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FROM 458 A.D. TO 1905 







WM.R. HARPER, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D. 



















Copyright, 1905, by HARPER & BROTHERS. 
Copyright, 190', by HARPER & BROTHERS 

All rights rut,Vtd. 






. FacÙzg page 96 

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u " 43 0 






Iberville, PIERRE LE 1\fOYNE, SIEUR D', 
founder of Louisiana; born in Montreal, 
Canada, July 16, 1661; was one of eleven 
brothers who figure in some degree in 
French colonial history. Entering the 
French navy at fourteen, he became dis- 
tinguished in the annals of Canada for 
his operations against the English in the 
north and east of that province. In 1698 
he was sent from France to the Gulf of 
Mexico with two frigates (Oct. 22), to 
occupy the mouth of the Mississippi and 
the region neglected after the death of La 
Salle. On finding that stream, he re- 
ceived from the Indians a letter left 
by De Tonty, in lG86, for La Sall
. There 
he built Fort Biloxi, garrisoned it, and 
made his brother Bienville the King's lieu- 
tenant. In May, Hi!)!), he returned to 
France, but reappeared at 1.'ort Biloxi in 
January, 1700. On visiting Franc
returning in 1701, he found the colony 
reduced by disease, and transferred the 
settlement to :Mobile, and began the coloni- 
'7.ation of Alabama. Dismse had im- 
paired his health, and the government 
('alled him away from his work as the 
founder of Louisiana. He was engaged in 
the naval service in the 'Vest Indies, 
'vhere he was fatally stricken by yellow 
fever, dying in Havana, Cuba, July 9, 
Idaho, the thirtieth State admitted to 
tl}e American Union. was first explored by 
. .Ie whites of the Lewis and Clark ex- 
pedition. Within its present limit the 
Cæur d'Alpne mission was estahlished in 
1842. The region was visited almost ex- 


elusively by hunters and trappers till 
lR.'52, when gold was discovered on its 
present northern boundary. By act of 
Congress of March 3, 1863, the Territory 
of Idaho was created from a portion of 
Oregon Territory, with an area which in- 
cluded the whole of the present State of 


Montana and nearly all of that of Wyo- 
ming. In 18G-f the Territory lost a part of 
its area to form the Territory of Montana. 
and in 1868 another large portion was cut 
from it to form the Territory of Wyo- 
ming. On July 3, 1890, the Territory was 
admitted into the Lnion as a State, hav. 
ing then a gross area of 84,800 square 
miles. Between the dates of its creation 
as a Territory and a State it became wide- 
ly noted as a most promising field for gold 


and silver mmmg, anù for several Jears 
later, Iùaho was classed l)olitical1y as a 
f3ilver State. Prospecting, however, de- 
\"eloped a large number of rich pa
gold properties, and during the copper 
ðcÏtement of lS98-1001 many veins of 
that mineral were found. During the 
'ear lRü9 the gold mines of Idaho 

'ielded a combined product valued at 
$l ,S89.000; and the silver mines a pro- 
dud having a commercial value of $2,311,- 
O, The development of the various min- 
ing interests was seriously retarded for 
'ears by the lack of transporta- 
tion facilities, but by 1900 railroads 
had been extended to a number of im- 
pOl.tant centres, and wagon-roads had been 
('onstructed connecting direct with the 
chief mining properties. The State also 
had a natural reRource of inestimable 
 in its forests, with great variety of 
timber. The chief agricultural productions 
are wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and hay, 
and the combined values of these crops in 
the calendar )'ear 1903 was $13,921,S35, 
the hay crop alone exceeding in value 
$6,SOO,000. For 1003 the equalized valu- 
ation of all taxable property was $G5,- 
I 9G4.ïS5, and the total bonded debt was 
$(ì92,500, largely incurred for the construc- 
tion of wagon-roads. The population in 
lSflO was 84,3S3; in 1900, 161,772. See 
rl'\ITED STATES, IDAHO, vol. ix. 



Wm. H. Wallace.......................... 
Caleb Lyon. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . . . 
David W. Ballard......................... 
Samuel Bard................. ..... ...... 
Gilman Marston ......................... 
A le'l:ander Connor.............. ., ........ 
Thomas M. Bowen....................... 
Thomas 'V. Bennett....................... 

n :r


: :'. ....:: : : : :::::::: :::: :::: 
Juhn N. Irwin............................ 
Wm_ N. Burn.. _ ........................ 
Edwin A. Stevens........................ 

1863 to 1864 
1864 .. 1866 
1866 " 1867 
1870 to 1871 
1871 to 1876 
1876 " 1880 
1880 " 1883 
1884 to 1885 
1885 .. 1889 



George L. Shoup....... .., ... ....... .. . . . . 1890 
N. B. Willey....... ...................... 1890 to 1893 
Wm. J. 
fcConnel1........................ 1893" 18m 
Frank Steunenberg....................... 1897" 1901 
Frank W. Bunt.......................... 1901" 1903 
John T. Morrison........................ . I I Q 03 " 1905 
Frank R. Gooding........................ 1905" 1907 

..-. I'

George L. Shoup......... 51st to - 1890 
_Fred. T. Dubois.......... 51st "64th 1890 to 1897 
Hcury Heitfeld......... I 55th .. [).Lh 1 18\)7 .. luU3 
Welden B. HeylJUrn.... .. 58tb .. - 1903"- 


Ide, UEOHGE BARTON. clergyman; born 
in CO\entry, Yt., in Hm.t; graduated at 
Middlebury College in IS30; ordained in 
the Baptist Church; pastor of the First 
Baptist Church of Philadelphia, Pa., in 
IS3S-52, and afterwards had a charge in 
Springfield, ]\.fass., for twenty )'ears. He 
published Green Hollo1/); Battle Echoes, 
or Lessons f1'om the lVar: etc. He died 
in Rpringfield, l\[ass., April 16, ISï2. 
Ide, HENRY CLAY, jurist; born in Bar- 
npt, Vt., Sept. IS, IS44; graduated at 
Dartmouth College in ISüG. He was a 
member of the Vermont State Senate in 
1882-S;); president of the Republican 
State Convention in ISH4; and a dl'legate 
to the Kational Hepublican ConventÍoon in 
HiSS. In IS01 he was' appointed United 
States commissioner to Samoa; in IS93- 
D7 was chief-justice of the islands under 
the appointment of England, Germany, 
and the United States; in I DOO became a 
member of the Philippine Commission; 
and in IDOl Secretary of J'inance and 
Justice of the Philippines. See RAMOA. 
Illiers, CorNT HENRY J
OrIS. military 
officer: born in Lu""emhourg in I ï!)O; was 
one of the French officers. who served in 
the Revolutionary "Tar; took part in the 
battle of the Brandywine, where l1e sand 
Pulaski. He was the author of De 1a 
gucrre (l".4.mé1'ique, etc. He died in Paris 
in 17D4. 
Illinoia, the proposed name for a State 
of part of the Northwest Territory. 
Illinois. The site of the present Rtate 
was first eXl)lored by Marquette and 
Joliet. French missionaries from Canada, 
in 1763, who were followed by La Salle 
and Hennepin. Twenty years later mis- 
sion stations were established at Kaskas- 
kia, Cahokia, and Peoria; and 
arly in 
the eighteenth century a French monas- 
tery was established at Kaskaskia. By 
the treaty of 17G3, the" Illinois country," 
as it was called, passed under the juris- 
dietion of the English. By the treaty of 

1783 it was ceded to the United States, 
and it formed a part of the Northwest 
Territory. The country conquel'ed by 
General Clarke, in 1778-79. the Virginia 

\.ssembly erected into a county, which 
they calIed Illinois. It embraced all ter- 


ritory north of the Ohio claimed as within 
the limits of Virginia, and ordered 500 
men to be raised for its defence. In ISOD, 
when the pre"ent boundaries of Indiana 
were defined, lllinois included \Yisconsin 
and a part of Minnesota, and in 1810 con- 
tained more than 12.000 inhabitants. 
On Oct. 14, 1812, Gen. Samuel Hopkins, 
with 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen, 
ero!'osed tho \Vabash on an expedition 
against the Kiekapoo and Peoria Indian 
,'Wages, in the Illinois country, the former 
80 miles frvIll his starting-place, the latter 
0 miles. They traversed magnificent 
prairies covered with tall grass. - The army 
was a free-and-easy, undisciplined mob, 
that chafed under restraint. Discontent, 
seen at the beginning, soon assumed the 
forms of complaint and murmuring. 
Finally, when halting on the fourth day's 
maTch, a majoT Tode up to the general and 
insolently ordered him to march the troops 
back to Fort Harrison. Very soon after- 
wards the army was scarcely saved from 
perishing in the burning grass of a prai- 
rie. fmpposed to 11l1\"e l)('en set on fin' hy 
the Indian,;. 'Ill(' trOOpR wouM marC'll no 
farUH'J". Hopkins called for !)OO \'ohm- 
Ìt'ers to follow him into Illinois. Not one 
responded. They would not submit to his 


leadership, and he followed his army back 
to Fort Harrison, where they arrived Oct. 

;}. This march of 80 or 90 miles into the 
Indian country had greatly alarmed the 
Indians, and so did some good. Towards 
the same region aimed at by General Hop- 
kins another expedition, under Colonel 
Russell, composed of two small companies 
of United States regulars, with a small 
body of mounted militia under Gov. Ninian 
J:dwards (who assumed the chief com- 
mand), in a.11 400 men, penetrated deeply 
into the Indian country, but, hearing noth- 
ing of Hopkins, did not venture to attempt 
much. They fell suddenly upon the princi- 
pal Kickapoo towns, 20 miles from Lake 
Peoria. dro\'e the Indians into a swamp, 
through which they pursued them, some- 
times waist-deep in mud, and made them 
fly in terror across the Illinois River. 
Some of the pursuers passed oyer, and 
brought back canoes with dead Indians in 
them. Probahly fifty had perished. The 
expedition returned, after an absence of 
eighteen days, with eighty horses and the 
dried scalps of seyeral persons who had 
Leen killed by the savages, as trophies. 
General Hopkins discharged the muti- 
neers and organized another expedition of 
1,250 men, composed chiefly of foot-sol- 
diers. Its object was the destruction of 
Prophetstown. The troops were composed 
of Kentucky militia, some regulars unrlcr 
Capt. Zachary Taylor, a company of ran- 
gers, and a company of scouts and spies. 
Theyrendezvoused atVincennes,and march- 
ed up the Wabash VaHey to Fort Harrison, 
No\y. 5, 1812. They did not reach the 
,-icinity of Prophetstown until the IDth. 
Then a detachment fell upon and burned 
a \Yinnebago town of forty houses, 4 
miles below Prophetstown. The latter and 
a large Kickapoo Yillage near it were also 
laid in ashes. The village contained 160 
huts, with all the winter provisions of 
COrn and beans, which were totally de- 
stroyed. On the 21st a part of the expe- 
dition fen into an Indian ambush and lost 
eighteen men, killed, wounded, and miss- 
ing. So destitute were the troops, espe- 
dally the Kentuckians, who were clad in 
only the remnants of their summer cloth- 
ing, that the expl'dition l"I'turned without 
attempting anything more. They sufferetl 
drf'adfully on their return marc-h. 
Among the prominent eyents of the" at. 


of 1812-15 in that region was the massacre 
at CHICAGO (q. v.). After that war the pop- 
ulation rapidly increased, and on Dec. 3, 
1818, Illinois, with its present limits, was 
admitted into the Union as a State. The 
census of J8:W 
howed a population of 
more than 55,000. THE BLACK 11.\ WK 
WAR (q. v.) occurred in Illinois in 1832. 
There the 
Iormons established themseh'es 
in 18-10, at Nauyoo (see l\IOlnlOx::->) ; their 
founder was slain by a mob at Carthage, 
in 1844, and soon afterwards a general 
exodus of this people occurred. A new 
State constitution was framed in 1847, 
and in July. .1870, the present eon!'titu- 
tion was adopted. The Illinois Central 
Railroad, completed in 1856, has been a 
source of great matcrial prospNity for 
the State. During the Civil War Illinois 
furnished to the national gO\-ernment (to 
Dec. 1, 186-1) l!H,364 troops. 
In HI03 the equalized valuations of 
taxable property aggregated $1,OS:J.G72,- 
183; and in lU03 the entire bonded debt 
consisted of $18.500 in bonds, whieh had 
ceased to draw interest and never becn 
presented for payment. The population 
in 1890 was 3,826,351; in 1900, 4,821,550. 
Ninian Edwal.ds...... .rommisslOnerl... .April 24, 1809 
Shadrach Bond....... .assumes office............. IRI8 
Edward ['oles.........." ...... . .. ...... IH22 
Xinian Edwards....... ..... ....... lR26 
.John Revnohfs......... ..... ..... ... 1830 
William'L. D. Èwing.. .arting . ................. 1834 
Joseph Dnncan........assumesoffice............ .. 
Thomas Carlin........... ............... 1838 
Thomas ..'ord..... .... .............1842 
Augustns C. French.... " ............. 1846 
Joel A_ Matteson. ..... " ............. 1853 
William H. Bissell..... " . . . . . . . .. . _ .. 1857 
John Woorl....... ....lIcting...........
larch 18. 18tiO 
Rirhanl Yates ....... .assumes omre.... Jauuary, 1861 
Il jrhar.1 .1. Oglesby......................... 1865 
I. Palmer.......................... 18{j9 
H ie'hard .J. Oglp;:hv..... ................. 1873 
.Jnl.n 1._ Be\"pridge.... .acting........... .
Iarch 4, .. 

lwlhy ,I. Cullnm......assl1mes office.... Jaullary, 18i7 
John )1. Hamilton.....acting..............Feh. 7. IH83 
Rir.lmrd .T. Ogl!'shy......... .............. January, 1885 
Joseph ,V. Fifer........................." IRS!) 
John P. Altgeld.......................... 1893 
John R. Tanner............... .......... 1897 
Richard Yates .......................... 1901 
C. S. Deneen............................ 1905 


No. of Con!!..... 
15th to 18th 
15th " 19th 
lRlh " 20th 
19th " 2:ld 
21st to 27th 


1818 to IH:!! 
1818 " 1826 
1824 " 11';10 
1826 .. IS;'15 
1831 to ISU 

Nini:m Edwards......... 
Jpsse R. Thoma.,......... 
Elias K!'nt Kane......... 
Davhl J. Raker.......... 
John \1. Robin!"on....... 
William L. D. Ewing..... 



No. 01 Congr.... 


t young....... 25tIl to 27th 18:\7 10 1813 
Samuel McRoberts....... 27th. 1841" 1843 
Sidney Breese........... 28th to 31st 1843" 1849 
emple........... 28th 1843" 1846 
Stephen A. Houglas...... 29th to 37th 11>47 " ltiGI 
hields........... 31st .. S3d 1819" 1855 
Lyman Trumbull........ 34th" 4:!d 1855" 1871 
Orville H. Browlling..... 37th 1861 
William A. Richardson... 37th to 39th 186:1 tu IS!,!) 
Richard yates........... 39th .. 42d 1865" 1871 
.Juhn A. Logan.......... 42d "45th 1871 .. 1877 
.Richard J. Oglesby...... 43d "46th 1873 .. 1878 
David Davis.. ........... 45th "47th 1877 .. 188a 
Juhn A. Logan........... 4{jth "49th 1879 " Hst!6 
Shelby 111. Cullum. ... .... 4Hth " 188:1 .. 
Charles B. I<'ary, ell. .... .. 5Uth "51st 18H7 " 18\11 
John M. I'almer... ..... 52d .. 55th 1891 " 18\)7 
William E. Mason....... 1 5;,th" 57th 1 18
)7 .. IHU3 
Albert .1. Hopkins..... . 5Hth" - J!l03 

Illinois Indians; a family of the 
Algonquian nation that comprised several 
dans-Pcorias, .l\roingwenas, Kaskaskias, 
Tamaroas, and Cahokias. At a vcry early 
period they dron a Dakota triùc, whom 
they callcd the Arkansas, to the country 
on the southern Mississippi. These were 
the Quapaws. In 1640 they almost ex- 
terminated the 'Vinnebagoes; and soon 
afterwards they waged war with the Iro- 
quois and f'ioux. Their domain was bC'- 
twpen Lakes Michigan and Superior and 
the Mississippi River. Marquette found 
some of them (the l
eorias and Moingwe- 
Has) near Des Moines, west of the l\fis- 
sis!'ippi, in lG72; also the Peorias and 
Kaskaskias on the Illinois River. The 
Tamaroas and Cahokias were on the )Iis- 
sissippi. The Jesuits founel the chid Il- 
linois town consisting of 8,000 people, in 
nearly 400 large cabins, covered with 
water-proof mats, with, generallr, four 
fires to a cahin. In 1679 they were badly 
dpfeated by the Iroquois, losing about 
1,300, of whom noo were prisoners; and 
they T(>taliatf'd by assisting the FrC'nf'11. 
under Dp la RaHl> and De Xonville. 
against the Five XationR. The Illinois 
w('re eonverted to Christiani!:y b.y Fathf'r 

Iarquettp and other missionariC's, and 
in 1700 Chieago, their great chipf, visitC'd 
France. where he was muc'h caressC'cl. His 
son. of the same name, maintained great 
influc>nce in the trihe until his death, in 
ì 754. \yhpn Detroit was besieged by the 
}'-'oxes, in 1712, the Illinois went to its 
relief, and in the war that followed they 
suffered severely. Some of them were 
with the French at Fort Duquesne; but 
they refused to join Pontiac in his con- 


spiracy. With the Miamis, they favored c.tsualties. Iloilo at the time of the bom- 
the English in the war of the Hevolution, bardment was the seat of the so-called 
amI joined in the treaty at Greenville in government of the Visayan federation. 
Ii9:5. By the provision of treaties they Ilpendam, JAN JANSEN VAN, merchant; 
cé'ded their lanùs, and a greater portion of appointed custom - house officer on the 
them went to a country west of the J\Iis- Delaware, and put in command of Fort 
sissippi, within the present limits of Kan- Nassau in lG-10 by the Duteh governor 
8as, where they remained until 1S07, when of New York. He tried to keep the Eng- 
they were removed to a reservation of 72,- lish colony from trading on the Delaware, 
000 aCl"es southwest of the Quapaws. In and his action in burning trading-houses 
I8í2 the whole Illinois nation had dwin- and taking the traders prisoner involved 
dIed to forty souls. This tribe, combined the governor of New York in difficulty 
with the \Veas and Piankeshaws, num- with the government of New Haven. As 
bered only lGO in all. the result, Ilpendam resigned, but con- 
Iloilo, the principal city and capital tinued to trade with the Indians. He 
of the island of Panay, and one of the died at Marcus Hook, Pa., in 1683. 
three ports of entry in the Philippine Imlay, GILBERT, author; horn in New 
gl"OUp opened to Conuneree in ISa9. It is Jersey in 1750; served throughout the 
situated 22.3 miles south of Manila, at Revolutionary 'Val'; was the author of 
the southeastern extremity of Panay, and A Topographical Description of the 1Vest- 
is built on low, marshy ground, the whole ern Territory of lI-m'th ..imerica; The Emi- 
of which during a part of the spring is grants, or the History of an Exiled 
covered with water. The population in Jt'amil.lj. 
1900 was estimated at over 10,000. On Immigration. When the French do- 
Dec. 25, 1898, after General Rios, who minion in America was ended, the causes 
held the town with 800 Spanish troops, for war dismi:;
cd thereby, and the Indian 
heard that the Philippine Islands were to hibes on the frontiers were quieted, emi- 
be ceded to the rnitcd States, instead of gration began to spread westward in New 
awaiting the arrival of the American England, anù also from the middle colo- 
forces, then on the way to take possession nies onr the mountains westward. Many 
of the city, he turned it oycr to Vincente went from the other colonies into South 
Guies, th
 alcade. On the following- day Ca.rolina, where immigration was encour- 
that official surrend('red it to 3.000 Fili- aged, because the white people were 
pino insurgents. \Vhen Gen. 1\1. P. Mil- alarmed by the preponderance of the slave 
ler, of the Anwrican army, reac11Cd the bay population. Bounties were offered to im- 
on which the city is situated he found migrants, and many hish and Germans 
General Lopcz with 5,000 Filipinos in settled in the upper districts of that prov- 
possession. The Filipinos would not sur- incp. Enrichpd by the lahor of numerous 
render without instructions from Agui- slaves, South Carolina was regarded as the 
naldo, and General Miller made prepara- wealthiest of the colonies. Settlers also 
tions to take forcible possession, but on a passed into the new province of east Flor- 
p('tition from the European residents no ida. A body of emigrants from the Roa- 
hostile move was made until Feb. 11, HW!1, noke settled in west Florida, about Baton 
when the American commander demanded Rouge; and some Canaùians went into 
the surrender of the city to the authority LouiRia-na, for they were unwilling to 
:>f tIle United Statcs. After it became evi- live under English rule. A colony of 
t]pnt that the insurgent-officcr in command Greeks from the shores of the l\Iediter- 
would not pea('cahly accede to this de- ranean settled at what is still known as 
mand, the United Statps naval vessels the inlet of New Smyrna, in Florida. And 
Pf't1"cl and Baltimore opened fire upon the- wldle these movements were going on 
city, which was soon evacuated hy the in- there were evidenc('s of a rapid advance 
surgents after being fired. The American in wealth and civilization in the olùer 
troops quickly landed and extinguislH'd ('ommunities. At that time the population 
the flames, hut not before considerahle a.nd production of Maryland, Virginia, 
damage had been don('. Dm'ing th(' en- and South Carolina had unprecpdpnted in- 
p-agement the Americang suffered no ('I'{.ase, and it was called their golden age. 


Commerce rapidly became more diffused. declaration in its platform: "The im- 
Boston, which almost engrossed trade in portation of .Tapanese and. other laborers 
J1Rvigation, now began to find rivals in under contract to sene monopolistic cor- 
New York, Baltimore, Norfolk, Charleston, porations is a notorious anä flagrant vio- 
and little seaports on the New England lation of the immigration laws. \Ye de- 
coasts; and its progress, which had been mand that the federal government shall 
arrested by these causes twenty-fin :rears take cognizance of this nwnacing evil and 
bf'fore, stood still twC'nty-five years longpr. repress it under existing laws. \Ye fur- 
The leading political parties in recent ther pledge ourselves to strive for the 
years have made almost identical declara- enactment of more stringent laws for the 
tions in their national platforms. At the exclusion of Mongolian and Malayan im- 
beginning of the campaign of 1896 the migration;" and the Silver Republican 
Democratic National Convention, which party declared: "\Ve are opposed to the 
nominated Mr. Bryan. ignored the sub- importation of Asiatic laborers in com- 
ject; Y1ut the Free-Silver wing of the petition with American labor, and favor a. 
party, in convention in Chicago, declared: more rigid enforcement of the laws re- 
o. \Ve hold that the most efficient way of Iating thereto." 
protecting American labor is to prevent Immigmtion Statistics. - During the 
the importation of foreign pauper labor period 1789-1820, when no thorough over- 
to compete with it in (,he home market, sight was exercised, it. is estimated that 
and that the value of the home market to the number of immigrants into the United 
our American farmers and artisans is States aggregated 250,000; and during 
greatly reduced by a vicious monetary the period IR
()-l!I04 the aggregate was 
system which depresses the prices of their 2
.574.223. The nationality of immi- 
products below the cost of production, grants in tIlt' fiscal year ending June :m. 
and thus deprives them of the means of l!I04. waR as follows: Austria-Hungary. 
purchasing the products of om' home 17S.
16; G{'rman EmpÏrC', 4G.!)
0: Italy, 
manufactories; and as labor creates the including f'ieily and Sardinia. 19--1-.1;).); 
wealth of the country, we demand the pas- Korway. 23.ï
8; Sweden, 27.824: Ruma- 
sage of such lawf'l as may be necessary to nia. 7.2!IG: Rus
ian Empire and Finland. 
protect it in all its rights;" and the Re- 144.1
R; England, 37.865; Ireland. 3G.731; 
publican National Convention declared: Scotland. 11.113; "'ales, 1,82!1; Japan. 
" For the protection of the quality of our 13.0--1G: Turkey in Asia. 5.G;)9; West 
American citizenship, and of the wages of Indies.- 11.
85; 'all other countries, 7;),841i; 
our workingmen against the fatal com- total. 815.
(j1. . 
pptition of 10w-prÌeed lahor. we demand High-water mark was reached in 1003, 
that the immigration laws he thoroughly wlwn the immigrants numbered 8.")7,0--1G. 
í'nforced. and so extended as to exclude the tobll of the previous year being the 
from entrance to the rnih>d States those highest up to that time, 6--18.743. The 
who can neither read nor write." In the 10\H'8t number of arrivals in the period 
campaign of 1900 the Democratic Na- of 18ß7-HIOO was 141,8;)7 in 1877, and in 
tional Convention called for the strict en- the period 18S0-HI04, 229,299 in 1898. 
forcement of the Chinese exclusion act Immigration Act of lS!Jl.-This meas- 
and its application to the same classes of nre. "in amendment of the various aets 
all Asiatic races; the Republican Na- }"elative to immigration and the importa- 
tional Convention pronounced: "In the tion of aliens under contract or agree- 
further interest of American workmen we ment to perform labor," was introduced 
favor a more effective restriction of the in the House by 1\[r. Owen. of Indiana, 
immigration of cheap labor from foreign and referred to the committee on inuni- 
lands, the extension of opportunities of gration and naturalization. It was re- 
education for working children, the rais- ported back, discussed, and amended, and 
ing of the age limit for child labor, the passed the House Feb. 25, ]891, as fol- 
protection of free labor as against eon- lows: 
tract convict labor, and an effective sys- "Be it enacted, etc., that th
tern of labor insurance;" the People's ing classes of aliens sllall be excluded 
party (Fusion wing) inserted this from admission into the United States, 


in accordance with the existing acts regu- 
lating immigration, other than those con- 
cerning Chinese laborers: All idiots, in- 
sane persons, paupers or persons likely 
to become a public charge, persons suffer- 
ing from a loathsome or dangerous con- 
tagious disease, persons who have been 
convicted of a felony or other infamous 
crime or misdemeanor involving moral 
turpitude, polygamists, and also any per- 
son who!3e ticket or passa[je is paid for 
with money of another or who is assisted 
ùy others to come, unless it is affirma- 
tively and satisfactorily shown on special 
inquiry that such person does not belong 
to one of the foregoing excluded classes, 
or to the class of contract laborers ex- 
cluded by the act of Feb. 26, 18S.3. But 
this section shall not be hcld to exclude 
persons lidng in the rnitcd States from 
sending for a relatiye or friend who is 
not of the excluded classes, under Pouch 
regulations as the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury may prescribe: Prodded, that noth- 
ing in this act shall be construcd to 
apply to exclude persons convicted of a 
political offence, notwithstanding said po- 
litical offence may be designated as a 
'felony, crime. infamous crime or mis- 
demeanor inyolYing moral turpitude' by 
the laws of the land whence he came or 
by the court convicting. 
"Sec. 2. That no suit or proceeding for 
violations of said act of Feb. 26, 1885, 
prohibiting the importation and migra- 
tion of foreigners under contract or agree- 
ment to perform labor, shall be settled, 
compromised. or discontinued without the 
consent of the court entered of record 
with reasons therefor. 
"Sec. 3. That it sllall be deemed a vio- 
lation of said act of Feb. 26. 188;), to 
assiRt or encourage the importation or mi- 
gration of any alien by promise of em- 
ployment through adnrtisements printed 
and published in an." foreign country; 
and any alien coming to this country in 
consequence of such an advertisement 
shall be treated as coming under a con- 
tract aR contemplated by such aet; and 
the lwnaItif'!" by said aet imposed shall hp 
applicable in f:uch a f'ase: Pl'ovidt d, this 
"ection shall not apply to 
tates. and im- 
migration burf'aus of States, atl\' 
the inducements they offer for innnigra- 
tion to such States. 

"Sec. 4. That no steamship or trans- 
portation company or owners of vessels 
shall, directly, or through agents, either 
by writing, printing, or oral representa- 
tions, solicit, invite, or encourage the im- 
migration of any alien into the United 
States except by ordinary commercial 
letters, circulars, advertisements, or oral 
}"eprescntations, stating the sailings of 
their vessels and the terill'
 and facilities 
of transportation therein; and for a vio- 
lation of this provision any such steam- 
ship or transportation company, and any 
such owners of vessels, and the agents by 
them employed, shall be suhjected to the 
penalties imposed by the third section of 
said act of Feb. 26, 1885, for violations 
of the provisions of the first section of 
said act. 
"Sec. 5. That section 5 of said act of - 
Feb. 26, 18
5, shall be, and hereby is, 
amended by adding to the second proyiso 
in said section the words 'nor to minis- 
ters of any religious denomination, nor 
persons belonging' to any recognized pro- 
fession, nor profe:"sors for colleges and 
seminaries.' and by excluding from the 
second pro\'iso of said section the words 
'or any relative or personal friend.' 
"Rec. 6. That any person who shall 
bring into or land in the United States 
by vessel or otherwise, or who shall aid 
to bring into or land in the United 
States hy vessel or otherwise, any alien 
not lawfully entitled to enter the United 
States. shan be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, and shall, on conyiction, be 
punished by a fine not exceeding $1,000, 
or b." imprisonment for a term not ex- 
ceeding one year, or by both such fine and 
"Sec. 7. That tìle office of superintend- 
<,nt of immigration is hereby created and 
e!"tablished, and the President. by and 
with the adyic<' and com;ent of the Sen- 
ate. is authorized and directed to appoint 
ch officer, whose salary sllall be $4,000 
per annum, payable monthly. The super- 
intendent of immigration shan be an 
offieer in tIle TreaRury Department. under 
the control and supervision of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasurv, to whom he shall 
makf' annual repOl'ts in writing of the 
actions of hie;; offiee. together with sueh 
f'pecial reports, in writing. as the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury shall require. The 


Secretary shall provide the superintendent cers and agents of such vessel to adopt 
with a suitably furnished office in the clue precautions to prevent the landing 
city of \Vashington, and with such books of any alien immigrant at any place or 
of record and facilities for the discharge time other than that des.ignated by the 
of the duties of his office as may be inspection officers, and any such officer 
necessary. He shall have a chief clerk, or agent or person in charge of such ves- 
at a salary of $2,000 per annum, and two sel who shall either knowingly or negli- 
first-class clerks. gcntly land or permit to land any alien 
"Sec. 8. That upon the arrival by wa- immigrant at any place or time other 
ter at any place within the United States than that designated by the inspection 
of any alien immigrants it shall be the oflicers, shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
duty of the commanding officer and the demeanor and punished by a. fine not ex- 
agent of the steam or sailing vessel by ceeding $1,000. or by imprisonment for 
which they came to report the name, na- a term not exceeding one year, or by both 
tionality, last residence, and destination such fine and imprisonmcnt. 
of every such alien, before any of them "That the Secretary of the Treasury 
are landed, to the proper inspection offi- may prescribe rules for inspection along 
cers, who shall thereupon go Or send com- the borders of Canada, British Columbia, 
petent assistants on board f1uch vessel and 1\1exico so as not to ohstruct, or un- 
and there inspect all such aliens, or the necessarUy delay, impede, or annoy pas- 
inspection officer may order a temporary spngers in ordinary travel between said 
removal of such aliens for examination countries: Pl"ot;ided, that not excecding 
at a designated time and place, and then one inspector shall be appointed for each 
and there detain them until a thorough customs district, and whose salary shall 
inp-ppction is made. Rut such removal not exceed $1,200 peI: year. 
shalJ not he considered a landing during "All duties imposed and powers con- 
the pendenc'y of such examination. ferred by the second section of the act of 
"The nwdical examination shall be Aug. 3, 1882, upon State commissioners, 
made by f'lurgeons of the marine hospital boards, or officers acting under contract 
service. In eases where the services of a with the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
marine hospital surg-eon cannot he ob- be performed and exercised, as occasion 
tained without causing unrea!'.onahle de- may Drise. by the inspection officers of 
lay, the inspector may caup-e an alien to the United States. 
be examined by a civil surgeon. and the " Sec. 9. That for the preservation of the 
Secretary of the Treasury f1halJ fix the pf'acc and in order that arrest may be 
compensation for such examinations. made for crimes under the laws of the 
"The inspection officers and thpir as- States where the variou!'! rnited States 
sistants shall have power to administer in!migrant stations are located, the offi- 
oaths, and to take and consider testimony cials in charge of such stations, as occa- 
touching the right of any such aliens to sion may require, shall admit therein the 
('nter the United States. alJ of which shall proper State and municipal officers ('harged 
he entered of record. During such inspec- with the enforcement of such Jaws. and 
tion after temporary removal the Ruper- for the purposes of this section the juris- 
intendent shalJ cause such aliens to be diction of p-uch officcrs and of the local 
properly housed, fed, and cared for. and courts shalJ C'xtend ovpr such stations. 
also, in his discretion, such as are delayed "Sec 10. That all aliens who may un- 
in proceeding to their destination after lawfully come to the rnitpd States shall, 
inspection. if practicable, be immediately sent back 
"All decisions made by the inspection on the vessel by which t11CY were brought 
officers or their assistants touching the in. The cost of their maintenance whUe 
right of any alien to land, when adverse on land, as well as the expense of the re- 
to such right. shall be final unless appeal turn of such aliens, shall be borne by tIle 
be taken to the superintendent of immi- owner or owners of the vessel on which 
gration, whose action shall be subject to such aliens came; and if any master, 
review by the Aecretary of the Treasury. agent, consignee, or owner of such vess('l 
It shall be the duty of the aforesaid offi- shall refuse to receive back on board the 


vessel such aliens, or shall neglect to de- 
tain them thereon, or shall rcfuse or neg- 
lect to return them to the port from 
which the.r came, or to pay the cost of 
their maintenance while on land, such 
master, agent, consignee, or owner shall 
bc deemed guiltv of a misdemeanor, and 
shall be pu
d by a fine not less than 
$300 for each and eycry offence; and any 
such vessel shall not have clearance from 
any port of the United States while any 
such fine is unpaid. 
" Sec. 11. That any alien who shall come 
into the United States in violation of law 
nlay be returned, as by law provided, at 
any time within one year thereafter, at 
the expense of the person or persons, Yes- 
sel, transportation company or corpora- 
tion bringing such alien into the Pnited 
States, and if that cannot be done, then 
at the expense of the United States; and 
any alien who becomes a public charge 
within one year after his arrival in 
the United States from causes existing 
prior to his landing therein shaH be 
deemed to han come in violation of law 
and shaH be returned as aforesaid. 
" Sec. 12. That nothing contained in this 
act shan be construed to affect any pros- 
ecution or other proceeding, criminal or 
cÍ\'il, begun under any existing act or 
ads hereby amended, but such prosecution 
or other proceeding. crimina.1 or civil, 
slIRn proceed as if this act had not been 
"Sec. 13. That the circuit and district 
courts of the Cnited States are hereby 
invested with fuH and concurrent juris- 
diction of all causes, civil and criminal, 
a1 ising under any of the pro\'isions of 
this act: and this act shall go into effect 
011 the first day of April, 18H!." 
Tlu' measure passC'd the Senate Fí'h. 

ï, and was a ppro\'ed by the President 
){arch 3, ISfll. 
Immigration, RESTRICTIO:'i OF. See 
Impeachment. The Constitution of 

the Cnited States gives the House of 
Representatives sole power to impeach the 
President, Vice-President, and all civil 
officers of the United States by a numeri- 
cal majority only. It also gives the Sen- 
ate sole power to try all impeachments. 
Th(' Senate then sits as a court, organiz- 
ing anew, Senators taking a special oath 
or affirmation applicable to the proceed- 
ing. :From their decision there is no 
appeal. A vote of two-thirds of the Sen- 
ate is necessary to convict. \Yhen the 
President is tried the chief-justice pre- 
sides. The punishment is limited by the 
Constitution (1) to removal from office; 
(2) to disqualification from holding and 
enjoying any office of honor, trust, or 
profit under the United States government. 
Important cases: (1) \Yilliam Blount, 
United States Senator from Tennessee, for 
conspiring to transfer Xew Orleans from 
Spain to Great Britain, 1797-98; ac- 
quitted for want of evidence. (2) John 
Pickering. judge of the district court of 
New Hampshire, charged with drunken- 
ness. profanity, etc.; convicted 
larch 12, 
1803. (3) Judge Samuel Chase, impeach- 
ed March 30, H
O-t; acquitted )larch 1, 
1805. (4) James H. Peck, district judge 
of Missouri, impeached Dec. 13, 1830, for 
arbitrary conduct. etc.; acquitted. (5) 
West II., district judge of 
Tennessee, impeached and convicted for 
rebellion, .Jan. 2ß, 18G2. (6) Andrew 
Johm;on, President of the United States, 
impeached "of high crimes and misde- 
meanors." Feb. 22,1868; acquitted. (7) 
'V. \V. Belknap, Secretary of War, im- 
peached for recei\'ing money of post- 
traders among the Indians, March 2, 1876; 
resigJwd at the same time; acquitted for 
want of jurisdiction. 
"Impending Crisis," the title of a 
book written by Hinton R. Helper, of 
North Carolina, pointing out the evil ef- 
fects of slavery upon the whites, first 
published in 1837. It had a large sale 
(140,000 copies) and great influence. 


Imperialism. The Ron. William A. 
Peffer, ex-Senator from Kan
ms, makes 
the following important contribution to 
the discussion of this question: 

The arraignment of the national ad- 
ministration by certain citin'ns on a 
charge of imperialism, in the execution 
of its Philippine policy, brings up for 


These two provisions were intended to 
apply and did apply to ,negro slaves, of 
whom ther'e were in the country at that 
time about 500,000, nearly one - sixth 
of the entire population; and they, as a 
class. together with our Indian neig-hbors 
anù the free people of color, were all ex- 
cluded from the ranks of those who par- 
ticipated in the institution of our new 
gOlernment. Their consent to anything 
done or contemplated in the administra- 
tion of our public affairs was neither ask- 
ed nor desired. Their coni::>ent or dis:;ent 
did not enter into the problems of govern- 
ment. It made no difference what their 
wishes were, or to what they were op- 
posed. A majority of sueh persons as en- 
jOJ'ed political pridleges-they and they 
only-fm"med the new government and or- 
ganized its powers, without regard to the 
disfranchised classes, as much so as if 
tIlese classes had not bcen in existence. 
And, in addition to the non-l'oting peo- 
ple, there were many white men in the 
Statcs who, by reason of their poverty, 
were not permitted to vote, and hence 
could not take part in popular elections. 
It is, probably, safe to say that, of the 
whole population of the country, when the 
Constitution was put into effect, tIle num- 
ber that had no part in the work of esta.b- 
lishing the national government, either 
for or against it, although tJlf'Y were sub- 
ject to its rule, constituted at least 25 
pel' ccnt. 
Still more. In everyone of the States, 
and at!lOng those persons, too, qualified 
to vote, there wa.s opposition, more or 
less, to the inauguration of tlle new ré- 
gime. North Carolina did not ratify tIle 
Constitution till more than two years af- 
ter the convention that frameù it had ad- 
journed sine die; and Rhode Island did 
not come into the Union till )'Iay of Presi- 
dent 'Vashington's second year. 
There is no way of aseertaining exact- 
ly the lIllmlwr of voter" who were opposed 
to tIre })ew plan, who did not consent to 
And this: it, and who would have defpated it. if they 
.. The mIgration or Importation of !'Il1('h ("ould: hut, jf these be added to the dis- 
persons as any of the 
tates now exl<;tlng franc"hised classes, we haw' a total of at 
shaH thInk proper to admit, shnH not hp l('ast one-tldnl of the inhahitants of the 
p,"ohlblted by the ('ongr"pSH pl'lol' to the Yf'ar f'O\mtr y not consenting to the eXf>reise of 
tine thousand ei
ht hundred and ei
ht, hut 
a duty or tax may be imposed on such Im- these governmental powers over them. Yet 
10 - 

discussion some important questions relat- 
ing to the powers, duties, and responsibili- 
ties of government, among which are three 
tha t I propose to consider briefly, nameIJ': 
First. \Vhence comes the right to gm-- 
ern? ""hat are its sphere and object? 
Second. Are we, the people of the United 
States, a self-governing people? 
Third. Is our Philil)pine policy anti- 


As to the right to govern-the right 
to exercise authority over communities, 
Etates, and nations, the right to enact, 
construe, and execute laws-whence it is 
derived? For what purposes and to what 
extent may it be properly assumed? 
In the Deelara tion of Independence it 
is asserted that: 

.. 'Ye hold these truths to be self-evident, 
that aH men are created equal; that they 
al'e endowed by their Creator with certain 
Inalienable rights: that among these al"e 
life, libel.ty, and the pursuit of happiness. 
That to secure these rights, governments are 
instituted among men, derivIng their just 
powers from the consent of the governed." 

But iR it true that government, even in 
a republic like ours, derives its just pow- 
ers only from the consent of the governed? 
Is it not a fact that at no time in our 
history have we either had Or asked the 
eon sent of all the ppople within our juris- 
diction, to the powers of government which 
we have been exercising over them? Is 
it not true, on the contrary, that we have 
been governing many of them, not only 
without their consent, hut in din'ct oppo- 
sition to it? 
The Constitution, framed to provide s11eh 
a form of government as the signers of 
t1lp Dec1ara tion had in mind, contains t})e 
following provision: 

.. No person held to service or labor in one 
f'tate, under the laws thereof, escaping into 
another, shall. in consequence of any law or 
ulation therein, be discharged from such 
sel'vice or labor, but shaH be delivered up 
on claim of the party to whom Slwh servÎl"e 
or If.bor may be dUe." 

portation, not exceeding ten doHars for each 


these powers were deemed by the majority 
that organized them to be just powers, 
:lIld the said majority felt that they were 
justified in executing them. 
Thomas J efi"ersoll held "the vital prin- 
ciple of republics" to be " absolute acqui- 
pSCf'nce in the decisions of the mnjor- 
ity." But whence come<; the right of a 
jority to rule? And may the majority 
ot to-day detennine the course of the 
majority of to-morrow? Had two-thirds of 
n population of less than 4,000,000 in 
I iSH the l"ightful authority to lay down 
rules of government for a population of 
75,000,000 in I!)OO-rules which we can- 
not change, save by revolution, unless we 
do it in accordance with forms prescribed 
by our ancestors more than 100 years 
a 0'0 ? 
e all believe with Jefferson that the 
right of a majority to rule in a republic 
is not to he challenged; and that the 
answer to these troublesome questions 
concerning the source of this undisputed 
right to govern can be found only in 
the theory that government is one of the 
cssential agencies provided in the begin- As to whether we are a self-governing 
ning by the Father above for the work of people, the answer to this question de- 
subduing the earth and bringing all men pends upon whether all classes of the 
to Himself. The thought is tersely ex- population within our jurisdiction share 
pressed by St. Paul in his letter to the in the work of governing, or whether, as 
Romans: "There is no power but of God." in the ancient republics, only a portion 
"The powers that be are ordained of of the people are to be taken for the whole 
God." The ruler is a "minister of God." for purposes of government. 
Man's right to life, liberty, and room In any age of the world, the character 
to work in is inherent, and government of government fairly represents the state 
follows as natura]]y as the seasons fol- of the world's inhabitants at that partic- 
low each other. As'long as the individual ular period. That a people are not far 
man livcs separated from his fe]]ows. he enough advanced to form a government 
needs no protection other than he is able for themselves, and conduct its affairs 
himself to command; but when popu- in theÌl" own way, is not a reason why they 
lation increases and men gather in com- should not have an
' government at all. 
munities. governments are instituted On its lower level. government may ex- 
nmong them in order to make these in- tend no furthel' than the will of an 
dividual rights secure; and then new ignorant despot, whù holds the tenure 
rights a ppcar, communal rights; for of life and property in his hands; but 
communities. as well as individual per- as men advance, they rise to higher levels 
sons, have rights. and the sphere of government is enlarged. 
The necessity for government increases In the end it will, of necessity, embrace 
with the density of population. and the all human interests which are common. 
scope of its powprs is enlarged with the The members of the Continental Con- 
extension of its territorial juriRdietion. gnss. in declaring the cause which im- 
thp diversity of employments in which the pelled the spparation of the colonies 
citizpnRIÚp are pngn.
('d. and. the degree ÍI"om the mother-country, began the eon- 
of refinement to which they havp attained. eluding- paragraph of the Dedaration in 
The trapppr. with his axe, knife. gun these words: 

and sack, pursues his calling alone in the 
wilderness; hut, with settlement, the 
fore:,;t disappears, farms are opened up. 
towns laid out, neighborhoods formed, 
laws become necessary, and government 
It is not neceHsary, however, that we 
Hhould agree on the origin of govern- 
ment, for we know that, as a matter of 
fact, governments in one form or another 
have existed ever since the beginning of 
recorded history; and we know, flll'ther, 
that under the operation of these go,-ern- 
mcnts no per cent. of the habitable sur- 
face of the globe has been reclaimed from 
bal"barislll. The whole world is to-day 
virtually within the jurisdiction of regu- 
larly organized powers of government, 
international law is recognized and en- 
forced as part of the general code of the 
nations, and thp trend of the world's 
civilization is towards free institutions 
and popular forms of government. 



.. We, therefore, the representatives of the 
United States of America, In Congress as- 
sembled, appealIng to the Supreme Judge of 
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, 
do, in the name, and by authority of the 
good people of these colonies, solemnly pub- 
lish and declare," ptc. 

submitted to the legislatures of the several 
States for their action, it was strenuous- 
ly opposed in some of them, and received 
unanimous support in only three-Dela- 
ware, New Jersey, and Georgia. The ma- 
jority in its favor was lal'ge in Con- 
necticut and South Carolina, while in 
Virginia the majority was only ten votes, 
and in New York only three. The vote in 
five of the States stood tlms: Pcnns,yl- 
vania, 46 to 23; Massachusetts, 187 to 
Hi8; Maryland, 63 to ll; New Hampshire, 
57 to 46; New York, 30 to 27. North 
Carolina and Rhode Island were two years 
ill making up their minds to accept places 
ill the Union. 
So we see that a majority of about 
two-thirds (and that may have been in 
fact less than a majority of the whole 
people) assumed to speak and act for all. 
The people of the United States have all 
along acted on that plan. We have gone 
even further than that. \Ve have in some 
cases expressly authorized minorities to 
determine the gravest matters. The Con- 
stitution provides that "a majority of 
each (House of Congress) shall consti- 
tute a quorum to do business"; and" each 
House may determine the rules of its prø- 
c('edings." The Sella te now consists of 
ninety members; forty-six is a majority, 
constituting a quorum. Of this forty-six, 
tv'enty - four form a majority, and al- 
though it is less than one-third of the 
whole body, may pass any measure that is 
.. We, the people of the United States not required by the Constitution to re- 
. . . do ordain and establish this Constltu- ceive a majority or a two-thirds vote- 
Hon for the United States of America." a treaty, for example. And it is the same 
in the House of Representatives. 
But not more than two-thirds of the And, although a majority of the electo- 
population were representpd in "\Ve, the ral vote is required to choose a President 
people," and a majority of the two-thirds of the United States, it has frf'quently 
assumed the responsibilities of govern- happened tlult the successful candidate 
ment-rightfully, as all loyal Americans was. opposed by It majority of the voters 
believe. The machinery of the republic of the eountry. 
was set in motion in 1789, and the census In the matter of amending- the Con- 
taken the next year showed the total stitution, a. maJority of the voters may 
population to be 3,920,214, of which total favor any particular amendment proposed, 
number 757,208 were colored-mostly per- but it must be ratified by three-fourths 
sons of African descent, who were nearly of the legislatures of the several States 
all slaves, and these, with the other dis- before it becomes law. 
franchised classes, as hefore stated, made \Ve not only have adopted th
up about 33 per cent. of the population prÏIwiple as a rule of government, but we 
that were not permitted to take part Imve uniformly insisted upon acquiescence 
in establishing the new government. in minority rule in any and all cases 
Furthermore, when the Constitution was where it has been so provided in advance. 

