your acts be done in love. 
15 Now I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the house of Stephanas, that it is a 
first-fruit of Achaia, and that they have set themselves to minister to the saints,) 
16 that ye also submit yourselves to such, and to every one that works with us, 
and labors. I'^And I rejoice at the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus and 
Achaicus ; for what was lacking on your part they supplied. 1® For they re- 
freshed my spirit and yours; therefore recognize those who are such. 

19 The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Prisca, with the church that 
is in their house, salute you much in the Lord. 20 wi the brethren salute you. 

» Very many ancient documents read let us also bear. 


Salute one another with a holy kiss. 21 The salutation of me, Paul, with my 
own hand. 

" If any one loves not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be accursed. » Maran 

23 The grace of our Lord be with you. 24 My love be with you all in Christ 
Jesus. Amen. 


After the First Epistle to the Corinthians Paul left Ephesus and came into 
Macedonia. His Second Epistle is intensely personal, and written under the 
strong and conflicting emotions caused by the reports of Timothy and Titus. 
Their visits and his recent letter had effected this much, that the church repre- 
sented by the majority was with the apostle, but a hostile minority remained 
that questioned his apostleship and character. The first nine chapters he ad- 
dressed to his friends who represented the church, and then he most affection- 
ately and earnestly addresses his opponents. It was written in Macedonia in the 
autumn of A. D. 57 (p. 230, and compare all on g39). On Paul's third visit to 
Corinth (2 Cor, 13 : 1) see pp. 216-218. This Epistle should be read after Acts 
20: 1. 

1^ Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Timothy 
• our brother, to the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints 
who are in all Achaia : 2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 Blessed be God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, 
and the God of all consolation; *who consoles us in all our affliction, that we 
may be able to console those who are in any affliction, through the consolation 
wherewith we ourselves are consoled by God. ^ Because, as the sufferings of 
Christ abound toAvard us, so through Christ our consolation also abounds. ^ But 
whether we are afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation ; or whether we 
are consoled, it is for your consolation, which is effective in the endurance of the 
same sufferings which we also suffer. "^ And our hope of you is steadfast, know- 
ing, that as ye are partakers of the sufferings, so are ye also of the consolation. 

8 For we do not wish you to be ignorant, brethren, of our affliction which 
befell us in Asia, that we were exceedingly weighed down beyond our power, so 
that we despaired even of life. ^ Yea, we ourselves had in ourselves the sentence 
of death, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God who raises the dead ; 
^" who delivered us from so great a death, and will deliver ; in whom is our hope 
that he will still deliver ; ^^ ye also helping together on our behalf by your sup- 
plication, that for the mercy bestowed on us through many persons, thanks may 
be given through many on our behalf. -2 For our glorying is this, the testimony 
of our conscience, that in holiness and ^ godly sincerity, not in fleshly wisdom, 
but in the grace of God, did we conduct ourselves in the world, and more abun- 

* Or, Our Lord comes. »> Gr., Sincerity of God. 


dantly toward you. ^^ For we write no other things to you, than what ye read 
or even acknowledge, and I trust ye will acknowledge even to the end ; i* as 
also ye did acknowledge us in part, that we are your glorying, even as ye also 
are ours in the day of our Lord Jesus. 

i^And in this confidence I intended to come to you before, that ye might 
have a second * benefit; ^^and through you to go into Macedonia, and from 
Macedonia to come again to you, and by you to be helped forward on my way to 
Judiea. 1" When therefore I intended this, did I show fickleness ? Or the things 
that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be 
the yea, yea, and the nay, nay ? ^^ As God is faithful, our word to you is not 
yea and nay. ^^ For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you 
through us, through me and Silvanus and Timothy, was not yea and nay, but is 
yea in him. 20 p^j. however many are the promises of God, in him is the yea ; 
wherefore also through him is the Amen, to the glory of God through us. 21 Xow 
he who confirms us with you in Christ, and anointed us, is God ; 22 he who also 
sealed us, and gave the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. 

23 But I invoke God for a witness upon my soul, that to spare you I came 
not yet to Corinth. 24 ^q^ that we lord it over your faith, but are helpers of 
your joy ; for in faith ye stand fast. 

ni And I determined this with myself, that I would not come again to 
• you in sorrow. 2 Yor if I make you sorry, who then is he that makes me 
glad, but he that is made sorry by me ? ^ And I wrote this very thing, that I 
might not, when I came, have sorrow from those of whom I ought to have joy ; 
having confidence in you all, that my joy is the joy of you all. *For out of 
much afiiiction and anguish of heart I wrote to you, through many tears ; not 
that ye might have sorrow, but that ye might know the love which I have very 
abundantly toward you. 

^ But if any one has caused sorrow, he has caused sorrow not to me, but in 
part (not to be too severe) to you all. ^guffieient for such a one is this punish- 
ment, which was inflicted by the many. "^ So that, on the contrary, ye ought 
rather to forgive and console him, lest perhaps such a one should be swallowed 
up with his overmuch sorrow. ^ Wherefore I beseech you to confirm your love 
toward him. ^ For to this end also I wrote, that I might know the proof of you, 
whether ye are obedient in all things, i" And to whom ye forgive anything, I 
forgive also; for what I also have forgiven, if I have forgiven anything, for 
your sakes I forgave it in the person of Christ, ^^ that no advantage might be 
gained over us by Satan ; for we are not ignorant of his devices. 

12 Now when I came to Troas to preach the gospel of Christ, and a door was 
opened to me in the Lord, i^ I had no relief for my spirit, because I found not 
Titus my brother ; but bidding them farewell, I went forth into Macedonia. 
1* But thanks be to God, who always leads us in triumph in Christ, and makes 
manifest through us in every place the savor of the knowledge of him. ^^ Be- 
cause we are to God a sweet savor of Christ, in those who are being saved, and in 
those who are perishing ; ^^ to the one a savor of death to death, to the other a 

» Some ancient documents read joy. • 


savor of life to life. And who is sufficient for these things ? " For we are not 
as the many, corrupting the word of God ; but as from sincerity, but as from 
God, in the sight of God we speak in Christ. 

ml Are Ave beginning again to commend ourselves? Or need we, as do 
• some, letters of commendation to you, or from you? ^ Ye are our letter, 
written in our hearts, known and read by all men ; ^ being made manifest that 
ye are Christ's letter ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit 
of the living God ; not in tablets of stone, but in tablets that are hearts of flesh. 
* And such confidence have we through Christ, toward God. ^ Not that we are 
sufficient of ourselves to think anything as from ourselves; but our sufficiency 
is from God ; ^ who also made us sufficient as ministers of a new covenant ; not 
of the letter, but of the spirit ; for the letter kills, but the spirit makes alive. 
■^ But if the ministration of death, engraven with letters on stones, came in glory, 
so that the sons of Israel could not look intently on the face of Moses on ac- 
count of the glory of his face, which glory was passing away ; ^ how shall not 
rather the ministration of the Spirit be in glory ? ^ For if the ministration of 
condemnation has glory, much more does the ministration of righteousness ex- 
ceed in glory, i^por even that which has been made glorious has not been made 
glorious in this respect, on account of the glory that excels. ^^ For if that which 
is passing away is glorious, much more that which abides is glorious. 

12 Having therefore such hope, we use great plainness of speech; ^^and are 
not as Moses who put a vail over his face, that the children of Israel might not 
intently look on the end of that which was passing away. i*But their under- 
standings were hardened; for until this day on the reading of the old covenant 
the same vail abides, not being taken away ; which vail is done away in Christ. 
1^ But even to this day, whenever Moses is read, a vail lies on their heart. i<'But 
whenever it turns to the Lord, the vail is taken away. ^"^ Now the Lord is the 
Spirit ; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. ^^ But we all, 
with unvailed face reflecting as a mirror the glory of the Lord, are transfigured 
into the same image from glory to glory, *as by the Spirit of the Lord. 
TT7 1 Therefore, having this ministry, as we received mercy, we faint not. 
-L T • 2 g^t ^yg renounce the hidden things of shame, not walking in craftiness, 
nor handling with guile the word of God ; but, by the manifestation of the 
truth, commending ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God. 
^Biit even if our gospel is vailed, it is vailed in those who are perishing; *in 
whom the god of this age blinded the understandings of the unbelieving, that 
the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is God's image, should not 
shine. ^For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus as Lord ; and ourselves 
as your servants for Jesus' sake. ^ Because it is God that said, Out of darkness 
light shall shine, who sliined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge 
of the glory of God in the face of Christ. 

■^ But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the exceeding greatness 
of the power may be God's, and not from ourselves; ^ being pressed in every 
way, yet not straitened ; perplexed, yet not despairing ; ^ pursued, yet not for- 

» Or, Even as from the Lord the Spirit. 


saken ; smitten down, yet not destroyed ; ^" always carrying about in the body 
the dying of Jesus, that the life also of Jesus may be manifested in our body. 
11 For we who live are always delivered to death for Jesus' sake, that the life 
also of Jesus may be manifested in our mortal flesh. ^^ go that death works in 
us, but life in you. ^^ But having the same spirit of faith, according to what is 
written, I believed, therefore did I speak, we also believe, therefore also we 
speak ; i* knowing that he who raised up the Lord Jesus will raise up us 
also through Jesus, and will present us with you. ^^ For all things are for your 
sakes ; that the grace, abounding through the many, may make the thanksgiv- 
ing more abundant, to the glory of God. 

16 Wherefore we faint not ; but though our outward man is decaying, yet 
our inward man is renewed day by day. i'^ For our light affliction, which is 
but for a moment, is working out for us more and more exceedingly an eternal 
weight of glory; i^ while we look not at the things that are seen, but at the 
things that are not seen; for the things that are seen are for a season, but the 
things that are not seen are eternal. 

VI For we know that, if our earthly house of the tabernacle be dissolved, 
• we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal, in 
the heavens. ^ for in this we groan, longing to be clothed upon with our habi- 
tation which is from heaven ; ^ if indeed being clothed, we shall not be found 
naked. *For w^e that are in the tabernacle groan, being burdened; not that 
we wish to be unclothed, but to be clothed upon, that what is mortal may be 
swallowed up by life. 

5 Now he that wrouglit us out for this very thing is God, who gave to us the 
earnest of the Spirit. ^ Being therefore always of good courage, and knowing 
that while at home in the body we are absent from the Lord C^ for we walk by 
faith, not by sight), ^ we are of good courage, and are well pleased rather to be 
absent from the body, and to be at home with the Lord. 

9 Wherefore we also make it our aim, whether at home or absent, to be well 
pleasing to him. i" por we must all be manifested before the judgment-seat of 
Christ ; that each one may receive the things done through the body, according 
to the things which he practiced, whether good or evil. 

11 Knowing therefore the fear of the Lord, we persuade men ; but to God we 
have been manifested, and I hope that we have been manifested also in your 
consciences, i^ We are not again commending ourselves to you, but giving you 
occasion of glorifying on our behalf, that ye may have wherewith to answer 
those who glory in appearance and not in heart, i^ For whether we were beside 
ourselves, it was for God ; or whether we are of sound mind, it is for you. i*For 
the love of Christ constrains us ; because we thus judged, that one died for all, 
therefore they all died ; i^ and he died for all, that they who live should live no 
longer to themselves, but to him who for them died and rose again. i6 So that 
we henceforth know no one according to the flesh; even if we have known 
Christ according to the flesh, yet now we no longer know him. i'^ So that if any 
one is in Christ, he is a new creature ; the old things passed away ; behold, they 
have become new. i^ And all things are from God, who reconciled us to him- 
self through Christ, and gave to us the ministry of the reconciliation ; i^ how 



that God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, not reckoning to them 
their trespasses, and having committed to us the word of reconciliation. 

20 On behalf of Christ then we are ambassadors, as though God were beseech- 
ing through us ; we entreat on behalf of Christ : Be reconciled to God ! 21 Him 
who knew not sin he made to be sin for us, that we might become God's right- 
eousness in him. 

T7T 1 And, working together with him, we also beseech you that ye receive 
' ^» not the grace of God in vain ; (2 for he says, 

In an acceptable time I heard thee, 
And in a day of salvation I helped thee ; 
behold, now is the acceptable time, behold, now is the day of salvation ;) ^ giv- 
ing no cause of stumbling in anything, that our ministry be not blamed ; * but 
in everything commending ourselves as God's ministers, in much patience, in 
afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, ^ in stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, 
in labors, in watchings, in fastings ; ^ in pureness, in knowledge, in long-suffer- 
ing, in kindness, in the Holy Spirit, in love unfeigned, '' in the word of truth, in 
the power of God ; through the weapons of righteousness on the right hand and 
on the left, » through glory and dishonor, through evil report and good report ; 
as deceivers, and yet true; ^as unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and, 
behold, we live; as chastened, and not killed; ^"as sorrowful, yet always 
rejoicing ; as poor, yet making many rich ; as having nothing, and yet possess- 
ing all things. 

11 Our mouth is open to you, O Corinthians, our heart is enlarged. ^^ Ye are 
not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in your own affections, ^^js^q^ 
as a recompense in the same kind (I speak as to my children), be ye also en- 

1* Be not yoked unequally with unbelievers ; for what fellowship has righteous- 
ness with lawlessness ? And what communion has light with darkness ? ^^ And 
what concord has Christ with Beliar ? Or what portion has a believer with an 
unbeliever? i^ ^nd what agreement has God's temple with idols? For we are 
the living God's temple, as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk among 
them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people, i'^ "Wherefore, 
come out from the midst of them, and be separated, saith the Lord, and touch 
not anything unclean ; and I will receive you, ^^ and will be to you a Father, 
and ye shall be to me sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. 

^1 Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves 
• from every defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the 
fear of God. 

2 Open your hearts to us ; we wronged no one, we corrupted no one, we de- 
frauded no one. ^ I say it not to condemn you ; for I have already said, that ye 
are in our hearts, to die together and to live together. * Great is my boldness 
toward you, great is my glorying on account of you ; I am filled with consola- 
tion, I am made to abound with joy, in all our affliction. 

5 For even when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no relief, but 
we were afflicted in every way; without were fightings; within were fears. 
^ But God, who consoles the lowly, consoled us by the coming of Titus ; ' and 


not by his coming only, but also by the consolation with which he was consoled 
in you, when he told us your earnest desire, your mourning, your zeal for me ; 
so that I rejoiced the more. ^ Because, though I made you sorry with my letter, 
I do not regret it, though I did regret it ; for I see that that letter made you 
sorry, though but for a time. ^Now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry, but 
that ye were made sorry to repentance ; for ye were made sorry after a godly 
manner, that in nothing ye might receive harm from us. ^^ For godly sorrow 
works repentance to salvation, not to be repented of; but the sorrow of the world 
works out death. ^^ For behold this very thing, that ye were made sorry after a 
godly manner, what diligence it wrought in you ; yea, what defense of your- 
selves ; yea, what indignation ; yea, what fear ; yea, what longing desire ; yea, 
what zeal; yea, what avenging! In every thing ye shewed yourselves to be 
pure in the matter. ^^ gQ then, though I wrote to you, it was not on account of 
him who did the wrong, nor of him who suffered wrong, but that your care for 
us might be manifested to you in the sight of God. ^^por this cause we have 
been consoled ; but in our consolation, we rejoiced abundantly more at the joy 
of Titus, because his spirit has been refreshed by you all. ^^ For if in any thing 
I have gloried to him of you, I was not made ashamed ; but as we spoke all 
things to you in truth, so also our glorying before Titus was found to be truth. 
15 And his tender affection is more abundantly toward you, while he remem- 
bers the obedience of you all, how with fear and trembling ye received him. 

161 rejoice, that in everything I am of good courage concerning you. 
T7TTT 1 And we make known to you, brethren, the grace of God which 

* J-J-J-* has been bestowed in the churches of Macedonia ; ^that in much 
trial of affliction was the abundance of their joy, and their deep poverty 
abounded to the riches of their liberality. ^ For according to their ability, I 
bear testimony, and beyond their ability, they gave of their own accord ; * with 
much entreaty beseeching of us the grace and the participation in the minister- 
ing to the saints ; ^ and not as we expected, but themselves they gave first to the 
Lord, and to us through the will of God. ^ So that we exhorted Titus, that as he 
had before made a beginning, so he would also finish among you this grace also. 
' But, as in everything ye abound, in faith, and speech, and knowledge, and all 
diligence, and your love to us, see that ye abound in tliis grace also. ^ j g^y it 
not by way of command, but through the diligence of others proving also the 
sincerity of your love. ^ For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, 
though he was rich, for your sakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty 
might become rich, i" And I give my judgment in this matter ; for this is profit- 
able for you, who made a beginning before others, not only to do, but also to will, 
a year ago. ii And now finish the doing of it also ; that as there was the readi- 
ness to will, so there may be the finishing according to what ye have. ^^ Yor 
if there be first the willing mind, it is accepted according to what one has, 
not according to what he has ' not. ^^ For it is not that others may have 
relief and ye distress; i^but, by the rule of equality, at this present time your 
abundance being a supply for their want, tliat also their abundance may become 
a supply for your want, that there may be equality; as it is written, i^He that 
gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little did not lack. 


16 Bat thanks be to God, who puts the same diligence for you into the heart of 
Titus. 1^ For he accepted indeed our exhortation ; but being very zealous, he went 
forth to you of his own accord. ^^ And together with him we sent the brother, 
rt'hose praise in the gospel is throughout all the churches ; ^^ and not that only, 
but who was also appointed by the churches, as our fellow-traveller with this 
gift which is administered by us, to further the glory of the Lord, and our zeal ; 
'■^0 being careful of this, that no one should blame us as to this bounty which is 
administered by us ; ^i for we provide for what is honorable, not only in the sight 
of the Lord, but also in the sight of men. ■^^ Xj^^\ y,Q gent with them our 
brother, whom we have often in many things proved to be diligent, but now 
much more diligent, through the great confidence which he has toward you. 
23 As to Titus, he is my partner, and in regard to you a fellow- worker ; as to our 
brethren, they are messengers of the churches, the glory of Christ. ^4 therefore 
show toward them before the churches, the proof of your love, and of our glory- 
ing on your behalf. 

T^ 1 For concerning the ministering to the saints, it is superfluous for me 
J--^» to write to you. ^ for I know your readiness of mind, of which I glory 
on your behalf to the Macedonians, that Achaia has been prepared for a year 
past; and your zeal stirred up the greater part of them. ^But I sent the breth- 
ren, in order that our glorying on your behalf might not be made void in this 
respect; that, as I said, ye maybe prepared; *lest perchance, if Macedonians 
come with me, and find you unprepared, we (that we say not, ye) should be put 
to shame in this confidence. 

5 1 thought it necessary, therefore, to exhort the brethren, that they should 
go before to you, and make up beforehand your previously promised bounty, 
that this may be ready as a matter of bounty and not as covetousness. ^ But as 
to this, he that sows sparingly will also reap sparingly ; and he that sows boun- 
tifully will also reap bountifully; '^but let each one give as he has purposed in 
his heart, not grudgingly or of necessity, for God loves a cheerful giver. ^ And 
God is able to make every grace abound toward you ; that ye, always having 
all sufficiency in everything, may abound toward every good work : (^as it is 
written : 

He scattered, he gave to the poor ; 

His righteousness abides forever ; ) 

10 and he who supplies seed to the sower and bread for food, will supply and 
multiply your seed for sowing, and increase the fruits of your righteousness; 

11 ye being enriched in everything to all liberality, which works through us 
thanksgiving to God. 12 Because the ministry of this service not only fully 
supplies the wants of the saints, but also abounds through many thanks- 
givings to God, 13 while through the proving of you by this ministration they 
glorify God on account of your obedience to your confession in respect to 
the gospel of Christ, and for the liberality of the contribution to them, and to 
all; i^they also, with supplication for you, longing after you on account of 
the exceeding grace of God upon you. is Thanks be to God for his unspeakable 


XI Now I, Paul, myself beseech you by the meekness and gentleness of 
• Christ, who in your presence indeed am lowly among you, but being 
absent am of good courage toward you ; ^but I entreat, that I may not when I 
am present be of good courage with the confidence, wherewith I think to be bold 
against some, who think of us as walking according to the flesh. ^ For though 
walking in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh ; (*for the weapons of 
our warfare are not fleshly, but mighty before God to the casting down of strong- 
holds;) 5 casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalts itself 
against the knowledge of God, and bringing every thought into captivity to the 
obedience of Christ ; ^ and being in readiness to avenge every disobedience, 
when your obedience is made complete. 

