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In producing a volume announced for publication upwards 
of three years ago, the Ekiitor feels that some apology is due 
for the delay which has occurred in carrying the object, th#n 
proposed, into execution. He might perhaps have ventured 
to say somewhat of continually increasing engagements, both 
of a domestic and professional nature ; and somewhat more 
of the amount of pains bestowed upon the undertaking, far 
beyond what he had originally contemplated as necessary. 
But he is content to rest his expectation of indulgence on the 
fact, that to himself the interval which has elapsed, long as 
it may seem, has been, almost without cessation, a season of 
bodily and mental suffering, the result of carefulness about 
too many things, and of labour protracted to, or rather 
beyond, the remotest limits of exhaustion. To these might 
still be added other circumstances of interruption, connected 
with the embarrassments of commerce during the past and 
present years; a state of business which has led to the 
suspension, if not eventually to the abandonment, of many a 
project, of literary interest and value. 

Such as it is, through the mercy and kindness of God, the 
work now appears ; certainly not completed without many 
anxieties, and possibly still marked by many imperfections : 
yet accompanied by some faint hopes and many fervent 
prayers, that, according to the measure of grace vouchsafed, it 
may be blessed to the establishment of the Church of God 
in the faith of the Lord Jesus Christ, at a most critical and 
solemn juncture of affairs. 


Never, since the reign of Queen Elizabeth, were the prin- 
ciples of the Protestant Reformation brought more prominently 
into discussion, whether for disparagement or for defence, 
than at the present day. Assailed both from without and 
from within, a general desire of investigating more accu- 
rately the character of that memorable transaction has 
directed the attention of wise and pious men to the authen- 
tic records of a period, big with the most momentous con- 
sequences to the honor and prosperity of Christendom. 

It were but reasonable to suppose, that, in the warfare that 
exists from generation to generation between those who are 
bom after the flesh and those who are born after the Spirit, 
the elect of God should often be compelled to tread the old 
pliths over again, and, on the same field, and with the same 
weapons, to fight anew the battles of their forefathers. Thus 
far, all is well ; or, if not actually well, at least not worse 
than might and should have been anticipated. Those who, 
while in words they profess religion, yet hate the light of 
the gospel of grace, will naturally feel a sort of suspicious 
jealousy of a work of God like the Reformation, and cul- 
tivate a kindliness of feeling, very far beyond mere indiffer- 
ence,* for Papal formality and superstition. These are the 

• The testimony of the Church of Scotland, in the Preface tathe Con- 
fession of 1581, (now transferred from the Appendix to the hody of the 
Harmony,; stands forth in beautiful contrast with the faint and feeble voice 
yet raised in many quarters against the pretensions of the Church of Rome. 
" To the which confession and form of religion we willingly agree in our 
consciences in all points, as unto God*s undoubted truth and verity, grounded 
only upon his written word. And therefore we abhor and detest all con- 
trary religion and doctrine, but chiefly all kind of Papistry, in general and 
particular heads, even as they are now damned and confuted by tlie word 
of God and church of Scotland. But especially we detest and refuse the 
usurped authority of that Roman antichrist upon the scriptures of God, 
upon the church, the civil magistrate, and conscience of men : all his 
tyrannous laws, made upon indifferent things, against our Christian liberty : 
his erroneous doctrine against the sufficiency of the written word, the per- 
fection of the law, the office of Christ, and his blessed evangel : his cor- 
rupted doctrine concerning original sin, our natural inability and rebellion 
to God's law ; our justification by faith only ; our imperfect sanctification 
and obedience to the law ; the nature, number, and use of the holy sacra- 
ments : his five bastard sacraments, with all his rites, ceremonies, and false 


enemies of the cross of Christ, and can be known and re- 
cognised only as such. 

But the Editor cannot withhold his deliberate and growing 
conviction, that, even with those who are distinctively termed 
Evangelical among the ministers and members of the Church 
of England, there is a disposition, but too extensively ap- 
parent, to retire from the high and holy ground assumed in the 
declarations of the Reformers; and, for want of clear and 
decisive views on the fundamental article of justification by 
faith without the works of the law, to fall into an indistinct- 

doctriDe added to the administration of the true sacraments, without the 
word of God: his cruel judgment against infants departing without the 
sacrament, his absolute necessity of baptism, his blasphemous opinion of 
transubstantiation or real presence of Christ's body in the elements, and 
the receiving of the same by the wicked, even in the bodies of 
men: his dispensations vrith solemn oaths, his peijuries, and degrees 
of marriage forbidden in the word: his cruelty against the innocent 
divorced : his devilish mass, his blasphemous priesthood, his profane 
sacrifice for the sins of the dead and the quick : his canonization of men ; 
calling upon angels, or saints departed; worshipping of images, relics, 
and crosses; dedicating of churches, altars, days; vows to creatures: 
his purgatory, prayers for the dead, praying or speaking in a strange 
language; with his processions, and blasphemous litany, and multitude 
of advocates or mediators : his manifold orders, auricular confession : 
his dispersed and uncertain repentance, his general and doubtsome faith, his 
satisfactions of men for their sins, his justification by works, opus operatum, 
works of supererogation, merits, pardons, peregrinations and stations : his 
holy water, baptizing of bells, conjuring of spirits, crossing, saning, anointing, 
conjuring, hallowing of God's good creatures, with the superstitious opinion 
joined therewith : his worldly monarchy, and wicked hierarchy : his three 
solemn vows, with all his shavelings of sundry sorts: his erroneous bloody 
decrees made at Trent, with all the subscribers and approvers of that cruel 
and bloody band conjured against the church of God. And finally, we de- 
test all his vain allegories, rites, signs, and traditions brought into the Church, 
without or against the word of God, and the doctrine of this true Reformed 
Church : to the which we join ourselves willingly, in doctrine, faith, religion, 
discipline, and use of the holy sacraments, as lively members of the same 
in Christ our head ; promising and swearing by the great name of the Lord 
our God, that we shall continue in the obedience of the doctrine and dis- 
cipline of this Church, and shall defend the same according to our vocation 
and power, all the days of our lives, under the pains contained in the law, 
and danger both of body and soul in the day of God's fearful judgment" — 
pp. 2, 3. 


ness of statement upon other points, neither honourable to 
God, nor serviceable to the souls of men. If this be so, then 
is he well aware that it is neither solely nor mainly in 
the study of the acts and monuments of the giants of 
other days, that the foundations of the fabric they were 
blest in rearing, must be laid again : but rather in 
learning as they learned, living as they lived, and pray- 
ing as they prayed ; in a more practical and realising 
apprehension of the sacrifice and covenant of grace ; in 
deeper thoughts of the spirituality of the kingdom of Christ ; 
in an increase of constancy and confidence in pleading before 
God for the communications of His Spirit ; in a more general 
diffusion of love, for Christ^s sake, towards all who love 
Christ, without respect of persons; in a fuller withdrawal 
from the principles of the world, and the practices of the 
worldly-minded ; and, above all, in a settled and sanctifying 
abhorrence of the wickedness of consenting, on any con- 
siderations of easf or expediency, to the slightest departure 
from what is once ascertained to be the will of God. 
Little can it avail us to hold the form of sound words, while 
destitute of the Spirit of truth ; to have the candlestick left 
in its place, when the light of life and glory is gone out. 
It is only as we acknowledge, in the word of God, the rule of 
all faith and of all obedience ; and as we labour, in the grace 
of God, to walk honestly, wisely, holily, as dear children ; 
that we can recur with profit, or even without peril, to the 
systems devised, in the assemblies of the saints of old, for the 
exhibition of the mind of the Holy Ghost to the Churches. 
Of the documentar}' publications, connected with the 
history of Ecclesiastical Reform in the sixteenth century, 
certainly one of the most important is that now presented 
to the reader: not only as bringing together, within a mode- 
rate compass, the deliberate decisions of almost every Church 
in Europe ; but as proving, moreover, what the enemies of 
divine truth have ever pertinaciously denied, that, notwith- 
standing matters of difference on some points, (which may the 
Spirit of God speedily bring into reconciliation !) there is a 
substantial Harmony existing throughout the whole body 


of real and true believers,* on what are emphatically termed 
the grounds of Christian verity. 

The Harmony of Confessions was first published in Latin, 
at Geneva, in the year 1581, in 4to, under the following 
title : — Harmonia Confessianum .Fidei Orthodoxarum et Refor^ 
matarumEcclesiarumi qiuBj inprcBcipuis quihusque Europce regnis^ 
nationibusy et provinciUy sacram Evangelii doctrinam puri pro- 
JUattur, Sfc. AdditCR sunt ad cakenij 8fc. Qu(B omnioj Ecclesiarum 
Gallicarum et Belgicarum nomine^ suhjiciuntur libera et prudenti 
reliquarum omnium judicio. 

Of the English translationf the first edition appeared 
at Cambridge, 1586, 12mo; the second and last in London, 
1643, 4to; as follows: — An Harmony of the Confessions 
of the Faith of the Christian and Reformed Churches^ 
which purely profess the holy doctrine of the Gospel^ in 
all the chief kingdoms^ nations^ and provinces of Europe^ 
Sfc. There are added in the end very short Notes :X in 

* BosBuet*8 Hittoire des Fariatiom des EgUses Protesttmies, Par. 1688, 
2 vols. 4 to. should be read with Basnage's Hittoire de la Beligum des EgU»e$ 
Reformcesj Rotterd. 1725, 2 vols. 4to. Indeed, an English translation of the 
latter is greatly needed, to counteract the circulation of the former, espe- 
cially in Ireland. Those who imagine, meanwhile, that either unanimity or 
uniformity prevails among the subjects of the Pope, may consult Bp. Hall*s 
Peace of Rome, Lond. 1609, 4to. repr. 1838, 8vo., and Edgar's Fariatioru qf 
Popery, Lond. 1838, 8vo. 

t Augusti, having seen the title of the English Harmony cited by 
G. W. Alberti in his Brirfe hetr- den Bel. Zuatand m Grostbritamen, 
observes, laughably enough : '* I have nowhere seen it stated, and it remains 
a matter of doubt, whether (what I could hardly believe) this is a new col- 
lection, or an English translation of the Harmonia of 1581, or even the 
same book in Latin but with an English title. If it be an English trans- 
lation, perhaps the same noble personage, whom the editor of the Syntagma 
praised as the translator of the Scottish Confession into Latin, may be sup- 
posed to have performed the task. How I wish (he adds) that some 
learned bibliographer would make us better acquainted with this book ! " — 
Diuertatio in Libros Symbolicot, p. 607. Niemeyer (preceded by Liickius) 
has convinced his fellow-countrymen that the English Harmony, in both 
editions, is but a translation of the Latin.— Pr<rfa/to in CoUeetionem Con- 
feuionumy p. ix. 

X These are afterwards designated, — '* Very Brief Observations upon all 
the former Harmony : wherein the doubtful sayings of every Confession 
are made plain, the dark speeches opened, and, besides, such as in outward 
shew seem to be contrary one to the other, are with modesty reconciled ; 


tvhich both the obscure things are made plaiuj and those things 
which may in shew seem to be contrary to each other, are plainly 
and very modestly reconciled ; and if any points do as yet hang 
in doubt, they are sincerely pointed at. All which things, in the 
names of the Churches of Prance and Belgia, are submitted to 
the free and discreet judgment of all other Churches. Newly 
translated out of Latin into English, Sfc. Allowed by public 
authority.* Each of the English editions has the Confession 

and, to be brief, sucb things wherein there is yet any controversy (which 
indeed are very few) are favourably marked and noted, that they also may 
at length through God's assistance come to be agreed upon by a common 
consent of all the Churches." 1 Cor. xiv. 32; ** The spirits of the prophets 
are subject to the prophets." Phil. iii. 15, 16; " Let us therefore, so many 
as be perfect, be thus minded: and ifye be otherwise minded,God shall reveal 
even the same unto you. Nevertheless, in that whereunto we are come, let 
us proceed by one rule, that we may mind one thing.'* 

* It has been charged upon Archbishop Whitgift, as an act of religious 
persecution, that, so far from allowing, he actually prohibited the publication 
of the Harmony. The authority adduced is that of Strype : but a perusal 
of the passage entire would seem to indicate that he subsequently withdrew 
his opposition ; and certainly proves that either way it was not on a prin- 
ciple of religious persecution that he acted. " It was shewed before," says 
the historian, "how the art of printing was set up, and began at Cambridge, 
by the advice and care of the heads and governors thereof. But there was 
a jealousy of the liberty of printing books there, the purposes whereof 
sometimes might tend to more harm than good ; namely, such as might 
either disturb the government, or the peace of the church. And there- 
fore, for the preventing of any such inconveniences, the lords of the council 
had lately ordered that no book should be printed in London, or in either 
of the Universities, but the copies to be first reviewed and allowed by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury or the Bishop of London. And of this the 
careful Archbishop gave the University of Cambridge information, and 
that on occasion of a book now printing there, called, The Harmony of 
Cor^esnoruy &c. translated out of Latin into English; which, for some 
reasons, was not allowed in London to be printed. This the Archbisliop 
understanding was going in hand with these in Cambridge, sent his letter to 
the Vice-Chancellor and heads to cause the said book to be staid from 
printing, and that presently upon the receipt thereof, until they should 
receive further direction from him : and that, in regard of that late order of 
the council, he required them to take special care that nothing should be 
printed there, but what should be authorized accordingly. (This letter, as 
taken from the records of that University, may be read in the Appendix.) 
And yet, however it came to pass, the said book was printed and published 
this year in 8vo. at Cambridge, by Tho. Thomas, who was the University's 


of the Church of Scotland, issued the same year with the 
Latin edition of the Harmony, annexed. 

The history of the compilation of the Harmony is thus 
related by Koecher :* — " The rulers and pastors of the 
Reformed Congregations, assembled at more than one of the 
Synods of France, but chiefly at the assembly of Frankfort 
in the year 1577, took counsel occasionally for the writing 
of one common Confession, composed from the several Con- 
fessions of all the Churches; with a view to bring their 
studies and endeavours to bear against the accusations, partly 
of their adversaries who were incessantly reproaching them 
with the multitude and variety of their Confessions, and 
partly of the Lutherans who were at that time meditating the 
Formulary of Concord. . . But when (in apprehension of the 
danger which appeared in departing from the formularies of 
public doctrine received in each and every Church, and sealed 
with the blood of so many martyrs, and instituting a new one 
in their place, as well as for other and weighty reasons) the 
project failed of the result anticipated ; the people of 
Zurich and Geneva suggested the compilation of a Harmony 

printer, (as my learned friend hath ohserved,) with this title, An Harmony 
of the Confessions qf the Rrformed Churches, &c. No douht the printing of 
the hook had the permission of the Archhishop, after some review or cor- 
rection of it.*' — Annals qf the Rrformation, Oxf. 1824, Svo. vol. iii. pt 1. 
pp. 650, 651. hook ii. chap. 8. ann. 1586. That portion of the letter of the 
Archhishop, which refers directly to the Harmony, it may he right to 
extract : — '* I imderstand that there is now in printing hy the printer of that 
University a certain hook, called, ffarmonia Co^fessionum Fidei, in English, 
translated out of Latin ; which hook, for some special causes, was here 
rejected, and not allowed to he printed. These are therefore to require 
you, that presently upon receipt hereof you cause the said hook to he 
stayed from printing any further; and that nothing he done more therein, 
until you shall receive further direction from me." Dated from Croydon, 
the 8th of August, 1586. — Annals, vol. iii. pt. 2. p. 444. Appendix to 
hook ii. No. 18. 

* Bibliotheca Theologies SymboUca et Catechetictp ; itemque Liturgica, 
Cruelph : 1751. 12mo. Whoever hecomes the purchaser of this valuable 
little volume, should take care that he has, what is seldom found, the second 
part, printed at Jena, in 1 769, and containing, among other things of note, 
a Catalogue of the Lihrary of the author. 


OF Confessions, by which all parties might be called back 
to agreement, and any appearance of variation that existed 
might be discussed and explained. The design was accord- 
ingly entrusted to Beza, Daneau, and Salnar, (otherwise 
named Salnard, or Salvart, minister of the Church of 
Castres;*) but was executed chiefly by the last of them.^ 
After a minute description of the volume, (which he truly 
designates opus minime vui^are^J the learned bibliographer con- 
cludes by observing : — ^' In this Harmony of Confessions, 
as being the clearest exposition and surest defence of their 
consent,f the teachers of the Reformed Churches are 
wont exceedingly to glory.*' — Art. clxxiii. pp. 319 — 323, 

The account given by Clement,:^ enumerates some par- 
ticulars unnoticed in the narrative of Koecher. ^^At the 
assembly of Frankfort, in 1577, they had already thought 
of proper means for bringing all the Reformed Churches of 
the Christian world into close combination ; and had given 
commission to prepare a Confession of uniform faith, which 
should be taken and regarded as the general and common 
Confession of all the Protestants. The National Synod of 
the Reformed Churches of France, held at St. Foix, in 1578, 

* " Those who proposed the compilation of this book/* says Walch, 
** were the people of Zurich and Geneva : and no sooner was the preparation 
of it entrusted to Beza, Daneau, and Salnar, than the last of the three 
named was the first to bestow his utmost care in executing it/* — Bihliotheca 
TAeologica Selecta, Jence, 1757, 8vo. tom. i. p. 426. 

t " This compilation/* says Weismanni *' published at Geneva, and con-^ 
sisting of Confessions formerly circulated through all the provinces of 
Christendom, by all the Churches distinguished as Lutheran and Reformed, 
presents a serviceable and necessary collection, and fetches a high price 
among Protestants. In short we wonder, if only for the sake of ecclesiastical 
history, and of the help ensuing to theological studies, that it is not every- 
where reprinted, and brought under the notice and within the reach of 
teachers as well as scholars; particularly if augmented and adapted to the 
present time. And this is probably what would have been done long ago, 
were the disposition of the age we live in more favourable to this kind 
of writings." — IrUroductio in Hlstoriam Sacram, Hal : Mag : 1745, 4to. 
vol. ii. p. 1267. 

X BibUotfieque Curieuse Hittorique et Critique, Gott: et Lips: 1750-60, 
9 vols. 4to. It is greatly to be regretted, that, through the decease of the 
author, this work, which is arranged alphabetically, proceeded no further 
than the middle of the letter H. 


approved this expedient ; and ordered that if the draft of 
this Confession was sent to them in time, it should be 
examined in the provincial Synods. They nominated four 
ministers, namely, Antoine Chandieu, Jean d^Estre, Pierre 
Merlin, and M. Gabert, with charge to assemble themselves, 
accompanied by the Viscount of Turin, in order that they 
might do what was agreed upon in this respect, pursuant to 
their instructions. 

" The National Synod, held at Figeac, in 1579, resolved 
again to seek whatever means were necessary for restoring 
all believers of the particular Confessions of the Ph)testant 
nations to one single common Confession, which might 
afterwards be approved by all the said nations, according 
to the advice and resolutions of the Conference held for 
this purpose at Neustadt, in the month of September, 

<' M. Salnar, seeing that this General Confession did not 
appear, laboured in the mean time to reunite several particular 
Confessions in one single body, by extracting from each the 
passages which referred to the same subject, without altering 
or changing any thing ; and thus formed a General Confession 
from portions of divers particular Confessions^ ranged 
according to the Common-Place-Book. 

^< The National Synod of the Reformed Churches of 
France, held at Vitr6, in 1583, gave their approbation to 
this excellent work of M. Salnar, minister to the Church 
of Castres, as being very necessary; judging also that they 
would be doing a great service, if they had it written in the 
vulgar tongue. This is the reason why the Province of Upper 
Languedoc was charged by this Synod to have it translated, 
and to affix to the said book a Letter of recommendation in 
the name of all the Provinces. 

"The National Synod of Gergeau, held in 1601, sent 
back the French translation of the Harmony of t^e 
Confessions of Faith, made by the late M. Salvart, for 
the Synod of Upper Languedoc to see it, and to judge 
whether it would be expedient to publish it : on condition, 
nevertheless, that they should not publish it, without at the 


same time having the notes of M. Goulart, on the said 
Harmony, translated, in order to print the whole together . . . 

'^ The name of Salvart is given in this last article to the 
author of this Harmony, who is called Salnar in the fourteenth 
article of the Synod of Virtr^: and we are there informed that 
M. Goulart is the author of the Notes on the said Harmony, 
which I reckon to be nothing more than the Brief Observations 
to be found at the end of the Latin edition.^ — torn. vii. pp. 
259, 260. 

Among more recent authorities, that of Augusti claims 
precedence. «*The literary history of this work," he says, 
" seems hitherto obscure ; and in no writer except Hospinian 
(Concordia Discors, Tigur: 1607, p. 92.) have I been able to 
discover a single trace of it He gives the following state- 
ment. That, in the year 1579, the Ministers of the Church 
of Zurich, having received proposals from the assembly of 
Frankfort, held in 1577, under the sanction of Jo. Casimir, 
Ck>unt-Palatine, for a new Confession of Faith, answered in 
these words : — That it would be a safer plan, if they could 
apprize the whole world of their agreement in the doctrine 
of Ssuth by some other means, without having recourse to a 
new Confession. . . That the Confessions already extant could 
be distributed under certain heads, without the alteration 
of a single word, and so reduced into a Harmony; with 
nothing but a brief explanation added to each chapter, 
denoting the agreement that subsisted between all the Con- 
fessions, and removing any such shew of difference as some- 
times arises merely from diversity of language. That this 
book, published in the name of all the Churches in concert, 
and approved by the sufirages of the Princes and Magistrates, 
would prove a most brilliant testimony to the agreement 
prevailing among so many and so famous Churches of 
nations unconnected with each other, and at the same time 
a firm and durable bond for its continuance . . . That they 
had understood that the Ministers of the Genevan Church 
had just the same opinion on the subject, and that Master 
Beza would not refuse them his assistance in the preparation 
of the Harmony. Nor was it long after the inhabitants of 


Zurich had proceeded thus far, when they of Oeneva met 
their recommendations and desires, by publishing, in 1581, 
the Harmonia Confessionum • . • The author has not 
acknowledged his name; but that he was no other than 
Theodore Beza,* the character and style of the work evince.** — 
Dissertatio Historica et Litteraria in Libros Symbolicasj 
pp. 606—609. 

The remarks of Niemeyer are generally to the same 
effect. ^<At the time when the Lutheran divines, at the 
command of Augustus, Elector of Saxony, had just col- 
lected their sjrmbolical books, and were beginning to publish 
their collection under the title of Concordia ; there were also 
certain in the Reformed Church, men of the greatest influence, 
who must needs compose a Harmony of Confessions of 
Faith, in the name of the French and Belgian Churches. 
And this for two reasons: of which the one lay in the 
reproaches urged (and lately repeated with wrath and vehe- 
mence) by the Roman-Catholics, about the multitude and 
discordancy of these Confessions ; the other in the hope (vain 
and deceitful as it proved, yet sincerely entertained by those 
who suggested the expedient) that they might succeed in 
reconciling the minds of dissentients, and uniting all the 
Churches, distracted and separated as they were, in one com- 
mon bond . . . Nor need we doubt who were the authors of 
the Harmony. For the circumstances stated by Hospinian, 
in his Concordia Tigurinoj p. 92 ; by Koecher, in his Biblio' 
theca TheologuB SymboliccRy pp. 320, 321 ; and by D. Clement, 
in his Bihliotheque Historique et Critique^ voL vii. p. 257; 
Liickius has satisfactorily established in his Jnnales Gottin" 
genses^ p. 1, and (with the concurrence of Beckius also, in his 
German translation of the Libri Symboliciy Prsef. p. xxi.) has 
conjectured, with all probability, that the origin of the Har- 

* Leigh, in his TrecUise qf ReUgwn and Learmng^ Lond. 1656, fol. alter 
remarking, ** The Confessions of Faith, &c. are now of late very profitahly 
published to the just conviction of all such as slander the Reformed Churches 
to he variably distracted and rent in sunder with infinite differences of 
faith ;" adds, "Beza hath put out the Harmony cf ConfvmoM with Notes 
upon it." — ch. xiii. p. 169. 


MONY was this, 'llie assembly held at Frankfort, in the year 
1577, under the auspices of Joh. Casimir, the Count-Pa- 
latine, entertained the thought of receiving a new Confession 
of Faith, if not from all, at least from many parts of the Evan- 
gelical Church. Such a project found acceptance chiefly with 
a number of French divines: for the Synods which met in 
France, in the years 1578 and 1579, fell into the sentiments 
of that assembly, and consulted diligently how a new Con- 
fession nvight be composed. But the churches of Zurich and 
Geneva, fearing lest a new Confession might but give occasion 
to new disturbances, instead of following their opinion, ob- 
tained a respite ; and at length entered into a most seasonable 
arrangement with Salvart (or Salnar) for the construction of a 
Harmony, llie work was accordingly undertaken, in the 
year 1581, by the principal divines, (among whom Salvart, 
and Beza, and Daleau are mentioned,) in the name of the 
French and Belgian Churches ; and was so accomplished as 
to issue from the press with public authority, accruing yet 
further to the French from the Synod of Vitre in 1583. 
Even the English were so far from disallowing the Harmony,* 

* Nowhere are the love and liberality of the Christian more beautifully 
displayed in the character of Archbishop Cranmer, than when he appears, 
amidst difficulties abroad and disseutions at home, the peacemaker of the 
European churches. " In the year 1548/' says his biographer Strype, 
" Cranmer propounded a great and weighty business to Melancthon ; and a 
matter that was likely to prove highly useful to all the churches of the 
evangelic profession. It was this : the Archbishop was now driving on a 
design for the better uniting of all the Protestant churches, viz. by having 
one common Confession' and Harmony of faith and doctrine drawn up out 
of the pure word of God, which they might all own and agree in. He had 
observed what differences there arose among Protestants in the doctrine of 
the sacrament, and divine decrees, in the government of the church, and 
some other things. These disagpreements had rendered the professors of 
the gospel contemptible to those of the Roman communion ; which caused 
no small grief to the heart of this good man, nearly touched for the honour 
of Christ his Master, and His true church which suffered hereby : and, like 
a person of a truly public and large spirit, as his function was. seriously 
debated and deliberated with himself for the remedying this evil. This 
made him judge it very advisable to procure such a Confession. And in 
order to this, he thought it necessary for the chief and most learned divines 
of the several churches to meet together, and with all freedom and friend- 
ship to debate the points of controversy according to the rule of scripture : 


that they ordered it to be rendered into their own tongue." — 
Prafatio in Collectianem Confessionum^ pp. v ; viii, ix. 

Who may have been the translator of the Harmony op 
Confessions into English, is a question which the Editor 
regrets that, after all his enquiries, he is still unable to solve.* 
He proceeds therefore at once to state what has been subse- 

and, after mature deliberation, by agreement of all parties, draw up a 
book of articles and beads of Christian faitb and practice, which should 
serve for the standing doctrine of Protestants. 

As for the place of this assembly, he thought England the fittest in 
respect of safety, as the affairs of Christendom then stood; and, commu- 
nicating this his purpose to the king, that religious prince was very ready 
to grant his allowance and protection. And as Helvetia, France, and 
Germany were the chief countries abroad where the gospel was professed, 
80 he sent his letters to the most eminent ministers of each ; namely, to 
Bullinger> Calvin, and Melancthon: disclosing this his pious. design to 
them, and requiring their counsel and furtherance." — MemoriaU qf 
Archbishop Cranmer, Oxf : 1812, 8vo. vol. i. bk. iii. ch. xxiv. pp. 584, 585. 
— " But the troubles at home and abroad frustrated this excellent purpose, 
which for two years he had been labouring to bring to some good issue." — 
ch. XXV. p. 588. 

In later times J. A. Turretin published a volume of testimonials from 
a host of writers, English- as well as continental, recommending the 
adoption of a Harmony op Confessions : the title is, Nubes Testium pro 
Moderato et Pacifico de Rebus Theologids JucUciOf et Instituenda inter Pro- 
testantes Concordia. Francof: 1720, 4to. It is a performance of great interest, 
and seldom met with. The latter portion consists of extracts from the va- 
rious Colloquia, Concordiae, and Consensus, in which the Protestant churches 
of Europe have united for the defence of their common faith. 

• An instance may be here mentioned, however, of the way in which a 
mistake, once committed, quietly passes into the annals of history. In a 
bookseller's catalogue, issued in London two or three years ago, appeared 
a copy of the Ilarmonia Confessionum, with a note taken from a MS. in- 
scription on the fly-leaf, " Theophilus Sincerus, i. e. M. George Jacob, 
recensuit Harm. Conf. 1581." The annotation is transferred into Lowndes's 
British Librarian, (a really valuable work, part iv. col. 450.) as denoting 
the authorship of the volume. The fact is, that Theophilus Sincerus was 
the appellation assumed by a German divine of the middle of the 18th 
century, named George Jacob Schwindel ; who published two bibliogra- 
phical volumes, viz. Bibliotheca Historico-Critica Librorum Opuscuhrumque 
Variorum et Rariorum. Numb: 1736, 12mo. and Notitia Historico-Critica 
Librorum Veterum Variorum. Frankof : 1753, 4to. In the former of these 
(p. 327.) occurs a loose and inaccurate allusion to the Harmonia: and 
the achievement thus commemorated by his own pen, was probably 
neither more nor less than that he had read (and possibly corrected as he 
read) the volume so distinguished. 



queDtly accomplished towards supplying a general and col- 
lective view of the Confessions of the Protestant Churches. 

First in order stands, Corpus et Syntagma Confessianum 
Fideiy qtuB, in diversis Regnh et Natiombus^ Ecclesiarum nomine 
fuerunt authentic^ editcB^ in celeberrimis Conventibus exhi'- 
bitcBj publicaque Anctoritate comprobatcB, Aurel: AUobr: 1612, 
4to. The contents are these : — 1. Confessiones Fidei edit» 
ex Symbolo Apostolico, in Concilio CEcumenico : (I.) Nicoeno; 
(2.) Constantinopolitano Primo; (3.) Ephesino; (4.) Chalce- 
donensi. 2. Confessiones Fidei public^ authoritate compro- 
batae Ecclesiarum, quae doctrinam Evangelicam sunt com- 
plexae: (1.) Helvetica; (2.) Gallica; (3.) Anglicana; (4.) 
Scoticana; (5.) Belgica; (6.) Polonica; (7.) Argentinensis, 
sive Quatuor Civitatum Imperii; (8.)Augustana; (9.) Saxonica^ 
sou Misnica; (10.) Wirtemburgensis ; (11.) lUustrissimi Elec- 
toris Palatini; (12.) Boheraica; (13.) Consensus Ecclesiarum 
Majoris et Minoris Poloniae, Lithuanian, &c. 3. Catholicu& 
Consensus Veterum qui Patres vocantur, Graeci, Latini, Afri- 
cani, in omnibus Fidei Articulis, ex ipsorum expressis sen- 
tentiis copiosc depromptus.*^ The editor, as appears from 
the dedication to the Catholicus Consensus compared with 
the beginning of the Preface, was Caspar Laurentius ; and 
the volume is highly creditable to his judgment and industry. 

Next came a new edition of the same work, but with con- 
siderable alterations : Corpus et Syntagma^ &c. Genev : 1654, 
4to. In this edition the Confession of Helvetia is printed 
from the edition of Zurich, 1651; and the Confession of 
Belgia, as it was revised, corrected, and approved by the 
Synod of Dort, in 1619. At the end are also given (1.) the 
Confession of Basle; (2.) the Judgment of the Synod of 
Dort; (3.) the Confession of Cyril, Patriarch of Constanti- 
nople; and (4.) the General Confession of Reformed Churches 
in Polonia, Lithuania, and the provinces annexed, according 
to the assembly of Thorn. This is a volume of much rarer 
occurrence than the preceding.* In each of them is in- 

• Kcmpius says {Biblwtheca yinglorum Theologica, KcQiomont : 1677, 4to. 
p. 271,) that each of the English Confessions (viz. Jewell's Apology, and 
the Thirty-nine Articles) may he seen in the Harmonia Confessionum : 
he evidently confounds the Harmonia with the Corpus et Syntagma. An- 


sorted a Confessionum Harmonia^ sive Concordantiaj per Arti" 
culos digesta. 

After an interval of a century and a half, appeared (at 
the suggestion of Bishop Cleaver) Sylloge Confessionum sub 
tempus ReformandcB Ecclesice editarum. Oxon : e Typogr. 
Clarend. 1804. 8vo. Contents: — (l.)Profes8io FideiTridentina; 
(2.) Confessio Helvetica; (3.) Augustana; (4.) Saxonica; 
(5.) Belgica; (6.) Catechismus Heidelbergensis ; (7.) Canones 
Synodi Dordrechtanae. A second edition, published (under 
the revision of Bishop Lloyd) in 1827, contains the Augs- 
burg Confession in both shapes: the former, as presented 
to the Emperor Charles V. at the assembly of Augsburg, 
in 1530 ; and the latter, as altered by Melancthon, and laid 
before the diet of Worms, in 1540. 

A more complete collection than any of those which have 
been already mentioned, came into circulation on the con- 

thony Collins repeatedly assigns the title of Harmony qf Coi^essums to the 
Corpus of 1612, in his anonymous volume, An Historical and Critical Essay 
on the Thirty^ne Articles of the Church qf England. Lond. 1724. 8vo. 
pp. 22, 23. Engel (Bibliotheca Selectissima, Bern : 1743, 8vo. pt i. pp. 72; 
73.) and Fahricius (Hist. BibUoth. Fabridana, Wolfenb : 1717-24, 4to. 
pt iii. p. 377.) seem each of them to speak of the Harmonia of 1581 as one 
of several editions, apparently reckoning the Corpus of 1612 and 1654 as 
the others. Salig, in his Historic der Augspurgischen Cot\fession^ Halle, 
1730, 4to. tom. i. p. 384, note d, has not only confounded the Corpus with 
the Harmonia^ but introduced an imaginary edition of the date of 1592 : and 
Buddseus, in his Isagoge Historico-Thcologica, Lips : 1730. 4to. p. 450, makes 
the same mistake. Both these Clement has very properly corrected; 
adding of a third, whose name has already figured, not as the author, but 
the object, of confusion in a former note : ** Theophilus Sincerus goes 
beyond preceding writers in his Neue Satnmlung von R<iren Buchem, Frank- 
fort, 1733, 8vo. p. 326; and, being in possession of the Harmonia Conr 
fessionumt has added to it that which he had read in divers authors touching 
the Syntagma Confessionum : which has produced a chaos that one can only 
clear by comparing it with the descriptions of these two collections." Bib- 
Uotheque Curieuscj p. 261. Walch had formerly confounded them together, 
(see Bibliotheca, p. 426.) but discovered his error, not in time to avoid pub- 
' Ushing it, but in time to set himself right before his readers. The error 
is nevertheless'repeated by Clarisse, (opus repetitum, he calls the Harmonia, 
sed magnoperl mutatum) in his Encyclopcedia Theologica, Lugd : Bat : 
1832, 8vo. p. 438. And even Augusti mistakes the two but for successive 
editions of the same work, till corrected by Niemeyer : see Augusti Disser- 

talio, pp. 606; 611 : and Niemeyer Prrfatio, pp. vi, vii. 

b 2 


tinent the same year with the second edition of the Sylloge issued 
fipom the Clarendon Press. The title is, — Corpus Librorum 
Symbolicorumj qui in Ecclesid Reformatorum Auctoritatem 
Publicam obtinuerunt. Novam CoUectionem instituitf Disser^ 
tationem Historican et Litterariam suhjunxit, et Indices Rerum 
Verborumque adjecit^ Jo. Christ. Guil. Augusti. Elberfeld : 
1827, 8vo. The contents are: — Pars Prima. (1.) Tres Con- 
fessiones Helveticae ; 1, Confessio et Expositio Brevis et 
Simplex Sincerae Religionis Christiana;. 2, Ecclesiarum per 
Helvetiam Confessio Fidei Summaria et Generalis. d, Basi- 
liensis, vel Mylhusiana, Confessio Fidei. (2.) Gallicarum 
Ecclesiarum Confessio Fidei. (3.) Ecdesiae Anglican® Arti- 
culi triginta et novem. (4.) Confessio Scotica. (5.) Con- 
fessio Belgica. (6.) Canones Dordraceni. (7.) Confessio 
Hungarica, in Synodo Czengerina exhibita et declarata. 
(8.) Confessiones Polonicse; 1, Consensus Sendomiriensis. 
2, Thoruniensis Synodi Generalis Canones. — Pars Secunda. 
(9.) Confessio Bohemica. (10.) Confessio Tetrapolitana. (11.) 
Confessio Marchica, sc Joannis Sigismundi Elect. Brandenb. 
(12.) Colloquium Lipsiacum. (13.) Declaratio Thoruniensis. 
(14.) Formula Consensus Helvetica. (15.) Catechismus Ge- 
nevensis. (16.) Catechesis Heidelbergensis. Copies are now 
easily attainable in this country, and at a moderate price. 

But by far the most satisfactory collection has appeared, 
likewise from a continental press, since the present edition of 
the Harmony was commenced. The title is short, — Collectio 
Confessionum in Ecclesiis Reformatis Publicatarum. Edidit Dr. 
H. A. Niemeyer. Lips: 1840, 8vo. A Preface, mostly biblio- 
graphical, extends to near one hundred pages. The contents 
it will be the more necessary to enumerate at length, as, 
by some strange omission, there is neither table nor index. — 
Pars Prima: Confessiones ac Declarationes Fidei, quibus 
Consensus Epclesiarum Reformatarum constitutus mutatusque 
probatur. (1,) Articuli, sive Conclusioncs, Ixvii. H. Zwinglii. 
Germ, et Lat. (2.) Theses Bemenses, Germ, et Lat. (3.) 
Zwinglii Fidei Ratio. (4.) Zwinglii Fidei Expositio. (5.) Ba- 
siliensis Prior Confessio. Germ. etLat. (6.) Helvetica Prior, 
sive Basiliensis Posterior, Confessio. Germ, et Lat. (7.) Cate- 


chismus Genevensis. (8.) CJonsensus Tigurinus. (9.) Con- 
sensus Genevensis. (10.) Confessio Fidei Gallicana. Fr. et 
Lat. (11.) Confessio Scotieana Prior. (12.) Confessio Scoti- 
cana Posterior. (13.) Confessio Belgica. (14.) Catechesis Pa- 
latina, sive Heidelbergensb. Germ, et Lat. (15.) Confessio 
Helvetica Posterior. — Pars Secunda: Confessiones ac Decla- 
rationes Fidei, quae sunt secundi ordinis. (16.) Confessio 
Czengerina. (17.) Consensus Poloniae. (18.) Articuli xlii. 
Edvardi VI. (19.) Articuli xxxix. Anglicani. (20.) Repetitio 
Anhaltina. (21.) Confessio Sigismundi, Electoris Branden- 
burgici. (22.) Colloquium Lipsiense. (23.) Declaratio Thoru- 
niensis. (24.) Canones Dordraceui. (25.) Formula Consensils 
Helvetica. (26.) Confessio Tetrapolitana. (27.) Confessio 
Bohemica Prior. (28.) Confessio Bohemia Posterior. This 
very valuable publication is scarcely yet known in England. 

To these may be added, though of humbler pretensions. 
The Scrij)tural Unity of Protestant Churches exhibited in their 
published Confessions. (Edited by the Rev. D. Stuart, D.D.) 
Dublin, 1835, 12mo. Containing, (1.) Articles of the Irish 
Church. (2.) Articles of the Church of England. (3.) The 
Confession of Faith of the Church of Scotland. (4.) Decla- 
ration of Faith of the Congregational or Independent Dis- 
senters. And also. The Unity of Protestantism^ being Articles 
of Religion from the Creeds of the Reformed Churches. By the 
Rev. John Cumming, M. A. Lond : 1837, 8vo. This is a 
brief Harmony, containing extracts from (1.) The ^Thirty- 
nine Articles of England. (2.) The Latter Helvetic ; (3.) 
The Wirtemburg; (4.) The Basle; (5.) The Bohemian; 
(6.) The Augsburg; (7.) The Belgic; (8.) The Scotch; 
and (9.) The Westminster, Confessions, arranged under 
heads : first appeared in the Protestant Journal for March 
and April, 1837. 

It is remarkable that meanwhile so few of -the Reformed 
Churches have collected their own Confessions of Faith to- 
gether.'^ The Church of Scotland, indeed, has long had such 

* The Church of England has no one volume, or set of volumes, com- 
prising all her Confessions; though she has several compilations of do- 


a compilation ;* the Lutheran Church in Germany has more 
than one complete edition of her Formularies ;f the Protestant 
Church in France has something, though not precisely of the 

cuments more or less complete. First, there was A Collection qf ArtieUi^ 
Injunctions^ Canons^ Orders, Ordinances, and Constitutions Ecclesiastical^ 
with other Public Records of the Church of England, By Anthony Sparrow^ 
(afterwards Bishop of Exeter and of Norwich.) Lond. 1661, 4to. Thrice 
reprinted. A new and more complete edition of this work is needed ; 
hut the impression should be taken from the third edition of 1675, and 
not from the fourth of 1684. The last is commonly called the best; but it is 
in fact a bare reprint of the preceding, and less correct ; though, in point 
of accuracy, neither of them has much to boast. Then came. The State 
of the Church and Clergy of England in their Councils, Synods, Convocations, 
Conventions, and other Public Assemblies; historically deduced from the Con- 
version qf the Saxons to the present time. By William Wake, (Archbishop of 
Canterbiu-y.) Lond. 1703, folio : an uncommon volume, less known and 
valued than it deserves. Soon after followed, Concilia Magna Britanniee 
et Ilibemi^p, ct Synodo Verolam, 446, ad Lond, 1717; accedunt Consti- 
tutiones, et alia ad Hist, Eccles, Angl, spectantia, Cur& Davidis Wilkins. 
Lond. 1737, 4 vols, folio. This great work includes the whole of Sir 
H. Spelman*8 Concilia, Decreta, Leges, Constitntiones, m re EcclesiasticA 
orbis Britannici, Lond. 1639-64, 2 vols, folio. It is a complete rather than 
a correct performance; but excessively rare, and extravagantly dear. 
Lastly, and very lately, have appeared, Documentary Annals qf the Reformed 
Church of England, being a Collection of Injunctions, Declarations, Orders, 
Articles of Enquiry, Sfc, from the year 1546 to the year 1716, with Notes 
Historical and Explanatory, by Edward Card well, D.D. Principal of 
St. Alban's Hall, Oxford. Univ. Press, ia39, 2 vols. 8vo. This is by far the 
most ample and convenient record that exists of the documents of the 
Church of England for the time specified. It can be scarcely necessary to 
mention Ellis's Clergyman s Assistant, being a collection of Statutes, Ordi- 
nances, and Forms, with notes and references relating to the Bights, Duties^ 
and Liabilities of the Clergy. New edition, enlarged. Oxford, Ciar, Press, 
1828, 3vo. It includes the Articles, Constitutions, and Canons ; but falls not 
otherwise within the object at present under notice. 

• A Collection of Cor^fessions of Faith, Catechisms, Directories, Books qf 
Discipline, 8^c, qf Public Authority in the Church of Scotland; together with 
the Acts of Assembly, ^c. by William Dunlop, Edinb : 1719-22, 2 vols, 
8vo. a scarce work, but partially reprinted, with variations and additions, 
from time to time. Also, The Confessions of Faith, and the Books of Disci' 
pline of the Church of Scotland, of date anterior to the Westminster Con-- 
fession ; with Historical Preface and Remarks : by the Rev. E. Irving, 
M. A. Lond. 1831, 12mo. 

t Libri Symbolici Ecclesia Evangelicre Luthcrame ; accuralius editi, et 
Animadversionibus ac Disputationibus illuslrali : a M. Weber. Vitcb : 


kind ; * and the Church of Denmark has recently put forth 
a similar volume : f but beyond these the Editor knows not 
where to look for a collective exhibition of the doctrine and 
discipline of any single Church of Protestantism in Europe.^ 
In the Church of England, at all events, might not the defi- 
ciency be soon and easily supplied ?§ 

A collection of all the orthodox Confessions of Faith, from 
the dawn of the Reformation to the present day,|| whether 
written in or translated into English, is an object hitherto of 
desire rather than of hope.f Meanwhile the Harmony con- 
tinues to maintain its character as a manual the most con- 

1809, Svo. — Libri Symholici EcclesUe Evangelica : recensuit J. A. H. Titt- 
mau. Lips: 1817, Svo. £d. 2da. 1827. — Libri Symbolici Ecclena LutherantB : 
recensuit II. A. G.Meyer. Gott ; 1830, Svo. — Libri Symboiici, tive Concordia, 
Eccletio' EcangeliciB : recensuit C. A. Hasc. 1837, 12mo. 

* ConfessioTis de Foi des EgUsu Rrformces de France et de Suisse ; Suivics 
des 39 Articles de VEgUse AngUcane^ et d'un Fragment de la Confession 
d^ Augsbourg. Montpel: 1825, Svo. 

t Libri Ecclcsite Danicte SymboUci, Edidit J. C. Lindberg. Haunise, 
1830, Svo. 

X Previously to the assembly of the Synod of Dort, a tract (now of rare 
occurrence) was circulated among the parties summoned, from the pen of 
Festus Hommius, containing a sort of abstract of the doctrines of the 
Dutch Church, and entitled, Specimen Controversiarum Belgicarum; seu 
CoT\fessio Ecclesiarum Reformatarum in Belgio : addita est^ Harmonia Syno- 
dorum Belgicarum. Lugd: llat: 1618, 4to. 

§** Jewell's Apology," says Dr. Grier, **(a title, by the way, which should 
never have been given to his incomparable illustration and defence of the 
articles of the Christian faith,) was designed by the Convocation to be 
published in one book together with Noweirs Catechism, (which had at 
this period been presented to them,) and certain Articles touching the 
principal grounds of the [Christian religion, such as had been drawn up 
before the death of Ring Edward VI. This design, however, of har- 
monizing the doctrine of the Church of England was abandoned."— ^pitom^ 
of General Councils. Dublin, 1828, Svo. Appendix, pp. 331, 332. 

11 With some slight omissions, not affecting doctrine, the Articles of the 
Church of England were adopted by the Protestant Episcopal Church of 
North America, in the year 1801. 

^ The Rev. Thomas Scott, in the third appendix to his Answer to Bishop 
Tomline on Calvinisnit Lond : 1812, 2 vols. Svo. has translated nearly thirty 
pages of extracts from the Corpus et Syntagma of 1612. '* A good translation 
of the whole," he says in a note, ** would g^ve our countrymen in general a 
roost important opportunity of judging what preachers and writers have 
deviated from the grand doctrines of the Reformation in all the Churches 


venient for general reference : and having long since become 
excessively scarce, (the English version, more especially, unat- 
tainable, but after patient search and at an exorbitant price,*) 
the Editor proposed to prepare a new edition, distinguished 
by advantages not belonging to those already in existence. 

The Latin edition comprises eleven Confessions : to both 
the English editions (as already stated) is subjoined, in 
Appendix, the Edinburgh Confession of 1581. This Con- 
fession it was determined, in the edition now published, to 
introduce into the body of the work ; and to add, by way of 
Appendix, 1. The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of 
England, according to the last revision of 1 571 ; 2. The West- 
minster Confession, of 1647, adopted by the Church of Scot- 
land ; 3. The Articles, drawn up by Archbishop Usher, and 
agreed upon by the Convocation of the Church of Ireland, in 
1615 ; and 4. The Judgment of the Synod of Dort, pro- 
mulgated, both in Latin and in English, in 1619. 

To correct typographical errors; to veriiy references to 
Scripture ; to reduce the headings into a system of uniformity ; 
occasionally to arrange the divisions of paragraphs more con- 
veniently; to bring the Brief Observations from the close 
of the volume, and place them as notes at the foot of the 
pages to which they respectively refer; and, it might be^ 
now and then to add a brief and humble annotation of his 
own ; this was all the Editor at first meditated attempting for 
the improvement of the body of the work. But he had not 
proceeded many pages through the very first sheet, before he 
discovered that, if he would do justice to the Harmon i a Con- 
FEssioNUM, he must go much further. The translation had 
been evidently made both ignorantly and carelessly ; so care- 
lessly indeed and so ignorantly, as to be often unintelligible, 
and quite as often expressive of a sense very different from, and 

throughout Europe; and who have constantly adhered to them."— vol. 
ii. p. ult. 

• The Harmony of the Rearmed Churches in the Article qf the Trinity 
is printed, to the extent of eighty pages, in The Doctrine of the Blessed 
Trinity stated and defended by some London Ministers. Lond: 1719, 8vo. The 
tract is connected with the Lectures delivered at Salters* Hall. 


even opposite to, the design of the passage translated. For the 
purpose of saving himself trouble, he had better undertaken a 
new translation altogether : but this was neither what he had 
promised, nor what he still considered, on the whole, the most 
satisfactory method for adoption. Having begun, therefore, 
by collating the two editions of the English together, so far as 
to ascertain that the latter was simply a repetition of the 
former, errors of the press included ; he next proceeded to col- 
late the English with the Latin, altering none but actual 
departiu*es from the original, and endeavouring, in all such 
alterations, to preserve the style and manner of the original. 
Nor was it always that a difficulty could be removed even 
thus : sometimes it became necessary to have recourse to the 
Confessions, either as preserved in subsequent collections, or as 
existing separately in their primitive shapes; and two or three 
instances occurred, where, after all, there still remained a doubt 
to be noticed in a note below. Besides the Tables of Contents, 
which have been carefully revised throughout, an Alphabetical 
Index is now for the first time added, the production of the 
Rev. Thomas Timpson, author of several publications on the 
history and doctrines of Christianity.* 

A word of warning to the Reader, and that shall be all. If 
he expects, in an examination of the Harmony of Con- 
fessions, to find such an identity even of sentiment, much 

* On the subject of Confessions in general, a good deal of information 
will be found in Butler's Historical and Literary Account of the Formularies, 
Confessions of Faith, or Symbolic Books, of the Roman' CathoUc, Greek, and 
principal Protestant Churches, London, 1816, 8vo* Also, in Marheineke's 
Institutiones Symbolicce, Doctrinarum Sitmmam et Discrimina Exhibentes* 
Berol : 1830, 12mo. To which, for general remarks, may be added, Dunlop's 
Account of the Ends and Uses qf Creeds and Confessions of Faith. Lond : 1724, 
8vo. Graham's Review of Ecclesiastical Establishments in Europe, Lond : 
1796, 8vo. Rose's Letter to the Bishop qf London, in Reply to Pusey*s Causes 
of Rationalism in Germany. Lond : 1829, Svo. And Hoefling de Symbolorum 
Naturd, Necessitate, Auctorilate,atqueUsu. Erlang: 1835, Svo. Dr. Mason's 
Plea for Catholic Communion in the Church qf God, New York, 1816, 8to, 
a volume of deep and lively interest, published the same year in London, 
with corrections, has been followed by Schmucker's Fraternal Appeal t^ 
the American Churches, together with a Plan for Catholic Union on Apostolic 
Principles. Gettysb : (Pcnns :) 1837, 8vo. This last the Editor can only 
name, not having yet succeeded in procuring a copy from America. 


more of expression, pervading the variety of topics discussed 
in the following pages, as might be arranged to advantage, 
like a Harmony of Scripture, in parallel columns, he will 
certainly experience a disappointment. The Churches here 
represented are all Protestant, but not equally Protestant; 
all conformed, but not all to the same extent, or with the same 
precision, to the ordinances of Holy Scripture. Doubtless this 
is a circumstance to be regretted, and yet not altogether void 
of use to the honest and serious enquirer. He will observe 
how far it is possible for the children and churches of God 
to differ in matters of secondary moment, and yet to walk 
together in mutual charity and forbearance; nay more, in 
fellowship with God the Father, and with Jesus Christ his 
Son, through the Spirit. He will feel, that, as there is a line 
of demarcation, plain and palpable, between those who serve, 
and those who serve not, God, so there is but one line : and 
that while consent in every other point can do nothing, 
actually nothing, towards effecting a community of men, where 
the love of Christ is not ; so that, where the love of Christ is, 
diversity in all things else can accomplish next to nothing 
towards separating the community of saints from one another. 
In this light he will view the discrepancies that appear in 
smaller things, with scarcely less interest than the concord 
exhibited in greater things, as he casts his eye from page 
to page over the Harmony of Protestant Confessions. 

And here the Editor concludes a task, certainly not the 
longest, but, he believes he may say, the most tedious and 
troublesome on which he has ever been engaged : and, with 
the present, he concludes, at least for a time, his engagements 
with the pen and in the press. For seventeen years he has 
toiled hard at an occupation, from which but few have derived 
a compensation either in health or wealth : it is something, to 
have laboured (if it may be so) not altogether without use- 
fulness to others. 

Passionately addicted to the pursuits of literature, the 
writer (may he crave indulgence for the first time he has ever 
alluded to himself in public ?) had ventured into print before 
he came of age. The next eight years he devoted mostly 


to antiquarian and topographical researches. From that time, 
being called of God in Christ Jesus to the love of better 
things, he has directed his endeavours, almost exclusively, 
to the promulgation of the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and 
Him crucified, among men. On the whole, he has written 
more perhaps (as may be seen, in part, by the list of pub- 
lications attached to the present volume) than almost any 
of his contemporaries within the same term of years. And 
what he has written, he has written on his own judgment, 
and at his own responsibility. He has never found, and 
he has never sought, a patron. In the journals of literary 
criticism, he has met with less encouragement than many who 
have laboured less honestly and less assiduously. The Evan- 
gelical Reviews and Magazines, especially, (to say nothing of 
adversaries and opponents,) have treated his productions gene- 
rally with avoidance and neglect. There was a time (it is 
now long past) when a word of kindness from those who 
were possessed of influence among professors of the faith of 
the Gospel, might have mitigated the weight of many a sorrow, 
and arrested the violence of many a persecution, in the expe- 
rience of a babe in grace. But the Lord had ordained other- 
wise: he chose to take his own adopted by the hand, and to 
lead him by a way that he knew not. So owned, and so led, 
he has proved, in cases out of number, the faithfulness of Him 
that promiseth, who also will do it Even in his publications, 
whether written or edited, he has had more than a common 
share of success. Of the former, he is not aware of one,* and, 
of the latter, of not more than one,f that has failed of drawing 
attention, and remunerating the time and money spent on it ; 

♦ Of his written works, if he might be allowed to mention one rather 
than another, he would express his thankfulness to Almighty God for the 
success attending his little volume, entitled Congregational Reform. Within 
seven years after its appearance, he had the happiness not only of knowing 
the effect it had taken upon minds far more capable of grappling with 
ecclesiastical difficulties than his own, but of seeing several of the most 
unlikely of its suggestions carried fully and happily into execution. 

t Of his edited works he will also take the liberty of alluding but to 
one ; the one on which he bestowed more pains than on any other, (and he 
has always striven for accuracy of matter, if not for variety of illustration,) 


while most of them have passed, without art or effort, beyond 
a iSrst edition. 

But the reward of labour is rest. And the Editor has had of 
late but too unequivocal demonstrations of the necessity of 
retirement for awhile from the altemadons of excitement 
and fatigue, inherent in theological, as well as other studies. 
He trusts the effort he now makes may be owned and 
honoured, far beyond its merits, by the Spirit of God, and 
may find acceptance with the disciples and followers of the 
Lamb. He prays God to bless the reader, whoever he may 
be ; and begs, in return, an interest in the intercessions of his 
brethren before the throne of grace. 

39, &'mith Street, Chelsea. 

Novembtr 6th, 1841. 

yet the only one which seemed to fall unnoticed to the ground: the 
Memoirs and Remains qf Bishop Lowth» A relation of the family of the 
deceased, after appearing (to the Editor at least) to sanction the desig^n in 
private, attacked the volume rather unceremoniously, when published, in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, as containing Sermons printed from MSS. impro- 
perly attributed to that learned writer. To these remarks, extending to 
considerable length, the Editor (such was, and probably is, in some depart^ 
ments, the state of periodical literature!) was not permitted to reply 
through the same channel of communication. He therefore takes the 
present opportunity of saying, with respect to the MSS. in question, that, 
weighing outward evidences which are favourable, against inward evi- 
dences which are unfavourable, to their authenticity, he believes that 
they both were, and were not, the productions of the Bishop: that 
they were composed by him, but not for publication ; delivered by him 
from the pulpit, but committed to writing, probably without his sanction, 
by some of his numerous hearers and admirers. And on this account the 
Editor now begs to signify his regret, that he included them among the 
Remains of Bishop Lowth. 



Ambrose in a certain place saith notably, ' There ought to be no strife, 
but conference, among the servants of Christ.* For, seeing the dulness 
of man*s understanding, especially in heavenly matters, is such, that we 
cannot ofttimcs perceive matters otherwise very plain, it can by no means 
be denied, but that by mutual conference, and friendly and brotherly 
debating of the matter, we come to very great light. And that especially 
seemeth profitable and needAil, that some should be set on edge by others: 
that those things which the Lord hath particularly bestowed upon the several 
members of the church, may redound to the common benefit of the whole 
body; and that, all sinister affection set apart, Christ, who is the Father's 
wisdom, and the only Master and Teacher of the Church, may be heard; 
and, as he is the Prince of Peace, may so, by his Spirit, join together our 
minds, thati if it be possible, we may all think one and the same thing in 
the Lord. But to strive, to brawl, and fiercely and frowardly to contend 
as fencers do, is so far from becoming men that are taught of God, as that 
it is not seemly for modest or civil persons. And if so be that in all, yea 
even in the very least affairs of man's life, that rule of modesty is to be 
kept, what, I pray you, is to be done, when we are in hand with God and 
God's matters ? Surely, holy things are holily and devoutly to be handled, 
in the fear of God, and love of our neighbour : who, if he go out of the 
way, is by the spirit of meekness to be called back again ; but if he take 
the right way, he is more and more to be instructed therein, to the end it 
may appear, that we are not driven by any motion of man, but that in 
all things our minds are ruled and governed by God. 

Yet, alas ! such is the spot and stain of our times, that the rage of writing 
any thing, and so of railing, hath seized upon the wits and minds, not of 
mean men only, hut even of those whom it most of all behoved to do the 
clean contrary. The rabble of Jesuits, and such other like fellows , (whose 
very reward is the wages of bondage and evil-speaking,) how shamelessly 
and outrageously they are carried against us and the truth ; and with what 
bitterness they cast out against ua such things as they have been taught 
in the school of shamclessness ; it may be sufficiently perceived of any man. 
For they, when they feel themselves pressed with most strong reasons, and 
overcome with express places of scripture, they run to cavils and slanders. 



as to the only refuge of their errors. They say we have revolted from the 
Catholic Church, that we might follow the divers iinaginatioos of men : 
they cry aloud that we are heritics. schismatics, and sectaries, and they 
ofttimes in mockage call us Confessionists : and moreover they lay in our 
dish, that we neither agree with ourselves, nor with others who detest the 
Bishop of Rome ; hut that there are as many religions among us, as there are 
Confessions of Faith. And that they may seem to procure credit to them- 
Helves, and to give a check to the German Churches especially, they bring 
forth both certain other writings, and especially that Form of Agreement 
of late published in Germany, in which there are certain things to be 
seen far differing from those ancient Confessions of Faith, which tlie 
Churches of the Gospel have even since the beginning griven out. But let 
them so think, that the fault of heresy is not to be laid upon those, whose 
faith altogether relieth on most sure grounds of scripture : that they are 
no schismatics, who entirely cleave to God*s Church, such as the prophets 
and apostles do describe it unto xis : nor to be accounted sectaries, who 
embrace the truth of God, which is one, and always like itself. And what 
do they mean, I pray you, by the name of Confessionists, so often repeated ? 
For if every man be commanded to make confession of his faith so often 
as God's glory and the edifying of the Church shall require ; what a won- 
derful or strange thing ought it to seem, if cities, if provinces, if whole 
kingdoms have made profession of their faith, when they were falsely 
charged by the popish sort, that they had gone from the doctrine of the 
true believing Church? But they will say, there ought to be one Confession 
of Faith, and no more : as though, forsooth, a Confession of Faith were to be 
valued rather by the words than by the thing itself. What, therefore, will 
they say to our ancestors, who, when they had the Apostles' Creed, yet, for 
all that, set out the Nicene, Chalcedonian, and many more such like 
Creeds ? Those Creeds, say you, were general. Yea, surely ; but so general, 
that a great part of the world in those older times followed the frantic 
heresies of the Arians, whom our godly forefathers, by setting forth those 
Creeds, desired to bring home into the Church again. ' The truth,' saith 
Hilary, ' was by the advice and opinions of bishops many way^ sought, 
and a reason of that which was meant was rendered by several Confessions 
of Faith set down in writing:' and, a little after: 'It ought to seem no 
marvel, right well beloved brethren, that men's faiths began to be declared 
80 thick; the outrage of heretics layeth this necessity upon us.' Thus 
much said Hilary. What, that Athanasius, Augustine, and many other 
ancients, set forth their Creeds also, that the purity of christian faith might 
more and more shine forth? Therefore if kingdoms, cities, and whole 
provinces have separately made confession of their faith, this was the cause 
thereof; for that hitherto the state of the times hath not suffered that a Gene- 
ral Council of all those who profess the Reformed Religion might beholden. 
Which should it once come to pass, (and the Lord grant that the Churches 
may at length enjoy so great a benefit!) then there may be one only Confession 
of Faith extant, conceived in the same words, if the state of the Churches shall 
seem to require it. Let them, therefore, leave off in mockage to term us 
Confessionists; unless perhaps they look for this answer at our hands, that 


fit is a far more excellent thing to bear a name of confessing the faith, than 
of denying the truth. For even as more small streams may flow from 
one spring, so more Confessions of Faith may issue from one and the 
Bame truth of faith. 

Now, to speak somewhat also of those, who, while they will seem to 
embrace the truth of the gospel, and renounce Popish errors, shew themselves 
more imjust toward us than was meet they should, we are compelled to find 
want of Christian charity in them. This one thing indeed was remaining, 
that, after so many dangers, losses, banishments, downfals, woes without 
number, griefs and torments, we should also be evil entreated by those, of 
whom some comfort was rather to be looked for. But that ancient enemy 
of the Church (by whose subtleties this evil is also wrought for xis) is far 
deceived, while he hopeth that we may by his crafts be overwhelmed. But 
bearing ourselves bold on that love, which the merciful God, through Jesus 
Christ our Lord, beareth unto us, (and who hath planted a love and fear of 
Him in our minds,) we leap for joy in these very things and boast; with the 
apostle, that it will never be (the same grace of God always preventing us) 
that tribulation, anguish, hunger, nakedness, the sword, false accusation, 
or evil-speaking shall withdraw us from the truth once known and 
undertaken. For we know that sa3ring of Chrysostom to be true, ' It is not 
evil to suffer, but to do, evil.' Neither are we any wit disgraced hereby, 
but they Whom I know not what distemperature whetteth against us, 
having deserved nothing. And to repay them like for like, quitting- railing 
with railing, far be it from us, whom God vouchsafeth this honour, that, 
being fashioned like to the image of his Son, we might through good report 
and evil report walk on, upholden with the stay of a good conscience. Yea, 
we have resolved with ourselves not only to abide the open wrongs of our 
enemies, but even the disdain of our brethren, although never so unjust. 

And what we furthermore think of the doctrine of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Confession of our Faith, set forth many years ago, hath made it known 
to the whole world : and we have God, and angels, together with men, 
witnesses of that sincere endeavour, by which we laboured, and do as yet, 
to the uttermost of our power, labour, to set up again and maintain the 
pure worship of God among us out of God's word. 

But even as we shewed ourselves to be ready at all times to render a 
reason of the hope that is in us ; so we thought it a matter worth the pains, 
to make all men privy to that bond which on our part is very strait 
with the holy and truly catholic Church of God, and with every saint and 
sound member thereof: that, so far as we can, we might deliver, partly oiur- 
selves, partly the Churches joined with xis, from those most grievous 
crimes, which by some men's speeches and books are laid to our charge. 
And when we bethought ourselves by what means it might best be done, 
this especially for the present time seemed a meet way unto us, which 
would give offence to no man, and might satisfy all that would yield unto 
reason; namely, to publish tliis Harmony of Confessions, whereby it 


might lufficicntly be understood, how falsely we arc charged, at thofogh 
we, that have rejected Popish errors, agreed not at all among ourselves. 
For, to begin with those stout maintainers of the Romish tyranny, who 
will yet seem to be defenders of the truth : this conference of Confesdons 
will pluck every vizard from their faces, whcnas it shall plainly appear, 
that all the opinions in these Confessions of Faith were in other sundiy 
words so laid down, that yet the same truth always abideth, and there is 
none at all, or very little, difference in the things themselves. And how 
narrow must they need perceive the bounds of that their Catholic Church 
to be, when it shall be openly known, that so many kingdoms, provinces, 
dtiesy peoples, and nations, professing the truth of the Gospel, do with 
common consent renounce the abuses and errors of the Romish Church ! 
As for those whom (without any desert) it pleaseth to count us among the 
Arians and Turks, they shall see also how far, through the benefit of God, 
we be from such heinous and wicked errors. They also, who accuse us of 
sedition, shall perceive how reverently we think of the dignity of kings, and 
the Magistrate's authority. And to conclude ; they that, not being content 
with those public Confessions of the Churches of Germany, may, by lay- 
ing against us that form of new agreement, seem worthily more and more 
desiroxis to sever themselves from us, and who have already very pithily been 
refuted by most learned writings, they also shall, if true agreement be 
earnestly sought, be satisfied with this Harmony. For (that we may 
freely speak as it is indeed) the long rank of names sealed and written in 
that book is such, that it seemeth rather to stand idly in the field, than to 
fight manfUly. 

And if it had pleased us to follow this policy, we might have set down 
the names not of seven or eight thousand mean men (most famoxis Princes 
and some other excepted), of whom it may worthily be doubted, whether 
there ever were any such, or what they were ; but also the names of far 
more Churches. And this our diligence had been far more commendable, 
being bestowed, forsooth, not in wringing and begging from village 
to village some hundreds of names, but in laying out the opinions of most 
gracious Kings, most renowned Princes, of noble nations and peoples, of 
most mighty commonwealths and cities: of which a great part hath not 
been used to dispute in comers, or to trifle, but hath known these many 
years how even unto blood to suffer many and grievous things for the sake 
of God*s truth. But we know that the truth hath not its warrant from men, 
nor by men : it is simple, it will be simply published and taught. There- 
fore we are purposed for this time not to deal by any long disputation with 
any man, but barely to open the meaning of the Reformed Churches, to 
knit all the Churches of Christ together with one bond of brotherly love, 
to keep peace with all men, and, so far as it ought to be done, to judge well 
of all men : yea, and to entreat those, who think somewhat too hardly of 
us, that, if we disagree from the Confession of no Church that doth truly 
believe, they would themselves also begin to be of the same mind with us, 
and quietly and soberly confer with their brethren, of what things they 
shall think good, rather than themselves also slander and give the adversaries 


occasion to rail upon the Gospel. But if they will not do it, let this public 
and everlasting monument bear witness to all that come after, that we and all 
of our side are and shall be free not only from the gprievous reproaches 
with which we are undeservedly laden, but also without blame of all the 
hurlyburlies and dissentions that have been hitherto* and that are perad- 
venturelike (which God forbid !) to be more grievous, unless help be speedily 
given on both sides. 

And seeing in this Harmony we speak not only with our own, but also 
with the mouth of all those nations, whose Confessions we have brought 
into one form of one and the same doctrine ; we hope it will come to pass 
that not so much the several names of the French, Belgian, and other Con- 
fessions shall hereafter be heard, as that one only universal, simple, plain, 
and absolute Confession of all the Churches (speaking as it were with one 
and the same tongue of Canaan) shall be seen : and that they who were 
thought to be far wide (as hath hitherto not altogether without desert by 
reason of over many men*s private writings been thought of xis and the bre- 
thren of the Confession of Augsburg) that these (if so be that men keep with- 
in the bounds of the Confessions, and all cavilling and sophistry be laid asidct 
and as well faithful as favourable exposition be admitted) shall be thought 
very nearly to agree in all things. And this was the cause why we desired 
to put the Confession of Augsburg, together also with those of Saxony and 
Wirtemburg, in this Harmony ; that it might be the more easily known, 
both that we agree with them in all particular points of faith, and that 
there are very few matters hanging in controversy between xis. For con- 
cerning that doubt about the Lord's Supper, in the thing and of the thing 
itself there is no strife : we differ in certain adjuncts and circumstances of 
the thing. In the thing itself, I say, we agree : although, as the gifts of 
God are divers, so some do more plainly, some do not so plainly, and 
perhaps not so fitly, utter that which they think. For we all acknowledge 
that the holy signs have not a bare signification ; but that by the ordinance 
of God they assure our consciences that the things themselves are as truly 
and certainly given of God to all that come, as the signs themselves are 
given by God's minister. But this question remaineth : whether, as the 
sign, so also the present thing itself, be given to the body; or rather the 
present sign be given to the body, but the present thing given only to the 
mind and faith : again, whether, as both be given to all, so both be received 
of all ; of some unto life, and of other some unto death. In like sort, we 
all believe the true communication of the true body and the true blood 
of our Lord Jesus Christ : the controversy standeth in the manner of 
communicating. But who may therefore of right think, that the holy 
unity of the Churches is to be plucked asunder? That they of our side 
were always desirous of peace and agreement, the history of the con- 
ference at Marburg, and such things as were afterward done in the year 
1536, do sufficiently witness. 

Moreover, so often as there appeared any hope of agreement, it is clear 
that there was no other cause but the importunity of some certain men, 



why, new and sudden brawls being raised, the matter could not come to, 
or long continue in, that agreement which was hoped for. For that we may 
let pass very many other things, although in the beginning it was openly 
known among all, that there was no controversy between us (no, not so 
much as the very Papists excepted) in the opinion about worshipping the 
mystery of the holy Trinity ; lo, about the latter end, that unhappy 
monster of ubiquity came forth, which, if it be admitted, will quite over- 
throw the true doctrine of Christ's person, and his natiu-es. Hence then 
come the distractions of Churches, hence come so deadly quarrellings. 
But seeing this whole matter hath been oflen handled by many learned 
men, it is no time for us to deal any further therein. For it is sufficient 
for us to shew, in few words, that our men (so far as was possible) always 
provided for the peace of the Church. 

Neither truly hath any man cause (after the example of certain mode- 
rators, such as not long since have been) why he should persuade him- 
self that we would here of this hotch-potch of opinions make a certain 
medley, as it were, of contrary qualities. But we leave all things whole, 
that every one may so know his own words, being compared with the 
sayings of others, that he shall find nothing forged, nothing taken away, 
nothing added, or wrested. And, to conclude ; the form and drift of this 
whole work, if it be more narrowly viewed, shall not unworthily be judged 
a sound body of Christian doctrine, framed and allowed by the writings, 
and as it were by the common-council, of the godly Churches well nigh of 
all Europe. For here all the chief points of our religion, being discussed 
and approved, are, by the public authority of all the chief nations in 
Christendom, with one consent published and knit together. Yet we must 
confess (as we afore touched) that through the manifold and busy brawl- 
ings of private persons, and glosses (as men conmionly speak), the question 
had been brought far from the grounds thereof to things clean besides the 
purpose, and impertinent. For first there began to be dealing only about 
the supper : then it came to Christ's ascension and sitting in heaven : and, 
within a while after, to the personal union of both his natures. And what 
stay will there be in the end? For many (by all men's leave be it spoken) 
seem to be delighted with this continual striving, that howsoever, and 
at whatsoever cost, they might not be unknown. But it becometh the 
disciples of Christ to seek peace, and to despise glory. For, as Bernard 
saith, ' They that despise peace, and seek after glory, they lose both 
peace and glory.' Away therefore with those speeches, I am qf Paul, 
I am of Cephas; and let that one sajdng be heard, I am ChrisVs, T am 
the Churches. 

Tliere is something that may be misliked ; yet there are very many, 
things that may well be liked. The same ground work of faith abideth ; 
let therefore the same love continue: and let us not think much to take 
them for brethren, whom God vouchsafeth to take for sons ; neither let us 
despise those, for whom Christ despised himself. That thing is assiu-edly 
true, and very much liked of us, that nothing in holy doctrine is to be 


thought of BTnall importance : but rather tliat even in the least points 
thereof a certain faith and fiill assurance is required, flat contrary to the 
wavering of the academics. Yet cannot we approve of too much peevisli- 
ness, through which some do straightway upon verj' small occasion call their 
brethren heretics, schismatics, ungodly, Mahometans. Let these speeches 
be thrown out against atheists, epicures, libertines, Arians, Anabaptists, and 
lach like mischievous persons, which desire to have the Lord's field 
utterly destroyed : but let us every day grow in faith and love ; and let 
us teach the flocks committed to our charge, to fear God, to hate vices 
and follow after virtues, to deny the world and themselves : obeying the 
commandment of our Lord and Teacher, Jesus Christ ; who biddeth us not 
to brawl* but to love each other; whose example in governing the Church if 
we will follow, we shall raise those that are afllicted, lil^ up those that are 
fiallen, comfort the feeble, waken the drowsy, and not negligently denounce 
God'i wrath against sins ; we shall draw out the sword of the same word 
(which if no blunt one) against hypocrites, wolves, dogs, swine, goats ; and, 
to condude, against all wicked ones, which in our Churches mingle them- 
selves with the true sheep, and which cause the word of God to be evil 
spoken of. This were a far better thing, surely, than that which some do, 
busying the sharpness of their wit in making of certain trifles, that for- 
sooth the knowledge of such subtleties may shake out of our minds all 
conscience. It was justly said that the strength of the Gospel was 
weakened through the thorny subtleties of school- questions : and we, 
through our wayward disputations, what else do we, than cause that the 
authority thereof be not strengthened, but rather weakened, and even 
stagger among the wicked ? We read it excellently written in Livy, a very 
grave writer, ' that not only grudges, but also wars, have an end ; and that 
oftentimes deadly foes become faithful confederates, yea, and sometimes 
citizens: and that by the same speeches of the people of Rome, very 
bitter or cruel enmities have been made up between men of great account.' 
And that which these few words wrought with the heathen, shall not 
piety toward God obtain at the hands of Christians, of divines, and of 
pastors of Churches ? Yea, if the travail of reading and diligently ex- 
amining and conferring of this book shall not be irksome, if upright and 
nncere judgment, if not prejudicate opinions but the love of one truth 
shall bear sway in all men*s hearts, it will shortly obtain it That old 
contention about the celebrating of Easter, very hotly tossed to and fro, 
for two hundred years, or thereabout, between the Greeks and the Latins, 
was long since by us thought worthy of laughter : but we must take good 
heedf lest, in a matter not altogether unlike, we seem to be wiser then both, 
if so be that we desire to have the Church whole, and not to leave it rent 
unto posterity, and would have ourselves be counted not foolish among 
men, and not stubborn in the sight of God. There hath scarce been any 
age, which hath in such sort seen all Churches following altogether one 
thing in all points, so as there hath not always been some diflerence, either 
in doctrine, or in ceremonies, or in manners : and yet were not Christian 
Churches through the world therefore cut asunder, unless peradventure 
then, when the Bishop of Rome brake off all agreement, and tyraimically 

c 2 


enjoined to other Churches, not what ought to be done, but what liimself 
would have observe. But the Apostles did not so. Barnabas indeed de- 
parted from Paul, and Paul withstood Peter, and surely for no trifle : and 
yet the one became not more enemy or stranger to the other, but the self- 
same Spirit, which had coupled them from the beginning, never suflered 
them to be disjoined from themselves. It is the fashion of Romanists to 
command, to enforce, to press, to throw out cursings, and thunder excom- 
munications upon the heads of those that whisper never so little against 
them : but let us, according to the doctrine of the Holy Ghost, sufier, and 
gently admonish each other : that is, keeping the groundwork of faith, 
let us build love upon it, and let us jointly repair the walls of Sion lying in 
their very ruins. 

It remaineth, that through the same Lord Christ we beseech our 
reverend brethren in the Lord, whose Confessions published we set forth, 
that they take this our pains in good part ; and suffer us to lean, as it 
were to a certain stay, on the common consent of the Reformed Churches, 
against the accusations and reproaches of the common adversaries of the 
truth. But it had been to be wished, that we might at once have set out 
all the Confessions of all the Reformed Churches : but because we had them 
not all, therefore we set out them only that were come to our hands ; to 
which the rest also, so far as we suppose, may easily be drawn. And we also 
could have wished, that the matter might have been communicated to 
all the Reformed Churches. But whenas the state of our Churches 
seemed to press forward, and not to abide any longer delay, the right 
well beloved brethren will pardon us, with whom, by reason of the 
time, we could not impart both the Harmony itself, and the Observa- 
tions, as also the intent of this whole edition. Whereas moreover we 
have put more than one Confession of one and the same nation, as of 
Augsburg and Saxony, as also the Former and Latter of Helvetia, that was 
not done without cause ; for besides that one expoundeth another, we 
thought it good also hereby to rid them from all suspicion of inconstancy 
and wavering in opinion, which the adversaries are wont to catch at, by 
such repetitions of Confessions. 

Yet why we would not add some Confessions of the brethren of Bohemia, 
often repeated, we will shew cause hereafter: and we hope that our 
reason will easily be liked of them. But we have set down everywhere 
two, yea and in some places three, editions of Augsburg, for this respect, 
lest in this diversity we might seem to have picked out that which rather 
favoured our side, and to have utterly misliked the other. Wherein not- 
withstanding we have not everywhere followed the order of times in 
which every of them came to light ; but the copy which we had in our 
hands, printed at Wirtemburg, 1572, with a double edition. And we have 
therefore thought it meet to pass over the Apologies adjoined to the Con- 
fessions (as of Augsburg, Bohemia, Sueveland, and England,) as well that 
the work might not grow to be exceeding big, as also that we might not 
seem rather to increase disputations and controversies, than to make an 
Harmony of doctrine. 
And as for our Observations, our mind was to meet the cavils of 


sophiiten, who we know well enough will take hold on the least matters, 
that they may therehy set us on work. Wherefore, lest they should charge 
us with having set out a Discord rather than a Concord of Confessions, we 
have added in the end very short Ohservations ; in which we lay open those 
things which might seem somewhat obscurely spoken, and« giving them an 
interpretation, do favourably and freely expound those things, which 
either have, or seem to have, any shew of repugnancy. And we beseech 
the brethren to bear with us therein, as the most distressed, and desirous 
of the peace and agreement of the Churches, among those who in these 
last times have embraced the truth of the Gospel. For God forbid, that 
we should desire to be counted censiu-ers of others, who are ready rather 
to be taught of our brethren, and to be strengthened in this race of truth, 
which is begun ! We would therefore have them so to think, that these 
Observations are laid before them, that they may judge of them, and may, 
if they shall think it anywhere needful, better and more fitly declare 
their own opinion, and in the mean while accept of our pains. 

Ye, therefore, most gracious Kings, Dukes, Earls, Marquesses, most famous 
Barons, and noble Lords, ye Cities and Commonwealths, ye most wise 
Pbstors, Doctors, and, to be short, all Christian people, professing the truth 
of the Gospel, be present in soul and body, and suffer not the poison of dis- 
cord to spread any farther : but kill this hurtful serpent, and receive with 
a Christian mind, as is meet, and as is offered unto you, this most sure 
token and earnest of the everlasting friendship of the French and Belgian 
Churches with you, offered to you in the face of the whole world ; that we, 
being by a friendly league coupled together in Christ, may vanquish all 
antichrists, and may sing that hymn to the Lord our God, " Behold, how 
good and joyful a thing it is, brethren, to dwell together in unity f Psa. 
Gzxxiii. 1. 



I. The Confession of Augsburo was first presented in the German 
tongue at the city of Augsburg, in the year 1530, to ttTe Emperor Charles 
the Fifth, by certain most renowned Princes of Germany, and by other 
States of the sacred empire, whom they call Protestants. Secondly, the 
self-same year, it was set forth and published in Latin, at Wirtemburg, 
somewhat corrected in certain articles, with a Preface, and the subscription 
of the authors' names. 

II. The Confession op the Four Cities was presented, both in the 
German and also in the Latin tongue, to the same most sacred Emperor 
Charles the Fifth, in the same assembly held at Augsburg, in the same year, 
by the ambassadors of the cities of Strasburg, Constance, Meiningen, 
and Linden. Both which we have in certain Articles compared together, 
that our readers might have the one made more ample by the other. And 
we have therefore in the tides called it the Confession of Sueveland, 
for that those four cities, by whom it was presented, are commonly counted 
neighbours to Sueveland. 

III. The Confession of Basle was first written in the German tongue, 
about the year 1532, by the ministers of the Church of Basle, and by com- 
mon subscription allowed of the pastors of Strasburg. Then again in 
the year 1561, it was both recognised and received by the same ministers 
of Basle. Afterward also it was published in the German tongue, with a 
Preface, by the magistrates of Milan in their own name, as though it had 
been that Church's own Confession. And at last it was turned into Latin. 
Which, as more ancient then the rest of the Confessions of Helvetia, we 
have thought good should be set down here also, and do sometimes call 
it likewise the Confession of Mulhausen. 

IV. The Former Confession of Helvetia was written at Basle about 
the year 1536, in the behalf of all the Churches of Helvetia, and sent and 
presented to the assembly of divines at Wirtemburg by Master Bucer and 
Master Capito. In the year following, viz. 1537, it was again propounded, 
together with the Declaration thereof, to the assembly of Smalcald by Bucer 
himself, and allowed of that whole assembly, namely, of all the divines 
and degprees of Protestants ; as Luther his own Letters to the Helvetians do 
testify. The Declaration in Latin was itself also conferred in very many 
places with the more ample copy written in the German tongue. 

V. The Confession of Saxony was written in Latin in the year 1551, in 
the behalf of the Saxon Churches, by Master Philip Melancthon, that it 


might be presented to the Council of Trent : to which not only the Saxon 
uid Meissen Churches, but also very many other, did subscribe, as if to 
the Confession of Ausburg repeated. 

VL The Confession op Wirtemburo was presented of the most re- 
nowned Prince and Lord, Christopher Duke of Wirtembiu-g and Tecca, 
Earl of Montbelliard, through his ambassadors, to the assembly of the 
Council of Trent, the 24th day of the month of January, in the year 

VII. The Confession op France was first presented in French, in the 
year 1559, to Francis the Second, King of France, at Amboise, in the behalf 
of all the godly of that kingdom ; again, in the year 1561, at Poissy, to 
Charles the Ninth; and at length in Latin also published by the pastors 
of the French Churches, with a Preface to all other evangelical pastors, in 
the year 1566. 

VIII. The Confession op England was inserted in the general Apology 
written in the year 1562 (by John Jewell, Bishop of Sarum), in the behalf 
of the English Churches. 

IX. The Latter Confession of Helvetia was written by the pastors of 
Zurich, in the year 1566, and approved and subscribed, not only of the 
Tigurines themselves, and their confederates of Berne, Schaffhauscn, San- 
gallia, Rhetia, Mulhausen, and Bicnnc ; but by the Churches of Geneva, 
of Savoy, of Poland* and likewise of Hungary, and of Scotland. 

X. The Confession of Belgia was published in French, in the name of 
an the Churches of Belgia, in the year 1566 ; and, in the year 1579, in 
the public Synod of Belgium, was repeated, confirmed, and turned into 
the Belgian tongue. 

XL The Confession of Bohemia, being the last, composed of foiir 
former, which were far more ancient, (which for the largeness thereof wo 
thought good not to be inserted into this Harmony,) being recited in the 
•ame order of chapters and arguments, and somewhat more plainly ex- 
pressed, and in the year 1573 published in divers places, was also approved 
by common testimony of the University of Wirtemburg ; even as Masters 
Luther and |Melancthon had approved the former, published in the year 
1532y being altogether the same in doctrine with this, as Luther his Preface 
witnetseth. And we have called it elsewhere the Confession of the Wal- 
denses, following the common title assigned unto these Churches : which 
we would have to be spoken without any prejudice to those brethren. 

XII. The Confession of Scotland was first exhibited to, and allowed 
by, the three estates in Parliament, at Edinburgh, in the year 1560 ; again 
ratified at the same place, and on the same authority, in 1567; and finally 
Bubscribed by the King's Majesty, and his household, at Holyrood House, 
tb 28th day of January, 1581. 



I. The Articles qf the Confeuion qf Augthurg» 

1. Of God, and the Persons of the 


2. Of Original Sin. 

2. Of the Incarnation of the Son 
of God. 

4. Of Justification. 

5. Of the Preaching of Repentance, 

and General Remission. 

6. Of the Righteousness of Good 


7. Of the Church. 

8. Of the Sacraments which are 

administered hy evil men. 

9. Of Baptism. 

10. Of the Lord's Supper. 

11. Of Repentance. 

12. Of Confession. 

13. Of the Use of Sacramants. 

14. Of Ecclesiastical Order, or De- 


15. Of Ecclesiastical Rites. 

16. Of Civil Ordinances. 

17. Of the Last Judgment 

18. Of Free-wiU. 

19. Of the Cause of Sin. 

20. Of Good Works. 

21. Of Invocation. 

Articles concerning Abuses which have been changed in External Rites* 

1. Of the Mass. 

2. Of either Kind in the Sacra- 


3. Of Confession. 

4. Of the Difference of Meats, and 

of such like Popbh Tradi- 

5. Of the Marriage of Priests. 

6. Of the Vows of Monks. 

7. Of Ecclesiastical Power. 

II. The Chapters qf the 

1. Of the Matter of Sermons. * 

2. Of the Holy Trinity, and the 

Mystery of Christ Incarnate. 

3. Of Justification and Faith. 

4. Of Good Works proceeding of 

Faith hy Love. 

5. To whom Good Works are to he 

ascribed, and how necessary 
they be. 

Confession of SuevelantL f 

6. Of the Duties of a Christian man. 

7. Of Prayers and Fasts. 

8. Of Precepts for Fasting. 

9. Of the Choice of Meats. 

10. That no Merit is to be sought in 

Prayers and Fasts. 

11. That God alone is to be invoked 

through Christ 

12. Of Monkery. 

* For better convenience, this Second Table is now placed here, rather than 
hereafter ; and arranged, like the First, in strictly chronological order. — Editor. 

f The Contents of this Confession are omitted in the Latin, and in both edi- 
tions of the English, Harmony.— Editor. 



13. Of the Duty, Dignity, and Power 

of Ministen in the Church. 

14. Of Human Traditions. 

15. Of the Church. 

16. Of Sacraments. 

17. Of Baptism. 

18. Of the Eucharist 

19. Of the Mass. 

20. Of Confession. 

21. Of the Singings and Prayings of 


22. Of Statues and Images. 

23. Of Magistrates. 

III. The Articles qf Uie Cortfession of Bcule. 

1. Of God. 

2. Of Man. 

3. Of the care of God toward us. 

4. Of Christ, being true God and 

true Man. 

5. Of the Church. 

6. Of the Supper of our Lord. 

7. Of the Magistrate. 

8. Of Faith and Works. 

9. Of the Last Day. 

10. Of things commanded, and not 


11. Against the error of the Ana- 


IV. The ArtieUi qf the Farmer Cof\fe8sion of Helvetia. 

1. Scripture. 

2. Interpretation. 

3. Fathers. 

4. Human Traditions. 

5. The drift of the Scripture. 

6. God. 

7. Man, and his Strength. 

8. Original Sin. 

9. Free-will. 

10. The eternal Counsel touching 

the restoring of Man. 

11. Jesus Christ, and the benefits 

we reap by him. 

12. The drift of the Doctrine of the 


13. Faith, and the force of Faith. 

14. The Church. 

15. Of the Minister of the Word. 

16. Ecclesiastical Power. 

17. The Choosing of Ministers. 

18. The Head and Shepherd of the 


19. The Duties of Ministers. 

20. Of the force and efficacy of the 


21. Baptism. 

22. The Eucharist 

23. Holy Assemblies. 

24. Of Heretics and Schismatics. 

25. Of things indifferent. 

26. Of the Magistrate. 

27. Of holy Wedlock. 

v. Hke Chapters rf the Confession of Saxony. 

1. Of Doctrine. 

2. Of Original Sin. 

3. Of the Remission of Sins, and of 


4. Of Free-will. 

5. Of new Obedience. 

6b What Works are to be done. 
7. How Good Works may be done. 

8. How new Obedience doth please 


9. Of Rewards. 

10. Of the Difference of Sins. 

11. Of the Church. 

12. Of the Sacraments. 

13. Of Baptism. 

14. Of the Lord's Supper. 



15. Of the use of the whole Sacra- 


16. Of Repentance. 

17. Of Satisfaction. 

18. Of Wedlock. 

19. Of Confirmation and Anointing. 

20. Of Ecclesiastical Traditions or 


21. OfMonasticallife. 

22. Of the invocating of godly Men 

departed out of this life. 

23. Of the Political Magistrate. 

VI. 7%€ Chapters of the Confession of Wirtemburg* 

1. Of God, and Three Persons in 

One Godhead. 

2. Of the Son of God. 

3. Of the Holy Ghost 

4. Of Sin. 

5. Of Justification. 

6. Of the Law. 

7. Of Good Works. 

8. Of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

9. Of the Sacraments. 

10. Of Baptism. 

11. Of Confirmation. 

12. Of Repentance. 

13. Of Contrition. 

14. Of Confession. 

15. Of Satisfaction. 

16. Of Prayer. 

17. Of Fasting. 

18. * Of Alms. 

19. Of the Eucharist ; that b, the Sa- 

crament of Thanksgiving. 

20. * Of the Mass. 

21. Of Holy Orders. 

22. Of Marriage. 

23. * Of Extreme Unction. 

24. Of the Invocation of Saints. 

25. Of the Commemoration of the 


26. Of Piurgatory. 

27. * Of Monastical Vows. 

28. Of Canonical Hours. 

29. Of Fasting. 

30. Of the Consecrating of water, 

salt, wine, and of other such 
like things. 

31. Of the Holy Scripture. 

32. * Of the Pope. 

33. Of the Church. 

34. Of Councils. 

35. Of the Teachers of the Church. 

36. Of Ecclesiastical Ceremonies. 

VII. The Articles of the Cor\fession qf France, 

1. Of God, and His One only Es- 


2. Of the Knowledge of God. 

3. Of the Canonical Books of Holy 


4. Of distinguishing the Canonical 

Books from the Apocryphal. 

5. Of the Authority of the Word of 


6. Of the Trinity of Persons in the 

One only Essence of God. 

7. Of the Creation of the World. 

8. Of the eternal Providence of God. 

9. Of the Fall of man, and his Free- 


10. Of Original Sin. 

11. Of the propagation of Original 

Sin, and of the effects thereof. 

12. Of the free Election of God. 

13. Of the restoring of Man from 

his Fall, through Christ. 

14. Of the Two Natures in Christ. 

15. Of the Hypostatical Union of 

His Two Natures. 

16. Of the Death and Resurrection 

of Christ, and of the Fruit 

17. Of the Merit and Fruit of the 

Sacrifice of Christ 



18. Of the Remission of Sins, and of 

trae Justification. 

19. Of the Intercession, or Media- 

tion of Christ. 
20, 21, 22. Of justifying Faith, and 
of the gift and effects thereof. 

23. Of the abolishing of Ceremonies, 

and of the true use of the 
Moral Law. 

24. Of the Intercessson of Saints, of 

Purgatory, and other supersti- 
tiousTraditions of the Papists. 

25. Of the Ministry of the Gospel. 
36,27,28. Of the Unity of the 

Church, and of the true Notes 

29. Of Ecclesiastical functions. 

30. Of the Power and Authority of 

Si. Of their lawful Calling and Elec- 

32. Of Ecclesiastical Discipline. 

33. Of Excommunication, and other 


34. Of the Sacraments in general. 

35. Of Baptism. 

36. Of the holy Supper of the Lord. 

37» 38. Of the efficacy and true com- 
munication of the thing sig- 
nified by the signs. 

39, 40. Of the Magistrate, and Po- 
litic Laws. 

VIIL The Articles qf the Confession qf England, 

1. Of One God in Three Persons. 

2. Of Jesus Christ being the true 

Son of God, and of the Incaiv 
nation, and other Works of 
Redemption ; and of his two 
Natures being undivided and 

3. Of his Last Coming. 

4. Of the Holy Ghost, and His works 

in us. 

5. Ofthe Catholic Church, and the 

One only King, Head, and 
Husband thereof. 

6. Of the divers Degrees of the 


7. Of the Primacy of the Anti- 

christ of Rome. 

8. Of tli0 lawful Calling and Elec- 

tion of Ministers. 

9. Of their Power, and the use of 

tbe Keys. 

10. Of Marriage and Single Life. 

11. Of the Canonical Scriptures. 

12. Of the Sacraments, and the 
number thereof. 

13. Of Baptism. 

14. Ofthe holy Eucharist 
I 15. Of the Sale of Masses. 
I 16. Of Purgatory. 

1 7. Of Ecclesiastical Ceremonies and 

18. Of Prayer in a vulgar tongue. 

19. Of the only Mediator and Inter- 
cessor, Christ. 

20. Of the Corruption of Man 
through sin, and of his Jus- 
tification through Christ. 

21. Ofthe one only Sacrifice of Christ, 
whereby we are perfectly re- 
conciled to God. 

22. Of Good Works. 
23.The Last Resurrection of thisflesh. 

IX. The Chillers qf the Latter 


1. Of the Holy Scripture, being the 
true word of God. 

3. Of Interpreting the Holy Scrip- 
tures ; and of Fathers, Coim- 
dli, and Traditions. 

3. OfGod, his Unity and Trinity. 



Confession <if Helvetia. 

Of idols or images of God, of 
Christ, and of the Saints. 

Of the Adoration, Worship, and 
Invocation of God, through 
the only Mediator Jesus Christ. 

Of the Providence of God. 







7> Of the Creation of aU things, 
of Angels, the Devil, and 

8. Of the Fall of man, Sin, and the 

Cause of Sin. 

9. Of Free-will, and so of man's 

power and ahility. 

10. Of the Predestination of God, and 
the Election of the saints. 

11* Of Jesus Christ heing true God 
and Man, and the only Sa- 
viour of the world. 

12. OftheLawofGod. 

13. Of the Gospel of Jesus Christ ; 

of the promises; also, of the 
spirit and the letter. 

14. Of Repentance, and the Con- 

version of man. 

15. Of the true Justification of the 

IG. Of Faith, and Good Works; and 

of their reward, and the merit 

of man. 
17. Of the catholic and holy Church 

of God, and of the only Head 

of the Church. 

18. Of the Ministers of the'Churcl 

and of their institution aU' 

19. Of the Sacraments of the Churcl 

of Christ. 

20. Of holy Baptism. 

21. Of the holy Supper of the Lord 

22. Of holy and Ecclesiastical As 


23. Of the Prayers of the Church, o 

Singing, and of Canonica 

24. Of Holy-days, Fasts, and th< 

Choice of Meats. 

25. Of comforting, or visiting th< 

2G. Of the Burial of the faithful, ant 
the care that is to he had fo 
the dead; and of Purgatory 
and the appearing of spirits. 

27. Of Rites, Ceremonies, and thing 


28. Of the Goods of the Church. 

29. Of Single Life, Wedlock, and th< 

ordering of a Family. 

30. Of the Magistrate. 

X. The Articles of the Confession cf Belgia, 

1 . Of the Essence or Nature of God. 

2. Of the douhle Knowledge of Him. 

3. Of the beginning and author of 

the word of God. 

4. Of the Canonical books of the 

Old and New Testament. 

5. Of their Authority. 

6. Of the Apocryphal books. 

7. Of the Perfection of the Canon- 

ical Scripture above the doc- 
trines of all men. 

8. Of the Three Persons in the One 

only Essence of God. 

9. Of the Testimonies of either Tes- 

tament, whereby both the 
Trinity of the Persons, and 
also their properties, may be 
10. Of the Divine nature and gene- 

ration of Jesus Christ, the Soi 
of God. 
11. Of the Divine nature of the Hoi} 
Of the Creation of the world, and 
of Angels, and of the distin- 
guishing of them. 

13. Of the Providence and just Go- 

vernment of God, both gene- 
ral and special. 

14. Of the Creation, Fall, and Cor- 

ruption of man, and of hii 
servile will. 

15. Of Original Sin. 

16. Of free Election, and just Repro- 


17. Of the repairing of man througl: 


18. Of the first coming of Christ, anc 



his true Incarnation of the 
seed of David. 

19. Of his two Natures hypostatically 

united in one only Person. 

20. Of the cause or end of his Death 

and Resurrection. 

21. Of Ins only Priesthood* and ex- 

{oatory Sacrifice. 

22. Of Fsith heing the only instru- 

ment of our Justification. 

23. Of true Justification through 

2i OfRegeneration and good Works. 

25. Of the abrogating of the Law and 


26. Of the only Mediator and Inter- 

cessor Christ, against the In- 
tercession of Saints. 





I 32. 
I 33. 

' 35. 
I 36. 


Of the Catholic Church. 

Of the Unity and Communion 

Of true Notes of the true Church. 
Of Ecclesiastical government and 

Of the election of Ministers, 

Elders, and Deacons, and of 

their authority. 
Of Ecclesiastical traditions. 
Of the Sacraments, and their 

Of Baptism. 

Of the Supper of the Lord. 
Of Magistrates, and their office 

and power. 
Of the Last Judgment. 

XL The Chapters of the Co^fesnon cf Bohemia. 

1. Of Holy Scripture, and of Ec- 

clesiastical writers. 

2. Of Christian Catechising. 

3. Of the Unity of the Divine Es- 

sence, and of the Three Per- 

4. Of the Knowledge of one's self: 

also, of Sin, the causes and 
fiuits hereof, and of the Pro- 
mises of God. 

5« Of Repentance. 

6. Of Christ the Lord, and of Justi- 

fication through faith in Him. 

7. Of Good Works, which be holy 


8. Of the holy Catholic Church, the 

order and discipline hereof, 
and moreover of Antichrist* 

9' Of the Ministers of the Church. 

10. Of the word of God. 

11. Of the Sacraments in general. 

12. Of holy Baptism. 

13. Of the Supper of the Lord. 

14. Of the Keys of Christ. 

15. Of things accessory ; that is, of 

Ecclesiastical rites or cere- 

16. Of the political or civil Ma- 


17. Of Saints, and their worship. 

18. Of Fasting. 

19. Of Single Life and Wedlock, or 

the order of married folk. 

20. Of the Time of Grace. 

XII. TTie Articles qf the Confession of Scotland, 

1. Of God. 

2. Of the Creation of Man. 

3. Of Original Sin. 

4. Of the revelation of the Pro- 


5. Ofthe continuance, increase, and 

preservation of His church. 

6. Of thelncarnationof Christ Jesuit 

7. Why it behoved the Mediator to 

be very God and very Man. 

8. Of Election. 

9. Of Christ's Death, Passion, Bu- 

rial, &c. 
10. Ofthe Resurrection. 



11. Of the Ascension. 

12. Of faith in the Holy Ghost. 

13. Of the cause of Good Works. 

14. What works are reputed good 

hefore God. 

15. Of the perfection of the Law, 

and the imperfection of Man. 

16. Of the Church. 

17. Of the Immortality of the Soul. 

18. Of the Notes hy which the true 

Church is discerned from the 
false, and who shall he Judge 
of the Doctrine. 

19. Of the Authority of the Scrip- 


20. Of General Councils, of their 

Power, Authority, and Cause 
of their Convention. 

21. Of the Sacraments. 

22. Of the right Administration of 

the Sacraments. 
23« To whom Sacraments apper- 

24. Of the Civil Magistrate. 

25. Of the Gifts freely given to the 


I. The Articles qf the Church qf England, 

1. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. 

2. Of the Word, or Son of God, 

which was made very Man. 

3. Of the going down of Christ 

into Hell. 

4. Of the Resurrection of Christ. 

5. Of the Holy Ghost 

6. Of the Sufficiency of the Holy 

Scriptures for Salvation. 

7. Of the Old Testament. 

8. Of the Three Creeds. 

9. Of Original, or Birth Sin. 

10. Of Free-will. 

1 1 . Of the Justification of Man. 

12. Of Good Works. 

13. Of Works before Justification. 

14. Of Works of Supererogation. 

15. Of Christ alone without Sin. 
IG. Of Sin after Baptism. 

17. Of Predestination and Elec- 


18. Of obtaining eternal Salvation 

only by the Name of Christ. 

19. Of the Church. 

20. Of the Authority of the Church. 

21. Of the Authority of General 


22. Of Purgatory. 

23. Of Ministering in the Congre- 


24. Of Speaking in the Congrega- 

tion in such a Tongue as the 
People understandcth. 

25. Of the Sacraments. 

26. Of the Unworthiness of the 

Ministers, which hinders not 
the Efiect of the Sacraments. 

27. Of Baptism. 

28. Of the Lord's Supper. 

29. Of the Wicked, which do not 

eat the Body of Christ in the 
Use of the Lord's Supper. 

30. Of both Kinds. 

31. Of the One Oblation of Christ 

finished upon the Cross. 

32. Of the Marriage of Priests. 

33. Of Excommunicate Persons, 

how they are to be avoided. 

34. Of the Traditions of the Church. 

35. Of Homilies. 

36. Of Consecration of Bishops and 


37. Of the Civil Magistrates. 

38. Of Christian Men's Goods, which 

are not Common. 

39. Ofa Christian Man's Oath. 



II. The Ariiclet cf the Church of Ireland, 

1. Of the Holy Scripture, and the 

Three Creeds. 

2. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. 

3. Of God's eternal Decree, and 


4. Of the Creation and Govern- 

ment of all things. 

5. Of the Fall of Man, Original 

Sin, and the State of Man 

before Justification. 
6i Of Christ, the Mediator of the 

Second Covenant. 

7. Of the Communicating of the 

Grace of Christ 

8. Of Justification and Faith. 

9' Of Sanctification and Good 

10. Of the Service of God. 

11. Of the CivU Magistrate. 

12. Of our Duty towards our Neigh- 


13. Of the Church, and outward 

Ministry of the Gospel. 

14. Of the Authority of the Church, 

General Councils, and Bishop 
of Rome. 

15. Of the State of the Old and New 

IG. Of the Sacraments of the New 

17. Of Baptism. 

18. Of the Lord's Supper. 

19. Of the State of the Souls of Men 

after they be departed out of 
this Life : together with the 
General Resurrection, and the 
Last Judgment. 

III. The Chapters of the Synod qf Dori. 

The Preface. 

1. Of God*8 Predestination. 

The Rejection of ^n^rs. 

2. Of Christ's Death, and the Re- 

demption of Men by it. 
The Rejection of Errors. 

3, 4. Of Man's Corruption, and 
Conversion to God. 
The Rejection of Errors. 
5. Of the Perseverance of the 

The Rejection of Errors. 
The Conclusion. 
The Approbation. 

IV. The Chapters qf the Assembly at Westminster. 

1. Of the Holy Scripture. 

2. Of God, and of the Holy Tri- 


3. Of God*s eternal Decree. 

4. Of Creation. 

5. Of Providence. 

6. Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and 

of the Punishment thereof. 

7. Of God*8 Covenant with Man. 

8. Of Christ the Mediator. 

9. Of Free-will. 

10. Of Effectual Calling. 

11. Of Justification. 

12. Of Adoption. 

13. Of Sanctification. 

14. Of Saving Faith. 

15. Of Repentance unto Life. 

16. Of Good Works. 

17. Of the Perseverance of the 


18. Of Assurance of Grace and Sal- 




19. Of the Law of God. 

20. Of Christian Liberty, and 

Liberty of Conscience. 

21. Of Religious Worship, and the 

Sabbath Day. 

22. Of Lawful Oaths and Vows. 

23. Of the Civil Magistrate. 

24. Of Marriage and Divorce. 

25. Of the Church. 

26. Of the Communion of Saints. 

27. Of the Sacraments. 

28. Of Baptism. 

29. Of the Lord's Supper. 

30. Of Church Censures. 

31. Of Ssmods and Councils. 

32. Of the State of Men after Death, 

and of the Resurrection of 
the Dead. 

33. Of the Last Judgment. 


Just as the very last sheet of the present edition is about to pass 
through the press, the Editor has seen* it stated, on the authority of that 
strange and rare tract of Martin Mar-Prelate, entitled. Oh Read over 
Doctor John Bridget, for it is a Worthy Work, 1588, 4to, that the Harmony 
qf Confessions was translated into English by the Printer, Thomas Thomas, 
of Cambridge. The passage, he is bound to add, contains several inac- 
curacies ; perhaps this, among others. 




This whole Harmony of Confessions, gentle Reader, is parted 
into nineteen Sections, which we have taken, sometimes out of more, 
sometimes out of fewer Confessions in number, as each seemed, 
every one in his own place, to handle one and the same matter, or 
chief point of doctrine.* 

Bat in rehearsing the context of every Confession, because we 
were to have regard to the order of things and doctrines, rather 
than dther to the time or worthiness of the Churches and authors 
that wrote them, or other such like circumstance : therefore it 
seemed good» without any envy or prejudice of other Confessions, 
other more ancient or more famous, to give the first place to the 
Latter Confession of Helvetia ; both because the order thereof seemed 
more fit» and the whole handling of doctrine more full and con- 
▼enient, and also because that Confession was publicly approved 
and subscribed unto by very many Churches of divers nations. 
Further, upon this do the rest fitly follow, to wit, the Former Con- 
kuam of Helvetia, and then all other, (without any other choice, 
indifferently^ save that we had rather join together the Confessions 
of Germany, then sever them each from other,) according to the 
alignment of every Section. Yet we were enforced to put that Con- 
feaaion of the Four Cities, as received somewhat late, in the last 
phoe. Which order, notwithstanding, if it shall not seem fit and 
convenient to any, it may easily be altered in the second edition ; 
•a other Confessions also, if any such besides these shall be wanting, 
may in their due place be adjoined. 

To conclude, that the godly reader may want nothing, and that 
DO man may suspect any thing to be taken from, or added to, any 
of these Confessions, we have here set down the Articles, or chief 
points, in the order wherein they were first written. Which things 
we desire every man favourably to interpret, and to enjoy this our 
labour, rather seeking peace and agreement, than maliciously hunt- 
ing after occasions of dissensions. 

* A paragraph here follows in the orginal, descriptive of an Analytical 
Summary of true and false doctrines prefixed to each Section, but omitted, 
as very intricate and of no value, in the former and present editions of the 
tranalation. — Editor. 






Of Holy Scripture being the true word qf God; and qf the 

interpretation thereqf. 

This Section consistetb of eleven Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 

Of Basle, or Mulhausen. 

Of Bohemia, or the Waldenses. 

Of France. 

Of £ngland. 

Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 

Of Saxony. 

Of Wirtemburg. 

And of Sueveland. 


Of God, in Essence One, in Persons Three; and of His true Worship, 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 

Of Basle. 

Of Bohemia. 

Of France. 

Of England. 

Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 

Of Augsburg. 

Of Saxony. 

Of Wirtemburg. 

And of Sueveland. 


Of the eternal Providence of God, and the Creation qf the world. 

This Section consisteth properly of five Confessions only : to wit,- 

Of Scotland. 

And of Belgia. 

Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of France. 

Which alone have express titles on these chief points of doctrine. 



But these four, to wit, — 

Of the Former of Helvetia, 
Of England, 

Of Augshurg, 

And of Wirtemhurg, 

Do only hy the way make mention, hoth of the Providence of God, and 
also of the Creation of the world, in the Article 0/ God, as is to he seen in 
the Second Section. 

The others, to wit, of Bohemia, of Saxony, and of Sueveland, have 
altogether omitted this part of doctrine. 


Of tJie FaU of Man, qf Sin, and of Free-will 
This Section consisteth of eleven Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 

Of Augshurg. 

Of Saxony. 

And of Wirtemhurg. 

Of Eternal Predestination, 
This Section consisteth of five Confessions only: to wit,- 

Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of France. 

Of Scotland. 
And of Belgia. 


Of the Restitution or Deliverance of man from his FaU, hy Jesus Christ alone : 
also, of His Person, Names, Office ; and of the works of Redemption* 

This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit, — 
Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. \\ Of Belgia. 

Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of Flngland. 
Of Scotland. 

Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemhurg. 
And of Sueveland. 





Of Holy Scripture being the true word qf God; and qf the 

interpretation thereqf. 

This Section consisteth of eleven Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 

Of Basle, or Mulhausen. 

Of Bohemia, or the Waldenses. 

Of France. 

Of England. 

Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 

Of Saxony. 

Of Wirtemhurg. 

And of Sueveland. 

Of God, in Essence One, in Persons Three; and of His true Worship. 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 

Of Basle. 

Of Bohemia. 

Of France. 


Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 

Of Augshurg. 

Of Saxony. 

Of Wirtemhurg. 

And of Sueveland. 

Of the eternal Providence of Godf and the Creation qf the world. 

This Section consisteth properly of five Confessions only : to wit,- 

Of Scotland. 

And of Belgia. 

Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of France. 

Which alone have express titles on these chief points of doctrine. 




Of the Mimaters of the Churchy and qf their Callhig and Office, 
This Section consisteth of nine Confessions: to wit,— 

Of the Formerand Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Belgria. 
Of Augshurg. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
.\nd of Sueveland. 


Of true and false Sacraments in general. 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit,- 

Of the Former of Helvetia, and the 

Declaration thereof. 
Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Scotland. 
Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 


Of the Sacrament of Holy Baptism. 
This Section consisteth of ten Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former of Helvetia, and the 

[declaration thereof. 
Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 


Qf the Holy Supper of the Lord, 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit,- 

Of the Former of Helvetia, and the 

Declaration thereof. 
Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Scotland. 
Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 





0/ the Lato and the Gospel* 
This Section consisteth of eight Confessions: to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 

Of Saxony. 

And of Wirtemburg. 


Of Repentance^ and the Conversion of man. 
This Section consisteth of seven Confessions only : to wit,- 

Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of Scotland. 
Of Augsburg. 

Of Saxony. 

Of Wirtemburg. 

And of Sueveland. 


Of Justification by Faith ; and of Good Works, and their Rewards. 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 

Of Basle. 

Of Bohemia. 

Of France. 

Of England. 

Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 

Of the Holy Catholic Church. 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit,- 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 

Of Basle. 

Of Bohemia. 

Of France. 

Of England. 

Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 




OS the MinUters of the Church, and qf their Calling and Office, 
This Section consisteth of nine Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Hel vetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

! Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Wirtcmburg. 
And of Sucveland. 


Of true and false Sacraments in general. 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit,- 

Of the Former of Helvetia, and the 

Declaration thereof. 
Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Scotland. 

Of Belgia. 

Of Augsburg. 

Of Saxony. 

Of Wirtcmburg. 

And of Sueveland. 