The words "good people of these colo- 
nies" included only suph of the people as 
at that time participated in the work 
of local government, excluding those who 
were opposed to separation. The Tories 
-and there were a good many of them- 
did not approve an;ything that the Con- 
gress did. They were regarded by the 
patriots as public enemies, and were kept 
under constant watch by committees of 
inspection and observation in every county. 
They were subject to arrest and imprison- 
ment-even to banishment; and in many 
instances their property was confiscated. 
'l'he Congress surely did not sppak in the 
name of the Tories, nor by their au- 
The Articles of Confederation, under 
the provisions of which the CongreRs acted 
after March 2, 1781, recognized as its 
constitueney only "the free inhabitants 
of each of these States." Slaves, though 
constituting nearly, if not quite, 16 per 
cent. of the population, were not reckoned 
among the political forces to be respect- 
ed. Indians, likewis
, were e"'{cluded. 
The Constitution of the United States 
opens thus: 


tions. Smith strengthened the fort in 
lü08, trained the watch regularly and 
exercised the company every Saturday. 

o organized opposition to the white set- 
tlement appeared during the first few 
;years, though the Indians manifested their 
dis!;:atisfaction in the arrest of Smith. 
whom they would have summarily put to 
death but for the intercession of the 
chief's daughter. But in 1622, under 
Opechaneanough, they attacked the set- 
tlers, killed several hundred of them, and 
devastated a good many plantations. They 
were finally beaten back by the whitf's, 
many of them being unmerciful1y slaugh- 
tered, and the n'st dri,'en into the wilder- 
ness. Twenty-two 
' later, under the 
lead of the ðame chief, another war broke 
out, la
ting two .years, causing much lo!'.s 
In order to determine whether our Phil- of life and property on both sides, and 
ippine policy is anti-American, we must r('suIting in the utter defeat of the Ind- 
amine the testimony of American his- ians and the ces!->ion by them of tracts 
tcry, and see the record that Americans of land to the colonists. This policy was made for themselves in their treat': pursued to the end of the colonial period. 
ment of subject people in our own coun- The Plymouth colony early sent Cap- 
try. tain Standish, with a few men, to confer 
Virginia and New England may fairly with the natives and ascertain, if possible, 
be taken as representative of the colo- the state of their feelings in regard to 
nies up to the time of the Revolution, the wbite settlement; but the Indians 
in so far as the Indian population is con- eluded him and he learned nothing. The 
cerned. second year after this reconnoiRsanee Can- 
Patents to the London Company and to onicus, king or chief of the Karragansets, 
the Plymouth Company were issued in by way of showing how he felt about it, 
Hi06 by King .Tames I., authorizing them sent to the Plymouth people a bundle of 
to "possess and colonize that portion of arrows tied with the skin of a rattle- 
Korth America lying between the thirty- snake. As an answer to this challenge, 
fourth and forty - fifth parallels of north the skin was stuffed with powder and bul- 
latitude." What legal rights or privileges lets and returned. These exchanges of 
James had in America were based wholly compliments opened the way for a peace 
on the discoveries made by English navi- treat,y between the settlers and several 
gators. Rights of the native inhabitants tribes; but some of the chiefs were sus- 
were not considered in the granting of picious of the whites and formed a con- 
thf'sf' patents, nor in the subsequent col- spiracy to kill them off. The scheme com- 
onization. ing to the knO\dedge of the colonists, it 
The London Company colonizf'd Vir- was frustrated by Standish and his com- 
ginia and the Plymouth Company and its pany, who treacherously killf'd two chiefs. 
!'.ueeessors colonized New England. In A treaty of peace with the Narragansf'ts 
both cases landings were effected and set- soon followed this occurrence, and it re- 
tlements begun without consulting the mained in force until the 'Vampanoags, 
people that inhahited the country. weary of encroachments on their lands 
As to Virginia, among the ea.rly acts by the whites, made war on them under 
of the .Tamestown colony. under the lead the leadership of King Philip, in 16ï5. 
of Captain Rmith, was the procuring of Among the incidents of that war, and 
food from the Indians by trading- with as showing the temper of the colonists, 
tlH'm, and at the same time fortifvinO' the may be mentioned the destruction of the 
new settlement against Indian dep
eda- Narraganset fort and the suhsequent capt- 

\Ve have but to look at our record to 
see that, from the beginning, we have ex- 
cluded a very large proportion of our own 
people from all participation in affairs 
of government, and we have never accused 
ourselves of exercising unjust powers or 
undue authority. This fact strengthens 
the belief that there is a source of power 
which does not lie in the people at alI- 
a "higher power," if you please. The 
Declaration of Independence conforms to 
this view, in affirming that men are " en- 
dowed by their Creator with certain in- 
alienable rights," and in appealing to 
the" Supreme Judge of the \V orId," " with 
a firm reliance on the protection of Divine 



ure and treatment of Philip. The fort to this subject race in our new territorial 
sheltered about 3,000 Narragansets, most- acquisitions we shan now see. 
ly women and children. It was surprised The region bounded on the north by 
during a snow-storm, the palit:;ades and the Great Lakf's, on the east by the Ane- 
wigwams were fired, and the Indians were ghany l\1ountains, on Hie south by the 
driven forth by the flames to be either Ohio River, on the west by the l\1issis- 
burned, suffocated, frozen, butchered, or sippi, out of which have grown the States 
drowned in the surrounding swamp. His- of Ohio, Michigan, \Yisconsin, 1l1inoiR, 
tory says that "500 wigwams were de- and Indiana, had becn daiuwd under tJ}('ir 
stroyed, 600 warriors kiJJed, 1,000 women charters by Virginia, New York, Connecti- 
and children massacred, and the winter's cut, and Massachusetts, but they cedptl 
provisions of the tribe reduced to ashes." thpir claims to the L'"nited States. The 
., The government set a price of 308. per country so ceded was our Hrst territorial 
head for ever;r Indian killed in battle, and acquisition, and became known as the 
many women and children were sold into Northwest Territory. .A government was 
slavery in South America and the 'Vest provided for it umkr the ordinance of 
Indies." Towards the last, Captain li87, and Presidpnt 'Yashington, in liS!), 
Church, the noted ]ndian fighter, headed appointed Gen. Arthur St. Clair its gov- 
an expedition to find Philip and destroy ernor. The various tribes of Indians in- 
the remainder of the Wampanoags. habiting that part of the country object- 
Philip was hunted from placf' to place, and cd to the jurisdiction of the whites, just 
at last found in camp on Åug. 12, 1676. as some of the Filipinos have done in the 
The renegade Indian who betra;ved the Philippine Islands, and they made war 
Narraganset camp led Captain Church to on the whites, under Michikiniqua, chief 
the camp of Philip. The attack was made of the )Iiamis. as the Filipinos han done 
at night, while the Indians were asleep. under Aguinaldo, chief of the Tagals. 
Philip. in attempting to esc
pe, was recog- Under date of Oct. 6, 178
, President 
nized by an Indian any of the whites and \\'ashington forwarded instructions to 
shot dead as he stumbled and fen into Governor St. Clair, in which he said: 
the mire. His body was dragged forward, "It is highly neccssary that I should, 
and Church cut off his head, which a8 soon as possible, possess full infortHël- 
was borne on the point of a spear to tion whether thp \Vabash and IlJinois 
Plymouth. where it remained twenty [ndians are most inc1ined for war or 
years exposed on a gibbet. According {'eace. . . . You will, therefore, inform 
to the colonial Jaws, as a traitor, his the said Indians of the diRposition 
body was drawn and quartered on a of the genpral government on this sub- 
day that was a-ppointed for public thanks- jcct, and of their reasonable desire that 
giving. there should he a cessation of hostilities 
With this poJiey steadily pursued to as a prelude to a treaty. . . . I would 
the end, when the time came for Ameri- have it ohRerved forcibly that a war 
cans tlH'Hlselws to turn upon their op- with the "'ahash Indians ought to be 
prel';:"ors, tlwre was little left of the avoided by all mean8 consistently with 
Indian question in Npw Eng]and and Vir- the security of the frontier inhabitants, 
ginia. or in any of the States; but, with the security of the troops, and the na- 
the Deelaration of Independence, the tional dignity. . . . But if, after manifest- 
formation of the federal Union, and the ing cl('arly to the Indians the disposition 
tablishment of a national government of th(' general government for the pre8er- 
for the whole country, our Indian trou- \'ation lJf peaep and the extension of a just 
bles wen> confincd chiefly to territory be- proteetion to the said fmlians, they 8houIù 
longing to the Pnion, regions acquired continue theil' inl'ursionb, the United 
after the rnion was fornwd, and, ]1('nce, Statps will be ('oIl8traÌlH'd to punish them 
na tional territories under the sole juris- with Revpritv." 
dj('tion of the national governlll(,llt, The Indi;Hls \\,pre mo:-:t jnl'1Ì1wd for 
though inhabitf'd by Indians, whose l"Ìghts war, as the Ta:!als have beell, and a good 
to the soil had never bepn qUPRtiOJ1('(1. deal of hanI fighting, extending over five 
\Yhat has been our policy with respect years, was done before they were brought 

to t('rms in a treaty. The battle at 
Miami \ïIlag-(', :-;ept. 30, 1790, between 
about 1.800 Americans under G('neral 
HannaI', and a some\\hat larger body of 
Indians under various chiefs, resultf'd in 
a \'icìor,y ior the lndians, with a 10:;8 of 
o men killed and 300 wigwams burn('d. 
.-\nother pitched battle was fought near 
the same place the next year. The Ind- 
ia ns were again victorious, and the Amer- 
n loss was more than half the army- 
(j31 killed and 263 wounded. On Aug. 20, 
17U4, General 'Vayne, with 900 United 

tates soldiers, routed the Indians in a 
battle near 
Iiami Rapids, and a year 
later a treaty of peace was concluded, by 
the terms of which nearly the whole of 
Ohio was ceded by the Indians to the 
United States. 
It will be observed that with five years 
of war we had got no farther west than 
Ohio. And these battles with the [nd- 
iabs in the )[iami Valley were more 
bloody than any ever fought by American 
annif's with white men. 
This long and blooð.y Indian war did 
not end our troubles in the Northwest. 
The Indians confederated under Tecum- 
seh in 1811. and they were routed at the 
battle of Tippecanoe by General Har- 
rison. This practically terminated Ind- 
ian hostilities in the Northwest Territory, 
but Tecumseh stirred up resistance 
among the Creeks and their a11ies in our 
new acquisitions south of the Ohio, known 
as the Southwest Territory. The l'cbel- 
lion there began with the massacre at 
:I<'ort l\Iims, on Aug, 30, 1813, in the 
Creek Nation, and ended with the battle 
of Tohopeka, on March 27, 1814, where 
the Indians were defeated by troops under 
General Jackson. About 1.000 Creek 
warriors were engaged at Tohopeka, and 
more than half of them (530) were ki1led. 
Rpven fierce battles were fought during 
thp continuance of this brief war, with an 
aggregate loss to the Indians of 1,300 
killed and an unknown number of 
The Black Hawk War, in 1832, cost the 
lives of twenty-five Americans and 150 
The Florida War began in 1835 and 
lasted seven years, ending with the final 
defeat of the Indians. 
Since the conclusion of the Florida, 


Seminole, 'Yar our armcd conflict!". with 
Indians have bcen mostly in the \\.Cio't, on 
territory which we acq
ired by purchase 
from France and by cession from MeÀico 
in concluding a two 
;e:ll"8' war with that 
Het we('ll I R46 and 1 H(i() there were 
some fifteen or twenty Indian wars or 
affairs, in which it is estimated that 
1,:)00 whites and 7,000 Indians were 
In the actions between regular troops 
and Indians, from 18136 to 1891, the num- 
ber of whites killed was 1,452; wounded, 
1,101. The number of Indians killed was 
4,363; wounded, 1,133. 
Our Indian wars have been expenshTe 
as well as bloody. It is estimated by the 
War Department that, excluding the time 
covered by our wars with Great Britain 
(1812-14), and with :\Iexico (1846-48) 
and with the Confederate States (1861- 
G.,), three-fourths of the total expense of 
the army is chargeable, directly or in- 
directly, to the Indians; the aggregate 
thus chargpable is put at $807,073,658, 
and this does not include cost of fortifica- 
tions, posts, and stations; nor does it in- 
cludf' amounts reimbursed to the several 
Statps ($10,000,000) for their expenses 
in wars with the Indians. The Indian 
war pension account in 1897 stood at 
Except when engaged in other wars, the 
army has been used almost entirely for the 
Indian serviee, and stationed in the Ind- 
ian country and along the frontier. 
Such in general outline is Americanism 
as it has consistently exhibited itself in 
the policy followed by this country at the 
only junctuff's which are comparable to 
the Philippine situation at the present 
day. If it amounts to imperialism, then, 
ind('ed, are we a nation of imperialists 
without division. 
But let us get closer to the subject. The 
case presented by the anti-imperialists 
against th(1 administration is almost ex- 
actly paralleled in the history of Florida. 
Spain's title to the Philippines was as 
good as that by which she claimed Floriùa. 
for it had the same basis-the right of 
discovery; and her right to cede and con- 
\-eY her title was as perfect in the one case 
as in the other. In both instances, the 
or inhabitants were, by international law, 


transferred with the land on which they 
dwelt. * Fihpinos inhabited the Philippine 
Islands when MageHan discovered them in 
]521, and when ViBalobos, a few years 
later, "took possession of the group and 
named it in honor of King Philip II., of 
Spain," and they were there in 1898, when 
Spain ceded the archipelago to the United 
States in consideration of closing a war 
and the payment of $20.000,000 in money. 
The Seminole Indians inhabited Florida 
when that region was discovered by the 
Spanish navigators, and they were there 
in 1819-21, when Spain ceded the country 
to the United States in consideration of 
removing a just cause of war on our part, 
and a stipulation to setUe claims against 
Spain to the amount of $5,000,000. 
The treaty for Florida was concluded in 
]81H, but was not ratified by Spain tiB 
the second year thereafter; a territorial 
government was established on March 30, 
1822, the President in the mean time gov- 
erning the Territory twenty years, the 
State being admitted on March 3, 1845. 
During the territorial period the army 
was needed there most of the time to sup- 
press disorders in which the Indians were 
almost always mixed; and in 1835 the 
war with the Seminoles began. Andrew 
Jackson was President during the first 
two years of this war; it continued an 
through Van Buren's term, and extended 
a year or more into that of Harrison and 
Tyler. To suppress this rebellion of Os- 
ceola and his allies, the army, consisting 
of regulars, militia, and volunteers, was 
employed seven years. 
nt McKinley is doing in the 
Philippines just what was done by Presi- 
df'nt Jackson and his successors in Flor- 
ida, and he is doing it more humanely. 
Were they imperialists! 

· American Supreme Court. In the case of 
the American Insurance Company vs. Canter. 
1 Peters, 511, referring to the territory held 
by a conqueror, awaiting the conclusion of 
a treaty, says: 
.. If It be ceded by the treaty, the 
acquIsition Is confirmed, and the ceded ter- 
ritory becomes a part of the nation to which 
It is annexed. . . . On such a transfer 
of territory, the relations of the Inhabitants 
with their former soverel
n are dissolved, and 
new relations are created between them and 
the government which has acquired their 
territory. The same act whiC'h transfers 
their country transfers the allegiance of 
those who remain In It." 

As to matters of government, American- 
ism means American rule in American 
territory. Americans govern by major- 
ities-majorities of 
hose who, by pre- 
vious constitutional and statutory pro- 
visions, are authorized to govern, and 
whose administration of public affairs has 
been, as far as practicable, determined 
in advance by properly constituted au- 
Beginning with the Pilgrims' compact, 
we have grown a republic, removing or 
surmounting all obstacles in the way of 
our development, until now we are in the 
forefront of nations. We have liberated 
the negro and given him the banot. The 
Indians, of whom there are about as 
many in the country as ever, have to their 
credit in the national treasury a trust 
fund amounting to about $25,000,000; 
they are dissolving their tribal relations; 
the adults, under government supervision, 
are learning to work at farming and other 
uscful caIIings, theil' children are in gov- 
ernment sehools, and an are in process 
of citizenization. Government Indian 
schools now number about 150, with near- 
ly as many contract schools. Indian edu- 
cation is costing the government about 
$2.000,000 a year. 
The trouble in the Philippines has been 
occasioned by Aguinaldo and his associ- 
ates. Americans are there of right, and 
they ask nothing of the natives but to be 
peaceable, to obey the laws, and to go 
ahead with their business; they win not 
only be protected in every right, but will 
be aided by aU the powerful influences 
of an advanced and aggressive civilization. 
Imports. See CO
Impost Duties. The first impost 
duties laid on the English-American colo- 
nies were in 1672, whpn tl1e British Par- 
liament, regarding colonial commerce as 
a proper source of public revenue and 
taxation, passed a law imposing a duty 
on sugar, tobacco, ginger, cocoanut, in- 
digo, logwood, fustic, wool, and cotton, 
under certain conditions. It was enacted 
that the whole business should be man- 
ngpd and the imposts levied by officers 
appointed by the commissioners of cus- 
ioms in England, under the authority of 


the lords of the treasury. This was the the action of Parliament. In November, 
first attempt at taxation of the colonies 1747, Commodore Knowles, while in Bos- 
without their consent. ton Harbor, finding himself short of men, 
The first of such duties established by sent a press-gang into the town one morn- 
the United States was for the purpose ing, which seized and carried to the ves- 
of restoring the public credit. On April sels several of the citizens. This violence 
IS, 1782, the Congress voted" that it be aroused the populace. Several of the naval 
recommended to the several States as officers on shore were seized by a mob and 
imlispensably necessary to the restoration held as hostages for their kidnapped coun. 
of public credit, and to the punctual trymen. They also surrounded the town 
.md honorable discharge of the public house, where the legi!'lature was in Sf'S- 
debts, to innst the United States, in SlOn. and demanded the release of the 
Congress assembled, with power to levy impressed men. The governor called out 
for the use of the United States" certain the militia, who reluctantly obeyed. Then, 
duties named upon certain goods import- alarmed, he withdrew to the castle. 
ed from any foreign port. Lnder the pro- Knowles offered a company of marines to 
visions of the Articles of Confederation, sustain his authority, and threatened to 
the unanimous consent of the States waS bombard the town if his officers were llot 
necessary to confer this power upon the released. The populace declared that the 
Congress. This was the first attempt to lay gonrnor's flight was abdication. Matters 
such duties for revenue. The necessity became so serious that the influential citi- 
was obvious, and all the f'itates except zens, who had favored the populace, tried 
Rhode Island and Georgia agreed to an to suppress the tumult. The Assembly or- 
ad valorem duty of 5 per cent. upon all dered the release of the officers, and 
goods excepting spirituous liquors, wines, Knowles sent back most of the impressed 
teas, pepper, sugars, molasses, cocoa, and men. The authorities attributed the out- 
coffee, on which specific duties were laid. break to " negroes and persons of vilp con- 
The Assembly ga"e, as a reason for its dition." This was the first of a series of 
refusal, the inequality of such a tax, bNtr- impressments of American citizens Ly 
ing harder on the commercial States, and British ofIicers which finally led to the 
the ine'\.pediency and danger of intrust- War of 1812-15. 
ing its collection to federal officers, un- Proofs of the sufferings of American 
known and not accountable to the State seanwn from the operations of the British 
governments. A committee of the Con- impress system were continually received, 
gress, with Alexander Hamilton as chair- and so frequent and flagrant were these 
man, was appointed to lay the proposi- outrages, towards the close of 1805, that 
tion before the several States and to urge Congress took action on the subject. It 
their acquiescence. They sent it forth was felt that a crisis was reached whf'll 
with an eloquent address, which appealed the indepcndence of the United Statf'S 
to the patriotism of the people. The must be vindicated, or the national honor 
measure was apprond hy the leading men would be impprilled. There was ample 
of the country, and all the States but cause not only for retaliatory measures 
two were willing to give Congress the de- against Grpat Britain, but pnn for war. 
sired power. "It is monry, not power, A non-importation act was passed. It was 
that ought to be the object," they said. resolved to try negotiations once more. 
" The fornwr will pay our debts, the latter \Yilliam Pinkney, of Maryland, was ap- 
may destroy our libcrtirs." See Cmf- J>oinh>d (::\[ay, lR06) minister extraordi- 
UE. nary to England, to become assoeiatpd 
Impressment. In 1707 the British Par- with Monroe, the resident minister. in 
liament, b
T act, forbade the impressment nf'gotiating a treaty that should settle all 
of seamen in American ports anù watt'rs d;sputes between the two governnwntR. 
for privatepring service, unless of such He sailed for England. and negotiations 
snilors as had previously deserted from were commenced Aug. 7. As the Ameri- 
ships-of-war. The custom had been a can commissioners were instructed to 
sourcr> of anno'yancj> and complaint for make no treaty which did not spcure tllP 
sr>wral years, and was continuf'd dpspite wSRels of their countrymen on the high 
V.-ß 17 


sras against press-gangs, that topic re-- of slavery as seamen in British ships-of- 
('ci,'ptl the l'arlip::;t att('ntion. The Alll('ri. '''ar. 'Vhell Jonathan nus
elJ, millÏ!,itcr 
caw" contenùeù that the right of impI"eI-lS- at the British COllI t, attempted to ne- 
ment, existing by municipal law, could gotiate with that government (Augu
not be exercised out of the juri!'dic- ]812) for a :o.ettI('ment.' of dibputes be- 
tion of Great Britain, and. conse(}u('utly, tween the Ameril'iU1s awl nritish, and pro- 
upon the high !:'eas. Thc British l'('plieù l,os('d the withdrawal of the claims of 
that no subject of the King could expatri- the latter to the right of impressmmt 
ate him::;elf-" once an Englishman, al. and the release of impressed seamen, Lorù 
ways an Englishman "-and argued that Castlereagh, the British minister for for- 
to give up that right would make every cign affairs, refused to listen to such a 
American vessel an asylum for British proposition. He cven expressed surprisc 
seamen wishing to evade their country's that, "as a condition preliminary en
scrvice. FinaHy, the British commission- to a suspension of hostilities, the govcm- 
ers stated in writing that it was not in- Illent of the rnited States should have 
t{'nded by their governnwnt to exercise thought fit to dcmand tlult the British go\'- 
this claimed right on board any American cmment should desist from its ancient 
vessel, unless it was known it contained and accustomed practice of impressing 
British dcserters. In that shape this por- British seamen from the mcrchant-ships 
tion of a treaty then concludcd remained, of a foreign state, simply on the assur- 
and was unsatisfactory bccause it was ance that a law was hcrcafter to be pass('d 
based upon eontingcncics and provisiolls, to prohibit the employment of British 
and not upon positive treaty stipulations. seamen in thc public or commercial scr- 
The American commissionprs then, on "ice of that state." The United States 
their own responsibility, procecded to trcat had proposed to pass a law making such 
upon other points in dispute, and an agrec- a prohibition in case the British goycrn- 
ment was made, bascd principally upon IIlent should relinquish the practice of 
Jay's treaty of 170--1. The British made impressment and rclease an impl'css<'C1 
some concessions as to the rights of neu- seamen. Castlcreagh acknowledged that 
trals. The treaty was more favorable to there might havc hecn, at the b('ginning 
the Americans, on the whole, than Jay's, of the year 1811, l.fiOO bOlla fide American 
and, for the reasons which induced him, citizens serving by compulsion in the 
the American commissioners signed it. It TIritish nay"V. Several hundreds of them 
was satisfactory to the merchants and )lad been d"ischarged, and all would bc, 
most of the people; yet the President, con- Castlcreagh said, upon proof madc of their 
suIting only his Secretary of State, and ..\meriean birth; but the British goycrn- 
without referring it to the Senate, re- ment, he continued, could not consent" to 
jccted it. suspend the cxercise of a right upon 
A. ('ause of 1Var.-The British govern- which the na,-al Rtrength of the empire 
nlPnt claimed tl)e right for commanders of mainly dcpended, unless assured that the 
British ships - of - war to make up any object might be attained in SOlUe othpr 
dcficiellcy in their crews by pressing into way." There were then upward of 6.000 
their service British-born seamen found cases of alleged impressment of American 
anywhere not within the immediate juris- seamen recorded in the Dcpartment of 
diction of some forcign state. As many State, and it was estimated that at least 
British seamen were employed on board as many more might have opcurred, of 
of American merchant-vessels, the e-..::er- which no information had becn rcccivcd. 
cise of this claimed right might (and C'astIereagh had admitted on the floor of 
often did) seriously cripple American ves- the House of Commons tl13t an official 
sels at sea. To distinguish between Brit- inquiry had revcaled the fact that there 
i!"h and American seamen was not an easy wl'rp. in 1811. 3.500 mpn claiming to he 
matter, and many British captains, eager Anwrican citizens. 'Vhatever may have 
to fill up their crews. frequently impressed bpen the various causes combined which 
native-born Americans. These were some- produced the war bptween the United 
times dragged by violence from on board Rtates and Great Britain in 1812-15, 
their own vessels and condemned to a life when it was declared, the capital question, 


The Wilson tariff bill of 1894 contained 
provisions for an income-tax, which the 
United States Supreme Court declared un- 
constitutional on May 20, 1805. 
Independence Day, LESSONS OF. See 
Independents. See CONGREGATIOXAL 
Indian Corn. \Vhen the English 
settlers first went to Virginia, they found 
the Indians cultivating maize, and the 
Europeans called it "Indian corn." It 
IIl'owd to be a great blessing to the immi- 
grants to our shores, from Maine to 
Florida. Indian corn appcars among the 
earliést exports from America. As early 
as 1748 the two Carolinas exported aLout 
100,000 bushels :t year. For several years 
previous to the Rcvolution, Virginia ex- 
ported (jOO,OOO bushels annually. The 
total amount of this grain exported an- 
nually from all the English-American 
colonies at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion was between 560,000 and 580,000 
bushels. At the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the annual export was 
g,OOO,OOO bushels. But its annual product 
was not included in the census reports 
until 1840, when the aggregate yield was 
nearly 400,000,000 bushels. In the calen- 
dar year 1!I03 the agg-regate production 
was 2.
-tJ,1 ïft.!)2.'j bushels, from 88,001,- 
OH3 aeres, and the total value was $052,- 
iWF-,8('1. The banner 
tates, in their order 
and with their produetion, were: Illinois, 
2(i-!.087,043 bushels. Iowa, 229,218.220 
Lushels; Missouri, 202,839,384 bushels; 
K ('braska, 172.:370.532 bushels; Kan- 
sas. 171.G87,014 bushels; Indiana, 142,- 
O.88(i hushels; and Texas, 140,750,73;
lI11Rhel"'-all other States and Territories 
beiug below the 100,000,000 mark. S<,e 
.urom,T OF nEVE
UE FRm.{ I
cmIE-TAX EA('H Legend of the Grain. - \VhiIe Capt. 
H.ð.R. :i\IiIes Standish and others of the Pi1grims 
were seeking a place to land, they found 
some mai7e in one of the deserted huts 
of the Indians. Afterwards Samoset, the 
friendly Indian, and others, taught thp 
PiIgri';ls how to cultivate the grain, for 
it was unknown in Europe, and this sup- 
ply, sprving them for seed, saved the lit- 
tip colony from starvation the following 
rear. The grain now first receiyed the 
name of .. Indian corn." 1\11'. Schoolcraft 
Total ................... $34G,D08,740 tt'll::; us that Indian corn entered into the 

and that around which gathered in agree- 
ment a larger portion of the people of 
tIle republic, was that of impressment. 
The contest was, by this consideration, re- 
solyed into a noble struggle of a free 
people against insolence and oppression, 
undertaken on behalf of the poor, the help- 
less, and the stranger. It was this con- 
ception of the essential nature of the 
conflict that gaye vigor to every blow of 
the American soldier and scamen, and 
the watch-words "Free Trade and Sail- 
ors' Rights" prevailed on land as well 
as on the sea. See l\L-\DISO:V, JA
Imprisonment for Debt. See DF.ßTORS. 
Income-tax. The first income-tax was 
enacted by Congress July I, 18(i
, to take 
effect in lRG3. It ta'\:ed all incomes over 
$ftOO and under $10,000 3 per cent., and 
oyer $10,000 5 per cent. By the act of 
March 3, 18G5, the rate was increased to 
5 and to 10 pcr ccnt. on the excess over 
$.3,000, the exemption of $(i00 remaining 
the fOame. On 1Iarch 2, 18(37, the ex- 
emption was increased to $1,000, and the 
rate fixed at 5 per cent. on all excess 
aboye $1,000; the tax to be levied only 
until 18iO. Mter a contest in Congress 
the tax was renewed for one )Tear only by 
act of July U, 18ïO, at the reduced rate 
% per cent. on the excess of income 
aho, e $2,000. A bill to repeal it passed 
the 8<,nate Jan. 2G, 18il, by 2G to 25. The 
House refused to take up the Senate bill 
Feh. 0, 1871, hy a vote of 104 to 103, but 
on 1Iarch 3, 1871, coneurred in the report 
of a committee whieh endorsed the Senate 
bill and repealed the tax. The last tax 
le\"Íed under the law was in 1871. In- 
rome-taws assessed and due in 1871 and 
for preceding years, howevel', continued 
to be collected, 1872-74, as seen by the 
subjoined table: 


$ 2,741,8:17 



mrthology of the Indians of the region 
of the Upper Lakes. In legend the Ind- 
ians tell us that a youth, on the yerge 
of manhood, went into the forest to fast, 
'" here he built himself a lodge and paint- 
ed his face in sombre colors; and then 
he asked the 
Iaster of I..ife for some pre- 
cious gift that should benefit his race. 
Being weak from fasting, he lay down in 
his lodge and gazed through its opening 
Ï11io the blue depths of the hea Yens, from 
which descended a visible fipirit in the 
form of a beautiful young man dJ'essed in 
gJ'een, and haYing green plumes on hiR 
head. This embodied gpirit bade the young 
Indian to rise anrl wrestle with him as 
the only way to obtain the coveted bless- 
ing. l.'our days the wrestlings were re- 
lwatcd, the youth fceling each time an in- 
creasing moral and supernatural energy, 
while his bodily strenf:"th declined. This 
mysterious enerp-y promised llim the final 
victory. On the third day his celestial vis- 
itor Raid to him: "To-morrow will be 
the seventh day of your fast, and the last 
time I shall wrestle with you. You 
will triumph over me and gain your 
wishes. As soon as yon have thrown 
me down, strip off my clothes and bury 
me in the spot of fioft, fresh earth. 
\\ hen you have done this, leave me, 
hut come oe('QRionally to visit the place 
to keep the weeds from growing. Once 
or twice cover me with fr('sh earth." 
The spirit then departed, but returned 
the nut day; and, as he had predict- 
ed. the youth threw him on the ground. 
The young man oh('
Ted his visitor's in- 
structions faithfully, and H'ry !;oon 
was delighted to see the green plumes 
of the heavenly stranger shooting up 
through the mould. lIe carefully weed- 
ed the ground a round tlwm, amI kept 
it fresh and soft, and in due time 
his e;res were eharmed at beholding a 
fulJ-grown plant bending with fruit 
that soon hN'amc gold('n just as thp 
frost touch cd it. It gracpfully wawd 
its long lean's and its ydlow tassels 
in the autumn wind. The young man 
called his parents to behold the new 
plant. "It is Mcn-du-min," said his 
father; "it is the grain of the 
Great Spirit." They invited their 
friends to a feast on the excellent 
grain, and there were great rejoicings. 

Such is the legend of the origin of Ind- 
ian corn, or maize. 
Indian Industrial Schools. In addi- 
tion to a large number. of day, boarùing, 
and other schools maintained by the fed- 
eral government, various religious organ- 
izations, and each of the five cidlized 
tribes in the Indian Territory, there were 
in 1!J00 a total of twenty-four schools for 
Indian ;youth, in which in ad.lition to the 
ordina.ry branches spccial attention was 
paid to industrial education on linPR that 
would rcndcr the J'outh self - supporting 
in tllC future. These special schools COIII- 
Lined had a total of 262 in8tructors in in- 
dustrial work, and 3,076 male and 2.288 
f('male pupils, anù the total expenditure 
for the school 
'car 18Ð8-f)!J was $198,- 
834. The most noted of these schools is 
the United States Indian Industrial 
School, established in Carlisle, Pa. It 
had in the ahove year twenty-nine in- 
E>truC'Ìors and 1,0[10 pupils, of whom 487 
were girls. In addition to the foregoing 
schools the federal government was hav- 

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iug Indian youth educated in the Hamp- undertake the experiment of having Ind- 
ton Xormal and Industrial Institute in ian youth educated there also, and such 
\ïrginia, which was originally established encouraging results followed tha t the 
fOt" the education of colored youth only. government has since kept a large 
The success of the institution in its origi- class of Indian boys and girls in the 
nal purpose induced the government to institution. 


Indian Problem, TIlE. The following 
is a considpmtion of this subject from the 
pen of the Rev. Lyman 

0\ er it. Each decade was satisfied to pro- 
vide for its JIf'cessities and leave the next 
decade to take care of itself. As the 
boundary-line was pushed steadily west- 
Helen .Jackson has written the history ward, new treatips were madf', hy which 
of 100 )'ears of our nation's dealing with all territory Wt.:-<t of a givpn boundary 
the Indians, undpr the title of A flcntury was reserved fur the Indians forever. I 
of Dishonor. Her specifications sepm to think it was in 1800 that such a treaty 
make the indictment of her title good. was made, !:"ccuring to them for all future 
Yet I am persuaded that the dishonor time the land west of th(' l\Iississippi 
whi{'h justly attaches to the history of RiYer. All future time is a long while, 
our dealings with the North American and cach new treaty was made only to be 
Indians is due rather to a lack of pro- broken, as increase of population and in- 
phetic vision, quite panlonahle, in the coming immigration made new demands on 
nation's leaders, and an ignorance and the continent for support. Thus gradually 
indifference, not pardonable, in the nation grew up witllOut design the so-called reser- 
at large, mther than to any deliberate vation system. Less and less land was 
policy of injustice adopted by the nation: reserved to the Indians; more and more 
Bad as has bepn our treatment of the was taken up by thc whites; until at last 
Indians, it is luminous by the side of ceJ.tain relatively !IomaU Rections were 
Rus8ia's treatment of the Jews, Turkey's deeded to separatp Indian tribes. In these, 
treatment of the Armenians, Spain's treat- ac{'ording to th(> treaties made, the several 
ment of the Moors, and, if we include the tribes were at liberty to rpmain forever 
war of Cromwell against the Irish, the hunters and trappcrs, freed from the ohli- 
English legislation against Irish industry, gations and without the advantages and 
Irish education, and the Church of Ire- perils of civilization. 
land's choice, it compares favorably with These reservations have been practically 
ngland's treatment of Ireland. prison yards, within which the tribes have 
\Vhen thirteen States-a fringe of civ- l)('cn confined. If any member passed be- 
ilization on the eastern edge of an un- yond the boundaries of tbe resprvation 
known wilderness-constituted the Amer- 
vithout leave he was liable to arrest. If 
ican Republic, there was no prophet to he raised crops or manufactured goods 
foresee the time when the republic would he could not carry them for sale to the 
stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific open market; if he wished to buy he could 
and from the J
akes to the Gulf of )[exico, not go to the open market to purchase. 
and would include 70,000,000 people. The land was owned by the tribe in com- 
If thpre were any such prophet fie was as mon and t]l(> idle and industrious shared 
a voice cryinp- in the wilderness; no one aJik; its advantages and disadvantages. 
hea,rd or heeded. The poHtician is al- Industry receiYed no reward; idleness in- 
most invariably an opportunist, perhaps volved no penalty. l\Ioney due the trib{' 
sarily so, since no great prevision is under the treaty was paid with more or 
granted to the children of men. The in- IPRR reg-ularity, generally in rations, some- 
fant repuhlic did not know and took little tim('s in guns and ammunition to fight 
pnins to as('ertain the extent of the domain tlH' white man with, or scalping-knives 
which stretched to the west, or the num- to take from his head a trol)hy of the 
ber or character of the people who roanw<! hattle. The forms of industry to whi('h 






the Inen were accustomed-hunting and as e
isted was administered by an Indian 
trapping - graduaIly disappeared; little agent, a person of m-defined, and to the 
or nothing was done to tcach new forms Indian mind, of i11imitable power. He 
of industry or to inspire the men to was as nearly an aÙ!mlute despot as can 
undertake them. From the reservation aU be conceived existing on -\.nlf'rican soH. 
the currents of cÍvi1ization wet'e exclmlf>d lIe was sometimes an inte1Iigf'nt find he- 
hy federal law. The railroad, the tele- nefil'ent despot. sometimes an ignorant and 
graph, the newspaper, the open market. iUl"ompetent one; hut in either ('ase a 
free competition-aIl haIted at its wans. despot. 
By favor of the government, generally Thus there has grown up in .\mel"Ìca, 
frcely granted. the mii-'sionary was al- h
' 110 deliberate design hut hy a natural 
lowed to establish a church, or Christian though mischievous opportunism which 
philanthropy to p1ant a sclwol. Rut as Inls rarf'ly look('d more than ten years 
[Ill educated Indian was rather iml)('ded allPad, a system as incon;:;istent with 
than aided in the tribal communitv hv American principl('s and tllC 
education. neither the f'lmrch nor' U;(' spÏ1'it as could easHy be devisf>d hy the 
sehool could do more than Sa\'e individuals ingenuity or conel'ivcd hy the imagination 
from a population shut up hy law to the of a man. It has denied to the [ndian. 
general conditions of harbarism. No üften under thc genprous desire to do more 
COluts sat in these reservations: no law for llim than men' justice, those rights 
was administet'ed by those judicial meth- and prerogati\'es which the Declaration of 
ods familinr to the Anglo-Saxon: no war- llldependel1ee truly declares to bdong in- 
rants fl'om local courts outside could he alienablv to aU men. It has made a 
f'xecuted: no Tmlian. if wronged. could prisone; of him that it might civi1i7e him. 
appeal to any court for t'edr('ss. Sueh law under the illusion that it is possible to 


civilize a race without subjecting them to the same disadvantageß. The same policy 
the perils of ci\'ilization. It has en- of political removal and political ap- 
àea,'ored to conduct him from the relative IlOintment has chamcterized the whole 
innocence of barbarism to the larger and Indian administration. Sometimes the 
more perilous life of a free and civilized appointments have been made by the com- 
community, and to guard him from the missioner of Indian affairs, sometimes by 
dangers of temptation and the consequcnces the Secretary of the Interior, somctimes 
of his own ignorance en route. The practically by local politicians; but in 
reservation s
'stelll is absolutely, hopelcss- all cases alike, not for expert knowlcdge 
ly, incumbly bad, "evil and wholly evil of Indians, but for political service rcn- 
and that continually." It was never dered or to be rendered, or from rea
framcd by anyone. It has grown up of personal friendship. The notion that 
under the commingled influence of careless there is a continuous and consistent 
indit1'erence, popular ignorance, local policy to be pursued towards the Indians, 
prcjudke, and unthinking sentimentalism. and tha t this requires continuity of ser- 
The Indian problem is, in a sentence, vice and expertness of knowledge in the 
how tf) get rid of it in the easiest and administration, has not entered the head 
quickest ;nlY possible, and bring the Ind- of our public men; or, if so, has not been 
ian and ('wrv Indian into the same in- a Bowed to obtain lodgment there. That 
dividual relaÚon to the State and {edcml so bad a system has secured so many 
::m'ernments that other men in this coun- good Indian agents and subordinate offi- 
try are, with the lcast possible violence cials is a matter for surprise. It is not 
of rupture with the past and the greatest surprising that it has in more than one 
possible regard for the right anrl the instance sent a drunken official to keep 
"elfare of those who are the least re- the Indians sober, an ignorant official to 
sponsible for the present conditions-the Buperintend their education, and a lazy 
Indians themselYes. officia 1 to inspire them with industry. 
The reservation system, I say, is wholly One illustration of the result of this 
bad. The indictment against it is four- method of administration is to be seen 
fold. in the removal of Dr. RaiIman, the 
Tn tl_ first place, the Indian Burpau superintpndent of Indian education, an 
is, and alwa
's has been, a political ma- expert educator, whose retention in his 
chine, whose offices are among the spoils office was urged upon the administration 
which twl ong to the victors. In the II.v substantially all those familiar with 
'eaTS dm'ing which I have had the work which he had done. An eYen 
some familiarity with Indian affairI'. not 1110rp striking object-lesson is afforded by 
a single commissioner of Indian affairs the outbreak among the Pillager Indians, 
has been appointpd because he was fa- largely due to three successive appraisals 
miliar with the Indians, or an expert of their timber lands, two of which ap- 
in the Indian probl(>m. and only one wh/) praisals have been set aside as inade- 
was an expert in that work of f>ducation quate, through the incompetence of t11e 
which is, of COUTSP, one of the chief ele- appraisers, the enormons cost of each ap- 
ments in the Inilian prohlpm. Ther have l'raisal having been charged to the 
IKen, I think, all of t11em, men of excel- Inùians. 
lent character-honest. able, ambitious to But even if the Indian Bureau couU 
110 the best that could be done for the he taken out of politics and kept out of 
Indian. Some of them have made not- po1itics, the reservation system would 
able contributions towards the 
olution still be incurably bad. It assumed that 
of the prohlem. Rut ('ach one of t11em the federal executive can administer a 
has conw into officp with littlp or no patt'1'nal governlllPnt o\"pr wid{'ly !Iocat- 
familinritr with the prohlpll1, has had to tpred local c-ollll11uuities. For such a 
:'cquaint himself with it. and has hardly function it is peculiarly unfitted. The 
had more than enom:th timf> to do so be- attempt to engTaft a Russian buream'1"acy 
fore his term of offlcp ha:;! e-xpired, and on American democracr is a fore-doomerl 
lie 11:l.s h{'pn r(>pl:H>(>ll hy a successor wllO fa ilurf>. The felleral goyerument dop
has had to take up the work subjcct to crcise paternal authority oycr thc Di'i- 


trlct of Columbia. But on the decent gov- States assumes political responsibility for 
ernment of the District the well-being, Cuba and the Philippines, as I personally 
the health, and, perhaps, the lins of the think it is bound to do, it must fulfil 
members of Congress depend; the relation that responsibility not by, governing them 
between the government and the governed as conquered territory from \Vashington, 
is thus direct, close, intimate. Local hut by protecting and guiding, but not 
communities in the United States exer- controlling them, while they attempt the 
cise some paternal functions, as in the experiment of local self-government for 
ease of the insane, the sick, and the themselves. \Ve have tried the first method 
pa upcrs. But here, again, those directly with our Indians, and it has been a con- 
interested have an opportunity of exer- tinuous and unbroken failure. \Ye have 
cising an immcdiate supervision over the tried the second method with the territory 
"ork and caIling the public officials to wcst of the Mississippi River, ours by con- 
aecount. But it is in the nature of the quest or by purchase, and it has been an 
case impossible that a President, a Sec- unexampled success. If the Indian is the 
retary of the Interior, or evcn a eommis- "ward of the nation," the executive sllOuld 
sioner of Indian affairs, can personally not be his gnardian. How that guardian- 
supervise the innumerable details involved ship should. be exercised I shall indicate 
in the paternal administration of co Ill- prescntly. 
munities scattcred from Minnesota to This political and undemocratic pater- 
New Mexico, and from Michigan to Cali- nalisIll is thoroughly had for the Indian, 
fornia. whose interests it is supposed to serve. 
An aristocratic govcrmnent, composed It assumes that civilization c
n be taught 
of men who have inhcrited political ability by a primcr in a school, and Christianity 
from a long line of governing ancestry, by a scrmon in a church. This is not 
and who have been especially trained for true. Frce competition teaches the need 
that work from boyhood, so that both by of industry, frce commerce the value of 
inheritance and training they are experts, honcsty; a savings - bank the value of 
may be supposcd fitted to take care of pco- thrift; a railroad the importance of punc- 
pIe weaker, more ignorant, or less compe- tuality, better than eithcr preacher or 
tcnt than thcmselves, though the history pedagogue can teach thf'Ill. To 1,1lOse, and 
of oligarchic govcrnnwnts does not rcnder there are RtiJl some, who think we must 
that supposition free from doubt. But keep the Indian on the reservation until 
there is nothing in either philosophy or he is prf'pHcd for lihcrty, I reply that he 
history to justify the surmise that 70,000,- will never be preparcd for liberty on a 
000 average men and women, most of rcservation. 'Yhcn a boy can lcarn to 
whom are busy in attending to their own ride without getting on a horse's back, or 
affairs, can be expected to take care of a to swim without going into the water, or 
people scattered through a widely extended to skate without going on the ice-then, 
territory-a people of social habits and anrl not beforc, can man learn to li\"c with- 
social characteristics entirely different cut Jiving. The Indian must take his 
from their care-takers; nor is it much ehance with the rest of lIS. His rights 
more rational to exp('et that public ser- must be protectcd by law; his welfare 
vants, electerl on diO'crent is!;ucs for a dif- looked after by philanthropy; but pro- 
feren! purpose, can render this service tf'cted by law and befriended by pl)ilan- 
efficiently. Our government is foundcd on thropy, he must plunge into tlIP current 
the principle of local 8e1f-gOycrnment; of modern life and learn to live by living. 
that is, on the principle that cuch locality The tepee will never fit him for thc house, 
is better able to take care of its own nor the canoe for the stf'amboat, nor the 
affairs than any central and paternal au. trail for highways and railroads, nor 
thority is to take care of them. The mo- trapping and hunting for manufactures 
m('nt we depart from this principle we and husbandry. Imagine-the illustration 
introduce a method wholly unworkable i" Edward Everett Hale's, not mine-- 
by a democratic nation. It may be wide imagine that we bad pursued towardF; our 
of the prf'sent purpose, yet perhaps not as immigrants the poliey we have pursued 
all illustration, to say that if the United towards the Indians; had shut the I


the Hungarians, the Italians, the Germans, unproductive idleness a territory which, 
the Scandinavians, each in a reservation if cultivated, would provide homes for as 
aUotted to them, and forbidden them to many thousands of industrious workers. 
go out into the free life of America until No treaty can give them that right. It is 
they had Americanized themselves-how not in the power of the federal government 
long would the process have taken? to consecrate any portion ()f its territory 
But the capital objection to the reser- thus to ignorance and idleness. It has 
vation sJ"stem is that it is one impossible tried, again and again, to do so; it has 
to maintain; and it is impossible to main- always failed; it alwaJ"s ought to fail; it 
tain because it ought not to be main- always will fail. English parks kept un- 
taincd. The tide of civilization, surging tilled, yet ministering to taste and refine- 
westward, comcs some day to a fair and ment, ha,'e alwa;ys been regarded by po- 
wealthy bui unuseù and idle territory. liUcal economists as difficult to justify; 
There are forests which no woodman's axe nothing can be said to justify American 
has ever touched; rÌ\'ers whcre water-faUs reservations, kept untilled only that they 
turn no mill-wheels; mountains whose may minister to idleness and barbarism. 
treasures of gold and silver, iron or cop- The editor, in asking me to write this 
per or coal no pickaxe has uncovered; article, indicated his desire that I should 
prairies whose fertile soil is prolific only write" on the probable future of the Ind- 
in weeds. "Come," cries the pioneer, ians in their relation with the govern- 
eagcr to develop this useless tcnitory, ment, and the reforms necessary in the 
"let us go in and make those acres rich administration of their affairs." It may 
7 our industry." "Ko!"' replies the law; seem that I have been a long time coming 
'ou cannoi." "\\'hy not?" "It be- to any dcfinite answer to this question; 
longs to thc Indians." ""'here are but in order to set forth succinctly a re- 
they?" "Hunting, trapping, slecping, form it is first necessary to set forth as 
idling, and fed on rations." "\Vhen are clearly and forcibly as possible the evil 
they going to use this land; to convcrt to be reformed. That evil, I believe, is 
ihis timber into boards; these riwrs into the reservation systcm. The reform is all 
mill-streams; when are they going to ex- summed up in the words, abolish it. 
cavata these minerals, and turn thcse Cease to treat the Indian as a red man 
weedy prairies into fruitful farms?" and treat him as a man. Treat him as 
" Never! This land in the heart of a we have treated the Poles, Hungarians, 
civilized communitv is forever consccratcd Italians, Scandinavians. Many of them 
to barbarism." TÌle pionecr's impatience are no better able to take care of them- 
with such a policy is fully justificd, selves than the Indians; but we have 
though his manner of manifesting it is thrown on them the responsibility of 
not. Barbarism has no rights which civil- their own custody, and they have learned 
i7ation is bound to respect. The qucs- to live by living. Treat them as we have 
tion on what basis the right to land rcsts treated the negro. .As a race the Afri- 
is on(> of the most difficult which political can is less competent than the Indian; 
('conomy has to answer. :Many scholars but we do not shut the Jlf'groes up in 
who do not accppt Henry George's con- re!-wrnltions and put th('m in charge of 
elusions accept his premise, that the soil politil'ally appointed parents called 
helongs to the community, and that in- agents. The lazy grow hungry; the 
dividual ownership rests not on any criminal are punished; the industrious 
indef(>asible right, but on the express or get on. And though sporadic cases of in- 
impJied agreement of the community. justice are frequent and often tragic. they 
Certain it is that the 500,000, more or are the gradually disappearing re1ics of a 
less. of Indians who roamed over this con- slavery that is past, and the negro is find- 
tinent in the seventeenth century, had no ing his place in American life gradually, 
right by reason of that fact to exclude from hoth as a race and as an individual. The 
it the several hundred million industri- reform necessary in the administration of 
ous men and women whom eventually it Indian affairs is: Let the Indian admin- 
will support. As little have a tribe of a ister his own affairs and take his chances. 
few hundred Indians a right to keep in The future relations of the Indians with 


the gon
rnlllent should be precisely the such cases should be dismis
ed. If the 
Eflme as the relations of any other incH- Indian still needs a guardian, if there 
vidual, the readers of this article or the is danger that his land wil1 be taxed away 
writer of it. for example. This should from him, or that he will be induced to 
be the ohjecti\'e point, and the sooner we sel] it for a song, the COU'i.ts, not the ex- 
can get there the better. But this will ecutive, should be his guardian. Uunrdia:n- 
bring hardship and even injustice on ship is a function the courts are accus- 
!';ome inrlh-iduals! Doubtless. The tOUled to exercise. It ought not to be 
world has not JTet found an.y way in which difljcuJt to frame a law such that an 
a 11 hardship and an injustice to individ- Indian could alwa;ys appeal to a. federal 
lIal8 can be avoided. Turn the Indinn judge to have his taÀ appntisal re\'i!;cd, 
(' on thc continent and the race will anrl always be required to suhmit to a 
disappear! Certainly. The SOOlH' l' the ft'deral judge any proI)Oscd sale of r('al 
hpttf'r. There i
 no more rf'a
on why we e!<tate. 
I-<hould endeu\'ür to pres('rve intact the 
t The Indian ami. ('v(')"v Indian should 
T ndian race than the Hungarians, the be amenable to the law m;d entitled to its 
Poles, or the Italians. Americans all, protection. I helieve that, dcspite o('f'a- 
from ocean to ocean. should be the aim of !';ional injustice from local prejudice. it 
al1 American state:->.manship. Let us would be quite safe to leave their inter- 
understand once for all that au infcrior ests to be protccted by the courts of any 
race must either adapt and conform itself :State Ol' Territory in which they livc: 
to the higher civilization. wherever the for I believe that thc AnH'rican IWoplf'. 
two come in conftiet, or else die. This is and certainl
T the _\1I1erican judiciary, l"an 
the law of Go!l, from which therc is no 1)(' trust('d. The policy of distrust has 
appeal. Let Christian philanthropy do intensified the hwal prejudice against the 
all it can to ll('lp the Indian to conform Indian. But it would he easy, if it ùe 
to _-\n1Prican civilization; hut let not sen- nf.cessary, to prodde that any Indian 
timentalism fondly imagine that it can migllt sue in a United States court. or 
sa\-e any race or any community from this if sued or prosecuted might transf('r the 
inexorable law. suit to a Fnited Stat('s court. I assume 
This gcneral and radical reform in- there is no constitutional provision again:'it 
\"olves certain spccifie cures. For ex. such a law. 
ample: 4. All resermtions in wllich the land 
1. The Indian Bureau ought to be taken is capa,ùle of allotment in_ severalty should 
at once and forever out of politics. The he allotted as rapidly as the work of sur- 
government should find the man most ex- \'('ying and making out the warrants can 
pert in dealing with the Indians-he may he carriC'rl on. The unallotted land shonld 
be the pre:-('nt commissioner of Indian he sold amI the proce('ds })("ld by the 
affairs-and instruct him to bring the 1:'nited F{tatf's in trust for the 1ndi:111:-. 
Indian Bureau to a close at th{' earliest How to 1)(> e-xpf'ndpd is a diflkult question. 
possible moment. Once appointed to 
ot in food and clothing. whidl only pau- 
oflice for tImt purpose he should stay p('TÌze. The first lesson to he tau,g'llt the 
thpre WI thc work is compl('ted. I be- Indian is. if he will not work. neiUwr 
li('\"e that in onc re
p('ct an army offif'Pl' shan he eat. P('rhaps in agrif'ultnral im- 
,,'ould be the Lest fitted for such a post, plcments: p('rhaps in schools; lwrhnps in 
IJ(>cause he would be eager to bring the public improvements: perhflps in an three. 
work to a close, while the cÏ\'i1ian would "-hen the bnd is of a kind that cannot 
s('e 100 reasons why it should be con- be allotted in severaItv. as in the ea
tinned from veal' to \"('ar. His snho1'- of e-xtenrled grazing la'nds. for f'Àample, 
dinates shonh1" 1)(> rndia'n e-..:-perts and re- it would SPf'm as thongh a skilful lawyer 
mm'ed only for (':mse. never for politif'al !"I.onld be able to deds/' some way in 
rpasons. wl1Ìr.h the hi],/, ('ou 1<1 he incorporated a1\l1 