"> Ye look on the things that are after the outward appearance. If any 
one trusts to himself that he is Christ's, let him consider this again with 
himself, that, as he is Christ's, so also are we. ^Por even if I glory some- 
what more abundantly concerning our authority, which the Lord gave us for 
building you up, and not for casting you down, I shall not be put to shame; 
9 that I may not seem as if I would terrify you through my letters. i"For 
his letters, says one, are weighty and strong; but his bodily presence is weak, 
and his speech despicable. ^^Let such a one consider this, that such as we 
are in word through letters when absent, such will we be also in deed when 

12 For we have not the boldness to pair or compare ourselves with some of 
those who commend themselves ; but they, measuring themselves among them- 
selves, and comparing themselves with themselves, are without understanding. 
13 But we will not glory beyond our measure, but according to the measure of 
the limit which God divided to us as a measure, to reach even to you. i*For we 
do not stretch ourselves beyond our measure, as if we reached not to you ; for as 
far as to you also did we come, in the gospel of Christ ; ^^ not glorying beyond our 
measure in other men's labors ; but having hope that as your faith increases, we 
shall be enlarged among you according to our limit to further abundance, ^^ so 
as to preach the gospel in the regions beyond you, not to glory within the limits 
assigned to another of things made ready to our hand. ^"^ But he that glories, 
let him glory in the Lord. ^^ For not he that commends himself is approved, 
but he whom the Lord commends. 

VT ^ Would that ye could bear with me in a little folly ! Nay, indeed ye 
-^J-. (Jo bear with me. 2 For I am jealous over you with a godly jealousy ; 
for I betrothed you to one husband, that I may present a pure virgin to 
Christ. 3 But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent deceived Eve in his 
craftiness, so your minds should be corrupted from your singleness and purity 
toward Christ. * For if indeed he that comes preaches another Jesus, whom we 
did not preach, or if ye receive a dilferent spirit, which ye did not receive, or a 
different gospel, which ye did not receive, ye might well bear with it. ^For I 
reckon that I am in no respect behind those pre-eminent apostles. ^ And though 
I be rude in speech, yet I am not in knowledge ; but in everything we have 
manifested it among all in respect to you. ''Or did I commit a sin in humbling 
myself that ye might be exalted, because I preached to' you the gospel of God 


* without cost? ^I robbed other churches, taking wages of them, that I might 
minister to you. ^And when I was present with you, and lacked, I was a 
charge to no one ; for what was lacking to me the brethren when they came from 
Macedonia supplied ; and in every thing I kept myself from being burdensome 
to you, and so will keep myself. ^^ As the truth of Christ is in me, this glorying 
shall not be stopped against me in the regions of Achaia. ^^ Why ? Because I 
love you not ? God knows. ^^ But what I do, and will do, is that I may cut off 
the occasion of those who desire an occasion, that wherein they glory they may 
be found even as we. ^^For such men are false apostles, deceitful workers, 
transforming themselves into apostles of Christ. ^* And no wonder ; for Satan 
himself transforms himself into an angel of light. ^^Jt is no great thing then, 
if also his ministers transform themselves as ministers of righteousness ; whose 
end will be according to their works. 

16 1 say again, let no one think me foolish ; but if ye do, yet receive me even 
if as foolish, that I too may glory a little. ^"^ What I speak, I speak not accord- 
ing to the Lord, but as if in folly, in this confidence of glorying, isgin^e many 
glory according to the flesh, I also will glory. ^^ por ye gladly bear with the 
foolish, being yourselves wise. ^ofoj. ye bear with it, if one brings you into 
bondage, if one devours you, if one takes you captive, if one exalts himself, if 
one beats you on the face, ^i I say it as a dishonor, as though we had been weak. 
But in whatever any one is bold (I say it in folly), I also am bold. 22^\j.e they 
Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they Abraham's 
seed? So am I. ^s^j-e they ministers of Christ? (I speak as beside myself.) 
I am more ; in labors more abundantly, in prisons more abundantly, in stripes 
above measure, in deaths often; 24fi-om the Jews five times I received forty 
stripes save one ; '^° thrice I was beaten Avith rods ; once I was stoned ; thrice I 
suffered shipwreck ; a night and a day I have spent in the deep ; ^^in journey- 
ings often, in perils of rivers, in perils of robbers, in perils from my country- 
men, in perils from the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, 
in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren ; 27 in toil and hardship, in 
sleeplessness often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and naked- 
ness. 28 Apart from the things which I omit, there is that which comes upon me 
daily, anxiety for all the churches. 29 Who is weak, and I am not weak ? Who 
is caused to stumble, and I do not burn ? ^o jf i must needs glory, I will glory 
of things which belong to my infirmity, ^i The God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus who is blessed forevermore, knows that I lie not. ^2 jn Damascus, the 
governor under Aretas the king kept guard over the city of the Damascenes to 
arrest me ; ^3 and through a window I was let down in a basket through the wall, 
and escaped his hands. 

VTT 1 1 must needs glory though it is not profitable ; but I will come to 

-^-L -*-• visions and revelations of the Lord. 

2 1 know a man in Christ, fourteen years ago (whether in the body I 
know not, or whether out of the body I know not, God knows), such a one 
caught up even to the third heaven, ^ ^n(j i know such a man (whether in the 

» Or, gratuitously. 


body or apart from the body I know not, God knows),* that he was caught up into 
paradise, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter. 

^ On behalf of such a one I will glory ; but on my own behalf I will not 
glory, save in my infirmities. ^ for if I should desire to glory, I should not be 
foolish, for I should be speaking the truth ; but I forbear, lest any one should 
reckon of me above what he sees me to be, or hears from me. "^ And that I 
might not be exalted overmuch by the abundance of the revelations, there was 
given to me a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to buftet me, that I should 
not be exalted overmuch. ^ Concerning this 1 besought the Lord thrice, that it 
might depart from me. ^ And he has said to me, My grace is sufiicient for thee ; 
for my power is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather 
glory in my infirmities, tlmt the power of Christ may abide on me. ^^ Where- 
fore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecu- 
tions, in distresses for Christ's sake : for when I am weak, then I am powerful. 

11 1 have become foolish ; ye compelled me. For I ought to have been 
commended by you; for in nothing was I behind these pre-eminent apostles, 
though I am nothing. ^^ Truly the signs of an apostle were wrought among 
you in all patience, by signs, and wonders, and miracles, ^^ Yor what is 
there, wherein ye were made inferior to the rest of the churches, except that 
I myself was not a charge to you ? Forgive me this wrong. 

1* Behold, this is the third time I am ready to come to you ; and I will not 
be a charge to you ; for I seek not yours, but you ; for the children ought not to 
lay up for the parents, but the parents for the children. ^^ ^^d I will most 
gladly spend and be spent for your souls; if I love you more abundantly, am I 
to be loved the less? ^^ But be it so, I was not myself a charge to you ; but yet, 
being crafty, I caught you with guile. ^'' Did I make gain of you, through any 
of those whom I have sent to you? ^^I exhorted Titus [to go], and sent with 
him the brother. Did Titus make gain of you ? Did we not walk in the same 
spirit ; did we not in the same steps? 

19 Do ye all this time suppose that we are excusing ourselves to you ? Be- 
fore God in Christ we are speaking ; and all, beloved, for building you up. 
^'^ For I fear, lest perhaps, when I come, I should find you not such as I wish, 
and that I too should be found by you such as ye wish not; lest there 
should be strifes, jealousy, wraths, party spirit, backbitings, whisperings, swell- 
ings, tumults ; 21 lest, when I come again, my God should humble me before 
you, and I should mourn for many of those who have sinned before, and re- 
pented not of the uncleanness, and fornication, and wantonness, which they 

"V'TTT 1 This is the third time I am coming to you. At the mouth of two 

-^-'-J--'-* witnesses, and of three, shall every word be established. ^I have 
before said, and now say beforehand, as when I was present the second time, so 
also now being absent, to those who heretofore have sinned, and to all the rest, 
that if I come again I will not spare ; ^ since ye seek a proof of Christ who is 
speaking in me, who toward you is not weak, but is powerful in you. * For he 
was crucified through weakness, yet he lives through the power of God. For we 
also are weak in him, but we shall live with him through the power of God to- 


ward you. ^ Try your own selves, whether ye are in the faith ; prove your own 
selves. Or know ye not your own selves, that Jesus Christ is in you, unless 
ye are reprobate indeed, ^gut I hope that ye will know, that we are not 

■^ Now we pray to God that ye do no evil ; not that we should appear approved, 
but that ye may do what is good, though Ave be as reprobate. ^ For we have no 
power against the truth, but for the truth. ^ For we rejoice, when we are weak, 
and ye are powerful ; this also we pray for, even your perfection, ^o For this 
cause I write these things while absent, that when present I may not deal 
sharply according to the authority which the Lord gave me for building up, and 
not casting down. 

11 Finally, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of the 
same mind, be at peace ; and the God of love and peace will be with you. 

12 Salute one another with a holy kiss, i^ j^n the saints salute you. 

1^ The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the com- 
munion of the Holy Spirit, be with you all. 


The Epistle to the Galatians seems to have accomplished its object. The 
visits of Timothy and Titus to Corinth, and Paul's Epistles to the Corinthian 
church, mended matters and prepared the way for his spending the winter profit- 
ably with them. Disorders and opposition were subdued, and controversies of 
Judaizers had abated. The time had come for Paul to give a more extended 
presentation of the gospel he preached. Since he proposed to enter the western 
portion of the empire (Acts 19 : 21 ; Rom. 1 : 13; 15 : 22-29), he chose Rome, 
the center of nations, as his starting point, and Roman Christians as the ones 
whom he would instruct and win over to the f>Jl reception of the truth. In his 
Epistle to them he discourses on the righteousness of God, made necessary by 
the sinfulness of the whole race, unfolded in the doctrines of justification by 
faith and sanctification, and shows that the law is in harmony with, and ful- 
filled in, the gospel. He vindicates God's dealings with Israel and the calling 
of the Gentiles ; treats on ethical duties and duties to the State, on questions of 
conscience and casuistry ; and defends his teaching and his apostleship to the 

The Epistle indicates Paul's tranquillity of mind, his hopefulness, and his 
expectancy of final triumph. It was written at Ephesus in the winter and 
sent in the spring of A. D. 58 (pp. 231-2 ^ It should be read after Acts 20 : 3. 

T 1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart to the 

-*-• gospel of God, 2 which he promised before through his prophets in the 
Holy Scriptures, 3 concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David 
according to the flesh, *who was instated as the Son of God, with power accord- 
ing to the spirit of holiness, by resurrection of the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord ; 
5 through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among 


all the nations, for his name's sake ; ^ among whom are ye also, called to be 
Jesus Christ's — '' to all the beloved of God that are in Rome, called to be saints : 
Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is 
proclaimed in all the world. ^ For God is my witness, whom I serve in my 
spirit in the gospel of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you, always 
in my prayers i*^ making request, if in any way now at length I may be pros- 
pered by the will of God to come to you. ^^ For I long to see you, that I may 
imi)art to you some spiritual gift, to the end that ye may be established; 12 that 
is, to be comforted together in you, through each other's faith, both yours and 
mine. ^^ And I do not wish you to be ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I pur- 
posed to come to you (and was hindered hitherto), that I might have some fruit 
in you also, even as in the rest of the Gentiles. 1* Both to Greeks and Barba- 
rians, both to wise and foolish I am debtor ; ^^ §0, as far as lies in me, I am ready 
to preach the gospel to you also who are in Eome. ^^ For I am not ashamed of 
the gospel ; for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believes, 
to the Jew first, and also to the Greek, i' For in it is revealed God's righteous- 
ness, from faith to faith ; as it is written. But the righteous shall live by faith. 

18 For God's wrath is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and un- 
righteousness of men, who hold back the truth in unrighteousness ; i^ because 
that which may be known of God is manifest in them ; for God manifested it to 
them. 20 Yqy since the creation of the world, his invisible things are clearly 
seen, being perceived by the things that are made, even his eternal power 
and divinity ; that they may be without excuse, ^i Because, knowing God, they 
glorified him not as God, nor gave thanks ; but became vain in their reason- 
ings, and their stupid heart was darkened. 22 Afiirming themselves to be wise, 
they became fools ; 23r,nd changed the glory of the incorruptible God for the 
likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds and fourfooted beasts and 
creeping things. 

2* Wherefore God delivered them up in the desires of their hearts to unclean- 
ness, to dishonor their bodies among themselves ; ^5 ^y^o changed the truth of 
God into falsehood ; and worshiped and served the creature rather than the 
Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen, ^epor this cause God delivered them 
up to shameful passions ; for their women changed the natural use into that 
which is against nature ; ^f and in like manner the men also, leaving the natural 
use of the woman, burned in their desire one toward another ; men with men 
working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves the recompense of 
their error which was due. ^s^^nd as they did not choose to retain God in their 
knowledge, God delivered them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which 
are not becoming ; 29 being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, covetous- 
ness, maliciousness ; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity ; Avhisperers, 
30 slanderers, hateful to God, insolent, proud, boasters, dcA^isers of evil things, 
disobedient to parents, ^i without understanding, covenant-breakers, without 
natural affection, unmerciful ; ^^i^yho, knowing the judgment of God, that they 
who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do them, but also have 
pleasure in those who practice them. 


TT ^Wherefore thou art without excuse, O man, whoever thou art that 

J--*-* judgest; for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for 
thou that judgest dost practice the same things, ^^ow we know that the judg- 
ment of God is according to truth, upon those who practice such things. ^ And 
reckonest thou this, O man, that judgest those who practice such things, and 
doest them, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God ? * Or despisest thou the 
riches of his kindness, and forbearance, and long-suflfering, not knowing that 
the goodness of God is leading thee to repentance ; ^ and after thy hardness 
and impenitent heart, art laying up for thyself wrath in the day of wrath and 
of the revelation of the righteous judgment of God; ^who will render to every 
man according to his works ; "^ to those who by patient continuance in well doing 
seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life ; ^ but to those who are 
contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, wrath and in- 
dignation, 3 tribulation and distress, on every soul of man that works evil, of the 
Jew first, and also of the Greek ; ^^ but glory and honor and peace to every man 
that works good, to the Jew first also to the Greek. 

11 For there is no respect of persons with God. ^^ Yov as many as sinned 
without law will also perish without law ; and as many as sinned with law will 
be judged by law; i^for not the hearers of law are righteous before God, 
but the doers of law will be justified : i* (for when Gentiles, who have no law, 
do by nature the things required by law, these, having no law, are a law to 
themselves ; ^^ who show the work of law written in their hearts, their conscience 
testifying with it, and between one another their thoughts accusing or also excus- 
ing;) 16 in the day when God will judge the secrets of men, according to my 
gospel, through Jesus Christ. 

1'^ But if thou art called a Jew, and restest on law, and gloriest in God, 
18 and knowest his will, and approvest the things that are excellent, being in- 
structed out of the law ; i^ and believest thyself to be a guide of the blind, a 
light of those who are in darkness, ^o an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of 
babes, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth ; 21 thou then 
that teachest another, dost thou not teach thyself? thou that preachest a man 
should not steal, dost thou steal ? ^^ thou that sayest, a man should not commit 
adultery, dost thou commit adultery ? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou rob 
temples ? 23 thou that gloriest in law, through the transgression of the law dis- 
honorest thou God ? 24 Yor, the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles 
because of you, as it is written. 

25 For circumcision indeed profits, if thou doest the law ; but if thou art a 
transgressor of law, thy circumcision has become uncircumcision. 26 jf then the 
uncircumcision keep the requirements of the law, shall not his uncircumcision 
be reckoned for circumcision ? 27 ^^d shall not the uncircumcision that is by 
nature, if it fulfills the law, judge thee, who with the letter and circumcision art 
a transgressor of law ? 28 for he is not a Jew, who is one outwardly ; nor is that 
circumcision, which is outward in the flesh. 29 g^t he is a Jew, who is one in- 
wardly ; and circumcision is that of the heart, in spirit not in letter ; whose 
praise is not from men, but from God. 



1 What then is the advantage of the Jew ? Or what is the profit of 
circumcision ? ^ Much every way ; first, indeed, that they were intrusted 
with the oracles of God. ^ For what if some disbelieved ? Shall their disbelief 
make void the faithfulness of God ? * Far be it. But let God be true, and every 
man a liar, as it is written, 

That thou mayest be justified in thy words. 
And mayest overcome when thou art judged. 
5 But if our unrighteousness commends God's righteousness, what shall 
we say? Is God unrighteous who visits wrath? (I speak as a man.) 
«Far be it! For then how shall God judge the world? ''''For if the truth 
of God, through my lie, abounded unto his glory, why am I also still judged as 
a sinner? ^And why should we not, (as we are slanderously reported, and 
as some affirm that we say,) do evil that good may come ? Whose condemna- 
tion is just. 

9 What then ? Are we better? No, in no wise ; for we before charged, that 
both Jews and Greeks are all under sin. lo As it is written, 
There is none righteous, no, not one ; 

11 There is none that understands. 
There is none that seeks after God ; 

12 They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofit- 

There is none that does good, there is not so much as one ; 

13 Their throat is an open sepulchre ; 
With their tongues they have used deceit ; 
The poison of asps is under their lips ; 

1* Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness ; 

15 Their feet are swift to shed blood ; 

16 Destruction and misery are in their ways ; 

1'^ And the way of peace they have not known ; 

18 There is no fear of God before their eyes. 
19 Now we know that whatever the law says, it speaks to those under the 
law ; that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may be subject to con- 
demnation before God. 20 Because by works of law no flesh will be justified in 
his sight ; for through law is a knowledge of sin. 21 But now, apart from law, 
a righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the law and the 
prophets ; 22 even a righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ, unto all 
^ that believe ; for there is no distinction ; 23 for all have sinned, and fall short 
of the glory of God ; 2* being justified " freely by his grace, through the redemp- 
tion that is in Christ Jesus ; 25 whom God set forth as a propitiation through 
faith, in his blood, for the exhibition of his righteousness, because of the passing 
over of the sins formerly committed in the forbearance of God ; 26 for the exhi- 
bition of his righteousness in this present time, that he may be righteous, and 
the justifier of him who believes in Jesus. 

"Many documents read But. •> Some documents add and upon all. 

Or, gratuitously. 


27 Where then is the glorying? It is excluded. By what kind of law? 
Of works? Nay ; but by a law of faith. 28 For we reckon that a man is justi- 
fied by fiiith apart from works of law. Oris God the God of Jews only? ^la 
he not also of Gentiles ? Yes, of Gentiles also ; ^o since God is one, who will 
justify the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through faith. 
31 Do we then make void law through faith ? Far be it ! Yea, we establish law. 
TTT iWhat then shall Ave say that Abraham our forefather according to 
J- V . the flesh has found? ^For if Abraham was justified by works, he has 
ground of glorying; but not towards God. ^For what says the Scripture? 
And Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him for righteous- 
ness. *Now to him that works, the reward is not reckoned as of grace, 
but as of debt. ^But to him that works not, but believes on him who 
justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned for righteousness. ^As also David 
speaks of the happiness of the man, to whom God reckons righteousness, apart 
from works, 

'' Happy they, whose iniquities have been forgiven, 

And whose sins have been covered ; 
8 Happy the man to whom the Lord will not reckon sin ! 