Of the Sacrament of Holy Baptism. 
This Section consisteth of ten Confessions : to wit,~ 

Of the Former of Helvetia, and the 

Declaration thereof. 
Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of Engknd. 

Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtcmburg. 
And of Sueveland. 


Qf the Holy Supper of the Lord, 
This Section consisteth of twelve Confessions : to wit,- 

Of the Former of Helvetia, and the 

Declaration thereof. 
Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 


Of Scotland. 
Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtcmburg. 
And of Sueveland. 




Of Ecclesicutical Meetings. 

This Section consisteth of eight Confessions : to wit,— 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 


Of Hol^daysy of Fasts, and the Choice of Meats ; and of tJie Visitation 
of the Sickf and the care that is to be had for the Dead, 

This Section consisteth of nine Confessions : to wit. — 

Of the Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland- 


Of Ceremonies and Rites indifferent, in general. 
This Section consisteth of eleven Confessions: to wit, — 

Of the Formerand Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 
Of England. 

Of Belgia. 
Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 


Of Wedlock, Single Life, and Monastictd Vows, 
This Section consisteth of eight Confessions : to wit, — 

Of the Former and Latter of Helvetia. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France. 

Of England. 
Of Augsburg. 
And of Sueveland. 



OJ the Civil Magistrate, 
This Section consisteth of eleven Confessions : to wit,* 

Of the Fonnerand Latter of Helvetia* 
Of Basle. 
Of Bohemia. 
Of France* 
Of Scotland. 

Of Augsburg. 
Of Saxony. 
Of Wirtemburg. 
And of Sueveland. 







I.— From ths lattsr Confession of Hslvbtia. 

Ckt^ 1. 0/the Holy Scripture being the true Word of God. 

Wi bdieve and confess the Canonical Scriptures of the holy 
prophets and apostles of both Testaments to be the very true 
Vord of God, and to have sufficient authority of themselves, not 
^ men. For God himself spake to the fathers, prophets, apos- 
faf and speaketh yet unto us by the Holy Scriptures. And in 
tlni Holy Scripture, the universal Church of Christ hath all things 
Mtj expounded, whatsoever belong both to a saving faith, and 
tbo to the framing of a life acceptable to God : in which respect 
it is expressly conmianded of God, that nothing be either put to, 
or taken from, 4/1^ same. We judge therefore, that from these 
Scriptures is to be taken true wisdom and godliness, the refor- 
mation and government of churches; as also instruction in all 
duties of piety: and to be short, the confirmation of opinions, 
and the confutation of errors, with aU exhortations ; according to 
that of the Apostle, " All Scripture inspired of God is profitable 
for doctrine, for reproof, &c." 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. Again, "These 
things I write unto thee,*' saith the Apostle to Timothy, " that thou 
mayest know how it behoveth thee to be conversant in the house 
of God, &c.'' 1 Tim. iii. 14, 15. Again, the self-same Apostle 
to the Thessalonians ; *' When," saith he, " ye received the word or 
OS, ye reoeiTed not the word of men, but, as it was indeed, the 
Word of God, &c.*' 1 Thess. ii. 13. For the Lord himself hath 



said in the Gospel, " It is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of my 
Father speaketh in you : " Matt. x. 20. therefore " he that heareth 
you, heareth me ; and he that despiseth you, despiseth me.** Luke 
X. 16. Wherefore, when this Word of God is now preached in 
the church by preachers lawfully caUed, we believe that the very 
Word of God is preached, and received of the faithful; and that 
neither any other Word of Grod is to be feigned, nor to be expected 
from heaven : and that now the Word itself which is preached, 
is to be regarded, not the minister that preacheth ; who although 
he be evil and a sinner, nevertheless the Word of Grod abideth 
true and good. Neither do we think, that therefore the out- 
ward preaching is to be thought as fruitless, because the instruc- 
tion in true religion dependeth on the inward illumination of the 
Spirit ; or because it is written, ** No man shall teach his neighbour ; 
for all men shall know me :" Jer. xxxi. 34. and, " He that wa- 
tereth, or he that planteth, is nothing, but God who giveth the 
increase." 1 Cor. iii. 7. For albeit, "No man can come to Christ, 
unless he be drawn by the Heavenly Father," John vi. 34. and 
be inwardly lightened by the Holy Ghost ; yet we know undoubt- 
edly, that it is the will of God, that his word should be preached 
even outwardly. God could indeed, by his Holy Spirit, or by the 
ministry of an angel, without the ministry of St. Peter, have 
taught Cornelius in the Acts ; but nevertheless, he referreth him to 
Peter: of whom the angel speaking saith, *'He shall tell thee 
what thou must do." Acts x. 6. For he that illuminateth in- 
wardly by giving men the Holy Ghost, the self-same, by way of 
commandment, said unto his disciples, "Go ye into the whole 
world, and preach the Gospel to every creature." Mark xvi. 15. 
And so Paul preached the word outwardly 1^Jjy4i&f & purple- 
seller among the Fhilippians: but the Lord inwardly opened the 
woman's heart. Acts xvi. 14. And the same Paul, upon an ele- 
gant gradation, fitly placed in the tenth chapter to the Romans, 
at last inferreth, " Therefore, faith is by hearing, and hearing by 
the Word of God." Rom. x. 14—17- We know, in the mean 
time, that God can illuminate whom and when he will, even 
without the external ministry; which is a thing appertaining to 
his power : but we speak of the usual way of instructing men, 
delivered unto us of God, both by commandment and examples. 

We therefore detest all the heresies of Artemon, the Mani« 
chees, the Valentinians, of Cerdon, and the Marcionites, who denied 
that the Scriptures proceeded from the Holy Ghost ; or else 


W V 



received not, or poliahed and corrupted, some of them. And yet 
we do not deny that certain hooks of the Old Testament were of 
the ancient authors called Apocr3rphal; and of others. Ecclesias- 
tical ; to wit» each as they would have to he read in the churches, 
hot not alledged to avouch or confirm the authority of faith hy 
them. Ab also, Augustine in his De Civitate Dei, hook xviii. 
chap. 38.» maketh mention, that ' in the hooks of the Kings, the 
names and books of certain prophets are reckoned :' hut he addeth, 
that ' they are not in the Canon ; ' and that ' those books which we 
havCf suffice unto godliness.' 

Ckapter 2. 0/ Interpreting the Holy Scriptures ; and of 

Fathers, Councils, and Traditions, 

The Apoetle Peter hath said, that " The holy Scriptures are 
not of any private interpretation :" 2 Pet. i. 20. therefore we do 
not allow all expositions. Whereupon, we do not acknowledge 
that which they call the meaning of the Church of Rome for 
the true and natural interpretation of the Scriptures; which for- 
sooth the defenders of the Romish Church do strive to force all 
men nmply to receive : but we acknowledge that interpretation 
of Scri p t ur es for authentical and proper, which, being taken from 
ftm Scriptures themselves, (that is, from the phrase of that 
tongue in which they were written, they being also weighed 
aooording to the circumstances, and expounded according to the 
pr o po rti on of places, either of like or of unlike, also of more and 
libiner,) accordeth with the rule of faith and charity, and maketh 
notably for God*s glory and man's salvation. Wherefore we do 
not contemn the holy treatises of the Fathers, agreeing with the 
Sc riptur e s ; from Whom, notwithstanding, we do modestly dissent, 
at they are deprehended to set down things merely strange, or 
altogether contrary to the same. Neither do we think that we 
do them any wrong in this matter; seeing that they all, with 
one content, win not have their writings matched with the Can- 
onical Scriptures ; but bid us allow of them so far forth, as they 
either agree with them, or disagree, and bid us take those things 
that agree, and leave those that disagree. And according to this 
order we do account of the Decrees or Canons of Councils. 
Wherefore we suffer not ourselves, in controversies about religion, 
or matters of futh, to be pressed with the bare testimonies of 
Fathers, or Decrees of Councils ; much less with received customs, 
or with the multitude of men being of one judgment, or with 



prescription of long time. Therefore, in controversies of religion, 
or matters of futh, we cannot admit any other judge than God 
himself, pronouncing by the holy Scriptures, what is true, what 
is fedse, what is to be followed, or what to be avoided. So we 
do not rest but in the judgments of spiritual men, drawn from 
the Word of Grod. Certainly Jeremiah and other prophets did 
vehemently condemn the assemblies of Priests, 'gathered against 
the law of God: and diligently forewarned us, that we should 
not hear the Fathers, or tread in their path, who, walking in 
their own inventions, swerved from the law of Grod. E^ek. xx. 
18. We do likewise reject human Traditions; which, although 
they be set out with goodly titles, as though they were divine 
and apostolical, delivered to the church by the lively voice of the 
apostles, and, as it were, by the hands of apostolical men, by 
means of Bishops succeeding in their rooms, yet, being com- 
pared with the Scriptures, disagree with them ; and by that their 
disagreement bewray themselves in no wise to be apostolical. 
For as the apostles did not disagree among themselves in doc- 
trine, so the apostles' scholars did not set forth things contrary 
to the apostles. Nay, it were blasphemous to avouch, that the 
apostles, by lively voice, delivered tilings contrary to their 
writings. Paul affirmeth expressly, that he "taught the same 
things in aU churches." 1 Cor. iv. 17. And again, ** We," saith he, 
"write no other things unto you, than which ye read, or also 
acknowledge." 2 Cor. i. 13. Also, in another place, he witnesseth, 
that he and his disciples, to wit apostolical men, " walked in the 
same way, and jointly by the same Spirit did all things." 2 Cor. 
xii. 18. The Jews also, in time past, had their traditions of 
EUders ; but these traditions were severely confuted by the Lord, 
shewing that the keeping of them hindereth God's law, and that 
" God is in vain worshipped of such." Matt. xv. 9. 

II. — From the former Confession of Helvetia. 

Art. 1. Scripture, The Canonical Scripture, beihg the Word 
of Grod, and delivered by the Holy Ghost, and published to the 
world by the prophets and apostles, being of all others the most 
perfect and ancient philosophy, doth alone perfectly contain all 
piety and good ordering of life. 

Art. 2. Interpretation. The Interpretation hereof is to be 
taken only from herself, that herself may be the interpreter of 
herself, the rule of charity and faith being her guide. 


Art. 3. Fathers. Which kind of interpretation so far forth 
18 the holy Fathers have followed, we do not only receive them 
as interpreters oi the Scriptare, but reverence them as the beloved 
instmments of God. 

Art. 4. Hwmtm TraMtian. But as for the Traditions of men» 
although never so glorious and received, how many soever of 
them do withdraw or hinder us, as of things unprofitable and 
hortfiiU ao we answer with that saying of the Lord, " They 
worship me in vain, teaching the doctrine of men." Mark vii. 7. 

Art. 5. The Drift of Scripture. The Drift of the canonical 
Scripture ia this: that God wisheth well to mankind; and by 
Christ the Lord his Son, hath declared this good- will; which is 
received by liEdth alone ; and fedth must be effectual through love, 
that it may be shewed forth by an innocent life. 

IIL^From thb Confession of Baslb. 

Article 10. Of things commanded and not commanded. 

We confess, that as no man can command those things which 

Christ hath not commanded, so likewise no man can forbid those 

things which he hath not forbidden. (And in the margin : For 

it is written, " hear him." Mark ix. 7.) Also section the third, 

m the same place : And much less can any man license those 

things whidi God hath forbidden, &c. (And in the margin : 

"God said, I am Jehovah your God ;" Levit. xviii. 2. and by 

Moaes, " For Jehovah, your Grod, is God of gods, a great God and 

terrible.'* Deat. x. 17. Who therefore among his creatures can 

graot those things which he hath forbibben?) In like sort, 

Section four : And again, no man can forbid those things 

which God hath granted, &c. (The other things which are 

contained in this article, because they belong to other sections, 

they are inserted, every one in their places.) 

IV.— -FaoM THE Confession of Bohkmia, or thk Waldbnsrs. 

Chcq^ter 1 . Of the Holy Scriptures. 

First of all, the ministers of our churches teach with one con- 
8ent» oonoeming the Holy Scripture of the New and Old Tes- 
ment, (which is commonly called the Bible, and is lawfully 
received and allowed of the Fathers which are of best and 
soundest judgment,) that it is true, certain, and worthy to be 
believed ; wherennto no other human writings whatsoever, or of 
what sort soever they be, may be compared, but that, as man*s 


writings, they must give place to the holy Scripture. First, 
because it is inspired and taught of the Holy Ghost, and uttered 
by the mouths of holy men ; written by them, and confirmed by 
heavenly and divine testimonies ; which Spirit also himself open- 
eth and discloseth the meaning, how it ought to be understood, 
and the truth of this Scripture in the church, in what manner 
seemeth him best; especially by raising up and giving faithful 
ministers, who are his chosen instruments. Of which Spirit 
David speaketh, when he saith, " The Spirit of the Lord spake 
by me, and his word was in my tongue :" 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. and 
Peter, " For prophecy came not in old time by will of man, but 
holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost :" 
^ Pet. i. 21. and Paul, " The whole Scripture, given by inspira- 
tion of God, is profitable, &c." 2 Tim. iii. 16. Rom. xv. 4. Besides, 
the Lord himself saith, " Search the Scriptures:" John v. 39. and 
again, " Ye are deceived, not knowing the Scriptures, neither do 
ye understand the pqwer of God." Matt. xxii. 29. And, " He 
opened the minds of his disciples, that they might understand 
the Scriptures." Luke xxiv. 45. 

Secondly, because it is a true and sure testimony, and a clear 
proof of God's favorable good-wiU, which he hath revealed con- 
cerning himself; without which revelation of Scripture, there is 
tio wholesome knowledge, nor faith, nor access to Grod. Heb. 
xi. 1, &c. For in this, such things as are necessary to doc- 
trine, to discipline, and government of the holy Church, for all 
and singular persons in the ordinary ministry of salvation, 
(whence also springeth true faith,) in this, I say, are all such 
things fully, absolutely, and so far forth as is requisite, as in a 
most excellent and most exquisite work of the Holy Ghost, com- 
prehended and included : than which no angel from heaven can 
bring any thing more certain ; and if he should bring any other 
thing, he ought not to be believed. Gal. i. 8. 

And this persuasion and belief concerning holy Scripture, 
namely, that it is taught and inspired of God, is the beginning 
and ground of our Christian profession ; which taketh beginning 
from the word outwardly preached, as from an ordinary mean, 
ordained of God for this purpose. Wherefore every one ought 
very highly to esteem of the divine writings of the holy Prophets 
and Apostles ; resolutely to believe them, and religiously to yield 
unto them in all things; diligently to read them, to gather 
wholesome doctrine out of them ; and according to them, ought 


every man to frame and order himself, but especially they, who 
after an holy manner are set over the Church of Gk>d. For 
which caosea, in our churches and meetings, this holy Scripture 
is rehearsed to the hearers in the conmion and mother tongue, 
which all understand; and especially, according to the ancient 
custom* of the church, those portions of the Gospels in Scrip- 
tore, which are wont to be read on solemn holy-days out of the 
fiyangdists' and Apostles' writings* and are usuaUy called Gos« 
pels and E^pistles: out of which, profitable and wholesome doc- 
trines, and exhortations, and sermons, are made to the people, 
as at all times occasion and need requireth. We likewise teach, 
that the writings of holy Doctors, especially of those that' are 
ancient, are also to be esteemed for true and profitable ; whereof 
there may be some use to instruct the people ; yet only in those 
things wherein they agree with the holy Scripture, or are not 
contrary thereunto, and so fiar forth as they give testimony to 
the excellency thereof, to the information and example of the 
apostolic church, and swerve not from the consent, judgment, 
and decrees of the ancient church, wherein she hath continued 
miapotted in the truth : after which sort they themselves also have 
charged men to judge and think of their writings, and have 
given warning that heed should be taken, lest that, they being 
but men, too much should be ascribed to them. Of which thing 
St. Augustine speaketh in this manner, ' Be not thou a servant 
to my writings, as it were to the Canonical Scriptures. But in the 
Canomcal Scriptures, such things as thou didst not believe, when 
thou hast there found them, immediately believe : but in my 
writings, that which thou knowest not for a certain truth, unless 
thou perceive it to be certain, hold it not resolutely.' Proctm. 
m Ubrum 3, de SaneiA Trinitate. And elsewhere he saith, * Give 
not as great credit to mine or Ambrose his words, as to the 
Canonical Scriptures.' This is the right rule to discern writings 
by ; which so greatly liked the Papists, that they have cited it in 
their Decretal. Distinct. 9. Cap. Noli meU verbis, 8fC, 

y. — From tbb Confession op Francs. 

r ' 

jML'2. This one God hath revealed himself to be such an one 

* This ancient custom we do thus far allow: that liberty be left to every 
church to use, or not to use, those Postils, as they call them ; yet so as we 
advise them to beware, lest the culling out of some parts of the Scripture 
bring in a neglect of the other parts. 



UDto men : first, in the creation, preservation, and goveming of 
his works ; secondly, fiar more plainly, in his Word ; which Word, 
in the beginning, he revealed to the fiathers by certain visions 
and oracles, and then caused it to be written in these books 
which we call holy Scripture. 

Art. 3. All this holy Scripture is contained in the Canonical 
books of the Old and New Testament. The catalogue whereof 
is this: The fi^ books of Moses, namely. Genesis, Exodus, 
Leviticus, Numbfsrs, and Deuteronomy ; Joshua, Judges, Ruth ; 
two books of SiBiuel ; two books of the Kings ; two books of 
Chronicles, or P^uralipomenon ; one book of Ezra, Nehemiah, 
Esther, Job ; the Psalms, Solomon*s Proverbs, Ecclesiastes ; the 
Song of Songs; Isaiah, Jeremiah, with the Lamentations, 
Ezekiel, Daniel ; the twelve small Prophets, namely, Hosea, Joel, 
Amosy Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, 
Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi; the holy Grospel of Jesus Christ, 
according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John ; the Acts of the 
Apostles ; Paul's Epistles, namely, one to the Romans, two to the 
Corinthians, one to the Galatians, one to the Ephesians, one to 
the Philippians, one to the Colossians, two to the Thessalonians, 
two to Timothy, one to Titus, one to Philemon; the Epistle to 
the Hebrews ; the Epistle of James, two Epistles of Peter, three 
Epistles of John, one Epistle of Jude ; John's Revelation. 

Art. 4. We acknowledge these books to be canonical ; that is, 
we account Ikem as the rule and square of our faith ; and that, 
not only by the common consent of the Church, but also mucb 
more for the testimony and inward persuasion of the Holy Ghost, 
by whose inspiration we are taught to discern them from othei 
ecclesiastical books ; which howsoever tliqr may be profitable, yel 
are they not such that any one article of faith may be buildec 
upon them. 

Art. 5. We believe that the word, contained in these books, 
came from one God ; of whom alone, and not of men, the au- 
thority thereof dependeth. And seeing this is the sum of al 
truth, containing whatsoever is required for the worship of Go< 
and our salvation, we hold it not lawful for men, no, notte th( 
angels themselves, to add or detract any thing to or from thtt itord 
or to alter any whit at all in the same. And hereupon it follow* 
eth, that it is not lawful to oppose either antiquity, custom 
multitude, man's wisdom and judgment, or edicts, or any decrees 
or councils, or visions, or miracles, unto this holy Scripture ; bui 


rather that all things ought to be examined and tried by the 
role and sqaare thereof. Wherefore we do for this cause also 
allow those three Creeds, namely, the Apostles', the Nicene, and 
Athanasiua' Creed, because they be ag^reeable to the written 
Word of God. 

VI. — From thr Confrssion of England. 

Article 9. Of the Canonical Scriptures, 

We receive and embrace all the canonical Scriptures, both of 
the Old and New Testament; giving thanks to our Grod, who 
hath raised up unto us that light, which we might ever have 
before our eyes; lest either by the subtilty of man, or by the 
SDares of the devil, we should be carried away to errors and lies. 
Alto we profess that these be the heavenly voices, whereby God 
hath opened unto us his will ; and that only in them man's heart 
can have settled rest : that in them be abundantly and fully com- 
prehended all things, whatsoever be needful for our help, as Ori- 
gen, Augustine, Chrysostom, and Cyril, have taught; that 
they be the very might and strength to attain to salvation ; that 
they be the foundations of the prophets and apostles whereupon 
18 baik the Church of Grod ; that they be the very sure and in- 
fallTUe rule, whereby may be tried whether the church do swerve 
or err, and whereunto all ecclesiastical doctrine ought to be called 
to aocoont; and that against these Scriptures neither law, nor 
ordioaiice, nor any custom ought to be heard ; no, though Paul 
bimself, or an angel from heaven, should come and teach the con- 
trarj. Gal. i. 8. 

VII.— FaotfAdLCoNFRssioN of Scotland. 

Article 19. 0/ the Authority of the Scriptures, 

As we believe and confess the Scriptures of God sufficient to 
tnatmct and make the man of God perfect ; 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. so 
do we affirm and avow the authority of the same to be of God, 
and neither to depend on men nor angels. We affirm, therefore, 
that such as allege the Scripture to have no other authority but 
thdflhkich it hath received from the Church, are blasphemous 
ag^Br God, and injurious to the true church ; which always 
heareth and obeyeth the voice of her own Spouse and Pastor, 
John X. 27. but taketh not upon her to be mistress over the 


Article 20. 0/ General Councils, 

As we do not rashly condemn that which godly men, assembled 
together in General Council lawfuUy gathered, have proponed unto 
as; so without just examination we do not receive whatsoever is 
obtruded unto men under the name of a General Council : for 
plain it is, as they were men, so have some of them manifestly 
erred, and that in matters of great weight and importance. So 
far then as the Council proveth the determination and command- 
ment that it giveth by the plain word of God, so soon do we 
reverence and embrace the same. But if men, under the name 
of a Council, pretend to forg^ unto us new articles of our faith, 
or to make constitutions repugnant to the word of God, then 
utterly we must refuse the same, as the doctrine of devils, which 
draweth our souls from the voice of our only God, to follow the 
doctrine and constitutions of men. 1 Tim. iv. 1 — 6. The cause, then, 
why that General Councils came together, was neither to make 
any perpetual law which God before had not made, neither yet 
to forg^ new articles of our belief, neither to give the word of 
God authority ; much less to make that to be his word, or yet 
the true interpretation of the same, which was not before his holy 
will expressed in his word. But the cause of Councils (we mean, 
of such as merit the name of Councils) was partly for confutation 
of heresies, for giving public confession of their faith to the pos- 
terity following ; which both they did, by the authority of God's 
written word, and not by any opinion of prerogative, that they 
could not err, by reason of their general assembly. And this we 
judge to have been the chief cause of GreiMBd Councils. The other 
was, for good policy and order to bAontitute and observed in 
the church ; wherein (as in the house of God) it becometh " all 
things to be done decently, and in order." 1 Cor. xiv. 40. Not that we 
think that one policy and one order in ceremonies can be appointed 
for all ages, times, and places ; for as ceremonies, such as men have 
devised, are but temporal, so may and ought they to be changed, when 
they rather suffer superstition, than edify the Church using the 

ms t 

VIII. — From the Confession or Bbloia. 

Art. 2, towards the end. He hath revealed himself much more 
plainly in his Holy Word, so far forth as it is expedient for his own 
glory, and the salvation of his in this life. 


Art. 3. We confess that this Word of God was not brought 
or delivered by any will of man ; but that holy men of God, in- 
qiired by God's Holy Spirit, spake it, as St. Peter witnesseth. 
2 Pet. i. 21. But afterward God himself, for that exceeding 
tender carefulness which he hath of his, and of their salvation, 
gave in commission to his servants, the apostles and piropheta, 
that they should put those oracles in writing ; and he himself also 
wrote the two Tables of the Law with his own finger ; which is 
the cause why we call such writings sacred and divine Scripture. 

Art. 4. And we comprehend the holy Scriptures in those two 
books of the Old and New Testament, which are called the 
canooical books ; about which there was never any ado. And of 
them this is the number, and also the order, received of the 
Church of God. The five books of Moses ; the book of Joshua, 
of the Judges, of Ruth ; two books of Samuel, two of the Kings, 
two of the Chronicles, which are called Parahpomena; the first 
of Ezra; Nehemiah, Esther, Job; also David's Psalms, three 
books of Solomon, namely, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the 
Song of Songs ; the four great Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Eze- 
kid, and Daniel; and furthermore, also, the twelve small Pro- 
phets. Moreover, the canonical books of the New Testament are, 
the four Evangelists, namely, St. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John ; 
the Acts of the Apostles ; the fourteen Epistles of St. Paul, and 
seven of the other Apostles ; the Revelation of St. John the Apostle. 

Art. 5. These books alone do we receive as sacred and canoni- 
cal, whereupon our faith may rest, be confirmed and established. 
Tlierefore without any doubt we believe also those things which 
are contained in them;^ md that not so much because the church 
receiveth and slloweth final for canonical, as for that the Holy 
Ghost beareth witness to our consciences that they came from 
Giod; and most of aU for that they also testify and justify by 
themsdves this their own sacred authority and sanctity, seeing 
that even the blind may clearly behold, and, as it were, feel the 
folfiOing and accomplishment of all things which were foretold in 
these writings. 

Sfti 6. We furthermore make a difference between the holy 
hodbi^ and those which they call apocryphal ; for so much as the 
apocr3q»hal may be read in the church, and it is lawful also so far 
to gather instructions out of them, as they agree with the canoni- 
cal books; but their authority and certainty is not such as that 
any doctrine touching faith or Christian religion may safely be 


built upon their testimony ; so far off is it, that they can disannul 
or impair the authority of the other. 

Art, 7. We believe also that this holy Scripture doth most 
perfectly contain all the will of God, and that in it all things are 
abundantly taught, whatsoever is necessary to be believed of man 
to attain salvation. Therefore, seeing the whole manner of wor- 
shipping God, which God requireth at the hands of the fedthful. 
is there most exquisitely and at large set down, it is lawful for no 
man, although he have the authority of an apostle, no, not for 
any angel sent from heaven, (as St. Paul speaks. Gal. i. 8.) to 
teach otherwise than we have long since been taught in the holy 
Scriptures. For seeing it is forbidden that any one should add or 
detract any thing to or from the word of God, thereby it is evident 
enough that this holy doctrine is perfect and absolute in all points 
and parcels thereof : and therefore no other writings of men, 
although never so holy, no custom, no multitude, no antiquity, nor 
prescription of times, nor personal succession, nor any councils ; 
and, to conclude, no decrees or ordinances of men, are to be 
matched or compared with these divine Scriptures, and this bare 
truth of God ; for so much as God's truth cxcelleth all things. For 
all men of their own nature are liars, and lighter than vanity itself ; 
therefore we do utterly refuse whatsoever things agree not with 
this most certain rule, as we have been taught by the Apostles, 
when they say, " Try the spirits whether they be of God ;** 
1 John iv. 1. and, " If any come unto you, and bring not this 
doctrine, receive him not to your house, &c." 2 John 10. 

IX.— From the Confession of Saxont. 

Article 1. 0/ Dodrine, 

Seeing it, is most undoubtedly true, that God, out of mankind, 
doth gather together unto himself a church unto eternal life for 
and by his Son, through preaching of that doctrine which is 
written in the books of the Prophets and Apostles; we plainly 
avouch before God, and the whole Church in heaven and in earth, 
that we do with a true faith embrace all the writings of the Pro- 
phets and Apostles, and that in that very natural meaning which 
is set down in the Creeds of the Apostles, of Nice, and of Atha- 
nasius. And these self-same Creeds, and the natural meaning 
of them, we have always constantly embraced without corruption, 
and will, by God's help, always embrace. And in this faith do we 
call upon the true God, who, sending his Son, and giving clear 


testimoniee, hath revealed himself in his church ; joining our 
prayer with all saints in heaven* and in earth. And our declara- 
tions upon the Creeds are abroad, containing the whole body and 
ground of doctrine, which show that this our protestation is most 
true. We do also very resolutely condemn all brain-sick fantasies, 
nhich are against the Creeds ; as are the monstrous opinions of 
heathen men, of the Jews, of the Mahometans, of Marcion, the 
Manichees, of Samosatenus, Servetus, Arius, and those that deny 
the person of the Holy Ghost ; and other opinions condemned by 
the true judgment of the church. 

X. — From thk Confession op Wirtbmburg. 

Cluster 30. Of the Holy Scripture. 

The holy Scriptures we call those canonical books of the Old 
and New Testament, of whose authority there was never doubt 
madet in the church. This Scripture we believe and confess to 
be the oracle of the Holy Ghost, so confirmed by heavenly tes- 
timonies, that, " If an angel from heaven preach any other thing, 
let him be accursed." Gal. i. 8. Wherefore we detest all doctrine, 
worship, and religion, contrary to this Scripture. But whereas 
some men think, that all doctrine necessary to be known of us to 
true and everlasting salvation is not contained in this Scripture, 
and that the right of expounding this Scripture lieth so in the 

* We leani, in many places of the holy Scripture, that the angels, according 
to the nature of their niinistry, which they are sent to perform, do further the 
•nlfation of the godly ; and it is evident by that saying, " Love doth not fall 
away,** 1 Cor. xiiL 8. and, by chapter vi. verse 10, of the Apocalypse, 
that the spirits of the saints, taken up unto Christ, do, with their holy de- 
siTes, in' tome sort help forward the grace and goodness of God, touching the 
foil ddivennee of the church. And thus we acknowledge, that as well this 
■iMl^o^har places of the same Confession, as also that place in chap, xxiii. of 
the Gonfesaion of Wirtemburg, which foUoweth after, in the Second Section, 
f Of A$ BumtoiUkm t^SaimtsJ are to be interpreted. And we acknowledge no 
other inte r cs aaion or entreating, either of the blessed angels, or of the spirits 
of holy ooien that are now departed from us. 

f What' books these be,' may be seen out of the French and Belgian Con- 
frssinns, where they are all reckoned up one by one. And though in the 
cstaklgiie of the books of the New Testament there are some to be found, of 
whidi diere hath been some doubt made sometimes by the ancient doctors of 
tbe Church, yet at length by the common consent of the whole Catholic Church 
even they also were received and acknowledged for canonical. And therefore 
there is no cause why they should now be refused for the scruples that some 
nake about them. 


power of chief bishops, that what they, according to their own 
will, give out, is to be embraced for the meaning of the Holy 
Ghost ; it is more easily said than proved. " The whole Scripture 
is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable to teach, to im- 
prove, to correct, and to instruct in righteousness ; that the man 
of God may be perfect, being thoroughly prepared to every good 
work." 2 Tim iii. 16, 17. And, " I have called you friends ; for 
aU things that I have heard of my Father, have I made known 
to you." John xv. 15. And those things which the Apostles 
received of Christ, those have they by their preaching published 
in the whole world, and by thdr writings deUvered them to pos- 
terity. It is a plain case, therefore, that all things which are 
needful to be known to salvation, are contained in the Prophets' 
and Apostles' writings. ' He hath revealed his own word in due 
season by preaching, which is all conmiitted to me. This is the 
preaching. For the Gospel containeth things, both things pre- 
sent, and things to come ; as honour, piety, and faith ; yea, and 
all things he hath jointly comprised in this one word, preaching.' 
ChfysostomMS ad Titum. Horn, 1. Again, ' Without authority of the 
Scriptures, babbling hath no credit.' Hieronymus ad Titum. 
Cap, 1. ' For seeing the Lord Jesus did many things, aU are not 
written ; as the same holy Evangelist himself witnesseth, that the 
Lord Christ both said and did many things which are not writ- 
ten. But those things were selected to be written, which seemed 
to suffice for the salvation of those that beheve.' Augustinus stqter 
Joannem. Tract. 40. Cap. 11. For whereas they say that the 
right of expounding the Scripture lieth in the power of chief 
bishops, it is evident that the gift of expounding the Scripture 
is not of man's wisdom, but of the Holy Ghost. " To every 
man," saith Paul, " is given the manifestation of the Spirit to 
profit withal : for to one is given by the Spirit the word df wis- 
dom, &c.' 1 Cor. xii. 7, 8. But the Holy Ghost is altogether at 
liberty, and b not tied to a certain sort of men, but giveth gifts 
to men according to his own good pleasure. " O, that all the 
people had power to prophesy, and that the Lord would put his 
Spirit upon them !" Num. xi. 29. " Deborah, a woman, the wife 
of Lapidoth," is raised up to be a prophetess. Judges iv. 4. A^ain, 
"I am no prophet, nor prophet's son ; but I am a herdman, and 
a gatherer of wild figs : " Amos vii. 14. and yet Amos received 
the Holy Ghost, and was made a prophet. " All these things 
worketh one and the same Spirit, distributing to every man as 


he will.*' I Cor. xii. 11. Many examples also do witness that 
chief bifihopa have been often and very foully deceived : where- 
ibi« the gift of expounding the Scripture is not so tied to the 
Popea» that whosoever shall be Pope must needs rightly expound 
the Scripture ; but the true meaning of the Scripture is to be 
sought in the Scripture itself, and among those that, being raised 
by the Spirit of God, expound Scripture by Scripture. 

Chapter 34. 0/ Councils, 

We confess that Councils ought to have their judgments in the 
church concerning the holy doctrine of religion, and that the 
authority of lawful Councils is great ; but the authority of God's 
Wcnrd must needs be the greatest. For although the church have 
a sure promise of Christ's continual presence, and be governed 
by the Holy Ghost, yet not every assembly of men may be taken 
for the true church : and albeit never so many seem oftentimes 
to come together in the name of Christ, yet few are chosen, and 
all have not fedth. And as it is wont to fall out in civil meetings, 
80 doth it also in meetings of the church ; that for the most part 
the greater side overcometh the better. Hitherto may be added, 
that the Holy Ghost doth not make men in this life not subject 
to sin, bat leaveth in them many and sundry infirmities. Examples 
also witness, that not only the Popes, but also Councils, have 
been deceived. Wherefore, seeing that the doctrine of the Apostles 
and Prophets is confirmed of God, the sentence of no one man, nor 
of any assembly of men, is to be received simply without trial, for 
the orsde of the Holy Ghost : but it is to be laid to the rule of the 
Ftoj^ietB* and Apostles' doctrine, that that which agreeth there- 
^with, may be acknowledged ; and that which is contrary thereunto, 
may beoonfuted. " If we, or an angel from heaven, preach unto 
y^'^ ^^Bp^P^ beside that, which we have preached unto you, let 
him DS accursed." Gal. i. 8. And, " Believe ye not every spirit, 
but try the spirits, whether they be of God." 1 John iv. 1 . Again, 
"Try an things, and keep that which is good." 1 Thess. v. 21. 
Aiigiutine» against Maximius, a Bishop of the Arians, in his 3rd 
book* AapCer 14, saith, ' But now am I neither to cite the Council 
of ffuse, nor you the Council of Arimine, as it were to prejudice 
the matter ; neither am I bound by the authority of the one, nor 
you by the anthcmty of the other : with authorities of Scripture, 
which are witnesses not proper to any one, but common to us both, 
let matter with matter, cause with cause, reason with reason, &c.' 


And Panormitan, in the Chapter, Significasti extr. de electio. : * In 
things concerning faith, even the verdict of one private man were 
to be preferred before the Pope's, if he were led with betteir warrants 
of the Old and New Testament than the Pope.' And Gerson, in 
the first part about Trial of Doctrines : * The first truth should 
stand ; that if there be a plain private man, sufficiently instructed in 
holy Scripture, more credit were to be g^ven in a case of doctrine 
to his assertion, than to the Pope's definitive sentence. For it is 
plain, that the Gospel is more to be believed than the Pope. If 
then a man, so learned, teach any truth to be contained in the 
Gospel, where the Pope were either ignorant, or willingly deceived, 
it is clear whose judgment were to be preferred.' And a little after : 
' Such a learned man ought, in that case, while a general Council 
were holden at which he himself were present, to set himself against 
it, if he should perceive the greater part, of malice or ignorance, to 
incline to that which is contrary to the Gospel.' 

Cluster 34. 0/ Ecclesiastical Writers, 

** Rise up before an hoary head," saith the Scripture, " and 
reverence the person of an old man." Levit. xix. 32. We do there- 
fore reverence the grey hairs of our ancestors, who, ever since 
the Gospel began to be revealed and published, have in the world 
taken upon them the travail of furthering the church, not only by 
preaching, but also by public writings ; that their posterity might, 
from the apostles, even unto this time, have manifest and certain 
testimonies of the holy doctrine. And we so embrace their wri- 
tings, as both the holy Scripture alloweth us to use man's autho- 
rity, and as themselves would have their writings acknowledged. 
You, my friends, say, that " In the ancient is wisdom, and in the 
length of days is understanding : " but I say unto you, that " With 
him," to wit, with the Lord our God, '* is wisdom and strei^flj^ ; he 
hath counsel and understanding." Job xiL 12, 13. And, "l>et the 
prophets speak, two or three, and let the rest judge." I Cor. xiv. 
29. And, " Try all things, and keep that which is good." 1 Thess. 
V. 2 1 . ' It is not lawful for us to bring in any thing of our own 
head ; no, not so much as to take that which any man hath bh)ught 
in of his own head. We have the Apostles of the Lord for authors, 
who chose nothing of their own heads which they might bring in : 
but the discipline which they received of Christ, they faithfully 
delivered to aU nations.' Tertulliani Libellus de Pnescriptionibus 
Hareticorum, And Augustine saith, ' Neither ought we to esteem 


of the writings of any men, although they he Catholic and com- 
mendable persons, as of the canonical Scriptures ; as though it were 
not lawful (yielding them that reverence which is due unto such 
men) to disaUow and refuse something in their writings, if perchance 
we find that they have thought otherwise than the truth is under- 
stood either of others, or of ourselves, through the gift of God. 
Such am I in other men's writings, as I would have them construers 
of mine.' Epistola ad FortmuUum, DistincU 8. Again, ' Be thou not 
tied to my writings, as it were to the canonical Scriptures ; but in the 
canonical Scriptures, that which thou didst not believe, when thou 
hast found it, believe it incontinently ; but in mine, that which thou 
thoughtest to be imdoubtedly true, unless thou perceive it to be true 
indeed, hold it not resolutely/ De Trinitate, Pro€tm. in Lib. 3. And 
again, ' I ndther can nor ought to deny, that, as in those who have 
gone before, so also in so many slender works of mine, there are 
many things, which may with upright judgement and no rashness be 
blamed/ Ad VtncenHMm, Lib.2, And again, 'I have learned to give 
this reverence to those writers aloncy which are nowcalled canonical.' 
And afterwards " But I so read others, that, be they never so holy, or 
never so learned, I do not therefore think it true, because they have so 
thought, but because they could persuade me by other authors, or 
by canonical, or at least by probable reasons, which disagree not 
from the truth.' In EpistoiA ad Hieronymum, - And in another place, 
• Who knoweth not that holy Scripture, &c.' And, ' Do not, brother, 
against so many divine, &c.' De Unico Baptismo, in EpistolA ad Vin^ 
eenimm. For these places are known even out of the Pope's own 

XI. — From thb Confbssion of Sukvbland. 

Article !• Section 1. Whence Sermons are to be taken. 

a controversy being raised amongst the learned about cer- 
tain articles of Christian doctrine, when as the people with us were 
dangerously divided by reason of contrary preachings, we charged 
our preadiers, that they should henceforth broach nothing to the 
people in any Sermon, which either is not taught in the Scriptures 
of God, or hath not sure ground thereout ; as it was openly decreed 
in the Assembly holden at Nuremberg, in the twenty- second year, 
after the smaller account ; which, moreover, is also the opinion of 
all the holy fathers. For seeing St. Paul writeth, that " The Scrip- 
tore given by inspiration of God is profitable to teach, to improve, 
to correct, and to instruct, that the man of God may be absolute, 



being made perfect to every good work;" 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. we 
could not determine any otherwise, but that it was meet, that we 
also, being in danger of schism, should fly to that holy Scripture, to 
which in times past not only the holy Cathers, bishops, and princes, 
but also the children of God everywhere, in such extremity, have 
always resorted. For St. Luke witnesseth, not without singular 
commendation of the Thessalonians, that they compared the Gospel 
they had heard of the Apostle with the Scripture, and tried it.* 
Pftul also ¥rameth his scholar Timothy, that he exercise himself 
▼ery diligently in the Scriptures: 2 Tim. iii. 14. and this holy 
Scripture was had in so high reputation of all holy bishops and 
doctors, that neither any bishop desired to have his ordinances 
obeyed, nor any doctor his writings beUeved, except he had thereout 
approved them. And, surely, seeing St. Paul doth plainly testify, 
that '' by the holy Scripture the man of God is made absolute and 
perfect to every good work;" 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. no part of Christian 
truth and sound doctrine can be wanting to him, who, with all his 
might, laboureth to follow and embrace the Scripture of God. 




I. — From the latter Confession op Helvetia. 
Chapter 3. Of God; the Unity and the Trinity, 

We believe and teach, that God is one in essence or nature, sub* 
sisting by himself, all-sui&cient in himself, invisible, without a;fl>ody, 
infinite, eternal, the Creator of all things both visible and invisible, 
the chiefest good, Hving, quickening and preserving all things. Al- 
mighty, and exceeding wise, gentle or merciful, just and true. And 
we detest the multitude of gods, because it is expressly written, 
•• The Lord thy God is one God." Deut. vi. 4. *' I am the Lord 

* This is evidently a mistake. The writer of the Acts of the Apostles 
would commend the JBereans in preference to the Thessabnians, as " receiving 
the word with all readiness of mind, and searching the Scriptures daily, 
whether these things were so.** Acts xvii. 10, 11. The mistake exists in the 
original Confession.-- Emtoe. 

OV GOD. 19 

thy God, thou shalt have no strange gods before my face/' Exod. 
XX. 2, 3. '* I am the Lord, and there is none other ; beside me 
there is on god. Am not I the Lord, and there is none other beside 
me alone ? a just God, and a Saviour, there is none beside roc." 
laa. zlv. 21. "I the Lord, Jehovah, the merdfiil God, gracious, and 
long-aofiering, and abondant in goodness and truth, &c.*' Exod. 
xzxiv. 6. 

We nevertheleia bdiefve and teach, that the same infinite, one, and 
indiviaible God, is in persons inseparably and without confusion dis- 
tingmahed into the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost : so, as the 
Father hath begotten the Son from everlasting ; the Son is begotten 
by an unspeakable manner; and the Holy Ghost proceedeth from 
them both, and that from everlasting, and is to be worshipped with 
them both. So that there be not three Gods, but three persons, 
oonsobstantia], co-eternal, and co-equal ; distinct, as touching their 
persons ; and, in order, one going before another, yet without any in- 
equality. Far, as touching their nature or essence, they are so'*' 
joined together, that they are but one God ; and the divine essence 
is common to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. For the 
Scripture hath delivered unto us a manifest distinction of persons : 
the angel, among other things, saying thus to the blessed Virgin, 
" The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the 
Highest shaD overshadow thee, and that holy thing which shall be 
bom, shall be called the Son of God." Luke i. 35. Also, in the 
baptism of Christ, a voice was heard from heaven, saying, " This is 
uty beloved Son." Mat. iii. 17. The Holy Ghost also appeared 
" in the likeness of a dove." John i. 32. And when the Lord him- 
self commanded to baptize, he commanded to baptize " in the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Mat. 
xxviii. 19. In like sort elsewhere in the Gospel he said, " The 
Father win send the Holy Ghost in my name." John xiv. 26* Again 
he aaith, " When the Comforter shall come, whom I will send unto 
yoo from the Father, the Spirit of Truth, who proceedeth from the 
the Father, he shall bear witness of me, &c." John xv. 26. To be 
short, we receive the Apostles* Creed, because it delivereth unto us 
the true £Edth. 

* Lett any man should slander us, as though we did make the persons all 
esatiag together, but not all of the same essence, or else did make a God of 
divert oatores joined together in one, you must understand this joining to- 
gether, so as that all the persons (though distinct one from the other in pro- 
pcrtiet) be yet but one and the same whole Godhead ; or so, that all and every 
of the persons have the whole and absolute Godhead. 

c 2 


We therefore condemn the Jews, and the Mahometans, and all 
those that blaspheme those Trinity, which is sacred, and only to be 
adored. We also condemn all heresies and heretics, which teach 
that the Son and the Holy Ghost are God only in name ; also, that 
there is in the Trinity something created, and that serveth and mi- 
nistereth unto another ; finally, that there is in it something unequal, 
greater or less, corporal or corporally fashioned, in manners or in 
will divers, either confounded or sole by itself : as if the Son and 
Holy Ghost were the affections and proprieties of one God the 
Father ; as the Monarchists, the Novatians, Praxeas, the Patripas- 
siane, SabeUius, Samosatenus, Astius, Macedonius, Arias, and such 
like have thought. 

Chester 4. Of Idols ; or. Images of God, of Christ, and of Saints, 

And because God is an invisible Spirit, and an incomprehensible 
{Essence, he cannot therefore by any art or image be expressed. For 
which cause we fear not, with the Scripture, to term the images of 
God mere lies. We do therefore reject not only the idols of the 
Gentiles, but also the images of Christians. * For although Christ 
took upon him man's nature, yet he did not therefore take it, that he 
might set forth a pattern for carvers and painters. He denied that 
he came " to destroy the law and the prophets :" Mat. v. 1 7. but 
images are forbidden in the law and the prophets. He denied that 
his bodily presence would any whit profit the church. Deut. iv. 15. 
Isa. zliv. 9. He promiseth that *' He would by his Spirit be present 
with us for ever :** John xvi. 7. 2 Cor. v. 5. who would then believe 
that the shadow or picture of his body doth any whit benefit the 
godly ? And seeing that he abideth in us by his Spirit, " We are 
therefore the temples of God:'* 1 Cor. iii. 16. but "what agree- 
ment hath the temple of God with images?*' 2 Cor. vi. 16. And 
seeing that the blessed spirits, and saints in heaven, while they lived 
here, abhorred all worship done unto themselves. Acts iii. 12. and 
xiv. 15. Rev. xix. 10. and xxii. 9. and spake against images; who 
can think it Ukely, that thesaints in heayen, and the angels, are 
delighted with their own images, whereunto men do bow their knees, 
uncover their heads, and give such other like honour } 

But that men might be instructed in religion, and put in mind of 
heavenly things, and of their own salvation, the Lord commanded 

* By Christians, understand such as call themselves Christians indeed, but 
yet do retain the use of images for the service of religion, against the express 
commandment of God. 

OF OOD. 21 

to " preach the Gospel ;" Murk xvi. 15. not to paint, and instruct the 
laity by pictures : he also instituted sacraments, but he no where 
appointed images. Furthermore, in every place, which way soever 
we turn our eyes, we may see the lively and true creatures of God, 
which if they be marked, as is meet, they do much more effectually 
move the beholder than all the images, or vain, unmoveable, rotten, 
and dead pictures, of all men whatsoever ; of which the Prophet 
spake truly, " They have eyes, and see not, &c." Psal. cxv. 5. 
Therefore we approve the judgment of Lactantius, an ancient writer, 
who saith, ' Undoubtedly there is no religion, wheresoever there is 
a picture.' And we affirm that the blessed Bishop Epiphanius did 
well, who, finding on the church-doors a vail, that had painted on it 
the picture as it might be of Christ, or of some saint or other, he cut 
and took it away ; for that, contrary to the authority of the Scrip- 
tures, he had seen the picture of a man to hang in the Church of 
Christ: and therefore he charged that from thenceforth no such 
vails, which were contrary to our religion, should be hanged up in 
the Church of Christ, but that rather such scruple should be taken 
away, which was unworthy the Church of Christ, and all faithful 
people. Moreover we approve this sentence of St. Augustine, ' Let 
not the worship of men's works be a religion unto us. For the 
workmen themselves that make such things are better ; whom yet 
we ought not to worship.' De Verd Religiane, Cap, 55. 

Ckapter b* Of the adoring, worshipping, and invocating of God, 
through the only Mediator, Jesus Christ, 

We teach men to adore and worship the true God alone. This 
honour we impart to none, according to the commandment of the 
Lord, ** Thou shalt adore the Lord thy God, and him alone shalt 
tiioa worship," or, "him only shalt thou serve." Matt. iv. 10. 
Surely all the prophets inveighed earnestly against the people of 
Israel, whensoever they did adore and worship strange gods, and 
not the one only true God. But we teach that " God is to be 
adored and worshipped," as himself hath taught us to worship him, 
to wit, "in spirit and truth;" John iv. 24. not with any super- 
stition, but with sincerity, according to his word, lest at any time 
he also say unto us, " Who hath required these things at your 
hands? " Isa. i. 12. For Paul also saith, " God is not worshipped 
with men's hands, as though he needed any thing, &c." Acts xvii. 
25. We, in all dangers and casualties of life, call on him alone, 
and that !^ the mediation of the only Mediator, and our Intercessor, 


JesuA Christ. For it ie* expn^y commanded us, " Call upon me 
in the day of troable» and I will deliver thee, and thou shah glorify 
me." Feal. 1. 15. Moreover, the Lord hath made a most large 
promise, saying, " V^hatsoever ye shall ask of my Father, he shall 
give it yon." John xvi. 23. And again, " Ck>me onto me, all ye 
that labour and are heavy laden, and I will refresh yon." Matt zi. 
US. And seeing it is written, *' How shall they call iqpon him, in 
whom they have not bdieved ? ** Rom. x. 14. and we do believe in 
God alone ; therefore we call upon him <mly, and that through Christ. 
For, " There is one God," saith the Apostle, " and one Mediator 
between God and men, Christ Jesus." 1 Tim. iL 5« Again, " If 
any man nn, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ 
the righteous, &c." 1 John ii. 1. Therefore we do neither adore, 
worship, nor pray unto the saints in heaven, or to other gods ; nei- 
ther do we acknowledge them for our intercessors or mediators, 
before the Father in heaven. For God and the Mediator Christ 
do suffice us, nei&er do we impart unto others the honour due to 
God alone and to his Son : because he hath plainly said, " I will not 
give my g^ory to another ; " Isa. xlii. 8. and because Peter hath 
said, ** There is no other name given unto men, whereby they must 
be saved, but the name of Christ." Acts iv. 12. In which, doubtless, 
they that rest by foithy do not seek any thing without Christ. 

Yet for aU that, we do neither despise the samts> nor think basely 
of them. For we acknowledge them to be the lively members of 
Christ, the friends of God, who have gloriously overcome the flesh 
and the world. We therefore love them as brethren, and honour 
them also ; yet not with any worship, but with an honourable opinion 
of them, and, to conclude, with just praises of them. We also do imi- 
tate them. For we desire with most earnest affections and prayers, 
to be foUowers of their foith and virtues ; to be partakers also with 
them of everlasting salvation ; to dwell together with them ever- 
lastingly with God, and to rejoice with them in Christ. And in 
this point, we approve that saying of St. Augustine, in his book 
J)e Verd ReligUme; * Let not the worship of men departed be any 
religion unto us. For if they have lived holily, they are not so to 
be esteemed, as that they seek such honours ; but they will have us 
to worship him, by whose illumination they rejoice that we are 
fellow-servants, as touching the reward. They are therefore to be 
honoured for imitation, not to be worshipped for religion's sake, 
&c.' And we much less believe that the relics of saints are to be 
adored or worshipped. Those ancient holy men seemed sufficiently 

OF ooq. 23 


to have honoured their dead, if th^}Evbad honestly committed their 
bodies to the earth, after that the soul was gone up into heaven : 
and they thought that the most noble relics of their ancestors were 
their virtues, doctrine, and faith ; which as they commended with 
the praise of the dead, so they did endeavour to express the same 
so long as they lived upon earth. Those ancient men did not 
swear but by the name of the only Jehovah, as it is commanded by the 
law of God. Therefore, as we are forbidden to " swear by the 
name of strange gods," Exod. xxiii. 13. Josh, xziii. 7. so we do 
not swear by saints, although we be requested thereunto. We 
therefore in all these things do reject that doctrine, which giveth 
too much unto the saints in heaven. 

II. — ^From thk formbr Confession of Hblvbtia. 

Art, 6. We thus think of God : that he is one in substance, three 
in persons, and almighty : who, as he hath by the Word, that is, 
lu8 Son, made all things of nothing ; so by his Spirit and providence, 
he doth justly, truly, and most wisely govern, preserve, and cherish, 
aU things. 

Art, 11, towards the end. Who, as he is the only Mediator, Intcr- 
caaar, and sacrifice, also our High Priest, Lord^ and King ; so we 
acknowledgey and with the whole heart believe, that he alone is our 
atonement, redemption, satisfisu^on, expiation, wisdom, protection, 
and deliverance ; simply rejecting herein all means of life and sal- 
vation,* besides this Christ alone. 

III.— From the Confession of Baslb. 

Art, I. Sect. 1. We believe in God the Father, in God the Son, in 
God the Holy Ghost, the holy diving trinity : three Persons, and one 
£temal. Almighty God, in essence and substance, and not three 
Gods. (And in the marginal note is added : This is proved by many 
places of the whole Scripture of the Old and New Testament.) 

Art. 10, Sect. 3. near the beginning. Therefore we mislike the wor- 

* Undcntand it tbas: that here are excluded aiid condemned all those 
means that used to be matched with or made inferior unto Christ, by such 
as be superstitious; and not instrumental means, ordained by the word of 
God, whose hdp God doth so use, that the whole force of the outward 
mioistry is to be ascribed to God alone , as is plainly set down afterward in the 
ISUi Scetioa, in the declaration of this self-same Confession, where it entreateth 
of Che Ministry and Sacrifices 

24 THI 8BC0ND 8SCT10N. 

ship and invocation of dead men, the worshipping of saints, and setting 
up of images, with such like things. (And in the same place, in the 
marginal note upon the word. Saints : Nevertheless, we confess 
that they serve in God*s presence, and that they reign with Christ 
everlastingly, l^ecause they acknowledged Christ, and both in deed 
and word confessed him to be their Saviour, redemption, and right- 
eousness, withoijIiLany addition of man's merit. For this cause do 
we praise and coiiteiend them, as those who have obtained grace at 
God's hand, and^aire now made heirs of the everlasting kingdom : 
yet do we ascribe all this to the glory of God and of Christ.) 

Art, 11. Sect. 1. We plainly protest that we condemn and re- 
nounce all strange and erroneous doctrines, which the spirits of errors 
bring forth,'.&c. And Section 2 of the same Article. We condemn that 
doctrine which saith, that we may in no case swear, although God's 
glory and the love of our neighbour require it. (And in the mar- 
ginal note upon the word. Swear : It is lawful to use an oath in due 
time. For God hath commanded this in the Old Testament, and 
Christ hath not forbidden it in the New : yea, Christ and the 
Apostles did swear.) 

IV.— From thb Confession of Bohemia, or thb Waldbnsbs. 

Chapter 3. Of the Unity of the Divine Essence, and of the Three 


Out of this fountain of Holy Scripture, and Christian instruo^ 
tion, according to the true and sound understanding and mean- 
ing of the Holy Ghost, our men teach by faith to acknowledge, 
and with the mouth to confess, that the Holy Trinity, to wit, God 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, are three distinct persons : 
but in essence, one only true, alone, eternal, almighty, and incom- 
prehensible God, of one equal indivisible Divine essence ; " of whom, 
through whom, and in whom are all things ;" Rom. xi. 36. who loveth 
and rewardeth righteousness and virtue, but hateth and punisheth 
all iniquity and sin. According to this faith, men are taught 
to acknowledge the wonderful works of God, and those pro- 
perties which are peculiar to each person of the Holy Trinity, and of 
the Divine Unity, and to acknowledge the sovereign and infinite 
power, wisdom, and goodness of the one only God : out of which 
also ariseth and proceedeth the saving knowledge, as well of the 
essence, as of the will of God. One kind of works or properties of 
the three persons of the Godhead (by which they are discerned one 
from the other) arc the inward, eternal, and hypostatical properties^ 

or ooD. 25 

which always remain immutable, and are only apprehended by the 
eyes of ftdth ; and are these : — 

That the Father, as Che fountain and well-spring of the Godhead, 
from all eternity begetteth the Son, equal to himself ; and that him- 
self remaineth not begotten ; neither yet is he the person of the Son, 
seeing he is a person begetting, not begotten. The Son is begotten of 
the eternal Father, from all eternity, true God of God : and in that he 
is a person, he is not the Father, but the Son begotten of the essence 
or natiure of the Father, and con-substantial with him : which Son, 
in the fulness of time, which he had before appointed for this pur- 
pose, himself alone, in that he is the Son, took unto him Our nature, of 
the Uessed Virgin Mary, and united it into one person with the 
Godhead ; where<^ we shall speak afterward. But the Holy Ghost 
prooeedeth firom the Father and the Son ; and so he is neither the 
Father nor the Son, but a person distinct from them, eternal, and 
the substantial love of the Father and of the Son, surpassing all 
admiration. These three persons are one true God, as is aforesaid. 

The other kind of works in these persons, and in the unity of the 
Godhead, issneth as it were into open sight out of the Divine essence 
and the perscms thereof; in which being distinct, they have mani- 
fested themselves. And these are three. The first is the wonderful 
work of Creation, which the Creeds do attribute to the Father. The 
second is the work of Redemption, which is proper to Christ. The 
third is the work of Sanctification, which is ascribed to the Holy 
Ghost; for whidi cause, he, in the Apostles* Creed, is peculiarly 
called Holy. And yet all these are the proper works of one true 
God, and that of him alone, and none other : to wit, the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

This true and absolute fedth, and difficult knowledge of God, 
as well concerning his nature as his will, is comprehended 
and contained in the aforenamed Catholic and Apostolical Creed, 
and in the Decree of the Nicene Council agreeing there- 
with, and in many other sound decrees, and also in Athanasius's 
Confession: aU which we judge and profess to be true. But it 
hath everlasting and sure grounds on which it relieth, and most 
weighty reasons by which it is out of the Holy Scripture convinced 
to b^Mme. As by that manifestation wherein the whole Trinity 
shewed itself, when Christ the Lord was baptized in Jordan. Matt. 
iiL 16, 17. By the commandment of Christ, that in the name 
of the persons of the same Holy Trinity, all people must be bap- 
tized and instructed in the ftdth. Matt, xxviii. 19. Also, by Christ's 


words, when he saith, *' The Holy Ghost, the Comforter, whom the 
Father will send in my name, shall teach yon all these things : ** 
John xiv. 26. and before these words he ^aith, " I will pray the 
Father, and he will give you another Comforter, who shall be with 
you for ever, even the Spirit of truth." Verses 16, 17. 

Besides, wc teach, that this only true God, one in essence and 
in divine nature, and three in persons, is above all to be honoured 
with high worship^* as chief Lord and King, who ruleth and 
reigneth always and for ever ; and especially after this sort, that we 
look unto him above aU, and put all our confidence in him alone ; 
and offering unto him all subjection, obedience, fear, faith, love, 
and generally the service of the whole inward and outward divine 
worship, do indeed sacrifice and perform it, under pain of losing 
everlasting salvation: as it is written, "Thou shalt worship the 
Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve : " Deut. vi. 13. 
and again, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, 
with all thy soul, with all thy mind,'* Matt. xxii. 37. and, to be 
short, ** with all thy might ;" Mark xii. 30. as well of the inward 
as outward powers : to whom be glory ^m this time forth for ever- 
more. Amen. 

Chapter 17. Of Holy Men, and their Worship. 

As touching holy men, it is taught, first, that no man from the 
beginning of the world unto this time either was, or now is, or can 
be henceforth unto the end, sanctified by his works or holy actions : 
according to the saying of Moses, the faithful servant of the Lord, 
when he cried out unto the Lord, " O Lord, in thy sight no man is 
innocent ;" Exod. xxxiv. 9. that is, perfectly holy. And in the book 
of Job, it is written, " What is man, that he should be undefiled, 
and he that is bom of a woman, that he should appear just ? " (to 
wit, before God.) " Behold, among his saints, none is immutable, 
and the heavens are not clean in his sight : how much more abomi* 
nable and unprofitable man, who drinketh in iniquity as water V* Job 

* To wit, with religioas worship, and such as properly respecteth the con- 
science, which is all wholly due to God alone, as it is in plain temas afterwards 
set down ; lest any man should think, that that false and impious distiMltion of 
Latria, Dulia, and Hyperdydia (if so he that it be referred to religious worship) 
should here be confirmed. For otherwise, as for civil honoufi which is due to 
the higher powers, and to some other for honesty and order's sake, we are so 
far from rejecting it, that we teach, that, seeing it is commanded of God, it 
cannot be neglected of us, without some wound of conscience. 

or GOD. 27 

XV. 14— 16. And the holy Scripture plainly witnesscth through- 
out an the hooks thereof, that all men, even from their hirth, are, 
hy nature, sinners, Ephes. ii. 1. and that there neither is, nor 
hath heen any one, who, of hunself, and hy himself, was righteous 
and holy ; Psal. ziv. 3. hut " all have gone aside from God, and 
are become unprofitable)" Rom. iii. 12. and of no account at all. 
And whereas some are made holy and acceptable unto God, that 
is purchased onto them without any worthiness or merit of theirs, 
by Him who alone is holy. God himself, of the mere grace and 
unspeakable riches of his goodness, hath ordained and brought them 
to that estate, that they be chosen and called, redeemed by Christ, 
deansed and consecrated by his blood, anointed of the Holy Ghost, 
made righteous and holy by faith in Christ, and adorned with 
commendable virtues and good deeds or works, which beseem a 
Christian profession : of whom, many having finished their life and 
cxNirse in such worksy have now received and do enjoy by grace 
eternal felicity in heaven, where God crowneth those that be his. 
Some of them also God hath endued with a certain peculiar grace 
of hisy and with divine gifts, unto the ministry, and to the public 
and common good of the Church ; such as were the patriarchs, 
prophetsy and other holy fathers ; also, apostles, evangelists, bishops, 
and many doctors and pastors ; and also other famous men, and 
of rare excellency, and very well furnished with the Spirit, whose 
memoryy monuments of their labours, and the good things which 
they did, are extant, and continue even until this day, in the holy 
Seriptores and in the Church. 

But especially, it Is both believed, and by open confession made 
knowBy 88 touching the holy Virgin Mary, that she was a daughter 
of the blood royal, oi the house and family of David, that dear ser- 
vant and friend of God ; and that she was chosen and blessed of God 
the Father, consecrated by the Holy Ghost, visited and sanctified 
above others of her sex ; Luke L 28. and also replenished with won- 
derful grace and power of God to this end, that she might become 
the tme mother of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God ; of whom 
he vouchsafed to take our nature ; and that she was, at all times, 
before her birth, in the same, and after it, a true, chaste, and pure 
virgin; and that by her best-beloved Son, the Son also of the 
living God, through the price of his death, and the effusion of his 
mo«t holy blood, she was dearly redeemed and sanctified, as also 
made one oi the dear partakers of Christ by the Holy Ghost through 


futh ;* being adorned with excellent gifts, noble virtoes, and fruits 
of good works, renowned as happy before all others, and made most 
assuredly a joint-heir of eyerlasting life. 

And a little after. Furthermore, it is taught in the church, that 
no man ought so to reverence holy men, as we are to worship God, 
much less their images ; f or to reverence them with that worship 
and affection of mind which only are due to God alone ; and, to 
be short, by no means to honour them with divine worship, or to 
give it unto them. For God saith by the prophet Isaiah, '' I am the 
Lord thy God, this is my name ; I wOl not give mine honour to 
another, nor my glory to images." Isa. xlii. 8. and xlviii. 11. 

Again, a little after. But even as that thing is gainsaid, that the 
honour due to God should be given to saints ; so it is by no means 
to be suffered, that the honour of the Lamb, Christ our Lord, and 
things belonging to him, and due to him alone, and appertaining to 
the proper and true priesthood of his nature, should be transferred 
to them : that is, lest of them, and those torments which they 
suffered, we should make redeemers or merits in this life, or else 
advocates, intercessors, and mediators in heaven, or that we should 
invocate them ; and not them only, but not so much as the holy 
angels, seeing they are not God* For there b one only Redeemer, 
1 Tim. ii. 5. who, being once delivered to death, sacrificed himself 
both in his body and in his blood: Heb. ix. 11, 12. there is also 
one only Advocate, the most merciful Lord of us all. 1 John. ii. 1. 

And they are not only to be reputed and taken for saints, who 
are gone before us, and are feUen asleep in the Lord, and dweO 
now in joys ; but also they, who (as there have always been some 
upon earth) so do likewise live now on the earth : such are all true 
and godly Christians, in what place or country soever, here or there, 
and among what people soever they lead their life; who, being 
baptized in the name of the Lord, have b^n sanctified, and, being 
indued with true faith in the Son of God, and set on fire, are 

* Understand this, of that peculiar gnioe and mercy which was bestowed 
upon Mary alone, whereby she was made the mother of God that bare him, 
and was also endued with an excellent faith : and not as though any duties of 
the only Mediator, Christ, either of redemption or intercession, woe to be 
attributed to her, as afterwards in plain words is expressly declared. 

•f The meaning of this is, that we are bound to honour, in the Lord, both 
the saints that are alive, and also the memory of them that are dead. But to 
their images we are not to give any show of worship, whether religious or 
civil; forasmuch as that cannot be attempted without abominable superstition. 

OF GOO. 29 


inflamed with a mutoal aflection of divine charity and love ; who 
also, acknowledging the justification of Christ, do use hoth it, and 
absolution from their sins, and the communion of the Sacrament of 
the body and blood of Christ, and diligently apply themselves to 
all hdy exercises of piety beseeming a Christian profession. As also 
the apostles call siidi believers in Christ (which as yet, like strangers, 
are conversant here on earth according to the state of mortal men) 
saints. As for example. " Ye are a chosen generation, a royal 
priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people." 1 Pet. ii. 9. Again, 
*'An the saints greet you." 2 Cor. xiii. 13. In like manner, 
** Salate all those that have the oversight of you, and all the saints ;" 
Heb. xiii. 24. that is, all faithful Christians. 

For this cause it is taught that we ought, with entire love and 
fiivour of the heart, to embrace all Christians before all other 
people, andy when need is, from the same affection of love to afford 
unto them our service, and to help them ; further, that we ought 
to maintain the society of holy friendship with those that love and 
foDow the truth of Christ ; with all good affection to conceive well 
of them; Rom. xiL 10. to have them in honour for Christ's sake; 
to give unto them due reverence from the affection of Christian 
love ; 1 Cor. xii. 25, 26. and to study, in procuring all good, by our 
duty and service to pleasure them ; Gal. vi. 10. and finally to desire 
their prayers for us. 1 Thess. v. 25. And that Christians going 
astxay, and entangled with sins, are lovingly and gently to be 
brought to amendment ; that compassion is to be had on them ; 
that they are with a quiet mind in love, so as becometh, to be borne 
withal ; that prayer is to be made unto God for them, that he would 
bring them again into the way of salvation, to the end that the 
hdy Goqpd may be ^read fiEurther abroad, and Christ's glory may 
be made known and enlarged among all men, 

y.^FaoM THs Confession of France. 

Art, 1, We believe and acknowledge one only God, who is one 
Qidy and simple essence, spiritual, eternal, invisible, immutable, 
infinite, incomprehensible, unspeakable, almighty, most wise, good, 
just, and merciful. 

Ari. 6. The holy Scripture teacheth us, that in that one and 
sim]^ Divine essence, there be three persons subsisting, the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The Father, to wit, the first cause 
in order, and the beginning of all thbgs ; the Son, his wisdom, and 
everlasting Word ; the Holy Ghost, his virtue, power, and efficacy : 


the Son begotten of the Father from everlasting ; the Holy Ghost 
from everlasting proceeding from the Father and the Son : which 
three persons are not confounded, bat distinct ; and yet not divided, 
but co-essential, co-eternal, and co-equal. And, to conclude ; in this 
mystery, we allow of that which those four ancient Councils have 
decreed ; and we detest all sects condemned by those holy ancient 
Doctors, Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril, Ambrose, and such as are 
condemned by others agreeably to God*s word. 

Hitherto also belongeth. Art. 2. This one God hath revealed 
himself unto men to be such an one, first by the creation, preser- 
vation, and government of his works, then much more clearly in his 
word, &c. (Seek the rest in the Third Section.) 

Art. 19. We believe, that we by this one means obtain liberty 
of praying to God with a sure confidence, and that it will come to 
pass, that he will shew himself a Father unto us. For we have no 
entrance to the Father, but by this Meditator. 

Art, 24. We believe, because Jesus Christ is the only Advocate 
given unto us, who also commandeth us to come boldly unto the 
Father in his name, that it is not lawful for us to make our prayers 
in any other form, but in that which God hath set us down in his 
word; and that whatsoever men have forged of the intercession 
of saints departed, is nothing but the deceits and sleights of Satan, 
that he might withdraw men from the right manner of praying. 
We also reject all other means, whatsoever men have devised, to 
exempt themselves from the wrath of God. So much as is given unto 
them, so much is derogated from the sacrifice and death of Christ. 

VI. — From the Confession of England. 

Art. 1. We believe, that there is one certain nature and Divine 
power, which we call God : and that the same is divided into three 
equal persons, into the Father, into the Son, and into the Holy 
Ghost ; and that they all be of one power, of one majesty, of one 
eternity, of one godhead, and of one substance. And although these 
three persons be so divided, that neither the Father is the Son, 
nor the Son is the Holy Ghost or the Father ; yet nevertheless we 
believe that there is but one very God, and that the same one God 
hath created heaven, and earth, and all things contained under 

Art. 2. We believe, that Jesus Christ, the only Son of the eternal 
Father, &c. (The rest of this Article you shall find in the Section, 

OF GOD. 31 

whereanto those things do properly pertain, which are contained 
in this Second Article, of the Person and Office of Christ.) 

Art. 3. We beheve that the Holy Ghost, who is the third person 
in the Trinity, is very God ; not made, not created, not begotten, 
hat proceeding both from the Father and the Son, by a certain 
mean unknown unto man, and unspeakable ; and that it is his very 
property to mollify and soften the hardness of man's heart, when 
he is cmce received into the hearts of men, either by the wholesome 
preaching of the Gospel, or by any other way ; that he doth give 
them light, and guide them unto the knowledge of God, to all 
way of truth, to newness of life, and to everlasting hope of 

To the same effect also. Art. 4. Neither have we any other Media- 
tor pmd Intercessor, by whom we may have access to God the Father, 
than Jesus Christ, in whose only name all things are obtained at his 
Father^s hand. But it is a shameful part, and full of infidelity, 
that we see everywhere used in the churches of our adversaries, 
not only in that they will have innumerable sorts of Mediators, 
and that utterly without the authority of God's word ; (so that, as 
Jeremiah saith, " the saints be now as' many in number, or rather 
above the number of the cities ;" Jer. ii. 28. and poor men cannot 
teD» to which saint it were best to turn them first: and though 
there be so many, as they cannot be told, yet every of them hath his 
pecdUar duty and office assigned unto him by these folks, what to 
give, and what to bring to pass ;) but besides this also, in that they 
do not only wickedly, but also shamefully, call upon the blessed 
Virgin, Christ's mother, to have her remember that she is the 
mother, and to command her Son, and to use a mother's authority 
over him. 

^ VII. — From thb Confkssion of Scotland. 

Article I. Of God. 

We confess and acknowledge one only God, to whom only we 
must cka^Cy whom only we must serve, whom only we must 
worship, and in whom only we must put our trust : Deut. iv. 35. 
and vi. 4. Isaiah xliv. 5, 6. who is eternal, infinite, unmeasurable, 
incomprehensible, omnipotent, invisible, one in substance, and yet 
dtstmct in three perscms, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 
Mat. zzviii. 19. By whom we confess and believe all things in 
heaven and earth, as well visible as invisible, to have been created. 
Gen. i. 1. to be retained in their being, and to be ruled and guided 

82 THB 81C0ND 8KCTI0N. 

by his inscrutable Providence to such end, as his eternal wisdom, 
goodness, and justice, hath appointed them, to the manifestation of 
his glory. Prov. xvi. 4. 

VIII«— From thb Confession of Bbloia. 

Art, 1. We believe in heart, and confess with the mouth, that 
there is one only and simple spiritual essence, which we call God, 
eternal, incomprehensible, invisible, immutable, infinite, who is 
wholly wise, and a most plentiful well-spring of all good things. 

Art. 2. We know God by two means. First, by the creation, and 
preservation, and government of the whole world. For it is unto 
our eyes as a most excellent book, wherein all creatures, from the 
least to the greatest, as it were certain characters and letters, are 
written, by which the invisible things of God may be seen and 
known unto us, namely, his everlasting power and Godhead, as Ftaul 
the Apostle speaketh ; Rom. i. 20. which knowledge sufficeth to con- 
vince an men, and make them without excuse. But much moi% 
clearly and plainly he afterwards revealed himself unto us in his 
holy and heavenly word, so far forth as is expedient for his own 
glory, and the salvation of his in this life. 

Art. 8. According to this truth and word of God, we believe in 
one only God, (who is one essence, truly distinguished into three 
persons from everlasting, by means of incommunicable pro- 
perties,) to wit, in the Father, in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost. 
For the Father is the cause, fountain, and beginning of all things 
visible and invisible ; the Son is the word, wisdom, and image of 
the Father ; the Holy Ghost is the might and power which proceedcth 
from the Father and the Son. Yet so, that this distinction doth not 
make God as it were divided into three parts ; seeing the Scripture 
teacheth, that the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, ^ve a 
distinct person or subsistence in their properties, yet so, that these 
three persons be one only God. Therefore it is certain, that neither 
the Father is the Son, nor the Son the Father, nor the Holy Ghost 
either the Father or the Son. Nevertheless, these persons thus 
distinguished, are neither divided, nor confounded, nor mingled. 
For neither the Father, nor the Holy Ghost, have taken unto them 
man's nature, but the Son alone. The Father was never without 
• his Son, nor without his Holy Ghost, because every one, in one and 
the same essence, is of the same eternity. For none of these is 
either first or last, because aU three are one, both in truth and power, 
and also in goodness and mercy. 

OF OOD. 38 

Art. 9. And dl these things wc know, as well by the testiinontes 
of hxAy Scri ptur e, as by the effects ; and chiefly those which we 
fed in our own selves. And the testimonies oi holy Scripture, which 
teach OS to beUeve this holy Trinity* are very common in the Old 
Testament; Which are not so much to be reckoned up, as with 
floond judgment to be sdected ; such as are these. In the first of 
Genesis, God saith, *' Liet us make man according to our image and 
likeness, &c.*' Gen. i. 26. And straight after, " Therefore God made 
man according to his own image and likeness, male (I say) and fe- 
male created he them." Verse 27* Again, " Bdidd the man is be- 
come as one of us.*' Chap. iii. 22. For by that which is said, " Let 
us make man after our own likeness," it appeareth, that there is 
more than one person in the Godhead : but when it is said, " God 
created, &c." the unity of the Godhead is signified. But although it 
be not here expressly set do¥m how many persons there are, yet that 
which was obscurely delivered in the Old Testament, in the New is 
made dearer unto us than the noon-day. For when our Lord Jesus 
Cbsnst was bi^ytized in Jordan, the voice of the Father was heard, 
saying, " This is my bdoved Son ;" and the Son himself was seen in 
the waters, and the Hdy Ghost appeared " in the likeness of a dove." 
Mat. iii. 17, 18. Therefore we are also commanded, in the common 
Inqptism of all the faithful, to use this form, " Baptise ye aU nations 
in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost." 
Mat. xxviii. 19. Lo also, in Luke, the angel Gabriel speaketh to 
Mary, the mother of our Lord : " The Holy Ghost shall come upon 
thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee ; therefore 
that hdy thing which shall be bom of thee, shall be called the Son 
of God." Luke i. 35. In like manner, " The grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy 
Ghostly be with you." 2 Cor. ziii. 14. Again, "There are three that 
bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost ; 
whidi three are one." 1 John v. 7. By all which places we are 
folly taught, that in one only God there are three persons; and 
shhongh this doctrine pass all the reach of man's wit, yet we now 
8ted£Bstly believe it out of the word of God, looking when we 
shafl enjoy the fdl knowledge thereof in heaven. 

The offices, also, and efiects of these three persons, which every of 
them sheweth towards us, are to be marked. For the Father, by reason 
of his power, is called our Creator ; the Son, our Saviour and Redeemer, 
because he hath redeemed us by his blood ; the Holy Ghost, is called 
our Sanctifier, because he dwelleth in our hearts. And the true 


church hath alwa3r8, even from the Apostles' age until these times, 
kept this holy doctrine of the blessed Trinity, and maintained it 
against Jews* Mahometans, and other fidse Christians, and heretics, 
Buch as were Marcion, Manes, Prazeas, Sabellius, Samosatenus, 
and the like, aU which were worthily condemned by* the fathers of 
most soand judgment. Therefore we do here willingly admit those 
three creeds : namely, that of the Apostles, of Nice, and of Athanasius ; 
and whatsoever things they, according to the meaning of those 
creeds, have set down concerning this point of doctrine. 

Art. 10. We believe that Jesus Christ, in respect of his Divine 
nature, is the only Son of God, begotten from everlasting, not made 
or created, (for then he should be a creature,) but of the same essence 
with the Father, and co-eternal with him ; who also is " the true 
image of the Father's substance, and the brightness of his glory," Heb. 
i. 8. in all things equal unto him. But he is the Son of Grod, not only 
since the time he took upon him our nature, but from everlasting ; as 
these testimonies being laid together teach us. Moses saith, that 
"God created the world:" Gen. i. 1. but St. John saith, that 
'* All things were made by the Word," John L 3. whom he calleth 
God. So the Apostle to the Hebrews avoucheth, that " Grod made 
all things by his Son Jesus Christ." Heb. i. 2. It foUoweth there- 
fore, that he who is called both God, and the Word, and the Son, 
and Jesus Christ, had his being even then, when all things were 
made by him. Therefore, Micah the Prophet saith, *^His going 
out hath been from the beginning, from the days of eternity." 
Micah. V. 2. Again, " He is without beginning of days, and with- 
out end of life." Heb. vii. 8. He is therefore that true God, 
eternal, almighty, whom we pray unto, worship, and serve. 

Art. 11. We believe also and confess, that the Holy Ghost pro- 
ceedeth from the Father and the Son from everlasting, and that 
therefore he was neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but only 
proceeding from them both ; who is in order the third person of the 
Trinity, of the same essence, glory, and majesty with the Father and 
the Son : and therefore he also is true and everlasting God, as the 
holy Scriptures teach us. 

Art, 26. We also believe that we have no access to God, but by 
that one only Mediator and Advocate, Jesus Christ the righteous ; 
who was therefore made man, (uniting the human to the Divine 
nature,) that there might be an entrance made for us miserable men 
to the majesty of God, which had otherwise been shut up against us 
for ever. Yet the majesty and power of this Mediator (whom the 

OF QOO. 35 

Father bath set between himself and us) ought in no case so much to 
fray us, that we should therefore think another is to be sought at 
our own pleasure. For there is none either among the heavenly or 
earthly creatures, who doth more entirely love us than Christ him- 
self; who, when he was in the shape of God, humbled himself by 
taking upon him the shape of a servant, and for our sakes became 
like onto his brethren in all points. And if we were to seek an- 
other Mediator, who would vouchsafe us some good-will ; whom, I 
pray yon, could we find, that would love us more earnestly than he, 
who willingly laid his life down for us, when as yet we were his 
enemies ? If moreover we were to seek another, that exceUeth both 
in aovereign authority and also power ; who ever obtained so great 
power as he himself, who sitteth at the right hand of God the 
Father, and to whom all power is given in heaven and in earth ? 
To condttde, who was more likely to be heard of God, than that 
only-begotten and dearly«beloved Son of God ? Therefore, nothing 
but distrust brought in this custom, whereby we rather dishonour 
the saints (whom we think to honour) in doing these thmgs, which 
they in their Ufe-time were ever so far from doing, that they rather 
constantly and according to their duty abhorred them, as their own 
^mtings bear witness. Neither is our own unworthiness here 
to be aUedged lor excuse of so great ungodliness. For we at no 
lund ofier up our prayers, trusting to our own worthiness, but 
. ^resting upon the only worthiness and excellency of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, whose righteousness is ours by hith. Whereupon the Apostle 
for good cause, to exempt us from this vain fear, (or rather dbtrust,) 
saith, that Christ was " in all things made like unto his brethren, that 
be might be a merciful and faithful high Priest in those things that 
were to be done with Grod for the cleansing of the people's sins. 
For inasmnch as he being tempted hath suffered, he is also able 
to hdp thoae that are tempted." Heb. ii. 17, 18. And that he might 
eooonrage ns to come the more boldly to this high Priest, the same 
Apostle addeth ; " Having therefore a great high Priest, who hath 
entered the heavens, even Jesus tiie Son of God, let us hold fast this 
profeasioiL. For we have not an high Priest that cannot be touched 
widi the £Bcling of onr infirmities ; but he was in all things tempted 
in like sort, yet without sin. Let us therefore with boldness 
i^proach imto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and 
find grace to help in time of need.*' Heb. iv. 14—16. The same 
Aportle saith, that "We have liberty to enter into the holy place 
through the blood of Jesus : let us therefore draw near with a con- 



slant persuasion of faith, &c." Heb. z. 19 ; 22. And again, 
" Christ hath an everlasting priesthood. Wherefore he is able also to 
save them, that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to 
make intercession for them." Heb. vii. 24, 25. What need many 
words ? when as Christ himself saith, " I am the way, the tmth, and 
the life : no man cometh to the Father but by me." John xiv. 6. 
Why should we seek unto ourselves any other advocate ? Especially 
seeing it hath pleased God himself to give us his own Son for our 
Advocate, there is no cause why, forsaking him, we should seek 
another, lest by continual seeking we never find any other. For 
God undoubtedly knew, when he gave him unto us, that we were 
miserable sinners. Whereupon it is, that, according to Christ's own 
commandment, we only call upon the heavenly Father, by the self- 
same Jesus Christ our only Mediator, even ^a he himself also hath 
taught us in the Lord's Prayer. For we are sure that we shall 
obtain all those things, which we ask of the Father in his name. 

IX. — From thb Confession of Augsburg. 

Art. I. The Churches with common consent among us do teach, 
that the decree of the Nicene Council, concerning the . unity of the 
Divine essence, and of the three persons, is true, and without doubt 
to be believed : to wit, that there is one Divine essence, which is 
called and is God, eternal, without body, indivisible, of infinite 
power, wisdom, goodness, the Creator and Preserver of all things, 
visible and invisible ; and that there be three persons of the same 
essence and power, which also are co-eternal, the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost. And they use the name of Person in that 
signification, in which the ecclesiastical writers have used it in this 
cause to signify, not a part or quality in another, but that which 
properly subsisteth. 

They condemn all heresies sprung up against this article, as the 
Manichees, who set down two beginnings, good and evil ; in the 
same manner the Valentinians, Arians, Eunomians, Mahomet- 
ans, and all such like. They condemn also the Samosatenes, old 
and new; who, when they earnestly defend that there is but one Per- 
son, do craftily and wickedly dally after the manner of Rhetoricians, 
about the Word and the Holy Ghost, that they are not distinct 
persons, but that the Word signifieth a vocal word, and the Spirit a 
motion created in things. 

or ooD. 37 

Article 21. 

We kave fnmd this Twenfy-fint Article set forth three divers ways. 
The First EdiHon, of the year 1559, readeth thus. 

Invocation is an honour, which is to be given only to God 
Ahnighty; that is, to the eternal Father, and to his Son our Saviour 
Jesos Christ, and to the Holy Ghost. And God hath proposed his 
Son Jesus Christ for a Mediator and High Priest that maketh 
intercession for ns. He testifieth, that for him alone our prayers are 
heard and accepted, according to that saying, " Whatsoever ye ask 
the Father m my name, he shall give it to you." John xvi. 23. 
Again, "There is one Mediator between Grod and men." 1 Tim. ii. 
5. Therefore let them that call upon God offer up their prayers by 
the Son of God, as in the end of prayers it is accustomed to be said 
in the Church, "Through Jesus Christ, 8tc.*'* These things are 
needful to be taught concerning Invocation, as our men have else- 
where more at large written of Invocation. But contrariwise the 
custom of invocating saints that are departed out of this life, is to be 
reproved and quite thrown out of the Church : because this custom 
transferreth the glory, due to God alone, unto men ; it ascribeth unto 
the dead an omnipotency, in that saints should see the motions of 
men*s hearts ; yea, it ascribeth unto the dead the office of Christ the 
Mediator, and without all doubt obscureth the glory of Christ. 
Hieretee we condemn the whole custom of invocating saints 
departed, and think it is to be avoided. Notwithstanding it pro- 
fiteth to recite the true histories of holy men, because their exam- 
ples do profitably instruct, if they be rightly propounded. When 
we hear that David*s fall was forgiven him, faith is confirmed in 
us also. The constancy of the ancient Martyrs doth now likewise 
strengthen the minds of the godly. For this use it is profitable to 
recite tiieir histories: but yet there had need be discretion in 
upj^^yimg their examples. 

T%e Second Edition is thus. 

Concerning the worship of saints they teach, that it is profitable 
to propose the memory of saints, that by their examples we may 
strengthen our faith, and that we may follow their faith and good 

* These words do not excuse the Popish prayers unto saints, which they 
eonclode with this form of words ; for that he speaketh here of godly prayers 
unto God, and not of idolatiutts and superstitious prayers to saints. 


works, 80 &r as every man's calling reqoireth : as the Emperor ma j 
follow David's example in makipg war to beat back the Turks; for 
either of them is a king. We ought also to give God thanks, that he 
hath propomided so many and giorions examples of his mercy in the 
saints of his Chmrch, and that he hath adorned his Chmrdi with most 
excellent gifts and virtaes of holy men. The saints themadves also 
are to be oommended* who have holily used thoae gifts whidi they 
employed to the beautifying of the dmr^; bat the Scripture teacheth 
not to invocate saints, or to aak help of saints, bat layeth only 
(3hrist before us for a Mediator, Propitiator, High Ftiest, and Inter- 
cessor. C<meeming him we have commandments and promises, 
that we invocate him ; and shoold be resolved that our prayers are 
heard, when we fly to this high Priest and Intercessor ; as himself 
saith, " Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will give 
it you, &c." John xv. 1 6. and, " Whatsoever je shall ask ia my name, 
that I will do." John xiv. 18. These testimonies Ud as fly anto 
Christ ; they command as to bdieve that Christ is the Intercessor 
and peace-maker ; they bid as trust assuredly that we are heard of 
the Father for Christ's sake. But as touching the saints, there are 
neither commandments, nor promises, nor examples f<»r this purpose 
in the Scriptures. And Christ's office and honour is obscured, 
when men fly to saints, and take them for mediators, and invocate 
them, and fnme unto themselves an opinion that the saints are 
more gracious, and so tranter the confidence due to Christ unto 
saints. But Ptiul saith, " There is one Mediator between God and 
man." 1 Hm. ii. 5. Therefore Christ especially requireth this 
worship, that we should believe that he is to be sought unto, that 
he is the Intercessor, for whose sake we are sure to be heard, &c. 

In the Third Edition, these things are thus found. 

Touching the worship of saints, they teach, that the memory of 
saints may be set before us, that we may follow their faith and 
good works according to our calling ; as the Emperor may follow 
David's example in making war to drive away the Turks from his 
country : for either of them is a king. But the Scripture teacheth 
not to invocate saints, or to ask help of saints, because it propound- 
eth unto us one Christ the Mediator^ Propitiator, High Priest, and 
Intercessor. This Christ is to be invocated, and he hath promised 
that he will hear our prayers, and liketh this worship especially, to 
wit, that he be invocated in all afflictions. " If any man sin, wc 
have an advocate with God, &c." 1 John ii. 1. 

OF OOD. 39 

X.— From thx Confbssion of Saxont. 

Article 22. 0/ Invocating godly men that are departed out of 

this life. 

In the 42nd Chapter oi Isaiah, 8th yene, it is written, " I am the 
Lord, this is my name, I will not give my glory to another." 
InYocation is a glory moet properly belonging to God ; as the Lord 
saith, " Thou shalt worship the Irord thy God, and him only shalt 
thofa serve*" Matt. iv. 10. And it is an immoveable and eternal de- 
cree of the First Commandment, " Thoa shalt have no strange gods." 
Ezod. zx« 3. It is necessary therefore, that the doctrine touching 
Invocation should be most purely upholden in the Church ; for the 
cormpting of which, the devil, even since the beginning of mankind, 
hath and will, divers ways, scatter seeds. Wherefore we ought to be 
the more watdifiiU and with greater care to retain the manner of 
invocation or adoration set down in God's word, according to that 
saying, " Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will 
do it." John xvi. 23. In these words there is an order established, 
whidi we ought most constantly to maintain ; not to mingle there- 
with other means contrary to God's word, or which are warranted 
by no example approved in the Scriptures* There is no greater 
virtue, no comfort more effectual, than true invocation. They 
tikerefore most needs be reproved, who either neglect true invocation 
<ir oorn^t it* And there be divers corruptions. Many do not discern 
their own invocation from that which is heathenish, neither indeed 
conaider what it is which they speak unto* Of these the Lord saith, 
" Ye worship ye know not what." He will have the Church to con- 
sider whereto it speakethy saying, " We worship that we know." John 
iv. 22. Many consider not whether or wherefore they shall be 
beard. They recite prayers, and yet they doubt; although it be 
written, " Let him ask in faith without wavering." James L 6. Of 
these mattere we will speak elsewhere. In this place we reprove 
this hcatheniah corruption, whereby the custom of those that call 
upon men departed out of this life is defended, and help or inter- 
ceaaion is sought for at their hands* Such invocation swerveth 
from God, and giveth unto creatures virtue, help, or intercession. 
For they that speak somewhat modestly, speak of intercession alone : 
but human superstition goeth on farther, and giveth virtue to them ; 
as many pabHc songs declare, ' O Mary, mother of grace, defend 
th<ni us from the enemy, and receive us in the hour of death.' 


These short verses have we heard a monk of their divinity say 
before one that lay a dying, and often repeating them, whereas he 
made no mention of Christ : and many such examples might be 
rehearsed. \ )^ 

There are yet also other brain-sick opinions. Some are thought 
to be more gpracions with sach or snch images : these frantic ima^ 
ginations, seeing they Bte at the first sight like heathenish conceits, 
do undonbtedly both greatly provoke the wrath of God, and are to 
be reproved by the teachers, and sharply to be pmiished by godly 
magistrates. Which reproof containeth these three manifest reasons. 
To ascribe nnto creatures omnipotency, is impiety. Invocation of a 
creature, which is departed from the society of this life, ascribeth 
nnto it omnipotency; because it is a confession, that it bdioldeth all 
men's hearts, and disc^emeth the tme sighs thereof from feigned 
and hypocritical. These are only to be given to the £temal Father, 
to his Son our Lord Jesns Christ, and to the Hdy Ghost. Invoca^ 
tion, therefore, is not to be made to men that are departed out of 
this life. It is to be lamented, that these evils are not perceived : 
but look to thyself, and wdgh what thou dost : in this invocation 
thou forsakest Grod, and dost not consider what thou dost invocate ; 
and thou knowest, that those patrons which thou seekest, as Anne 
and George, see not the motion of thy heart, who if they knew 
themselves to be invocated» they would even tremble^ and would 
not have this honour, due to God, given to any creatures. But 
what kind of invocation is there of the deaf ? Albeit we know what 
answer the adversaries make, (for they have coined cavils to delude 
the truth,) yet Grod's testimonies are wanting to their answer, and 
prayer which is without feith (that is, when thou canst not be 
resolved whether God allow and admit such kind of pra3ang) is in 

We remember, that Luther often said, that ' in the Old Testament 
it is a clear testimony of Messiah his Godhead, which affirmeth that 
he is to be invocated, and by this property is the Messiah there 
distinguished from other prophets : ' he complained that that most 
weighty testimony was obscured and weakened by transferring 
prayer to other men. And for this only cause he said, that the 
custom of praying to other was to be so misliked. 

The second reason is, invocation is vain without faith, and no 
worship is to be brought into the Church without God's command- 
ment : but there is no one sentence to be seen, which sheweth 
that this prayer made to men, which they maintain, pleaseth God, 

OF GOD. 41 

and is effectual : the prayer therefore is vain. For what kind of 
praying is it, in this sort to come onto Anne or George? ' I pray 
unto thee» hut I douht whether thy intercession do me good ; I 
douht whether thou hearest me, or helpest me.' If men understood 
these hid sins, they would curse such kind of prayers, as they are 
indeed to he cursed, and are heathenish. Afterward, of such faults, 
what outrages ensue? flocking and praying to particular images, 
craving certain benefits of every one : of Anne, richte are begged, as 
of Juno ; of George, conquests, as of Mars ; of Sebastian and Paul, 
freedom from the plague ; of Anthony, safeguard for swine : although 
the adversaries say they like not these things, yet they keep them 
still for gain's sake, as plainly appeareth* 

Now let us add the third reason. It is expressly written, " There 

is one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus : " 

1 Tiro. ii. 5. on him ought we, in all prayer, to cast our eyes, and 

to know the doctrine of the Gospel concerning him, that no man can 

come unto God but by confidence in the Mediator, who together 

maketh request for us ; as himself saith, " No man cometh to the 

Father, but by the Son." John ziv. 6. And he biddeth us fly unto 

himself, saying, " Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy 

leaden, and I will refresh yon : " Matt. zi. 28. and he himself 

teacheth the manner of invocation, when he saith, " Whatsoever 

ye shall ask the Father in my name, he will give it you." John zvi. 

23. He nameth the Father, that thou mayest distinguish thy 

invocation from heathenish, and consider what thou speakest unto ; 

that thou mayest consider him to be the true Grod, who, by sending 

his Son, hath revealed himself; that thy mind may not wander, as 

the heathenish woman in the tragedy speaketh, ' I pray unto thee, 

God, whatsoever thou art, &c ;' but that thou mayest know 

him to be the true Grod, who, by the sending, crucifying, and raising 

up again of his Son, hath revealed himself, and mayest know him 

to be such an one as he hath revealed himself. Secondly, that thou 

mayest know, that he doth so for a certainty receive and hear us 

making our prayers, when we fly to his Son the Mediator, crucified 

and raised up again for us ; and desire that, for his sake, we may be 

received, heard, helped, and saved ; neither is any man received or 

heard of God by any other means. Neither is the praying uncertain ; 

but he biddeth those that pray on this sort to be resolved through a 

strong faith, that this worship pleaseth God, and that they who pray 

on this manner are assuredly received and heard : therefore he saith, 

"Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name;" that is, acknowledging, 


and naming or calling upon, me as the Redeemer, High Priest, and 
Intercessor: this High Priest alone goeth into the holiest place, 
that is, into the secret council of the Deity, and seeth the mind of 
the Eternal Father, and maketh request for us, and, searching our 
hearts^ presenteth our sorrows, sighs, and prayers unto him. 

It is plain, that this doctrine of the Mediator was ohecured and 
corrupted, when men went to the Mother Virgin, as more merciful, 
and others sought other mediators. And it is plain, that there is 
no example to be seen in the prophets or apostles, where prayer is 
made unto men ; ' Hear me, Abraham ; ' or, " Hear me, O God, for 
Abraham's sake : ' but prayer is made unto God, who hath revealed 
himself, to wit, tp the Eternal Father, to the Son our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and to the Holy Ghost, that he would receive, hear, and 
save us for the Son's sake. It is also expressly made to the Son, 
as in 2 Thess. ii. 16, 17. "Our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and 
God our Father, who hath loved us, strengthen you, &c." And 
Jacob nameth Grod, and the Son the Mediator, when he saith, 
" God, before whom my fathers walked, and the Angel that deli- 
vered me out of all troubles, (that is, the promised Saviour,) bless 
these children." Gen. xlviii. 15, 16. Therefore we use these forms 
of invocation : ' I call upon thee, O Almighty God, Eternal Father of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, Maker of heaven and earth, together with 
thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ, and thy Holy Spirit, O wise, true^ 
good, righteous, most free, chaste, and merciful God, have mercy 
upon me, and for Jesus Christ's sake, thy Son, crucified for us, and 
raised up again, hear and sanctify me with thy Holy Spirit. I call 
upon thee, O Jesus Christ, the Son of Grod, crucified for us, and 
raised up again ; have mercy on me, pray for me unto the Ever- 
lasting Father, and sanctify me with thy Holy Spirit.' In these 
forms we know what we pray unto. And seeing there are testiaio- 
nies of Grod's word to be seen, which shew that this praying 
pleaseth God, and is heard, such praying may be made in faith. 
These things are not to be found in that invocation which is made 
unto men. Some gather testimonies out of Augustine and others, 
to show that the saints in heaven have care of human afiSurs. This 
may more plainly be showed by Moses and Elias talking with Christ. 
And there is no doubt but that such as are in happiness pray for 
the church.* But yet it foUoweth not thereupon that they are to be 
prayed unto. 

* See tbe first observation upon this Confession above, in the First Section, 

or Goo.^ 43 

And albeit we teach that men are not to be prayed onto, yet we 
propound the histories of those that are in the blessed state unto the 
people. Because it is necessary that the history of the Church be by 
some means known unto all, by what testimonies the church is called 
together and founded, and how it is preserved, and what kind of 
doctrine hath been published by the fathers, prophets, apostles, and 
martyrs. In these histories we command all to give thanks unto 
God, for that he hath revealed himself, th^t he hath gathered to- 
gether his Church by his Son, that he hath delivered this doctrine 
unto us, and hath sent teachers, and hath shewed in them the wit- 
nesses of iftmself. We command all to consider of this doctrine, and 
to strengthen their fedth by those testimonies which God hath shewed 
in them : that they likewise consider the examples of judgment and 
punishments, that the fear of Grod may be stirred up in them : we 
conunand them to follow their faith, patience, and other virtues ; 
that they learn that in Grod is no respect of persons, and desire to 
have themselves also received, heard, governed, saved, and helped, 
as God received David, Manasseh, Magdalene, the thief on the cross. 
We also teach how these examples are to be followed of every man 
in his vocation : because error in imitation, and preposterous zeal, is 
ofttimes the cause of great evils. We also commend the diligence 
of the saints themselves, who took heed of wasting God's gifts in 
vain.* And, to conclude, they that are not fools may gather great 
store of doctrine out of these histories ; which doctrine is profitable 
to be published to the people, so that superstition be set aside. 

XI. — From thb Confkssion op Wirtbmburg. 

Chapter 1 . Of God, and of Three Persona in one Godhead, 

We believe and confess that there is one only God, true, eternal, 
and infinite. Almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible ; 
and that in this one and eternal Grodhead there are thre^ properties 
or persons of themselves subsisting, the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost : as the prophetical and apostolical Scriptures teach, 
and the Creeds of the Apostles, of Nice, and of Athanasius declare. 

Chapter 2. Of the Son of God, 

We believe and confess that the Son of God, our Lord Jesus 
Christ, was begotten of his Father from everlasting, true and ever- 

• Concerning wasting and losing of the Spirit, and of the gifts of tbe same, 
»ee the first observation upon this Confession, in the Fourth Section following, 
On Mc Difference of Sin. 


lasting God, consubstantial with his Father, &c. (See the rest in 
the Sixth Section.) 

Chester 3. Of the Holy Ghost. 

We believe and confess that the Holy Ghost proceedeth from God 
the Father, from everlasting ; that he is true and eternal God, of 
the same essence, and majesty, and glory with the Father, and the 
Son; as the holy fi&the^, by authority of the holy Scripture, well 
declared in the Council of Constantinople against Macedonius. 

Chapter 23. Of the Invocation of Saints. 

There is no doubt but the memory of those saints, who, when 
they were in this bodily life, furthered the church either by doctrine, 
or by writings, or by miracles, or by examples, and have either wit- 
nessed the truth of the Gospel by martyrdom, or by a quiet kind 
of death fidlen on sleep in Christ, ought to be sacred with all the 
godly : and they are to be commended to the church, that by their 
doctrine and examples we may be strengthened in true ialih, and 
inflamed to follow true godliness. 

We confess also, that the saints in heaven do, after their certain 
manner, pray for us before God, as the angels also are careful for 
us;* and all the creatures do, after a certain heavenly manner, 
groan for our salvation, and travail together with us, as Paul speaketh. 
But as the worship or invocation of creatures is not to be instituted 
upon their groanings, so upon the prayer of saints in heaven we 
may not allow the invocation of saints. For, touching the invocating 
of them, there is no commandment nor example iu the holy Scrip- 
tures. For seeing all hope of our salvation is to be put, not in the 
saints, but in our Lord God alone, through his Son, our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; it is clear, that not the saints, but God alone is to be prayed 
unto. " How shall they call on him," saith Paul, " in whom they 
believe not ?" Rom. x. 14. But we must not believe in the saints : 
how then shall we pray unto them ? And seeing it must needs be, 
that he who is prayed unto be a searcher of the heart, the saints 
ought not to be prayed unto, because they are no searchers of the 
heart. Epiphanius saith, * Mary*s body was holy indeed, but yet 
not God ; she was indeed a virgin, and honourable, but she was not 
propounded for adoration ; but herself worshipped him, who, as con* 
ceming his flesh, was bom of her.' Contra Coliyridianos. Augustine 
saith, 'Let not the worship of dead men be any religion unto us; 

* See Note to the Saxon Confession, in the First Section, CfDoetrms^ 

OF 000. 45 

because if they have lived holily, they are not so to he accounted of, 
as that they should seek sach honour ; hut rather they will have him 
to he worshipped of us, hy whom themselves heing illuminated rejoice, 
that we should he fellow-servants of their reward. They are there- 
fore to he honoured for imitation, not to he worshipped for religion's 
sake.' De VerA ReUgione. Cap, uii. And again, in the same place, 
' We honour them with love, not with service. Neither do we 
erect temples unto them, for they will not have themselves so to he 
honoured of us ; because they know that we ourselves, being good, 
are th^ temples of the high God.' And elsewhere, ' Neither do we 
consecrate temples, priesthoods, holy rites, ceremonies, and sacrifices 
unto the same martyrs ; seeing not they, hut their God, is our God, 
&c. We neither ordain priests for our martyrs, nor o£fer sacrifices.' 
De Ckfitaie Dei. lAb, 8. Caip. 27. So Ambrose upon the Romans, 
Chap. 1. ' Hiey are wont to use a miserable excuse, saying, that by 
these, men may have access unto God, as to a king by earls. Go to : 
is any man so mad, I pray you, that, being forgetful of his own sal- 
vation, he win challenge, as fit for an earl, the royalty of a king ?' 
And strught after, ' These men think them not guilty, that give 
the honour of God's name to a creature, and, leaving the Lord, 
worship their foQow-servants.' 

But we, say they^ worship not the saints, but only desire to be 
bolpen before God by their prayers. But so to desire, as the service 
of litanies sheweth, and is commonly used, is nothing else but to 
can upon and worship saints : for such desiring requireth, that he 
who is derired be everywhere present, and hear the petition. But 
this majesty agreeth to God alone; and if it be given to the creature, 
the creature is worshipped. 

Some men feign that the saints see in Grod's word what things 
God promiseth, and what things seem profitable for us : which thing 
aldioagh it be not impossible to the majesty of Grod, yet Isaiah 
plainly aroocheth, that " Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel is 
ignorant of us :" Isa. Ixiii. 16. where the ordinary gloss dteth Au- 
gnstine, saying that ' The dead, even saints, know not what the 
living do, &c.' 

FcNT that the ancient writers oftentimes in their prayers turn 
ttemsehres to saints, they either simply, without exact judgment, 
(iflowed the error of the common people, or used such manner of 
speaking, not as Divine honour, but as a figure of grammar, which 
they can PbvMpc^pieia. Whereby godly and learned men do not mean 
tbat they worship and pray to saints, but do set out the unspeakable 


groaning of the saints, and of all creatures, for our salvation ; and 
signify that the godly prayers, which saints through the Holy GhoBt 
poured out in this world hefore God, do as yet ring in God*8 ears : 
as also the hlood of Abel after his death still cried before God ; 
and in the Revelation, the souls of the saints that were killed cry, 
that their blood may be revenged : not that they now, resting in the 
Lord, are desirous of revenge, after the manner of men ; but because 
the Lord, even after their death, is mindful of the prayers which, 
while they yet lived on earth, they poured out for their own and the 
whole Church's deliverance. 

Epiphanius himself, against Aerius, doth also somewhat stick in 
the common error ; yet he teacheth plainly, that the saints are men- 
tioned in the church, not that they should be prayed unto, but rather 
that they should not be prayed unto, nor matched in honour with 
Christ. ' We,* saith he, ' make mention of the righteous Fathers, 
Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Evang^elists, Martyrs, Confessors, 
Bishops, Anchorites, and the whole company, that we may single 
out the Lord Jesus Christ from that company of men, by the honour 
which we give unto him, and that we may give him such worship 
as by which we may signify that we think that the Lord is not to 
be made equal with any among men, although every of them were 
a thousand times, and above, more righteous than they are.* 

XII.—From the Confession of Subveland. 

Article 1. Section 2. 

Since sermons began with us to be taken out of the holy Scrip- 
tures of God, and those deadly contentions ceased, so many as were 
led with any desire of true godliness, have obtained a far more cer- 
tain knowledge of Christ's doctrine, and far more fervently expressed 
it in the conversation of their life. And even as they declined from 
those things, which had perversely crept into the doctrine of Christ, 
so they were more and more confirmed in those things which are 
altogether agreeable thereunto. Of which sort are the articles which 
the Christian church hath hitherto steadfastly believed touching the 
holy Trinity : to wit, that God the Father, the Son. and the Holy 
Ghost are one essence and three persons, and admit no other divi- 
sion or difierence, than the distinction of persons. 

Article 11. 0/the invocaHng and worshipping of Saints. 

Moreover, that abuse also was reproved and confuted, by which 
some think they can so, by fastings and prayers, ¥rin and bind unto 

OF GOD. 47 

themaelyes both the blessed Vii^in Mary that bare God, and other 
saints, that they hope, by their intercession and merits, they may be 
deliTered from all adyersities, as well of soul as of body, and be 
enriched with all kind of good things. For our preachers have 
tanght, by the commandment of Christ the Saviour, that that 
heavenly Father alone is by the same Christ in the Holy Spirit to 
be prayed onto, as he who hath promised that he will never deny us 
any of those things which we by a true faith ask him through his 
Son. And seeing the Scripture itself setteth before us " one only 
Mediator between God and men, to wit, the man Jesus Christ," 
1 Tim. ii. 5. who both loveth us more entirely, and can by authority 
do more with the Father, than any other ; they rightly think, that this 
only Intercessor and Advocate ought to suffice us. Yet they do 
therewithal teach, that the most holy mothet of God and Virg^ 
Mary, and other beloved saints, are with great diligence to be 
honoured : but that thai thing cannot otherwise be done, than if 
we study to be conversant in those things to which they especially 
gave themselves, (namely, to innocency and sanctification,) and of 
which they set before us so worthy examples. For sith they, with 
thdr whole heart and soul, and with all their strength, do love God, 
we can in nothing please them better, than if we also with them love 
God from the heart, and strive by all means possible to make ourselves 
coDformaUe to him. So far off are they from ascribing their own 
aahation to their merits : how therefore should they presume to help 
any other with their merits ? Nay rather every one of them, while 
they Hved here, said with Paul, " The life which I now Uve in the 
flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of Grod, who loved me, and gave 
himself for me. For I despise not the grace of God." GaL ii. 20, 21 . 
Seeing therefore they themselves attribute whatsoever they either be 
or have to the goodness of God, and to the redemption of the Lord 
Jcens Christ, we can please them no way better than if we also 
wholly rest in the same things alone : which very thing St. Augus- 
tine also teadieth toward the end of his Book, De Vera ReHgiane. 

Article 22. 0/ Images. 

As touching images, our preachers reproved this especially out of 
tiie holy Sc ri pt ur es, that adoring and invocating of them is so openly 
granted to the simple people against the express commandment of 
God. Secondly, that so great cost is bestowed for their worship and 
onunnent ; by which rather the hungry, thirsty, naked, fatherless, 
side, and thoae that are in bonds for Christ, ought to have been 


relieved. Lastly, because the most part are so persuaded, that with 
such worship and cost bestowed upon images, (both which things 
God abhorreth,) they deserve much at God*s hands, and that they 
obtain special help by this means. Contrariwise, the same men do 
teach, that the ancient writers (so long as Christian fiedth remained 
somewhat pure) understood the Scriptures, which forbid worship- 
ping and praying to images, in this sense, that they thought it an 
abominable thing to admit any images, either graven or painted, in 
the church; although they were not otherwise ignorant, what our 
liberty is, as in all external things, so likewise in images. For they 
nothing doubted but that it was flat contrary both to the command- 
ments of Scripture, and also to our holy religion. Which may espe- 
cially be proved even by those things which blessed £piphanius, in 
times past Bishop of Salaminium, in Cyprus, writeth of himself, 
in an epistle to John, Bishop of Jerusalem ; which also St. Jerome 
turned out of Greek into Latin, because he thought it both Chris- 
tian, and profitable to be read; and these are £piphanius' own 
words : — 

' When we went together to the holy place which is called Bethel, 
that there I might make a collection with thee after the custom of the 
church ; and when I was come to the village which is called Anablatha, 
and passing by saw there a lamp burning, and had asked what place 
it was, and had learned that it was a church, and was gone in to 
pray ; I found there a vail, hanging at the entry of the same church, 
stained and painted, and having the image as it might be of Christ, 
or some saint ; (for I do not well remember whose picture it was.) 
When therefore I had seen this in Christ's church, contrary to the 
commandment of the Scripture, that there hung a man's picture, I 
cut it : and moreover I counselled the keepers of that place, that 
they should wind and bury some poor body in it.' And a little after, 
when he had brought an excuse for his delay in sending another vail 
that he had promised, he addeth, ' And now I have sent that I could 
find ; and I pray thee bid the elders of the same place take the vail, 
that we have sent, of the bearer, and bid that henceforth such vails 
as be contrary to our religion be not hanged up in the church of 

Lo, this godly bishop writeth, that it is against the holy Scrip- 
tures, and Christian religion, to have even Christ*s own picture in 
the Church ; and that in so plain words, that it may appear to them, 
that as well the Bishop of Jerusalem himself, and Jerome, as all 
other men of that age, thought the same ; and that that faith and 

or GOO. 49 

cnstom of detesting images hath been always of old in the Church 
of Christ* and brought in by the Apostles themselves. 