. There are, it i" 'laid. ten or a dozen the land gÏ\'en to the corporation in fep 
reservations in whif'h the land has al- simple: in \vhid} case the shares of stoek 
} eady h('en a 1Iottpd in senralty and the pos'lihly for a time shonld be ina ]jelJ:1 hlf'. 
PI:nlÌions broken up. The 'agents in e
 ('cpt hy approval of the court; or 1'08- 


!-;ihl.y thp propprty might even be adminis- Indians include (Juapaws, Peorias, Kas- 
h'lTd for i. tilllP hy a recf'ivcr appointed ka
, Ottawa,;. \\T
'aJl(lottcs, Miami!;, 
bv and au!-werahle to tlU' court. f';hawnees, 
Iodoc:,;. f'em'cas, Cayugas, Sacs 
., 5. Every Indian should he at OlH'P frCf' and Fo'\Ps, j'ottawattomies. Osages, Kaws, 
to come and go as he ple,1ses, E>ubjf'ct as Kiowas, Comanchel-Õ. Apaches, Arapahoes, 
eH'ry otllPr mau is to tlU' law of Uw lo('al- Cheyennes, Piankeshaws, and \\'eas, and 
T and the proce
sps of thc courts ,\ herc the atliliated bancls of \\ïehitas, Keechies, 
hf is, and under their proteetion. The \"acoes, Tawa(;anies, Caddoes, Ioneis. Del- 
I IIllian with his blanket should have the awares. and Penetethka Comanches. In tlw 
pri\'ilf'ge of tra.velling where he wiII, as lattcr part of ISï3 the ::\[odocs (a remnant 
IIlUl.h as the Italian with her shawl. o
 Captain Jack's band) and about 4nn 
n. Finallv, as fast and as far as the Kickapoos 
nd Pottawattomies, from tIle 
tribal org;nization is dissohed and the borders of Texas and :Me
ico, were }'e- 
l"f"sen"ation is broken up, the Indian moved to the Imlian Territory. The Ter- 
should have a ballot, on the same terms as ÏiOlT is well watpred and wooded, and has 
01 her citizens; not so much because his much fertile land snitable for raising cere- 
vote will add to the aggregate wisdom of a18 and cotton, while the climate is mild 
the community as beca usc the ballot is and salubrious, but <1: .v. Prc\'ious to the 
 protection from injustice. Civil \Var the fÌ\-e cidlized tribes were 
The reform is very simple, if it is very well-to-do, even wealthy, possessing large 
radical. It is: Apply to the solution of fanns and many sla\'es. aMI having an ex- 
the Indian problcm the _-\merican method: ten,;ive trade with the Southern cities. 
treat the Indian as other men are treated; ::\fany of thf'1ll enlisÌf>d-s"me with the 
Sf't him free from his trammels: cease to 
ationals. some with the Confederatps- 
e(;ddle him: in a word, in lieu of paternal and at the close of the war the tribps 
protection, which does not pmteet, and \\,pr(> rpduced to pO\"erty. ;-;ince then, 
frpe rations, which keep him in beggary. 1\O\\,p\'f'r. they have made rpmarkable 
gi,-e him justice and libertr and let him progress, and have regained much of 
take caTe of himself. their former wPaUh. In IS91 the Ind- 
Indian Reservations. See RESER\',-\- ian population eulti\'ated 0\ e1' 400,000 
. aeres of land. and raised fully 4.500.000 
Indian Territory. By aet of Congrpss. l\uslwls of wlIPat. corn. and oats. -100,000 
.June :-:0. 1834. " all that part of the Pnitpd hushpls of ngf'tahles, üO.OOO bale!-' of cot- 
States wpst of the Mississippi Hiwr. amI ton, anti 1,.).Ono tons of hay. amounting 
1Iot within the States of 'fi.,,;ouri and in valtH' to uparly $(i.nOn.Oon. _\ portion 
T.oui"iana. or the Territor
' [now the of HI(> Territory is fine gra::;8 -land. well 
State] of -\rkan:;as. shall hp consitll'rpd fitted for grazing. anti the se\'eral tribes 
the Tndian c01mtrv." It has been rpduced owned head of live-stoek. Resides 
in area h
' the 
uccessive formation of thesp there were produced large quantities 

tatps and TplTitorif'!Io. until now it is of maple sugar. wild riee. cord-wood. hem- 
,hounded north h
' Kansas. east by 
[issouri I('ek bark. and wool. :!\fore than 8.000.000 
and Arkansas. Routh hy Texas, and west feet of lumber was and many thou- 
' Texas a lHl Oklahoma. and contains an !'lands of woollen blankets. shawls.' willow 
arpH, of 31.000 square miles. The popula- haskets. and other small artielps of manu- 
tion in ISBO was IS0.IS
: in InOO. 3nl.nüO. facture Wf're prod1H\cd. The Tprritory also 
This aggrf'gatp population. however. is pl'Oducf's iron, coal. marble. sandstmw. 
only partially Indian. as many" squaw- Ilnd brick-clay. \Yild turke
's and other 
men." othcr whitp!lo. anll negroes are in- varieties of small game are abundant. 
eluded thprf'in. Tn I!)OO there wel"(\ seven In certain instanccs. where white men are 
l"t-'!Iof'r,ations in the Tf'lTitory. anti fiw civ- c()ncernf'd. the jurisdietion of the United 
ili7ed nations. the C'hprokees. Chicka<;aws. Statf'S courts f'xtends over the Territory. 
Choctaws. Crf'pks. and Seminoles. and over The subject of a territorial government 
nï per cent. of the entire population was for the Indian country has long been dis- 
in the first four nations. It was estimated eussed. but no decision has yet hepn 
that the population of the five nations in- rf'ached. It was the policy of the Cnited 
eluded 84.750 Indians. The reservation States to settle the various trihes in this 

region upon peparate reservations, as far 
as possible, where they might be free from 
the encroachment of the white people, 
and under the general superintendence 
and protection of the government; but 
nearly 3,000 "pale-faces" had intruded 
find seated themselves in the Territory, 
whcn. in 1889, a portion of it was made 
a Territory of the United States by pur- 
chase from the Indians, undcr the name 
of Oklahoma. 
In 1893 Congress created the commission 
to the five civilized tribes, with instruc- 
tions to enter into negotiations with the 
several nations for the allotnwnt of land 
in severalty or to procure the cession to 
the United States of the lands belonging 
to the five tribes at such price and terms 
as might be agreed upon, it being the ex- 
press determination of Congress to bring 
about such changes as would enable the 
ultimate creation of a Territory, with the 
view to the admission of the same as a 
State of the Union. The work of the com- 
mission was still in progress in 1001, a 
principal diftìculty being the taking of a 
census that would show the number of 
l'C'ople in the several nations that would 
be entitled to consideration in the e-x:eeu- 
tion of the intentions of Congress. An 
encouraging advance had been made in 
carrying out the other duties of the com- 
Each of the five nations constitutes a 
separate organism, independent of any cen- 
tral authority; having its own executive 
and legislative officers; and being so ver- 
ejgn excepting as to an observance of 
certain provisions of Congress. Each na- been sold to a company of speculators, 
tion, in a word, practically stands rneasurf>S were taken to extinguish cer- 
towards the other nations and to the tain claims on the part of thc United 
national government in the same rela- States and the Stat
 of Connecticut. 
tion as anyone of the States. Hence, the The speculators found their bargain to 
labor of gathering information concern- be pecuniarily unprofitable, and likely to 
ing the material, financial, educational, prove a serious embarrassment. Fully 
social, and other interests of the Indian 1,000 settlers were already on the "Re- 
Territory, and of carrying out the duties serve." Hitherto a confirmation of the 
impos('d on the commission, may be Iik- Connecticut title to these lands by the 
ened to the application of the same effort Cnited States had been inferentially ac- 
to any five adjoining States, although knowledged, and Connecticut had given 
the actual area of investigation is here no quit-claim deeds; therefore, it was to 
more restricted. the interest of the speculators to obtain 
Indiana, STATE OF, was first explored from the United States a direct confirma- 
by French missionaries and traders, and tion. On the other band, it was an ob- 
Vincennes was a missionary station as ject for the United States to extinguish 
early as 1700. Indiana constituted a part Connecticut's claim of jurisdiction. Con- 


of New France, and afterwards of the 
Northwest Territory. In 1702 some 
French Canadians discovered the 'Vabash, 
and established several t:I:ading-posts on 
its banks, among others, Yincennes. Lit- 
tle is known of the early fìettlers until 
the country was ceded to the English, in 
líG3. The treaty of 1783 included Indi- 
ana in the United States. A distressing 
Indian war broke out in 1788, but by vic- 
tories by General 'Vilkinson (1701) and 
General \Vayne (1794), a dangcrous con- 
feùeracy of the tribes was broken up. 
Another W3.S afterwards attempted by 
Teeums('h, but was defeated by the result 
of the baUle of Tippecanoe. 
In 1800 the "Connecticut Reserve," in 
the northwestern portion of Ohio, having 



gress pas:sed an act (April 2R, 1800) GEORGE ROGERS; UNITED STATES-INDI- 
authorizing the issue of letters - patent AX A, in vol. ix. 
conveying the title of these lands to the 
governor of Connecticut, for the benefit 
of thm:e claiming under her, and similar Willillm H. Harrison...................... 1800 to 1812 
I tt t t d by c o nec t U t John Gibson.......... .at.ting............. lROO " 1801 
e ers-pa en were use n ic, Thomas I'o::;ey........ .appOinted......... 
Iarch 3, una 
I'elinquishing all claim to jurisdiction. 
f-::o the "Reserve" was annexed to the 
1\orthwest TerritoQT, which was presentl) 
diviùed, by act of Congress (lUay 7), into 
t\\"o separate jurisdictions, the western 
one being called the Territory of Indiana, 
after one of the old ante-Revolutionary 
land companies. 81. Vincent, or Vin- 
cenne'!, was made the capital, and \\"ilI- 
iam Henry Harrison was appointed gov- 
('rnor of the Territory. It then includcd 
Michigan and IIlinois. 
In 1803 a movement was made in Con- 
grcss for suspending for a limited term, 
in the case of Indiana Territory, the pro- 
vision of the ORDINANCE OF 1787 (q. v.) 
prohibiting slavery northward of the Ohio 
River. A committee, of which John 
Handolph, of Virginia, was chairman, rc- 
ported strongly against the proposition, 
believing that" in the salutary operation 
of this salutary and sagacious restraint 
the inhabitants of Indiana would, at no 
distant day, find ample remuneration for 
a temporary privation of labor and immi- 
gration." At the next session (1804) it 
was proposed to admit, for ten years, the 
introduction of slaves Lorn within the 
United States, thcir descendants to be 
free, masculine at the age of twenty-five 
years, anù feminine at twenty-one years. 
No action was ever taken. 
'''hen war with Great Britain broke 
out, in IS12, a fresh impulse was given to 
Indian depredations, which' had never 
fairly ceased, but the hostiles were beaten, 
and were quiet aftf>r the close of that con- 
t. On June 20, ISIG, a convention 
adopted a State constitution for Indiana, 
and on Dec. 11 it was admitted into 
the "Cnion. Rapid and continued immigra- 
tion ensued. This was greatly increased 
hy the opening of the Erie Canal. Dur- 
ing the Civil 'Var Indiana furnished to 
the National army H)5,147 soldiers. In 
IS!)!) the asscssed valuation of taxable 
property 'was $1,342,831,161; total tax Indians, the name commonly applied 
rate, $2.96 per $1,000; and total debt, to the people found by Columhus in 
$5,004,615. The population in 18!)0 was America; by many authorities heJie\'ed to 
2,192,404; in 1900, 2,516,462. See CLARK, have been the aboriginal inhabitants. The 



Jonathan Jennings... . elected to Congress........ 1816 
RaLllff Boon......... .a!"tlllg... .
ept. 12 to Dec. 5, 1822 
William HendrIcks... . elected U. S. 
enat(Jr......_ 11-122 
. 1

y........ .acting... Feb. 12 to Dec. 11, 1825 
. . .... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. IH25 
r-;- oah N" obiI'. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .... . lR31 
David Wallace.................................. IH37 
Samuel Rigger................................... IH40 
James Whitcomb..... . elected e_ S. Senator....... IH13 
ParisC. nunnin
......;IClillg............. 18-18 to 1849 
Jos{')lh A. Wright.................... _........... 18!9 
Ashbel P. Willarrt.... .(d.ed Uct. 4,18(0).......... 18;;7 
Abram A. Hammond. . aellllg. . .... . . . . . .. IH60 to 1861 
Henry S. Lane........ elected U. S_ Senator. . . . ... IS61 
Oliver P. Morton.... ..aclillg_........... ..1861 to 181;5 
" .. .. .... . . eIPclpd e. S. ::-:enalor....... ISH5 
Conrad Baker. .. .. .. ..acting.. ... ... .... 1867 to 1869 
.. ". . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. .. 181;9 
Thomas A. Hendrit-ks............................ 1873 
James O. Williams... .(died N"ov. 211, 18!ì0)........ IS77 
Isaac P. Gray..... . . . _ actmg_ . .. . . ., .... 18110 to IH81 
Albert G. Porter....... ................ ........... 1881 
Isaac P. G ra v.. . .... . .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . .. .. . . . '.. 1885 
Alnn 1'_ Ho\.ey.......(died 
O\'. 23,IR!Il)........ 1889 
Ira .1. Chase......... .acting........ ..... 18!1J to 189.J 
Claude Mallhewf'................................. J8H:J 
James A. 
loulIl ......... ................. ..... 18!17 
Winfield T. Ourbm.................. . ......... 1901 
J. Frank Hanly. .. . . .. . . ... . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . ... 19U5 



No. or Con!:r.... 


JRn1eS N"oble..... 
Waller Tavlor _. ...... .. 
William l-Ìendrkks....... 
Robert Hanna.... .... . .. . 
John Tiplon. .. . . .. ...... . 
Oliver H. Smith... ...... 
Albert S. While. 
Edward A. Hannegan.... 
Jesse D. Bright........... 
James Whitcomb......... 
Charles W. Cathcart... .. 
John Petit............... 
Graham N. Fitch......... 
Henry S. Lanp........... 
Joseph A. Wright......... 
David Turpie.. . . . . . . . .... 
Thomas A. Hf'ndricks. ... 
Oliver P. J\lorton......... 
Daniel O. Pratt........... 
J08Pph F.. l\I("Donald...... 
Daniel W_ '.oorhees...... 
Benjamin Harrison....... 
David Tnrpie..... ........ 
Charles W. Fairbanks..... 
Albert .J. Beveridge....... 

Hlh to :!2d 
14lh .. 1!lth 
19th .. 2! th 
22d to 2!ilh 
2Mh ., 271h 
21;th " 2Rlh 
28th " 30lh 
2!lt h " 37th 
31st " 3:!d 
d to 3:Jd 
3!th ., 361h 
37th " 39th 

381h to 40th 
!Olh " !;,Ih 
41st " 43d 
44 th .. 4f,th " 5foth 
47th " 49th 
50th .. 66th 
55th .. 
66th " 

]!ì iii to lk:\1 
IHlli " JR:!5 
]"25 .. lli:H 
18:11 " ]R:i2 
IH:J:.! " 18:i7 
IR:17 " 1843 
18::9 " ISH 
]H4:1 " IH-I!I 
1845 " 18ßl 
184!1 " lR52 
2 " 11'[;3 
IH!;3 " 1856 
1851 " 18GO 
] 81il .. 1867 
181j} " 1862 
I1'ß3 to 18G9 
181i7 " 1877 
IHli9 " ]875 
1875 " ]RHI 
1877 " ]8!J7 
IRRI " IH88 
11'88 " 1899 
1 H!J7 " 
IS99 " 


following remarks and tables refer to 
Indians within the present area of the 
United States. In manners, customs, and 
general features the difference between the 
Indians of the Gulf States and those of the 
shores of the K orthern Lakes is scarcely 
rerceptible; it is only by languages that 
they can be grouped into great families. 
East of the :Mississippi there were not 
more Ulan eight radically distinct lan- 
guages, four of which are still in existence, 
while the others have disappeared. 
 OF THE PRINCfP,\L Tnrm::s 




Chowans (HUrOn ! 
or Wyandotte- 
Iroquois)..... . . 
1IIeherrins (Huron 
or Wyandotte 
Iroquois) .., '" 
Nottaways(Huron } 
or Wrandotte- 
Iroquois) . .... . 
Catawbas..... .,. . .. . 

Southern Virginia. 

{ W. North and South Carl>- 
{ Mountainous regions 0( 
Tennessee. Georgia, 
Cherokees............ N tl d S th C 
. or 1 an ou aro- 
UChCC8............... About Augusta, Ga. 
Natchez.............. N. W. 1Iississippi. 
Afobilial& or .blusco- 
gccs : 
Chickasaws. . .. .. . . 






I. Algonquian tribes: 
lIIicmars .......... 
EtehplIlÎns or ca- } 
noc men. ...... 
Abenakis. . .. . ..... 
Narragansets. . . . } 
Pokanokets or 
Wampanoags. . 
Pequots. ., . . . ... . . 
Mohegllns . . .. . . . .. 

{ -Western Tennessee and 
Northern Mississippi. 
j Eastern ltIi!'si!'sippi and 
1 'Vestern Alabama. 
A labama and Georgia. 
About Green Bay, W is. 

East of the State ofltIaine. 
{ xew Hampshire and 
{ F.astern Alassachusetts 
and Rhode Island. 
f Central Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island. 
{ Western Massachusetts 
and Connecticut. 
1 New Jersey, the "alley 
of the Delaware and 
{ Eastern shores of Chesa- 
peake Bay. 
E. Virginia and Maryland. 
E. Korth Carolina. 
{ :-;outh oCthe Ohio, W. Ken- 
tucky, and Tennessee. 
I S. Miehigan, N. Indiana, 

 and N. W. Ohio. 
S. Illinois and Indiana. 
N. and central Illinois. 
Northern Illinois. 
111 ie h igan. 
Northern Wisconsin. 
{ Southern shore of J,ake 
{ Southern shore of Lake 

Choctaws. ... .... .. 
Creeks........... . 
Seminoles........ . 
VIII. Wt"nnebagnes......... 




{ Wisconsin, west to TIocl,y 
{ Wyoming, head-waters of 
Wyoming and Nebraska. 
Kansas, west. 
Montana and Dakotas. 
Lower Missouri. 
Kansas, west. 
Kansas and Kebraska. 
Red Hiver and Arkansas. 
Kansas to Oregon. 
Kansas, west. 
Utah and Colorado 
Texas and New Me
Icxico and "\rizona 
Arizona and California. 
Nevada and Xew Mexico. 
Idaho and Oregon. 
N e
',ada and Or
{ California, Oregon, and 
Oregon and N. California 

Dakotas (Sioux)........... 
Arapahoes..... ............ 
Cheyennes.... . .. . . . . ... . . 
Kansas................... . 
I'oncas. ................... 
Omahas. . . . .... . . . . .... .. . 
Man dans. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 
Assinihoins.............. .. 
!IIinnetaries (Gros \'entres). 
Missouris. ....... .. ........ 
Iowas.................... . 
Osages................... . 
('rows. ., . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Kaws .... . " . ........... .. 
I'awnees .................. 
Caddos. ....... . . . ... .... . . 
Shoshones or Snakes......_ 
Kiowas.... ....... ......... 
Utes. .. .. . . .. .., . ... .... . . 
Comanches............... . 
Apaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 
Navajos and Moquis....... 
yumas....... ..... ........ 
Pueblos. .... . . .. . .. ..... .. 
Pimas....... ........ ...... 
Bannocks. . . . . . .. . . .... . . . 
Modocs................... . 
N"ez Percés.... .. . ... . . . .. . 
Flatheads. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 
Klamaths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Delawares or Len- } 
ni Lenape ..... 
Nanticokes.... '" . 



Corees. . . .. . .. . . . . . 
Shawnees... ....... 

111 iam is. . . . .. .. . . . . 
Illinois. ... .. . .,. . . 
Kickapoos........ . 
Pottawattomies... . 
Ottawas.......... . 
Sacs and Foxes.... 
Menomonees..... . . 
ChiPpewasorOjib- } 
ways.... ...... 
II. JVyandottc or Huron- 
Iroquois tribes: 
Eries (Huron or } 
Wyandotte- Iro- 
quois). . . . . . . . . 
Andastes (Huron } 
or Wyandotte- 
Iroquois) ...... 
Wyandottes (HU-l 



) j 
Senecas (IroquOiS } 
proper)....... . 
Cayugas (IrOqUOiS } 
proper) . . . . . . . . 
Onondagas (Iro-t 
qUùis proper) . . r 
Oneida!! (IroqUOiS } 
proper) .. ... ., 

fohawks (Iro- 
quois proper).. J 
Tuscaroras (IrO- } 
quois proper).. 

{ Southern shore of Lake 

Head-waters of the Ohio. 

{ Territory nort.h of I,akes 
Erie and Ontario. 

Western New York. 

For other ùetails concerning the various 
t ril/ps, see their rcspl'ct ive titles; also I
Indians, A
IERI(,AN. Believing the 
f'arth to be a globe, Columbus exppetf'd to 
find Inùia or Ea:;tenl Asia Ly sailing 
westwarù from Spain. The first land dis- 
co,'cred Ly him-one of the Bahama. 

Central New YOI'k. 

Eastern N"ew York. 

{ So W. Virginia and North 
Carolina. Joined the Im- 
quoisofNf'\vYork , 1'ïJ:1 








( -, ;,\' -- .i 





, - \. 




l<, - 













...;' ..:;


 . ;_
' -if 
- / 




hlands-he supposed to be a part of satisfying. Recent investigations favor a 
India, and he called the inhabitants theory that, if they be not indigenous, 
Indians. This name was afterwards ap- they came from two great Asiatic fami- 
plied to all the nations of the adjacent lies: the more northern tribes of our 
islands and the continent. continent from the lighter Mongolians, 
Origin.-There is no positive knowl- who crossed at Bering Strait, and the 
edge concerning the origin of the more southerly ones, in California, Cen- 
aborigines of America; their own tradi- tral and South America, from the darker 
tiolls widely vary, and conjecture is un- Malays, who first peopled Polynesia, in 


,,'" :t

. O


-> H f
 -\ " 

t:.J ...- '!-
1 · ----- 

?J .
 c f 

'" =-=--

 N ,j
/1/ þ/ ..w1ft. 1Ir "" fI" 
l1li._ 1l1li 
fl. II'''' U' I . 'j.l" 



- - 


-rm .. ,. 



-=- " 


colony Raid to have been lost in the wilds 
of North Auwrica 700 years ago. 
Unity.-There seems to be a physical 
identity of race throughout most of VIe 
continent. TlwÎr skin is generally of a 
dark reddish-brown, or cinnamon, color; 
they have long, black, and straight hall', 
prominent cheek-boneR, and broad faces; 
eyes deep-spt, full and rounded lips, 
broad and prominent noses, scanty beard; 
their heads are generally square, arid 
their statur(' aÙout the same as that of 
other races of the same latitude. Their 
muscular developnwnt is not great, and 
their hands and feet are small; their skin 
ii'! thinner, soft('r, and smoother than that 
of Europeans; the exprC'ssion of the men 
 often noble, and many of the women 
are handsome. Haughty in deportment, 
taciturn, stoical, cunning, persevering, re- 
vengeful, brave and ferocious in war; 
cruel towardi'! enf'mies and faithful 
towards friends; grateful for favors, ho
pitable and kind, the Indians of North 
America arf' undouhtedly capable of gn'at 
and rapid development under the genial 
influence of civilization. Thpir mental 
tempprament is poetic and imaginative 
in a high degree, and it is often expressed 
in great beauty and eloquence of lan- 
guage; but in their present soeial con- 
dition their animal propensities greatly 
preponderate over the intellectual. The 
tribes south of California have always 
b('en noted for mental development much 
supprior to those of more northern lati. 
that the 1\-fandans and Chinooks, who are tl1dps. 
almoiit white, are descendants of a \Velsh Pursllits.-\Var, lnmting, and fishing 

the southern Pacific Ocean and finally 
made their way to our continent, grad- 
ually spreading over it from the Pacific 
to the Atlantic. Language fails to con- 
nect any of them with the Asia.tic 
families, but their traditions, imple- 
ments, and modes of life point to such 
a relationship. it has been 8uggested 




l :; 



:.. :,- 



are the chief pursuits of th
 men of the 
more barbarous tribes; agriculture of the 
semi-civilized. Among the savages found 
in North America by Europeans, the 
women performed almost all the manual 
labor and burden-bearing. They carried 
on their limited agriculture, which con- 
sisted in the production of maize or Ind- 
ian corn, beans, squashes, potatoes, and 
tobacco. They manufactured the im- 
plements of war, and for hunting and fish- 
ing; made mats, and skin and feather 
clothing, canoes, ornaments of the teeth 
and claws of beasts, and of shells and 
porcupine-quills; performed all domestic 
drudgery, and constructed t1le lodges of 
the bark of trees or the hides of beasts. 
Rude figures of animate and inanimate 
objects caryed in wood or stone, or 
moulded in clay. and picture-writing on 
the inner bark of trees or the skins of 
beasts, or cut upon rocks, with rude or- 
namented pottery, were the e'{tent of 
their accomplishments in the arts of de- 
sign and of Iitemture. The picture-writ- 
ing was sometimes used in musical nota- 
tion, and contained the burden of Uwir 
Religion.-Tlley belieyed in a good and 
Rupreme Being, and in an Evil Spirit, and 
recognized the existence of inferior good 
and eyil spirits. They b
Jieyed in a fut- 
ure state of existenee, and there were 
no infidels among them. Superstition 
swayed them powerfully, and chal"latans, 
caned "medicine-men," were their phy- 
sicians, prieRb
, and prophets, who, on all 
of'f'asions, used incantations. Christian government, seldom disobeyed, that con- 
missi(maries llave labored among' them in trolled about 1,000,000 dusky illhabi- 
many plareR. from tIle time the Spaniards tants of the present domain of the United 
and Frenrhmen settled in America until States, which extends over nearly twenty- 
now, and llave done much to enlighten five degrees of latitude and about sixty 
t11Pm. degrees of longitude. 
Gorcrnment. - There was not a sem- Geographical Distribution.-There seem 
blance of a national government among the to have been only eight radically distinct 
aborigines when the Europeans came, ex. nations known to the earlier settlers- 
cept that of the IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY namely, the Algonquian, Huron - Iroquois, 
(q. v.). Their language was varied by Cherokee, Catawba, Uchee, Natchez, 1\10- 
more than a hundred dialects, and t11f'V bi1ian or Floridian, and Dakota or Sioux. 
were divided into many distinct fami1ie's l\lore recently. other distinct nations have 
or tribes, under a ki'nd of patriarchal l'een discovered-namely, the Athabascas, 
rule. Each family had its armorial sign, Sahaptins, Chinooks, Shoshones, and Atta- 
called a totem, such as an eagle, a bear, kapas. Others wilJ doubtless be found. 
or a derr, by wllich it was designated.. The Algonquians were a large family oc- 
TIle ciyil hrad of a tribe was called a c11pying all Canada, New England, a part 
sac]H'm. and the military leader a chief. of New York and Pennsylvania; an New 
v.-c 33 

Those official honors were gained some- 
times by inheritance, but more frequently 
by personal merit. Such was the simple 

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Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; small family in the pleasant land alon
eastern North Carolina above Cape Fear, the Oconee anù the head waters of the 
a large part of Kentucky and Tennessee, Ogeeehee and Chattahoochee, in Georgia, 

md all north and west of those States anù touched the L'heIokees. They werc 
east of the Mississippi. Within the folds only a l"emnant of a onee powerfu] trilw, 
of this nation were the Huron-Iroquois, when the Europeans came, and t!H'Y 
occupying a greater portion of Canada cJaimcd to be more ancÏf'nt than the sur- 
south of the Ottawa River, and the region rounding people. The Natchez occupied 
between Lake Ontario and Lakes Erie and a territory on the eastern side of the 
Huron, nearly all of the State of New Mississippi, extending northeastward 
York, and a part of Pennsylvania and from the site of the city of Natchez along 
Ohio along the southern shores of Lake the Pearl River to the head-waters of the 
Erie. Detached from the main body were Chickasaw. They c1aimed to be oldpr 
Ule Tusearoras and a few smaller families than the Uchees, and, ]ike others of the 
dwelling in southern Virginia and the up- Gulf region, they worshippf'd the sun and 
per part of North Carolina. Five families fire, and made sacrifices to the source of 
of the Huron-Iroquois, dwelling within terrestrial light. The 1\10bilians or Flo- 
the Jimits of the State of New York, ridians occupied a domain npxt in ex- 
formed the famous Iroquois Confederacy of tent to that of the Algonquians. It 
:Five Nations. The Cherokees inhabited the stretched along the Atlantic coast fwm 





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fertile and the mouth of the Cape Fear River to the 
pic t u resque extremity of the Florilla peninsula, and 
region where westward along the Gulf of ]\[exico about 
the moun- GOO miles to the Mississippi River. They 
tain - ranges also held jurisdiction up that stream as 
that form far as the mouth of the Ohio. The do- 
the water- main included parts of South Carolina. 
shed between the whole of Florida, Alahama, and 1\l1s- 
the Atlantic and Mississippi melt in the sissippi, all of Georgia not occupied by 
lowlands that border the Gulf of Mexico. the Cherokees and Uchces, and portions 
The Catawbas were their neighbors on of Tennessee and Kentucky. The nation 
the east, and dwelt upon the borders of was divided into three confederacies, eReh 
the Yadkin and Catawba rivers, on both powerful and independent, like our sepa- 
sides of the boundary-line between North rate States. They were known respectiv(>- 
and South Carolina. 
 The Uchees were a ly as the :Muscogee or Creek (the wost 









large numbcr of tribes west 
of the Great Lakes and 
sissippi, with whom the 
earlier French explorers 
came in contact. These, 
speaking- dialects of the 
same language, apparently, 
were regarded as parts of 
one nation. They inhabited 
the domain stretching 
northward from the Arkan- 
sas River to the western 
tributary of J
ake Winnipeg, 
and westward along all that 
line to the eastern slope of 
the Rocky Mountains. They 
ha ve been arranged into 
four classes: 1. The \Vin- 
nebagoes, situated between 
Lake :Michigan and the )Iis- 
sissippi, within the domain 
the Algonquians. 2. The Assinihoins, 
Sioux proper, who formed the more 


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in .:-\laLama. L'nder the general title of northerly rart of the nation. 3. The 
Dakotas or Sioux have been grouped a Southern Sioux, who were seated in the 


country between the I'latte and Arkansas government. Th
re were 180.000 Indians 
rivers. The Sahaptins include the Nez on reservations, or at schools under control 
Percés and 'Valla 'Vallas, extending from of the Indian Bureau, leaving about no,ooo 
the Rocky :Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, in the fivf' civilized tl"Ìbøs of Indian Terri- 
in Oregon and Washington. Beyond tory and in New York State, the former 
these are the more powerful Chinooks, numbering about 84.500, and the lat- 
now rapidly melting away. They em- tel', 5,232. Resides these, there were 
braced numerous tribes, from the mouth 32,567 taxable and self - sustaining Ind- 
of the Columbia River to the Grand ians who had become citiæns of the 
Dalles. The Shoshones comprise tribes United States. The expensive and ('nTH- 
inhabiting the territory around the head- plicated machinery for the management of 
waters of the Columbia and Missouri Indian affairs has been much in the way 
rivers; the Comanches, extending from of the elevation of the race in the scale of 





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the head-waters of the Brazos to those civilization, and has produced much evil by 
of the Arkansas; families in Utah and creating irritation, jealousy, and universal 
Texas, and several tribes in California. lack of faith in the white race. These 
The Attakapas and Chitemachas, in irritations for a long time kept a large 
Texas, have languages that enter into no portion of the Indians in a state of chronic 
known group. hostility, and whole tribes utterly refused 
Condition of the lndians.-According to all overtures of the government to accept 
official reports, the Indian population in its protection and fostering care. In 1880 
lÐ04 was, approximatel)', about 270,000, it was estimated that the number of po- 
nearly all of whom were partially or ahso- tentially hostile Indians was fulìy 60,000. 
lutely under the control of the national In 18!)1 the condition of affairs had been 


much improved. Among many tribes the 
introduction of agriculture, schools, and 
churches had been attended with the hap- 
piest results. There were 24.33i pupils 
enroJIed in the reserration, non-reserva- 
tion, and day schools, besides 3,fiOû in in- 
!"titutes and public schools, and these 
schools were supported at an expense of 
$:t522,950. There is a tendency in most 
of the tribes to engage in settled pursuits 
and accept citizenship. See also names 
of various tribes. 
Indirect Claims. 
Industrial Education. 
Industrial Exhibitions. 





at any time within three years, bearing 
interest not to exceed 6 per cent., and 
issued in denominations of not less than 
ten doJIars, which should be legal tender 
for their face value, the same as the 
United States notes. Under tho author- 
ity of this latter cla use, there were is- 
sued of one-year notes, bearing interest 
at 5 per cent., $44,520,000, and of two- 
year notes, bearing interest at 6 per cent., 

lûû,480,000. Authority was given on 
the same day for the issue of enough 
fractional currency to bring the amount 
of circulation up to $50,000,000. 
Authority having been given by law 
to reissue indefinitely any of the United 
States notes, no care was taken, in re- 
issuing thrm, to maintain any distinc- 
tion in the character of the notes. The 
amount outstanding at one time, how- 
tver, never eÀceeded the aggregate 
amount authorized to be issued by the 
three acts, and its highest amount was 
l'ep-ched Jan. 30, 1864, when it was 
$44!J,338,902. The total amount of legal- 
tender paper issued by the government, 
exclusive of fractional currency, having 
a limited legal-tender quality, may be 
thus summed up: 

Inflation Legislation. In order to 
fuHy comprehend the financial situation 
ûf the rnited States which led up to 
the inflation legislation, it is necessary 
to go back to the State and national 
finances just after the Civil 'Val' opened. 
The demand - note issue of July 17, 
1801, was the first attempt to use the 
government notes as currency. These were 
redeemable at sight in coin, and were 
used in the payment of salaries due em- 
ployés in the departments. The act 
of Feb. 25, 18û2, authorized the issue of United States notes.......... $449,338,902 
$150,000,000 in legal-tender United States One year 5 per cent. notes.. 44,520,000 
notes, $:50,000,000 of which were to take Two year 6 per cent. notes. .. . 166,480,000 
up the issue of demand notes. July II, 
18û2, an additional issue of $150,000,000 
in legal-tender notes was authorized by In July, 18G5, the government had out- 
Congress, $35,000,000 of this to be in standing $433,000,000 of United States 
sums of less than five dollars. July 1'1, notes, $43,000,000 of one and two year 
18G2, an act authorized the issue of notes notes, and $25,000,000 of fractional notes. 
of the fractional part of one dollar, re- In his l'eport at the opening of Congress 
ceivable in payment of all dues, except in that year Secretary McCulloch advo- 
customs, less than five dollars, and ex- cated a contraction of the currency, and 
changeable for "Cnited States notes in to carry out this policy Congress, by an 
sums not less than five doJIars. The act approved April 12, 1866, directed 
amount of this issue was not specified. "that of United States notes not more 
On Jan. 17, 18G3, a l'esolution authorized than $10,000,000 may be retired and can- 
the issue of $100,000,000 in United States ccJIed within six months of the pas- 
notes for the immediate payment of sage of this act, and thereafter not more 
the army and navy. The amount of this than $4,000,000 per month." Under this 
issue was subsequently included in the act the notes were retired and cancelled 
act of March 3, 18G3, which authorized as provided by law, and reduced to ashes, 
an issue of legal-tender United States as provided by treasury regulations, until 
notes, in aU respects similar to those al- threatened stringency in the money mar- 
ready issued, to the amount of $150,000,- ket made Congress eager to ward off, if 
000, and also an amount, not to exceed possible, the inevitable result of contrac- 
$400,000,000, of treasury notes, payable tion. 


Total ............ .. . . . .. $660,338,902 


By an act of Feb. 4, 1868, the authority would give the e"\:pected relief. This 
to furthcr retire Gnited States notes was theory, in my belief, is a departure from 
buspel1ded, then leaving outstanding true principles of finance, national in- 
:P5G,OOO,000. Now the maximum limit of terest, national obligatiòn8 to creditors, 
l-Ilited States notes had been fixed. by the congressional promises, party pledges on 
act of Jane 30, 1864, as $-100,000,000, and the part of both political parties, and of 
during the year 1870 some financial ge- personal views and promise.. made by me 
l1ius disco,ered that this was meant to in every annual message sent to Congress, 
indicate the minimum also, and that $44,- r.nd in each inauguml address." After 
000.000 in notes, though they had been quoting passages to verify this last 
burned according to regulations, still re- assertion, the President said: "I am 
mained as a resen'e, which the Secretary not a believer in any artificial method 
of the Treasury could issue or retire at of nmking paper money equal to coin, 
his discretion. R
Y virtue of this newly when the coin is not owned or held ready 
disco,'ered discretionary power, Secretary to redeem the promises to pay, for paper 
Boutwell, in October, 18il, issued $1,- money is nothing mOl"e than promises to 
500,000 of this to relieve a stringency on pay, and is valuable exactly in proportion 
Wall Street. By the following :rear he to the amount of coin that it can be con- 
had issued $4,637,256 of this resen'e, but wrted into. 'Yhile coin is not used as 
the outcry against his policy was so a circulating medium, or the currpncy of 
strong that he retired nearly aU of it, the country is not convertible into it at 
and early in 1873 Secretary Richardson par, it bemmes an article of commerce as 
retÎ1"ed the l"Cst. In the latter part of the much as any other product. The Rurplus 
year, howe\"er, on the occasion of the will seek a foreign market, as will any 
panic, Secretary Richardson reissued other surplus. The balance of trade has 
B25,000,000 of it to relieve the embar- nothing to do with the question. Duties 
rassed banks. on exports being required in coin create
A bill fixing the Ipg-al - tender rnited a limited demand for gold. About enough 
States currency at $-100,000.000, and mak- to satisf
r that demaud remains in the 
ing some important stipulations about ('ountr
Y. To increase this supply I see 
bank issues, was passed by both Houses no way open but by the gon'rmnent hoard- 
early in 1874. but was vetoed by the Presi- ing. through the mean.. abo\"{> gi,'en, and 
dent. A part of the veto mps
age is here l'o!:"sibly by requiring the national banks 
given to show the grounds of his ac- to aid. It is claimed by the advocates 
tion: of the measure herewith returned that 
"Practicallr it is a qUf'stion whether then. is an unequal distribution of the 
the measure under discussion would give hnnking capital of the country. I wa
an additional dollar to the irredeemable disposed to give great weight to this view 
paper eurrency of the count!'y or not, and of the question at first. but on refleetion 
whether, b
' requiring three-fourths of the it wiH be remembered t1mt there still re- 
reserve to be returned by the banks and mains $4.000,000 of authorized bank-note 
prohibiting interest to be receh-ed on the eirculation, assigned to States having less 
balance, it might not prove a contraction. than their quota, not 
'et taken. In ad- 
But the fact cannot be concealed that dition to this the States having less than 
theoretically the bill increases the paper their quota of bank circulation have thp 
eirculation $100.000.000, less only the option of $25.000.000 more to be taken 
amount of reserves restrained from cÌl'cu- from those States haying more than their 
lation by tIle provision of the second sec- proportion. "rhen this is all taken up, 
tion. The measure has been supported 01' when specie payments are fully re- 
on the theory that it would give increased stored, or are in rapid process of 
circulation. It is a fair inference. there- restoration, will be the time to considN' 
fore, that if in practice the measures the question of more cnrrency." 
should fail to create the abundanee of cir- An act fi-xing the issue of Pnited Stah's 
culation expected of it, the friends of the notes at $383,000,000. the amount then 
measure-particularly those out of Con- outstanding, was approved June 20, 18H. 
["ress-would clamor for such inflation as Between 1868 and 1874 the amount of 
, 38 


fractional notes had also been increased 
from $2.3,000,000 to $46,000,000. In Janu- 
al";}', 1875, the resumption act was passed, 
and under its provisions the retirement of 
united States notes was again begun. 
The redemption of the fractional currency 
with silver was also begun, and went on 
so rapidly that by the end of 1877 only 
816,000,000 of it remained. Congress 
passed an act, 
Iay 31, 18i8, forbidding 
the further retirement of United States 
Ir. President,-Ben. Hill has gone to 
p_otes under the resumption act. But the the undiscovered country. '''hether his 
increase in the commerce of the country journey thither was but onr step across 
had by this time so far readjusted credits an imperceptible frontier, or whether an 
that the value of legal tcnder and coin interminable ocean, black, unfluctuating, 
had become nearly equal. On Jan. I, and voiceless, stretches between these 
IS79, thercfore, resumption took place earthly coa-sts and tho
e ill\-i
ible shores 
acwrding to law, without any scrious -we do not know. 
derangement of the business of the \Vhether on that August morning af- 
countrv. ter death, he saw a more glorious sun rise 
IngãUs, JA1IES l\IO
ROE, military om. with unimaginable splendor above a celes- 
('er; b0rn in 
utton, Vt., Jan. 25, 1837; tial horizon, or whether his apathetic and 
was educated at Evansville (\Yis.) Semi- unconscious ashes still sleep in cold ob- 
nary; graduated at the -enited States struction and insensible oblivion-we do 
Artillery School in 1872; entered the regu- 110t know. 
lar arm
', .1an. 
, 1864; promoted 1st \"hether his strong and subtle ener- 
lieutenant, May 3, 18ô3; captain, July I, gies found instant exercise in another 
1880; major, June 1, 1897; lieutenant- forum, whether his dexterous and undis- 
colonpl, ()ct. 5, 1900; and was retired, ciplined faculties are now contending in 
.Tan. 2.,. I!)Ol. He founded the depart- a higher Senate than ours for supremacy, 
ment of ballistics in the United States or whether his powers were dissipated ann 
Artillery School in 1882. and was the prin- dispersed with his parting breath-we do 
cipal instructor there till the outbreak of not know. 
the war with Spain, when the school sus- \Vhether his passions, ambitions, and 
pended opprations. He was the author affections still sway, attract, and impel, 
of Exterior Ballistics; Ballistic Machines; whether he vet remembers us as we re- 
Ballistic Tables
' Ba77istics for the In- member him-=-we do not know. 
struction of A.rtillay Gunners; etc. These are the unsoh-ed, the insolvable 
Ingalls, .10H
 J -DIES, lawyer; horn in problems of mortal life and human des- 
., Dec. 29, 1833; gran- tiny, which prompted the troubled patri. 
uated at \Yilliams Colleg-e in 1855, and arch to ask that momentous question, 
was admitted to the bar in 1857. He went for which the centuries have given no 
to AtchiRon. Kan., in 1858, and be<>ame a answer: "If a man die, shall he live 
member of the \Vyandotte Convention in again 1" 
18.í!). secretary of the territorial council Every man is the centre of a circle, 
in 186f1. ann secretary of the State Sen- wllOse fatal circumference he cannot pa
ate in IRQl. He was State Senator in \\ïthin its narrow confines he is potential, 
, and in the same year was defeated be)'ond it he perishes; and if immortality 
a!'! Repllhlican candidate for lieutenant- is a "plen<lin, but d('lm;i\"e dream, if the 
gmernor. In 181ì::J-r,:; he wa" editor of inc'ompl('t('nes!'l of every rureer, even the 
the A.tcllÏ:son Cham/lion; in 18G4 was again longest and mo
t fortunate. be not sup- 
defeated for lieutenant-g-ovcrnor; in 1873- plenwnted and perfected after its termi- 
Ðl was a TTnited States Senator, and in nation here. then he wno dreads to die 
188ï-!)1 was president pro tem. of the should fear to live, for life is a tragedy 
Senate. He was forced to H.tire to private more desolate and inexplicable than 
iife in IS!H by the ascendancy in Kansas death. 

of the Farmers' Alliance, which he had 
seyerely criticised. On retiring from the 
Senate he eng-aged in journalism and lec- 
turing till his death, in Las Vegas, N. 1\1., 
Aug. 16, 1900. 
Eulogy on Scnator nill.-On Jan. 23, 
1882, he delivered the following eulogy 
on the occasion of the death of Senator 
Benjamin HalTey Hill, of Georgia: 