8 Comes this happiness then on the circumcision, or also on the uncircum- 
cision? For we say, Faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness, lojjow 
then was it reckoned ? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision ? 
Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. ii And he received the sign of cir- 
cumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while in uncir- 
cumcision ; that he might be father of all that believe while in uncircumcision, 
that the righteousness might be reckoned to them also ; 12 and father of cir- 
cumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in 
the steps of the faith of our father Abraham, which he had while in uncircum- 

13 For not through law was the promise to Abraham, or to his seed, that he 
should be heir of the world, but through righteousness of faith. 1* For if they 
that are of law are heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of no 
effect. 15 For the law works wrath ; but where there is no law, neither is there 
transgression, i^ For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace ; 
in order that the promise may be sure to all the seed ; not to that only which 
is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham ; who is the 
father of us all, i'^ (as it is written, A father of many nations have I made thee,) 
before God whom he believed, who makes alive the dead, and calls the things 
that are not as though they were ; i^ who against hope believed in hope, to the 
end that he might become father of many nations, according to that which was 
spoken, So shall thy seed be. 1^ And being not weakened in faith, he consid- 
ered his own body already dead, being about a hundred years old, and the 
deadness of Sarah's womb ; 20 but in view of the promise of God he wavered not 
through unbelief, but was made strong in faith, giving glory to God, 21 and 
being fully assured, that what he had promised he was able also to perform. 
22 Wherefore also it was reckoned to him for righteousness. 23 And it was not 
written for his sake alone, that it was reckoned to him; 24 but for ours also, to 


whom it will be reckoned, if we believe on him who raised Jesus our Lord from 
the dead; ^o^yho was delivered up for our trespasses, and was raised for our 

VI Being justified therefore by faith, let us have peace with God through 
• our Lord Jesus Christ ; ^ through whom we have had our access also by 
faith into this grace in which we stand, and let us * exult in hope of the glory 
of God. 3 And not only so, but let us * exult in afflictions also ; knowing that 
afiliction works patience; *and patience approval; and approval hope; ^and 
hope makes not ashamed ; because the love of God has been poured forth in our 
hearts, through the Holy Spirit which was given to us. 

6 For when we were yet weak, in due season Christ died for the ungodly. 
''' For scarcely for a righteous man will one die ; though, for the good man, per- 
haps some one does even dare to die. ^ But God commends his own love toward 
us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. ^ Much more there- 
fore, being now justified by his blood, shall we be saved from the wrath through 
him. 10 YoY if, being enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of 
liis Son ; much more, being reconciled, shall we be saved by his life ; ^^ and not 
only so, but also '' exulting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom 
we have now received the reconciliation. 

12 Therefore, as through one man sin entered into the world, and death 
through sin ; and so death passed unto all men, for that all sinned ; i^ for until 
the law sin was in the world ; but sin is not reckoned when there is no law. 
1* But yet death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who sinned 
not after the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of the coming One. 
15 But not as the trespass, so also is the free gift ; for if by the trespass of the 
one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace 
of tlie one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many, i^ And not as through one 
that sinned, is the gift ; for the judgment came of one unto condemnation, but 
the gift came of many trespasses unto justification, i'^ For if by the trespass of 
the one, death reigned through the one ; much more they who receive the 
abundance of the grace, and of the gift of righteousness, will reign in life 
through the one, Jesus Christ. 

18 So then, as through one trespass it came to all men unto condemnation ; so 
also through one righteous act it came to all men unto justification of life, i^ For 
as through the disobedience of the one man the many were constituted sinners, 
so also through the obedience of the one will the many be constituted righteous. 
20 But the law came in beside, that the trespass might abound. But whei'e sin 
abounded, grace superabounded ; ^i that as sin reigned in death, so also might grace 
reign through righteousness unto eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 
TTT 1 What then shall we say ? Are we to continue in sin, that grace n.ay 

» J-» abound? 2 Far be it! How shall we, who died to sin, live any longer 
therein ? ^ Or, are ye ignorant, that all we who were baptized " into Christ Jesus 
were baptized <= into his death ? *We were buried therefore with him through 
the baptism <=into his death; that just as Christ was raised from the dead 

a Or., glory. '' Gr., glorying. " Or, unto. 


through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. ^For 
if we have become united with the likeness of his death, we shall be with tkat 
of his resurrection also; ^ knowing this, that our old man was crucified with 
him, tliat the body of sin might be destroyed, in order that we might no more be 
in bondage to sin. '' For he that died has been justified from sin. ^And if we 
died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him ; ^ knowing that 
Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more ; death has dominion over him 
no more. ^^For the death that he died, he died to sin once for all; but the life 
that he lives, he lives to God. ^^ Thus reckon ye also yourselves to be dead to 
sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus. 

^2 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey its 
desires ; i^ nor present your members to sin as weapons of unrighteousness ; but 
present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members to God as 
weapons of righteousness. ^* For sin shall not have dominion over you ; for ye 
are not under law, but under grace. 

15 What then ? Are we to sin, because we are not under law, but under 
grace ? Far be it ! ^^ Know ye not, that to whom ye present yourselves serv- 
ants unto obedience, his servants ye are whom ye obey ; whether of sin unto 
death, or of obedience unto righteousness? i' But thanks be to God, that ye 
were servants of sin, but obeyed from the heart that form of teaching unto 
which ye were delivered ; ^^ and being made free from sin, became servants 
of righteousness. i^I speak after the manner of men, because of the infirm- 
ity of your flesh. For as ye presented your members servants to unclean- 
ness, and to iniquity unto iniquity; so now present your members serv- 
ants to righteousness unto sanctification. ^opoj. ^hen ye were servants of 
sin, ye were free as to righteousness. 2i\vhat fruit therefore had ye then 
in those things of which ye are now ashamed? For the end of those things 
is death. 22 gy^ now, being made free from sin, and become servants to 
God, ye have your fruit unto sanctification, and the end eternal life. ^spoj. 
the wages of sin is death ; but the gift of God is eternal life, in Christ Jesus 
our Lord. 

T7TT 1 Or, are ye ignorant, brethren (for I am speaking to men who know 
' J-J-* law), that the law has dominion over the man for so long time as he 
lives ? 2 For the married woman is bound by law to the living husband ; but if 
the husband die, she is loosed from the law of the husband. ^ So then if, while 
the husband is living, she is married to another man, she shall be called an 
adulteress ; but if the husband die, she is free from the law, that she is no adul- 
teress, though she is married to another man. 

* Wherefore, my brethren, ye also were made dead to the law through the 
body of Christ, that ye might be married to another, to him who was raised 
from the dead, in order that we might bear fruit to God. ^ For when we were in 
the flesh, the passions of sins, which were through the law, wrought in our 
members to bear fruit unto death. ^ gx^t now we have been loosed from the 
law, having died to that in which we were held ; so that we serve in newness of 
the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 

' What then shall we say ? Is the law sin ? Far be it ! But I should not 


have known sin, unless through law ; for I should not know * coveting, if the 
law did not say. Thou shalt not * covet, ^gut sin, finding occasion through the 
commandment, wrought in me all manner of * coveting. For apart from law, 
sin is dead. ^ And I was alive apart from law once ; but when the command- 
ment came, sin revived, and I died, ^^ And the commandment which was unto 
life, that I found to be unto death, ii For sin, finding occasion through the 
commandment deceived me, and through it slew me. ^^ Qq ^h^t the law is holy, 
and the commandment holy and righteous and good. 

1^ Did then that which is good become death to me? Far be it! But sin, 
that it might be shown to be sin, by working death to me through that which is 
good ; that sin through the commandment might become exceedingly sinful. 
1^ For we know that the law is spiritual ; but I am carnal, sold under sin. ^^ Yor 
what I perform, I know not ; for not what I wish, that do I practice ; but what 
I hate, that I do. ^^ g^t if what I wish not, that I do, I consent to the law that 
it is good. 1^ Now then, it is no longer I that perform it, but the sin that dwells 
in me. ^^ For I know that there dwells not in me, that is, in my flesh, any good ; 
for to wish is present with me ; but to perform that which is good is not. ^^ For 
the good that I wish, I do not ; but the evil that I wish not, that I practice. 
20 But if what I wish not, that I do, it is no more I that perform it, but the sin 
that dwells in me. ^i i find then the law, that, when I wish to do good, evil is 
present with me. 22 por I delight in the law of God after the inward man. 
23 But I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, 
and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. 
2* Wretched man that I am ! Who will deliver me from the body of this death ? 
25 Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord ! So then I myself with the 
mind serve the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin. 
T7TTT 1 There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in 

' -L-L-L* Christ Jesus. 2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus set 
me free from the law of sin and death, ^poj. — ^yhat the law could not do, in 
that it was weak through the flesh — God, sending his own Son in the likeness of 
sinful flesh and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh ; * for that the requirement of the 
law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh, but according 
to the Spirit. ^ for they that are according to the flesh mind the things of the 
flesh ; but they that are according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit, ^por 
the mind of the flesh is death ; but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace. 
' Because the mind of the flesh is enmity against God ; for it does not subject 
itself to the law of God, neither indeed can it ; ^ and they that are in the flesh 
can not please God. 

^But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of 
God dwells in you. And if any one has not the Spirit of Christ, he is none 
of his. ^°And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin; but 
the Spirit is life because of righteousness. 11 And if the Spirit of him who 
raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ from the dead 
will make alive your mortal bodies also, ^ because of his Spirit that dwells in you. 

» Or, desire. »> Many documents read through. 


12 So then, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live according to the 
flesh, i^poj. if ye are living according to the flesh, ye are going to die; but if 
by the Spirit ye put to death the deeds of the body, ye will live, i* For as 
many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. i» For ye did not 
receive a spirit of bondage again unto fear ; but ye received a spirit of adoption, 
whereby we cry, Abba, Father. ^^ The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit, 
that we are children of God ; ^^ and if children, also heirs ; heirs of God, and 
joint heirs with Christ ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glori- 
fied with him. 

18 For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are of no account, in 
comparison with the glory which is going to be revealed for us. ^^ For the 
earnest longing of the creation is waiting for the revelation of the sons of God. 
20 For the creation was made subject to vanity, not by its own will, but because 
of him who made it subject, in hope ^ithat the creation itself also will be set 
free from the bondage of corruption into the freedom of the glory of the children 
of God. 22 Yor we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain to- 
gether until now. 23 ^.nd not only so, but ourselves also, though we have the 
first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for 
the adoption, the redemption of our body. 

2^ For by hope we were saved ; but hope seen is not hope ; for what one sees, 
why does he also hope for? 25But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait 
for it with patience. 26 And in like manner the Spirit also helps our weakness ; 
for we know not what to pray for as we ought ; but the Spirit himself makes in- 
tercession for us with groanings which can not be uttered. 27 ^.nd he who 
searches the heart knows what is the mind of the Spirit, because he makes in- 
tercession for the saints according to the will of God. 28 And we know that all 
things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called 
according to his purpose. 29 Because whom he foreknew, he also predestined 
to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the first-born among 
many brethren. ^OAnd whom he predestined, them he also called; and whom 
he called, them he also justified ; and whom he justified, them he also glorified. 

31 What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who is against 
us ? 32 He who spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how will 
he not also with him freely give us all things? ^3 "Who will lay anything to the 
charge of God's elect? God is he that justifies; ^^who is he that condemns? 
Christ is he that died, yea rather, was raised, who is also at the right hand of 
God, who also intercedes for us. ^5 Who will separate us from the love of Christ ? 
Will tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or 
sword ? 36 As it is written. 

For thy sake we are killed all the day long ; 
We were accounted as sheep for slaughter. 

37 Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who 
loved us. 38 For I am persuaded, that neither death nor life, nor angels nor prin- 
cipalities, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, 39 nor height nor 
depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of 
God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. 


TV ^I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, ray conscience also testifying 
Xx\.. -v^itJi me in the Holy Spirit, ^ that I have great grief and unceasing 
anguish in my heart. ^ Por I could wish to be myself accursed from Christ for 
my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh ; * who are Israelites ; whose is 
the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and 
the service, and the promises ; ^ whose are the fathers, and of whom as to the 
flesh is the Christ, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen. 

6 But not as though the word of God has failed. For not all they are Israel, 
who are of Israel ; '' neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all chil- 
dren ; but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called. ^ That is, not they who are the 
children of the flesh are the children of God ; but the children of the promise 
are reckoned as seed. ^ For the word of promise is this. At this season I will 
come, and Sarah shall have a son. 1° And not only so ; but when Eebecca also 
had conceived by one, our father Isaac (^^for they being not yet born, nor hav- 
ing done anything good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election 
might stand, not of works, but of him who calls), 12 it was said to her, The elder 
shall serve the younger. ^^ Even as it is written, 
Jacob I loved, 
But Esau I hated, 
1* What then shall we say .? Is there unrighteousness with God ? Far be it ! 
15 For he says to Moses, I will have mercy on whomsoever I have mercy, and 
I will have compassion on whomsoever I have compassion. ^^ So then it is not 
of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy, i' For the 
Scripture says to Pharaoh, For this very purpose did I raise thee up, that I 
might show forth my power in thee, and that my name might be announced 
in all the earth. ^^ go then, on whom he will he has mercy, and whom he will he 

19 Thou wilt say then to me. Why then does he still find fault ? For who 
resists his will ? 20 Xay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God ? 
Shall the thing formed say to him who formed it. Why didst thou make me thus ? 
21 Has not the potter a right over the clay, out of the ' same lump to make one 
part a vessel unto honor, and another unto dishonor ? 22 ^n(j -what if God, will- 
ing to show forth his wrath, and to make known his power, endured in much 
long-sufiering vessels of wrath fitted for perdition ; ^3 and that he might make 
known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he before prepared for 
glory ; 21 whom he also called, even us, not from Jews only, but also from Gen- 
tiles? 25^8 he says also in Hosea, 

I will call that my people, which was not my people ; 

And her beloved, who was not beloved. 
26 And it shall be, that in the place where it was said to them, Ye are not 
my people, there will they be called. Sons of the living God. 27 And Isaiah 
cries concerning Israel, 

If the number of the sons of Israel be as the sand of the sea, 

It is the remnant that will be saved ; 
28 For the Lord will do a work on the earth, 

Finishing it and cutting it short. 


29 And as Isaiah has said before, 

If the Lord of Sabaoth had not left us a seed, 
We should have become as Sodom, 
And been made like to Gomorrah. 

30 What then shall we say ? That Gentiles, who .were not following after 
righteousness, obtained righteousness, but righteousness which is of faith ; ^i but 
Israel, following after a law of righteousness, did not arrive at [such] a law. 
32 Wherefore ? Because [they sought it] not by faith, but as if it were by works 
of law. They stumbled against the stone of stumbling; ^Sas it is written, Be- 
hold, I lay in Zion a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense ; and he that 
believes on him shall not be put to shame. 

XI Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God on their behalf, is that 
• they may be saved. ^ For I testify for them, that they have a zeal for 
God, but not according to knowledge. ^ For being ignorant of the righteousness 
of God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not subject themselves to 
the righteousness of God. * For Christ is the end of law for righteousness, to 
every one that believes. 

5 For Moses writes that the man who has done the righteousness which is of 
the law, shall live in it. ^ But the righteousness which is of faith says thus, 
Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ 
down ; ) ''or. Who shall descend into the abyss ? (that is, to bring up Christ from 
the dead.) ^But what says it? The word is near thee, in thy mouth, and in 
thy heart ; that is, the word of faith, which we preach ; ^ because, if thou con- 
fess with thy mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in thy heart that God raised him 
from the dead, thou shalt be saved. ^^ For with the heart man believes unto 
righteousness ; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. ^^ For 
the Scripture says. Whoever believes on him shall not be put to shame. ^^ For 
there is no distinction between Jew and Greek ; for the same ohc is Lord of all, 
rich toward all that call on him ; ^^ for every one who calls on the name of the 
Lord will be saved, i* How then are they to call on him in whom they believed 
not ? And how are they to believe in him of whom they heard not ? And how 
are they to hear without a preacher ? is ^^^ j^q^ ^re they to preach, unless they 
are sent forth ? As it is written. 

How beautiful are the feet of those who bring glad tidings of good things ! 
16 But they did not all obey the glad tidings. For Isaiah says. Lord, who 
believed our report ? i^ So then faith comes of hearing, and hearing through 
the word of Christ. ^^ B^t I say, did they not hear? Yes, verily; 
Their sound went out into all the earth. 
And their words to the ends of the * world. 
19 But I say, did Israel not knoAv ? First Moses says, 

I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are no people. 
By a nation without understanding I will provoke you to anger. 
20 But Isaiah is very bold, and says, 

I was found by those who sought me not ; 
I became manifest to those who asked not after me. 
» Gr., inhabited earth. 


21 But as to Israel he says, 

All the day long, I spread out my hands 

To a disobedient and gainsaying people. 
VT ^I say then, did God cast away his people? Far belt! For I also 
-^J-* am an Israelite, from the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 

2 God did not east away his people that he foreknew. Or know ye not what the 
Scripture says in Elijah ; how he intercedes with God against Israel, saying, 

3 Lord, they have killed thy prophets, have digged down thine altars, and I am 
left alone, and they seek my life. *But what says the answer of God to him? 
I have left to myself seven thousend men, who have not bowed the knee to 
Baal. 5 Even so then, at this present time also, there is a remnant according to 
the election of grace. ^ And if by grace, it is no longer of works ; otherwise the 
grace becomes no longer grace. * But if of works, it is no longer grace ; other- 
wise the work is no longer work. 

■^ What then ? What Israel seeks, that he obtained not ; but the election 
obtained it, and the rest were hardened. ^ As it is written, God gave them a 
spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not 
hear, unto this very day. ^ And David says, 

Let their table be made a snare, and a trap. 
And a stumbling-block, and a recompense to them ; 
1° Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, 
And bow thou doAvn their back always. 
11 1 say then, did they stumble in order that they might fall ? Far be it ! 
But by their trespass salvation is come to the Gentiles, to provoke them to 
^ rivalry. 12 Now if their trespass is the riches of the world, and their diminu- 
tion the riches of the Gentiles, how much more their fullness? i^But I am 
speaking to you the Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle of the Gen- 
tiles, I glorify my ministry ; 1* if by any means I may provoke to ^ rivalry my 
flesh, and save some of them, i^ For if the casting away of them is the recon- 
ciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the dead ? 
16 And if the first-fruit is holy, so is the mass ; and if the root is holy, so are the 
branches, i'^ And if some of the branches were broken otf, and thou, being a 
wild olive-branch, wast grafted in among them, and became a partaker with 
them of the root of the fatness of the olive-tree ; i^ glory not over the branches. 
But if thou gloriest, it is not thou that bearest the root, but the root thee. 

19 Thou wilt say then, Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 

20 Well ; by their unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by thy be- 
lief. Be not highminded, but fear ; 21 for if God spared not the natural branches, 
neither will he spare thee. 

22 Behold then God's kindness and severity ; toward those who fell, severity; 
but toward thee, God's kindness, if thou continue in his kindness; otherwise, 
thou also shalt be cut off. 23 j^^^^ t^gy also, if they continue not in their unbe- 
lief, shall be grafted in ; for God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if thou 
wast cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive-tree and wast grafted con- 

•Many ancient documents omit the rest of this verse. ^ Or, jealousy. 


trary to nature into a good olive-tree ; how much more shall these, who are the 
natural branches, be grafted into their own olive-tree ? 

25 For I do not wish you, brethren, to be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye 
be wise in your own conceits, that hardness has come upon Israel in part, until 
the fullness of the Gentiles come in. ^6 ^^nd so all Israel will be saved ; as it is 
written, There will come out of Zion the Deliverer ; he will turn away ungodli- 
ness from Jacob ; ^7 and this is the covenant from me unto them, when I shall 
take away their sins. ^^ As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your 
sake ; but as concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 
^^ For the gifts and the calling of God are not repented of. ^^ Yor just as ye in 
times past disobeyed God, but have now obtained mercy by their disobedience ; 
31 so have tliese also now disobeyed, that by the mercy shown to you they also 
may now obtain mercy. ^2 For God shut up all unto disobedience, that he might 
have mercy on all. 

33 Oh, the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and the knowledge of 
God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 
3* For, 

Who knew the mind of the Lord ? 
Or who became his counselor ? 

35 Or who first gave to him, and it shall be given back to him again ? 36 For 
from him, and through him, and for him, are all things ; to him be the glory 
forever. Amen. 

■^TT II beseech you, therefore, brethren, through the mercies of God, to 
■^-L-L* present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, well pleasing to God, 
which is your rational * service. ^ And be not conformed to this age, but be 
transfigured by the renewing of your mind, that ye may discern what is the will 
of God, the good and well pleasing and perfect. 

3 For I say, through the grace that was given me, to every one that is among 
you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think ; but so to think 
as to think soberly, according as God divided to each one a measure of faith. 
* For even as we have many members in one body, and all the members have not 
the same office; ^so we, the many, are one body in Christ, and severally mem- 
bers one of another; ^and having gifts differing according to the grace that is 
given to us, whether prophecy, let it be according to the proportion of our faith ; 
'' or service, in the service ; or he that teaches, in the teaching ; » or he that ex- 
horts, in the exhortation ; he that imparts, in simplicity ; he that leads, in dili- 
gence ; he that shows mercy, in cheerfulness. 