Whereas some say further, that ' images be profitable for the in- 
sbuction of the lay people ;' it appeareth, first of all. that almost all 
images were set up for pomp and superstition, rather than for any 
other use. Secondly, neither is that reason very sound. For although 
the Lord would instruct and bring to the knowledge of his goodness 
the Jews (hr more dull than becometh Christians to be) by divers 
outward ceremonies and pedagogies, yet he was so far from think- 
ing that the use of images was fit and convenient for that purpose, 
that be did even by name forbid it unto them. For whosoever is 
not instructed and stirred up to the worship of God by the word of 
God, and by so excellent works of his, (which he layeth before us 
both in heaven and earth, and which are continually before our eyes, 
and at hand, and which, to conclude, we so plentifully enjoy,) surely 
the form of Grod*s creatures, altered by man's cunning, and so 
shapen that stones, trees, metals, and other like matter, do no 
longer retain their own shape, such as they received it of God, but 
carry the countenance either of men, or of beasts, or of other things, 
win do him no good. Yea, it is certain, that by the workmanship of 
such images men are more withdrawn from the view of God's works 
to their own works, or to men's inventions ; so that they do not 
every where think alike of God, but keep in religious cogitations 
until such time as they light upon some image. But surely, if a man 
mark it well, the heaven and the earth, and whatsoever is contained 
in them, are excellent and worthy images of God. 

The heathens also used a pretence of instruction and teaching, to 

maintain their idols : but the holy fathers rested not in such excuses. 

Of which matter Lactantius teacheth at large in his Second Book of 

Institutions. Neither could the heathens better abide to be upbraided 

for that they worshipped stones and stocks, than can the men of our 

age; as they which oftentimes, confidently affirmed, that they took 

the images to be nothing else but images, and that they sought 

iu)diing else, but to be instructed and admonished by them. 

And these things doth Athanasius control in these words : ' Go 
to, let them tell me how God is known by images ; that is, whether 
it be for the matter whereof they consist, or for the form imprinted 
in tliat matter. If the matter serve the turn, what need is there, I 
pny you, of the form ? For God himself shineth forth even in the 
otttter, before that any thing be framed thereof by man's hands ; for 
sO things shew forth God's glory. But if the form itself, which is 


fitted to the matter, giveth occasion to know Giod, wbat need such 
images ? might not God be known far more excellently by the things 
themselves, whereof images be made? Surely the glory of God 
might much more visibly be seen by the living creatores themselves, 
either reasonable, or unreasonable, set before our eyes, than by dead 
images which cannot move.' And if any man shall say, ' These things 
might well be brought against images, by which men think they 
may come to the knowledge of God, but we are to think otherwise 
of the images of our Lord Jesus Christ, and other saints : * let him 
in like sort think that God did many external works in Israel, of 
which he commandeth them to be mindful for ever ; and that he 
raised up unto them not a few fEuaaous and holy men, ^hose futh he 
would never have them to forget : yet he never established the me- 
morial of them by such images, that he might give no occasion of 
backsliding or apostacy, which is wont to follow the worshipping of 
images. Wherefore in the purer primitive church it was abomina^ 
tion to have even the image of Christ, as hath been before shewed. 
To be short, our preachers confess that images of themselves are 
indifferent, so that no worship or adoration be done unto them. But 
it is not enough for a Christian man to have a thing free, but he 
ought always to have a diligent respect hereunto, whether the same 
be profitable for edification ; I Cor. x. 32. for nothing is to be sufiPered 
or assayed in the church, which hath not in it some certain use of 
edifying. Seeing then it plainly appeareth what grievous ofifences 
images in times past brought forth, and do as yet bring forth ; and 
seeing it cannot be shewed, what profit can be hoped for thereof, 
(unless peradventure we will be counted quicker-sighted than God 
himself, and the ancient Christians that were truly godly, who were 
so far from taking any profit thereby, that they even abhorred images 
in churches,) all images and idols are worthily to be abhorred in the 
church. Neither can the workmanship of the cherubim upon the 
ark of the covenant, or other ornaments of the temple, which the 
patrons of images are wont to object unto us, hinder this truth 
among Christians. For God had expressly commanded the cherubim 
to be made, but he would not have them seen of the people. And 
all the other things were ordamed rather for the beauty of the 
temple, than to learn any knowledge of God thereby ; although from 
them (as from all the rest of God's works) they which were spiritual 
might take occasion to meditate upon the goodness of God. But 
it is requisite also to call this to mind, that we are much more bound 
to worship Grod in spirit and in truth than they of old time were ; 


for that we ire more |>lentifully enriched with Christ's Spirit, if we 
truly bdieve in him. 




I.— From tur latter Confession of Helvetia. 

Chapter 6. 0/ the Providence of God, 

We believe that all things, both in heaven and in earth, and in all 
creatures, are sustained and governed by the providence of this wise, 
eternal, and omnipotent God. For David witnesseth and saith, 
" The Lord is high above all nations, and his glory above the hea- 
vens. Who is as our God, who dwelleth on high, and yet humbleth 
himself to behold the things that are in heaven and earth ?" Psal. 
cxiii. 4 — 6. Again, he saith, " Thou hast foreseen all my ways ; 
for there is not a word in my tongue, which thou knowest not 
wholly, O Lord, &c." Psal. cxxxix. 3, 4. Paul also witnesseth and 
•aith, " By him we live, move, and have our being." Acts xvii. 28. 
And, " Of him, and through him, and from him are all things." 
Rom. xi. 36. Therefore Augustine both truly, and according to the 
Scriptare» said in his book De Agone Christi, Cap, 8. ' The Lord 
said, " Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing ? And one of them 
shall not fiall on the ground without the will of your Father." By 
speaking thus he would give us to understand, that whatsoever men 
<;oimt most vile^ that also is governed by the almighty power of God. 
For the truth which said, that all the hairs of our heads are num- 
bered, saith also that the birds of the air are fed by him, and the 
lilies of the field are clothed by him.' 

We therefore condemn the Epicureans who deny the providence of 
God, and all those who blasphemously affirm, that God is occupied 
about the poles of heaven, and that he neither seeth or regardeth us 
nor oar afiairs. The princely prophet David also condemned these 
men, when as he said, " O Lord, How long, how long shall the 
wicked triumph ?. They say the Lord doth not see, neither doth the 

E 2 


God of Jacob regard it. Understand, ye unwise among the people ; 
and ye fools, when will ye be wise ? He that hath planted the ear, 
shall he not hear ? and he that hath formed the eye, how should he 
not see ?" Psal. xciv. 3 ; 7. — 9. Notwithstanding we do not contemn 
the means whereby the pi^dence of God worketh, as though they 
were unprofitable ; but we tiflE^h, that we must apply ourselves unto 
them, so far as they are 'Commended to us in the word of God. 
Wherefore we mislike the^^h speeches of such as say, that if by 
the providence of God all things are governed, then all our studies 
and endeavours are unprofitable. It shall be sufficient, if we leave 
or permit all things to be governed by the providence of God, and we 
shall not need hereafter to behave or act with carefulness in any mat- 
ter. For though Paul did confess that he did sail by the providence of 
God, who had said to him, " Thou must testify of me also at Rome ;'* 
Acts xxiii. 11. who moreover promised and said, " There shall not 
so much as one soul perish, neither* shall an hair fall from your 
heads ;" Acts xxvii. 22 ; 34. yet, the mariners devising how they 
might find a way to escape, the same Paul saith to the Centurion 
and to the soldiers, '* Unless these remain in the ship, ye cannot be 
safe.*' Acts xxvii. 31. For God, who hath appointed every thing his 
end, he also hath ordained the beginning and the means by which we 
must attain unto the end. The heathens ascribe things to blind for- 
tune and uncertain chance ; but St. James would not have us say, 
" To-day or to-morrow we will go into such a city, and there buy 
and sell ;" but he addeth, " For that which ye should say, If the 
Lord will, and if we live, we will do this or that." James iv. 13 ; 15. 
And Augustine saith, ' All those things which seem to vain men to 
be done unadvisedly in the world, they do but accomplish his word, 
because they are not done but by his commandment.' And, in his 
Elxposition on the 148th Psalm, * It seemed to be done by chance, 
that Saul, seeking his father's asses, should light on the prophet 
Samuel ; but the Lord had before said to the prophet. To-morrow I 
will send unto thee a man of the tribe of Benjamin, &c.' 

Chapter 7. Of the Creation of all things; of Angels, the Devil, 

and Man, 

This good and almighty God created all things, both visible and 
invisible, by his eternal Word, and preserveth the same also by his 
eternal Spirit : as David witnesseth, saying, " By the word of the 
Lord were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath 
of his mouth." Psal. xxxiii. 6. And, as the Scripture saith, " All 


things thai the Lord created were very good/' Gen. i. 31. and made 
for the use and profit of man. Now, we say, that all those things 
do proceed from one beginning : and therefore we detest the Mani- 
chees and Marcionites, who did wickedly imagine two substances and 
natores, the one of good, the other of evil ; and also two beginnings, 
and two gods, one contrary to the other, a good and an evil. 

Amongst all the creatures, the angels and men are most excellent. 
Touching angels, the holy Scripture saith, " Who maketh his angels 
spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire." Psal. civ. 4. Also, " Are 
they not ministering spirits sent forth to minister for their sakes, 
which shall be the heirs of salvation ?" Heb. i. 14. And the Lord 
Jesus himself testifieth of the devil, saying, " He hath been a mur- 
derer firom the beg^inning, and abode not in the truth, because there 
is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his 
own : for he is a liar, and the ft&ther thereof.*' John viii, 44. We 
teach therefore that some angels persisted in obedience, and were 
appointed unto the ^Euthful service of God and men ; and that other 
some fell of their own accord, and ran headlong into destruction, 
and so became enemies to all good, and to all the faithful, &c. 

Now, touching man, the Spirit saith, that in the beginning he 
was *' created good according to the image and likeness of God ;" 
Gen. i. 27. that God placed him in Paradise, and made all things 
subject unto him ; which David doth most nobly set forth in the 
8th. Bsalm. Moreover God gave unto him a wife, and blessed 
them. We say also, that man doth consist of two, and those 
divers substances in one person ; of a soul immortal, (as that which, 
being separated from his body, doth neither sleep nor die,) and a 
body mortal, which notwithstanding at the last judgment shall be 
raised again from the dead, that from henceforth the whole man may 
oootinne for ever, in life or in death. We condemn all those which 
mock at, or by subtle disputations call into doubt, the immortality of 
the soul, or say that the soul sleepeth, or that it is a part of God. 
To be short, we condemn all opinions of all men whatsoever, which 
think otherwise of the creation of angels, devils, and men, than 
is delivered unto us by the Scriptures in the apostolic Church of 

IL— From the Confession of Basle. 

Article 1 . Section 2. 0/ Creation and Providence, 

We also believe, that God made all things by his everlasting 
Word, that is, by his only-begotten Son; John. 3. and that he 



upholdeth and worketh all things ky his Spirit, that is, by his own 
power : and therefore that God, as he hath created, so he foreseeth 
and govemeth all things. 

Article 3. 0/ the Care of God towards Man. 

And albeit man bv the same fidl became subject to damnation, 
and so was made an enemy to God, yet that God never laid aside 
the care of mankind. The Patriarchs, the promises before and after 
the flood, likewise the law of God, given by Moses and the holy 
prophets, do witness this thing. 

III. ~ From thb CoNrsssioN of Francx. 

Art, 2. This one only God hath revealed himself unto men ; 
first, both in the creation, and also in the preservation and govern- 
ment of his works, &c. (See the rest in the first Section, ~ Of the 
Scripture ; and in the Second Sectiony— Of God.) 

Art. 7* We beUeve that God, the Three Persons workmg 
together, by his virtue, wisdom, and incomprehensible goodness hath 
made all things ; that is, not only heaven and earth, and all things 
therein contained, but also the invisible spirits, of which some fell 
headlong into destruction, and some continued in obedience. 
Therefore we say that those, as they are through their own malice 
corrupted, are perpetual enemies to all good, and therefore to the 
whole church ; but that these, preserved by the mere grace of God, 
are ministers for his glory, and for the salvation of the elect. 

Art. 8. We believe that God hath not only made all things, but 
also ndeth and govemeth them, as he who according to his will 
disposeth and ordereth whatsoever happeneth in the world. Yet 
we deny that he is the author of evil, or that any blame of things 
done amiss can be laid upon him, seeing his will is the sovereign 
and most certain rule of all righteousness ; but he hath wonderful 
rather than explicible means, by which he so uscth all the devils 
and sinful men as instruments, that whatsoever they do evil, that 
he, as he hath justly ordained, so he also tumeth it to g^ood. 
Therefore while we confess that nothing at all is to be done, but 
by the means of his Providence and appointment, we do in aU 
humility adore his secrets that are hid from us, neither do we search 
into those things which be without the reach of our capacity. 
Nay rather we apply to our own use that which the Scripture teach- 
eth for our quietness and contentation sake, to wit, that God, to 
whom all things are subject, with a fatherly care watcheth for us. 


80 that not so much as a hair of our head falleth to the ground 
without his will ; and that he hath Satan and all our adversaries 
so &8t bound, that unless leave be given them, they cannot 
do us even the least harm. 

IV. — From ths Conpsssion op Scotland. 

Article 2. Of the Creation of Man. 

We confess and acknowledge this our God to have created man, 
to wit, our first £either Adam, to his own image and similitude ; 
Gen. i. 27. to whom he gave wisdom, lordship, justice, free-will, 
and dear knowledge of himself; so that in the whole nature 
of man there could be noted no imperfection. From which honour 
and perfection, man and woman did both fall ; the woman being 
deceived by the serpent, and man obeying the voice of the woman ; 
Gen. ill. 6. both conspiring against the sovereign majesty of God, 
who in express words had before threatened death, if they pre- 
sumed to eat of the forbidden tree. Gen. ii. 17. 

v.— From ths Confession of Bbloia. 

Art. 2. We know God by two manner of ways ; first by the 
making, preserving, and governing of this whole world. For that 
to our eyes is a most excellent book, in which all creatures, from 
the least to the greatest, are graven, as it were, in characters, and 
certain letters, by which the invisible things of God may be seen 
and known of us; namely, his everlasting power and Godhead, 
as F^ the apostle speaketh ; Rom. i. 20. which knowledge sufficeth 
to convince and make all men without excuse, &c. (Look for the 
rest in the First Section, — Of the Scripture ; and in the Second 
Section,— Of God.) 

Art. 12. We believe that the Father by his word, that is, by the 
Son, made heaven, earth, and all other creatures of nothing, 
when he saw it fit and convenient, and gave to every one his being, 
form, and divers offices, that they might serve their Creator ; ' and 
that he doth now cherish, uphold, and govern them all, according to 
his everlasting Providence and infinite power ; and that to this end, 
that they might serve man, and man might serve his God. 
He also made the angels all good by nature, that they might 
be his ministers, and might also attend upon the elect : of which 
notwithstanding some fell from that excellent nature in which God 
had created them, into everlasting destruction; but some by 
the singular grace of God, abode in that first state of theirs. 


Now, those devils and wicked spirits are so corrupted and de- 
filed, that they be sworn enemies to good and all goodness ; which, 
as thieves out of a watch-tower, lie in wait for the church and all 
the members thereof, that by their jugglings and deceits they may 
destroy and lay waste all things. Therefore, being through their 
own malice adjudged to everlasting condemnation, they look every 
day for the dreadful punishments of their mischiefs. We, therefore, 
in this place reject the error of the Sadducees, who denied that there 
were any spirits or angels ; as also the error of the Manichees, who 
hold that the devils have their beginning of themselves, and are 
of their own nature evil, and not corrupted by wilful disobedience. 

Art, 13. We believe that this most gracious and mighty Grodi 
after he had made all things, left them not to be ruled after the will 
of chance or fortune, but himself doth so continually rule and 
govern them, according to the prescript rule of his holy will, that 
nothing can happen in this world without his decree and ordinance. 
And yet God cannot be said to be either the author, or guilty 
of the evils that happen in this world; for both his infinite 
and incomprehensible power and goodness stretcheth so far, that 
even then he decreeth and executeth his works and deeds justly 
and holily, when both the devil and the wicked do unjustly. 
And whatsoever things he doth, passing the reach of man's capacity, 
we will not curiously and above our capacity inquire into them ; 
nay, rather we humbly and reverently adore the secret, yet just 
judgments of God. For it sufficeth us (as being Christ's disciples) 
to learn only those things, which he himself teacheth in his word ; 
neither do we think it lawful to pass these bounds. And this doctrine 
affordeth us exceeding great comfort. For by it we know that 
nothing befalleth us by chance, but all by the wil] of our heavenly 
Father, who watcheth over us with a fatherly care indeed, 
having all things in subjection to himself, so that not a hair of our 
head (which rire every one numbered) can be plucked away, nor 
the least sparrow light on the ground, without the will of our 
Father. In these things, therefore, do we wholly rest, acknow- 
ledging that God holdeth the devils and all our enemies so bridled, 
as it were with snaffles, that, without his will and good-leave, they 
are not able to hurt any of us. And in this place we reject the 
detestable opinion of the Epicureans, who feigned God to be idle, 
to do nothing, and to commit all things to chance. 




I. -^ From thb lattsb Conpkssion of Hblvstia. 
Ckti^er 8. Of Man's Fall, Sin, and the Cause of Sin. 

Man was from the beginning created of God after the image of 
God, in righteousness and true holiness, good and upright ; but by 
the instigation of the serpent and his own fieiult, falling horn goodness 
aod uprightness, he became subject to sin, death, and divers calamities; 
and such an one as he became by his fall, such are all his ofispring, 
even subject to sin, death, and sundry calamities. And we take 
sin to be that natural corruption of man, derived or spread from 
those oar first parents unto us all, through which we, being drowned 
m evil concupiscence, and clean turned away from God, but prone 
to aU evil, full of all wickedness, distrust, contempt, and hatred 
of God, can do no good of ourselves, no not so much as think 
any. Matt. xii. 34, 35. And, what is more, even as we do grow 
m years, so by wicked thoughts, words, and deeds, committed 
against the law of God, we bring forth corrupt fruits, worthy 
of an evil tree : in which respect, we, through our own desert, being 
subject to the wrath of Grod, are in danger of just punishment; 
80 that we had all been cast away from God, had not Christ, the 
Deliverer, brought us back again. 

By death, therefore, we understand not only bodily death, which 
is once to be suffered of us all for sins, but also everlasting 
pomshments due to our corruption and to our sins. For the 
Apostle saith, " We were dead in trespasses and sins, and were by 
nature the children of wrath, as well as others ; but God which is 
rich in mercy, even when we were dead by sins, quickened us 
together in Christ. Eph. ii. 1 — 5. Again, ** As by one man sin entered 
into the world, and by sin, death, and so death went over all men, 
forasmuch as all men have sinned, &c." Rom. v. 12. 

We therefore acknowledge that original sin is in all men; we 
acknowledge that all other sins, which spring hereout, are both 
called, and are indeed sins, by what name soever they be termed, 
whether mortal or venial, or also that which is called sin against 
the Holy Ghost, which is never forgiven. We also confess that 
sins are not equal, John v. 16, 1 7. although they spring from the same 
fountain of corruption and imbeUef, but that some are more 



grievous than others ; Mark iii. 28, 29. even as the Lord hath said, 
" It shall be easier for Sodom/' than for the city that despiseth the 
word of the Gospel. Matt. x. 15. We therefore condemn all 
those that have taught things contrary to these; but especially 
Pelagius» and all the Pelagians, together with the Jovinianists, 
who, with the Stoics, count all sins equal. We in this matter 
agree fully with St. Augustine, who produced and maintained his 
sayings out of the holy Scriptures. Moreover we condemn Flor- 
inus and Blastus, (against whom also Irenseus wrote,) and all those 
that make God the author of sin ; seeing it is expressly written, 
" Thou art not a God that loveth wickedness ; thou hatest all them 
that work iniquity, and wilt destroy all that speak lies." Psal. v. 4— 6. 
And again, " When the devil speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his 
own ; because he is a liar, and the father of lying." John viii. 44. 
Yea, there is even in ourselves sin and corruption enough, so that 
there is no need that God should infuse into us either a new or 
greater measure of wickedness. Therefore, when God is said in 
the Scripture, to harden. Exodus vii. 13. to blind, John xii. 
40. and to deliver us up into a reprobate sense ; Rom. i. 28. 
it is to be understood, that Grod doth it by just judgment, as a just 
judge and revenger. To conclude, as often as God in the Scripture 
is said and seemeth to do some evil ; it is not thereby meant, that 
man doth not commit evil, but that God doth suffer it to be done, 
and doth not liinder it; and that by his just judgment, who 
could hinder it, if he would : or because he maketh good use of 
the evil of men, as he did in the sins of Joseph's brethren ; or 
because himself ruleth sins, that they break not out and rage more 
violently than is meet. St. Augustine, in his Enchiridion saith, 
* After a wonderful and unspeakable manner, that is not done beside 
his will, which is done contrary to his will ; because it could not be 
done, if he should not suffer it to be done ; and yet he doth not 
suffer it to be done unwillingly, but willingly ; neither would he, 
being God, suffer any evil to be done, unless, being also Almighty, he 
could make good of evil.' Thus far Augustine. Other questions, 
as, whether God would have Adam fall, or whether he forced 
him to fall, or why he did not hinder his fall, and such like, we ac- 
count amongst curious questions, (unless perchance the frowardness 
of heretics, or of men otherwise importunate, do compel us to open 
these points also out of the word of God, as the godly doctors of 
the church have oftentimes done ;) knowing that the Lord did forbid 
that man should eat of the forbidden fruit, and punished 

OF man's fall, sin, and frsb-will. 59 

his tranagression ; and also that the things done are not evil in 
respect of the Providence, will, and power of God, but in respect of 
Satan, and oar will resisting the will of God. 

Chapter 9. Of Free-will, and so of Mans Power and Ability, 

We teaoh in this matter, which at all times hath been the 
cause of manj conflicts in the church, that there is a triple 
conditioa or estate of man to be considered. First, what man was 
before his fell ; to wit, upright and free, who might both continue 
in goodness, and decline to evil ; but he declined to evil, and hath 
wrapped both himself and all mankind in sin and death, as hath 
been shewed before. Secondly, we are to consider, what man was 
after his fall. His understanding indeed was not taken from him, 
neither was he deprived of will, and altogether changed into 
a stone or stock. Nevertheless, these things are so altered in man, 
that they are not able to do that now, which they could do 
before his fall. For his understanding is darkened, and his will, 
wludi before was free, is now become a servile will ; for it serveth 
tm, not nilling, but willing ; for it is called a will, and not a nili. 
Therefore as touching evil or sin, man doth evil, not compelled 
either by God or the devil, but of his own accord ; and in this 
respect he hath a most free-will : but whereas we see, that often- 
times the most evil deeds and counsels of man are hindered by God, 
that they cannot attain to their end, this doth not take from man 
liberty in evil, but God by his power doth prevent that, which 
BUA otherwise purposed freely: as Joseph's brethren did freely 
pvpose to slay Joseph ; but they were not able to do it, because 
it teemed otherwise good to God in his secret counsel. But 
u tooching goodness and virtues, man's understanding doth not 
^ itadf judge aright of heavenly things. For the evangelical 
*Bd apostolical Scripture requireth regeneration of every one of us 
^ will be saved. Wherefore our first birth by Adam doth nothing 
P>^ OS to salvation. Paul saith, "The natural man perceiveth 
^ the things which are of the Spirit, &c." 1 Cor. ii. 14. The 
*^^ FlBiil dsewhere denieth, that we are " fit of ourselves, to think 
*»y good." 3 Cor. iii. 5. Now it is evident, that the mind, or 
Qndostanding, is the guide of the will; and seeing the guide 
^Usd, it is easy to be seen how far the will can reach. Therefore 
^1 not as yet regenerate, hath no free-will to good, no strength 
^ parform that which is good. The Lord saith in the Gospel, 
"^erfly^ verily^ I say unto you» that every one that committeth sio> 


is the servant of sin." John viii. 34. And Paul the apostle saith, " The 
wisdom of the flesh is enmity against God : for it is not subject to 
the law of God, neither indeed can be." Rom. viii. 7. Further- 
more, there is some understanding of earthly things remaining 
in man after his fiedl. For God hath of mercy left him wit, 
though much differing from that which was in him before his fall ; 
God commandeth us to garnish our wit, and therewithal he 
giveth gifts and also the increase thereof. And it is a clear case, 
that we can profit very little in all arts without the blessing of 
God. The Scripture doubtless, referreth all arts to God : yea, and 
the Ethnicks also did ascribe the beginnings of arts to the gods, as 
to the authors thereof. 

Ldistly, we are to consider, whether the regenerate have free-will, 
and how far forth they have it. In regeneration the understanding 
is illuminated by the Holy Ghost, that it may understand both the 
mysteries and will of God. And the will itself is not only changed 
by the Spirit, but is also endued with faculties, that, of its own 
accord, it may both will and do good. Rom. viii. 4. Unless we 
grant this, we shall deny Christian liberty, and bring in the bond- 
age of the law. Besides, the Prophet bringeth in Grod speaking 
thus : " I will put my laws in their minds, and write them in their 
hearts." Jer. xxxi. 33. ; Ezek. xxxvi. 27. The Lord also saith in 
the Gospel, *' If the Son make you free, then are you free indeed." 
John viii. 36. Paul also to the Philippians : " Unto you it is given, 
for Christ, not only to believe in him, but also to suflfer for his 
sake." Phil. i. 29. And again, " I am persuaded that he that began 
this good work in you, will perform it until the day of the Lord 
Jesus." verse 6. Also, " It is God that worketh in you the will 
and the deed." Phil. ii. 13. 

Where, nevertheless, we teach, that there nre two things to be 
observed : first. That the regenerate, in the choice and working of 
that which is good, do not only work passively, but actively. For 
they are moved of God, that themselves may do that which they do. 
And Augustine doth truly allege that saying, that ' God is said to 
be our helper : but no man can be helped, but he that doth some- 
what.' The Manichees did bereave man of all action, and made 
him like a stone and a block. Secondly, That in the regenerate 
there remaineth infirmity. For, seeing that sin dwelleth in us, and 
that the flesh in the regenerate striveth against the Spirit, even to oui 
lives' end, they do not readily perform in every point that which 
they had purposed. These things are confirmed by the Apostle, 

OF man's fall, sin, and frbb-will. 61 

Bom. Tii. 13 — 25.; Gal. v. 17. Therefore our free-will is weak, 
bj reason of the relics of the old Adam remaining in us so long as 
we live, and of the human corruption which so nearly cleaveth to 
08. In the mean while, because that the strength of the flesh, 
and rdics of the old man, are not of such great force that they can 
whdlj quench the work of the Spirit, therefore the faithful are 
caUed free ; yet so, that they do acknowledge their infirmity, and 
glory no whit at all of their free-will. For that which St. Augus- 
tine doth repeat so often out of the Apostle, ought always to be 
kept in mind by the frdthful : " What hast thou, that thou hast not 
received? and if thou hast received it, why dost thou boast, as 
though thou hadst not received it? " 1 Cor. iv« 7. Hitherto may 
be added, that that cometh not straightway to pass, which we 
have porpoeed: for the events of things are in the hand of God. 
For which canse, Paul besought the Lord that he would prosper 
his journey. Rom. i. 10. Wherefore, in this respect also, free-will 
is very weak. But in outward things, no man denieth but that 
both the regenerate and unregenerate have their free-will. For 
man hath this constitution common with other creatures, (to whom 
lie is not infierior,) to will some things and to nill other things. So 
be may speak, or keep silence ; go out of his house, or abide within. 
Although herein also God's power is evermore to be marked, which 
brought to pass that Balaam could not go so fsur as he would; 
Nam. zxiv. IS. and that Zacharias, coming out of the Temple, could 
not speak as he would have done. Luke i. 22. 

In this matter we condemn the Manichees, who deny that the 
beginning of evil unto man, being good, came from his free-wiU. 
We condemn also the Pelagians, who affirm, that an evil man hath 
ft'ee-will sufficiently to perform a good precept. Both these are 
oonfiited by the Scripture, which saith to the former, " God made 
num upright ;" Eodes. vii. 29. and to the latter, " If the Son make 
yoa free, then are you free indeed." John viii. 36. 

II. — Fbom thb formbr Confession of Hslvbtia. 

Art. 8. Man and kis Strength, Man being the most perfect 
uoige of God in earth, and having the chiefdom of all visible 
ortRtores, Gen. i. 27 ; 29. consisting of soul and body ; whereof 
tbii ii mortal, that immortal ; after he was made holy of the Lord, 
be, by his own fault, foiling into sin, drew whole mankind with him 
into the same frdl, and made him subject to the same calamity. 

Aft. 8. OngkuU Sin. And this infection, which men term 


Original, hath so invaded the whole stock, that the child of wrath 
and the enemy of God can by none other, than by the Divine help 
of Christ, be cored. For if there be any poition of good fruit 
remaining here, it being weakened daily by our sma dedineth to 
the worse. For the force of evil doth get the upper hand ; neither 
doth it snfier reason to bear the sway, nor the most divine faculty 
of the mind to have the pre-eminence. 

Ari, 9. Free^WiU. Whereupon we do so attribute free-will to 
man, as that, knowing and having a will to do good and evil, we 
find notwithstanding by experience, that of our own accord we 
may do evil, but we can neither embrace nor follow any good thing, 
except, being illuminated by the grace of Christ, we be stirred up 
and effectually moved thereunto. For, *' God is he which worketh 
in us, both to will, and to bring to pass, according to his good will." 
Phil. ii. 13. And, "Salvation is of the Lord, destruction of our- 
selves." Hos. xiii. 9. 

III. — From thb Confbssion of Baslr. 

Art. 2. Of Man, We confess, that in the beginning man was 
made of God, in righteousness and true holiness, after the true 
image of God : Gen. i. 27. and v. 1, 2. but he fell into sin of his 
own accord : Gen. iii. 6. by the which fall, whole mankind is made 
corrupt, Gen. vi. 1 — 7«; Rom. iii. 9«-18. and v. 12. ; Eph. ii. 1-^3. 
and subject unto damnation. Psalm cxliii. 2. Hence it is that our 
nature is defiled, and become so prone unto sin, that, except it be 
renewed by the Holy Ghost, man of himself can neither do nor 
will any good. John iii. 3. 

IV.' From thr Confrssion of Bohrmia, or thr Waldrnsrs. 

Chapter 4. 0/ the Knowledge of a Man*s self; also, of Simf the 
Causes and Fruits thereof i and of the Promises of God. 

Fourthly, touching the knowledge of himself, man is taught, and that 
after two sorts. First, The knowledge of his estate, yet being in his in- 
nocency, or void of all fault ; that is, of his nature being perfect, from 
whence he feU. Gen. i. 27. Secondly, The knowledge of his sin and 
mortality, into which he fell. Gen. iii. 7. The estate and condition 
of his innocency and righteousness consisteth in these points: 
That the Lord in the beginning made man after his own image and like • 
ness, and adorned him with the gifts of his grace or bounty ; that he 
ingrafied in him righteousness and his Spirit, a soul and body, toge- 
ther with all the fiMmlties and powers thereof, and so made him 

OP man's paIl, bin, and frvk-will. G3 

holy, just, wise, immortal, and a most pleasant temple for his 
heavenly Spirit, in the mind, will, memory, and judgment ; and 
bestowed apon him the clear light of understanding, integrity, and a 
very CMrdinate or lawful love towards God and all his creatures : also, 
a full and absolute obedience, or ability to obey God; the true 
fear of God, and a sincere heart and nature, that man might be his 
own possession, and his proper and peculiar workmanship, created 
unto the praise of his glorious grace. Ephes. i. 6. Man, being 
placed in this estate, had left unto him free-will ; so that, if he would, 
he was able to fulfil that commandment which God gave him ; and 
thereby to retain righteousness both for himself and for all his pos- 
terity after him ; and every way to enjoy a spirit, soul, body, and an 
estate most blessed ; and further, also to make a way unto a far 
more excellent glory, by considering that fire and water, life and 
death, were set before him : which, if he would not consider, nor do 
his endeavour therein, by choosing of evil he might lose all those 
good gifts. 

The second part of the knowledge of a man's self (namely, before 
JQStification) standeth in this : That a man acknowledge aright the 
itate of this &I1, sin, and mortality. For that free liberty of 
dM)ioe, which God permitted to the will of man, he abused, and kept 
not die law of his justice, but swerved therefrom, and therein trans- 
gressed the commandment of God, insomuch as he obeyed the 
devil and those lying speeches of his, and gave credit unto them, 
s&d performed to the devil such fiedth and obedience as was due to 
God alone ; whereby he stripped and bereaved himself and his 
posterity of the state of perfection and goodness of nature ; and the 
giBoe of God, and those good gifts of justice, and the image of God, 
wbich in his creation were ingrafied in him, he partly lost them, 
ind partly eormpted and defiled them, as if with horrible poison 
one should corrupt pure wine ; and by this means he cast headlong 
^ himself and all his ofispring, into sin, death, and all kinds 
<tf miserieB in this life, and into punishments eternal after this 

Wherefore, the spring and principal author of all evil, is that 
ci^ and detestable devil, the tempter, liar, and man- slayer : and 
next, the free-will of man, which, notwithstanding, being converted 
to evil, through lust and naughty desires, and by perverse concupis- 
cc&oe, chooaeth that which is evil. 

Hereby, sins, according to these degrees and after this order, 
loay be connddred and judged of. The first, and weightiest, and 


most grievous sin of all, was, without doubt, that sia of Adam, which 
the Apostle calleth disobedience ; for the which, death reigneth over 
all, even over those also, which have not sinned with like trans- 
gression as did Adam. Rom. v. 14. A second kind is original sin, 
naturally engendered in us, and hereditary ; wherein we are all con- 
ceived and bom into this world. "Behold," saith David, "I was 
bom in iniquity, and in sin hath my mother conceived me." Psal. 
li. 5. And Paul, "We are by nature the children of wrath/' Eph. 
ii. 3. Let the force of this hereditary destruction be acknowledged 
and judged of by our guilt and fault, by our proneness and declin- 
ation, by our evil nature, and by the punishment which is laid upon 
it. The third kind of sins are those which are called actual, 
which are the fruits of original sin, and do burst out within, without, 
privily, and openly, by the powers of man, that is, by all that ever 
man is able to do, and by his members transgressing all those 
things which God oommandeth and forbiddeth ; and also running 
into blindness and errors worthy to be punished with all kind 
of damnation. This doctrine of the true knowledge of sin is of 
our men diligently handled and urged : and to this end were the 
first and second Tables of the Law delivered to Moses of Grod, that 
men especially might know themselves, that they are conceived and 
bom in sin; and that forthwith, even from their birth, and by 
nature, they are sinners, full of lusts and evil inclinations. 

For hereof it cometh, that straight, even from the beginning of 
our age, and so forth in the whole course of our life, being strained 
and overcome with many sins, men do in heart, thoughts, and evil 
deeds, break and transgress the commandments of God; as it is 
written^ *' The Lord looked down from heaven to behold the children 
of men, to see if there were any that would understand, and seek 
Grod : all are gone out of the way, they have become altogether 
unprofitable, there is none that doth good, no, not one." Psal. ziv. 
2, 3. And again, " When the Lord saw that the wickedness of 
man was great in the earth, and all the cogitations of his heart were 
only evil continually." Gen. vi. 5. And again, " The Lord said, 
The imagination of man's heart is evil, even from his youth." Gen. 
viii. 21. And St. Paul saith, " We were by nature the children of 
wrath, as well as others." Eph. ii. 3. 

Herewithal, this is also taught ; that by reason of that corruption 
and depravation common to all mankind, and for the sins, trans- 
gressions, and injustice, which ensued thereof, aU men ought to 
acknowledge, according to the holy Scripture, their own just con- 


demnation, and the horrible and severe vengeance of God, and con* 
seqaently the most deserved punishment of death anc^. eternal tor- 
ments in hell : whereof Paul teacheth us, when he saith, " The wages 
of sin is death : *' Rom. vi. 23. and our Lord Christ, " They which 
have done evil, shall go into the resurrection of condemnation ;" 
John V. 29. that is, into pains eternal, " where shall be wailing 
and g^naahing of teeth." Matt. xxiv. 51.* 

They teach also, that we must acknowledge our weakness, and 

that great misery which is ingendered in us, as also those difficulties 

from which no man can ever deUver or rid himself by any means, 

or justify himself (that is, procure or get righteousness to himself) 

by any kind of works, deeds, or exercises, seem they never so 

glorious. For that will of man which before was free, is now so 

oormpted, troubled, and weakened, that now from henceforth of 

itself, and without the grace of God, it cannot chuse, judge, or wish 

My ; nay» it hath no desire, nor incUnation, much less any ability, 

to chuse that good wherewith God is pleased. For albeit it fell 

williiigly and of its own accord, yet, by itself, and by its own strength, 

it could not rise again or recover that fall ; f neither to this day, 

without the merciful help of God, is it able to do any thing at all. 19— 23. 

And, a little after. Neither can he Which is man only, and hath 
nothiDg above the reach of this our nature, help another in this 
point For since that original sin, proceeding by inheritance, pos- 
Bttseth the whole nature, and doth furiously rage therein; and 
Meiog that all men are sinners, and do want the grace and justice 
of God; Rom. iii. 9. therefore saith God, by the mouth of the 
prophet Isaiah, " Put me in remembrance, let us be judged together ; 

*Tbetenns of imbecility and difficulty, which this Confession useth in many 
places, must be referred either to the regenerate, in whom the Spirit, struggling 
^ the iletb, cannot, without a wonderful conflict, get the upper hand ; or 
c^oatothat strife between reason and the affections, whereof the Philosophers 
*pctk, in which not the Spirit with the flesh, (for the Spirit is, through grace, 
i" the regenerate only,) but the relics of judgment and conscience, (that is, of 
tbeimige of God,) which for the mo^t part are ftiulty, do strive with the will 
wholly corrupted; according to the saying of the Poet. * I see the better, and 
^ it well, but follow the worse,* &c. Which thing is largely and plainly set 
ioth iotbe Latter Confession of Helvetia. 

tHutis thas to betaken, not as though the first grace doth find us only 
*^ and feeble before regeneration, whereas we are rather stark dead in our 
*Bi; and therefore we must be quickened by the first grace ; and after we be 
^'■ce quickened by the first, be helped by the second following, and confirmed 
"^ itreqgtliened by the same continuing with us to the end of our race. 



count thou if thou have any thing, that thou mayeat be justified : 
thy first fath^ hath sinned, and thy interpreters" (that is, they which 
teach thee justice) '* have transgressed against me." Isa. xliii. 26, 
27. And a little before, speaking of works in the service of God after 
the invention of man, he saith, '* Thou hast not ofiered unto me 
the ram of the burnt ofi!ierings, neither hast thou honoured me with 
thy sacrifices : I have not caused thee to serve with an offering, nor 
wearied thee with incense." verse 23. And unto the Hebrews it 
is written : " Sacrifice, and offering, and burnt-offerings, and sin- 
offerings, thou wouldst not have ; neither didst thou approve those 
things which were offered according to the law." Heb. x. 8. 

This also must we know, that the Lord God, for sin, doth per- 
mit and bring all kinds of afflictions, miseries, and vexations of mind, 
in this life, upon all men ; such as are heat, cold, hunger, thirst, 
care, and anguish ; sore labours, calamity, adversity, doleful times ; 
sword, fire, diseases, griefs ; and, at the last, also that intolerable and 
bitter death, whereby nature is overthrown : as it is written, '* Thou 
shalt die the death;" Gen. ii. 17. again, ** Cursed is the earth for 
thy sake, in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life ; 
thorns, also, and thistles shall it bring forth to thee." Gen. iii. 1 7, 

18. And yet it is taught, that men must and ought to bear all 
these punishments patiently, seeing that they owe them unto God, and 
have deserved even a more cruel punishment. Yet they must not 
be so persuaded, as though they deserved any thing by suffering, 
or should receive from God any grace or reward in recompense 
for the merit of these punishments ; seeing that Paul, speak- 
ing of a much more worthy cross and sufferings, which true 
believers take upon them for Christ's sake, saith, that " They be 
not comparable to the glory which shall be shewed unto us." Rom. 
viii. 18. And these punishments are laid upon us, and are patiently 
to be borne, that we may acknowledge the greatness of our sin, and 
how griievous a thing it is ; and therewithal, our own weakness, needs, 
and misery ; and that by experience we may know how wicked, foul, 
and bitter a thing it is, even above aU that we are able to conceive, 
for a man to forsake the Lord his God, as saith the Prophet : Jer. ii. 

19. and moreover, that they which be plunged in these miseries, 
and oppressed with these burthens, may again be stirred up to 
repentance, and to seek for favour and help from God, which is a 
Father full of mercy and compassion. Psal. Ixxxvi. 15. Howbeit, this 
is also expressly added, that the labours and torments which holy 
men do suffer for the name of Christ, (that is, in the cause of eternal 

OF man's fall, sin, and freb-will. 67 

Mltation, for the holy truth of Christ,) are an acceptable and plea- 
sant sacrifice to God, and have great and large promises, especially 
in the life to come. Mark riii. 35. The which thing also did even so 
£dl out with Christ our head ; of whom the Epistle to the Hebrews 
speaketh thus, that " For the joy that was set before him, he endured 
the cross ; " H^. xii. 2. who also by himself consecrated and hal- 
lowed the cross to them, even to this end, that those sufferings which 
we endure for Christ's name-sake, might be pleasant and acceptable 
unto God. 

V.*— From thb Confession of Francs. 

Art. 9. We believe that man, being created pure and upright, 

and conformable to the image of God, through his own fault fell 

from that grace which he had received ; and thereby did so estrange 

bimself from God, the fountain of all righteousness, and of all good 

things, that his nature is become altogether defiled ; and being 

hUnd in spirit, and corrupt in heart, hath utterly lost all that 

btegrity. For although he can somewhat discern between good 

and evil, yet we affirm, that whatsoever light he hath, it straight- 

ntys beoometh darkness, when the question is of seeking God : so 

^ by his understanding and reason he can never come to God. 

Ako, ftlthoiigh he be endued with vrill, whereby he is moved to 

fltt or diat, yet insomuch as that is altogether captivated under sin, 

t hadi no fiberty at all to desire good, but such as it hath received 

hy grsoe, and of the gift of God. 

Art. 10. We bdieve that all the ofl^pring of Adam is infected 

^ this contagion, which we call original sin; that is, a stain 

■preading itsdf by propagation, and not by imitation only, as the 

^dagians thought '^ all whose errors we do detest. Neither do we 

^k it necessary to search how this sin may be derived from one 

^Qto another. For it is sufficient that those things which God gave 

vto Adam, wore not given to him alone, but also to all his posterity : 

|Q<1 therefore we, in his person, being deprived of all those good 

S%, are fallen into all this misery and corse. 

^.11. We believe that this stain is indeed sin; because that 

K VHiketk all and every man (not so much as those little ones 

•Joepted, iHiich, as yet, lie hid in their mothers' womb) guilty of 

^^ftBtl death before God. We also affirm, that this stain, even 

^ baptism, is, in nature, sin, as concerning the fault : howbeit, 

^whidi are the children of God, shall not therefore be con- 

^^^nuied; because that God, of his gracious goodness and 

"^^t itiOk not impute it to them. Moreover we say, that this 




frowardness of nature doth always bring forth some fruits of malice 
and rebellion, in such sort, that even they which are most holy, 
although they resist it, yet are they defiled with many infirmities 
and ofiences, so long as they live in this world. 

VT. — From ths Confbssion of England. 

Art^ 18. We say also, that every person is bom in sin, and 
leadeth his life in sin : that nobody is able truly to say his heart 
is dean: Prov. xz. 9. that the most righteous person is but an 
unprofitable servant: Luke xvii. 10. that the law of Crod is 
perfect, and requireth- of us perfect and full obedience : that we 
are able by no means to fulfil that law in this worldly life : that 
there is no mortal creature which can be justified by his own 
deserts in God's sight. 

VII.— From thb Confession of Scotland. 

Article 3. Of Original Sin. 

By which transgression, commonly called original sin, was the 
image of Ood utterly defaced in man ; and he, and his posterity of 
nature, became enemies to God, slaves to Satan, and servants to 
sin. Eph. ii. 1—3. Insomuch that death everlasting hath had, 
and shall have, power and dominion over aU, Rom. v. 14 ; 21. that 
have not been, are not, or shall not be regenerate from above : which 
regeneration is wrought by the power of the Holy Ghost, John iii. 
5. working in the hearts of the elect of God an assured fedth in the 
promise of God, revealed to us in his word ; by which fedth we 
apprehend Christ Jesus, with the graces and benefits promised in 
him. Rom. v. 1 . 

VIII. — From thb Confession of Bblgia. 

Art. 14. We believe that God, of the slimeof the earth, created 
man after his image; Gen i. 27. that is to say, good, just, and 
holy ; Eph. iv. 24. who had power, by his own free-will, to frame 
and conform his will unto the will of God. But when he was 
advanced to honour, he knew not, neither did he well understand, 
his excellent state, but wittingly and willingly did make himself 
subject to sin, and so, consequently, unto eternal death and male- 
diction ; whilst that giving ear to the words and subtilties of the 
devil, he did transgress that commandment of life, which he had 
received of the Lord; Gen. iii. 17. and so did withdraw and 
alienate himself from God, (his true life,) his nature being altogether 

OF man's fall, sin, and FRKR-WILL. 69 

defiled and cormpted by sin : Rom. v. 12. whereby it came to pass, 
that he made himself subject both to corporal and to spiritual death. 
Wherefore, being made wicked and perverse, and also corrupt in all 
his ways and endeavours, he lost those excellent gifts wherewith 
the Lord had adorned him; so that there were but a few UtUe 
sparks and small tracks of those graces left in him : Acts xiv. 1 6. the 
idiidi, notwithstanding, are sufficient to leave men without excuse : 
because that, what light soever we have, is turned into palpable 
darkness; Rom. i. 19 — 21. even as the Scripture itself teacheth, 
saying, " The light shined in darkness, and the darkness compre- 
hended it not : " John i. 5. for there John doth manifestly call men 
darkness. Therefore, whatsoever* things are taught, as touching 
man's free-will, we do worthily reject them ; seeing that man is the 
servant of sin, " neither can he do any thing of himself, but as it is 
given him from heaven." John iii. 27. For who is so bold as to brag 
that he is able to perform whatsoever he listeth, when as Chiist him- 
self saith, " No man can come unto me, except my Fatlier, which hath 
sent me, do draw him ?" John vi. 44. Who dare boast of his will, 
which heareth, that " All the affections of the flesh are enemies 
sgainst God ?" Rom. viii. 7. Who will vaunt of his understanding, 
which knoweth, that " The natural man cannot perceive the things 
of the Spirit of God ?" 1 Cor. ii. 14. To conclude, who is he that 
dsre bring forth any one cogitation of his own, which understandeth 
this, that we are " not able of ourselves to think any thing," but 
that ** if we are sufficient, it is altogether of God ?" 2 Cor. iii. 5. 
Therefore, that 8a3ring of the Apostle must needs remain firm and 
*tesd&st, " It is God which worketh in us both to will, and to do, 
even of his good pleasure." Phil. ii. 13. For no man's mind, no 
n»an's wDl, is able to rest in the will of God, wherein Christ himself 
^ wrooght nothing before. The which also he doth teach us, 
*yM»§?» "Without me ye can do nothing." John xv. 5. 

•4it. 15. We believe, that through the disobedience of Adam, 
the sin that is called Original, hath been spread and poured into 
«i mankind. Now, original sin is a corruption of the whole nature, 
•^ an hereditary evil; wherewith even the very infants in their 
"^<*besB' wombs arc polluted ; Psal. Ii. 5. the which also, as a most 
'^^'isome root, doth branch out most abundantly all kind of sin in 
"*»; Gen. vi. 5. John iii. 6. Rom. v. 12. and is so filthy and abo- 

* Thii general word. Whatsoever, we take to appertain to those things only, 
^h either the Pelagians, or Papists, or any other have taught, touching this 
P^t, contrary to the authority of the Scripture. 


minable in the sight of God, that it alone is sufficient to the con- 
demnation of all mankind. £ph. ii. 1*3. Neither are we to believe, 
that this sin is, by baptism, utterly extinguished, or plucked up by 
the roots ; seeing that out of it, as out of a corrupt fountain, con- 
tinual floods and rivers of iniquity do daily spring and flow. How- 
beit, to the children of God, it doth not tend, neither is it imputed, 
to condemnation ; but of the mere favour and mercy of God, it is 
remitted unto them ; not to this end, that they, trusting unto this 
remission, should be rocked asleep in security, but that it may stir 
up often sighs in the faithful, by the sense and feeling of this cor- 
ruption, and that they should somewhat the more earnestly desire, 
to be delivered from this body of death. Rom. vii. 24. There- 
fore we do condemn the error of the Pelagians, which affirm, that 
this original sin is nothing else but a certain kind of imitation. 


Art, 2. Also they teach, that after the Mi of Adam, all meo, 
descended one from another after a natural manner, haTe original 
sin, even when they are bom. We mean by original sin, that whidi 
the holy fathers, and all of sound judgment and learning in the Church, 
do so call ; namely, that guilt, whereby all that come into the world, 
are, through Adam's faU, subject to God's wrath and eternal death ; 
and that very corruption of man's nature derived from Adam. And 
this corruption of man's nature comprehendeth both the defect of 
original justice, integrity, or obedience, and also concupiscence. 
This defect is horrible blindness, and disobedience ; that is to wit, 
to want that light and knowledge of God, which should have been 
in our nature being perfect, and to want that uprightness, that is, 
that perpetual obedience, that true, pure, and chief love of God, and 
those other gifts of perfect nature. Wherefore, those defects and 
this concupiscence, are things damnalde, and, of their own nature, 
worthy of death. And this original blot is sin indeed ; condemning 
and bringing eternal death, even now also, upon them which are 
not bom again by baptism and the Holy Ghost. 

They condemn the Pelagians, who deny original sin ; and think 
that those defects, or this concupiscence, are things indifierent, or 
punishments only, and not of their own nature damnable ; and dream 
that man may satisfy the law of God, and may, for that peculiar 
obedience, be pronounced just before God. 

or MAN*8 PALL, 8tN, AND FEBK-WILL. 71 

These thkigi are thus found in another Edttion. 

Also they teaeht that after Adam's &11, all men, begotten after 
^ common coarBe of nature, are bom with sm ; that is, without 
tbe lear of God, without trust in him, and with concupiscence: 
Hid that this disease, or original blot, is sin indeed, condemning and 
Ininging eternal death, even now, upon all that are not bom again 
bj baptism and the Holy Ghost. 

They condemn the Pelagians and others, who deny this original 
blot to be sm indeed ; and, that they may extenuate the glory of the 

merit aad benefits of Christ, do reason that a man may, by the 

atreogth of his own reason, be justified before God. 

Art. 18. Concerning free-will, they do teach, that man's wiU 
kath some fi:«edom to perform a civil justice,'*' and to make choice of 
things that are within the reach of reason ; but it hath no power to 
iKiiurm a ^tritual justice without the Holy Spirit ; because Fkul 
^aith, " The natural man perceiveth not the things which are of the 
Spirit of God ; " 1 Cor. ii. 14. and Christ saith, " Without me ye 
^san do nothing." Jchn xy. 5. Now this spiritual justice is wrought 
ni IS, when we are helped t of the Hdy Ghost. And we receive the 
Sloly Ghoat, when we assent unto the word o^ God, that we may be 
^aQmfi>rted through fidth in all terrors of conscience ; as Paul teach- 
^5&, when he saith, " That ye may receive the promise of the Spirit 

* That which in this Confession is said, touching tbe liberty of man's nature 

^o perform a civil justice, and cited out of tbe 3rd book of Hj/pognosticon, (wbich 

^ fathered upon Aagustine.) we are also taught out of another place of the same 

Wwtkee I aamdy, in kis book Da OratiA ad Valmtinum, Cap, 20 ; whose words 

^re tbeae: ' The holy Scriptare, if it be well looked into, doth shew, that not 

^i^y the good wills of men, (which God maketh good of evil, and having made 

^hem good« doth guide them unto good actions and to eternal life,) but also 

^bote wbich are for the preservation of the creature in this life, are so in God's 

iMwer, that he maketh them bend, when he will, and whither he will, either to 

lieit o w benefits upon some, or to inflict punishments upon others, according as 

he doth appoint in his most secret, and yet, without doubt, most just judg. 


t Uoderttmd tius not of any natural faculty, which unto any good thing, 
indeed, is none at all ; but of the will regenerated, which is very weak, except 
h bt aided by anather grace, even unto the end. And so also must it be un. 
derstood, vdiich is said a little after, that * The law of God cannot be fulfilled 
by mao't nature ;* to wit, though it be changed and renewed ; according as we 
have deckred in tbe former Observations upon tbe Confession of Bohemia, 
which we advise you to look over. 



through faith." Gal iii, 14. The^e things, almost in as many words, 
saith St. Augustine : ' We confess, that there is in all men a free- 
will» which hath indeed the judgment of reason; not that it is 
thereby apt, without Grod, either to begin or to perform anything 
in matters pertaining to God, but only in works belonging to this 
present life, whether they be good or evil. By good works, I mean 
those which arise out of the goodness of nature; as to be 
willing to labour in the field, to desire meat or drink, to desire to 
have a friend, to desire apparel, to desire to build an house, to marry 
a wife, to nourish cattle, to learn the art of divers good things, to 
desire any good thing pertaining to this present life ; all which are 
not without God*s government, yea, they are, and had their beginning, 
from God and by God. In evil things, I account such as these ; to 
desire to worship an image ; to desire manslaughter, &c.' Hypognosti- 
eon. Lib, 3. This sentence of Augustine doth notably teach what is to 
be attributed to free-will, and doth put a plain difference between 
civil discipline, or the exercises of human reason, and spiritual mo- 
tions, true fear, patience, constancy, faith, invocation in most sharp 
temptations, in the midst of Satan's subtle assaults, in the terrors 
of sin. In these, surely, we have great need to be guided and 
helped of the Holy Spirit, according to that saying of Paul, " The 
Spirit helpeth our infirmity." Rom. viii. 26. 

We condemn the Pelagians, and all such as they are, who teach 
that by the only powers of nature, without the Holy Spirit, we 
may love God above all, and fulfil the law of God, as touching 
the substance of our actions. We do freely and necessarily raislike 
these dreams; for they do obscure the benefits of Christ. For 
therefore is Christ the Mediator set forth, and mercy promised 
in the Gospel, because that the law cannot be satisfied by man's 
nature ; as PauI witnesseth, when he saith, " The wisdom of the 
flesh is enmity against Grod; for it is not subject to the law of 
God, neither indeed can be." Rom. viii. 7. For albeit that man's 
nature by itself * can after some sort perform external works, (for 
it can contain the hands from theft and murder,) yet can it not 

* By itself, that is, by its own proper and inward motion ; yet to, as the 
working and goodness of God, who upholdeth the society of men, is not 
excluded ; which doth not indeed renew the man, but presarveth that reason 
which is left in him ( though it be corrupt) sgainst the unbridled affections, 
and dispcrseth the darkness of the mind lest it overspread the light 
that reniaineth, and represseth the disorder of the affections lest they burst 
forth into act. 

or man's vall, sin, and frsk-will. 73 

make those inward motions, as true fear, true ^th. patience, and 
chastity, unless the Holy Ghost do govern and help our hearts. 
And yet in this place also do we teach, that it is also the command- 
ment of God, that the carnal motions should he restrained hy the 
industry of reason, and hy civil discipline, as Paul saith, " The law 
is our schoolmaster to hring us to Christ." Gal. ill. 24. Also, 
"The law is given to the unjust." 1 Tim. i. 9. 

These things are thus found in another Edition. 

As touching free-will, they teach, that man's will hath some 

liberty to work a civil justice, and to choose such things as 

reason can reach unto : but that it hath no power to work the 

righteousness uf God, or a spiritual justice, without the Spirit of 

God ; because that " The natural man perceiveth not the things that 

are of the Spirit of God." 1 Cor. ii. 14. But this power is 

^wrought in the heart, when men do receive the Spirit of God 

tlirough the word. These things are in as many words affirmed by 

St. Augustine. Hypognosticon. Lib, 3. (as before.) 

They condemn the Pelagians, and others, who teach, that by the 
power of nature only, without the Spirit of Grod, we are able to love 
Caod above all; also to perform the commandments of God, as 
'Mooching the substance of our actions. For although that nature 
!:>« able in some sort to do the external works, (for it is able 
"^^ witbold the hands from theft and murder,) yet it cannot 
'^^ork the inward motions, as the fear of God, trust in God, 
^^liastity, patience. 

Art. 19. Touching the cause of sin, they teach, that albeit God 
^3oth create and preserve nature, yet the cause of sin is the will of 
'Ue widced ; to wit, of the devil, and of ungodly men ; which tumeth 
itself from God unto other things, against the commandments 
of God. " When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own." 
John vili. 44. 

T^ is found thifs in another Edition. 

Touching the cause of sin, they teach, that albeit God doth 
cieste and preserve our nature, yet the cause of sin is the will of the 
widLed ; to wit, of the devil, and ungodly men ; which wiU, being 
destitute of God*s jl(elp, tumeth itself from God, as Christ saith, 
"When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own." John viii. 44. 

74 TM rouBTH sscnGir. 

X.— From ths Conpxssion of Saxont* 
Artidel. Towardt tke mkU 

And seeing the oontroverries, which are sprung up, do chiefly 
pertain unto two artidea (^ the Creed, namely, to the article, " I 
behere the remission of sins," and "I believe the Catholic Chnrch," 
we will shew the fountains of these controTersieB, which being well 
wdghed, men may easily understand, that our expositions are the 
very voice of the Gospel, and that our a d v er s a ries have sowed 
oormptions in the church. And first of the artide,. / believe ike 
remtftton of niw.*— 

Here many and great oomiptions are devised of our adversaries. 
««I believe/' Nay, say they, I doubt* Also, Then I will believe, when 
I shall have merits enough. Also, they do not say. I believe 
eertainly that remission is given freely for the Son of God, not 
for any merits of ours, or any worthiness of ours. Also, they do 
not rightly shew what sin is, and feign that man is able to satisfy 
the law of God, and that, by the fulfilling of the law, he beoometh 
jost before God in this life. Therefore, first, as toodiing sin, 
and the cause thereof, we do faithfully retain the doctrine of the 
true diurqh of God. Seeing that God in essence is one, the 
eternal Father, the oo-etemal Son, being the image of the Father, 
and the co-eternal Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and 
the Son, of infinite wisdom, power, and goodness, true, just, 
bountifol, chaste, most free, as he describeth himself in his law; 
and seeing he hath therefore made the angels and men, that, being 
from all etemityy he might impart unto them his light, wisdom, 
and goodness, and that they should be the temples of God, wherein God 
might dwell, that God might be all in aD, as Paul q>eaketh : 1 Cor. 
xii. 6, 7. he therefore created them at the beginning good and just, 
that is, agreeing with the mind and will of God, and pleasing him. 
He also gave them a clear knowledge of God and of his will, 
that they might understand that they were made of God, that they 
might be obedient, as it is written in the 5th Psalm : " Thou art not 
a God that loveth wickedness." verse 4. But the devils and 
men abused the liberty of their will, swerved from God, and by this 
disobedience were made subject to the wrath of God, and lost 
that uprightness wherein they were created. 

Therefore free-will, in the devil and in men, was the cause of that 
fall ; not the will of God, who neither willeth sin, nor alloweth it, 
nor furthereth it ; as it is written, " When the devil speaketh a lie. 

OF man's vall, sin, and vrxk-will. 75 

hespeaketh of his own ; and he is the father of l3ring :" John viii. 44. 
and. "He that committeth sin, is of the devil; hecanse the 
deril sinneth from the beginnins^/' 1 John iii. 8. Now sin is that, 
whatsoever is contrary to the justice of God, (which is an order in 
the mind of God, which he did afterward manifest by his own 
voice in the Jaw and in the (rospe!,) whether it be original dis« 
obedience, or actoal ; for the whidi the person is both g^ty, and 
oondenmed with everlasting punishment, except he obtain remission 
in this hit, lot the Son the Mediator's sake. We do also condemn 
the madness of Mansion, the Manichees, and such like, which 
are repugnant in this whole question to the true consent of the 
church of God* 

Artick 2. Of Original Sin. 

As touching cndginal sin, we do plainly affirm, that we do retain 

the conaent of the true Church of God, delivered to us from the 

first Isthers. prophets, apostles, and the apostles* scholars, even 

unto Augustine, and after his time ; and we do expressly condemn 

f elagius, and all those who have scattered in the Church like doting 

Collies to thoae of the Pelagians. And we say, that all men since 

"^he hH of our first parents, which are bom by the coupling together 

of male and female, do together with their birth bring with 

'^hcm original sin; as Paul saith, " By one man sin entered into the 

^%rorld, and death by sin :" Rom. v. 12. and, " We were by nature 

*Uie children of wrath, as well as others.*' Ephes. ii. 3. Neither 

4o we dislike that usual definition, if it be well understood, Originni 

•^ta i$ a want of Original Justice, which ought to be in us; because 

'^hat original justice was not only an acceptation of mankind before 

^od, but, in the very nature of man, a light in the mind, whereby 

lie might assuredly bdieve the word God; and a conversion 

of the will mito God, and an obedience of theiieart agreeing with 

"Ue judgment of the law of God, which was graffed in the mind; 

rnsad, aa we said before, man was the temple of God. That original 

justice doth comprehend aU these things, it may be understood by 

this 8aying» ** Man was created after the image and likeness of God ;*' 

Gen. i. 27. which Paul doth thus interpret, " Put ye on the new 

man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness :" 

^>h. ir. 34. where undoubtedly by true holiness, he understandeth 

aU those virtues, which shine in our nature, and are given by God, 

not acquired by art, or gotten by instruction, (as now those shadows 

of virtues, such as they are in men, be acquired ;) because that then 


God dwelling in man did govern him. And yrhen we consider 
what original jufitice doth signify, then the privation opposite 
thereunto is less ohscure. Therefore original sin is, both for the 
fall of onr first parents, and for the cormption which foUoweth 
that £Bdl, even in onr birth to be subject to the wrath of God, and 
to be worthy of eternal damnation, except we obtain remission 
for the Mediator's sake. And this corruption is, to want now the 
light or the presence of Grod, which should have shined in us ; and it 
8 an estrang^g of our mil from God, and the stubbornness of the 
heart resisting the law of the mind, as Paul speaketh ; Rom. vii. 23. 
and, that man is not the temple of God, but a miserable mass, without 
God, and without justice. These wants, and this whole corruption, 
we say to be sin; not only a punishment of sin, and a thing 
indifferent; as many of the Sententiaries do say, that these evils 
are only a punishment, and a thing indifferent, but not sin. And 
they do extenuate this original evil, and then they feign that men 
may satisfy the law of God, and by their own fulfilling of the law 
become just. The Church must avoid ambiguities. Therefore we 
do expressly name these evils, corruption ; which is often named of 
the ancient writers, evil concupbcence. But we distinguish those 
desires which were created in our nature, from that confusion of 
order which happened after our fiedl ; as it is said, "The heart of man 
is wicked:" Jer. xvii. 9. and Paul saith, "The wisdom of the 
flesh is enmity against God." Rom. viii. 7. This evil concupiscence 
we say to be sin ; and we affirm, that this whole doctrine of sin, as it 
is propounded and taught in our churches, is the perpetual consent 
of the true church of God. 

Ariicle 4. Of Free-will. 

Now let us make manifest also the doctrine of free-will. Men, 
truly instructed in /the Church, have always distinguished between 
discipline, and the newness of the Spirit, which is the beginning of 
life eternal; and they have taught, that in man there is such 
freedom of will to govern the outward motions of the members, 
that thereby even the unregenerate may after a sort perform that 
discipline, which is an external obedience according to the 
law. But man by his natural strength is not able to free himself 
from sin and eternal death; but this freedom and conversion of 
man unto God, and this spiritual newness wrought by the Son of 
God, quickening us by his Holy Spirit ; as it is said, " If any man 
hath not the Spirit of Christ, the same is not his." Rom. viii. 9. 


And the will, having received the Holy Ghost, is not idle. And we 
give God thanks for this nnspeakahle benefit, that for the Son his 
sake, and through him, he giveth us the Holy Ghost, and doth 
govern ns by his Spirit. And we condemn the Pelagians, and the 
Manichees, as we have at Iftrge declared in another place. 

Article 10. Of the Difference of Sins. 

Seeing it is said, that sins remain in the reg^erate, it is neces- 
sary to have a difference of sins delivered nnto us. For out of 
that saying, " He goeth and taketh mito him seven other spirits worse 
than himself, and they enter in, and dwell there, &c." Luke xi. 26. 
and of suchlike sayings, it is manifest that some, who are rege- 
nerate, do g^eve and shake off the Holy Ghost,* and are again 
rejected of Grod, and made subject to the wrath of God and eternal 
paniahments. And in Ezekiel xviii. it is written, "When the righte- 
ous man shall turn from his righteousness, and commit iniquity, he 
sball die therein ;" Terse 26. and " When the wicked man shall 
turn from his vnckedness, and do judgment and justice, he shall live 
tiierein." verse 27. 

Therefore it is necessary that those sins, which remain in holy 
HMD in this mortal life, and yet do not shake off the Holy Ghost, be 
^ntingnished from other sins, for the which man is again made 
"object to the wrath of God, and to eternal punishments. So Paul 
distingoisheth between sin that reigneth, Rom. v. 21. and sin 
tbat reigneth not: Rom. vi. 12; 14. and he saith, "If ye live 
*fter the flesh, ye shall die ; but if ye mortify the deeds of the body 
by the Spirit, ye shall live." Rom. viii. 13. And in the First 
^e to Timothy, i. 18. 19. he giveth a rule : " Fight a good 
^, keeping fEuth and a good conscience." Therefore, when a man 

*Thtt which is both here and elsewhere in this Confession, and now and 
^ in the Confession of Augsburg, repeated, touching the shaking off and 
'^^ die Holf Spirit, we take it thus : that it is chiefly meant of the gifts 
^b are bestowed, even upon those also which pertain nothing to the Church ; 
** bi Socratet, Aristides, Cicero, and some others, there shined certain 
'Pvlu of excellent virtues: secondly, of those gifts also, which are 
bestowed upon those that are so in the Church, that yet they are not of the 
^^boreli, nor truly regenerated by the Spirit of adoption, as may be seen in the 
'^'Biples of Saul, Judas, and such others. For as concerning the Spirit 
^ smetification, which is only in those that are truly regenerated, it is 
"^^ taken wholly from them ; but only the force and working thereof 
^^ • dme interrupted, whilst lusts do bear sway in the heart ; even as 
^^benneae doth not take away the mind itself, but only the use of the 
"nod for a time. 


doth not keep the faith, but either wittingly, or by some error, 
looseth some part of the foundation, that is, some article of hith, or 
alloweth idols, (as many do» which are deceived with false opinions, 
or do not uphold themselves by the comfort of faith, but are over- 
come by doubting or by despair, or against their conscience do 
break any commandment of God,) he doth shake off the Holy 
Ghost, and is made again subject to the wrath of God, and to 
eveiiasting punishment. Of these men saith Paul, " If ye live 
according to the flesh, ye shall die :" Rom. viii. 13. and> " Neither 
fornicators, nor adulterers, nor idolaters, &o. shall inherit the king- 
dom of God :" 1 Cor. '^, 9, 10. and the oath in Ezekiel xxziii, 
doth clearly say, " As I live, saith the Lord, I do not desire the death 
of a sinner, but rather that he be converted, and Uve." verse 11. 
In this oath, two parts are joined together, convernon and life. 
God doth desire, and that with an oath, the conversion oi man ; 
therefore, they do not please him, which retain a purpose to sin. 
Now in this number, we comprise both sins of purposed omission, 
that is, purposed negligence in a duty ; which is contrary to that 
saying, " This is required, that we be faithful ;" 1 Cor. iv. 2. and 
also purposed ignorance, such as is Pharisaical, and is to be seen 
in an infinite multitude, which endeavoureth not to search out the true 
doctrine of the Church, and ignorantly retaineth idob, or doth also 
further the rage which is used in the defence of idols. Thus much 
of those falls, whereby the Holy Ghost is shaken off. There be 
also other sins in the regenerate, who keep faith and a good con- 
science, which do not corrupt the foundation, neither are sins 
against the conscience,'*' but are the relics of original sin ; as 
darkness, doubting, carnal securities, wandering flames of vicious 
aflections, and omissions or ignorances not purposed. Some ex- 
tenuate these evils, and name them deformities beside the law of 
God. But this blindness is greatly to be reproved ; and we must 
consider both the greatness of the evil in this whole pollution, 
which is contrary to the law and will of God, and also the greatness 
of the mercy and benefit of the Son of God, who covereth these 
great and lamentable wounds in this miserable nature. And Paul 

* We take the meaning to be this : That the elect are said to sin not 
•gainst their whole conscience, or so as sin reigneth in them ; but that, albeit 
they often yield and fall down, yet they rush not ifito sin with a full purpose 
and deliberation ; and that as yet the Spirit (though for a time it yieldeth 
to the flesh) doth wresde and strive in them, till at length, by power from 
above, it getteth the upper hand again. 

0» MAN*8 FALL, SIN, AND VRB»*W1LL. 79 

commandeth us to " resist those erils by the Spirit :*' Eph. ▼!. 10. 
that b, Atticiis and Sdpto do bridle their cornipt afiections by reascm, 
but Joseph and Paul do bridle them by the Spirit, that is, by the 
motions of die Holy Ghost, by true gri^* ^^^ Mth, fear of Ood, 
and invocation. P^al, fe^ng in himself doubts, and other wandering 
motionsy is sorrowful, and by fisuth persuaded that this pollntion 
is covered by the Mediator, and by the fear of God doth stay 
himsdf, that he give no jdace to anger, or to other wandering 
motkma; and therewithal he doth invocate God, and desire his 
help, saying, *' O Lord, create in me a new heart." Bsal. li. 10. 
When we do after this sort withstand that corruption, which as yet 
remaineth in the regenerate, these erils are covered, and it is caUed 
sin that dodi not reign, or venial sin, and the Holy Ghost is not 
shaken off. 

It is evident* that this doctrine concerning the difierenoe of 
sina, is true* plain, and necessary for the Church. And yet, many 
know, what manner of intricate disputations are to be found in 
the books of our adversaries, touching the same, &c. Having thus 
briefly declared the sum of the doctrine of justification, we should 
now also dedare and confute the arguments, which are objected 
against dus judgment of ours ; but because divers men do object 
divers things ; we have only recited our Confession, and offer our** 
selves to larger declarations in every member of the confession. 

XI.— FnoM THx CoNvsssioN or Wibtsm^uro. 

Chapter 4. Of Sin. 

We believe and confess that, in the beginning, man was created of 
God, just, wise, endued with free-will, adorned with the Holy Ghost, 
and happy; but that afterward, for his disobedience, he was deprived of 
the Holy Ghost, and made the bondman of Satan, and subject both 
to corporal and eternal damnation : and that evil did not stay in one 
only Adam, but was derived into all the posterity. And whereas 
some affirm, that so much integrity of mind was left to man after 
hia fiail, that by his natural strength and good works he is able to 
convert and prepare himself to faith and the invocating of God, it 
is flatly contrary to the apostolic doctrine, and the true consent of 
the Catholic Church. " By one man's trespass evil was derived into 
all men to condemnation." Rom. v. 18. " When ye were dead in 
trespasses and sins, wherein in times past ye walked, according to 
the course of this world, and after the prince, &c." Eph. ii. I, 2. 
And a little after, " We were by nature the children of wrath, as 


well as others." Verse 3. He saith, " dead in sins/' and, " the 
children of wrath/^ that is, strangers from the grace of God. But 
as a man, heing corporally dead, is not able by his own strength to 
epare or convert himself to receive corporal life ; so he who b 
spiritoally dead is not able by his own power to convert himself to 
receive spiritual life. Ang^tine saith, ' The Lord, that he might 
answer Pelagius to come, doth not say. Without me ye can hardly do 
any thing ; but he saith, Without me ye can do nothing. And that 
he might also answer these men that were to come, in the very same 
sentence of the Grospel, he doth not say. Without me ye cannot per« 
feet, but, Without me ye cannot de, any thing. For if he had said. 
Ye cannot perfect ; then these men might say. We have need of the 
help of God, not to begin to do good, for we have that of ourselves, 
but to perfect it.* And a little after, ' The preparation of the heart 
is in man, but the answer of the tongue is of the Lord. Men, not 
well understanding this, are deceived, thinking that it appertaineth 
to man to prepare the heart ; that is, to begin any good thing with- 
out the help of the grace of God. But far be it from the children 
of promise so to understand it, as, when they heard the Lord saying. 
Without me ye can do nothing, they should as it were reprove him, 
and say. Behold, without thee we are able to prepare our hearts ; 
or, when they hear Paul the apostle saying, Not that we are fit to 
think anything, as of ourselves, they should also reprove him, and 
say. Behold, we are fit of ourselves, to prepare our hearts, and so 
consequently to think some good thing.' Opera. Tom. vii. ami. Duos 
Epist. Pelag. ad Boni/acium. Lib. 2. Cap. 8. And again, ' Let no 
man deceive himself ; it is of his own, that he is Satan ; it is of 
God, that he is happy. For what is that, of his own, but of his 
sin ? take away sin, which is thy own, and righteousness, saith he, 
is of me. For what hast thou, that thou hast not received?* 
Tom. ix. In loannem. Tract. 49. Ambrose saith, ' Although it be 
in man to will that which is evil, yet he hath not power to will 
that which is good, except it be given him.* De Invocatione Gentium. 
Lib. 1. Cap. 9. Bernard saith, ' If human nature, when it was per- 
fect, could not stand ; how much less is it able of itself to rise up 
again, being now corrupt ?* Homilia 1, de Annuntiat. Beat€c Marine. 

THE ri! ': : 

OF ETEKN:.. ■:... : " 

I. -From the lattt: "■' 
fefiO. Of th P'-i. :;- 

G>i bth from the bernuiLT :*- i. _ 
fit BT respect of men. prear--:::-::: ~ - ■ " 
^ art a Christ, accordisr :: :.. * " - - 
bfihioRsas in him befon :::■. : — - " . - 

oijsc. "^^Tiohathsavec. ui i:.. r-. . —.: . 
vi »:!XTiLP to our works, bu: l?- - . _ ■ > - 
BsccLichwas given unt:- u- :_*. ,r. - l 
»TiiTa, but is now made lslz . r - -_: ; - . : - . 
fcaC2hrJ'2rim.i. 9, in. Tl-z - -... _r 
5^ ■■'-'^■yH let without a metL.- : r : 
w ::xje us ; and thev who art ut-r -z-t"-"" ■ ■.- 
^^CsiioireTe elected. Bl: ?i'.t li _- — 
P^ «cortiiiff to that savinr u: 'ju- .-.: r 
"^y^liebthefeith. Kiiow^*l-' _~ —. ■ 
*^ -V. Is in you, except yt k '--.- .- 
*'* 5aij^^3 jjg choseL il Cl-.-- - 


"^ '■-: Apostle declareth. wiiei :.-. ■,- . 
•^^ liitwe should be Lo';r ll: "«— . .- ... 
"^^♦'•'iDbathprcdestiiiattd ■:*::•-.■_ -' - 
^'^^^ bH:lf. for the prai« of :... r - _- - 
^•iii-jQjb God knowcth wr.: lt-. :, - l: . 



^'itbe small number of ti-. -... - 

•^^L. if,: rashly judge any nji:* : ■►..:.' 
^ *^^' t: FiZippians. " I thank n.;. Ti 1 : . r ; . " v " 
y^^ti whole Church of the PL'.:- : . .:>. ■ i •. •: ^ 
^y^.'^''-»-''^7 of the Gospel; and I ii.-. vvt-\-..u\ '. ■ ■ 
^•^ ■^•^■^'work in you, will porfurni it. a? it 1^^ »•''■•' ■ ■ ' 
^^:^.i:."PidLi. 3-7. And whin tlu' l.oi.l v- 
-^''^-:'j.t:t were few that should be sawd ? 1»^- '»'''' '" 
u ^'""-s:. 'lit ftw or more should be savid. fi 'i'""' 

Irtjjj^ -^-'-^^ti even- man to " s^trivc tu ii»t«' '" " 
'"■ ^tu.i'4. asif heahouldBav, It i> ""' *'" '*.„ 
^^'^tLttentttten, but rather to cnd.M^"'" »"" 



may enter iato nteven by the strait way. Wherefore we do not 
allow of the wicked speeches of some, who say. Few are chosen, and 
seeing I know not whether I am in the number of those few, I wiU 
not defraud my nature of her desires. Others there are which say. 
If I be predestinated and chosen of God, nothing can hinder me 
from salvation, which is already certunly appointed for me, whatso- 
ever I do at any time ; but if I be in the number of the reprobate, 
no faith or repentance will help me, seeing the decree of God cannot 
be changed : therefore all teachings and admonitions are to no pur- 
pose. Now, against these men the saying of the Apostle maketh 
much, " The servants of God must be apt to teach, instructing them 
that are contrary-minded, proving if God at any time will give them 
repentance, that they may come to amendment out of the snare of 
the devil, which are taken of him at his pleasure." 2 Tim. ii. 
24^26. Beside, Augustine also teacheth, that ' Both the grace of 
free election and predestination, and also wholesome admonitions 
and doctrines, are to be preached.' Lib* de Bono PerseveroMtuB. 
Cap. 14. 

We therefore condemn those who seek otherwhere than in Christ, 
whether they be choseft from all eternity, and what God hath de- 
creed of them before all beginning. For men must hear the Gospel 
preached, and believe it. If thou believe, and be in Christ, thou 
mayest undoubtedly reckon of it, that thou art elected. For the 
Father hath revealed unto us in Christ his eternal sentence of pre- 
destination, as we even now shewed out of the Apostle, in 2 Tim. i. 
9, 10. This is therefore above all to be taught and well weighed, 
what great love of the Father towards us in Christ is revealed. We 
must hear what the Lord doth daily preach unto us in his Gospel ; 
how he callcth, and saith, " Come unto me all ye that labour, and 
are burdened, and I will refresh you." Mat. xi. 28. And, " So God 
loved the world, that he gave his only-begotten Son for it, that all 
which believe in him should not perish, but have life everlasting." 
John iii. 16. Also, " It is not the wiU of the Father, that any of 
these little ones should perish." Mat. xviii. 14. Let Christ there- 
fore be our looking-glass, in whom we may behold our predestina- 
tion. We shall have a most evident and sure testimony that we are 
written in the book of life, if we communicate with Christ ; and he 
be ours, and we his, by a true faith. Let this comfort us in the 
temptation touching predestination, than which there is none more 
dangerous : that the promises of God are general to the faithful ; in 
that he saith, " Ask, and ye shall receive ; every one that aaketh. 


tecemtli :*' Luke xi. 9, 10. and to coTiclude, in that we pray, with 
«n the Church of God» ** Our Father which art in heaven :" Mat. 
Ti. 9. and for that in haptiam we are ingrafted into the body of 
Christ, and are fed in his Church, oftentimes, with his flesh and 
blood, unto everlasting life. Thereby being strengthened, we 
«re commanded to *' work out our salvation with fear and tremb- 
ling/' according to that precept of Paul, in Phil. ii. 12. 

II.— -From thb Confbssion of Baslb. 

Aft* 1. Sect 3. Hereupon we confess, that God, before he had 
created the world, had chosen all those to whom he would freely 
^e the inheritance of eternal blessedness. Rom. viii. 29, 30. 
Eph. i. 4—6. 

III.— From thb Confbssion of Francb. 

Art. 12. We believe that out of this universal corruption and 
"danmadon, wherein by nature all men are drowned, God did deliver 
and preserve some, whom, by his eternal and immutable counsel, of 
liis own goodness and mercy, without any respect of their works, he 
dd choose in Christ Jesus ; and others he left in that corruption and 
damnation, in whom he might as well make manifest his justice, by 
condemning them justly in their time, as also declare the riches of 
luB mercy in the others. For some are not better than others, till 
such time as the Lord doth make a difference, accordiug to that im- 
xnutkble counsel which he had decreed in Christ Jesus before the 
creation of the world : neither was any man able by his own strength 
to make an entrance for himself to that good, seeing that of our 
tnture we cannot have so much as one right motion, affection, or 
thought, tin God do freely prevent us, and fashion us to uprightness. 

IV.— From thb Confbssion of Scotland. 

Article 8. Of Election, 

For that same eternal God and Father, who of mere grace elected 
08 in Christ Jesus his Son, before the foundation of the world was 
laid, Eph. i. 11, 12. appointed him to be our head, our brother, our 
PMor, and great Bishop of our souls. Heb. ii. 11, 12. But because 
that the enmity betwixt the justice of God and our sins was such, 
that no flesh by itself could, or might, have attained unto God : it 
bdioved that the Son of God should descend unto us, and take him- 
self a body of our body, flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bones, 
and 80 become the perfect Mediator betwixt God and roan; 1 Tim. 



ii. 5. giving power to so many as believe in him, to be the sons of 
God ; John i. 12. as himself doth witness, " I pass op to my Father, 
and onto your God." John xx. 17. By which most holy fraternity, 
whatsoever we have lost in Adam, is restored to us again. And for 
this cause are we not afraid to call God our Father, not so much be- 
cause he hath created us, (which we have common with the repro- 
bate,) as for that he hath given to us his only Son to be our 
brother, and given unto us grace to acknowledge and embrace him 
for our Mediator, as before is said. It behoved further the Messiah 
and Redeemer to be very Grod, and very man ; because he was to 
bear the punishment due for our transgressions, and to present him- 
self in the presence of his Father's judgment, as in our person, to 
sufier for our transgression and disobedience, Isa. liii. 8. by death to 
overcome him that was author of death. Heb. ii. 14. But because 
the only* Godhead could not suffer death, neither yet could the only 
manhood overcome the same, he joined both together in one person, 
that the imbecihty of the one should suffer, and be subject to death, 
(which we had deserved,) and the infinite and invincible power of the 
other, to wit, of the Godhead, should triumph and purchase to us 
life, liberty, and perpetual victory. And so we confess, and most un- 
doubtedly believe. 

v.— From thb Confession of Bsloia. 

Art, 16. We believe that God (after that the whole offspring of 
Adam was cast headlong into perdition and destruction, through the 
default of the first man) hath declared and shewed himself to be 
such an one, as he is indeed ; namely, both merciful and just : mer- 
ciful, by delivering and saving those from condemnation and from 
death» whom, in his eternal counsel, of his own free goodness, he 
hath chosen in Jesus Christ our Lord, without any regard at all of 
their works ; but just, in leaving others in that their fall and per- 
dition, whereinto they had thrown themselves headlong. 

VI. — ^Thb Confession of Auosbubg. 

(The Augsburg Confession doth so mention Predestination in the 
20th Article, the title whereof b, De Fide, Of Faith, that it afiirmeth 
it to be a needless thing to dispute of Predestination in the doctrine 
of Justification by Faith. Which in what sort it may be said, we 
have declared in our Observation on the Ninth Section, where those 
words of the Confession are rehearsed.) 


y II.— The CpNPsssioN op Saxont. 

(Also, the Saxon Confession doth in the same sense, by the way, 
make mention of Predestination and Election, about the end of the 
3rd Article, where it treateth of Faith ; which part we have therefore 
placed in the Ninth Section.) 




Ckoj^er 11. OfJesua Christ, being true God and Man, and the only 

Saviour of the World. 

Moreover, we believe and teach, that the Son of God, our Lord 
Jeans Christ, was from aU eternity predestinated and fore-ordained 
of the F^er to be the Saviour of the world. And we beUeve that 
he was begotten, not only then, when he took flesh of the Virgin 
Mary, nor yet a little before the foundations of the world were laid ; 
but before aU eternity ; and that of the Father, after an unspeakable 
manner. For Isaiah saith. Qui, 8.) " Who can tell his generation ?" 
And Micab saith, (v. 2.) " Whose egress hath been from everlast- 
ing." And John saith, (i. 1.) " In the beginning was the Word, and 
the Word was with Giod, and Giod was the Word. &c." Therefore 
the Son is co-eqnal and consubstantial with the Father, as touching 
his divinity : true €rod, not by name only, or by adoption, or by spe- 
cial fiKVonr, but in substance and nature. PhU. ii. 6. Even as the 
Apostle saith elsewhere, " This is the true God, and life everlast- 
ing." I John ▼. 20. Paul also saith, " He hath made his Son the 
heir of all things, by whom also he made the world : the same is 
the brightness of his glory, and the engraved form of his person, 
bearing up aU things by his mighty word." Heb. i. 2, 3. Likewise 
in the Gospel the Lord himself saith, " Father, glorify thou me with 
thyieif, with the glory which I had with thee before the world was." 
John xvii. 5. Also elsewhere it is written in the Gospel, *' The Jews 


sought how to kill Jesus, because he said that God was his Father, 
making himself equal with God." John v. 18. We therefore do 
abhd' the blasphemous doctrine of Arius, and all the Arians, uttered 
against the Son of God ; and especially the blasphemies of Michael 
Servetus the Spaniard, and of his complices, which Satan by them 
hath as it were drawn out of hell, and most boldly and impiously 
spread abroad throughout the world against the Son of God. 

We teach also and believe, that the eternal Son of the eternal 
God was made the Son of man, of the seed of Abraham and David ; 
Mat. i. 1 — 25. not by the mean of any man, as Ebion affirmed ; 
but that he was most purely conceived by the Holy Ghost, and was 
bom of Mary, who was always a virgin, even as the history of the 
Gospel doth declare. And Paul saith, " He took in no sort the 
angels, but the seed of Abraham." Heb. ii. 16. And John the 
Apostle saith, " He that believeth not that Jesus Christ is come in 
the flesh, is not of God." 1 John iv. 3. The flesh of Christ, there- 
fore, was neither flesh in shew only, nor yet flesh brought from 
heaven, as Valentinus and Marcion dreamed. Moreover, our Lord 
Jesus Christ had not a soul without sense and reason, as Apollinaris 
thought ; nor flesh without a soul, as Eunomius did teach : but a 
soul with its reason, and flesh with its senses ; by which senses he felt 
true griefs in the time of his passion, even as he himself witnessed 
when he said, " My soul is heavy even to death :« Mat. zxvi. 38. 
and, " My soul is troubled, &c." John xii. 27. 

We acknowledge, therefore, that there be in one and the same 
Jesus Christ our Lord, two natures, the divine and the human 
nature ; and we say that these two are so conjoined or united, that 
they are not swallowed up, confounded, or mingled together, but 
rather united or joined together in one person, the proprieties of 
each nature being safe and remaining still : so that we do worship 
one Christ our Lord, and not two ; I say, one, true, God and man ; 
as touching his divine nature, of the same substance with the Father, 
and as touching his human nature, of the same substance with us, 
and " like unto us in all things, sin only excepted.'* Heb. iv. 15. 
As therefore we detest the heresy of Nestorius, which maketh two 
Christa of one, and dissolveth the union of the person ; so do we 
curse the madness of Eutiches, and of the Monothelites, or Mono- 
physics, who overthrow the propriety of the human nature. There* 
fore we do not teach that the divine nature in Christ did sufier, or 
that Christ according to his human nature is yet in the world, and 
so in every place. For we do neither think nor teach, that the 


body of Christ ceased to be a true body after his glorifymg, or that 
it was deified, and so deified that it pat off its properties, as touching 
body and soul, and became altogether a divine natore, and began to 
be one substance alone : and, therefore, we do not allow or receive 
the unwitty subtleties, and the intricate, obscure, and inconstant dis- 
putations of Schuenkfeldt, and such other vain janglers about this 
matter; neither are we Schuenkfeldians. Moreover, we believe, 
that our Lord Jesus Christ did truly sufiler and die for us in the flesh, 
as Peter saith; 1 Pet. iv. 1. We abhor the most horrible madness 
of the Jacobites, and all the Turks, which abandon the passion of our 
Lord. Yet we deny not but that " the Lord of glory (according to 
the saying of Fbul,) was crucified for us." 1 Cor. ii. 8. For we do 
reverently and religiously receive and use the communication of 
expressions drawn from Scripture, and used of all antiquity in 
expounding and reconciling places of Scripture, which at the first 
sight seem to disagree one from another. 

We believe and teach that the same Lord Jesus Christ, in that 
true flesh in which he was crucified and died, rose again from the 
dead ; and that he did not rise up another flesh instead of that which 
was buried, nor took a spirit instead of flesh, but retained a true 
body : therefore whilst that his disciples thought that they did see 
the spirit of their Lord Christ, he shewed them his hands and feet, 
which were marked with the prints of the nails and wounds, saying, 
" Behold my hands and my feet, for I am he indeed : handle me 
and see ; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.*' 
Luke xziv. 39. 

We believe that our Lord Jesus Christ, in the same his flesh, did 
aaoend above all the visible heavens into the very highest heaven, 
that is to say, the seat of God and of the blessed spirits, unto 
the right hand of Grod the Father. Which, although it do signify an 
eq[iial participation of glory and majesty, yet it is also taken for a cer- 
tain place ; of which the Lord, speaking in the Gospel, saith, that " He 
win go and prepare a place for his." John xiv. 2. Also the apostle 
Peter saith, " The heavens must contain Christ, until the time of re- 
storing of all things." Acts iii. 2 1 . And out of heaven the same Christ 
win return unto judgment, even then, when wickedness shall chiefly 
reign in the world, and when Antichrist, having corrupted true reli- 
gion, shaU fill aU things with superstition and impiety, and shall most 
cmeny destroy the church with fire and bloodshed. Now Christ 
ahan return to redeem his, and to abolish Antichrist by his coming, 
and to judge the quick and the dead. Acts zvii. 81. For the dead 

88 THB SIXTH fBcnoir. 

shall arise, and " those which shall be found alive in that day" (which 
is nnlmown unto all creatures) " shall be changed in the twinkling 
of an eye/* 1 Cor. zv. 51, 52. And all the fiuthfid shall be taken 
up to meet Christ in the air ; 1 Thess. iv. 17. that thenceforth they 
may enter with him into heaven, there to live for ever : 2 Tim* ii. 1 1 . 
but the unbelievers, or ungodly, shall descend with the devils into 
hell, there to bum for ever, and never to be delivered out of tor- 
ments. Mat. XXV. 41. We therefore condemn all those which deny 
the true resurrection of the flesh, and those which think amiss of 
the glorified bodies ; as did Joannes Hieresol3anitanus, against whom 
Jerome wrote. We also condemn those which have thought that both 
the devils and all the wicked shall at the length be saved, and have an 
end of their torments : for tkke Lord himself hath absolutely set it 
down, thaty " Their fire is never quenched, and their worm never 
dieth.*' Mark ix. 44. Moreover we condemn the Jewish dreams, 
that before the day of judgment there shall be a golden world in the 
earth ; and that the godly shall possess the kingdoms of the world, 
their wicked enemies being trodden under foot : for the Evangelical 
truth, Matthew xxiv. and zxv., and Luke xxi., and the Apostolic doc- 
trine in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, ii., and in the 
Second Epistle to Timothy, iii. and iv., are found to teach far other- 

Furthermore, by his passion or death, and by all those things 
which he did and suffered for our sakes from the time of his 
coming in the flesh, our Lord reconciled his heavenly Father unto 
all the faithful; Rom. v. 10. purged their sin; Heb. i. 3. spoiled 
death, broke in sunder condemnation and hell, and by his resurrec* 
tion from the dead, brought again and restored life and immor- 
tality. 2 Tim. i. 10. For he is our righteousness, life, and resur- 
rection ; John vi. 44. and, to be short, he is the fulness and per- 
fection, the salvation and most abundant sufficiency, of all the 
fJEuthful. For the Apostle saith, "So it pleaseth the Father that 
all fiilneds should dwell in him : " Col. i. 19. and, " In him ye are 
complete.*' Col. ii. 10. 

For we teach and believe that this Jesus Christ our Lord is the 
only and eternal Saviour of mankind, yea, and of the whole world ;* 
in whom are saved by faith all that ever were saved before the law, 
under the law, and in the time of the Gospel, and so many as shall 

* This which is said distinctly of saving the whole world, we take to be 
meant of the restoring of the wor!d at the last ; wherein, notwithstanding, 
men miiit not heaiken to tain speculations, which are beside the word of God. 


yet be saved to the end of the world. For the Lord himself m the 
Gospel saith, " He that entereth not in by the door into the sheep- 
fold, bat dimbeth up another way, he is a thief and a robber :" 
John X. 1. " I am the door of the sheep." verse 7. And also in 
another place of the same Gospel he saith, " Abraham saw my 
day, and rejoiced." John viii. 56. And the apostle Peter saith, 
" Neither is there salvation in any other, but in Christ ; for among 
men there is given no other name under heaven whereby they might 
be saved." Acts iv. 12. We believe, therefore, that through the 
grace of our Lord Christ we shall be saved, even as our fathers were. 
For Paul saith, that " All our fathers did eat the same spiritual 
meat, and drink the same spiritual drink; for they drank of the 
spiritual rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ." 1 Cor. 
z* 3, 4. And therefore we read that John said, that " Christ was 
that Lamb which was slain from the beginning of the world : " Rev. 
liii. 8. and that John Baptist witnesseth, that " Christ is that 
Lamb of €rod that taketh away the sins of the world.'* John i. 29. 
Wherefore we do plainly and openly profess and preach, that Jesus 
Christ is the only Redeemer and Saviour of the world, the King and 
Hi^ Priest, the true and looked for Messiah, that holy and blessed 
one (I say) whom all the shadows of the law, and the prophesies of 
the prophets, did prefigure and promise ; and that God did supply 
and send him unto us, so that now we are not to look for any other. 
And now there remaineth nothing, but that we all should give all 
glory to him, believe in him, and rest in him only, contemning and 
rejecting all other aids of our life. For they are fallen from the 
grac^of God, and make Christ of no value unto themselves, who- 
soever they be that seek salvation in any other things besides Christ 
alone. GaL ▼. 4. 

And, to speak many things in few words, with a sincere heart we 
believe, and with liberty of speech we freely profess, whatsoever 
things are defined out of the holy Scriptures, and comprehended in 
the Creeds, and in the Decrees of those four first and most excellent 
Coundb, holden at Nice, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, 
together with blessed Athanasius' Creed, and all other Creeds 
like to these, touching the mystery of the incarnation of our Lord 
Jesoa Christ; and we condemn all things contrary to the same. 
And thus do we retain the Christian, sound, and Catholic faith, 
whole ^nd inviolable, knowing that nothing is contained in the fore- 
said Creeds, whidi is not agreeable to the word of God, and maketh 
wholly for the sincere declaration of the faith. 

90 THB SIXTH SBCnoft. 

II. ~ From tbb Formbr CJoNFiisioN of Hblvbtia. 

Art. 10. The eternal Counsel of the restoring of Man, 

And though man by this fi&ult was adjudged to damnation, and 
had incurred most just wrath, yet God the Father never ceased 
to have a care over hi^l; the which is manifested by the first 
promises, by the whole law, (which as it is holy, and good, teach- 
ing us the will of God, righteousness, and truth, so doth it work 
anger, and stir up, not extinguish, sins in us, not through its own 

fault, but by ours,) and by Christ, ordained and exhibited for this 

Art, 11. Of Jesus Christ, and those benefits wkUh we reap ly Him, 

This Christ, the true Son of Grod, being true God and true man, 
was made our brotheri when, according to the time appointed, 
he had taken upon him whole man, (that is, consisting of soul 
and body,) and in one indivisible person united two natures, (yet 
were not these natures confounded,) that he might restore us, being 
dead, to life, and make us fellow-heirs with himself* He, taking 
flesh of the most pure Virgin Mary, the Holy Ghost working 
together, flesh (I say) sacred by the union of the Giodhead, 
and like unto ours in all things, sin only excepted, (because it 
behoved our sacrifice to be unspotted,) gave the same flesh to death, 
for the purgation of aU sin. 

The same Christ, as he is to us the full and perfect hope and trust 
of our immortality, so he placed his flesh, being raised up from 
death into heaven, at the right hand of his Almighty Father. * This 
Conqueror, having triumphed over death, sin, and all the infernal 
devils, sitting as our Captain, Head, and chief High Priest, 
doth defend and plead our cause continually, till he do reform us 
to that image after which we were created, and bring us to the 
fruition of life everlasting. And we look for him to come in the end 
of the world, a true and upright Judge, and to give sentence upon 
all flesh, (being first raised up to that judgment,) and to advance 
the godly above the sky, and to condemn the wicked, both in soul 
and bodv, to eternal destruction. 

Who, as he is the only Mediator, Intercessor, sacrifice, and also 
our High Priest, Lord, and King ; so we do acknowledge, and with the 
whole heart believe, that he alone is our atonement, redemption, sanc- 
tification, expiation, wisdom, protection, and deliverance: simply 
herein rejecting all means of our life and salvation, berid^ this 


Christ alone.* (The latter part of this Article, we placed also 
in the Second Section, which entreateth of the Only Mediator.) 

III.— From thb Confession of Baslb. 

Art. 4. Of Christ being true God and true Man. 
We believe and confess constantly, that Christ in the time 
herennto appointed^ according to the promise of God, was given 
to us of the Father ; and that so the Eternal Word of God was 
made flesh; that is, that this Son of God, being united to our 
nature in one person, was made our brother, that we, through him, 
might be made partakers of the inheritance of God. 

We believe, that this Jesus Christ was conceived of the Holy 

Ghost ; Matt. i. 20. bom of the pure and undefiled Virgin Mary ; 

Luke ii. 7. that he suflered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, and 

died for our sins ; and that so, by the one oblation of himself, he 

did satisfy God our heavenly Father for us, and reconcile us to him ; 

and thus by his death did triumph, and overcome the world, death* 

and hell. Moreover, that according to the flesh he was buried, 

descended into hell, and the third day rose again from the dead. 

These things being sufficiently approved, that he in his soul and 

body ascended into heaven, and sitteth there at the right hand, that 

is, in the glory of God the Father Almighty ; and from thence shall 

come to judge the quick and the dead. Moreover, that he sent to 

his disciples, according to his promise, the Holy Ghost, in whom we 

believe, even as we do believe in the Father, and in the Son. 

Art. 9. Of the Last Day. 

We believe, that the last Judgment shall be, wherein our flesh 
&hall rise again, and every man, according as he hath done in this 
life, shall receive of Christ the Judge : to wit, eternal life, if he hath 
shewed forth the fruits of faith, which are the works of righte- 
ooaoeflB, out of a true faith, and imfeigned love; and eternal fire, if he 
hath committed good or evil, without faith and love. Rom. ii. 5 — 1 1 . 
2. Cor. V. 10. John v. 29. 

IV.— From thb Confbssion of Bohbhia, or thb Waldensbs. 

Ck^pter 4, Towards the middle. Neither hath any man, of all 

things whatsoever, any thing at all whereby he may deliver, set free, or 

'^fem himself from his sins and condemnation, without Christ ; 

* See the First Observation upon this Confession, in the Second Section, 
^hert these vary tame words are set down. 

. I 


John XV. 5. by whom alone, they which tnily believe, are freed 
from sin, from the tyranny and prison of the devil, from the wrath 
of God, and from death and everlasting torments. And a little 
after, towards the end of the said Chapter 4 : Together with this 
point, and after it, considering that both the matter itself, and 
order of teaching so requireth ; the ministers of the Church teach us, 
after oar fall, to acknowledge the promise of God, the true word 
of grace, and the holy Gospel, brought to us from the Privy Council 
of the Holy Trinity, concerning our Lord Christ, and our whole 
salvation purchased by him. 

Of these promises, there be three prindpal, wherein all the 
rest are contained. The first was made in Paradise, in these words : 
•' I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy 
seed and her seed. He shall break thine head, and thou shalt 
bruise his heel." Gen. iii. 15. The second was made to Abraham ; 
Gen. xii. 2, 3. which afterwards Jacob, Gren. xlix. 10. and 
Moses, Deut. xviiL 15. did renew. The third to David, Psalm 
Ixxxiz. 20. which the prophets recited and expounded. In these 
promises are described and depicted, those most excellent and 
principal works of Christ our Lord, which are the very ground- work 
whereon our salvation standeth, by which he is our Mediator 
and Saviour : namely, his conception in the womb of the Virgin 
Mary, and his birth of her also, for he was made the seed of the 
woman ; also his afllictions, his rising again from death, his sitting 
at the right hand of God, where he hath obtained the dignity 
of a Priest and King : of which thing, the whole life of David was 
a certain type ; for which cause, the Lord calleth himself another 
David, and a Shepherd.. Ezek. xxxiv. 23. And this was the 
Gospel of those holy men, before the law was given, and since. 

And Chapter 6, a little from the beginning. Tot this is very 
certain, that after the fall of Adam, no man was able to set himself 
at Uberty out of the bondage of sin, death, and condemnation, 
or come to be truly reconciled unto God, but only by that one 
Mediator between God and man, Christ Jesus, (through a lively 
faith in him ;) who alone, by his death and blood-shedding, takes 
from us the image of sin and death, and puts upon us, by fedth, 
the image of righteousness and life. " For he was made unto us of 
God, wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption." 1 Cor. 
i. 30. 

fiut first men are taught, that these things are to be believed 
concerning Christ; namely, that he is eternal, and of the nature of 


his Heavenly Father ; the only-begotten Son, begotten from ever- 
Issting, and so, together with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, one, 
tme, and indivisible God, the eternal, not created Word, the 
brightness and the image, or engraven form, of the person of his 
Father, by whom all things, as well those things which may be 
seen, as those which cannot be seen, and those things which 
are in heaven, and those which are in the earth, were made and 
created. John. i. 1—3. Heb. i- 1—4. Col. i. 15—18. 

Moreover, that he is also a true and natural man, our brother in 
▼ery deed ; who hath a soul and a body, that is, true and perfect 
hmnan nature, which, by the power of the Holy Ghost, he took, 
without any sin, of Mary, a pure Virgin ; according as St. John 
saith, '* The Word was made flesh." John i. 14. 

And thus of these two natures, their properties not being 
changed nor confounded, yet, by a wonderful communication 
tiiereof, there is made one indivisible person, one Christy Immanuel, 
our King and Priest, our Redeemer, our Mediator, and perfect 
Becondler, full of grace and truth ; so that " Of his fulness we all 
^ take grace for grace : for the law was given by Moses, but grace 
*Qd truth was ordained and exhibited by Jesus Christ," John i. 16, 
17. being God and man in one person. 

lliis grace and truth are our men taught to acknowledge, and by 
fidth to behold, in all those saving and wonderful works or affections 
of Christ, which, according to the meaning of the holy Scripture, 
ve by a steadfest fJEuth to be believed and professed ; such as are his 
coQuiig down from heaven, his conception, birth, torments, death, 
Wial, resurrection, ascension unto heaven, sitting at the right 
hand of God, and his coming again from thence to judge both the 
quick and the dead. In these principal affections, as in a chest 
wherein treasure is kept, are all those wholesome fruits of our 
^ justification laid up, and are taken out from thence for the 
^» and those which do believe, that in spirit and conscience they 
^ be partakers thereof through faith ; which all hereafter, at the 
^ of our joyful resurrection, shall be fully and perfectly bestowed 

-ind towards the end of this Chapter 6, these words are added :-^ 
I& this Chapter also particularly, and for necessary causes, to shun 
^ avoid many pernicious and antichristian deceits, it is taught 
^^w^cenung Christ his presence;* namely, that our Lord Christ, 

Concenuag the presence of Christ in his Church, ever since his Ascension* 
^''^ io to eoBtinae until his Second Coming ; we teach this in plain and evident 


according to his bodily conversation, is not amongst ns any longer 
in this world, neither will be unto the end of the world, in sach sort 
and manner as he was here conversant amongst us in his mortality, 
and wherein he was betrayed and cmcified ; nor yet in the form 
of his glorified body, which he assumed at his resurrection, and in 
which he appeared to his disciples, and, the fortieth day after 
his resurrection, departing from them, ascended manifestly into 
heaven. Acts i. 9. For after this manner of his presence and 
company, he is in the high place> and with his Father in heaven, 
where all tongues profess him to be the Lord. And every feithfol one 
of Christ must believe that he is there, and worship him there, 
according to the Scriptures : as also that part of the Catholic 
Christian faith doth expressly witness, which is this, " He ascended 
into heaven, he sitteth at the right hand of God the Father 
Almighty ;" also that other article, " From thence shall he come *' 
(that is from an higher place, out of heaven, with his angels) " to 
judge both the quick and the dead." So doth Paul also say, 
" The Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, and 
with the voice of an Archangel, and with the trump of God." 1 
Thes. iv. 16. And St. Peter saith, "Whom heaven must contain, 
until the time that all things be restored." Acts iii. 21. And the 
Evangelist Mark, "But when the Lord had spoken with them, 
he was taken up again into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand 
of God :" Mark xvi. 1 9. and the angek which were there present, when 
he was taken up into heaven, said, " This Jesus, which is taken up 
from you into heaven, shall so come again, as ye have seen him 
go into heaven." Acts i. 11. 

Furthermore, this also do our men teach ; that the self-same 
Christ, very God and very man, is also with us here in this world, 
but after a diverse manner from that kind of presence which we 

wordsy (and we do not think thmt the brethren are of any other mind in this 
point :) namely, that the person of Christ may not be divided, but that both the 
snbstance of the natures, and their essential properties, ought evermore of 
necessity to be kept and retained. ^ And therefore, that Christ, according to his 
Deity, is truly and essentially with us in the earth, as he is also in heaven, 
not only as filling a place, (in which manner he is everywhere,) but alto by his 
peculiar saving virtue, in respect whereof he is said not only to be, but also to 
dwell, in the saints alone, and in none else. But according to the human 
nature, being above the heavens, he is neither visibly nor invisibly now in the 
earth, but only by his efiectual working and most mighty power, when as the 
Godhead, by means of the communication of his humanity with us spiritually 
by faith, wcnrketh that in the believers, which he woiketh to their salvation. 


named before ; that is, after a certain spiritual manner, not object 

to our eyes, but such an one as is hid from us, which the flesh doth 

not perceive, and which yet is very necessary for us to our salvation, 

that we may be partakers of him ; whereby he ofiereth and commu- 

nicateth himself unto us, that he may dwell in us, and we in him. 

And this truly he doth by the Holy Ghost, whom in his own place 

(that is, instead of his own presence, whereby he was bodily amongst 

as) he promised that he would send unto his Church, and that he 

would stiU abide with it by the same Spirit in virtue, grace, and his 

wholesome truth, at all times, even until the end of the world ; Matt. 

xxviii. 20. when he said thus : " It is good for you that I go hence ; 

for except I go hence, the Comforter will not come unto you : but if 

I go away, I will send him unto you." John xvi. 7. And again, *' I 

will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter/' (that 

is, another kind of Comforter than I am,) " that he may abide in you 

for ever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, 

because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him : but ye know him, 

for be dweUeth with you, and shall be in you. I will not leave you 

oomfortlesBy but I will come to you ; *' namely, by the self-same Spirit 

of truth. John adv. 16— 18« 

Now then, even as our Lord Christ, by his latter kind of presence, 
being not visible, but spiritual, is present in the ministers of the 
Chnrdi, in the word, and in the sacraments ; even so also, by the 
sdf-same ministers, word, and sacraments, he is present with his 
Church: and by these means do the elect receive him through 
mward faith in their heart ; and do therefore join themselves toge- 
ther with him, that he may dweH in them, and they in him, after 
such a sort, as is not apparent, but hidden from the world, even by 
that fedth spiritually; that is to say, in their souls and hearts, by 
the Spirit of truth : of whom our Lord saith, " He abideth with you, 
and shall be in you ; ** and, *' I will come again unto you." John 
ziT. 17» 18. 

This judgment and dedaration of our faith is not new, or now 
first devised, but very ancient. For that this was commonly 
tanght and meant in the Church of old, it is plain and evident by 
the writings of the ancient Fathers of the Church, and by that decree, 
wherein it is thus written ; (and they are the words of St. Augustine :) 
' Oar Lord is above until the end of the world, but the truth of the 
Jjord is here also : for the body of the Lord, wherein he rose again, 
must ci necessity be in one place, but his truth is dispersed every 
where.' Drwtatui 30 tfi Joannem. Corp. 1. Distinct. 6. 


v.— From tbb Confbbbion of Francb. 

Art. 13. We believe, that whatsoever is requisite to our salva- 
tion, is offered and communicated unto us now at length, in that one 
Jesus Christy as in him who, being given to save us, is also " made unto 
us wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption," 1 Cor. i. 
30. insomuch that whosoever doth swerve from him, doth renounce 
the mercy of the Father, that is» our only refuge. 

Art. 14. We believe, that Jesus Christ, being the wisdom and 
eternal Son of the Father* took upon him our nature ; so that he is 
one person, God and man : man, I say, that might suffer both in 
soul and also in body, and '* made like unto us in all things, sin only 
excepted; " Heb. iv. 15. for that his flesh was indeed the seed of 
Abraham and David, howbeit, by the secret and incomprehensible 
power of the Holy^ Ghost, it was conceived in due time in the womb 
of that blessed Virgin. And therefore we detest, as contrary to that 
truth, all those heresies wherewith the churches were troubled in 
times past : and specially, we detest those devilish imaginations of 
Servetus, who gave to our Lord Jesus Christ an imaginary Deity, 
whom he said to be the idea and pattern of all things, and the 
counterfeit or figurative Son of God ; to conclude, he framed him 
a body compacted of three elements uncreated, and therefore he did 
mingle and overthrow both his natures. 

Art. 15. We believe, that in one and the same person, which is 
Jesus Chnst, those two natures are truly and inseparably so con- 
joined, that they be also united ; either of those natures, nevertheless, 
retaining its distinct propriety : so that, even as in this divine con- 
junction, the nature of the Word, retaining its proprieties, remained 
uncreate, infinite, and filling all places ; so also, the human nature 
remained, and shall remain for ever, finite, having its natural form, 
dimension, and also propriety ; as from the which, the resurrection 
and glorification, or taking up to the right hand of the Father, hath 
not taken away the truth of the human nature. Therefore, we do 
so consider Christ in his Deity, that we do not spoil him of his hu- 

Art, 16. We beHeve, that God did declare his infinite love and 
goodness towards us in this, that he hath sent his Son, who should 
die, and rise again, and fulfil aU righteousness, that he might pur- 
chase eternal life for us. 

Art, 17. We believe, that by that only sacrifice, which Jesus 


Christ offered on the cross, we are reconciled to God, that we may 
be taken for just before him ; because we cannot be acceptable to 
him, nor enjoy the fruit of our adoption, but so far forth as he doth 
forgive us our sins. Therefore we affirm, that Jesus Christ is our 
entire and perfect washing ; in whose death we obtain full satis- 
fection ; whereby we are delivered from all those sins, whereof wc 
are guilty, and from the which we could not be acquitted by any 
other remedy. 

VI.^From thk Confbssion of England. 