Of all the dead whose obsequies we conullanding prescnce, his sinewy diction, 
have paused to solemnize in this chamber, his confidence, and imperturbable self- 
I recall no one whose untimel.r fate seems control. 
so lamentable, and yet so rich in prophecy, But in the maturitf of his powers 
as that of Senator Hill. He had reached and his fame, with unnH'<1$ured oppor- 
thc meridian of his years. He stood upon tunities for achievement apparently be- 
the high plateau of middle life, in that fore him, with great de
iglls unaccom- 
serene atmosphere where temptation no plished, surrounded by the proud and af- 
longer assails, where the clamorous pas- fectionate solicitude of a great constitu- 
sions and contention, such as infrequently ency, the pallid messenger with the ill- 
fall to the lot of men, no longer find ex- verted torch beckoned him to depa rt. 
ereise. Though not without the ten- There are few scenes in history more 
dency to meditation, re\'erie, and introspec- tragic than that protracted com hat with 
tion which accompanies genius, his tem- death. No man had greater inducements 
pprament was palestric. He was competi- to live. But in the lcng stru
gle against 
tive and unpeaceful. He was born a po- the inexorable advances of an insidious 
lemic and controversialist, intellectually and mortal malady, he did 110t faltcr or 
pugnacious and combati\-e, so that he was repine. He rebeated with the aspect of 
impelled to defend any position that might a victor, and though he succumbed. he 
be assailed, or to attack any position that seemed to conquer. His sun went down 
might be intrenched, not beeause the de- at noon, but it sank amid the prophetic 
fence or assault was essential, but be- splendors of an eternal dawn. 
cause the positions were maintained, and \Vith more than a hero's courage, 
those who held them became, by that with more than a mart.n's fortitude, he 
fact alone, his adversaries. This tendency waited the approach of the inevitable 
of his nature made his orhit erratic. He hour, and went to the undiscovered coun- 
was meteorie, rather than planetary, and hy. 
flashed with irregular splendor, rather Ingalls, RUFUS, miìitary ofiicer; born 
than shone with steady and penetrating in Denmark, Me., Aug. 23, 1820; grad- 
rays. His ad\ ocacy of anJr cause was fear- uated at 'Vest Point in 1843, enter- 
less to the verge of temerity. He appeared ing the rifles, but was transferred to the 
to be indifferf'nt to applause or censure, dragoons in 1845. He served in the war 
for their own sake. He accepted intrep- with Mexico, and was on the staff of Gen- 
idly any conclusion that he reached, with- eral Harney on the Pacific coast. In 
out inquiring whether it was politic or April, 18ûl, he went with Colonel Brown 
expedient. to reinforce Fort Pickens; and in .T uly 
To such a spirit partisanship was un- was ordered to thf' Army of the Potomac, 
avoidable. but with Senator Hill it did where he was upon the staff of General 
not degenerate into bigotry. He was McClellan, with the rank of Heutenant- 
capable of broad generosity, and extended colonel. He was chief quartermaster of 
to his opponents the same unreserved that army from 18û2 to 186T>; was marle 
candor which he demanded for himself. brigadier-general of volunteers in lIIa:v, 
His oratory was impetuous, and devoid of 1863, and was brevetted major-general, 
artifif'e. He was not a posturer or U. S. A. and U. S. V., March 1::J, IRr.;j. 
phrase-monger. He was too intense, too He was in most of the hattles of the Army 
earnest, to employ the cheap and paltry of the Potomac from that of South l\Ioun- 
decorations of discourse. He never re- tain to the surrender of Lee at Appomat- 
connoitred a hostile po
ition, nor ap- tox. He died in New York City, Jan. 16, 
proached it by stealthy parallels. He 1803. 
could not lay siege to an enemy, nor be- Ingersoll, CUARLEH JARED. statesman; 
lraguer him, nor open trenches, and sap born in Philadelphia. Oct. ::J. 17R2; became 
find mine. His method was the charge a lawyer, and was attached to the legation 
and the onsct. He was the Murat of of Rufus King when he was minister to 

enatorial debate. Not many men of this Franf'(,. Aftf'r travelling in Europe. he 
g"f'neration have been better equipped for returned, and published a porm in 1800, 
pHliamcntary warfare than he, with his and a tragedy in 1801. In 1810 he pub- 


lished a political satire, called I nchiquin 
the Jcsuit's Letters. In 1813 he was in 
Congre::;s. and from 1815 to 1829 he was 
United States district-attorney. He was 
again in Congress from 1841 to 1847, when 
hc was a Democratic leader. President 
Polk nominated him minister to France, 
but the Senate did not confirm the nomina- 
tion. He wrote a history of the second 
\\ar between the United States and Great 
Britain. He died in Philadelphia, Jan. 
14. 1862. 
'Ingersoll, "EDWARD, author; born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., April 2, 1817; son of 
Charles Jared Ingersoll; graduated at the 
Pniversity of Pennsylmnia in 1833. His 
publications include History and Law of 
H abcas Corpus and Grand J urics 
. and 
Personal L-iberty and Martial Law. He 
was also the editor of Hale's Pleas of the 
' _lddisoll on Contracts; and SaUl
del's on "(7scs and Trusts. He died in Ger- 
mantown, Pa., Feb. H), 1893. 
Ingersoll, ER
EST, naturalist; born in 
l\Ionroe, l\Iich., l\Iarch 13, 18!}2; was edu- 
('ated at Oherlin College and the Harvard 
l\Iuseum of Comparative Zoolo
y. He be- 
came connected with the Hayden Suney 
in 1873. and later was made a member of 
the Pnited States Fish Commission. In 
18RO he was a special agent of the census 
t0 report on the oyster industry. He went 
to California in 1883 to write special arti- 
cles for Harpe'r's Ma,'lazine. Later he was 
f'ditor of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company's publiC'ations in )Iontreal. He 
is author of Ncsts alld Eggs of Ameri- 

can Birds; thc Oyster Industr-ies of the 
United Statps
' Friends Worth KnouAng; 
Knocking Round the Rockies; The 
Crest of the Continent
. lVestern Canada; 
The Book of the Ocean, etc. He is also 
editor and part author of a series of 
guide-books to the Eastern States and 
ci ties. 
Ingersoll, JARED; born in ::\Ii1ford, 
Conn., in 1722; graduated at Yale in 
1742; was stamp agcnt in 1763. He was 
obliged to reship the stamps he had 
received and to resign his oflìce. He is 
the author of The Stamp Act. He 
died in New Haven, Conn., in August, 
Ingersoll, JARED, jurist; born in Con- 
necticut in 1749; graduated at Yale in 
1766; studied law in London; returned to 
Philadelphia in Iï71; was a delegate to 
the Continental Congress in 1780; a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional convention in 
1787; and was the Federal candidate 
for the Vice - Presidency in 1812, but 
was deff'ated, receiving 86 electoral 
votes. He died in Philadelphia, Oct. 31, 
Ingersoll, JOSEPH REED, legislator; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., .June 14, Iï86; 
graduated in Princeton in 1804; practised 
law in Philadelphia; served in Congress 
as Whig in 1835-37 and 1842-49; and was 
an ardent supporter of Henry Clay; and 
was United States minister to Great Brit- 
ain in 1852. He published Secession, a 
Folly and a Crime j Life of Samuel Breck, 


Ingersoll, ROBERT GREEN, lawycr; bOl"n 600 men, he was attacked by a force of 
in Dresden, N. Y., Aug. 11, 1833; began 10,000, and captured. He was almost im- 
the study of law when eighteen years old, mediately paroled. and placed in command 
and three years later was admitted to the of a camp at St. Louis. After a few 
bar. His gift of oratory Roon made him months in this capacity, fearing that he 
a distin:ruished man, both in the courts would not be returnf'd to acti,'e senice. 
and in Democratic politics. In 1857 he he resigned his commisRion. Returning 
umond from Shawneetown, 111., to Peoria, home, he became a strong Republican, and 
and in 1860 was an unsuccessful candidate in 18G6 ,vas appointed attorney-general of 
for Con:rress. In lR()2 he organized the Illinois. Tn 1876, at the Republican Na- 
11th Illinois Cavalrv and. went to the tional Convention. he nominated James G. 
front as its colonf'l. 'He Apent most of his Blaine for the Presidf'ncy in a speech 
military career in raidin:r and scouting. whieh containf'cl the fonowing memorable 
ov. 28. 1862. while endeavoring to in- sentence: "Like an armed warrior, like a 
tercept a Confederate raiding body with plumed knight, James G. Blaine marched 


down the halls of the American Congress 
and threw his shining lances full and fair 
against the brazf>n forehead of every de- 
famer of his country and maligner of its 
honor." He was conspicuously active in 
the Presidential campaigns of 18i6 and 
IS80, and had it n('t been for his pro- 

1lr '1 


nounced agnostic yiews he would have 
been honored with high official preferment. 
In 1882 he settled in 
f'w York Cit
T, and 
engaged in law practice till his death, 
July 21, I8!)!). He was a man of rare per- 
sonal attractions; an orator of excep- 
tional brilliancy. His generosity was un- 
bounded. Among his lectures, which had 
gained him wide popularity, the most char- 
acteristic were: Rome JI-istakes of Moses; 
The Family; The J.Jibcrty of Jlnn, lVornan, 
and Child,. The GOd8
' and Ghosts. His 
publications included: Lectures Complete; 
and Great S/Jeechcs. 
Thomas Painc.-Thc following is Colo- 
nel Ingersolrs noted review of the life 
a nù works of THOMAS PAINE (q. v.) : 

chorus of denunciation. In addition to 
this, the believers in the inspiration of 
the Scriptures, the occupants of ortho- 
dox pulpits, the prof"Rsors in Christian 
colleges, and the religious historians, ,..ere 
his sworn and implacable foes. 
This man had gratified no ambition at 
the f'xpense of his fellow - men; he had 
desolated no country with the flame and 
sword of war; he had not wrung millions 
from the poor and unfortunate; he had 
betrayed no trust, and yet he was al- 
most universally despised. He gave his 
life for the benefit of mankind. Day and 
night, for many, many weary yea;.s, he 
labored for the good of others, and gave 
himself body and soul to the great cause 
of human liberty. And yet he won the 
hatred of the people for whoRe benefit, 
for whose emancipation, for whose civili- 
zation, for whose exaltation he gave his 
Against him every slander that malig- 
nity could coin and hypocrisy pass was 
gladly and joyously taken as genuine, 
and every truth with l'egard to his career 
was believed to be counterfeit. He was 
attacked by thousands where he was de- 
fended by one, and the onf' who defended 
him was instantly attacked, silenced, or 
At last his life has been written by 
:Moncure D. Conway, and the real histoQT 
of Thomas Paine, of what he attempted 
and accomplished, of what he taught and 
huffered, has been intelligently, truth- 
fully, and candidly given to the world. 
Henceforth the slanderer will be without 

He who reads :Mr. Conway's pages wiII 
find that Thomas Paine was more than a 
patriot; that he was a philanthropist- 
a lover not only of his f'ountry, but of 
all mankind. He will find that his sym- 
Eight,\'-three years ago Thomas Paine pathies were with those who suffered, 
(,f'ased to defend himself. The moment without regard to religion or race. coun- 
he became dumb all his enemies found a try or complexion. He will find that this 
tongue. He was attackf'd on eyery hand. great man did not IWRitate to attack the 
The Tnri
 of England had. hem waiting governing class of his native land, to 
for tlwir Tf'V(lngf>. T]1f' hf'lif'vers in kings, commit wllat was callf'd trpason against 
in hereditary govenmwnt, the nohility of the King, that he might do hattle for tllf' 
every lanel. execrated his memory. Their rights of men; that, in spite of the preju- 

reatest enemy was dead. The belif'vers diC'es of birth. he took the side of the 
in human slavery. and an who clamored. Anlf'rican colonies; that he gladly at- 
for the rights of the Rtatf's as against taekf'CI thp political abuses and absurdi- 
the sovereignty of a nation, joined in the tics that had been fostered by altar!!! and 
42 - 


thrones for many centuries; that he was 
for the people against nobles and kings; 
and that he put his life in pawn for the 
good of others. 
In the winter of 1774 Thomas Paine 
came to America. After a time he was 
employed as one of the writers on The 
Pennsyll.'an ia .11 agazine. 
Let us see what he did, calculated to ex- 
cite the hatred of his fellow-men. 
The first article he ever wrote in Amer- 
il'a. and the first ewr published by him any- 
where.appeared in that maga7.Ïne on March 
8. 17ï5. It was an attack on American 
f-;lan>ry-a plea for the rights of the 
negro. In that article will be found sub- 
stantially all the arguments that can be 
urg-ed against that most infamous of all 
inRtitutions. Eyery line is full of human- 
ity. pit
'. tenderness, and love of justice. 
J,'ive da.vs after this article appeared the 
.American Anti-Sla\"('1"
T Society was form- 
ed. CerÍ<1Ìnly this should not excite our 
hatred. To-day the cidlized world agrees 
with the essay written by Thomas Paine 
in Iii;). 
At that time great interests were 
against him. The owners of slaves b('- 
('a me his enemies. and the pulpits, sup- 
ported by sla\'e - lahor, denounced this 
al 1,,1 itionist. 
The next article published by Thomas 
Paine, in the same magazine, and for the 
next month. waR an attack on the pra('- 
tice of duelling. showing that it was bar- 
barous. that it did not ewn tend to set- 
tle the right or wrong of a dispute, that 
it could not be defended on any just 
grounùs, and that its influen('e was de- 
grading and cruel. The civilized world 
now agrees with the opinions of Thomas 
Paine upon that barbarous practice. 
In May, 1 i7:"), appeared in the same 
maga7ine another arti('le written by 
Thomas Paine. a Protest Against Cruelty 
to Animals. He began the work that was 
so successfully and gloriously carried out 
by Henry Bergh, one of the noblest, one 
of the grandest, men that this continent 
has produced. 
The good people of this world agree 
with Thomas Paine. 
In August of the same year he wrote 
a plea for the Right.ç of TVoman, the first 
ever published in the New World. Cer- 
ta.inly he should not be hated for that. 

He was the first to suggest a union of 
the colonies. Before the Declaration of 
Independence was issued, Paine had writ- 
ten of and about the F1"ee and Independent 
Etates of .1mc1'Ïca. He had also spoken 
of the United Statf'S colonies as the" Glo- 
rions Fnion;' and Iw was the first to write 
these words: .. The United States of 
In l\Iay, 17i 5, \Yashillgton said: " If 
you ever hear of me joining in any- sueh 
uwasure (as separation from Great Brit- 
'ou have my It'ave to set me down 
for f'verything wicked." He had also 
said: .. It is not the wish or interest 
of the government (meaning :Massachu- 
sptts), or of any other upon this cunti- 
nent, separately or collectively, to set up 
for independence." And in the same year 
Benjamin Franklin assured Chatham that 
no one in America was in favor of separa- 
tion. As a matter of fact. the people of 
the colonies wanted a redress of their 
grievanf'e!;-they were not dreaming of 
separation. of independence. 
In 1775 Paine wrote the pamphlet 
known as ('ommon Sn/se. This \Vas pub- 
lished on Jan. 10. lïiG. It was the first 
appeal for indepf'ndenee, the first cry for 
national life, for absolute separation. Xo 
pamphlet, no book, ever kindled such a 
sudden conflagration-a purifying flame, 
in which the prejudices and fears uf mill- 
ions were consumed. To read it now, 
after the lapse of more than 100 years, 
hastens the blood. It is but the meagre 
truth to say that TllOmas Paine did more 
for the cause of separation. to sow the 
seeds of inùependence, than any other man 
oî his time. Certainly we should not 
d('spise him for this. The Declaration of 
lndepenrlence folJowed, and in tlwt decla- 
I'aUon will be found not only the thoughts, 
but some of the expressions, of Thomas 
During the war, and in tll{' very darkest 
hours, Paine wrote what is called The 
Crisis, a series of pamphlets giving from 
time to time his opinion of events, and his 
prophecies. These marvellous publica- 
tions produced an effect nea.rly as great 
as the pamphlet Common Sensp. These 
strophes, written by the bÏ\-ouac fires, had 
in them the soul of battle. 
In all he wrote. Paine wa!'! direct and 
natural. He touched the wry heal't of 


tbe subj
ct. He was not awed by names 
or titles, by place or powf>r. He never 
lost his regard for truth, for principle- 
nenr wavered in his allegiance to rea
to what he believed to be right. His argu- 
ments were so lucid, so unanswerable, his 
comparisons and analogies so apt, so un- 
expected. that they e'(Cited the passionate 
admiration of fricnds and the unquench- 
able hatred of en em if's. So great were 
tlH'se appeals to patriotism, to the love 
of liberty, the pride of independence, 
the glory of succc
s, that it was said by 
some of the best and greatest of that time 
that the American cause owed as much 
to the pen of Paine as to the sword of 
On Nov. 2. 1779. there was introduccd 
into the Assembly of Pennsylvania an act 
for the aboJition of slan.ry. The prp- 
amble was writtpn by Thomas Paine. To 
him belongs the honor and glory of hav- 
ing written the first proclamation ot 
en:ancipation in America
Paine the first, 
J ,incoln the last. 
Paine, of aU others, succeeded in getting 
aid for the struggling colonies from 
FI'ance. "According to Lamartine, tbe 
King, T ouis XVI., loaded Paine with 
favors, and a gift of six millions was con- 
fided into the hands of Franklin and 
Paine. On Aug. 25, 1781, Paine reached 
Boston, bringing 2,500,000 livres in silver, 
and in convoy a ship laden with clothing 
and military stores." 
In November, 1779, Paine was elected 
clerk to the General Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1780, the Assembly received 
a letter from General 'Yashington in the 
field, saying that he fpared the distresses 
in the army would lead to mutiny in the 
r[lnks. This letter was read by Paine to 
the AssC'mbl.'". He imnwdiately wrote to 
Blair 1\IcClen[lghan, a Philadelpllia mer- 
clmnt. eXplaining the urgpney. and enelos- 
ing $.;00. the amount of salary due him 
as clerk, as his contribution towards a re- 
lief fund. The merchant callNI a meet- 
ing the TIC'xt day. and read Paine's letter. 
A subscription list was immediately cir- 
cuIatt'd. and in a short time about :f:l.- was raised. 'Yith this capital 
the Pennsylvania Bank - afterwards tl1f' 
Bank of 
orth _\merica-was established 
for the l'elief of the armv. 
- In 1783 Paine wrot
 a memorial 

Chancellor Livingston, secretary of for- 
eign affairs; Robert Morris, minister of 
finance, and his assistant, llrging the ne- 
eessity of adding a 
ontinental legislat- 
ure to Congress, to be elected by the 
several States. Robert Morris im'ited 
the chanceIJor and a number of eminent 
men to meet Paine at din 1 1er, where his 
plea for a shonger Union was discusseù 
and approved. Thi<; was prohahly the 
earliest of a series of consultatiuns pre- 
liminary to the eon"titutional convention. 
On _April HI, lïR3, it bcing the eighth 
anniversary of the battle of Lexington, 
Paine printed a little pamphlet entitled, 
'l'houghfs on Peace alld the Probable Ad- 
Vltntagcs Thereof. In this pamphlet he 
pleads for" a supreme nationality absorb- 
ing all cllPr.ished sonreignties." 1\1r. Con- 
way calJs this pamphlet Paine's Farcwell 
Address, and gives the following extract: 

.. It was thp cau!'e of America that made 
me an author. The foree with which it 
struck my mind, ilnd the dangprous conòition 
which the country was In. by courting an 
impossible and an unnatural reconciliation 
with those who were determined to redul'e 
her, instead of striking out Into the only line 
that could save her-a Declaration of In- 
dependence-made it impossible for me. feel- 
ing as I did, to be silent; and if, In the 
course of more than seven years, I have 
rpndered hl'r any service, I have likewise 
added something to the reputation of litera- 
ture. by freely and disinterestedly employing 
it in the great cause of mankind. 
But as the scenes of war are closed. and 
every man preparing for home and happ!er 
times. I therefore take Ipave of the subject. 
I have most sincerely followed It from be- 
ginning to end. and through all its turns 
and windings; and whatever country I may 
hereafter be In. I shall always feel an honpst 
pride at the part I have taken and acted, 
and a gl'atitude to nature and providence 
for putting It In my power to be of some use 
to mankind." 

Paine had maòe f::ome 
nemips, first, by 
attaC'kinrr Afdcnn f::lavery. and, second, hy 
insisting upon tlIP so,"ereignty of the na- 
Dl1rinr-r HlP RC'voIution our forcfafhf'rs_ 
in order
 to justify making war on Great 
Britain, were eompelled to take the 
ground that an men are entitled to life, 
T, and the pursuit of happiness. In 
no other way couM tlH'Y justify tllf'ir ac- 
tion. After the war, the meaner instinf'Ìs 
began to take pOf::session of the mind, and 
to those who had fought for their own lib- 


erty were perfectly willing to enslave 
others. "Te must also remember that the 
l{e\"olution was begun and carried on by 
a noble minority-that the majority were 
ally in favur of Great Britain and did 
what they daI"ed to prevent the success 
of the American cause. The minority, 
however, had control of affairs. They were 
actin, energetic, enthusiastic, and COUl"a- 
geou5, and the majority were onI"awed, 
shamed, and suppressed. But when peace 
came, the majority asserted themseln?s 
and the interests of trade and conlInerce 
were consulted. Enthusiasm slowly died, 
and patriotism was mingled with the self- 
ishness of traffic. 
But, after all, the enemies of Paine were 
few, the friends were many. He had the 
respect and admiration of the greatest 
and the best, and was enjoying the fruits 
of his labor. 
The Revolution was ended, the colonies 
were free. They had been united, they 
formed a nation, and the Fnited States 
of America had a place on the map of the 
Paine was not a politician. He had not 
labored for seven 
Tears to get an office. 
His services were no longer needed in 
America. He concluded to educate the 
nglish people, to inform them of thcir 
rights, to expose the pretences, follies and 
fallacies, the crimes and cruelties of 
nobles, kings, and parliaments. In the 
brain and heart of this man weloe the 
dream and hope of the universal republic. 
He had confidence in the people. He hated 
'ranny and war, despi8ed the senseless 
pomp and vain show of crowned robbers, 
laughed at titles, and the "honorable" 
badges worn by the obsequious and servile, 
hy fawners and followers; loved libcrty 
with all his heart, and bravcly fought 
against those who coultl give the rewards 
of placc and gold, and for those who 
could pay only with thanks. 
Hoping to hasten the day of freedom, he 
wrote the Rights of JInn-a hook tll<lt 
hild the foundation for all the real liherty 
that the English now enjoy-a book that 
made known to Encrlishmen the Decla- 
ration of :Kahne, and convinced mi11ions 
that aII are children of the same motIleI', 
elltitled to !'hare equally in llf'r gifts. 
E\ery Engli
hman who has outgrown the 
ideas of 1688 should remember Paine 

with love and reverence. E\'ery English- 
man who has sought to destroy abuses, 
to lessen or limit the prerogatives of the 
crown, to extend the suffrage, to do away 
with" rotten boroughs," to take taxes from 
knowledge, to increase and protect the 
freedom of speech and the press, to do 
away with bribes undcr the name of 
pcnsions, and to make Ene,land a rrovern- 
ment of principles rather than of ;ersons. 
has been compeIIed to adopt the creed and 
use the arguments of Thomas Paine. In 
England every step towards freedom has 
heen a triumph of Paine onr Burke and 
Pitt. Ko man ever rendered a greater 
servie-e to hifl native land. 
The book caIIed the Rights of JIan was 
the greatest contribution that literature 
had given to libert
T. It rests on the bed- 
rock. No attention is paid to precedents 
except to show tha t they are wrong. 
Paine was not misled by the proyerbs 
that wolves had written for sheep. He 
had the inteIIigence to e"{amine for him- 
self, and the courage to publish his con- 
clusions. As soon as the Rights of JIan 
was published the government was alarm- 
ed. Every effort was made to suppress 
it. 'The author was indicted; those who 
published. and those who sold, were ar- 
rested and imprisoned. But the new gos- 
pel had been preached-a great man harl 
shed light-a new force had been born, 
and it was beyond the power of nobles 
and kings to undo what the author-hero 
had done. 
To avoid arrest and probable death. 
Paine left England. He had sown with 
bra ve hand the seeds of thought, and he 
knew that he had lighted a fire that noth- 
ing could e"\':tinguish until England should 
be free. 
The fame of Thomas Paine had reae-h- 
ed Fran('(' in many ways-prin('ipally 
t11rongh J
afayette. Hifl "ervices in AIIIPr- 
ica were well known. The pamphlet 
(Yom mon S('n!w had been published in 
French. and its effect had been immense. 
The Ri."ht.
 of ]fon that had created, and 
was then creating. "u('h a stir in Eng- 
lanrl was also known to the French. The 
low'rs of liberty eyerywhere were the 
frienrls and arlmirers of Thomas Painp. 
Tn America, "England. Rcotland. Ireland, 
l111rl France he was known as t11e de. 
fpnder of popular rights. He had preach. 


ed a new gospel. He had given a new 
Magna Charta to the people. 
So popular was Paine in France that 
he was elected by three constituencies 
to the national convention. He chose to 
represent Calais. From the moment he 
f'ntercd French territory he was received 
with almost royal honors. He at once 
stood with the foremost, and was wel- 
comed by all enJightened patriots. As in 
America, so in Franee, he knew no idle- 
ness-he was an organizer and worker. 
The first thing he did was to found the 
first republican society, and the next to 
write it'3 Jlanifcsto, in which the ground 
was taken that France did not nped a 
king; that the people should govern them- 
selves. In this .M anifcsto was this argu- 
.. What kind of office mm!t that be In a 
government which requires neither experipnce 
nor ability to execute; that may be abandon- 
ed to the desperate chance of birth; that may 
be fiiled with an idiot, a madman, a tyrant, 
with equai effect as with the good, the 
viI.tuous, the wise? An office of this nature 
i8 a mere nonentity; it is a place of show, 
not of use." 

He said: 

felt grateful not only to the King, but 
to every Frenchman. He, the adversary 
of all kings, asked the convention to re- 
member that kings were men, and subject 
to human frailties. He took still another 
step, and said: "As France has been the 
first of European nations to abolish 
royalty, let us also be the first to abolish 
the punishment of death." 
Even after the death of Louis had he en 
voted, Paine made another appeal. 'Yith 
a courage born of the highest possible 
Sf'nse of duty, he said: 
.. France bas but one ally-the United 
States of America. That is the only nation 
that can furnish France with naval pro- 
ions, for the kingdoms of northern Europe 
are, or soon will be, at war with her. It 
happens that the person now undPI' dis- 
cussion is regarded In AmerIca as a deliverer 
of their country. I can assure you that his 
execution will there spread universal sorrow, 
and it is in your power Dot thus to wound 
the feelings of your aily. Could I speak the 
French language I would descend to your 
bar, and In their name become your petitioner 
to respite the execution of your sentence 
on Louis. . . . Ah, citizens, give not the tyrant 
of :England the triumph of seeing the man 
perish on the scaffold who helped my dear 
brothers of America to break his chains." 

This was worthy of the man who said: 
"Where liberty is not, there is my 
e was second on the committee to 
prepare tllP draft of a constitution for 
France to be submitted to the convention. 
He was the real author, not only of the 
draft of the constitution, but of the 
D('claration of Rights. 
In France, as in America, he took the 
One of the grandest things done by lead. His first thoughts seemed to be 
Thomas Paine was his effort to save the first principles. He was clear because he 
life of Louis XVI. The convention was was profound. People without ideas ex- 
in favor of death. Paine was a foreigner. pcrience great difficulty in finding words 
His Caref'T had caused some jealousies. to express them. 
} Ie knew the danger he was in; that the From the moment that Paine cast his 
tiger was already ('ronching for a spring; ,'ote in favor of mercy, in favor of life, 
1m! he was true to his principles. He was the shadow of the guillotine was npon 
opposed to the death penalty. He re- him. He knew that when he voted for 
nwmbered that Louis XVI. had been the the King's life he voted for his own 
friend of America, and he very cheerful1y death. Paine rf'membered that the King 
ked hi.s life. not only for tIlP good of lwd he('n the friend of Amprica, and to 
]i'ran('e, not only to saYf'> the King, hut llÏm ingratitudp geemed thp worst of 
to pay a debt of gratitml('. H(' ask('d crime!'!. He worked to destroy the mon- 
tlip COl1wntion to f'xile the King to the arch. not tllP man; the King. not the 
Lnited Rtates. IT(' asked thi!'! a!'! a mem- frimd. He discharged his duty and ac- 
her of the convention and as a citizen of eepted death. This was the heroism of 
Ow United States. As an American he goodness, the sublimity of devotion. 

.. I am not the personal enemy of kings. 
Quite the conh'ary. Ko man wishes more 
heartily than myself to see them an !n the 
happy and honorable state of private In- 
dividuals; but I am the avowed, open and 
intrepid enemy of what is called monarchy; 
and 1 am such by principles which nothing 
can either alter or corrupt, by my attach- 
ment to humanity, by the anxiety which I 
feel within myself for the dignity and honor 
of the human race." 


Believing that his life was near its that they were the authorized agents of 
close, he made up his mind to gi,-e to Goù. .Paine repJied with the Age of Rea- 
the worJd his thoughts concerning ., re- BOlt. 
vealed religion." This he had for some This book is stiB a power, and wilJ be 
time intended to do, but other matters as long as the absurdities and cruelties of 
had cJaimed his attention. Fpeling that the creeds and the Bible have defenders. 
there was no time to be lost, he wrote The Age of Reason affpC'Ìcd the priests just 
the first part of the Age of Reason, and as the Rights of jJan affected nobles and 
gave the manuscript to Joel BarJow. Rix kings. The kings answered the argunwuts 
hours after, he was arrested. The second of Paine with laws. the priests with lip". 
{Jart was written in prison while he was Kings appealed to force, priests to hatH!. 
waiting for death. Mr. Conwa
T has written in regard to tlw 
Paine clearly saw that men could not Age of Reason the most impres"ive and 
be really free, or defend the freedom the most interesting chapter in his book. 
they had, unless they were free to think Paine contended for the rights of the in- 
and speak. He knew that the Church was dividual, for the jurisdiction of the soul. 
the enemy of liberty; that the altar and Ahove all religions he placed Reason. 
throne were in partnership; that they above all kings, Men, and above all 
helped each other and divided the spoils. men, Law. 
He felt that, being a man, he had the The first part of the A_ge of Reason was 
right to e'(amine the creeds and the Script- written in the shadow of a prison, the 
nres for himself, and that, being an hone!'t second part in the gloom of death. From 
man, it was his duty and his prÏ\-ilege to that shadow, from that gloom, canlf' a 
tt'll his fellow-men the concJusions at flood of light. This testament. by whieh 
which he arrived. tlw wealth of a marvellous brain, the love 
He found that the crpeds of all ortho- of a great and heroic heart were given to 
dox churches were a.bsurd and cruel, and the world. was written in the presen('e of 
that the Bible was no better. Of eoursp the scaffold, when the writer believed he 
he found that there were some good was giving 11Ïs last message to his fellow- 
things in the creeds and in the Bible. men. 
These he defended. but the infamous, the The A_ge of Rra.'wn was his crime. 
inhuman. he attacked. - Franklin, Jefferson, Sumner and Lin- 
In matters of religion he pursued the coIn. the four greatest statesmen that 
same course that he had in things poJiti- AmerÍ('a has produced. were beliHers in 
cal. He deppnded upon experience, and the creed of Thomas Paine. 
ahove all on reason. He refused to ex- The Universalists and Unitarians have 
tinguish the light in his own soul. He found their best weapons, their best ar- 
was true to himsplf, and gave to others guments, in thc A_ge of Reason. 
his honest thoughts. He did not seek Slowly, but surplJ T , the churches are 
wealth, or place, or fame. He sought the adopting not only the arguments. but the 
truth. opinions, of the great Reformer. Theodore 
He had felt it to be his duty to attack Parker attacked the Old Testament and 
the iustitution of slavery in America, Calvinistic theolog-y with thp same weap- 
to rai!':e his voice against duelling, to plead ons and with a bitterness excelled by no 
for the rights of woman. to e'(cite pity man who has expressed his thoughts in 
for the !':ufferings of domestic animals, the our language. 
speechless friends of man; to plead the Paine was a cpntury in a(Jyance of hi
cause of separation. of independence, of time. If he were living now his sym- 
Amel'ican nationality. to attack the abuses pathy would be with Savage. Chadwick. 
and crime!'! of monarchs, to do what he Profpssor Briggs and the" advanced theo- 
could to giyp frepdom to the world. logians." He, too. would talk abont the 
He UlOught it his duty to take another "higher criticism" and the latest defini- 
step. Kings asserted that they derived tion of ,. inspiration." These advanced 
their power, their right to govern. from thinkers substantially are repeating the 
God. To this assertion Paine replied with Age of Renson. They still wear the old 
the Rights of Man. Priests pretended uniform-clinging to the toggery of the- 


ology-but insidC' of their religious rags 
they agree with Thomas Paine. 
Not one argument that Paine urged 
against the inspiration of the Bible, 
against the truth of miracles, against the 
Larbarities and infamies of the Old Testa- 
ment, against the pretensions of priests 
and the claims of kings, has ever been 
His arguments in favor of the existence 
of what he was pleased to call the God 
of Nature were as weak as those of all 
theists have been. But in all the affairs 
of this worM, his clearness of vision, lu- 
cidity of expression, cogency of argument, 
aptness of comparison, power of state- 
ment and comprehension of the subject 
in hand, with all its bearings and con- 
sequences, have rarely, if ever, been ex- 
He had no reverence for mistakes be- 
cause they were old. He did not admire 
the casUes of feudalism even when they 
were covered with ivy. He not only said 
that the Bible was not inspired, but he 
demonstrated that it could not an be 
true. This was "brutal." He presented 
arguments so strong, so clear, so convin- 
cing, that th
y could not be answered. 
This was" vulgar." 
He stood for Uberty against kings, for 
humanity against creeds and gods. This 
was "cowardly and low." He gave his 
life to free and eÏvilize his fellow-men. 
This was "infamous." 
Paine was arrested and imprisoned in 
December, 1793. He was, to say the least, 
neglpcted by Gouverneur Morris and 
\Vashington. He was rp}{'ased thl'Ough 
the efforts of .Tames Monroe in November, 
] 'if/4. He was calJed back to the conven- 
tion. hut too late to be of use. As most 
of the actors had suffered death, the 
tragedy was about over and the curtain 
was faIling. Paine remained in Paris 
until the" reign of terror" was endpd and 
that of the Corsican tyrant had com- 
Paine came back to America hoping to 
!'ppnd the remainder of his life surrounded 
by those for wllOse happiness and freedom 
he had labored so manr years. He expf'cte<l 
to be rewarded with the love amI rever- 
ence of tIll' .\nwrican peoplp. 
In 17f/4 James Monroe had written to 
Paine thef:e words: 

" It Is unnecessary for me to ten you how 
much all ;)'0111' countrymen-I speak of the 
great mass of the people--are interested in 
your welfare. They have not forgot the 
history of their own. Revolution and the 
difficult scenes through which tbey lJassed; 
nor do they review its several stages without 
reviving in tbeir bosoms a due sensibility 
of the merits of those who served them in 
that great and arduous conflict. The crime 
of Ingratitnde bas not yet stained, and I 
bope never wlH stain, our national character. 
You are considered by tbem as not only hav- 
ing rendered important services in our own 
Uevolution, but as being on a more ex- 
tensive scale tbe Üiend of human rigbts 
and a distinguIsbed and able advocate of 
public liberty. '1'0 the welfare of Thomas 
Paine we are not and cannot be indifferent." 

In the same J'ear l\Ir. :l\Ionroe wrote a 
letter to the committee of general safety, 
aE>king for the rclease of :Mr. Paine, in- 
which, among other things, he said: 

.. The service!! Thomas PaIne rendered to 
his country in its struggle for freedom have 
Implanted In the heal.ts of bis countrymen 
a sense of gratitude never to be effaced as 
101111 (IS they shall (ipsen:e the title of a just 
a lid generous people." 

On reachin
 America Paine found that 
the sense of gratitude had been effaced. 
He found that the Federalists hated him 
with all theÏ1' hearts because he believed 
in the rights of the people amI was stilI 
true to the splendid principlp advocated 
during the darkf'st days of the Revolution. 
In almost pvery pulpit he found a malig- 
nant and implacahle foe, and nIP Pf>WS 
'Yere fiIIed with his enemies. The sla,'e- 
hclders hated him. He was held responsi- 
ble even for the crimes of the French 
Revolution. He was regarded as a hlas- 
phemer. an atheist, an enemy of God and 
man. TIle ignorant citizens of Borden- 
town, as cowardly as orthodox. longed to 
mob the author of (Yommon SP11SP and 
The Crisis. Thev thoug-ht he had sold 
himself to the d
vil be
ausp he had de- 
ff'nded God against t}u' slandprons ehargps 
that Ile had inspired the writf'rs of the 
Bible-bp('Ruse he had said 111at a lwing 
of infinite goodness and purity did not es- 
tahliFh slaver
: and pol
Paine had insisted that men lwd the 
right to think for them!'!elns. This so 
enraged the average Ameriean citi7pn that 
he longed for reYf'nge. 
In 1802 thp people of the Unitpd Statps 
}lad exceedingly crude ideas about the 


Jiberty of thought and expression. 
N either had they any conception of re- 
ligious freedom. Their highest thought 
on that subject was expressed by the 
word "toleratìon," and even this tolera- 
tion extended only to the various Chris- 
tian sects. Even the vaunted religious 
liberty of colonial l\Iaryland was only to 
the etfect that one kind of Christian 
should not fine, impri
on and kill an- 
other kind of Christian, but all kinds of 
Christians had the right, and it was their 
duty, to brand, imprison and kill infidels 
of enry kind. 
Paine had been guilty of thinking for 
himself and giving his conclusions to the 
world without having asked the consent 
of a priest-just as he had published his 
political opinions without leave of the 
king. He had published his thoughts on 
religion and had appealed to reason-to 
the light in every mind, to the humanity, 
the pity, the goodness which he believed 
to be in every heart. lIe denied the right 
of kings to make laws and of priests to 
make creeds. lIe insish:d that the people 
should make laws, and that en'ry human 
being should think for himself. While 
some believed in the freedom of religion, 
he believed in the religion of freedom. 
If Paine had been a hypocrite, if he 
had concealed his opinions, if he had de- 
fended slavery with quotations from the 
"sacred scriptures "-if he had cared 
nothing for the liberties of men in other 
lands-if he had said that thè state could 
not live WitllOut the Church-if he had 
sought for place instead of truth, he 
would have won wealth and power, and 
his brow would have been crowned with 
the laurel of fame. 
He made what the pious call the "mis- 
take" of being true to himself-of living- 
with an unstained soul. He had li\'ed 
and labored for the r,eople. The people 
were untrue to him. Thev returned evil 
for good, hatred for benefit!'! received, and 
yet this great chivalric soul remembered 
their ignorance and loved them with all 
hi!'! heart, and fought their oppressors 
with all his strength. 
'Ye must remember what the churches 
and creeds were in that day, what the 
theologians really taught, and what the 
people helieved. To save a few in spite 
of their vices, and to damn the many 
V.-D 49 

without regard to their virtues, and all 
for the glory of the Danmer-this 'leas 
Calvinism. .. He that hath ears to hear, 
let him hear," but he that hath a brain 
to think must not think. He that be- 
lie\'eth without e,-idence is good, and he 
that believeth in spite of evidence is a 
saint. Only the wicked doubt, onl.r the 
blasphemer denies. This u'as orthodox 
Thomas Paine had the courage, the 
sense, the heart, to denounce these hor- 
rors, these absurdities, these infinite in- 
famies. He did what he could to drive 
these theological vipers, these Calvinistic 
cobras, these fanged and hissing serpents 
of superstition from the heart of man. 
A few civilized men agreed with him 
then, and the world has progres
ed since 
1809. Intellectual wealth has accumu- 
lated; vast mental estates have been left 
to the world. Geologists have forced 
secrets from the rocks. astronomers from 
the stars, histol'Íans from old records and 
lost languages. In every dÏ1'ection the 
tlJÌnker and the investigator have vent- 
ured and e
plored, and even the pews 
have begun to ask questions of the pul- 
pits. Humboldt has Jived, and Darwin 
and Haeckel and Huxley, and the armies 
led by them, have changed the thought 
of the world. 
The churches of ISO!) could not be the 
friends of Thomas Paine. No church as- 
selting that belief is necessary to salva- 
tion ever was. or ever will be, the cham- 
pion of true liberty. A church founded 
on slanry-that is to say, on blind obedi- 
ence, worshipping irresponsible and arbi- 
trary power-must of necessity be the 
enemy of human freedom. 
The orthodox churches arc now anxious 
to !'!ave tlle little that Paine left of their 
creed. If one now beJieve:i in God. and 
If'nds a little financial aid, he is considel'ed 
a good and desirable member. He need 
not define God after the manner of the 
Ottec1lism. He may talk about a " Power 
that works for righteousness"; or the 
tortoise Truth that beats the rabbit Lie 
in the long run 
 or the "Unknowable"; 
or the "Unconditioned"; or the "Cosmic 
Force"; or the "Ultimate Atom"; or 
"Protoplasm," or the" 'Vhat "-prm'ided 
hc begins this word with a capital. 
'Ye must also remember that there is a 


difference between independence and lib- forefathers-that his words were gladly 
{)rty. Millions have fought for independ- repeated by the best and bravest in many 
ence-to throw off some foreign yoke- lands; if they knew that he attempted, 
and yet were at heart the enemies of true by the purest means, to attain the noblest 
liberty. A man in jail, sighing to be free, and loftiest ends-thl}t he was original, 
ma.r be said to be in favor of liberty, but sincere, intrepid, and that he could truth- 
not from principle; but a man who, being fully say: "The world is my countr.r, to 
frec, risks or gives his life to free the en- do gooù my religion "-if the people onl
slaved, is a true soldier of liherty. knew all this-the truth-they would re- 
Thomas Paine had passed the legendary peat the words of Andrew Jackson: 
limit of life. One by one most of his old "Thomas Paine needs no Illonument made 
friends and acquaintances had deserted with hands; he has erected a monument 
him. Maligned on every side, execrated, in the hearts of all lovers of liberty." 
shunned, and abhorred - his virtues de- Ingham, SAMUEL ÐELUCENNA, legisla- 
nounced as vices-his services forgotten- tor; born in Pennsylvania, Sept. lG, 1779; 
his character blackened, he preserved the served several years in the Pennsylvania 
poise and balance of his soul. He was legislature; served in Congress in 1813-18 
a victim of the people, but his convictions and 1822-29. President Jackson appoint- 
remained unshaken. He was still a soldier ed him Secretary of the Treasury, but he 
in the army of freedom, and :,;tiH tried to resigned on account of the Kitchen Cabi- 
enlighten and civilize those who were im- net. He died in Trenton, N. J., June 3, 
patiently waiting for his death. Even 18ÜO. 
those who loved their enemies hated him, Ingle, EDWARD, author; born in Balti- 
their friend - the friend of the whole more, Md., May 17, 1861; graduated at 
world-with all their hearts. Johns Hopkins University in 1882. 
On June 8, 1809, death came-death, al- Among his publications are LoealInstiht- 
most his only friend. tions of Virginia; Local Institutions of 
At his funeral no pomp, no pageantry, Maryland; Southern Sidelights; The }';e- 
no civic procession, no military display. gro in the Distr-ict of Columbia, etc. 
In a carriage, a woman and her son who Ingle, RICHARD, mariner; born in Lon- 
had lived on the bounty of the dead
n don, England, about IGIO. During the 
horseback, a Quaker, the humanity of civil war in England the royalist governor 
whose heart dominated the creed of his of Maryland seized Ingle's ship. On his 
head-and, following on foot, two negroes, return to England, Ingle applied to Par- 
filled with gratitude - constituted the liament for redress, and received a com- 
funeral cortege of Thomas Paine. mission authorizing him to act against the 
He who had received the gratitude of rOJ-alists. Ingle returned to Amerim in 
many millions, the thanks of generals and 1643, and, taking advantage of lo('al 
statesmen-he who had been the friend troubles, expelled Leonard Calvert, and 
and companion of the wisest and best- himself took charl!e of the gonrnnwnt 
he who had taught a people to be free, for six months, at the end of which period 
and whose words had inspired armies and Calvert regained control. 
enlightened nations, was thus given back Inglis, CHARLES, clergyman; born in 
to Nature, the mother of us all. Ireland, in 1734. From 1764 to the Rpvo- 
If the people of the great republic knew lution he was assistant rpctor of Trinity 
the life of this generous, this chivalric Clmrch, New York; and was rector from 
man, the real story of his services, his 1777 to 1783. He adhered to the royal 
sufferings and his triumphs
f what he cause, and departed for Kova Scotia 
did to compel the robed and crowned, the the loyalists who fled from Npw York 
priests and kings, to give back to the City in 1 i
3. His letters evinced consid- 
people liberty, the jewel of the soul; if erable harsh feeling towards the Ameri- 
they knew that he was the fhst to write can patriots as "fomenters of rebellion." 
The Relig-ion of Humanity; if they knew Dr. Inglis was consecrated bishop of Nova 
that he, aboye all others, planted and Scotia in 1788, and in 180<) became a 
watered the seeds of independence, of member of the governor's council. He 
union, of nationality, in the hearts of our published an answer to Paine's Common 


Sense, which made him obnoxious to the or imperative initiative is allowed. Any 
pahiots, and they confiscated his estate. petition containing a certain number of 
He died in Halifax, N. S., Feb. 24, 1816. eignatures (generally from 5,000 to 6,000), 
His son JOH
 was made bishop of Xova demanding action upon any matter what- 

('otia in 18
.), and died in 1850; and his ever, must be given attention by the coun- 
grandson. Gen. Rir .TOH
fOT ciI, which, after passing upon it, mus\ 
bGLIs. born in Halifax in 1814, was the submit it to the popular vote. This course 
bra,-e defender of Lucknow. must be taken even if a proposed measure 
Inglis, )IARY, pioneer; born in 1729. is unfavorable to the council. Again, in 
Rhe, with her two children, was captured a number of the cantons, the people have 
hy the Shawnee Indians, who had made a the right of veto power. In about a 
ful attack upon the small settle- month's time after any measure has been 
ment. The Indians carried their captives adopted by the cantonal council it may 
down the Kanawha Riyer to the Scioto. he brought before the people by a petition, 
She was thus the first white woman in and according to their vote made to stand 
Kentucky. She made her escape in com- or fall. This veto power, however, may 
pany with another white woman, and suc- be said to be included in the referendum. 
ceeded in reaching a settlement on the In all the cantons, except Freiburg, the 
Kanawha. She died in 1813. right of the people to have every important 
Ingraham, Dr:KCAN N. See NATURAL- act of legislation referred back to them 
 (Koszta Case). for adoption or rejection is now estah- 
Ingraham, JOSEPH HOJ.T, author; born lished by law. 
in Portland, 
Ie., 1809; became a pro- In recent years the principle of the in i- 
fessor in Jefferson College, :Miss.; subse- tiative and referendum has met with much 
quently took orders in the Protestant favor in the United States, and in several 
r:piscopal Church. He wrote many novels, States there has been an influential move- 
some of which were very popular, but he ment to bring about its adoption. 
is best known through his three books, Injunction, an order of a court, which 
entitled The Prince of the Hou.<ie of David
' commands the party or parties against 
The pmnr of Fire; and The Thronp of whom it is issued (I) not to commit a 
David. He died in Holly Springs, Miss., certain act; or (2) to desist from the 
in December, 1866. commission of a certain act; or (3) to 
Ingram, DAVID. See HORTOP, JOB. restore to its former condition something 
Ingulf, RrDoLF, traveller; born in which has been altered or interfered with 
Cologne in 17
7; emigrated to 2\fexico in by the person or persons to whom the 
17.31, where he became a merchant. After injunction is directed. 
se('uring a competence he trawlled through Inman, GEORGE, military officer; born 
Central America, :Mexico, and California. in Boston, 
Iass., Dec. 3, 1755; graduated 
He published, in the German language, at Harvard College in 1772. During the 
Trtwels -in Yeti' Spain; The Geologic For- Hevolutionary \Var he was a rOJ'alist, 
motion of ('alifornia, in which he proved entering the army as a private. but soon 
that California was a rich gold-fIeld; receiving a commission; took part in the 
r'o.<iltlOgraph.ll of America, etc. He died in hattles of Princeton, Brandywine. Ger- 
Yipnna in 178.3. mantown, and Monmouth, in the first of 
Initiative and Referendum, a politi- which he was wounded. He was the au- 
('al sy
tem which originated in Switzer- thor of Narrative of the Revolutionary 
land. designed to test the feeling of the War, 1776-1779. He died in the \Yest 
people concerning proposed legislation. Indies in 1789. 
In t1le s('wral cantons of the Swiss Con- Inman, HENRY, painter; born in Utica, 
ff'd('ration the coun('ils merely formulate N. Y., Oct. 20, 1801; was a pupil of .Tohn 
tl1(' la\\':-;. while the people pass t1lem. ".e!'ìl('y .Tarvis, the portrait - painter, to 

jll1ilar to the law of all other nations whom he was apprenticed for seven 
that of f'witzerlaml concedes t1w people a He painted landscapes and historical piety 
('('rtain right of initiative in the way of ures, but portraits were his chief subjects. 
pl?tition: hut in many of the cantons this and he introduced lithography into the 
right goes much further and an additional United States. In 1844 he went to Eng- 


land, where, becoming the guest of 'Vord:,;- 
\\ orth. the poet, he painted his portrait. 
He also painted the portraits of other dis- 
tinguished men while in J.:ngland. He had 
begun painting an historiC'al picture for 
the national Capitol, representing Daniel 
Boone in the wilds of Kentucky, at the 
time of his death, in New York City, Jan. 
Ii. 18J6. 
Inman, IIEì\"RY, author; born in New 
York, July 30. 1837; educated at the 
'n puhlic schools and Atht'nian 