8 Let love be unfeigned. Abhor that which is evil ; cleave to that which is 
good. In brotherly love, ^^he tenderly affectionate one to another; in honor 
preferring one another ; ^^ in diligence not slothful ; in spirit fervent ; serving 
the Lord; ^"^in hope rejoicing; in affliction enduring; in prayer persevering; 
13 communicating to the necessities of the saints ; given to hospitality, i* Bless 
those who persecute you ; bless, and curse not. i^ Rejoice with those who i-ejoice ; 
weep with those who weep, i** Be of the same mind one toward another. Set not 

» Or, worship. 


your mind on high things, but be carried away with lowly. Become not wise in 
your own conceits, i' Recompense to no one evil for evil. Provide things hon- 
orable in the sight of all men. is jf it be possible, as far as depends on you, be 
at peace with all men. ^^ Avenge not yourselves, beloved, but give place to the 
wrath [of God] . For it is Avritten, To me belongs vengeance ; I will recompense, 
saith the Lord. ^'^Bxit 

If thine enemy hungers, feed him ; 

If he thirsts, give him drink. 
For, in doing this, 

Thou wilt heap coals of fire on his head. 
21 Be not overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. 

X^TTT iLet every soul submit himself to the authorities that are over 

-^-^-L-L-L. him. For there is no authority but from God; and those that are 
have been appointed by God. ^ go that he that sets himself against tli£ authority, 
resists the ordinance of God ; and they that resist will receive to themselves con- 
demnation. 3 For rulers are not a terror to the good work, but to the evil. And 
dost thou wish not to fear the authority ? Do that which is good, and thou wilt 
have praise from him ; * for he is God's minister to thee for good. But if thou 
do that which is evil, fear, for he bears not the sword in vain ; for he is God's 
minister, an avenger for wrath to him that does evil. ^ "Wherefore it is necessary 
to submit yourselves, not only because of the wrath, but also because of con- 

6 For, on this account ye pay tribute also; for they are God's ministers, 
attending continually to this very thing. '^ Render to all their dues; tribute to 
whom tribute is due ; custom to whom custom ; fear to whom fear ; honor to whom 
honor. ^ Owe no one anything, but to love one another ; for he that loves another 
has fulfilled the law. ^ For this. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt 
not kill, Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not covet; and if there is any other 
commandment, it is summed up in this word, namely, Thou shalt love thy neigh- 
bor as thyself, i" Love works no ill to one's neighbor ; therefore love is the ful- 
fillment of the law. ^^ And this, knowing the season, that it is high time already 
for you to be awaked out of sleep ; for now is our salvation nearer than when we 
believed. ^^ xhe night is far advanced, the day is at hand. Let us therefore put 
off the works of darkness, and let us put on the weapons of light. ^^ Lg^ us 
walk becomingly, as in the day ; not in reveling and drunkenness, not in lewd- 
ness and wantonness, not in strife and jealousy; i*but put on the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, t(^ fulfill its desires. 
l^TTT" iffim that is weak in the faith receive; not for decisions of dis- 
-^-L ' • putes. 2 One believes that he may eat all things ; but he that is weak 
eats herbs. 3 L^t not him that eats despise him that eats not ; and let not him 
that eats not judge him that eats; for God received him. *Who art thou that 
judgest another's servant ? To his own lord he stands or falls. But he shall be 
made to stand ; for the Lord is able to make him stand. 

^One man esteems one day above another; another esteems every day alike. 
Let each one be fully persuaded in his own mind. *He that regards the day, 
regards it to the Lord ; and he that eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives thanks to 


God ; and he that eats not, to the Lord he eats not, and gives thanks to God. '' For 
no one of us lives to himself, and no one dies to himself. ^ for if we live, we live 
to the Lord ; and if we die, we die to the Lord ; whether we live therefore, or die, 
we are the Lord's. ^ For to this end Christ died, and lived, that he might be Lord 
of both dead and living, ^o g^^ thou, why dost thou judge thy brother ? Or thou 
also, Avhy dost thou despise thy brother? For we shall all stand before the judg- 
ment-seat of God. 11 For it is written, As I live, says the Lord, to me every knee 
shall bow, and every tongue shall confess to God. 12 gQ then, each one of us will 
give account concerning himself to God. 

13 Let us therefore no longer judge one another; but judge this rather, not to 
put a stumbling-block, or an occasion to fall, in a brother's way. i*I know, and 
am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is defiled of itself; but to him that 
accounts anything to be defiled, to him it is defiled, i^ But if because of food 
thy brother "is aggrieved, thou no longer walkest in accordance with love. Do not 
by thy food, destroy him for whom Christ died, i^ Let not then your good be 
evil spoken of. i'' For the kingdom of God is not food and drink ; but righteous- 
ness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit, i^ For he that in these things serves 
Christ, is well pleasing to God and approved by men. 

19 So then, let us pursue the things which make for peace, and things by 
which one may build up another. 20 Dq ^qi fQj. i\^q g^^g ^f fQQ(j destroy the work 
of God. All things indeed are clean ; but it is evil for that man who by eating 
makes another stumble. 21 n ig good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor 
anything whereby thy brother stumbles, or is made to offend, or is weak. 22 Hast 
thou faith ? Have it to thyself before God. Happy is he that judges not him- 
self in that which he approves. 23 ^nd }^g ^j^at doubts is condemned if he eat, 
because it is not of faith ; and all that is not of faith is sin. 
VTT 1 Now we, the strong, ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and 
-^^ ' • not to please ourselves. 2 Let each one of us please his neighbor, for 
his good, to upbuilding. 3 por Christ also pleased not himself; but, as it is writ- 
ten, The reproaches of those who reproached thee, fell on me. *For whatever 
things were written in former times were written for our instruction, that we 
through patience and through consolation of the Scriptures may have hope. 
5 And the God of patience and consolation grant you to be of the same mind one 
with another, according to Christ Jesus ; ^ that with one accord ye may with one 
mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

' Wherefore receive one another, as Christ also received you, to the glory of 
God. 8 For I say that Christ hag'been made a minister of the circumcision, in 
behalf of God's truth, that he might confirm the promises made to the fathers; 
9 and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy ; as it is written, 

For this cause I will confess to thee among Gentiles, 

And will sing to thy name. 
1° And again he says. 

Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people. 
11 And again, 

Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles ; 

And let all the peoples extol him. 


12 And again, Isaiah says, 

There shall be the root of Jesse, 

And he who rises up to rule over Gentiles ; 

On him will Gentiles hope. 

1' Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye 
may abound in hope, in the power of the Holy Spirit. 

1* And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye yourselves 
also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able to admonish one another 
also. 15 But I write the more boldly to you, in part as putting you in mind, be- 
cause of the grace that was given to me by God, ^^ that I should be a minister of 
Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, >* ministering in the gospel of God, that the oflering 
up of the Gentiles may become acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 
IT I have therefore my glorying in Christ Jesus, as to things pertaining to God. 
18 For I will venture to speak only of those things which Christ wrought through 
me, to bring the Gentiles to obedience, by word and w^ork, i^ in the power of signs 
and wonders, in the power of the Holy Spirit ; so that from Jerusalem, and 
around as far as lUyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; *°yea, 
making it my aim so to preach the gospel, not where Christ w^as named, that I 
might not build upon another's foundation ; 21 but as it is written. 

They to whom nothing was announced concerning him shall see, 
And they that have not heard shall understand. 

22 For which cause also, these many times, I was hindered from coming to 
you. 23 But now having no longer a place in these regions, and having a long- 
ing these many years to come to you, 2* whenever I go to Spain ; — for I hope in 
passing through to see you, and to be sent forward thither by you, if first I have 
been satisfied in a measure with your company. — 

• 25 But now I am going to Jerusalem to minister to the saints. 26 For Mace- 
donia and Achaia thought it good to make some contribution for the poor among 
the saints who were in Jerusalem. 27 por they thought it good ; and their debtors 
are they. For if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they ought 
also to minister to them in carnal things. 28 When therefore I have performed 
this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will go on by you to Spain. 29 And I 
know that, when I come to you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of 

30 And I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of 
the Spirit, to strive together with me in your prayers to God for me ; 3i that I 
may be delivered from the unbelieving in Judsea, and that my ministry for Jeru- 
salem may prove acceptable to the saints ; ^2 that I may come in joy to you 
through the will of God, and may with you be refreshed. 33 And the God of 
peace be with you all. Amen. 

VTT T II commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a i' servant of the 

-^ ' -L» church which is at Cenchrsea ; 2 that ye receive her in the Lord in a 
way worthy of saints, and assist her in whatever matter she may have need of 
you ; for she herself also has been a helper of many, and of myself. 

»ffr., ministering in the manner of a priest. *> Or, deaconess. 


3 Salute Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus, * who for my 
life laid down their own necks ; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the 
churches of the Gentiles ; ^ and salute the church that is in their house. 

Salute Epenetus, my beloved, who is the first-fruits of Asia unto Christ. 
6 Salute Mary, who bestowed much labor on you. ^ Salute Andronicus and » Ju- 
nias, my kinsmen, and my fellow-prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, 
who were in Christ even before me. ^ Salute Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord. 
9 Salute Urbanus, our fellow- worker in Christ, and Stachys my beloved, ^o Salute 
Apelles, the approved in Christ. Salute those who are of the household of Aris- 
tobulus. 11 Salute Herodion my kinsman. Salute those of the household of 
Narcissus who are in the Lord. 12 Salute Tryphsena and Tryphosa who labor in 
the Lord. Salute Persis the beloved who labored much in the Lord. i3 Salute 
Rufus, the elect in the Lord, and his mother and mine. 1* Salute Asyncritus, 
Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brethren who are with them. 1^ Sa- 
lute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints 
who are with them, i^ Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the churches 
of Christ salute you. 

IT iSTow I beseech you, brethren, to mark those who are causing divisions and 
occasions of stumbling, contrary to the teaching which ye learned ; and turn 
away from them. 18 for they that are such serve not our Lord Christ, but their 
own belly ; and by their kind and smooth speech deceive the hearts of the guile- 
less. 19 For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I rejoice therefore 
over you ; but I wish you to be wise as to that which is good, and simple as to 
that which is evil. 20 ^nd the God of peace will bruise Satan under your feet 
speedily. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 

21 Timothy, my fellow worker, salutes you, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosi- 
pater, my kinsmen. 22 j^ Tertius, who write the letter, salute you in the Lord. 
23 Gains my host, and of the whole church, salutes you. Erastus the treasurer 
of the city salutes you, and Quartus the brother.^ 

25 Now to him who is able to establish you, according to my gospel and the 
preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery kept in 
silence during eternal ages 26 but now made manifest, and through prophetic 
scriptures, according to the commandment of the eternal God, made known to 
all nations for obedience to the faith, 2t to God only wise, through Jesus Christ, 
to whom be the glory forever. Amen. 

» Or, Junia. 

'J Some ancient documents insert ver. 2lt, The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with 
you, Amen, and omit the like words in ver. 20. 


I. Philippians. 


III. Philemon. 

IV. Ephesians. 


The Epistles of the Imprisonment appear to have been written about the 
same time. Paul was a prisoner at Rome (Phil. 1 : 13; 4 : 22; Col. 4 : 10-18 ; 
Eph. 6 : 20 ; Philem. 1 ) . Tychicus was the bearer of two of them, Colossians and 
Ephesians, and is referred to in both in almost the same words (Col. 4 : 7, 8 ; Eph. 
6 : 21, 22). That to Philemon was sent at the same time, for Onesimus accom- 
panied both it and the Epistle to the Colossians (Philem. 10-12 ; Col. 4:9). The 
Epistle to the Philippians seems to have been sent about the same time, for Paul 
joins the name of Timothy with his own in addressing the Colossians (1 : 1), 
Philemon (1), and the Philippians (1 : 1), and when writing to the latter, he 
was hoping to come to them soon (Phil. 2 : 23, 24) ; and to Philemon he seems to 
be confident of soon leaving Rome ( ver. 22 ) . And this accords with the fact that 
when he wrote to the Philippians he had already accomplished a great work 
(Phil. 1 : 13; 4 : 22), and that Epaphroditus had come from Philippi with mes- 
sages and contributions, and had been taken sick, communication concerning 
which had been sent to Philippi, and in response to which expressions of anx- 
iety brought back to Rome. Such considerations make it probable that these 
four letters were written in the last year of the imprisonment, and quite likely 
near its close. Some place the Philippians last, but it fits well as the first. It 
refers to Jewish antagonism, so prominent in the Epistles of his third mission- 
ary journey (Phil. 3 : 2ff'.), and gives glimpses of his life while a prisoner at 
Rome (Phil. 1 : 12 3"; 2 : IQfi". ; 4 : 18). 

As Epaphroditus was about to return, Paul writes to the saints at Philippi 
acknowledging their liberality. From the fullness of his heart he expresses with 
joy his thankfulness and love. He gives needed instruction, and warns them 
against Judaizing formalism and epicurean lawlessness ; and gives them such 
admonitions as seemed needful for establishing them in the faith and regulating 
their conduct toward each other and toward unbelievers. It is the most loving 
of all his Epistles, and beautifully presents the characteristics of a Christian 
manhood. Its date may be assigned to the autumn of A. D. 62, or early in 
A. D. 63. Compare note on pp. 259, 260. 




II Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, to all the saints in Christ 
• Jesus who are at Philippi, with the * bishops and deacons : 2 Grace to you, 
and peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 1 give thanks to my God on all my remembrance of you, — * always, in every 
supplication of mine, making the supplication for you all with joy, — ^for your 
fellowship in respect to the gospel from the first day until now ; ^ being confident 
of this very thing, that he who began a good work in you will complete it until 
the day of Jesus Christ, '' As it is just for me to think this in behalf of you all, 
because I have you in my heart ; all of you being, both in my bonds, and in the 
defense and confirmation of the gospel, partakers of the grace with me. ^ For 
God is my witness, how greatly I long for you all, with the tender affection of 
Jesus Christ. ^ And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more and more, 
in knowledge and all discernment ; ^^ in order that ye ^ may approve the things 
that are excellent, that ye may be pure and Avithout ofiense to the day of Christ ; 
11 being filled with the fruit of righteousness, which is through Jesus Christ, to 
the glory and praise of God. 

^2 But I wish you to know, brethren, that the things which befell me have 
resulted rather in the furtherance of the gospel ; " so that my bonds have become 
manifest in Christ in all the Prsetorium, and to all the rest ; 1* and that the greater 
part of the brethren, made confident in the Lord by my bonds, are much more 
bold to speak the word without fear. 

^5 Some indeed preach Christ even through envy and party spirit, but some 
also through good will; ^^the one, from love, knowing that I am set for the de- 
fense of the gospel ; ^'' the other, from contentiousness, proclaim Christ not with 
pure intent, thinking to add affliction to my bonds, i^ "What then ? Notwith- 
standing, in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed ; 
and therein I rejoice, yea, and will rejoice. ^^ For I know that this will turn out 
for my salvation, through your supplication, and the supply of the Spirit of 
Jesus Christ ; 2" according to my earnest expectation and hope, that I shall in 
nothing be put to shame, but that with all boldness, as always, so also now Christ 
shall be magnified in my body, whether through life, or through death, 

21 For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. 22 gut if it be to live in the 
flesh, this to me is fruit of work ; and which I shall choose I know not; ^Sjjut 
am constrained by the two, having the desire to depart, and to be with Christ, 
for it is far better; 2* but to continue in the flesh is more needful for your 
sake, 25 And being confident of this, I know that I shall abide, and shall con- 
tinue with you all for your progress and joy in the faith; 26 that your glorying 
may be more abundant in Jesus Christ for me, through my coming to you again. 

2T0nly let your conduct be worthy of the gospel of Christ; that whether I 
come and see you, or remain absent, I may hear of your afiairs, that ye stand 
fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel ; 
28 and in nothing terrified by the adversaries ; which is to them a proof of perdi- 

» Or, overseers, »> Or, may prove things that differ. 


tion, but to you of salvation, and that from God. 29 Because to you it was granted 
in behalf of Christ, — not only to believe on him, — but in his behalf to sufier also ; 
3'' having the same conflict as ye saw in me, and now hear of in me. 

ni If then there is any consolation in Christ, if any encouragement from 
• love, if any communion of the Spirit, if any tender affection and compas- 
sion, 2 make my joy complete, that ye be of the same mind, having the same love, 
being of one accord, minding the one thing ; ^ doing nothing through party spirit 
or vainglory, but in humility each esteeming others better than himself; * regard- 
ing not each one his own things, but each one also the things of others. ^ Have 
this mind in you, which was also in Christ Jesus ; ^ who, existing in the form of 
God, accounted not the being on an equality with God a thing to be grasped ; 
'' but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, becoming in the likeness of 
men ; ^ and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, becoming obe- 
dient to death, and the death of the cross. ^ Wherefore also God highly exalted 
him, and gave him the name which is above every name ; ^° that in the name of 
Jesus every knee should bow, of beings in heaven, and of beings on earth, and 
of beings under the earth, i^ and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, 
to the glory of God the Father. 12 go then, my beloved, as ye always obeyed, 
not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your 
own salvation with fear and trembling ; i^ for it is God who is working in you 
both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 

1* Do all things without murmurings and questionings ; ^^ that ye may be- 
come blameless and simple, children of God, unreproachable, in the midst of a 
crooked and perverse generation, among whom ye appear as heavenly lights 
in the world ; ^^ holding forth the word of life ; for a ground of glorying to 
me at the day of Christ, that I did not run in vain, or labor in vain. I'fBut 
even if I am poured out on the sacrifice and ministry of your faith, I rejoice, 
and I rejoice with you all. ^^ And for the same cause, do ye also rejoice, and 
rejoice with me. 

19 But I hope in the Lord Jesus shortly to send Timothy to you, that I also 
may be cheered, when I know your state. 20 por I have no one like-minded, 
who will sincerely care for your state. 21 For all seek their own, not the things 
of Jesus Christ. 22 But ye know his proved character, that, as a child serves a 
father, he served with me for the gospel. 23 Him therefore I hope to send imme- 
diately, as soon as I shall see how it will go with me ; 21 but I trust in the Lord 
that I also myself shall come shortly. 25 Yet I supposed it necessary to send to 
you Epaphroditus, my brother, and fellow-worker, and fellow-soldier, but your 
messenger and minister to my needs, 26 Yor he was longing after you all, and 
was greatly distressed, because ye heard that he was sick. 27 Yot indeed he was 
sick near to death; but God had mercy on him, and not on him only, but on 
me also, that I might not have sorrow on sorrow. 28 1 gent him therefore with 
the more haste, that seeing him again ye may rejoice, and that I may be less 
sorrowful. 29;Receive him therefore in the Lord with all joy, and hold 
such in honor; ^o because for the work of Christ he came near to death, haz- 
arding his life, that he might complete what things were lacking in your min- 
istry to me. 


ml Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things 
• to you, to me is not irksome, and for you it is safe. 

2 Beware of the dogs, beware of the evil workers, beware of the concision. 
3 For we are the circumcision, who worship by the Spirit of God, and glory in 
Christ Jesus, and have no trust in the flesh : * though I might trust in the flesh 
also ; if any other thinks to trust in the flesh, I more ; ^ circumcised the eighth 
day, of the race of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews ; as to 
the law, a Pharisee ; ^as to zeal, persecuting the church ; as to the righteousness 
which is in the law, blameless. "^ But what things were gain to me, these I have 
accounted loss for Christ. ^ Nay more, and I account all things to be loss for the 
excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord ; for whom I sufiered the 
loss of all things, and account them refuse, that I may gain Christ, ^ and be found 
in him, not having my own righteousness, which is of law, but that which is 
through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God, upon faith ; i" that 
I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his 
sufieriogs, becoming conformed to his death ; ^^ if by any means I may attain to 
the resurrection from the dead. " Not that I already obtained, or have already 
been perfected ; but I pursue onward, if I may lay hold of that for which I was 
laid hold of by Christ Jesus. ^^ Brethren, I do not account myself to have laid 
hold of it ; but one thing I do, forgetting the things behind, and reaching forth 
to the things before, ^* I pursue on toward the mark, for the prize of the heavenly 
calling of God in Christ Jesus. ^^ Let us therefore, as many as are perfect, be 
of this mind ; and if in any thing ye are otherwise minded, even this God will 
reveal to you. ^^ ;f^evertheless, whereto we have attained, in the same let us 

1'' Brethren, become imitators together of me, and mark those who so walk, 
as ye have us for an example. ^^ Yq^ many are walking, of whom I told you 
often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of 
Christ ; ^^ whose end is perdition, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in 
their shame, who mind the earthly things, ^o For our citizenship is in heaven ; 
whence we also Avait for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ ; 21 who will transform 
the body of our humiliation into conformity to the body of his glory, according 
to the working with which he is able also to subject all things to himself. 
TT7 1 Therefore, my brethren beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so 
-•- ' • stand fast in the Lord, beloved. 