Art. 2. We believe, that Jesus Christ, the only Son of the eternal 
Father, (as long before it was determined, before all beginnings,) 
when the fulness of time was come, did take of that blessed 
and pure Virgin, both flesh, and all the nature of man ; that he 
might declare to the world the secret and hid will of his Father ; 
(whidi will had been laid up from before all ages and generations ;) 
and that he might finish in his human body the mystery of our 
redemption, and might fasten our sins to the cross, and also that 
hand-writing which was made against us* 

We believe, that for our sakes he died, and was buried; descended 

into hell ; the third day, by the power of his Godhead, returned 

tolife, and rose again ; and that the fourth day after his resurrection, 

whilst his disdples beheld and looked upon him, he ascended into 

heaven to fulfil all things, and did place in majesty and glory the 

self-same body, wherewith he was bom, wherein he lived on earth, 

wherein he was jested at, wherein he had suffered most painful 

torments, and a cruel kind of death, wherein he rose again, and 

wherein he ascended to the right hand of the Father, above all 

nde, above all power, all force, all dominion, and above every name 

that is named, not only in this world, but also in the world to come : 

and that there he now sitteth, and shall sit till all things be fully 

perfected. And although the majesty and Godhead of Christ 

he everywhere abundantly dispersed, yet we bcUeve that his body, 

tt St. Augustine saith, ' must needs be still in one place :' and 

that Christ hath given majesty unto his own body, but yet hath not 

ttkeo away from it the nature of a body : and that we must not 

^ affirm Christ to be God. that we denv him to be man : and, as 

^ martyr Vigilius saith, that ' Christ hath left us, touching his 

homan nature, but hath not left us, touching his Divine nature :' 

^ ttiat the same Christ, though he be absent from us, con- 



ceming his manhood, yet is ever present with us, concerning his 

From that place also we believe that Christ shall come again to 
execute that jgeneral judgment, as well of them whom he shall 
find alive in tlKk^body as of them that shall be ready dead. 

Art, 18. Alii j' therefore, that our only succour and refuge is to 
fly to the mercy of our Father by Jesus Christ, and assuredly to 
persuade our minds, that he is the obtainer of forgiveness for 
our sins ; and that, by his blood, all our spots of sin be washed 
clean : that he hath pacified, and set at one, all things by the 
blood of his cross : that he, by the same one only sacrifice, which 
he once ofiTered upon the cross, hath brought to effect, and fulfilled 
all things : and that for that cause he said, when he gave up the 
Ghost, It is finished ; as though he would signify, that the price and 
ransom was now fully paid for the sin of mankind. 

Art, 19. If there be any, that think this sacrifice not sufficient, 
let them go, in God's name, and seek a better. We verily, because 
we know this to be the only sacrifice, are weU content with it alone, 
and look for none other : and, forasmuch as it was to be ofiered but 
once, we command it not to be renewed again ; and, because it was 
full, and perfect in all points and parts, we do not ordain, in place 
thereof, any continual succession of offerings. 

Art. 21. To conclude, we believe that this our selfsame flesh, 
wherein we live, although it die, and come to dust, yet, at the last, 
«hall return again unto life, by the means of Christ's Spirit, which 
dwelleth in us : and that then, verily, whatsoever we suffer here in 
the meanwhile for his sake, Christ wiU wipe away all tears and 
heaviness from our eyes; and that we through him shall 
enjoy everlasting life, and shall for ever be with him in glory : 
so be it. 

VII.— From thb Confession of Scotland. 

Article 4. Of the Revelation of the Promise, 

For this we constantly believe, that Grod, after the fearful and 
horrible defection of man from his obedience, did seek Adam again, 
call upon him, rebuke his sin, convict him of the same, and, in the 
end, made unto him a most joyful promise ; to wit, that the seed of 
the woman should break down the serpent's head. Gen. iii. 9, 15. 
that is, he should destroy the works of the devil : which promise, 
as it was repeated, and made more clear from time to time, Gen. 
xii. 3. and xv. 5, 6. Isa. vii. 14. so was it embraced with joy, and 


inoBt ocHistantly received of all the faithful from Adam to Noah, 
from Noah to Abraham, from Abraham to David, and so forth to 
the incarnation of Christ Jesus ; all (we mean the faithful fathers 
onder the law) did see the joyful day of Christ Jesus, and did 
rejoice. John viii. 56. 

Articie 6. Of the Incarnation of Christ Jesus. 

When the fulness of time came. Gal. iv. 4. God sent his Son, his 
eternal wisdom, the substance of his own glory, into this world, who 
took the nature of manhood, of the substance of a woman, to wit, 
of a virgin, and that by operation of the Holy Ghost : Luke i. 
31—33. and so was bom, the just seed of David, the Angel of 
the great council of God, the very Messiah promised ; whom we 
acknowledge and confess Elmmanuel, very God and very Man, 
two perfect natures united and joined in one person. 

By which our confession, we condemn the damnable and pestilent 
heresies of Arius, Mardon, Eutiches, Nestorius, and such others, as 
either did deny the eternity of his Giodhead, or the verity of his 
human nature, or confounded them, or yet divided them. 

Artide 7. fVhy it behaved the Mediator to be very God and very Man, 

We acknowledge and confess, that this most wondrous conjunc- 
tion betwixt the Grodhead and the manhood in Christ Jesus, did 
proceed from the eternal and immutable decree of God, whence also 
our salvation springeth and dependeth. 

Article 9. 0/ Christ's Death, Passion, and Burial. 

That our Lord Jesus ofiered himself a voluntary sacrifice unto his 
Father for ns, Heb. x. 12. that he sufiered contradiction of sinners, 
"Heb. xii. 3. that he was wounded and plagued for our transgressions, 
laa. HiL 5. that he, being the dean innocent Lamb of God, was 
condemned in the presence of an earthly judge, that we should be 
absolved before the tribunal-seat of our God ; that he suffered not 
qsslj the cmel death of the cross, (which was accursed by the sen- 
tence of Gody Deut. xxi. 23. ; Gal. iii. 13.) but also that he suffered 
for a season the wrath of his Father, which sinners had deserved. 
But yet we avow that he remained the only well-beloved and blessed 
Son of the Father, even in the midst of his anguish and torment, 
which he suffered in body and soul, to make the full satisfaction for 
the rins of the people. After the which we . confess and avow, that 

H 2 


there remaineth no other Bacrifice for sin ; Heh. x. 26. which if any 
afiinn, we nothing doubt to byow, that they are blasphemous against 
Christ's death, and the everlasting purgation and satisfoction pur- 
chased to us by the same. 

Article 10. Of his 

We undoubtedly believe that, insomuch as it was imposable that the 
dolours of death should retain in bondage the Author of life,Acts iii. 24; 
Rom. vi. 9. that our Lord Jesus, crucified, dead, and buried, who 
descended into hell, did rise again for our justification, Rom. iv. 25. 
and, destroying of him who was the author of death, brought life again 
to us that were subject to death, and to the bondage of the same. 
Heb. ii. 14, 15. We know that his resurrection was confirmed by the 
testimony of his very enemies. Mat xxviii. 4. by the resurrection of 
the dead, whose sepulchres did open, and they did arise, and appeared 
to many, within the dty of Jerusalem. Mat. xxvii. 52, 53. It was 
also confirmed by the testimony of his angels. Mat. xxviii. 5, 6. and 
by the senses and judgments of his apostles and others, who had 
conversation, and did eat and drink with him after his resurrection. 
John XX. 27., and xxi. 7 ; 13. 

Article 11. Of his Ascension. 

We nothing doubt but the self-same body, which was bom of the 
virgin, was crucified, dead, and buried ; that it did rise again, and 
ascend into the heavens. Acts i. 9, for the accomplishment of all 
things ; where, in our names, and for our comfort, he hath received 
all power in heaven and earth ; Matth. xxviii. 18, where he sitteth at 
the right hand of the Father, crowned in his kingdom. Advocate, 
and only Mediator for us. 1 John ii. 1 ; 1 Hm. iL 5. Which glory, 
honour, and prerogative he alone amongst the brethren shall possess, 
till that all his enemies be made his footstool. Psal. ex. 1. As that 
we undoubtedly believe there shall be a final judgment, to the 
execution whereof we certainly believe that the same our Lord Jesus 
shall visibly return, even as he was seen to ascend. Acts i. IL And 
then we firmly believe, that the time of refreshing and restitution of 
all things shall come : Acts iii. 19. insomuch that those that from 
the beginning have suffered violence, injury, and wrong, for righte- 
ousness' sake, shall inherit that blessed immortality, promised from 
the beg^inning: but contrariwise, the stubborn, inobedient, cruel 
oppressors, filthy persons, idolaters, and all sorts of unfaithful, Rev. 
zs. 27. shall be cast into the dungeon of utter darkness, where 


tlieirwonii shall not die, neither yet the fire shall be extinguished, 
laaiah Ixvi, 24. The remembrance of which day, and of the judg* 
ment to be executed in the same, is not only to us a bridle, whereby 
our carnal lusts are refrained, Isaiah i. 4. but also such inestimable 
comfort^ that neither may the threatening of worldly princes, neither 
yet the fear of temporal death and present danger, move us to 
renounce and forsake the blessed society which we the members 
have with our head and only Mediator Christ Jesus. Whom we 
confess and avow to be the Messiah promised, the only head of his 
Church, Cd. i. IS.'^our just Law-giver, our only High Priest, Advo- 
cate, and Mediator. Heb. ix. 11 ; 15. and x. 21. In which honours 
sod office if man or angel presume to intrude themselves, we" utterly 
detest and abhor them, as blasphemous to our Sovereign and 
Supreme Governor, Christ Jesus. 

Vin.— From the Confession of Bbloia. 

ArU 17* We believe that our most mighty and gracious God 
(idien he saw that man had thus thrown himself into the 
damnation both of spiritual and corporal death, and was made 
altogether miserable and accursed) by his wonderful wisdom and 
goodness was induced both to seek him, when through fear he had 
fled from his presence, and also most lovingly to comfort him, 
giving unto him the pronuse of his own Son to be bom of a 
womaUf which should break the head of the Serpent, and restore 
him to fialicity and happiness. 

Art, 18. Moreover, we confess, that God did then at length 
fulfil his promise, made unto the Fathers, by the mouth of his holy 
hophets, when, in his appointed time, he sent his only and eternal 
Son into the world ; who took upon him the form of a servant, 
being made like unto men> and did truly take unto him the nature 
of man, with all infirmities belonging thereunto, (sin only excepted,) 
when he was conceived in the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, 
by the power of the Holy Ghost, without any means of man. 
The which nature of man he put on him, not only in respect of 
the body, but also in respect of the soul ; for he had also a true 
aool. to the intent he might be true and perfect man.. For seeing 
that as wdl the soul, as the body of roan, was subject to condemna- 
tion, it was necessary that Christ should take upon him as well the 
soul, as the body^ that he might save them both together. There- 
fore, contrary to the heresies of the Anabaptists, (which deny that 
Christ did take upon him the flesh of man,) we confess that Christ 

102 THE fizTB stonoir. 

was partaker of flesh and blood, as the rest his brethren were ; 
that he came from the loins of David, according to the flesh ; I say, 
that he was made of the seed of David, according to the same flesh ; 
and that he was the fruit of a Virgin's womb, bcnm of a woman, the 
branch of David, a flower of the root of Jesse, coming of the tribe 
of Judah, and of the Jews themselves, according to the flesh ; and to 
condade, the tme seed of Abraham and David, the which seed of 
Abraham he took upon him, being made in all things like unto his 
brethren, sin only excepted, as hath been said before ; so that he is 
indeed our true Emmanud, that is, God with usT 

Art. 19. We believe also, that the person of the Son was, by 
this conception, inseparably united and coupled with the human 
nature ; yet so, that there be not two Sons of (rod, nor two persons, 
but two natures joined together in one person :* both which natures 
do still retain their own properties. So that, as the Divine nature 
hath remained always uncreated, without beginning of days 
or term of life, filling both heaven and earth; so the human 
nature hath not lost his properties, but hath remained still a 
creature, having both beginning of days and a finite nature. For what- 
soever doth agree unto a true body, that it still retaineth : and 
although Christ, by his resurrection, hath bestowed immortality upon 
it, yet notwithstanding, he hath neither taken away the truth of the 
human nature, nor altered it. For both our salvation, and also oui 
resurrection, dependeth upon the truth of Christ's body. Yet these 
two natures are so united and coupled in one person, that the} 
could noty no not in his death, be separated one from the other 
Wherefore that which in his death he commended unto his Father 
was indeed a human spirit, departing out of his body ; but in the 
the mean season, the Divine nature did always remain joined to the 
human, even then when he lay in the grave ; so that his Deity wat 
no less in him at that time, than when as yet he was an in^Euit 
although for a small season it did not shew forth itself. Wherefore 
we confess that he is true Ge)d, and true man ; true Ge)d, that by hv 
power he might overcome death ; and true man, that in the infirmity 
oi his flesh he might die for us. 

Art. 20. We believe, that Ge)d, which is both perfectly merciful 
and perfectly just, did send his Son to take upon him that nature 
which through disobedience had offended, that, in the selfsami 
nature, he might satisfy for sin, and, by his bitter death and passion 

* That is, united bypeMtadcally or personally. 


pay the punishment that was doe unto sin. God, therefore, hath 
dedared and manifested his justice in his own Son, laden with 
our iniquities ; but hath most mercifiiUy poured forth and declared 
his gracious goodness unto us, guilty wretches, and worthy of condem- 
nation; whilst in his incomprehensible love towards us, he hath 
deliyered up his Son unto death for our sins, and raised him up 
again firom death, for our justification, that by him we might obtain 
immortality and life everlasting. 

Art, 21. We believe, that Jesus Christ is that High Priest, 
appointed to that office eternally, by the oath of his Father, accord- 
ing to the order of Melchisedec, which offered himself in our name 
before his Father, with a full satis^EU^on, for the pacifying of his 
wrath, laying himself upon the altar of the cross, and hath shed his 
blood for the cleansing of our sins, as the Prophets had foretold. 
For it is written, that " The chastisement of our peace was laid upon 
the Son of God, and by his wounds we are healed ;" Isaiah liii. 5. 
also that " He was carried as a sheep unto the slaughter ;" verse 7. 
reputed amongst sinners and unjust; verse 12. and condemned 
of Pontius Pilate, as a malefactor, though before he had pronounced 
him guiltless. Therefore, he payed that which he had not taken : 
and, being just, suffered in soul and body for the unjust, in such sort, 
that, feeling the horror of those punishments that were due unto our 
ans, " He did sweat water and blood ;" Luke xxii. 44. and at length 
cried out, " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?" Matt. 
xxrii. 46. All which he suffered for the remission of our sins. 
Wherefore, we do not without just cause profess, with Paul, that 
" We know nothing but Jesus Christ, and him crucified ;" 1 Cor. ii. 
2, and that " We do account all things as dung, in respect of the 
excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord :" Phil. iii. 8. 
finding, in his wounds and stripes, all manner of comfort nmt can 
be desired. Wherefore, there is no need, that either we should 
wish for any other means, or devise any of our own brains, whereby 
we might be reconciled unto God, besides this " One oblation once 
oAeredf by the which all the faithful, which are sanctified, are con- 
aecrated* or perfected for ever." Heb. x. 14. And this is the 
cause, why he was called of the Angel, Jesus, that is to say, a 
Savioor. " Because he shall save his people from their sins." Matt. 

Art. 37. Last of all, we do believe out of t}\e word of God, that 
our Lord Jesus Christ (when the time appointed by God, but unto 
an creatures unknown, shall come, and the number of the elect shall 


be accomplished) shall come again from heayen, and that after a 
corporal and visible manner, as heretofore he hath ascended, being 
adorned with great glory and majesty, that he may appear as Judge 
of the quick and the dead, the whole world being kindled with fire 
and flame, and purified by it. Then, all creatures, and as well men, 
as women, and children, as many as have been from the beginning, 
and shall be to the end of the world, shall appear before this high 
Judge, being summoned thither by the voice of Archangels, and the 
trumpet of God. For all that have been dead shall then rise out of 
the earth, the soul and spirit of every one being joined and coupled 
together again to the same bodies, wherein before they Hved. 
They moreover, which shall be alive at the last day, shall not die the 
same death that other men have done ; but in a moment, and in the 
twinkling of an eye, they shall be changed from corruption to an 
incorruptible nature. Then the books shall be opened, namely, the 
books of every man's conscience : and the dead shall be judged 
according to those things which they have done in this world, eithei 
good or evil. Moreover, then shall men render an account of every 
idle word which they have spoken, although the world do now make 
but a sport and jest at them. Finally, all the hypocrisy of men, and 
the deepest secrets of their hearts, shaU be made manifest unto all ; 
so that worthily, the mere remembrance of this Judgment shall be 
terrible and fearful to the wicked and reprobate. But of the godly 
and elect it is greatly to be wished for, and is unto them of exceed- 
ing comfort. For then shaU their redemption be fully perfected, 
and they shall reap most sweet fruit and commodity of all those 
labours and sorrows^ which they have suffered in this world. Then, 
I say, their innocence shaU be openly acknowledged of all : and tliey 
likewise shall see that horrible punishment which the Lord will 
execuft upon those, that have most tyrannically afflicted them in this 
world with divers kinds of torments and crosses. Furthermore, 
the wicked, being convinced by the peculiar testimony of their own 
conscience, shall indeed be made immortal ; but with this condition, 
that they shall bum for ever in that eternal fire, which is prepared 
for the devil. On the contrary side, the elect and faithful shall be 
crowned with the crown of glory and honour, whose names the Son 
of God shall confess before his Father and the Angels. And " then 
shall all tears be wiped from their eyes ;" Rev. xxi. 4. then then 
cause, which now is condemned of heresy and impiety by the 
Magistrates and Judges of this world, shaU be acknowledged to Ix 
the cause of the Son of God : and the Lord shall of his free merc\ 


reward them with so great glory, as no man's mind is able to con- 
ceive. Therefore, we do with great longing expect that great day 
of the Lord, wherein we shall most fiilly enjoy all those things 
which God hath promised unto us, and through Jesus Christ our 
Lord be put into foil possession of them for evermore. 

IX.—From thb Conpbssion of Auosbubo. 

Article 3. 

Also, they teach that the Word, that is, the Son of God, took unto 
him man's nature, in the womb of the blessed Virgin Mary, so that 
the two natures, the Divine and the human, inseparably joined 
together in the unity of one person, are one Christ, true God and 
true man : who was bom of the Virgin Mary, did truly suffer, was 
orocified, dead, and buried, that he might reconcile his Father unto 
m, and might be a sacrifice, not only for the original sin, but also 
for an actual sins, of men. The same also descended into hell, and 
did truly rise again the third day. Afterward he ascended into 
heaveUf that he might at at the right hand of the Father, and reign 
for ever, aiid haye dominion over all creatures, sanctify those 
that bdieve in him, by sending the Holy Spirit into their hearts, 
and give everlasting life to such as he had sanctified. The same 
Qirist sbaU opaidy come again, to judge them that are found alive, 
and the dead raised up again, according to the Creed of the 

h He end of tkU Article, (after these words, By sending the Holy 
Spirit into their hearts J these words are found in some Editions ;— 

By sending his Spirit into their hearts, which may rule, comfort, 

Rud quicken them» and defend them against the devil, and the 

power of tin. The same Christ shall openly come again, to judge 

the quick and the dead, &c« according to the Creed of the 


Article 17. 

Also they teach, that, in the end of the world, Christ shall 

appear to judgment, and shall raise up all the dead, and shall 

gi^ unto men (to wit, to the godly and elect) eternal life, and ever- 

^^sdng joys ; but the ungodly and the devils shall he condemn unto 

endless torments. 

Ako we condemn the Origenists, who imagined, that the devil 
^dthe damned creatures should one dav have an end of their 

106 THs nxTR aionoN. 

jytmr the first period of this Article, thieUtkui finmd elsewhere : -^ 

They condemn the Anabaptuts, that are of opinion, that the 
damned men and the devils shall have an end of their torments. 
They condemn others also, whidi spread abroad Jewish opinions, 
thaty before the resurrection of the dead, the godly shall get the 
sovereignty in the world, and the wicked be bronglit under in 

X.— Fbom thb CoNvissiON OF Saxonv. 
Hitherto perttUneth a part of the nird Article. 

The Son of God, oar Lord Jesas Christ, who is the Image of the 
Eternal Father, is appointed oar Mediator, Reconciler, Redeemer, 
Jastifier, and Saviour. By the obedience and merit of him alone, 
the wrath of God is pacified, as it is said, "Whom he set forth to be a 
reconciliation througb fiiith in his blood :" Rom. iii. 25. and, " It is 
impossible, that the blood of bulls should take away sins ;" Heb. x. 4. 
** But he, ofiering one sacrifice for sins, for ever sitteth at the right 
band of God, &c." verse 12. And although we do not see as yet,* 
in this our infirmity, the causes of this wonderful counsel, why 
mankind was to be redeemed af(er this sort, (but we shall learn them 
hereafter in all eternity,) yet these principles are now to be 

In this sacrifice, there are to be seen, justice in the wrath of God 
against sin, infinite mercy towards us, and love in his Son towards 
mankind. The severity of his justice was so great, that there could be 
no reconciliation, before the punishment was accomplished. His 
mercy was so great, that his Son was given for us. There was 
so great love in the Son towards us, that he derived unto himself 
this true and exceeding greatlmger. O Son of God, kindle in our 
hearts, by thy Holy Spirit, a consideration of these great and secret 
things, that, by the knowledge of this true wrath, we may be sore 
afraid, and that again, by true comfort, we may be lifted up, that we 
may praise thee for ever. 

XI. ~ From thb Conpbssion of Wibtbmbubg. 

Ch(^ter 2. Of the Son of God. 

We believe and confess, that the Son of God, our Lord Jesus 
Christ, begotten of his Eternal Father, is true and Eternal God, 

* To wit, plainly and perfectly. 


consubstantial with his Father ; and that, in the fuhiess of time, he 
was made man» to purge our sins, and to procure* the eternal 
salvation of mankind : that Christ Jesus, heing very God, and very 
man, is one person only, and not two ; and that in this one person, 
there he two natures, not one only, as, by testimonies of the Holy 
Scripture, the holy fathers have declared, in the Councils held at 
Nice, Ephesus, and Chalcedon. Therefore, we detest every heresy, 
which is repugnant to this doctrine of the Son of God. 

XII.— From thb CoNrsssioN of Subvkland. 

Article 2. Section 2. 

Also, we believe that our Saviour Jesus Christ, being true God, 
was also made true man, his natures not being confounded, but so 
united in one and the same person, that they shall never hereafter 
be dissolved. Neither do we differ any thing in those points, which 
the Church, being taught out of the holy Gospels, doth believe, 
concerning our Saviour Jesus Christ, conceived of the Holy Ghost, 
bom of the Virgin Mary, and who^ at the length, after he had 
discharged the office of preaching the Gospel, died on the cross, and 
was buriedt and descended into hell, and the third day was 
called back from the dead unto life eternal : the which life when he 
bad by divers arguments proved unto witnesses, hereunto appointed, 
he was carried up into heaven, to the right hand of his Father, from 
whence we look that he should come to judge the quick and the 
dead. In the mean time, let us acknowledge, that he is neverthe- 
less present with his Church ; that he doth renew and sanctify it, 
and, as his only beloved spouse, beautify it with all sorts of orna- 
ments of virtues. And in these things, we do nothing vary from the 
fiithers, nor from the common consent of Christians. We think it 
soffident, after this sort to testify our fiedth. 



I. — From tub latter Confession op hblvbtia.' 

Ckt^ter 12. 0/ the Law of God. 

We teach, that the will of God is set down unto us in the Law 
^^ God ; to wit, what he would have us to do, or not to do, what is 

* That is, to bring to pass. 


good and just, or what is evil and unjust. We therefore confess 
that "The law is good and holy;" Rom. vii. 12. and that this law is, 
by the finger of God, either "written in the hearts of men," 
Rom. ii. 15« and so is called the law of nature, or engraven in 
the two tables of stone, and more largely expounded in the books of 
Moses. £xod. xx. 1 — 17. Deut v. 22. For plainness' sake, we 
divide it unto the moral law, which is contained in the command- 
ments, or the two tables e^^unded in the books of Moses ; into 
the ceremonial, which doth appoint ceremonies and the worship of 
God ; and into the judicial law, which is occupied about political and 
domestical afiairs. 

We believe, that the whole will of God^"*! and all necessary pre- 
cepts, for every part of this life, are fully delivered in this law. 
For otherwise, the Lord would not have forbidden, that " any thing 
should be either added to or taken away from this law ;" Dent. iv. 2w 
and xii. 52. neither would he have commanded us to go straight forward 
in this, and " not to decline out of the way, either to the right hand 
or to the left." Josh. i. 7. 

We teach, that this law was not given to men, that we should be 
justified by keeping it ; but that, by the knowledge thereof, we might 
rather acknowledge our infirmity, sin, and condemnation ; and so, 
despairing of our own strength, might turn unto Christ by faith. 
For the Apostle saith plainly, " The law worketh wrath ;" Rom. iv. 
15. ^d " By the law cometh the knowledge of sin ;" Rom. iii. 20. 
and, " If there had been a law given, which could have justified and 
given us life, surely righteousness should have beeu by the law : 
but the scripture (to wit, of the law) hath concluded all under sin, that 
the promise by the faith of Jesus Christ should be given to them 
which believe :" Gal. iii. 21 , 22. " Therefore^ the law was our school- 
master to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith." verse 
24. For neither could there ever, neither at this day can any fleshf 
satisfy the law of God, and fulfil it, by reason of the weakness in 
our flesh, which remaineth and sticketh fast in us, even to our last 
breath. For the Apostle saith again, " That which the law could 
not perform, inasmuch as it was weak through the flesh, that did 
God perform, sending his own Son in similitude of flesh subject to 
sin." Rom. viii. 3. Therefore, Christ is the perfecting of the law, 
and our fulfilling of it ; who as he took away the curse of the law, 

* Understand, as concerning those things which men are bound to perform 
to God, and also to their neighbours, 
t That is, any man, although he be regenerate. 


when be wae made a cone for ub. Gal. iii. 13. so doth he communi- 
cate mito us hy fiiith his folfilling thereof, and his righteonsness and 
obedience are imputed unto us. 

The law of God,'*' therefore, is thus far abrogated ; that is, it doth 
not henceforth condemn us, neither work ¥rrath in us* *' For wc 
are under g^race, and not under the law." Rom. vi. 14. Moreover, 
Chriat did fulfil aU the figures of the law« Wherefore^ the shadow 
ceased, when the body came ; so that, in Christ, we have now aU 
truth and fulness. Yet we do not therefore disdain or reject the 
law. We remember the words of the Lord, saying, " I came not 
to destroy the Law and the Prophets, but to fulfil them." Matt. v. 
17. We know that in the law t are described unto us the kinds of 
Tutoes and Tioes. We know that the scripture of the law,{ if it 
be expounded by the Grospel, is very profitable to the Church, and 
that therefore the reading of it is not to be banished out of the 
Church. For although the countenance of Moses was covered with 
avail, yet the Apostle affirmeth, that " The vail is taken away and 
abohahed by Christ*" 2 Cor. iii. 14. We condemn all things which 

the old or new heretics have taught against the law of God. 


C^itfter 13. Of He Gospel of Jesus Christ : also of Promises,' of tite 

Spirit and of the Letter. 

The Goqpd indeed is opposed to the Law : for the law worketh 

wnth, and doth denounce a curse; but the Gospel doth preach 

S**me and bleaaing. John also saith, " The law was given by Moses, 

but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." John i. 17. Yet 

Qdtwitiiatanding, it is most certain, that they which were before the 

la.^v, and under the law, were not altogether destitute of the Gospel. 

^or they had notable Evangelical promises, such as these are : " The 

^Ped of the woman shall bruise the serpent's head." Gen. iii. 15. 

** In thy aeed ahall all the nations of the earth be blessed." Gen. 

XXXL 18. *' The sceptre shall not be taken from Judah, until Shiloh 

^Qne." Gtti. xlixi 10. " The Lord shall raise up a Prophet from 

ttioDghiaownbrethreny&c«"Deut. xviii. 15; Acts iii. 22. and vii. 37. 

And we do acknowledge that the fathers had two kind of promises 

i^evealed unto them, even as we have. For some of them were of 

fvvient and transitory things : such as were the promises of the land 

^ Canaan, and of victories ; and such as are now-a-days, concerning 

^ daily bread. Other some there were then, and also are now, of 

* To wit, the mond law, comprehended in the Ten Commandments. 
fTo wil, in the moral law. | To wit, the ceremonial law. 


heavenly and everlasting things ; as of God's fevomr, remission of 
sinsy and life everlasting, through fiEUth in Jesus Christ. Now, the 
fathers had not only outward or earthly, but spiritual and heavenly 
promises, in Christ. For the Apostle Peter saith, that "The 
Prophets, which prophesied of the grace that should come to us, 
have searched and inquired of this salvation." 1 Peter i. 10. 
Whereupon the Apostle Paul also saith, that " The Gk>spel of God 
was promised before by the Prophets of God in the Holy Scrip- 
ture." Col. i. 5. Hereby then it appeareth evidently^ that the 
fathers were not altogether destitute of all the Gospel. 

And although, after this manner, our fathers had the Gospel in 
the writings of the Prophets, by which they attained salvation in 
Christ through faith ; yet the Gospel is properly called, " glad and 
happy tidings :" wherein, first by John Baptist, then by Christ the 
Lord himself, and afterwards by the Apostles and their successors, 
is preached to us in the world, that God hath now performed 
that which he promised from the beginning of the world, and hath 
sent, yea and given unto us, his only Son, and, in him, reconciliation 
with the Father, remission of sins, all fulness, and everlasting life. 
The history, therefore, set "down by the four Evangelists, declaring 
how these things were done or fulfilled in Christ, and what he 
taught and did, and that they which believe in him have all fulness ; 
this, I say, is truly called the Gospel. The preaching, also, and 
Scripture of the Apostles, in which they expound unto us, how the 
Son was given us of the Father, and, in him, all things pertaining to 
life and salvation, is truly called the doctrine of the Gospel; 
so as, even at this day, it looseth not that worthy name, if it be 

The same preaching of the Gospel is by the Apostle termed the 
Spirit, and " the ministry of the Spirit :" 2 Cor. iii. 8. because it lives, 
and works through faith in the ears, yea in the hearts, of the fiaith- 
ful, through the illumination of the Holy Spirit. For the letter, 
which is opposed unto the Spirit, doth indeed signify every outward 
thing, but more especially the doctrine of the law, which, without 
the Spirit, and faith, worketh wrath, and stirreth up sin in the minds 
of them that do not truly believe. For which cause, it is called by 
the Apostle, " the ministry of death." 2 Cor. iii. 7. For hitherto 
pertaineth that saying of the Apostle, " The letter killeth, but the 
Spirit giveth life." verse 6. The false Apostles preached the 
Gospel, corrupted by mingling of the law therewith; as though 
Christ could not save without the law. Such also were the 

or m LAW AND THB 008PBL. ill 

Ebionites said to be, which came of Ebion the heretic; and the 
Nazarites, which beforetime were called Mineans. All which we 
do condemn, sincerely preaching the word, and teaching that 
bdieverB are justified through the Spirit only, and not through the law. 
But of this matter there shall foUow a more large discourse, under the 
title of Justification. 

And although the doctrine of the Gospel, compared with the 

Phariseee* doctrine of the law, might seem (when it was first 

preached by Christ) to be a new doctrine ; (the which thing also 

Jeremiah prophesied of the New Testament ;) yet indeed it not only 

was, and as yet is, (though the Papists call it new, in regard of 

Popish doctrine, which hath of long time been received,) an ancient 

doctrine, but also the most ancient in the world. For God from all 

eternity fore-ordained to save the world by Christ ; and this his 

predestination and eternal counsel hath he opened to the world 

by the Gospel. 2 Tim. i. 9, 10. Whereby it appeareth, that the 

Evangelical doctrine and religion was the most ancient of all that 

ever were, are, or ever shall be ; wherefore we say, that all they 

err fooDy, and speak things unworthy the eternal counsel of God, 

wbo term the Evangelical doctrine and religion a new start-up 

iuth, scarce thirty years old : to whom that sa3dng of Isaiah doth 

very well agree ; " Woe unto them that speak good of evil, and evil 

of goody which put darkness for light, and light for darkness, that 

pot bitter for sweet, and sweet for sour." Chap. v. verse 20. 

II. — From thx former Confbssion of Hblvbtia. 

Art, 12. Therefore, in the whole Evangelical doctrine, this ought 
fiivt and diiefly to be urged, that we are saved by the only mercy 
*nd grace of God, and by Christ his merits ; whereof that men 
iviy know bow much they stand in need, their sins must be 
^ dearly laid open unto them by the law, and by Christ his 

III. — From thb Confbssion of Bohemia. 

Cki^ter 10. Of the Word <f God, or the Holy Gospel. 

And seeing that the administration of the New Testament, and 
^ the Word and Sacraments, are lawfully committed to the 
Clusters of the Church; 1 Cor. iv. 1. 2 Cor. iii. 6. and their lips 
^'m^ to preserve knowledge, that the law might be sought at their 
™OQft; Mai. ii. 7. therefore, in this chapter it is further taught, 
^^ the word of God, and the Holy Gospel is. Now, the preaching 


of the word of God and of the Gospel, is the true ministry of 
grace, instituted and commanded of Christ om* Lord ; wherein the 
full and perfect will of God, touching eternal reconciliation, 
necessary to salvation, and made manifest in the Holy Scriptore, is 
declared and preached unto all people. This doctrine did Christ 
give in charge unto his disciples, in the words of this sentence, 
" Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.'* 
Mark xvi. 15. This doctrine doth Peter profess hefore Comehus, 
when he saith, " He commanded us to preach unto the people, and 
to testify that this is he, that is ordained of Grod to be the judge of 
the quick and the dead. * To him also give all the Prophets witness, 
that, through his name, all that believe in him shall receive remission 
of sins." Acts x. 42, 43. 

This ministry b more honourable^ greater, and more neoessary 
to salvation, than are the sacraments; the which is proved by 
that sentence of the most exceUent Apostle Saint Paul ; " For Christ 
sent me not to baptize," (that is, not chiefly to do this,) " but to preach 
the Gospel." 1 Cor. i. 17. For only through the pure Gospel, and the 
preaching thereof, is faith sowed inwardly in the heart by the Holy 
Ghost ; and from thence, also, must we conceive and seek the true 
meaning of God and Christ, touching all things necessary to salva* 
tion, and also touching the sacraments themselves. Amongst those, 
who, by reason of their age, are able to use their understanding, it 
is of necessity, that the preaching of the Grospel go before the 
receiving of the sacraments. Whereof we may see an evident 
proof in those three thousand, which were converted by Peter ; Acts 
ii. 41. also in Cornelius; Acts x. 47. and in the Chamberlain we 
may see, that, according to the example of Philip^ the question 
is thus to be made, " Dost thou believe with all thy heart ?" Acts 
viii. 37. then, it may be, that thou who hast true faith grafted in 
thy heart, mayest receive profit by the participation of the sacra- 
ments. For without the hearing of the word of God, which 
is the saving power of God, Rom. i. 16. no man shall wittingly 
attain unto faith and salvation ; according to that saying of P^, 
" Therefore, faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of 
God ;" Rom. x. 17* and again, " How shall they believe in him, of 
whom they have not heard? verse 14. Therefore, herein our 
preachers endeavour themselves most earnestly, that, in our ecclesias- 
tical meetings, they may propound unto the people the sincere 
word of God, without all mixture or inventions of men. For which 
cause also they do, by an ancient custom, recite in the mother and 


vulgar tongae, which may be understood of all, not only those 
chapters which are appointed to be read oat of the Gospel at certain 
times, but also all other parts of Ho]y Scripture ; and do exhort the 
people, with an earnest desire, to hear the word of God, and to 
frequent those ecclesiastical meetings : that by the diligent teaching 
of the Gospel, and by often repeating it in their sermons, they may 
first teach the people repentailce and faith, and then the use and 
administration of the sacraments, and, by this means, prepare them 
to the right receiving of the sacraments ; and afterwards also, both 
whilst the sacraments be administered, and after they be adminis- 
tered, they do conveniently instruct them in those things which the 
Lord commanded, and chiefly in those things which do appertain to 
the leading of an honest life, and such an one as beseemeth a 
Christian profession : as Christ saith, " Teach them to keep all things 
which I have commanded you." Matt, xxviii. 20. 

In this place, also, is taught very diligently, and as the matter 
requireth, touching the difference which is to be observed betwixt 
die word, or doctrine, and work of the law, and betwixt the word 
and force of the holy Gospel. The word or ministry of the law, 
aad of the Old Testament, is the word of death, of fear, and of the 
letter ; also the word of wrath, and the word of malediction : but the 
word of the New Testament, that is, of the holy Gospel, is the 
ministry of faith, and the spirit of clearness, or glory, through 
our Lord Jesus Christ ; the word of grace, of the new covenant ; 
the word of comfort, and the messenger of peace. Of them both, 
the Apostle writeth thus, " The letter killeth, but the Spirit quick* 
eneth." 2 Cor. iii. 6. And Christ saith, " The words which I 
speak, are Spirit and life." John vi. 63. (Al&o, there is mention 
made of the use of the Moral Law, in the 4th Chapter of this Con- 
fession, the Section beginning with these words, " This doctrine of 
the true knowledge of sin," &c. as is to be seen before in the Fourth 
Section, whereunto all that Chapter appertaineth.) 

IV. — From thb Confession of Francb. 

Art, 23. We believe, that all the figures of the law are taken 
away by the coming of Christ ; howbeit we are assured that the 
tmth and substance of them doth abide in him, in whom they are 
all fulfilled. Yet we must use the doctrine of the law, and the 
Prophets, both to frame our life aright, and also that we n?ay so 
Diuch the more be confirmed in the promises of the Gospel. 



V. — From thb Confbssion of Scotland. 

Article 15. Of the Perfection of the Law, and the Impetfection 

of Man, 

The law of God we confess and acknowledge most just, most 
equal, most holy, and most perfect; Rom. vii. 12 ; Psal. xix. 7 — 11 ; 
commanding those things, which, b^g wrought in perfection, were 
able to give light, and able to bring man to eternal felicity. Deut. v. 
29. But our nature is so corrupt, so weak, and so imperfect, that 
we are never able to fulfil the works of the law in perfection. Yea, 
" if we say we have no sin," even after we are regenerated, " we 
deceive ourselves, and the verity of God is not in us." 1 John i. 8. 
And therefore it behoveth us to apprehend Christ Jesus, with his justice 
and satisfaction; who is the end and accomplishment of the law; 
Rom. X. 3, 4. by whom we are set at this liberty* that the curse and 
malediction of God faU not upon us. Gal. iii. 13. albeit we fulfil not 
the same in all points. Deut. xxvii. 26. For God the Father, behold- 
ing us in the body of his Son Christ Jesus, Ephes. i. 4. accepteth 
our imperfect obedience, as it were perfect, and covereth our 
works, which are defiled with many spots, with the justice of his 
Son. Rom. iv. 5. We do not mean, that we are so set at liberty, 
that we owe no obedience to the law ; (for that before we have plainly 
confessed ;) but this we affirm, that no man in earth (Christ Jesus 
only excepted) hath given, giveth, or shall give in work that obedi- 
ence to the law which the law requireth : but when we have done 
all things, we must fall down, and unfeignedly confess tliat we are 
unprofitable servants. Luke xvii. 10. And therefore, whosoever 
boast themselves of the merits of their own works, or put their trust 
in the works of supererogation, boast themselves of that which is 
naught, and put their trust in damnable idolatry. 

VI. — From the Confbssion of Belgia. 

Art. 25. We believe, that all the ceremonies, figures, and 
shadows of the law, have ceased at the coming of Christ, so that 
now even the use of them ought to be taken away and abolished 
among Christians. Yet in the mean time, the truth and substance 
of them doth remain to us in Christ, in whom they are all fulfilled. 
And therefore, we do still use the testimonies of the law and the 
Prophets, to confirm ourselves in the doctrine of the the Gospel, 
and to conform our whole life honestly unto God*s glory, according 
to his will. 

or THE LAW AND THB 008PKL. 115 

VII. — ^Thk Confession op Auqssurg 

(Doth by the way mention the Doctrine of the Gospel, and of the 
End thereof, in the 4th and 5th Articles, which we have placed in 
the Ninth Section, wherein Justification, and Remission of Sins by 
Faith in Christ, ii handled.) 

VIII.— From the Confession or Saxont. 

Art, 3. And that the benefits of this Mediator might be known 
unto mankind, and applied unto us, there was a promise given 
straight in the beginning, after the fall of our first parents, and 
afterwards oftentimes repeated, and by voice of the Prophets 
declared; but most clearly was it recited by the very Son, and 
afterwards by the Apostles: and there was a ministry instituted 
to teach, and to spread abroad that promise : also there was a Church 
made, and the very same voice often renewed touching the Son 
of God our atonement. By this ministry, the Son of God 
always wa», h, and shall be effectual in believers ; as it is said, 
" The Gospel is the power of God unto salvation to every one that 
believeth." Rom- i. 16. And he doth renew this ministry, when he 
saith, "As my Father sent me, so do I send you also :*' John xx. 21. 
" Go, and preach repentance and remission of sins in my name." 
Lake xxiv. 47. He wills that sin should be reproved in all mankiud ; 
as he eaith, " The Spirit shall reprove the world of sin, because 
thev believe not in me ;*' John xvi. 8. and, " The wrath of God is 
revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of 
men." Rom. i. 18. God will have his wrath to be acknowledged 
against all sin, and chiefly against the contempt of the Son ; as he 
saith in the 2nd Psalm, last verse, " Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, 
and so ye perish from the way, &c." He will have us truly to be 
put in great fear, by the knowledge of our darkness, of our horrible 
wickedness, and our stubbornness. And truly God himself doth 
amaze our hearts with the sense of his anger ; as liczekiah saith, 
'*Like a lion he brake all my bones.*' Isaiah xxxviii. 13. And to 
this judgment he doth not only use the voice of the ministry of 
the Law and of the Gospel ; but also all calamities be as it were the 
voice of the law, admonishing us of the wrath of God, and calling 
Mto repentance. Now, when the mind is terrified by this voice 
that reproveth sins, then let him hear the peculiar promises of the 
Gospel, touching the Son of God ; and let him be assured that his 
rina are freely remitted for the Son of God his sake, our Lord 

I 2 


Jesus Christ ; who is our atonement, and that of mercy, not for any 
contrition or love of ours. 

IX. — From thb Confession of Wirtbmburq. 

Chapter 6. 0/ the Law. 

We acknowledge, that the law of God (whereof the Ten Com- 
mandments are an abridgment) doth command the best, the most 
just, and most perfect works ; and that man is not only bound to 
obey the moral precepts of the law, but also, if he should do the 
works of the Ten Commandments in such perfection and integrity 
as the law requireth, that he should indeed be counted just before 
God for his works, and should obtain eternal salvation by his merits. 
But whereas some men do think, that man can come to that state in 
this life, as to be able by his works not only to fulfil the Ten 
Commandments, but also to do more and greater works than are 
commanded in the law, (which they call works of supererogation,) 
it is contrary to the doctrine of the Prophets and Apostles, and it is 
repugnant to the judgment of the true Catholic Church. For the 
law was not given to this end, to signify that man might perfectly 
fulfil the commandments thereof in this life ; but to shew to man 
his imperfection, and to testify of the unrighteousness of man, and 
of the wrath of God against all men, and to stir them up to 
seek remission of their sins, righteousness, and salvation, by faith in 
the only Son of God, our Lord Jesus Clirist. " By the law cometh 
the knowledge of sin ;" Rom. iii. 20. and, " The law is spiritual, 
but I am carnal, sold under sin;" Rom. vii. 14. and, "The wisdom 
of the flesh is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the 
law of God, neither indeed can be ;" Rom. viii. 7. and, " Cursed 
is every man, that continueth not in all things which are written in 
the book of the law, to do them.*' Gal. iii. 10. Augustine saith, 
'This first commandment of justice, wherein we are commanded to 
love the Lord with all our heart, with all our soul, and with all our 
mind, whereupon followeth that other commandment, of loving our 
neighbour, we shall fulfil in that life, where we shall see him face to 
face. But therefore it is even now also commanded unto us, that 
we might be admonished, what it behoveth us to require by faith, 
whither to send our hope beforehand, and, by forgetting those 
things which are behind, what things afore we should stretch ourselves 
unto. And hereby, so far as I can judge, he hath profited much in 
this life, in that righteousness which is to be perfected, who by 
profiting doth know, how far he is from the perfection of righte- 


008X1688.' De Spiritu et Literd, Cap, 36. And again, ' Charity is a 

virtdc, whereby that is loved which is to be beloved. This is in 

sorxxc greater, in others lesser, and in some none at all. But the 

most absolute love, which now cannot be increased, so long as a man 

Uv^^hhere, is not to be found in any man. For so long as it may 

he increased, that which is less than it ought to be, cometh of our 

corruption : by reason of which corruption, there is not a just man in 

the earth, that doth good, and sinneth not; by reason of which 

corx-uptioD, no flesh living shall be justified in the sight of God ; for 

^Mch comiption*8 sake, if we say that we have no sin, we deceive 

^''iK'^dves. and the truth is not in us; for which also, though we 

P^Gt never so much, yet it is necessary for us to say. Forgive us 

^^ debts, although all our words, deeds, and thoughts are already 

''^Siven UB in baptism.' Ad Hieronymum. Epist. 29. And agam, 

'All the commandments of God are counted as done, when as 

^Qatsoever is not done, is notwithstanding pardoned.' Retract ationes, 

^^B^. 19. And Jerome saith, 'This is only perfection unto men, if 

^^^^ know that they are imperfect. This is the true wisdom of man, 

^ know that he is imperfect ; and (that I may so speak) the perfec- 

«on of all just men in the flesh is imperfect.' 

Chapter 8. Of the Gospel of Christ. 

Although many precepts of the law of God be contained in the 

^^tings of the Evangelists and Apostles, and Christ himself doth 

^Och, that we must not render evil for evil, nor look upon a 

'^'onian wantonly, and such like : yet we must not think that the 

Gospel of Christ is a new law ; whereby, as the fathers in times 

put were saved under the Old Testament by the old law, so men 

"^om under the New Testament should be saved bv a new law. 

¥or except a man take the name of the law generally for doctrine, 

tt the Prophets now and then do use the name of the law, certainly 

^ Goepd of Christ is not properly a law, as Paul doth commonly 

tte the name of the law; but it is a good and joyful message, 

toodung the Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, that he only is the 

P^'S^ of om* sins, the appeaser of the wrath of God, and our 

Weemer and Saviour. 

Neither are the commandments of the law, which are contained 
^ the Apostles' writings, any new law ; but they are an interpreta- 
"On of the old law, according to the judgment of the Holy Ghost ; 
'nidi also were to be seen before, and that not obscurely, in the 
^^^^bkgB of the Prophets. But they are repeated in the preaching 


of the Gospel of Christ, that, the severity of the law of God, and 
the corruption of our nature being declared, we may be stirred up 
to seek and embrace Christ revealed in his Gospel, and that we 
may know after what rule we are to frame our life through faith 
in Christ. Wherefore, if we will speak properly of the law of 
God, and the Gospel of Christ ; as of Christ we are not to make a new 
law-giver, seeing that he neither hath made a new law, nor instituted 
a new politic kingdom in this earth ; so must we not make a new 
law of the Gospel, which by more hard and severe commandments 
doth bring eternal salvation to the doers thereof. But we think it 
to be most certain, that the natural or moral law of the Old and 
New Testament, is one and the same ; and that neither the men 
which lived under the Old Testament, nor those which live under 
the New Testament, do obtain eternal salvation for the merit of 
the works of the law, but only for the merit of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, through faith. Christ out of Isaiah doth recite his office, 
for the which he was sent into the earth ; " The Spirit of the Lord," 
saith he, " is upon me, because he hath anointed me ; he bath sent 
me to preach the Gospel to the poor, &c." Luke iv. 18, 19. Here 
Christ teacheth that his proper office is, not to make a new law, 
which should terrify and kill miserable sinners, but to preach the 
Gospel, which might comfort and quicken sinners. " When the ful- 
ness of time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman, made 
under the law, that he might redeem them which were under the 
law, and that we by adoption might receive the right of sons." 
Gal. iy. 4, 5. and in Acts xv. 10, 11. it is said ; " Why tempt ye 
God, to lay a yoke on the disciples' necks, which neither our 
fathers, nor we, were able to bear } But we beUeve through the 
grace of our Lord Jesus Christ to be saved, even as they, &c." 
And Augustine saith, ' That people which received the Old Testa* 
ment, was held under ceitain shadows and figures of things, before 
the coming of the Lord, according to the wonderful and most 
orderly division of times. Yet therein was so great preaching and 
foretelling of the New Testament, that in the Evangelical and 
ApostoUc discipline (though it be noble and divine) no com- 
mandments or promises can be found, which are wanting even in 
those old books.' Contra Adimantum, Manicken Discipulum, Ct^. 3. 




I. — From the latter Confession or Helvetia. 
Chapter 14. Of Repentance, and the Conversion of Man, 

The Gospel hath the doctrine of repentance joined with it : for so 
•aid the Lord in the Gospel, '* In my name must repentance and 
remission of sins be preached among all nations." Luke xxiv. 47. 
By repentance we understand the change of the mind in a sinful 
man, stirred up by the preaching of the Gospel through the Holy 
Spirit, and received by a true faith ; by which a sinful man doth eft - 
soons acknowledge his natural corruption, and all his sins, seeing 
them convinced by the word of God, and is heartily grieved for them, 
ind doth not only bewail and freely confess them before God with 
shame, but also doth loathe and abhor them with indignation, thinking 
seriously of present amendment, and of a continual care of inno- 
cency and virtue, wherein to exercise himself holily all the rest of 
his life. And surely this is true repentance, namely, an unfeigned 
taming unto God and to all goodness, and a serious return from the 
devil and from all evil. Now we do expressly say, that this 
ccpentance is the mere gift of God, and not the work of our own 
strength. For the Apostle doth will the faithful minister diligently 
txi '* instruct those which withstand the truth, if so be at any time 
the Lord may give them repentance, that they may acknowledge the 
tnith." 2 Tim. ii. 25. Also, the sinful woman in the Gospel, which 
^^vashed Christ's feet with her tears ; and Peter, which bitterly wept 
aoid bewailed his denial of his Master ; do manifestly shew, what 
Tnind the penitent man should have, to wit, very earnestly lamenting 
lus sins committed. Moreover, the Prodigal son, and the Publican 
in the Gospel, that is compared with the Pharisee, do set forth 
imto us a most fit pattern of confessing our sins to God. The 
Prodigal son said, "Father, I have sinned against heaven, and 
against thee : I am not worthy to be called thy son ; make me as one 
of thy hired servants." Luke x v. 18, 19. The Publican also, not 
daring to Uft up his eyes to heaven, but knocking his breast, cried, 
"God, be merciful unto me a sinner." Luke xviii. 13. And we 
doubt not but the Lord received them to mercv. For John the 
Apostle saith, ** If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to 
forgive us our sins, and to purge us from all iniquity. If we 


8uy wc have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in 
us." 1 John i. 9, 10. 

We believe, that tliia sincere confession which is made to God 
alone, cither privately between God and the sinner, or openly in the 
Church, where that general confession of sins is rehearsed, is 
sufficient ; and that it is not necessary for the obtaining of remission 
of sins, that any man should confess his sins unto the priest. 
whispering them into his ears, that, the priest laying his hands on 
his head, he might receive absolution ; because that we find no 
commandment nor example thereof in the Holy Scripture. David 
protestcth and saith, "I made my fault known to thee, and my 
unrighteousness did I not hide from thee. I said, I will confess 
my wickedness to the Lord against myself, and thou hast forgiven 
the heinousness of my sin. Psal. xxxii. 5. Yea, and the Lord, 
teaching us to pray, and also Uf confess our sins, said, " So shall ye 
pray ; Our Father, which art in\heaven, forgive us our debts, even as 
we forgive our debtors." Matt. vi. 9 ; 1 2. It is requisite, therefbre» 
that we should confess our sins unto God, and be reconciled with 
our neighbour, if we have offended him. And the Apostle James, 
Bpeaking generally of confession, saith, " Confess each of you your 
sins one to another." James v. 16. If so be that any man, being 
overNvhelnied with the burthen of his sins, and troublesome tempta- 
tions, will privately ask counsel, instruction, or comfort, either of a 
minister of the Church, or of anv other brother that is learned in 
the law of God, wc do not mislike it. Like as also we do fiilly 
allow that general and public confession, which is wont to be 
rehearsed in the Church, and in holy meetings, (whereof we spake 
before,) being, as it is, agreeable with the Scripture. 

As concerning the keys of the kingdom of heaven,* which the 
Lord committed to his Apostles, they prate many strange things : 
and of these keys they make swords, spears, sceptres, and crowns, 
and full power over might}' kingdoms, yea, and over men's souls and 
bodies. But we, judging uprightly according to the word of God, 
do sav that all ministers, trulv called, have and exercise the kevs, 
or the use of them, when as they preach the Gospel : that is to say, 
when they do teach, exhort, reprove, and keep in order the people 
oonunittod to their charge. For so do they open the kingdom of 
God to the obedient, and shut it against the disobedient. These 
keys did the Lord promise to the Apostles, in Matthew xvi. 19 ; 

* All these things which are spoken of the Keys, do property pertain to the 
Tenth Stvtion. 


and ddivered them in John xx. 23. Mark xvi. 15, 16. Luke xxiv. 
47. when as he sent forth his disciples, and commanded them 
to preach the Gospel in all the world, and to remit sins. The 
Apostle, in the Epistle to the Corinthians, saith, that the Lord 
"gave to his ministers the ministry of reconciliation.*' 2 Cor. v. 18. 
And what this was, he straightway maketh plain, and saith, " The 
word or doctrine of reconciliation." verse 19. And yet more 
plainly expounding his words, he addeth, that the ministers of 
Christ, do as it were " go an embassage in Chrisfs name, as if God 
himself should by his ministers exhort the people to be reconciled to 
God ; " verse 20 ; to wit, by faithful obedience. They use the keys, 
therefore, when as they persuade to faith and repentance. Thus 
do they reconcile men to God ; thus they forgive sins ; thus they 
open the kingdom of heaven, and bring in the believers; much 
differing herein from those, of whom the Lord spake in the Gospel, 
" Woe unto you lawyers, for ye have taken away the key of know- 
ledge : ye have not entered in yourselves, and those that would 
have entered, ye forbade." Luke xi. 52. Rightly, therefore, and 
cfiectoally do ministers absolve, when as they preach the Gospel of 
Christ, and thereby remission of sins ; which is promised to every 
one that believeth, even as every one is baptized ; and do testify of 
it, that it doth particularly appertain to all. Neither do we imagine 
'that this absolution is made any whit more effectual, for that 
"which is mumbled into some priest's ear, or upon some man's head 
^particularly ; yet we judge that men must be taught diligently to 
eeek remission of sins in the blood of Christ, and that every one 
is to be put in mind, that forgiveness of sins doth belong unto 
Ji\m, But how diligent ^nd careful every penitent man ought to be 
in the endeavour of a new life, and in slaying the old man, and 
Taising up the new man, the examples in the Gospel do teach us. 
Tor the Lord saith to him, whom he had healed of the palsy, 
*' Behold thou art made whole, sin no more, lest a worse thing come 
unto thee." John v. 14. Likewise to the adulterous woman, which 
was delivered, he said, " Go thy way, and sin no more." John viii. 
11. By which words he did not mean that any man could be free 
from sin, while he lived in this flesh ; but he doth commend unto us 
diligence and an earnest care, that wc (I say) should endeavour by 
all means, and beg of God by prayer, that we may not fall again 
wto sins, out of which we are risen after a manner, and that we may 
not he overcome of the flesh, the world, or the devil. Zaccheus the 
Publican, being received into favour by the Lord, crieth out in 


the Gospel, " Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor ; 
and if I have taken from any man any thing by forged cavillation, I 
restore him four- fold/* Luke xix. 8. After the same manner, we 
preach that restitution and mercy, yea, and giving of aLms, are 
necessary for them which do truly repent. And generally oat of 
the Apostle's words we exhort men, saying, " Let not sin reign in 
your mortal body, that ye should obey it through the lusts thereof. 
Neither give ye your members, as weapons of unrighteousness, to sin ; 
but give yourselves unto God, as they that are alive from the dead ; 
and give your members, as weapons of righteousness, unto God." 
Rom. vi. 12, 13. 

Wherefore, we condemn all the ungodly speeches of certain, 
which abuse the preaching of the Gospel, and say. To return unto 
God is very easy, for Christ hath purged all our sins : Forgiveness 
of sins is easily obtained : what therefore will it hurt to sin ? 
and. We need not take any great care for repentance, &c. Notwith* 
standing, we always teach, that an entrance unto God is open for all 
sinners, and that this God doth forgive all the sins of the fkithfol, 
only that one sin excepted, which is committed against the Holy 
Ghost. Mark iii. 28, 29. And therefore, we condemn the old and 
new Novatians and Catharists ; and especially we condemn the Pope's 
gainful doctrine of Penance ; and against his simony, and simoniacal 
Indulgences, we use that sentence of Simon Peter, "Thy money 
perish with thee, because thou thoughtest that the gift of God 
might be bought with money. Thou hast no part or fellowship in 
this matter, for thy heart is not upright before God." Acts viii. 20, 21 . 
We also disallow those who think that themselves bv their own 
satisfactions can make recompencc for their sins committed. For 
we teach that Christ alone, by his death and passion, is the 
satisfEUition, propitiation, and purging of all sins. Isa. liu. 4. 
Nevertheless, we cease not to urge, as was before said, the 
mortification of the flesh ; and yet we add further, that it must not 
be proudly thrust upon God, for a satisfaction for our sins; 
1 Cor. viii. 8. but must humbly, as it becometh the sons of God, be 
performed, as a new obedience, to shew thankful minds for the 
deliverance and full satisfeurtion obtained by the death and satisfac- 
tion of the Son of God. 

IL — From the Confession of Bohemia. 
Chapter 5. Of Repentance. 
Now that wc know what sin is, in the next place we are taught 


conoeming holy repentance ; which doctrine doth bring great 
comfort to all sinners* and generally is very profitable and 
necessary to salvation, for all men ; as well for Christians which 
begin to learn, as for those which have profited ; yea, even for sin- 
ners that have fallen, but who, by the grace of God, being 
converted, do repent. Of this repentance, John Baptist did preach, 
and after him Chriat, in these words, " Repent, for the kingdom 
of God is at hand." Matt. iii. 2. and iv. 17. Afterwards also, the 
Apostles preached thereof throughout the whole world ; for so it is 
written* "And thus it behoved, that repentance and remission 
of uns should be preached in his name among all nations." Luke 
zziv. 47. Now this repentance doth wholly arise out of a true 
knowledge of sin, and of the wrath of God ; and to promote this 
knowledge, the full and faithful efibrts of the ministry must be em- 
ployed» by preaching to lay open both the doctrine of repentance or 
the law, touching that righteousness which is due unto God, and the 
sentence of God pronounced against sin ; and also the doctrine of 
fiiith in Christ Jesus, and of that holy satisfaction which he hath made 
£or us by suffering most grievous torments. This repentance and saving 
conversion doth our merciful God, by his peculiar gift, offer and 
l)e8tow ; and he writeth the same in the hearts of the fedthfu], even 
as he saith, " I will give you a new heart, and I will put my Spirit in 
tiie midst of you, &c. I will cause you to walk in my ways :" 
Xzek. zxxvi. 26, 27. again, " That you may repent of your sins, 
and of your idolatry :" Ezek. xviii. SO. and again, " When I was 
converted, I did repent.*' Jerem. xxxi. 19. 

This saving repentance, which doth differ very much from the 

arepentance of £&au and Judas, taketh its true and right beginning 

£rom this gift of Grod, who bestoweth it, and from the sermons of 

'^e word of God, whereby sin is reproved : and it hath this in order 

^int, that it is a fear and terror of the inmost heart before God ; and 

that, by repenting and sorrowing, it doth tremble at his just and 

severe judgment and reveugement; whereupon ariseth a heavy, 

tremblingy and miquiet conscience, a troubled mind, a heart so 

sorrowful, careful, and bruised, that a man can have no comfort 

with himself and of himself, but his soul is fiill of all grief, sadness, 

Aguish, and terror ; whereby he is much troubled, because of the 

fear of that burning wrath, which he seeth in the severe counten- 

^ce of God. We have an example in David, when he saith, 

"There is nothing sound in my ficsh, because of thine anger; 

i^cvther is there rest in my bones, because of my sins. I am 


become miserable, and crooked very sore : I go mourning all the 
dav." Psal. xxxviii. 3 ; 6. Such a terror and true sense of sin doth 
work in the faithful an inward change of the mind and soul, and 
a constant detesting of sin, and of the causes and occasions thereof. 
Hereunto it is straightway added, by diligent teaching of the 
troubled, terrified, and repentant, that such men ought, in a sincere 
affection of the heart, with repentance, and an humble submission of 
the mind, by their confession and invocation to turn unto God, 
and by faith in Jesus Christ our Lord to conceive sure and 
undoubted trust in his mercy, to hold fast the apprehended promise » 
and to rely wholly thereon ; and seeing they have no righteousness 
of themselves, earnestly and faithfolly to desire of Divine grace, 
that God would have mercy on them, and vouchsafe of his grace to 
forgive them their sins, for the Son and his precious merit's sake, 
who was made an atonement or reconciliation for sin, 1 John ii. 
2. yea, also a curse. Gal. iii. 13. that he might make or consecrate 
us as holy \mto God. For to such men (that they may be stirred up 
to the greater confidence) that sure and precious promise is pro- 
pounded, and by preaching ought to be propounded, whereby the 
Lord doth say, " Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will 
deliver thee :" Psalm 1. 15. and Ibis they ought to do, as often as 
they have need, and as long as they hve. Hereof the judgment of 
St. Augustine is extant, ' No man can well meditate of repentance, 
except he be persuaded of the mercy of God toward him ; ' or, as he 
also saith, ' except he hope for indulgence.' De Penit. Lib. I . Cap, 1 • 
Now all men which do truly repent them of their sins, and in 
regard thereof are sorrowful, and mislike themselves, ought to 
" cease from the committing of evil, and learn to do that which is 
good :" for so writeth Isaiah in that place. Chap. i. 16, 17. wherein 
he exhorteth to repentance. And John Baptist, in the like sort 
admonishing the people, saith, " See that ye bring forth, or do, the 
fruits worthy of repentance;*' Luke iii. 8. which doth chiefly consist 
" in mortification, or putting off the old man, and in putting on the 
new man, which after God is created in righteousness, &c." Col. 
iii. 8 ; 10. Ephes. iv. 22 ; 24. as the Apostolic doctrine doth 
signify. Moreover, the penitent * are taught to come to the 

* Understand those penitents, whose sins are examined in the ecclesiastical 
judgment ; who are enjoined to give a testimony of their repentance, till 
the sentence of absolution be pronounced: yet so, that every Church may 
keep her liberty, both in this kind of examination, and also in the testimony of 
repentance, and the administration of private absolution. 


phjsiciaiiB of their soulst and before them to confess their sins to 
God : yet no man is commanded or urged to tell and reckon up his 
sins : but this thing is therefore used, that by this means every one 
may declare their grief wherewith they be troubled, and how much 
they mislike themselves for their sins, and may specially seek, and 
know that they obtain of their God, counsel and doctrine, how they 
may hereafter avoid tkem, and get instruction and comfort for their 
troubled conscicDces, and absolution by the power of the keys, and 
remission of sins by the ministry of the Gospel instituted of 
Christ. And when these things are performed to them of the 
ministers* they ought to receive them at their hands with confidence, 
as a thing appointed of God to profit and to do service unto them 
for their saving health, and without doubting to enjoy the remission 
of their sins, according to the word of the Lord, " Whose sins ye 
remit, they are remitted." John xx. 23. And they, relying upon 
this undoubted faith, ought to be certain and of a resolute mind, 
that through the ministry of those keys, concerning the power of 
Christ, and his word, all their sins be forgiven them. And there- 
fore they which by this means and order obtain a quiet and jo}'ful 
conscience, ought to shew themselves thankful for this heavenly 
bountifiilness in Christ; neither must they receive it in vain, or 
return again to their sins ; according to that faithful exhortation of 
Christ, wherein he commandeth us to take heed : " Behold thou art 
xnade whole ; sin no more, lest a worse thing happen unto thee :" 
John V. 14. and, " See that thou sin no more." John viii. 11. 

Now the foundation, whereon the whole virtue and efficacy of this 
saving repentance doth stay itself, is the merit of the torments of 
^eath, and of the resurrection of our Lord and Saviour ; whereof he 
liimself saith, " These things it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise 
cigain the third day, and that repentance and remission of sins 
should be preached in his name to all people;'' Luke xxiv. 46, 47. 
and again, " Repent, and believe the Gospel." Mark i. 15. 

Also they teach, that they, whose sin is public, and therefore 
a pubhc ofifence, ought to give an external testimony of their 
repentance,* when God doth give them the spirit of repentance ; and 
that for this cause, that it may be an argument and testimony, 
"whereby it may be proved or made evident, that sinners which have 
fallen, and do repent, do truly turn themselves again ; also that it 
W be a token of their reconciliation with the Church, Luke xvii. 

* See the Note thai doth immediately go before this. 


14. and their neighbour, Mark v. 19. and an ezamf^ unto othera, 
which they may fear and reverence. I Tim. v. 20. 

Last of all, the whole matter \b shut up with this or stich-like 
clanse of admonition, " That every one shall be condemned, whoso- 
ever he be, which in this life doth not repent in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, according to that sentence pronounced by Christ, 
" Except ye repent, ye shall all in like sort perish,'* as they did, 
who were slain with the fall of the tower of Siloam. Luke xiii. 4, 5. 

Chapter 20. Of the Time of Grace. 

Furthermore, among all other things they teach concerning the 
time of grace, and the fatherly visitation, that men may learn to 
consider, that all that time of age they lead in this life, is given 
them of God to be a time of grace, in the which they may seek 
their Lord and God, his grace and mercy, and that they may be 
loved of him, and by this means obtain here their salvation in Christ. 
Whereof the Apostle also made mention in his sermon, which he 
preached at Athens, saying, " God hath assigned unto men the 
times which were ordained before, and the bounds of their habitations, 
that they should seek the Lord, if so be they might have groped 
after him, and found him." Acts xvii. 26, 27. And by the Prophet 
Isaiah the Lord saith, "In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and 
in the day of salvation have I helped thee." Isa. xlix. 8. " Behold 
now," saith St. Paul, *' is the acceptable time, now is the day of 
salvation." 2 Cor. vi. 2. Therefore, at all times the people be 
admonished, that whilst they live on the earth, and are in good 
health, and have in their hands, and do presently enjoy, the time of 
grace offered by God, they should truly repent, and begin the 
amendment of their life, and be reconciled unto God; that they 
would stir up their conscience by faith in Christ, and quiet it by the 
ministry of the Gospel in the Church, and herein confirm themselves, 
that God is merciful unto them, and remitteth all their sins for 
Christ his sake. Therefore, when they are confirmed in this grace, 
which is offered them to establish and confirm their caUing, and do 
fisdthfully exercise themselves in good works, then at the length they 
are also in an assured hope to look for a comfortable end ; and they 
must certainly persuade themselves, that their souls shall assuredly be 
earned by the Angels into heaven, and eternal rest, as was the soul 
of that godly Lazarus ; Luke xvi. 22. that they may be there, where 
their Lord and Redeemer Jesus Christ is ; John. xii. 26. and xiv. 36, 
and xvii. 24. and that afterward, in the day of resurrection, the soul 


shall be joined again with the body» to take fall possession of that 
joy and eternal glory^ which cannot be expressed in words. For 
" they shall not come into condemnation/' John. v. 24. bnt by making 
a vray through it, they shall pass with great joy from death into Ufe. 
The epistle to the Hebrews, to stir us up to use such exhortations, 
saith, ** Exhort yourselves among yourselves:" Heb. x. 25. 
" Czhort ye one another daily, so long as it is said, To-day : let no 
man among you be hardened by the deceit of sin:" Heb. iii. 13. 
" For we enter into the rest, which have believed ;" Heb. iv. 3. that 
Isb 'which have obeyed the voice of God, while we had time given us. 
On the other side, we must also hold this most assuredly, that if any 
inan« being polluted with sins, and filthy deeds, manifestly contrary 
to virtue, do in dying depart out of this world without true repen- 
tanc^e and faith, his soul shall certainly go into hell, as did the 
soul of that rich man who wanted faith; in the bottomless pit 
whereof there is no drop of grace ; and that in the day of judgment, 
that most terrible voice of the Son of God, sounding in his ears, 
shall be heard) wherein he shall say, " Depart from me, ye cursed, 
into everlasting fire, which is prepared for the devil and his angels.'' 
Matt. XXV. 41. " For tbey which have done evil, shall come forth 
to the resurrection of judgment." John v. 29. 

Therefore in teaching, they do continually urge this, that no man 
^er repentance and turning unto God, till he come to be old, or 
tin he lieth sick in his bed ; and in the mean time boldly practise 
^ 'Wantonness in sins, and in the desires of the fiesh and the world : 
^'ccause it is written, " Do not say. The abundant mercy of the Lord 
*itt purge my sins : for mercy and wrath do hasten with him, and 
^ indignation shall lie upon the sinners. Make no tarrying to 
^^'^ unto the Lord, and put not ofif from day to day. For suddenly 
Bliall the wrath of the Lord break forth, and in thy security 
^u shalt be destroyed, and thou shalt perish in time of vengeance." 
Ecclttt. V. 6, 7- 

fiat that especially is a most dangerous thing, if any man, after 

^ hath received the gift of the grace of God, (and that in the 

testixnoiiy of a good conscience,) doth of set purpose and wantonly 

un. and contemn, and make no account of all those exhortations and 

aUarements, proceeding out of a loving heart ; and that to this end, 

that he may in time think on that which is for his health, and repent ; 

a0^ moreover doth persist in a bold and blind persuasion of the 

i^ercy of God, and, trusting thereto, doth sin, and doth confidently 

ahOM it, and goeth fi rward in that sort without repentance, even 


unto the last pinch, and then beginneth, being forced thereunto by 
the terrors of death and the fear of infernal punishments, so late to 
convert himself, and to call for the mercy of the Lord, as when the 
severe and intolerable anger of the Lord waxeth hot, and punish- 
ments rush and break forth, as doth the great violence of floods 
which cannot be resisted, Prov. i. 24 — 31. Isaiah xxx. 12 — 14. 
Therefore, of such a man (which thing we speak with sorrow) it is 
hard to believe that he can truly repent ; and therefore it is to be 
doubted, lest that be fulfilled in him. which the Lord doth threaten 
by the Prophet Micah, that instead of grace he shall feel the 
wrath of God, and that it will come to pass, that the wrath of God 
shall slay him. For in a fearful speech doth he say thus, "Then 
shall they cry unto the Lord, but he will not hear them, but he will 
hide his face from them at that time, because they have continually 
lived wickedly." Mic. iii. 4. Yea, the Lord himself saith, 
" Although they cry in mine ears with a loud voice, yet will I not 
hear them ;" Ezek. viii. 18. " seeing they would not hear my voice ; " 
Jer. xiii. 11." when as all the day long I spread out my hands unto 
them," Isaiah Ixv. 2. and gave them large time and space for grace. 
For the which cause, the Holy Ghost crieth out, and saith, " To-day 
if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the grieving 
in the day of that temptation in the wilderness." Psal xcv. 7, 8. 

Therefore, according to all these things, our men do diligently, 
and out of the grounds of the Scripture, exhort that every man do 
in time use and follow this faithful counsel and necessary doctrine ; 
that so he may turn away the fear of this most heavy danger, yea, 
that he do not betray the health of his own soul. For imdoubtedly 
this horrible danger is greatly to be feared, lest whosoever he be 
that doth rashly or stubbornly contemn or neglect this time of grace, 
so lovingly granted of the Lord, he do receive, and that worthily, 
that reward of eternal punishment, which is due thereunto : even as 
St. Ambrose also, amongst many other things which he handleth 
diversely to this purpose, doth thus write, and in these words : ' If any 
man at the very point of death shall repent, and be absolved, (for 
this could not be denied unto him,) and so departing out of this life 
dieth, I dare not say that he departeth hence in good case : I do not 
affirm it, neither dare I affirm or promise it to any man, because I 
would deceive no man, seeing I have no certainty of him. Do I 
therefore say that he shall be damned ? Neither do I say that he 
shall be delivered. For what other thing I should say, I know not. 
Let him be commended to God. Wilt thou then, O brother, be 


-fnti, from doubting? repent whilst thou art in health. If thou 
"^nilt repent when thou canst not sin, thy sins have left thee, and not 
'diou thy sins/ De Pcmiteniid. (qui Augtutim esseputatHr.J Lib. 3. 

Yet that no man may despair, they teach this also, that if any 
man in the last hour of his life shew signs of true repentance, 
-^vluch thing doth fall out very seldom, (for that is certainly true 
^wbich is written in the Epistle to the Hebrews, " And this will we 
alto do, so that God give us leave to do it ;" Heb. vi. 3.) that such 
m one is not to be deprived of instruction comfort, absolution, or 
renussion of sins. For the time of g^race doth last, so long as this 
life doth last : whereforci so long as we live here, it is meet that we 
should think of that Prophetical and Apostohcal sentence, " To day, 
ieeingyehave heard his voice, harden not your hearts." Heb. iii. 7 ; 15. 
Now heron do our men labour, and endeavour themselves most ear- 
nestly, that an men may obey this loving commandment and counsel, 
nd that they speedily repent, before the sun be darkened after a strange 
nuamer, and the hills be overwhelmed with darkness ; and that, la3dng 
an avde, they would turn themselves to God, by flying unto him in 
true confidence, and with a constant invocation from the bottom of 
the lieait ; and that they do their faithful endeavour, that they not 
^ repelled from the glory of eternal life, but that they may hve 
^^itli Christ and lus Church in this life for a time, and in the other 
fife for ever. Amen. 

III. — From the Confession of Scotlano. 

Ariiele 12. 0/ Faith in the Holy Ghost. 

^UB fiuth, and the assurance of the same, proceedeth not from 
^^ and Uood ; that is to say, from no natural powers within us ; 
Int is the inspiration of the Holy Ghost; Matt. xvi. 17 ; Johnxiv. 
^1 XT. 26; and zvi. 13; whom we confess God, equal with the 
^^flier and with the Son; Acts v. 3, 4. who sanctifieth us, and 
tinngeth US into all verity by his own operation ; without whom we 
ihoQld remain for ever enemies to God, and ignorant of his Son 
^^3iiitt JeaoB. For of nature we are so dead, so bhnd, and so per- 
^1^*^ tiiat neither can we feel when we are pricked, see the light 
when it ahineth, nor assent to the will of God when it is revealed, 
BnkiB the Spirit of the Lord quicken that which is dead, remove the 
duloiesa from our minds, and bow our stubborn hearts to the 
obefence of his Ue^sed will. And so, as we confess that God the 
FliAer created us* when we were not ; Psalm c. 3. as his Son our 
Ixvd Jesus redeemed us, when we were enemies to him ; Rom. v. 10. 


80 also do we confess, that the Holy Ghost doth tanctify and re* 
generate us, without all respect of any merit proceeding from us, be 
it before, or jbe it after our regeneratiout Rom. v. 8. To speak this 
one thing yet in more plain words : as we willingly spoil ourselves of 
all Jionour and glory of our own creation and redemption, so do we 
also of our regeneration and sanctification ; for of ourselyes we are 
not sufficient to think one good thought ; 2 Ck)r. iii. 5 ; but he who 
hath beg^n the work in us, is only he that continueth in us the 
same, PhiL i. 6. to the praise and glory of his undeserved gprace. 
Eph. i. 6. 

IV.— From thb Confbssion ot Anosntao. 

Article 11. 

Touching repentance, they teach, that such as have fallen 
after baptism may find remission,* at what time they return 
again: and that the Church t is bound to give absolution unto 
such as return by repentance. Now repentance, or the conversion of 
the ungodly, standeth properly of these two parts. The one is con- 
trition ; that is, a terror stricken into the conscience through the 
acknowledgment of sin, wherein we do both perceive God's dis- 
pleasure, and are grieved that we have sinned ; and do abhor and 
eschew sin, according as Joel preacheth, " Rend your hearts, and not 
your garments, and turn unto the Lord your God, &c." Chap. ii. 
1 3. The other part is faith ; which is begotten in us by the Gospel, 
or by absolution, and doth believe that the sins are undoubtedly 
forgiven for Christ*s sake, and doth comfort the conscience, freeing it 
from fears. Of which faith speaketh St. Paul, when he saith, " Being 
justified by faith, we have peace with God.'* Rom. v. 1 . Afterward 
there must follow the good fruits of repentance, that is, obedience 
unto God ; according to that saying, " We are debtors, not to the 
flesh, to live after the flesh : for if ye live after the flesh, ye shall 
die : but if by the Spirit ye mortify the works of the flesh, ye shall 
live." Rom.viii. 12, 13. 

* Yea, and it inaj indeed be given to those which do truly repent. 

t That is. the presbytery, or tb« college which doth represent the Charcb, as 
Matthew xviii. 1 7. Therefore, this cannot be fitly understood either of all 
kind of sinners, or else of private absolution ; but only of those which were 
first bound by the presbytery. For certainly the whole assembly of the 
Church cannot be said to absolve the penitent, (which thing is part of the hdy 
ministry, as shall hereafter be made evident in the Eleventh Section ;) but to 
gather together to itself those who make satisfaction, so much as in it lieth : 
to wit, by its own consent and approbation. 


They condemn the Ncnratians, which would not absolve them, 
^hidi> having fallen after baptism, returned to repentance. They con- 
demn also those that teach not that remission of sins cometh freelv 
Jsj faith for Christ's sake ; but labour to prove that remission of sins 
^xmieth by the worthiness of contrition, of charity, or of some other 
"^rorks ; and would have mens' consciences in time of repentance to 
^kHibC whether they may obtain remission, and do say plainly, that 
-ithis dcmbting is no sin. likewise they condemn those which teach 
'tthat canonical sads&ctions are necessary to redeem eternal pains, or 
'fthe pains of purgatory : though we are of that mind, that the 
^xdamities of this life may be assuaged by good works,* as Isaiah 
'ttxacheth, (chap. Iviii. 7 — 14.) *' Break thy bread unto the hungry, 
^and the Lord shall give thee rest continually." Besides they con- 
^iemn the Anabaptists,t who deny that they that are once justified 
^san again lose the Spirit of God. Also they condemn those that 
■■■tiflljl holdf that some may attain to such a perfection in this life, as 
'^^liat they cannot sin any more. 

Ekoeitth Article we find, in some Editions, placed in the Twelfth 
place; and after the first period we find these words: — 

Now rq^tance C(msisteth properly of these two parts. One is 
«9<mtiition» or terrors stricken into the conscience through the sight 
<3(f Bin : the other is fedth, which is conceived by the Gospel, or by 
siJ»Qlntion» and doth believe that for Christ's sake the sins be forgiven, 

* Yet not for as though any good works did deserve this mitigation, but it is 
of the mere mercy and grace of God. 

tWe also do condemn the Anabaptists, although we do deny that they 

'^'V'lucli are once justified do altogether lose the Holy Ghost ; but yet not so, 

A* diej do deny it. For they confound the Holy Ghost, not only with the 

*pint of the flesh, but also with those satanical furies, wherewith they be 

Again, neither do they know, neither will they know, what faith is, 

are indeed justified. But we do teach, that the Holy Ghost is to be 

bj the word of God (that is, by the Prophetical and Apostolical 

^^'itii^) firom the spirit of darkness, although he do transform himself into 

^ tngd of light. And we distinguish the gifts of the Holy Ghost, which are 

^Ithoat repentance, (to wit, the Spirit of adoption, and an assured persuasion, 

^^k proper to the elect, and to those that are justified,) from the temporal 

v^l of wUdi sort is that counterfeit or resemblance of faith, to wit, a tem- 

P^*tty fiuth. Neither do we deny, that the motions, even of those gifts which 

^ vithoot repentance, are discontinued, and sometimes almost extinguished ; 

yet iQ^ duft the very true root, being once planted in those that be truly 

J^^'^ified, doth persevere in them without repentance even to the end. Of which 

"■tterwehave likewise spoken above, in the Fourth Section, the first obser- 

*^ ipon tlM Confossion of Saxony. 



and comforteth the conscience, and freeth it from terrors. Then 
there must follow good works, which are fruits of repentance. 

They condemn the Anabaptists, who deny that men once justified 
can lose the Spirit of God, and do stiffly hold that some men may 
attain to such a perfection in this life, that they can sin no more. 
In like case the Novatians are condemned, which would not absolve 
such as had fallen after baptism, though they returned to repentance. 
They also that teach that remission of sins is obtained for our own 
love or good works, and such as teach that canonical satisfactions 
are necessary to redeem everlasting or purgatory pains, are wholly 
mishked of us. 

Article 12. 

Concerning confession of sins, they teach that private absolution 
is to be retained still in the Churches, though it be a needless thing 
in confession to make a rehearsal of the sins. For it is an 
impossible thing to reckon up all a man's offences ; according as the 
Psalmist saith, " Who doth understand his faults ? " &c. Psalm 
xix. 12. 

This Twelfth Article we find in the place of the Eleventh, in some 
Editions ; it is word for word the same, but that the Uut words are 
thus set down: — 

Though a reckoning up of all sins be not necessary. For it is 
impossible; as the Psalmist saith, &c. Psalm xix. 12. 

Article 3. Of Abuses. — Of Confession. 

The Divines and Canonists have cast a great mist of darkness 
chiefly upon this point of Christian doctrine touching repentance : as 
not only their books do testify, but also the consciences of all the 
godly ; which do confess that the intricate and endless disputations 
of the Divines, and the infinite traditions about the matter of re- 
pentance, were even a fearful raking of their consciences. For they 
do nowhere teach any certainty, how remission of sihs is obtained. 
And as for faith, there is no word amongst them. Yea, they bid 
men to be always in doubt of remission of sins. Afterward, they 
torment mens' consciences, with a harsh reckoning up of their faults, 
and with satisfactions. For what a snare unto a man's conscience 
was the tradition, which requireth them to reckon up all their sins ! 

As for satisfactions, they did obscure and darken the benefit of 
Christ ; because that even the learned among them did imagine that 


eternal death was recompensed by them. But the unlean&ed were 
persuaded that forgiveness of the fenlt was pnrdiased by such deeds. 
What, that their services for the most part were not commanded of 
God ? as babbling oi prayers* invocation of saints, pilgrimages, and 
sach like staff? Thus was the pure doctrine of repentance over- 
whelmed with an huge heap of unprofitable and evil opinions. And 
it is manifest that the godly, in many ages past, have greatly wished 
Uiat this doctrine had been more purely taught. 

Furthermore, it is especially needful that the doctrine oi repent- 
tnce should be taught in the Church most purely and sincerely. 
Therefore our divines have laboured to clear this point as much as 
might be. And surely they have so opened and cleared it, that the 
soundest, even amongst our adversaries, do confess, that in this 
matter they have well deserved of the church. For we do simply 
and plaiidy, without any sophistry, lay forth that which the Gospel 
teacheth touching repentance ; that men may perceive how they must 
return unto Christ ; by what means remission of sin is obtained ; 
what worship and what works do please God. 

f^rst, we teach that contrition is requisite ; that is, the true ter- 
rors and sorrows of the mind, which feeleth the wrath of Grod, is 
grieved for sin committed, and ceaseth to do evil. And though 
these sorrows be requisite, yet must we know that remission of sins 
is not granted for the worthiness oi contrition, or of these sorrows : 
but we must join faith with them, that is, a trust and confidence of 
mercy promised for Christ's sake ; and we must hold that our sins 
are freely forgiven for Christ's sake. 

When we once are comforted in these terrors by foith, we do un- 
doubtedly obtain remission of sins, as we have said before. And 
this fedth our minds do conceive by the Gospel; ako by abso- 
lution, which preacheth and applyeth the Gospel unto distressed 
consciences. And for this cause do our divines teach that private 
absolution is to be retained in the Church ;* and they set out the dig- 
nity of it, and the power of the keys, with true and very large com- 
mendations : namely, because the power of the keys doth dispense 
the Gospel, not only to all in general, but also to every one in par- 
ticular ; as Christ saith, " Thou hast won thy brother ;" Matt, xviii. 

* How far, and upon what condition, private absolution is to be retained in 
the church, we have declared a little before in the first observation upon the 
Confession of Bohemia. But here it is indeed a wonder, to have that applied 
to the use of the keys, which Christ spake of private admonition between 
private persons; to wit, "Thou hast gained thy brother.*' Matt, xviii. 15. 


15. and because we must believe the voice of the Gospel, which is 
dispensed onto us in absolution by the ministry of the Churchy no 
otherwise than a voice sounding from heaven. 

This whole benefit of absolution, and of this ministry, hath here- 
tofore been wholly obscured with the false opinions of such as taught 
that absolution was naught worth without sufficient contirition ; and 
did afterwards will men to misdoubt of absolution, because no man 
knew whether his contrition were sufficient or not. What else was 
this, but quite to take away from all consciences the comfort of the 
Gospel ; and to remove out of the church, and dean to abolish, the 
ministry of the Grospel, or the power of the keys ? Who doth not 
see that these pernicious errors are worthily reproved ? 

Now, seeing, that confession yieldeth a place where to bestow 
absolution in private ; and this custom doth uphold the understanding 
of the power of the keys and remission of sins among the people : 
besides, seeing that this conference availeth much for admonishing 
and instructing of men : therefore we do duly retain confession in 
our churches ; yet so as that we teach, that reckoning up of the 
faults is not necessary by God*s Law, and that men's consciences 
are not to be clogged with it. For there is no commandment in all 
the Apostles' writings, sounding that way. Again, this rehearsing of all 
one's sins is a thing impossible ; according to that in the Psalm, 
(Ps. zix. 12.) " Who can understand his faults ?" and Jeremiah saith, 
(chap. xvii. 9.) " The heart of man is corrupt and unsearchable." But 
if no sins could be forgiven, but such as are reckoned up, mens' con- 
sciences could never be at rest ; because they neither see, nor call to 
mind, the greatest number of them. Whereby it may easily be 
gathered, that the ministry of absolution and remission ai sins doth 
not depend upon the condition of numbering them all up. 

The ancient writers also do testify that this counting of sins by 
tale is a thing needless. Chrysostom, in the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, saith, ' Let us reckon of it, that we have sins ; and let not 
the tongue alone utter it, but the conscience within us also. And 
let us not barely say we are sinners ; but let us reckon up our sins 
particularly. I do not bid thee to betray thyself openly, nor to 
accuse thyself to other ; but to follow the saying of the Prophet, 
Lay open thy ways before the Lord ; confess thy sins before God 
utter thy sins with prayer before the true Judge ; not remembering 
them with the tongue, but with the conscience ; and then indeec 
mayest thou hope to find mercy.' That sermon of Chrysoston 
teacheth not only what is to be thought of reckoning up of sins, bu 


doth also T817 wisely jam eontritioii and faith together, as they are 
joined bytua. First, he will have us acknowledge onr sins unfeign- 
edly, and abhor them from oar hearts. In the next place, he 
teacheth to add thereunto prayer and fedth, which may assure us that 
we are forgiven. Elsewhere he saith, ' Acknowledge thy sins, that 
thoa mayest do them away. If thou art ashamed to shew thy sina 
to any man, then utter them every day in thy heart. I say not, go 
eonfeflB iky sins to thy feUow-servant, that may upbraid thee with 
Uiem ; but, confess them unto God that is able to core them*' The 
Gloss npon the Decrees, touching Penance, (Distinct 5.) gnmteth 
that ooofeaabn was ordained of the church, and is not commanded 
in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. Of the same 
judgment are many of the Doctors. Wherefore our judgment* 
toochiag tiie doctrine of confession, is neither new nor without 

Lastly, there is most need of all that the godly should be admon- 
ished touching satisflEu^onB. For there was more hurt and danger 
in them, than in numbering up of sins ; inasmuch as they darkened 
the benefit of Christ : because that the imleamed thought they did 
obtain remission of the guilt of sin for their own works' sake ; and 
besides, men's consciences were much distressed, if aught were 
omitted that was enjoined for satisfiaction. Again, ceremonies and 
pilgrimages, and such like fruitless works, were thought meet for 
satisfection, rather than things commanded of God. And forsooth 
their teachers themselves dreamed that eternal death was fully 
redeemed by them. Therefore we thought it needful that godly 
minds should be set free from such errors ; and we teach that their 
canonical satisfactions, which they call works not due, &c. are 
neither available for the remission, either of the friult or everlasting 
punishment, nor yet necessary. It was a custom long since in the 
church, that, in public penance, such as had fallen, and did return to 
the Church again, should not be received without some punishment 
laid npon them for example's sake ; from which custom these satis- 
factions did spring. But the Fathers* mind was, by such examples to 
fray the people from sins. They did not account that ceremony 
to be a just recompense for the fault, or for eternal death, or for 
purgatory. These things were afterwards coined by ignorant 
and unlearned men. But those ancient customs were in time worn 
oat of use, and laid aside.* As for ub, we do not burthen mens' 

* B« it, that those painful punishments and satisfmctions, which cannot, espe- 
cially at these timet, be brought into use again, but that they will do more 


consciences with satisfactions : but this we teach, that the fruits of 
repentance are necessary ; and that obedience, the fear of Cod, faith, 
love, chastity, and the whole renewing of the Spirit, ought to increase 
in us. 

We give men warning of this also ; that sins are ofttimes 
punished, even by temporal punishments, in this life:* as David, 
Manasseh, and many others were punished. And we teach that these 
punishments may be mitigated by good works, and the whole prac- 
tice of repentance ; as Paul dedareth, " If we would judge ourselves, 
we should not be judged of the Lord :" 1 Cor. zL 31. and repent- 
ance deserved (that is, obtained) that God should alter his purpose, 
touching the destruction of Nineveh. 

Thus whereas before the disputations were intricate and endless, 
and full of gross opinions : now that doctrine, being purged, is deli- 
vered to the people, so as it may be understood, and avail much 
unto godliness. We do still hold and set forth the true parts of 
repentance, contrition, £Euth, absolution, remission of sins, amoid- 
ment of the whole life, mitigation of present punishments. And 
we are in good hope that the godly will not only not reprehend any 
thing in this place, but also will give them thanks which have purged 
this point of Christian doctrine, which is requisite and profitable in 
all churches to be expounded most plainly, and set out most clearly. 
Christ saith, that " The angels in heaven do rejoice, whensoever they 

hurt than good, be worn out of use ; yet, notwithstanding, this doth nothing 
hinder, but that every church, as it knoweth what is expedient, may appoint a 
certain kind of censure, or ecclesiastical discipline, which it may use, where 
need so requireth, that the church may be satisfied : as is noted before in 
the first observation upon the Confession of Bohemia; and hereafter in the 
Tenth Section, the third observation upon the same Confession of Bohemia. 

* How temporal punishments may be said, sometimes to be deferred, and 
sometimes to be mitigated, by good works, we have declared a little before; to 
wit, in the third observation upon this Confession. Moreover, the word 
merit, both in the words which follow, (repentance deserved that God should 
alter his purpose, touching the destruction of Nineveh,} and also in other 
places, wheresoever either this or other Confessions do use it, it is without 
doubt thus to be taken, for that which we say, to obtain, atid to get, as it is 
oftentimes used among the ancient Latin divines. And whereas God here is 
said to have changed his mind, we do not doubt but that our brethren do 
understand it as spoken after the manner of men ; as when he is said to repent 
him of something ; or else it is to be referred to the outward preaching of 
Jonah. For, as concerning God himself, it was only a threatening, and not a 
sentence decreed. 


see a sinner repent." Luke xv. 7. And therefore the chnn^es, and 
thd angels themBelves, do rejoice at the pure doctrine of repentance 
thus set down. 

v.— FaoM THB C0NFB8810N OP Saxont. 

Article 3 ; two last Clauses. Of the Renussum of Sins, SfC. 

It is most certain that the preaching of repentance doth pertain 

to all men, and accuse all men. So also the promise is general^ 

and ofiereth remission of sins to all, according to those general 

speeches : " Come unto me, all ye that labour, and are heavy laden, 

and I will refresh you ; " Matt zi. 28. also, " That every one which 

believeth in him, should not perish ; " John iii. 1 6. " Every one that 

believeth in him, shall not be confounded; " Rom. x. 11. again, 

" He that is Lord over all, is rich unto all that call on him ; " verse 

12. ** The Lord hath shut up all under disobedience, that he might 

have mercy on all.*' Rom. xi. 32. Let every one comprise himself in 

this general promise, and not give himself to distrust ; but let them 

strive, that they may assent to the word of God, and obey the 

Holy Ghost, and desire that they may be helped; as it is said, 

" How much more will he give the Holy Ghost to them that ask 

bim!" Lukexi. 13. 

Artice 16. Of Repentance. 

By the mercy of God this part of doctrine specially is 
declared in our churches with great perspicuity ; whereas the Sen- 
tentiaries have wrapped it in most intricate labryinths. first, we 
do openly condemn the Catharists and the Novatians, who feigned 
that neither the elect could fiedl into sins against their conscience ; 
neither that they who had fallen after their amendment, were to be 
received again ; and our confutations of these furies are extant. 
Neither do we go about to make brawlings about the word repent- 
ance : if any man like it better, let him use the word conversion ; 
which word the prophets also have often used. Moreover, we do 
willingly retain the word contrition : and we say that the first part 
of repentance, or conversion, is contrition ; which is truly to tremble 
through the knowledge of the wrath of God against sins, and to be 
sorry that we have offended God. And we say, that there must needs 
be some such great fear and griefs in those that are converted ; and 
that they do not repent, which remain secure and without grief : as 
it is said, " Ye sorrowed to repentance; '* 2 Cor. vii. 9. and, ** Ye 
shall mislike yourselves in your own sight," £zek. jcx. 43. and 


Bokncywledge yonrselves to be w<nrthy of pnniahment and destnictioii. 
And these trae grieft are a feeling of the wrath of God, as is dedared 
more at large in another place. But here we reprore our adTer- 
saries, who feign that contrition doth deserve remission of sins» and 
that contrition must needs be sufficient. In either error there be great 
mists : for remission is given freely for the Mediator's sake ; and 
what contrition can be sufficient ? Yea, rather, the more the sorrow 
increaaeth without assoranoe of mercy, so much the more mens' 
hearts do fty from God. And no creature is able to sustain the 
greatness of this sorrow ; whereof Isaiah speaketh« chap, xxxviii. 
▼er. 18. "He brake all my bones like a lion." But those idle 
dreams of writers do declare, that they lead a careless life, and 
that they are unskilful in the Go^el. Now these true sorrows do 
arise, when the sin of the contempt of the Son of God (as is dedared 
in the Gospel) is reproved ; "The Spirit shall reprove the world of 
sin. because tiiey believe not in me : " John xvi. 8, 9. and by the 
voice of the Moral Law other sins are reproved ; as Paul saith, " By 
the law came the knowledge of sin." Rom. iii. 20. 

As touching private confession, to be made unto the pastors, 
we affirm, that the ceremony of private absolution is to be retained 
in the church ; * and we do constantly retain it for many weighty 
causes : yet, withal, we do teach, that men must neither command 
nor require the recital of ofiences in that private talk ; because that 
recital of offences is neither commanded of Grod, nor a thing 
possible, and it maketh godly minds to doubt, and it maketh fedth 

And this we do much more reprehend ; that in the doctrine of re* 
pentanoe or convernon, our adversaries do nowhere make mention 
of justifying fiidth, (whereof we have spoken before ;) by which alone 
remission of sins is truly received ; the heart is lifted up, even when 
it hath a feeling of the wrath of God ; and we are freed from the 
sorrows of hdl : as it is written, " Being justified by feuth, we have 
peace." Rom. v. 1 . Without this £Euth, sorrows are no better than 
the repentance of Saul, Judas, Orestes, and such like as are men* 
tioned in tragedies* Neither do our adversaries teach the Gospel, 
but the law and human traditions ; either omitting this faith, or else 
fighting against it. But seeing that in a true conversion there mast 
be these changes, a mortification and a quickening ; (as it is said. 

* How far we think that this private confession and absolution is to be 
tained in the church, we have declared a little before; to wit, in the first ob- 
•servadoD upon the ConfetsioD of Bohemia. 


Rom. vi.4«-*ll. and in divere other pkon ;^) for doctrine's sake we 
do divide convernon or repentance into tliree parti ; into contrition, 
fidth, and new obedience : these thingpi doth true conversion com- 
prehend, as the Toice of God and the tme experience of the church 
do declare. Yet do we not make contention either about the man- 
ner of speaking, or about the number of the parts ; but we wish that 
all men may see those things which are necessary. And it is most 
necessary for the church, that there should be a true, plain, and 
most dear doctrine, touching the whole of conversion ; which also is 
very often repeated in those sermons which are set down in the 
Scriptures ; and that with great pervpiouity, and without any intri- 
cate labyrinths. As the Bapdat and Christ say, "Repent, and 
bdieve the Gospel : " Matt. iii. 2. and iv. 17. again, " Behold the 
Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world." John i. 29* 
And Paul saith, " All men are deprived of the glory of God :" Rom. 
iii. 28. here he speaketh of contrition ; afterward of remission : 
" But we are justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that 
is in Christ Jesus, by faith." verse 24. Therefore it is necessary, 
that in the doctrine of conversion, or repentance, tiiere should men- 
tion be made of foith. Neither is it sufficient that our adversaries 
say, thsct they also do speak of faith, and that faith doth go before 
repentance. For they speak of the knowledge of doctrine, I believe 
the forgiveness oi sins ; to wit, that they be forgiven to others ; even 
as the devils do know the creed. But the Gospel doth require this 
true foith, which is an assurance of the mercy of God, promised for 
the Son of God's sake, and resting in the Son of God : which saith, 
I believe that remission of sins is given unto me also, and that 
freely ; not for my contrition, not for any of my merits, but for the 
Son of God, who, by the infinite goodness and wisdom of the God- 
head, is appointed a Mediator and Redeemer : I know that the 

* This is mofit truly said, but in a diverse sense. For neither is contrition. 
Of a sense of sin, which is a fruit of sin common to all, signified by the name 
of mortification, (insomuch as it is a gift of the Holy Ghost, proper to the 
elect ;) but an abolishing of the old roan, or of the flesh, or of that natural cor- 
ruption ; which, taking its beginning of that contrition or sorrow, which is ac- 
cording to God, (whereof that place, PsaU li. 17., and Isaiah Ixri. 2. is under- 
stood J is by little and little perfected in the elect, and is the beginuiog of true 
coDTersion. Whereunto, on the other side, quickening is answerable ; that is, 
a certain restoring, as it were, from death unto life, of the mind, which was 
before in a manner dead in that corruption : and being persuaded of the free 
remission of sins in Christ, by faith, it beginneth tp hate sin, wherewith it was 
delighted ; to love God, whom it hated ; and, to conclude, to will well, and to 

do uprightly. 



comniandment of God is immntable ; so that every one may deter- 
mine, in these griefiB» that he is assuredly received into fevour foi 
Christ's sake. This is the proper voice of the Gospel : this decree 
is brought by the Son ont of the bosom of the Eternal Father* anc 
is sealed np by his blood and resurrection. Not to assent to this 
will and decree, is to contemn the Son of God : and concerning thii 
sin the Baptist saith, " He that believeth not the Son, the wratl 
of God abideth on him/' John iii. 36. But he that believeth thai 
his sins be forgiven for lus Mediator's sake, he doth now certainly 
receive remission oi his sins for Christ's sake ; which is efiectual ii 
him, and quickeneth and sanctifieth him by his Holy Spirit : and 
being now reconciled, he is undoubtedly accounted just, for the 
Mediator's sake^ and is heir of eternal life. Either to omit, or tc 
corrupt, or to dislike this necessary comfort, touching conversion, 
is as much as manifestly to extinguish the GrospeL As touching this 
fidth, absolution ought both to admonish us, and also to confirm it : 
as David was confirmed, when he heard this absolution ; " The Lord 
hath taken away thy^sins." 2 Sam. ziL 13. So know thou that the 
voice of the Gospel doth declare remission unto thee also ; the which 
remission is propounded to thee by name in absolution. Do not thou 
feign that the Grospel doth nothing at all pertain to thee : but kno^ 
that it was therefore pubHshed, that, by this means, men embracing 
the Gospel might be saved ; and that it is the eternal and immutable 
commandment of God, that thou shouldst believe it. He that doth 
not by this faith embrace the Gospel, but is still doubting, he doth 
in vain hear the absolution : when as by this comfort the hearts 
are quickened, and are now made the dweUing-places of Grod. 
Then is it necessary that they should now begin a new obedience, 
as is said before. But to return to wicked deeds,* is to shake 
off God, and again to lose that righteousness and life : as John 
saith, " He that doth righteousness, is righteous ; he that com- 
mitteth sin, is of the devil." 1 John iii. 7, 8. But we have before 
rehearsed the sum of the doctrine of new obedience. 

Article 17. Of Satisfaction. 

Now, what a confusion there is in their doctrine of satis- 
factions, which they term works not due, enjoined by the 
church, it were long to rehearse ; and few before these times have 
understood it : but we doubt not, but that this whole part also is 
truly and clearly ezpQunded in our churches. It was a custom 

* See those things which are noted in the first obsenration, of the Fourth 
Section, upon this Confession. 


unong oar firat fiithers, that they which defiled themselves with 
murder, idols, or filthj lusts, should be barred their company, and 
chiefly from their sacrifices. This custom both the synagogue 
retained, and other nations also, which were not altogether savage, 
in Asia and in Greece. In the mean time, they which were defiled, 
^wandered up and down, being branded with the marks of their 
goiltineBS ; as Orestes, Adrastus, and many others. This custom, 
in the beginning, did the church also keep. Those that were defiled, 
it levered from the mutual society : afterward it did not suddenly 
■"eceive those again that did repent, that i^ might be known that 
they did unfeignedly ask pardon, and for examples it might profit 
others; but for certain days absolution was deferred, that they 
nought be seen to ask pardon publicly. So was that incestuous 
^^orinthian debarred* and afterwards received again, not without 
ddibeFBtion. 1 Cor. v. 13; 2 Cor. ii. 6—8. This whole custom 
^u f^vpointed for example's sake, and is poUtical ; * nothing at all 
pertaining to the remission of sins. But afterward, through super- 
stition, it so increased, that fiEuits, and forbearing the company of 
n^ui or wife» were enjoined for many years. When these burthens 
hftd increased too much, the bishops did release them again ; and 
^ rdease of such rites was called Indulgence. 

The monks, not considering the history of these things, feigned 
^^ eternal punishment might be recompensed by the punishments 
^ pnrgatoryy or other punishments of this life : and they added, 
^ latia&ctions were enjoined of the church, that those punish- 
ineats might be mitigated; and that satisfactions must be works 
not dne by the law of God. We reject these monkish fribles, which 
**tt they themselves do not understand ; and we retain most sure 
^^i to wit» that eternal punishments are remitted, together with 
^ &Qlt» for the Son's sake, not for any of our satisfactions, accord- 
ing to that which is written in Hosea ; " O death, I will be thy 
^^: O bell, I wDl be thy destruction ;" chap. xiii. 14. also, 

* We do tfafaik that this custom of public satisfaction before the Church is 

^ s^ sort politictl, that, notwithstanding, it may be referred to the Ecde- 

'i^'ticd order, and may altogether be distinguished from those punishments 

^■Wiare merely dvH, and from those which are to be inflicted by the civil 

BHStttiaie. For although such a public kind of acknowledging and detesting 

of iiiii, btiQg made in the Church, is in no case to be thought to be of any value 

hdon God for the ransom of our sins, (much less that it should be a sacra- 

neot;) yet we do not doubt, but that this abasing is both acceptable to God, 

lod commodiooa for the edifying of the Church, and that in such places wherein 

it flttf be fruitfolly used. 


*' Being justified by fiEiith, we have peace." Rom. ▼. 1. Secondly, 
we say that the works not due, whereof these men speak, are not 
any worship of God, or satisfiEU^tions ; but that they do pertain to 
this saying, " They do in vain worship me with the oommandmenta 
of men." Matt. xv. 9. And certainly the power of the keys 
hath no commandment to enjoin such punishments.* Also we fear 
that this applying of indulgences, by which the Pope doth applj 
the merits of saints unto others, is but counterfeit ; and that the 
indulgences, in times past, were nothing else but a releasing of the 
canons, which did nothing appertain to those satisfections, whereol 
the monks do speak. 

Now, it is another thing to speak of satisfaction which is due ; at 
of the restoring of theft, of that which hath been gotten by usury, oi 
another man's wife, or his good name. This restitution is a work 
that is due, pertaining to new obedience ; as Paul saith, ** Let him 
that hath stdien, steal no more." Ephes. iv. 28. He that withhold^ 
another man's wife, hath neither contrition, faith, nor new obedience. 
Neither are the commandments of God, touching due satiafiBction, 
which we say ought to be made, to be mingled with those trifling 
songs of Popish satisfactions. Also this we confess ; that in this lifs 
many horrible punishments are spread over the church, over empires^ 
and over families, for certain sins of many men ; yea, even of the elect : 
as the sedition, that was raised up against David, did not lightly a£Bid 
that whole civil regiment, and many holy families. Therefore wc 
distinguish betwixt eternal punishment, and the punishment of thie 
life : and we say, that eternal punishment is remitted only for the 
Son of God's sake, when we are justified and quickened by faith. 

And albeit that even temporal punishments are chiefly mitigated 

for the Son of God his sake.f who is the harbour for the church ; 

* But it hatb a commandment lawfully to bind and to loose, and to try, b} 
diligent search, which is true repentance. Concerning which thing, see whai 
we have spoken a little before, in the second observation upon the Confessioi 
of Augsburg, and is hereafter taught more at large in the Eleventh Section 
where we do expressly intreat of the Power of the Keys. 

f Where the question is of the Church of God, we say, that all blessings 
without any exception, are bestowed upon it, and the members thereof, not 
chiefly, but only, for the Son of God his sake. And these words, *' Even for th< 
very conversion's sake," &c. ought, as they seem, to be thus taken, by adding t< 
them this interpretation : vis., " They are not without their effect;" but that mus 
be of mere grace, and in respect of Christ alone, in whom God doth vouchsafi 
even to reward both the saints themselves, and also good works, having m 
regard to the blemishes of their works : as we have said before in the third an< 
seventh observations upon the Confession of Augsburg. 


(becaiue this weak nature cannot sustain the greatness of the wrath 
of God ; as Daniel prayeth, " For the Ix)rd's sake hear thou us, and 
haye an eye unto our help;" &c. chap. iz. 17, 18.) yet we teach 
this ako ; that eren for the very conversion's sake, our punishments 
ire mitigated : hecause that in the saints the legal promises, heing 
added to their works, are not without their effect, hut have their 
rewards. Such a promise is this : " Give, and it shall he given 
onto you : " Matt. vii. 7. and when Paul saith, *' If we would judge 
ourselves, we should not he judged," 1 Cor. zi. 31. he speaketh of 
whole repentance, not of those most vain shadows which they reason 
to prevail, although a man fall again into mortal sin. And in this 
matter they have devised new juggling tricks. They confess that 
these aatis&ctions are not recompences; hut they say that we 
must admit such satisfeustions aft chastisements ; as Paul doth punish 
Uie Corinthian. 1 Cor. v. 11. That chastisement was excommu- 
nication: and we confess that they which are guilty of manifest 
heinous deeds, are hy a lawful judgment and order to he excom* 
municated. Neither is just excommunication a light thing. Yet, 
notwithstanding, the power (^ the church doth not punish hy cor« 
poral force, as hy prison, or hy hunger ; hut it doth only pronounce 
this sentence; * the prison, and common punishments, do pertain to 
civil governors. But such is the frowardness of certain men, that 
although they see themselves convinced hy the evidence of truth, 
yet they seek to dally hy sophistry ; lest, if they should give place, 
they should he thought to have betrayed their fellows. God, which 
seeth the heart, knoweth, that with a simple endeavour we have 
sought out the truth. 

VI. — FaoM THE Confession of Wirtbmburo. 
Chapter 12. Of Repentance,. 

Seeing that we must always acknowledge our sins, and believe 
that they be forgiven for Christ's sake, we think it also meet that 
men should always repent in this life. But divers men expound 
repentance diversely : commonly they make three parts of repent- 
ance; contrition, confession, and satisfaction. We wHl severally 
and briefly run over these parts, that we may declare what we 
think to be indeed catholic and apostolical, in this doctrine of 

* To wit, according to the Ecclesiastical j udgments and censures, whereof 
we made mention before ; and not by any dfil authority, as OflBcials (as they be 
teimed b Papacy) used to do. 


Cki^ter 18. Of Contritum. 

We call contrition a feeling of the wrath of God, or a sorrow and 
great fear of mind, raised hy the knowledge of the greatneae of 
our sins, and the weightiness of the wrath of God. And we think 
that Bach a contrition, aa the law of Grod doth use to stir up in man, 
is necessarily required in true repentance : hnt to teach that it doth 
deserve remission of sins, or that it is a purg^ing of onr sins befcnre 
God, we think is contrary to the apostolic doctrine. God tmly doth 
not despise a contrite and an hmnhle heart, as the Psalmist saith*: 
(Ps. li. 17.) hat therefore he doth not despise it, hecaose the Son 
of God, oar Lord Jesas Christ, took apon him a contrite and hum- 
ble heart ; by whose only contrition and humiliation' our sins are 
purged before God, and his wrath is pacified. Now we are made 
partakers of this pacification, when, with a contrite and humble 
heart, we believe that Jesus Christ alone is our reconciler with 
the Heavenly Father. " He was wounded for our transgreaaioiis, 
he was broken for our iniquities : the chastisement of our peace was 
upon him; and by his stripes we are healed." Isa.liii, 5. «^He is 
the propitiation for our sins." 1 John ii. 2. " To him give all the 
prophets witness, that, through his name, all that believe in him 
shall have remission of their sins." Acts x. 43. Also the examples 
of Cain, Esau, Saul, Judas Iscariot, and such like, do witness, that 
contrition is not a merit of remission of sins. For these men, 
although they had so great contrition, that it seemed to them a 
thing more tolerable to dispatch their life, either by strangling, 
or with swords, rather than to suffer those horrible griefii; yet 
could they not obtain remission of their sins. The Gloss 
saith, 'If we look narrowly to the matter, remission of sins is 
to be attributed to the grace of God, not to contrition.' De 
Pcmitentid: Dist. 1. Cap, 1. Wherefore we confess, that to 
show forth true repentance, contrition is necessary ; yet not to this 
end, that it should be any merit or purging of our sins before 
God ; but that man, acknowledging the greatness of his sins, should 
be stirred up to seek remission of sins and salvation, in the only 
free clemency and mercy of God, and that only for Jesus Chlist our 
Lord's sake, by faith. 