\cademy. and is the author of The Old 
Santa Pé Trail; Great Salt Lake Trail; 
Tal,'s of the Trail; '['he Ranch on, the 
OJ/I id(' " PioncrJ' from I(ent /Icky, etc. lIe 
died in Topeka, I\:an., Nov. 13, 18H9. 
Inman, \ V ILLI 4. l\I. na \'a J oflÌcer; born in 
rtica, N. Y.. in } in7; appointed mid:.;hip- 
man, United Statps mn'y, in 1812; pro- 
moted to Jieutenant, ApriJ 1, 1818; com- 
mander in 1838; and captain in 18.')0. 
In 1859-61 he conlluand(.d the West 
Ahican squadron. during which time he 
succeeded in recapturing and liherating 
nearly 4,000 sla ns; and was p)'omoted 
commodore, and was retired, April 4. 18G7. 
lIe died in Phi!adelphia. Pa., Oct. 23, 1874. 
Inness, (jEORGE. intist; horn in New- 
burg, N. Y., l\[ay I, 182.'); removed to New 
York in 1845: studied a).t; and was 
chosen a membC'r of the KationaJ Acad- 
emy in 18G8. He wa,; one of the greatest 
\nH'ril'a has produced. 
His pictures incJudf' A.mcricíl]-" Sunset; 
Drlal("are lVater - Gap: lïrw near .lIed- 
field, Mass.; .in Old RoadlL
ay, LOllg [sl- Insolvency. See BANKRUPTCY LAWS. 
and; and Under the Green n'ood. He Inspection, COMlIIITTEES OF. In many 
died in ScotJand Aug. 3, 1894. of the present ..American States the ela!Os 
Inness, HAURY, jurist; born in Caro- known as Tories, or adherents of tll(' 
line county, Va., in 1732; was an ardent crown, were in a minority at HI(' beginning' 
patriot during the Revolutiona)'y \Yar; of the Revolutionary \Var, and in man
superintendent of the mines from which places suffered indignities, sueh as, if 
-\mericans obtained their Jead; ap- offensiveJy active, receiving a covering of 
pointed judge of the Rupreme Court of tar and fmthers, being carted aJ"Ound as 
Virginia in 1783, and Pnited States dis- a public spf'ctacJe, and otJwr abuscs which 
trict judge for Kentucky in 1787. His personaJ and politicaJ maJignity pould in- 
enemies caused charges to be brought fiict. To prevent such disgraceful scenes. 
against him in Congress in 1808, but which would lead to retaliation and the 
that bod
' refused to take any action look- rule of moh law, the Continental Congress 
ing to his impeachment. He died in speciaIIy committed the oversight of Tories 
Frankfort, Ky., Sept. 20, 1816. and sl}spected persons to regularly ap- 
Insanity. L"ntil 1840 the insane poor pointed committpes of inspection and ob- 
in the United States were cared for al- servation for the spveral counties and dis- 
most excJusiveJy by the township and tricts. The Tories were also exposed to 
county authorities. It was estimated that the dangers from the Jaw, for the \Vhigs 

in 1833 there were 2,500 Junatics in jails 
and other prisons, besides Lundreds in 
the county poor-houses and private fam- 
ilies. One of the very earliest asylum'! 
for the insane was tJlat opened in I i!J7 
at Dloomingdale, in the suburbs of New 
York City, by the New York Hospital f'o- 
eiety. To the labors of l\IISS DOROTIIEA 
I... DIX (q. v.) is Jargely due the estahli:,h- 
ment of State asylums. 
Ii:.;s Di'\: de- 
voted herself after 1837 to the j))\'C'Rti- 
gat ion of the suhject. and \Ìsited e\pry 
Rtate east of the Roeky :\lountains, ap- 
pealing to the State legislatures to pro- 
vide for the care of the insane. In 
1854-. a biII appropriating 10.000.000 aerf'R 
of public lands to the sevcJ'al Rtates for 
the reJief of the pauper in:.;anf', passed 
by Congress undf'r her appeals, was vetoed 
hy President Pierce. lIeI' efforts, llOwever, 
IN] to the establishment of State insanf' 
a !"yl ums, and it is now recognized as the 
duty of each State to care for its insane. 
Kew York Statp alone has fifteen corporate 
institutions of this class. The foJIowing 
f;tatisti('s show the number of insane, etc., 
in the United States. Lntil 1830 there 
were no reliable statistics: 

Year. Population or No.orInsane. To ellch million 01 
U.S. inhabitsn tB. 
1850......... . 21,191.876 15.610 1ì73 
1860.......... 31.4-l:i,321 24,1;42 ';83 
18';0. . . . . . . . . . 3H.55R,371 3';.432 9'i1 
18H!) . . .. . . . .. . 50.155,7H3 91. 9g7 J,83-t 
lIWO.......... 62.(;22,250 10(;,252 J,1i!J7 
1900. . . . . . . . . . 76,303,387 106,4H5 1,396 


had takf'n all power into Uwir hands, and 
required allegiance to State governments 
from all the inhabitants. The consequence 
was that many left the States anù became 
refugees in Great Britain or in its Ameri- 
can provinces. 
Instrument of Government. See Gov- 
Insurance. The following is a brief 
summarv of the insurance business in the 
Fnited States in its principal forms: The 
first fire insurance in the colonies was 
written in Boston by the Sun Company 
(English) in li28. Some insurance was 
done in Philadelphia in 1752. The first 
fire insurance policy issued in the United 
States was in Hartford, Conn., in 1794. un- 
der the unofficial title of "Hartford Fire 
Insurance Co." Sixteen years after, in 
1810, the Hartford Fire Insurance Com- 
pany was organized. From 1801-10 there 
were GO charters issued; 1811-20, 43; 
1821-30, I--HI; 18:31-40, 467; 1841-50, 401; 
1851-60, 896; 1861-70, 1,041. 
From Jan. 1, 1880, to Dec. 31, 1889, 
property of the citizens of the t:'nited 
States was insured against fire and ac- 
cident on ocean, lake, and river, and by 
tornado, to the amount of over $120.000,- 
000,000, for premiums of $1,156,G75,3!1l, 
and losses were paid of $047,7
6,051, being 
56 per cent. of the premiums. 
The condition and transactions of fire 
companies doing business in the t:"nited 
States on Jan. 1, 1903, were as follows: 

between twelve and forty - five years 
of age. In 173--1: it guaranteed a divi- 
dC'nd for each deceased member not Ie",; 
than HOO. This was the first insurance 
for a definite sum at death, whenever 
that might occur. In liG2 the Equit- 
a hIe Assurance Society of London began 
to rate members according to age. At the 
close of the eighteenth century there were 
eight companies transacting, in a more or 
less complete form, the business of life in- 
surance in Great Britain and Ireland. The 
Presbyterian Annuity and Life Insunmce 
Company of Philadelphia, the first life in- 
surance company in the United States, re- 
ceived its charter from Thomas Penn in 
175D. The Penn Company for Insurance 
on J.Jives was chartf'red in 1812, and the 
l\Iassachusetts Hospital Life Insurance 
Company, Boston, in 1818. 
The assessment system of life insurance 
is based on the plan of collecting assess- 
ments on living members to pay death 
losses as they occur. In this plan the as- 
sessments during early years are less than 
the premiums of regular companies; but 
they increase rapidly, and often become 
impossible to collect in later years. Since 
its appearance (about 18(5) as an in- 
surance business, aside from fraternal 
organizations, this sJ'stem has rapidly ex- 
The first accident insurance company 
established in tIle L'nited States was the 
Traveler's, of Hadford, Conn., in 1863; 

N=""''' c.m,....1 Capital. r- m E..'..
", I Net Surplus. r' Pum'.
 ... Total C...h Income 
Premium No,,".. ceived during Year. during Year. 
313 Stock... ......} $70,537,743 $451,010,545 I $171,390,lô2 $224,076,129 $242,819.167 
178 MutuaL... .... 

Pnill. for Lo.."" I Pnid foJ' Ph.i"
n,ls F:xpenqes otht>r thRn Total Disburse- I Ri.ks "'rltlen 
Number or ('ompsn;"". I 08
8 anfl Oivi- rnents (luring 
 Y eRr. durin
 Year. during Y"ar Yesr. during Yt'H.r 
313 8tock.... ..... } $113,147.727 , $1'7,'73'7.IU $R4g9,59'7 $205,381,768 I '" 126_000_000_000 
}78 MutuaL....... 

'" A pprO"l:imlltion. The stntislirs of fire Insnrnnrc bnsinpss In the enited StatE'S 8re, with IhE' exreption of the 
eRlImatp of ,"i<;k'! writtpn dnr\ng the year, compilpd from The Insurance Yf'ar-Rook, puhlished bv The Spcctator 
Company. Thev do not inrlurle the returns of a few stock companies and some ßOO mutuals and to\\n and county 
mutualS: whose'trans'lctions are pure1y 1oca1 and individually ofsmall vo1ume. 

In ID03 the aggregate property loss by the first steam-boiler insurance company, 
fires was estimated at $135,000,000, and the Hartford, Conn., was chartered in I8(j1i; 
aggregate insurance loss at $i5,000,000. and plate-glass was fir'!t insurpd in 18ïO. 
Life in<;urance was not known before 
Iost of the States have established de- 
the sixtppnth cpntury. The first Hff' in- partments or bureaus of insurance, for the 
snran('e company, "The Amicable," was snpprvision of the companies and the en- 
estahlislH'd in London, England, in I iOfi, forcement of the laws requiring their 
and insured at uniform rates person.. soln>ncy to be maintained. The mainten- 




Pa)'ment. to 
No. Premiums Total Policy-holden Total Expen. New Policies 18&ned. Policies in Force. 
of Aøøetø. Receiv"d. Income. (LoBse., Di vi- ditur.... 
Coso dends, Surren- No. I Amount.' No. I 
den, etc.) Amouut. 
80 $2,091,822,851 '
06,946.597 '504,527,705 '199,8!i3,721 1321,966,272 5,''U9,2
H ....a38.731,46:\ 17.

(IA35 ! '10.505.H9".1HS 

* Including industrial policics. 


'- A to I A..e..mentø I Total I Payment8 to I Total Expen_ / Membenhip. I 
.. ... . Collected. Income. Policy-holden. ditu,", 
dmitted Dur- No. or I Amonn'- 
IJlK the Year. M.,wberø. 
7'jQ I $45,591.473 I $90,040,589 I $97,114,065 $72,793,886 $83,193,861 I 706,200 I 5,270,207 I $ti,530,360,368 

In.urance in Force. 

* These figures are from the Illinois Life Insurance Report for 1900, and represent the combined business of the 
assessment companies and fraternal orders. The assessment business having declined since 1tj96, these aggregates 
are nearly balf those of that year. 
The returns of life insurance in the first and third tables are from Tlte [murance Year-Book, published by The 
Spectator Company. 


... 3. 

 1 3. 
i ... 

:i! " 
ttë. "'8 $'" ",0 .!

 II:g [01.: -.. 
.10" 11:0 .5>- .. :J>- 
.. g:
f ,&:": .. t
 ..,..: g:E .. .....: 
< -;;;>- 



l !.
Z..J ....:I Z..:I 

Q [o1"ó Q 1>4'" Q [o1'E 
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
10 100,000 74\1 7.49 48.72 39 78,862 756 9.59 28.90 68 43,133 2,243 52.00 9.47 
11 99,251 746 7.52 48.01j 40 78,106 765 9.79 28.18 69 40,890 2,821 56.76 8.97 
12 98,505 743 7.54 47.45 41 '17,341 '174 10.01 27.45 70 38,569 2,391 6U)9 8.48 
13 97,762 740 7.57 46.80 42 76,567 785 10.25 26.72 71 36,178 2.448 67.67 8.00 
14 97,022 737 7.60 46.16 43 75,782 797 10.r>2 26.00 72 33,730 2,487 7:J.73 7.55 
15 96,285 735 7.63 45.50 44 74,985 812 10.83 25.21 73 31,243 2,505 80.18 7.11 
16 95.550 732 7.66 44.85 45 74,173 828 11.16 24.M 74 28,738 2,501 87.(13 6.68 
17 9-1,818 729 7.69 44.19 46 73,345 8-18 11.56 23.81 75 26,237 2,476 9-1.37 6.27 
18 9-1,089 727 7.73 43.53 47 72,497 870 12.00 23.08 76 23,761 2,431 102.31 5.88 
1\1 93,362 725 7.77 42.87 48 71,627 896 12.51 22.36 77 21,330 2,369 111. 06 5.49 
20 !l2,6:J1 723 7.81 42.20 49 70,731 927 13.11 21.63 78 18,9151 2,291 120.83 5.11 
21 91,914 722 7.86 41.53 50 69,804 962 13.78 20.91 79 16,670 2,196 131.73 4.74 
22 91,192 721 7.91 40.85 51 68,842 1,001 14.54 20.20 80 14,474 2,091 lU.47 4.39 
23 90,471 720 7.96 40.17 52 67,841 1,0H 15.39 19.49 81 12,383 1,96-1 158.61 4.05 
24 89,751 719 8.01 39.49 53 66,797 1,On 16.33 18.79 82 10,419 1,816 174.30 3.71 
25 89,0:12 718 8.07 38.81 54 6:;,706 I,H3 17.40 1tj.09 83 8,603 1,648 191.56 3.39 
26 88,314 718 8.13 38.12 55 6-1,563 1,199 18.57 17.40 84 tj,955 1,470 211.36 3.08 
27 87,569 718 8.20 37.43 56 63,364 1,260 19.89 16.72 85 5,485 1,292 235.55 2.77 
28 81i.878 71tj 8.26 36.73 57 62,10,1 1,325 21.34 16.05 86 4,193 1,114 265.68 2.47 
29 86,lliO 719 8.35 36.03 58 60,779 1,3!)4 22.94 15.39 87 3,079 933 303.02 2.18 
30 85.441 720 8.43 35.33 59 59,385 1,468 24.72 14.74 88 2,146 741 346.G9 1.91 
31 84,721 721 8.51 J4.63 60 57,917 1,546 26.69 14.10 89 1,402 555 395.86 1.6G 
32 8-1.000 723 8.61 33.92 61 5G.371 1,628 28.8tj 13.47 90 8-17 38
 4fí4 . 55 1.42 
33 83,277 72ß 8.72 33.21 62 54,743 1.713 :n.29 12.86 91 462 24G 532.47 1.19 
34 82,551 729 8.83 32.1i0 63 53.0:m 1,800 33.94 12.26 92 216 137 6a4.26 .!18 
35 81,822 732 8.95 31. 78 64 51,230 1,889 36.87 11.67 93 79 58 734.18 .80 
36 81,090 737 9.09 31.07 65 49,3U 1,980 40.13 11.10 94 21 18 857.H .64 
37 80,353 742 9.23 30.35 66 47.361 2,070 43.71 10.54 95 3 3 1,000.00 .50 
38 79,611 749 9.41 29.62 67 45,291 2,158 47.65 10.00 

ance of these departments, and all ex- Interior, DEPARTMENT OF THE. See 
penses of supervision are charged to the CABINET, PRESIDE
companies, and sometimes amount to a Internal Improvements. Millions of 
serious burden. increasing the cost of acres of the public lands of the Fnited 
insurance to the people. The belief of f'tates have been granted to aiù in the 
most insurance experts and of political construction of roads, canals, and rail- 
Economists is that the effort to regulate ways; and also for educational and other 
the business by law has been carried too purposes. The first acts of Congress for 
far. and has d
ne more harm than good. the purpose of internal improvement" 
Insurrections. See REBELLIO
S; RIOTS. were two for the new f'tate of Ohio, which 
Interest. The table on opposite page became laws on April 30, 1802. and 1\[:11'ch 
shows interest laws and statutes of limita- 3, 1803. respectively. Previous to that 
tions of the various f:itates in the en ion. there had been donations of lanù in favor 



Interest Laws. Statute. of lnter..t Laws. Statutes or 
Limitatiuns Limitations. 
States and Judl{- I States and 
Territori... Open Territories. Lep:") Rate Allowed J ud
- Notes, Open 

) Rate Allowed ments Notes, Ac- At- 
Rate. by Contract. Rste. by Contract. ments, Years. 
Years: Years counts, Y""rs. count., 
Y ean. Years. 
Perct. Peru. - Per ct. Per ct_ - - 
Alnbama . . . . . .. . 8 8 20 6* 3 Nebraska. . . .... 7 10 5U 5 4- 
Arkansas....... . 6 10 10 5 3 Nevada.... .. . . . 7 Any rate. 6 6 4- 
A nzoua .. . .. . . . . 7 Any rate. 5 5 3 New Hampshire. 6 6 20 6 6 
California....... . 7 Any rate. 5 .It 2 New Jersey. .... 6 6 20 6 6 
Colorado.. .. .. .. 8 Any rate. IOU 6 6 New Mexico.. ... 6 12 7 6 4- 
('onneeticut... .. . 6 Ij) t (e) 6 New york...... 6 6ft 20(i) 6 6

lIelay,are.... _ ... 6 6 20 611 3 Xorth Carolina.. 6 6 10 3* 3 
lIist. of Columbia. 6 10 12 3 3 North Dakota.. . 7 12 10 6 6
Florida. .... . . . . . 8 10 20 5 2 Ohio........... . 6 8 5U 15 6 
Heorgia . .. .. .. .. 7 8 7 6 4 Oklahoma. . . '" . 7 12 5(1t) 5 3 
Idaho. . . .. . ... . . 7 12 6 5 4 Oregon . . . . . . . . . 6 10 10 6 6 
Illinois. . . . . .. . . . ð 7 20 10 5 Pennsylvania.. . 6 6 5(f) 611 6 
Indiana........ . 6 8 20 10 6 Rhode Island.... 6
 Any rate. 20 6 6 
Iowa. .. . . . . . .. . . 6 8 2O(d) 10 5 South Carolina.. 7 8 10 6 6 
Kansas. .... ..... 6 10 5 5 3 South Dakota.. . 7 12 10(l) 6 6 
Kent-ucky...... . 6 6 15 15 5(a) Tennessee...... . 6 Any rate. 10 6 6 
J,ouisiana...... .. 5 8 10 5 3 Texas. . . .. . . .. . . 6 10 IOU 4- 2 

faine.......... . 6 Any rate. 20 611 6

 Utah............ 8 Any rate. 8 6 4- 

Iaryland. . .. .. .. 6 6 12 3 3 V ermon t . . . .. . . . 6 6 8 6 6
)Iassachusetts.. . 6 Any rate. 20 6 6 Virginia...... .. 6 6 20 5* 2', 
)Iichigan....... . 5 7 6* 6 6

 Washington.... . 7 12 6 6 3 

finnesota. .... . . 6 10 10 6 6 West Virginia... 6 6 10 10 3 
)1 ississippi .... . . 6 10 7 6 3 Wisconsin..... ., 6 10 20(i) 6 6 
'lissouri. .. .. . . . . 6 8 10 10 5 Wyoming..... .. 8 12 5(k) 5 8 
Montana. .. ... ... 10 Any rate. 10(b) 8 3 

* l'ndcr seal. 10 years. t Ifmade in State; if outside, 2 years. t No law and no decision regardingjudgments. 

 Gnless a different rate is expressly stipulated. II Under seal, 20 years.. ,,- Store accounts; other account8, 3 
years. tt Xew York has by a recent law legalized any rale of interest on calI loans of $;),000 or upward, on col- 
lateral security. U Becomes dormant, but may be revived. 

 Six years from last item. (a) Accounts between 
merchants, 2 years. (b) In courts not of record, 5 years. (d) Twenty years in COUrlS of reeord; in justice's 
court, 10 years. Ie) Xegotiable notes, 6 years; non-negotiable, 17 years. (f) Ceases to be a lien after that period. 
(It) On foreign judgments, 1 year. Ii) Is a lien on Teal estate for only 10 years. (j) Any rate. but only 6 per cent. 
can he collected at law. (k) And indefinitely by having execution issue every 5 years. (I) Ten yl'ars foreign, 20 
years domestic. 
of various deserving' persons. The grants to repay the government. On the same 
to the inhabitants of Ohio were for the day (March, 18
7) there was granted to 
purpose of laying out public roads lead- Indiana a certain strip of land formerly 
ing to the Ohio River. Other grants were held by the Pottawattomie Indians, the 
made from time to time for improvements proceeds of the sale thereof to be applied 
in the Northwest until 1824, when (May to building a road from Lake ::\Iichigan, 
26) Congress authorized the State of Indi- via Indianapolis, to some convenient 
ana to construct a canal, giving the right point on the Ohio River. March 3, 1827, 
of way, with !)O feet of land on each a grant was made to Ohio of two sec- 
f'ide thereof. Nothing was done under tions of land along the entire line of a 
the act; but in 1827 (:\[arch 2) two acts road to be constructed from Sandusky to 
were passed, giving to Indiana and II. Columbus. 
linois, respectively, certain lands in aid May 23, 1828, a grant of 400,000 acres 
of the construction of canals, the first of the "relinquished lands" in certain 
to connect the navigation of the \Vabash counties in Alabama was made in aid of 
Riyer with the waters of J...ake Erie, and the improvement of the Tennefo;see and 
the second to connect the waters of the other rivers in that State. In this grant 
Illinois River with those of Lake ::\Iichi- was the first provision for indemnity in 
gan. A quantity of land equal to one- case the grant wa!'! not full by rea!'on of 
half of fi,'e sections in width, on each prior sales or disposals by the govern- 
side of the canals, was granted. reserv- nwnt. Rimilar grants were made from 
ing to the rnited States each alternate time to time for like purposes. March 2. 
spction. It was not an absolute grant 1833. the State of Illinois was authorized 
of land in fee, for. under certain restriC'- to apply the land!'! granted hy the aet of 
tions, thp Rtates had a right to sell the March 2, 1827, for eanal purposes to the 
awards, and from the proceeds they were construction of a railway in!'tead. Thi.. 


was the first act looking to the con- right of way through such portions of the 
struction of a railway through the assist- public lands as remained unsold-not to 
ance of land donations. The railroad sys- exceed 80 feet in width-to the Kew 
tern was then in its infancy. The State Orleans and Nashville Railroad Company. 
did not avail itself of the privilege, but 'l'his road was never' completed. Next 
subsequently built a canal. March 
, c,-tme a grant to East }'lorida and other 
1835, a grant was made to aid the con- railroads which were never constructed. 
struciion of a railway in Florida. Suffi- March 3, 1837, a grant was made to tJw 
dent was given for the way-30 feet of Atchafalaya Railroad and Banking ('om- 
land on each side-and the right to take pany, in Louisiana, similar to t}]at to 




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and use the timber for 100 yards 
on each side for the const.ruction 
and repairs of the road. This was the 
first grant of the }'ight of way for a rail- 
road, the previous grant having been for 
a canal. July 2, 1836, an act granted the 

the New Orleans and NaRhville Railroad. 
.Aug. 8, 1846, an act granted lands in aid 
of impwvements of the Des l\'[oinps River, 
in Iowa, and the Fox and \Visconsin 


l"ivers, in Wisconsin. These rivers, when to that given to :Missouri in 1852. July 
improved, were to remain highwa,}'B for 1, 18()
, the Union Pacific Ra-ilroad Com- 
the United States government forever, pany was Cl"cated for the purpose of 
free from toll. constructing and maintaining a railroad 
The grant to the then Territory of Iowa and telegraph line Í1'om the :Missouri 
for the improvement of the De!i 
Ioines River to the Pacific Ocean. They were 
niver led to long discussions as to the granted the right of way through the 
extent of the grant, and to many legal public lands to the extent of 200 feet in 
decisions. Finally, on 
Iarch 22, 1838, width on each side of the line of the road, 
the consent of Congress was given to ap- together with the necessary ground for 
ply a portion of the grant to the con- stations, buildings, etc. They were also 
struction of a railway. The rivers were granted in aid of the construction of the 
not improV(d, but the railway was con- roaù every alternate section of public land 
structed-the Keokuk, Fort Des )Ioines, to the amount of five alternate sections a 
and Minnesota Railroad. Sept. 20, 1830, mile on each side of the road, excepting 
a grant was made to the State of Il1inois mineral lands and all lands already dis- 
of every alternate section of land, desig- posed of or reserved. Several other roads 
nated by even numbers, for six sections were provided for on the same conditions, 
in width, on each side of a railroad and which became known as the Central 
branches thereof. This road, which was Pacific, Central Branch of the Union Pa- 
built, is known as the Illinois Central. cific, Kansas Pacific, and Sioux City and 
Although this was not the first concession Pacific. It was a grant of 10 miles of 
of land to a railway corporation, it land on each side of the road. By an act 
granted specific sections instead of one- approved July 2, 1864, instead of five, 
half of a certain number of sections, and ten sections were granted, making the 
may be considered the initiatory measure aJ"ea 20 miles on each side of these 
of the system since adopted in making roads. The term mineral land "",'as con- 
grants in favor of railways. On June 10, strued not to mean coal or iron. By the 
181)2, a donation was made to the State same act a grant of 20 miles of land 
of ::\Iissotui for the construction of certain was made to the Btu1ington and Missouri 
railroads therein, afterwards known as Ri,-er Railroad Company for the construc- 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph, and the tion of a road from the Missouri River to 
l\Iisouri Pacific, south branch. This grant some point not farther west than the one 
was similar in character and extent to Imndredth meridian west longitude, to 
that of the Illinois Central. In this, as connect with the Union Pacific road. 
in the case of the Illinois Central, there March 3, 1864, a grant of land was made 
was a provision for the reimbursement of to the State of Kansas to assist in con- 
the United States for all the land sold. structing railroads within its borders, af- 
Feb. 9, 1853, an act made a similar grant terwards known as the Atchison, Topeka, 
to Arkansas. .Tune 29, 1834, an act and Santa Fé; Leavenworth, Lawrence, 
granted aid to Minnesota for construct- and Galveston; and l\Iissouri, Kansas, anù 
ing a railroad from the southern line of Texas railroads. In 
Iay, 18fi4, similar 
that then Territory, via St. Paul, to its grants were made to the States of l\Iinne- 
eastern line, in the direction of Lake Su- sota, 'Visconsin, and Iowa, and others soon 
perioI'. For this purpose there were given foIlowed to Arkan!"as, l\Iis!'<ouri. Alabama, 
each alternate section of land, designated Iowa, 
fichigan, Minnesota, and Kansas. 
by odd numbers, for six sections in width The Korth Pacific Railroad Company was 
on each side of said road. This act was created July 1, 1864, with grants similar 
repealed in August following. to those of the Union Pacific, excepting 
At various times in 18.")û grants of douhlc the extent of land, through the Ter- 
land for similar purposes were made to ritories. July 27, 18ôfi, g-rants were made 
the States of Iowa, Florida, Alabama, tu thf' Atlantic and Pacific. and the South- 
Louisiana, Michigan, "ïsconsin, and ern Pacific, on terms similar to those of 
l\Tississippi. On March 3, 18.")fi, a grant the Luion Pacific. l\Iarch 3, lROD, la.nd 
was made to 
\ n of these gmnts were made to the Denver Pacific 
grants made in 1856 and 1837 were similar Railway; and by act of l\Iarch 3, 1871, 


similar grants were made to the Southern 
Pacific (branch line) and Texas and Pa- 
cific. :Many of the grants made in the 
earlier J"f'ars of the system were enlarged. 
The aggregate amount of land granted is 
more than 215,000,000 acres, but the 
amount made available is not more than 
18ï,OOO,000 acres. By the aid of these 
g-rants oyer 15,000 miles of railroad have 
hem built. Their benefits have extended 
to all parts of the country, and cannot 
he estimated by values. See CANALS; 
Internal Revenue. The following table 
shows the total collections of internal 
reyenue in the United States in the fiscal 
:ymr ending June 30, 1903, by States and 

States and Territories. 

Alabama ................. 
Arltansas ................ 
CalifornIa and Ne'.ada.... 
Colorado and Wyoming.... 
Connecticut and Rhode Isl- 
and ............ ....... 
Florida ............... . . . 
Georgia .................. 
J I a ,,'aii .......... TO' . . . . . 
Illinois .................. 
Indiana ................. 
Iowa ............ " . . . . . . 
l...ansas. Indian Territory, 
and Oklahoma ...... 
 . . . 
Louisiana and Mississippi.. 
Maryland, Delaware, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and two 
Virginia districts. . . . . . . . 
:\Iassachusetts ............ 

lIchigan ................ 
lIIinnesota ............... 
lIlissouri .......... ., . . . . . 
::\Iontana, Idaho, and Utah.. 
1\ebraska, and Korth and 
South Dakota. .. .. '" '" 
Kew Hampshire, Maine, and 
Vermont ............... 

ew Jerse:v .............. 
Kew :\Iexl
o and Arizona. . . 
Xew York ............... 
Korth Carolina. . . .. .. ..... 
Ohio................... . 
Tashlngton, and 
Alaska ................ 
Pennsylvania ............ 
South CarolIna. . . . . . . . . . . . 
Tennessee ................ 
'rexas _.................. 
YIrginla ................. 
""est YIrglnIa . 
\\îsconsln ................ 



8,948,54 7.13 
591,025.J 3 

'rota) ....... TO....... $230,740,925.22 
The table on opposite page gins a sum- 

mary of such receipts in the period 1880- 
1903, both inclusive, with principal 
The re-imposition of adhesive stamps in 
1898 was provided for in the War Reve- 
nue Act of that year. The war revenue 
and the receipts of the national treasury 
from other sources having been much 
larger than was anticipated, and having 
produced a surplus largely in excess of 
the actual financial needs of the country, 
Congress adopted a conference report on 
a bill to reduce the war revenue on Feb. 
28, 1901, to go into effect on July I 
J)ext ensuing. The revenue reduction was 
expected to amount to $42,163.000 per an. 
num, the repeal of various stamp taxeli 
and a few changes in the existing law 
concerning specified articles being esti- 
mated to make the following itemized J'e. 
Commercial brokers, $138,000; certifi- 
cates of deposits, $200,000; promissor
notes, $3,500,000; bills of lading for ex- 
port, $100,000; telegraphic despatches, 
$800,000; telephone messages, $315,000; 
bonds other than indemnity, $
5,000; cer- 
tificates not otherwise specified, $200,000; 
charter party, $100,000; conveyances, 
$1,750,000; insurance, $3,000,000; leases, 
$200,000; mortgages, $;)00,000; passage 
tickets, $100,000; power of attorney, $100.- 
000; protests, $25,000; warehouse - re- 
ceipts, $250,000; express receipts, $800,- 
000; proprietary medicines, cosmf'tics. and 
chewing-gum, $3,fl50.000; legacies, $.')00.- 
000; cigars, $3,100,000; tobacco, $7.000,
000; small cigars and cigarettf's. $;)OO,
000; beer, $fI,800,000; bank checks, $7.- 
000,000; foreign bills of exchange. $JO,
000; money orders. $602,000; manifest for 
Custom House. $60.000. 
International Arbitration. See ARBI- 
International Law, the name now 
given to what was formel'ly known as the 
Law of Kations. It is believf'd to have 
originated in the l\fiddle Ages, and to 
have been first applied for the purpose 
of regulating commercial transaction8. 
From this fact it took the name of " com- 
mercia] Jaw," and subsequently was ex- 
tended to transactions other than com- 
mercial of an international eharacter. To- 
day the aim of international law is to 
vcnt war. The distinctive features of 



Fermented Banko and Adhesive Collections 
F1øcal Y....... Spirlta. Tobacco. Liquon. Banke... Miscellaneou.. Stamp.. Under Repe"led 
1880. . . .. ... . . . ... $61,185,509 $38,870,149 $12,829,803 $3,350,985 $383,765 $7,668,394 
lötil. . . .. .. . . .. .. . 67,153,975 42,8M,\I!J1 13,700,241 3,762,208 231,078 7,924,708 $152,]63 
11'>8:!... -........._ 6\1,873,408 47,391,\189 16,153,920 5,253,458 1\19,8::10 7,570, lOll 78,559 
lIili,i. ...... ..... .. a,::Iü8,776 42,10,1,250 16,900,616 3,748,995 305,803 7,053,05::1 71,852 
ll:ib!. ... ........ . . 76,90;;,38;; 26,062,400 18,08!,954 ... . 289,144 .... 266,068 
ll:iö;;. . ... ." .... . . 67,511,2U\I 26 407 088 18,2::10,782 ... . 222,6lil ... . 49,::161 
181;1;. ....... ... .. . 69,U92,266 27; \!07;36a 19,676,731 ll14,422 .... 32,087 
18ö7. .. . .. .. . . . .. . 66,766,076 30,083,710 21,918,213 4,288 219,058 ... . 29,283 
l!;1:j8............. . 69,287,431 30,636,076 2::1,324,218 4,203 154,970 ... . 9,548 
b\l............. . 7,1,302,887 31,862,195 23,723,8::15 6,17\1 83,893 ... . ... . 
'O...... ........ 81,682,970 ::13,94\1,998 26 008 535 69 135,655 ... . ... . 
18!Il. . .. . . . . . . . ... 83,335,\164 32,796,271 28;566:130 ... . 256,214 ... . ... . 
18!!2. ...... .... ... 91,309,984- 31,000,493 30,037,453 ... . 239,532 ... . ... . 
3.... .......... \14,712,938 31,H4.3,556 32,627,424 ... . 166,915 ... . ... . 
18\1!............. . 85,259,252 28,617,899 :n, 41" 788 2 1,876,509 ... . ... . 
18\15............. . 79,862,627 29,707,908 31,640,618 1,960,794 ... . ... . 
1896. . .. . .. . .. . .. . 80,670,071 30,711,629 33, 7H4., 235 135 1,664,545 ... . .. .. 
1897. ... .... .. . .. . 82,008,543 30,710,2\17 32,472,162 85 1,426,606 ... . 
1898............. . 9:!,647,OOO 36 230 522 39,515,421 1,180 2,572,696 794,418 ... . 
18\J9............. . 99,283,534 62;493:208 68,644,558 9,225,453 4-'3,837,819 ... . 
100..... ......... 109,868,817 6\1,::155,084- 73,66O,7M 1,461 n,ó75,626 40,964,365 ... . 
1903............ .. l:!L 953,472 43.514.,810 47,54.7,856 P.99 6.f!27,303 .... . ... 

Of the receipts in 1900 classed as" Miscellaneous," $2,884.492 was from legacies: $4,615,641 from special taxes 
on bankers, billiard-rooms, brokers, and exhibitions; and $1,079,405 from excise tax on gross receipts, under the 
War \{c\'enue law of 18H8 ; $2,543,785 from oleomargarine i $3:U,Oll from playing cards j $193,721 from penal tics i 
and $17,OÔ4 from filled cheese. 

intcrnational law may be summarized in See Bl1rIETALLlSM; EVARTS, WlLLL\
brief as follows: First, that every nation MAXWELL. 
pos,.;csses an exclusive sovereignty and International Order of the King's 
jurisdiction in its own territory; second, Daughters and Sons, a religious order 
that no State or nation can by its law di- consisting of small circles of men, women, 
redly affect or bind property out of its and children. It is non-sectarian, and 
own territory, or persons not resident its members may be found in nearly all 
therein, natural born subjects or others; churches and in nearly every country. It 
third, that whatever force the laws of was established in New York City in 1886 
one country have in another depends sole- by a circle of ten women. Its aim is to 
ly on the municipal laws of the latter. h('lp the needy and suffering, to consider 
There have been numerous congresses the poor, and to engage in all good works. 
of international law experts for the pur- 'the members wear a small silver badge in 
pose of simplifying and making more def- the shape of a cross, bearing the letters 
inite the obligations which one country I. H. N. on one side, and the date 18Sl. 
owes to another. and in these congresses on the other. In HJOO it was estimated 
the rnited States has occupied a con- that the society numbered more than 
f'picuous place. The Association for the 500,000 members. It ranks among the 
TIeform and Codification of the Law of strongest and most useful societies in the 
Nations held its first session in Brussels, world. The headquarters are at 156 :Fifth 
Oct." 10, 18i3, and subsequent ones were Avenue, New York. In 1900 the officers 
held in Geneva, The Hague, Bremen, were: President, Mrs. F. Bottome; vice- 
Antwerp, Frankfort, London, Bernë, president, Miss Kate Bond; general sec- 
Cologne, Turin, and l\Iilan. An Institute retary, Mrs. Mary L. Dickinson; treas- 
of International Law was organized in urer, Mrs. J. C. Davis; recording secre- 
Ghent in 1873, and has since held numer- tary, Mrs. Robert Sturgis; and correspond- 
ous ses!"ions in various cities of Europe, ing secretary, Mrs. Isabella Charles Davis. 
The most con<;picuous action of the nations Interoceanic Ship Canal. See NICA- 
concerning the abolition of international RAGUA CANAl.; PANA1\fA CANAL. 
hostilities was taken in the Peace Con- Intrepid, THE. The ketch Intrepid, 
ferencI' at The Hagne, in 1899, to which used in the destruction of the PHlLADEL- 
the L'nited States was also a party. See PillA (q. v.), had been converted into a 
CODES: FIELD. DA nD DUDLEY. floating mine for the purpose of destroy- 
International Monetary Conference. ing the piratical cruisers in the harbor 

company engaged in the perilous enter- 
pnse. The Intrepid entered the harbor 
at nine o'dock in the evening. The night 
was very dark. :Many 
ager eyes were 
turned towards the spot where her shad- 
owy form was last seen. Suddenly a 
fierce and lurid light streamed up from 
the dark waters like 
volcanic fires and il- 
luminated the sur- 
rounding objects with 
its lurid glare-rocks, 
flotilla, castle, town, 
and the broad bosom 
of the harbor. This 
was followed by an 
instant explosion, 
amI for a few mo- 
ments flaming masts 
and sails and fiery 
bomb - shells ra,ined 
upon the waters. 
when suddenly all was 
agilin dark. Anxious- 
ly the companions of 
the intrepid men 
- who went into t1H' 
lmrbor awaited their 
return. They new'I' 
came back. What 
was the cause of the 
premature explosion 
tha.t destroyed Yessels 
and men will never be 
known. The bel ief 
was that the ketch 
was captured hy the 
Tripolitans on the 
watch, and that Rom- 
f'rs, preferring death 
to miserable captiv- 
T, had himself ap- 
plied a lighted match 
to tile powder. A 
fine monument. erect- 
ed to the memory of 
the slain men and the 
event, formerly stood 
was towed into tile Jwrhor by two hoats. at the western front of the national 
the whole under the command of Captain Capitol, hut is now in front of the Naval 
Somers, attended by Lieuh.nant \\'ad:'!- Academy at 
worth, of the Constitution, and Mr. Israel, Inundations. For a long' period of 
an ardent young man who got on board time the principal inundations in the 
the Int1-epid by stealth. These, with a "Cnited States were caused bv the over- 
few men to work the torpedo-vessel, and flowing of the banks of the' Mississippi 
the crews of the boats, constituted the River. The record of tll('se disasters. al- 


of Tripoli. In a room below deck 100 
barrels of gunpowder were placed, and 
immediately above them a large quantity 
of shot, shell, and irregular pieces of 
iron were deposited. Combustibles were 
placed in other parts of the vessel. On 
the night of Sept. 3, 1804, the Intrepid 

't. ' 
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though not containin
 many individual 
cases, is a dip,tressing one because of the 
vast amount of property dl'stroyed and 
the large number of lives lost. The fol- 
lowing briefty f'Ulnmarizes the most nota- 
ble inundations in the United Rtate!": 
lS/6.-The White :Mountain region in 
New Hampshire was flooded by a deluge 
of rain after a drought of two years. 
Several valleys were completely under 
water, and large tracts of forests were 
torn from the ground and washed down 
tlw mountain sidps. 
9, ]Iay Jlß.-A flood in New Orleans 
spread over 160 squares and submerged 
1,600 buildings. 
, Jlay 16.-The bursting of a reser- 
,'oir on l\Iill Riwr, nf'a l' Northampton. 
lss., causpd tllP destruction of sevpral 
vil1ages in the valley and the loss of 144 
187 i, .luly 2 i.-A waterspout burst in 
Eureka, Kev., and with the attendant 
heavy rains caused a 11.>ss of between twen- 
ty and thirty Jives. 
1874, J1tly 26.-An unw5Ual fall 

caused the overflow of the rivers in west- 
ern Pennsyh auia and the loss of 220 
li ves. 
1881, .JunG 1.
.-Disastrous floods be- 
gan in Iowa, Kansas. :Minnesota, and Mis- 
souri, lasting several da:ys, and causing 
the destruction of much property. 
188.2, Feb. 22.-The valleys of the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers were flooded, and 
the loss of life and propprty \-vas so great 
that the governor of :Missic,sippi made a 
public appeal for help. 
1883, February.-Portions of Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, and Kentucky were visited by 
a disastrous flood. whid] was most severe 
at Cincinnati, lasting several days. 
. Fcbruary.-The Ohio River over- 
flowed its banks, causing the loss of fif- 
teen lives and rendering 5,000 people 
1886, .Jan. 5.-Pennsylvania, New York, 
and several of the New "England States 
were visited by floods. and great damage 
was done to property. 
1886, Aug. 20.-A storm in Tpxas was 
of rain followed by a flood, which was particular- 


ly disastrous in Galveston, where twenty- flood ensued, causing the loss of man:y li,'cs 
eight lives were lost and property dam- and the destruction of a large amount of 
aged to the extent of more than $5,000,- property. The consequent distress was 
000. such that Governor White appealed to the 
1889, May 31.-The rising of the Cone- citizens of the State for relief for the 
maugh River, in Pennsylvania, under in- sufferers. 
cessant rain, caused the breaking of the Investigating Committees. The first 
dam about 18 miles above J9hnstown. The investigating committee appointed by 
great mass of water rushed down to the Congress was in the case of the defcat of 
cit:r in beven minutes, and at the Pennsyl- GEN. ARTHUR ST. CLAIR (q. v.). It was 
vania Railroad bridge, near the city, it a special committee, empowered to send 
became dammed up, greatly increasing the for persons and papers. Their can upon 
loss of life and collecting a large mass of the War Department for all papers relating 
Ù('bris, which afterwards took fire and to the affair first l'aised the question of 
added further to the destruction. Official the extent of the authority of the House 
reports after the disaster pl:1ced the total in such matters. The cabinet unanimous- 
number of lives lost at i,l42, and the Iy agreed that the House had no power 
value of property destroyed at $9,674,105. to call on the head of any departmpnt for 
Nearly $3,000,000 was raised for the re- any public paper except through the Presi- 
lief of the sufferers, contributions being dent, in whose discretion it rested to fur- 
sent from nearly e\"Cry State and large nish such papers as the public good might 
city in the Unitpd States, and from sev- seem to require and admit, and tllat all 
eral cities in Europe. In the distribution such calls must be made by a special 
of the relief, the sum of $1,500 was given resolution of the House, the power to 
to each of 124 women made widows, and make them being an authority which 
$30 annually till they should reach the could not be delegated to any committee. 
age of sixteen was assigned to each of This decision of the cabinet estah- 
!)û3 children made orphans or Im1f- lished the method eyer since practispd 
orphans. of calling upon the President for public 
18!JO, !lIm'ch and April.-The levees of papers. 
tile :Mississippi River gave way in many Iowa was originally a part of the vast 
places anù the waters flooded large areas Territory of Louisiana, ceded to the Pnited 
of land in Mississippi and Louisiana. The States in 1803. The first settlemp
t by 
worst crevasse was caused by the giving J<:uropeans was made by Julian Du Bllque, 
way of the l\Iorgansea, near Bayou Sara, who, in 1788, obtained a grant of a large 
,...hich llad been built by the federal and tract, including the site of the city of 
State governments at a cost of about Dubuque and the mineral lands around 
$250,000. it, There he built a fort. and manufact- 
19()(), Sept. 6-9.-A tropical hurricane nred lead and traded with Indians until 
visiting the Southern coast spent its fury his death. in 1810. The Territory was 
at and near Galveston, Tex., on Sept. 9. placed under the jurisdiction of :Michigan 
T]lf' loss of life and property here was the in 1834, and in 1836 under that of \Yis- 
largest ever reportcd in the history of the consin. It was erected into a separate 
United States from this cause, the loss Territory June 12, 1838. and ineIudpd fill 
of life being officially estimated at about the country north of 
Iissollri between the 
7.000. and the yalue of property destroyed J\Iississippi and the Missouri and the 

30.000,000. The latter included British line. This comprised a grf'ater 
the United States military post. The re- part of Minnesota and the whole of tlw 
lief contributions from various sources in present Dakotas. with an area of fl4.000 
the Unitf'd States anù Europe amounted f'quare milp!,;. The goyernment was f'o;;:tah- 
to oyer $1,500,000. Iished at Iowa (,it
.. in IR3f1. In 1 R-1--1- :1. 
J!/()l, .June 22.-A clouùburst occurred State constitution was formed, hut an ap- 
neaI' tile headwaters of the Elkhorn and plication for admission into tlw {Tnioll 
Dry Fork rivers, whose confluence form was dpnipd. The admission was ('fff'd('d 
the main Tug River in the Flat Top coal Dec. 28. 1846. and in 1857 the capital was 
rcgion of West Virginia. A disastrous established at Des "Moinps. This State, 


lying westward of the .Mississippi River, 
with a population of nearly 700,000 and a 
loyal governor (Samuel J. Kirkwood) , 
was quick to perceive the needs of the na- 
tional government in its struggle with its 
enemies, and was lavish in its aid. \Vhen 
the President called for troops (April, 
ISm) the governor said, "In this emer- 
gency Iowa must not and does not occupy 


a doubtful position. For the Union as 
our fathers formed it, and for the govern- 
ment they framed so wisely and so weIl, 
the people of Iowa are ready to pledge 
every fighting-man in the State and every 
doUar of her monev and credit." That 
pledge was redeemed by sending over 75,- 
000 men to the front. The present con- 
stitution of Iowa was framed by a con- 
vention at Iowa City early in 1857, and 
was ratified Aug. 3. The clause confining 
the privilege of the elective franchise to 
wllite citizens was stricken out by act of 
the legislature, and was ratified by the 
people in 18G8. 
In 1903 Iowa ranked as the second corn- 
producing State in the country, with an 
output of 22D,21S,220 bushels, valued at 
$87,102,924; the second in hay; and the 
second in oats. The equalized valuation 
of all taxable property was $G37,937,386; 
and the State had no bonded debt. In 
1!)00 the State had 14,819 manufacturing 
establishments, with $102,733,103 capital; 
58,533 wage-earners; paying $23,931,G80 
for wages, $101,1;0.337 for materials, 
products valued at $lG4,617,877. 

The population in 1800 was 1,!H 1,89G; 
in 1900, 2,231,853. See U. S., IOWA, vol. ix. 
Robert Lucas...... . assumes office..... _ _. ..July, 1838 
John Chambers....." "............... 1!'41 
James Clark...... .." .... . .. .. .. .. .... 1t>45 


Ansel Briggs...... ..assumes office............... 18-iß 
Stephen Hempstead." ............ .Dec., 18;;0 
James W. Grimes... .. 1854 
Ralph P. Lowe...... . .. . . .. .. .. 113:;8 
Samuel J. Kirkwood " ...........Jan., 18GO 
William 1.r. Stone... . .. _ .. .. ..." ISM 
Samuel Merrill...... .......... 1!-'liS 
C. C. Carpenter..... ... '.' .. . .. 1872 
SamuelJ. Kirkwood_ ........... 1876 
Joshua G. Newbold.acting..... ....... ....... " 



es office...... -.... 
William Larrabee... 
Frank D. Jackson... U 
Francis M. Drake.... " 
Leslie M. Shaw...... II 
Albert B. Cummins.. 