2 1 exhort Euodia, and I exhort Syntyche, to be of the same mind in the 
Lord. 3 Yea, I beseech thee also, true yoke- fellow, help them, for they labored 
with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow-workers, 
whose names are in the book of life. 

* Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, rejoice. ^Let your forbear- 
ance be known to all men. Tiie Lord is near. ^ Jn nothing be anxious ; but in 
every thing, by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, let your requests be 
made known to God. ' And the peace of God, which passes all understanding, 
will guard your hearts and your thoughts in Christ Jesus. 

8 Finally, brethren, whatever things are true, whatever things are venerable, 
whatever things are righteous, whatever things are pure, whatever things are 


lovely, whatever things are of good report, and if there be any virtue, and if 
there be any praise, think on these things. ^ The things also, which ye learned 
and received and which ye heard and saw in me, these practice ; and the God of 
peace will be with you. 

10 But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at length ye revive again in 
your care for my welfare ; for which ye were also careful, but lacked opportunity. 
11 Not that I speak in respect of want ; for I learned, in whatever state I am, to 
be content, i^ j ^Q^h know how to be humbled, and I know how to abound ; in 
every thing, and in all things, I am instructed, both to be filled and to be hun- 
gry, both to be in plenty and to be in want, i^ j c^q ^q ^n things, in him who 
strengthens me. i* Notwithstanding, ye did well to share with me in my afiiic- 
tion. i^And ye also know, Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, 
when I went forth from Macedonia, no church communicated with me in the way 
of giving and receiving, but ye only ; i^ that also in Thessalonica, ye sent once 
and again to my need, i'^ Not that I seek for the gift ; but I seek for the fruit 
that abounds to your account, i** But I have all, and abound ; I am full, having 
received of Epaphroditus the things sent from you, an odor of sweet smell, a 
sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God. i^ But my God will supply all your 
need, according to his riches in glory, in Christ Jesus. 

20 Now to God and our Father be the glory forever and ever. Amen. 

21 Salute every saint in Christ Jesus. The brethren who are with me salute 
you. "^^AU the saints salute you, but especially they who are of Caesar's house- 

23 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirits. 


Paul did not plant the church at Colosse, but his influence had extended 
thither through Epaphras, its probable founder and leading teacher, and others 
(Acts 19 : 10 ; Col. 1:7; 4 : 12). Epaphras had come to Rome and had told the 
apostle concerning the church. A new form of error had arisen among them, a 
false philosophy, combining Jewish ritualism and Oriental mysticism, the wor- 
ship of angels and ascetic rules of life (2 : 8-23). This the apostle exposes as a 
perversion of the gospel. He enforces the universal headship of Christ and his 
perfect mediatorship, so that other and inferior mediators are not necessary ; and 
emphasizes a new inner life and a corresponding outer manner of living. Colosse 
was a city of Phrygia, twelve miles from Laodicea, and about a hundred miles 
east of Ephesus. The letter was probably written early in A. D. 63. See p. 259. 

II Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus, through the will of God, and Timothy 
• the brother, ^ to the saints and faithful brethren in Christ who are in Colosse : 
Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father. 

3 We give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always 
for you, * having heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and of the love which ye 
have toward all the saints, ^ because of the hope which is laid up for you in 


heaven, of which ye heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel ; ^ which 
is come to you, even as it is also in all the world, bearing fruit, and increasing 
in you also, since the day ye heard it, and knew the grace of God in truth ; '' as 
ye learned from Epaphras our beloved fellow-servant, who is for us a faithful 
minister of Christ, ^ who also made knoAvn to us your love in the Spirit. 

9 For this cause we also, since the day we heard it, do not cease to pray for 
you, and to ask that ye may be filled with the knowledge of his will, in all spirit- 
ual wisdom and understanding ; ^^ that ye may walk worthy of the Lord to all 
pleasing, bearing fruit in every good work, and growing in the knowledge of 
God ; 11 being strengthened with all poAver, according to the might of his glory, 
unto all patience and long-suffering with joy ; ^"^ giving thanks to the Father, who 
made ^ us meet for the portion of the inheritance of the saints in light ; ^^ who de- 
livered us out of the dominion of darkness, and translated us into the kingdom 
of the Son of his love ; i* in whom we have the redemption, the forgiveness of 
sins ; ^^ who is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every creature ; 
16 because in him were all things created, in the heavens, and on the earth, the 
visible and the invisible, whether thrones, or dominions, or rulers, or authori- 
ties ; all things have been created through him, and for him ; i'' and he is before 
all things, and in him all things hold together, i^ And he is the head of the body, 
the church ; who is the beginning, the first-born from the dead ; in order that he 
may become ^ in all things pre-eminent, i^ Because in him ^ it pleased all the 
fullness to dwell ; ^^ and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having 
made peace through the blood of his cross ; through him, whether the things on 
the earth, or the things in the heavens, ^i And you also, being in time past alien- 
ated, and enemies in your mind in wicked works, yet now has he reconciled 22 in 
the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and without blemish and 
blameless before him ; 23 if indeed ye abide in the faith grounded and steadfast, 
and not moved away from the hope of the gospel, which ye heard, which was 
preached in the whole creation which is under heaven; of which I, Paul, be- 
came a minister. 

2* Now I rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up on my part that which 
is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for the sake of his body, which 
is the church ; 25 of which I became a minister, according to the stewardship of 
God which was given to me for you, to fulfill the word of God, 26 the mystery 
which has been hidden from ages and from generations ; but now it has been 
manifested to his saints, 27 to whom God willed to make known what is the riches 
of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the 
hope of glory ; 28 whom we proclaim, warning every man, and teaching every 
man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ ; 29 to which 
end I labor also, striving according to his working, which works in me with power. 
TT 1 For I wish you to know how great a conflict I have for you, and for 
-LJ-* those in Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh ; 
2 that their hearts might be comforted, they being knit together in love, and unto 

» Many ancient documents read you . ^ Or, among all. 

Or, It pleased [the Father] that in him should all the fullness dwell. 


all the riches of the fullness of the understanding, unto the full knowledge of 
the mystery of God, even Christ ; ^in whom are all the treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge hidden. * This I say, in order that no one may delude you with per- 
suasiveness of speech, ^for though I am absent in the flesh, yet in the spirit I 
am with you, rejoicing and beholding your order, and the steadfastness of your 
faith toward Christ. 

6 As therefore ye received the Christ, Jesus the Lord, so walk in him ; ^hav- 
ing been rooted and being built up in him, and being confirmed in the faith as 
ye were taught, abounding ^ therein with thanksgiving. 

8 Beware lest there shall be any one that is carrying you away as spoils 
through philosophy and vain deceit, according to the tradition of men, according 
to the rudiments of the world, and not according to Christ. ^ Because in him 
dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. ^^ And ye are made full in him, 
who is the head of every rule and authority ; ^^ in whom ye were also circum- 
cised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting ofi" of the body 
of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ ; ^^ having been buried with him in 
your baptism, wherein ye were also raised with him through faith in the work- 
ing of God, w^ho raised him from the dead. i3 Xnd you, being dead through your 
trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, you he made alive together with 
him, graciously forgiving us all our trespasses ; i* blotting out the bond written 
in decrees that was against us, which was opposed to us, and he has taken it out 
of the way, nailing it to the cross ; i5 b despoiling the rulers and authorities, he 
made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. 

16 Let no one therefore judge you in food, or in drink, or in respect of a feast, 
or a new moon, or a sabbath ; i'' which are a shadow of the things to come, but 
the body is Christ's, ^^Let no one defraiid you of the prize, <= delighting in 
humiliation and worship of the angels, taking his stand on things which he has 
seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind, '^and not holding fast the head, from 
whom all the body, through the joints and bands supplied with nourishment, 
and knit together, increases with the increase of God. 

20 If ye died with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as if living 
in the world, do ye subject yourselves to decrees, ^i " Handle not, nor taste, nor 
touch," 22 (which are all to perish with the using,) according to the precepts and 
teachings of men ? 23 \ii which, having a show of wisdom, in will- worship, 
humility, and neglect of the body, are of no value, [ministering] to the satisfac- 
tion of the flesh. 

ml If then ye were raised together with Christ, seek the things above, 
• where Christ is, sitting on the right hand of God. 2 get your mind on 
the things above, not on the things on the earth. ^ For ye died, and your life is 
hidden with Christ in God. *When Christ, "^our life, shall be manifested, then 
will ye also with him be manifested in glory. 

5 Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth ; fornication, 
uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry ; ^ on ac- 

^Some ancient copies omit therein. i^ Or, putting off from himself, 

o Or, wishing to do so. ^ Many ancient documents read, your. 


count of Avhich things the wrath of God comes ^ on the sons of disobedience ; '' in 
which things ye also once walked, when ye lived in these things. ^ But now, do 
ye also put off all these, anger, wrath, malice, railing, foul speech out of your 
mouth. ^ Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with 
his deeds, ^^ and have put on the new man, who is being renewed unto knowledge, 
according to the image of him who created him ; ^^ where can be no Greek and 
Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bondman, freeman; 
but Christ is all, and in all. 

12 Put on therefore, as God's elect, holy and beloved, a heart of compassion, 
kindness, humility, meekness, long-suffering, ^^ forbearing one another, and freely 
forgiving each other, if any one have a complaint against any, even as the *'Lord 
freely forgave you, so also do ye ; i* and over all these put on love, which is the 
bond of perfectness. ^^ A.nd let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to which 
ye were also called in one body ; and be thankful. 

16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you <= richly ; in all wisdom teaching and 
admonishing one another ; with psalms, hymns, spiritual songs, in grace singing 
in your hearts to God. ^'' And whatever ye do, in word or in work, do all in 
the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. 

18 Wives, submit yourselves to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. ^^ Hus- 
bands, love your wives, and be not bitter toward them. 20 Children, obey your 
parents in all things ; for this is well pleasing, in the Lord. 21 Fathers, provoke 
not your children, that they be not discouraged. 22 Servants, obey in all things 
your masters according to the flesh ; not with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but in 
singleness of heart, fearing the Lord. ^^ Whatever ye do, work heartily, as to 
the Lord, and not to men ; ^^ knowing that from the Lord ye will receive the 
recompense of the inheritance. Ye are servants of the Lord Christ. 25 Yot he 
that does wrong will receive again for the wrong he did; and there is no 
respect of persons. 

TT7 1 Masters, render to your servants that which is just and equitable; 
-■- ' • knowing that ye also have a Master in heaven. 

2 Persevere in prayer, being watchful therein with thanksgiving ; ^ at the 
same time praying also for us, that God may open to us a door for the word, to 
speak the mystery of Christ, for the sake of which I am also in bonds, * that I 
may make it manifest, as I ought to speak. ^ Walk in wisdom toward those 
without, buying up the opportunity. ^ Let your speech be always with grace, 
seasoned with salt, that ye may know how ye ought to answer every man. 

'' All my affairs will Tychicus make known to you, the beloved brother, and 
faithful minister and fellow-servant in the Lord ; ^ whom I sent to you for this 
very purpose, that ye may know our condition, and he may comfort your hearts ; 
^ together with Onesimus, the faithful and beloved brother, who is one of you. 
They will make known to you every thing here. ^^Aristarchus, my fellow- 
prisoner salutes you, and Mark, the cousin of Barnabas, concerning whom ye 
received commands (if he come to you, receive him), 11 and Jesus, who is called 

^Some ancient documents omit on the sons of disobedience. 
^ Many ancient documents read Christ « Or, richly in all wisdom. 


Justus, who are of the circumcision. These only are my fellow-workers, for the 
kingdom of God, who have been a comfort to me. 

12 Epaphras, who is one of you, a servant of Christ Jesus, salutes you, al- 
ways striving for you in liis prayers, that ye may stand perfect and fully assured 
in all the will of God. ^^ For I bear him witness, that he has much labor for 
you, and those in Laodicea, and those in Hierapolis. ^* Luke, the beloved phy- 
sician, and Demas, salute you. ^^ Salute the brethren in Laodicea, and Nymphas, 
and the church in their house. ^^ And when this letter has been read among 
you, cause that it be read also in the church of the Laodiceans, and that ye also 
read the one from Laodicea. ^'' And say to Archippus, Take heed to the minis- 
try which thou didst receive in the Lord, that thou fulfill it. 

18 The salutation of me, Paul, with my own hand. Remember my bonds. 
Grace be with you. 


Philemon was a resident of Colosse, and had been converted through the 
agency of Paul, probably during his three years' ministry at Ephesus (a. d. 
54-57). Onesimus was a slave of Philemon, and having wi-onged, perhaps 
robbed, his master, had fled to Rome to escape punishment. Coming under the 
influence of Paul he was converted and thoroughly transformed in character. 
As Tychicus was about to return to Colosse, the apostle sends Onesimus back 
with him to his master, pleading for him his forgiveness and a kindly welcome. 
Slaves were numerous in Phi-ygia, and Paul instructs the Colossians in the duties 
of masters and servants to each other (Col. 3 : 22-4 : 1). In this Epistle we 
have a practical illustration and an object lesson. It has been admired in every 
age. It is indeed the finest specimen of epistolary courtesy and tact that has 
come down to us from antiquity. It was written probably early A. D. 63. 

iPaul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother, to Philemon 
our beloved and fellow- worker, 2 and to Apphia the sister, and Archippus our 
fellow-soldier, and to the church in thy house : ^ Grace to you, and peace, from 
God our Father and tlie Lord Jesus Christ. 

* I thank my God always, making mention of thee in my prayers, ^ hearing 
of thy love and foith, which thou hast toward the Lord Jesus, and to all the 
saints ; 6 that the fellowship of thy faith may become effectual in the knowledge 
of every good thing which is in us, unto Christ. '^ For I had much joy and con- 
solation in thy love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed through 
thee, brother. ^ Wherefore, though having much boldness in Christ to command 
thee that which is becoming, ^ yet for love's sake I beseech rather ; being such a 
one, as Paul an old man, and now also a prisoner of Christ Jesus, i" I beseech 
thee for my child, whom I begot in my bonds, Onesimus ; ^ who in time past 
was useless to thee, but is now useful to thee and to me ; i^ whom I sent back to 
thee, that is, my own heart ; i^ whom I would have desired to keep with myself, 
that in thy stead ne might minister to me in the bonds of the gospel. 1* But 



without thy consent I wished to do nothing ; that thy benefit may not be as it 
were of necessity, but willingly. ^^ por perhaps he departed for a time on this 
account, that thou mightest have him back forever ; is no longer as a servant, 
but above a servant, a brother beloved, especially to me, but how much more to 
thee, both in the flesh, and in the Lord ! i^ If thou countest me therefore a part- 
ner, receive him as myself. 

18 But if he wronged thee in any way, or owes thee anything, put that to my 
account, i^ I, Paul, have written it with my own hand, I will repay. Not to say 
to thee, that thou owest me also thine own self besides. 20 Yea, brother, let me 
have joy of thee in the Lord. Refresh my heart in Christ. 21 Having confidence 
in thy obedience I have written to thee, knowing that thou wilt also do more 
than I say. 

22 But at the same time be preparing for me also a lodging ; for I hope that 
through your prayers I shall be given to you. 

23 There salutes thee Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus, 2* Mark, 
Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow-workers. 

*s The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. 


The Epistle to the Ephesians is the most complete of the Epistles of this 
period, and bears a relation to them similar to that which the Epistle to the 
Romans bears to the other Epistles of Paul's third missionary journey. 
There has been some question as to the readers originally addressed. It is with- 
out personal salutations and the readers are addressed largely, at least, as Gen- 
tiles. It may have been of the nature of a circular letter, intended primarily 
for the mother church at Ephesus, and then for the lesser churches of Procon- 
sular Asia. It is the sublimest of Paul's Epistles. In its fullness of thought and 
conciseness of language it embraces the whole field of the Christian religion. 
In the first three chapters it expounds its doctrines, in the last three its duties 
and its morals. In the former are displayed the blessedness and glory of Christ, 
comprehending all believers in him, the Supreme Head of the church, as his 
body. In the latter, the duty of believers to realize this blessed unity in them- 
selves is enforced and the help they should give to make it a reality in the va- 
rious relations in which they are placed. It was written probably early in A. D. 
63. See on p. 259. 

II Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, to the saints 
• who are in Ephesus, and the faithful in Christ Jesus : 2 Grace to you, and 
peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who blessed us 
with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly realms in Christ ; * as he chose us 
in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without 
blemish before him in love ; ^ having predestinated us to the adoption of sons 
through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, ^to 


the praise of the glory of his grace, which he graciously bestowed on us in the 
beloved; '' in whom we have the redemption through his blood, the forgiveness 
of our trespasses according to the riches of his grace, ^wliich he made to 
abound toward us in all wisdom and understanding ; ^ making known to us the 
mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him- 
self, i'^ in respect to the administration of the fullness of seasons, to sum up all 
things in the Christ, those which are in the heavens, and those which are on the 
earth ; ^^ in him, in whom we were also chosen as the inheritance, being predes- 
tinated according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the 
counsel of his own will, 12 that we should be to the praise of his glory who be- 
fore have hoped in the Christ ; ^^ in whom ye also, after having heard the word 
of truth, the good news of your salvation, in whom having also believed, ye 
were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise ; ^* who is an earnest of our inher- 
itance until the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of his 

^^ For this cause I also, having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, which 
ye show to all the saints, ^^ cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of 
you in my prayers ; 1^ that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of 
glory, would give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the full knowl- 
edge of him ; ^^ the eyes of your heart being enlightened ; that ye may know 
what is the hope of his calling, what the riches of the glory of his inheritance 
in the saints, ^^ and what tlie exceeding greatness of his power toward us who 
believe, according to the working of the might of his strength, 20 which he 
wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his 
own right hand in the heavenly realms, ^^ far above all rule, and authority, and 
power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age, but 
also in that which is to come; 22 and subjected all things under his feet, and 
gave him to be head over all things to the church, ^3 which is his body, the full- 
ness of him who fills all in all. 

ni You also, when ye were dead in trespasses and sins ; — 2 in which ye 
• once walked according to the course of this age, according to the prince 
of the authority of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of dis- 
obedience ; 3 among whom we also all had our way of life in time past in the de- 
sires of our flesh, doing the will of the flesh and of the thoughts, and were by 
nature children of wrath, even as the rest; — * but God, being rich in mercy, on 
account of his great love wherewith he loved us, made us, ^ even when we were 
dead in trespasses, alive with Christ, (by grace ye have been saved,) ^and 
raised us with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly realms in Christ 
Jesus ; ■^ that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding richness of his 
grace, in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. 8j?or by grace ye have been 
saved through faith ; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God ; ^ not 
from works, lest any one should boast. ^^ For we are his workmanship, created 
in Christ Jesus for good works, which God before prepared that we should walk 
in them. 