Chapter 14. 0/ Confession. 

They call confession a reckoning up of sins, before a priest* 
Therefore, such confession as hath hitherto been used,, as it was not 


commanded of God ; bo it ia manifest, that the ancient Church did 
not exact it with such severity, as if it had been necessary to 
obtain eternal salvation. And it is not to be doubted, but that wc 
ought to acknowledge ourselves before God to be sinners, and to 
confess our sins to God ; but even the ancient Ecclesiastical writers do 
grant, that it is free for any one to reckon up his sins before man, or 
not ; unless in some matter man be offended, and the truth by lawful 
and Divine calling is to be declared. Chrysostom saith, ' I will thee 
not to bewray thyself openly, nor to accuse thyself before others : 
but I counsel thee to obey the Prophet, saying. Open thy way unto 
the Lord.* In Cap. xii. ad Hebraos. Horn. 31. And again, ' If thou 
art ashamed to shew thy sins to any man, then utter them every day 
in thine heart : I say not, go, confess thy sins to thy fellow-servant, 
that may itpbraid thee with them ; but confess them unto God, that is 
aUe to cure them.' In PsaL Miserere, Now, although these words 
of Chrysostom use to be expounded of those nins, which were 
before confessed to a priest; yet is this exposition a manifest 
wresting of the meaning of 'Chrysostom. And Ecclesiastical liis- 
tory doth evidently witness, that this custom of confessing unto a 
priest was abrogated in the church of Constantinople. Augustine 
saith, ' What have I to do with men, that they should hear 
my confession, as if they were able to heal all my griefs ? They 
are verv curious to know another man's life, and verv slow in 
amending of their own.' Con/essiones, Lib. 10. Cap. 3. Ambrose 
saith, ' Peter sorrowed and wept, because he erred as man ; I do 
not find what he said ; I know that he wept ; I read of his tears ; I 
do not read of his satisfaction.' Super. Luc, de Pcndten. Dist, 1. 
Cap. Petru9. 

And although we think that it is not necessary to salvation, to 
reckon up sins before a priest, and that it is not any merit of 
remission of sins ; yet we endeavour, that a general confession of 
sins, so far as may be, and is lawful, may be retained in our 
charchea.* And that for two causes : one is, that by this private 

* Seeing tfaat these things pertain not to the doctrine of faith» but unto the 
use of Ecclesiastical discipline, (of the liberty whereof in particular churches 
we have oftentimes spoken elsewhere;) we do not think it good, that this law 
should be brought into our Churches ; being made and received in other places, 
"Cside the word of God, and the custom of the ancient i»ure Cliurch ; which did 
never require private confession of every one of those which did profess the 
Christian religion, but only of them, of whose sins knowledge was taken in 


conference the ignorant may be admonished and instructed in 
necessary matters : the other, that by this occasion the Gospel of 
Christ, touching remission of sins, may be heard privately, (the 
which Gospel is the true key of the kingdom of heaven, and 
absolution from sin,) and that, by the hearing of the Gospel, or 
absolution, faith may be either conceived, or confirmed. For, that 
we may truly repent, we think that there is nothing more sure and 
certain, than that of necessity we should have faith ; to this end, that, 
as the Gospel of Christ doth declare it, so we may assuredly believe 
that our sins are freely pardoned and forgiven for our Lord Jesus 
Christ his sake. 

We are not ignorant, that, if we look unto our works, we are not 
only to doubt, but also to despair of our salvation ; because that our 
works, seem they never so good, cannot stand upright before the 
severe tribunal-seat of God. Neither are we ignorant, that some 
doubt of the mercy and favour of God doth always cleave to our 
flesh, so long as we live in the body. But seeing that God doth 
promise unto us his free mercy for Christ his Son's sake, and doth 
require of us that we do obediently believe the Gospel of his Son ; he 
therewith also doth require, that we mortify the doubting of the 
flesh, and have a most assured affiance in his mercy, that we do 
not accuse his promise to be so full of deceit, as we are of doubting. 
And that we may conceive sure confidence therein, he hath placed our 
salvation, not in the merits of our righteousness, which is imperfect, 
but only in the merits of his Son, oup Lord Jesus Christ : whose 
righteousness, as it is most perfect, so it is most firm and constant in 
the judgment of God. " Repent, and believe the Gospel." Mark i. 
15. He commandeth us to believe the Gospel, which declareth unto 
us the certain favour of God towards us, for Christ his sake : 
therefore, he will not have us to doubt of his favour towards us, but 
to conceive sure confidence thereof. ''This is the work of God, 
that ye believe in him, whom the Father hath sent." John vi. 29. 
If God require of us, that we believe in his Son, certainly he would 
not have us to doubt, but to put our sure confidence in him. 
" If any of you want wisdom, let him ask of him which giveth it, 
namely of God, who giveth, I say, to all men without exception, and 
upbraideth not, and it shall be given him : but let him ask with 
confidence, nothing doubting." James i. 5, 6. Hilary saith, * The 
kingdom of heaven, which the Prophets foreshewed, John preached, 
and our Lord professed to consist in himself, he w^ill have us to 
hope for, without any doubting of a wavering yn\L Otherwise, 


JTudfication through Cuth is none at all, if faith itself be doubtful.' In 
Matth, Cop. V. And Augustine saith, ' He that doth despair of the 
pardon of his sins, doth deny that God is merciful ; he that doth 
distrust of the mercy of God, doth great injur}- unto God, and. 
as much as in him lieth, denieth that God hath love, truth, and 
power; in which things all our hope doth consist.' Manua/e, Cap. 23. 
Sbtus saith, ' He which is doubtful in faith, is an infidel.' Sixti 
Pontjficis Epist. 1. in Conciliorum Tom, i. Wherefore, we think 
that they, who counsel us to doubt of the favour of God towards 
us, do not only dissent from the true judgment of the Catholic 
church, but also provide very ill for the salvation of the church. 

Chapter 15. 0/ Satis/action. 

^ touching satisfiaction, we believe and confess, that the alone 
passion and death of the only-begotten Son of God, our Lord Jesus 
Olxmtf is a satisfaction for our sins; and that tliis satisfaction of 
Clarist is ofiercd and applied to us by the ministry of the Gospel, 
an>d is received of us by faith. We also confess, that after the 
nt^isfaction of Christ is applied, and by faith received, we ought 
neocssarily to do those good works which God hath commanded ; 
no^ that by them we might purge our sins before God, but that we 
ix^is^^ bring forth good fruits of repentance, and testify our thank- 
fulness. For, as touching prayer, fasting, giving of alms, and such 
vk.e works, wc think that they are diligently to be performed ; yet 
that tlicvhave a far other use, than that thev should, bv their merits, 
either satisfy God for our sins, or apply unto us the merit of 

VII. — From thb Confession of Sueveland. 

Chapter 20. Of Confession, 

Seeing that true confession of sins, and such as hath its beginning 
fc<*n* godliness, can be performed of no man, whom his repentance 
■ttd true sorrow of mind doth not force thereunto, it cannot be 
^'^^"ted out by any precept. Wherefore, neither Christ himself, 
n*"' the Apostles would command it. For this cause, therefore, our 
pw^cbers do exhort men to confess their sins, and therewithal 
tlwjrsbew what fruit ariseth hereof; that a man should secretly 
•cA fbr comfort, counsel, doctrine, and instruction, at the hands of 
8 nun that is a Christian, and wise : vet bv commandment thev 
vT^ no man, but do rather affirm, that such commandments do 
binder godliness. For that constitution of confessing sins unto 



a priest, hath driven infinite souls into desperation ; and is subject to 
so many corruptions, that it ought long since to have been abrogated, 
and without doubt had been abrogated, if the governors of 
churches, in late times, had burned with so great a zeal to remove 
away stumbling-blocks, as, in times past, Nestorins, the bishop of 
Constantinople, did burn ; who did utterly abolish secret confession 
in his church, because that a certain noblewoman, going often to 
church, under pretence of doing the works of repentance, was 
deprehended to have lain with a deacon. Infinite such undoubted 
sins were committed everywhere. Moreover, the Pontifical laws 
do require, that the hearer and judge of confession should be so 
holy, learned, wise, merciful, that a man can hardly find out, 
especially among those that are commonly appointed to hear con- 
fessions, to whom he might confess himself. And now the school- 
men do thinks that it is better to confess sins to a layman, than to 
that priest, by whom we may not look to be edified in godliness. 
This is the sum : That confession bringeth more hurt than profit, 
which sound repentance and true sorrow of the mind for sins 
committed doth not wring out. Therefore, seeing this is the gift 
of God alone, that we repent of our sins, and be truly sorrow- 
ful for that we have sinned, nothing, that may turn to salvation, 
can be done in this matter bv commandments, as hath hitherto 
been made too manifest even by experience. 




I. — From the latter Confession of Helvetia. 

Chapter 15. Of the true Justification of the Faithful. 

To justify, in the Apostle's disputation touching justification, 
doth signify to remit sins, to absolve from the fault and the punish- 
ment, thereof, to receive into favour, to pronounce a man just. 
For the Apostle saith to the Romans, " God is he that justifieth ; 
who is he that can condemn?" Rom. viii. 33, 34. where to 
justify, and to condemn, are opposed. And in the Acts of the 
Apostles, the Apostle saith, " Through Christ is preached unto you 


foi^veness of sins ; and from all things, (from which ye could not be 
justified by the law of Moses,) by him, every one that believeth is 
justified." Acts ziii. 38, 39. For in the law also, and in the pro- 
^lets we read, that " If a controversy were risen amongst any, and 
they came to judgment, the judge should judge them ; that is, justify 
the righteousy and make wicked, or condemn, the wicked." 
Deut. zzv. 1. And in Isaiah, v. 23. " Woe to them which 
justify the wicked for rewards." Now it is most certain, that we are 
sU by nature sinners, and before the judgment-scat of God 
convicted of ungodliness, and guilty of death. But we are justified, 
that is, acquitted from sin and death, by God the Judge, through 
the grace of Christ alone, and not by any respect or merit 
of ours. For what is more plain, than that which Paul saith ? " All 
have sinned, and are destitute of the glory of God, and are justified 
freely by his grace, through the redemption which is in Christ 
Jesus." Rom. iii. 23, 24. For Christ took upon himself and bare 
the sins of the world, and did satisfy the justice of God. God, 
therefore, is merciful unto our sins, for Christ alone, that suffered 
and rose again, and doth not impute them unto us. But he imputeth 
the justice of Christ unto us for our own : so that now we are not 
only cleansed from sin, and purged, and holy, but also endued with the 
righteousness of Christ; yea, and acquitted from sin, death, and 
condemnation: 2 Cor. v. 19 — 21. finally, we arc righteous, and 
heirs of eternal life. To speak properly, then ; it is God alone that 
justifieth us, and that only for Christ, by not imputing unto us our 
sins, but imputing Christ's righteousness unto us. Rom. iv. 23 — 25. 
But because we do receive this justification, not by any works, 
but by faith in the mercy of God, and in Christ ; therefore, we teach 
and believe, with the Apostle, that sinful man is justified only by 
faith in Christ, not by the law, or by any works. For the Apostle 
saith, "We conclude that man is justified by faith, without the 
works of the law." Rom. iii. 28. " If Abraham was justified by 
works, he hath whereof to boast ; but not with God : for what 
saith the Scripture ? Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to 
him for righteousness ; but to him that worketh not, but believeth in 
liim that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteous- 
ness." Rom. iv. 2, 3 ; 5. Gen. xv. 6. And again ; " Ye are saved by 
grace, through faith : and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; 
not by works, lest any might have cause to boast, &c." Eph. ii. 8, 
9 . Therefore, because faith doth apprehend Christ our righteous- 
ness, and doth attribute all to the praise of God in Christ ; in this 

. ' I 


-^i^rt-rr jcsnncaricii ii inr^nrsd 5c hitk, chiefly because of Christ 
▼" .— .r r^cs.-'ir'z. iz.«i zee 'reciu:<e it u> a work of oxxn; for it is the 
rrr ?i Gi:c- Xi-v ti^r -v- ic receive Christ by fidthj the Lord 
Jien-.rrh iz lirr^. Jiiz. tL -IT : 23 ; 3j ; 4S — 5S. where he pntteth 
*:inn;r xr leiic-^lzr. in-i :til:v;-r-jir icr eatiiiff. For as by eating we 
-^.r-ir-i aiear. sc zj tehe-riz^ we are made partakers of Christ. 
rierfr':r*. -are ij zee 7 art zl-* beceti: cf justittcatxon, giving part to the 
rric'^ cc G:ii. :r tc C'zri*:. a=.d part tj ourselves, our charity, works, 
3r oierlt; b.: w-e dc anrfziite it wholly to the praise of CSod in 
Chrst. and uiat tiirc-^ faith. Moreover, our charitv and our 
wcrkj c-azzct pUa^e Gcd, if they be done of such as are not just: 
wher^'vire. we niu*: srst be just, before we can love or do any just 
works. We are ziade ;:i<t ^^is we have aaid) through faith in Christ, 
by the mere grace ci God : who doth not impute unto us our sins, 
but ioiputeth unto us the ri^teousness of Christ ; yea, and our 
faith in Christ he impute th for righteousness unto us. Moreover, 
the Apo«tIe doth plainly derive love from ^th, saying, " The end of 
the commandment is love, proceeding from a pure heart, a good con- 
science, and faith unfei^ed." I Tim. i. 5. Wherefore, in this 
matter we speak not of a feigned. \'ain. or dead faith, but of a livd) 
and quickening faith : which, for Christ (who is life, and giveth life] 
whom it apprehendeth. both is indeed, and is so called, a lively faith, 
and dcth prove itself to bo livoly, by lively works. And therefore 
James doth speak nothing contrary to this our doctrine; for h< 
f^peaketh of a vain and dead faith, which certain bragged of, but bac 
not Christ living within them by faith. And James also saith, thai 
works do justify ; Chap. ii. 14 — -6. yet he is not contrary tc 
Paul, (for then he were to be rejected :) but he shcweth that Abra- 
ham did declare his livelv and justifvinsr faith bv works. And so d< 
all the godly, who yet trust in Christ alone, not to their own works. 
For the Apostle said again, ** I live, howbeit not I, but Christ livetl 
in mc. But the life which now I live in the flesh, I live through th< 
faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me. ] 
do not dcjspise the grace of God ; for if righteousness be by the law 
then Christ died in vain." Gal. ii. 20, 21. 

Chapter IG. Of Faith and Good Works: of their Reward, and oj 

MarCs Merit, 

Christian faith is not an opinion, or human persuasion; but 1 
Murc trust, and an evident and stcdfast assent of the mind ; to hi 
brit'f, a nio<*t sure comprehension of the truth of God, set forth ii 


tlie Scriptares, and in the Apostles' Creed ;* yea, and of God him- 
self« the chief blessedness ; and especially of God's promise, and of 
Ohrist, who is the consummation of all the promises. And this 
liedth is the mere gift of God, because God alone of his power doth 
give it to his elect, according to measure ; and that when, to whom, 
and how much he will ; and that by his Holy Spirit, tlirough the 
means of preaching the Gospel, and of faithful prayer. This faith 
hAth also her increases ; which unless they were likewise given of 
Grod, the Apostles would never have said, " Lord, increase our faith." 
L«uke xvii. 5. 

Vow, all these things which we have said hitherto of faith, the 

A^postlea taught them before us, even as we set them down. For Paul 

sa^th, " Faith is the ground," or sure subsistence, '^ of things hoped 

(arwr, and the evidence," or clear and certain comprehension, "of 

tbJLiigs which are not seen." Heb. xi. 1. And again he saith, that 

" ^AH the promises of God in Christ are Yea, and in Christ are 

A xx3en." 2 Cor. i. 20. And the same Apostle saith to the Philippians, 

tl&ca.t "it was given them to believe in Christ." Phil. i. 29. And 

, "God doth distribute unto every man a measure of faith." 

sn. xii. 3. And again, " All men have not faith." 2 Thess. iii. 2. 

sE^cS, "All do not obey the Gospel." 2 Thess. i. 8. Besides, Luke 

^^txesseth and saith, " As many as were ordained to life, believed." 

A-C5^ ziii. 48. And therefore Paul also callcth faith, " the faith of 

G-od'a elect." Tit. i. 1. And again, " Faith cometh by hearing, and 

^^^^Jring by the word of God.*' Rom. x. 17. And in other places 

te ofttimes willeth men to pray for faith. And the same also 

callethiaithy " powerful, and that shewcth itself by love." Gal. v. 6. 

a fiiith doth pacify the conscience, and doth open to us a free 

unto Grod ; that with confidence we may come unto him, and 

may obtain at his hands whatsoever is profitable and necessary. The 

■*me faith doth keep us in our duty which wc owe to God and to our 

neighbour, and doth fortify our patience in adversity : it doth frame 

and make a true confession, and (in a word) it doth bring forth good 

^i^t of all sorts ; and good works (which are good indeed) do 

P^^^oeed from a lively faith, by the Holy Ghost, and are done of the 

Wthfal according to the will or rule of God's word. For Peter the 

Apostle saith, " Therefore, giving all diligence thereunto, join more- 

* Clearly on the supposition, that the Creed which commonly passes under 
t^ nane of the Apostles, should be received within the Canon of Divine 
i""pintion*— Kditob. 


over virtue with your faith, and with virtue knowledge, and with 
knowledge temperance," &c. 2 Pet. i. 5, 6. 

It was said before, that the law of God, which is the will of God, 
did prescribe unto us the pattern of good works. And the Apostle 
saith, " This is the will of God, even your sanctiiication ; that ye 
abstain from all uncleanness, and that no man oppress or deceive 
his brother in any matter." 1 Thess* iv. 3; 6. Bat as for such 
works and worships of Grod as are taken up upon our own liking, which 
St. Paul calleth " will-worship," Col. ii. 23. they are not allowed 
nor liked of God. Of such the Lord saith in the Gospel, " They 
worship me in vain, teaching for doctrine the precepts of men." 
Matt. XV. 9. We, therefore, disallow all such manner of works, and 
we approve and urge men unto such as are according to the will and 
commandment of God. Yea, and these same works, that are 
agreeable to God*s will, must be done, not to the end to merit 
eternal life by them ; for " life everlasting," as the Apostle aaith, *' is 
the gift of God :" Rom. vi. 23. nor for ostentation's sake, which the 
Lord doth reject ; Matt. vi. 1 ; 5 ; 1 6. nor for lucre, which also he 
misliketh ; Matt, xxiii. 23. but to the glory of God, to commend and 
set forth our calling, and to yield thankfulness unto God, and also 
for the profit of our neighbours. For the Lord saith again in the 
Gospel, " Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your 
good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven." Matt. v. 16. 
liikewise the Apostle Paul saith, " Walk worthy of your calling." 
Eph, iv. 1 . Also, " Whatsoever ye do," saith he, " either in word, 
or in deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to 
God the Father by him." Col. iii. 17. " Let no man Eeek his own, 
but every man his brother's." Phil. ii. 4. And, " Let ours alto 
learn to shew forth good works for necessary uses, that they be not 
unprofitable." Tit. iii. 14. Notwithstanding, therefore, that we 
teach, with the Apostle, that a man is justified by faith in Christ, 
and not by any good works ; Rom. iii. 28. yet we do not lightly 
esteem or condemn good works : because we know that a man is not 
created or regenerated through fiaith, that he should be idle, but 
rather that without ceasing he should do those things which are 
good and profitable. For in the Gospel the Lord saith, " A good 
tree bringeth forth good fruit :" Matt. xii. 33. and again, *' Whoeo- 
ever abidetli in me, bringeth forth much fruit." John xv. 5. And 
la.stly, the Apostle saith, " We are the workmanship of God, created 
in Christ Jesus to good works, which God hath prepared, that we 
should walk in them." Eph. ii. 10. And again, ** Who gave himself 


for iis« that he might deliver us from all iniquity, and purge us to be 
R peculiar people to himself, zealous of good works." Ht. ii. 14. We 
therefore condemn all those, which do contemn good works, and do 
babble that they are needless, and not to be regarded. Neverthe- 
less, as was said before, we do not think that we are saved by good 
works, or that they are so necessary to salvation, that no man was 
ever saved without them. For we are saved by grace, and by the 
benefit inf Christ alone. Works do necessarily proceed from hiih : 
but salvation is improperly attributed to them, which is most pro- 
periy ascribed to grace. That sentence of the Apostle is very 
notable : " If by grace, then not of works ; for then grace were no 
more grace : but if of works, then is it not of grace ; for then 
works were no more works.*' Rom. xi. 6. 

Now the works which we do, are accepted and allowed of God 
throng faith ; because they which do them please God by feuth in 
Qirist* and also the works themselves are done by the grace of God 
through his Holy Spirit. For St. Peter saith, that " Of every 
nation, he that feareth God, and worketh righteousness, is accepted 
with him." Act. x. 35. And Paul also, " We cease not to pray for 
yon, that ye may walk worthy of the Lord, and in all things please 
him» being fruitful in every good work." Col. i. 9, 10. Here, 
therefore, we diligently teach, not false and philosophical, but true 
virtues, true good works, and the true duties of a Christian man. 
And this we do, with all the diligence and earnestness that we can 
inculcate and beat into men*s minds ; sharply reproving the slothful- 
nesB and hypocrisy of all those, who with their mouths praise and 
profess the Gospel, and yet with their shameful life do dishonour the 
same ; setting before their eyes, in this case, God's horrible threat- 
eningsy large promises, and bountiful rewards, and that by exhorting, 
comforting, and rebuking. For we teach, that God doth bestow 
(great rewards on them that do good, according to that saying of the 
Prophet, " Refrain thy voice from weeping, because thy work shall 
have a reward." Jer. xxxi. 16. In the Gospel also the Lord said, 
" Rejoice, and be glad, because your reward Lb great in the heavens." 
Matt. V. 12. And, " He that shall give to one of these little ones a 
cup of cold water, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his 
reward." Matt. x. 42. Yet we do not attribute this reward, which 
God giveth, to the merit of the man that recciveth it, but to the 
goodness, or liberality, and truth of God, which promiseth and 
giveth it: who although he owe nothing unto any, yet he hath 
promised to give a reward to those that faitlifully worship him, 


notwithstanding that he do also give them grace to wonhip him. 
Besides, there are many things unworthy the majesty of God, and 
many imperfect things are found in the works even of the saints ; 
and yet because God doth receive into favour, and embrace those 
who work them for Christ's sake, therefore he performeth mito them 
the promised reward. For otherwise, our righteousnesses are com- 
pared to a menstruous cloth : Isa. Ixiv. 6. yea, and the Lord in the 
Gospel saith, " When ye have done all things that are commanded 
you, say. We are unprofitable servants ; that which we ought to do, 
we have done." Luke xvii. 10. So that though we teach that God 
doth give a reward to our good deeds, yet withal we teach, with 
Augustine, that ' God doth crown in us, not our deserts, but his own 
g^s.* And therefore* whatsoever reward we receive, we say that 
it is a gprace, and rather a grace than a reward : because those good 
things which we do, we do them rather by God, than by ourselves ; 
and because Paul saith, " What hast thou, that thon hast not re- 
ceived ? but if thou hast received it, why dost thou boast, as though 
thou hadst not received it?" 1 Cor. iv. 7. Which thing also the 
blessed Martyr Cyprian doth gather out of this place, that ' we must 
not boast of anything, seeing nothing is our own.' We, therefore, con- 
demn those who defend the merits of men, that they may make 
frustrate the grace of God. 

IL^-From thb Former Confession of Helvetia. 

Article 13. 0/ Faith, and the Power of Faiih. 

Now we attain unto these so divine benefits, and the true sanctifi- 
cation of the Spirit of God, by faith, (which is the mere gift of God,) 
not by any either our strength, or merits. Which faith, being a sure 
and undoubted substance, and laying hold on things to be hoped for 
from the good will of God, doth send out of itself charity, and then 
very excellent fruits of all virtues. Yet do we not attribute any 
thing to these works, although they be the works of godly men ; but 
that salvation which we have obtained, we do wholly attribute to the 
very grace of God. And this is indeed the only true worship of God ; 
to wit, a faith most fruitful of good works, and yet not putting any 
confidence in works. 

IIL — From the Confession of Basle. 

Art. 8. We confess the remission of sins through faith in Christ 
crucified. And though this faith doth without intermission exercise 
and shew forth itself in works of charity, and by this means b tried ; 


yet we do not attribute righteousness and satisfaction for our sins 
unto works, which are fruits of faith, but only to a true confidence 
and fedth in the blood of the Lamb of God shed for us. For we do 
unfeignedly profess, that all things are given us freely in Christ, who 
is our righteousness, holiness, redemption, way, truth, wisdom, and 
life. Therefore the faithful do work, not to satisfy for their sins, but 
only that they may in some sort shew themselves thankful unto God 
our Lord for the great benefits bestowed upon us in Christ. (And in 
the margin, upon the word. Thankful : — ^Thankfulness consisteth in 
requiting of benefits received. But we can requite nothing to God. 
because he wanteth nothing. Therefore we have an eye to those 
things which he requireth of us : and those are, faith, and works of 
charity: he requireth faith toward himself, charity toward our 

IV. — From thk Confession of Bohemia. 

Chapter 6. Of Christ our Lord, and of Justification by Faith. 

The sixth point of Christian doctrine in our churches is, of sound 
and lively fcuth in Jesus Christ our Lord, and of true justification 
by this faith. And, a little after: Our men are taught to ac- 
knowledge this grace and truth, and by faith to behold them in all 
the saving and wonderful works which Christ brought to effect, and 
which, according to the meaning of the Holy Scripture, are in a 
stcdfa&t faith to be believed and professed: such are these, — the coming 
of Christ from heaven; his conception, nativity, torments, death, 
burial, resurrection, ascending into heaven ; his sitting at the right 
hand of God; and his coming again from thence to judge the quick 
and the dead. In these principal effects, as in a chest wherein trea- 
sure is kept, are all those saving fruits of true justification laid up ; 
and from thence they are taken for the elect and faithful, that in 
spirit and conscience, by faith, they may be made partakers thereof: 
aHi^hich shall hereafter be perfectly and fully given unto them, in 
the day of jo)rful resurrection. (These things are also found in the 
Sixth Section, so far forth as they describe the Works of Christ, and 
the Fruits thereof.) 

Upon this foundation, of this justifying faith, and of true and 
P^ect justification thereby, according to evident and clear testi- 
Dionies in the Scriptures, we are further taught ; first, that no man by 
^ ovm strength, or by the ])ower of his own will, or of flesh and 
^'ood, can attain unto or have this saving or justifying faith, except 
^od of his grace, by the Holy Ghost, and by the ministry of the 


Grospel preached, do plant it in the heart of whom he list, and when 
he list: John i. 13. so that that heart may receive all things, which 
are offered for salvation, and made known touching the same, by the 
public preaching of the word, Rom. x. 17. 2 Thess. iii. 1. and by the 
sacraments instituted of Christ. Hereof holy John Baptist saith, 
" Man can take nothing to himself, except it be given him from 
above." John iii. 27. Also, our Lord Christ himself saith, " No man 
Cometh to me, except the Father, which sent me, draw him :' 
John vi. 44. and, a little after, " Except it be given him of m) 
Father;" John iii. 65. that is, from above, through the Holy Ghost. 
And to Peter, Christ said, " Flesh and blood hath not revealed this 
unto thee." Matxvi. 17. 

Now> this faith properly is an assent of a vnlling heart to the 
whole truth delivered in the Gospel ; whereby man is lightened in hia 
mind and soul, that for his only Saviour he may rightly acknowledge 
and receive his God and Lord Jesus Christ ; and upon him, as on a 
true rock, he may build his whole salvation ; may love, follow, and 
enjoy him, and repose all his hope and confidence in him : and by 
this valiant confidence he may lift up himself, and trust that, for him 
and his only merit, God is become to him favourable, gentle, boun- 
tiful ; and also that in him and for him he assuredly hath, and shall 
have for ever, eternal life, according to his true promise which he 
confirmed with an oath, saying, " Verily I say unto you, he that 
believeth in me hath eternal life." John vi. 47. And, " This is the 
will of him that sent me, that he which seeth the Son, and believeth 
in him, shall have eternal life; and 1 will raise him up in the last 
day." John vi. 40. Also, " This is life eternal, that they know 
thee the true God, and whom thou hast sent, Jesus Christ." John 
xvii. 3. And Isaiah saith, '< By his knowledge shall my righteous 
servant justify many." Isaiali liii. 11. This faith alone, and this 
inward confidence of the heart in Jesus Christ our Lord, doth justify, 
or make a man just before God, without any works which he may 
add, or any merit of his. Of which St. Paul saith, " But to him that 
worketh not at all, but believeth in him that justifieth the wicked 
man, his faith is imputed for righteousness." Rom. iv. 5. And 
before he said, '< But now is the righteousness of God made ma- 
nifest without the law, having witness of the law and of the prophets; 
to wit, the righteousness of God, by the faith of Jesus Christ, unto 
all and upon aU that believe." Rom. iii. 21, 22. And, in another 
place, " He that believeth in him, is made righteous." Acts xiii. 39. 
And this righteousness, or justification, is the remission of sins, the 


tsking away of eternal punishment, which the severe justice of God 
doth require, and to be clothed with Christ's righteousness, or with 
imputation thereof: also it is a reconciliation with God, a receiving 
into favQur, whereby we are made acceptable in the Beloved, and 
Mow-heirs of eternal life. For the confirming of which things, and 
by reason of our new birth or regeneration, there is an earnest 
added, to wit, the Holy Ghost; Ephes. i* 13, 14. who is given and 
bestowed freely, out of infinite grace, for Christ his death, his blood- 
ahedding, and his resurrection. 

M these things hath Paul described very excellently in his Epistle 

to the Romans, ch. iv. 7, where he bringeth in David speaking in 

this wise ; " Blessed are they whose iniquity is forgiven :" Psa. xxxii. 

1 . thereof he speaketh in that whole chapter. And to the Galatians 

he saith, " God sent forth his Son, that we might receive the 

adoption. Now, because ye are sons, God hatli sent forth the Spirit 

of liiji Son, crying in your hearts, Abba, Father." Gal. iv. 4— G. 

Ron. viii. 15. For, whomsoever God doth justify, to them he doth 

give the Holy Ghost, and by him he doth first regenerate them, as 

he promiseth by the Prophet, saying, " I will give them a new heart, 

and I will pat my Spirit in the midst of them ;" Ezek. xi. 19. and 

xxxvi. 26. that as before sin had reigned in them to death, so also 

then grace might reign by righteousness unto eternal life through 

Jcnu Christ. Rom. v. 21. And this is the communion or partici- 

potioa of the g^race of God the Father, of the merit of Jesus Christ 

<^ liord, and of the sanctification of the Holy Ghost : this is the 

^ of feith, the law of the Spirit and life, written by the Holy 


But the lively and never- djring spring of this justification, is our 
I^ Jesus Christ alone, by those his saving works, (that is, which 
6*^ salvation ;) from whom all holy men, from the beginning of the 
^'^"U, as well before the law was published, and under the law and 
"K discipline thereof, as also after the law, have and do draw, have 
'^ do receive salvation, or remission of their sins, by faith in the 
most- comfortable promise of the Gospel : and do apply and appro- 
priate it, as peculiar to themselves, only for the sole death of Christ, 
and his blood-shedding, to the full and perfect abolishing of their 
■Oi, and the cleansing from them all. Whereof we have many testi- 
nwmies in the Scripture. Holy Peter, before the whole Council at 
Jcnualem, doth prove by sound arguments, " that salvation is not 
to be found in any other, than in Christ Jesus alone ; and that, under 
tUi large cope of heaven, there is no other name given unto men. 


whereby we may be saved." Acts iv. 12. And in another place he 
appealeth to the consenting voices and testimonies of aU the Prophets, 
who spake with one mind, by one Spirit, and as it were by one 
^ mouth : and thus he said, " As touching this Jesus, all the Prophets 
bear witness, that, through his name, all that believe in him shall 
receive remission of sins." Acts x. 43. And to the Hebrews it is 
written, " He hath by himself purged our sins." Heb. i. 3. And 
again, " We have redemption through his blood, even the remission 
of sins." Eph. i. 7. And St. John saith, " We have an Advocate 
with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propi- 
tiation, or atonement, for our sins ; and not for ours only, but also 
for the sins of the whole world." 1 John ii. 1, 2. And again to the 
Hebrews, "We are sanctified by the offering of the body of Jesus Christ 
once made :" Heb. x. 10. and a little after he addeth, '' With one 
only ofFering hath he consecrated for ever them that are sanctified ;** 
verse 14. namely of God, by the Spirit of God. Therefore all sin- 
ners, and such as are penitent, ought to fiy incontinently through 
their whole life to our Lord Jesus Christ alone, for remission of their 
sins, and every saving grace ; according to that in the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, <' Seeing that we have a great High Priest, even Jesus the 
Son of God, which is entered into heaven, let us hold fast this pro- 
fession," which is concerning Christ our Lord : and straightway he 
addeth, " Let us therefore go boldly unto the throne of grace, that 
we may receive mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.'* 
Heb. iii. 14; 16. Also Christ himself, crying out, saith, " He that 
thirsteth, let him come to me, and drink." John vii. 37. And in 
another place, " He that comcth unto me, shall not hunger ; and he 
that believeth in me, shall never thirst." John vi. 35. 

Now, they that attain to this justification by Christ our Lord, are 
taught to take unto themselves true and assured comfort, out of this 
grace and bounty of God, to enjoy a good and quiet conscience 
before God, to be certain of their own salvation, and to have it con- 
firmed to them by this means ; that, seeing they are here the sons of 
God, they shall also after death in the resurrection be made heirs.'* 
Rom. viii. 17. Gal. iv. 7. In the mean time they ought both to 
desire to be brought to this, that they may receive the fruit of perfect 
salvation, and also cheerfully to look for it, with that confidence, 
according to the promise of the Lord, that such shall not come into 
judgment, but that, by making a way, they have already passed from 
death into life. John v. 24. Of all points of doctrine we account 
this the chiefest and weightiest, as that wherein the sum of the 


Crospel doth consist, whereon Christianity is founded, and wherein 
the precious and most noble treasure of eternal salvation, and the 
only and lively comfort proceeding from God, is comprehended. 
Therefore herein our preachers do labour especially, that they may 
weU instruct the hearts of men in this point of doctrine, and so sow 
it, that it may take deep root. 

Chapter 7. Of Good Works and a Christian Life, 

In the seventh place we teach, that they, who are made righteous 
and acceptable to God, by faith alone in Christ Jesus, and that by 
the g^ce of God without any merits, ought, in the whole course of 
their life that followeth, both altogether jointly, and every one par- 
ticularly, according as the order, condition, age, and place of every 
one doth require, to perform and exercise those good works and holy 
actions which are commanded of God, even as the Lord com- 
mandeth, when he saith, " Teach them to observe all things, which 
I have commanded you." Matt, xxviii. 20. Now these good works, 
or holy actions, are not certain affections devised of flesh and blood, 
(for such the Lord forbiddeth ;) but they are expressly shewed and 
propounded unto us by the Spirit of God ; to do the which, Grod 
doth bind us ; and the rule and chief square whereof God himself is in 
hiB word. For to he saith by the Prophet, " Walk not in the com- 
mandments of your fathers, and keep not their judgments, and defile 
not yourselves with their idols : I am Jehovah your God ; walk ye in 
my commandments, and keep my judgments, and do them." Ezek. xx. 
18, 19. Likewise Christ saith, " Teach them those things, which I 
have commanded you." Matt, xxviii. 20. Therefore the Ten Com- 
mandments, and love, which by faith worketh righteousness, on the 
right hand and on the left hand, as well toward God as toward our 
neighbour, is a certain sum, a most straight square, and a most arti- 
ficial shaping or description of all good works. Now, an example of 
this square is the most holy life of Christ, whereof he himself saith, 
" Learn of me, because I am meek and humble in heart." Matt. 
xi. 29. And what other thing would he teach, by uttering those 
eight sentences of happiness. Matt. v. 3 — 10. than to shew what 
manner of life the true children of God ought to lead, and what be 
the works which God hath commanded ? 

Therefore, according to these things, they teach with all care and 
diligence, touching the difference which is to be known and kept 
betwixt those works which arc devised and taught of men, and those 
which are commanded of God. Those works wliich are commanded 

160 THx NINTH ncnoN. 

of God, ought not to be intermitted for human traditions. For 
Christ doth grievouslv reprehend this in them that do otherwise, 
and in the Pharisees, saj-ing, " Why do ye transgress the command- 
ments of God for your traditions ?" Matt. xv. 3. And again, " In 
Tain do they worship me, seeing they do only teach the command- 
ments of men." Mark vii. 7. But such works as are taught of 
men,* what shew soever they have even of goodness, are in no case 
to be so highly esteemed, as those which are commanded of God. Isa. 
xxiz. 13, 14. Yea, to say somewhat more ; if they be not of faith, but 
contrary to faith, they are of no value at all, but are an abomination 
and filthiness before the face of God. Isa. i. 11. and Ixiv. 6. Now, 
all good works are divided, Firsts generally, into those which pertain 
to all true Christians, according to the unity of faith and Catholic 
salvation : Secondly, particularly, into those which are proper to the 
order, age» and place of every man ; as the Holy Ghost doth seve- 
rally teach elders, masters, the common sort, parents, children, the 
married, the unmarried, and every one, what be their proper bonds 
and works. Moreover, on this point, men are diligently taught to 
know how, and wherein, good works do please God. Truly, they 
please God no otherwise, than in the only name of our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; in whose name they ought to be done, to the glory of God, 
according to the doctrine of Paul the Apostle, who speaketh thus, 
" Whatsoever ye do in words and in deeds, do all in the name of our 
Lord Jesus." Col. iii. 23. 1 Cor. x. 31. And the Lord himself 
saith, " Without me ye can do nothing ;" John xv. 5. that is, no- 
thing that may please God, and be for your salvation. Now, to do 
good works in the name of Christ, is to do them in a lively faith in 
him, whereby we are justified ; and in love, which is poured forth 
into our hearts by the Holy Ghost, in such sort that God loveth us, 
and we again love him and our neighbour. For the Holy Ghost 
doth sanctify, move, and kindle the hearts of them which are justi- 
fied, to do these holy actions ; as tlie Lord saith, " He shall be in 
you:" John xiv. 17. and the Apostle, "The anointing of God 
teacheth you." 1 John ii. 27. These two, faith and love, are the 
fountain and square of all virtues and good works ; according to the 
testimony of the Apostle. " The end of the commandment ia love, 
out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith not feigned." 
1 Tim. i. 5. And again, *' Without faith it is not possible to please 

* Understand this of those works which yet are not will-worship, and de- 
vices of inan*8 brain : for such are wholly to be rejected ; as is also said of 
such, a little af^, that are not of fidth, but contmry to fiuth. 


God :" Heb. xi. 6. also, " without love nothing doth profit a 
man." 1 Cor. xiii. 3. 

In the next place they teach, why, and to what purpose or end, 
sach good works as pertain to Christian godliness ought to be done ; 
to wit, not in this respect, that men by these works should obtain 
justification, or salvation, and remission of sins. For Christ saith, 
** When ye have done all those things which were commanded you, 
aaj. We are unprofitable servants." Luke xvii. 10. Also Paul saith, 
"' Not for the works of righteousness which we have done, but 
through his mercy hath he saved us." Tit. iii. 5. Wherewith all 
thoae words of David agree, when he prayeth, " Lord, enter not 
into judgment with thy servant, because that in thy sight shall no 
flesh living be justified." Psal. *cxliii. 2. But Christians are to ex- 
erase themselves in good works, for these causes following : First, 
that by this mean they may prove and declare their faith, and by 
these works be known to be true Christians, that is, the lively mem- 
bers and followers of Christ, whereof our Lord saith, " Every tree 
is knofwn by his own fruits." Luke vi. 44. Indeed good works are 
asBored arguments, and signs, and testimonies, and exercises of a 
lively fedth, even of that faith which lieth hid in the heart, and, to 
be short, of the true fruit thereof, and such as is acceptable to God. 
Ptol saith, " Christ liveth in me : for in that I now live in the fiesh, 
I live by faith in the Son of God." Gal. ii. 20. And truly it cannot 
be otherwise, but that, as sin doth bring forth death, so faith, and 
justification which ariseth thereout, doth bring forth life, inwardly 
in the spirit, and outwardly in the works of charity. 

Secondly, Christians must therefore do good works, that they may 
confirm and build up their election and vocation in themselves, and 
fveeerve it by taking heed that they fall not into mortal sins :* eveii 
w St. Peter teacheth, among other things writing thus ; " Where- 
fore, brethren, endeavour rather to make your vocation and election 
rare;** or to confirm it. 2 Pet, i. 10. And how this may be done, 
lie doth briefiy declare a little before : " Therefore, giving all dili- 
gence thereunto, join vrith your faith, virtue ; and with virtue, know- 
ledge ; and with knowledge, temperance ; and with temperance, 
patience ; and with patience, godliness ; and with godliness, bro- 
^eriy kindness ; and with brotherly kindness, love. For if these 
"wngs be among you, and abound in you, they will make you that 

S«e the second observation upon the Confession of Saxony in the Fourth 



ye shall be neither idle nor anfruitfiil in the knowledge of oar Lord 
Jesus Christ." 2 Pet. i. 5—8. In which place St. Peter doth 
evidently shew, that we must endeavonr to exercise oorsehreB in 
good works, First* for this cause, lest that the grace of faith and of a 
good conscience, which we have, be either lost or defiled ; but that 
it may rath^ be preserved. For the Holy Ghost doth fly firom 
idolatoiiB, and departeth from profeme men ; Wisd. i. 5. and the 
evil and impure spirit doth return into an empty and idle house- 
Matt, xii. 44 ; Luke xi. 25. Also, whosoever doth either lose or 
defile a good conscience* what commendable thing, or what work 
can he do that is precious and acceptable to God? how shall he give 
himself to prayer ? Secondly, for this cause ; that we may profit 
and increase more and more in this grace, and that we may gain 
unto the X^ord, by occcqiying those talents which are committed to 
our trust. Whereof St. Paul saith, " Now we all, bdicdding, as in 
a mirror, the glory of the Lord with open face, are changed into the 
same image from glory to glory : 2 Cor. iii. 10. that is, we behold 
Christ, who is the Image and Glory of the Father ; and hereonto 
we endeavour, that we may be conformed to the likeness of tlua 
image by the Holy Ghost, which doth kindle us thereto, till this 
image doth get her perfection by a blessed resurrection. 

Thirdly, we must do and exercise ourselves in good works, aa well 
for the promises of this life, as also for the reward of eternal life, 
(whereof mention is made very often and at large in the Holy Scrq>- 
ture ;) and that by fedth in Christ we may have a more abundant 
entrance to the attaining of those rewards, and to the eternal king* 
dom of heaven ; as St. Peter testifieth, saying, " If ye do these 
things, ye shall never fedl : for by this means an entering shall be 
ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 2 Pet. i. 10, 11. But chiefly we 
must do the works of mercy, whereby we benefit our neighbour, 
whereby we provide and do for him, and whereof he standeth in 
need : such as these be ;— to give alms, to visit the sick, to have a 
care of them, or to be at hand to do them service^ to teach the 
simplCf by counsel and labour to help others, to pardon oflenees, and 
such like : which all have the promises of the bountifulness of God» 
and of rewards ; to do the which Christ our Lord doth exhort in 
these words, " Be ye merciful, as your Father is merciful : give, 
and it shall be given to you ; forgive, and ye shall be forgiven." 
Luke vi. 36 — 38. And, in another place, " Sell your goods, and 


give alms : get yoa bags which wax not old, a treasure that cannot 
fiul in heaTen, where no thief cometh, and where the moth cor- 
rapCeth nothing." Luke zii. 83. Also, " When thou makest a 
fisast, caD tibe poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind, and thou shalt 
be Ueaaed; because they cannot recompense thee ; for thou shalt 
be reeompensed at the resurrection of the just." Luke xiv. 13* 14. 
Also. " I was an hungered, I thirsted, I was a stranger, naked, sick, 
and in prison, and in all things ye helped me by your service. 
Verily X say unto you. Inasmuch as you did these things to one of 
the laaat of my brethren, ye did them to me. Come hither, ye 
Ueaaed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for yon before 
the beginning of the world." Matt. zzv. 34—40. By these it is 
plain and manifest, that those works which proceed of faith, do 
pkase God, and are rewarded with abundant grace ; to wit, with the 
raoompense of all kind of good things and blessings, both in this 
life, and in the life to come. 

Laady* this doctrine is shut up with this or such like exhortation : 
that no man can perfectly do these works of Christian godliness, or 
hStf p eg fiirm the commandments of God ; and that no man can be 
fonnd, who doth not feil in any part thereof, and who is clean with* 
out sin : as it is written, " There is not a man so just on the earth, 
wiio dodi uprightly, and sinneth not:" Ecdes. vii. 20. and that 
t h e r e fo r e every one ought to seek and to enjoy his perfection in 
Ghriafc Jeaoa; in his grace* precious sacrifice, and merit, by that 
feilii and justification of his, which consisteth in the remission of 
; if he will not have any thing in himself that may deserve 
For Christ alone is our perfection* and fulfilling of the 
law, oor life and righteousness ; and whosoever receive him by feith, 
and do wholly trust in him, these men have all their sins washed 
away in the blood of Christ* so that afterward they need not to fear 
eondcmnation. For thus Paul writeth, '* Therefore now there is no 
oondemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, which do not walk 
aoeording to the flesh* but according to the Spirit." Rom* viii. 1. 
For to dieae men " Christ, is made of God wisdom, righteousness, 
a n ncfifirati on, and redemption." 1 Cor. i. 30. 

v.— -From the Conibssion of France. 

Art. 18. We believe that our whole righteousness doth consist 
in tiie remiaaion of our sins, which is also, as David doth testify, our 
onty f^idty. Therefore we do utterly reject all other means, 
wlicreby men do think that they may be justified before God ; and, 

M 2 


casting away all opinion of virtues and merits, we do altogether rest 
in the only ohedience of Jesus Christ, which is imputed to us, both 
that all our sins may be covered, and also that we may obtain grace 
before God. To conclude, we believe that we cannot find where to 
rest ourselves, if we decline never so little from this foundation ; but 
rather that we shall be always unquiet, because we are not at peace 
with God, till we be certainly persuaded that we are loved in Jesus 
Christ ; because that in ourselves we are worthy of all hatred. 

Art. 20. We believe that by fiaith alone we are made partakers 
of this righteousness ; as it is written. He suffered, to purchase salva- 
tion for us, '* that whosoever beheveth in him should not perish." 
John iii. 16. And this is therefore done, because the promises 
of life, offered to us in him, are then applied to our use, and made 
effectual to us, when we do embrace them ; nothing doubting but 
that we shall enjoy those things, whereof the Lord by his own 
mouth hath assured us. Therefore that righteousness, which we 
obtain by faith « doth depend upon free promises, whereby the Lord 
doth declare and testify that we are beloved of him. 

Art, 21. We believe, that by the secret grace of the Holy Ghost 
we are indued with the light of faith ; which is the free gift of God, 
and is proper to them alone, to whom it hath pleased God to give 
it : so that the faithful have not whereof to boast in themselves, 
seemg that rather they are more than double debtors, because the^ 
are preferred before others. And further we believe, that fiaith is 
given to the elect, not that they might once only be brought intc 
the right way, but rather that they may go forward therein unto the 
end; because that, as the beginning is of God, so is also the 

Art, 22. We believe that we, who by nature are the servants oi 
sin, are regenerated unto a new life by means of this same faith. 
And by this faith we receive grace to live holily, while we dc 
embrace that Evangelical promise, that the Lord will give unto us 
the Holy Ghost. Therefore it is so far that faith should extinguish 
the desire to live well and holily, that it doth rather increase and 
kindle it in us : whereupon good works do necessarily follow. 
Nevertheless, although God. that he may fully save us, do regenerate 
us, and frame us to a holy life ; yet we confess, that the good works 
which we do. by the direction of his Spirit, are not so regarded of God 
as that we should be justified thereby, or deserve to be counted the 
children of God : because we should waver with a perpetual doubt 
ing and trembling, unless we should rely upon that only satisfaction 


whereby Christ Jesos hath discharged us of the punishment or 
forfeit for our offence. 

VI. — From tub Confbssion of England. 

Art. 20. Besides, though we say we have no shelter at all in our 

own works and deeds, but appoint all the means of our salvation to 

be in Christ alone ; yet say we noti that for this cause men ought to 

Hve looeely and dissolutely : nor that it is enough for a Christian, to 

be baptized only, and to believe ; as though there were nothing else 

required at his hand. For true faith is lively, and can in no wise be 

idle. Thus therefore teach we the people ; that God hath caUed us, 

not to follow riot, and wantonness, but, as St. Paul saith, " unto good 

works, to walk in them :" £phes. ii. 10. that we are dehvered from 

the power of darkness. Col. i. 13. to the end that we should serve 

the living God: Heb. ix. 14. to cut away all the renmants of 

sin, and to work out our salvation in fear and trembling : Phil. ii. 

12. that it may appear that the Spirit of sancdfication is in our 

Ixsdies, and that Christ himself dwelleth in our hearts. 

VII.-— From thb Confession of Scotland. 

Articie 13. Of the Cause of Good Works. 

So that the cause of good works we confess to be, not our free 

^mll, but the Spirit of our Lord Jesus ; who, dwelling in our hearts 

by true faith, bringeth forth such good works, as God hath prepared 

for U8 to walk in. Ephes. ii. 10. For this we most boldly affirm, 

that it is blasphemy to say, that Christ abideth in the hearts of such, 

in whom there is no Spirit of sanctification. And therefore we fear 

luit to affirm, that murderers, oppressors, cruel persecutors, adulterers, 

whoremongers, filthy persons, idolaters, drunkards, thieves, and all 

^^^ers of iniquity, have neither true fEuth, neither any portion of 

^ Spirit of the Lord Jesus, so long as obstinately they continue in 

™w wickedness. For how soon soever the Spirit of the Lord 

J«>ii8 (which God's elect children receive by true &dth) taketh 

P^^**^on in the heart of any man, so soon doth he regenerate and 

''^'^ the same man ; so that he beginneth to hate that which before 

^ bred, and beginneth to love that which before he hated. And 

^^.Uienoe cometh that continual battle which is betwixt the flesh 

■^d the Spirit in God's children : Gal. v. 17. so that the flesh and 

™tiind man, according to their own corruption, lusteth for things 

F^Bttngand delectable unto itself; grudgeth in adversity, is lifted 

^ ^ prosperity, and at every moment is prone and ready to ofiend 


the majesty of God. But the Spirit of God, whidi gt¥eth witness- 
ing to our spirit that we are the sons of God, Rom. vvL 16. 
maketh us to resist filthy pleasures, and to groan in God's presence 
for deliverance from this bondage of corruption; Ver. 22* and 
finally, so triumpheth over sin, that it reigneth not in oar mortal 
bodies. Rom. v'u 12. This battle have not carnal men, heing desti- 
tute of God's Spirit ; but do follow and obey sin with greediness, 
and without repentance, even as the devil and their corrupt lusts do 
provoke them. But the sons of God, as before is said, do fight 
against sin, do sob and mourn, when ^ley perceive themselves 
tempted to iniquity ; :.and if they ^edl, they rise again with unfeigned 
repentance : and thesdM||iing8 they do, not by ^eir own power, but 
by the power of the Lord Jesus, without whom they were aUe to do 
nothing. John xv« 5. \'. 

Article 14. What Wofka are reputifi Good before God. 

We confess and acknowledge, that God hath given to man his 
holy law, in which not only are forbidden |J1 such works as diiqilease 
and offend his Godly Majesty, but also are commanded all such as 
please him, and as he hath promised to reward. Exod. xx. 1 — 17. 
Deut. V. 1^21. And these works be of two sorts. The one are 
done to the honour of God, the other to the profit of our neigh- 
bours. And both have the revealed will of God for their assurance. 
1*0 have one God, to worship and honour him, to call upon him in 
all our troubles, to reverence his holy name, to hear his word, to 
believe the same, to communicate with his holy Sacraments, are the 
works of the First Table. To honour father, mother, princes, rokra, 
and superior powers ; to love them, to support them, yea, to obey 
their charges, (not repugning the commandments of God ;) to save 
the lives of innocents, to repress t3rranny, to defend the oppressed, 
to keep our bodies clean and holy, to live in soberness and temper- 
ance, to deal justly with all men, both in word and deed ; Ezek. zzii. 
IS. 1 Thess. iv. 6. and finally, to repress all appetite of our neigko 
hour's hurt, are the good works dT the Second Table ; whidi are 
most pleasing and acceptable to God, as those works that are com- 
hianded by himself. Ephes. vi. 1 — 7. The contrary whereof is sin 
most odious, which always displeaseth him and provoketh him to 
anger: Ezek. xxii. 1 — 12. Jer. xxii. 3 — 5. Isai. 1. 1. as, not to 
indl upon him alone, when we have need ; not to hear his word with 
rteVeHen^e } to contemn and despbe it ; to have, or to worship id<ds; 
to maintain and defend idolatry ; lightly to esteem the reverend name 


of God ; to profiuie, abiue, or contemn the Sacraments of Christ 
Jesus ; to disobey or resist any that God hath placed in authority. 
Bom. zifi. 3. (whilst they pass not over the bomids of their office ;) 
to iiiiirdsr» or to eonsent thereto ; to bear hatred, or to sofier inno- 
blood to be shed, if we may withstand it ; and finaUy, the 
of any other commandment in the First or Second 
T!kble» we oonfesB or affirm to be sin ; by the which God's anger and 
cyepiflMiire is kindled against the proud and unthankful world. So 
tliat good works we affirm to be those only, that are done in fiaith, 
and at God*B commandment ; who in his law hath expressed what 
the tlibigs be that please him. And evil works we affirm not only 
tluMe tliat expressly are done against God's commandment; but 
those also that, in matters of religion, and in worshippug of God, 
liave no other assurance but the invention and opinion €ji man: 
^srhidi God from the beginning hath ever rejected, as by the Prophet 
ftwish we are tangfat ; chap. xxix. 18, 14. and by our Master Christ 
JTesoSt in these words» " In vain do they worship me, teaching for 
^oetiinfls the precqits of men.'' Matt. xv. 9. 

VIII. — ^FaoM THB Confession of Bbloia. 

jlrf • S3. We believe that the U<dy Ghost, dweUing in our 

doth bestow upon us true fiEuth, that we may attain unto the 

of this so great a mystery. The which £uth doth 

(fanoe Jesus Christ with all his mmts, doth challenge him unto 

as proper snd peculiar, and doth seek for nothing besides him. 

k is wecesssry that either all those things which are required 

our salvation be not in Christ, or, if all be in him, that then he 

"MUti by fMth possesseth Jesus Christ, hath also perfect salvation. 

it is an honible Idasphemy against God, to affirm that 

is not snfficieiit, but that we have need of other means besides 

•Per ttocn pon it should follow, that Christ is only in part our 

Wherefore we do justly say, with St. Paul, that we are 

by fioth akme, Rom. v. 1 . <»: by £uth, without the works of 

Inr. GaL ii. 16* Yet to speak pn^ierly, we do not mean, that 

by itadf, or of itsdf, doth justify us ; which is but only as an 

vhereby we apprehend Christ, which is our justice. 

^^Kttiit tberefofe himself is our righteousness, which imputeth all his 

v^^s-iiUwrto us : fidth is but the instrument, whereby we are coupled 

^^'vtohiBi by a participation and communion of all his benefits, and 

'^iMrsfay w are hept in that fellowship. So that all thosfc our 

168 TBX NINTH aNcnoN. 

efiecto are even more than enough nnto na for our abaolotion from, 
all our aina. 

Art.. 23.. We bdieve that all our felicity doth conaiat in tiie 
remiaaion of our aina, which we have hy Jeaua Ghriatt and that: in it 
alone all our righteouaneaa before God ia contained; aa St. Ftail 
teacheth, out of the Prophet David, who dedareth the happmeaa of 
thoae men " to whom God imputeth righteouaneaa without worka." 
Rom. iv. 6. FlBa. xxxii. 1, 2. And the aame Apoatle aaith, that 
*' We are juatified by the redemption made in Chriat Jeaua." Rom. 
iii..24. We, therefore, leaning upon this, aa a aure foundation, do 
yield all glory unto God, having a moat base and humble oj^ion of 
onraelvea, knowing full wdl who and what manner of creaturea we 
be indeed. Therefore we do not preaume of ouradvea, or of any of 
our own merita: but, being upholden by the only obedience of 
Chriat crucified, we do reat altogether in it; and, to the intent it 
may become onra, we believe in him. Thia righteouaneaa alone ia 
all-auffident, both to cover all our iniquities^ and alao to make ua 
safe and secure against all temptationa. For it doth drive from oar 
conadencea all fear, all horror and dread, to the end we might be 
brought to approach God, and not to imitate the example of our 
first fiather, who, for fear, flying from the presence of God, went 
about to hide and cover himself with fig-leaves. And truly if we, 
trusting unto ourselves never so little, or to any other creature, 
should present ourselves before the majesty of God, it is certain we 
should by and by be overwhelmed with it. Therefore every one of us 
must rather cry out with David, and say, "Lord, enter not into 
judgment with thy servant, for in thy sight shall no man fiving be 
justified." Psa. cxliii. 2. 

Art. 24. We believe that this true fiaith, being bestowed upon 
every one of us by the hearing of the word <^ God, and the opera- 
tion of the Holy Spirit, doth regenerate us, and make us, as it were, 
new men; raising us up unto newness of life, and setting us free 
from the bondage of sin. Wherefore this justifying fiuth is so £Eur 
from withdrawing men from a right and holy kind of living, or from 
making them more fiiint in godliness ; that, on the contrary side, no 
man without it can perform any good thing to thia end, that God 
may have the glory ; but men do all things, either in regard of them- 
selves, or else for fear of just condemnation. Therefore it cannot 
be, that this holy fiiith should be idle in a man. Neither do we 
speak of a vain and dead faith, but only of that which in the Scrip- 
ture ia^aaid to ** work by love," Gal. v. 6. and which moveth a man 


to exerciBe hinuielf in tboie woHlb, which God himself hath com- 
manded in his word. But these works, which do come from- the 
smcere root of £uth, are therefore good and acceptable nnto God, 
because they be sanctified by his grace ; bat are nothing available to 
justify us. For we are justified by faith in Christ, yea, even before 
such time as we could bring forth any good work ; for our works 
before fsith can no more be good, than the fruit of a good tree^ be- 
fore that the tree itself be good. Therefore we do good works, yet 
not to merit any thing by them. For what is it possible for us to 
merit ? Nay rather we, by reason of the good- works which we do^ 
(if we do any,) are more bound unto God, than God unto us : for 
'* God is he, which worketh in us both the will and the deed, of his 
own free mercy." Phil. ii. 13. Whereupon it is our duties always to 
have a regard unto that which is written, " When ye have done all 
that is commanded you, say. We are unprofitable servants, for we 
have done that which we ought to do." Luke zvii. 10. Further- 
more, we ^ not hereupon deny, that God doth recompense good 
works in those that be his ; but we affirm that this recompense 
oometh of his mere grace, because he crowneth his own gifts in us. 
Yea, although we do good works» yet we do not put any hope of sal- 
tion in them. For we are not able to bring forth any works, which 
are not polluted with the corruption of our flesh, and, for that cause, 
worthy of punishment. If it were granted, that we were able to 
bring forth any such work, yet the bare remembrance of our sins 
were sufficient to remove that work out of the sight of God. ^There- 
fore we should always stand in doubt, staggering, as it were^ this 
way, and that way, and our miserable consciences would be in con- 
tinual torment ; unless they should rely upon the only merit of our 
Saviour Christ his death and passion, and rest in it alone. 

IX. — From thb Confession of Auosburo. 

Art. 4. That we might obtain these benefits of Christ, namely, 

remission of sins, justification, and life everlasting, Christ hath given 

lus Gospel : wherein these benefits are laid forth unto us, as it is 

^written in the last of Luke, " That repentance should be preached, 

«nd remission of sins, in his name, among all nations." Luke xxiv. 

47. For whereas all men, bom after a natural manner, have sin in 

them, and cannot truly satisfy the law of God ; the Gospel bewray- 

eth our sin,* and sheweth us Christ the Mediator, and so instructeth 

* These words seem thus to be understood ; that the Gospel should bewray 
aU kind of sin : yet not properly and by itself; for the proper difference be- 



ii« toacbing femiiMcm of tiai. Wkon as Hw Gospd doth eonvict «r 
of till, our hearts, tiiereby^temfied, mast fiiidiyhdUL that there is |ve- 
seated unto asfredy, for Christ's sdce, tiiat remisaiea of aiDs» aad jas« 
tifioatioathroag^fiuth, by theiihidi we mast bdievean^ 
these thmgs are givaaas Imr Chris<f8aAe,yhowasB»deanobkiiop, 
aad hath appeased the Falher's mrath for as. NdtirithsteDdiag 
thersfege that the Goqpel do lefsire repeateaee, yett to the end that 
tte reaassicsiof oar smsmay he eertahiaadandoidited»itteaohedia#. 
that ths remianon is graatod as freely; that is» that it dsfthaotdepead 
iqx>a the condkioB of oar oara wort hiiie s s , «or is giveo for aof 
worhs that weat before, nor finr the aForthness ^ snch as follow 
aUber. For thea shoold remksioa be anoertsin, if are shooUl tiunk 
that thea only are obtain renuanon of sias, whea we had dessnred it 
hy oar foimer works, or when oar repeataace were wdl woithy of 
it« For in trne tenrors the oonsoieace findeth no wnak which it auj 
oppose against God's wiath; hat Christ is gitea and set fortli «ito 
as to appesse the wrath of God. This hoaaar mast not he traaa- 
fared from Ckmet anto oar own works ; therefore St. Ptel ssith, 
" Ye are saved freely." Rom. iii. 84. Agaia, " Therefore by frath, 
ftieely, that the promise might be sare; " R6a&. iy. 16. that is, thns 
shall remission be certaia, when we know that it dependeth not upon 
the condition of our worthiness, but is given us for Christ his sake. 
This is a sare and necessary comfort to all godly minds, that are 
tenrified with the conscience of their sms. And thas do the holy Au- 
thors teach ; and there is a notable sentence in St. Ambrose, worthy 
the rememberings in these words : ' This (sod hath appointed* tiiat 
he which beheveth in Christ shoald be saved, withaat any work, by 
foith alone, receiving the rennssion of sins.' Now, this word VAira 
doth not oidy signify a knowledge of the history of Christ, bat also 
to believe and assent unto this promise, which is proper unto the 
Gospel, wherein remission of sins, justification, and life everlasting 
are promised unto us for Christ's sake. For thb promise also doth 
pertain to the history of Christ; even as, in the Creed, unto the 
history is added this artidey 'I believe the reaassion €ji sins :' and 
unto this one the other articles, touching the hbtory of Christ, are 
to be referred. For the benefit is the end of the history : therefore 

tween the Law and the Gospel, is to be held fiEist : to wit, that the Gospel doth 
properly reprove the sin of infidelity, and, by an accident, all other sina also ; 
but the Law doth properly reprove all sins, whatsoever are committed against it. 


did Christ mdkr, and rite agtin, tiiat ibr Him remission of sins and 
evieriaflting life might he giren nnto us. 

J%e8e tJumgi are found thus in another Edition :— 

Also they teach, that men cannot be justified before God by their 
own power, merits, or works, bat are justified for Christ's sake, 
through fidth, when they behere that they are receiyed nnto feyoiir, 
snd their rins fbrghren through Christ, who by his death hath satis- 
fied for onr rins. This fthh doth God impute for righteousness unto 
them before himsdf« Bom. iii. 26. and iv. 6. 

, Art, 5. For tills cause Christ hath appointed the ministry of 
tyi^^ltwig the Gospd, whidi preacheth repentance and remission of 
ains : and the preaching of either of these is general, and layeth 
open the sins of all men, and promiseth remission of them unto all 
Ant believe ; to the end tibat remission might not be doubted <^, 
but that an distressed minds might know that they ought to beliere, 
that remission of sins is undoubtedly granted unto them for Christ, 
and not iot their own merits or wotthiness. AU tiiese do certainly 
obtain remission of sins. And when as we do in thife sort comfort 
ODisehes by the promise of the Gospel, and do raise up ourselves by 
feith, therewithal is the Holy Spirit given unto us. For the Holy 
Sporit 18 given, and is effectual, by the word of God, and by the 
Sacfiments. When as we do hear or meditate of the Gospel, or do 
receive the Sacraments, and comfort oursdves by feith, therewithal 
the Sprit of God is efiectual ; according to that of St. Paul, " That 
tlie fravdse by the feith of Jesus Christ might be given to thtm that 
befieve." GaL iiL 22. And to the Corinthians, "The Gospd is 
«< tibe mmistry of the Spirit." 2 Cor. iii. 8. And to the Romany 
** Faith Cometh !iy hearing." Rom. z. 17. When as, then, we do 
oun i foii oursehes by fkith, and are freed from ^e terrors of sin by 
tlie Hdy Spirit, our hearts do conceive die other virtues, acknow- 
ledge truly the mercy of God, and conceive the true love and the 
tme issr^ God, tnist, hope of God's help, prayer, and such like 
fruits of the Spirit. 

Sod^ therefore, as teach nothing concerning this faith, whereby 
^ve receive remission of sinsy but win have men's oonsdenoes stand 
in doubt* whether they obtain remission or no, and do add further, 
tliat thia doubtiBg is no sin, are justly condemned. And these also 
do teedi^ that uMn may obtam remission of sins for their own woithi- 
s but tey dd not teach to believe, that retMssion of dns is given 


fredy for Christ's sake. Here also are condemned those fieuatastical 
spirits, which dream that the Holy Ghost is given, or is efiectual, 
without the word of God. Which maketh them contenm the ministry 
of the Gospel and Sacraments, and seek illamination without the 
word of God, and besides the Gospel. And by this means they draw 
away men's minds from the word of God unto their own opinions ; 
which is a thing very pemicions and hurtful. Such were in old time 
the Manichees, and Enthusiasts. And such are the Anabaptists 
now-a-days. These and such like phrensies we do most constantly 
condemn. For they abolish the true use of God's word, and do 
falsely imagine that the Holy Spirit may be received without the word ; 
and, sticking too much to their own fwcies, they invent wicked 
opinions, and are the cause of infinite breaches. 

Tfteie things are foimd thus in another Edition : — 

For the obtaining of this fifidth, the ministry of teaching the Gospd, 
and conferring the Sacraments, was ordained. For by the word and 
SacramentSf as by certain instruments, the Holy Ghost is given ; who 
worketh faith, where and when it {deaseth God, in those that hear 
the Gospel: fiEuth, I say, to believe, that God> not for our own 
merits, but for Chriist, doth justify such as believe ; that they 
are received into fiivour for Christ's sake. 

They condenm the Anabaptists and others, who are <^ opinion, 
that the Holy Ghost is given unto men without the outward word> 
through their preparations and works. 

Art, 6. Also they teach, that, when we are reconciled by fruth, the 
righteousness of good works, which God hath commanded, must fol- 
low of necessity : even as Christ hath also enjoined, " If thou 
wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." Matt. ziz. 1 7. But 
forsomuch as the infirmity of man's nature is so great, that no man 
can satisfy the law ; it is needful that men should be taught, not only 
that they must obey the law, but also how their obedience pleaseth 
God ; lest that their consciences sink down into despair, when they 
8ee that they do not satisfy the law. 

This obedience therefore pleaseth God, not because it satisfieth the 
law, but because the person that performeth it, is reconciled by 
Christ, through faith, and believeth that the relics of sin (which 
remaineth in him) be pardoned. Wherefore we must alvrays hold, 
that we do obtain remission of sins, and that a man is pronounced 
just, freely, for Christ, through fiuth : and afterward that this 


obedience towards the law doth also please God, and is accounted a 
Idnd of josticey and deserveth rewards. * For the conscience cannot 
oppose its own cleanness or works unto the judgment of God ; 
wm the PiNdmist witnesseth : '' Enter not into judgment with thy 
servant, for no man shall be justified in thy sight." Psalm cxliii. 2. 
And John saith, "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive 
onmeiTes : if we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive 
•us our ains." 1 Johni. 8» 9. And Christ saith, " When ye have done 
aJl that ye can, say ye. We are unprofitable servants.*' Luke xvii. 10. 
.After that the person is reconciled and become just by faith, that is, 
acsceptahle to God. his obedience pleaseth God, and is accounted for 
8. kind of justice ; as John saith, '* Every one that abideth in him, 
sinneth not :" 1 John iii. 6. and St. Paul, " Our rejoicing is this, 
t:lie witness of our conscience." 2 Cor. i. 12. 

This obedience must strive against evil desires, and daily by 
spiritual exercises become more pure ; always watching, and careful 
to do nothing against conscience, according to that saying, *' The 
sum of the law is love, out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, 
and fidth unfeigned." 1 Tim. i. 5. But they which obey their 
uricked lusts, and do against their own consciences, living in mortal 
8in,t do neither retain the righteousness of faith, nor the. 
T-i£;hteoa8ne88 of good works ; X according to the saying of St. Paul, 
" They which do such things shall not enjoy the kingdom of God.*' 
GaLy. 21. 

The$e things are thus set doum in another Edition : — 

-Also they teach, that this faith must bring forth good fruits ; and 
tlxat it is behoveful to do the good works commanded of God, 
^>^can8e God requireth them, and not upon any hope to merit 
justification by them. For remission of sins, and justification, is 
^I^prehended by fieiith ; as Christ himself witnesseth, " When ye have 
doTKie aU these things, say. We are unprofitable servants.'* Luke xvii. 

* Toudring the word of meriting or deserving, which this Confession useth 

^^ in Ail Section : see before, in the Eighth Section, the seventh observation 

vpoo this Mine Confeition; and tee the first observation upon the Confession 

^^ ^^Hnenbitig in this Section; and again after, in the Sixteenth Section, 

^'^ firn obtervation on this Confession. 

t See before, in the Fourth Section, the second observation upon the Con- 
^•••iai of Saxony. 
tSee before, in the Fourth Section, the first observation upon the Confession 


10. The nme also do the aacieDt writon of the Chwdi teeeh ; for 
Ambrose saith : * This is ordained of God* that he tfaatlidiefeth in 
Christ shall be saved* without wodk» hy hHk aloM, fradj* reoehring 
remissioo of mm.* 

Hitherto ako appertameth the 20a ArUeh. 

That which onr adTersaries do aocuae us of » liiat we neglect the 
doctrine of good works, is a manifest dander. Fot the booka of 
onr Divines are extant, wherein they do godly and proitably teach, 
toadiing good works, what works in every calling do picaae God. 
And whereaa in most Chnrchea there hatii been of a long time no 
mention of the moat special worics, namely, of the exerdaea of fidth, 
and of tibe praise of such works as pertain to civil gov e r nm ent, bat 
for die most part they spent all their sermona in setting ferth tilie 
praises of human traditions, and in commending holydaya, featmgs, 
die state (tf monks, fraternities, pilgrimages, the worahip of aainis, 
rosaries, and other unprofitable services; now, by the goodneaa of 
God, the Church is redaimed unto the true 4ind profitable w o rship, 
whidi God doth require and approve. The Prophets do bewafl this 
calamity of the Church in very vehement sermons ; that, the true 
worship of God being forgotten, men's ceremonies, and a wicked 
confidence in ceremonies, should have place the chief in the Chnrdi. 
From this error they revoke the Church unto the true service of 
God, and unto good works indeed. What can be more forcibly 
spoken, than that sermon in the 50th Psalm ; '< The Grod of Gods, 
the Lord hath spoken, and called the earth," &c. Ver. 1. Here 
God doth preach unto all mankind, condemning their vain tmat in 
ceremonies; and propoundeth another worship, giving them to 
understand, that he is highly displeased widi them, that in the 
Church do so preach ceremonies, that they overturn the true wor- 
ship of God. Many such like sermons are to be found in the 
Prophets, as Isaiah chap. Iviii., Zechariah chap, vii., and Micah 
chap. vi. ; and Hosea crieth, " I will have mercy, and not sacrifice : 
and the knowledge of God, rather than burnt ofierings." chap. vi» 6. 
And it is not unknown, that many godly and learned men have here- 
tofore greatly wished, that the doctrine, touching the comfort of 
consdences, and the difference of works, had been more sound. 

For both these parts of doctrine ought always to be in tbe Churdi : 
namdy, the Gospel of feith, for to instruct and comfort men's con- 
sdences ; and also the doctrine that dedareth whidi are good vrorks 
indeed, and which is the true worship of God. As for our ad- 



Tenaries, seeing that they do corrupt the doctrine of feath, they can- 
not afford any soond comfort to the consciences : for they will have 
men to stand in doubt of the remission of their sins, and yet after- 
wards they bid men seek remission by their own works. They 
devise monkeries, and other such works, and then they abolish the 
trae worship of God : for prayer and other spiritual exercises are laid 
aside* when men's minds are not established in a sure trust in Christ. 
Moreover, their works of the Second Table cannot ]^ease God, 
eioept fisith go with them* For this obedience, which is but begun, 
and is imperfect, doth please God for Christ's sake alone. Thirdly, 
they debase the works commanded of God, and prefer man*s tra- 
ditions far before them. These they set out with most goodly titles^ 
caDing them the perfection of the Gospel : but in the mean time, 
they speak so cc^dly of the duty of a man's calling, of magistracy, of 
mazTiage, &c that many grave men have doubted, whether these 
itaftes of life did please God or no. Therefore our Preachers have 
with great care and study fet forth these both kinds of doctrine; 
teadnng tiie Gospel concerning feithy and adjoining therewith a pure 
tad holy doctrine of works. 

Cf Faiih. 

Firsty tondiiiig Faith and Justification^ they teach thus. Christ 

liaHi fitly set down the sum of the Gospel, when as, in the last of 

X^nke, he willeth, " That repentance and remission of sins should 

be pveadied in his name.'* Luke xxiv. 47. For the Grospel reproveth 

ttiid oonvinceth rins, and requireth repentance, and withal ofiereth 

rcsnissioQ of sins for Christ's sake, freely, not for our own worthi- 

ttCQs. And like as the preaching of repentance is general, even so 

tbe promiae of grace is general,* and willeth all men to believe, and 

to receive the benefit of Christ ; as Christ himself saith, " Come 

vxito me, an ye that are laden." Matt. zi. 28. And St. Paul saith, 

'* He is rieh towards all,^' &c. Romans x. 12. Albeit therefore that 

ooxitritioD in repentance be necessary, yet we must know that re- 

^^^iadon of sins is given unto us, and that we are made just of unjust, 

^^^^at hp reconciled or accepted, and the sons of God, freely, for 

^%n8t, and not for the worthiness of our contrition, or of any other 

* Geaenl; tiiat ia, offered to all torts of men indefinitely, as well to one 

** to notber, without difference of country, sex, place, time, or age. But 

weenaot eoneeive how repentance, and the promise of grace, can be said to 

^ IMcadwd imlvefMlly to every nation ; much less, to all men particularly ; 

ftnanaeh as esperienee doth plainly pro?e that to be untrue. 


works, which either go before or follow after. Bat this e 
benefit must be received by faith, whereby we must believe 
remission of sins and justification is given us for Christ's sake, 
knowledge and * judgment bringeth sure consolation unto trou 
minds; and how necessary it is for the Church, consciences 
have had experience can easily judge. There is in it no ab8ur( 
no difficulty, no crafty deceit. Here needeth no disputation 
predestination, or such like : * for the promise is general, 
detracteth nothing from good works; yea, rather, it doth stii 
men unto faith and unto truly good works. For remission of 
is removed from our works, and attributed unto mercy, that it m 
be an undoubted benefit ; not that we should be idle, but, much m 
that we should know how greatly our obedience doth please ( 
even in this our so great infirmity. Now, for any man to despis 
mislike this doctrine, whereby both the honour of Christ is extol 
and most sweet and sure comfort offered unto godly minds ; 
which containeth the true knowledge of God's mercy, and brin^ 
forth the true worship of God and eternal life : it is more 1 
Pharisaical blindness. Beforetime, when as this doctrine was 
set forth, manv fearful consciences essaved to ease themselves 
works ; some fied to a monastical life, others did choose out o 
works, whereby to merit remission of sins, and justification, 
there is no sure comfort without this doctrine of the Gospel ; w] 
willeth men to believe, that remission of sins and justification 
freely given unto us for Christ's sake : and this whole doctrin 
appointed for the true conflict of a terrified conscience. 

But we will add some testimonies. Paul saith : " We are 
tified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Ct 
Jesus; whom God hath set forth, to be a reconciliation thro 
faith in his blood." Rom. iii. 24, 25. " But to him that worl 
not, but believeth in him that justifieth the ungodly, his fait) 
counted for righteousness." Rora. iv. 5. '* By grace ye are sa^ 
through faith, not of yourselves." Ephes. ii. 8. In these and s 

* Even as we do abhor curious disputations, that is, such as pass 
bounds of God's word, touching Predestination, (of which sort we take t 
words to be meant,) as most dangerous matters for grievous fulls ; so 
affirm, that whatsoever the Holy Ghost doth teach touching this point in 
Holy Scriptures, is warily and wisely to be propounded and believed in 
Church, as well as other parts of Christian religion. Which thing the dw 
of the church, both old and new, did ; and, among the rest, Master Lii 
himself, in his book, De Servo Arhitrio^ and elsewhere. 

or jusnviCATioN bt vaith, and or good works. 177 

like sentencee, Fftul doth plainly teach, that remission of sins and 
justification are given us freely* and not for the worthiness of our 
'^rarks. And in the 4th ch. to the Romans, he disputeth at large, 
"why this consolation is needful for us : for if the promise did depend 
upon the worthiness of our works, it should he uncertain. Where- 
fbre» to the end that we may have sure and firm comfort against 
tiie feaiB of sin and death, and that our faith may stand fast, it is 
needfnl that it lean only upon the mercy of God, and not upon our 
iwortiuneat. For whidi cause Ptaiul saith, " Therefore it is hy faith, 
according to grace, that the promise might he sure," Rom. iv. 16. 
¥'or our works cannot he set against the judgment of God ; accord- 
ing to that saying, " If tbou markest our iniquities, who shall endure 
it? " Fnlm czzx. 3. And thei^ore C!hrist is given for a Mediator 
^o as, and this honour is not to he transferred tmto oar works. 

When therefore we do say» that " we are justified by flEuth," Rom. 

^w*. 1 . we do not mean, that we are just for the worthiness of that 

'vvtue : but this is oar meaning ; that we do obtain remission of sins, 

id impslition of righteoasnessy by mercy shewed us for Christ*s 

But now this mercy cannot be received, but by faith. And 

'aith dodi not here signify only a knowledge of the history, but 

M^ aignifielh a belief oi the promise of mercy which is granted us 

^broogfa our Mediator Christ Jesus. And seeing that faith is in 

■ort understood of a confidence, or trust of mercy, St. Paul 

St. Jamee do not disagree. For where James saith, "The 

believe, and tremble," James ii. 19. he speaketh of an his- 

fiuth* Now this fEuth doth not justify. For the wicked and 

devilfl are cunning in the history. But Paul when he saith, 

** Yaith ia redLOsed for righteousness," Rom. iv. 5. he speaketh of 

a. trust and oonfidenoe of mercyt promised for Christ's sake : and 

^i^ Bwaiiing it, that men are pronounced righteous, that is, recon- 

c^lcd* tbroogii mercy promised for Christ's sake, whom we must 

^'^ceive by ftdtfa. Now the novelty of this figurative speech of St. 

^^.nl, " We are justified by fiaith," Rom. v. 1 . will not oflend holy 

i>iiiids» if they understand that it is spoken properly of mercy ; and 

tliat herein merej it adorned with true and due praises. For what 

<^^xi be more acceptable to an afflicted and fearful conscience in great 

SHefi^ than to hear that this is the commandment of God, and the 

^^ice of the Bridegroom Christ Jesus, that they should undoubtedly 

^iere, that remission of sins, or reconciliation, is given unto them. 

^^ for their own worthiness, but freely, through mercy, for Christ's 

'^ that the benefit might be certain ? Now Justification, in these 


sayings of St. Paul, doth signify remission of sins, or recondliatioD, 
or imputation of righteousness; that is, an accepting of the person. 
And herein we do not bring in a new-found opinion into the Church 
of God. For the Scripture doth set down at large this doctrine 
touching faith; and St. Paul doth especially handle this point in 
some of his Epistles: the holy Fathers do also teach the same. 
For so saith Ambrose in his book De Vocatione Gentium : ' If so be 
that justification^ which is by grace, were due unto former merits 
so that it should not be a gift of the giver, but a reward of the 
worker, the redemption by the blood of Christ would grow to be m 
small account, and the prerogative of man's works would not yielc 
unto the mercies of God/ And of this matter there be many dis 
putations in St. Augustine ; and these are his words : ' Forsomucl 
as by the law God sheweth to man his infirmity, that, flying unt( 
his mercy by faith, he might be saved ; (for it is said* that he car 
rieth both the law and mercy in his mouth : the law, to convict th* 
proud ; and mercy, to justify those that are humbled :) therefore, th< 
righteousness of God, through fedth in Christ, is revealed upon a) 
that believe.' And the Milevitan Synod* writeth : ' Is not this suf 
ficiently declared, that the law worketh this; that sin should b 
known, and so, against the victory of sin, men should fly to th 
mercy of God, which is set forth in his promises ; that the promise 
of God (that is^ the grace of God) might be sought unto for delivei 
ance» and man might begin to have a righteousness, howbeit nc 
his own, but God's ?' 

Of Good Works. 

When as we do teach in our churches the most necessary doc 
trine and comfort of faith, we join therewith the doctrine of goo 
works ; to wit, that obedience unto the law of God is requisite i 
them that be reconciled. For the Gospel preacheth newness of life 
according to that saying, " I will put my laws in their hearts." Jei 
xxxi. 33. This new life therefore must be an obedience toward 
God. The Gospel also preacheth repentance ; and faith cannot b< 
but only in them that do repent : because that faith doth comfoi 
the hearts in contrition and in the fears of sin ; as Paul saitl 
" Being justified by faith, we have peace.'* Rom. v. 1. And < 

* At Milevia, in Africa, there were two Councils held, soon after the con 
roencement of the 5th century : the former in A. D. 402, to hear the statemen 
of Cresconius ; the latter, in A. D. 416, to examine the doctrines of Pelagii 
and Celestius.^EDrroR. 


vepentance he saith, " Our old man is crucified, that the body of sin 
might be abolished, that we might no more serve sin." Rom. vi. 6. 
.And Isaiah sailh, *' Where will the Lord dwell ? In a contrite and 
Iramble spiritf'* &c. Isa. Ivii. 15. 

Secondly, among good works, the chiefest, and that which is the 
liighest worship of God, is fedth ; which doth bring forth many 
other virtues, which could never be in men, except their hearts had 
&st received fEuth. " How shall they call on him, in whom they 
do not believe?" Rom. x. 14. So long as men's minds are in 
doubt, whether God heareth them or not, so long as ever they 
think that Gkd hath rejected them, they do never truly call upon 
Ciod. But when as once we do acknowledge his mercy through 
faith, then we fly unto God ; we love him, call upon him, hope in 
him, lo(^ for his help, obey him in afflictions ; because we do now 
know ourselves to be the sons of God, and that this our sacrifice 
(that 18, our afflictions) doth please God. These services doth faith 
brin^ forth. Very well therefore said Ambrose, ' Faith is the 
xncyther of a good wiU, and of just dealing.' Our adversaries would 
9eein very honourably to set out the doctrine of good works : and 
yet c o ncerning these spiritual works, to wit, faith, and the exercises 
of fiaith in prayer, and in all matters, counsels, and dangers of this 
life, they speak never a word. And indeed none can ever speak 
'vrell of these exercises, if their consciences be left in doubt, and if 
tliey know not that God requireth faith as a special worship of his. 
And when as that huge shew of outward works is cast as a mist 
l^efbre men's eyes, the minds, especially such as be not well in 
stencted, are led away from beholding these inward exercises. Now, 
i^ is yery requisite that men should be taught and instructed con- 
oeming these inward works and fruits of the Spirit. For these be 
that make a diflerence between the godly and the hypocrites* 
for external worship, external ceremonies, and other outward 
'mkB, the very hjrpocrites can perform them. But these services 
id duties belong only to the true Church ; true repentance, fear, 
CaJth, prayer, &c« - These kinds of worship are especially required 
id commended in the Scripture ; " Offer unto God the sacrifice of 
'* and, " Can on me in the day of trouble,*' &c. Psalm 1. 14, 

lliirdly, by this faith, which doth comfort the heart in repentance, 

^"'c do receive the Spirit of God, who is given us to be our Governor 

^i^d Helper ; that we should resist sin and the devil, and more and 

^ore acknowledge our own weakness ; and that the knowledge and 

N 2 


fear of God, and faith may mcrease in us. Wherefore our obedi- 
ence to God, and a new life, ought to increase in as ; as St* P&ul 
saith, " We must be renewed to the knowledge of God ;" Col. iii. 10. 
that the new law may be wrought m us« and his image, who hath 
created us, may be renewed, &c. 

Fourthly, we teach also, how this obedience, which is but begun 
only, and not perfected, doth please God. For m this so great infir- 
mity, and undeanness of nature, the saints do not satisfy the law of 
God. The faithful therefore have need of comfort, that they may 
know how their slender and imperfect obedience doth please God. 
It doth not please him, as satisfying his law ; but because the per- 
sons themselves are reconciled and made righteous through Christ, 
and do believe that their weakness is forgiven them ; as Paul teach- 
eth, " There is now no condemnation to them which are in Christ*" 
&C. Rom. viii. 1 . Albeit, then, that this new obedience is hr from 
the perfection of the law, yet it is righteousness, and is worthy of 
a reward, even because that the persons are reconciled. And thus 
we must judge of those works, which are indeed highly to be 
commended; namely, that they be necessary;* that they be the 
service of God, and spiritual sacrifices, and do deserve a reward. 
Nevertheless, this consolation is first to be held touching the per- 
son, which is very necessary in the conflict of the conscience ; to 
wit, that we have remission of sins freely, by fiedth, and that the 
person is just, that is» reconciled, and an heir of eternal life, through 
Christ : and then our obedience doth please God, according to that 
saying, " Now ye are not under the law, but under grace." Rom. 
vi. 14. For our works may not be set against the wrath and judg- 
ment of God : but the terrors of sin and death must be overcome 
by faith and trust in the Mediator Christ ; as it is written, " O 
death, I will be thy death." Hos. ziii. 14. And Christ saith, " This 
is the will of the Father which sent me, that every one which seeth 
the Son, and believeth in him, should have life everlasting." John 
vi. 40. And St. Paul, " Being justified by faith, we have peace 
with God." Rom. v. 1. And the Church always prayed, " Forgive 
us our trespasses." Luke xi. 4. And thus do the Fathers teach, 
concerning the weakness of the saints, and concerning futh. 

* We take them to be necessary, because they do necessarily follow the tnie 
faith, whereby we are justified ; not that they concur unto the working of our 
justification in Christ, as either principal or secondary causes : for that Ikitfa 
itself, as it is an inherent quality, doth not justify, but only inasinucfa as it 
doth apprehend and lay hold on Christ our righteousness. 


Augustine, in his Exposition of the 30th Psalm, saith» ' Deliver me 
in thj righteousness. For there is a righteousness of God, which 
is made ours, when it is given unto us. But therefore it is called 
the righteousness of God, lest man should think that he had a 
righteousness of himself. For, as the Apostle Paul saith. With him 
that believeth in him that justifieth the wicked, Rom. iv. 5. (that 
is, that of a wicked maketh a righteous man,) if God should deal 
as it were by the rule propounded in the law, the sinner must 
needs be condemned. If God should deal by this rule, whom should 
he deliver ? for he findeth all men to be sinners. So saith Paul, All 
have sinned, and stand in need of the glory of God. Rom. iii. 23. 
What is this, to stand in need of God*s glory ? That he should 
deliver thee, and not thou thyself. For thou canst not deliver thy- 
self. Thoa hast need of a Saviour. Why dost thou vaunt thyself ? 
what maketh thee to presume of the law and of righteousness ? 
Seest thou not that which doth fight within thee ? Dost thou not 
hear one that striveth, and confcsseth his weakness, and desireth aid 
in the battle? " O miserable man that I am !" &c.- Rom. vii. 24. 

Now it may easily be perceived* how needful this doctrine is for 
the Church ; that men may know that they do not satisfy the law 
of God, and yet may have true comfort, knowing how their im- 
perfect obedience doth please God. This doctrine hath been hor- 
nbly darkened and suppressed heretofore by certain fond per- 
suasions; wherein unlearned men have imagined, against the 
authority of the Scripture, that they can fulfil the law of God, and 
that they are just through the fulfilling of the law ; &c. and that 
monks are perfect, and do perform more notable and worthy works 
than the law doth require. In the mean while there is not a word, 
how the Mediator Christ is to be apprehended by hith : but they 
willed man to doubt, or else to trust in his own works. 

But as touching this obedience, we do teach, that they which 
oommit mortal sins* are not just ; because God requireth this obe- 
dieno^ that we should resist sinful lusts. They, then, which strive 
not against them, but obey them, contrary to the commandment of 
God, and do things against their consciences, they are unrighteous, 
and do neither retain the Holy Spirit, nor faith, that is, confidence 
and tmst of God's mercy. For confidence, which seeketh remission 
of sins, cannot so much as be in such, as are delighted with their 
sins, and remain without repentance. 

Fifthly, this point is needful dso to be taught, by what means 

*See, above, the third observation upon this Confession. 


men may do good works. We shewed a UtUe before how omr 
works do please God. In this place we add how they may be done. 
Albeit that men by their own strength be able to do outward honest 
deeds in some sort,* and must also perform this ciyil obedience ; 
yet, so long as men are void of faith, ^ey.tare in the power of the 
Devil, who driveth theiik''^ shamefol sins, occnpieth their minds 
with wicked and blasphemonoM^ opinions ; for that is the kingdom and 
tyranny of the Devil. Moreflfver, natore by itself is weak, and 
cannot, withoat God's help, stl^j^ingthen itself to the performance ol 
any spiritual works.f And for that cause are men taught, that, in 
the Gospel, the Holy Spirit is promised, who shall aid and govern 
the minds of them, who do repent and believe the GospeL Where- 
fore, in so great infirmity of nature, in the midst of these assaults 
of Satan, and in aU dangers, faith must be exercised in calling upon 
God, even throughout our whole life ; that we may continue always 
in the faith, and in our obedience towards God. Therefore Zechariah 
saith, " I win pour forth the Spirit of grace, and of prayer, upon 
the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem.'* Zech. 
xii. 10. He calleth him the Spirit of grace; because the Holy 
Spirit doth confirm and comfort troubled minds, and beareth record 
that God is pleased with us. He calleth him the Spirit of prayer; 
to the end we should daily exercise our faith in prayer, that by these 
exercises our fiaith might be confirmed, and a new life grow up and 
increase in us. 

There is no doubt but true virtues are the gifts of God : such as 
are, faith ; clearness of judgment in discerning of points of religion ; 
courage of mind, such as is requisite in them which teach and pro- 
fess the Gospel ; true care and pains in governing of Churches ; true 
humility, not to hunt after preferment, not to be pufied up ¥rith 
popular- praise, nor cast down with their disliking and il]-will ; true 
charity, &c. These princely virtues Paul calleth God's gifts ; " Hav- 
ing diverse gifts, according to the grace that is given us.*' Rom. xii. 
6. And of these he saith to the Corinthians, "These things 

* Look to tbe Fourth Section, tbe third observation upon this Confession. 

t Without Christ, and without regeneration, the nature of man can do no- 
thing but sin. For God by his grace doth create the ability of thinking, 
willing, and doing well ; not helping the old man in that he wanteth, but by 
little and little abolishing it : according to that saying, *' When we were dead 
in sins. &c.*' Ephes. ii. 5. But touching the weakness of our nature, see 
that which was said, in the first observation upon the Confession of Bohemia, 
in Section the Fourth. 


worketh one and the same Spirit, distributing to every one/'* &c. 
1 Cor. zii. 1 ] • 

Unto, these gifts we most join oar exercise, which may both pre- 
serve the same, and deserve an increase of them ; according to the 
saying, " To him that hath, shall be given." Matt. xxv. 29. And 
it is notably said of Augustine, ' Love deserveth an increase of love ;' 
to wit, when it is put in use. For good works have rewards, as in 
this life, so also after this life, in life everlasting. Now, because 
that the Church in this life is subject to the cross, and to the death 
of the body, therefore many rewards are deferred until the life to 
come: which though it be undoubtedly bestowed through mercy, 
for Christ's sake, on those which are justified by the hith of Christ, 
yet there is also a rewarding of good works ; according to that 
BKpMkgt '* Your reward is gpneat in heaven." Matt. v. 12. 

By this it is evident, that the doctrine of good works is, through 
the goodness of God, purely and truly taught in our Churches. 
How lull of obscurity and confusion the doctrine of good works was 
in former times, all godly minds know full well. There was none, 
^hat pat men in mind of the difierence between man*s traditions and 
the law of God; none that taught, how good works did please God, 
ui this so great infirmity of ours. To be brief, there was not one 
^^PTord of feith, which is most needful unto remission of sins. But 
zaow that these matters be opened and unfolded, godly consciences 
l«y hold of comfort, and of certain hope of salvation, and do under- 
stand which is the true worship and service of God, and know how 
mtfc pleaseth God, and how it doth merit at his hands. 

This Article it thus get down in another Edition ;— 

Our Divines are fedsely accused of forbidding good works. For 

writingB extant upon the Ten Commandments, and otiiers of 

fike argument, do bear witness, that they have to good purpose 

It coneeniing every kind of life, and its duties ; what trades of 

^^Je, and what works in every calling, do please God. Of which 

'^laingSi pireachers in former times taught httle or nothing : only they 

^lid urge certain childish and needless works ; as, keeping of holy- 

<i«iys, set fasts, fraternities, pilgrimages, worshipping of saints, 

Rosaries, monkery, and such trash. Whereof our adversaries having 

l^ad warning, they do now forget them, and do not preach so con- 

^cmmg these unprofitable works, as they were wont to do. Besides, 

they begin now to make mention of faith, which they were wont to 

VMS over in sileiicj. But yet they cease not to obscure and darken 


this doctrine of faith, while they leave the oonicieiiee in doobt, and 
would have men to merit remission of sins hy their woriu» and 
teach not that we do by fiuth alone nndonbtedly reoeive remission 
of sins for Christ's sake. 

When as therefore the doctrine of fiuth, which should be espe- 
cially above others taught in the Chorch, hath been so long un- 
known, (as all men must needs grant,) that there was not a word of 
the righteousness of fiuth in all their sermons, and that the doe- 
trine of works only was usual in the Churdies» for this canse our 
Divines did thus admonish the Churches. 

First, that our works cannot reconcile God unto us, or deserve 
remission of sins, grace, and justification, at his hands. But this we 
must obtain by fiuth, while we believe that we are received into 
fiftvour for Christ's sake ; who alone is appointed the Mediator and 
Intercessor ; by whom the Father is reconciled to us. He there- 
fore that trusteth by his works to merit grace, doth despse the 
merit and grace of Christ, and seeketh by his own power, without 
Christ, to come unto the Fkther : whereas Christ hath said expressly 
of himselfi " I am the way, the truth, and the Hfe/' John ziv. 6. 

This doctrine of Faith is handled by Ptal almost in every £|hs- 
tle. " Ye are saved freely by fisith, and that not of yourselves, it is 
the gift of God ; not of works/' &o. Ephes. ii. 8, 9. And lest any 
here should cavil, that we bring in a new-found interpretation, this 
whole cause is underpropped with testimonies oi the Fathers. 
Augustine doth in many volumes defend grace, and the xighteons- 
ness of fiEuth, against the merit of works. The like doth Ambrose 
teach in his book, De VocatUme Gentium, and elsewhere : for thus he 
saith in the fimrenamed place ; ' The redemption made by the blood 
of Christ would be pf small account, and the prerogative of man's 
works would not give place to the mercy oi God, if the justification 
which is by grace were due to merits going before ; so as it should 
not be the liberality of the giver, but the wages or hire of ^ 

This doctrine though it be contemned of the unsldlfiDd sort, yet 
the godly and fearful conscience doth find by experience that it 
bringeth very great comfort : because that men's consciences cannot 
be quieted by any works, but by fiedth alone, when as they bdieve 
assuredly, that God is appeased towards them for Christ's sake ; as 
Paul teacheth, *' Being justified by fiedth, we have peace with God." 
Rom. V. 1. This doctrine doth wholly belong to the conflict of a 
troubled conscience ; and cannot be well understood, but where the 


conscieiioe bath felt a conflict. Wherefore, all aooh as have had no 
experience thereof, and all tiiat are profane men, which dream that 
Christian righteoosness is naught else bat a dvil' and philosophical 
jostice, are erni judges of tMs matter* In former ages> men's con- 
sciences were vexed with the doctrine of works ; tiiey never heard 
any comfort out of the Gospel. Whereapon conscience drove some 
into Monasteries, hoping there to merit favoor by a monastical life. 
Odiers found out other works, whereby to merit fevoor, and to 
satisfy for sm. There was very gre^t need therefore to teadi this 
doctrine of feath in Christ, and after so long time to renew it ; to the 
end that fearfol consciences might not want comfort, but might know 
that grace, and forgiveness of sins, and justification, were appre- 
hended and received by faith in Christ. 

Another thing, which we teach men, is, that in this place the 
name of Faith doth not only signify a knowledge of the history, 
which may be in the wicked, and in the Devil, but that it ng- 
nifieth a fiedth which believeth, not only the history, but also t^ 
effect of the history ; to ¥rit, the article of remission of sins ; namely, 
that by Christ we have grace, righteousness, and remission of sins. 
Now, he that knoweth that the Father is merciful to him through 
Christ, this man knoweth God truly : he knoweth that God hath a 
care of him ; he loveth God, and calleth upon him ; in a word, he is 
not without God in the world, as the Gentiles are. As for the 
devils, and the wicked, they can never believe this artide of the 
remission of sins : and therefore they hate God as their enemy ; 
they call not upon him, they look for no good thing at his hands. 
Af^ this manner doth Augustine admonish his reader touching 
the name of Faith, and teacheth, that ' this word Faith is taken in 
Scriptures, not for such a knowledge as is in the wicked, but for a 
trust and confidence, which doth comfort and cheer up disquieted 

Moreover, our divines do teach, that it is requisite to do good 
works ; not that we may hope to deserve grace by them, but because 
it is the will of God that we should do them. And because that the 
Hdy Spirit is received by faith, our hearts are presently renewed, 
and do put on new affections, so that they are able to hmg forth 
good works. For so saith Ambrose, ' Faith is the breeder of a good 
win, and of good actions.' For man's powers, without the Holy 
Spirit, are full of wicked affections, and are weaker than that they 
can do any good deed before God. Besides, they are in the Devil's 
power, who driveth men forward into divers sins, into profiane opi- 


nions, and into very heinouB crimes : as was to be seen in the philo- 
sophers, who, assaying to live au honest life, conld not attain onto 
it, bat defiled themselves with open and gross ftudts. Soch is the 
weakness of man, when he is without £Edth and the Holy Spirit, and 
hath no other guide but the natural powers of man. Hereby every 
man may see that this doctrine is not to be accused, as forbidding 
good works ; but rather is much to be commended, because it 
sheweth after what sort we must do good works. For without 
fiuth, the nature of man can by no means perform the woriu of the 
First and Second Table. .Without futh, it cannot call upon God* 
hope in God, bear the cross; but seeketh help from man, and 
trusteth in man's help. So it cometh to pass, that all lusts and 
desires, and aU human devices and counsds do bear sway, so long 
as fiedth and trust in God is absent. Wherefore Christ, saith, 
'' Without me ye can do nothing." John xv. 5. and the Church 
singeth, ' Without thy power there is naught in man* and there is 
nothing but that which is hurtful** 

X.— FaoM THS Confession of Saxont« 

Article 3. 0/ the Remission of Sins, and of Justification. 

We said before, that these controversies do pertain to the inter- 
preting of two Articles of the Creed, ' I believe the remission of 
sins,' and, ' I believe the holy Catholic Church.' Neither do we 
speak of unnecessary or light things. It is most necessary, that in 
the Church the doctrine touching sin should be propounded ; and 
that men should know what sin is ; and that there should be an 
evident difierence between political judgments, and the judgment 
of God. But seeing our adversaries do not teach aright what sin 
is, they confirm in men an evil security, and many false opinions. 
Again, what can be more miserable, then either to obscure, or to be 
ignorant of this great benefit ; namely, the remission of sins, and 
deliverance from eternal death ? Seeing that there is no difiference 
betwixt the Church and other men, when as the light is extin- 
guished concerning free remission of sins for the Son's sake ; and 
concerning faith whereby remission must be received : neither is 
there any other comfort drawing us back from eternal death ; 
neither can there be any true invocation without this comfort : and 
God himself hath so often commanded, that his Son should be heard, 
and the Gospel kept, which is a wonderful decree brought forth out 
of the secret counsel of the Godhead, when it had been hid from all 


creatures : therefore it is most necessary, that the true doctrine 
touching the remission of sins, should be kept undefiled. 

But in aU ages, even firom our first fathers' time, the devils have 

scattered subtile delusions against ^e true doctrine concerning the 

Son of €rod ; and especially in this Article : whom notwithstanding 

Gvod bath oftentimes refuted, good teachers being again raised up, 

that the Church might not utterly perish. Adam, Seth, Noah, 

Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and others after them, did shew the 

true difference betwixt the Church of God and other men; and 

taught that to the Church was given the promise, touching the 

Mediator the Son of God, and touching remission of sins ; and that 

this remission is to be received freely, for the Mediator's sake. And 

tbey urged invocation to this God, which had manifested himself by 

giving a promise concerning the Mediator ; and they had external 

rites given them of God, which were signs of the promise, and the 

sinews of the public congregation. These rites did a great part of 

the multitude imitate, omitting the doctrine of the promises and 

fiEuth : and when they had devised this persuasion, that men, by 

observing these rites, might deserve remission of sins, they heaped 

lip many ceremonies ; and, by little and little, boldness went so fsr, 

^as commonly it cometh to pass,) that divers men devised divers 

gods. So the heathen departed 'from the true Church of God, and 

from the knowledge of the true God, and the promise of the Re- 

The same thing also happened after Moses his time. Ceremonies 
liad been appointed for this cause, that they should be admonitions 
of the Mediator : but the multitude, forgetful of the promise of the 
lif ediator, of the doctrine of faith, of free remission for the Media- 
tor's sake, feigned that sins were forgiven for those rites and sacri- 
fices ; and by this superstition they heaped up sacrifices, and forgot 
tihe Mediator, and were ¥rithout true comfort, and without true invo- 
c»tion. The same thing happened also after the Apostles' time. The 
light of the Gospel being lost, wherein is propounded free remission 
for the Mediator's sake, and that to be received by fEuth, they 
Bought remission by Monastical exercises, by single life, by divers 
observations, by the ofiering in the mass, by the intercession of 
dead men ; and many monstrous superstitions were devised, as the 
histories of the whole Church, which succeeded the Apostles, do 

Against these errors the infinite mercy of God hath oftentimes 
restored the voice of the Gospel : and as, among the people of 


Israel, he did often raise up Prophets, whidi should purge the doc- 
trine diligently ; so in the Church, after the Apostles' time, when 
the wntings of Orig^i and Pelagius, and the superstition of the 
people, had oorrupted the purity of the Gospel, yet notwithstanding, 
as in dailmess, the Ught of the Gospel was again kindled hy Angus- 
tine: and him followed Proiq>er, Maximos, and others, who r^roved 
the false c^inions touching this Artide. Afterward, when the Monks 
were sprung up, and that opinion* which feigneth men to merit by 
Iheir worksy was afresh spread abroad ; yet there were some of a 
better judgment, although they added stubble to the foundation : 
as Hugo, Bernard, Gilbert, William of Paris, Tanler, Ambrose, 
We^l, and othen in other ]^aoes. And now, by the voice of 
LntJkflr, the doctrine of the Gospel is more cleared, and more evi- 
dentljr restored* and the Lamb shewed unto us ; as the Biqptist saith, 
*• Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the worid." 
John i. 29. " He that bdieveth the Son, hath eternal life : he that 
believeth not, the wrath of God abideth on him." John iii. 36. The 
same voice of the GonpeL our Churches do publish, and that without 
corruption : and we do expressly discern that discipline, or righte- 
ousness, which a man not regenerate may perform, from the righte- 
ousness of feith, and that newness whereof the Gospel doth preach. 
We say that aU men are to be restrained by discipline ; that is, by 
that righteousness, which even the unregenerate ought, and after a 
sort may, perform : which is an obedience in external actions, accord- 
ing to all the commandments of God I4>pertaining to all men. 
Because that God left this liberty in man after his frdl,* that the 
outward membero might, after a sort, obey the reason and the will, 
in stirring up or omitting outward motions : as, Achilles may draw 
his sword, or put it up into the sheath ; Sdpio may restrain his 
meipbera, so that he meddle not with another man's wife ; as in 
their place these things are truly and copiously declared. Now. it 
is most certain, that this discipline is commanded of God, and that 
the breaking thereof is punished with present and eternal punish- 
ments, even in those whidi are not converted unto God ; accord- 
ing to those sayings, " The law was made fer the unjust." 1 Tim. 
i. 9. Also, " He that taketh the sword, shall perish with the sword." 
Matt. xxvL 52. Also, " Fornicatore and adulterers the Lord vrill 
judge." Heb. xiii. 4. Also, " Woe unto thee which spoilest, because 

* Here who look to the Foortk Section, the first observation upon the Con- 
fession of Bohemia, aofl the third upon the Confession of Augsburg. 


tiliou shah be epcnled." Isa. xxxiii. 1. But although all men oaght 
te goveni their maimers by this discipline, and God doth severely 
command that all kingdoms should defend this discipline, and he by 
Iiorrible punishments doth declare his wrath against this outward 
contumacy : yet this external disciphne, even where it is most 
lionesty is not a fulfilling of the law, neither doth it deserve remis- 
sion of sins, neither is it that righteousness whereby we are accepted 
before God, nor that light shining in the nature of men, as righte- 
ouflnesB sfained in us in our creation, or as new righteousness shall 
shine in us in life eternal. But all this discipline is an external 
government, such as it is ; like unto the leaf of the fig-tree, where- 
"with our first parents, after their fall, did cover their nakedness : 
neither doth it anymore take away sin, and the corruption of nature, 
and death, than those fig-leaves did. Hence it is, that Paul doth so 
often cry out, that sin is not taken away by the law : " By the works 
of the law no flesh shall be justified in his sight." Rom. iii. 20. 
And, " "When it was impossible to the law to justify," &c. Rom. viii. 
3. And, *' If righteousness doth come by the law, then Christ died in 
v^Jn.** Gal. ii. 21 . And, " Not by works of righteousness, which we 
liaire done, but according to his mercy he hath saved us." Titus iii. 5. 
And it 18 a reproach unto the Son of God, to imagine that any our 
^works are merits, or the price of remission of sins, and that they 
are propitiationa for sin. Therefore we do openly condemn those 
Phniaavsl and Pelagian doting dreams, which feign that that dis- 
cipline 18 a fulfilling of the law of God : also that it doth deserve 
remiaeton either of congruity, or of condignity ; or that it is a 
rigbteomness, whereby men are made acceptable to God. 

And, after m few pages, in the Same Article : — 

When the mind is raised up by this faith, it is certain that re- 
mission of nns, reconciliation, and imputing of righteousness is given 
for the merit of Christ alone ; and that Christ is effectual in us, and 
doth by his Holy Spirit quicken those that believe, and deliver us 
firom eternal death, and withal make us heirs of eternal life. So 
saith Paul» ^ We conclude that man is justified by feith, without the 
works of the law." Rom. iii. 28. Also, ** We are justified freely by 
his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus ; whom 
God hath set forth to be a reconciliation through faith in his blood." 
Rom. iii. 24, 25. And, "To him give all the Prophets witness, 
that all that believe in him shall receive remission of sins." Acts 
X. 43. 


Now the words are manifest. Faith doth not only signify tlie 
knowledge of the history, (for that is also in the devils, of whom it 
is said, " The devils do believe, and tremble ; James ii. 1 9.) but it 
doth signify, to embrace all the Articles of Faith, and, among these, 
this Article, / do believe the remission of sins ; neither do I believe 
that it is only given to others, but to me also. This faith is also a 
confidence, resting in the Mediator; according to that, "Being 
justified by faith, we have peace." Rom. v. 1 . So that Paul speak- 
eth of faith, which, consenting to all the Articles of the Creed, doth 
behold and embrace the promise : for he joineth together futh and the 
promise ; " Therefore is it by faith, that the promise might be sure." 
Rom. iv. 16. 

In expounding the word Justified, it is usually said, to be justi- 
fied, doth signify, of unrighteous to be made righteous ; which, being 
rightly understood, doth-agree also to our purpose. Of unrighteous 
to be made righteous ; that is, acquitted from guilt, for the Son of 
God his sake ; that is, laying hold by faith upon Christ himself, 
" who is oar righteousness :" (as Jeremiah and St. Paul do say, Jer. 
xxiii. 6. and xzziii. 16. and 1 Cor. i. 30.) because that by his merit 
we have remission, and God doth impute his righteousness to us, and 
for him doth account us just, and, by giving his Holy Spirit, doth 
quicken and regenerate us, as it is said, " This life is in his Son : he 
that hath the Son, hath eternal life ; he that hath not the Son of 
God, hath not life." 1 John v. 11, 12. And, "That he may be just, 
and a justifier," &c. Rom. iii. 26. And although newness is withal 
begun, which shall be perfect in life eternal, whereunto we are re- 
deemed; yet neither for the new qualities, nor for any works, is any 
man in this life made just, that is, acceptable to God, and heir of 
eternal life, but only for the Mediator's sake, who suffered, rose again, 
reigneth, and prayeth for us, overshadowing and quickening us. 
For although virtues are here begun, yet be they still imperfect, and 
the relics of sin do stick in us. Therefore we must hold this comfort, 
that the person is accepted for the Son of God his sake, his righteous- 
ness being imputed to us ; as it is said, " Abraham beUeved God, 
and it was imputed to him for righteousness." Rom. iv. 3. Also, 
" Blessed are they, whose iniquities be forgiven, and whose sins 
be covered." ver. 7. Therefore this saying must be understood 
correlatively, "We are justified by feuth;" Rom. v. 1. that is, we 
are justified by confidence in the Son of God, not for our quality, 
but because he is the Reconciler, in whom the heart doth rest in 
confidence of the promised mercy for His sake. Which confidence 


he doth raise up in us by his Holy Spirit, as St. Paul saith ; " Ye 
have received the Spirit of the adoption of sons, by whom we cry, 
Abba, Father." Rom. viii. 15. 