" 1894 
.. 1896 


Name. No. of Congre...1 Date. 
Augustus C. Dodge..... 30Lh to :-!3d 1
48 to 11'.35 
George W. Jones........ 30th .. 3tith ]848 .. ]R59 
James Harlan........... 34th .. 3Hth 18;';:> .. IH(;;; 
James W. Grimes.. .... . _ 36th " 40th IH59 .. IHli9 
Samuel J. Kirkwood..... :-19th 181i5 c. IHli7 
James Harlan........... 40th to 43d 18m .. 1873 
James ß. Howell...... .. 41st 181;9 .. uríl 
George G. Wright........ 42d to 44th lR71 .. 18í7 
William B. Allison....... 4:id - 187a .. - 
Samuel J. Kirkwood..... 45th to 46th 1877 .. lRR1 
James W. McDill........ 4íth 18Sl " I!-'S3 
James F. Wilson........ 4Hth to 54th 1883 .. lli95 
John H.Gear............ 53d .. 56th 1895 .. 1900 
Jonathan P. Dolliver..... 56th " - 1900 " - 

Iredell, JA?ms, jurist; born in Lewes, 
England, Oct. 5, 1750; emigrated to North 
Carolina in 1767; admitted to the bar in 
1775; was elected judge of the Superior 
Court in 1777; appointed attorney-general 
in 1779; and judge of the Supreme Court 
in 1790. He died in Edenton, N. C., Oct. 
20, 1799. 
Iredell, JAMES, lawyer; born in Eùen- 
ton, N. C., Nov. 2, 1788; son of James Ire- 
deU; graduated at Princeton College in 
1806; served in the 'Val' of 1812; aided 
in the defence of Craney Island; elected 
governor of North Carolina in 1827, and 
served out an unexpired term in the 
United States Senate in 1828-31. His 
publications include a Treatise on the Law 
of Executors and Administrators J' and a 
Digest of all the Reported Oases in the 
Courts of North Oarolina, 1778 to 181,5. 
lIe died in Edenton, N. C., April 13, 


Ireland. The bold stand taken by the n resolution \vhich made the country 
Americims early in 177.3 made the British virtually flee. 
ministry afraid of like movements in Ireland, which had been more oppressed 
Ireland, where the Protestant minority by British rule than the American colo- 
had hitherto been employed to keep the nies, had, at the beginning of the contest 
majority, who were Uoman Catholics, in between the latter and Great Britain, 
subjection. That majority, amounting to shown peculiar subservienc
' to its polit
!'eH'n-eightl)s of the entire population, ical master. \Vhen news of the affairs 
'\"<'re not only depriW'd of all political at Le-xington and Bunker Hill reaclwd 
privileges, but were subjected to a great that country, the Irish Parliament voted 
llJany rigorous and cruel restraints, de- fllat they "heard of the rebellion with 
signed to keep them ignorant, poor, and abhorrence, and were ready to show to 
helpless. Even the Protestants in Ireland the world their attachnwnt to the sacred 
were not allowed an equality with their person of the King." Taking advantage 
fellow-subjects in England. Their Parlia- of this e-xpressed lo
'alty, Lord North 
ment did not possess the l'ights enjoyed obtained leave to send 4,000 able-bodied 
Ly the American colonial as!'>emblies; and men to America as a part of the British 
Ireland, in matters of trade, was treated army. The strongest and best of the Irish 
very much like a foreign country. The army were selected, and eight regiments 
idea of political liberty aroused in the were shipped for America. This left Ire- 
colonies was already sowing the seeds of land almost defenceless. Its Parliament 
revolution in Ireland, and it was jmlgeJ offered to organize a national militia, 
expedient to conciliate the Iris}) by just which Lord North refused to accept, and, 
legislation that should relax the harsh instead of a militia, organized anù con- 
commercial restrictions. This, however, trolled by the British government, self- 
was done so sparingly that it fell far formed bands of volunteers sprang up 
Ahort of accomplishing permanent good. all over Ireland. North saw his blunder, 
Indeed, it was regarded as a delusive, and had a militia bill enacted. But it 
temporizing policy, and the attitude of was too late; the Irish Parliament pre- 
the Irish people, encouraged by that of ferred the volunteers, supported by the 
the Americans, even became more threat- Irish themselves. :Meanwhile the eloquent, 
ening than ever. The Catholic Relief Bill patriotic, and incorruptible Hemy Grat- 
of 1778 had made the Irish, for the first tan had become a member of the Irish Par- 
time in their history, one people; "all liament, and he was principally the agent 
8ect8, all ranks, all races-the nobleman that kindled the fire of patriotic zeal in 
and the merchant, the Catholic and the Ireland that was burning so brightly in 
Protestant, the Churchman and the Dis- America. In H7D, though only thirty- 
senter, he who hoasted of his pure native three years of age, he led the Irish Parlia- 
lineage and he who was as proud of the ment in demanding reforms. He moved an 
Saxon or Norman blood that flowed in amendment to the address to the King 
his veins-rushed together to the vindi- that the nation could be saved only by 
cation of the liberties of their common free-trade, and it was adopted by unani- 
country;" and, at the beginning of the mous vote. New taxes were refused. The 
year, behe]d them embodied to the num- ordinary supplies usually granted for two 
bel' of 80,000 volunteers. The British years were granted for six months. 
government dared not refu
e the arms Throughout the little kingdom an inex- 
which they demanded to repel a threat- tinguishablc sentiment of nationality was 
ened invasion from France. The fiery aroused. Alarmed hy the threatening at- 
Grattan was then leader in the Irish titude, the British l">arliament, in 1781, 
I)arliament. "I never will be satisfied," conceded to the dependent kingdom its 
he exclaimed in debate, "so long as the cJaims to commercial equality. 
mE-anest cottager in Ireland has a link The volunteer army of Ireland, com- 
of the British chain clanking to his rags: mantled by officers of tJleir own choice. 
he may be naked-he shall not be in flmounted <to about 50,000 at the close of 
irons." The I rish Parliament acted in the war with .1\merica ( 17R2). They 
accordance with this spirit, and adopte(l were united under one general-in-chief. 

Feeling strong in the right and in its ma- 
terial and moral vitality at the moment, 
aud encouraged by the success of the 
Americans, Ireland demanded reforms for 
herself. The viceroy reported that unless 
it was determined that the knot which 
bound the two countries should be severed 
forever, the points required by the Irish 
Parliamcnt must be conceded. It was a 
critical moment. Eden, who was secre- 
tary for Ireland, proposcd the repeal of 
the act of George I. which asserted the 
right of the Parliament of Great Britain 
to make laws to bind the people and the 
kingdom of Ireland-the right claimed for 
Parliament which drove the Americans to 
war-and the Rockingham ministry adopt- 
ed and carried the important nwasure. 
A ppeals from the courts of Ireland to the 
TIritish House of Peers were abolished; 
the restmints on independent legislation 
were done away with, and Ireland, still 
owing a1Jegiance to Great Britain, ob- 
tained the independence of its Parliament. 
This was the fruit of the war for inde- 
pendence in America. The people of Ire- 
land owed the vindication of their rights 
to the patriots of the United States; but 
their gratitude took the direction of their 
complained-of oppressor, and their legis- 
lature voted $300,000 for the levy of 20,000 - _ :)

seamen to strengthen the royal navy, - 
whose ships had not yet been withdrawn 
from American waters, and which, with 
an army, were still menacing the liberties 
of the Americans. 
Ireland, JOlIN, clergyman; born in 
TIurnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ireland, 
Sppt. 11, 11-338. When nine years old lIe 
came to the United States and received 
a primary education in the Catholic 
schools of St. Paul, Minn. In 1853 he 
\\,pnt to France and took a preparatory University of America. In 18!)1 a mpl11- 
course in the l\:leximieux Reminary, after orable controversy arose over the action 
which he received Ids theological train- of a Roman Catholic priest in Faribault. 
ing in the seminary of Hyères. On Dec. Minn., in transferring the parochial school 
21, 18ûl, he was ordained a priest, and to the control of the public school board. 
for a whi1e súlTed in the CiYil 'Va.r as The transfer and the conditions were ap- 
chaplain of the 5th Minnesota Regiment. proved by Archbishop Ireland. and the 
Later he was made rector of the St. Paul experiment became known as the" Fad- 
Cathedral. In 1870-71 he represented bauIt Plan." The conditions in brief were 
Bishop Grace of St. Paul in the Vatican that the city should bear all the e),.p('nsps 
Council in Rome. Subsequently the Pope of the school; that the text-hooks and 
named him BiRhop of Maronea and coad- gpneral managem('nt should be the same 
jutor to Rishop Gmce, and he was con- as in the public schools; that the pripst 
!';('('rated Dec. 21, 1875. He succeeded to shou1cl havc the right of nominatin
V.-E Qr, 


the see of St. Paul on July 31, 1884, and 
was made archbishop on May 15, 1888. 
From early youth he was a strong advo- 
cate of temperance. In 18û9 he estab- 
lished the first total abstinence society in 
Minnesota. He also became active in col- 
onizing the Northwest with Roman Catho- 
lics. In 1887 he went to Rome with Bish- 
op Keane, of Richmond, for the purpose of 
placing before the Pope the need of a 
Roman Catholic University at Washing- 
ton, D. C., which has since been estab- 
lished under tile name of the Catholic 


I " 

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teac11ers for the school of llis own religious 
denomination, who would be subject to 
the required examination; and that no 
religious exercises, instruction, nor em- 
blems should be permitted in the school. 
This plan was also adopted in Stillwater, 
Minn. Soon, however, bishops in other 
parts of the country, who disapproved of 
tll(' scheme, complained at Rome that 
Archbishop Ireland was disregarding the 
ecclesiastical la w as expressed by the 
plenary councils of Baltimore. Archbishop 
Corrigan, of New York, was one of the 
leaders of this opposition. Archbishop 
Ireland was summoned to Rome, and 
after a long examination of the plan it 
was approved by the Congregation of 
the Propaganda in its decree of April 
30, 1892. 
Lafayette and Am('rica.-On July 4, 
1000, a statue of Lafayette, the cost of 
which had been raised by the school chil- 
dren of the United States, was unv('iled 
in Paris and formany present('d to the 
French people. Archbishop Ireland was 
selected to deliver the oration on the occa- 
sion, and on being informed of this Presi- 
dent McKinley addressed him the follow- 
ing letter: 

""-ASHINGTON, June 11. 
"DEAR SIR.--Wlthin & few (lays I JJave ap- 
proved a resolution of Congl'ess which voices 
in fitting terms the profound sympathy with 
which our people regard the presentation to 
France bv the vouth of America of a statue 
of Generàl Lafàyette. It has given me much 
pleasure to learn that you have been selected 
to deliver the address on thIs most interest- 
Ing occasion. 
"No more emInent representative of Amer- 
ICRn eloquence and patriotism could have been 
chosen, and none who could better give ap- 
propriate exprpssion to the sentiments of 
gratitude and affection which bind our peo- 
ple to France. 
"I will be grateful if 
'ou will say how 
we honor in our national capital the statue 
of Lafayette erected by the French people. 
and convey my hope that the presentation of 
a slmBar memorial of that knightly soldier, 
whom both republics are proud to claim, may 
serve as a new link of friendshIp between the 
two countries, and a new incentive to gener- 
ous rIvalry in striving for the good of man- 
kind. Very sincerely yours, 
"Most Rev. John Ireland, Archblsbop of St. 
Paul, St. Paul, Minn." 

The fonowing is tIle principal part of 
the oration: 

To-day a nation speaks her gratitude 
to a nation; America proclaims her )'e- 
membrance of priceleF-s favors conferred 
upon her by France. \Ve speak to France 
in the name of America, under commis- 
sion from her chief magistråte, \ViUiam 
McKinley, from her Senate and House 
of Representatives, from her youths who 
throng her schools, and from the tens 
of millions of her people who rejoice in the 
rich inheritance won in years past by the 
allied armies of France and America. 
We are bidden by America to give in the 
}learing of the world testimony of her 
gratitude to France. 
Once weak and poor, in sore need of 
sympathy and Ruccor, to-day the peer of 
the mightiest, self-sufficing, asking for 
naught save the respect and fripndship 
to which her merits may entitle her, the 
republic of the United States of America 
holds in loving remembrance the nation 
from which in the da
-s of her dire ne- 
cessity there came to her powerful and 
chivalrous support. Noble men and noble 
nations forgi,'e injuries; they never for- 
get favor!';. 
There is a land which is above all other 
lands the land of chivalry, of noble im- 
pulse and generous sacrifice, the land of 
devotion to idNilF-. At the call of a high- 
lhnn principlp her sons. with souls at- 
tuned by nature to the harmonies of the 
truE' and the beautiful. leap instinctive- 
ly into the arena, resoh'('d at any cost 
to render such principle a rf'al,ity 'in the 
life-current of humanity. The pages of 
its history are glistening with the names 
of heroes and martyrs, of knightly sol- 
diers and saintJy missionaries. It is of 
I"rance I speak. 
At the close of the last century France 
was, more than ever, ready to hearken 
to an appeal made in the name of }m- 
lì1an rights. The spirit of liberty was 
hovpring over the land, ne"er again to 
depart from it, even if for a time baf- 
fled in its aspirations by the excesses of 
friends or the oppression of foes. To 
Ji'rance America turned and spoke her 
hopes and fears; ller mpssengers plead- 
ed her cause in Paris; quick and generous 
was the response which France gave to 
t he appeal. 
Gilbert du Motier, l\IarquiR de Lafay- 
ette! Oh, that words of mine could ex- 


press the full burning love which our soul an American, as proud of America 
evolutionary sires did bear to this il- as the proudest of her patriots, the 
trious son of old Auvergne! Oh, that champion before all contestants of her 
I could pronounce his name with the rev- honor and her fair name. .More cheerfully 
erence with which my countrymen across even than his American companions in 
the sea wish me to pronounce it before arms he bore the terrible hardships of the 
the people of France! In America two war; again and again he pledged his per- 
names are the idols of our national wor- sonal fortune to buy food and clothing for 
ship, the burden of fireside tale, the in- his men, who knew him by the familiar 
spiration of the poet's song, the theme appellation of " The l\Iarquis, the soldiers' 
of the orator's discourse: the name of him friend." In camp and in battle his in- 
who was the Father of his Country- fluence was boundl('ss; a word of cheer 
G-eorge \Vashillgtoll; aUlI the name of him trom his lips rouspd the drooping spirits 
who was the true and trusty friend of of his soldiers; a word of comman<<l 8('nt 
"'a<;hington, {;ilhert tIu Moticr, Marquis them headlong against the enemy. A 
de Lrlfayette. visitor to the 
\merican camp, the Mat'qnis 
flb-rlnge were it" if America did not de Chastellux, could not help remarking 
cherish the name of Lafayette. He loved that Lafayette was never spoken of with- 
Ameriea. "From the moment that I out manifest tokens of attachment and 
heard the name of America," said he, affection. 
" I loved her; from the moment I learned But much as Lafayette deserves and re- 
of hpr struggles for liberty, I was inflamed ceives our Ion and honor in return for 
with the desire of shedding my blood for ris personal services in the cause of Amer- 
her." He understood, aboye most men of ica. his chief title to the gratitude of our 
his time, the full significance of America's people is that his heroic figure ever looms 
contest. "Neyer," said he, "had so noble up before their entranced fancy as the 
a purpose offered itself to the judgment of s)'mbol of the magnanimity which France 
men; it was the last struggle for liberty, as a nation displayed towards our country 
and its dpfeat would have left freedom in her laborious struggle for life and lib- 
without a home and without hopes." His erty. The value of the aid given to us 
devotion to America was as unselfish as by France in our war for independence is 
it was intense. "I offer myself," he inestimable. The joy which the memory 
wrote, "to serve the Cnited States with of it awakens in our souls is that which 
all possible zeal without pension or allow- comes to us through the consciousness of 
ance." our national life itself. France stood 
\Vealth and rank, the fa,Tors of court first sponsor for our nationhood. \Ve 
and king, high distinction in the service entered into the great family of nations 
of his 0\\11 country, the endearments of If'aning on her arm, radiaTlt with the l'e- 
wife and chi1d-all that ambition could fiection of her histrionic splendor, and 
covet or opportunity promise, the youth strong in the protection of her titanic 
of nineteen Sllmmers put resolutely aside btature. 'Yhen Fmnklin stood in the 
to cast his lot with a far-off people bat- palace of Versailles, the acknowledged en- 
tIing against fearful odds-and that at a ,"oy of America, and Gerard de Rayneval, 
moment when their fortunes were at their as the minister of France, saluted the 
lowest ebb, and hope had wellnigh aban- Congress of America at Philadelphia, the 
doned their standard. When the agent of young republic thrilled with new life and 
America in France sadly confessed that leaped at once into a full sense of security 
lie was eyen unahle to f
Hnish a ship to and a true consciousness of her dignity. 
cany him and other volunteers, Lafayette Let historians relate as they will that 
said: "I will buy a ship and take your the King and minister of France saw in 
men with me." the re"o1t of the American colonies, and 
By his magnanimity of Roul, and by his in the a!'<sistance that might be given 
grace of manner. not less than by his mili- them. an opportunity for France to 
tary prowess. he won all hearts and be- avenge the humiliation of the treaty of 
came the idol of the American army. He 1 iG3. It is not for us to demand that 
proved himself to the inmost fibre of his statesmen become for our sake oblivious 


of the interests of their own country. a well-ordered State, nor that without it 
\Vhat Ameriea knows, what she will never the rights of the pcople cannot be safe- 
fail to know, is that King and ministers guarded, nor that it is the best and proper 
üf France gave us the aid through which policy for every }Jeople. The form of a 
we won our independence, that they gave government is a questi
n that must rest 
it to us in warmest friendliness and with with the people of each nation, to be de- 
most chivalrous generosity, and that in termined solely by them according to their 
giving to us such aid they were applauded spccial needs and their dispositions of 
by the noble-hearted people of France, who character. It is, nevertheless, true that 
lovcd America, and encouraged the alli- the republican form of government is of 
ance of their country with her, because itself peculiarly e),.prø;::;ive of the limita- 
of the great principles which were linked tions and responsibilities of power, aIllI 
with the triumph or the defeat of the new consequently the founding of a republic 
republic of the \Vest. such as that of the Unitcd States was a 
The war of America was waged for a momentous event for liberty throughout 
mighty principle of deepeHt import to the the entire world. In every commonwealth 
welfare of humanity. It rose thereby im- the people's sense of their rights and 
mensely above other wars in solemn grand- power was quickened, and there sprang 
eur of meaning. The principle at stake up in the consciences of the rulers of na- 
was that of civil and political liberty, the tions a new conception of thpir responsi- 
triumph of which in America would be bilities towards the people. Whatever to- 
the presage of its triumph in the world. day in any country the particular form of 
It was this principle that shecl singular government, democracy is there in some 
glory upon the battle-fields of America. degree; and it is there because of its 
America rose in rebellion against arbi- plenary triumph in America, whence went 
trary and absolute government; she un- forth the charmed spell that reached, were 
sheathed the sword in the name of the it but in weakened waves, the uttermost 
rights of man and of the citizen. bounds of civilized humanity. 
There is but one who in His own right The creation of the republic of the 
has power to rule over men-Almighty United States was the inauguration of a 
God-and from Him is derived whatever new era in the life of tIle human race- 
authority is exercised in human society. the era of the rights of manhood and of 
That authority is not, however, directly citizenship and of the rights of the peo- 
given to the one ðr the few; it is com- pIe. Such is the true meaning of the 
municated by him to the people to be American Hevolution, the full signifi- 
ex.ercised in the form which they chooF-e, cance of the work done in America by 
by those whom they designate. And the La.fayette and France. 
men in whom this authority is in\"Csted This is the age of the people. Every 
by delegations of the people are to use it decade wi11 mark an advance in the tri- 
not for the benefit of the one or the few, umphant march of democracy. Political 
but for the good of the people. All this mo\"Cments do not go backward: the peo- 
is the plain teaching of reason and re- pIe do not abandon, except under duress, 
ligion, and yet not seldom were such sim- and then only for a time, righÜ; of which 
pIe truths forgotten, not seldom in prac- they were once possessed, or thp power 
tiee was power held as if it belonged to \vhich they haw once wieldpd to maintain 
dynasties and classes, and e-xercispd as if and enlarge those rights. To seck for ar- 
" the human race lived for the few." The 
uments against democracy in its appar- 
rf'hellion of a people on so large a scale ent perils is a waste of time. The part 
as was the uprising of the American colo- of true statesmanship is to study the 
nies could not but challenge uniYersal at- perils such as they may be and take meas- 
tention. and the triumph of such a rebel- ures to avert them. The progress of de- 
lion could not hut stir other ppoples to a mocracy cannot be staypd. TIe who would 
sense of thpir rights and to a stern resolve rule must rule through the people. through 
to maintain them. the indh'idual men who constitute the 
It will not, assuredly, be said tha t the people. To obtain results in the civil and 
republican form of government is vital to political world he must go to the individ- 


ual, enlighten his mind, form his con- 
science and thus enlist his sympa thies and 
win his intelligent co-operation. He who 
does this will succeed; he who uses other 
methods will fail. The task for those who 
would rule men is made more difficult. 
The time is long gone by when men can 
be swaJ'ed by sword or proclamation. But 
manhood in men has meanwhile grown, 
and they who love manhood in men should 
Why should we be asked to regret the 
coming of democracy? \Yhat is it in its 
ultimate analysis but the practical asser- 
tion of the dignity of man, inde1ibly im- 
pressed upon him when he was fashioned 
to the image of the Creator? What is it 
but trust in the power of truth and right- 
eousness, and in the readiness of the hu- 
man soul to respond to such influences? 
The growth of mind and will in the in- 
dividual is what aU must hail who be- 
lieve in human progress, or in the 
strength of Christian civilization. And 
as mind and will grow in men, so grow in 
him the consciousness of his rights and 
power, and the resolve to uphold rights, 
to put power into act, and to resist all 
irrational or unnecessary restraint upon 
either rights or power-and tlms is be- 
gotten democracy. The new age has 
dawned for all humanity; but, where men 
ha ye the more quickly and the more thor- 
oughly understood their dignity, there its 
golden rays han risen higher above the 
l!orizon and shpd more richly their light 
upon lmman thought and action. 
Iron, "\IARTTx. labor leader; horn in 
Scotland, Oct. 7, 1832; emigrated to the 
rnited States in 1846; and later settled 
in Lexington, 1\10.; joined the Knights of 
Lahor and organized and led the famous 
1[issouri Pacific Railroad strike of lRRG. 
Hp dipd in Bunceville, Tex., Nov. 17. 1900. 
Iron and Steel. The remarkable ad- 
vance in material prosperity of the 
rnitpd States within a few vears is 
F:hown in most I'triking detail in' the pro- 
duction and manufactures of iron and 
steel. The calendar year 189!) was a Ð,30; and in 1903 it was 35,019,308 long 
record-breaker in the production of iron- tons. 
ore throng-llOut the world. In the rnited The amount of pig-iron manufactured 
States the total output was 2-UiR:J.17:-J in the United States in 1903 was 18,OO!),- 
long tons, an inerpase of 5.249,4:)7 long 252 long tons. In the fifteen years 188!)- 
tens over the aggregate of the preceding l!103 the total production of ore in the 
year. The nearest approach to the total 'Cnited States was 305,521,317 long tons, 

of the lJnited States in 1898 and 1899 
was the output of Great Britain in 1880, 
which reached 18,026,049 long tons. The 
output of the United States in 189!) aggre- 
gated in value $3-!,!)!)9,077. The chief 
ore-producing States were: Michigan, 9.- 
146,157 long tons; 1Iinnesota, 8,161,28!) 
long tons; Alabama, 2,662,943 long tons; 
and Pennsylvania, 1,009,327 long tons. 
Virginia and 'Vest Virginia combinpd 
ranked next with 986,476 long tons. The 
production in the calendar year 1902 was 
the largest in the history of the country, 
35,554,135 long tons, valued at $65,412,- 


Zone of' J 


Zone of' } 
and of'Carbon 





Black ---- 6"0 

Dull Red ---sso 


Red Hót --1200 

únRed -rÆQQ 

Bri"ghtRe. --17()() 

Bright Red --.-11/00 

VetyBr(9htRed .18$0 




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an average annual output of 20,368,088 of operating companies aggregated $1.45'>,- 
long tons. In the production of 1903 the 696,000. 
red hematite constituted the most promi- The steel industry also showed the 
nent general class of iroy.-ore, 
,.ielding rnited States to be at the head of all 
30,328,654 long tons, or 86.6 per cent. of other countries. The total output of the 
the total. Brown hematite yielded 3.080,- steel-producing countries from which re- 
399 long tons; magnetite, 575,422 long ports were available for H>OI was ap- 
tons; and carbonate, 34,833 long tons. proximately 27,240,000 long tons, divided 
Minnesota produced the largest amount among them as follows: -Cnited States, 
of red hematite, Alabama the largest of 13,474,000 tons; Germany, 6,3!)4.000; 
brown hematite, New Jersey the largest Great Britain, 4,904.000: France, 1,4
of magnetite, and Ohio the largest of 000; Belgium, 6.}3,OOO; Sweden, 269,000; 
carbonate. and Spain, 121,000. The output in the 
In 1890 the United States for the first United States included 8,713,302 long tons 
time gained the lead among the pig-iron of Bessemer steel and 4,656,309 long tons 
producing countries of the world, but lost of open-hearth steel. 
it to Great Britain in 1894. The follow- In the iron and steel trade with 
ing year, howenr, the United States foreign countries, in the twenty years 
ngain outranked Great Britain, and has preceding 1900, the position of the 
since kept ahead of that country. In United States was exactly renrsed; and 
1901 the five great pig-iron producers of within the last fin years of that period 
the world stood in the following order of the United States changed from an im- 
importance: United States. 15.878.000 porting to an e:xporting country. Iu 
long tons; Great Britain, 7.92\),000: Ger- lR80 five times as much in value of iron 
many, 7,867,000; Russia, 2,821,000; and and steel was imported into the United 
France, 2,389,000. It is also a matter of States as was exported therefrom. At 
I'ecord that in 1901 the United States pro- the ('lose of this period the country ex- 
duced over 33 per cent. of the total ore ported six times the value of its iron 
output of the world, or 28.88ï ,000 long and steel imports. These exports, in the 
tons out of an estimated total of 87,000,- fiscal year 1899-1900, aggregated $121,- 
000 long tons. It i!': further interesting to 858.3-tl, thus ranking next to bread- 
note that the capitalization of the groups stuffs, cotton. and provisions, the three 


higher in value. There were in the iron 
and steel exports twenty-one classes 
valued at from $1,000,000 to $9,000,000 
each. In the calendar year 1904 the ex- 
port trade in iron and steel manufactures 
aggregated $111,948,586. The marveUous 
development of the iron and steel trade 
above indicated contributed to make the 




.,'. .






.' ..... 




other articles entering the daily require- 
JTlents of man. 
If any further evidence was required 
to indicate the supremacy of the United 
States in the allied iron and steel in- 
dustries, the gigantic t!nited States Steel 
Corporation, organized in February, 1901, 
by a pooling of the interests of more than 

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Gnited States, in the opening of the a dozen great operating companies, known 
twentieth century, the world's greate
t on the "street" as the "billion-dollar 
producer of iron, steel. coal, copper, cot- steel combine," would probably be sufti- 
ton, breadstuffs, provi!'ions, and many cient to satisfy any doubt. Each of the 


corporations in the new concern was 
widely known for the large capital it 
commanded and the vast amount of work 
it had already accomplished, and the pos- 
sibilities open to consummation by a 
combination of these great concerns be- 
came a matter entirely beyond the range 
of human calculation. The leading figures 

000,000 in bonds, anù with a cash account 
of $200,000,000. 
Ironclad Oath. See OATHS. 
Ironsides, OLD. See CONSTITUTION. 
Iroquois Confederacy, TIlE, was 
originally composed of five related fami- 
lies or nations of Indians, in the present 
State of New York. These were called, 



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in this consolidation of extraordinary rcspectively, Mohawks, Oneidas, On on- 
interests were Andrew Carnegie, the dagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Traùition 
I'ittsburg iron and steel king, and J. says the confederacy was founded by Hia- 
Pierpont Morgan, the New York banker, watha, the incarnation of wisdom, at about 
who financiered the combination. The the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
combination began operations with a total He came from his celcstial home and dwelt 
capital of $1,1:>4,000,000, dividf'd into with the Onondagas, where he taught the 
$850,000,000 in capital stock, and $304,- related tribes the knowledge of good liv- 

ing. 1nerce warriors approached from the 
north, sla
'ing everything human in their 
path. Hiawatha advised a council. It 
was held on tIle bank 
of Onondaga Lake. 
of each nation were 
there. -ender his di- 
reetion a league was 
formed, and each can- 
ton was assigned its 
appropriate place in 
it. They gave it a 
namc s i g n i f Y i n g 
.. they form a cabill," 
and they fancifully 
called the league 
"The Long House." 
The eastel"n door was 
kept by the 1\1oha wks, 
and the western by 
the Senecas, and the 
council-fire was with 
the Onondagas, at 
their metropolis, a 
few miles south of 
the site of the city of 
Syracuse. By common 
conscnt, a chief of 
the Onondagas, called 
Atatarho, was made 
the first president of 
the league. The :Mo- 
hawks, on the east, 
were called "the 
door." The confeder- 
acy embmccd within 
its tcrritory the pres- 
ent State of Ncw 
York north and w('st 
of the Kaatzbcrgs and 
south of the Adirondack group of moun- 
tains. The several nations were subdi- 
vided into tribes, cadI having a heraldic 
insignia, or totem. Through the totemic 
system they maintained a tribal union, * Atatarho, the first president of the 
d I . d k if Iroquois Confederacy, Is represented by the 
an ex libIte a remar -able examp e 0 an Indians as living, at the tIme he was chosen, 
almost pure democracy in government. In grim seclusion in a swamp, where his 
Each canton or nation was a distinct dishes and drinking-vessels. like those of haIf- 
repuhlic, independent of all others in re- barbarIan Caucasians, were made of the 
skuHs of his enemies slain In battle. When a 
lation to its domestic affairs, but each deIeJ!atIon went to him to offer him the 
was bound to the others of the league by symbol of supreme power, they found him 
ties of honor and general interest. Each sitting smoking hIs pipe, but unapproachable, 
Imd an e q ual voice in the g eneral council because he was entirely clothed with hissing 
snakes. Here Is the old story of :\Iedusa s 
or congress, and possessed a sort of veto snaky tresses unveiled In the fQl'ests of tbe 
power, whieh was a guarantee against new-found world. 


dcspotism. After the Europeans camc, thc 
sachem, or civil hcad of a tribe, affixed 
his totem-such as the rude outlines of a 


wolf, a bear, a tortoise, or an eagle--to 
every public paper he was required to 
sign. It was like a monarch afJìxing his 


seal. Each of the original Five Nations 
,vas divided into three tribes, those of the 
Moha wks being designated as the Tortoise 
or Turtle, the Bear, and the 'Volf. These 
totems consisted of representations of 
those animals. These were sometimes ex- 
eeeding]y rude, but were sufficient to de; 
note the tribe of the signer; as, No.1, 
a ppended to the 
signature of Little 
Hendrick, a Mo- 
hawk chief, repre- 
sents his totem - a 
turtle; No.2, ap- 
pended to the signa- 
ture of Kanadagea, a chief of the Bear 
tribe, represents a bear lying on his 
hack; and No. 3 is the signature of 
Great Hendrick, of the Wolf tribe, the 
rude representation of that animal ap- 
pearing at the end of his signature. 
As each confederated union was di- 
,ided into tribes, there were thirty or 
forty sachems in the 
league. These had in- 
ferior officers under 
them, and the civil 
power was widely 
distributed. Office 
was the reward of 
me ri t a Ion e; mal- 
f('a!>ance in it brought dismissal and pub- 
lic scorn. All public services were com- 
pensated only by public esteem. The 
powers and duties of the president of 
the league were similar to those con- 
ferred and imposed upon the chief mag- 
istrate of our republic. He had a u- 
thority to assemble a congress of rep- 
resentatives; had a eabinet of six ad- 
visers, and in the council he was a 
moderator. There was no coercive 
power, excepting public opinion, 
lodged anywhere. The military dom- 
inated the civil power in the league. 
The chiefs derived their authority 
from the people, and they sometimes, 
like the Romans, deposed civil offi- 
cers. The army was composed wholly 
of volunteers, and conscription was im- them at war against the Canada Indians 
possible. E,'ery able-bodied man was from Lake Huron to the Gulf of St. 
bound to do military duty, and he who rem'p. He fought them on T
ake (,ham- 
shirked it incurred everlasting diggraee. plain in HìOB; and from that time until 
The ranks were always full. The re- the midd]c of that century their Wars 
eruiting-stations were the war-dancc!'I. ag-ain!'t tIle f'anada Indians and tllPir 
'Yhaten1" was done in dvil councils :French allies were fierce and di:;- 





. , 



was subjected to review by the soldiery, 
who had the right to call councils when 
they pleased, and approve or disapprove 
public measures. The matrons formed 
a third and powerful party in the legis- 
lahll'e of the league. They had a right 
to sit in the councils, and there exercise 
the veto power on the subject of a dec- 
laration of war, and to propose and 
demand a cessation of hostilities. They 
were pre-eminentJy peace-makers. It wa.s 
no reflection upon the courage of warriors 
if, at the call of the matrons, they with- 
drew from the war-path. These women 
wielded great influence in the councils, but 
they modestly delegated the duties of 
speech-making to some masculine orator. 
\Vith these Indians, woman was man's co- 
worker in legislation-a thing unheard of 
among civilized people. So much did the 
Iroquois reverence the" inalienable rights 
of man," that they never made slaves of 
their fe]]ow-mf:n, not even of captives 
taken in war. By unity they were made 
powerful; and to l}l.event degeneracy, 
members of a tribe were not allowed to 
intermarry with each other. 
Like the Romans, they caused their 
commonwealth to expand by annexation 
and conquest. Had they remained undis- 
covered by the Europeans a century longer 
the Confederacy might ha'-e embraced the 
whole continent, for the Five Kations had 
already extended their conquf'sts from 
the Great Lakes to the Gutf of Mexico, 
and were the terror of the other tribes 
east and west. For a long' time the 
French in Canada, who taught them the 
use of fire-arms. maintained a. doubtful 
struggle against them. Champlain found 




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tressing. They made friends of the oke and Ca pe Fear rivers, to the land of 
Dutch, from whom they obtained fire- their kindred. the Tuscaroras. So deter- 
arms; and they were alternately at mined were they to subdue the Southern 
war and peace with the Fl'ench for tribes that when, in li4-!, they ceded a 
about sixty years. The latter invaded the part. of their lands to Yirginia, they re- 
cantons o
 the league, especially after the served a perpetual privilege of a war-path 
FÍ\'e Nations became allied with the Eng- through the territory. 
!ish, who, as masters of Kew York, used A French invasion in lû93, and again in 
their dusky neighbors to carry out their 16Ð6, was disastrous to the league, which 
designs. The Iroquois, meanwhile, car- lost one-half of its warriors. Then they 
ried their conquests aJmost to Koya Sco- swept victoriously southward early in th"'e 
tia on the east, and far towards the eignteenth century, and took in their kin- 
::\Iississippi on the west, and subdued the dred, the Tuscaroras, in North Carolina, 
Susquehallnas in Pennsylvania. In 164D when the Confederacy became known as 
they subdued and dispersed the Wyandottes the Six Nations. In 1713 the French gave 
in the Huron country. Some of the fugi- up all claim to the Iroquois, and after 
ti\es took refuge among the Chippewas; that the Confederacy was generally neu- 
others fled to Quebec, and a few were in- traJ in the wars between France and Eng- 
corporated in the Iroquois Confederacy. land that extendpd to the American colo- 
The Wyandottes were not pORitively sub- nies. Under the influence of WilJiam 
dued, and chimed and exercised sover- Johnson, the English Indian agent. they 
eignty over the Ohio country down to the went against the French in 1755, and some 
close of the eighteenth century. Then the of them joined Pontiac in his conspiracy 
Five Nations made successful wars on in 1763. When the Re\-olution broke out. 
their eastern and western neighbors, and in 1775, the Iroquois, influenced by the 
in 1655 they penetrated to the Jand of the .Tohnson family, adhered to the crown. 
Catawbas and Cherokees. They conquered excepting the Oneidas. I...ed by Brant and 
the Miamis and Ottawas in 1657, and in sa\-a
e Tories. they desolated tIle ::\Iohawk, 
IjOI made incuTRions as far as the Roan- Cherry, and 'Vyoming vaIleys. The coun- 


try of the \Vestern Iroquois, in turn, was 
desolated by General Sullivan in 1779, and 
Brant retaliated fearfully on the frontier 
settlements. At the close of the war the 
hosti1e Iroquois, dreading the vengeance 
of the exasperated Amel"icans, took refuge 
in Canada, excepting the Oneidas and Tus- 
By treaties, all the ands of the Six 
Nations in New York passed into the pos- 
session of the white people, excepting some 
reservations on which their descendants 
still rcsid
. In the plenitude of their 

ished them in human form as fiercely as 
Henry VIIL, or the rulers and the Gospel 
ministers at Salem in later times. Their 
"medicine men" and \' prophets" were 
as expert deceivers as the priests, oracles, 
and jugglers of civilized men. They tor- 
hued their enemies in retaliation for kin- 
dred slain with almost as refined cruelty 
as did the ministers of the Holy Inquisi- 
tion the enemies of their opinions; and 
they lighted fires around their more emi- 
nent prisoners of war, in token of their 
power, as bright and hot as those kindled 

ATTACK OS A..... IROQUOIS FORT (From an old print). 

power the Confederacy numbered about by en1ightened Eng1ishnwn around .Joan 
1;'),000; they now number about 13,000, of Arc as a sorceress, or Bishops Latimcr 
distributed at various points in Canada and Rid]ey as be1ievers in what they 
and HIP United States. In 1899 there thought to be an absurdity. 
were 2,7G7 Senecas, 549 Onondagas, 161 Irrigation, artificial watering of land 
Cayugas, 270 Onf'idas, and 388 Tuscaroras in arid regions for the purpose of uti1iza- 
in New York Btate; 1,045 Oneidas in "Vis- tion. This subject has c1aimed much flt- 
consin; and 323 Ben(>cas in Indian Terri- tention in the Pnited States since lRno 
tory. I.ike the other Indians of the con- on the part of the general and State gov- 
tinent, the Troc]11ois wen' superstitious and ernments, of large corporations, and of 
cruel. Th(>y hdiewd in witcllf's ag firmly private individuals. AssoC'Íations de- 
as did Cotton Mather and his Puritan signed to promote investigations into the 
brethren in New England, and th(>y pun- water and forest resources of the country 


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have been formed in various localities. 
These bodies have raised large sums of 
money with which they have co-operated 
with various bureaus, chiefly the Geologi- 
cal Survey. The surprise is that there 
has not been much greater interest mani- 

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fested in this subject, since one-third of 
the Unih'd Statps territory is otIicially 
the great 
only the 

included in what is known as 
"arid region," which needs 
magic touch of 
water to change it 
into fertile fields. 
This vast area 
falls topographical- 
ly into the follow- 
ing divisions: 
l. The G rea t 
Plains, stretching 
from the 100th 
meridian west to 
the Hocky Moun- 
tains, a distance of 
230 miles, and hav- 
ing an ðtent of 
about 700 miles 
fwm Manitoba on 
the north to Texas 
on the south, 
2, A region be- 
ginning at the east- 
em foothills of the 
Roeky Mountains 


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and extending westwal'd to the foot of the 
Sierra Neyada )Iountains and the Cas- 
cade :Mountains in Oregon and Washing- 
ton. It comprises an immense territory, 






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Tn IÐOO these 
divisions taken as 
a whole contained 
a population of 
9;000,000 people, 
and over 50,000,- 
000 acres of land 
under some form 
of cultivation. 
About 9,000,000 
acres of this land 
have bf'en made 
available tIn'ollgh 
irrigation, by 
means of artesian 
wells in a few 
cases, but for the 
most part by the 
constI"uction of 
canals and ditches. 
At a number of 
irrigation con- 
gresses held in the West the national 
go\-ernment was strongly urged to under- 
take an active part in the reclamation of 
the large arid areas susceptible of a high 
state of agricultural development under 
such liberal conditions as the national 

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which includes the park system of the 
Rockies, culminating in \Vyoming, Colo- 
rado, New Mexico. and northeast Arizona. 
The section contains many mountain sys- 
tems, the Great Uasin of Salt Lakü-, the 
great cañon system and plateau of the 


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--::- ..... 

Colorado, the meadow-lands of 
Nevada, the northwest Columbia 
Basin, and the National Park. 
3. A region including about one- 
fourth of the territory of Cali- 
fornia, and divided into two parts 
-the foothilJs of the Sierras and 
the broad, level valley lying be- 
tween the Sierras and the Coast 




\ '.. 




It A' 
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gO\'enlluent alone could afford. The cen. was surgeon of a ship-of-war; came to 
sus of l!WO, among general irrigation sta- the "Cnited States after the peace of 
tistics of the L'nití'd f-;tates, reportí'd the 1703, and practised medicine at Carlisle, 
following: Number of irrigators, 108,
18; Pa. He was an acti\'e patriot, and raised 
acres irrigated, 7,5:
!),5-15; area in crops, and commanded the 6th Pennsylvania 
5.944,412 acres, and in pasture and un- Regiment in 1776; was captured in the 
matured crops, 1,595,133 acres; value of battle at Three Ri\"ers, Canada; ex- 
irrigated crops, $86,8GO,491; and cost of changed in ::May, 1778; served under 
irrigation systems, $07,i70,942. In 1902 Wayne, and in 1781 was stationed at Fort 
a bill was approved by the President, Fitt, charged with the defence of the 
June 17, providing for the appropria- Northwestern frontier. He was a mem- 
tion, as a special fund to be used in bel' of Congress in 1786-88, and took a 
the construction of irrigation works, of civil and military part in the task of 
all moneys received from the sale of public quelling the Whiskey Insurrection. He was 
lands in Adzona, California, Colorado, again a member of Congress in 1793-95. 
Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Xebraska, Xe- He died in Philadelphia, July 29, 180-1. 
vada, New )Iexico, Korth Dakota, Okla- Irving, SIR HENRY, actor; born in 
homa, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Keinton, near Glastonbury, England, Feb. 
'Yashington, and 'Yyoming, beginning 6, 1838. His real name was John Henry 
with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901. Brodribb, but he preferred the name of 
rnder this law the fund amounted in "Irving," and in 1887 was permitted by 
1!101 to $3,14-1,821, and in l!)O2 to $4.585,- royal license to continue the use of it. 
[,1(1. This total, $7,730,337, was appor- He was educated in a private school in 
tioned among the States and Territories London, and began his dramatic career 
in 1903 as follows: Arizona, !t81,773; in 1856, when he took the minor part of 
California, $.")03,270; Colorado, $G28.!)!)5; Orleans in Richelicu. In 18GG he estab- 
Idaho, $;'07,448; Kansas, $49,135; :Mon- Hshed his reputation as an actor of merit 
tana, $ii2,377; Kebraska, $235,194; Xe- at the St. James Theatre, in London, as 
vada, $23,414; New )Iexico, $1-1ï.237; Doricourt in The Belle's Stmtagem. In 
Xorth Dakota, $1,227,4!)G; Oklahoma, 1870 he appeared as Digby Grant in the 
$1,008,795; Oregon, $910.061; South Da- 'l'u;o Roses, which was played for 300 
kota, $307,5G2; Utah, $14G,824; Washing- nights; and in 1871, after playing the 
ton, $794,088; \Yyoming, $385,762. On part of :Mathias in The Bells at the 
June 30, 1904, the auditor of the Depart- J.Jyceum Theatre, he came to be regarded 
ment of the Interior reported that the ac- as the greatest actor in England. He as- 
cumulations of the reclamation fund then sumed the management of the Lyceum 
amounted to approximately $25.000,000. Theatre in 1878, and raised that house to 
Irvine, JA
IES, military oflìcer; born in an international reputation. In May, 
Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 4, 1735; took part 1881, he opened a memorable engagement 
in Colonel Bouquet's expedition as cap- with Edwin Booth, producing Othello, in 
tain in a Pennsylvania regiment. During which the two actors alternated the parts 
the Revolutionary 'Yar he was captain of Othello and lago. He has made sev- 
and later lieutenant-colonel of the 1st eral successful tours of the United States 
Pennsylvania; and was commissioned in company with Ellen Terry, on one of 
colonel of thE> 9th Pennsylvania Regiment, which (1884) he delivered an address on 
Oct. 25. 1776. He was taken prisoner The Art of A_cting before the students of 
during the action at Chestnut Hill, Dec. Harvard University. In a lecture on 
5. 1777, carried to New York, and remain- lmusements, before the Church of Eng- 
ed there till he was exchanged in 1781. land Temperance Society, he made a 
After the close of the war he was a mem- strong defence of the morality of the 
her of the General Assembly of Pennsyl- stage. He published Impressions of 
vania in 1785-8G, and of the State Senate America (1884). In 1895 he received the 
in 1795-99. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., honor of knighthood. 
April 28, 1819. Irving, WASHI:NOTON, author; born in 
Irvine, WILLIA
[, military officer; born New York City, April 3, 1783. His father 
in Fermanagh, Ireland, Nov. 3, 1741; was a Scotchman, his mother an English- 


1808, his Knickerbocker's History of Nc'lO 
l' ork. After editing a magazine during 
the War of 1812-15, he went to Europe, 
where he resided seventeen years; when, 
after the failure of a Ìllercantile house 
in New York with which he was connected, 
he was left to rely on his literary labors 
for support. He spent his time partly 
in England, France, Germany, and Spain, 
and published his Life of Columbus in 
1828, which was followed by the Con- 
quest of Gmnada and the Alhambm. 
From 1829 to 1831 he was secretary of 
the American legation in London, and re- 
ceived from George IV. the fifty-guinea 
gold medal awarded for eminence in his- 
torical composition. He returned to New 
York in 1832, and prepared and publiRhed 
several works; and from 1839 to 1841 
woman. He engaged in literature while contributed to the KnicT;crbocker Maga- 
yet a youth, and was in Europe for his zine. From 1842 to 18-HI he was minister 
health in 1804-00. In 1807 he published, to Spain, and on his return to New York 


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in C'onnection with his brother Peter and he published a revised edition of an his 
James K. Paulding, Salmagundi, and in works in 15 volumes, which had a 








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very large sale. His last wmk was a 
Life of 1Vashington, in .) volumes, com- 
pleted a few months before his death. 
Mr. Irving never married. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him 
by Harvard College, Oxford University, 
in England, and Columbia College, in New 
York. His remains rest near the sum- 
mit of a gentle slope in the cemetery at- 
tached to the ancient Dutch church at 
the entrance to "Sleepy Hollow," near 


built in lü69, and is the oldest church 
edifice in the State of New York. Over 
the Sleepy Hollow brook, near it, is the 
bridge where Brom Bones, the supposed 
"headless horseman," hurled the pump- 
kin at the frightened Ichabod, and drove 
him from the neighborhood and Ka- 
trina van Tassell forever. Mr. IrvinO' 
died in Irvington, N. Y., Nov. 28, 
Irwin, JARED, legislator; born in 









l\Iecklenburg county, N. c., in 1750; re- 
moved to Georgia, and served throughout 
the Revolutionary War; was a member of 
the State constitutional conventions of 
1789, 1795, and 1798; and was elected 
governor of the State in 1796 and 1806. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. They lie by the side He died in Union, Ga., Mal"ch 1, 1818. 
of those of his mother. In a row lie the Isabella, Queen of Castile and Leon; 
remains of his father, mother, brothers, born in Madrigal, Old C.lstile, April 23, 
and sisters. The old church, which he 1451; lived in retirement with her mother, 
made famous by the story of Ichabod a daughter of John II., of Portugal, until 
Crane (a leader in the psalm-singing there her twelfth year. At the age of eleven 
on Sundays) in his Legend of Sleepy Hol- years s}Je was betrothed to Carlos, brother 
low, remains the same as when it was of Ferdinand (whom she afterwards mar- 

-F 81 

young woman of spirit, she rejected them. 
Her half-brother Henry, on the throne, 
contracted a marriage for her, for state 
purposes, with the profligate Don Pedro 
Giron, grand-master of the Order of Cala- 
trava. "I -will plunge a dagger in Don 
]Jedro's heart," said the maiden, " before I 
will submit to tIle dishonor." The grand- 
master died as suddenly as Carlos, while 
on his way to the nuptials, probably from 
the effects of poison. Henry now made 
an arrangement by which Isabella was 
recognized as heir to Castile and Leon, 
with the rigl}t to choose her own husband, " I. 
subject to the King's approval. She chose 
Ferdinand, Prince of Aragon, who signed 
the marriage contract at Cervera, Jan. 7, .. ! 
1469, guaranteeing to his betrothed all 
t he essential rigl1ts of sovereignty in Cas- " ,', ,1 
tile and Leon. King Henry, offended be- 
ci1Use his sister would not marry the 
King of Portugal, sent a force to seize 
her person. She eseaped to Valladolid, 
whiUler Ferdinand hastened in disguise, 
and they were married, Oct. 19, 1469, 
in the cathedral there. Civil war ensued. 
The King died late in 1474, and Isabella 
was declared Queen of Castile and Leon; Aragon. The religious zeal of Isabella 
but her authority was not fully recog. was inflamed when Columbus, in his ap- 
nized until after a war with the King plication for aid, declared that one great 

rieù) , then forty-six years oW. His ùeath 
prevented the union. Other candidates 
for her hand were proposed, but, bemg a 