11 Wherefore remember, that formerly ye, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are 
called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh 


made by hands,— ^^ that at that time ye were apart from Christ, alienated from 
the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of the promise, hav- 
ing no hope, and without God in the world. ^^ gut now, in Christ Jesus, ye, 
who formerly were far off, have become near in the blood of Christ, i* For he is 
our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of the partition 
which parted us ; ^^ having put an end in his flesh to the enmity, the law of the 
commandments expressed in decrees, that he might make the two one new man 
in himself, making peace; ^^ and might reconcile both in one body to God 
through the cross, having slain the enmity thereby. I'^And he came and 
brought the good news of peace to you who were far olF, and to those who were 
near, i^ Because through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the 
Father. ^^ So then ye are no longer strangers and sojourners, but ye are fellow- 
citizens with the saints, and of the household of God ; 20 having been built on 
the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief 
corner-stone ; 21 in whom every building, fitly framed together, is growing into 
a holy temple in the Lord ; 22 in whom ye also are being builded together into 
a habitation of God in the Spirit. 

ml For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for you Gen- 
• tiles, — 2 if indeed ye heard of the stewardship of that grace of God 
which was given me for you, ^ that by revelation the mystery was made known 
to me, as I wrote before briefly; * whereby ye can, when ye read, perceive my 
understanding in the mystery of Christ, ^ which in other generations was not 
made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles 
and prophets in the Spirit; ^that the Gentiles are joint-heirs, and members of 
the same body, and joint partakers with us of the promise in Christ Jesus through 
the gospel ; "^ whereof I became a minister, according to the gift of that grace of 
God which was given to me according to the working of his power. ^ To me, 
who am less than the least of all saints, was this grace given, to preach to the 
Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ ; ^ and to make all see what is the 
stewardship of the mystery, which from ages has been hidden in God, who 
created all things ; i" in order that now, to the rulers and authorities in the 
heavenly realms might be made known through the church the manifold wisdom 
of God, 11 according to the purpose of the ages which he purposed in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, ^2 in whom we have our boldness and access with confidence 
through the faith of him. ^^ Wherefore I ask that ye faint not at my afflictions 
for you, which are your glory. 

1* For this reason I bow my knees to the Father, ^^ from whom every family 
in heaven and on earth is named, i^that he would grant to you, according to the 
riches of his glory, to be strengthened with power through his Spirit as to the 
inner man, 1^ in order that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith ; ^^ that 
having been rooted and grounded in love, ye may be able to comprehend, with 
all the saints, what is the breadth, and length, and height, and depth, ^^ and to 
know the love of Christ, which passes knowledge, that ye may be filled unto all 
the fullness of God. 

20 Now to him who is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask 
or think, according to the power that works in us, 21 to him be the glory in the 


church, and in Christ Jesus, unto all the generations of the eternal ages. 

TTJ" 1 1, therefore, the prisoner in the Lord, exhort you, to walk worthy of 

-L ' • the calling with which ye were called, ^ with all humility and meekness, 
with long-suffering, bearing with one another in love; ^ earnestly endeavoring 
to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. * There is one body, and 
one Spirit, as also ye were called in one hope of your calling ; ^ one Lord, one 
faith, one baptism, ^one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, 
and in all. "^ But to each one of us the grace was given according to the measure 
of the gift of Christ. ^ Wherefore he says, 

Having ascended on high, 
He led captivity captive. 
And gave gifts to men. 

5 Now the word, ascended, what does it mean but that he also descended into 
the lower parts of the earth? i^The one who descended, he is also the one who 
ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things, ii And he gave 
some as apostles, some as prophets, some as evangelists, some as pastors and 
teachers; i^unto the perfecting of the saints for the work of ministration, for 
the building up of the body of Christ ; ^^ until we all attain to the unity of the 
faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a mature man, to the measure 
of the stature of the fullness of Christ ; ^^that we may no longer be babes, tossed 
to and fro, and carried about with every wind of teaching, in the sleight of men, 
in cunning craftiness according to the wily manner of error ; ^^ but speaking the 
truth, may in love grow up in all things into him, who is the head, Christ ; 
16 from whom all the body, fitly framed together and compacted by means of 
every joint of the supply, according to the working of each single part in its 
measure, is effecting the increase of the body to the upbuilding of itself in love. 

1" This therefore I say, and testify in the Lord, that ye no longer walk as the 
Gentiles also walk, in the vanity of their mind, ^^ having the understanding 
darkened, alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them, 
because of the hardness of their heart; ^^who, being past feeling, delivered 
themselves up to wantonness, to work all uncleanness in greediness. 20 g^t ye 
did not so learn Christ, 21 if indeed ye heard him, and were taught in him, as 
the truth is in Jesus ; 22 that ye put off, as concerns your former conduct, the old 
man who is being corrupted according to the desires of deceit, ^3 and be renewed 
in the spirit of your mind, 21 and put on the new man, who was created after 
God in righteousness and holiness of the truth. 

25 Wherefore, having put away falsehood, speak truth each one with his 
neighbor ; because we are members one of another. 26 ge ye angry and sin not ; 
let not the sun go down upon your anger, 2" neither give room to the Devil. 
28 Let the stealer steal no longer ; but rather let him labor, working with his 
hands that which is good, that he may have to impart to him that has need. 
29 Let no. foul word come out of your mouth, but whatever is good for needful 
building up, that it may impart grace to the hearers. ^^ And grieve not the Holy 
Spirit of God, in whom ye were sealed for a day of redemption, ^i Let all bitter- 
ness, and wrath, and anger, and clamor, and railing, be put away from you, with 


all malice; ^^and become kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving one 
another, as also God in Christ forgave you. 

VI Become therefore imitators of God, as beloved children; 2 and walk in 
• love, as also Christ loved you, and delivered himself up for us, an offering 
and a sacrifice to God for an odor of sweet smell, ^gut fornication, and all 
uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be named among you, as becomes 
saints, *nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not becoming, 
but rather thanksgiving, ^por of this ye are sure, that no fornicator, nor un- 
clean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has inheritance in the 
kingdom of Christ and God. ^Let no one deceive you with vain words ; for be- 
cause of these things comes the wrath of God upon the sons of disobedience. 
■^ Become not therefore partakers with them. ^ poj. ye were once darkness, but 
now are light in the Lord ; walk as children of light, — ^for the fruit of the light 
is in all goodness and righteousness and truth, — ^^ proving what is well pleasing 
to the Lord ; ^^ and have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but 
rather even convict them. 12 p^j. n jg ^ shame even to speak of the things done 
by them in secret. ^^ But all things when convicted are by the light made mani- 
fest ; for everything that is made manifest is light. ^* Wherefore he says, Awake, 
thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ will give thee light. 

15 See to it then carefully, how ye walk, not as unwise, but as wise, ^^ buying 
up the opportunity, because the days are evil. ^'^ Therefore, be not foolish, but 
understand what is the will of the Lord, i^ ^nj j^g ^ot drunken with wine, 
wherein is riot, but be filled with the Spirit; ^^ speaking one to another in 
psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your 
heart to the Lord ; 20 giving thanks always for all things, to our God and Father, 
in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ ; ^isubmitting yourselves to one another in 
the fear of Christ ; ^^ wives to their own husbands, as to the Lord. 23 Because a 
husband is head of the wife, as also Christ is head of the church ; himself the 
Savior of the body. 2455^^ ^s the church is subjected to Christ, so also are the 
wives to their own husbands in everything. 

25 Husbands, love your wives, as also Christ loved the church, and delivered 
himself up for it ; 26 that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the bathing 
of water in the word, 2t that he might himself present to himself the church, 
glorious, not having a spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it may be 
holy and without blemish. 28 gQ husbands ought to love their own wives as 
their own bodies. He that loves his own wife loves himself. 29 por no one ever 
hated his own flesh ; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as Christ the church ; 
3" because we are members of his body, ^ifor this cause shall a man leave 
father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and the two shall be one flesh. 
32 This mystery is great; but I am speaking of Christ and of the church. 
33 Nevertheless do ye also, severally, each so love his own wife even as himself; 
and let the wife see that she reverence her husband. 

T7T 1 Children, obey your parents, in the Lord ; for this is right. 2 Honor 

» J-* thy father and mother, which is the first commandment with a promise 

attached, 3 that it maybe well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the 

earth. * And fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up 


in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. ^ Servants, obey your masters accord- 
ing to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ, 
6 not with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but as servants of Christ, doing the will 
of God from the heart, '' with good Avill doing service, as to the Lord, and not to 
men ; ^ knowing that whatever good thing each may have done, that shall he 
receive from the Lord, whether bond or free. ^ And masters, do the same things 
to them, forbearing threatening ; knowing that both their Master and yours is in 
heaven, and there is no respect of persons with him. 

1° Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the might of his strength, ii Put 
on the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of 
the Devil. -^For to us, the contest is not against flesh and blood, but against 
the principalities, against the authorities, against the world-rulers of this dark- 
ness, against the spiritual powers of evil in the heavenly realms. ^^ Therefore 
take on the whole armor of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil 
day, and having fully wrought all, to stand, i* Stand therefore, having girded 
yout- loins about with truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness ; 
15 and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace ; ^^ in 
addition to all, having taken on the shield of faith, in which ye will be able to 
quench all the fiery darts of the evil one. ^'^ And receive the helmet of salva- 
tion, and the sword of the Spirit, which is God's word; ^^ praying at every fit- 
ting season in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication, and watching there- 
unto in all perseverance and supplication for all the saints; i^andforme, that 
utterance may be given to me in opening my mouth to make known with bold- 
ness the mystery of the gospel, ^o for which I am an ambassador in chains ; that 
therein I may speak boldly as I ought to speak. 

21 But that ye also may know my affairs, how I do, Tychicus, the beloved 
brother and faithful minister in the Lord, will make all known to you ; 22 whom 
I sent to you for this very purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he 
might encourage your hearts. 

23 Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father, and 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 

2* Grace be with all who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. 


I. First Timothy. 
II. Titus. 


In this volume the view is taken that Paul was liberated after his two years 
imprisonment at Rome ; and that he made missionary journeys to the east,' vis- 
iting Macedonia, Ephesus, Crete, Corinth, Miletus, and Nieopolis; and per- 
haps also to the west as far as Spain. See discussion of this § 60, pp. 260-262. 

Timothy appears to have been Paul's most devoted and favorite assistant 
(Acts 16 : 1-3 ; 17 : 15 ; 18:5; 20 : 4 ; Rom. 16 : 21 ; 1 Thess. 3:2; Phil. 2 : 19, 
20; 2 Tim. 1 : 3-7). In regard to Timothy, his circumcision, etc., see pp. 194, 
204, 261. In what may be styled Paul's fourth missionary journey, the apostle 
\asited Ephesus, and leaving Timothy in charge of matters there, he went into 
Macedonia, whence he wrote the First Epistle to Timothy. His chief object was 
to instruct and encourage Timothy, who seemed to be troubled with youthful 
timidity and somewhat lacking in firmness and courage. This Epistle, as well 
as that to Titus, ditFers from the preceding Epistles in the attention given to 
church organization, and to prevailing errors resembling those noticed in the 
Epistle of Jude and the Second Epistle of Peter. The date of First Timothy 
may be assigned to about A. D. 65, or early in 66. 

T ^ Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus, according to the commandment of God 

-L* our Savior and Christ Jesus our hope, ^to Timothy, my true child in the 
faith : Grace, mercy, peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. 

'As I besought thee to continue in Ephesus, when I was going into Mace- 
donia, that thou mightest charge certain men not to teach a different doctrine, 
*nor to give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which further disputes 
rather than God's stewardship, which is in faith, [so I do now.] 

5 But the end of the charge is love, out of a pure heart and a good conscience 
and an unfeigned faith; ^from which some erring turned aside to vain talk ; 
' wishing to be teachers of the law, understanding neither what they say, nor 
about what they positively aflSrm. 8 gut we know that the law is good, if one 
use it lawfully ; ^ knowing this, that law is not made for a righteous man, but 
for lawless and unruly men, for ungodly and sinful, for unholy and profane, for 
murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers ; for man-slayers, 1° for forni- 
cators, for those who defile themselves with men, for enslavers, for liars, for 


false swearers, and whatever else is contrary to the healthful teaching ; ii ac- 
cording to the gospel of the glory of the blissful God, with which I was en- 

1*1 thank him who gave me power, Christ Jesus our Lord, that he accounted 
me faithful, putting me into the ministry, i' though I was formerly a blas- 
phemer, and a persecutor, and insolent. But I obtained mercy, because I did it 
ignorantly, in unbelief; i* and the grace of our Lord abounded exceedingly with 
faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. ^^ Faithful is the saying, and worthy 
of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners ; of 
whom I am chief. ^^ g^t for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me as chief 
Christ Jesus might show forth all his long-suflfering, for an example to those 
about to believe on him to life eternal. 

1'^ Now to the King of the ages, the incorruptible, invisible, only God, be 
honor and glory forever and ever. Amen. 

18 This charge I commit to thee, my cliild Timothy, according to the proph- 
ecies which went before in respect to thee, that thou mayest war in them the good 
warfare ; ^^ having faith, and a good conscience, which some thrusting away 
made shipwreck concerning the faith. 20 of whom is Hymenseus and Alexan- 
der ; whom I delivered over to Satan, that they might be taught not to blas- 

TT II exhort then, first of all, that supplications, prayers, intercessions, 

J-J-« thanksgivings, be made for all men; 2 for kings, and all that are in au- 
thority ; that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and decorum. 
3 This is good and acceptable in the sight of our Savior God ; * who wishes all 
men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth. ^For there is one 
God, one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus ; ^ who gave 
himself a ransom for all, the testimony to be given in due season ; ''for which I 
was appointed a preacher, and an apostle (I speak truth, I lie not), a teacher of 
Gentiles in faith and truth. 

8 1 will, therefore, that the men pray in every place, lifting up holy hands, 
without wrath and disputing; ^ in like manner also that women adorn them- 
selves in becoming apparel, with modesty and soberness ; not in braided hair, 
and gold, or peai-ls, or costly apparel ; i" but, which becomes women professing 
godliness, tlirough good works. ^^ Let a woman learn in quietness, with all sub- 
jection. 12 g|2^ I permit not a woman to teach, nor to have authority over a man, 
but to be in quietness. ^^For Adam was first formed, then Eve. i*And Adam 
was not deceived ; but the woman, being deceived, has fallen into transgression. 
15 But she shall be saved through child-bearing, if they abide in faith, and love, 
and sanctification, with sobriety. 
TTT 1 Faithful is the saying. 

-*--*- -L» If any one longs for the office of * bishop, he desires a good work. 
2 The » bishop then must be blameless, husband of one wife, sober, discreet, 
orderly, hospitable, apt in teaching; ^not given to wine, not a striker, but for- 
bearing, averse to strife, not a money-lover; * presiding well over his own house, 

» Or, overseer. 


having his children in subjection with all decorum ; (^but if one knows not how 
to preside over his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?) 
6 not a novice, lest being pufied up he fall into the condemnation of the Devil. 
■^ But he must also have a good testimony from those without, that he fall not into 
reproach and a snare of the Devil. 

8 Deacons in like manner must be grave, not double-tongued, not given to 
much wine, not greedy of base gain ; ^ holding the mystery of the faith in a pure 
conscience. ^^ And let these also first be proved ; then let them serve as deacons, 
being without reproach, i^ Women in like manner must be grave, not slanderers, 
sober, faithfid in all things. 

12 Let deacons be husbands of one wife, presiding well over their children 
and their own houses. ^^ Yor they that have served well as deacons gain for 
themselves a good standing, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ 

1* These things I write to thee, hoping to come to thee shortly ; ^^ but if I 
delay, that thou mayest know "how thou oughtest to conduct thyself in the 
house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of 
the truth. ^^ And confessedly, great is the mystery of godliness ; who was 
manifested in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, appeared to angels, preached 
among Gentiles, believed on in the world, taken up in glory. 
TTT 1 But the Spirit says expressly, that in aftertimes some will fall away 
-L V . from the faith, giving heed to decei%'ing spirits, and teachings of 
demons ; ^ of those who speak lies in hypocrisy, having their own conscience 
seared with a hot iron ; ^ forbidding to marry, commanding to abstain from 
foods, which God created for those who believe and know the truth to receive 
with thanksgiving. * Because every creature of God is good, and nothing to be 
refused, if it is received with thanksgiving; ^for it is sanctified through the 
word of God and prayer. 

6 If thou put the brethren in mind of these things, thou wilt be a good 
minister of Christ Jesus, nurtured in the words of the faith and of the good 
teaching, which thou hast strictly followed. '' But the profane and old wives' 
fables refuse, and exercise thyself unto godliness. ^ For bodily exercise is profit- 
able for a little ; but godliness is profitable for all things, having promise of the 
life that now is, and of that Avhich is to come. ^ Faithful is the saying, and 
worthy of all acceptance. ^^ For to this end we labor and strive, because we 
have hoped in the living God, who is Savior of all men, especially of believers. 

11 Charge and teach these things. 12 l^^ qq one despise thy youth ; but be- 
come an example of the believers, in word, in conduct, in love, in faith, in 
purity. 13 Until I come, give attention to the reading, to the exhortation, to the 
teaching. 1* Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee through 
prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the eldership. i» Meditate on these 
things ; give thyself wholly to them ; that thy progress may be manifest to all. 
16 Take heed to thyself, and to the teaching ; continue in them ; for in doing 
this thou wilt save both thyself, and those who hear thee. 

a Or, how men ought to conduct themselves. 



^ Do not reprimand an elder, but exhort him as a father ; younger men 
as brothers ; ^ elder women as mothers, younger as sisters, in all purity. 
3 Honor as widows those who are widows indeed. * But if any widow has chil- 
dren or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety to their own household, 
and to requite their parents, for this is acceptable before God. ^ Now she that is 
a widow indeed, and left alone, has set her hope on God, and continues in sup- 
plications and prayers, night and day. ^ But she that lives in pleasure is dead 
while she lives. "^ And these things charge, that they may be blameless. ^ gut 
if any one provides not for his own, and especially for those of his own house- 
hold, he has denied the faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. ^ Let no one 
be enrolled as a widow under sixty years old, the wife of one husband, i" well 
reported of for good works, if she brought up children, if she lodged strangers, 
if she washed saints' feet, if she relieved afflicted ones, if she diligently followed 
every good work. 

11 But younger widows refuse ; for when they become wanton against Christ, 
they wish to marry ; 12 having condemnation, because they broke their first faith. 
13 And at the same time they also learn to be idle, going about from house to 
house ; and not only idle, but tattlers also and busybodies, speaking the things 
which they ought not. 1* I will therefore that younger widows marry, bear 
children, guide the house, give no occasion to the adversary to speak revilingly. 
15 For already, some have turned aside after Satan. i^If any believing woman 
has widows, let her relieve them, and let not the church be burdened; that it 
may relieve those who are widows indeed. 

1'^ Let elders who preside well be counted worthy of double honor, especially 
they who labor in word and teaching, is For the Scripture says, Thou shalt not 
muzzle an ox while treading out the grain ; and. The workman is worthy of his 
wages. 13 Against an elder receive not an accusation, except on the testimony 
of two or three witnesses. 20 Those who sin reprove before all, that the rest also 
may fear. 

21 1 charge thee before God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that thou 
guard these things without prejudging, doing nothing with partiality. 22Lay 
hands quickly on no one, neither share in other men's sins. Keep thyself 
pure. 23jfo longer drink water only, but use a little wine for thy stomach's 
sake, and for thy frequent infirmities. 24 The sins of some men are openly mani- 
fest, going before to judgment; and some men they also follow after. 25 j^ like 
manner also the works that are good are openly manifest ; and those that are 
otherwise cannot be hidden. 

T7T 1 Let as many as are servants under the yoke account their own mas- 

▼ J-. ters worthy of all honor, that the name of God and the teaching be not 
blasphemed. 2 And they that have believing masters, let them not despise them 
because they are brethren ; but serve them the more, because they who receive 
the benefit are believing and beloved. These things teach and exhort. 

3 If any one teaches otherwise, and assents not to healthful words, those of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the teaching which is according to godliness, * he 
is puffed up, knowing nothing, but morbid about questions and strifes of words, 
from which comes envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings, ^ wranglings of men 


corrupted in mind, and robbed of the truth, supposing that godliness is a means 
of gain. ^ But godliness with contentment is a great means of gain. ' For we 
brought nothing into the world ; neither can we carry anything out ; ^ and hav- 
ing food and covering, with these we shall be content. ^ But they who desire to 
be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful de- 
sires, which sink men into destruction and perdition, i" For the love of money 
is a root of all evils ; which some longing for wandered away from the faith, 
and pierced themselves through with many sorrows. 

^1 But thou, O man of God, flee these things ; and pursue righteousness, 
godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness of spirit. ^^ Fight the good fight of 
the faith, lay hold on the eternal life, to which thou wast called, and didst con- 
fess the good confession before many witnesses. ^^ j charge thee before God, 
who preserves alive all things, and Christ Jesus, who before Pontius Pilate tes- 
tified the good confession, i*that thou keep the commandment without spot, 
blameless, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ ; ^^ which in his own 
times he will show, who is the blissful and only Potentate, the King of kings, 
and Lord of lords ; ^^ who only has immortality, dwelling in light unapproach- 
able ; whom no man has seen, or can see ; to whom be honor and might ever- 
lasting. Amen. 