Here also we must speak of the exclusive particle. St. Paul 

doth often repeat the word Frbblt ; by which it is most certain, 

that the condition of our merits is excluded. Therefore it is said in 

our Churches, " We are justified by Faith aloue ; which we so 

understand, and declare : Frbblt, for the only Mediator's sake, not 

for our contrition, or other our merits, we have our sins forgiven us, 

and are reconciled to God. For, although contrition and many other 

virtues are^ together with faith, or this confidence, kindled in us ; 

yet these virtues are not the cause or the merit of the remission of 

sins, neither doth the person please God in regard of them : according 

to that saying, "No man living shall be justified in thy sight." 

Ptalm cxliii. 2. But the person hath remission, and doth certainly 

please Godi by reason of the Mediator, who must be apprehended by 

fisith ; as it is saidi " By whom we have boldness, and entrance with 

confidence, by faith in him." Ephes. iii.'12. This whole doctrine is 

made more manifest in the true conversion and daily invocation of 

the godly. When we are in great fear, by the knowledge of the wrath 

of God, this one comfort is firm and sure, to fly to the Son of God, 

^ho saith, " Come unto me, all ye that labour and are laden, and I 

^vvill refresh you.'' Matt. xi. 28. Also, "As I live, I will not the death of 

1^ sbmer, but rather that he return and live." Ezek. xxxiii. 11. Also, 

*'' G^race aboundeth more than sin." Rom. v. 20. In these griefs, if a 

man be taught to doubt of the remission of sins, sorrow will have the 

^pper hand, and then follow most grievous murmurings against God, 

^nd desperation, and eternal death : but if a man be taught, that 

cloubting is to be overcome by faith, then shall he understand, that 

l3y the word Faith is not only signified the knowledge of the story ; 

\ie shall know that confidence doth rely upon the only Mediator ; and 

lie shaU perceive what is meant by these words, Frbblt, for the 

Mediator's sake, remission is received, by faith alone, and so the 

person is made acceptable. 

This wrestling hath at all times instructed some. For though 
Origen, and many other writers and sententiaries, have brought forth 
an impure kind of doctrine, yet in Augustine and certain others 
we read divers sentences which shew, that they also received comfort 
out of these true fountains. Who although they do sometimes speak 
improperly, or things unlike, because they were somewhat negligent 
m speaking; yet we may easily gather what was their perpetual 


jodgment, if we will judge aright. Augiutiiie, Upon PMobm j 
saith : ' Who be happy ? not they in whom God shall not find 
for those he findeth in all men. For all men have sinned, anc 
destitate of the glory of God. Therefore if sins he found in all i 
it is evident that none are happy, but those whose una be forgi 
This therefore the Apostle did thus commend : Abraham beli 
God, and it was imputed to him for righteousness.* Here certi 
Augustine by faUh doth understand canjidence, which reoeivetfa 
mission of sins : and that which is said in Genesis, and in St. 1 
he doth altogether understand it, as we expound it. And in 
book, De ^^iritu et LUera, he saith» ' By the law we fiear ( 
and by faith we fly to his mercy.' Bernard, in his Sermom of 
Anmmdatum, saith : * Fint of all, it is necessary to believe, that i 
canst not have remisaion of sins, but by the meroy of God. But 
thereunto, that thou also believe this, that through him thy sin 
forgiven thee. This is the witness which the Holy Ghost doth 
in our hearts sa3ring. Thy sins be forgiven thee. For so doth 
Apostle judge, that a man is justified freely by &ith.* In 
sentence, the judgment of our Churches is plainly and. prc^ 
alleged, and like testimonies are to be found in this author. 1 
also, in his Sermon of Humility, doth most properly set forth 
judgment, in these words : ' He that rejoioeth, let him rejoice in 
Lord ; sa3ring, that Christ is made unto us of God, wisdom, 
righteousness, and sanctificatiou, and redemption ; as it is wril 
He that rejoiceth, let him rejoice in the Lord. For this is pe 
and sound rejoicing in God, when as a man is not puffed up by re 
of his own righteousness, but doth acknowledge that he doth s 
in need of true righteousness, and that he is justified by fiiith a 
in Christ.' 

Seeing, therefore, that by this which hath been spoken it is n 
fest, what the word Faith doth signify in this proposition, * We 
justified by Faith ;' hereupon we may understand, that the Monks 
others do dangerously err, which do command those that are tu) 
to God, to doubt whether they do please God. This common e 
of doubting is evidently refuted by these words, " Being justifiec 
faith, we have peace with God:" Rom. v. 1. also, " Therefoi 
righteousness of ftdth, that the promise might be sure." Rom. iv. 
For so long as men's hearts are tormented with doubting, the} 
from God ; they do not rest in God, nor call upon him : and the 
mise becometh unto them but a vain sound, because they give 
consent unto it. Finally, it is the eternal and immutable comm: 

ov JumricATioN bt waitu, and or aooo woeks. • 198 

owat of God, thit we should believe in the Sod of God, eocording 
to this saying. ** The SjMrit ihall oonTince the world of sin, because 
tbey bdieve not in me." John zvi. 9. Also. " He that believeth 
not God, maketh lum a liar/* 1 John y. 10. 

Now* it is a foolish caTiI, when they say^ that we must doubt in 

respect of our miworthiness, and not in respect of meroy. For 

therefore was the promise given, therefore was the Son of God ap- 

pmnted oor Mediator, because we are unworthy : and that, for His 

sake, having suffered, being raised up again, and now making inter- 

oesaion for us, and dwelling in us, and dothing us with his 

righteousness, the Father might undoubtedly be mercifal to thia 

miaenUe lump of ours, being unworthy, and foD of filthiness : ac* 

oording to that saying, " There is now no condemnation- to them 

^hi<di wa& in Christ Jesus." Rom. viii. 1. Also it is absurd which 

^hty aay, that we must doubt by reason of our unworthiness. For 

^we are not to doubt, whether our unworthiness do displease Grod ; 

Imt with true sighs let us confess that we are unworthy, and let' us 

lay to the promise, whereunto God hath commanded us to assent. 

Neither is that saying fitly applied to this doubting, " Man knoweth 

viot whether he be worthy of love, or of hatred." Ecdes. ix. 1. It 

is madness to imagine that Solomon should have any such meaning* 

that neither ibe just nor the unjust ought to determine with them- 

odvesu whether they please or displease God ; seeing it is most 

certain that they, which persevere in wicked deeds against their 

conacience, do displease God. But Solomon doth withdraw us from 

externa] shews to the word of God : as though he should say ; Do not 

cletermine with thjrself , that, by reason of thy prosperity, thou art in 

&voor with God, or, by reason of thy adversity, thou art out of 

&vonr with him. Alexander doth not therefore please God, because 

lie is a conqueror, and enjoyeth a large empire. Let not Job in his 

calamity, nor David in his exile, think that they be forsaken of God, 

l)ecanse they be miserable ; let them not judge according to these 

events or outward shews, but by the word of God. And then» even 

in the midst of our misery, we shall receive this comfort, " As I live, 

I will not the death of a sinner," &c. Ezek. xxxiii. 11." God so loved 

the woiid* that he gave his only-begotten Son, that every one that 

believeth in him should not perish," &c. John iii. 16. To conclude ; 

this error of doubting is altogether heathenish, and doth abolish the 

Gospel, and taketh away true comfort in conversion from them that 

fed the wrath of God. Men are rather to be taught, that this is 



undoubtedly the voice of the Gospel, that we should believe the Sou 
of God, and be assured that grace doth abound much more than sin. 
And therefore let us withstand doubting, by wrestling get the upper 
hand, and by feith overcome it ; that we may have access to God, in- 
vocate him, and give him thanks. These chief points of worship 
are fearfully hindered, when men's minds are shaken with the waves 
of doubting, as experience teacheth. 

Hereof it is evident, why it is necessary that the Decree of the 
Tridentine Council, which confirmeth the error of doubting, should 
be reproved. Also, by all that which hath been said, it may be under- 
stood, that we do justly find fault with that figure of speech, where- 
by some interpret Paul's words after this sort ; We are justified by 
Faith, that is, by formed love, as they speak. For they under- 
stand the word Faith only of knowledge, and think that this is the 
meaning; We are justified by Faith, that is, we are prepared to 
righteousness ; that is, to other virtues, to vnt, obedience and fulfil- 
ling of the Law. So this is it only which they say ; Man is righte- 
ous for. his own virtues : then they will him to doubt, whether he be 
furnished with those habits, whereof they speak. Now, we have de- 
clared before, that by Faith- is signified a confidence, resting in the 
Son of God the Reconciler, for whom we are received, and do please 
God, not for our virtues, or fulfilling the Law. And seeing that in 
this same comfort, the confidence, whereby we do rest in the Son of 
God, is indeed a motion, kindled by the Holy Ghost, whereby the 
heart is quickened, and freed from eternal death ; this conversion is 
called regeneration : " Eixcept a man be bom again, of water and of 
the Spirit," &c. John iii. 5. And now man is made indeed the dwell- 
ing-place of God, who is effectual in him : as it is said, " If any man 
love me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we 
will come unto him, and will dwell with him." John xiv. 23. The 
Eternal Father, and the Son, by the Holy Ghost, do quicken our 
hearts. By faith they are raised up in this comfort, as Paul saith, 
" That ye might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith." 
Gal. iii. 14. Therefore we do speak of an idle faith : and the un- 
skilful are deceived, while they think that remission of sins doth 
happen to such as are idle, without a certain motion of the mind, 
without wrestling* and vnthout a feeling of comfort in true griefs, at 
that age which now is able to understand the voice of doctrine, ac- 
cording to that saying, " Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by 
the word of God." Rom. x. 17. And because that in repentance we 


propound comfort unto the conscience, we do not here add ques- 
tioDS of Predestination or of Election ; * but we lead all readers to 
the word of God, and exhort them to learn the will of God out of 
his word, as the eternal Father by express voice commanded, " hbar 
HIM." Mark ix. 7. Let them not look for other revelations. 

Hitherto also pertameth the Fifth Article : — Of New Obedience, 

The whole benefit of the Son of God is to be considered. P*or 
He will 80 take away sin and death, and deliver us from the kingdom 
of the Devil, that, sin being altogether abolished, and death van- 
quished, he may restore unto us eternal life ; wherein God may com- 
municate unto us his wisdom, righteousness, and joy, and wherein 
God may be all in all. This great benefit he doth begin in this 
miserable lump of ours, in this life, as it is written, "If so be we 
shall be found clothed, and not naked." 2 Cor. v. 3. Also, " Thev 
that shall continue to the end, shall be saved." Matt, x 22. There- 
^re when we receive remission of sins, and are reconciled, and seal- 
^mI by the Holy Ghost, it is a horrible madness to waste these good 
^ifts; as these wasters are described in the Parable of the house 
"tthat was made dean : and in the Second Epistle of Peter it is said, 
■^ ' If they, after they have escaped from the filthiness of the world, 
^^xe jet tangled again therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse 
-^with them than the beginning." 2 Pet. ii. 20. Now these good gifts 
-grrr wasted or poured out, if a man do not hold the foundation, that 
v^ the Articles of Faith; and either willingly, or being deceived, 
^ssnbraoeth wicked opinions or idols : also, if a man do fall greviously 
sfc^QSt his conscience. These rules are oftentimes repeated ; as, 
* ' They which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God." 
^5tl. .V. 21. Therefore it is necessary to have a care to avoid such 
^^bJIs. If this manifest necessity (the great punishment, to wit, the 
loss of eternal life, being set before their eyes) do not move some to 
^0 good works, they shew themselves to be of the number of those, 
of whom it IS said, " He that committeth sin, is of the Devil :" 1 
John ui. 8. also, " If any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is 
not bis." Rom. viii. 9.' And there be many causes of this necessity, 
f^, a debty that is an immutable order, that the creatures should 
obey God. Therefore Paul saith, " Ye are debtors." Rom. viii. 12. 
Also, lest the Holy Ghost and faith be shaken ofls let there be a 
care to avoid present punishments : because it is most certain, that 

* Look to the sixth observation upon the Coufesnion of Augsburg. 

o 2 


many falls, even of the elect, are fearfully paniahed in thia life ; as 
the Church speaketh in Micah, " J wiU bear the wrath of the 
Lord, because I hare sinned against him/' Micah vii. 9. And the 
histories of all times do contain fearful examples of poniahments ; as 
David, Solomon, Manasses, Josias, Nebuchadnezzar, and innumer- 
able others, were grievously punished. Wherein this is most to be 
lamented, that in the very punishments many new sins are heaped 
up: as in the sedition raised against David» and in the rending of 
the kingdom for the sin of Solomon. And touching the necessity 
of doing good works^ the Lord saith, " Except your righteousness 
exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and of the Pharisees, ye 
shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven." Matt. y. 20. The 
necessity, which is manifold, being thus considered, these questions 
ensue thereupon:— What works are to be done: how they may be 
done : in what sort they do please God : what rewards they have : 
what is the difierence of sins : what sins do shake off the Holy 
Ghost,* and what not. 

Article 6. Wkai Works are to be done. 

It is the will of God, that ftuth and works be governed by his 
word. Therefore we must keep the rule, toudiing good works, 
both internal and external, contained in the oommandmenta of God ; 
which do pertain to us, as it is said, *' Walk ye in my command- 
ments." E^zek. XX. 19. And these internal and external woiks do 
then become the worship of God, when they be done in ftdth, and 
are referred to this end, that God by this obedience may be glorified. 
Now we have shewed before, that even the unregenerate may 
perform this external obedience or discipline ; as Cicero liveth 
honestly, and for his pains in government deserveth well of all 
mankind : but his mind is full of doubts, touching the providence of 
God; neither doth he know nor speak unto the true God in 
invocation, neither doth he know the promises; and he always 
doubteth wheth^ he be heard, especially when he is in misery; 
and then is he angry with God, and thinketh that he is unjustly 
punished, seeing he was an honest citizen, and profitable for the 
common-wealth. Such darkness in the mind is great sin, such 
as reason, not being illuminated by God, is not able to judge of. 

Therefore inward obedience, true knowledge of God^ fear of God, 
sorrows in repentance, trust to obtain mercy promised for the Son 

* Look at the first obnervadon upon this Confession, in the Fourth Section. 


of God» inrocirtioii, hope» love, joy in God, and other virtaee mmt 
be begm ako in the regenerate ; and they most be referred to a 
proper end, to wit, that God may be obeyed. These kinds of true 
worship cannot be given unto God without the light of the Grospd, 
and witfaoat £Euth: which oar adversaries, who will seem to be 
jolly prendiers of good works, do neither understand, nor require ; 
seeing they omit the doctrine of ftdth, which is a confidence to 
obtain mercy, resting in the Son of Grod ; which is an especial work, 
and the chief worship of God. Of works not commanded of God, 
we shall speak hereafter ; and we must hdd fast that rule, " In vain 
do they worship me with the commandments of men." Matt. xv. 9. 
But in the Church it fislleth out oftentimes, that ceremonies devised 
by men are more carefully kept than the commandments of God ; 
yea, the anthwity of Pharisaical and unjust traditions is preferred 
belbre the commandment of God : as, in many ages, for the unjust 
and widied commandment of single life, the commandment of God 
concerning true diastity was horribly violated. Therefore we must 
consider of the difference of the law ; whereof we will speak agasn 

Article 7. How Good Works nuty be done. 

Great is the infirmity of man, and the Devil is a most cruel enemy, 
who, for the hatred he beareth to God, rageth against mankind, and 
doth endeavour all that he can, especially to destroy the Church ; 
as it is written of Peter, " Watch, because your adversary the Devil 
goeth about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour." 
1 Pet. V. 8. Therefore, although men by their natural strength 
may, after a sort, perform the ejLternal discipline,* yet are they 
often overcome by this common infirmity : and the Devil also doth 
oftentimes force men, not altogether savage, to commit horrible 
acts ; as he deceived Eve, and compelled the brethren of Joseph, 
David, and others innumerable. Therefore what diligence, or what 
advisement, can be sufficient for this most subtile enemy ? Here let 
us lay hold upon that most sweet comfort, "The Son of God 
appeared to destroy the works of the Devil/' 1 John iii. S. The 
Son of God is the keeper of his Church, as he saith, " No man 
shall take my sheep out of my hands." John x. 28. He doth 
protect us, and also by his Holy Spirit doth confirm our minds in 

* See here again the first observation upon the Confession of Bohemia in 
the Fourth Section, and also the ninth observation upon the Confession of 
Augsburg in this same Section. 


true opinions : and as he doth begin eternal life, so doth he kindle in 
our hearts good motions, faith, love of God, true invocation, hope, 
chastity, and other virtues. We are not Pelagians, but we do 
humbly give thanks to the Eternal God, the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and to his Son Jesus Christ, and to the Holy Ghost, 
both for the whole benefit of salvation restored again to mankind, 
and especially for this benefit also, that the Son of God doth dwell 
in the Church, and doth defend it with his right hand against the 
fury of devils and men, and doth drive away the devils from us, 
and doth uphold us in this so great infirmity of ours, and by his 
word doth kindle in our minds the knowledge of God, and doth 
confirm and govern our minds by his Holy Spirit. We do certainly 
know that these benefits are indeed given unto us, as it is said 
most comfortably in Zechariah, " I will pour out upon the house 
of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace 
and prayers." Zech. xii. 10. He nameth the Spirit of grace, 
because that, in this comfort, the Son of God, sealing us by his 
Holy Spirit, doth testify that we are in favour, and that we are 
delivered from the pains of hell. Secondly, he nameth the Spirit of 
prayers, because that, when we have acknowledged the remission of 
sios, we do not now fiy from God, we do not murmur against God ; 
but we approach unto him with true faith and hope, we do ask and 
look for help at his hands, we love him, and submit ourselves to 
him : and thus is the beginning of obedience wrought. After that 
manner saith the Lord, " I will pray the Father, and he will give you 
another Comforter, even the Spirit of truth." John xiv. 16, 17. 
The Holy Ghost doth kindle the light of truth in our minds, and 
new motions in our hearts, agreeable to the law of God. Let us 
acknowledge this so great a gift, and let us endeavour to keep it 
thankfully, and desire daily to be helped in so great dangers of this 
life. The will is not idle, when a man hath received the Holy 

Article 8. How New Obedience doth please God. 

The Pharisee in Luke xviii. 10—12. doth admire and please 
himself, being bewitched with this persuasion, that he doth satisfy 
the law, and for this discipline, such as it is, doth please God. 
Many such there be among men ; who think themselves secure, iJ 
they perform never so little, though it be but a shadow, of discip- 
line. But the divine word doth oftentimes accuse the arrogance 
of these men : even as the Lord saith, '* Except ye repent, y< 


shall all in like sort periah ;" Luke xiii. 3 ; 5. and, " If we say we 
have no sin, we are liars.'* 1 John i. 8. Therefore their imagination 
is vain, which think that obedience doth please God for its own 
worthiness, and that it is a Merit of Condignity, as they speak, and 
such a righteousness before God, as is a merit of eternal life. And 
yet afterward they do add, that we must always doubt whether our 
obedience do please God, because it is evident, that in every one 
there is much pollution, many sins of ignorance and omission, and 
many not small blemishes. Here it is necessary that men*s consci- 
encea should be instructed aright in either of these points, both 
concerning our infirmity, and also concerning our comfort. It is 
necessary that the regenerate should have the righteousness of a 
good conscience, and obedience begun as hath been said: yet 
nevertheless, in this life there is still remaining in our nature, in our 
soul, and in our heart, very much pollution, which they do the more 
see, and bewail, which have received more light than others, as the 
Prophets and Apostles ; according to that complaint of Paul, " I 
see another law in my members, which striveth against the law 
of my mind, and maketh me captive to the law of sin." Rom. vii. 
23. There is as yet in every one a great mist, manifold ignorance, 
and many sorrowful doubts, errors in counsels, raised by distrust, 
by fidse opinions, and by a vain hope ; many vicious flames of lusts, 
much neglect of duty, murmurings and indignatious against God in 
his punishments. To conclude, it is insensibleness and madness* 
not to be willing to confess, that the fear and love of God is much 
more cold in us, than it ought to be. 

These confessions are repeated in the sermons of the Prophets and 
Apostles. "Enter not into judgment with thy servant, for in thy 
sight shall no man living be justified." Psalm czliii. 2. And, " If 
we say, that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is 
not in us." 1 John i. 8. This confession is necessary, and man's 
arrogancy to be reproved. Also the error of our adversaries, who 
feign that men in this mortal life may satisfy the law of God ; and 
of those who say, that the evil of concupiscence, which is bred 
with us, is not sin, nor an evil repugnant to the Law or will of God ; 
is to be reprehended. These errors doth Paul manifiestly confute ; 
Rom. vii. and viii. 

Then must comfort also be joined thereunto. First, let the re- 
generate person assure himself, that he is reconciled to God by 
faith alone, that is, by confidence in the Mediator ; and that his 
person is certainly accounted righteous, for the Son of God, the 


Mediator, and that fredy» for His merit. Secondlyf let ua conleai, 
with tme grief, that there remain as yet in the regenerate man 
many tint, and nmch poDution, worthy ol the wnth of God. 
Thirdly, let him neverthdeaa know, that obedience, and the right- 
eooaneaa of a good oooaeienoe, most be began in thia life; and 
that thii obedience, ahhoogh it be very fer from that pcrfeetiaQ 
which the law reqnixeth, ia nevertheleaa, in the regener a te, accept- 
able to Godt for the Mediator's sake; i^io maketh request for ns, 
and by hai merit doth cover omr gnat and nnspeakable ndseries. 
Thns for BSfi iBake,.bodi the person is received, and also our works 
do please Gbd» tint in either of them our foith may shine. There- 
fore Peter sil^, ''Offsr op spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God 
thioogh Jesos Christ*'* 1 Pfet. ii. 5. This comfort is set forth m 
Rom. viii. 1 ; '*Now there is no oondeomation to them, which do 
walk in Christ Jesus." And in Rom. tL 14 ; '* Ye are not under 
the law» but under grace." In that pbce this question is asked, 
whether our obedience do please God, seeing it doth not satisfy tiie 
law? Fbul anawereth, that it doth please God, becanae we are not 
under the law, that is, condemned by the law, but we are under 
graoe» reconciled, or received into fovour. " Who shall condemn? 
Christ hath died for us, and is risen again, and ntteth at the right 
band ol God, and maketh request for us." Rom. viii. 34. That is» 
holy men do please God, for the Scm his sake ; who also offered his 
obedience for us, and maketh request for us. We must oppose 
these sayings to donbting» lest foith and invocation be extinguished : 
for doubting doth weaken our invocation. 

Seemg therefore that we know, both that new obedience is neces- 
sary, and that hdp is certainly given us ; and that this obedience 
doth please God, although it be hnperfect and needy ; let us ac- 
knowledge the iDfinite mercy of God, and give thanks for it, and 
have the greater care to govern all our actions, because we know 
both that we are helped, and that this obedience is acceptable to 
God lor the Son's sake. And let this necessity be alwa}^ in our 
eyes, that if the benefits of God, to wit, Jostificatioo and Rege- 
neration, be shaken off, we lose eternal life ; according to that aay- 
ing, " We shaU be clothed, if so be that we be not found naked :** 
2 Cor. v. 3. and, " If any have not the Spirit of Christ, he is 
not his.*' Rom. viii. 9. And always in Justification let there be 
also a beginning of newness of life. Tlie thief, hanging on the 
cross, hath good works, and those both internal and external : it 
grieveth him that he had sinned, and he confesseth that he is justly 


panished: then by faith he doth acknowledge the Saviour, and 

desireth salvation of him : and therefore he heareth express abso- 

lotion, and the preaching of eternal life, and the promise; and rest- 

eth in this voice of the Messias, and submitteth himself to God, 

and doth not bear the ponishment impatiently, bat is eased by 

admowledging the Messias, and by the hope of eternal life, and 

giveth thanks to God : mOTeover, to give an evident token of his 

confesaion, he findeth fault with the other which corsed Christ. 

Hiese tMngB are done by him, becanse this very Messias, being 

partner with him in his punishment, by a word doth teach his mind ; 

and by the same comfort thb Word is effectoal in him, and 

throagh Him the Eternal Father doth pour the Holy Ghost into the 

Leart of this hearer, that he may kindle in him joy, love, invocation, 

liope d eternal hfe, and other virtues. 

ArHde 9. Of Rewards. 

Paul aaithy " Eternal life is the gift of God, through Jesus Christ 

^3iir Lord z** Rom. vi. 28. and they that are reconciled, or jus- 

"^lified, are ''heirs annexed with the Son of God;'* Rom. viii. 17. 

id that for Ins sake, not for their own merits. Faith, (receiving 

of sins and justification,) and the hope of eternal lifo, 

rely upon the Son of God the Mediator ; as it is said, " This is 

win of llie Father^ that every one that believeth in Him, should 

Lve eternal lifo.^ John vi. 40. And, " Being justified by faith^ 

hove peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ : by whom 

re have aoeess through £uth unto this grace wherein we stand, and 

jdce under the hope of eternal life." Rom. v. 1, 2. He joineth 

ith and hope together, and affirmeth that either of them doth 

upon the Mediator^ And it is manifest, that hope ought not 

rely on <mr works, because it is said, ** No man living shall be 

V^iatified in thy sight." Psal. cxliii. 2. But as they which repent are 

^aoooonted just by fidth, for the only Son of God his sake, and for 

\^oi, and through him are quickened ; so for him, and not for our 

ixieritSy is eternal lifo given unto us : as the thief on the cross 

betreth this promise, *' To-day thou shaft be with me in P^uradise." 

lioke zzin. 48. 

Neither must we dream, that the Son of God did merit, or give 
unto us, a preparation only to eternal life ; but let that most com- 
fortable saying of Hosea be always in our sight, " O death, I will 
be thy death ; O hell, I will be thy destruction." Hos. xiii. 14. For 
by the Son of God, and through him, we are delivered from eternal 


death, and translated into eternal life, as he saith, " I give unto 
them eternal life :" John x. 28. and, " He that hath the Son, hath 
life." 1 John v. 12. And let hope be sure and firm ; as Peter saith, 
" Hope perfectly;" 1 Pet. i. 13. that is, look for eternal life, not 
with doubtful opinion, but in an assured hope, to wit, for the 
Mediators sake. And Augustine saith well, in his Book of Medi- 
tations : ' The certainty of our whole confidence consisteth in the 
blood of Christ.' Let us hold both these points assuredly, that he 
which repenteth, doth freely by faith receive remission of sins, and 
justification for the Son of God his sake, and that he is an heir of 
eternal life ; as Paul saith, " As many as are led by the Spirit of 
God, they are the sons of God : and if they be children, they are 
also the heirs of God." Rom. viii. 14; 17. Yet notwithstanding, 
this also is true, that they which do shake off the Holy Ghost,* 
falling from faith, or sinning grievously against their conscience, 
and do not return unto God by repentance, are not heirs ; as it is 
said, " They which do such things, shall not inherit the kingdom of 
God." Gal. V. 21. And, "Fight the good fight, having fsdth and 
a good conscience, which some have gut away, and as concerning 
faith have made shipwreck." 1 Tim. i. 18, 19. And, ** I was hungry, 
and ye gave me not to eat : '* and, " these shall go into everlasting 
punishment, but the righteous shall go into life eternal.'^ Matt. xxy. 
42 ; 46. Now, although life eternal is given to the regenerate for 
the Son of God, yet withal it is also a reward of good works ; as it 
is said, " Your reward is plentiful in heaven :" Luke vi. 23. as a 
patrimony is the reward of the labours of a son, although it be given 
to the son for another cause. 

Moreover, God hath added unto good works certain promises of 
his ; and therefore for the good works also of holy men God doth 
give spiritual and corporal gifts even in this life, and that diversely, 
as it seemeth good to his unspeakable wisdom. " Godliness hath the 
promises of the life present, and of that which is to come." 1 Urn. 
iv. 8. " They shall receive an hundred fold in this life, (but with tri- 
bulation ;) and, after this life, eternal life." Mark x. 30. " Who- 
soever shall give unto one of these little ones to drink a cup of cold 
water only in the name of a disciple, he shall not lose his reward." 
Matt. X. 42. ** Give, and it shall be given to you." Luke vi. 38. 
'V Honour thy father and thy mother, that thou mayest live long 
upon earth." Exod. xx. 12. " Bread shall be given him, and his 

* Here look again to the first observation upon this Confession, in the 
Fourth Section. 


^praters shall be sure : they shall see the King in his glory :" Isa. 
juziii. 16, 17. that is, for obedience and good works God doth give 
quiet Common-weals, an honest and meek government, &c. " Break 
thy bread to the hungry, and thou shalt be as a garden that is 
watered," &c. Isa. Iviii. 7 ; 11. The example of the widow at 
Sarepta is well known : and the Psalmist saith, " Substance and 
riches are in his house." Psalm czii. 3. For seeing that God, in 
this mortal and miserable life, doth gather his Church, and will have 
it to be an honest congregation, he giveth thereunto many places of 
entertainment ; he giveth nests to godly poor families, for the 
l>ringing up of their children, and for the spreading abroad of doc- 
trine : to conclude, he will preserve the society of mankind, their 
households, and Common- weals, and that to this end, that a Church 
may be gathered. Therefore he giveth sometime a government 
less troublesome, peace, a fruitful land, and other good things, for 
the prayers of holy men, for their diligence, and for common 
necessity's sake : as, for Joseph, Naaman, and Daniel, those king- 
doms, wherein they lived, flourished the more ; and the banished in 
Babylon are commanded to pray for the peace and wholesome 
government of that place, where they are entertained. Jer. xxix. 
7. So also oftentimes punishments are heaped up for the sins of 
the Church ; as is to be seen in the punishment of the tribe of Ben- 
jamin, of David, and others. Now, God will have us to understand 
that these benefits are necessary for the body, and to know that 
they be given of God : in asking of them he will have our faith to 
be exercised, as we shall declare more at large in a fit place. At 
this time we have therefore added these few things, that in this 
Confession there might be also a testimony in our Churches, that 
this true and necessary doctrine, touching good works, is faithfuUy 
laid open. 

XL — From thb Confession of Wirtbmburo. 
Chapter 5. Of Justification, 

We believe and confess, that, to do and practice such righte- 
ousness as is acceptable to God, these virtues be necessary ; faith 
hope, and love : and that man cannot of himself conceive these 
virtues, but doth receive them of the favour and grace of God : and 
that *• faith doth work by love." Gal. v. 6. But we think that their 
judgment doth far disagree from the Apostolic and Catholic doctrine, 
who teach that man is made acceptable to God, and accounted just 
before God, for those virtues ; and that when we come to stand 


before God in judgment, we must titist to the merits of these 
virtues. For man is made acceptable to God, and counted just 
before him, for the only Son of God our Lord Jesus Christ» through 
£aith : and when we appear before the judgment-seat of Grod, we 
must not trust to the merit of any of those virtues which we have, 
but only to the merit of our Lord Jesus Christ, whose merit is 
ours by faith. And because that before the tribunal-seat of Grod, 
where the question is of true and eternal righteousness and salvation, 
there is no place at all for the merits oi men, but only for the mercy 
of God, and the merits of our Lord Jesus Christ alone, who is 
received of us by faith ; therefore we think that the ancient Fathers, 
our elders, said truly, that we are justified before God by £aith 
alone. " All have sinned, and are deprived oi the glory of God, and 
are justified freely by his g^ace, through the redemption that is in 
Christ Jesus, whom God hath set forth to be a reconciliation through 
faith in his blood/' Rom. iii. 23— 25. <<The Scripture hath con* 
duded all under sin, that the promise by the £uth oi Jesus Christ 
should be given to them that believe." Gal. iii. 22. And, " We 
through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by fiuth. 
For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor 
undrcumcision, but faith which worketh by love." Gal. v. 5, 6. 
Hilary saith, ' It offended the Scribes, that man should forgive sin, 
(for they beheld nothing but man in Jesus Christ ;) and that he 
should forgive that, which the law could not release. For faith alone 
doth justify.' In Matih, Cap, ix. Ambrose saith, ' They are justifi- 
ed fredy, because that, working nothing, nor requiting any thing, 
by faith alone they are justified, by the gift of God.' In Epist. ad 
Rom. Cap, iii. And again, 'They are evidently blessed, whose 
iniquities are forgiven, without any labour or work, and whose sins 
are covered, no help of repentance being required of them, but only 
this, that they believe.' Ad Rom. Cap, iv. Many places might be 
allied as well out of the writings of the Prophets and Apostles, as 
out of the holy Fathers, whereby it is proved, that not only in the 
beginning, through the free mercy of God, these virtues, to wit, 
faith, hope, and love, are given unto us ; but also afterward, through- 
out our whole life : and that in our extreme necessity, we are not 
able to stand before the severe tribunal- seat of God, but in the 
confidence of the only free favour of God, shewed unto us in Christ 
the Son of God. For this is that which both Paul teacheth, and 
the Ecclesiastiea] writers do interpret, That we are justified before 
God by faith alone. 


CktqOer 7. Of Good Works. 

We say that good works, commanded of God, are necessarily to be 
done: and that, through the free mercy of God, they do deserve* cer- 
tain their own, either corporal, or spiritual, rewards. But we must 
not think, that, in the judgment of God, (where the question is con- 
cerning the poring of our sins, the appeasing of the wrath of God, 
and the merit of eternal salvation,) we should trust to those good 
works which we do. For all the good works which we do are imper- 
fect, neither can they sustain the severity of the judgment of God ; 
but all oar confidence is to be placed in the only mercy of God, for his 
Son our Lord Jesus Christ his sake. " Enter not into judgment with 
thy servant, for no flesh living shall be justified in thy sight." Psalm 
cxliii. 2. '* The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit agunst 
the flesh, and these are contrary one to the other ; so that ye cannot 
do those things that ye would." Gal. v. 17. "I know that in me, 
that is, in my flesh, there dwelleth no good." Rom. vii. 18. " We 
do not present our supplications before thee, for our own righteous- 
ness, but for thy great mercies." Dan. ix. 18. Augustine saith, 
' Woe to the life of man, be it never so commendable, if thou 
examine it, setting mercy aside.' Confess. Lib. 9. Cap. 13. And 
again : ' AH my hope is in the death of my Lord. His death is my 
merit, my refuge, salvation, life, and my resurrection. The mercy 
of the Lord is my merit ; I am not without merit, so long as the 
^Xord of mercies is not wanting. And if the mercies of the Lord be 
-MDBnj, I abound in merits.' In Manual. Cap. 22. Gregory saith, 
^ Tberefbre our righteous Advocate shall defend us in the day of 
judgment, because we know and accuse ourselves to be unjust. 
^Kberefore let us not trust to our tears, nor to our actions, but to 
'tlie alleging of our Advocate.' Super Ezech. Lib. 1. Horn. 7. in 
J^* Bernard saith, ' Our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our 
<20Qacience ; not such a testimony as that proud Pharisee had, his 
thoughts being seduced, and seducing him, giving witness of 
^^imself, and his witness was not true. But then is the witness 

* That k, obtain, and that (as it is well added afterward^ by the free 
iiBctcy and goodness of God. Touching which point see the seventh obserya> 
tum opoo the Confession of Augsburg in the Eight Section, and the second 
c^i^nnition upon the same Confession in this Section. Also touching the 

l^^cesiitjr of Good Works, see the serenth observation upon the same Con- 

fetiioii in this sclf-aame Section. 


true, when the Spirit beareth witness with our spirit. Now I believe 
that this testimony consisteth in three things : For first of all it is 
necessary to believe, that thou canst not have remission of sins, but 
through the favour of God : Secondly, that thou canst have no 
good work at all, except He also give it to thee : Lastly, that thou 
canst not deserve eternal life by any works, except that also be 
given thee freely.' In Serm. 1. de Annunciat, Beata Marue, 

XII. — From thb Confession op Subvbland. 

Chapter 3. 0/ Justification, and of Faith. 

Our preachers do somewhat differ from the late received opinions 
about those things which the people were commonly taught ; con- 
cerning the mean whereby we are made partakers of the redemption 
wrought by Christ, and touching the duties of a Christian man. 
Those points which we have followed, we will endeavour to lay open 
most plainly to your sacred Majesty; and also to declare ver}' 
faithfuUy those places of Scripture, by which we were forced here- 
unto. First, therefore, seeing that we were taught of late years, 
that works were necessarily required to justification, our preachers 
have taught, that this whole justification is to be ascribed to the 
good pleasure of God, and to the merit of Christ, and to be received 
by faith alone. To this they were moved especially by these places 
of Scripture. *' As many as received him, to them he gave power 
to become the sons of God, even to them that believe in his name ; 
which are born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of 
the will of man, but of God." John i. 12, 13. "Verily, verily, I 
say unto you* Except a man be bom again anew, he cannot see the 
kingdom of God." John iii. 3. •* No man knoweth the Son, but 
the Father ; neither knoweth anv man the Father, but the Son, and 
he to whom the Son will reveal him." Matt, xi, 27. " Blessed 
art thou, Simon, the son of Jonas; for flesh and blood hath not 
revealed this unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven." Matt, 
xvi. 17. ** No man can come to me, except my Father draw him." 
John vi. 44. '* By grace are ye saved, through faith, and that not 
of yourselves : it is the gift of God ; not of works, lest any man 
should boast himself. For we are his workmanship, created in 
Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath ordained, that we 
should walk in them." Eph. ii. 8 — 10. For seeing it is our 
righteousness and eternal life, to know God, and our Saviour Jesus 
Christ; and that is so far from being the work of flesh and blood, 
that it is necessary to be bom again anew ; neither can we come to 


the Son, except the Father draw as, neither know the Fkther, 
except the Son reveal him unto us; (and Paul doth write so 
expressly, " Not of yourselves, not of works ;" Eph. ii. 8, 9.) it is 
evident enoug;h, that our works can help nothing at all, that of 
iinjost, such as we are horn, we may hecome righteous : hecause 
that, as we are by nature the children of wrath, and therefore unjust, 
so we are not able to do any thing that is just, or acceptable to God. 
fint the beginning of all our righteousness and salvation must pro- 
ceed from the mercy of the Lord ; who, of his only favour, and the 
contemplation of the death of his Son, did first offer the doctrine of 
truth, and his Gospel, sending those that should preach it : and 
secondly, seeing that " the natural man cannot,*' as Paul saith, "per- 
ceive the things that are of God," 1 Cor. ii. 14. he causeth also the 
hcBjn of his light to arise in the darkness of our heart, that now we 
may believe the Gospel preached, being persuaded of the truth 
thereof by the Holy Spirit from above, and then forthwith, trusting 
to the testimony of this Spirit, in the confidence of children to call 
upon God, and to say, "Abba, Father;" Rom. viii. 15. obtaining 
thereby true salvation, according to that saying, " Whosoever shall 
call upon the name of the Lord, shall be saved." Joel. ii. 32. Rom. 
X. 13. 

Chester 4. Of Good Works, proceeding out of Faith, through Love. 

These things we will not have» men so to understand, as though 
we placed salvation and righteousness in the slothful thoughts of 
men, or in faith destitute of love, (which they call faith without 
form ;) seeing that we are sure, that no man can be justified or saved, 
except he do chiefly love, and most earnestly imitate, God. " For 
those which he knew before* he also predestinated to be made like to 
the image of his Son;" Rom. viii. 29. to wit, as in the glory of 
a blessed hfe, so in the cultivation of innocence and perfect righte- 
ousness : for ** we are his workmanship created unto good works." 
Eph. ii. 10.* But no man can love God above all things, and 
worthily imitate him, but he which doth indeed know him, and doth 
assuredly look for all good things from him. Therefore we cannot 
otherwise be justified, that is, become righteous as well as safe, (for 
righteousness is even our salvation,) than by being endued chiefly 

* The Utter portion of this sentence, as it stands above, may be mentioned 
as one of various instances of omission occurring in both the old editions of the 
Translation, and now supplied in conformity with the original Latin of the 
Harmony. — Editor. 


with fiuth in him : by which fiuth we, hdieving the Gospel, and 
therefore being persuaded that God hath taken as for his adopted 
childreot and that he will for ever shew himsdf a loving Father onto 
OS, let us wholly depend upon his pleasore. This frith St. Angoatine 
doth call, in his book DeFide ei Operilms, svamobxjoal ; to wit, that 
which is effiBCtual through love. By this fiuth we are bom again, 
and the image of God is repaired in OS* By this fiuth, whcfeaa we are 
bom oorrnpt^ (our thoughts, even fitmi our childhood, being aho* 
gether bent unto evil,) we become good and upright* For hereopon, 
we, being fiilly satisfied with one God, (the spring of all good thuqgs, 
that is never dry, but runneth always most plentifolly,) do forthwith 
shew oursdves, as it were, God's, towards others, that is, toward the 
true sons of God ; endeavouring by love to profit them, so much as 
in us lieth. For, " He that loveth his brother, abideth in the Ught, 
1 John ii. 10. and " is bom of God," iv. 7. and is whoUy given t» 
the new, and, at the same time, to the old commandment, touching* 
mutual love. And this love is the fulfilling of the v^iole law» 
Paul saith, " The whole law is fulfilled in one word, namely this 
Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." Gal. v. 14. For 
soever the law teacheth» hitherto it tendeth, and this one thing i 
requireth, that at length we may be reformed to the perfect 
of God, being good in all things, and ready and wdhng to do 
good ; the which we cannot do, except we be adorned with all kin 
of virtues. For who can purpose and do all things (aa the dnty 
a Christian doth require, 1 Cor. x. 31<— 33.) to the true ediMqg 
the Church* and the sound profit of all men, (that is, according 
the law of God, and to the glory of God,) except he both t^^^, ^- 
speak, and do every thing in order, and well, and therefore be 
familiarly acquainted with the whole company of virtues ? 

Chester 5. To whom Good Works are to be aecribed, midkowNe 

they he. 

But seeing that they which are the children of God, are rather led. 
by the Spirit of God, Rom. viiL 14. than do work anything them-> 
selves ; and that " of him, and through him, and for him, are all 
things ;" Rom. xi. 36. therefore whatsoever things we do well and 
holily, are to be ascribed to none other, than to this one only Spirit, 
the Giver of all virtues. Howsoever it be, he doth not compel us, 
but doth lead us being willing; " working in us both to will, and to 
do." Fhil. ii. 13. Whereupon St. Augustine writeth very well, ' That 
God doth reward his works in us.' And yet we are so fiur from ' 


g^ood works* that we do utterly deny that any man can fiilly 
be saved, except he be thus far brought by the Spirit of Christ, that 
^e find no want at all in him, touching those good works whereunto 
God hath created him* For there be divers members of the same 
body : therefore every one of us hath not the same office. 1 Cor. xii. 
12. It ia so necessary that the law should be fulfilled, that " Heaven 
and earth shall sooner pass away, than any one iota, or the least 
point thereof, riiall be remitted." Matt. xxiv. 85. Yet, because Grod 
abne is good* hath created all things of nothing, and doth by his 
Spirit make ns altogether new, and doth wholly lead us, (for in 
Christ nothing availeth but a new creature,) none of all these things 
can be ascribed to man's strength; and we must confess, that all 
things are the mere gifts of God, who, of his own accord, and not for 
any merit of ours, doth favour and love us. By these things it may 
sufficiently be known, what we believe justification to be, by whom 
that it is wrought for us, and by what means received of us : also by 
what places of Scripture we are induced so to believe. For although 
of many we have aUeged a few, yet, by these few, any one that is 
but meanly conversant in the Scriptures, may fully perceive, that they 
which read those Scriptures shall find everywhere such kind of sen- 
tences, as do attribute unto us nothing but sin and destruction, (as 
Hosea saith*) and all our righteousness and salvation to the Lord, 
ilos. ziii* 9. 

Chapter 6. Of the Duties of a Christian Man. 

Now it cannot be doubted of, what be the duties of a Christian 
KSian, and to what actions he ought chiefly to give himself : namely, 
Ko all those, whereby every one, for his part, may profit his neigh* 
floors ; first, in things pertaining to life eternal, that they also may 
l>egm to know, worship, and fear God ; and then in things per- 
taining to this life, that they may want nothing which is necessary 
to the rastenanoe of the body. For as the whole law of God, which 
u a moat absolute commandment of all righteousness, is briefly 
contained in this one word, " Thou shalt love thy neighbour as 
tkyidf ;" Rom. xiii. 9. so, in the performance of this love, it is 
nsGeaaary that all righteousness should be comprised and perfected. 
Wherenpon it foUoweth, that nothing at all is to be reckoned among 
the duties of a Christian man, which is not of force and efiect to 
profit oor neighbour ; and that every work so much the more belong- 
eAio the duty of a Christian man, by how much his neighbour may 
the more be profited thereby. Therefore, next after Ecclesiastical 


functions, among the chief duties of a Christian man* we place the 
government of the common-weal, obedience to Magistrates, (for 
these be referred to the common profit ;) the care which n taken for 
our wife, children, fiEmiily, and the honour whidb is due to parents, 
(because that without these the life of man cannot consist ;) and 
lastly, the profession of good arts and of all honest discipline ; 
(because that, except these be had in estimation, we shall be des- 
titute of ^e greatest good things, which are proper to mankind.) 
Yet in these, and aU other duties pertaining to man's fife, no man 
must rashly take any thing to himself, but with a right conadence 
consider wherennto God doth call him. To conchide, let every man 
account that his duty, and therein so much the more exoeDent a duty, 
the more he shall profit other men thereby. 



L — From thb latter Confession op Hblvictia. 

Chapter 17. Of the Catholic and Holy Ckurch of Godj and of 

One Only Head of the Church. 

Forasmuch as God from the beginning would have men to be^ 
saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth ; 1 THm. ii. 4^ 
therefore it is necessary that there always should have been, and 
should be at this day, and to the end of the world, a Church : that 
is, a company of the faithful, called and gathered out of the world ; 
a communion (I say) of all saints, that is, of them who do truly 
know, and rightly worship and serve, the true God, in Jesns Christ 
the Saviour, by the word and the Holy Spirit, and who by faith are 
partakers of all those good graces, which are freely offered through 
Christ. These all are citizens of one and the same city, living 
under one Iiord, under the same laws, and in the same fellowship of 
all good things : for so the Apostle calleth them, ** fellow- citizens 
with the saints, and of the household of God ;" Ephes. ii. 19. 
terming the faithful upon the earth. Saints, 1 Cor. vi. 1. who are 
sanctified by the blood of the Son of God. Of these is that article 
of our Creed wholly to be understood, 'I believe the Catholic 
Church, the communion of saints.' And seeing that there is always 


but "one Grod, and oae Mediator between God and man, Jesus Clirifit;*' 
1 Tim. ii. 5. also, one Shepherd of the whole flock, one Head of 
this body, and, to ccmclude, one Spirit, one salvation, one faith, one 
Testament, or Covenant ; it foDoweth necessarily that there is but 
one Church : which we therefore call Catholic, because it is uni- 
versal, spread abroad through all the parts and quarters of th» world, 
and reacheth unto all times, and is not limited within the compass 
dther of time or place. Here therefore we must condemn the 
Donatists, who pinned up the Church within the comers of Aftica ; 
Dcither do we allow of the Roman Clergy, who vaunt that the 
Church of Rome alone is in a manner Catholic. 

The Church is divided by some into divers parts or sorts : not 
that it is rent and divided from itself, but rather distinguished, in 
respect of the diversity of the members that be in it. One part 
thereof they make to be the Church Militant, the other the Church 
Triumphant. The Militant warreth still on the earth, and fighteth 
against the flesh, the world, and the prince of the world, the Devil ; 
against sin, and against death, llie other, being already set at 
liberty, is now in heaven, and triumpheth over aU those things over- 
come, and continually rejoiceth before the Lord. Yet these two 
Churches have notwithstanding a communion and fellowship between 
themsehres. ^ 

MoreoTer^ the Church Militant upon the earth hath evermore had 
in it many particular Churches, which must all notwithstanding be 
referred to the unity of the Catholic Church. This Mihtant Church 
was otherwise ordered and governed before the Law, among the 
FBtriarchs; otherwise under Moses, by the Law; and otherwise 
of Christ, by the Gospel. There are but two sorts of people for the 
most part mentioned ; to wit, the Israelites, and the Gentiles ; or 
they which, of the Jews and Gentiles, were gathered to make a 
Church. There be also two Testaments, the Old and the New. 
Yet both these sorts of people have had, and still have, one fellow- 
ship, one salvation, in one and the same Messiah; in whom, as 
members of one body, they are all joined together under one head, 
and by one fiuth are all partakers of one and the same spiritual meat 
and drink. Yet here we do acknowledge a diversity of times, and 
a diversity in the pledges and signs of Christ promised, and ex- 
hibited; and that now, the ceremonies being abolished, the light 
shineth unto us more clearly, our gifts and graces are more abun- 
dant, and our liberty is more full and ample. 

This holy Church of God is called " the house of the living God," 



2 Cor. vi. 16. " builded of living and spiritual stones," 1 Pet ii. 5. 
"founded upon a rock," Matt. xvi. 18. "that cannot be removed," 
Heb. xii. 28. " upon a foundation, besides whidi none can be laid.** 1 
Cor. iii. 1 1 . Whereapon it is called " ^e pillar and foundation of the 
truth," 1 Tim. iii. 15. that doth not err, so long as it reBeth upon 
the rock Christ, and upon the foundation of ^e Prophets and Apos- 
tles. And no marvel if it do err,* so often as it forsaketh Him, 
who is the alone truth. This Church is also called '* a virgin," 1 Cor. 
xi. 2. and, ^ the spouse of Christ," Cant. iv. 8. and, **his only beloved." 
Cant. V. 16. For the Apostle saith, " I have joined you unto one 
husband, that I might present you a chaste vir^n unto Christ." 
2 Cor. xi. 2. The Church is called *' a flock of sheep under one 
shepherd," even Christ; E^ek. xxxiv. 22, 23. and John x. 16. also, 
" the body of Christ," Col. i. 24. because the faithful are the lively 
members of Christ, having him for their head. 

It is the head which hath the pre-eminence in the body, and firom 
whence the whole body receiveth life ; by whose spirit it is governed 
in all things, of whom also it receiveth increase, that it may grow 
up. Also there is but one head of the body, which hath agreement 
with the body ; and therefore the Church cannot have any other head 
beside Christ. For as the Church is a spiritual body, so must it 
needs have a spiritual head like unto itself. Neither can it be go- 
verned by any other spirit, than by the Spirit of Christ. Wherefore 
Paul saith, " And he is the head of his body the Church, who is 
the beginning, the first bom of the dead, that in all things he might 
have the pre-eminence." Col. i. 1 8. And, in another place, " Christ 
(saith he) is the head of the Church, and the same is the Savio 
of his body."* Ephes. v. 23. And again, " Who is the head of the 
Church, which is his body, even the fulness of Him, which filleth all 
in all things." Ephes. i. 22, 23. Again, " Let us in all things grow 
up into him which is the head, that is Christ ; by whom all the body 
being knit together, receiveth increase." Ephes. iv. 15, 16. And 
therefore we do not allow of the doctrine of the Romish Prelates, 
who would make the Pope the general pastor and supreme head of 
the Church of Christ, Militant here on earth, and the very Vicar of 
Christ, who hath (as they say) all fiilness of power and sovereign 
authority in the Church. For we hold and teach, that Christ our 
Lord id, and remaineth still, the only imiversal Pastor, and highest 
Bishop, before God his Father ; and that in the Church he perform - 

* How, and in what respect, the visible Church, considered universally, is 
said to err, it is afterward declared more ^Uy in this same Confession. 


eth all the duties of a Pastor or Bishop, even to the world's end : 
and therefore standeth not in need of any other to supply his room. 
For he is said to have a suhstitate, who is absent : but Christ is pre- 
sent with his Church, and is the head that giveth life thereunto. 
He did straitly forbid his Apostles and their successors all supe- 
riority or dominion in the Church. They, therefore, that by gain- 
saying set themselves against so manifest a truth, and bring another 
kind of government into the Church ; who seeth not that they are 
to be ooonted in the number of them, of whom the Apostles of 
Christ pn^hesied ? as Peter, 2 Epist. ii. 1. and Pftul, Acts xx. 29. 
2 Cor. zi. 13. 2 Thess. ii. 8, 9. and in many other places. 

Now. by taking away the Romish head, we do not bring any 
confiuion or disorder into the Church. For we teach that the go- 
vernment of the Church, which the Apostles set down, is sufficient 
to keep the Church in due order ; which, from the beginning, while 
as yet it wanted such a Romish head as is now pretended to keep 
it in order, was not disordered or foil of confusion. The Romish 
head doth maintain indeed that his t3nranny and corruption which 
have been brought into the Church : but in the mean time he hin- 
dereth, reaisteth, and, with all the might he can make, cutteth off the 
right and lawful reformation of the Church. 

They object against us, that there have been great strifes and 

dissenaiona in our Churches, since they did sever themselves from 

the Church of Rome; and that therefore they cannot be true 

Chnrdiea. As though there were never in the Church of Rome 

any sects, any contentions and quarrels; and that, in matters of 

rdigion ; maintained, not so much in the Schools, as in the holy 

Chain, even in the audience of the people. We know that the 

^Apostle sud» *' God is not the author of dissension, but of peace :" 

1 Cor. ziv. 33. and, ** Seeing there is amongst you emulation and 

contentioa, are ye not carnal ?" 1 Cor. iii. 3, 4. Yet may we not 

^deny, but that God was in that Church, planted by the Apostle ; and 

that the Apostolic Church was a true Church, howsoever there were 

strifes and dissensions in it The Apostle Paul reprehended Peter 

an Apostle; Gal. ii. 11. and Barnabas fell at variance with Paul. 

Acts XT. 39. Cbreat contention arose, in the Church of Antioch, 

b etween them that preached one and the same Christ, as Luke re- 

cordeth in the Acts of the Apostles, chap. xv. 2. And there have 

at all times been great contentions in the Church, and the most ez- 

odlent docton of the Church have about no small matters differed 

tn opinion ; yet so as, in the m^an time, the Church ceased not to 


be the Charch for all these contention!. For thus it pleaaeth God 
to use the diBsensions that arise in the Charch, to the giory of his 
name, to the setting forth of the truth, and to the end that such as 
are not approved might be manifest. 1 Cor. xi. 19. 

Now, as we acknowledge no other head of the Chnrch than 
Christ, so we do not acknowledge every chnrdi to be the tme Chnrdli 
which vaonteth herself so to be : but we teach that to be the true 
Church indeed, in which the marks and tokens of the tme Church 
are to be found. First and chiefly, the lawful or sincere preaching 
of the word of God, as it is left onto us in the writings of the Ptt>- 
phets and Apostles, which do all seem to lead ns tmto Christ ; who 
in the Gospel hath said, *' My sheep hear my vmce, and I know 
them, and they follow me ; and I give tmto them eternal life. A 
stranger ^ey do not hear, but flee from him, because they know not 
lus voice.** John z. 5 ; 37, 28. And they that are such in the 
Charch of God, have all but one fidth, and one Spirit ; and there- 
fore they worship but one God : and him alone they serve in spirit 
and in truth, loving him with all their hearts, and with all their 
strength, praying unto him alone through Jesus Christ the only 
Mediator and Intercessor ; and they seek not life or justice, but only 
in Christ, and by faith in him : because they do acknowledge Christ 
the only Head and Foundation of his Church, and, being surely 
founded on him, do daily repair themselves by repentance, and do 
with patience bear the cross laid upon them ; and besides, by on- 
foigned love joining themselves to all the members of Christ, do 
thereby declare themselves to be the disciples of Christ, by con- 
tinuing in the bond of peace and holy unity. They do withal com- 
municate in the Sacraments ordained by Christ, and delivered onto 
us by his Apostles, using them in no other manner, than as they 
received them from the Lord himself. That saying of the Apostle 
Paul is well known to aU, " I received from the Loird that which I 
delivered unto you." 1 Cor. xi. 23. For which cause we condemn 
all such Churches, as strangers from the true Church of Christ, who 
are not such as we have heard they ought to be ; howsoever, in ^e 
mean time, they brag of the succession of Bishops, of unity, and of 
antiquity. Moreover we have in charge from the Apostles of Christ, 
" to shun idolatry," 1 Cor. x. 14. 1 John v. 21. and '^to come out of 
Babylon, and to have no fellowship with her, unless we mean to be 
partakers with her of all God's plagues laid upon her.'' Rev. xviii. 
4. 2 Cor. vi. 1 7. But as for communicating with the true Church 
of Christ, we so highly esteem of it, that we say plainly, that none 


can live before God, which do not communicate with the trae Church 
of God, bat separate themselyes from the same. For as without 
the ark of Noah there was no escaping, when the world perished 
in the flood ; even so do we believe, that without Christ, who in the 
Church ofiereth himself to be enjoyed of the elect, there can be no 
(certain salvation: and therefore we teach that such as would be 
savedt most in no wise separate themselves from the true Church of 

But jret we do not so strictly shut up the Church within those 
marks before mentionedy as thereby to exclude all those out of the 
Church, which either do not communicate in the Sacraments, (not 
wiBingly, nor upon contempt ; but who, being constrained by neces- 
nty, do against their will abstain from them, or else do want them :) 
or in whom £uth doth sometimes frdl, though not quite decay, nor 
altogether die : or in whom some slips and errors of infirmity may 
be found. For we know that God had some friends in the world, 
that were not of the conmion- wealth of Israel. We know what 
befiel the people of God in the captivity of Babylon, where they 
wanted their sacrifices seventy years. We know what happened to 
St Peter, who denied his Master, and what is wont daily to M out 
among the faithful and chosen of God, which go astray, and are full 
of infirmities. We know moreover what manner of Churches the 
Chorches at Galatia and Corinth were in the Apostles' times : in 
which the Apostle FwjI condemneth divers great and heinous crimes ; 
yet be caDeth them the holy Churches of Christ, i Cor. i. 2. 
GsL i. 2. Yea, and it Meth out sometimes, that God in his just 
judgment sofliereth the truth of his word, and the Catholic fiedth, 
and his own true worship, to be so obscured and defaced, that the 
Choroh seoneth almost quite rased out, and not so much as a &ce 
of a Chordi to remain ; as we see fell out in the days of EHias, 
1 Sjiigs six. 10; 14. and at other times. And yet, in the mean 
time, the Lord hath in this world, even in this darkness, his true 
worsh^ypers, and those not a few, but even seven thousand; 
ver. 18. and more. Rev. vii. 4. For the Apostle crieth, "The 
foondation of the Lord standeth sure, and hath this seal. The Lord 
knoweth who are his," &c. 2 Tim. ii. 19. Whereupon the Church 
of God may be termed invisible : not that the men, whereof it con- 
sistetfa, are invisible ; but because, being hidden from our sight, and 
known only mito God, it cannot be discerned by the judgment of 
Againy not all that are reckoned in the number of the Church, 


are saints, and lively and trne members of the Chorcb. For there 
be many bypocritesy which outwardly do bear the word of Gk>d, 
and publicly receive the Sacraments, and do seem to pray unto God 
alone through Christ, to confess Christ to be their only righteous- 
ness, and to worship God, and to exercise the duties of charity to 
the brethren, and for a while through patience to endure in troubles 
and calamities. And yet they are altogether destitute of the inward 
illumination of the Spirit of God, of fJEuth and sincerity of heart, 
and of perseverance or continuance to the end. And these men are 
for the most part at the length laid open what they be. For the 
Apostle John saith, " They went out from among us, but they were 
not of us : for if they had been of us, they would have tarried with 
us." 1 John ii. 19. Yet these men, whilst they do pretend rdigion, 
they are accounted to be in the Church, "howsoever indeed they be 
not of the Church. Even as traitors in a common-wealth, before 
they be detected, are counted in the number of good citizens : and 
as the cockle, and darnel, and chaff are found amongst the wheat : 
and as wens and swellings are in a perfect body, when they are 
rtither diseases and deformities, than true members of the body. 
And therefore the Church is very well compared to a drag-net, 
which draweth up fishes of all sorts : and to a field, wherein is 
found both darnell and good com. Matt. ziii. 26 ; 47. We are to 
have a specid regard, that we judge not rashly before the time, nor 
go about to exclude, and cast off or cut away, them whom the Lord 
would nut have excluded nor cut off, or whom, without some damage 
to the Church, we cannot separate from it. Again, we must be very 
vi^lant, lest that, the godly falling feurt asleep, the wicked grow 
stronger, and do some mischief to the Church. 

Furthermore we teach, that it is carefully to be marked, wherein 
especially the truth and unity of the Church consisteth, lest that we 
either rashly breed or nourish schisms in the Church. It conststeth 
not in outward rites and ceremonies, but rather in the truth and 
unity of the Catholic fidth. This Catholic fJEuth is not taught us 
by the ordinances or laws of men, but by the holy Scriptures ; a 
compendious and short sum whereof is the Apostles' Creed.* And 
therefore we read in the ancient writers, that there were manifold 

* Tbe remark here made may serve to explain what might otherwise appear 
an objectional statement, in the portion of this Confession introduced into the 
Ninth Section, p. 151. Language equally strong, however, in reference to tbe 
Creed of the Apostles, may be found not only in the Greek and Latin Fathers, 
hut in English Divines of the 17th and 18th Centuries.— Ej)rro« 


liversitiea of ceremonies, but that those were always free ; neither 
lid any man think that the unity of the Church was thereby broken 
>r dissolved. We say then, that the true unity of the Church doth 
ronsist in seyeral points of doctrine, in the true and uniform preach- 
ng of the Gospel, and in such rites as the Lord himself hath 
xpressly set down : and here we urge that saying of the Apostle 
eiy earnestly, *' As many of us therefore as are perfect, let us be 
has minded. If any man think otherwise, the Lord shall reveal 
he same unto him. And yet in that whereunto we have attained, 
>t UB follow one direction, and all of us be like affected one towards 
notber." Phil. iii. 15, 16. 

II.— From thb formbr Confession of Hblvbiia. 

Article 14. Of the Church. 

ThiB we hold, that of such lively stones, being by this means 
built upon this lively rock, the Church, and the holy gathering 
together of all the saints, the Spouse of Christ (which, being 
deanaed by his blood, he shall once, in time to come, present without 
spot before his Father) is founded. The which Church, though it 
be manifest to the eyes of God alone, yet is it not only seen and 
known, by certain outward rites, instituted of Christ himself, and 
by the word of God, as by a public and lawful discipline ; but it is 
sd appointed, that without these marks no man can be judged to be 
in this Church, but by the special privilege of God. 

III.— From thb Confbssion of Baslb. . 

Article 5. Of the Church. 

We bdieve a holy Christian Church ; that is, a communion of 
saints, Rom. i. 7. a gathering together of the faithful in spirit, 
John xi. 52. which is holy, Eph. i. 4. and the Spouse of Christ : 
2 Cor. zi. 2. Eph. v. 23. wherein all they be citizens, which do 
truly confess, John iii. 28. that Jesus is the Christ, Matt. i. 21. the 
Lamb that taketh away the sins of the world, John i. 29. and do 
shew forth that fidth by the works of love, 1 John iii. 3. And, a 
little after: — ^This Church of Christ doth labour all that it can, to 
keep the bonds of peace and love in unity. Gal. v. 26. Heb. zii. 14. 
Therefore it doth by no means communicate with sects, and the 
rules of orders, devised for the difierence of days, meats, apparel, 
and ceremonies. 


IV.— From thb Confession of Bohbmia. 

Chapter 8. Of the Holy Church, and of the Godfy IneHMiom and 
Government thereof; and of Disc^^Ume. Also, (f Antichrist. 

In the eighth place it is taught, toudiiiig the aoknowledgiog of 
the holy Catholic Christian Chiirdi. And first of all, that the 
foundation and head of the holy Church is Jesus Christ himself 
ak)ne» together with the whole merit of grace and truth to life 
eternal ; upon whom, and by iiriiom, this Church is at aU times 
built, through the Holy Ghost» the word of God, and the Sacraments, 
according to the meaning of that which Christ said unto Pteter, 
'' Upon this rock (to wit, whereof thou hast made a true confes- 
sion) I win build my Churdi.** Matt zvi. 18. And St. Vaxd aaith, 
" Other foundation can no man lay, than that which is laid, which is 
Jesus Christ." 1 Cor. iii. 11. And in another jdace: "And hath 
ai^pointed him over all things to be the head of the Churchy which 
is his body, and the fulness of him which fiUeth all in al) things.'* 
I^h. i. 22, 23. 

Oat of these things it is taught, that this is beiie?ed, held, and 
puUidy confessed : that the hxAj Catholic Church, being present 
at every time, and militant upon earth, is the feUowship of all 
Christians^ and is here and there dispersed over the whole w(H:ld» 
and is gathered together, by the holy Gospel, out of all nations, 
families, tongues, degrees, and ages, in one futh in Christ the 
Lord, or in the Holy Trinity, according to that saying of St. John, 
who speaketh thus ; " And I saw a great company, which no man 
can number, of all nations, people, and tongues, standing before 
the throne, and before the Lamb." Rev. vii. 9. This true Church, 
(although, while it lieth here in the Lord's floor, to wit, in the wide 
world, and, as it were, in one heap confusedly gathered together, 
it containeth in it, as yet, as well the pure wheat, as the chaflT, 
the godly children of God, and the wicked children of the world, 
the living and dead members, of the ministers, and of the people ;) 
yet, where it is least defiled, or most pure, it may be known, even 
by these signs that follow : namely, wheresoever Christ is taught 
in holy assemblies, the doctrine of the holy Gospel is purely and 
fiilly preached, the Sacraments are administered according to 
Christ's institution, commandment, meaning, and will, and the 
feithfiil people of Christ doth receive and use them, and by these 
gathereth itself together in the unity of faith and love, and in the 
bond of peace, and joiDcth itself in one, and buildeth itself hard 


together upon Christ. There^ therefore, is the holy Church, the 
house of God, the temples of the Holy Ghost » lively memhers, the 
parts of the heavenly Jerusalem, the spiritual hody of Christ, and 
joints knit together, the which are joined and coupled each with 
other, hy one head Christ, one Spirit of regeneration, one word of 
God, the same and sincere Sacraments, one faith, one love and 
holy ccMnmunion» one hond of peace, order, discipline, and ohedi- 
ence, whether the number of this people be great or small ; as the 
Lord witnesseth, " Where two or three are gathered together in 
my name (in what country or nation, and in what place soever this 
be) there am I in the midst of them." Matt, xviii. 20. And con- 
trarily, where Christ, and the Spirit of Christ, dwelleth not, and 
the hoLy Gospel hath not any place granted unto it ; &c. but, on the 
oootrary side, manifest errors and heathenish life have their fuU 
course, and by getting the upper hand do spread themselves fiEur ; 
there most also needs be a Church so defiled, that Christ will not 
acknowledge it for his well-beloved Spouse,* seeing that none 
bdongeth to Christ, who hath not the Spirit of Christ. Rom. viii. 9. 
Every Christian is also bound with diligent care to seek after this, 
and soch a true part of the holy Church, and, after he hath found it, 
to join and maintain holy communion and fellowship therewith ; as 
the other part of that point of the Church in our Christian Creed 
doth dedare, where we do profess, that ' we believe the Communion 
of Saints :' and ought altogether, with this fellowship, or spiritual 
company of God's people, to maintain the true unity and concord of 
Christ's Spirit, to love and bear good-will to aU the members, to 
yield obedience thereunto, and endeavour, by all means possible, to 
procure the profit and furtherance thereof, and in truth to hold 
agreement therewith, and by no means through stubbornness to 
mofve schisms, seditions, and sects, against the truth. To which 
thing the Apoetle exhorteth all men, where he saith, " So walk, or 

* Tint ■syiog the brethren in Bohemia did themselves expound thus unto 
HI in their letters : to wit, that they speak here of the notes of the visible 
Chmcli, whidi are aU joindy to be considered ; that, where both the errors of 
idolation and horetics, and impiety of life, do openly overflow, there it cannot 
aalielj be affinned, that the visible Church of Christ is to be seen, or is at all. 
And jet notwithstanding, there is no doubt to be made, but some secret true 
members of Christ, and such as (it may be) are only known to God, be there 
hid : and therefore that there is a Church even in Popery, as it were over- 
whdmed and drowned ; whence God will fetch out his elect, and gather them 
to the visible Churches that are restored and reformed, whereas Popery never 
was, nor is, a true Church. 


behave youndvet* as worthy of the place or yocatioii'whereimto ye 
are called ; with all humbleness and meekness, with a qaiet mind» 
and long-sufiering, forbearing one another : and endeavour ye to 
keep the anity of the Spirit, in the bond of peace. There is one 
body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of yonr 
vocation : there is one Lord, one laith, one baptism, one God and 
Father of all." Eph. iv. 1 — 6. And again, " Let every man please 
his neighbonr in that which is good to edification." Rom. zv. 2. 
Also, " Do nothing through strife, or for vain glcMy/' Phil. ii. 3. 
Rom. zii. 3. Again, " Let there not be dissensions among yon:" 
1 Cor. zii. 25. He therefore that in this life walketh according to 
these commandments, he is a tme and livdy member of the holy 
Church, which bringeth forth the fruit of ftdth and love. But he 
that loseth the Spirit* of fiiuth and love in holy fdlowship, must 
needs be a dead member. ^ 

Together with these things the ministers of our Churches teach, 
that this is to be thought of their fellowship, which is in like manner 
to be thought of any other Christian fellowship, whether it be great 
or small : to wit, that itself alone is not that holy Catholic Christian 
Church, but only one part thereof, as the Apostle writeth of the 
Church at Corinth, " Ye are the body of Christ, and members of 
him, every one for his part." 1 Cor. zii. 27. They teach also that 
there must be a platform and certain order of government in the 
holy Church. Now without a platform of order and outward 
government, it cannot be in good case, or go well with it, no more 
than it can with any other even the least society. But this platform 
of order consisteth chiefly in this ; that they be both ordinarily 
called, and lawfully ordained, who ezecute due functions in the same* 
beginning at the least, and proceeding to those that are of a middle 
sort, and so forth even to the chiefest. The nezt point is, that 
every one do well discharge that place, and as it were his ward, to 
which he is called, and use watchfulness, and suffer nothing to be 
found wanting in himself, nor at his own pleasure closely convey 
himself out of the same, or go beyond the bounds thereof, or meddle 
with other men's charges. And moreover, that all among them- 
selves submit themselves one to another, and all perform obedience 
from the least to the greatest, every man in his own place, where- 

* In what sense we think that a true faith may be lost, we have declared 
before in the Fourth Section, in the first observation on the Confession of 
Saxony, and elsewhere. 


unto he is caUed : and do it with the affection of love, and of his 
own accord, not of constraint, 1 Pet. v. 2. even for Christ's sake, 
Phil. ii. 30. and for the care they have of eternal salvation ; accord- 
ing aa the Apostles and other holy men have taught concerning this 
matter, and after their examples, hy which they founded their 
Churches, and according to that also which ancient laws or decrees 
soggest for ohserVation : the which thing our Ministers among 
themselveB do indeed declare and practise. This laudahle order of 
governing the Church, together with lawful discipline, (that is, with 
the severity of punishments appointed hy God, which it hath 
annexed unto it,) ought diligently to he exercised : to wit, so that 
the wicked, and such as ahide in manifest sins without repentance, 
having thdr hearts hardened, and such sinners as giv^ not ohe- 
dience to God, and to his word, and in the Church are authors of 
great ofiences, and do not repent, or become better, after due, 
fiaithfiil, and sufficient warning ; that such, I say, may be publicly 
punished, and be removed from the holy fellowship, by Ecclesias- 
tical punishment, which commonly is called a Ban, Excommunica- 
tion, or Anathema,* yet not by the help of the civil power, but by 
virtue of the word and the commandment of Christ. And that this 
punishment may indifferently be used towards all, no regard or 
respect is to be had of persons, of what degree soever they be, 
whether Civfl or Ecclesiastical; according to that sentence of the 
doctrine of Christ, who saith, " If thy brother trespass against thee, 
go and reprove him between him and thee alone : if he hear thee, 
thou hast won thy brother ; if he hear thee not, take yet with thee 
one or two : if he hear not these, tell it unto the Church : and if 
he hear not the Church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man, 
and a puhhcan." Matt, xviii. 15 — 17. And St. Paul, together 
with his feUow-ministers, did in express words give a command- 
ment hereof, writing thus : " We command you, brethren, in the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ve withdraw vourselves from 
e^nrf brother that walketh inordinately, and not after the instruc- 

* We take this to be so meant, as that, notwithstanding, every Church hath 
ber Hbeity left unto ber, what way to exercise such discipline ; as is before 
■ud IB the first observation upon this same Confession, in the Eighth Section. 
h» for particiilar coning, to wit, of this or that man, if the word be taken 
for a petpetoal uid ao unrepeatable casting out from the Church of God, we 
leave it to CM alone ; and therefore we would not lightly admit it in our 
Cborcfaet. For tbe Church useth only such a cursing, as determineth nothing 
finally ; fiillowiiig St. Paul, 1 Cor. zvi. 22. 


tion which he received of ub." 2 Theas. iiu 6. And in another 
place he aaith, "Pat from among yoarsdves that widked man." 
I Cor. ▼. 13. And yet this is not to he concealed, that at all 
times there have heen many in the Church* which seemed to be 
Christians, and yet were wicked h3rpocrite8, dose sinners, far from 
repentance ; and that there be» and shall be such hereafter^ even 
unto the end of the world : sach as are neither chastened by this 
discipline of Christ, neither can easily be ezoommonicatedy or 
altogether separated from the Church ; but are to be reserved and 
committed to Christ alone, the chief Shepherd, and to His coming : 
as the Lord himself saith of these men, that " the Angels in the last 
day shall first separate such from the righteous, and cast them into 
the fiery frunace, where shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth/* 
Matt. xiiL 49, 50. 

Herewithal it is also taught, that that mischievous and vncked 
Antichrist shall sit in the Temple of God, (to wit, in the Church,) 
of whom the Prophets, Christ our Lord, and the Apostles have 
foretold us, and warned us to take heed of him, that the simple sort 
among the fEdthful might avoid him, and not suffer themselves to be 
seduced by him. Dan. iz. 27* and xii. 11. Matt. 2;xiv. 15. Mark. ziii. 
14. 2 Thess. ii. 4. 2 Pet. ii. 1. Now, in Antichrist we are to 
acknowledge a double overthwartness: to wit, dishonesty, and deceit. 
The first is an overthwartness of mind and opinion, or a bringing in 
of fedse doctrine, dean contrary to the meaning of Christ our Lord, 
and of the holy Scripture : whereof the Apostle speaketh after this 
sort ; " The time will come, when they will not sufier any longer the 
holy doctrine, but having their ears itching, shall after their own 
lusts get them an heap of teachers, and shall turn their ears from the 
truth, and shall be given unto fables." 2 Tim. iv. 3. 2 Pet. iii. 3. 
The other evil or ofience, that we are to consider in Antichrist, is a 
corrupt and naughty life, giving unto others a very ill example, and 
which is fiill of horrible sins, hurtful filthiness, and all kind of vices, 
which in the Antichristian church are openly practised, and that 
fredy, without any kind of punishment : whereof the Apostle saith, 
" This know also, that in the last days shall come perilous times. 
For men shall be lovers of their ownselves, covetous, boasters, proud, 
speakers of curses, disobedient to parents, unthankful, pro^Eme, 
without natural afiection, such as cannot be appeased, fedse accusers, 
intemperate, fierce, not lovers nor desirous of that which is good, 
traitorous, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasure more than of God, 
having a shew of godliness, but denying the power thereof : turn 


away therefore from such." 2 Tim. iii. 1 — 5. Of which time also 
Christ forespake in these words : ** And then many shall he offended 
at these exam^des, and shall betray one another, and hate one 
another : and many false Prophets shall arise, and deceive many : 
and because iniquity shall increase many ways, the love of many 
shall be cold: but he that endureth to the end, he shall be saved." 
Matt. zziy. 10 — 13. These words are to be understood of them, 
which do continue in the doctrine of Christ, enduring all adversities, 
wherewith they are assailed. And in another place Christ crieth 
out, *' Woe to the world, because of offences :" Matt, xviii. 7. and, 
'* Blessed is he that shall not be offended in me." Matt. xi. 6. 

V. — From the Confession op France. 

Art* 26. Therefore we believe, that it is not lawful for any man 
to withdraw himself from the congregations, and to rest in himself ; 
but rather that all men are to defend and to preserve the unity of the 
Church, submitting themselves to the common instruction, and to 
the yoke of Christ, wheresoever God doth appoint that true Ecclesias- 
tical discipline, although the decrees of magistrates should gainsay 
it: from which order whosoever do separate themselves, they do 
resist the ordinanoe of God. 

Art. 27. We believe, that very carefully and wisely the true 
Church (the name whereof too many do abuse) is to be discerned. 
Therefore we affirm, out of the word of God, that the Church is a 
company of the fedthfiil, which agree together in following the word 
of God, and in embracing pure religion, wherein also they do daily 
profit, growing and confirming themselves mutually in the fear of 
Grod, as they which have need daily to go forward and to profit, and 
who, although they profit never so much, must notwithstanding of 
necesnty daily fly to the remission of sins. Yet we do not deny 
but that many hypocrites and reprobates are mingled with the faith- 
fril ; but their guileful dealing is not able to take away the name of 
the Church. 

Art, 28. Therefore, seeing we believe this to be so, we withal 
boldly afiirm, that, where the word of God is not received, and 
where there is no profession of that obedience which is due there- 
unto, nor any use of Sacraments, there (if we will speak properly) 
we cannot judge any Church to be. Therefore we condemn the 
Papistical assemblies, because that the pure truth of God is banished 
from them ; among whom the Sacraments of faith are corrupted, 
counterfeited, and falsified, or altogether abolished ; and, to conclude, 


among whom all sapentitioiia and idolatries are in full force. And 
therefcM^ we think, that all they who join themselves to such actions, 
and commanicate therewith* do separate themselves from the body of 
Christ. Yet notwithstanding, because that in Piracy there be some 
small tokens of a Church, and the substance especially of Baptism 
hath remained, (the efficacy whereof doth not depend upon him by 
whom it is ministered,) we confess, that they which are there 
baptized, need not to be baptized the second time ; howbeit, by 
reason of the corruptions which are mingled therewith, no man can 
offisr infiemts there to be baptized, but that he must defile himself. 

VI.— From thb Confession of England. 

Ari» 4. We believe, that there is one Church of God, and that 
the same is not shut up (as, in times past, among the Jews) into some 
one comer or kingdom; but that it is Catholic, and universal, and 
dispersed throughout the whole world : so that there is now no 
nation, which may tndy complain that th^ be shut forth, and may 
not be one of the Church and people of God. And that this Church 
is the £[ingdom, the Body, and the Spouse of Christ : that Christ 
alone is the Prince of this Kingdom ; that Christ alone is the Head 
of this Body ; and that Christ alone is the Bridegroom of this 

VII. — From thb Confession of Scotland. 

Article 5. Of the Continuance, Increase, and Preservation of the 

We most constantly believe that God preserved, instructed, multi- 
plied, honoured, decored, and from death called to life his Church in 
all ages, from Adam till the coming of Christ in the flesh. £zek. xvi. 
6 — 14. For Abraham he called from his father's country ; him he 
instructed, his seed he multiplied; Gen. xii. 1 — 3. the same he mar- 
vellously preserved, and more marvelloasly delivered from the bondage 
and tyranny of Pharaoh : Ekod. i. ii. &c. to them he gave his laws, 
constitutions, and ceremonies ; £bLod. zz. xziii. &c. them he possessed 
in the land of Canaan; Joshua i. 3. and zxiii. 4. to them> after 
Judges, and after Saul, he gave David to be King ; to whom he made 

* Another extract of some length, from the English Confession, here given 
by mistake in the Latin Harmony, is removed (as directed^ in the present, as 
in both the older editions of the Translation, to a more appropriate place in 
the Eleventh Section. Editor. 


promise, that of the fruit of his loins should One sit for ever upon 
his regal seat. 2 Sam. vii. 12. To this same people, from time to 
time, he sent Prophets, to reduce them to the right way of their 
God ; from the which oftentimes they declined by idolatry. 2 Kings 
xvii* 13 — 17. And albeit that for the stubborn contempt of justice, 
he was compelled to give them into the hands of their enemies ; 
2 Kings xxiv. 3, 4. as before was threatened by the mouth of Moses, 
Beat, xxviii. 36; 48. insomuch that the holy city was destroyed, 
the temple burned with fire, and the whole land left desolate the 
tpace of seventy years; Jer. xudx. 8—14. yet of mercy did he 
reduce them again to Jerusalem, Ezra. i. 1 — 6. where the city and 
temple were reedified. Hag. i. 14. and they, against all temptations 
and assaults of Satan, did abide till the Messias came, according to 
the promise. Hag. iL 7— 9« Zech. iii. 8. 

Article 16. 0/lhe Church. 

Ab we believe in one God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; so 
<lo we most constantly believe that from the beginning there hath 
been, and now* is, and to the end of the world shall be, one Church : 
&f att. xxviiL 20. that is to say, a company and multitude of men, 
obosen of God, Ephes. i. 4. who rightly worship and embrace him 
by true fidth in Christ Jesus ; who is the only Head of the same 
Church; Col. i. 18. which also is the body and spouse of Christ 
Jesus. Ephes. V. 23— 32. Which Church is Catholic, that is, uni- 
versal; because it containeth the elect of all ages, of all realms, 
nations* and tongues, Apoc. vii. 9. be they of the Jews, or be they 
of the Gentiles, who have communion and society with God the Fa- 
ther, and with his Son Christ Jesus, through the sanctification of his 
Holy Spirit ; and therefore it is called the Communion, not of pro- 
fane persons, but of Saints ; who, as citizens of the Heavenly Jeru- 
salem, Ephes. ii. 19. have the fruition of the most inestimable 
benefits, to wit, of one God, one Lord Jesus, one faith, and one 
baptism : Ephes. iv. 4 — 6. out of the which Church, there is neither 
life nor eternal felicity. And therefore we utterly abhor the blasphemy 
of those that affirm, that men which live according to equity and 
justice, shall be saved, what religion soever they have professed. 
For as without Christ Jesus there is neither life nor salvation, John 
iii. 36. so shall there none be participant thereof, but such as the 
Father hath given unto his Son Christ Jesus, and those that in time 
come unto him, avow his doctrine, and believe in him : (we com- 
prehend the children with the faithful parents. Acts ii. 39.) This 


Church is invisible, known only to 6od» who alone knoweth whom 
he hath chosen, and oomprehendeth as well (as is said) ^ elect 
that be departed* commonly called ^e Church Tridrnphant^ as those 
that yet live and fight against sin and Satan, and shall live^ hereafter. 

Article 18* 0/ihe NoteSy by which the true ChMtckie discerned /ram 
the falee ; and who shall be Judge of the Doctrine. 

Because that Satan from the beginning hath laboured to deck his 
pestilent Synagogue with the title of the Church of God, and hath 
inflamed the hearts of cruel murderers, to persecute, trouble, and 
molest the true Church, and members thereof ; as Caib did Abel, 
Gen. iv. 8. Ishmael Isaac, Gen. zxi. 9. Esau Jaicob, Gen. zxvii. 
41. and the whole priesthood of the Jews, Christ Jesus himself, 
and his Apostles after him : Matt, xziii. 34. John xi. 53. Acts iv. 3. 
and V. 17. it is a thing most requisite, that the true Church be dis- 
cerned from the filthy Synagogues by clear and perfect notes, lest 
we, being deceived, receive and embrace to onr condenmatiob the 
one for tho other. The notes, signs, and assured tokens, whereby 
the immaculate spouse of Christ Jesus is known from the horrible 
harlot, the Church malignant, we affirm are tieither atftiqaity, title 
usurped, lineal descent, place appointed, nor multitude of men 
approving an error. For Cain in age and title was preferred to Abel 
and Seth ; Jerusalem had prerogative above all places of the earth, 
where also were the Priests, lineally descended from Aaron; and 
greater number followed the Scribes, Pharisees^ and Priests, than 
unfeignedly believed and approved Christ Jesus and his doctrine. 
And yet, as we suppose, no man of sound judgment will grant, that 
any of the forenaraed were the Church of God. The notes, there- 
fore, of the true Church of God, we believe, confess, and avow to be. 
first, the true preaching of the word of God, in the which God hath 
revealed himself unto us, as the writings of the Prophets and Apostles 
do declare : John iii. 34. secondly, the right administration of the 
Sacraments of Christ Jesus, which must be annexed unto the word 
and promise of God, to seal and confirm the same in our hearts : 
Rom. iv. 11. lastly, Ecclesiastical discipline, uprightly ministered, 
as God's word prescribeth, whereby vice is repressed, and virtue 
nourished. 1 Cor. v. 3 — 5. Wheresoever, then, these former notes 
are seen, and of any time continue, (be the number never so few, 
aliout two or three,) there, without all doubt, is the true Church of 
Christ ; who, according to his promise, is in the midst of them : 
Matt, xviii. 19, 20. not in the universal, of which we have be- 


fore spoken ; bat particular, such as was b Corinth, 1 Cor. i« 2. 
Galatia, Gal. u 2. Ephesus, Acts xx. 17. and other places, in which 
the ministry was planted by Paul, and which .were of himself named 
the Churches of God: and such Churches we. the inhabitants of the 
realm of Scotland, professors of Christ Jesus, profess ourselves to 
have in our cities, towns, and places reformed. For the doctrine 
taught in our Churches is contained in the written word of Grod» to 
wit, in the books of the Old and New Testaments ; in those books 
we mean, which of the ancients have been reputed Canonical. In the 
which we affirm that all things necessary to be believed for the salva- 
tion of mankind, are sufficientiy expressed. The interpretation 
whereof, we confess, neither appertaineth to private nor public 
person ; neither yet to any Church, for any pre-eminence, or pre- 
rogative*' personal or local, which one hath above another ; but 
appertaineth to the Spirit of God, by whom also the Scripture was 
written. When controversy, then, happeneth for the right under- 
atanding of any place or sentence of Scripture, or for the refDrmation 
of any abuse within the Church of God, we ought not so much to 
look what iaea before us have said or done, as unto that which the 
Holy Ghost uniformly speaketh within the body of the Scriptures, 
and unto that which Christ Jesus himself did, and commanded to be 
done. For this is one thing universally granted, that the Spirit of 
God, which is the Spirit of unity, is in nothing contrary to himself. 
1 Cor. xii. 4 — 6. If, then, the interpretation, determination, or 
sentence of any Doctor, Church, or Council, repugn to the plain 
word of God, written in any other place of the Scripture, it is a 
thing most certain that there is not the true understanding and 
meaning of the Holy Ghost ; although that Councils, Realms, and 
Nations have fq)proved and received the same. For we dare not 
receive or admit any interpretation, which repugneth to any princi- 
pal point of our faith, or to any other plain text of Scripture, or yet 
onto the rule of charity. 

Article 25. 0/ the Gifts /reefy given to the Church. 

Albeit that the word of God truly preached, and the Sacraments 
rightiy ministered, and discipline executed according to the word of 
God, be the certain and infallible signs of the true -Church ; yet we 
mean not that every particular person, joined with such company, is 
an elect member of Christ Jesus. For we acknowledge and confess 
that darnel, cockle, and chaff may be sown, grow, and in great 
abundance lie in the midst of the wheat : that is, the reprobate 



may be joined in the society of the elect, and may externally me 
with them the^-lienefits of the word and Sacraments. Bat soch, 
being bat tempcA^ professors in mouthy and not in heart, do fall 
back, and oontinae not to the end; Matt. xiii. 20, 21. and therrfore 
they have no fruit of Christ's death, resurrection, nor ascension. 
But such as with heart unfeignedly believe, and with mouth boldly 
confess the Lord Jesus, as before we have said, shall moat assuredly 
receive these gifts : first, in this life, the remission of sins, and that 
by only fiEdth in Christ's blood ; insomuch that, albeit sin remain and 
continually abide in these our mortal bodies, yet it is not imputed 
unto us, but is remitted and covered with Christ's justice : 2 Cor. v. 
21. secondly, in the General Judgment, there shall be given to^every 
man and woman resurrection of the flesh. John v. 28, 29. For the 
sea shall give her dead; the earth those that therein be indoeed: 
yea, the eternal God shall stretch out his hand on the dust, and the 
dead shall arise uncorruptible, and that in the substance of the same 
flesh that every man now beareth, to receive, according to their 
works, glory or punishment. For such as now ddight in vanity, 
cruelty, filthiness, superstition, or idolatry, shall be adjudged to the 
fire unquenchable : in which they shall be tormented for ever, as well 
in their own bodies, as in their souls, which now they give to serve 
the Devil in all abomination. Bat such as continue in well-doing to 
the end, boldly professing the Lord Jesus, we constantly believe that 
they shall receive glory, honour, and immortality, .to reign for ever 
in life everlasting with Christ Jesus ; to whose glorified body all his 
elect shall be made like, when he shall appear again in judgment, and 
shall render up the kingdom to God his Father ; who then shall be, and 
ever shall remain, in all things, God blessed for ever : to whom, 
with the Son, and with the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, 
now and ever. So be it. 

Vni. — From thb Confession of Brloia. 

Art. 27. We believe and confess, that there is one Catholic or 
Universal Church, which is the true congregation or company of aD 
faithful Christians, which do look for their whole salvation from Christ 
alone, inasmuch as they be washed in his blood, and sanctified and 
sealed by his Spirit. Furthermore, as this Church hath been from the 
beginning of the world, so it shall continue unto the end thereof. 
The which appeareth by this, that Christ is our eternal King, who 
can never be without subjects. This Church, God doth defend 
against all the fury and force of the worid, although for a small time 


it may seem to be very little, and as it were utterly extinguished, to 
the sight of man : even as, in the perilous time of Ahab, God is 
said to have " reserved to himself seven thousand men, which bowed 
not their knees to Baal." ' 1 Kings xiz. 18. Rom. xi. 4. To con- 
^ude, this holy Church is not situated or limited in any set or 
certain place, nor yet bound and tied to any certain and peculiar 
persons, but spread over the fece of the whole earth ; though in mind 
and will, by one and the same Spirit^ through the power of fiuth, it 
be wholly joined and united together. 

Art* 28. We believe that, seeing this holy company and congre- 
gation consiBteth of those that are to be saved, and out of it there 
is no salvation; therefore no man, of how great dignity and pre- 
eminence soever, ought to separate and sunder himself from it, that, 
being contented with his own solitary estate, he should live apart 
by himself: but, on ^e contrary side, that all and every one are 
bound to associate themselves to this company, carefully to preserve 
the unity of the Church, to submit themselves both to the doctrine 
and discipline of the same, finally to put their neck willingly under 
the yoke of Christ, and, as common members of the same body, to 
9eek the edification of their brethren, according to the measure oi 
gifts which God hath bestowed upon every one. Moreover, to the 
end that these things may the better be observed, it is the part and 
duty of every faithful man to separate himself, according to God's 
word, from all those which are without the Church, and to couple 
himself unto this company of the faithful, wheresoever God hath 
placed it ; yea, though contrary edicts of Princes and Magistrates 
do forbid them, upon pain of corporal death, presently to ensue 
upon all those which do the same. Whosoever therefore do either 
depart from the true Church, or refuse to join themselves unto it; 
do openly resist the commandment of God. 

Art. 29. We believe, that with great diligence and wisdom it 

ought to be searched and examined by the word of God, what the 

true Church ib ; seeing that all the sects, that at this day have 

sprung up in the world, do usurp and falsely pretend the name 

and title of the Church. Yet here we do not speak of the company 

of hypocrites, which together with the good are mingled in the 

Church; though properly they do not pertain to the Church, 

wherein they are only present with their bodies : but only of the 

manner, how to distinguish the body and congregation of the true 

Church from aU other sects, which do falsely boast that they be the 

inembers of the Church. Wherefore the true Church may be 



discerned from the false by these notes. If the pvpt pretcfaiog of 
the Gospel do floarish in it ; if it have the lawful adnHaiitnitioii of 
the Sacraments, according to Christ his institiitiim ; if il do use 
the right Ecclesiastical discipline, for the restraimng of irice; finally, 
(to knit np all in one word,) if it do square all dihiga lo lU rule of 
God's word, refusing whatsoever is contrary to it, aofaibiwledgiiig 
Christ to be the only head of the same : by these iM(tes, I aay, it is 
certain that the true Church may be discerned. From tlie whidi it 
is not lawful for any man to be severed. * 

Now, who be the true members of thi^ tme Ckii^, it nniy be 
gathered by these marks and tokens, whkh. be o^rnmiM to «tt 
Christians. Such is faith, by the virtue whereof, 'hiviiig Qoee 
apprehended Christ, the only Saviour* they do fly •!&> and follow 
righteousness; loving the true God. and their neigfabodn, iiritlioni 
turning either to the right hand or to the left : ttid^cb chuify tiieir 
flesh with the efiects thereof; not as if no infirmity it aM renuuned 
still within them, but because they do fight aU their life loDgiagainit 
the flesh by the power of the Spirit, having often nscoiiri^'iuilot^ 
hiood, death, passion, and obedience of our Lord CSukt, 4a:aaio 
a most safe refuge, in whom alone they are a«suied'to'find Todeinp 
tion for their sins, through faith in him. > 

But, on the other side, the felseChurdi doth alw#^«titHb«l6iikiiie 
unto herself, to her own decrees and tradidons, thali ib tite'vtori iof 
God ; and will not sufler herself to be sukgect to the^yiske of CUriits 
neither doth administer the Sacraments, so as Christ fcltth y csuft td ; 
but, at her own will and pleasure.doth one while add unto them, another 
while detract from them. Furthermore, she doth always l^an more to 
men, than to Christ : and whosoever do go about to lead a holy life, 
according to the prescript rule of God's word, whosoever doth rebuke 
and reprove her faults, as her covetousness and idolatry, those the 
doth persecute with a deadly hatred. By these marks, therefore, it is 
easy to discern and distinguish both these Churches, the one firom 
the other. 

IX. — From thb Confession of Augsbubo. 

Art. 7. Also they teach, that there is one holy Chnfsdi, that 
shall continue always. Now, to speak properly, the Church of 
Christ is a congregation of the members of Christ ; that is, of the 
saints, which do truly believe, and rightly obey Christ : though, in 
this life, there be many wicked ones and hypocrites mingled with 
this company, and shall be to the Day of Judgment. Now the 




Church, properly so called, hath her notes and marks; tu wit, the 
pure and sound doctrine of the Gospel, and the right use of the 
Sacraments. And for the true anity of the Church, it is sufficient 
to agree upon the doctrine of the Gospel, and the administration 
of the Sacraments. Neither is it necessary that human traditions, 
or rites instituted by men, should be alike everywhere ; according 
IS St* Paul teacheth : " There is one Lord, one fidth, one baptism, 
one God and Father of all." Ephes. iv. 5, 6. 

T^eae things are thus set down in another Edition: — 

Also they teach, that there is one holy Church, which is to con- 
tinue always. Now the Church is a congregation of saints, in 
which the Goqpel is purely taught, and the Sacraments rightly ad- 
miniatered. And unto the true unity of the Church, it is sufficient 
to agree upon the doctrine of the Gospel, and the administration of 
the Sacraments. Neither is it necessary that human traditiona, 
and rites or ceremonies ordained by man, should be alike in all 
places ; as St. F^ saith, " There is one Faith, one Baptism, one 
Ckxl and Father of all." Ephes. iv. 5, 6. 

X. — From thb Confession of Saxont. 
Article II. 0/ the Church. 

God will have us to understand, that mankind is not born by 
chance, but is created of God ; and created, not to eternal de- 
struction, but that out of mankind he might gather unto himself a 
Church, to the which in all eternity he might communicate his wis- 
dom, goodness, and joy. ' And he will have his Son to be seen, for 
whom, and through whom, by his unspeakable wisdom, and infinite 
mercy, he hath repaired this miserable nature of men. Therefore 
amongst men he would at all times have a company, whereunto he 
delivered the doctrine concerning his Son, and wherein the Son 
himself did institute and preserve a ministry to keep and spread 
abroad that doctrine ; by the which he hath been, is, and will be 
effectual, and converteth many to himself, as Paul doth manifestly 
teach : " The Gospel is the power of God to salvation, to every one 
that believeth." Rom. i. 16. 

But it is to be marvelled at, and to be lamented, that the greatest 
part of mankind, being carried away with a horrible rage, should 
contemn this voice and testimony of God, and the Son of Grod : and 
that in this company, which hath the name of the Church, there 
have been always many division^; and that the true Church hath 


been overcome by foreign and domestical enemiee. When i 
look upon these dieBenaions, wad do see that they which e 
other doctrines, repugnant to fhe Gospel, do get the upper hand in 
kingdoms hj multitude and glory, they donbt whether there be any 
Church of God ; and which, and of what manna:, and where it is. 
And for probne men it is a hard matter to jodge hereof : but the 
true Church doth certtunly know, ont of the divine Testaments, 
whence these so great buies of men do arise, and yet that amotngst 
them the Church of God is preserved ; and doth discern it from 
other natioDS, and knoweth which it is, what manner of one it is, 
and where it b to be foond. Therefore, that all godly men might 
be the better coniirmed against these donbts, this Article is set before 
them in the Creed : ' I believe the holy Catholic Chuicb.' By this 
profession we affirm, that all mankind is not rejected of God ; bat 
that there is, and shall remain, a certain tme Chnrch : that the 
promises of God are sura, and that the Son of God doth as yet 
reign, and receive and save those that call npon him. And bdng 
raised up by this comfort, we do give God thanks, and invocate 
him ; we do desire, receive, and look far eternal good thinga at his 

By reason of this admonitioD and comfort, the Article in the 
Creed is rehearsed ; seeing that the self-same doctrine, toaching the 
preserving of the Church, is very often repeated in sundry sermons 
in the book of God ; as, " This is my covenant with them, saith the 
Lord : my Spirit which is upon thee, and my words which I have 
put in thy month, shall not depart oat of thy mouth, nor out of the 
mouth of thy seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth, even for ever." 
lea. lix. 21. And Christ saith, " I am vcith you for ever, even to 
the end of the world." Matt, zzviii. 20. Also this is a sweet com- 
fort, that the heirs of eternal life are not to be found elsewhere, 
than -in the company of those that are called ; according to that 
saying, "Whom he bath chosen, them he hath also called." Rom. 
viii. 30. Let not therefore men's minds go astray, beholding this 
ragged body of the Church, and peradventure dreaming, that, in 
other places, some, which do not know the Gospel, are notwith- 
standing holy, and the dwclling-honse of God ; as Fabius, Scipio, 
Aristides, and such like. But turn thou thine eyes hither : know for 
a certainty, that, in this company of those which are called, iwme be 
choBcn ; and join thyself to this company by confession and invo- 
cation : as David saith, " One thing have I desired of the Lord, and 
that I do still rei|uire, that 1 may dwell in the boose of the Lord 


all the days of my life, to behold the will of the Lord, and to visit 
his temple." Psalm xxvii. 4. 

We do not therefore speak of the Chorch, as if we should speak 
of Plato his Idea ; bat we speak of such a Chorch as may be seen 
and heard, according to that saying, " Their sonnd is gone forth 
into all the earth." Rom. x. 18. The Eternal Father will have his 
Son to be heard among all mankind ; as he saith, '^ Hear him :*' 
Mark iz. 7. and, " I have set my King upon the holy hill of Sion. I 
will dedare the decree : The Lord said to me, thou art my Son, this 
day have I begotten thee. Be wise now therefore, ye Kings." Psalm 
ii. 6, 7 ; 10. We say, therefore, that the visible Church in this life 
is a company of those, which do embrace the gospel of Christ, and 
use the Sacraments aright ; wherein God, by the ministry of the 
Gospel, is e£fectual, and doth renew many to life eternal. And yet 
in this company there be many which are not holy, but do agree 
together concerning the true doctrine ; as, in the time of Mary, these 
^were the Church, to wit, Zacharias, Simeon, Joseph, Elizabeth, Mary, 
Anna, the teachers, and many other who agreed with them in the 
pore doctrme, and did not hear the Sadducees and the Pharisees, but 
2a6harias, Simeon, Anna, Mary, and such like, &c. For even when 
the company is very small, yet God doth reserve some remnants, 
^whoee voice and confession is heard; and he doth oftentimes renew 
the ministry, according to that saying : " Except the Lord had left 
« seed unto us, we had been like to Sodom," &c. Isa. i. 9. 

Therefore this description, taken out of the manifest testimonies 
of the Scriptures, doth declare, which is the Church, what it is, and 
where it is. We may not doubt, that the Church is tied to the 
Gospel : as Paul saith, " If any man teach another Gospel, let him 
be accursed." Gal. i. 8. And, " My sheep hear my voice." John 
X. 27. And, " If any man love me, he heareth my word, and my 
Father shall love him, and he will come to him, and will dwell with 
him." John xiv. 23. And, "Sanctify them with thy word: thy 
word is truth." John xvii. 17. Therefore the Sadducees, the Pha- 
risees, and such Uke Bishops, and others who set forth another 
doctrine, differing from the Gospel, and do obstinately establish 
idolatry, are no members of the Church of God, although they hold 
a title and dominions. But it is manifest, that our adversaries teach 
and defend another kind of doctrine, difieriug from the Gospel ; 
seeing they teach, that the law of God may be fulfilled by our obe- 
dience in this life, and that this obedience doth deserve remission 
of sins : also^ that by this obedience men are made righteous before 

234 THS TSNTH 89CT10X. 

God : abo, that evil concnpisceiiGe » not ua, nor an evil repngnani 
to the law of God : also, that they which are converted, moat doabi 
whether they be in a state of grace, and that thb doubting ia nol 
ain : also, that dead men are to be prayed onto : ako, that difierencc 
of meat8, monaatical yow8« and other ceremonies, choaen without 
any commandment of God, are th& service of God ralao^ that the 
saerifioetfai the mass doth -deserve the remissiim of sins; and othei 
things, both< for him that makethit, and also for othna that are aliv€ 
or< dead ; with other manifold and honrible profiBUiatioiis of the 
£lacmments. Also* that Bishops may appoint services of God, and 
that the violating of those services, whidi are af^inted by them, 
is mortal sin ; also, that they may enjoin the law ol anigle life, tc 
any degree of men : also, liial the rehearsal iji all and every offence 
is naoessarjF to the obtaining of remission of sins : also, that canon- 
ical sadiBfactions do recompense the punishments of Purgatory : alsOi 
diat those Synods, wherein, tlw Bishops akme do gm their judg- 
ment, cannot err. Also, tb^ which do oonsecnite oils» and other 
things^ without the commandment of God, and do attribute there- 
unto ft divine power against IsIbs, and devils, and diseases t also, they 
which allow of prayers made ' to certain images, aa though there 
were more help diere to be bad: also, they which do kill honest 
men, only for that they dislike these errors, and do profess the 
truth : these things, seeing they be altogether heathenish and ido- 
latrous, it ia manifest that the maintainers thereof are not mem- 
bers ai the Church, but do rule and have sovereignty, as the 
miarisees and Sadducees did^ Nevertheless, there have been, are, and 
shall be in the Church of God, such men as do keep the foundation, 
although some have had, have, and shall iiave more light, and others 
less. And sometimes also even the very saints do build stubUe 
upon the foundation; especially seeing that the misery of these 
times doth not 'suffer those, which have the beginnings of faith, to 
be instructed, and to confer with die' better learned. Yet these are 
in the number of thb8e;< whom the Lord commandeth to be qmred ; 
who sigh, and are sorry, because that errors are established, fisek. 
ix. 4. ' 

Therefore, chiefly by the word of doctrine, we may and ought to 
jodge, which and where the true Churdi b ; which, by the word 
of true doctrine, and then by the lawful use of the Sacraments, 
is distinguished from other nations. And what is the word of 
true doctrine, the writings of the Prophets and Apostles, and the 
Creeds, do declare* In these the doctrine is not doubtful touching 


the Ibaadatioi^ ; to wit, touching the Artides of fidth, the eflsence 
isd will of God^ the Sod the Reedeemer, the law, the promiieft, the 
Qfle of the Sacramenta, and the minifitry. And it is manifeft, that 
it is not permitted to any creature, not to Angeb, not to men, to 
change that doctrine which is delivered of God. 

Now what the Chnrch is, the Son of God shewcth, sapng, " My 
kingdom is not of this world/' John zviii. 26. Also, f As ray 
Father aent me, so do I send yon." John xx% 31. By tibe voice of 
the nunisters of the Gospel an eternal Church is gathered to God; 
and, by this voice, God is efiectual, and turnetik many tb hlmadf. 
TkuM exceeding gr^at benefit of God we pnglit to acknowledge, and 
thtEoUaSkf to extol. And although tbe Cbufch be a ooiaijany, that 
vmy be seen and heard, yet it is to be distingaished^xim politioal 
wiipirtf ^ dr diose that bear the sivi^ord. Bishops bave not authority, 
Isf Hie Ikw of God. to punish the disobedient, neitber do ^ktey 
poaaesa tiie kmgdoms of tbe wosddl And yet in the Church tiiere is 
an ardeTy according to that saying, *' H6 aseendethy he giveth gifts 
to men, Aposdes, Pn^hets, Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachersi" 
1 Cor. zii. 28. The Son of 6od » the* Hx^ ^est, anointed «f 
tte Eternal Father, who, that the Church 'inigbt** not utterly periib, 
liatb given unto it ministers of the Gospel^ piMy called iinaiediately 
by himsetf', as the Prophets and Apostles, partly chosen by the 
calling of men. For he doth both allow of the clK)ice of the 
Church, and, of his infinite goodness, he is efilectual, even when the 
Gospel doth sound from such as are chosen by the voices or in the 
name of the Church. 

Tl&erefbrewe do retain in our Churches also the public rite of 

Ordination, whereby the mimstty of the Goipel is cobmoiended tb 

^ose that are truly diosen ; whose inanners and doctrine we<do 

£r8t thmronghly examine. And touching the worthiness of the 

ininistryy we do faithfully teach our Churches. No greater thing 

can be spoken, than that which the Son of God saith : **Asmy 

Tother sent me, sb do I send you.'* John xx. 21. He also dedafre^ 

what eammandtnents he giveth, " Preach ye the Gospd t" Mark zvi 

15. and i he affirmeth, that he will be effeotual by their voic^, as the 

Father sheweth himself to be efiectual by the Son. John xvii. 18, 

19. Also, we set before men the commandments of God : " He that 

heareth you, heareth me : and he that depiseth you, despiseth me." 

Luke X. 1 6. Also, " Obey them that have the oversight of you." 

Heb. xiii. 17. And yet these sayings do not erect a kingdom 

without the Gospel : but they command an obedience which is due 


to the voice of the Gospel. And liieae things pertain to the 
ministry : To teach the Gospd, to administer the Sacraments^ to 
give absolution to them that ask it» and do not persevere in manifest 
ofiences ; to ordain Ministers of the Goepel» bong rightly called 
and examined ; to exercise the judgments of the Chorch, after a 
lawful manner, upon those which are g^ty of manifest crimes in 
manners or in doctrine ; and to pronounce the sentence of exccmi- 
mnnication* against them that are stnhbom» and again to absolve 
and pardon them that do repent. That these things may be done 
orderly, there be also Consistories appointed in our Churdies. 

We said, in the description of the Church, that there be many 
in this visible Church, which be not holy, who notwithstanding, in 
outward profession, do embrace the true doctrine. We condemn 
the Donatists, who feigned that their ministry is not efiectual, whidi 
are not holy. Also we condemn that Anab^vtistical £lth, whidi 
feigned that to be the visible Church, wherein all are hoty. And 
we confess that we ought so to think of the visible Churdli in this 
life, as our Lord saith : " The kingdom of God is like unto a draw- 
net, cast into the sea, wherein fishes are gathered, both good and 
bad." Matt. xiii. 47, But yet they which become enemies to the 
true doctrine, cease to be members of this visible congregation, 
according to this saying : " If any man teach another Gospel, let 
him be accursed." Gal. i. 8. 

XI. — From ths Confession of Wirtxmbueg. 

Article SI. 0/ the Chief Bishop. 

There be those that attribute this to the Bishop of Rome, that he 
is the head of the Universal Church, and that he hath power in 
earth, not only to ordain civil kingdoms, and to govern aU Eodes^ 
iastical persons and matters, but also to command the angels in 
heaven, to deliver souls out of Purgatory, and to bless or deliver 
whom it pleaseth him. Now we acknowledge, that if the Bishop 
of Rome were a godly man, and did teach the Gospel of Christ, 
according to the writings of the Prophets and Apostles, then he had 
a ministry of high authority in this earth ; to wit, a ministry of 
remitting and retaining sins ; than which ministry there is nothing 
greater or more excellent in this earth. But he alone hath not this 
mimstry, but he hath it in common with all those, who, by a lawful 

* Look before, in the third observation upon the Confession of Bohemia, in 
this same Section. 


^^ing, do preach the gospel of Christ. For the ministry of remit- 

^^ing or retaining sins, which otherwise is called "the Key of 

the kingdom of heaven,*' Matt. xvi. 19. is not given to the free 

]x>wer of the person of men : hut it is so nearly annexed to the 

^ord of the Grospel, that so many as do preach the Gospel may 

tmly be said to remit and to retain sins ; to wit, to remit their sins, 

^ho by fidth do receive the Gospel ; to retain theirs, that do 

contemn the Gospel. " Preach the Gospel to every creature : he 

that win believe, and be baptized, shall be saved ; but he that will 

not believe« shall be damned." Mark xvi. 15, 16. Hilary saith : 

* Hie Father revealed it to Peter, that he should say. Thou art the 

Son of God. Therefore upon this rock of confession is the Church 

bnilded. This faith is the foundation of the Church : whatsoever 

thiB fEuth shall loose or bind in earth, shall be loosed or bound in 

lieaven-' De TruUMe. Lib. 6. Chrysostom saith : ' They which 

\3emr the keys, be the Priests ; to whom the word of teaching, and 

of interpreting the Scriptures, is committed. Now the key is the 

urord of the knowledge of the Scriptures ; by which key the truth is 

opened to men.' Aug^tine saith : ' These keys did he give to the 

Cborch, that whatsoever it looseth in earth, should be loosed in 

lieaven : to wit, that, whosoever would not believe that his sins 

mre forgiven him in the Church, they should not be forgiven to him ; 

bat whosoever should believe, and, being corrected, should turn from 

IrniB sins, he, being placed in the lap of the Church, should by the same 

Adth and correction be healed.' DeDoctrind Christ. Lib, 1. Cap. 18. 