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of Portugal, who was affianced to .Juana, 
the rival of Isahella for the throne. After 
that her career wa:,; hrilliant. She ap- 
pea red in arms at t he head of her troOpR 
in her wars with the -;\Ioo.n;;. 
From a conviction that it was for the 
safety of the Roman Catholic religion, 
she reluctantly, it is said, gave her con- 
sent to the establishment of the Inquisi- 
tion; and for this act, and her fiery zeal 
for the Church, amounting at times to 
fanatical cruelty, she is known in history 
as Isabella, " the Catholic." Ferdinand 
was now King of Aragon, and their king- 
doms were united and formed a strong 
empire, and the consolidated Christian 
power of the Spanish peninsula was ef- 
fected. The two monarch!'; were one in 
love, respect, and interest. They ruled as 
separate sovereigns, each ha.ving an inde- 
pendent council, and sometimes holding 
their courts at points distant from each 
other at the same tinU'; but they were a 
unit in the general administration of the 
consolidated kingdoms, all acts of sover- 
eignty being executed in the name of 
both, all documents signed by both. and 
their profiles stamped together on the na- 
tional coins, while the royal seal ùis- 
'ed the united arms of Castile and 

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object of his ambition was to carry the sword of justice fall with equal severity. 
Gospel to the heathen of undiscovered Masculine in intellect, feminine in her 
lands. But publie 
ffairs at first so en- moral qualities, pious and loving, Isa- 
grossed the attention of the monarchs bella's virtues-as virtues were estimated 
that the suit of the navigator did not pre- then and there-made a favorite theme 
vail for a long time. Finally he was sum- for the praise of Spanish writers. In 
moncd before the monarchs, and pleaded person she was beautiful-well formed, 
his cause in person. The Queen's zeal was with clear complexion, light blue eyes, 
so increased that she resolved to give him and auburn hair. She had one son and 
aid. "Our treasury," said Ferdinand, four daughters. Her youngest daughter, 
.. has been too much drained by the war Catharine, became the wife of HenryVIII., 
to warrant us in the undertaking." The of England. See COLUMBUS, CHRISTO- 
Queen said, "I will undertake the enter- PHER. 
prise for my own crown of Castile; and, Island Number Ten. This island lips 
if necessarJ", will pledge my jewels for the in a sharp bend of the Mississippi River, 
money." Then she fitted out the expedi- about 40 miles below Columbus, and with- 
tion that sailed from Palos in the autumn in the limits of Kentucky. At the begin- 
of 1492. Afterwards she opposed the en- ning of the Civil 'Val' it was considered 
slaving of the natives of the western con- the key to the navigation of the lower 
tinent; and when Columbus sent a cargo Mississippi. To this island some of the 
of captives to Spain, she ordered them to troops and munitions of war were trans- 
be carried back to thcir own country. ferred when General Polk evacuated 
'Vith Cardinal Ximcnes she effected a Columbus, and an the troops there were 
radical reform in the Church, as she had in charge of Beauregard. On March 8, 
in the State; and criminals, high or low, 18ü2, he sent forth a proclamation in 
the clergy and common offenders, felt the which he called for bells with which to 


make cannon, and there was a liberal re- 
sponse. "In some cities," wrote a Con- 
federate soldier, "every church gave up 
its bells. Court-houses, public institu- 
tions, and plantations sent them. And 
the people furnished large quantities of 
old brass-andirons, candlesticks, gas- 
fixtures, and even door-knobs." These 
were all sent to New Orleans to be used 
in cannon foundrie8. There they were 
found by General Butler, sent to Boston, 
and sold at auction. Beauregard had 
thoroughly fortified the island, and, after 
the capture of New Madrid, it became 
an object of great interest to both par- 
ties, for it was besieged by the Nationals. 
}'or this purpose Commodore Foote left 
Cairo, March 14, 1862, with a powerful 
fleet of gun and mortar-boats. There 
were seven of the former iron-clad and 
one not armored, and ten of the latter. 
On the night of the 15th Foote was at 
Island Number Ten, and the next morn- 
ing (Sunday) he began the siege with a 
bombardment by the rifled cannon of his 
flag-ship, the Boston. This was followed 
by the mortar-boats, moored at proper 
points along the river shore, from which 
tons of iron were hurled upon the island 
and the batteries on the Kentucky bank 
opposite. All day long the artillery duel 
was kept up without much injury to 
either party. Mean\vhile a battery of 
lIIlinois artillery had becn landed on the 
Missouri shore, in a position to assail 
the Confederate flotilla near the island. 
The next day a tremendous attack on the 
Confederate works was made by a float- 
ing battery of ten guns, formed of three 

gunboats lashed together, side by side, 
followed by three others separately. The 
day's work was barren of any decisive re- 
sult. The island shores 'were lined with 




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batteries. So the siege went on, with 
varying fortunes, until the first week in 
April, when Beauregard telegraphed to 
Richmond that the "Federal guns" had 
"thrown 3,000 shells and burned 50 tons 
of gunpowder" without damaging his 
batteries or killing one of his men. 
The public began to be impatient; but 
victory was near. General Pope was 
chafing with impatience at New Madrid. 
He wished to cross the river to the 
peninsula and attack the island in the 
rear, a movement that would insure its 
capture. The opposite shore was lineù 
with Confederate batteries, and it would 
be madness to attempt a crossing until 
these were silenced. Gen. Schuyler Ham- 



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i1ton proposed the construction of a dangerous voyage. Perceiving the peril- 
canal across the neck of a swampy pen in- ous fate that awaited them after the 
su]a of sufficient capacity to allow the completion of the canal, thf Confederates 
passage of gunboats and transports, so as sank steamboats in the channel of the 
to effectually flank bland Number Ten and river to prevent the gunboats descend- 
insure its capture. It was undertaken ing it, and they unsuccessfully attempted 
under the supervision of Colonel Bissell, to escape from the island. After the 
and was successfully performed. In the Carondel('t had passed the batteries, 
mean time daring feats against the shure Beauregard was satisfied that the siege 
hatteries had been performed; and dur- must speedily end in disaster to his com- 
ing a terrible thunder-storm on the night mand; so, after turning over the com- 
of April 3, Captain Walke ran by the mand on the island to General McCall, 
Confederate batteries with the gunboat and leaving the troops on the Kentucky 
Carondelct, assailed by all of them, her and Tennessee shores in charge of Gen- 
position being revealed by the flashes of eral McCown, he, with a considerable 
lightning. It was the first vessel that number of his best soldiers, departed for 
ran by Confederate batteries on the Mis- Corinth to check a formidable movement 
sissippi Ri,.er. She had not fired a gun of National troops through middle Ten- 
during her passage, but the discharge of nessee towards Northern Alabama. 
three assured anxious Commodore Foote The vigorous operations of Pope after 
of the safety of the Carondelet after the he passed through the wonderful canal 


l.astened thf' CrISIS. l\1cCall and his 
troops, in their efforts to escape from 
the island, were intercepted by Pope's 
forces under Generals Stanley, Hamilton, 
and Paine; and -on April 8, 18G2, Isla.nd 

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Confederates which the:r neVf'r retrieved. 
It caused widespread alarm in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, for it appeared probable 
that Memphis, one of the strongholds of 
the Confederates, where th'ey had immense 
work-shops and armories, 
would soon share the fate 
of Columbus, and that Xa- 
tional gunboats would 
speedily patrol the great 
river from Cairo to New 
Orleans. Martial law was 
proclaimed at Memphis, 
and only by the wisllom 
and firmness of the nut
were the troops amI panic- 
stricken citizens prf'nnted 
from la
'ing the town in 
ashes. Preparations for 
flight were made at Yicks- 
burg, and intense alarm 
prevailed at XC'w Orleans 
among the disloyal population. It 8eem- 
ed as if the plan devised b:r Fri'>mont, 
and now partially executed, was about to 
be successfully carried out. Curtis had 
already broken the military pO\wr of the 
Confederates west of the l\Iissi
sippi, and 
a heavy National forcf', prf'ssing on tow- 
ards Alabama and Mississippi, had just 
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:Kumher Ten, with the troops, batteries, 
and supports on the main, was surren- 
dered. Oyer 7,000 men became prisoners 
of war; and the spoils of victory were 123 
cannon and mortars, 7,000 small-arms, 
many hundred horses and mules, four 
steamboats afloat, and a very large 
amount of ammnnition. The fall of Isl- 
and Number Ten. was a calamity to the 

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Tennessee, a score of miles from Corinth. Iturbide, AUGl;STIN DE, Emperor of 
See FRg
[mn, JOHN CHARLES.; born in Valladolid, :\Iexico, Sept. 
Isles, ASDRÉ DES, military officer; born 27, 1783. Leading in a scheme for over- 
in Dieppe, France, in 1530; sent to Amer- throwing the Spanish power in l\Ie-xico in 
Ìca in 1560 by Coligni for the purpose of 1821, he took possession of the capital 
erecting a society for the settlement of with troops in September in the name of 
French Huguenots. He landed on the the nation, and estahli
hed a regency. 
Florida coast near Cape San Juan, and He was declared Emperor, May 18, 1822, 
erected a wooden fort, which he left in but rivals and public distrust caused him 
clmrge of twenty men. Coligni sent GOO to abdicate, and he went to Europe in 
Huguenots and three ships, under com- 1823. An insurrection in his favor in 
mand of Captain Ribaut, with Des Isles :Mexico induced him to return in IR2-1, 
as lieutenant. In 1363 Des Isles returned when he was seized and shot, in Padilla, 
with 300 additional emigrants, but owing July I!), 1824. After his execution Mexico 
to eternal strife between the leaders, granted his family a pension of $8,000 
Ribaut and Des Isles, on the one hand, per JTear. ANGEL, the eldest son of 
and Laudonnière, on the other, the colony the Emperor, married Miss Alice Green, 
was greatly reduced, and in this condition of Georgetown, D. C., and their son 
was attacked by the Spaniard :Menendez, AUGl;STIN was adopted by the Emperor 
who massacred all the French. l\laximilian as his heir. In April, IS!)O, 
Italy. The relations of the United Augustin Iturbide, who had entered the 
States with Italv, as with other Conti- Mexican army, published an attack on 
nental countries,
 have usually been har- the Mexican government, fOf which he 
monious. In 18!)1, however, an incident was court-martialled. 
occurred which temporarily strained the Iuka Springs, BATTI.E KEAR. After 
mutual good feelings. Several murders the evacuation of CORl
TH (q. v.), Gen- 
had been committed in Kew Orleans, which eral Rosecrans was placed in command 
had been attributed by many to the in flu- of the forces under Pope, who had gone 
euce of a secret Italian society-the Mafia. to Virginia, to occupy northern Mis&is- 

-\ number of Italians had been arrested, sippi and Alabama, in the vicinity of Co- 
but the normal procedure seem
d to nu- rinth, and eastward to Tuscumbia. His 
merous inhabitants of Kew Orleans en- forces were known as the Army of the 
tirely inadequate. On March 14, 18!)1, Mississippi, with headquarters at Corinth. 
eleven Italian prisoners were lynched in There were no more stirring events in 
the city prison by an assemblage largely the region of General Grant's command 
composed, so it was stated, of the "lead- (under whom "as Rosecrans) than 
ing citizens" of 
ew Orleans. This event guerilla operations, from June until Sep- 
created intense excitement. The Italian"! t.emher. At the beginning of September 
in this country and Italy were greatly the Confederates under Price and Van 
aroused. The comments of Americans Dorn moved towards the Tennessee River, 
varied from downright condemnation of and, when Bragg moved into Tennessee, 
the proceedings to partial praise. The Price attempted to cut off communica- 
Italian government recalled its minister, tions between Grant and Buell. General 
Baron Fava. EventuaHy, April 12, 1892, Armstrong (Confederate), with over 
the United States government appropri- 5.000 cavalry, struck the Xationals, Aug. 
ated $25,000 for the families of the vic- 30, 1862, at Bolivar, with the intention 
tirns, and diplomatic relations were re- of severing the railway there. He was 
surned. repulsed by less than 1,000 men, under 
Itata, Chilean cruiser. She put in at Colonel Leggett. He was repulsed at 
San Di<>go, Cat, April 2:), IS!)I, for arms Jackson the next day, and again, on Sept. 
and ammunition, and was seized hy the 1, at Rritton's T"anp. after a battle of four 
enited States gO\"f'rnnwnt for violation of hours with Jl1dian
t t.roops, under Colonel 
neutrality laws. Slw es('aped, and was npnnis. At the latter place Armstrong 
ned by the l'nitf'<! 
tates ship left 17!) men, dead and wounded. on the 
('hal'l(',c;ton. On .June 4. IH!H, the Hata field. Informed of this raid, at Tuscurn- 

Ull enùcred to the Charlcston at Iquique. hia, Rosecrans hastened to Iuka, a little 


village celebrated for its fine mineral listening for the sound of Ord's guns, and 
springs, about 15 miles east of Corinth, skirmishing briskly by the way, had 
where a large amount of stores had been reached a point within 2 miles of Iuka, on 
gathered. There, with Stanley's division, densely wooded heights. 1;'here he formed 
he encamped at Clear Creek, 7 miles east a line of battle. He sent forward his skir- 
of Corinth, and, at the same time, Price mishers, who were driven back, and a 
moved northward from Tupelo with about severe battle immediately followed. The 



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12,000 Confederate troops. Price struck 11th Ohio Battery was, after a severe 
Iuka, Sept. 10, and captured the National struggle, placed in position on the crest of 
property there. the hill. With this battery, a few regi- 
Grant at once put two columns in mo- nwnts of Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, and 
tion to crush Price--one, under Rosecrans, Indiana troops fought more than three 
to attack his flank and rear, and another, times their number of Confederates, led 
under General Ord, to confront him. These hy Price in person. Finally, when Colonel 
movements began on the morning of Sept. Eddy, of an Indiana regiment, was mor- 
18. Ord, with 5,000 men, advanced to tally wounded, the remainder of his regi- 
Burnsville, followed by General Ross with ment was hurled back in disorder, leaving 
more, while Rosecrans moved with the the almost disabled battery to be seized 
separated diyisions of Stanley and C. S. by the Confederates. For the possession 
Hamilton, about 9.000 strong, during a of these guns desperate charges and coun- 
drenching rain, to San Jacinto, 20 miles tercharges were made, until at length the 
southward of Iuka. On the next morning, Confederate soldiers dragged the guns off 
F:ept. If), they pushed on towards Iuka, the field. An of the horses and sevcnty-two 
Mizner's cavalry driving a Confederate of the artillerymen had been killed. The 
guard. Early in the afternoon Hamilton, battle raged \
armly elsewhere, when the 


Confederates were driven to t1:e shelter of 
the hollows near the village. Darkness end- 
ed the battle of Iuka. The Kational loss was 
nearly 800, killed, wound- 
ed,and missing; that of the 
Confederates was nearly 
1,400. Ord, meanwhile, 
whom Grant had sent "to 
assist Rosecrans, had been 
watching the movements 
of Confederates who were 
making feints on Corinth. 
Expecting to renew the 
battle at Iuka in the 
morning, Stanley pressed 
forward for the purpose, 
but found that Price had 
fled southward under cov- 
er of the darkness, leaving 
behind the captured guns 
of the 11th Ohio Battery. 
Price was pursued all day, 
but escaped. 
Ives, HALSEY COOLEY, artist; born in 
l\Iontour Falls, N. Y., Oct. 27, 184G; 
studied art; was chief of the art depart- 
ment of the \Vorld's Columbian E
tion; and Professor of Drawing and De- 

Izard, GEORGE, military officer; born in 
South Carolina in 1777; son of Ralph 
Izard. Having finished his education and 

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made a tour in Europe, he entered the 
United States army, in 1794, as lieuten- 
ant of artillery. He was appointed aide 
to General Hamilton in 1709; resigned in 
1803; commissioned colonel of artilIery in 
the spring of 1812; and promoted 
to brigadier - general in March, 
1813. He was in command on 
Lake Champlain and on the Nia
ara frontier, in 1814, with the 
rank of major-general. From 182:> 
until his death he was governor 
of Arkansas Territory. Early in 
September, 1814, he moved tow- 
ards Sackett's Harbor, under the 
direction of the Secretary of War, 
with about 4,000 troops, where he 
received a despatch from General 
Drown at Fort Erie, Sept. 10, 
urging him to move on to his sup- 
port, as he had not more than 
2,000 effective men. The first 
division of Izard's troops arrived 
at Lewiston on Oct. 5. He moved 
up to Black Rock, crossed the Ni- 
agara Riyer, Oct. 10-11, and en- 
camped 2 miles north of Fort 
Erie. Ranking General Brown, he 
took the chief command of the 
combined forces, then numbering, 
sign, and Director of the Museum and with volunteers and militia, about 8,000 
School of Fine Arts in Washington Uni- men. He prepared to march against 
ver3ity. Drummond, who, after the sortie at Fort 



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Erie, had moved down to Queenston. Izard 
moved towards Chippewa, and vainly en- 
deavored to draw Drummond out. He had 
some skirmishing in 
n attempt to destroy 
a quantity of grain belonging to the Brit- 
ish, in which he lost twelve men killed and 
fifty-four wounded; the British lost many 
more. Drummond fell back to Fort 
George and Burlington Heig-hts. Perceiv- 
ing further operations in that region to 
be useless, and perhaps perilous, Izard 
crossed the river and abandoned Canada. 
Knowing Fort Erie to be of little service, 
be caused it to be mined and blown up, 
Nov. 5. He died in Little Rock, Ark., 
Nov. 22, 1828. 
Izard, RALPH, statesman; born near 
Charleston, S. C., in 17 4
; was educated 
at Cambridge, England, and in 1767 mar- 


ried a daughter of Peter De Lancey,of New 
York. They spent some time in Europe, 
and Mr. Izard was appointed by Congress 
commissioner to the Court of the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, and resided in Paris, 
where he took sides with Arthur Lee 
against Silas Deane and Franklin ( see 
DEANE, SILAS). He returned home in 
1780; procured for General Greene the 
command of the Southern army, and 
pledged his large estates for the purchase 
of ships-of-war in Europe. He was in 
Congress in 1781-83, and in the United 
States Senate in 1789-95. Two years 
afterwards he was prostrated by paral- 

Tsis. His intellect was spared, and he 
lived in comparative comfort about eight 
years, without pain, when a second shock 
ended his life, May 30, 1801. 


Jackson, city and capital of the State 
oi :Mississippi; on the Pearl niver and 
senral important railroads; is a large 
cotton-shipping centre and has extensive 
manufactories; population in 1890, 5,920; 
in 1900, 7,816. 
In 18û3, while the troops of General 

opposition, and began tearing up the rail- 
way between that town and the capital. 
Sherman was also marching on Jackson, 
IcClernand was at a point near 
Raymond. The night was tempestuous. 
In the morning, Sherman and 1\IcPherson 
pushed forward, and 5 miles from Jack. 



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SF.NA fE CIiA \(ilK/!. AT JACh><U:oì, 1111::;8. 

Grant were skirmishing at Raymond, he son they encountered and drove in the 
learned that Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was Confederate pickets. Two and a half 
hourly expected at Jackson. To make miles from the city they were confronted 
sure of that place, and to leave no enemy by a heavy Confederate force, chiefly 
in his rear, Grant pushed on towards Georgia and South Carolina troops, under 
Jackson. McPherson entered Clinton ear- General \Valker. General Crocker's di- 
ly in the afternoon of l\Iay 13, without VISIOn led the van of the Nationals, and 


a battle began at eleven o'clock, while a back. Grant sent Sherman reinforce- 
shower of rain was falling. The Confed- ments, giving that leader an army 50,000 
crate infantry were in a hollow, with strong. 'Vith these he crossed the Big 
their artillery on the crest of a hill be- Black River, during a gr<;at drought. In 
yond them. Crocker pressed the Confed- dust and great heat the thirsty men 
crates out of the hollow and up the slopes and animals went on to Jackson, John- 
to their artillery. Still onward the Na- ston retiring before them and taking 
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tionals pressed in the face of a severe fire, 
when the Confederates broke and fled tow- 
ards the city, closely pursued for a mile 
and a half to their earthworks. Under a 
heavy storm of grape and canister shot 
poured upon their works, the Nationals 
rpformed for the purpose of making an 
assault; but there was no occasion, for 
the garrison had evacuated the fort. They 
left behind them seventeen cannon. and 
tC'nts enough to shelter a whole division. 
The commissary and quartermaster's 
stores were in flames. The city was taken 
possession of by the Nationals, and the 
stars and stripes were unfurled over the 
State House by the 5!)th Indiana Regiment. 
Entering Jackson that night, Grant 
learned that Johnston had arrived, taken 
clwrge of the department, and had or- 
dered Gen. J. C. Pemberton to march im- 
mC'diately out of Vicksburg and attack 
the National rear. 
After the fall of Vicksburg, Johnston 
hovered menacingly in Grant's rear. 
Sherman had pushed out to press him 

position behind his breastworks there. 
Sherman invested Jackson, July 10, each 
flank resting on the Pearl River. He 
planted 100 cannon on a hill, and open- 
ed on the city, July 12; but his trains 
bdng behind, his Rcanty ammunition was 
soon exhausted. In the assault, Gcneral 
Lauman pushed his troops too near the 
Confede1'ate works, and in the course of 
a few minutes 500 of his mf'n were killed 
01" wounded by sharp - shooters and the 
grape and canister from twclve cannon. 
Two hundred of his men were made prison- 
ers. rnder cover of a fog, Jonnston made 
a sortie, July 13, but with no ]wueficial 
rf'!"ult, and on tne night of July lû-17 
he withdrew with his 25,000 men, hur- 
ripd across the Pearl Ri,'er, hurnC'd the 
bridges hehind him, and retreated to l\Ior- 
ton. f;herman did not pursue far, his 
object being to driye Johnston away and 
make Vicksburg secure. For this purpl)se 
he broke up the railways for many miles, 
and destroyed everything in .Jackson that 
might be useful to the Confederates. 


Jackson, ANDREW, seventh President of from the North of Ireland, in 17û5, and 
the United States; born in the Waxlww wpre of the f;C'otch-Irish. A t fourteen 

ettI('ment, Mecklenburg co., N. C., March years of age, Andrew joined the Revolu- 
15, 17û7. His parents had emigrated tionary forces in South Carolina. In 


that service he had two brothers killed. 
He was with Sumter in the battle of 
HANGING ROCK (q. v.), and in 1781 was 
wade a prisoner. He was admitted to 
the practice of the law in western North 
Carolina in 1786; removed to Nashville 
in 1788; was L'nited States attorney for 
that district in 1790; member of the con- 
'f-ntion that framed the State constitu- 
tion of Tennessee in 179û; member of the 
Cnited States Senate in 1797; and judge 
of the Tennessee Supreme Court from 179S 
to 1804. From 1798 until 1814 he was 
major-general of the Tennessee militia, and 
C'onducted the principal campaign against 
the Creek Indians, which resulted in the 
romplete subjugation of that nation in the 
spring of IRI4. On ::\Iay 31, 1814, he was 
appointed a major-general in the regular 
army and given command of the Depart- 
ment of the South. His victory at New 
Orleans, Jan. 8, 1815, gave him great re- 
On Jan. 21, with the main body of his 
army. he entered the city. He was met in 
the suburbs by almost the entire popula- 
tion, who greeted the victors as their 
saviors. Two days afterwards there wa" 
an imposing spcctacle in the city. At 
Jackson's request, the apos- 
tolic prefect of Louisiana ap- 
pointed Jan. 23 a day for the 
public offering of thanks to 
God for the victory just won. 
lt was a beautiful winter 
morning on the verge of the 
tropics. The religious cere- 
monies were to be held in 
the old Spanish cathedral, 
which was decorated with 
rgreens for the occasion. 
1 n the centre of the public 
square in front of the cathe- 
dral, a temporary triumphal 
arch was erected. suppOl'ted 
by six Corinthian columns, 
and festooned by flowers and 
ns. Beneath this arch 
stood two beautiful little 
girls, each upon a pedestal. 
and holding in her hand a civic crown received by the apostolic prefect (Abbê du 
of laurel. Near them stood two dam- Bourg) in his pontifical rohes. supported 
sels. one personifying Liberty. the other by a college of priests in their sacerdotal 
.Justice. From the a1'ch to the church, garments. The abM addressed the general 
arranged in two rows, stood beautiful with eloquent and patriotic discourse, af- 
girls dressed in white, each covered tel' which the latter was seated conspicu- 

with a blue gauze veil, with a silver star 
on her brow. These personated the several 
Dtates and Territories of the Union. Each 
carried a basket filled wi th flowers, and 
behind each was a lance stuck in the 
ground, and bearing a shield on which 
was inscribed the name and legend of the 
State or Territory which she represented. 
These were linked by festoons of ever- 
greens that extended from the arch to the 
door of the cathedral. At the appointed 
time, Jackson, accompanied by the officers 
of his staff, passed into the square, and. 
amid the roar of artillery, was conducted 
tn the raised floor of the arch. As he 
stepped upon it. the two little girls leaned 
gently forward and placed the laurel 
crowns upon his head. At the same mo- 
ment, a charming Creole maiden (::\1iss 
Kerr), as the representative of Louisiana, 
stepped forward, and, with modesty in 
voice and manner, addressed a few con- 
gratulatory words to the general, eloquent 
with expressions of the most profound 
gratitude. To these words Jackson made 
a brief reply, and then passed on towards 
the church, the pathway strewn with flow- 
ers by the gcntle representatives of the 
States. At the cathedral entrance he was 


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trial by martial law. Judge Dominic A. 
Hall, of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, issued a writ of habeas corpus in 
favor of the offender. Ja'ckson considered 
this a violation of martial law, and or- 
dered the arrest of the judge and his ex- 
pulsion heyond the limits of the city. The 
judge. in turn, when the military law wa
revoked (March 13, 1815) in consequence 
of the proclamation of peace, required 
Jackson to appear before him and show 
cause why he 8hould not be punished for 
contempt of court. He cheerfully obeyed 
the bllmmons, and entered the crowded 
court-room in the old Spanish-built court- 
}lOuse in citizen's dress. He had almost 
reached the bar before he was recognized, 
when he was greeted with huzzas by a 
thousand voices. The judge was alarmed, 
and hesitated. Jackson stepped upon a 
bench, procured silence, and then. turning 
to the trembling judge, said, "There is 
no danger here--there shall be none. The 
same hand that protected this city from 
outrage against the invaders of the coun- 
try will shield and protect this court, or 
perish in the effort. Proceed with your 
sentence." The agitated judge pronounced 
him guilty of contempt of court, and fined 
him $1.000. This act was greeted by a 
storm of hisses. The general immediately 
drew a check for the amount, handed it to 
Hie marshal, and then made his way for 
the court-house door. The people were in. 
tensely excited. They lifted the hero upon. 
their shoulders, bore him to the street, and 
Ulere an immense crowd sent up a shout 
that blanched the cheek of Judge Hall. 
He was placed in a carriage, from which 
the people took the horses and dragged it 
proclamation of peace reached that city. themselves to his 10d,Q'ings, where he ad- 
\\Then an official announcement of peace dressed them, urging tllem to show their 
was received from Washington he was appreciation of the blessings of liberty and 
involved in a contention with the civil a free goyprnment by a willing submission 
authorities, who had opposed martial law to the authorities of their country. Mean- 
as unnecessary. In the legislature of time, $1,000 had been collected by volun- 
Louisiana was a powerful faction opposed tary subscriptions and placed to his credit 
to him personally, and when the officers in a bank. The general politely refused to 
and troops were thanked by that body accept it. and begged his friends to dis- 
(Feb. 2, 1815), the name of Jackson was tribute it among the relatives of those 
omitted. The people were very indignant. who had falIen in the late battles. Nparly 
A seditious publication soon appeared, thirty years afterwards (1843), Congress 
\\ hich increased their indignation. and as refunded the sum with interest, amounting 
this was a public matter, calculated to in all to $
produce disaffection ill the army, Jackson In IR17 he successfully prosecuted the 
caused the arrest of the author and his war against the Seminoles. In 1819 he 

ously near the great altar, while the Te 
Deum Laudamus was chanted by the choir 
and the people. When the pageant was 
oYer, the general retired to his quarters 
to resume the stern duties of a soldier; 
and that night the city of New Orleans 
blazed with a general illumination. On 
the spot where the arch was erected, in 
the centre of the public square in front 
of the cathedral, has been erected a bronze 
('questrian statue of Jackson, by Clark 
1\1 ills. 
Jackson. like a true soldier, did not 
relax his vigilance after the victory that 
saved Louisiana from British conquest. 
He maintained martial Jaw in New Or- 
leans rigorously, C\'en after rumors of a 

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resigned his military <'Ommission, and was honest and true; not always correct in 
governor of newly acquired Florida in judgment; often rash in expressions and 
1821-22. He was again United States actions; misled sometimes by his hot anger 
Senator in 1823-24; and in 1828, and also into acts injurious to his reputation; of 
in 1832, he was elected President of the unflinching personal courage; possessed 
United States (see CABINET, PRESI- of a tender, sympathizing nature, although 
DENT'S). His warfare on the United sometimes appearing fiercely leonine; and 
States Bank during his Presidency re- a patriot of purest stamp. He retired 
sulted in its final destruction. from public life forever in the spring of 
President Jackson possessed great firm- 1837. His administration of eight years 
ss and decision of character; was was marked by great energy, and never 


were the affairs of the }'epublic in its 
domestic and foreign relations more pros- 
perous than at the close of his term of 
office. He died in "The Hermitage," near 
Nashdlle, Tenn., June 8, 1845. In 1852 

authorities of the State or of the United 
States to enforce the payment of the 
duties imposed by the said acts within 
the same State, and that it is the duty 
of the legislature to pass such laws as 
may be neces- 
sary to give 
full effect to 
the said ordi- 


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And whereas, 
by the said 
ordinance, it is 
further ordain- 
ed that in no 
case of law or 
,". ',. equity decided 
in the courts 
of said State, 
wherein shall 
be drawn in 
question the 
validity of the 
said ordinance 
or of the acts 
of the legislat- 
ure that may 
be passed to 
give it effect, or 
of the said laws 
of the United States, no appeal shall be 
allowed to the Supreme Court of the 
Pnited States, nor shall any copy of the 
record be permitted or allowed for that 
purpose, and that any person attempting 
tc take such appeal shall be punished as 
for a contempt of court; 
\Vhereas, a convention assembled in the And, finally, the said ordinance declares 
State of South Carolina have passed an that the people of South Carolina wiII 
ordinance, by which they declare "that maintain the said ordinance at every 
the several acts and parts of acts of the hazard; and that they will consider the 
Congress of the United States, purport- passage of any act by Congress abolish- 
ing to be laws for the imposing of duties ing or closing the ports of the said State, 
and imposts on the importation of for- or otherwise obstructing the free ingress 
eign commodities, and now having actual or egress of vessels to and from the said 
operation and effect within the United ports, or any other act of the federal gov- 
States, and more especially" two acts erl1ment to coerce the State, shut up her 
for the same purposes passed on May 2!), ports, destroy or harass her commerce, 
1828, and on July ]4, 1832, "are un- or to enforce the said acts otherwise 
authorized by the Constitution of the than through the civil trihunals of the 
United States, and violate the true mean- country, as inconsistent with the longer 
ing and intent thereof, and are null and continuance of South Carolina in the 
void, and no Jaw," nor binding on the Pnion, and that the people of the said 
citizens of that State or its officers; and State will theuceforth hold themselves 
by said ordinance it is further declared absolved from all further obligation to 
to be unlawful for any of the constituted maintain or preserve their political con- 

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an equestrian statue of Jackson, in bronze, 
by Clark Mills, was erected at Washing- 
ton, at the expense of the nation. 
Nullification.-On Sept. 19, 1832, Presi- 
dent Jackson issued the following procla- 
mation against nullification: 


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IUust inevitably result from an observ- 
ance of the dictates of the convention. 
Strict duty will require of me nothing 
more than the exercise of these powers 
with which I am now, or may hereafter 
be, invested, for preserving the peace of 
the Union, and for the execution of the 
laws. But the imposing aspect which 
opposition has assumed in this case, by 
cJothing itself with State authority, and 
the deep interest which the people of the 
United States must feel in preventing a 
resort to stronger measures, while there 
is a hope that anything will be yielded 
to reasoning and remonstrance, perhaps 
demand, and will certainly justify, a full 
exposition to South Carolina and the na- 
tion of the views I entertain of this im- 
portant question, as well as a distinct 
enunciation of the COUl'se which my sensê 
of duty will require me to pursue. 
The ordinance is founded, not on the 
indefeasible right of resisting acts which 
are plainly unconstitutional, and too op- 
pressive to be endured, but on the strange 

nection with the people of the other 
States, and will forthwith 
roceed to 
organize a separate government, and do 
all other acts and things which sovereign 
and independent States may of right do. 
And, whereas, the said ordinance pre- 
scribes to the people of South Carolina a 
course of conduct in direct violation of 
their duty as citizens of the United 

tates, contrary to the laws of their 
country, subversive of its Constitution, 
and having for its object the destruction 
of the Union; that Union which, coeval 
with our political existence, led our 
fathers, without any other ties to unite 
them than those of patriotism and a com- 
mon cause, through a sanguinary struggle 
10 a glorious independence; that sacred 
Cnion, hitherto inviolate, which, perfect- 
eù by our happy Constitution, has 
brought us, by the favor of heaven, to 
a state of prosperity at home, and high 
consideration abroad, rarely, if ever, 
{'quaIled in the history of nations. To 
preserve this bond of our political exist- 
ence from de- 
struction, to 
maintain invio- 
late this state 
of national 
honor and pros- 
perity, and to 
justify the con- 
fidence my fel- 
low - citizens 
ha ve reposed in 
me, I, Andrew 
Jackson, Presi- 
dent of the 
United States, 
have thought 
proper to issue 
this my prochl.- 
mation, stating 
my views of the 
and laws ap- 
plicable to the 
measures adopt- 
ed by the con- 
vention of South Carolina. and to the rea- position that anyone State may not only 
sonA tlwy have put forth to sustain them, declare an act of Congress void, but pro- 
declaring tIle course which duty will re- hibit its execution; that they may do this 
qnire me to pursue. and. appea1ing to the consistently with the Constitution; that 
unc1er<;tanding and patriotism of the peo- the true construction of that instrument 
pIe, warn them of the conseqncnces which pprmits a State to retain its place in the 
V.-G Dï 

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decision in theory, and the practical illus- 
tration shows that the courts are closed 
against an application to review it, both 
judges and jurors being sworn to decide 
in its favor. But reason
ng On this sub- 
ject is superfluous, when our social com- 
pact, in e
press terms, declares that the 
laws of the United 
tates. its Constitu- 
tion, and treaties made under it. are the 
su preme law of the land; and for greater 
caution adds "that the judges in every 
State shall be bound thereby, anything 
in the Constitution or laws of any State 
to the contrary not- 
withstanding." And 
it may be assert- 
ed, without fear of 
refutation, that no 
federal government 
could exist without 
a similar provision. 
Look for a moment 
to the consequences. 
If f;;outh Carolina 
cunsiders the reve- 
nue laws uncon::-:ti- 
tutional, and has a 
right to preHut 
tbeir e-xecution in 
the port of Charles- 
ton, there would he 
a clear con
tional objection to 
their collpdion in 
every othpr port, 
and no revenue 
could be collected 
anywhere, for all 
imposts must be 
equal. It is no an- 
swer to repeat that 
an unconstitutional 
law is no law, so 
should be said that public opinion is a long as the question of its legality is to be 
sufficient check against the abuse of this decided by the State' itself; for e,Tery law 
power, it may be asked why it is not operating injuriously upon any locnl in- 
deemed a sufficient guard against the pas- tcrest will be perhaps thought, and cer- 
sage of an unconstitutional act by Con- tainly reprpsented, as unconstitutional, 
gress? There is, however, a restraint in Hnd, as has been shown, there is no ap- 
this last case, which makes the assumed peal. 
power of a State more indefensible, and If this doctrine had been established at 
which does not exist in the other. There an earlier day the Union would have 
are two appeals from an unconstitutional been dissolved in its infancy. The excise 
act passed by Congress-one to the ju- law in Pennsylvania, the embargo and 
diciary, the other to the people and the non-intercourse law in the Eastern States, 
States. There is no app
al from the State the carriage tax in Virginia, were all 


Union, and yet be bound by no other of 
its laws than those it may choose to con- 
sider as constitutional. It is true, they 
add, that to justify this abrogation of a 
law, it must be palpably contTary to the 
Constitution; but it is evident that, to 
give the right of resisting laws of tlmt 
description, coupled with the uncontrolled 
right to decide what laws deserve that 
character, is to give the power of resisting 
all laws. For as, by the theory, there is 
no appeal, the reasons alleged by the 
State, good or bad, must prevail. If it 

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deemed unconstitutional, and were more of victory and honor, if the States who 
unequal in their operation than any of supposed it a ruinous and unconstitutional 
the laws now complained of; but fortu- measure had thought they possessed the 
r.ately none of those States discovered right of nullifying the act by which it 
that they had the right- now daimed by was declared, and denying supplies for 

outh ('al"olina. The war into which we its prosecution. Hardly and unequally 
were force,l to support the dignity of the as those measure!'! bore upon se,'eral mem- 
nation and the rights of our citizens might bers of the l"nion, to the legislatures of 
have ended in defeat and disgrace instead none did this efficient and peaceful rell1t"dy, 


proposed to form a feature in our govern- 
In our colonial state, although depend- 
ing on anothCl" power, we ,'ery early con- 
sidered ourselves as connected by common 
interest with each other. Leagues were 
formed for common defence, and before 
the Declaration of Independence we were 
known in our aggregate character as the 
l'nited Colonies of America. That deci- 
siye and important step was taken jointly. 
We declared ourselves a nation by a joint, 
not by several acts, and when the terms 
of our confederation were reduced to form, 
it was in that of a solemn league of sev- 
eral States, by which they agreed that 
they would collectively form one nation 
for the purpose of conducting some cer- 
tain domestic concerns and all foreign re- 
lations. In the instrument forming that 
Union is found an article whieh de- 
clares "that every State shall abide by 
the determina tions of Congress on all 
questions whieh, hy that confederation, 
should be submitted to them." 
Under the confederation, then, no State 
could legally annul a decision 
of the Congress or refuse to 
submit to its execution; but 
no provision was made to en- 
force these decisions. Con- 
gress made requhdtions, but 
they were not complied with. 
The government could not op- 
erate on individuals. They 
had no judidary, no means of 
collecting revenue. 
Rut the defects of the con- 
federation need not he detailed. 
Under its operation we could scarcely 
be called a nation. \Ve had neither 
prosperity at home nor consideration 
abroad. This state of things could 
not be endured, anù our present happy 
Constitution was formed, but formed 
in vain, if this fatal doctrine prevails. 
It was formed for important objects 
that are announced in the preamble 
made in the name and by the authority 
of the people of the United States, 
whose delegates framed and whose con- 
ventions approved it. The most im- 
pOl'tant among these ohjects, that 
our constitutional history will also afford whieh is pla.ced first in rank, on 
abundant proof that it would have been which all the others rest. .is "to form 
repudiated with indignation had it been a more perfect Lnion." Now, is it pos- 

as it is called, suggest itself. The dis- 
covery of this important feature in our 
Constitution was reserved to the present 
day. To the statesmen of South Caro- 
lina belongs the invention, and upon 
the citizens of the State will unfortu- 
nately fall the evils of reducing it to 
If the doctrine of a State veto upon the 
laws of the Lnion carries with it internal 
evidence of its impl"acticable absurdity, 



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<;ible that even if there w('re no express purpose may be in the present case, noth- 
provision giving suprema('y to the Con- ing can be more dangerous than to admit 
stitution and laws of the United States the position that an unconstitutional pur- 
over those of the States, can it be con- pose, entel"tained by the memlwrs who as- 
ceived that an instrument made for the sent to a law enacted under a constitu- 
purpose of "forming a more perfect tional power, shall make that law void; 
Cnion" than that of the confederation, fOI how is that purpose to be ascertained? 
could be so constructed by the assembled \,"ho is to make the scrutiny? How oftpn 
wisdom of our country as to substitute Jllay bad purposes be falsely imputed? In 
for that confederation a form of govern- how many cases are they concealed by 
ment dependent for its existence on the false professions? In how Jllany is no 
local intcI'est, the party spirit of a State, declaration of motive made? Admit this 
or of a prevailing faction in a State? doctrine, and you give to the States an 
Every man of plain, unsophisticated un- uncontrolled right to decide, and every 
derstanding, who hears the question, will law may be annulled under this pretext. 
gin such an answer as will preserve the If, therefore, the absurd and dangerous 
rnion. :Metaphysical subtlety, in pursuit doctrine should be admitted that a State 
of an impracticable theOl'y, could alone may annul an unconstitutional law, or 
have de,'ised one that is calculated to de- one that it deems such, it will not apply 
stroy it. to the present case. 
I consider, then, the power to annul a The next objection is th
t the laws 
law of the United States assumed by one in question operate unf'qually. This objec- 
State, incompatible with the existence of tion may be made with truth to every law 
the (Tnion, contradicted expressly by the that has been or can be passed. The wis- 
le1ter of the Constitution, unauthorized dom of man never yet contrived a system 
by its spirit, inconsistent with every prin- of taxation that would operate with per- 
ciple on which it was founded, and de- fect equality. If the unequal operation of 
structive of the great object for which R law makps it unconstitutional, and if all 
it was formed. laws of that descdption may he abrogated 
After this general view of the leading by any State for that cause. then indeed is 
principle, we must examine the particular the federal Constitution unworthy of the 
application of it which is made in the slightest effort for its preservation. \Ve 
ordinance. have hitherto relied on it as the perpetual 
The preamble rests its justification on bond of our Lnion. \Ye have received it 
tl1ese grounds: It assumes as a fact that as the work of the assembled wisdom of 
the obnoxious laws, although they purport the nation. \Ye have trusted to it as to 
to be laws for raising revenue, were in the sheet-anchor of our safety in the 
reality intendf'd for the protection of man- stormy times of conflict with a foreign 
ufactures, which purpose it asserts to be or domestic foe. \Ye have looked to it 
unconstitutional; that the operation of with sacred awe as the palladium of our 
these laws is unequal; that the amount liberties, and with all the solemnities of 
raised by them is greater than is required religion han pledged to each other our 
hy the -wants of the government; and, lives and fortunes here and our hopes of 
finally, that the proceeds are to be applied happiness hereafter, in its defence and 
to objects unauthorized by the Constitu- support. \Vere we mistaken, my country- 
tion. These are the only causes alleged men, in attaching this 'importance to the 
to justify an open opposition to the laws Constitution of our country? \Yas our 
of the country, and a threat of seceding devotion paid to the wretched. inefficient, 
from the Union if any attempt should be clumsy contrivance which this new doc- 
made to enforce them. The first virtually trine 
\'ould make it? Did we pledge our- 
acknowledges that the law in question was selves to the support of an airy nothing- 
passed under a power expressly given by a bubble that must he blown away hy the 
the Constitution to lay and collect im- first breath of disaffection? \Yas this 
['osts; but its constitutionality is drawn self-destroying, visionary theory the work 
in question from the motives of those of the profound statf'smf'n, the exalted 
who passed it. However apparent this patriotism to whom the task of constitu- 


tional reform was intrusted? Did the who abuse it, and thus procure l'edress. 
name of \Vashington sanction-did the Congress may, undouhtedl,}', ahuse this 
States delih('rately ratify such an anomaly discretional"Y power, hut the same may be 
in the history of fundamental legislation? said of othel's with which, they are nsted. 
No. \Ve wen not mistaken. The letter of Yet the discretion must exist somewhere. 
this great instrument is free from this The Constitution has ginn it to the rep- 
mdical fault; its language directly con- rescntative of all the pco}Jle, ched..ed by 
hadicts the imputation; its spirit, its evi- the representatins of the States and by 
dent intent, contradicts it. No, we do not the executive power. The South Carolina 
err. Our Constitution does not contain the consh"uction gins it to the legislature or 
a.bsurdity of giving power to make laws, the connntion of a single State, where 
and another power to resist them. The neither the people of the different States, 
sages, whose memory will always be rev- nor the States in their separate capacity, 
enced, have given us a practica.l and, as nor the chief magistrate, elected by the 
they hoped, a permanent constitutional com- people, han any repre
entation. \Yhich 
pact. The Father of this country did not is the most discreet disposition of the 
affix his l'evered name to so palpable an power? I do not ask you. fellow-citizens, 
absurdity. Nor did tIw States. when they which is the constitutional disposition; 
severaIly ratified it, do so under the im- that instrument speaks a language not 
pression that a veto on the laws of the to be misunderstood. Rut if you were 
l'nited !,)tates was resel'ved to them, or assembled in general convention, which 
that they could exercise it by iruplica- would you think the safest depository of 
tion. Search the debates in all their con- this discretionary power in the last re- 
ventions; examine the speeches of the most sort? 'Vould you add a clause giving it 
zealous opposers of federal authority; look to each of the States. or would you sanc- 
at the amendments that were proposed. tion the wise provisions already made 
They are alI silent; not a syllable utt('red, by your Constitution? If this should be 
not a vote ginn, not a motion made to the result of your deliheration when pro- 
correct the explicit supremacy given to viding for the future. are )Tou. can you 
the laws of the Union over those of the be ready to risk all tl1at we hold dear 
States, or to show that implication, as is to estahlish, for a temporary and a local 
now contended, could def('at it. No, we purpose, that whid} you mm-t acknowledge 
have not erred. The Constitution is stilI to be destructh'e, and enn ahsurd. as a 
the object of our reverence, th(' bond of general provision? Carr
T out the conse- 
our Union, our defence in dangC'r, the quences of this right vested in tIl(> different 
source of our prm'lperity in pC'acc: it shall Rtates, and you must pC'reeiye that tIle 
descend as we have received it, uncor- crisis yonr conduct preser.ts at this day 
rupted by E'ophistical construction. to our would recur wlwnever any law of the 
posterity; and the sacrifices of local in- Pnited States displeased any of the Rtates, 
terest, of State prejudices. of personal and that we shoulò soon cease to be a na- 
animosities, that were made to bring it tion. 
into existence, wilI again be patriotically The ordinanct', with the same knowledge 
offered for its support. of the future that characterized a former 
The two remaining objections marle by objection, tells you that the proceeds of 
the ordinance to these laws are that the the tax wilI be unconstitutionally applied. 
smns intended to be raised by them are If this could be ascertained with certainty, 
greater than are required. and that the the objection would. with more propriet
proceeds will be unconstitutionaIIy em- be resened for the law so applying the 
ployed. proceeds. but surely cannot he urged 
The Constitution has given expressly against the laws levying the duty. 
to Congress the right of raising revenue, These are the allegations contained in 
and of determining the sum the public the ordinance. Examine them seriously, 
exigencies will require. The States have my fellow-citizens-judge for yourselves. 
no control over the exercise of this right I appeal to you to determine whether 
other than tIlat which results from the they are so clear, so convincing, as to 
power of changing the representativeq leave no doubt of their correctness; and 


even if you should come to this concIu- these questions according to its sound 
sion, how far they justify the reckless, discretion. Congress is composed of the 
destructive course which you are directed n'presentatives of all th
 States, and of 
to pursue. Review these objections, and all the people of all the States; but we, 
the conclusions drawn from them, once part of the people of one State, to whom 
more. \Vhat are they? Every law, then, the Constitution has given no power on 
for raising revenue, according to the the subject, from whom it has expressly 
South Carolina ordinance, may be right- taken it away; we, who have solemnly 
fully annulled, unless it be so framed agreed that this Constitution shall be 
as no law ever will or can be framed. our law; we, most of whom have sworn 
Congress has a right to pass laws for to support it, we now abrogate this law, 
raisfng revenue, and each State has a l"Îght and swear, and force others to swear, that 
to oppose their execution-two rights di- it shall not be obeyed. And we do this 
J'ecUy opposed to each other; and yet, is not because Congress has no right to pass 
this absurdity supposed to be contained such laws-this we do not allege-but 
in an instrument drawn for the express because they have passed them with im- 
purpose of avoiding collisions between the proper views. They are unconstitutional 
States and the general government by an from the motives of those who passed 
al'sembly of the most enlightened states- them, which we can never with certainty 
men and purest patriots ever embodied know; from their unequal operation, al- 
for a similar purpose? though it is impossible, from the na.ture 
In vain have tlwse sages declared that of things, that they should be equal; 
Congress shall JIave power to Jay and col- and from the disposition which we pre- 
l(>ct taxes, duties. imposts, and excises; sume may be made of their proceeds, al- 
in vain have tlwy proviùed that they though that disposition has not been 
shall have power to pass laws which declared. This is the plain meaning of 
I;,IJall be neces
ary and proppr to carry the ordinance in relation to laws which 
those powers into execution; that those it abrogates for alleged unconstitutional- 
laws and the Constitution shall be the ity. But it does not stop there. It re- 
"supreme law of the land, and that th
 peals, in express terms, an important part 
judges in every State shall be bound of the Constitution itself, and of laws 
thereby, anything in the constitution or passed to give it effect, which have never 
laws of any State to the contrary not- been alleged to be unconstitutional. The 
withstanding." In -min have the people Constitution declares that the judicial 
of the several States solemnly sanctioned powers of the United States extend to 
these provisions, made them their para- cases arising under the laws of the Unit- 
mount law, and individually sworn to ed States, and that such laws, the Con- 
support them whenever they were called stitution and the treaties, shall be para- 
on to execute any office. Vain provisions! mount to the State constitution and 
ineffectual restrictions! vile profanation laws. The judiciary act prescribes the 
of oaths! miserable mockery of legisla- mode by which the case may be brought 
tion! if a bare majority of the voters in before a court of the United States, by 
anyone State may, on a real or sup- appeal, when a State tribunal shall decide 
posed knowledge of the intent with which against this provision of the Constitu. 
a law has been passed, declare themselves tion. The ordinance declares there shall 
free from its operation-say here it gives be no appeal; makes the State law 
too little, there too much, and operatps paramount to the Constitution and laws 
unequally; here it suffers articles to b
 of the United States; forces judges and 
free that ought to be taxed; there it tax
 .iurors to swear that they will disregard 
those that ought to he free; in this casp their provisions; and even makes it penal 
the pro('peds are intended to he applied in a suitor to attempt relief by appeal. 
to purposes which WP do not approvp; It further declares that it shall not be 
in that the amount raispd is morp tlIan lawful for the authorities of the United 
is wanted. States, or of that State, to pnfofl'p thp 
Congress, it is true, is invested by the payment of duties imposed by the revenue 
Constitution with the right of deciding laws within ite limits. 