1^ Charge those who are rich in this age not to be high-minded, not to place 
their hope on the uncertainty of riches, but on God, who gives us all things 
richly for enjoyment; ^^to do good, to be rich in good works, to be free in im- 
parting, willing to communicate ; ^^ laying up in store for themselves a good 
foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold on the life indeed. 

20 O Timothy, guard that which is committed to thee, turning away from the 
profane babblings, and oppositions of that which is falsely called knowledge ; 
21 which some professing erred concerning the faith. Grace be with thee. 


Titus was a Gentile, perhaps a Cretan, and was converted through the 
agency of Paul (Titus 1:4). He is not mentioned in the Acts, but much con- 
cerning him may be gathered from the Epistles. He appears to have been with 
Paul at the confei-ence at Jerusalem as a representative of the Gentile converts, 
and there he was not compelled to be circumcised (Acts 15 ; Gal. 2 : 1-3 ; see p. 
204). He seems to have been well known in Galatia, and during Paul's third 
missionary journey he was with him at Ephesus, and was sent three times by the 
apostle to the Corinthian church in their troubles, where he showed great ability 
and firmness of character. After the apostle's liberation Titus appears to have 
accompanied him to Crete, where he was left to look after the churches (Titus 
1:5). A little later Paul wrote to Titus, perhaps from Corinth, probably in 
A. D. 66. 

This Epistle, like the First to Timothy, indicates the closing period of Paul's 
life, and a stage of Christianity somewhat later than that brought to view in his 


earlier Epistles. Titus' position was one of great difl3.culty. There were error- 
ists of Jewish origin. The character of the Cretans was adverse to the influence 
of the gospel. Paul instructs Titus in regard to the organization of churches 
and the treatment of prevailing errors. The Epistle is brief and comprehensive, 
embracing much instruction as to doctrine, morals, and discipline. It is indeed 
a pastor's manual. See p. 261. 

I I.Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the 

• faith of God's elect, and the knowledge of the truth which is according to 
godliness ; ^ upon hope of eternal life, which God, who cannot lie, promised be- 
fore eternal ages, ^ but in its own times manifested his word in the preaching, 
with which I was intrusted according to the commandment of our Savior God ; 
* to Titus, a true child according to the common faith : Grace and peace, from 
God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior. 

5 For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things 
that are lacking, and appoint elders in each city, as I directed thee ; ^ if any one 
is without reproach, the husband of one wife, having believing children who are 
not accused of rioting or unruly. "^ For the =* bishop must be without reproach, 
as God's steward; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, not a 
striker, not greedy of base gain; ^but hospitable, a lover of the good, discreet, 
righteous, holy, self-controlled ; ^ holding fast the faithful word which is accord- 
ing to the teaching, that he may be able both to exhort in the healthful teaching 
and to convict the gainsayers. ^° For there are many unruly men, vain talkers 
and deceivers, especially they of the circumcision ; ^^ whose mouths must be 
stopped, who overturn whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for the 
sake of base gain. ^'^ One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, Cretans 
are always liars, evil beasts, idle gluttons. ^^ This testimony is true. For which 
cause reprove them sharply, that they may be ^ sound in the faith; ^* not giving 
heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, who turn away from the 

15 To the pure all things are pure; but to the defiled and unbelieving 
nothing is pure; but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 
16 They profess that they know God; but by their works they deny him, 
being abominable, and disobedient, and for every good work reprobate. 

ni But do thou speak the things which become the healthful teaching ; 
• 2 that aged men be temperate, grave, sober, « sound in the faith, in love, in 
patience ; ' that aged women in like manner be reverent in behavior, not 
slanderers, not in bondage to much wine, teachers of that which is good ; *that 
they may train the young women to love their husbands, to love their children, 
5 to be sober, pure, workers at home, good, submitting themselves to their own 
husbands, in order that the word of God be not blasphemed. ^ The younger men 
in like manner exhort to be sober. "^ In all things showing thyself an example 
of good works ; in teaching showing uncorruptness, gravity, ^ healthful speech, 
that cannot be condemned : in. order that he that is of the contrary part may be 

» Or, overseer. >> Or, healthy. « Or, healthy. 


put to shame, having no evil thing to say of us. ^ Exhort servants to submit 
themselves to their own masters, to be well-pleasing in all things ; not contra- 
dicting, 10 not purloining, but showing all good fidelity; that they may adorn 
the teaching of our Savior God in all things. 

11 For the saving grace of God appeared to all men, 12 instructing us that, 
denying ungodliness and worldly desires, we should live soberly and righteously 
and godly, in this present age ; 1^ looking for the blissful hope and appearing of 
the glory ^ of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ ; 1* who gave himself 
for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and cleanse for himself a 
people for his own possession, zealous of good works. 

15 These things speak, and exhort, and reprove with all authority. Let no 
one despise thee. 

ml Remind them to submit themselves to rulers, to authorities, to be 
• obedient, to be ready for every good work, 2 to speak evil of no one, to 
be averse to strife, forbearing, showing all meekness towards all men. 

3 For we also were once foolish, disobedient, going astray, serving manifold 
desires and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, hating one another. 
* But when the kindness and the love toward man of our Savior God appeared, 
5 not by works of righteousness which we did, but according to his mercy 
he saved us, through the bathing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy 
Spirit; « which he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior; 
■^ that, being justified by his grace, we should become heirs according to the hope 
of eternal life. 

8 Faithful is the saying ; and concerning these things I desire thee to affirm 
steadfastly, that they who have believed God may be careful to maintain good 
works. These things are good and profitable to men. ^ But shun foolish ques- 
tionings, and genealogies, and strifes, and fightings about the law ; for they are 
unprofitable and vain. 

10 A man that causes division, after a first and second admonition, reject; 
11 knowing that such an one is perverted, and sins, being self-condemned. 

12 When I shall send Artemas to thee, or Tychicus, earnestly endeavor to 
come to me to Nicopolis ; for I have decided there to winter. 

i^Zenas the lawyer, and Apollos, send forward on their journey zealously, 
that nothing may be lacking to them. 1* And let our people also learn to 
maintain good works for necessary wants, that they may not be unfruitful. 

15 All that are with me salute thee. Salute those who love us in the faith. 
Grace be with you all. 

» Or, of our great God and Savior. 


I. First Epistle of Peter. 
II. The Epistle to the Hebrews. 

III. The Epistle of Jude. 

IV. Second Epistle of Peter. 
V. Paul's Second to Timothy. 

The period A. d. 64-70 was full of events of the greatest importance to 
Christians and early Christianity. Beginning a little earlier, among the im- 
portant events were : The martyrdom of James at Jerusalem, about A. D. 63 ; 
the troubles and resistance to Eoman authority, culminating in the Jewish revolt 
in A. D. 66, which reached its terrible climax in the destruction of Jerusalem in 
A. D. 70 ; the burning of Eome and persecution of Christians under Nero, A. D. 
64; the death of Nero, July, A. D. 68. See Table, p. 143. 

The First Epistle of Peter was addressed to Jewish and Gentile Christians 
of the provinces in Asia Minor, along the great pilgrim route between Byzantium 
and Jerusalem, and for the most part north of the regions where Paul labored. 
After leaving Jeinisalem (Acts 12 : 17) Peter traveled about on missionary work, 
accompanied by his wife (1 Cor. 9:5). Probably some time between A. D. 44 
and 57 he labored in this region. Some would fix this Epistle as early as A. D. 50 ; 
but this is not probable, for the influence of Paul's Epistles, especially those to 
the Romans and the Ephesians, is seen upon it ; and also the persecutions endured 
as Christians (1 Peter 4 : 16) point to a later date. It may be that Peter in- 
cidentally would show his agreement with Paul ; and at the same time encourage 
those who were sufiering on account of their faith. It is an Epistle of hope, 
wrought out of his own experience, in view of the example, sufierings, and glory 
of Christ. Its most probable date is about A. D. 65, and written from Babylon. 
Some regard this name as symbolic of Rome. The Epistle should be compared 
with the addresses of Peter in the Acts. See p. 155. 


II Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the sojourners of the Dispersion in 
• Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia; ^ elect according to the 
foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, to obedience 
and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ : Grace and peace be multiplied to 

' Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to 
his abundant mercy begot us again to a living hope through the resurrection of 



Jesus Christ from the dead ; * to an inheritance imperishable, and undefiled, and 
unfading, kept in heaven for you, ^who by the i)Ower of God, are guarded 
through faith, unto a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. ^ wherein 
ye greatly rejoice, though now for a little time, if need be, made sorrowful in 
manifold temptations ; '' that the proving of your faith, much more precious than 
gold tliat perishes but is proved by fire, may be found unto praise and glory and 
honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ ; ^ whom not having seen ye love ; on 
whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeak- 
able and full of glory ; ^ receiving the end of your faith, salvation of your souls. 
^^ Concerning which salvation the prophets diligently sought and searched, who 
prophesied of the grace toward you ; ^^ searching against what or what manner 
of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them gave indication, when it testified 
beforehand the sufierings destined for Christ, and the glories that would follow ; 
12 to whom it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you they were minister- 
ing those things, which now have been announced to you, through those who 
brought you the good news by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven ; which things 
angels desire to look into. ^^ Wherefore, girding up the loins of your mind, be 
sober, and hope perfectly for the grace that is to be brought to you at the revela- 
tion of Jesus Christ; ^^as children of obedience, not conforming yourselves to 
the former desires in your ignorance ; ^^ but as he who called you is holy, be ye 
yourselves holy in all your conduct; ^^ because it is written, Ye shall be holy, 
because I am holy. ^'^ And if ye call him Father, who without respect of persons 
judges according to each one's work, pass the time of your sojourning in fear ; 
18 knowing that not with perishable things, silver and gold, ye were redeemed 
from your vain course of life handed over from your fathers, i^but with the 
precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot ; 20 -^yho 
was foreknown indeed before the foundation of the world, but manifested in 
these last times for you, 21 who through him believe on God, who raised him from 
the dead, and gave him glory ; so that your faith and hope might be on God. 

22 Having purified your souls in obeying the truth unto unfeigned brotherly 
love, love one another from the heart earnestly; 23]3eing born again, not of 
perishable seed, but of imperishable, through the word of God, which lives and 
abides. 21 Because, 

All flesh is as grass. 

And all its glory as the flower of grass. 

The grass withers, and its flower fall off"; 
25 But the word of the Lord abides forever. 
And this is the word which was preached to you. 
TT 1 Putting off" therefore all wickedness, and all guile, and hypocrisies, 
-LJ-. and envyings, and all evil speakings, 2 as new born babes, long for the 
spiritual, unadulterated milk, that by it ye may grow unto salvation; ^if ye 
tasted that the Lord is gracious ; *to whom coming, a living stone, rejected indeed 
by men, but with God elect, * precious, ^ye yourselves also, as living stones, are 
being built up a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual 

» Or, honored. 


sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. ^ Because it is contained in 

Behold, I lay in Zion a chief corner-stone, elect, * precious ; 
And he that believes on him shall not be put to shame. 
■^ For you therefore who believe is the ^ preciousness ; but for persons who dis- 

A stone which the builders rejected, 
This became the head of the corner, 
8 and 

A stone of stumbling and a rock of ofiense, 
persons who stumble, being disobedient to the word ; to which they were also 
appointed. ^But ye are an elect race, a kingly priesthood, a holy nation, a 
people for a possession ; that ye should show forth the excellencies of him who 
called you out of darkness into his marvelous light ; i" ^-Jiq once were not a 
people, but are now God's people ; who had not obtained mercy but now have 
obtained mercy. 

" Beloved, I exhort you as foreigners and sojourners, to abstain from fleshly 
desires, which war against the soul ; 12 having your conduct becoming among the 
Gentiles ; that, wherein they speak against you as evil-doers, they may from 
your good works, beholding them, glorify God in the day of visitation. 

13 Be subject to every human institution, for the Lord's sake ; whether to the 
king, as pre-eminent, 1* or to governors as sent through him for the punishment 
of evil-doers, and the praise of those who do well, ^^por go ig the will of God, 
that with well-doing ye should silence the ignorance of foolish men ; i^ as free, 
and not as having your freedom for a vail of Avickedness, but as God's servants. 
1" Honor all men ; love the brotherhood ; fear God ; honor the king. 

18 Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear, not only to the good and 
forbearing, but also to the perverse. ^^For this is acceptable, if one for con- 
science toward God endures griefs, suffering wrongfully. 20 por what glory is it, 
if when ye sin and are beaten, ye endure it ? But if when ye do well, and suffer, 
ye shall endure it, this is acceptable with God. 21 For to this ye were called ; 
because Christ also sufiered for you, leaving you an example, that ye should 
follow his steps ; 22^viio did no sin, nor was guile found in his mouth; ^3 ^yho, 
when he was reviled, reviled not again ; when he suffered, threatened not ; but 
committed it to him who judges righteously ; 2* who himself bore our sins in his 
own body on the tree, in order that we, having died to sins, should live to right- 
eousness, by whose stripes ye were healed, ^spor ye were going astray like 
sheep ; but have returned now to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls. 

ml In like manner, ye wives, be subject to your own husbands ; that 
• even if any obey not the word, they may without the word be gained 
through the conduct of their wives, ^ when they behold your pure conduct in 
fear. ^ Whose adorning, let it not be the outward one of braiding the hair, and 
of wearing golden ornaments, or of putting on apparel ; * but the hidden man of 
the heart, in that which is imperishable of the meek and quiet spirit, which in 

* Or, honored. ^ Or, honor. 


the sight of God is of great price. ^For so in the old time the holy women also, 
who hoped in God, adorned themselves, being in subjection to their own hus- 
bands, 6 as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord; of whom ye become chil- 
dren, if ye do good, and fear no alarm. 

'Ye husbands, in like manner, dwell with them according to knowledge, 
giving honor to the woman, as the weaker vessel, as being also joint-heirs of the 
grace of life ; that your prayers be not hindered. 

8 Finally, be all of one mind, sympathizing, loving as brethren, tender- 
hearted, humble-minded ; ^ not returning evil for evil, or reviling for reviling ; 
but on the contrary blessing, because to this end ye were called, in order that ye 
might inherit blessing, lo For 

He who wishes to love life, 

And to see good days, 

Let him refrain his tongue from evil, 

And his lips from speaking guile ; 

11 Let him avoid evil, and do good ; 
Let him seek peace, and pursue it. 

12 Because the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, 
And his ears are toward their supplication ; 

But the face of the Lord is against those who do evil. 
1' And who is he that will harm you, if ye are zealous for that which is good ? 
1* But if ye should even suffer for righteousness' sake, happy are ye ; and fear 
not their fear ; nor be troubled ; i^ but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts ; 
ready always for a defence to every one that asks of you an account concerning 
the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear ; i6 having a good conscience, in 
order that wherein ye are spoken against, they may be ashamed that falsely 
accuse your good conduct in Christ, i'^ For it is better, if such should be the 
will of God, that ye suffer for well-doing, than for evil-doing, i^ Because Christ 
also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring 
us to God, being put to death in flesh, but made alive in spirit ; i^ in which also 
he went and preached to the spirits in prison, 20 who were disobedient in the old 
time, when the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while an ark 
was preparing, in which a few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water ; 
21 which in an antitype, baptism, now saves you also, (not the putting away of 
the filth of the flesh, but the =* requirement of a good conscience toward God), 
through the resurrection of Jesus Christ ; 22 -who is on the right hand of God, 
Inxving gone into heaven, angels and authorities and powers being made subject 
to him. 

TT7 1 Christ then having suffered in the flesh, do ye also arm yourselves 
-*- '^ • with the same mind ; because he who suffered in the flesh has ceased 
from sin ; 2 that ye no longer may live the time which remains in the flesh by 
men's desires, but by God's will. ^For the time past suffices to have wrought 
the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in wantonness, lusts, excess of wine, 
revelings, carousings, and unhallowed idolatries; *at which thing they are 

» Or, inquiry ; or, request. 


astonished, as ye run not with them to the same excess of riot, speaking 
evil of you; ^who shall give account to him who is ready to judge living 
and dead. ^ For to this end was the good news preached also to dead men, 
that they might be judged according to men in flesh, but live according to God 
in spirit. 

^ But the end of all things is at hand. Be therefore sober, and Avatch unto 
prayers ; ^ above all things having your love toward one another earnest, because 
love covers a multitude of sins ; ^ hospitable to one another, without murmur- 
ing; 10 according as each received a gift, ministering it among yourselves, as 
good stewards of God's manifold grace ; ^^ if any one speaks, as uttering God's 
oracles ; if any one serves, as of strength which God supplies, that in all things 
God may be glorified, through Jesus Christ, to whom is the glory and the might 
forever and ever. Amen. 

12 Beloved, be not astonished at the fiery test taking place among you to 
prove you, as though a strange thing were befalling you; i^but, in so far as ye 
share in Christ's sufferings, rejoice ; that, at the revelation of his glory also, ye 
may rejoice with exceeding joy. i^If ye are reproached in Christ's name, happy 
are ye ; because the Spirit of glory and that of God rests on you. ^^ For let no 
one of you suffer as a murderer, or a thief, or an evil-doer, or as a busybody in 
other men's matters; i^^ut if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let 
him glorify God in this name. ^^ Because the season is come that judgment 
should begin from the house of God ; and if it begin first from us, what will be 
the end of those who obey not the gospel of God ? is And if the righteous is 
with difficulty saved, where will the ungodly and sinner appear? i^ Wherefore 
let those also who suffer according to the will of God, commit their souls in well- 
doing to a faithful Creator. 

VI The elders therefore among you I exhort, who am a fellow-elder, and a 
• witness of the sufferings of Christ, who am also a partaker of the glory 
about to be revealed; 2 shepherd the flock of God which is among you, " over- 
seeing it not by constraint but willingly, *> according to God, not for base gain 
but with good will ; ^ neither as lording it over the allotted charges, but becom- 
ing examples to the flock ; ^ and when the chief Shepherd is manifested, ye will 
receive the unfading crown of glory. 

5 In like manner, ye younger, be subject to the elder. Yea, all of you for 
one another gird yourselves with humility ; because God resists the proud, but 
gives grace to the lowly. ^ Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand 
of God, that he may exalt you in due season ; ^ casting all your anxiety on him, 
because he cares for you. 

8 Be sober, be watchful. Your adversary the Devil, as a roaring lion, is 
walking about, seeking whom he may devour; ^whom resist, steadfast in the 
fliith, knowing that the same sufferings are being accomplished in your <= breth- 
ren that are in the world. 10 And the God of all grace, who called you to his 
eternal glory in Christ, after ye have suffered a little while, will himself per- 

*Some ancient documents omit overseeing it. 
^Some ancient documents omit according to God. « Qr., brotherhood. 


feet, establish, strengthen, •'' settle you. ^^ To him be the might forever and ever. 

12 Through Silvanus, our faithful brother, as I consider, I have written to 
you in few words, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God, 
and therein stand, i^ b The [church that is] in Babylon, elected with you, salutes 
you ; and Mark, my son. i* Salute one another with a kiss of love. Peace to 
you all that are in Christ. 


The Epistle to the Hebrews was probably written to the Hebrew Christians 
of Palestine, perhaps of Jerusalem, at a time of suffering and of trial of their 
faith (3 : 12; 10 : 23 ; 11 : Iff.). Christ had not returned; Israel had not been 
converted ; the separation between the synagogue and the church was increas- 
ing ; Christians were persecuted, and Judaism was getting new strength under 
the patriotism aroused by the encroachments of Rome. Christians were in 
danger of relapsing into Judaism or yielding to skepticism and irreligion. One 
object of this Epistle was to fortify them against this danger. But beyond this 
it was evidently the writer's aim to show that God had fully and finally revealed 
himself in his Son, and that the Mosciic institution must give way to the perfect 
and permanent dispensation of the gospel. It appears to have been written 
while the temple was yet standing, in the troublous times that followed the 
martyrdom of James, the brother of our Lord, A. D. 63, and probably before the 
Jewish revolt of A. D. 66. Its effect must have been good, and among other 
things may have prepared the minds of Christians at Jerusalem for their flight 
to Bella in a. d. 66. 