^Ambrose saith, ' Sins are remitted by the word : whereof the Levite 

£a the interpreter or expounder.' Bernard saith : ' The true sue- 

cf F^ul will say with Paul, 2 Cor. i. 24. " Not that we 

dondnion over your fEuth : but we are helpers of your joy." 

liThe heirs of Peter will hear Peter saying, 1 Pet. v. 3. " Not as 

-dilaoiigli ye were Lords over God's heritage, but that ye may be en- 

iples to the flock." * In EpistolA ad Eug. Thomas saith : 'Because 

Church is founded upon faith and the Sacraments, therefore it 

not pertain to the Ministers of the Church to make new 

of fedth, or to set apart those which are made ; neither to 

«Kppoiiit new Sacraments, or to take away those which are appointed : 

^3^ this is proper to that excellency of power, which is due to 

Christ alone, who is the foundation of the Church. And therefore, 

^ the Pope cannot dispense, that any one may be saved without 

baptism, so can he not dispense with any to be »aved without 

Confession, because that it bindeth by force of a Sacrament.' In 


8ummd nut, forte 8. in oddit, qu. 6. mi. 6. And althoa^ Thomas 
have hb dpinions touching Confesnon, yet thia which he.aaith, ' It 
doth not pertain to the Miniatera of the Church (among whom he 
reckoneth the Pope) to make new Aitidea of Eaith, and to appoint 
new Sacraments/ is indeed an Apostolic and Catholic judgment. 
For no other ministry doth pertain to the Ministera of the Church* 
which have their calling from Christ, than that whidi we mentioned 
before, and which the Apostles of Christ themadTes did execute* 
touching the remitting and retaining of ains. T h ere fo re if any 
thing more than this mimstry b^ attributed to the Biahop of Rome, 
this is dther given unto him by man's ordinanoea, or eke it is 
feigned by the Monks and other flatterers, againat the authority of 
the word of God. 

Artide 32. 0/ the Ckwrck. 

We believe and confess: — 1. That there u one hxAy Catholic 
and Apostolic Church, according to the Creed of the Apoatlea, and 
the Nioene Creed. 2. That thia Church is so governed of tiie 
Holy Ghost, that, although he sufler it to be weik in tiiia eailh* yet 
he doth always preserve it, that it do not perish either by errors or 
by sins. 8. That in this world many naughty men and hypocrites 
are mingled with this Church. 4. That these naughty men and 
hypocrites, if by a lawful calling they shall take upon them the 
ministry of the Church, shall not of themselves any whit hinder the 
truth of the Sacraments, except they pervert the ordinance of Christ, 
and teach wicked things. 5. That in this Church there is true re* 
mission of sins. 6. That this Church bath authority to bear witness 
of the holy Scripture.* 7. That this Church hath authority to judge 
of all doctrines, f according to that, " Try the spirits, wheUier they 

* This authority and right, understand in this respect; that the true Church 
of God, discerning the Canonical books of the Scripture* from all others, 
teacheth and defendeth, that nothing is to be added to or taken from the 
ancient Canon either of the Hebrew or the Christian Scriptures. 

f To this we yield, with these cautions. First, that in the judging of con- 
troversies, not any judges whatsoever do take unto themselves the name of the 
Church : but that, as the matter and importance of the cause doth require, 
judges, lawfully chosen, whether more or fewer, whether in an ordinary 
assembly of a particular Church, or in a more general Convocation, ordinary 
or extraordinary, provincial or general, be appointed to judge of the matter. 
Secondly, that there be free audience, and free suffrages. Thirdly, that all 
controversies be determined out of the word of God alone ; yet so as the 
judgments of the Fathers be not condemned, but laid to the only rule of God*s 


Ibe of God:" 1 John iv. 1. and, "Let the other judge." 1 Cor. 
^v. 29. 8. That this Church hath authority to interpret the 

But where thia Church is to he sought, and whether her authority 

lie limited within certain hounda, divers men do judge diversly. But 

^e tliink that men are to judge, by the authority, both of the holy 

Scripture, and also of the ancient Fathers, that the true Catholic and 

Apostolic Church is not tied to one certain place or nation, nor to 

one certain land of men ; but that it is in that place or nation, where 

the Goepel of Christ is sincerely preached, and his Sacraments 

vigfitly administeredy according to Christ his institution. It is 

^vrritten, ** I have said, ye are gods : he called them gods, unto whom 

^he word of God was given," &c : John zxxiv. 35. therefore there 

is the people or Church of God, where the word of God is preached* 

** Now ye are dean, through the word which I have spoken to you :" 

John XV. 8. therefore the word of Christ, which is the Gospel^ doth 

<]eclare where that Church is, which is clean in the sight of God. 

*« The Gospel is the power of God to salvation, to every one that 

"believeth :'* Rom. i. 16. therefore, where the Grospel is, which is 

flbcknowledged by fiedth, there God hath his Church, wherein he is 

dP e c t n al unto eternal life. Chr3rsostom, in his Commentaries upon 

.B^attkeWt aaith : 'Therefore at this time all Christians must go to 

^lie Scriptures: because that, at this time, since heresy possessed 

tJt%tme Churches, there can be no trial of true Christianity, neither 

o^u there be any 'Other refuge for Christians, that would willingly 

Jcnow the truth of fiuth, but only the Divine Scriptures.* And a 

|j<Ktle after, ' Therefore, he that will know which is the true Church 

o^ Cfariat. whence may he know it, but only by the Scriptures ? Gqt, 

2-4* Himu 49* Augustine saith : ' In the Scriptures we have 

1^1 tfumrd Christ; in the Scriptures we have learned to know the 

CTlaurcfa : these Scripturea we have in common : why do we not in 

tl3^in retain in common both Christ and the Church?' Tom. it. 

166* And again: 'It is a question between us and the 

as they tbemtelves would have us to do. Now the Church is 

to jiidfs of doctrine ; not that it is above the truth of the doctrine, or that 

^^ doetriae is therefore true, because the Church hath so judged : but inas- 

^^ ti the Chinch, being taught and confirmed out of the word by the Holy 

^^^^oit, docb acknowledge and hold fast, and teach men to hold fast, the true 

^^'ctriae; and condemneth, and rcjecteth, and teachcth to reject, all other 

^tniige doctrines. 


Donatists, where the Church is. What then shall we do ? Shall 
we seek the Church in our own words, or in the words of her Head, 
in our Lord Jesus Christ ? I think that we ought to seek it rather in 
His words, who is the truth, and doth hest of all know his own 
hody.' Tom, vii, in Epist, contra Epist. Petiliani Donaiistit. 
Cap. 2, 3, 4. 

Now that which is affirmed, that the Church hath authority to 
hear witness of the holy Scripture, to interpret the Scripture, and to 
judge of all doctrines ; it is not so to be understood, that the Church 
hath absolute authority to determine what she listeth* and also, if it 
please her, to change the Scripture, and to feign a new doctrine, and 
to appoint new worships of God : but that the Church, as the spouse 
of Christ, ought to know the voice of her husband, and that she 
hath received of her husband a certain rule, to wit, the Prophetical 
and Apostolical preaching, confirmed by miracles from heaven, 
according to the which she is bound to interpret those places of the 
Scripture which seem to be obscure, and to judge of doctrines. 
" Thy word is a light unto my feet." Ps. cxix. 105. " Having gifts 
that be divers, according to the grace that is given unto us, whether 
we have prophecy, according to the proportion of fiuth,** &c. Rom. 
xii. 6. •' We have a more sure word of the Prophets, to the which 
ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark 
place,'* &c. 2 Pet. i. 19. Origen, upon Jeremiah, Horn, 1; ' It is 
necessary for us to call the Holy Scriptures to witness : for our 
meanings and interpretations have no credit, without these wit- 
nesses.' Jerome, upon Matthew xxiii ; ' That which is spoken with- 
out authority of the Scriptures, is as easily contemned, as it is 
spoken.' And Augustine saith, 'This controversy seeketh a judge: 
therefore let Christ judge, and let him shew what thing it is that his 
death doth profit. " This," saith he, Mark xiv. 24. " is my blood." 
And, a little after, ' Together with him let the Apostle judge, because 
that Christ himself also speaketh in the Apostle. He crieth out and 
saith, touching God the Father, Rom. viii. 32. " He which spared 
not his own Son ;" &c. De Nupt, et Concupisc, Lib, 2. Cap. 23. 
Wherefore the Church hath so far authority to judge of doctrine, 
that, notwithstanding, she must keep herself within the bounds of 
the holy Scripture, which is the voice of her husband, from 
which voice it is not lawful for any man, no not for Angel, to 


XII. — From thb CoNFssaiDN op Surveland. 

Article 15. 0/ the Church. 

Furthermore we will shew what is taught among us, both touch- 
ing the Christian Church, and also touching the holy Sacraments. 
And touching the Church, this is it that we teach. The Church, or 
congregation of Christ, (which as yet is in this world, as a stranger 
from God,) is the fellowship and company of those, which addict 
themselves to Christ, and do altogether trust and rest in his protec- 
tion : among whom notwithstanding many shall be mingled, even to 
the end of the world, who, although they profess the Christian faith, 
jet they have it not indeed. This hath our Lord taught sufficiently, 
by the parable both of the cockle, and of the net cast into the sea, in 
the which the bad fishes are caught with the good. Matt. xiii. 4 — 7. 
Also, by the paraHe of the king, inviting all men to the marriage of 
liiB flODy and afterward casting him out, bound hand and foot, 
into ntter darkness, which had not a wedding garment. Matt xxit. 
13. Now> those places of Scripture, wherein the congregation of 
Christ 18 commended to be " the spouse of Christ, for the which he 
hath given himself;" £ph« v. 25. "the house of God, the pillar and 
ground of truth ;'* 1 Tim. iii. 15. also, " the holy hill of Sion, the city 
of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and congregation of the 
frvt-bom, which are written in heaven ;" Heb. xii. 22, 23. I say, all 
tiieae places of Scripture do properly pertain to them, who for their 
sbkcere £uth are truly, and in the sight of God, reckoned among the 
difldren of God. For seeing that in these alone the Lord doth fully 
reign* these only, if we will speak properly, are called the Church of 
Christy and the communion of saints. In which sense also the name 
of the Church is expounded in the common Articles of faith ; those 
fidae Christians being excluded, which are mingled amongst them. 
Finrthermore« the Holy Ghost himself doth govern this Church or 
co n gregation ; and Christ also remaineth with it, even to the end of 
the world, and doth sanetify it> that at the length " he may present it 
vnto himsdf without spot or wrinkle ;" as it is said, Ephes. v. 26, 27. 
Also this is that Church which all men are commanded to hear, and 
he that wiD not hear her, is to be counted as an heathen and 

And although that, whereby this Congregation hath obtained to be 
called the Church and company of Christ, (to wit, faith itself,) can- 
not be seen ; yet the fruits of that faith may be seen and known, and 
€^ them a certain Christian conjecture be taken. These fruits be 



chiefly, a bold profession of faith, a true love oflering itaelf to do 
humble service to all men, and a contempt of all things. Seeing, 
therefore, that these be the proper fruits, wheresoever the holy 
Gospel and ihfi Sacraments be exercised, thereupon it may easily be 
known, wher<B':ted who be the Christian Church; so much as is 
necessary for us to preserve among us the Christian communion, and 
that in the same we may be instructed, admonished, and help one 
another, according to the commandment of Christ. 

Furthermore, seeing this congregation is the very kingdom of 
God, wherein all things ought to be appointed in the best order, she 
hath all kind of offices and ministers. For she is the body of Christ 
himself, compacted of many members, whereof every one hath its 
proper work. Therefore whosoever do fiaithfully disdiarge such 
functions, and do earnestly labour in the word and doctrine, they do 
represent the Church, and may do all things in the name thereof ; so 
that whosoever shall either despise them, or refuse to hear them, he 
may worthily be said to despise the Church itself. 

Now with what spirit, or with what spiritual authority, we do 
believe that they are furnished, we have declared before out of most 
firm foundation of the Scripture; where we shewed, what we thought 
of the spiritual, or ecclesiastical, offices and dignity. For they can- 
not by any means represent the Church of Christ, or do any thing 
in the name thereof, which are not Christ's; and who therefore pro- 
pound no Christian things, but whatsoever is contrary to the doctrine 
of Christ. For although it may be, that even the wicked may teach 
some good thing, and may also prophesy in the name of Christ; 
(after their example, to whom the Lord himself doth witness that he 
will once in time to come say, that he never knew them : Matt. vii. 
23.) yet it cannot be that they discharge the duties of the Churdi 
of Christ, and are to be heard in his stead, which do not propound 
the voice of their husband Christ, although otherwise they should ' 

think aright of faith, and be counted amongst the members of the 
Church ; as it doth oftentimes fall out. when as the very children of 
God are wrapped in errors, and do also publish the same. For the 
Church of Christ is wholly addicted to Christ himself. Therefore 
that cannot be counted a doctrine, precept, or commandment of the 
true Church, except it be the same with the doctrine, precept, and 
commandment of Christ himself. And whosoever propoundeth any 
other thing in her name, (although he were an Angel from heaven,) 
he is not to be heard: as also the Church in those things doth 
represent nothing less than the Church of Christ. 



This is our doctrine* concerning the Church of Christ* and these 
are the passages cited of the testimonies of Scripture, on which the 
doctrine of the Church depends. 




I. — From the latter Confession op Helvetia. 

Chapter 18. Of the Ministers of the Church, their Institution, and 


God hath always used his Ministers, for the gathering or erecting 

of a Church to himself, and for the governing and preservation of 

the same ; and still he doth, and always will, use them, so long as 

the Church remaineth on the earth. Therefore the first beginning, 

institution, and office of the Ministers, is a most ancient ordinance of 

God himself, not a new device appointed by men. True it is, that 

God can, by his power, without any means, take unto himself a 

Church from amongst men ; but he had rather deal with men by the 

ministry of men. Therefore Ministers are to be considered, not as 

Ministers by themselves alone, but as the Ministers of God, even 

Quch as by whose means God doth work the salvation of mankind. 

For which cause we give counsel to beware, that we do not so 

attribute the things that appertain to oiir conversion and instruction 

unto the secret virtue of the Holy Ghost, that we make frustate the 

Ekxdesiastical Ministry. For it behoveth us always to have in mind 

the words of the Apostle, " How shall they believe in him, of whom 

they have not heard ? and how shall they hear without a preacher ? 

Therefore faith is by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." 

Rom. X. 14; 17. And that also which the Lord saith, in the 

Gospel, " Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that receiveth those that 

I shall send, receiveth me ; and he that receiveth me, receiveth him 

that sent me." John xiii. 20. Likewise what a man of Macedonia, 

appearing in a vision to Paul being then in Asia, said unto him ; 


The concluding paragraph is omitted in both editions of the Translation, 
bat is here restored from the Latin Harmony.— Editor. 

R 2 


" Come into Macedoma, and help ub.'* Acts xvi. 9. And in another 
place the same Apostle saith, *' We together are God's labourers ; 
and ye are his husbandry, and his building." 1 Cor. iii. 9. Yet, on 
the other side, we must take heed, that we do not attribute too much 
to the Ministers and Ministry : herein remembering also the words 
of our Lord in the Gospel, " No man cometh to me, except the Fa- 
ther, which hath sent me, draw him :*' John vi. 44. and the words 
of the Apostle, " Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but the 
Ministers by whom ye believed ; and as the Lord gave unto every 
one ? Therefore neither is he that planteth any thing, nor he that 
watereth, but Grod that giveth the increase." 1 Cor. iii. 5 ; 7. 
Therefore let us believe that Grod doth teach us bv his word, out- 
wardly, through his Ministers, and doth inwardly move and persuade 
the hearts of his dect unto belief by his Holy Spirit: and that 
therefore we ought to render all the glory of this whole benefit unto 
Grod* But we have spoken of this matter in the First Chapter of 
this our Declaration. 

God hath used for his Ministers, even from the beginning of the 
world, the best and most eminent men in the world ; (for howsoever 
divers of them were but simple for worldly wisdom or philosophy, 
yet surely in true divinity they were most excellent ;) namely, the 
Patriarchs, to whom he spake very often by his Angels. For the 
Patriarchs were the Prophets or Teachers of their age, whom God for 
this purpose would have to live many years, that they might be as it 
were Fathers, and lights of the world. After them followed Moses, 
together with the Prophets, that were most famous throughout the 
whole world. Then, after all these, our heavenly Father sent his 
only-begotten Son, the most absolute and perfect Teacher of the 
world ; in whom is hidden the wisdom of God, and from him derived 
unto us by that most holy, perfect, and pure of all doctrine. Fcr 
he chose unto himself disciples, whom he made Apostles : and they, 
going out into the whole worlds gathered together Churches in all 
places by the preaching of the Gospel. And afterward they ordained 
Pastors and Teachers in all Churches, by the commandment of 
Christ ; who, by such as succeeded them, hath taught and governed 
the Church unto this day. Therefore, as God gave unto his ancient 
people the Patriarchs, together with Moses and the Prophets : so 
also to his people under the new covenant he hath sent his only- 
begotten Son, and, with him, the Apostles and Teachers of this 
Church. . 

Furthermore, the Ministers of the new covenant are termed by 


divers names; for they are called Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, 
J3ishops, Elders, Pastors, and Teachers. 1 Cor. xii. 28. Ephes. iv. 1 1 . 
The Apostles remained in no certain place, hut gathered together 
divers Churches throughout the whole world : which Churches when 
they were once established, there ceased to be any more Apostles, 
and in their places were particular Pastors appointed in every Church. 
The Prophets in old time did foresee and foretell things to come ; 
and besides 'did interpret the Scriptures : and such are found some 
amongst us at this day.* They were called Evangelists, which were 
the penners of the history of the Gospel, and were also preachers of 
the Gkwpel of Christ ;t as the Apostle Paul giveth in charge unto 
Timothy* "to fulfil the work of an Evangelist." 2 Tim. iv. 5. 
Siahops X are the overseers and the watchmen of the Church, which 
distribute food and other necessities to the Church. The EUders 
mre the ancients, and as it were the Senators and Fathers of 
^he Church, governing it with wholesome counsel. The Pbstors 
Ixith keep the Lord's flock, and also provide things necessary || for 
mt. The Teachers do instructi and teach the true foith and 

Therefore the Church Ministers that now are, may be called 

Sisliope, Elders, Pastors, and Teachers. But in process of times 

there were many more names of Ministers brought into the Church. 

For tome were created Patriarchs, others Archbishops, others Suff- 

Tagans ; also. Metropolitans, Archdeacons, Deacons, Subdeacons, 

Aocdytes» BzcnrciBts* Choristers, Porters, and I know not what a 

• To wit» interpreters of the Scripturefi, that are endued with a special 
lift of tiie Spuit thereunto. For as toudbiDg the visions of Prophets, and 
those atnardinary motions and inspirations of the Holy Spirit, this gift, as 
dso the gift of toogoes and of healings, being fitted for the confirmation of the 
Charch when it was beginnmg, is now long since ceased, after that the whole 
eomissl of Ood, tooddng our salvation, was plainly revealed ; howbeit Ood 
ytc esD, when he will, raise it up again. 

t Sodi as iha Apoetles did join unto themselves as helpers, and sent them 
now to tids plaes, now to that: and these also are no more in use, since the 
ChanlMS were settled in good order : of which sort, divers are mentioned iu 
die AetSf-and in the Epistles of the Aposties. 

I Taking this name for those, which, in a more strict signification, are called 
Deacons, and are distinguished from them which attend upon the preaching of 
the word. 

I To wit, sphitual things ; by teaching, reproving, correcting, instructing 
bodb all fai general, and man by man particularly, yet tied to their special 
flocks and diBffes. 


rabble besides ; Cardinals, Provosts, and Priors ; Abbots, greater 
and lesser ; Orders, higber and lower. But toaddng all tbese, we 
little beed wbat tbey bave been in time past, or wbat tbej are now : 
it is sufficient for ns, tbat, so mucb as oonoemeth Ministers, we 
bave tbe doctrine of tbe Apostles. 

We tberefore, knowing certainly tbat Monks, and tbe Orders or 
Sects of them, are instituted neitber of Cbrist nor of bia Apostles, 
we teacb tbat they are so far from bong profitable, tbat they are 
pemidons and burtful imto tbe Cburdi of God. For altboogh in 
former times they were somewbat tolerable, (wben tbey lived 
solitarily, getting their livings with their own bands, and were 
burdensome to none, but did in all places obey tbeir Pastors, even 
as laymen,) yet wbat kind of men they be now, all the world 
seeth and perceiveth. «They pretend I know not what vows; but 
they lead a life altogether disagreeing from their vows : so that Uie 
very best of them may justly be numbered among those, of whom 
tbe Apostle speaketh ; '* We bear say that there be some among 
you which walk inordinately, and work not at all, bat are busy- 
bodies,'* &c. 2 Thess. iii. 11. Therefore we bave no such in our 
Churches : and besides we teacb, tbat they should not be snffsred to 
rout in the Churches of Christ. 

Furthermore, no man ought to usurp the honour of the Eodes- 
iastical Ministry ; that is to say, greedily to pluck it to himadf by 
bribes, or any evil shifts, or of his own accord. But let the Ministers 
of tbe Church be called and chosen by a lawful and Eodesiaalieal 
election and vocation : that is to say, let them be chosen religiously 
of the Chorch, or of those which are appointed thereunto by the 
Church, and that in due order, without any tumult, seditions, or 
contention. But we must have an eye to this, that not every one 
that will, should be elected ; bat such men as are fit, and have suf- 
ficient learning, especially in the Scriptures, and godly eloquence, and 
wise simplicity ; to conclude, such men as be of good report for a 
moderation and honesty of life, according to that Apostolic rule, 
which St. Paul giveth in the 1st Epistle to Timothy, iii. 2 — 7. 
and to Titus, i. 7 — 9. And those which are chosen, let them be 
ordained of the Eiders, with public prayer, and lapng on of hands. 
We do here therefore condemn all those, which run of their own 
accord, being neither chosen, sent, nor ordained. We do also utterly 
disallow unfit Ministers, and such as are not frimisbed with gifts 
requisite for a Pastor. In the mean time we are not ignorant that 
the innocent simplicity of certain Pastors in the primitive Church 


did sometiines more profit the Church, than the manifold, exquisite, 
and nice learning of other some, that were over-lofty, and high- 
minded. And for this cause we also at this day do not reject the 
honest simplicity of certain men ; which yet is not destitute of all 
knowledge and learning. 

The Apostles of Christ do term all those which helieve in Christ, 
Priests; but not in regard of their Ministry, but because that all the 
(iEuthfiil, being made Kings and Priests, may, through Christ, ofier up 
spiritual sacrifices unto God. Exod xix. 6. 1 Pet. ii. 5 ; 9. Rev. i. 6. 
The Ministry^ then, and the Priesthood are things far different one 
from the other* For the Priesthood, as we said even now, is com- 
mon to all Christians ; so is not the Ministry. And we have not 
taken away the Ministry of the Church, because we have thrust the 
Popish Priesthood out of the Church of Christ. For surely in the 
new covenant of Christ, there is no longer any such Priesthood, as 
^was in the ancient Church of the Jews ; which had an external an- 
oiiftting, holy garments, and very many ceremonies which were figures 
and types of Christ : who, by his coming fulfilled and abolished 
liiem. Heb. ix. 10, 11 • And he himself remaineth the only Priest 
for evef t and we do not communicate the name of Priest to any 
of the Ministers, lest we should detract any thing from Christ. 
For the Lord himself hath not appointed in the Church any Priests 
of the New Testament, who, having received authority from the 
Snffinagan, may offer up the host every day, that is, the very flesh 
and the very blood of our Saviour, for the quick and the dead ; but 
Ministers, which may teach, and administer the Sacraments. Paul, 
dedaring plainly and shortly what we are to think of the Ministers 
of the New Testament, or of the Church of Christ, and what we 
must attribate unto them, " Let a man," saith he, " thus account of 
OS, as of the Ministers of Christ, and dispensers of the mysteries 
of God.*' 1 Cor. iv. 1. So that the Apostle his mind is, that we 
should esteem of Ministers, as of Ministers. Now the Apostle 
calleth them viriipcrac, as it were under-rowers, which have an 
eye only to their pilot; that is to say, men that live not unto 
themselves, nor according to their own will, but for others, to 
wit, their masters, at whose commandment and beck they ought 
to be. For the Minister of the Church is commanded whoUy^ and 
in all parts of his duty, not to please himself, but to execute that 
only, which he hath received in commandment from his Lord. 
And in this same place, it is expressly declared, who is our Master, 
even Christ; to whom the Ministers are in subjection in all the 


functions of their Ministry. And to the end that he might the 
more fiiUy declare their Ministry, he addeth farther that the Min- 
isters of the Church are " stewards, and dispensers of the mjrateriea 
of God." 1 Cor. iv. 1 . Now the mjrsteries of God, Fanl in many 
places, and especially in Eph. iii. 4. doth call ''the Goqid of 
Christ." And the Sacraments of Christ are also called mysteries hy 
the ancient writers. Therefore for this purpose are the Ministera 
caUed, namely to preach the Gospel of Christ unto the duthfiily and 
to administer the Sacraments. We read also, in another place in 
the Gospel, of "the fiuthfal and wise servant,*' that "his Lord 
set him over his feimily, to give food unto it in due season*" Lake 
xii. 42. Again, in another place of the Gospel, a man goeth into 
a strange country, and, leaving his house, giveth onto his servants 
authority therein, committeth to them his substance, and appointeth 
every man his work. Matt. xxv. 14. 

This is now a fit place to speak somewhat also of the power 
and office of the Ministers of the Church. And conoeming their 
power some have disputed over busily, and would bring all tiiing*» 
even the very greatest, under their jurisdicticm ; and that against 
the commandment of God, who forbad unto his disciples %11 do- 
minion, and highly comtaended humility. Luke xzii. 26. Matt. xviiL 
3. Indeed there is one kind of power, which is a mere and absolute 
power, called the power of right. According to this power, all 
things in the whole world are subject unto Christy who is Lord of all: 
even as he himself witnesseth, saying, " AU power is given unto 
me in heaven and in earth:" Matt, xxviii. 18. and again, *'I am 
the First, and the Last, and behold I live for ever, and I have the 
keys of hell and of death:" Rev. i. 17, IS- also, " He hath the 
key of David, which openeth, and no man shutteth ; and shutteth, 
and no man openeth." Rev. iii. 7. This power the Lord reserveth 
to himself, and doth not transfer it to any other, that he might sit 
idle by, and look on his Ministers while they wrought. For Isaiah 
saith, ** I will put the key of the house of David upon his shoulder :" 
Isa. xxii. 22. and again, *< Whose government shall be upon his 
shoulders." Isa. ix. 6. For he doth not lay the government on 
other men's shoulders, but doth still keep and use his own power, 
thereby governing all things. Furthermore, there is another power, 
that of office ; or Ministerial power, limited by Him, who hath fiiU 
and absolute power and authority. And this is more like a service, 
than a dominion. For we see that a master doth give unto the 
steward of hb house authority and power over his house, and for 


that cause delivereth him his keys, that he may admit or exclude 
sQch as his master will have admitted or excluded. According to 
this power doth the Minister, by his office, that which the Lord 
hath commanded him to do : and the Lord doth ratify and confirm 
that which he doth, and will have the deeds of his Ministers to be 
acknowledged and esteemed as his own deeds. Unto which end 
are those speeches in the Gospel : "I will give unto thee the keys 
of the Kingdom of heaven ; and whatsoever thou bindest, or loosest 
in earthy shall be bound, or loosed in heaven." Matt. xvi. 19. 
Again ; ** Whose sins soever ye remit, they shall be remitted : and 
whose sins soever ye retain, they shall be retained." John xx. 23. 
But if the Minister deal not in all things as his Lord hath com- 
manded him, but pass the limits and bounds of faith, then the 
Lord doth make void that which he doth. Wherefore the Eccle- 
siastical power of the Ministers of the Church, is that function 
whereby they do indeed govern the Church of Gk>d ; but yet so do 
all things in the Church, as He hath prescribed in his word : which 
thing being so done, the futhful do esteem them as done of the 
Lord himself. But touching the Keys, we have spoken somewhat 

Now the power, or function, that is given to the Ministers of the 
Church,* is the same and alike in alL Certainly, in the beginning, 
the Bishops or Elders did, with a common consent and labour, 
govern the Church ; no man lifted up himself above another, none 
Qsnrped greater power or authority over his fellow-Bishops. For 
they remembered the words of the Lord, " He which will be the 
chiefeflt among you, let him be your servant :" Luke xxii. 26« 
they kept in themselves by humility, and did mutually aid one 
another in the government and preservation of the Church. Not- 
withstanding, for order's sake, some one of the Ministers called the 
assemUy together, propounded unto the assembly the matters to 
be consulted of, gathered together the voices or sentences of the 
rest, and, to be brief, as much as lay in him, provided that there 
might arise no confusion. So did St Peter, as we read in the 
Acta of the Apostles : chap xi. 4 — 18. who yet, for all that, neither 
was above the rest, nor had greater authority than the rest. 
Very true therefore is that saying of Cyprian the Martyr, in Ids 
book De SimpUcitate Ckricorvm: 'The same doubtless were the 

* The power, to wit, of the word ; and given, that is, to the Pastors 
and Tescfaen, wkoee divers functions are afterward more fully set forth. 


250 VMM MgMYMUm tBOnON. 

rest of the ApoBtles that Peter was, having an equal fellowsli^ 
him both in honour and power : but the beginning hereof prooeededi^cJCb 
from unity, to signify unto us that there is but one CSunrch.* 
Jerome also, in his Commentary upon the EpMe of Pmd to Tiitu,^^'- 
hath a saying not much unlike this : ' Before tfaat» by the h 
of the Devil, there arose parties in religion, the Choidbes 
governed by the common advice of the Elders : but after that 
one thought, that those whom he had baptised were his own« 
not Christ's, it was decreed that one of the Elders should be diosen, 
and set over the rest, who should have the care- of the whole Churdutf:^^^ 
laid upon him, and by whose means all schisms should be removed." 
Yet Jerome doth not avouch this as an order set down of God : 
for straightway after he addeth, ' Even as the £3ders knew* by tiie: 
continual custom of the Church, that they were subject to him that 
is set over them : so the Bishops must know, that they are above 
the Elders, rather by custom, than by the p r e s c ript role of God's 
truth, and that they ought to have the government of the Ghnrdi 
in common with them.' Thus far Jerome. Now therefore no man 
can forbid by any right that we may return to the old appoint- 
ment of God, and rather receive that ; than the custom devlMd by 

Hie offices of the Ministers are divers : yet notwithstanding most 
men do restrain them to two, in which all the rest are compre- "^ 
bended ; to the teaching of the Gospel of Christ, and to the lawful -^ 
administration of the Sacraments. For it is the duty of the Min« "* 
isters to gather together a holy assembly, therein to expound the ^ 
word of God, and also to apply the general doctrine to the state and -^ 
use of the Church ; to the end that the doctrine which they teadi, '^ 
may profit the hearers, and may build up the faithful. Hie Min- 
isters' duty, I say, is, to teach the unlearned, and to eadiort, yea, 
and to urge them to go forward in the way of the Lord, idio do 
stand still, or linger and go slowly on : moreover, to comfort and 
to strengthen those which are faint-hearted, and to arm them 
against the manifold temptations of Satan ; to rebuke offenders ; to 
bring them home that go astray ; to raise them up that are foUen ; 
to convince the gainsayers ; to chase away the wolf from the 
Lord's flock ; to rebuke wickedness and wicked moi, wiady and 
severely ; not to wink at, nor to pass over great wickedness. And 
besides, to administer the Sacraments, and to commend the right 
use of them, and to prepare all men by wholesome doctrine to 
receive them ; to keep together all the faithful in an holy unity ; 


and to enooanter schiBms. To condade, to catechise the ignorant, 
to commend the necessity of the poor to the Churchy to visit and 
instmct those that are are sick, or entangled with divers tempta- 
tioDBy and so to keep them in the way of life. Beside aD this, to 
provide diligently that there be public prayers and sapp]ication8 
made in time of necessity, together with fosting, that is, an holy 
abatinency, and most carefblly to look to those things which belong 
to the tranquillity, peace, and safety of the Church. And to the end 
that the Minister may perform all these things the better, and with 
more ease, it is required in him that he be one that feareth 
God, prayeth diligently, giveth himself much to the reading of 
the Scri p ture, and, in all things* and at all times, is watchful, and 
doth shew forth a good example unto all men of holiness of life. 
And seeing there must needs be a discipline in the Church, and that, 
among the ancient Fathers, excommunication was in use, and there 
were Ekxiesiastical judgments amongst the people of God, wherein 
this discipline was exercised by godly men ; it belongeth also to the 
Ministers' duty, for the edifying of the Church, to moderate this 
discipline, according to the condition of the time and public estate, 
and according to necessity. Wherein this rule is always to be 
liolden, that " all things ought to be done to edification, decently, 
and honestly," 1 Cor* xiv. 40. without any oppression or tumult. 
For the Apostle witnesseth, that " power was given to him of God, 
to edify and not to destroy.*' 2 Cor. x. 8. And the Lord himself 
forbad the cockle to be plucked up in the Lord's field, because there 
would be danger lest the wheat also should be plucked up with it. 
Matt. ziii. 29. 

But as for the error of the Donatists, we do here utterly detest 
it ; who esteem the doctrine and administration of the Sacraments 
to be either efiectual or not effectual, according to the good or 
evil life of the Ministers. For we know that the voice of Christ is 
to be heard, though it be out of the mouths of evil Ministers ; for- 
asmuch as the Lord himself said, " Do as they command you, but 
according to their works do ye not." Matt, xxiii. 3. We know 
that the Sacraments are sanctified by the institution, and through 
the word of Christ ; and that they are efiectual to the godly, 
although they be administered by ungodly Ministers. Of which 
matter Augustine, that blessed servant of God, did reason diversely 
out of the Scriptures against the Donatists. Yet notwithstanding 
there ought to be a strait discipline amongst the Ministers: for 
there should be diligent enquiry in the Synods touching the life 


and doctrine of the Ministers : those that ofiend, should be rebuked 
of the Elders, and be brought into the way, if they be not past 
recovery ; or else be deposed, and, as wolves, be driven from the 
Lord's flock by the true Pastors, if they be incurable. For, if they 
be false teachers, they are in no wise to be tolerated. Neither do 
we disallow of General Councils, if that they be taken up according 
to the example of the Apostles, to the salvation of the Church, and 
not to the destruction thereof. 

The fedthf ul Ministers also are worthy (as good workmen) of 
their reward ; neither do they offend when as^they receive a stipend, 
and all things that be necessary for themselves and their fkmily. 
For the Apostle sheweth that these things are for just cause offered 
of the Church, and received of the Ministers ; in 1 Cor. iz. 14. 
and in 1 Tim. v. 17» 18. and in other places also. 

The Anabaptists likewise are confuted by this Apostolical doc- 
trine, who condemn and rail upon those Ministers which live upon 
the Ministry. 

II. — From thb iormbr Confbssion of Hblvbtia. 

Article 15. 0/the Ministry of the Word. 

We confess that the Ministers of the Church are (as Paul termeth 
them*) the fellow-labourers of God, by whom he doth dispense 
both the knowledge of himself, and also remission of sins ; doth 
turn men to himself, raise them up, comfort them, and also terrify 
and judge them : yet so that, notwithstanding, we do ascribe all^the 
virtue and efficacy that is in them unto the Lord, and give a Min- 
istry only to the Ministers. For it is certain that this virtue and 
efficacy is not to be tied to any creature at all, but is to be dispensed 
by the free favour of Grod, in what manner and to whom it pleaseth 
him. For, *' He that watereth is nothing, neither he that planteth, 
but God that giveth the increase.*' 1 Cor. iii. 7. 

Article 16. Ecclesiastical Power, 

Now the authority of the word, and of feeding the flock of the 
Lord, (which properly is the Power of the Keys.) prescribing to^all, 
as well high as low, what to do, ought to be sacred and inviolable : 

• The passage alluded to is probably either 1 Cor. iii. 9 ; where, however, 
the words are, 9e5, not 9£w, evvkpyoi, feUow-toorkerSf not in conjunction 
with, but in the service of God : or else 2 Cor. vi. 1 ; where the word is simply 
evvipynvTig, working together y whether with God, or with each other.— 


and is to be committed only to those that are chosen, and fit to dis- 
cbarge ity and that either by the divine appointment of God/ or 
by the certain and advised snffirage of the Charch ; or by their sen- 
tence, to whom the Church hath assigned this charge. 

Artide 17. The choosing of Ministers. 

For tins fdnction is to be given to none, whom the Ministers, and 

they to whom this charge is committed by the Chnrch, do not find 

and judge to be skiUul in the law of God, to be of a blameless life, 

and to bear a singular affection to the name of Christ. Which, 

seong it is the true election of God, is rightly allowed by the con- 

«eiit of the Churchy and by the laying on of the hands of the 


Ariicie 18. ne Head and Shepherd of the Church. 

For Christ himself is the true Head of his Charch, and he alone 
Is the Shepherd, who giveth Governors, Pastors, and Teachers, 
'^baty by the outward administration of the Keys, they may rightly 
And lawfully use that authority. Wherefore we do not acknowledge 
"^oae Fsstors, and that head of Rome, which have the bare title, 
and nothing else. 

Artide 19. 7^ Duties of Ministers, 

The chief duty of this function is, to preach repentance and re- 
mistton of sins through Christ ; without ceasing, to pray for the 
people; to give themselves very diligently, without weariness, to 
bdj atiidies» and to the word of God ; and with the word of God, 
IS with the sword of the 8pirit» and by all kind of means, to per- 
tecote Sttan with deadly hatred, and to weaken his force ; to defend 
those dtiiens of Christ which are sound, and to admonish, repre- 

* As iMHMly, Uf at say time, the lawful ordinary vocation being quite abo- 
lishedy (as it hath fiUlen oat under the Papacy,) God, by bis Spirit, bath extra- 
orfinarily laiiad np certain men. Which thing when it appeareth by their 
IndtBy theOy tin liking and approbation of the Church Reformed being added 
t i iew m to^ dwy are confirmed in their calling. For otherwise, while the lawful 
oidtr of edKag standeth in the Church, no man may enter into the Ministry 
bat by that door. 

f Bf Priisty QDderslaod him that is appointed out of the College and com- 
pfloj of tiw FMtors, for to set him, that is lawfully chosen, as it were, into the 
jioaMirioo of bis Bfinistry, in the sight and presence of the whole Church. 
How, as t O Mc hi g g the very right of this ordination, every Church hath its own 
liberty, so that bodi alike, superstition and occasion of superstition, be avoided. 


hend« and punieh those that are infected ; and, by a godly consent 
of them which are chosen out of the Ministers and the Magis- 
trates, by discipline to shut oat, or by some other fit means to mulcts 
those which proceed farther in wickedness, till sach time as they do 
repent, and may be saved. For that is the way oi retmving to the 
Church for a diseased citizen of Christ, if, having changed his 
mind and endeavoar^ (whereonto all this discipline doth tend,) he 
acknowk^e and confess his error, and do now of his own accord 
reqaire a wholesome discipline, and by his new endeavours after 
godliness do rejoice all the godly. 

Fh>m the Declaration of the same Corfession, which Luther htmself 
approved by his Letters^ in the year 1537 : — 

We believe and confess, that mankind, by the only mercy of God, 
is justified by faith, through Christ ; and that Almighty God. by 
the outward preaching of the Gospel, and the holy sjrmbols, doth 
declare, and set before our eyes, that salvation and happiness, which 
Christ, without any work or merit of ours, hath purchased for us, 
and given freely unto us. But we are unjustly suspected of some, 
as though we did attribute nothing to the preaching of the outward 
word, and to the Sacraments ; or as though we did take that from 
them, which the Lord himself doth attribute unto them, and by this 
means did overthrow and abolish the ordering and guiding of those 
things, which pertain to the Church. Whereas, on the contrary 
side, we have a chief regard unto this, that we neither attribute too 
much nor too little to these things. For we have learned both out 
of the holy Scriptures, and also out of the Catholic Doctor, Augus- 
tine, ' That the soul is in miserable servitude, if any man take or 
worship the signs, instead of the things which they signify.' And 
again, ' That it is an error, if any man interpret them unfruitfully.' 
We have learned also that the external gifts are not to be despised, 
because of the internal : knowing that Cornelius the Centurion was 
taught of God, and that yet notwithstanding he was handed over 
to hear Peter the Apostle preach, and to be baptized of him. 
Therefore that we may walk in the high and plain way ; that is, that 
we may detract nothing from the word and Sacraments, which the 
Scripture doth attribute unto them ; and again, that we may not give 
that to the creature, which is proper to the Creator, and that the 
ordinance of God may not be disannulled, but all glory may be given 
to God alone ; to conclude, lest that by those external things, in- 
stituted of God, we should too much tie the minds of the faithful to 


iiings created ; we so belieTe touching the Ministry of the word and 
MicramentSy as we have professed : which thing also we do thus 
ledare by that which followeth. 

0/ the Ministry of the Word of God, 

Although the Lord hath expressly said, " No man cometh to me, 
ccept my Father which sent me, do draw him :" John vi. 44. yet it 
"as his will, that the Gospel of the kingdom should be preached to 
U nations; and that Bishops should discharge this duty of the 
[inistry, with great care and diligence, and with special watchful- 
»8, and be instant in season, and out of season, and by all means, 
\at they might gain as many as possible unto Christ. For there- 
re, when he was ready to depart hence into heaven in his body, 
; said to his disciples, ** Gro ye into the whole world, and preach the 
ospel to every creature." Mark xvi. 15. After the which manner 
so Paul the Apostle saith, " He that descended, is even the same 
at ascended hr above all heavens, that he might fill all things. 
ad he gave some to be Apostles, and some Prophets, and some 
Timgelists, and some Pastors and Teachers, for the gathering to- 
ther of the sunts, for the work of the Ministry, and for the edi- 
ation of the body of Christ." Ephes. iv. 10—12. 
Now the Lord doth use these his Ministers to instruct his Church, 
it as he useth meats to nourish us, the sower to sow seeds, and 
ysicians to heal our bodies. For except himself do give power 
d virtue, whereby both the meat may be turned into nourishment, 
d the seed may spring up, and also the medicine may be made 
ectoal, the outward work doth nothing at all profit. So, except the 
nrd do give increase in the heart of the hearer, the doctrine indeed, 

him which hath no faith, is as it were a watering and plantings 
tt such as is without efficacy, and unfruitful : but being received by 
tth into good ground, and being nourished by the inward husband- 
an, the Holy Ghost, it doth work marvellously, and profit. Not- 
ithstanding, it hath so pleased the Lord to moderate the affairs of 
en, that, although by his own power he doth all things in all men, 
!t be vouchsafeth to use the Ministers as workers together. For 
lat saying of Paul is evident, " For we together are God's labourers ;" 
It, he addeth, *' Ye are God's husbandry, and God's building :" 1 
or. iii. 9. to wit, that we might give unto God all the virtue, 
ELcacy, accomplishing and perfecting of the work, and to the 
'inisters a service only. Whereupon we do truly say, with Paul : 
Who is Ftol, then, and who is ApoUos, but the Ministers by 


whom ye believed, and as the Lord gave to every man ? I have 
planted, Apollos watered; bat God gave the increase. So then, 
neither is he that planteth any thing, neither is he that watereth, but 
God that giveth the increase." 1 Cor. iii. 5—7. And in this 
sense we do know, and willingly ose, these speeches and testimonies 
of the holy Scripture: "I have begotten yon in Christ by the 
Gospel." 1 Cor. iv. 15. " Ye are the epistle of Christ, written by 
US, not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God." 2 Cor. iii. 3. 
And, "Whose sins ye remit, they are remitted to them." John 
xz. 23. Again, " Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the 
word of God." Rom. x. 1 7. And again, " I send thee to the 
Gentiles, that thou mayest open their eyes." Isa. xlii. 7. Also the 
Scripture saith of John Baptist, " He shall turn the hearts of the 
fathers to the children," &c. Mai. iv. 6. For when aU these things 
be done, (that is, when we are bom again, when the Holy Ghost is 
given to us, when our sins be forgiven us, when felth is given to us, 
and our eyes are opened, and our hearts turned,) " one and the self- 
same Spirit" (as the Apostle saith) " worketh them all ;" 1 Cor. 
xii. 1 1 . who by his grace doth lighten our hearts, and draw them 
unto him, and that after a common order and method» to wit, by 
the instrument or mean of his word. And yet he might draw, 
without all means, and without any instrument, whither, as much, 
and whom it pleaseth him. Therefore let no man glory in men, 
but in him that giveth the increase. Again, let no man despise 
men, which are sent of the Lord ; of whom he pronounceth, " He 
that heareth you, heareth me : and he that despiseth you, despieeth 
me." Luke x. 16. This is our opinion as touching the Ministry 
of the word ; agreeable, as we hope, to the Scripture, and sound 
writers : which also we have found often in Luther's, and in his 
friends' books, &c. 

III. — From thb Confession of Bohemia. 

Chapter 9. Of those that teach in the Church; and who they be that 

govern it. 

In the ninth place, it is taught concerning the acknowledging of 
the Shepherds of souls, or lawful Ministers of sacred functions in 
the holy Church, according to the degrees and order of divers cures. 
And first, that these are especial members of the holy Ecclesiastical 
communion, and Christ his Vicegerents, that is, they who supply his 
place. He that heareth them, heareth Christ; he that despiseth 


tern, despiseth Christ, and his Heavenly Father. Matt. x. 40. 
inke X. 16. John xiii. 20. For to these is the Ministry of the 
ord and Sacraments lawfully committed. 1 Cor. iv. 1. Bat 
[inisters oaght not of their own accord to press forward in that 
illing ; bat oaght, according to the example of the Lord and 
le Apostles, to be lawfully appointed and ordained thereunto : 
latt. X. 1. Mark i. 6, 7. and iii. 14. Acts i. 23 — 26. and that after 
lis manner, that from among a people that is sound in religion, 
ad feareth God, such men may be chosen and called to the adminis- 
"ation of holy functions, as are strong and mighty in foith, fearing 
rod, and having gifts requisite for the Ministry, and be of an honest 
nd blameless life. And again, that, above all things, these be proved 
nd tried by examination whether they be such; 1 Tim. iii. 10. 
nd that so afterwards, prayers and fastings being made, they be con- 
rmed or approved of the Elders by laying on of hands.* Hereof 
peaketh the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews : f " Every High 
^riest is taken from among men;" Heb v. 1. that is to say, from 
mong the faithful, and such as are a spiritual priesthood. And 
*aul, la3ring before Timothy his own example, saith, *' What things 
boa hast heard of me before many witnesses, the same deliver to 
iithful men, which shall be able to teach others also." 2 Tim. ii. 2. 
)f such Priests, or Ministers, and of making, appointing, and conse- 
rating them, and how the ordaining of them ought to be handled, 
he Apostle teacheth evidently and plainly in his Epistles to Hmotby 
md Titus. 1 Tim. iii. Titus i. 

Therefore it is not permitted to any among us to execute the 
>flSce of the Ministry, or to administer any holy function of the 
Lord's, unless, according to this custom of the primitive Church, 
md order appointed by God, he come to that engagement, and be 
adled and assigned thereunto. Which thing may also manifestly 
ippcar by the ancient Canons of the Church. Distinct. 24. Cap, 
Episcopus. St. Cyprian hath in like sort set down the manner of 
ordaining Priests. Lib. 1. Ep. 4. 

According to these things, the Ministers of lower degree, especially 
they which are called Deacons, are a long time detained with our 

* See before, the second observation upon the Former Confession of 
Helvetia; and see after, the Fourteenth Chapter of this same Confession, and 
the fifst observation upon this Confession in the Thirteenth Section. 

t Tet not properly ; for he disputeth of the Levitical Priesthood, which was 
abrogated by Christ, and not of the Ministry under Christ. 



Elders, and kept in exercise.* And how sericrasly they i^iply them^ 
selves to this object, a strait trial and ezaminatioii of their fait!*^ 
and diligence is made, according to the examine of the primitiTer 
Chnrch, and also of Christ himself, who kept his Disciples with him. 
for the space of three years. Also the Apostles dealt so by others,., 
to the end that afterward godly men, and such as were illominated. 
with heavenly light, might be taken and ordained finom among them, 
to higher degrees, and to the executing of greater ionctions; and. 
that they might have testimonies, as wdl from the common sent, 
from their Blders. that they were fit men, and worthy of that place. 

Together^i|ith these things it is taught, that, in tibe executing 
that charge wherein they be lawfully plaoed, they are boand to this 
that they take care for the souU of men committed to their tmst^ 
and for their everlasting salvation; and laithfr^ employ 
service unto them, by teaching of the word of God, ai|d 
tering the Sacraments according to Christ his meaning and ordin 
ance : that they be an examine and allurement to practice all virtues 
that they make prayers for them, bring them out of sins and efTors, 
and enquire after the will of God, and search the same in the 
Scriptures, by diligent reading, and continual meditation; as th< 
Apostles also exhort men to these things. St. Peter writeth thus 
" Feed the flock of God which dependeth upon you, caring for it 
not by constraint, but willingly ; not for filthy lucre, but of a read; 
mind." 1 Pet. v. 2. In like sort Paul writeth to Timothy, a 
and Bishop : " But be thou sober, and watch in all things ; si 
jidversity, do the work of an Evangelist, plainly (or fuUy, 
all diligence) make thy ministry kuown." 2 Tim. iv. 5. Again 
" Be thou an example to the faithful, in speech, in conversation 
life, in love, in spirit, in faith, in pureness. Till I come, be instan 
in readings exhorting, and teaching. Despise not the gift of 
which is in thee, which was given to thee by prophecy, with 
on of the hands of the Eldership. These things exercise, and giv 
thyself unto them, that all men may see how thou profitest. Tsk^^* 
heed to thyself, and unto learning, and abide in these things : for^ 
in doing this, thou shalt save both thyself, and them that hear thee.'^ 

* Let the reader thus take these words : not as though this same order were 
prescribed unto all and singular Churches, or were observed of all ; (seeing we 
neither have any commandment touching that matter, neither can it eveiy- 
where be performed;) but that this is very carefully to be looked unto, that 
none but he that is furnished with learning, and an approved integrity and 
uprightness, be advanced to any Ecdeeiastical function. 


\ Tim. iv. 12 — 16. Sach Ministers ought also to deliver sound 
and wholesome doctrine, such as they have received from Christ and 
the Apostles, out of holy Scripture; and, being all alike-minded, 
through one Spirit, to teach the same in their sermons, according 
to the ordinance of St. Paul, who writeth thus : " Keep the true 
pattern of the wholesome words, which thou hast heard of me, in 
fisuth, and in love, which is in Jesus Christ." 2 Tim. i. 13. And 
again, " But abide thou in those things, that thou hast learned, and 
which are committed onto thee; knowing of whom thou hast learned 
them, and that of a child thou hast known the holy Scriptures, 
which are able to make thee wise unto salvation, through the faith 
which is in Jesus Christ." 2 Tim. iii. 14, 15. And elsewhere, 
"Charge certain (saith he) that they teach no other thing." 1 
Tim. i. 3. 

But peculiar mention is made thereof, that they which have the 
spiritual government of the Churches, and do their endeavour in 
them, ought not themselves, nor by others, to use civil power or 
constraint, to force men to believe, or to exercise lordly authority 
Dver the futh and people of God; according to the doctrine of 
Christ and the Apostles. The Lord spake thus to the Apostles, and, 
n them, to all faithful and true Preachers of the Gospel : " Ye know 
hat they who are rulers of the people, have domination over them 
N^hose rulers they are ; and that they that are great lords, exercise 
inthority over the people that are subject to them. But it shall not 
le so among you. But if anjr man among you will be great, let him 
•e your servant ; and he that vnll be chief among you, or bear rule, 
3t hhn be your minister. Even as the Son of Man came not to be 
oinifltered unto, but that he himself might minister to others, and 
"ive his life, as a price, for the redemption of many." Matt. xx. 25 
— ^28. Peter also saith, " Not as being lords over the people, or the 
■ord*8 inheritance, but as they who are an ensample to the flock." 1 
^ct. V. 9. And Baul, " Not that we are lords over your futh, but 
lecaose we are helpers of your joy." 2 Cor. i. 24. But gain- 
ayersare vrith a quiet mind to be forborne, and by reasons, grounded 
Mi the troth of holy Scripture, to be refuted and convinced ; and 
pains must be taken that they may suffer themselves to be bettered 
hy wholesome doctrine, as the Apostle giveth in charge touching this 
matter. 2 Tim. ii. 24—26. Tit. iii. 2, 3. 

s 2 


And, after other things : — 

Besides, it is tanght, that all the people ought to peHbnn ohe- 
dience (and that with a great afiection of love toward them) to 
such lawful, godly, and faithful Pastors of souls; and tliat they 
ought to assure and undoubtedly to persuade themsdyes very well 
of them, to obey them, to use their help in matters pertaining to 
salvation, to yield them due honour, and to perform all convenient 
duties towards them : whereunto they are bound by God's word, 
and that according to the doctrine of Christ, who saith, ** He that 
receiveth you, receiveth me ; and he that heareth you, heareth me." 
Matt. X. 40. Luke x. 1 6. John xiii. 20. And so also the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, " Obey them that have the oversight of you, and 
submit yourselves ; for they watch for your souls, as they that must 
give account for them." Heb. xiii. 17. And the Apostle, "Elders 
that rule welly are worthy of double honour ; especially they that 
occupied in the word and doctrine." 1 Tim. v. 17. Furthermore, 
they ought to be provided for, that they may have a competen 
living, and such things as are needful for the maintenance of thi 
body, according to the Lord's ordinance ; whereof Paul speakedi^K= 
after this sort, " The Lord hath so appointed, that they which ^s" 
preach the Gospel, should live of the Grospel." 1 Cor. ix. 14. 

And to the end that the danger of an idle, secure, and Sodomiti 
cal life* may be avoided, and so they may be an example to thi 
flock, whereof they have charge ; and tljat, by a feeling of the burdena^^ 
of this common life, they may learn to understand the misery ofl^ 
men, and may by this means be touched and have compassion otm^ 
the miseries of others ; for these causes, I say, this is taught, that^ 
they, whose ability of strength is such, (especially those, on whonk 
as yet the greatest and painfullest charge of the people is not laid,) 
should themselves with their own hands get their living ;t that they 
be not a burden to the Churches, especially in the beginning <^ 
their buildings and reparations, or also in times of long persecution, 
or otherwise by reason of the weaker brethren ; and that they give 
not place to vain, voluptuous, and riotous sloth, 2 Cor. xii. 14. 
1 Thess. ii. 9. 2 Thess. iii. 7, 8. as those who faithfully follow 
St. Paul's doctrine, and who have the Lord's speech before their 

* That 19, of an unclean life, given to riot and excess, as Esekiel (chap, 
xvi. ver. 49.) chargeth the inhabitants of Sodom. 

f Once again, this is so to be taken, as that we must know that this law 
of working with their own hands is not prescribed to the Churches. 


eyes, saying, " It is a more happy thing to give, than to take." 
Acts zz* 35. 

And if so be that some one of these Rulers slip into sin or 
errorsy or be somewhat negligent in looking to this charge ; he 
ought by the ordinary and lawful discipline of the Church to be 
brought into the way again, and to be chastised. But if he will 
not repent, nor be healed, then he ought first to be removed from 
the executing of his charge, and from the Ministry, and afterward, 
as an unprofitable servant, Matt. xxv. 30. as a member which 
causeth ofibice. Matt v. 29, 30. a dry branch, John xv. 6. and 
unsavoury salt, Luke xiv. 34. to be cast out or banished from the 
fellowship of the Church, and enjoying of salvation : of whom the 
Lord saith, that " this salt is henceforth good for nothing;" Matt. 
V. 13. that which Paul also teacheth, when he saith, " Those that 
<offiend (meaning those that are Elders) reprove or chastise before 
^ men, that the rest also may stand in fear." 1 Tim. v. 20. But 
"ithe people ought so to behave themselves toward such Teachers, even 
^^hoogh grown out of kind, and entangled with errors, or toward other 
J!3Slders abo not repenting, and excommunicated, as the holy Scrip- 
^^i^ture aheweth. And first, Christ saith : " Take ye heed of false 
^^KVophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly are 
ivening wolves ; ye shall know them by their fruits." Matt. vii. 
.5, 16. And Paul : " Now I beseech you, brethren, mark those 
^^iSiligently which cause divisions and offences, contrary to the doctrine 
rhich ye have learned, and avoid them ; for they that are such, 
not oar Lord Jesus Christ, but their own bellies." Rom. xvi. 
>7, 18. 

Cluster 14. Of the Keys of Christ, 

Hie Fourteenth Chapter of Ecclesiastical Doctrine is of the Lord's 

Keys; of which he saith to Peter, " I will give thee the Keys of 

the kingdmn of heaven." Matt. xvi. 19. And these Keys are 

the peculiar function, or Ministry and administration, of the power 

of Chriat, and of His Holy Spirit. Which power is committed to the 

Church of Christ, and to the Ministers thereof, unto the end of the 

worid; that they may not only by preaching publish the holy 

Groepd, (although they should do this especially, that is, should 

shew fbrtli that word of true comfort, and the joyful message of 

peace, and new tidings of that favour which God offereth ;) but 

also that to the believing and unbelieving they may publicly or 

privatdy denounce and declare, to wit, to those his favour^ to these 

962 '"tut miMVMffTw smjtIimi.- •' 

his wrath ; and that to all id general, or to every one in particular : 
that they may wisely receive some into the house of Ood, to the 
communion of Saints, and drive others out from thenoe ; and may 
so, through the performance of their Ministry, hold in their hand 
the sceptre of Christ his kingdom, and use the same to the govern- 
ment of Christ his sheep. 

Therefore the condition and proper office of the Keys is, first, 
to open and loose ; that is, in Christ to appease and still the con- 
science of the futhfiil ones, and of those that turn again hy 
repentance; to make it known unto them, that their sins be 
forgiven, and to streng^en them in a sure hope of salvation ; and 
by this means to open the kingdom of heaven unto them, to give 
them courage against all temptations, and to stir up stedfsstness 
and cheerfulness in them. And all these things are done by the 
faithful Shepherds of souls in the Lord's stead ; not doing this of 
themselves, but upon Christ his commandment ; not by their own 
and proper virtue, but by Christ's, and by the efficacy of his word 
and Sacraments, as those that are Stewards and Dispensers of the 
mysteries of Grod, and Ministers only. 1 Cor. iv. 1. 2 Cor. iii. 6. and 
V. 20. In the administration of which things, they may use some 
seemly and indifferent ceremonies, (that is, which are no way 
necessary;) such as are, to lay on hands, or to reach out the right 
hand ;* or else they may omit them. 

On the other side, the office and proper work of the Keys of' 
Christ is, to shut and bind; that is, by the commandment of 
Christ, and the authority of this office given by Him to the 
Church, (which is his power and sceptre,) to denounce against all 
stubborn, impenitent, unbelieving, and other such like sinners, 
God*s horrible judgment, and his intolerable wrath, which no nature 
can abide, and his severe sentence : and so, by the word of Christ, 
according to the quality of the offence, to reprove their sin, to sever 
them from the fellowship of Christ our Saviour, and from the hmX 
and participation of the Sacraments, and to cast them out of the 
Christian Church ; and, in a word, to shut the kingdom of heaven 
upon them, and at the length to deliver them to Satan. 

This power of his sceptre and Spirit hath the Lord granted and 
delivered to the holy Apostles, and, in them, to all Ministers of 
Churches, lawfully ordained, that they might exercise it in his stead. 

* Touching this rite, look before to the bccond observation upon the 
Former Confession of Helvetia. 


And he hath granted and deUvered it in these words, "As the 
Father hath sent ine, so do I send you also." And to these he addeth 
bj and hy, " Receive ye the Holy Ghost : if ye forgive any men 
their sins, they are forgiven them ; and if ye retain any men's sins, 
they are retained." John zx. 21 — 23. Moreover, a manifest example 
of using the power of the Keys is proposed to others also in that 
sinner of Corintht whom St Paul, together with the Church of 
that place, hy the power and authority of our Lord Jesus Christ 
and of his Spirit, cast out from thence, and delivered to Satan : 
1 Cor. V. 5. and contrariwise, after that God gave him grace to 
repent, he absolved him from his sins, he took him again into the 
Church, to the communion of saints and Sacraments, and so opened 
to him the kingdom of heaven again. 2 Cor. ii. 7, 8. By this we 
may understand, that these Ke3rs, or this divine function of the 
Lord's, is committed and granted to those that have charge of 
souls, and to each several Ecclesiastical community,"^ whether they 
be small or great. Of which thing the Lord saith to the Churches, 
" Verily I say unto you, whatsoever things ye bind on earth, shall 
be bound in heaven :" and straight after ; " For where two or three 
be gathered together in myname, there am I in the midst of them.'* 
Matt. xviiL 18; 20. Moreover, this is likewise taught, that every 
Christian, so often as he needeth these Keys of the Lord, ought 
to require them particularly for himself t of the Pastors of souls in 
that Church or community, of which himself is a part, and to which 
he bekmgeth ; and to use them with full confidence, no otherwise 
than if he received them of Christ himself, seeing that Christ hath 
deKvered them unto the Pastors ; and that' he by no means doubt, 
that by the Ministry of these Keys, through the virtue and power 
of Christ, his sins are forgiven him, and that he is freed from them, 
according to Christ his own saying, "Whose sins ye forgive;" &c. 
John xz. 23. and, " He that heareth you, heareth me ; and he that 
reoeiveth you, (in the behalf, to wit, of the Ecclesiastical Ministry, 
and in his time of need,) receiveth me :" and contrarily, " He that 
despiseth you, despiseth me." Luke x. 16. Matt. x. 40. John xiii. 20. 

* Tbat is, to Presbyteries, or Consistories ; which consist of I^tstors and 
Elders, and unto whom properly the dispensing and ordering of the Keys, and 
Ecdesiatdcal censures, do belong: as afterward is taught in the fifth obser- 
vation upon the Confession of Augsburg. 

* This is to be interpreted by those things, which we spoke of private 
Abfldution in the Eighth Section, the first observation upon this Confession, 
and the first upon the Confession of Saxony. 


This is also tanght and handled, that the Prieatt* ought not 
to use these Keys of the Lord otherwise, than acoordmg to the 
meaning and will of Christ, which is declared expressly in his word, 
and according to the sore, plain, and express determinations of his 
judgment ; and that they do not in any manner of way, according 
to men's o^Hnions, much less after their own mind or lust, abuse 
these Ke3rs : for so it would come to pass, that the Keys should 
swerve from their, office. And this is to be taken heed of» 
that it be not by this means fulfilled in the mtsusing of them, 
which the Lord hath said by the Prophet : " For you,** saith he- 
" is this commandment, O ye Priests : if ye will not hear it, nor 
ccmsider it in your hearts, to give glory to my namcy saith the Lord, 
of Hosts, I will send a curse upon you, and will curse your bless- 
ings, as I have cursed them already, because ye regard not ii^ 
your hearts the fear of the Lord." Mai. ii. 1,2. 

rV. — From thb Confbssion of France. 

Art. 25. Seeing that we are not made partakers of Christ, but by^ 
the Gospel, we believe that that good order, which by the authority — 
of the Gospel is confirmed, ought to be kept sacred and inviolable -^ 
and that therefore Pastors are necessarily required in the Church^^ 
upon whose shoulders the burthen of teaching the word, and admi — 
nistering the Sacraments, doth lie. Whom also we ought to honour ^.^ 
and reverently to hear, if so be that they, being lawfuUy called, do^^ 
discharge their office : not as though God did stand in need of sucfaB^ 
stays and inferior helps, but therefore rather, because that so it^ 
seemeth good to Him to govern us, as it were, by using this bridle.^ 
Therefore we detest all those fanatical spirits, who, as much as ii^ 
them lieth, desire that both this sacred Ministry, or preaching of 
the word, and administration of the Sacraments, were utterly abo- 

Art. 29. We believe that this true Church ought to be governed 
by that regiment or discipline, which our Lord Jesus Christ hath 
established ; to wit, so that there be in it Pastors, fUders, and 
Deacons: that the purity of doctrine may be retained, vices re- 
pressed, the poor, and others that be in misery, according to their 

* Whom they mean by the name of Priests, it hath been already shewed 
in the second observation upon the Former CoDfession of Helvetia, and 
shall straight after be repeated in the third observation upon the English 
Confesbion ; in which signification it is henceforward to be taken in all tbe 


necessity, provided for ; and that there may be holy meetings, for 
the edifying both of small and great. 

Art, 30. We belieye that all true Pastors, in what place soever 
they be placed* have the same and equal anthority among them- 
selves given onto them, nnder Jesus Christ, the only Head, and the 
chief and alone Universal Bishop ; and that therefore it is not lawful 
for any Church to challenge unto itself dominion or sovereignty over 
any other Qhurch. 

Art. 31. We believe that it is not lawful for any man, upon his 
own authority^ to take upon himself the governments of the Church ; 
bat that every one ought to be admitted thereunto by a lawful dec- 
tion» so &r as may be, and so long as the Lord giveth leave. And 
this exception we do expressly add, because that sometime (as it 
Mi out also in our days, the state of the Church being disturbed) 
it was necessary that some should be raised up of the Lord extra- 
ordinarily, which should repair the ruins of the decayed Church. 
Nevertheless, howsoever it be, we believe that this rule is alwa3rs 
to be followed, that all Ptotors and Mders should have a testimony 
of their calling. 

V.-— Fkom THB Confession op England. 

Art. 5* Furthermore,* we believe that there be divers degrees of 
]!iGnister8 in the Church : whereof some be Deacons, some Slders, 
some Bishops : to whom is committed the office of instructing the 
people, and the whole charge and setting forth of religion. Yet 
notwithstanding, we say, that there neither is, nor can be, any one 
man, which may preside over the universal state of affidrs : for 
that Christ is ever present with his Church, and needeth not any 
man to supply his room, as his only heir to all his substance ; and 
that there can be no one mortal creature, which is able to com- 
prdiend, or conceive in his mind» the Universal Church, that is, to 
'wnt, in an the parts of the world ; much less able to put them in 
order, and rightly and duly to govern them. 'For that all the 
Apostles/ as Cyprian saith, * were of like power among themselves ; 
snd that the rest were the same that Peter was : that it was said 
indifierentty to them all, "Feed ye:" John xxi. 15, 16. indiffer- 
ently to them all, *' Go ye into the whole world :" Mark xvi. 15. 

*Tlie whole of the extract here given from the 5th Article, is transferred to 
the place it now oeeupies, in conformity with the English Editions, from the 
Tenth Section of the Latin Harmony. -^Edftor. 


indifferently to them all, ' Teach ye the Goqpd/ ibid. QprMMttf 
De Simplkitate Prtdatamm, And at Jerome eaith, 'Tliat all 
Bishops^ wheresoever they be» be they at Rome, be they^ at 
Engabimn, be they at Constantinople, be they at BhegiuOy be 
all of like eminence, and of like Priesthood.' Hierfmynm$ ad JEvag^ 
fMON. And as Cyprian saith, ' That there is but one Bishopridc* 
and that a piece thereof is perfectly and wholly holden of every 
particular Bishop/ Cypr. De SimpL Pr€skU, And according to 
the jadgment of the Nicene Council, we say, that the Bishop of 
Rome hath no more jurisdiction over the Church of God, than the 
rest of the Patriarchs, either of Ale^undria, or of Antioch, have. 
And as for the Bishop of Rome, who now calleth all matters before 
himself alone, except he do his duty as he ought» exo^t he 
minister the Sacraments, except he instruct the people, exo^ he 
warn them and teach them, we say, that he ought not of rights 
once to be called a Bishop, nor so much as an f^der. ' For that ik> 
Bishop,' as saith Austine, ' is a name of labour, and not of hoiioiir = 
so that the mant that seeketh to preside and not to profit, may mi— 
derstand himself to be no Bishop.' In I ad Tim, Oqt. m. But^ 
that neither the Pope, nor any other mortal creature, can any more^ 
be head of the whole Church, or an universal Bishop, than he cani- 
be the bridegroom, the light, the salvation, the life of the Church.^ 
For that these privileges and names belong only to Christ, and 
properly and exclusively fit for him alone. And that no Bishop 
Rome did ever sufier himself to be called by such a proud title^ 
before Phocas the Emperor's time ; who, as we know, by Irillingg 
his own sovereign Mauritius, the Emperor, did by a treachero 
villainy aspire to the Empire ; which was about the 613th year 
Christ was bom. Also, that the Council of Carthage did circumspectl; 
provide, ' that no Bishop should be called either the highest Pontiff, 
or the chief Priest.' Ccqt, 47. And therefore, sithence the Bishop oi 
Rome will now-a-days so be caUed, and challengeth unto himsdf 
authority that is none of his ; besides that he doth plainly con' 
to the ancient Councils, and contrary to the old Fathers, if he wouli 
believe his own Gregory; fLib. 4. Epist. 76; 78; 80: et Lib. 7. — 
Epist, 69 J that he doth take to himself a presumptuous, a pro^ — 
fane, a sacrilegious, and an anti-christian name: that he is 
the King of pride, that he is Lucifer,* which preferreth 

* It is grown to a custom, tbus to call Satan, the prince of the devils, from 
place of Isaiah (Ch. xiv. 12. ) misunderstood of some of the ancient Fathers. 

OF TUS.MUI18TBRa.OF .Tlill CHURCH, &C. 267 

efore hb brethren : that he hath reDoimced the fedth, and is the 
iremnner of Antichrist. 

Art. 6. Further we say, that the Minister ought lawfully, duly, 
[id orderly to be preferred to that office of the Chui-ch of God; 
nd that no man hath power to wrest himself into the holy Ministry 
t his own pleasure. Wherefore those persons do us the greater 
nrong, which have nothing so common in their mouths, as that we 
o nothing orderly and comely, but all things troubletomely and 
without order ; and that we allow every man to be a Priest, to be a 
"eacher, and to be an Interpreter of the Scriptures. 

Art. 7. Moreover we say, that Christ hath given to his Ministers 
tower to bind, to loose, to open, to shut. And we say that the 
office of loosing consisteth in this : either that the Minister, 
)y the preaching of the Gospel, offereth the merits of Christ, and 
oil pardon, to such as have lowly and contrite hearts, and do 
infeignedly repent themselves, pronouncing unto the same a sure 
orgiveness of their sins, and hope of everlasting salvation: or 
Jse that the same Minister, when any have offended their breth- 
•en's minds with some great scandal, or notable and open crime, 
thereby they have, as it were, made themselves strangers from 
he common fellowship of the Church, and from the body of 
IJhrist ; then, after perfect amendment of such persons, doth recon- 
dle them, and bring them home again, and restore them to the 
XHnpany and unity of the faithful. We say also, that the Minister 
loth execute the authority of binding and shutting, as often' as he 
doseth up the gate of the kingdom of heaven against unbelieving 
md stubborn persons, denouncing unto them Grod's vengeance, and 
everlasting punishment : or else, when he doth quite shut them out 
Tom the bosom of the Church by open excommunication.'*' Out of 
loubt, what sentence soever the Minister of God shall give in this 
sort, God himself doth so well aUow it, that, whatsoever here in 
»arth by their means is loosed, and bound, God himself will loose, 
uid bind, and confirm the same in heaven. And touching the 
Keys, wherewith they may either shut or open the kingdom of hea- 

* There is aUio a certain kind of excommunication which is not public or 
>pen, and is used only for a trial of repentance. Again, this is so to be taken, 
:hat (as we have oft before admonished) all and singular Churches may keep 
:hetr holy liberty, both in ordaining, and putting in practice, this manner of 
liadpUoe: so that there be good heed taken that the flock be not infected 
writh a contagion of obstinacy, and that the sacred mysteries be not cast to 
Hogs and swine. 


▼en, wcy with Chrjsbstom, aaj, ' They be the kxio?dedge of the 
Scriptures :' with Tertu]lian» we say, ' They be the interpretation of 
the Law :' and, with Eiuebias, we say, ' They be the word of God.' 
Moreover, that Christ's disdples did receive this authority, not that 
they should hear the private confessions of the people, and listen to 
their whispering^, (as the common massing-priests do everywhere 
now-a-days, and do it so as though in that one point lay all the 
virtue and use of the Keys :) but to the end they should go, they 
should teach, they should publish abroad the Grospel* and be unto 
the believing a sweet savour of life unto life, and unto the unbeliev- 
ing and unfiEuthful a savour of death unto death : * that the minds 
of godly persons, being brought low by the remorse of their former 
life and errors, after they had once begun to look up unto the light of 
the Grospel, and believe in Christ, might be opened with the word 
of God, even as a door is opened with a key ; contrariwise, that 
the wicked and wilful, and such as would not believe, nor return 
into the right way, should be left still, as it were, fast locked, and 
shut up, and, as St. Paul saith, wax worse and worse. 2 Tim. iii. 
13* This take we to be the meaning of the Keys; and that after 
this sort men's consciences be either opened, or shut. We say 
that the Priestf indeed is a judge in this case, but yet hath no 
manner of right to challenge an authority or power ; as Ambrose 
saith. De Pcsniten, Dist, I. Cap. Verhum Dei. And therefore our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, to reprove the negligence of the Scribes 
and Pharisees in teaching, did with these words rebuke them, 
saying : *' Woe be unto you. Scribes and Pharisees, which have 
taken away the Keys of knowledge, and have shut up the kingdom 
of heaven before men." Luke xi. 52. Matt, xxiii. 13. Seeing 

* This must be understood to be the accidental, and not the proper end of 
the Ministry of the Gospel ; arising not of the Gospel itself, but of the con- 
tempt of the Gospel. But this application of the similitude of the Keys, (for 
the opening of all men's consciences,) which this Confession doth often use, 
seemeth to be somewhat far from the meaning of Christ. 

f Touching the name of Priests, see the second observation upon the For- 
mer Confession of Helvetia. Again it must be understood, that, when the 
question is of Ecclesiastical censures, the lawful intelligence of the Presbjrtery 
must go before the Priest's judging. That which is said touching power or 
authority, must be understood of Civil power, which Ecclesiastical functions 
have not at all : or else, of the authority of makmg laws to men's consciences, 
which resteth wholly in Christ, the only Lawgiver ; according to whose pre- 
script and appointment, his Ministers ought to judge and determine in the 


then the Key, whereby the way and entry to the kingdom of God 
is opened onto us, ia the word of the Grospel, and the expounding 
of the Law and Scriptures, we say plainly that, where the same 
word is not, there is not the Key. And, seeing one manner of 
word is given to all, and one only Key belongeth to all, we say, 
there is but one only power of all Ministers, as concerning opening 
and shutting. And as touching the Bishop of Rome,'^ fot all that 
his fkittering parasites sing these words in his ears. " To thee 
will I give the Keys of the Kingdom of heaven," Matt. xvi. 19. 
(as though these Keys were fit for him alone, and for nobody else ;) 
except he go so to work, as men's consciences may be made pliant, 
and be subdued to the word of Grod, we deny that he doth either 
open, or shut, or hath the Keys at all. And although he taught, 
and instructed the people, (as would God he might once truly do, 
and persuade himself it were at the least any piece of his duty !) 
yet we think his Key to be never a whit better, or of greater force, 
than other men's. For who hath severed him from the rest ? Who 
hath taught him more cunningly to open, or better to absolve, than 
his brethren ? 

VI.— From thb Confession of Bblqia. 

Art. 30. We believe, that this Church ought to be ruled and 
governed by that spiritual regiment, which God himself hath de- 
fivered in his word; so that there be placed in it Pastors and 
BlinisterB, purely to preach, and rightly to adminster the holy 
Sacraments : that there be also in it Eiders and Deacons, of whom 
the Senate of the Church might consist : that by these means 
true religion might be preserved, and sincere doctrine in every 
place retained and spread abroad ; that vicious and wicked men 
might after a spiritual manner be rebuked, amended, and* as it 
were, by the bridle of discipline kept within their compass : that 
the poor, in like manner, and those that be afflicted, might be 
Telieved either with aid or comfort, according to the. several 
necessity of every one. For then shall all things in the Church 
'he done in due and convenient order, when fedthful and godly men 
«re chosen to have the government of the same ; even as St. Paul 

* By Bishop understand not him, that, now sitting Pope at Rome, is called 
€>f other, and termeth himself, universal Bishop ; but such a Pftstor, as, being 
lawfolly caUed in the Church of Rome, (if there were any true Church to be 
found,) did, with his fellow-labourers, discharge a Christian Ministry. 


hath prescribed in the drd chap, of the First to Timolhj, and the 
Ist chap, to Titus. 

Art. 31. We believe that Ministers, Elders, and Deacons, 
ought to be called and advanced to those their fimctions by the 
lawful election of the Church, earnest prayer being made unto 
Grod, and after the order and manner which is set down unto us 
in the 'Wbrd of God. This especially every one ought to take 
diligent heed of, that he ^o not by unlawful means thrust himself 
into those offices. For every one must wait, until he be caUed of 
God himself, that he may have a certain testimony of his vocation, 
and may know that it is from the Lord. Yet in what place of the 
world soever the Ministers of the word of God may be, they have 
all of them the same and equal power and authority, being all of 
them equally the Ministers of Christ, the only Universal Bishop 
and Head of the Church. Moreover, lest that this holy ordinance 
of God be despised and brought into contempt, it is the duty of all 
men to have a very honourable and reverent opinion of all the 
Ministers of the word, and Elders of the Church, even for that 
work's sake, wherein they do labour : also to be at peace and 
unity with them, and, as much as possibly may be, to abstain 
from all manner of quarrellings and contentions one with another. 

VII. — From thb Confession of Augsburg. 

Art, 14. Concerning Ecclesiastical Orders they teach, that no 
man should publicly in the Church teach, or minister the Sacra.^ 
ments, except he be rightly called : according as St. Paul also 
giveth commandment to Titus, " to ordain Elders in every city.*' " 
Titus i. 5. 

Out of the Articles concerning Abuses. — Art. 7. Of the Power 


There have been great controversies touching the power and 
authority of Bishops ; in which many have incommodiously mingled 
together the Ecclesiastical power, and the power of the sword. 
And out of this confusion there have sprung very great wars and 
tumults, while that the Popes, bearing themselves bold upon the 
power of the Keys, have not only appointed new kinds of worship 
and service of God, and burdened men's consciences by reserving 
of cases, and by violent excommunications ; but also have laboured 
to transfer worldly kingdoms from one to another, and to spoil 
Emperors of their power and authority. These fiaults did godly 


and learned men long since reprehend in the Church ; and for that 
cause* our Divines were fiain, for the comfort of men's consciences, 
to shew the difference hetween the ecclesiastical and civil powers. 
And they have taught that either of them, because of God's com- 
mandment, is dutifiillv to be reverenced and honoured, as the 
chiefest blessings of Go4^ upon earth. 

N0W9 their judgment is this : that the power of the Keys, or 
the power of the Bishops, by the rule of the Grospel, is a power, 
or commandment from God, of preaching the Gospel, of remitting 
or retaining sins, and of administering the Sacraments. For 
Christ doth send his Apostles with this charge ; " As the Father 
hath sent me, so send I you. Receive ye the Holy Ghost : whose 
sms ye forgive, they are forgiven them ; and whose sins ye retain, 
they are retained." John xx. 21 — 23. " Go, and preach the Grospel 
to every creature," &c. Mark xvi. 15. This power is put in 
execution, only by teaching or preaching the Gospel, and ad- 
mimBtering the Sacraments, either to many jointly, or to several 
persons, according to their calling. For they be not corporal things, 
but eternal, that are granted unto us ; as an eternal rightousness, 
the Holy Ghost, life everlasting. These things cannot be gotten, 
but by the ministry of the word and Sacraments : as Paul saith, 
" The gospel is the power of God to salvation to every one that 
believeth." Rom. i. 16. Seeing then that the power Ecclesiastical 
concemeth things eternal, and is put in use only by the Ministry 
<if the word, it hindereth not the political government, no more 
'than doth the skill of music or singing.'*' For the civil govem- 
xnent is occupied about other matters, than is the Gospel. The 
^fagistrate is to defend, not the minds, but the bodies, and 
lx>dily thing8,t against manifest injuries ; he restraineth men by 
the sword and corporal punishment, that he may uphold peace, and 
a civil jutioe. 

* Nanady, becauae it hath a diverse scope : not that there is no more affinity 
or agEcemtnt between the Ecclesiastical ministry and the Civil government, 
than b tw a ea a rousictan and a Magistrate; when as they do both tend 
(Bieetly unto one and the self-same end, though by means distinct and diverse 
one frooi the odier : and also, both the Ministers in matters civil be subject 
to the Magistrate, and the Magistrate in matters belonging to conscience is 
subject to the Ecclesiastical Ministry ; and one doth lean and stay itself upon 
the oUStmtfMt^ one aid and succour the other. 

.J^ T^a§ ifao IB so to be understood, as that, notwithstanding this, the 
Magistrate is the keeper and defender of both Tables of the Law. 


Wherefore the Ecdesiastical and civil powers are not to be con- 
founded. The Ecclesiastical power hath a peculiar commandment to 
preach the Gospel, and administer tiie Sacraments. Let it not by 
force enter into another charge ; let it not torn worldly kingdoms 
from the right owners ; let it not abrogate the Magistrate's laws ; 
let it not withdraw from them lawful obedience ; let it not hinder 
judgments touching any civil ordinances or contracts ; let it not pre- 
scribe laws to the Magistrate, touching the form of a common- 
wealth; as Christ saith, " My kingdom is not of this world." John 
xviii. 36. Again, " Who made me a judge over you ?" Luke xii. 
14. And Paul saith, " Our conversation is in heaven." Phil. iiL 20. 
" The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty in God, 
to throw down imaginations/' &c. 2 Cor. x. 4. Thus do our 
Divines discern and distinguish the duties of each power one firom 
the other, and do warn all men to honour both powers, and to ac- 
knowledge both to be the good gift and blessing of God. 

If so be that the Bishops have any power of the sword, they have 
it not as Bishops by the commandment of the Gospel, but by man's 
law given unto them of Kings and Emperors, for the dvil govern- 
ment of their goods.* Yet this is a kind of function and charge» 
diverse from the Mmistry of the Gospel. 

Therefore, when as the question is touching the jurisdiction of 
Bishops, civil dominion must be distinguished from Ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction. Again, by the Gospel, (or, as they term it, by divine 
right,) Bishops, as they be Bishops, (that is, such as have the 
administration of the word and Sacraments committed to them,) 
have no jurisdiction at all, but only to forgive sin ; also to know what 
is true doctrine, and to reject such doctrine as will not stand with the 
Gospel, and to debar from the communion of the Church such as are 
notoriously wicked, not by human force and violence, but by the 
word of God.t And herein of necessity the Churches ought by 

* This do we also acknowledge to be most true : but we say, that it was 
neither lawful for the Princes to transfer this power unto Bishops, nor for 
the Bishops to take it when it was offered ; because the Lord hath so distin- 
guished these two, as he hath also severed them the one from the other. And 
the Apostle doth expressly forbid Ministers to entangle themselves in the things 
of this life : yea, and the Apostles themselves did cast off* even the care of the 
alms from themselves unto the Deacons, that they might attend upon the word 
and prayers. Acts vi. 2 — 4. 

t To wit, by the judgment and verdict of the Presbytery, lawfully gathered 
together, and not by the will and determination of any one man ; as was noted 
before in the third observation upon the English Confession. 


or THB ftllNlSTBRS OP THB CHtTRCH, &C. 273 

Divine right to perform obedience unto them ;* according to the say- 
ing of Christ, " He that heareth you, heareth me." Luke z. 16. But 
"when as they teach or determine any thing contrary to the Gospel* 
then have the Churches a commandment of God, which forbiddeth 
obedience to them: "Beware of false Prophets." Matt, vii* 15% 
*'K an Angel from heaven preach any other Gospel, let him be 
accursed." Gal. i. 9. "We cannot do any thing against the 
truth, but for the truth." 2 Cor. xiii. 8. Also, "This power is 
given us to edify, and not to destroy." 2 Cor. xiii. 10. So do the 
Canons command ; iL puut. 7. Ctqt. Sacerdotes; and Cap. Oves^ 
And Augustine, in his Treatine against PetUians Epistle, saith, 

* Neither must we subscribe to Catholic Bishops, if they chance to 
err» cnr hold opinions which be against the Scriptures/ 

If so be that they have any other power or jurisdiction, in hear- 
ing and understanding certain cases, as namely, of Matrimony and 
Tithes, &C. they hold it by man*s law:t just as, when ordinary 
judges fail. Princes are constrained, will they, niU they, to minister 
justice to their subjects, for maintaining of peace. 

And, a few Unes after : — 

So oft as we handle this place, by and by our adversaries cry out» 
that, the Bishops' authority being overthrown, there foUoweth dis* 
order I that the people's behaviour cannot be ordered; that the 
common sort wax lusty and tmbridled ; and, in a word, that there 
foUoweth a helhsh life, such a one as is drawn out by Euripides in 
this verse,*^ 

* no one bears from any one a word according to law.' 

They complain also, that, when as some laws are abrogated, the 
oommon people taketh it as a pattern how to deal with all the rest ; 

• To wit, to the Ministers of the word, and to the Elders; and not to 
•odi alone as now, hj the law of man, carry the name of Bishops, as proper 
and pcciiliar to tiiemielves; which is common to all Pastors equally, as 
Jcsone can testify. 

f It aeemeth the bond of marriage should be excepted ; the knowledge 
whereof, by God's law, belongeth to the Pastors, to wit, in tli.s respect, that it 
cannot be judged firm and sure, or void and frustrate, but by the word of God { 
aeeording to that : ** What God hath coupled, let no man put asunder." Matt. 
xisc. 6. Tooehiqg which point, see the first observation upon the Former Con-> 
firssien of HelfetiSy and the second upon the Confession of Wirtemburg, in 
the £igbteeBth Section. 



and so, shaking off the bonds and rems of discipline and order, they 
take an excessive liberty to themselves, which breedeth infinite 
offences, breaches between Princes, scattering of Chordies, tomults, 
wars, and desolations. To conclude, they tell us here, what an 
enemy to mankind want of government is, and how many vices and 
calamities^ arising out of this fountain* do overflow the whole life of 

They advise, therefore, for the avoiding of these so great evils, to 
establish the authority of Bishops, to retain still the laws that have 
been in use before* and also to bear with the inconveniences (if there 
be any in them) in respect of the common weakness of men, and 
for quietness* sake to dissemble them : especially seeing there can no 
state or order be appointed, which is without all manner of fiaults. 
Here also they bring in that old saying, ' That an evil well coached, 
is not to be stirred.' They rehearse many examples, how great 
overthrows followed upon the removing of laws, and the change of 
the form of government, in the cities of Athens, Sparta, Rome, and 
divers others : and at Rome (they ask) how oft did the dissensions of 
the Consuls and the Tribunes stir up great civil wars ? 

But, though these senator-like declamations be very plausible, and 
incense the minds of many against us, yet they may be confuted by 
most true and substantial arguments. First, therefore, we desire 
that these our accusers would turn over the history of the Church 
from time to time, and that they would not think that those notable 
men, the Prophets and Apostles, were without common sense and 
reason, and so hard-hearted that they cared not for the peace and 
quiet of their country, or so barbarous and cruel that they made no 
great account of the discipline, laws, and good order of the king- 
dom. For those most wise, virtuous, and grave men, Isaiah, Jonas, 
Jeremiali, John Baptist, Christ,* Peter, James, and Paul, did both 
know what a great good is civil concord, and loved their country and 
countrymen, and also were grieved to behold the discords and 
renting asunder of those notable commonwealths. How often did 
Christ weep, when he spake of the discords and tumults of his 
nation, and the sacking of the city ! Albeit, therefore, the Prophets 
and Apostles did very well know and greatly like of those civil 
duties ; yet were they constrained by the commandment of God to 
war against the Devil's kingdom, to preach heavenly doctrine, to 

• Though Christ would also be a Minister of the circumcision, yet we 
would not have him ranged in the same order with others, whether they be 
Prophets or Apostles. 


collect, a Church unto God, and to employ their service to the 

eternal salvation of a great number of men. These are the first 

laws that ever were given, and are to be preferred before all other : 

" Thou shalt have no other gods ; Thou shalt not take the name of 

Crod in vain." Exod. xx. 3; 7. And this, concerning the Son, 

•' This is my beloved Son, hear him." Mark ix. 7. These laws must 

seeds be obeyed ; the true doctrine of God, and his true worship, 

most needs be embraced and received ; and all errors, that tend to 

t:he dishonour of Qod, mus^ be abhorred and forsaken, though all 

the world should break and fedl down. No human thing must be 

preferred before Grod's commandment ; not our life, not our friends, 

not the concord and agreement of neighbours and countrymen. 

Moses, a very wise man, and no doubt a politic man, layeth upon 
the tribe of Levi the charge of teaching ; and, knowing what great 
conflicts and dangers teachers shall meet withal, he forewameth 
them of that, which he took to be most difficult of all other, and 
chargeth them that the defence of true doctrine be most dear unto 
them : for so he saith, " These shall keep thy word, and shall forget 
their parents, children, and brethren." Deut. xxxiii. 9. And hereof 
we have experience, that it is no small burden that is laid upon the 
teachers of the word. Our men are cruelly dealt with in many places. 
We ourselves are sore oppressed, and the discord of our country 
bringeth no small grief unto us. But, as was said before, the com- 
mandment of God concerning the embracing of the true doctrine of 
God, and renouncing of errors, must be preferred before these great 
inconveniences. We are not ignorant what wise men have written, 
of dianging and altering laws. We remember well the saying of 
Plato, ' That as the manners of doting parents, so the customs and 
fiuhions of our country, though none of the wisest, are to be borne 
withal/ Bat these precepts have their bounds and limits, within 
which they must be restrained. Bondage without impiety may be 
borne; but idolatry is not to be sanctioned, nor the light of the 
Gospel to be extinguished. 

Again, why do our adversaries declaim of such a moderation 
unto us, when as they, in the mean while, murder the citizens and 
members of Christ ? They might easily establish peace, and main- 
tain the authority of good order, if they would abolish superstition and 
^jonjnst laws. But now they contend not for the safety of the Church, 
^ut for their own profits and pleasures. They would not have the 
idolatry of the mass, nor praying to the dead, spoken against ; be- 
cause they cannot abide that their gain should decrease. They 


defend wandering lusts, because the nnmarried state is best for the 
keeping of their goods. These things are in aH men's eyes. Tfiere- 
fore let them leave off their senator-like inyectives, wherein, to use 
the old Poet's words* — 

Sf/iyotc \6y<HffiP aivxpa fifixapti/uvotf 

' nnder a fedr colour they seek to establish shameless fiacts.' 

Hereto I adjoin also the other part of oar defence, both tme and 
unfeigned. We do not shake off goyemment, to bring in disorder. 
We teach that the Ministry of the Gospel is most highly to be re- 
verenced and obeyed in those things, which (according to the Gospel) 
do properly belong to that Ministry. And he is a wicked and 
an accursed wretch, that doth not with reverence entertain, as 
most,l)eautifnl, the feet of such as bring tidings of peace. Isa. lii. 7. 
And as for the civil power, whidi beareth the sword, it hath been 
highly commended and approved in our writingrs. Wherefore it 
is a vile slander that they object against us, that we be enemies of 

Hitherto also helongeth the Last Section qfthis Article 7 1 — 

They allege* against us also other 8a3ring8 which command obe- 
dience ; ** Obey those that are set over you." Heb. xiii. 1 7. How 
oft must we answer, that obedience is most necessary in such things, 
as belong properly to this Ministry ordained of God ? For these 
sa3rings do not allot unto Bishops a kingdom beyond the Gospel. 
Christ gave them certain commandments, and those he will have 
us obey* Again he forbad that any new-found worship should be 
set up in the Church, and such he will not have us yield unto. 
There are certain bonds and limits affixed, within which both the 
Pastors' authority and our obedience must contain itself. But these 
limits do those Bishops most malapertly remove, who proudly chal- 
lenge to themselves a triple power, whereby they establish most 
pernicious errors : to wit, a princely and supreme power of inter- 
preting the Scriptures ; secondly, a power of erecting new worship 
and service of Grod ; thirdly, a sovereign power of making new 
laws. And thus they transform the Church into an human go- 
vernment. They imagine, forsooth, that, as the Prince, or highest 
judge in a realm, is to interpret the law, and as the Prince hath 
power to make new laws, so the Bishops must have a power in the 

* The whole of the paragraph here ensuing is inserted in each Edition of the 
£ngli8h, from the Appendix subjoined to the Latin Harmony.— Enrroa. 


Chnrch, not unHke that. And they cannot abide that the Chnrcli 
should be governed by the dumb writings (as they call them) of the 
Prophets and Apostles ; which because sometime they scarce make 
the matter plain enough, which they do set down, the ambiguity 
breedeth dissensions and discords. Here therefore there must needs 
be (say they) a definitive voice of some Sovereign> or high judge, 
to interpret that which is doubtfully written : and except all be 
tied to stand to their iuterpretation, there will be no end of strife 
and controversies. Again, unless they may, according as times and 
occasions require, make laws, what a disorder would there follow ? 
These things are set out with big words, and they carry a shew of 
probability in them, because they are in imitation of the dviJ govern- 
ment. And surely such conceits as these, have, in all ages, from 
the beginning of the world, hurt the Church greatly, and still will 
hurt it. The goodly are therefore to be admonished, that they be 
not overtaken with these subtilties and flights. God will have his 
Church governed by his word, which Christ and his AposUes have 
left unto the Church ; and he will have this his voice to sound in 
the Church by the mouths of his ministers. And though it do con- 
tain a wisdom that is far from reason's reach, yet the word of the 
IVophets and Aposties is sure, and not doubtful. Therefore Peter 
saith, " Ye do well in attending to the word of the Prophets, as to 
a light in the darkness." 2 Pet. i. 19. Besides, the Church hath 
the gift of interpretation, that is, the understanding of the heavenly 
doctrine : but that is not tied to the name or deg^ree of Bishops ; 
and therefore there is no power of interpreting, like to the power 
of a Prince, or highest judge. But those that are learned in the 
word of God, and bom again by his Spirit, in what place soever 
they be, they assent imto the word of Grod, and understand the 
same, some more, some less. Men must therefore judge wisely of 
those huge bulwarks of the Papal power. Touching laws, to be 
made by the Bishops, Peter saith in a word, ** Why do ye tempt 
God, laying a yoke on them ?'' &c. Acts xv. 1 6. 

VIII. — From the Confession of Wirtbmburo. 

Article 20. Of Order. 

It is evident by the holy Scriptures, that all they which are indeed 
Christians, are consecrated in baptism by Christ, the Son of God, 
to be spiritual priests, and that they ought always to offer up to 
God spiritual sacrifices. Neither is it unknown, that Christ in his 


Charch hath instituted Ministers, who should preach his Gospel, 
and administ^ the Sacraments. Yet it is not to be permitted to 
every one, although he be a spiritual priest, to usurp a public Minis- 
try in the Church, without a lawful (filing. For Paul saith, " Let 
all things be don^ honestly and decently among you :" 1 Cor. xiv. 
40. and again, " Lay hands suddenly on no man." 1 Hm. v. 22. 
Wherefore we do not account it an improfitable thing, to prove, as 
it were by certain steps, the feiUi of them that are to be admitted 
to the public Ministry of the Gospel. And it seemeth not a little to 
iiirther concord and unity, to keep a due order among the Ministers 
of the Church. 

But the holy Scripture doth not teach us, that Christ hath insti- 
tuted in his Church such Priests, as should be mediators between 
God and men, and pac^ the wrath of God towards men by their 
sacrifices, and apply the merit of Christ to the quick and the dead, 
without the preaching oOitl^^ Gospel, and administration of the Sa- 
craments. For if we will -speak, of the great and true Mediator, 
" there is but one Mediator between God and men, Jesus Christ, 
the Son of God." 1 Tim. ii. 5. If we will speak of the mediator 
of prayer,'*' every godly man is made a mediator, each for other, 
through Jesus Christ ; because their duty doth require that they 
should commend one another's welfare to God in their prayers : 
the which duty also then every one doth perform, when they say the 
Lord's prayer in faith. If we speak of the sacrifices which do purge 
our sins, and appease the wrath of God, then is there one only sa- 
crifice, which doth purge us. and reconcile God unto us ; to wit, the 
sacrifice of our Ix)rd Jesus Christ, which was once made on the 
Cross. And as Christ doth die no more, death hath no more do- 
minion over him, so this sacrifice of his shall never be made again ; 
but *' by his one oblation " (as it is written in the Epistle to the 
Hebrews) *' he hath made perfect for ever those that be sanctified." 
Heb. X. i4. If we speak of the remembrance of this one sacrifice, 
and cf the applying of the merit thereof; then the public Ministers 
of the Church, which do teach the Gospel publicly, and administer 
the Sacraments according to the institution of Christ, do not only 
make a true and right remembrance of this purging sacrifice, but do 
also apply, by their dispensation, the merit of this sacrifice to all 
those that do receive the Gospel and the Sacraments by fiedth. 

Therefore we cannot see what use there is of those kind of 

* See the observation^upon the Confession of Saxony, in the First Section. 


men in the Chorch, which are ordained for this purpose, that they 
may have authority to sacrifice for the quick and the dead. Paul, 
when as in his Epistles to the Corinthians (1 Cor. xii. 28.) and 
Ephesians (Ephes. iv. 11.) he . rehearseth those offices and Minis- 
tries which are necessary to the edifying and preserving of the 
Church, he reckoneth Prophets, Apostles, Evangelists, Pastors, 
Teachersy and such like : hut in this rehearsal he maketh no men- 
tion at all of private Priests, of which sort the world is now full. 
Neither is it like that he would have omitted this kind of Priests, 
if either Christ had appointed it, or if it had heen profitable and 
necessary for the Church. And Paul writeth that " a Bishop ought 
Xo be apt to teach." 1 Tim. iii. 2. And Jerome teacheth that 
* a Priest and a Bishop are all one/ Therefore it is evident, that, 
except an Elder be ordained in the Church to the Ministry of 
'teaching, he cannot rightly take unto him, neither the name of an 
"Elder p* nor the name of a Bishop. 

IX. — From thb Confession of Subvbland. 

Article 13. Of the Office, Dignity, and Power of Ecclesiastical 


Teaching the Ministry, and the dignity of the Ecclesiastical 
Order, we do thus teach : first, that there is no power in the 
Churchy but that which tendeth to edifying ; 2 Cor. x. 8. secondly, 
that we must not think otherwise of any man in this state, than 
Paul would have men to esteem either of himself, or of Peter, and 
ApoUos, and others, " as of the servants of Christ, and the dispen- 
sers of the mysteries of God, in whom this is chiefly required, 
that they be feithful." 1 Cor. iv. 1, 2. For these be they which 
have the keys of the kingdom of God, and the power to bind and 
loose, and to remit or retain sins : yet that power is so limited, 
that they be nevertheless the Ministers of Christ ; to whom alone 
the right and authority to open heaven, and forgive sins, doth 
properly pertain. "For neither he that planteth, nor he that 
watereth, is an]^thing, but God that giveth the increase." 1 Cor. 
iii. 7. " Neither is any man of himself fit to think any of those 
things 88 of himself; but if any man be found fit thereunto, he 

* To wit, when question is of such Elders, as did attend upon the preaching 
of the word. For there was also another sort of Elders, whom the Apostle 
callttb Oovemments. 1 Cor. xii. 28. 


hath it all of God ;" 2 Ck)r. iii. 5* who giveth to whom it pkaaeth 
him, to be the Minieters and Preachers of the New Testament ; to 
wit, BO &r forth as he giveth them a mind fiEdthfolly to preach 
the meaning and understanding, of the Gospel, and nseth them 
hereunto, that men may be brought by a true faith to his new 
covenant of grace. Furthermore these be they, which do minister 
unto us not the. dead letter, (that is, such a doctrine of truth, as 
pierceth no further than to human reason,) but the Spirit, which 
quickeneth, and doth so pierce into our spirit and soul, that it 
doth thoroughly persuade our heart of the truth. These are the 
true fellow-labourers of the Lord; 1 Cor. iii. 9* opening indeed 
heaven, and forgiving sins to those, to whom they declare the 
doctrine of faith, by means of the grace and Spirit of God. Where- 
upon Christ, sending out his Apostles to exercise this duty, he 
breathed upon them, saying, " Take ye the holy Ghost :" and 
furthermore he addeth, " Whose sins ye remit," &c. John xx. 
22, 23. 

Hence it is manifest, that the true and fit Ministers of the 
Church (such as be Bishops, Eiders, anointed and consecrated) can 
do nothing but in respect of this, that they be sent of Grod. " For 
how shall they preach (saith Paul) except they be sent ?" Rom. x. 
15. that is, except they receive of God both a mind and power to 
preach the holy Gospel anght, and with fruit, and to feed the 
flock of Christ ? and also, except they receive the Holy Ghost, who 
may work together with them, and persuade men*s hearts ? Other 
virtues wherewith these men must be endued, are rehearsed in 
1 Tim. iii. Tit. i. Therefore they which are in this sort sent, anointed, 
consecrated, and qualified, they have an earnest care for the flock 
of Christ, and do labour faithfully in the word and doctrine, that 
they may feed the people more fruitfully : and these are acknow- 
ledged and accounted of our preachers for such Bishops, as the 
Scripture every where speaketh of; and every Christian ought to 
obey their commandments. But they which give themselves to 
other things, they place themselves in other men*s seats, and do 
worthily take unto themselves other names. Yet ootwithstanding, 
the life of any man is not so much to be blamed, as that therefore 
a Christian should refuse to hear him, if peradventure he teach 
something out of the chair of Moses or Christ (that is, either out 
of the Law of God, or out of the holy Gospel) that may serve 
for edification. They which bring a diverse or a strange voice, 
whatsoever they be, they are in no account or estimation with 



the sheep of Christ. John x. 5. Yet they which have a secular 
power and sovereignty, they have it of God himself, howsoever 
they be caUed : therefore he would resist the ordinance of God, 
^whosoever should oppose himself to that temporal government.* 

These things do our Preachers teach, touching the authority of 
Ecclesiastical persons: so that they have great injury ofiered to 
them, in that they are blamed, as though they sought to bring the 
siuthority of Ecclesiastical Prelates to nothing ; whereas they never 
forbad them that worldly government and authority which they 
liave. But they have often wished, that they would come nearer 
"^o the Ecclesiastical commandments, and that either they them- 
selves would instruct and faithfully feed the consciences of Chris- 
'^ians oat of the holy Gospel, or that, at the least wise, they would 
^kdmit others hereunto, and ordain such as were more fit for this 
purpose. This is it, I say, that our Preachers have oftentimes 
requested of the Prelates themselves ; so far have they been from 
opposing themselves at any time to their spiritual authority. 

But whereas we either could not bear any longer the doctrine 
of certain Preachers, but, being driven thereunto by necessity, have 
placed others in their room ; or else we have retained those also, 
^which have renounced that Ecclesiastical superiority : we did it 
not for any other cause, but for that these did plainly and faith« 
folly declare the voice of our Lord Jesus Christ, the other did 
mingle therewith man's inventions. For so often as the ques- 
tion is concerning the holy Gospel, and the doctrine of truth. 
Christians must wholly turn themselves to the Bishop of their 
souls, the Lord Jesus Christ, and not admit the voice of any 
stranger by any means. Wherein notwithstanding neither we> nor 
they do offer violence to any man : for Paul saith, *' All things are 
yours, whether it be Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or 
life, or death, whether they be things present, or things to come, 
even all are yours, and ye Christ's, and Christ God's." 1 Cor. iii. 
21 — 23. Therefore, seeing that Peter and Paul are ours, and we 
are not theirs, but Christ's ; and that, after the same manner that 
Christ himself ud^ Father's, to wit, that in all things, which we are, 
or may be, we might live to him alone : and seeing furthermore 
that to this end we have power to use all things, (yea, even men 
themselves, of what sort soever they be,) as though they were our 

* See before, the third observation upon the Confession of Augsburg : also 
after, in the Seventeenth Section, the third observation upon the same. 


own, and ought not to suffer that any man, or any thing, should 
hinder us therein : no Ecclesiastical person may justly complain of 
us, or object to us, that we are not sufficiently obedient to them, or 
that we do derogate any thing from their authority ; seeing that 
the thing itself doth witness, that we have attempted and done all 
those things according to the will of God, which we have under- 
taken against the will of Ecclesiastical persons. These therefore be 
those things which we teach, touching the office, dignity, and power 
of the Ministers of the Church, whom they call Spiritual : the which 
that we should credit, we are moved thereunto by those places of 
Scripture, which for the most part we have rehearsed before.* 


I. — From thb latter CoNrsssiON ov Hblvxtia. 

Chapter 19. Of the Sacraments of the Church of Christ. 

God, even from the beginning, added unto the preaching of the 
word his Sacraments, or Sacramental signs, in his Church. And 
this doth the holy Scripture plainly testify. Sacraments be mystical 
83nacibol8, or holy rites, or sacred actions, ordained of God himself, 
consisting of his word, of outward signs, and of things signified : 
whereby he keepeth-in continual memory, and eftsoons recalleth to 
mind, in his Church, his great benefits bestowed upon man ; and 
whereby he sealeth up his promises, and outwardly representeth, 
and, as it were, ofiereth unto our sight, those things which inwardly 
he performeth unto us, and therewithal strengtheneth and increaseth 
our faith through the working of God's Spirit in our hearts ; lastly, 
whereby he doth separate us from all other people and religions, and 
consecrateth and bindeth us wholly unto himself, ta^ giveth us to 
understand what he requireth of us. 

* It may be right to state, that, in consequence of much confusion arising, 
in the old editions of the Translation, from an inattention to the terms used in 
the original, such corrections have been introduced into the present edition 
that the words Presbyter and Senior are now uniformly rendered by JEJder, and 
the word Sacerdoa by Priest, throughout the whole Section.— Editor. 


These Sacraments are either of the Old Church or of the New. 
The Sacraments of the Old were Circomcision, and the Pascal Lamb, 
which was o£fered up ; under which name^ reference is made to the 
sacrifices which were in use from the beginning of the world. The 
Sacraments of the New Church are Baptism and the Supper of the 
Lord. Some there are, which reckon seven Sacraments of the New 
Church. Of which number we grant that Repentance, Matrimony, 
and the Ordination of Ministers (we mean not the Popish, but the 
ApostoHcal Ordination) are very profitable ordinances of €rod, but no 
Sacraments. As for Confirmation and Extreme Unction, they are 
mere devices of men, which the Church may very well want, without 
any damage or discommodity at all : and therefore we have them 
not in our Churches, because there be certain things in them which 
we can by no means allow of. As for that merchandize which the 
Romish Prelates use in ministering their Sacraments, we utterly 
abhor it. The author and institutor of all Sacraments is not any 
man, but God alone : for men can by no means ordain Sacraments ; 
because they belong to the worship of God, and it is not for man to 
appoint and prescribe a service of God, but to embrace and retain 
that which is taught unto him by the Lord. Besides, the Sacra- 
mental signs have God's promises annexed to them, wUch neces- 
sarily require faith : now faith stayeth itself only upon the word of 
Crod ; and the word of God is resembled to writings or letters, the 
Sacraments to seals, which the Lord alone setteth to his own letters. 
.And as the Lord is the author of the Sacraments, so he continually 
^forketh in that Church, where they be rightly used ; so that the 
£Edthful, when they receive them of the Ministers, do know that the 
Xiord worketh in his own ordinance, and therefore they receive them 
UB from the hand of God : and the Minister's faults (if there be any 
xiotorious in them) cannot hurt them, seeing they do acknowledge 
^e goodness of the Sacraments to depend upon the ordinance of the 
Xiord. For which cause they put a difference, in the administration 
of the Sacraments, between the Lord himself and his Minister ; 
confessing that the substance of the Sacraments is given them of 
the Lord, and the outward signs by the Ministers of the Lord. 

But the principal thing, which in aU the Sacraments is offered 
of the Lord, and chiefly regarded of the godly of all ages, (which 
some have called the substance and matter of the Sacraments,) is 
Christ our Saviour: that only sacrifice, Heb. x. 12. and that 
Lamb of Grod slain, from the beginning of the world. Rev. xiii. 8. 
that rock alsoy of which all our fathers drank ; 1 Cor. x. 4. by whom 


all the elect are circomcifled with the drcnmciflioii made witfaoat 
luiiids, through the Holy Spuit, Col. ii. 11, 12. and are washed from 
all their sins, Rev. i. 5* and are nourished with the very body 
and blood of Christ unto eternal life. John vi. 54. 

Now, in respect of that which is the chief thing, and the very 
matter and substance of the Sacraments, the Sacraments of both 
the Testaments are equal. For Christ, the only Mediator and Savi- 
our of the fidthful, is the chief thing and substance in them both : 
one and the same God is author of them both : they were given 
unto both Churches, as signs and seals of the grace and promises 
of God ; which should call to mind and renew the memory of God's 
great benefits to them, and should distinguish the fiEuthful from all 
the religions in the world ; lastly, which should be received spirit- 
ually by faith, and should bind the receivers unto the Church, 
and admonish them of their duty. In these, I say, and sudb like 
things, the Sacraments of both Churches be not unequal, although 
in the outward signs they be diverse. 

And indeed we do yet put a greater di£[erence between them : 
for ours are more firm and durable, as those which are not to 
be changed to the end of the world. Again, ours testify that the 
substance and promise is already fulfilled and performed in Christ, 
whereas the other did only signify that they should be fulfilled. 
And again, ours are more simple, and nothing so painful, nothing 
so sumptuous, nor so full of ceremonies. Moreover they belong 
to a greater people, that is dispersed through the face of the whole 
earth : and because they are more excellent, and do by the Spirit 
of God stir up in us a greater measure of fedth, therefore a more 
plentiful measure of the Spirit doth follow them. 

But now, since that Christ, the true Messias, is exhibited unto 
us, and the abundance of grace is poured forth upon the people 
of the New Testament, the Sacraments of the Old Law are surely 
abrogated and ceased ; and in their stead the Sacraments of the 
New Testament are placed : namely, for Circumcision, Baptism ; 
and for the Pascal Lamb and Sacrifices, the Supper of the Lcgrd. 

And as in the Old Church the Sacraments consisted of the word, 
the sign, and the thing signified; so even at this day they are 
composed, as it were, of the same parts. For the word of God 
maketh them Sacraments, which before were none : for they are 
consecrated by the word, and declared to be sanctified by Him who 
first ordained them. To sanctify or consecrate a thing, u to 
dedicate it unto God, and unto holy uses ; that is, to take it from 


the common and ordinary use, and to appoint it to some holy use. 
For the signs that be in the Sacraments, are drawn from common 
use ; things external and visible. As, in Baptism ; the outward sign 
IB the element of water, and that visible washingi which is done 
by the Minister. But the thing signified is regeneration,'*^ and the 
cleansing from sins. Likewise, in the Lord's Supper ; the outward 
sign is bread and wine, taken from things commonly used for meat 
and drink. But the thing signified is the body of Christ which 
was given, and his blood which was shed for us, and the commu- 
nion of the body and blood of the Lord. Wherefore, the water, 
bread, and wine» considered in their own nature, and out of this 
holy use and institution of the Lord, are only that which they are 
called, and which we find them to be. But let the word of God 
be added to them, together with invocation upon His holy name, 
and the renewing of their first institution and sanctification, and 
then these signs are consecrated, and declared to be sanctified by 
Christ. For Christ's first institution and consecration of the 
Sacraments standeth yet in force in the Church of God, in such 
sort, that they which celebrate the Sacraments no otherwise than 
the Lord himself from the beginning hath appointed, have still, 
even to this day, the use and benefit of that first and most excellent 
consecration. And for this cause, in the administration of the 
Sacraments, the very words of Christ are repeated. And forasmuch 
as we leam out of the word of God, that these signs were appoint- 
ed unto another end and use, than commonly they are used unto ; 
therefore we teach, that they now, in this their holy use, do take 
upon them the names of things signified, and are not still called bare 
yvBter, bread, or wine : but that the water is called " regeneration, 
and washing of the new birth ;" Titus iii. 5. and the bread and wine 
''the body and blood of the Lord;" 1 Cor. x. 16. or the pledges 
and Sacraments of his body and blood. Not that the signs are 
turned into the things signified, or cease to be that which in 
their own nature they are, (for then they could not be Sacraments, 
which should consist only of the thing signified, and have no signs ;) 
but therefore do the signs bear the names of the things, because 
they be mystical tokens of holy things, and because the signs and 
the things signified are sacramentally joined together: joined 

* That is, the blood of Christ, by virtue whereof we are regenerated and 
washed from our sins. For, to speak properly, the thing signified by water 
is the blood ; and by sprinkling, the washing from sins and regeneration is 

286 tax TWELFTH BBCTTOlt. 

together, I sayi or united by a m3r8tical sig^nification, and by the 
purpose and will of Him, who first instituted them. For the water, 
bread, and wine, are not eommon, but holy signs. And He that 
instituted water in Baptism, did not institute it with that mind 
and purpose, that the faithful should only be dipped in the water 
of Baptism ; and he which commanded the bread to be eaten, 
and the wine to be drunk in the Supper, did not mean that the 
faithful should only receive bread and wine, without any further 
mystery, as they eat bread at home in their own houses : but 
that they should spiritually be partakers of the things signified, 
and by faith be truly purged ^m their sins, and be partakers of 
Christ also. 

And therefore we cannot allow of them, which attribute the 
consecration of the Sacraments to I know not what syllables ; to 
the rehearsal of certain words pronounced by him that is conse- 
crated* and that hath an intent of consecrating ; or to some other 
accidental things, which are not left unto us either by the word, 
or by the example, of Christ or his Apostles. We do also mislike 
the doctrine of those, that speak no otherwise of the Sacraments, 
than of common signs, not sanctified, nor efi!ectual. We condemn 
them also, who, because of the invisible things, do despise the visi- 
blci and think the signs superfluous, because they do already enjoy 
the things themselves : such were the Messalians, as it is recorded. 
We do disallow their doctrine also, who teach that grace and the 
things signified are to be so tied to and included in the signs, that 
whosoever do outwardly receive the signs, must needs inwardly par- 
ticipate in the grace, and in the things signified, what manner of 
men soever they be. 

Notwithstanding, as we esteem not the goodness of the Sacra- 
ments by the worthiness or unworthiness of the Ministers, so like- 
wise we do not weigh them by the condition of the receivers. 
For we know that the goodness of the Sacraments doth depend 
upon the faithfulness, or truth, and the mere goodness of God. 
For even as God's Vord remaineth the true word of God ; wherein 
not only bare words are uttered when it is preached, but there- 
withal the things signified by the words are oflTered of God, 
although the wicked and unbelievers hear and understand the words, 
yet enjoy not the things signified, because they receive them not 
by a true faith : even so, the Sacraments, consisting of the word, 
the signs, and the things signified, continue true and perfect Sacra* 
ments, not only because they be holy things, but also for that 


God also ofiereth the things signified, howsoever the unhelievers 
receive not the thingps which are offered. This cometh to pass/ 
not by any fault in God, the author and offerer of them ; but by 
the fault of men, who do receive them without fiEuth, and unlaw- 
fully : " whose unbelief cannot make the truth of God of none 
efiect.'* Rom. iii. 3. 

Now, forasmuch as, in the beginning, where we shewed what the 
Sacraments were, we did also by the way set down to what end they 
were ordained, it will not be necessary to trouble ourselves with 
repeating any thing which hath been already bandied. Next there- 
fore in order, it remaineth to speak severally of the Sacraments of 
the New Church. 

II. — From thb formbr Confbssion of Hblvbtia. 

Article 20. 0/ the Force and Efficacy of the Sacraments. 

The signs, which in the Church of Christ be called Sacraments, 
are two : Baptism, and the Lord's Supper. These, being tokens 
of secret things, do not consist of bare signs, but of signs and 
things also. For in Baptism water is the sign, and the thing 
itself is regeneration,* and adoption among the people of God. 
In the Lord's Supper, bread and wine be the signs, but the thing 
is the communication of the body of Christ ;t salvation purchased 
for usy and the remission of sins. These things are received by 
^th, as the signs be received with the corporal mouth ; and the 
^whole fruit of the Sacraments is in the thing itself. VHiereupon we 
affirm that Sacraments are not only tokens of human fellowship, but 
also pledges of the grace of God, by which the Ministers do work 
together with the Lord, (to that end, which He doth promise, 
offer, and bring to pass ;) yet so (as we said before of the Ministry 
of the word) that all the saving power is to be ascribed to the 
Ix>rd alone. 

Out of the Declaration of the same Confession :-^0f H6ly Symbols. 

Sacraments are visible patterns, instituted by God, of the grace, 
good will, and promises of God towards us ; sure testimonies, and 
lioly remembrances, the which under earthly signs do represent unto 
xis, and set before our eyes, heavenly gifts, and do withdraw the 

* See the observation that went next before, upon the Latter Confession 
of Helretia. 

t That is, the body and blood of Christ, communicated to us spiritually by 
faith, to the remission of sins, and to eternal life. 


mind from earthly to heavenly things. Moreover, they he tokens 
of Christian brotherhood and fellowship. Therefore a Sacrament 
is not only a sign ; bat it is made up of two things, to wit, of a 
visible or earthly sign, and of the thing signified, which is heavenly : 
the which two although they make but one Sacrament, yet it is one 
thing which is received with the body, another thing which the 
fButhfiil mind, being taught by the Spirit of God, doth receive. For 
the signs, and the things signified by the signs, do deave together 
only by a certain mystical mean, or, as others speak, by a Sacra- 
mental union : neither be they so made one, that one is made in its 
nature the other, or that one is contained in the other. For either 
of them (the which thing also holy Grelasius did acknowledge) doth 
keep its own propriety. Therefore the outward signs are not the 
self-same thing, substantially and naturally, which they do signify ; 
neither do they give it of themselves, and by their own power, no 
more than the Minister doth : but the Ix>rd useth the Minister, and 
the signs, and the word, to this end, that, of his mere grace, when 
and so much as pleaseth him, he may represent, dedare, visibly 
shew,**^ and set before our eyes, his heavenly gifts; and all this 
according to his promise. 

Now, as it doth derogate nothing from the Ministry of the word, 
when it is said, that the outward preaching of the word doth profit 
nothing, except the inward husbandman do give the increase ; (for 
Paul saith, " He that planteth, and he that watereth, is nothing, 
but God that giveth the increase :" 1 Cor. iii. 7.) so he doth not 
make the Sacraments of no effect, which saith, that it is not they, 
but God himself who doth purge us : that is, which doth attribute 
the fo^ce of the Sacraments to the Creator. For Peter said, " Bap- 
tism doth save us :" but he addeth, '* Not whereby the filth of the 
flesh is washed away, but in that a good consdence maketh answer 
unto God." 1 Pet. iii. 21. For as in other creatures, (as in the 
sun, the moon, the stars, fire, predous stones, herbs, and such like 
things,) which God doth use as instruments toward us, we ought 
not to put any confidence, nor to admire them as the causes of any 
benefit : so our trust ought not to rest in outward signs, nor the 
glory of God to be transferred unto them, as they be outward signs, 
(howbdt the Lord doth use their hdp toward us, and thus they be 
holy ordinances ;) but through them our trust should rise to Him, 
who is both the author of the Sacraments, and the Creator of all 

* Visibly shew ; that is, shew by setting forth visible signs. 


And eeeing that the Sacraments are the institution and work 
of the Lord himself, the fidthful do receive them, not as certain 
saperflnous inventions of men, as if at the hand of men ; but as his 
heavenly gifts, and that at the very hand of the Lord. For touch- 
ing the word of the Gospel which he preached, the Apostle writeth 
Ans 2 " When ye recrived of us the wordf whereby ye learned God, 
ye did not receive it as the word of men, but, as it was indeed, as 
the word of God, who also worketh in you that believe." 1 Thess. 
ii. 13. The like reason is there of the Sacraments. Therefore, 
just as a little before we testified, that we do, and always did, 
Teoeive these sentences and speeches of Scripture, touching the 
JAiinistry of the word,— The Minister doth convert, remit nns, open 
tthe eyes and hearts of men, give faith and the Spirit :* so, being well 
^understood, we 'do acknowledge also these speeches touching the 
Sacraments, — ^The Minister through baptism doth regenerate, and 
^^raah away sins ; he doth distribute and present the body and blood 
*of the Lord. For Ananias said to Paul, " Arise, and be baptized ; 
^^raah away thy sins, by calling on the name of Jesus." Acts xxii. 
^6. Also, Jesus took bread, gave it to his disciples, and said, 
*^ This is my body." Matt. zxvi. 26. And it is manifest, that the 
ancient Fathers did use such kind of speeches, because that by this 
leans they would propound and commend more royally the g^ifts 

Moreover, sedng that the institution and work of the word and 

the Sacraments proceedeth not from men, but from God ; we do 

reject the error of the Donatists and Anabaptists, who esteemed 

holy gifts of God according to the worthiness or unworthiness of 


Now, in that heavenly gifts are represented unto us by earthly 

I, it Cometh so to pass by a certain singular goodness of God, 

'ho by this mean would help our weakness. For the weakness of 

i*s wit doth understand all things the better, if they be repre- 

ited by visible thmgs. Therefore the Lord would by Sacraments 

before the eyes of mortal men his heavenly gifts, and bis pro- 

I, as it were a lively picture on a sort of tablet : that is, those 

which are perceived by the mind, he hath delivered to us in 

^ensiUe things. 

Whence we do now gather, that the Sacraments do appertain 

* To wit, at the instruroental outward cause, which the Holy Spirit Ubetb, 
to Work those things inwardly, which are preached to us outwardly. 



to them which are in tbo Charch. 
SacTfuoeats, inaomoch u they e 
thinga 'fnaij. Bnt they which hare &ithi nndenbud the aqrateries 
of tlie Sai^snieatf. Andth^whichreceiTe tbeminKtraeaadlivdy 
Uth, re&tt them with fruit. If they ho leowred wttbont bith, 
th^ do hut.: not that the good gifts of God do hut of thcmaelva ; 
bnt that, bong not perceived aright, tbsj do hut iktva^ our 

Fnithcrmcffe, the Sacramenta are badges of the people ef God. 
For by theae we are gathered togetUp' into a hcdy coB^aay, and we 
profeu our futh. For it hath pleased the Lord by thii ncan to 
gather hia people to himaelf, and. as it were, to wuA them with 
this Btgn, whereby also he might pat every «m in mind at his 

Now of this kind ihen be two Sacramente in the Chnrch of 
Christ : Bqitiam, which is colled the font of regmeiationi Titos iii. 
6. and the Sapper ofthe Lord, which is called " the body and blood 
of the Lord," or, " the communion of the body mod blood <tf the 
Lord." 1 Cor. x. 16. And now we will speak aeretally of them: 
for hitherto we have discourrcd of the Sacraments in general, a« 
before God we do believe ; and wherein we hope that Luther will not 
think any thing wanting. 

in. — From tub Conpesbion or Basls. 
Art. 5. Sect. 2. The same Sacraments are used in the Church : 
to wit, Baptiem, at our etitnmce into the Church ; and the Supper 
of the Lord, in due time, when we are come to riper years, to 
testify our ^th and brotherly charity,* as in Baptism was [wo- 

IV.— From tbk Conpesbion of Bohemia. 
Chap. 1 1 . 0/ Sacramenig in general. 
As touching the Sacramenta, we teach that they be external, 
earthly, (as they which consist of elements,} and visible signs, con- 
secrated by the word of God, and by his own mouth appointed here- 
unto, to signify and witness to us that self-same spiritual and 
invisible grace and truth, whereof they have the name, and which 
they are ako sacramentally. These Sacraments no man either did. 


or can ingtitate, but; the Lord and God himself, Christ Jesus, into 
whose hands the Father hath delivered all things. John ziii. 3. And 
he hath instituted and appointed them for great and salutary causes, 
and such as are necessary for his Church, and all those that believe : 
to wit, that, like as by the preaching of the word, so by the adminis- 
tration of the visible Sacraments, and by the mysteries thereof, 
fidth might be helped and furthered; and that they might be an 
assured testimony and confirmation of the favourable and well- 
pleased will of God towards us ; and that they might give witness 
to that truth which is signified by them, and might reach it out 
^as doth the word) to be apprehended by fidth ; and that the minds 
cf the fEuthful, in the receiving of them, might by fedth receive the 
grace and truth whereof they be witnesses; and appMng it unto 
themselves, might make it their own, and confirm themselves 
therein; and, on the other side, by giving themselves to God, 
Knight consecrate, and, as it were, by an oath religiously bind them- 
aelvea to serve Him alone, and, as it were, be bonded together 
unong themselves, by the joining and knitting, as of one Spirit, so 
ftlso of one body, Ephes. iv. 4. to wit, of the Churchy and of the 
fellowship of the saints, and of love. 

And according to these things, the Sacraments (as, in times past, 

Zllircumcision) may be called the holy covenants of God with his 

II!hiirch, and of the Church with God ; Gen. xvii. 10. the ministra- 

dona of fiiith and love, by which the conjunction and union of God, 

amd of Christ our Lord, with believing people, and theirs again 

with Christ, and that among themselves, is made and perfected, in 

one 8{nritual body of the Church : by which also, even as by the 

word, Christ and his Spirit do cause in the faithful, that is, in those 

that use them worthily, a precious participation of his excellent 

merit: neither doth he suffer them to be only bare and naked 

ministrations and ceremonies ; but those things which they signify 

aad witness outwardly, them doth he work inwardly to salvation, 

profitably and effectually ; that is, he cleanseth, nourisheth, satis- 

fieth, looseth, remitteth, and confirmeth. 

They, therefore, which contemn these Sacraments, and through 
stubbomness will not suffer them to be of any force with themselves, 
and, making small account of them, do esteem them as trifles, or do 
otherwise abuse them, contrary to the institution, will, or command- 
ment of Christ ; all these do grieviously sin against the author 
thereof, who hath instituted them, and make a very great hazard of 
their salvation. 

u 2 


But if any man wuuld willingly u»e tbeK Sacraments according 
to the institution of Christ, and yet cannot have opportonitvi 
either entire,* or without deceit, so to do as he would ; (as if perad- 
vcnture one be taken and kept in prison, or hindered by sickness, or 
live in strange caontries among the eneroiea of the truth :) such a 
man, in such a case, if he do wholly and truly believe the holy 
Gospel, may by that faith be saved, although he have not the ase of 
the .SacrameDts. To which csm ^tpertaina that worthy MKjiag of 
Angtutiiw, ipn Jo/ui, Ckof, xm. ' Betitre, and tboa hmt «i«n :' 
seeing that the Sacramenta are not neceaaaiy to aalratiAn, bqt oolj 
by the addition of a certain oondition. 

A1m> we teach this ; tJiat the Saoramenta, vt tWnwdTea. or fay 
their own virtue, for the work wrtmght, or for the ontward actiaB 
alone, that ia, for the bare paiticipatiaD, and percqition, and oe 
thereof, cannot ^ve grace, nor a jostifyiiig or qniAewing faith, 
to any, which before waa not inWardly qnickened by the Holy Ohoati 
and which hath no good motionB (aa it i« termed) within himadf. 
I My, the SacramentB cannot give to any inch either gnce, or 
joatifying aad qoickenlng faith ; and therefore they cannot jnatify 
any man, nor inwardly quicken or regenerate any man's aparit: for 
bith must go before, whereby the Holy Ghost doth inwardly qoicken 
and lighten man, and stir up or caose good motions in the heart. 
Without this faith, there is neither any justification nor satvation. 
Neither do the Sacrameots, of or by themselves, help any whit 
hereunto, aa in the holy Scripture manifest examples of this matter 
are found in many places: espetnally in Jndas, who recaved the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord Chtist lumself, Joiin xiii. 26. and did also execute the 
function of a Preacher, Mark iii. 14; 19. and yet he ceased not to re- 
main a devil, an hypocrite, and the lost son i neither was he made betto* 
by the Sacrament, or by the use thereof, neither did this profit faim 
any thing to ealvHtion : also in Ananias and his wife. Act. v. I — It. 
who had been baptized of the Apoatles, and had also without doubt 
received the Lord's Sapper : and yet notwithstanding they did con- 
tinue in their wickedness, injustice, and lies sgainst the Holy Ghost, 
while the Sacraments did ndtber take away their wickedness, nor 
give them the saving or justifying feith, which maketh the heart the 
better by repenting, and presenteth it to God an upright and obe- 
dient heart, and doth appease the conscience. Therefore the Saccs- 

* Entire, that n, lawful liberty, such u doth t^ree with Chtiit hi* iostitu- 


ments did not bestow thb conscience and fiedth itself upon them : even 
as Circumcision, and the sacrifices of the Old Testament, did not 
give a lively and jnstifjdng faith, without the which faith those 
things availed nothing to eternal salvation or justification. 

And so' doth St. Paul speak of all these things in his Epistle to 
the Romans* and bringeth in the example of Abraham, and doth 
witness that he had faith and righteousness, which is available with 
God, before that he was circumcised. Rom. iv. 10, 11. In like 
sort he writeth of the people of Israel, **that they also were 
bqitixed, and that they all did eat one and the same spiritual 
meaty and did all drink one and the same spiritual drink : but with 
many of them God was not pleased." 1 Cor. x. 3—5. And 
therefore, even in the abundance of all these tilings, they were 
thoo^t unworthy to be received, and were rejected of God. For 
if a dead man, or one that is unworthy, do come to the Sacraments, 
certainly they do not give him life and worthiness : but he that is 
such an one, doth load himself with a far greater burthen of fault and 
nn, seeing that he is unworthy. The which thing the Apostle doth 
expressly dedare in the doctrine touching the Supper of the Ijord, 
where he saith, " Whosoever doth eat of this bread, or drink of this 
mp of the Lord* unworthily, he is guilty of the body and blood of 
iie Lord : also he doth eat and drink judgment to himself." 1 Cor. 
d. 27 ; 29. 

Lastly, this also must be known ; that the verity of the Sacra- 
nents doth never fail them, so that they should become not 
!fie<staal at any time : but, in the institution of Christ, they do 
Jways exercise their virtue and efficacy,* in witnessing, sealing, 
ionfirming, unto the worthy receivers, present grace and salvation ; 
>at unto the unworthy, their fault and condemnation, whether they 
le administered by a good and honest Priest, or by a close sinner. 
Por so kmg as the overthwartness of such wicked hypocrites is not 

• This must warily be understood. For properly the Sacraments do wit- 
ness, seal, or confirm no other things, but grace and salvation. The condem- 
Ration of such as use them unworthily, doth not flow from any virtue or power 
)f the Sacnunents, which doth avail only to salvation ; but wholly from the 
EiuiU of the anworthy themselves, whereby it cometh to pass (and that by an 
iccident) that whilst they receive the signs alone, and that unworthily, they 
ieprive themselves of the Sacraments : and yet for all that, they cease not, 
m God's behalf, to be perfect Sacraments, whether they be given to the 
rorthy, or to the unworthy. Touching which point, look after, in the Four- 
eeoth Section, the first and second observations upon the Confession of 


as yet pablidy known, neither the punishment^ more gende 

severe, of Ecclesiastical Discipline^ nor even ezcommoniGation, 

been put in force against those which have behaved themsdve^^^ 

more stubbornly ; those Sacraments which they do admiqiater, maj 

be received of them, if so be that they do administer them 

to the will, mind, and institution of Christ : the which thing alao thi 

Constitutions of the ancient Church do confirm. Tar the 

and efficacy of the Sacraments doth neither consist in him. 

depend on him, who doth either administer them, whosoever he be,^ -^t 
or doth receive them ; but it consisteth in the institutioD, and in thi' ^^g 
commandment that was most absolute and mighty in authority, 
in the word of the author of the Sacraments, to wit, of our 
Jesus Christ: on which one thing they do rdy, and hanre 
thence whatsoever they are able to do. Nevertheless, the Ministers 
must thoroughly look to it, and take good heed, lest, whilst by their 
labour they be serviceable to others, ''they themsdvea baoome 
reprobates, or worthy to be rejected:" 1 Cor. is. 27. and alaob 
lest " they give holy things to dogs, or cast pearls Seftxre awine." 
Matt. vii. 6. Also the people must iendeavour by all means to take ^9^® 
heed, that they do not in any case receive the Sacramenta with 
the scandal or offence of the Church, and the proper danger of the 
salvation of theur souls ; that is, to their own fault and judgment : 
whereof we made mention before. 

V. — From thb Confession of Francs. 

Art. 34. We believe that there be Sacraments adjoined to the 
word, for the more ample confirmation thereof; to wit, that they 
may be pledge and tokens of the grace of God, whereby our weak 
and rude faith may be helped. For we confess that these outward 
signs be such, that God, by the power of his Holy Spirit, doth work 
by them, that nothing may be there represented to us in vain. Yet 
we think that the whole substance and truth of them is in Christ 
Jesus ; from whom if they be separated, they be nothing dae but 
vain shadows and smoke. 

AUOf Art. 35. We acknowledge that there be only two Sacra- 
ments, common to the whole Church, &c. (That which foUoweth, 
pertaineth to the Thirteenth Section.) 

VI. — From thb Confession of England. 

Art, 10. Moreover we allow the Sacraments of the* Church, that 
is to say, certain holy signs and ceremonies, which Christ would we 


should use ; that by them he might set before oar eyes the mysteries 
of our salvation^ and might more strongly confirm the faith which 
we have in his blood, and might seal his grace in our hearts. And 
these Sacraments, we, together with TertuUian, Origen, Ambrose, 
Augustine, Jerome, Chrysostom, Basil, Dionysius, and other 
Catholic Fathers, do call Figures, Signs, Types, Badges, Copies, 
Forms, Seals, Signets, Similitudes, Patterns, Representations, 
Remembrances, and Memories; nor do we make doubt, together 
with the same Doctors, to say that these be certain Visible Words, 
Seals of 'Righteousness, and Tokens of Grace. And we do ex- 
pressly pronoonoe, that in the Lord's Supper there is truly given 
unto the belienif|p, the body and blood of the Lord, the flesh of the 
Son of God which quickeneth our souls, the meat that cometh from 
above, the food of immortality, of g^race, truth, and life ; and that 
the same Supper is the communion of the body and bfood of 
Christ, by the partaking whereof we be revived, strengthened, and 
Eied unto immortality; and whereby we are joined, united, and 
incorporated into Christ, that we may abide in Him and He in us. 

And, in the beginning of Art. 1 1 . Sect. I . Besides this, we 
icknowledge, that there be two Sacraments, which, we judge, 
iroperly ought to be called by this name : that is to say. Baptism, 
ud the Eucharist. For thus many we see were delivered and 
«nctified by Christ, and well allowed of the old Fathers, Ambrose, 
Augustine, and such others. 

YIL — From thb Confession of Scotland. 

Article 21. Of the Sacraments. 

As the fathers under the law, besides the verity of the sacrifices, 
Lad two chief Sacraments, to wit. Circumcision, and the Passover ; 
^e despisers and contemners whereof were not reputed for God's 
^Myple; GSen. xviL 14. Numb, ix, 13.) so we acknowledge and 
csnfeaa, that we, now in the time of the Gospel, have two chief 
^^uaraments only, instituted by the Lord Jesus, and commanded to be 
^Md of all those that will be reputed members of his body ; to wit, 
^^^ptism, and the Supper, or Table, of the Lord Jesus, called the 
'communion of his body and his blood. And these Sacraments, as 
''•^sH of the Old, as of the New Testament, now instituted of God, 
ot. only do make a visible difierence betwixt his people and those 
k^at were without his league, but also do exercise the faith of his 
^ildren, and, by participation of the same Sacraments, do seal' 
^l^ their hearts the assurance of his promise, and of that most blessed 

296 TBI TwxLfTH ucnoN. 

conjunction, union, and society, wbidi the elect hsve with their 
head Christ Jesus. And thus we utterly condemn the canity ol 
those, that affirm Sacraments to be nothing dse hot naked and bare 
signs. No; we assuredly believe, that by Biqitism we are ingrafted 
into Christ Jesus, to be made partakers of his justice, by wbidi our 
sins are covered* and remitted : and also that in the Sn^er» rightly 
used, Christ Jesus is so joined with us, that he becometh the very 
nourishment and food of our souls. Am^ a UitU fiarther a* .-—But 
all this we say oometh of true faith, which 'apprehendeth Christ 
Jesus, who only maketh his Sacramenta effectual mito ns. And 
therefore whosoever slandereth ust as that we affirm or bciieve 
Sacraments to be only naked and bare signs, doth injury mito us, 
and speaketh against the manifest truth. But this libcraOy and 
frankly we confess, that we make distinction betwixt Christ Jeans in 
his eterikal substance, and betwixt the elements in the aacramental 
signs. So that we will ndther worship the signs, in place of that 
which » signified by them, neither yet do we despise, and interpret 
them as unprofitable and vain ; but do use them with all reverenoe» 
examining ourselves diligently before that so we do : because we are 
assured by the mouth of the Apostle, that " such as eat of that 
bread, and drink of that cup unworthily, are guilty of the body and 
blood of Christ Jesus.** 1 Cor. xi. 28» 29. 

Article 22. Of the right Administration of the SacramenU. 

That Sacraments be rightly ministered, we judge two things 
requisite : the one, that they be ministered by lawful Ministers, 
whom we affirm to be only they, that are appointed to the preaching 
of the word, into whose mouths God hath put some Sermon of ex- 
hortation, they being men lawfully chosen thereto by some Church : 
the other, that they be ministered in such elements, and in tmckt 
sort, as God hath appointed : else we affirm that they cease to be 
right Sacraments of Christ Jesus. And therefore it is that we fly 
the society of the Papistical Church, in participation of their Sacra- 
ments ; first, because their Ministers are no Ministers of Christ 
Jesus, (yea, this is more horrible, they suffer women, whom the 
Holy Ghost will not suffer to teach in the Congregation, to baptize ;) 
and secondly, because they have so adulterated both the one Sacra- 
ment and the other with their own inventions, that no part of 
Christ's action abideth in the original purity. For oil, aalt, and 
spittle, and such like in Baptism, are but men's inventions ; adora- 
tion, veneration, bearing through streets and towns, and keeping of 


bread in boxes or boiBto, are pro&nation of Christ's Sacraments, and 
no oae of the same. For Christ Jesus said, " Take eat, &c. Do 
je this in remembrance of me.^ Matt. xxvi. 26. By which words 
and diarge, he sanctified bread and wine to be the Sacrament of his 
holy body and blood, to the end that the one should be eaten, and 
that an should drink of the other, and not that they should be kepty 
to be worshipped and honoured as God, as the Papists have done 
heretofore: who also have committed sacrilege, stealing from the 
people the one part of the Sacrament, to wit, the blessed cup. 

Moreover, that the Sacraments be rightly used, it is required that 

the end and cause for which Sacraments were instituted, be under- 

standed and observed, as well of the Minister, as by the receivers. 

For if the opinion be changed in the receiver, the right use ceaseth ; 

whidi is most evident, by the rejection of the sacrifices : as also, if 

the tAther jriainly teach hUae doctrine, which were odious and 

abominahle before God, (albeit they were his own ordinances,) 

beoanse that wicked men use them to another end than God hath 

ordaiiied. The same we affirm of the Sacraments in the Papistical 

Clmrdli ; in which we affirm the whole action of the Lord Jesus to 

lie adulterated, as well in the external form, as in the end and 

opinioD. What Christ Jesus did, adl commanded to be done, is 

evident, by the Evangelists and by St. Paul : what the Priest doth 

at bis altar, we need not to rehearse. The end and cause of Christ's 

institiition, and why the self-same should be used, is expressed in 

theae words : ^' Do ye this in remembrance of me ; as oft as ye 

shall eat of this bread, and drink of this cup, ye shsU shew forth,'' 

that is, extolf preadi, magnify, and praise, " the Lord's death, till he 

oome." 1 Cor. zi. 25, 26. But to what end, and in what opinion, 

the Frieata say their Mass, let the words of the saine, thdr own 

doctora and writings, witness: to wit, that they, as Mediators 

betwixt Christ and his Church, do ofier unto God the Father 

a sacrifice propitiatory for the sins of the quick and the dead : which 

doctrines, blasphemous to Christ Jesus, and making derogation to 

the anflMency of his only sacrifice, once offered for purgation of all 

thoae fliat shall be sanctified, Heb. x. 14. we utterly abhor, detest, 

and lenooiice* 

23. To whom Sacramenis appertmn. 

We c a nfc a s and acknowledge, that Baptism appertaineth as well 
to the infonts of the fidthfnl, as unto them that be of age and dis- 
cretion. And so we condemn the error of the Anabaptists, who 


deny Baptism to appertain to duldrtti before they have £ttth and 
nnderetanding. Bat the Supper of the Lord we confeaB to appeitain 
to each only, as be of the household of fiedth, and can try and ex- 
amine themsdves as well in their faith, as in their doty towards 
thmr ndghbomv. Such as eat and drink at that holy Tid>le without 
fidth, or being at dissension with their brethren, do eat imworthily : 
1 Cor, zi. 28» 29. and therefore it is, that, in omr Clmrdi» our 
Ifinisters take public and particular ezaminstioii of tiie knowledge 
and conversation of such as are to be admitted to the TsMe of the 
Lord Jesus. 

VIII. — FaoM THX CoNVBssioM OF Bblgia. 

Art, 33. We believe that God, having regard to oor didneas 
and infirmity, did institute Sacraments for us, that iiy them his pro- 
miaes might be sealed to us* and that they m%ht be moat tetain 
pledges of his heavenly love towards us, and of faia gifta bestowed 
upon us, for the cherishing and sustaining of our faith* These 
Sacraments he added to the vrord of the Goipd* tikat he si^lit 
more lively set before our external senses both thoee tiiinga vrhidi 
he dedareth unto us in his word, and those tiiinga also which he 
vrorketh inwardly in our bearA ; and to confirm more and mare in 
us that salvation, which he vouchsafeth to communicate unto us. 
For the Sacraments are visible signs and tokens of internal and 
invisible things ; by the which, as by certain means, God himself 
worketh within us, through the power of the Holy Ghost. There- 
fore they be not vain or idle signs, neither yet^rdained d God to 
deceive or frustrate us of our hope. For the truth of our Sacra- 
ments is Jesus Christ, without whom they are of no value. More- 
over, that number of Sacraments sufficeth us, which Christ himself, 
our true and only Teacher, hath instituted : and those are only two ; 
to wit, the Sacrament of Baptism, and the Sacrament of the Holy 
Supper of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

IX. — Fkom thb Confession of Augsbubo. 

Art, 8. Seeing that in this life many evil men and hypocritea are 
mingled with the Church, and have fellowship with it in the outward 
signs and pledges ; the Sacraments administered by such as are evil, 
may lawfully be used, according to the saying of Christ: "The 
Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses' chair, &c." Matt, xziii. 2. For 
tiie Sacraments, and the word of God, are efiectual, by reason of the 
institution and commandment of Christ, though they be delivered by 


wicked and evil men. They condemn the Donatists and such like, 
who 8ud it was not lawful for the people to use the ministry of evil 
men m the Chnrch, and held opinion that the ministry of evil men 
was quite without fruit and efiect. 

Tke beghmmg of this 8th Article is elsewhere thus set down : — 

Though the Church, to speak properly, he a congregation of 
saints and true helievers, yet» seeing that in this life many hypocrites 
and evfl men he mingled with it, it is a lawful thing to use the 
Sacraments, ministered hy the hands of evil men, &c. 

Art. 13. Touching the use of the Sacraments they teach, that 

they were instituted, not so much to he notes of profession amongst 

men, as to he signs and pledges of God's good will towards us, set 

hefore the eyes, to stir up and confirm fiedth in them which use them. 

Therefore we must use Sacraments so, as we must join fidth with 

ihem ; which may hdieve the promises that are offered and declared 

Tmto OS by the Sacraments. By this faith we receive both the grace 

3promiaed, which is represented by the Sacraments, and also the 

JBoly Ghost. Tlierelbre they condemn that Pharisaical opinion of 

^9he Papists, which suppresseth the doctrine of fedth, and doth not 

*9each that faith, which believeth that grace is freely given us for 

*^V[Thri8t*8 sake, is necessary in the use of the Sacraments; but 

:S.magincth that men are just, by the very use of the Sacraments, 

for the work done, and that without any good affection of 

zhiBOEk that use it. 

TUs Article we faul thus ta another Edition .— 


Concerning the use of the Sacraments, they teach that they were 

'sdained, not so much to be marks and badges of profession amongst 

I, as that they should be signs or testimonies of the will of God 

us, set forth unto us, to stir up and confirm faith in such as 

^■e them. Whereupon they condemn those that teach, that the 

'^Bcnments do justify by the work done, and do not teach that faith 

b^eve remission of sins is requisite in the use of Sacraments. 

X.— From tbb Confxssion of Saxont. 


Article 12. Of the Sacraments. 

The Church also is discerned from other nations, by certain rites 
^^>^d ceremonies instituted of God, and usually called Sacraments ; 

80d niB TWBurra taonoii • 

as are Baptbm, and the Lord's Sapper: whldi, notwitfastanding 
are not only signs of a profies8ion« bat modi mote (as the ancieni 
Fathers said) signs of grace ; that is, they be ceremonies added to 
the promise of the Grospel touching grace, that is, toadiing tibe free 
remission of sins, and touching reconciliation, and the whole benefit 
of our redemption: the which are so instituted, that every man 
should use them, because they be pledges and testimonies, which 
dedare that the benefits promised in the Gospel do appertain to 
erery one. For the voice of the Gospel is general : and this use 
doth bear witness that this voice doth i^pertsin to every one whidi 
useth the Sacraments. 

XI« — From tux Confession or Wirtsmburo* 

Article 9. Of the SacrameniM. 

The word Sacrament, as also the word Mystery, (whidi inter* 
preters do expound Sacrament,) is very large. :Bat be cau s e some 
have thought it good to restrain it to the number of seven Saoia* ^-^-^ 
ments, we will briefly run over every one, that we may shew wlist ^-^ 
we find wanting in the doctrine that some have broodied, and wlist 
may seem to be repugnant to the meaning of that Chardi, which is 
indeed Catholic or Orthodox. 

XH.— From the Confession of Suevelano. 

Article 1 6. Of the SacrammOi. 

Seemg that ^e Church of Christ doth live here in the flesh, 
(howbeit not according to the flesh,) it pleased the Lord also to 
teach, admonish, and exhort it by the outward word. And that 
this might be done the more commodiously, he would also have 
his people to maintain an external sodety among themsdves. For 
which cause he hath given unto them holy signs, among which these 
are the chiefest. Baptism, and the Lord's Supper : the which we 
do not only think, therefore, to have had the name of Sacraments 
among the Fathers, because they are visible signs of invisible grace, 
(as St. Augustine doth define them;) but also for that reason, 
because that by them we do consecrate oursdves unto Christ, and 
do bind oursdves, as it were, by the oath or Sacrament of faith. 




I.— From ths lattxr Confsssion of Hbltxtia. 

Chapter 20. Of Holy Baptigm. 

Baptism was institated and consecrated by God ; and the first that 
baptized was John» who dipped Christ in the water in Jordan. 
From him it came to the Apostles, who also did baptize with water. 
The Lord in plain words commanded them, " to preach the Gospel, 
and to baptize in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost." Matt. zxviiL 19. And Peter also, when divers demanded 
of him, what they ought to doy said to them, in the Acts, " Let 
every one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, for the 
remission of sins» and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." 
Acts ii. 38. Whereupon Baptism is called of some a sign of 
initiation for God's people, as that whereby the elected of Grod are 
consecrated unto God. 

There Ib but one Baptism in the Church of God : for it is suffi- 
cient to be once baptized or consecrated unto God. For Baptism 
once received doth continue all a man's life, and is a perpetual seal- 
ing^ of our adoption unto us. For to be baptized in the name of 
Christ, is to be enrolled, entered, and received into the covenant, 
Euid family, and so into the inheritance of the sons of God ; yea, 
and in tins life to be called after the name of God, that \b to say, 
u> be called a son of God ; to be purged also from the filthiness 
af sins, and to be endued with the manifold grace of God, for to 
«ad 1^ new and innocent life. Baptism therefore doth call to mind, 
udd keep in remembrance, the great benefit of Grod performed to 
pankind. For we are all bom in the pollution of sin, and are the 
iCroA of wrath. But God, who is rich in mercy, doth freely purge 
firom our sins by the blood of his Son, and in Him doth adopt 
to be his sons, and by an holy covenant doth join us to himself, 
wmA doth enrich us with divers gifts, that we might live a new life 
kXl these things are sealed up unto us in Baptism. For inwardly 
r-^ are regenerated, purified, and renewed of God through th' 
-^oly Spirit : and outwardly we receive the sealing of most notable 
^^^, by the water ; by which also those great benefits are repre- 
sented, and, as it were, set before our eyes to be looked upon. And 
^kierefore are we baptized, that is, washed and sprinkled with visible 

303 THi rniRTBENTH sbction. 

water. For the water nuketh clean that which ib filthy, and refreah- 
eth and cocdeth tli* bodies that fail and faint. And the gratx of 
God dealeth in like manner with the soul ; and that invisibly, and 

Moreorer by the Sacrament of Baptism God doth separate us 
from all other religions and nations, and doth consecrate ns a pecu- 
liar people to lumsdf. We therefore, by being baptized, do confess 
oar faith, and are boand to give unto God obedience, mortification 
of the flesh, and newness of life; yea, and we are billed soldierg I 

for the holy warfare of Christ, that all oar life long we should I 

fig^t against the world, Satan, and oar own flesh. Moreover, we \ 

are baptized into one body of the Church, that we might well 
agree with all the members of the CSuirch in the nme nligion aitd 
matnal duties. 

We beliere that of all other is the most perfect fonn* of 
Baptism, wherein Christ was baptized, and which the rest of Ae 
Apostles did use In Baptism. Thoae things, therefore, which by 
man's device were added afterwards', and used in the (%iirch, we 
think them nothing necessary f to the perfection at B^Aimn. Of '^ 
which kind is exorcism, and the ose of Ughts, <^, salt, spittle, and -^ 
snch other things ; as, namely, that baptism is twice every year con- -^ 
secrsted with divers ceremonies. For we believe that the Baptism -^ 
of the Chorcb. which is but one, was sanctified in God's first insti- — ' 
tution of itj and is consecrated by the word, and is now of foil -^Kl 
force, by and for the first blessing of God upon it. 

We teach that Baptism should not be ministered in the Church -^^ 
by women or midwives. For Fanl secludeth women from Ecde- -"^ 
siastical callings: but Baptism belongeth to Ecclesiastical (Aces. —-■ 
We condemn the Anabaptists, who deny that young infants, bom ^^^^ 
of faithful parents, are to be baptized. For, according to the doc- — ~ 
trine of the Gospel, " theirs is the kingdom of God :" Luke xviU. -— 
16. and they are written in the covenant of God. Acts in. 25. — - 
Why then should not the sign of the covenant be given to them } "" 
Why should they not be consecrated by holy Baptism, who are God's 

• Understand, by form, the enemsl ceremony; whether it be of dipping cm — 
of iprinlding. 

t Yea, we have utlerlj rejected some of tbem, sa mere lupentitious ; tonte,. 
■I being manifestly brought by the negligence of Bishops, from the B*ptism of 
thote wbicfa be of age, unto the baptiBm of infants ; snd aome, to be short, 
as altogether unprofiuble; as it is clesily expounded in the Confestioo of 


peculiar pecyple, and in the Charch of God ? We condemn also 
the Ana>wpt?o*« in the rest of their opinions, which they peculiarly 
do hxM against the word of God. We therefore are not Ana- 
baptists, neither do we agree with them in any point that is 

II. — ^From thb former Confxssion of Hblvbtia. 

Article 21. 0/ Baptism. 

Baptism, according to the institution of the Lord, is the fant of 
regeneration, the which the Lord doth give to his chosen in a 
visible sign, by the ministry of the Church, in such sort as we have 
declared before. In which holy font we do therefore dip our infiEints, 
because that it is not lawful for us to reject them from the com- 
pany of the people of God, which are bom of us, (who are the 
people of Gody) and all but pointed out by the voice of God ; espe- 
cially seeing that we ought godly to presume of their election. 

Out of the Declaration of the same Confession, sent unto Luther: — 

Of Baptism. 

Baptism is a Sacrament, wherein the Lord by a visible sign doth 
testify his grace unto us; whereby he doth regenerate us, and 
deanse us from our sins, and also receive us to be his people, that 
we may live to Christ, die to the old Adam, and be partakers of the 
good things of Christ. For we all are bom sinners; wherenpoi. 
we have need of regeneration, and the purging of our sins, which 
Cometh to pass by the free mercy of God ; whereby also we are re- 
ceived into the covenant, that, being buried into his death, we may 
rise again in newness of life : the which thing is taught more at 
large in the Apostles' writings. But the goodness of God doth in- 
deed give unto us these heavenly gifts, and also useth a sign here- 
unto, that it may declare these things unto us, and, by pouring them 
into our senses, may aUure us to more excellent things ; that so the 
whole g^ory may be to God, and yet the holy institution of the sign 
may not be made frustrate. For it is most truly said, " Baptism 
doth save us :" but it is added of Peter, " Not that which washeth 
away the filth of the body." 1 Pet. iii. 21. And the Baptist saith, 
'* I indeed do baptise you with water, but he (that is, Christ) shall 
lu^tize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire." Matt iii. 11. 
Whereunto the holy Council of Nice having respect, did say, ' Our 
Baptism is to be considered, not with sensible eyes, but with the 
eyes of the mind.' 

304 TBI TtftftTwniTH ncnoN. 

Ahot BaptiBm is a badge*: for it aervedi to our cookanaom For 
this we do plainly oonfeas in the Church, that we, together with 
our children and all oor familj, do proleBS the Chriitian rdigioo, 
that we are the members of that body whereof Christ is the Head, 
to whom we have given onr nameSf being received of him into the 
number of those soldiers, who, by the good guiding of Christ, do 
through all their life exercise a war&re against the world, Satan, 
and the flesh. 

Hitherto aUo oppertauieth Article 5, Sectim % of the Cmfeerimi ef 
Baele; wkiek waepiaeed obowe m the Tme^k Sectiom. 

III.— From thx Confession of Bohbmia. 

Chapter 12. OfHoty Bi^tiem. 

Touching holy Baptism it is taught, that men must believe 
profess, that this is a Sacrament, or wholesome ministry, of the Nt 
Testament, instituted of Christ the Lord, concerning whidi 
faithful Ministers have in charge, that by the administratioii 
they benefit the holy Church. This Sacrament consisteth of 
outward washing, that is done with water, with calling on the 
of the Holy THnity ; that of the element and the word there^ma) 
arise^ and be jointly made withal, a Sacrament. Auguet. Homui, n 
Johan. cap. ziii. And that washing is used both to signify, and 
witness, a spiritual washing and inward cleansing of the Holy GhoslV^ 
from the disease of hereditary sin, and from other sins, the guilt 
which is here forgiven and taken away ; and to the attaining of 
new manner of birth, or regeneration : whereupon it is called 
Sacrament of the new birth, that is, of regeneration, or a washinf^ 
with water in the word of life. Acts ii. 38. and xxii. 16. For w^ 
believe that whatsoever by Baptism, as by a Sacrament added to the^ 
word of the Gospel, is in the outward ceremony signified and wit- 
nessed, all that doth the Lord God work and perform inwardly : 
that is, that he washeth away sin. Tit. iii. 5. begetteth a man again, 
and bestoweth salvation upon him, John iii. 5. and, through the 
washing of water^ deanseth by the word the sodety of his Churdi, 
£ph. V. 26. dotheth and appardleth it with his Son, Gal. iii. 27. 
burieth and taketh away sin, Rom. vi. 4. and giveth testimony to, 
and sealeth the peace of, a good conscience. 1 Pet. iii. 21. For 
Baptism is not a washing away of the outward filth of the flesh, 
but the stipulation or promise that a good consdenoe maketh 
unto God. For the bestowing of these excellent fruits was h<^ 

OF BAPTtBH. 305 

Baptism given and granted to the Church; which the fisdthfal 
shepherds of souls ought to admini8ter> and which the faithful people 
of Christ, touching the receiving thereof, ought to use lawfully, 
but once only : yet, in deed and truth, throughout their whole 

And although Baptism in the Primitive Church was for the modt 
part ministered to such, as were well grown and of discretion, after 
a Confession of Faith made hy them, according to Christ's com- 
mandment : yet this is taught, that young children also, who are 
reckoned in the nomber of Grod's people, in like sort are by this 
Ministry to be benefited toward the attaining of salvation, that 
they likewise may be consecrated and dedicated to Christ, according 
to this commandment, when he saith, " Suffer ye the little ones to 
come to me, and forbid them not : because unto such belongeth the 
kingdom ci God." Matt. xiz. 14. Therefore according to the 
word of the Lord, and many other testimonies, and other promises 
made to this beloved age of children ; especially when as also there 
is extant an example of that ancient ministry ordained of God, to 
wit. Circumcision, which, by reason of the covenant, belonged not 
only to those of discretion, but therewithal also to young children : 
Gen. xvii. 10. for these causes do our Ministers, without any doubt, 
and boldly, baptise children in the name of the Holy Trinity, ap- 
plying onto them a sign of most effectual virtue, and a most sure 
attestation of that thing, which, by Christ's own words, is assigned 
to this age, and is imparted unto it. For so Christ in general, and 
without exception, giveth in charge, not touching some/ but touch- 
ing all, " Teach ye all nations, and baptize them, in the name of 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost." Matt, xxviii. 19. And 
so over children this most holy name is invoked, in which alone there 
is salvation. Acts iv. 12. 

This is further also taught, that they who are once lawfully and 
truly baptized, when they come to years, ought to do their endea- 
vour, that they may learn to acknowledge and understand what holy 
Baptism is, and therewithal the Catholic and Christian faith, (with- 
out which Baptism availeth nothing;) to the end that afterward, 
when they do desire to be partakers of the Lord his Supper, they 
may with their own mouths, and of their own accord, make pro- 
fession of their faith, and may renew their sanctification, by which 
they were consecrated to the Lord. And such, that is, those which 
are thus instructed, our Ministers receive unto this covenant of holy 



Biqptisin, and by the laying on ofbands* do testify to tbem the gntee 
that is contamed in Bf^tism, to strengthen them to the warfiure of 
fidth : and so after a convenient and godly manner, and with use of 
pure ceremonies, and soch as are profitable to edifying, they bring 
them to the sacrament of the Lord's Sapper, without any reiteration 
of Baptism ; as there are evident tokens and examples to be seen of 
this matter in the Pdmitive Church, which is the tme and best 
mistress of posterity, and which, grnng before, leadeth na the way. 
For if so be that a man should even after a true manner enjoy the 
Baptism of Christ, and should by means hereof be buried with 
Christ into his death to newness of life ; Rom. vk 4. if afterward, 
his life Being prolonged^ he should not, according to the doctrine of 
the holy Grospel, shew fordi a true and lively fidth in Jesus Christ, 
brotherly love towards all those that are consecrated to the Lord, 
and so should lead a life unworthy of his place or calling, and of 
God and his neighbour, and should not in Baptism coneeive a lively 
hope of life everlasting; such a one should assuredly give certain 
testimony of himself, that he had in vain received grace in holy 
Baptism, wherein the name of the Holy TVinity was invoked over 
him : the which thing God the Lord, as his word dechureth, sufieretb 
by no means to escape unrevenged or unpunished. Exod. xx. 7. 

IV. — From thb Confession of France. 
Art. 35. We acknowledge that there be two only Sacrament* 
common to the whole Church. Whereof the first is Baptism : the 
which is given to us to testify our adoption ; because that therein 
we are ingrafted into Christ's body, that, being washed in his bloody 
we may also be renewed to holiness of life by his Spirit. This also we 
say ; that although we are baptized but once, yet the finit of bap- 
tism doth pertain to the whole course of our life : that this promise^ 
to wit, that Christ will be always unto us sanctification, and justi- 
fication, may be sealed up in us with a sure and firm seal. Further- 

* lliis whole ceremony is profitably kept in the Churches of Bohemia, not 
as a point of doctrine, but as a part of Ecclesiastical discipline, without any 
prejudice to the liberty of other Churches ; seeing that it is nowhere com- 
manded in the writings of the Apostles. Neither doth this Confession there- 
fore approve Papistical Confirmation, which they do falsely call a Sacrament. 
But that which is added, that they which are thus baptized are received into 
the covenant of Baptism, it is well expounded a little after, to wit, so far forth 
as that grace which they received in Baptism, is by this mean made manifest 
to the Church, and to them that are baptized. 


more, although Baptism be a Sacrament of faith and repentance, yet, 
seeing that, together with the parents, Grod doth account their pos- 
terity also to be of the Church, we affirm, that infemts, being bom 
of holy parents, are by the authority of Christ to be baptized. 

Al9o,from Art. 88. We say therefore that the element of water, 
be it never so frail, doth notwithstanding truly witness or confirm 
unto us the inward washing of our souls in the blood of Jesus Christ, 
by the virtue and efficacy of the Holy Ghost. 

v.— From trs Confession ov England. 

Art, 11. Sect, 2. We say, that Baptism is a Sacrament of the 
remission of sins, and of that washing which we have in the blood 
of Christ : and that no person, which will profess Christ's name, 
ought to be restrained therefrom : no not the very babes of Chris- 
tians ; fbrsomuch as they be bom in sin, and pertain unto the peo« 
pie of Gk>d. 

VI. — From the Confession of Bbloia. 

Art, 34. We believe and confess, that Jesus Christ, which is the 
end of the law, hath by his own blood-shedding made an end of all 
other propitiatory sacrifice for sins. Also that Circumcision, which 
was done by blood, being abolished, he hath instituted Baptism in 
the place thereof; whereby we are received into the Church of Grod, 
and separated from all other nations, and all kind of strange reli- 
gions, being consecrated unto him alone, whose badge and cogni- 
zance we wear. Finally, Baptism is a token unto us, that He will 
be our God for ever, who also is our gracious Father. Therefore 
the Lord hath commanded all his to be baptized with pure water, 
" In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ;" Matt, 
xxviii. 19. to signify that the blood of Christ doth internally, 
through the operation of the Spirit, perform and effect that in the 
soul, which water doth externally work in our bodies. For as water, 
being poured upon us, and appearing on the body of him that is 
baptized, moistening the same, doth wash away the filthiness of the 
body ; so the blood of Christ, washing the soul, doth cleanse it from 
sin, and doth make us the sons of God, which before were the chil- 
dren of wrath. Not that this material water doth these things ; but 
the sprinkling of the precious blood of the Son of God, which is unto 
hb as the Red Sea, where through we must pass, that we may depart 
from the tyranny of Pharaoh, that is, the Devil, and enter into the 
spiritual land of Canaan. Therefore the Ministers verily do deliver 



uDto US the Sacrament, and the visible thing ; but it is the 


himself that giveth onto as that which is represented by the 
ment, namely, the gifts and invisible graces: washing, purifying 
and cleansing our souls from all spots and iniquities, renewing also 
and filling our hearts with all comfort^ and» to condode, giving uni 
us a certain persuasion of his Fatherly goodness, Nothing us wi 
the new man, and taking off the old man from us, with all his deeds 
For these causes we do believe^, that every one that desireth 
obtain eternal life, ought to be baptized with one Baptism* and 

once alone, which never afterwards i» to be iterated, seeing that w( 
cannot even be bom twice. 

Neither doth this Baptism profit us only at that moment, wh( 
the water resteth upon us, and when we are sprinkled with it ; but^P^-^t 
it is available throughout the whole time of our life. Therefore^^^'^ 
here we do detest the error of the Anabaptists* who are not only not^^^Blt 
content with one only Baptism, and that once received, hnt do also^ ^'Q 

condemn the Baptism of infants, yea, of those that be bom of faith -^- 

fill parents. But we do believe that they ought for the same reason^c^^ 
to be baptized) and sealed with the sign of the covenanlt, for thes-J^-*c 
which in times past the infants amongst the Israelites were 
cised; that is, on account of the same promises made unto oai 
infents, that were made unto theirs. And verily Christ hath m 
less shed his blood to wash the infants of the faithful, than 
that are of riper years. Therefore it is meet that they should re- 
ceive the sign or Sacrament of the thing which Christ hath wrought: 
for their sakes; as, in the Law, the Lord commandeth, that the 
Sacrament of the death and passion of Christ should be communi- 
cated to children new-born, by offering up the lamb for them, which 
was a Sacrament of Christ to come. Lev. xii. 6. Furthermore, that- 
which Circumcision did perform to the people of the Jews,, the same 
doth Baptism perform to the children of the faithful. For the 
which cause Paul calleth Baptbm, " The Circumcision of Christy" 
Col. ii. 11. 

VIL— From thb Confession or Auosburo. 

Art, 9. Concerning Baptism they teach, that it is necessary to 
salvation,* as a ceremony ordained of Christ. Also, that by Bap- 

* Understand this by those things, which afterward were declared in the 
Airrecment made at Wirtemburg in the year 1586, the 29th day of May; where 
these wofds be read : * Master Luther and his fellows do agree upon this, that» 



tism Ihe gfrace of God is offered : and that young in&nU are to be 
baptused : and that they» being by baptism commended unto God, 
are received into God's favour, and are made the sons of God ; as 
Christ witnesseth, speaking of little children in the Church, ** It is 
not the will of your heavenly Father, that any of these little ones 
should perish." Matt, xviii. 14. They condemn the Anabaptists, 
which allow not the Baptism of infants, and hold that infants are 
saved,* though they die witiiout Baptism, and be not within the 
Church of God. 

This in atutther Edition is set down in this sort :-^ 

Touching Baptism they teach, that it is necessary to salvation, 
and that by Baptism the grace of God is offered : that children are 
to be baptized ; and that such as by baptism be presented to God, 
are received into his favour. They condemn the Anabaptists, that 
allow not of children's Baptism, and hold that children are saved 
without Baptism. 

VIIL— From mn Confession of Saxont. 

Art. 13. Baptism is an entire action, to wit, a dipping, and the 
pronouncing of these words, " I baptise thee in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." We do often ex- 
pound the sum of the doctrine of the Gospel comprehended in these 
chords. / baptize thee; that is, I do witness, that by this dipping 
thy sins be washed away, and that thou art now received of the 
true God, who is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, wjio hath 
-edeemed thee by his Son, Jesus Christ, and doth sanctify thee by 
lis Holy Spirit. / baptize thee into the name, thit is, into the in- 
vocation of this true God, whom thou shalt acknowledge, and 
nvocate, and distinguish from all other feigned gods; and shalt 
issure thyself, that those benefits are given to thee, which he hath 
iromised in the Gospel ; that thou art a member of the Church of 
jod, which is redeemed by the Son, and sanctified by the Holy 

y tbe power of Cbrist, even those which are not baptized, may be saved. But 
: is necessary that these should not contemn Baptism. And hence it is tltat 
ley will have infants to be baptized of necessity/' &c. 
* See the former observation. We also condemn the Catabaptists, who do 
ither forbid the Baptism of Infants, or else teach that it is by no means ne- 


Ghoflt. Let them remember this meuiiiig of thia ooveiMuit, who hy 
reawm of their age are capable of dactrine ; and beijig oonfinned by 
this testimony, let them beUeve that their nns be forgiven them, 
and that they aie indeed membera of the Church o£ God, aod let 
them in a true feith invocate the tme God : aa AlHaham, ooonder- 
ing of Circumcieion, did behold the pronuK itfj the aeed to come, 
did umderstand that he was a member of the Gtwirch <tf God, and 
that the cnree was taken away from him alio, by that aeed, of whom 
it was said in the promise, " In thy seed shall all nations be blnsed." 
Gen. xii. 3. So also do^Peter teach, "^at Baptism is a sti- 
pulation, or promise, tbat.ftjpod consoence naketh onto God. by 
the resurrection of Jesus Christ, which is at tlie right hand of God." 
1 Pet. iii. 21, 22. He doth namely call it a stipulalioa, whereby 
God doth make a covenant with thee, and receiveth thee into favor, 
the wounds of thy consdence being healed -, and thou in like sort 
doBt make a covenant with God, to invocate this true God, and to 
beUeve that thon art saved by the Son of Gud, who is raised up 
from death, and now doth reign. So tlus Son of God. sitting sit 
the right hand of the Eternal Father, is efiectnal in thee ; as also 
Paul saith to the Galatians, " Ye that are baptized, have put on 
Christ."* Gal. iii. 27. And that the Holy Ghost is given in Bap- 
tism.t Paul affirmeth it in his Epistle to Titns, saying, " By the 
washing of the new birth, and the renewing of the Holy Ghost." 
Tit. iii. 5. And in John it is said, " Except a man be bom again, 
of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of" 
heaven." John iii. 6. Therefoie we teaeh that Baptism is necessary ; J 
and wc rJo once only baptize every one, as every one was but once 
only cireumeiaed : but we do often make mention of the moat pro- 
fitable doctrine touching the signification thereof, and the mutual 

■ Tbe words of tbe Apostle arc, " As many of you as bave been baptiieif 
into Chrat, hnve puc on Clirist."— Editor. 

t And timt ihe Holy GbosC is given in Baptism, &c. Tluil is, that it is 
indepd offered indilfereritl)* to all, but is r«cei%'ed only by faitb, uid not given, 
to wil. tfarough faith for ihe work done : and tbat it is so receiTcd, aa tbat nei- 
ther faith, nor the efficacy of faith, are necMiarily to be referred to that very 
moment, vrherein any one is baptized. Moreover, in the very form of tbe ad' 
ministration of Dapiisni, we use in our Churches lo declare, that Baptiem if 
not only a pledge of otir renewing, but also, and tbat cbiefly, of the remis&ioD 

I Sec above, the tirst observation ujioii the Conlession uf Augsburg. 


We do also baptise infants, because it is most certain that the 
promise of grace doth pertain also to infants, and to those only 
which are ingrafted into the Church :* because that of these it is 
said, " Suffer little ones to come unto me, for to such appertaineth 
the kingdom of heaven." Matt. xix. 14- And Origen writeth, upon 
the StJttk to the Romamg, * That the Church received the custom of 
baptizing infemts from the Apostles.' Neither do we think that this 
custom is only an idle ceremony, but that the infants are then 
indeed received and sanctified of God ; because that then they are 
grafted into the Church, and the promise pertaineth to such. And 
of this matter there be many things written and published in our 
Churches, whereby the Anabaptists are refuted. 

Also out of Article 19 : Of Confirmation and Unction, 

It is well known, that the manner of consecrating oil was magical 
and execrable: and therefore these anointings, wherein there is 
use of oil, are not to be tolerated. And in old time they used these 
ceremonies otherwise than now they be used. In the ceremony of 
Confirmation there was a trial of doctrine, wherein every one did 
rehearse the form of doctrine, and did openly profess that they did 
mifilike the madness of the Heathen, and of Heretics, and that they 
would be and remain members of the true Church, and never for- 
sake that true opinion which they did then profess. This custom 
was profitable to instruct men, and to keep them in the true know- 
ledge of God. And in our Churches the like things be done in 
catechising the younger sort, and in private confession, f wherein 
the Pastors do examine the doctrine of the people. But as touching 
the ceremony of Confirmation, which the Bishops do now retain, 
what dse is it, but a vain shadow ? 

IX.— From the Confession op Wirtkmburo. 

Chapter 10. Of Baptism. 

We acknowledge that Baptism is to be ministered, as well to 
infants, as to those that are grown to full age, and that it is to be 
used in the Church, even to the end of this world, in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, according to 
Christ his institution. 

* How we understand this grafting, see before, in the Former Confession 
>f Helvetia, Article 21. 

t Concerning private confession, see the second observation upon the Con- 
cision of Bohemia, in the Eighth Section. 


Also we bdieve and confess, that Baptism k that Sea, into th^ 
bottom whereof, as the Prophet saith, " God doth cast aU our sins,"' 
Micah vii. 19. and forgive them for Christ, his Son's sake, throngb- 
faith. But whereas some affirm, that sin, remaining in man after 
Baptism, is not indeed sin of its own nature ; we think it to be 
more pernicious error, than the common sort of men doth judge it 
to be. For, although we do not doubt, but that sin which remaineth 
after Baptism, is forgiven to the faithful for Christ, and, by the 
mercy of God, is not imputed any longer before the tribunal-seat oi 
Grod; yet, if a man weigh and consider the nature thereof it 
indeed in itself sin : ' by reason whereof,' as Augustine said bdbre* 
' no man living is justified in the sight of God ; and there is not 
just man in the earth, which doth good, and sinneth not.' It is said : 
" I see another law in my members, rebelling against the latw of my 
mind, and leading me captive unto the law of sin* which is in my 
members." Rom. vii. 28. Here Paul speaketh of sin, 
remaineth after Baptism ; and he affirmeth, that it doth rebel 
the law of his mind, that is, against the affection of the Holy 
Now, that which rebelleth against the Holy Ghost, nndoobtedly "^^^T 
it is necessary that it be very sin indeed. For this is the nature 
siui that it strive against the Holy Ghost. And it is said : " T|i< 
flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh : an< 
these are contrary the one to the other, so that ye cannot do the 
same things that ye would." Gal. v. 1 7. Here again Paul speaketh^==^^ 
of sin remaining after Baptism : and doth manifestly attribute 
it the nature of sin, to wit, to lust against the Spirit, to be cont 
to the Spirit, and to hinder that righteousness may not be perfect ii 
man. Therefore sin, remaining after Baptism, is of its 
indeed sin, although it be not imputed to him that beUeveth, \m\ 
forgiven for Christ. And therefore Augustine, in his book, DeNupt. 
et Concup. ad Valer. lAh, 1. Cap, 25. saith, 'It is answered, that— 
the concupiscence of the flesh is forgiven in Baptism; not thatr 
there should be no concupiscence, but that it should not be imputed 
to sin. For although the guilt be already discharged, yet the sin^ 
remaineth, till all our infirmities be healed,' &c. And again, De I 
Baptism, Parvulorum, et De Cons, dist, 4. cap. Per Baptismum: | ^ 

' Through Baptism it is brought to pass, that the flesh of sin be 
made void ; yet it is not so made void, that engendered concupiscence 
should not remain in the flesh, but that it should not hurt.' 

Moreover we teach, that he that is baptized in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is sprinkled with a 


spiritual anointing ; that is, is made a member of Christ through 
faith, and endued with the Holy Ghost, that the ears of his mind 
may be opened, and the eyes of his heart lightened, to receive and 
understand heavenly things. And it is evident, that the use of the 
outward anointing was lawful in that government which Moses 
instituted, and that outward anointing was used also in the Church, 
after that the Gospel was published. But it is also evident, that, in 
the law of Moses, there was a time for shadows, but now, Christ 
being revealed, it is the time of truth, and the use of external 
anointing pertaineth to the rudiments of the world. Concerning 
the abrogating of these rudiments, Paul saith, " If ye be dead with 
Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though ye lived in 
the world, are ye burdened with ordinances?" Col. ii. 20. And 
Dionysios, whom they call the Areopagite, and whom they 
think to have written out the ceremonies, which the Apostles 
delivered to the Church, doth insinuate, that an outward anointing 
was used in the Church ; but withal he doth insinuate, and 
that not obscurely, that this ceremony was taken partly from 
the heathenish anointings which wrestlers did use, and partly 
out of the Law of Moses. In Ccslest. Hierarchy De Baptism, But 
by what authority, or with what profit, we may take examples of the 
Heathen, how to worship God, and to administer his Sacraments, 
that saying of Moses doth witness ; " Take heed that thou do not 
imitate the heathen, and enquire after their ceremonies, saying. As 
these nations worshipped their Gods, so will I do likewise : Ye shall 
not so do unto the Lord your God.'* Deut. xii. 30, 31. And that 
saying of Christ, " In vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrine 
the precepts of men/' Matt. zv. 9. And it is not to be doubted, 
that the ceremonies of Moses, whereof one part is the use of 
external anointing, do pertain to the rudiments of this world, to 
whose decrees Paul said before that we are not tied : and whereof 
he saith in another place, " Seeing that ye know God, yea, rather 
are known of God, how turn ye again unto impotent and beggarly 
rudiments, whereuuto, as from the beginning, ye will be in bondage 
again ?" Gal. iv. 9. Furthermore, how can it truly be affirmed, as 
Fabianus writeth, that the preparation or rite of outward anointing 
should be taught of the Apostles, seeing that the Acts of the 
Councils do witness that this ceremony was instituted of Sylvester ? 
And fksclesiastical history doth shew, that the Apostles had no pur- 
pose to make laws concerning holy days, but to teach men true 
godliness, and an upright conversation: how much less did they 


purpose to institute external anointings in the Chnrch, and to bring- 
in shadows where the San doth shine most clearly ? 

There were added unto Baptism certain other ceremonies also, of 
salt, dirt, apparel : but because these are not thought necessary, no 
not of those themselves amongst whom they are used, and are in 
some sort an idle imitation of those ceremonies, which Christ some- 
time used in doing miracles, there is no cause why we should take 
any care for them, whilst we are conversant in so many necessary 

Chapter II. Of Confirmation. 

We do not doubt, but that the Apostles, in the beginning, when, 
the Gospel was revealed and confirmed in the day of Pentecost, did 
by the laying on of hands give mito the believers in Christ that=:: 
wonderful gift of the Holy Ghost, to wit, that they might speak^^ 

with tongues. But out of a personal and temporal act of th< 
Apostles, a general and perpetual Sacrament must not be ordained ii 
the Church, without the special commandment of God. And it is 
horrible thing to be heard, that the Sacrament of Confirmatio] 
(such as the Bishops Suffragan use to give unto children) shouldKl^i 
excel in dignity the Sacrament of Baptism. For thus some o^^^^^ 
them are not ashamed to write of the Sacrament of Confirmation :^ 
' As one thing,' say they, ' is done of the greater, that is, of the^^^e 
chief Bishops, which cannot be done of the lesser ; so is it to 
worshipped and embraced with greater reverence.' In Decreiali 
Epxstold Meliadis, in Actis Condi, torn. t. For to the Apostles i1 
was commanded of God, that, by the ]a3ring on of hands, 
should give, to those that believe in Christ, the gifts of the Holj m ^ ^y 
Ghost. Now we must not understand this properly of those private 
gifts of the Holy Ghost, which are necessary to every one unto sal- 
vation ; (for those the faithful receive by the preaching of th( 
Gospel, and by Baptism :) but we must understand it of the public 
gifts of the Holy Ghost, to wit, speaking with divers tongues, and 
other gifts, which then were necessary for the public confirmation of 
the Gospel touching Christ. Therefore, after that the authority of 
the Gospel was sufficiently confirmed by such miracles, as that 
wonderful gift of tongues did cease ; so also the ceremony of laying 
on oi hands, whereby that gift was given, did altogether, as touching 
this thing, cease. Otherwise, of a shadow we must make a general 
Sacrament for the Church ; and those that are sick must be shadowed 
over, because that many were healed by the shadow of Peter. Acts 


.15. In like sort we must make a general Sacrament of the 
lying on of napkins ; because that many were healed of their dis- 
ases, when Paul's napkins were laid upon them. Acts xix. 12. 
Lnd we must lie upon the dead, because that Paul, by stretching 
imself upon a young man, did raise him up from death. Acts xx. 
; 12. And yet the Pastors of Churches must not be left at 
iberty to have no regard to instruct children and youth in that 
ioctrine which is indeed godly ; it must be required of them, that 
hey teach the Catechism very diligently. 

X.-— From tub Conpbssion op Subvbland. 

Chapter 17. Of Baptism, 

As touching Baptism, we confess that which the Scripture doth in 
divers places teach thereof : that we by it are buried into the death 
of Christ, Rom. vi. 3, 4. are made one body, 1 Cor. xii. 13. and 
do put on Christ; Gal. iii. 27. that it is the font of regeneration. 
Tit. iii. 5. that it washeth away sins, and saveth us. Acts zxii. 16. 
But all these things we do so understand, as St. Peter hath inter* 
preted them, where he saith, " To the figure whereof. Baptism, that 
now is, answering, doth also save us ; not by putting away of the 
filth of the flesh, but the profession of a good conscience toward 
€k)d." 1 Pet. iii. 21. For, " without faith it is impossible to please 
God." Heb. xi. 6. And, *' we are saved by grace, and not by our 
works." Ephes. ii. 8, 9. And seeing that Baptism is a Sacrament 
of that covenant, which God hath made with those that be his^ 
promising that he will be their God, and the God of their seed, and 
that he will be a revenger of their wrongs, and will take them for 
his people ; to conclude, seeing it is a token of the renewing of the 
Spirit, which is wrought by Christ: therefore our Preachers do 
teach, that it is to be given to infants also, as well as that in times 
past under Moses they were circumcised. For we are indeed the 
children of Abraham ; and therefore that promise, " I will be thy 
God, and the God of thy seed," Gal. iii. 7—9. doth no less per- 
tain unto us, than it did to that ancient people. 


I. — Fkou thi lattkb CoNriasiON or Hilvktia. 
Cluster 1 2. Of the Hofy Si^ipcr of the Lord. 
The Sapper of the Lord (which is ftlao called the Lord's Tfehle> 
and the Euchariat, that is, & Thanksgiving;} is therefore cofnmonl^ 
caUed a Supper, because it was instituted of Christ in that hia last 
Supper, and doth as yet represent the same, and in it the &ithfal 
are ^iritDally fed and nourished. For the author of the Supper of 
the Lord U not an angel or man, but the very Son of God, our LcHtf 
Jeooe Christ, who did first of all consecrate it to hia Chordi. And, 
the saioe blessing and consecration doth stall remain amongst alL 
those who celebrate no other but that very Supper, which the Lord- 
did institate ; and at that do recite the words of the Sn{^>er of t he -" 
Lord, and in all things look unto Christ only by a tnu fsith; aCM 
whose hands, aa it were, they do receive that which they do recora^^S 
by the ministry of the Ministers of the Church, The Lord by this^^^ 
sacred rite would have that great benefit to be kept in fresh remem-'^— -■ 
brunce, which he did for mankind ; to wit, that, by giving up IiIim ■ m 
body to death, and shedding his blood, he hath forgiven us aU onr:^-*' 
uns, and redeemed us from eternal death, and the power of tb^^v-^e 
Devil, and doth now feed us with bis flesh, and giveth na his bloodE:^^ 
to drink : which things, being apprehended spiritually by a tme^^-ic 
bith, do nourish us up to life everlasting. And this so great ^^^ ■ 
benefit is renewed, so oft as the Supper is celebrated. For th^^^-i^ 
liord said, " Do this in remembrance of me." Luke xzii. 19. 

By this hiJy Supper also it ia sesled unto as, that the very body^f? 

of Christ was truly given up for us, and hia blood shed for thes ^^ 

remisMon of our ains, lest that our faith might somewhat waver,— '- 
And this is outwardly represented unto ns, by the Minister, in ths gi^* 
Sacrament, after a visible manner, and, as it were, laid before our""*" 
eyes to be seen, which is inwardly in the soul invisibly performed -^^ 
by the Hoiy Ghost. Outwardly, bread is oflered by the Minister, — 
and the words of the Lord are beard : " Receive, eat, this is my body ; 
take it, and divide it amongst you : drink ye all of this, this b my 
blood." Matt xxvi. 26—28. Luke siii. 17—20- Therefore the 
hithful do receive that which is ^ven by the Minister -of the I 
and do eat the bread of the Lord, and driuk of the Lord's 

le Lord, J 

d's cup. I 


t yet, by the working of ChriBt, through the Holy Ghost, they 
eive also the flesh and blood of the Lord, and do feed on them to 
everlasting. For the flesh and blood of Christ is true meat and 
nk unto everlasting life : yea Christ himself, in that he was de- 
:red for us, and is our Saviour, is that special thing and substance 
the Supper ; and therefore we sufier nothing to be put in his 


But that it may the better and more plainly be understood, how 
! flesh and blood of Christ are the meat and drink of the faithfu), 
1 are received by the fiaithful to life everlasting, we will add more- 
iT these four things. 

Elating is of divers sorts : for there is a corporal eating, whereby 
tat is taken into a man's mouth, chewed with the teeth, and 
allowed down into the belly. After this manner did the Caper- 
ites in times past think that they should eat the flesh of the Lord : 
t they are confuted by him; John vi. 30—63' For as the flesh 
Christ cannot be eaten bodily, without great wickedness and 
lelty, so is it not meat for the belly, as all men do confess. We 
erefore disallow that Canon in the Pope's decrees. Ego Berengari' 
; De CoHseerat. dist. 2. For neither did godly antiquity believe, 
ither yet do we believe, that the body of Christ can be eaten 
rporally, and essentiaUy, with a bodily mouth. 
There is also a spiritual eating of Christ's body ; not such a one, 
lereby it may be thought that the very meat is changed into the 
>int, but whereby (the Lord's body and blood remaining in their 
n:i essence and property) those things are spiritually communicated 
ito usy not after a corporal, but after a spiritual manner, through 
e Holy Ghost, who doth apply and bestow upon us those things 
o wit, remission of sins, deliverance, and life everlasting) which 
e prepared for us by the flesh and blood of our Lord, given for us : 
t that Christ doth now live in us, and we live in him ; and doth 
luae us to apprehend him by true fiedth, to this end, that he may 
icome unto us such a spiritual meat and drink, that is to say, our 
ie. For even as corporal meat and drink do not only refresh and 
rengthen our bodies, but also do keep them in life ; even so the 
ssh of Christ deUvered for us, and his blood shed for us, do not 
ily refresh and strengthen our souls, but also do preserve them 
Ive, not so far as they be corporally eaten and drunken, but so far 
i they are communicated unto us spiritually by the Spirit of God:'*' 

^ The idTerb mo far om, understand to be used casually, for btcauu ; as if he 
ad said, not that they be eaten corporally, &c. But in this place, and other 


the Lord saying, " The bread whidi I will give is my flesh, whidi I 
will give for the life of the world :" John vi. 51. iIbo, ** The flesh 
(to wit, corporally eaten) profiteth nothing, it is the S^rit which 
giveth life : and the words which I speak to yon, are Spirit and 
life." John vi. 63. And as we must by eating receive the meat into 
our bodies, to the end that it may work in us, and shew its efficacy 
in us, (because, while it is without us, it profiteth us not at all ;) 
even so it is necessary that we receive Christ by fiedth, that he may 
be made ours, and that he may live in us, and we in himi For he 
saithy " I am the bread of life ; he that cometh to me shall not 
hunger, and he that believeth in me, shall not thirst any more :" 
Johnj vi. 85. and also, '< He that eateth me, shall live liirough 
me ; and he abideth in me, and I in him/* John vi. 56. By all 
which it appeareth manifestly, that by spiritual meat we mean not 
any imaginary thing, but the very body of our Lord Jesns» given to 
us ; which yet is received of the fiaithful, not corporally, but spirit- 
ually, by faith : in which point we do wholly foUow the doctrine oT 
our Lord and Saviour Christ, in the 6th of John. And this eating 
of the flesh, and drinking of the blood of the Lord, is so necessary 
to salvation, that without it no man can be saved. This spiritual 
eating and drinking is also without the Supper of the Lord, even so 
often as, and wheresoever, a man doth believe in Christ. To which 
purpose that sentence of St. Austin doth happily belong, ' Why 
dost thou prepare thy teeth and belly? Believe, and thou hast 

Besides that former spiritual eating, there is a sacramental eating 
of the body of the Lord ; whereby the fiEiithfal man not only is par- 
taker, spiritually and internally, of the true body and blood of the 
Lord ; but also, by coming to the Table of the Lord, doth outwardly 
receive the visible Sacraments of the body and blood of the Lord. 
True it is, that the faithful man, by believing, did before receive the 
food that giveth life, and still receiveth the same ; but yet, when he 
receiveth the Sacrament, he receiveth something more. For he 
goeth on in continual communication of the body and blood of the 
Lord, and his faith is daily more and more kindled, more strength- 
ened and refreshed, by the spiritual nourishment. For while we 

places elsewhere afterward, so understand these adverbs corporaQy^ and spint- 
ualfyy that by them not the thing signified, which is received, but the manner of 
receiving it, is declared, namely, to be not corporal, but spiritual ; that is, not 
of the external mouth, but of the faithful mind. 


live, fifidth hath contiDual increasings : and he that outwardly doth 
receive the Sacraments with a true £uth, the same doth not only 
receive the sign, but also doth enjoy (as we have said) the thing 
itself. Moreover, the same man doth obey the Lord's institution 
and commandment, and vrith a joyful mind giveth thanks for his and 
the redemption of all mankind, and maketh a ftdthful remembrance 
of the Lord's death, and doth witness the same before the Church » 
of which body he is a member. This also is sealed to those which 
receive the Sacrament, that the body of the Lord was given, and 
his blood shed, not only for men in general, but particularly for 
every fidthful communicant, whose meat and drink He is, to life 
everlasting. But as for him that vrithout faith cometh to thb holy 
Table of the Lord, he is made partaker of the Sacrament only ; but 
the matter of the Sacrament, from whence cometh life and salva- 
tion, he receiveth not at all : and such men do unworthily eat of 
the Lord's Table. " Now they which do unworthily eat of the 
Lord's bread and drink of the Lord's cup, they are guilty' of the 
body and blood of the Lord, and they eat and drink it to their 
judgment." 1 Cor. xi. 26 — 29. For when as they do not approach 
with true ^sdth, they do despite unto the death of Christ, and there* 
fore eat and drink condemnation to themselves. 

We do not therefore so join the body of the Lord and his blood 
with the bread and wine, as though we thought that the bread is the 
body of Christ, more than after a sacramental manner ; or that the 
body of Christ doth lie hid corporally under the bread, so as it 
ought to be worshipped under the forms of bread ; or yet that who- 
soever he be which receiveth the sign, he receiveth the thing itself. 
Hie body of Christ is in the heavens, at the right hand of his 
Father : and therefore our hearts are to be lifted up on high, and 
not to be fixed on the bread, neither is the Lord to be worshipped in 
the bread ; though, notwithstanding, the Lord is not absent from 
his Church, when as they celebrate the Supper. The sun, being 
absent from us in the heavens, is yet notwithstanding present 
amongst us effectually : how much more Christ, the Sun of righte- 
ousness, though in body he be absent from us in the heavens, yet is 
present amongst us, not corporally, but spiritually, by his lively 
operation ; and so as he himself promised, in his last Supper, to be 
present amongst us I John xiv, xv, and xvi. Whereupon it followeth, 
that we have not the Supper without Christ, and yet that we have 
meanwhile an unbloody and mystical Supper, even as all antiquity 
called it. 


Moreover, we are admoniahed, in the celebration of the Supper 
of the Lord, to be mindful of the body whereof we are made 
members ; and that therefore we be at concord with all our brethren, 
that we lire holily, and not pollute ourselvea with wickedness, 
and strange religions ; but, persevering in the true fedth to the end 
of our life, give diligence to excel in holiness of life. It is therefore 
very requisite, that, purposing to come to the Supper of the Lord, 
we do try ourselves, according to the commandment of the Apostle : 
firsty with what hlth we are indued, whether we believe that Christ 
is come to save sinners, and to call them to repentance* and 
whether each man believe that he is in the number of them, that, 
bemg delivered by Christ, are saved ; and whether he have purposed 
to change his wicked life, to live holily, and persevere, through God's 
assistance, in true religion, and in concord with his brethren, and to 
give worthy thanks to God for his delivery, &c. 

We think that rite, manner, or form of the Supper to be the 
most simple and excellent, which cometh nearest to the first institu- 
tion of the Lord, and to the Apostles' doctrine : which doth consist 
in declaring the word of God, in godly prayers, in the acticm itself 
that the Lord used, and the repeating of it ; in the eating of the 
Lord's body, and drinking of his blood ; in the wholesome remem* 
brance of the Lord's death, and faithful giving of thanks ; and in 
an holy fellowship in the union of the body of the Church. We 
therefore disallow them, which have taken from the faithful one part 
of the Sacrament, to wit, the Lord's cup. For these do very 
grievously offend against the institution of the Lord, who saith, 
" Drink all of you of this ;*' Matt. xxvi. 27. which he did not so 
plainly say of the bread. What manner of mass it was, that the 
Fathers used, whether it were tolerable, or intolerable, we do not 
now dispute. But this we say freely ; that the Mass which is now' 
used throughout the Romish Church, which, for brevity's nke, 
we will not now particularly recite, for many and most just caused 
is quite abolished out of our Churches. Truly we could not lik^ 
of it, because that, of a most wholesome action, they have made ^- 
vain spectacle; also because it is made a meritorious matter^ anc3> 
is said for money ; likewise because that in it the Priest is said to 
make the very body of the Lord, and to offer the same really, eveca^ 
for the remission of the sins of the quick and the dead. Add thits 
also ; that they do it for the honour, worship, and reverence of the- 
saints in heaven, &c. 

09 THB 8UPPBR 07 THB LORD. 321 

IL — From the former Confbssion of Hblvbtia. 

Article 22. 0/ the Lord*8 Supper. 

We say that the Supper is a mystical thing, wherein the Lord 
doth indeed offer, unto those that are his, his body and blood, 
that is, himself, to this end, that he may more and more live in 
them, and they in him. Not that the body and blood of the Lord 
are either naturaUy united to bread and wine, or be locally here 
inclosed, or be placed here by any carnal presence ; but that bread 
and wine, by the institution of the Lord, are signs, whereby the 
true communication of his body and blood is exhibited of the Lord 
himself, by the ministry of the Church, not to be meat for the 
belly, which doth perish, but to be nourishment unto eternal life. 
We do therefore use this holy meat oftentimes, because that, being 
admonished hereby, we do with the eyes of faith behold the death 
and blood of Christ crucified : and, meditating upon our salvation, 
not without a taste of heavenly life, and a true sense of life eternal, 
we arc reft^shed by this spiritual, lively, and inward food, with an 
unspeakable sweetness ; and we do rejoice with a joy that cannot 
be expressed in words, for that life which we have found ; and we 
do wholly, and with all our strength, pour out thanksgiving for so 
wonderful a benefit of Christ bestowed upon us. Therefore we are 
most unworthily charged of some, who think that we do attribute 
very little to these holy signs. For these things be holy and 
reverend,* as those which were instituted and received of our High 
Priest, Christ : exhibiting unto us, after their manner, as we have 
said, the things signified ; giving witness of the things done ; 
representing very difficult things unto us ; and, by a certain won- 
derful analogy of things signified, bringing light to those most 
evident mysteries. Moreover, they minister aid and help even to 
feuth itself: and, to conclude, they do serve instead of an oath, 
to bind him that is entered into the profession of Christianity. 
Thus holily do we think of the sacred signs. But we do always 

* By kobff vndentand those things which are appointed to a most holy use ; 
not those wherein consisteth any inherent holiness. In like manner by reverend, 
understand those things which are to be receiFed with outward comeliness, 
«nd in that order which might testify an internal veneration ; namely, when our 
minds are lifted up unto God : not that any worship ought to be yielded to 
the signs themselves, or that those rites, which are either ui their own nature 
superstitious, or else may easUy be turned into superstition, ought to be used 
in the holy service of the Lord. 


Kttribote the force and virtue of qnickeiung and BsactifyiD^ to Him, 
who is life itoelf ; to whom be praiae for ever : Amen. 

Ota of tie DedantioH of t he same Confetsion :~Oft}ie Holy Supper 
of the Lord. 
Tht Sapper of the Lord is a Sacrament, to wit,, the boty insti- 
tution of the Lord> whereby be doth renew and witness onto us his 
hoDDtifiilneaa, to wit, the communion of his body and blood, and 
that by a viaible »\ga. For by bread and wine he dotb declare 
tinto ns what be givetb, namely himself, to be the nonrisbnieDt of 
oar life : for he hy bis boCy and blood doth feed us to life eternal, 
llerefbre tbe very pft rf God (that is, the body aod blood of the 
Lord, to wit, tbe body of the Lord delivered anto death for us, and 
his blood ehed for the remission of sins) is the chiefest port of this 
Sacrament. For tbe body and blood of Christ ia thus made or 
prepared to be the hvely meat of our aools. The Son of God dotb 
die in the fleah for ns, that he mi^ht quicken us ; he poureth out 
his blood, that be might cleanse us from our sins. To conclude. 
he raiaeth op his body from the dead, that our bodies may receive 
hope, Btid strength to rise again. Thus therefore dotb the Lord 
offer himself to be eaten and possessed of as, and not a certain 
Mse. imagioBtioD of a man, or an idle pictore, in his stead. For 
beside him there is nothing in heaven, or in earth, that may feed 
■nd satiate our sonls. Now, we do indeed eat the body, and we 
do indeed drink tbe blood, of oar Lord ; but not so rawly, as tbe 
Papists have hitherto taught, to wit, the bread being changed into 
natural flesh, substantially, (that is, corporally, or carnally,) or 
tbe body being included in the bread ; but spiritually, that is, after 
a spiritual manner, and with a feitbfiil mind. The Lord is eaten 
indeed, and with fruit, by btth, that now he may live whole in his, 
and his in him. 

Moreover, these holy gifts of God (which are not given of any 
other, than tbe Lord himself) according to the institution of the 
Lord, are represented unto us by visible signs, to wit, bread and 
wine, and offered to our senses, not that we should rest in them, 
but that our weakness may be helped, and that we may Uft up our 
hearts unto the Lord ; knowing that here we must think upon 
greater things, to wit. not of eating bread, or drinking wine, but of 
receiving tbe Lord himself, with all his gifts, by a &itbfnl mind. 
Therefore, when the guests see the bread on tbe board, they set 
their minds upon the body of Christ; when they see tbe cap. they 


M their minds upon the hlood of Christ : when they see the bread 

broken, and the wine poured out^ they consider how that the body 

of Christ was tormented, and his blood poured out, for their sakes. 

Ab by bread the bodies are nourished and strengthened ; as by wine 

the, minds are made merry: so the godly do believe, that by the 

body of the Lord, delivered unto death for them, they are fed to 

everiasting Hfe ; and that by his blood poured out upon the cross, 

their consciences are renewed. To conclude> they do feel the quick- 

fBDing power of Christ, which doth confirm them. 

In this sort is the Supper of the Lord accomplished spiritually : 
Ukub are the bread and wine a Sacrament unto U8» and not bare and 
naked signs. Hereupon now ariseth a very great rejoicing and 
Umnkngiring for so great. benefits; also a praising and confessing 
of tiie same of God. Here those works» which the Lord once 
finished, are renewed and represented : but especially the memory of 
tiie Lord's death is renewed, which although it once happened, and 
noiw is past, yet unto the ftdthful it is as yet fresh and present. For 
the remembrance of the death of Christ» which we make in the Sup- 
per, Is hr more noble and holy than theirs, who, in some profietne 
Innquet, are mindful of thdr companion, when they drink the wine 
tet be gave them. For among these, he that is absent worketh 
nothing : but in this holy Supper of the ftdthfiil the Lord is presenti 
and doth work efiectually by the Spirit in their hearts, as he who, 
accor din g to his promises, is in the midst of them. 

By these things it is most evident^ that in the holy Supper we 
do not take away our Lord Christ from his Church, nor deny that 
his body and blood b there received to be our nourishment unto 
life eternal. But we, together with our predecessors, and the diief 
prdates of our religion, did, and as yet to this day do, deny, that 
the very bodj of Christ is eaten carnally, or that it is present every 
where corporally, and after a natural manner. For we do openly 
oonfisas, according to the Scriptures, and with all the holy Fathers, 
that Jesos Christ our Lord left this world, and went to his Father : 
and that he now sitteth at the right hand of his Father in heavenly 
glory, finom whence he shall never* descend, or be drawn down into 
this earthly and transitory world. For the true presence of Christ 
in the Supper is heavenly, not earthly, not carnal. Also we deny 
that the bread is turned into the body of Christ miraculously, so 
that the bread should become the very body of Christ, naturally and 

^ Ifevar, that is, under the present dispensation, or before bis return in 
fflory and jadgnent at the last day. — Eorroa. 

r 2 


sabBtantiaUy, yet after a spiritual manner. To oondadct we deny 
that the body of Christ is united with the signs, by any other than 
a mystical mean, whereof we have spoken sufficiently in the general 
consideration of a Sacrament. Seeing therefore we have expressly 
said and written, with the holy Fathers, TertuUian, Jerome, Ambrose, 
and Augustine, ' that the bread is a figure, token, and sign d the 
body of Christ,' and also, ' that by bread and wine tlie body and 
blood of the Lord are signified;' this is it which we woidd make 
manifest, to wit, that the bread is not the very body ci the Lord, 
but a token, or a Sacrament of his body. And yet we do not there- 
fore speak these things, as though we did simply deny aU kind of 
presence of Christ in the Supper : for that kind of presence whidi 
now we have confessed, doth remain true, without any prgudioe 
to this sort of speeches. Moreover, the word Tkis, in the sentence, 
" This is my body," Luke zxii. 19. doth not only shew bread unto oar 
corporal eyes, but therewith also it sheweth the very body of Christ 
unto the eyes of our mind. 

■ Also we confess, that this use of the Supper is so holy and pro- 
fitable, that whosoever shall worthily, that is, with a trae faith, 
eat of this bread, and drink of this cup of the Lord, he doth 
receive heavenly gifts from the Lord: but "whosoever shall eat 
of this bread, and drink of this cup, unworthily," (that is, without 
fiaith, by which alone we are made partakers of the Lord, and 
of salvation,) ''he doth eat and drink judgment unto himself;" 
as Paul wrote to the Corinthians. 1 Cor. zi. 27 ; 29. Wherefore we 
do often put this diligently into the heads of our people, that they 
take heed, that none of them abuse the Lord's Table; but that 
every one examine himself, and then eat of that bread, and drink of 
that cup. 1 Cor. xi. 28. Also, the Lord's Supper is a badge unto 
us ; for as one loaf, and one wine, are made of many grains and 
grapes, so we, being the whole multitude of the faithful, are gathered 
together to be one bread, and one body. 1 Cor. z. 17. By this 
we testify, in an outward profession, that we are redeemed by the 
blood of Christ, and made the members of Christ ; to whom we 
give thanks, in whom we are confederates, and do promise to per- 
form mutual duties one toward another. 

III. — From the Confession of Basle. 

Article 6. 0/ the Supper qf the Lord. 

We confess that the Lord Jesus did institute his holy Supper, 
that his holy passion might be remembered with thanksgiving, his 


death declared, and Christian charity and unity, with true faith, 
testified. And as in Baptism (wherein the washing away of our 
sins is ofiered hy the Minister of the Church, and yet is wrought 
only by the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost) true water 
remaineth ; so also in the Supper of the Lord (wherein, together 
^with the bread and wine of the Lord, the true body and the true 
blood of Christ is oflered by the Minister of the Church) bread and 
vrine remaineth. Moreover, we do firmly believe, that Christ him- 
self is the meat of fedthful souls unto life eternal, and that our souls, 
by faith in Christ crucified, are fed and moistened with the flesh and 
Hood of Christ; John vi. 53. so that we, being members of his 
body, as of our only head, Eph. i. 22 ; iv. 15 ; v. 23. and Col. i« 
18. do live in him, and he in us ; wherein, at the last day, through 
him, and in him, we shall rise again to eternal joy and blessedness. 
John xi. 25. 

And, in the Marginal Note, upon the words. Our Souls ;— 

For it is a spiritual meat, and therefore it is received of a faithful 
soul; that is, the souls are made full, valiant, mighty, peaceable, 
quiet, merry, and lively to all things, as the body is by the corporal 

Also, upon the words. The Members of the Head : — 

And so man is made a spiritual member of the spiritual body 
of Christ. 

And, in the Margin^ upon the words. To be present :~ 

To wit, sacramentally, and by a remembrance of futh, which 
lifteth up a man's mind to heaven, and doth not pull down Christ, 
according to his humanity, from the right hand of God. 

Now we do not include into the bread and drink of the Lord, 
the natural, true, and substantial body of Christ, which was bom 
of the pure virgin Mary, sufiered for us, and ascended into heaven. 
Therefore neither we do worship Christ in the signs of bread and 
wine, which we do commonly call the Sacraments of the body and 
blood of Christ; but in heaven, at the right hand of God the 
Father, Col. iii. 1. Heb. i. 3. and x. 12. from whence he shall 
come to judge the quick and the dead. Acts iii. 21. 2 Tim iv. 1. 

IV. — From the Confession of Bohemia. 
Chapter 13. Of the Holy Supper of the Lord. 
In the thirteenth place we tea;ch, touching the Supper of the 

336 Til 8 

hard which ii in -ijtp New Teatament, that we must believe with 
the heart, uid prcJi|liB; with the mouth, that it u a Sacrameut 
inatitDted of Chriit d^i^^tfrd, in his last Suj^er, and that in e^rcaa 
fimn of wwds: that i|t,j!ttut concerning. Iwead and wine he hath 
proaounoed, that they Ije his body and hia blood ; and that th^ 
were ddivered to his Applies, Matt. xxvi. 3e-7-38. Hark xhr. 23 — 
24. Lnke xxii. 19, 20. and so in hke M»t to the whole muTcraid 
Church, for a monument of his death, and that aU men ihffliH 
lawloUy use the partidpation thereof, even to the end of the worid. 
Of this Sacrament the Evangdiats do write, apd especially St. Fanl, 
whose words even to this day are thus read in the Chnrch : " I have 
received of the Lord, that which I also have delivered unb} yon ; to 
wit, that the Lord Jeans . in that night, whcnin he waa betrayed, took 
bread, &c." 1 Cor. xi. S3. And a Uttle after, "What ye come 
together, (to wit, to the Sapper of the Lord,} let one tarry for 
another." ver. 33. Therefore, according to these tilings, we be- 
lieve with the heart, and confeaa with the month, that thia bread 
of the Lord's Suppo* is the body ci the Lord Jcsoa Christ 
delivered for us : and that this cap,orthewineinthcciq>, isUkewiae 
his blood shed for ns for the remission of nns. And this we affirm 
according to the express words of Christ, wherein he saitfa, " Thu 
is my body. This is my blood." Matt. zzvi. 26 ; 28. Which words 
may not be taken or nnderstood of any other thing, nor be other- 
wise referred than only to the bread and cop of the Lord : and the 
body and blood of the Lord cannot be understood of any other, 
than of the only true and proper body of Christ, which he made 
meat by his torments, and of his blood, which, being largely poured 
ont of hia body, he appointed to be drink for his Chnrdi. For 
he had not a natural body, and other blood. Therefore onr 
Ministers do teach, that to these certain words pronounced by 
Christ our Lord, (wherein be doth peculiarly pronounce, witness, and 
institute bread to be his body, and wine to be his bloodi) I say, that 
to these words no man may add anything, no man may detract any 
thing from them : but that every man in these words is to believe that 
which of themselves they signify,* and that no man ought to turn 
from them, either to the right hand, or to the left. 

* That U to Bay, of the true bread and wine ; and also of the very body 
that was given for lis, and of the very lilixid ibat wai shed for ni. A( for 
that BttribuCioii, wfaerein ifae bread is ^aid to be tbe body, and wine to be the 
blood, even in thii Confeasion it is evidently set down, that it ought to W 
interpreted by a sacnuneiital metonymy. 


Yet, to ezpoond the meaning of this faith, we do farther teach, 
that although the hread he the hody of Christ, according to his 
institntion, and wine he his hlood, yet doth neither of these leave its 
nature, or change or lose its suhstance ; hat that the hread is, and 
doth remain, hread ; and that the wine is, and doth remain, wine : 
as also the hdy Scripture doth give this its own name to either of 
them. Otherwise, if it should cease to he an element, it should not 
be a Sacrament ; seeing that a Sacrament is then made, when the 
"word is added to the element. Auput, in Joan, Tract 80. et EpisL 23. 
md JBom/M, Ndther could it signify, or bear witness, if it had 
nothing instead of that thing, whereof it is a Sacrament ; or if the 
thing aig^nified should have any other manner of presence, than that 
"wbieh is sacramental. Wherefore this speech, ' Bread is the hody, 
and wine is the blood of Christ,' is a sacramental speech ; to wit, 
that these two distinct things do remain the self-same thing which 
in their own nature they be, and yet that, by reason of a sacramental 
union, or sacramentaUy, they be that also, which they do signify, 
and whereoi they do testify ; and yet not in their own nature, or 
after a natural manner» but by the institution, pronouncing, or 
witnessing of the author: as Paul doth excellently expound this, 
where he thus writeth, " The cup which we bless, is it not the com- 
munion of the blood of Christ ? the bread which we break, is it not 
the communion of the body of Christ ?" 1 Cor. x. 1 6. 

Now, both the good and the wicked do use this Sacrament; 
and yet the true believers do receive it to life, and those which do 
not believe do receive it to judgment and condemnation. And 
althoogh either of them do receive this Sacrament, and the truth 
thereof* sacramentaUy and outwardly, yet the believers do alone 
receive it spirituaUy» and so to their salvation : without which spiritual 
receiving, there is no worthy receiving in the sacramental use. 

* By the word inOh, in this place, understand, not the fruit of tbe Sacra 

ments, which is received of the faithful only ; neither yet the very body and 

Mood of Christ, (seeing that they also cannot be received but by faith, to 

salvatioii;) but the bread and the wine, the which (whether worthy or 

uowordiy communicants do approach) are never, in respect of God, offered, as 

to be received, without the thing signified : because the truth of God de- 

pendeth not upon the worthiness or unworthlness of the communicants. 

Yet hereby it cannot be concluded, that both of them are received of every 

one, becaaae both of them are always offered by God to all indifferendy. 

Cotieemiog which matter, look before in the Twelfth Section and second 

observation upon the Confession of the Waldenses, or Bohemians ; and also 

verj faUy hevfafter in the first observatioii upon the Confession of Augsburg. 


For by this mean we are ingrafted into Christy and into his body ; 
and by this mean is that true union and commanion of Christ with 
his Church made : and in like sort by this mean is the communion 
of the holy Church, which is a certain spiritual body, JOEiade amongst 
and with themselves ; whereof the Apostle Writeth, "' There is one 
bread, and we, being many, are one body, seeing we are all made 
partakers of one bread." 1 Cor. x. 17. 

Moreover, we are further taught, that with this ministry, or 
Sacrament of the Lord, no other thing ought to be done, or taken 
in hand, than that one thing which was shewed, ordained, and 
expressly commanded of Christ himself; as when he reached bread, 
severally and pecufiarly, to his disciples, and in express words 
sud, ''Take, eat, this is my body:" and in like sort, when he 
reached to them the cup, severally and peculiarly, sajing, " Drink 
aU ye of this. This is my blood." Thus therefore, according to this 
commandment, the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ must 
be distributed only, and be received in common of the fiiithful, 
*or believing Christians : but it must not be sacrificed, or set forth, 
x>r lifted up, that it may be worshipped, or exhibited, or stored 
away, or carried aboat. And both these must be received in several 
elements peculiarly ; his body severally, and also his holy blood 
severaUy, as either of them were of the Lord severally instituted, 
reached forth, and given to all his disciples in common. And 
this doctrine was used in the first holy Church, and this Sacrament 
was wholly distributed and received in both parts. But he that, 
beside or contrary to these commandments, and the institution of 
Christ, dare bring in any other thing, or somewhat more, and use 
it with this Sacrament, or wantonly invent therein at his pleasure; 
he doth manifestly and raalapertly against our Lord, who instituted 
this Sacrament, and committeth a thing clean contrary to his holy 
testament, and last will, which was declared in his own words, 
and that expressly. 

Also, this Sacrament ought to be received and administered with- 
out adoration, and without that worship which is due to Grod alone : 
yet with a due kind of religion and reverence, and chiefly with that 
which is the greatest of all, namely with faith and examination of 
one's self, which in this action is most acceptable to Christ our 
Lord, and most profitable for men ; which also St. Paul taught the 
first Church, and exhorted it hereunto, saying, " Let every man try. 
or gamine, himself, aud so let him eat of that bread, and drink 
of that cup. For he that eateth and driuketh unworthily, doth 


^t and drink his own judgment, or condemnation^ because he dis- 
cemeth not the JiOrd's body." 1 Cor. xi. 28, 29. And, in another 
place, " Prove yourselves, whether ye are in the fiuth : examine 
yoorselves. Know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ 
is in you, except ye be reprobates ? Now I pray unto God, that ye 
do no evil." 2 Cor. xiii. 5 ; 7. If so be that any man approach to 
this Table without such a trial, and presenting of himself worthy ; 
^pvho hath not first examined himself, what manner of faith he 
hath, with what purpose he came to this Sacrament, or how he 
had prepared himself hereunto : I say, such a man should greatly 
profane and reproach this Sacrament, yea the whole institution 
bereof appointed by Christ. For which cause the Ministers of our 
Churches do admit none to this Sacrament, neither give it unto any, 
bat to such as are noted to come unto it seriously, and do, so much 
as in them lieth, prepare themselves hereunto after such a manner as 
becometh Christian godliness. 

N^ow, when the congregation doth come together to celebrate 

the use of the Lord's Supper, and the participation thereof, then, 

according to the example of the Primitive Church, our Mmisters do 

teach in their holy Sermons concerning Christ, and concerning the 

grace which, through him, and in him, is given to sinners ; and 

especially concerning his death, the shedding of his blood, and the 

redemption and salvation purchased thereby. After that, the whole 

Church doth join together in faithful prayers unto God, to obtain 

thisy that they may indeed use this Sacrament worthily. Moreover, 

in the next place, absolution from sin is lawfully administered,'*' the 

words of the institution are rehearsed, and the people by exhortation 

are stirred up to a reverent consideration of this mystery, and to a 

cheerful and serious contemplation of the benefits of Grod. The 

Sacrament is reverently with all godliness distributed, and the 

people of the faithful^ most commonly-falling down on their knees,t 

do receive this Sacrament with thanksgiving, with gladness, with 

* See the Eighth Section, upon the Confession of Bohemia, Augsbu^ and 

f In this rite also we suppose that every Church ought to have her liberty : 
not that we do utterly in itself condemn this manner, so that the caution be 
added, whereof we spake of late in the fourth observation ; but because that, 
for the rooting of the superstitious worshipping uf the bread out of men's 
minds, it were more expedient that that ceremony in roost places were 
abolished in the receiving of the signs themselves : whereof look befovs in the 
first observation upon the Former Confession of Helvetia. 

380 TBB rouETBBMm ascnoir. 

ttngiDg of hymns or holy aoDgs ; and they ihew forth the death of 
the Lord, and admonish themselves of all his henefitSt to the oon- 
finiuition of their faith, in a true commmiioii with Christ and his 
hody. And aU this we do according to the meaning of thoae things 
which are commanded in the holy Scriptore, especially acc opdiu g to 
the saying of Christ, '' Do this in rememhrance of me :" Lake xzii. 
19. and Panl saith, " So often as ye shaU eat of due bread, and 
drink of this cap, ye shall shew forth the death of tiie Lord, till he 
come/' 1 Cor. xiL 26. 

v.— From tbb Convbssion ov Fbanob. 

Art. 36. We affirm that the holy Sapper of the Lard, to wit, 
the other Sacrament, is a witness to as of oar uniting widi cor 
Lord Jesas Christ : becaose that he is not only once dead, and 
nosed ap again from the dead for um, hot also he dodi indBed food 
OS and noarish us with his flesh and blood, that we, being made one 
with him, may haye oar life common with him* For alllioii||^ he 
be now in heaven, and shaU remaii^ there till he come to jndge tiie 
world; yet we believe that by the secret and inoom|nndiBnsible 
virtue ^of his Spirit^ he doth noarish and qoidcion as w^ tbe sab* 
stance of his body and blood,'*' sqpprehended by feith. Bat we say 
that this is done spiritually, not that we may counterfeit an imagi- 
nation or thought instead of the efficacy and truth; but nther, 
because this mystery of our union with Christ is so high a thing, 
that it surmounteth all our senses, yea and the whole order of 
nature: to conclude, because that it, being divine and hemvcnly, 
cannot be perceived nor apprehended, but by feith. 

Art. 37. We believe, as was said before, that as wdl in tiie 
Supper, as in Baptism^ God doth indeed, that is, truly and effiMtn- 

* The French Churches have witnested in General Synods, that they, after 
the example of the ancient Fathera, do use the word ndmtamea : not as if 
the very substance of Christ were infused into the bread, or conveyed into ns 
any manner of way, either corporal, or unspeakable ; or that it were applied to 
our corporal substance, (seeing that it verily is now in heareii, and nowhere 
else, unto the last day, and we in earth, and nowhere else:) but to meet 
the slander of those men, which think that we, instead of the very body and 
blood of Christ, do place only his merits, or his spiritual force and operatioai 
whereas notwithstanding we do teach, that we (though spiritually and mysti- 
cally, yet notwithstanding truly) do participate Christ himself not ao tint 
either we do cleave essentially unto him, or he unto us, but that hia life ia derived 
into us.* Look also, concerning this matter, in the first obsenration 1900 die 
Confession of Augsbui^g, in this Section. 


ally, give whatsoever he doth there sacramentaUy represent: and 
accordingly with the ugna we join the true posaession and fruition 
of that thing* which is there ofiered unto us. Therefore we affirm, 
that they which do bring pure feiith, as it were a certain vessel, unto 
the h(dy Supper of the Lord, do indeed receive that which there 
the signs do witness; namely, that the body and blood of Jesus 
Christ are no less the meat and drink of the soul, than bread and 
wine are the meat of the body. 

Also, out of Article 38. A little after the begtmung :— 

And also that that bread and wine, which is given us in the 
Sapper, is indeed made unto ns spiritual nourishment ; inasmuch as 
^h^ do offer unto our eyes to behold, that the flesh of Christ is our 
meat, and that his blood is our drink. Therefore we reject all those 
fantaiitical folk, which do refuse these signs and tokens, seeing^ 
that Christ our Lord hath said, " This is my body :" and, " This cup 
is my Uood." 

YI.— From thb Confbssjlon of England. 

Art. 12. Near the. beginning. We say that the Eucharist (that is 
to any, the Supper of the Lord) is a Sacrament ; that is, an evident 
repreeentation of the body and blood of Christ ; wherein is set, as it 
were, before our eyes, the death of Christ, and his resurrection, and 
whatioever he did* whilst he was in his mortal body : to the end we 
Quqr gi?e him thanks for his death, and for our deliverance, and 
tbatv by the often receiving of this Sacramenty we may daily renew 
the remembrance thereof; and to the intent that we, being fed 
with tht body and blood of Christ, may be brought into the hope 
of the resurrection, and of everlasting life, and may most assuredly 
betiere, that, as our bodies be fed with bread and wine, so our souls 
be fed with the body and blood of Christ. To this banquet we 
think the people of Gk>d ought to be earnestly bidden, that they 
may all communicate among themselves, and openly dedare and 
testify both the godly society which is among them, and also 
the. hope which th^ have in Christ Jesus. Chrysost. ad JSphes, 
ikrm, S. dtp. 1. For this cause, if there had been any which 
won}d be hut a looker-on, and abstain from the holy Com- 
mmuon, him did the old Fathers, and Bishops of Rome in the 
Piiiitutive Chunchf before private Mass came up. excommunicate, as 
^ wicked person, and as a Pagan. Neither was there any Christiaa. 
at th^t tinn^ w>ich did. communicate alone, whiles other looked, on* 


For 80 did Caliztos in times past decree, ' That after the consecra- 
tion was finished, all should conunnnicate, except they had rather 
stand without the Church-doors. For thus (saith he) did the 
Apostles appoint, and the same the holy Church of Rome keepeth 
still,' De Cofuecr, Dist, 1. Cop. Omnes, Dut. 2. Cd^. Secuiares. 
DUt. 2. C(^, Peracta. Moreover, when the people cometh to the 
holy Communion, the Sacraments ought to be given them in both 
kinds ; for so both Christ hath commanded, and the Apostles in 
every place have ordained, and all the ancient Fathers and Catholic 
Bishops have followed the same. And whoso doth contrary to this, 
he (as Gelasius saith, De Consecr. DisU 2. Cap, Com p erim M B.) com* 
toitteth sacrilege. And therefore we say» that our advenaries 
at this day, who, having violently thrust out and quite forbidden the 
holy Communion, do, without the word of God, without the 
authority of any ancient Council, without any Catholic Fatiier, 
without any example of the Primitive Church, yea, and without 
reason also defend and maintain their private Masses, and the 
mangling df the Sacraments ; and do this, not only against the 
express conmiandment of Christ, but also against all antiquity ; do 
wickedly therein, and are very Church-robbers. 

We affirm, that the bread and wine are the holy and heavenly 
mysteries of the