The Epistle was written from Italy, possibly from Rome (13 : 24), in a 
Hebrew mold, but in excellent Greek, and in Pauline doctrine and tone. Its 
authorship is uncertain. Tradition points to Paul. Some early writers name 
Barnabas. Others suppose that Paul gave the thought, and Luke clothed it in 
language. The trend of opinion of late has been toward Apollos, the learned 
and eloquent preacher from Alexandria (Acts 18 : 24). See p. 261. 

II God, having in many parts and in many ways spoken of old to the 
• fathers in the prophets, ^ in these last days spoke to us in his Son, whom he 
appointed heir of all things, through whom he also <= made the ages ; ^ who, being 
the brightness of his glory and the impress of his substance, and upholding all 
things by the word of his power, when he had made a purification of sins, sat 
down on the right hand of the Majesty on high ; * having become so much 
superior to the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they. 
5 For to whom of the angels said he ever, 
Thou art my Son, 
I this day have begotten thee ? 

a Some ancient documents omit, settle. 
i> Or, The sister chosen with you, in Babylon, salutes you. <= Or, constituted the ages. 


and again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son ? ^ But when 
he shall again have brought the first-born into the ^ world, he says, And let all 
the angels of God worship him. "^ And of the angels he says, 
Who makes his angels winds, 
And his ministers a flame of fire ; 
8 but of the Son, 

Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever ; 
A sceptre of rectitude is the sceptre of thy kingdom ; 
* Thou lovedst righteousness, and hatedst iniquity ; 
Therefore God, thy God, anointed thee, 
With the oil of gladness, above thy fellows ; 
10 and. 

Thou, Lord, in the beginning, didst found the earth, 
And the heavens are the works of thy hands ; 

11 They will perish, but thou abidest ; 

And they all will become old, as does a garment, 

12 And as a mantle thou wilt roll them up, as a garment they will be changed ; 
But thou art the same. 

And thy years will not fail. 
1' But to whom of the angels has he ever said. 
Sit on my right hand. 
Until I make thine enemies thy footstool ? 
1* Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth for service, for the sake of 
hose about to inherit salvation ? 

ni On this account we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things 
• we have heard, lest perhaps we drift past them. ^ Yq^ if the word spoken 
through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience re- 
ceived just retribution, ^ how shall we escape, if we neglect so great a salvation ; 
which had its beginning in being spoken through the Lord, and w^ as made sure 
to us by those who heard, * God testifying with them by signs, and Avonders, and 
many kinds of miracles, and distributions of the Holy Spirit, according to his 
own will ? 

5 For not to angels did he put in subjection the i^ world that is to be, about 
which we speak. ^ g^t one in a certain place testified, saying, 
What is man, that thou art mindful of him ; 
Or the son of man, that thou visitest him ? 
■^ Thou madest him a little lower than the angels ; 
Thou crownedst him with glory and honor ; 
And didst set him over the works of thy hands ; 
8 Thou didst put all things in subjection under his feet. 
For in that he put all in subjection to him, he left nothing that is not sub- 
jected to him. 

But now we do not yet see all things put in subjection to him. * But we 
behold him, who was made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, on account of 

» Gr., inhabited earth. '> Gr., future inhabited earth. 


the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor, in order that he by the 
grace of God might taste death for every one. i° For it became him, on account 
of whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many 
sons to glory, to perfect through sufferings the ^ author of their salvation. 

11 For both the sanctiiier and the sanctified are all of one ; for which cause 
he is not ashamed to call them brethren, 12 saying, 
I will declare thy name to my brethren ; 
In the midst of the congregation I will sing praise to thee. 
13 And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold, I and the children 
whom God gave me. 1* Since then the children are partakers of flesh and blood, 
he also in like manner partook in the same ; that through death he might destroy 
him who had the power of death, that is, the Devil ; i^ anj might deliver all 
those Avho, through fear of death, were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 

16 For surely he does not succor angels ; but he succors the seed of Abraham. 
1^ AVherefore, it behoved him in all things to be made like his brethren, that he 
might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to 
make propitiation for the sins of the people, i^ For in that he himself has 
suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 
TTT 1 Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider 
J- J--L* the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus, ^ who was faithful 
to him that appointed him, as also was Moses in all His house. ^ For he has 
been accounted worthy of more glory than Moses, by so much as he wlio built 
the house has more honor than the house, *For every house is builded by some 
one ; but he who built all things is God. 5 \n(j Moses indeed was faithful in all 
His house as a servant, for a testimony of the things which were to be afterward 
spoken ; 6 but Christ as son over His house ; whose house are we, if we hold 
fast the boldness and the glorying of our hope firm to the end. 
■^ Wherefore, as the Holy Spirit says. 
To-day, if ye hear his voice, 
8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, 
In the day of the temptation in the wilderness ; 
^ Where your fathers tempted me, in proving me, 
And saw my works, forty years. 

10 Wherefore, I was displeased with that generation ; 
And I said. They always go astray in their heart, 
And they did not know my ways ; 

11 As I swore in my wrath, 

They shall not enter into my rest. 
12 Take heed, brethren, lest there shall be in any one of you an evil heart of 
unbelief, in falling away from the living God. i^ But exhort one another daily, 
as long as it is called To-day, that no one of you may be hardened through the 
dceeitfulness of sin. i* For we have become partakers of Christ, if we hold fast 
the beginning of our confidence firm to the end. is w'hile it is said, To-day, if 
ye hear his voice, harden not your hearts as in the provocation, i^ Who then, 

» Or, captain. 


when they had heard, provoked ? Was it not all who came forth out of Egypt 
through Moses? ^'^ And with whom was he displeased forty years? Was it not 
with those who sinned? whose carcasses fell in the wilderness, i^^mj iq ^hom 
did he swear, that they should not enter into his rest, but to those who were dis- 
believing ? 19 And we see that they were not able to enter in, because of unbelief. 
TT^ ^Let us fear, therefore, lest, a promise being still left us of entering 

J- ' • into his rest, any one of you should seem to have come short of it. 2 Yor 
we have had glad tidings preached to us even also as they ; but the word which 
they heard did not profit them, not being mingled in faith with those who heard, 
3 For we who believed do enter into the rest, even as he has said. As I swore in my 
wrath, they shall not enter into my rest, although the works were finished from 
the foundation of the world, ^for he has spoken in a certain place of the 
seventh day thus, And God rested on the seventh day from all his works ; ^ and 
in this place again, They shall not enter into my rest. 

6 Since then it remains for some to enter into it, and they to whom glad tid- 
ings were formerly preached entered not in because of disbelief, "^ again he desig- 
nates a certain day. To-day, (saying in David, after so long a time, as has before 
been said, ) 

To-day, if ye hear his voice, 
Harden not your hearts. 
8 For if Joshua had given them rest, he would not afterward have spoken about 
another day. 

^ So then, there remains a Sabbath-rest to the people of God. 10 For he that 
entered into his rest, himself also rested from his works, as God did from his 
own. 11 Let us therefore earnestly endeavor to enter into that rest, that no one 
may fall after the same example of disbelief. 

12 For the word of God is living, and effectual, and sharper than any two- 
edged sword, piercing even to the dividing of soul and spirit, of both joints and 
marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart, i^^^^j 
there is no creature that is not manifest in his sight ; but all things are naked 
and laid bare to the eyes of him with whom we have to do. 

1* Having therefore a great high priest, who has passed through the heavens, 
Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. 1= For we have not a high 
priest who cannot sympathize with our infirmities, but who has in all points 
been tempted like as we are, apart from sin. i^ Let us therefore come boldly to 
tiie throne of grace, that we may receive mercy, and find grace for well-timed 

TT ^ For every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for 
» • men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices 
for si»s ; 2 being able to bear with the ignorant and erring, since he himself also 
is encompassed with infirmity ; ^ and on account of it he is bound, as for the 
people, so also for himself, to make ofiering for sins. * And no one takes to him- 
self the honor, unless he is called by God, as was also Aaron. ^ go Christ also 
did not glorify himself to become high priest, but he who spoke to him. 
Thou art my Son, 
I this day have begotten thee ; 


6 as also iu another place, he says, 

Thou art a priest forever, 
After the order of Melchizedek ; 
^ who, in the days of his flesh offering prayers and supplications, with strong cry- 
ing and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and being heard on 
account of his godly fear, ^ though he was a Son yet learned obedience from what 
he suffered, ^ and being perfected became the author of eternal salvation to all who 
obey him ; ^o addressed by God as High Priest, after the order of Melchizedek. 

11 Concerning w^hom we have much to say, and hard to be explained, since 
ye have become dull of hearing. 12 Yot though ye ought, on account of the time, 
to be teachers, ye again have need that some one teach you the first rudiments 
of the oracles of God, and have become such as have need of milk, and not of 
solid food. 13 For every one who partakes of milk is inexperienced in the word 
of righteousness ; for he is a babe. ^^ But solid food belongs to those who are 
mature, who by use have their senses trained to discern good and evil. 
TTT 1 Wherefore, leaving the elements of the doctrine of Christ, let us press 
» J-. on to maturity; not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead 
works and faith toward God, 2 of teaching of baptisms and laying on of hands, 
of resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment. ^ And this we will do, if God 
permit. *For it is impossible that they who have once been enlightened, and 
have tasted of the heavenly gift, and become partakers of the Holy Spirit, ^ and 
have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the coming age, ^and have 
fallen away, should again be renewed to repentance ; seeing they are crucifying 
to themselves the Son of God afresh, and putting him to open shame. Tor the 
ground which has drunk in the rain that often comes on it, and brings forth 
herbs fit for those for whose sake it is also tilled, partakes of blessing from God ; 
8 but if it bears thorns and thistles it is rejected, and is near to cursing; whose 
end is to be burned. 

3 But, beloved, we are persuaded better things concerning you, and things 
that accompany salvation, though we thus speak. i^For God is not unrighteous 
to forget your work, and the love which ye showed toward his name, in that ye 
ministered to the saints, and still do minister. 11 But we desire that each one of 
you show the same diligence, for the full assurance of the hope to the end ; ^^ that 
ye may not become slothful, but imitators of those who through faith and long- 
suffering inherit the promises, i^ Yov when God made the promise to Abraham, 
since he could swear by no one greater, he swore by himself, ^* saying. Surely, 
blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee. I'^nd so, 
having patiently endured, he obtained the promise. ^^ for men indeed swear by 
the greater; and the oath serves them for confirmation as an end of all gain- 
saying. 1'^ Wherein God, wishing to show more abundantly to the heirs of the 
promise the immutability of his counsel, interposed with an oath ; ^^ that through 
two immutable things, in which it is impossible that God should lie, we may 
have strong encouragement, who fled for refuge to lay hold on the hope set before 
us, 19-vv'hich we have as an anchor of the soul, sure and steadfast, and entering 
into that within the vail ; 20 where as forerunner for us Jesus entered, having 
become, after the order of Melchizedek, a high priest forever. 


TTTT 1 For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, 
V iJ.. -^iio met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and 
blessed him ; 2 to whom also Abraham divided a tenth of all ; being first by the 
interpretation of his name King of righteousness, and then also King of Salem , 
that is, King of peace; ^ -without father, without mother, without table of 
descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life, but likened to the 
Son of God, abides a priest continually. 

* Now behold how great this man was, to whom Abraham, the patriarch, 
gave a tenth of the spoils. ^ And those of the sons of Levi, who receive the 
ofiice of the priesthood, have a commandment to take tithes of the people accord- 
ing to the law, that is, of their brethren, though these have come out of the 
loins of Abraham ; ^ but he whose descent is not reckoned from them has taken 
tithes of Abraham, and has blessed him who had the promises. "^ And without 
any gainsaying, the less is blessed by the better. ^ ^^^d hej-e indeed men who 
die receive tithes ; but there, one received them of whom it is testified that he 
lives. 3 And so to speak, through Abraham Levi even who receives tithes, has 
paid tithes ; ^^ for he was yet in the loins of his father, when Melchizedek met 

i^If therefore perfection was through the Levitical priesthood (for upon it 
the people have received the law), what further need was there that a different 
priest should arise after the order of Melchizedek, and not be reckoned after the 
order of Aaron ? ^^ Yor the priesthood being changed, of necessity there comes 
also a change of law. ^^ For he of whom these things are spoken has taken 
part in a different tribe, from which no one has given attendance at the altar. 
i*For it is evident that our Lord has arisen out of Judah; as to which 
tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priests, i^^mj this is yet more 
abundantly evident, if after the likeness of Melchizedek there arises another 
priest, i^who has been made a priest, not after the law of a fleshly com- 
mandment, but after the power of an indissoluble life, i'' For it is testified 
of him, 

Thou art a priest forever, 
After the order of Melchizedek. 

18 For on the one hand, there comes an annulling of a previous command- 
ment, on account of its weakness and unprofitableness, — ^^ for the law perfected 
nothing, — and on the other a bringing in of a better hope, through which we 
draw near to God. 

*°And inasmuch as it was not without the taking of an oath, — ^ifof they 
indeed became priests without taking an oath, but he with an oath through him 
who said to him. The Lord swore and will not repent, thou art a priest forever, — 
22 by so much also has Jesus become a surety of a better covenant. '^ And they 
indeed have become priests many in number, because they were forbidden by 
death to continue ; 2* but he, because he abides forever, has his priesthood * un- 
changeable. 25 Whence also he is able to save to the end those who come to God 
through him, since he ever lives to intercede for them. 

» Or, untransmissible ; or, inalienable. 


26 For such a high priest became us, holy, harmless, undefiled, separated 
from sinners, and made higher than the heavens ; ^7 who is not under a daily 
necessity, liJce those high priests, of offering sacrifices, first for his own sins, and 
then for those of the people ; for this he did once for all, in offering him- 
self. 28 Pqi- the law appoints men high priests who have infirmity ; but the 
word of the oath which came after the law, appoints the Son, who is perfected 

T7TTT 1 Now of the things which we are saying, ^a chief point is this : 
» -I--I--L* We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the 
throne of the Majesty in the heavens ; 2 a minister of the holy places, and of the 
true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. 

3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices ; where- 
fore it is necessary, that this one also have something which he may offer. 
*Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, since there are those 
who offer the gifts according to law, ^ who serve in an outline and a shadow of the 
heavenly things,'as Moses was divinely instructed, when he was about to make 
the tabernacle ; for, See, says he, that thou make all things according to the 
example which was showed thee in the mount. ^ But now he has obtained a 
more excellent ministry, by so much as he is mediator of a better covenant also, 
which has been established upon better promises. 

'' For if that first covenant had been faultless, place would not be sought for 
the second. ^ For finding fault with them, he says, 
Behold days are coming, says the Lord, 
When I will make with the house of Israel, 
And with the house of Judah, a new covenant ; 
9 Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers, 
In the day when I took hold of their hand. 
To lead them out of the land of Egypt ; 
Because they abode not in my covenant, 
And I regarded them not, says the Lord. 
1" Because this is the covenant that I will covenant with the house of Israel, 
After those days, says the Lord, 
Putting my laws into their mind, 
And on their heart I will write them ; 
And I will be to them a God, 
And they shall be to me a people ; 
1^ And they will not teach. 
Each one his neighbor, and each one his brother, 
Saying, Know the Lord ; 

Because all will know me, from the least to the greatest of them ; 
12 Because I will be merciful to their iniquities. 
And their sins I will remember no more. 
1' In that he says, A new covenant, he has made the first one old. Now that 
Which is growing old, and wearing out with age, is ready to vanish away. 

» Or, the sum of what we have said. 


T'V' iNow the first covenant had also ordinances of service, and its 
-L^^« sanctuary, one belonging to this world. ^For a tabernacle was pre- 
pared ; the first, in which is the lamp-stand, and the table, and the show-bread, 
which is called the holy place ; ^ and beyond the second vail, a tabernacle which 
is called the holy of holies, * containing the golden censer, and the ark of the 
covenant overlaid on every side with gold, in which was a golden pot containing 
the manna, and the rod of Aaron which budded, and the tables of the covenant, 
5 and above it cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy-seat ; concerning 
which things we cannot now speak particularly. 

6 These things being thus prepared, into the first tabernacle the priests go 
continually, performing their service ; "^ but into the second, the high priest 
alone, once a year, not without blood, which he offers for himself and for the 
sins of ignorance of the people ; ^ the Holy Spirit signifying this, that the way 
into the holy places has not yet been made manifest, while the first tabernacle 
is yet standing ; ^ which is a figure for the time present, according to which are 
otifered both gifts and sacrifices, unable to perfect the worshiper as to the con- 
science ; 10 which are only with foods and drinks, and various immersions, or- 
dinances of the flesh, imposed until a time of reformation, i^ But Christ, hav- 
ing come as a high priest of the good things to come, through the greater and 
more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands (that is, not of this creation), 
12 and not through the blood of goats and calves but through his own blood, 
entered once for all into the holy places, obtaining eternal redemption, i^pyj-if 
the blood of goats and bulls, and ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have 
been defiled, sanctifies to the purification of the flesh ; i* how much more will 
the blood of Christ who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blem- 
ish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God ? 
15 And for this cause he is mediator of a new covenant, in order that, death 
having taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were under 
the first covenant, they who have been called may receive the promise of the 
eternal inheritance. 

16 For where there is a * testament, there must also of necessity be brought in 
the death of the testator, i"^ For a testament is of force after men are dead ; since 
it is of no strength at all while the testator is living. 

18 Wherefore, neither has the first covenant been dedicated without blood. 
19 For, when Moses had spoken every commandment to all the people according 
to the law, he took the blood of the calves and of the goats, with water, and 
scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 
saying, 20 This is the blood of the covenant, which God commanded .in respect to 
you. 2i^\nd moreover, the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the service, he in 
like manner sprinkled with the blood. 22 ^^^ nearly all things are cleansed 
according to the law with blood ; and apart from shedding of blood comes no 

23 It was necessary therefore, that the outlines of the things in the heavens 
should be cleansed with these ; but the heavenly things themselves, with better 

» The same Greek word means covenant and also testament. 


sacrifices than these. 21 For Christ entered not into holy places made with 
hands, figures of the true ; but into heaven itself, now to appear inlhe presence 
of God for us ; 25 nor yet that he should many times offer himself, as the high 
priest enters into the holy places every year with blood of others; 26 for then 
must he many times have sufiered since the foundation of the world ; but now 
once, at the end of the ages, he has been manifested to put away sin through the 
sacrifice of himself. 27 And inasmuch as it is appointed to men once to die, but 
after this, judgment ; 2850 also the Christ, having been once offered to bear the 
sins of many, will to those who wait for him appear a second time apart from 
sin, unto salvation. 

XI For the law having a shadow of the good things to come, not the very 
• picture of the things, can never, with the same sacrifices which they offer 
year by year continually, perfect those who come to them. 2 For then would 
they not have ceased to be oflered, because the worshipers would have had no 
more consciousness of sins, having been once cleansed ? ^ But in those sacrifices 
there is a remembrance made of sins year by year. * For it is impossible that 
the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. ^ Wherefore, when he 
enters into the world, he says. 

Sacrifice and offering thou didst not wish, 

But a body didst thou prepare for me ; 
6 In whole burnt-offerings, and sin-offerings, thou hadst no pleasure. 
"^Then said I, Lo, I am come. 

In the volume of the book it is written concerning me, 

To do thy will, O God. 
8 Saying above. Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt-offerings and sin-offer- 
ings thou didst not Avish, nor hadst pleasure therein, which are offered according 
to the law, ^ then has he said, Lo, I am come to do thy will. He takes away the 
first, that he may establish the second. 10 jn which will we have been sanctified, 
through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 

11 And every priest indeed stands daily ministering, and offering many times 
the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins ; ^2 b^it he, having offered 
one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God ; ^^from hence- 
forth waiting until his enemies be made his footstool. ^*For by one offering lie 
has perfected forever those who are sanctified. ^^ Moreover, the Holy Spirit also 
testifies to us ; for after he had said, i^ This is the covenant that I will covenant 
with them after those days, says the Lord, putting my laws on their hearts, and 
on their mind I will write them, ^^ and their sins and their transgressions I will 
remember no more. ^^ But where there is remission of these, there is no longer a 

19 Having therefore, brethren, boldness for the entrance into the holy places 
by the blood of Jesus, which he instituted for us, 20 a new and living way, through 
the vail, that