Here is a law of the United States, not tives of the United States, not repre- 
even pretended to be unconstitutional, re- sentatives of the particular State from 
pealed by the authority of a small ma- which they come. They are paid by the 
jority of the voters of a single State. United States, not by thè State, nor are 
Here is a provision of the Constitution they accountable to it for any act done 
which is solemnly abrogated by the same in the performance of their legislative 
authority. functions; and however they may in prac- 
On such expositions and reasonings the tice, as it is their duty to do, consult and 
ordinance grounds not only an assertion prefer the interests of their particular 
of the right to annul the laws of which it constituents when they come in conflict 
complains, but to enforce it by a threat with any other partial or local interest, 
of seceding from the Union if any at- yet it is their first and highest duty, as 
tempt is made to execute them. representatives of the United States, to 
This right to secede is deduced ftom the promote the general good. 
nature of the Constitution, which, they The Constitution of the United States, 
say, is a compact between sovereign then, forms a government, not a league, 
States, who have preserved their whole and whether it be formed by compact be- 
sovereignty, and therefore are subject to tween the States or in any other manner, 
no superior; that, because they made the its character is the same. It is a govern- 
compact, they cannot break it, when, in ment in which all the people are repre- 
their opinion, it has been departed from sented, which operates directly on the 
by the other States. Fallacious as this people individually, not upon the States- 
course of reasoning is, it enlists State they retained all the power they did not 
pride, and finds advocates in the honest grant. But each Rtate having expressly 
prejudices of those who have 110t studied parted with so many powers as to con- 
the nature of our government sufficiently stitute, jointly with the other States, a 
to see the radical error on which it rests. single nation, cannot from that period 
The people of the United States form- possess any right to secede, because such 
ed the Constitution, acting through the secession docs not break a league, but 
State legislatures in making the compact, destroys the unity of a nation, and any 
to meet and discuss its provisions, and injury to that unity is not only a breach 
acting in separate conventions when they which would result from the contraven- 
ratified these provisions, but the terms tion of a compact, but it is an offence 
used in its construction show it to be a against the whole Union. To say that any 
government in which the people of the State may at pleasure secede from the 
States col1ectively are represented. \Ve Union is to say that the United States are 
arc one l)Poplc in the choice of the Presi- not a naHon, because it would be a sole- 
dent and Vice-President. Here the States cism to contend that any part of a nation 
have no other agency than to direct the might dissolve its connection with the 
mode in which the votes shall be given. other parts, to their injury or ruin, with- 
The candidates having the majority of all out committing any offence. Spce!'\sion, 
the votes are chosen. The electors of a like any other revolutionary act. lllay be 
majority of States may have given their morally justified by the extremity of op- 
yotes for one candidate, and yet another pression, but to call it a constitutional 
may be chosen. The people then, and not right is confounding the meaning of terms, 
the States, are represented in the execu- anù can only he done through gross error, 
th'c branch. or to deceive those who are wi11ing to as- 
In the Honse of Representatives there sert a right, but would pause before tIley 
is this difference, that the people of one made a revolution, or incur the penalties 
State do not, as in the case of President consequent on a failure. 
and Vice-President, all vote for the same Recause the Union was formed by com- 
officers. The people of all the States do pact, it is said the parties to that com- 
not vote for all the members, each State pact may, when they feel themselves 
electing only its own representatives. agg-riewd, depart from it; but it is 
Rut this creates no material distinction. precisply because it is a compact that they 
When chosen, they are all representa- cannot. A compact is an agreement or 


binding obligation. It may by its terms sovereignty of the States, and on their 
have a sanction or penalty for its breach, having formed, in this sovereign capacity, 
or it nUlY not. If it contains no sanction, a compact which is called the Constitu- 
it may be broken with no other conse- tion, from which, because they made it, 
quence than moral guilt; if it ha,ve a they have the right to secede. Both of 
sanction, then the breach insures the these positions are erroneous, and some 
designated or implied penalty. A league of the arguments to prove them so have 
between independent nations generally has been anticipated. 
no sanction other than a moral one, or if The States severally have not retained 
it should contain a penalty, as there is their entire sovereignty. It has been 
no common superior, it cannot be en- shown that in becoming parts of a nation, 
forced. A government, on the contrary, not members of a league, they surrendered 
always has a sanction, express or implied, many of their essential parts of sovereign- 
and in our case it is both necessa-rily im- ty. The right to make treaties, declare 
plied and expressly given. An attempt, war, le\'y taxes, exercise exclusive judicial 
by force of arms, to destroy a government and legislative powers, were all of thcm 
is an offence by whatever means the con- function" of sovereign power. The States, 
stitutional compact may have been formed, then, for all these purposes were no longer 

md such government has the right, by sovereign. The allegiance of their citi- 
the law of self-defence, to pass acts for zens was transferred in the first instance 
punishing the offender, unless that right to the government of the United States. 
is modified, restrained, or resumed by the They became American citizens, and owed 
constitutional act. In our system, al- obedience to the Constitution of the 
though it is modified in the case of trea- United States, and to laws made in con- 
son, yet authority is expressly given to formity with the powers it vested in Con- 
pass all laws necessary to carry its powers gress. This last position has not been 
into effect, and under this grant provi- and cannot be denied. How, then, can 
sion has been made for punishing acts tllat State be said to be sovereign and 
which obstruct the due administration of independent whose citizens own obedience 
the laws. to laws not made by it, and whose 
It would seem superfluous to add any- magistrates are sworn to disregard those 
thing to show the nature of that union laws when they come in conflict with 
which connects us; but as erroneous opin- those passed by another? \Yhat shows 
ions on this subject are the foundation of conclusively that the States cannot be 
doctrincs the most destructive to our said to have reserved an undivided sov- 
peace, I must give some further develop- ereignty is that they expressly ceded 
ment to my views on this subject. No the right to punish treason, not treason 
one, ff'How-citizens, has a higher reverence against their separate powers, but treason 
ff'!" the reserved rights of the States than against the United States. Treason is an 
the magistrate who now addresses you. offence against sovereignty, and sovereign- 
Ko onp would make greater personal sac- ty must reside with the powers to punish 
rifices or official exertions to defend them it. But the reserved rights of the State 
Íl"om violation. but equal care must be are not less sacred because they have, 
taken to prevent on their part an improper for their common interest, made the gen- 
interference with our resumption of the eral government the depository of these 
rights they have vested in the nation. powers. 
The line has not been so distinctly drawn The unity of our political character (as 
as to avoid doubts in some cases of the has been shown for another purpose) com- 
exercise of power. Men of the best in- menced with its very existence. Under 
tentions and soundest views may differ the royal government we had no separate 
in their construction of some parts of tIle character; our opposition to its oppres- 
Constitution, hut there are others on sion began as united colonies. \Ve were 
which dispassionate reflections can leave the Vnited States under the confederation, 
no douht. Of this nature a.ppears to be and the name was perpetuated, and t
the assumed right of secession. It treats, Cnion rendered more perfect, by the federal 
as we have seen, on the alleged undivided Constitution. In none of these stages did 


we consider ourselves in any other light government without the means of sup- 
than as forming one nation. Treaties port, or an acquiescence in the dissolution 
and aIliances were made in the name of of our Union by the secession of one of 
all. Troops were made for the joint de- its members. When the' first was pro- 
fence. How, then, with all these proofs posed, it was known that it could not 
that, under an changes of our position, we be listened to for a moment. It was 
had, for designated purposes and defined known, if force was applied to oppose the 
powers, created national governments- execution of the laws, that it must be re- 
how is it that the most perfect of these peIled by force; that Congress could not, 
several modes of union should now be without involving itself in disgrace and 
considered as a mere league that may be the country in ruin, accede to the propo- 
dissolved at pleasure? It is from an sition; and yet if this is not done in 
abuse of terms. Compact is used as sy- a given day, or if any attempt is made to 
nonymous with league, although the true execute the laws, the State is, by the or- 
term is not employed, because it would dinance, declared to be out of the Union. 
at once show the faIlacy of the reason- The majority of a convention assembled 
ing. It would not do to say that our for the purpose have dictated these terms, 
Constitution was only a league, but it is or rather this rejecting of an terms, in 
labored to prove it a compact (which in the name of the people of South Caro- 
one sense it is), and then to argue that lina. It is true that the governor of 
as a league is a compact, every compact the State speaks of the submission of their 
between nations must, of course, be a grievances to the convention of all the 
league, and that from such an engage- States, which, he says. they" sincerely and 
ment every sovereign power has a right anxiously seek and desire." Yet this oh- 
to recede. But it has becn Fhown that, in vious a
d constitutional mode of obtain- 
this l5ense, the States are not sovereign, ing tl)e sense of the other States on the 
and that even if they were, and the na- construction of the federal compact, and 
tional Constitution had been formed by amending it, if necessary, has never bef'n 
compact, there would be no right in any attemptf'd by tho
e who have urged the 
one State to exonerate itself from its ob- State on to this destructive measure. The 
Jig-ations. State might have proposed the cal1 for a 
So obvious are the reasons which forbid general convention to the other State!'!. 
this secession, that it is necessary only and Congress. if a sufficient number of 
to al1ude to them. The Union was formed them concurred, must have called it. Rut 
for the benefit of all. It was produced the first magistrate of South Carolina, 
by natural sacrifices of interest and when he expressed hope that. "on a re- 
opinions. Can these sacrifices be re(':111ed? view by ('ongress and the functionaries 
('an the States, who magnanimously sur- of the general government of the merits 
rendered their title to the territories of of the controversy," such a convention 
the \Yest, recaIl the grant? 'ViII the in- wi11 be accorded to them, must have known 
habitants of the inland States agree to that neither Congress nor any function- 
pay the duties that may be impõsed with- ary of the general government has au- 
out their assent by those on the Atlantic thority to call such a convention, unle
or the Gulf, for their own benefit? Shall it be de>mandf'd by two-thirds of tl)e 
there be a free port in one State and States. This suggestion, then. is another 
onerous duties in another? No one be- instance of tIle reckless inattention to 
Jieyes that any right exists in a single the provisions of the Constitution with 
State to involve al1 the others in these which this crisis has been madly hurried 
and countless other evils contrary to on. or of the attempt to persnade the> 
the engagements solemnly made. :Every people that a constitutional remedy had 
one must sef' that tIle other States, in l)(>en songllt and refused. If the legislat- 
sf'lf - ddenr'e, must oppose it at an haz- nre of South Carolina "anxiously (le- 
a nls. sire" a general ('onvention to ('on
Tllese are the a1ternatins tl)at are pre- their complainb;. wIlY have the
' not marle 
sented by the convention: a repeal of al1 appJication for it in the> way the Con!"ti- 
the acts for raising revenue, leaving the htion points out? The assertion that 


Hey "earnestly seek it" is completely sequent diminution in the value of your 
negatived by the omission. lands, were the sole effect of the tariff 
This, then, is the position in which we laws. 
stand. A small majority of the citizens The effect of those laws was confess- 
of one State in the Union have elected edly injurious, but the eviJ was greatly 
delegates to a State convention; that con- exaggerated by the unfounded theory you 
vention has ordained that all the revenue were taught to believe, that its burdens 
la \vs of the United States must be re- were in proportion to your exports, not to 
pealed, or that they are no longer a mem- J-our consumption of imported articles. 
bel' of the Union. The governor of that Your pride was roused by the assel'tion 
State has recommended to the legislature that a submission to those laws was a 
the raising of an army to carry the seces- state of vassalage. and that resistance to 
sion into effect, and that he may be em- them was equal, in patriotic mcrit, to the 
powered to give clearances to vessels in opposition our fathers offered to the op- 
the name of the State. No act of violent pressive laws of Great Britain. You 
opposition to the laws has yet been com- were told that this opposition might be 
n1Îtted, but such a state of things is peaceably, might be constitutionally 
hourly apprehended, and it is the intent made; that you might enjoy all the ad- 
of this instrument to proclaim, not only vantages of the Fnion, and bear none of 
that the duty imposed on me by the Con- its burdens. Eloquent appeals to your 
stitution "to take care that the laws be passions, to your State pride, to )'our 
faithfully executed," shall be performed native courage, to your sense of real in- 
to the extent of the powers already in- jury, were used to prepare 
'ou for th
,ested in me by law, or of such others as period when the mask which concealed th
the wisdom of Congress shall devise 
nd hideous features of disunion should be 
intrust to me for that purpose, but to taken off. It fell, and :rou were made to 
warn the citizens of South Carolina who look with complacency on objects which, 
have been deluded into an opposition to not long since, you would have regarded 
the laws, of the danger they will incur by with horror. Look back to the arts 
olwdience to the illegal and disorganizing which have brought you to this state; 
ordinance of the convention; to exhort look forward to the consequences to 
those who have refused to support it to which it must inevitablv lead! Look 
persevere in their determination to up- back to what was fh-st told you as an in- 
hold the Constitution and laws of their ducement to enter into this dangerous 
country, and to point out to all the peril- course! The great political truth was Te- 
ous situation into which the good people peated to you, that you had the revolu- 
of that State have been led, and that the tionary right of l'esisting all laws that 
course they have been urged to pursue is were palpably unconstitutional and in- 
one of ruin and disgrace to the \'ery State tolerably opPl'essive; it was added that 
whose rights they affect to support. the right to nullify a law rested on the 
Fellow-citizens of my native State, let same principle, but that it was a pea('(>- 
me not only admonish you, as the first able remedy. This character which was 
magistrate of our common country, not given to it made you receive, with too 
to incur the penalty of its laws, but use much confidence, the assertions that wpre · 
the influence that a father would over his made of the unconstitutionality of the 
children whom he saw rushing to certain law and its oppressive effects. Mark, my 
l-uin. In that paternal language, with fellow-citizens, that, by the admission of 
that paternal feeling, let me tell you, my :rour leaders, the unconstitutionality 
countrymen, that you are deluded by men must be palpahle, or it will not justify 
who are either deceind themselves or wish either resistance or nullification! \nu1Ì 
to deceive you. Mark under what pre- is the meaning of the word palpable in 
tences you have been led on to the brink the sense in which it is here used? That 
of insurrection and treason on which you which is apparent to everyone; Hat 
staml! First, a diminution of the value which no man of ordinary intellect will 
of your staple commodity, lowered hy over- fail to perceive. I!'I the unconstitution- 
production in other quarters, and the con- ality of these laws of that <If'srription? 


Let those among your leaders, who once tection so many different States-giving 
approved and advocated the principle of to all their inhabitants the proud title of 
protective duties, answer the question, American citizens, protecting their COI11- 
and let them choose whether they will be meree, sf'curÏng their literhture aDd their 
considered as incapable then of perc('iv- arts; facilitating their intercommunica- 
ing that which must have been apparC'nt tion; d('fending their frontiers; and mak- 
to every man of common understanding, ing their name respected in the remotest 
or as imposing upon your confidence, and parts of the earth. Consider the extent 
endeavoring to mislead you now. In of its territory; its increasing and happy 
either case they are unsafe guides in the population; its ad,Ta-nce in arts which ren- 
perilous path they urge you to tread. der life agreeable; and the sciences which 
l'onder well on this circumstance, and elevate the mind! See education spread- 
you will know how to appreciate the ex- ing the lights of religion, morality, and 
aggerated language they address to you. general information into every cottage in 
They are not champions of liberty emu- this wide extent of our Territories and 
lating the fame of our Revolutionary States! Behold it as the asylum where 
fatJlCrs: nor are you an oppressed p('o- the wretched and the opprcssed find a 
pIe contending, as they repeat to you, refuge and support! Look on this pict- 
against worse than colonial val5salage. ure of happiness and honor, and say, we, 
You are free memb('rs of a flourishing too, are citizens of America! Carolina is 
and happy Lnion. There is no settlcd de- one of thcsc proud States; her arms have 
sign to oppress you. You have, indeed, defended, her best blood has cemented, this 
felt the unequal operation of laws which happy Cnion! And then add. if you 
may have been unwisely, not unconstitu- can, without horror and remorse, this hap- 
tionaBy, passed; but that inequality must py "Gnion we will dissolve; this picture of 
necessarily be removed. At the very mo- peace and prosperity we will deface; this 
ment when you were madly urgcd on to free intercourse we will interrupt; these 
the unfortunate course you have begun, fertile fields we will deluge with blood; 
a change in public opinion had com- the protection of that glorious flag we 
meneed. The neady approaching pay- renounce; the very name of Americans 
ment of the public debt. and the conse- we discard. And for what, mistaken men; 
quent necessity of a diminution of duties, for what do you throwaway these inps- 
had already produccd a considerable re- timable blessings? For what would you 
duction, and that, too, on some articles e-xchange your share in the advantages 
of general consumption in your State. and honor of the Union? For the dream 
The importance of thi!:\ change was under- of separate independence-a dream inter- 
rated, and you were authoritatively told rupted by bloody conflicts with your neigh- 
that no further aBeviation of your bur- bors, and a. vile dependence on a foreign 
dens was to be ('xlwctcd at the \"Cry time power. If ;your lcaders could succeed in 
when the condition of the country im- establishing a separation, what would be 
periously demandpd HICh a modification :rour situation? Are you united at home; 
of the duties as should reduce them to a are you free from the apprehension of civil 
just amI equitable scale. But, as if ap- discord, with aU its fearful consequences? 
prehensive of tllP effect of this change in Do your neigllboring republics, every day 
anaying your discontcnts, you were pre- suffering some new revolution, or contend- 
cipitatc.d into the fearful state in which ing with some new insurrection-do they 

'ou now find yourselvcs. e
cite your env,y? But the dictates of a 
I have urf!ed you to look back to the high duty oblige me solemnly to announce 
menns that were used to hurry you on tJlat you cannot succeed. The laws of the 
to the position you have now assumed, and United States must be executed. I have 
forward to the eonscquences it will pro- no discretionary power on the subject; 
duce. Something more is necf'ssary. Con- my duty is emphatically pronounced in 
h:mplatc the condition of that country t.he Constitution. Those who told you 
of which you still form an important part. that you might peaceably prevent their 
Consider its government uniting in one ('xecution dcceived you; they could net 
bond of common interest and general pro- have been deceived themselves. They know 


that a forcible opposition could alone pre- tion of your country. Its destroyers you 
vent the execution of the laws, and they cannot be. You may disturb its peace; 
know that such opposition must be re- 
.ou may interrupt the course of its pros- 
pelled. Their object is disunion; but be perity; you may cloud its reputation for 
not deceived by names: disunion, by armed stability, but its tranquillity will be re- 
force, is treason. Are you really readJ" to stored, its prosperity will return, and 
incur its guilt? If you are, on the heads the stain upon its national character will 
of the instigators of the act be the dread- be transferred and remain an eternal blot 
ful consequences; on their heads be the on the memory of those who causf'd the 
dishonor, but on yours may fan the pun- disorder. 
ishment. On your unhappy State will Fellow-citizens of the United States, 
inevitably fall all the evils of the con- tIle threat of unhallowed disunion - the 
flict you force upon the government of names of those once respected, by whom 
Jour country. It cannot accede to the it is uttered-the array of military force 
mad project of disunion, of which you to support it-denote the approach of a 
would be the first victims; its first magis- crisis in our affairs on which the con- 
trate cannot, if he would, avoid the per- tinuance of our unexampled prosperity, 
formance of his duty. The consequence our political existence, and, perhaps, that 
must be fearful for you, distressing to of all free governments, may depend. 
your fellow-citizens here, and to the The conjuncture demanded a free, a full, 
friends of good government throughout and explicit enunciation, not only of my 
the world. Its enemies have beheld our intentions, but of my principles of action; 
prosperity ,vith a vexation they could not and, as the claim was asserted of a right 
conceal; it was a standing refutation of by a State to annul the laws of the Union, 
their slavish doctrines, and they will point and even to secede from it at pleasure, a 
to our discord with the triumph of maIig- frank expo>:ition of my opinions in rela- 
nant joy. It is yet in your power to dis- tion to the origin and form of our gov- 
appoint them. There is yet time to show crument, and the construction I give to 
that the descendants of the Pinckneys, the instrument by which it was created, 
the Sum tel's, the Rutledges, and of the seemed to be proper. Having the funest 
thousand other names which adorn the confidence in the justness of the legal 
pages of your Revolutionary history, will and constitutional opinion of my duties, 
not abandon that "Cnion, to support which which has been expressed, I rely, with 
so many of them fought, and bled, and equal confidence, on your undivided sup- 
died. port in my determination to ("{ecute the 
I adjure you, as you honor their mem- laws, to preserve the Union by all con- 
ory, as you love the cause of freedom, to stitutional means, to arrest, if possible, 
which they dedicated their lives, as you by moderate but firm measures, the neces- 
prize the peace of :rour country, the lives sity of a recourse to force; and, if it be 
of its best citizens, and your own fair th(> will of Hea-ven, that the recurrenCE> 
fame, to retrace your steps. Snatch from of its primeval curse on man for the 
the archives of your State the di!':organ- shedding of a brother's blood should fall 
izing edict of its convention; hid. its upon our land, that it be not called down 
members to reas
emble, and promulgate by an offensive act on the part of the 
the decided expressions of )"our wiJl to enited States. 
remain in the path which alone can con- Fellow - citizens, the momentous case 
duct you to safety, prosperity. and honor. is before you. On your undivided sup- 
T('11 them that, compared to disunion, all port of 
"our government depends the de- 
other evils arf' light, hecause that brings cision of the great question it involves, 
with it an accumulation of all. Declare whether your sacred Union will be pre. 
that vou will n(>v(>r take the field unless served, and the blessings it secures to us 
the star-spanglf'd banner of your country as One people shall be perpetuated. No 
f;hall float O\"er you; that you will not one can douht that the unanimity with 
be stigmatized when df'ad. and dishonored which that decision will be expressed will 
and scorned while you live, as the au- he snch as to inspire new confidence in 
thors of the first attack on the Constitu- republican institutions, and that the pru- 


dence, the wisdom, and the courage which camped around Lawrence, Kan., where he 
it will bring to their defence will trans- took measures to prevent a legal polling 
mit them unimpaired and invigorated to of votes at an election for members of 
our children. the territorial legislature,. late in :March. 
l\Iay the Great Ruler of nations grant His followers threatened to hang a judge 
that the signal blessings with which He who attempted to secure an honest vote, 
has favored ours may not, by the madness and by threats compelled another to re- 
of partJ' or personal ambition, be disre- ceive every vote oft'ered by a l\Iissourian. 
g-anled and lost; and may His wise Provi- When the Civil 'Var broke out, Jackson 
dence bring those who have produced this made strenuous eft'orts to place Missouri 
crisis to see their folly before they feel on the side of secession, but was foiled 
the misery of civil strife, and inspire a re- chiefly through the eft'orts of Gen. :N a- 
turning veneration for that Union which, thaniel Lyon. He was deposed by the 
if we may dare to penetrate His designs, Missouri Statc convention, in July, 1861, 
He has ehosen as the only means of attain- when he entered the CQnfederate military 
ing the high destinies to which we may service as a brigadier-general. He died 
reasonably a!':pire. in Little Rock, Ark., Dec. 6, 1862. 
In testimon,\T whereof, I have caused the Jackson, FRANCIS, social reformer; 
seal of the United States to be hereunto born in Newton, :Mass., March 7, 178n; 
affixed, having signed the same with my president of the Anti-Slavery Society in 
hand. :Boston for many years. He published a 
Done at the city of 'Yashington. this History of Newton, and died there Nov. 
lOth day of Deccmber, in the year of our 14, 18Gl. 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and Jackson, FRAXCIS J.UIES, British min- 
thirty-two, and of the independence of the ister to the United States, who succeeded 
rnitf'd States the fifty-seventh. David M. Erskine iu 180!). An experi- 
Jackson, CUARI.ES Tno:\IAs, geologist; enced dil)lomatist, he Ilad lately figured 
born in Plymouth, Mass., June 21, 1805; discreditably in thc aft'air of the seizure 
graduated at Harvard in 182!). and after- of the Danish fleet by British men-of-war 
wards studied in Paris. He was appoint- at Copenhagen. He had become known as 
ed State gf'ologist of Maine and surveyor "Copenhagen Jackson," whose conduct diù 
of public lands in 1836, and of Rhode IsI- not commend him to the good-wiH of the 
and in lR3!); and suhsequently was engaged people of the enited States. The imprps- 
on the geological survey of New Hamp- sion was that he had come with explana- 
shire; explored the southern shore of Lake tions of the cause of the rejf'ction of 
Superior in 1844; and was appointed to Erskine's arrangenwnt. The Secretary of 
survey the mineral lands of Michigan in State, finding he had nothing to oft'er, ad- 
1847. He is author of a large number of dressed Jackson in a letter in which a tone 
rcports on the geology of Maine, New of discontent was conspicuous, decJaring 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the surprise and regret of the President 
etc. He claimed to he the discoverer of that he had no e
planations to oft'pr as to 
ct11erization, and received the :Mont yon the non-ratification of the :Erskine ar- 
prize from the French Academy of rangement, or authority to substitute any 
Sciences. He died in Somerville, Mass., new arrangement for it. The object of the 
Aug. 28, 1880. letter, probably, was to draw out from 
Jackson, CLAIBORNE Fox, statesman; Jackson an explicit admission. as a basis 
horn in Fleming county, Ky., April 4, for an appeal to the nation, that he haù 
1807; became conspicuous as a leader no authority to treat except upon the 
in the eft'orts of pro-slavery men to make ground of Canning's three conditions- 
Kansas a slave-labor State. In 1822 he namely, 1. The repealing as to Great 
went to :Missouri; was a captain in the J
ritain, but the kepping in force aR to 
Black Hawk "\-Var; sprved several years in France, and aU countries adopting her 
the State legislature; and was elee1ed gov- decrees. so long as these df'crees were cnn- 
ernor of :Missouri by the Df'mo('rats in timwd, all American non-importation and 
lR60. In IR!)!) he led a hand of lawlesf'l non-intC'rcourse act!';; 2. The rf'nun('iation 
men from Missouri, who, fuJly armed, en- by the United States, during the present 


war, of any pretensions to carryon any government. In 1883, while a special 
trade \" ith the colonies of belligerents m)t commlSSIOJl('r to inquire into the circum- 
allowed in tinte of peace; and 3. The allow- stances of the Mission Indians of Cali- 
ing British ships-of-war to enforce, by fornia, sll(' 
tlJdif'd the history of the early 
caJ ture, the American non-intercourse acts Spanish missions, and a short time prior 
wi\h France and her allies. Jackson de- to her death she wrote thf' Presidf'nt a 
dared that the rejection of that part of letter pathetically asking for the" right- 
the arrangement of Erskine relating to ing of the wrongs of the Indian race." 
the affair of the Chesapeake and Leopard Her works include Verses -,' Bits of Travel-,' 
was owing partIy to the offensive terms Nelly's F:!ilver-Mine; The 
í;Jtory of Boonc-,' 
employed in the American note to Erskine A Century of Dishonor; Mammy Littlc- 
concerning it. This note had offended the back and her Family; Ramona; Glimpses 
old monarch, with whom Admiral Berkeley of Thrce Coasts; Hetty's Strange History, 
was a fa\'orite. In it Secretary Smith and others. She died in San Francisco, 
said, April 17, 1809: "I have it in express Cal., Aug. 12, 1885. 
charge from the President to state that, Jackson, HENRY BOOTES, military offi- 
while he forbears to insist on a further cer; born in Athens, Ga., June 24, 1820; 
punishment of the offending officer, he is graduated at Yale College in 1839, and 
not the less sensible of the justice and admitted to the bar in 1840, when he 
utility of such an example, nor the less settled in Savannah. He was appointed 
persuaded that it would best comport with United States district attorney for 
what is due from his Britannic 
Iajesty Georgia in 1843. During the Mexican 
to his own honor." Jackson's manner was 'Var he was colonel of the 1st GeOl'gia 
offensive. He had an unbounded admira- Volunteers. At the close of the war he 
tion for the government be represented, became part proprietor of The Georgian, 
and a profound contempt for the Ameri- in 
avanuah. In 18!i3 he was sent to thf' 
cans as an inferior people. He treated the Court of Austria as the Cnited States 
officers of the "Cnited States government chargé d'affaires. In 18.34-58 he was 
with the same haughty bearing that he did minister to Austria. Returning to the 
those of weak and bleeding Denmark, and, "Fnited States he was ('ümmissioned å 
after one or two personal interviews, Sec- special United States distriet attorney for 
retary Smith refused to have any further Georgia, to aid in trying notorious slave- 
intercourse with him except in writing. trading cases. 'Yhen the Civil \Var broke 
The insolent diplomat was offended, and out he entered the Confederate army with 
wrote an impudent letter to the Secretary. the rank of brigadier-generaL During tbe 
He was informed that no more communi- battle of Nashville, in December, 18ü4, be 
cations would be received from him, when was taken prisoner, and was held till the 
Jackson, disappointed and angry, left elo:"e of the war. Returning to S&vannah 
Washington with every member of the he resumed law practice. In 1875-88 he 
diplomatic family, and retired to New was a trustee of the Peabody Educational 
York. The United States government re- Fund. In 1885 he was appointed minister 
quested his recall, and early in 1810 he to Mexico, but sened only a few months, 
was summoned to England. No other owing to his opposition to the govern- 
minister was sent to the United States for ment in seizing the American ship Re- 
ahout a year. becca. He published Tallulah, and other 
Jackson, HELE
 l\IARIA FISKE. author; Poems. He died in Savannah, Ga., May 
born in Amhf'rst, 
Iass., Oct. 18, 1831; 23, 1898. 
daughter of Prof. Nathan 'V. Fiske; was Jackson, HOWELL EDlIIu
DS, jurist; 
educated in the Ipswich Female Semi- born in Paris, Tenn., April 8, 1832; grad- 
nary; married Capt. Edward B. Hunt in uated at the 'Yest Tennessee College in 
1852. She first be<>ame known as an au- 1848; admitted to the bar in 183G; elected 
thor under the letters "H. H." in 1875, United States Senator from Tennessee in 
when she married \Villiam S. Jackson. 1881, but resigned in 18R6. when lIe was 
In 1879 she became deeply interested in appointed United States district judge by 
the condition of the American Indians and President Cleveland; appointed justice of 
their treatment by the United States the United States Supreme Court in 1893. 

'Vest Meade, Tenn., Aug. 8, Hanard College in 1761; held a seat in 
the Provincial Congress in 1775; was 
rnited States marshal in 178!)-91. He 
wrote Thoughts upon the Political F:!itua- 
tion of the United Btåtes. He died in 
Boston, Mass., March 5, 1810. 
Jackson, SIIELDO
, clergyman; born 
in Minaville, N. Y., May 18, 1834; gradu- 
ated at Union College in 1855, and at 
Princeton Theological Seminary in 1858, 
and was ordained a minister in the 
Presbyterian Church on May 5 of the lat- 
ter year. The same 
'ear he went as a 
missionary to the Choctaw Indians. In 
1859-69 he was engaged in missionary 
work in western '''isconsin and southern 
l\Iinnesota; in lR()!)-70 was superinh>nd- 
ent of the Presbyterian missions in 
western Iowa, Nebraska, and the Rocky 
Mountain Territories; anù in 1877 became 
supedntendent of the Presbyterian mis- 
sions in Alaska. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed United States general agent of 
education for the Territory of Alaska. 
In 1887 he organized at Sitka the Alaskan 
r of Natural History and EUmoI- 
ogy; in 1884 induced Congress to grant 
a district organization to Alaska; in 18!)} 
introduced reindeer into that region; and 
in 18n8 was authorized to secure a colony 
cf Laplanders for Alaska. He was sev- 
eral times a commissionC'r to the general 
assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
and moderator in 18!)7. He gave $.")0.000 
to establish a Christian college in Utah 
in 18!)6. He is a member of the National 
in March, 1780, with Lieutenant-Gonrnor Geographical Society, and many other 
'VeIls, killing his antagonist, and heing similar organizations. His publication" 
severely wounded himself. He joined Col. include Alaska and J[issiolls on the 
Elijah Clarke, and became aidc to Sum- North Parific Coast; Education in 
ter. With Pickens he shared in the vic- Hoska, and elaborate reports on Alaska 
tory at the Cowpens. He afterwards did in the annual reports of the "Cnited States 
good service as commanùer of a legionary Commissioner of Education. 
corps, and was presented with a dwelling Jackson, TnmlAs JO
ATHAN, military 
in Savannah by the Georgia legislature. officer; born in Clarkshurg. Va., Jan. 21, 
In 1786 he was made brigadier-general, 1824; graduated at West Point in 184G, 
and in 1788 was elected governor of entering the 2d Artillery; served in 
Georgia, but the latter office he declined. the war with Mexico; was brevetted 
I,'rom 178!) to 17m he was a member of captain and major; and resigned in 1852 
Congress, and from 17!)3 to 17!)5, and v,ith health impaired, becoming profess- 
from 1801 to 1806, United States Senator. or in the Military Institute at l..exing- 
I"rom 1798 to 1801 he was governor of ton, Va. He entered the Confederate ser- 
the State. He died in \Vashington, D. C., vice, as colonel, in April. 18Gl, and com- 
March 12, 1806. manded the "Army of Observation" at 
Jackson, JONATHAN, patriot; born in Harper's Ferry. Hi
 first engagement waR 
110ston, Mass., June 4, 1743; graduat('ù at at Falling '''aters. Jackson commanded 

He died in 
Jackson, JA1IIES, military officer; horn 
in Devonshire, England, Sept. 21, 1757; 
removed to Sa,-annah, Ga., in 1772; stud- 
if'd law; entered the military service; 
and was brigade-major of the Georgia 
militia in 1778. He took part in the 
defence of Savannah; and, when the Brit- 
ish seized it at the close of 1778, he flcd 
to South Carolina, where he joined Gen- 
eral Moultrie. His appearance was so 
wretched while in his flight, that he was 
arrested. tried, and condemned as a spy, 
and was about to be e
ecuted, when a 
reputable citizen of Ceorgia, who knew 
him, saved him. Jackson fought a duel 

I J ,,' 

I ?fr- 

A . 




" -.f 
- ""'







I - -(.
'" --:::........ 




a brigade in the battle of Bull Run, where 
he received the name of "Stonewall." A 
furious cha.rge, made by a Kew York regi- 


ment, under Col. HC'nry 'V. Slocum, 

orphan, at an early age; at the breaking 
out of the Revolutionary War he entered 
the military service. He finally became 
aide to General Lincoln, and was made a 
prisoner at Charleston in 1780. He was 
secretary to Col. John Lam'ens, special 
ministf'r to Prance, and was in 'Vashing- 
ton's military family as aide, with the 
rank of majOl'. Jackson was assistant 
Secretary of \Var under \Yashington, and 
was secretary to the convention that 
framed the national Constitution in 1787. 
From 17tj!) to I ïH
 he was aide and private 
secretary to President \Vashington; from 
I i!)ü to 1801 was surveyor of the port of 
Philadelphia, and was secretary to the 
General Society of the Cincinnati. He 
died in Philadelphia, Dec. 17, 1828. 
Jackson and St. Philip, FORTS, two 
fortifications on the :Mississippi River, 
5, miles southeast of Kew Orleans, which 
command the lower approach to that 
city. Both were strongly fortified by the 
Confederates in the early part of the 
Civil War, and were passed by the fleet 
under Farragut, April 24, 1862. 



Althougl1 Farragut had passed these 
forts, and the Confederate flotilla had 
Leen destroyed. the fortifications were still 
firmly held. The mortar-lied under Por- 
t('r was lwlow them. General Butler, who 
llad accompanied the gunboats on their 
perilous l'as
age on the 
í;Ja$on, had re- 
turned to his transports, and in small 
hoats his troops, under the general pilot- 
age of Gen. Godfrey \Yeitzel, passed 
through bayous to the rear of Fort 
Philip. When he was prepared to assail 
it, the garrison was surrendered without 

cer; Lorn in Oldham county, Ky., in 1825; 
went to California in 18-Hi, where he aided 
Gen. John C. 1<--'r('mont in conquering that 
section. In IHli2 he recnIited a regiment 
of 1,244 cavalry at Eminence, Ky.; in 
18ß3 became lieutenant-governor ot' Ken- 
tucky. He was strongly opposed to Presi- 
dent Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, 
holding that it not only deprived those 
Joyal citizens who owned slaves of their 
property, but it was unjust to the friends 
of the Union. 
Jacobi, MARY PUTNAM, physician; born 



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resistance (April 28), for they had heard 
of the destruction of the Confederate flo- 
t illa. The commander of Fort .J ackson, 
fC'aring that all was lost, accepted gener- 
ous terms of sUT)"C'nd('r from Commodore 
Porter. The prisonC'rs taken in the fort'J 
and at the f}llanmtinp numbered about 
] .000. The entire los3 of the Nationals 
from the h('ginning of the contest until 
New Orleans was taken was forty killed 
find 177 wounded. Sce NEW ORLEANS. 
Jacob, RICHAHD TAYLOR, military 

in J
ondon, England, Aug. 31, 1842; 
daughter of George P. Putnam. of New 
York. She studied in the Philadelphia 

fC'dical CoHege for Women, and grad- 
uated at the New York ColJege of Phar- 
he was tlH' first woman ma- 
triculated at the École de l\fMecine, in 
Paris, France, where she graduated in 
lR71. For twelve years she was the dis- 
lwnsary physician at the Mount Sinai 
Hospital. and for ten years was professor 
offi- in the Woman's 
fedical College, both in 


New York. Her essay, The QucstÜJn of maica, which they easily took possession 
Rest for lVomen during Jlenstruation, of, for it ,vas inhabited by only a few of 
won the Boylston prize. She is the au- the enervated descendants of old Spanish 
thoI' of The Value of Life; Cold Pa<Jk and colonists and some negro slaves. 'Vinslow 
Massage in .Anæmia; Hysteria; Brain died at sea soon after the repulse at Santo 
'l'umor, and other Essays; Studies in Pri- Domingo, and Sedgwick, of l\Iassadm- 
'1IW1"Y Education; Common-Sense Applicd setts, was put in his place. He framed an 
to n'oman Suffrage; and numerous articles instrument of government for Jamaica, 
in medical periodicals. having a supreme executive council, of 
Jacobs, BE
JAlIIIN FRANKLIN, philan- which he was the head. CromweH, an x- 
thropist; born in Paterson, N. J., Sept. ious to retain and people the island with 
18, 1834; received a }iùeral education; subjects of Great Britain, ordered the en- 
and engaged in business in Chicago in listment in Ireland of 1,000 girls and 
1854. At an early age he became deep- young men, and sent them over. "Idle, 
ly interested in Sunday-school work. In mastedess robbers and vagabonds, male 
1856 he was superintendent of the First and female," were arrested anù sent to 
Baptist Mission Sunday-school of Chi- Jamaica; and to have a due admixture of 
cago, and in 1864 director of the First good morals and religion in the new col- 
Baptist Sunday Choir. During the Civil ony, Cromwell sent a.g
nts to New Eng-- 
\-Var he was secretary of the northwestern land for emigrants. :Many at New Haven, 
branch of the enited Statf's Christian not prospering at home, were disposed to 
Commission. He founded the \Vail's go. hut. the magistrates opposing, few 
Mission in Chicago, aníl with others or- ,nut. The island wn:'\ of great commercial 
ganized the Imnumnel Baptist (,hnn-h impOl.talwe wlwu tIle outhreak between the 
there in I8
n, ùl'('omin
 snl)('1 intf'ndf'nt of English-American colonies aníl the mothPI' 
its Sunday-school. He originatf'd t1lC' country occlIlTcd. Tn Dec'f'lllhf'l' its legis- 
International Hunday-school Lessons which loture interposP(1. They affirmed the rights 
are u!':f'd now hy an evangelif'al denol11- of the colonies, f'numeratf'd their griev- 
inations. In lRï2 he hf'f'ame a memhf'r anees, and. enforcing their claims to re- 
of t1u> international k:-;
on C'ommittN>. dress. implored the King to hecome the 
For sP\'eral years hf' has l)('en ehainnan mediator for l)(,:1ce, and to recognize the 
of t1H' f'xecntive committee of the Inter- title of th(> _\mericans to the hpnp(jts of 
TIntinnal Sunda
'-school Association. the Eng-lish constitution. They disclaimed 
Jacobs, IIJ.::n:y EYSTER. theologian: any intention of joining the American con- 
horn in Gettyshurg, Pa.. Nm'. 10. IH--I-4: federated colonies. for they were too weak, 
graduated at Pennsylvania Col1ege in IR62. l.eing only a smaB colony of white inhab- 
and at the Lutheran Theological Seminary, itant
, with more than 200,000 slaves. 
Gettyshurg, in IRG5; became Professor of TIlPir pptition was received ùy the King, 

."stf'matic Theology at the Lutheran hut no heed was given to it. 
Tlleological Seminary in 1888. He is the James I., King of England, etc.; 
author of H isto1"JI of the TAtthcron f1hurch \)/)n1 in Edinhurgh Castle, .J Hne 19, IfJfiß; 
in A.1n('rira,' The German Emigration to Ron of ::\fary Q\H'('n of Scots and Henry 
A.mericn. l,{)r)-
O, etc. Lonl Darnlpv. Of him Charles Dickens 
Jamaica, CONQUEST OF. \Vhen Crom- writf's: .. EÍe was ugly, awkward, and 
weB had made peace with the Dutch shutning, hoth in mind and person. His 
(1654) he declared war against Spain, tongue was much too large for his mouth, 
and sent a fleet under Admiral Penn and his leO's wpre much too weak for his bod v, 
an army under General Yenables to attack and his dun google-eyes stared and r
panish 'Vest Indies. Edward \Vinslow like an idiot's. Hf' was cunnin).!. COVl't- 
went with t11e fleet as one of Cromwell's ous, \Va-stefnl, idle, drunken, greedy, dirty, 
commissioners to superintend the con- cowardly. a great swearer, and the most 
quered countries. By vohmtef'rs from cOl1C'eited m:ln on earth. His figure-what 
Harhadops and the Leeward Islands the was C'01mnonlv C':tIled rÍeketv from hif'l 
army was inC'l'f'aspd to 10.000. Santo 110- hirth-rrf'senÙa the most ri
1iculous ar- 
ming-o was first attacked. The English pearanee that ('an he imagined, dl'egsed 
were repulsed, and then proceedeù to Ja- in thick - padded clothes, as a safeguard 


land, after experiencing many vicissitudes, 
March 24, IG03. 
He was regarded as a "Presbyterian 
king," and the Puritans' expected not only 
the blessings of toleration and protection 
for themselves, but even hope for suprem- 
aC'y among the religionists of the realm. 

oon after his accession, James called a 
conference of divines at Hampton Court. 
He was chief actor at that conference, in 
the rôle of "brute and mountebank." 
Some of the Puritan divinC's ranked 
Bmong the brightest sC'holars in the land. 
They were greatIy annoyed by the COal'se 
browbeating of the bishop of London and 
the coarser jests of the King. The ven- 
erable Archbishop \Vhitgift was present, 
and bent tIle supple knee of the courtier 
in the presence of royalty. When the 
vulgar King said to the Puritan ministers, 
"You want to strip Christ again; away 
with your snivelling," and much more to 
that effect, Whitgift, the primate, ex- 
C'laimed, "Your Majesty speaks by the 
special assistance of God's spirit." And 
the bishop of London feU upon his knees 
and said, "I protest my heart melts 
within me for joy that Almighty God, of 
His singular mercy, has given us such a 
King as, since Christ's time, has not been." 
Ion on the necks of his favorite courtiers This was the beginning of those royal and 
and slobber their faces, and kiss and pinch prdatical revi1ings and persecutions of the 
their cheeks; and the greatest favorite he Puritans by the Stuarts and the hier- 
ever had used to sign himself, in his let- archy which drove the Puritans, in large 
tel's to his royal master, 'his :Majesty's numbers, to seek asylum in the wilds of 
dog and slave.' He was the worst rider North America. 
enr seen, and thought himself the best. The King's gross, ill manners and bad 
H(' was one of the most impertinent talkers T'"rsonal appearance made an un favor- 
(of the broadest Scotch) ever heard, and able impression on the English people. 
boasted of being unanswerable in an man- He had trouble with Parliament and 
ner of argument. He wrote some of the with the religionists of his realm from 
n:ost turgid and most wearisome treaties tIle begínning of his reign. Glad to 
('HI' read-among others, a book upon (;(>t rid of troublesome subjects, he rpad- 
witchcraft, in whiC'h lIe was a devout be- i1y granted chaders for settlements in 
Hever-and thought himself a prodigy of America; and in 1612 two "heretiC's" 
authorship. He thought, and ðaid, tII;Ü a were burned in Em;land, tlle last exe- 
king had a right to make and unmake cution of that kind that oC'curred in 
what laws he plí'ased, and ought to be ac- that country. His son Henry, Princp of 
countable to nobody on earth. This is the 'Vales, died the same year, and his daugh- 
pìain, true character of the personage tel' :Elizabeth was married to the Elector 
uhom the greatest men about the Court Palatine in 1613. His treatment of Sir 
praised and flattered to that degree that I 'Yalter Raleigh, whom he caused to be 
doubt if there be anything- more shameful beheaded (October, 1618), was disgrace- 
in the annals of human nature!" .James ful to human nature; his foreign policy, 
was the sixth King of Scotland of that a 1so. was disgraceful to tIle English name. 
name, and came to the throne' of Eng- Fickle, treacherous, conceited, and arbi- 

hgainst being stabbed (of which he lived 
in constant fear), of a grass-green color 
from head to foot, with a hunting horn 
dangling at his side instead of a sword, 
and his hat and feather sticking over one 
eye or hanging on the back of his head, 
as he happened to toss it on. He used to 


, ,.. 


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trary, his whole life was an example to be 
avoided by the good. Dickens's portrayal 
of his personal character is a fair picture 
of his reign so far as the King was con- 
cerned. It was during that reign that a 
new translation of the Bible was author- 
ized (lGO-1) -the English version :ret in 
use. The Duke of Buckingham was 
J ames's special fa vori te for a long time; 
and he and the Queen were suspected of 
causing the King's last illness, by poison. 
James II., King of England; bom in 
St. James's Palace, London, Oct. 14:, Hi33; 
son of Charles 1. and Henrietta Maria. 
During the civil war, in which his father 
lost his head, James and his bl"Other 
Gloucester and sister Elizabeth were un- 
aer the guardianship of the Duke of 
Northumberland, and lived in the palace. 
'Yhen the overthrow of monarchy a.p- 
pea red inevitable, in lG48, he tied to 
the KetherIands, with his mother 
and family, and he was in Paris 
when Charles 1. was beheaded. He 
entered the French service (1651), 
and thf'n the Spanish (1655), and 
was trea.ted with much consideration 
by the Spaniards. His brother as- 
cenùed the British throne in lGGO as 
Charles II., and Hie same year James 
married Anne Hyde, daughter of the 
Ead of Clarendon. She died in 
IGil, and two years a.fterwards, 
James married :Maria Beatrice Elea- 
nor, a princess of the House of Este, 
of Modena, twenty-five years younger 
than himself. 'Vhile in exile James 
had become a, Roman Catholic, but 
did not acknowleùge it until IG71. 
He had become a commander in the 
British navy, but the test - act of 
1673 caused him to leave all public 
employments. Being sent to Scot- 
land as head of the administration 
there, he treated the Covenanters 
with great cruelty. When Charles 
died, .T ames became King (Feb. 6. ' \ I 
I(85). The prime object of his ad- 
ministration was to overthrow the 
constitution of England and give the 
control of the nation to Roman 
Catholics. His rule was vigorous-often- James, BEN.TA
nN, lawyer; born in 
tinws tyrannous-and in less than three Statt'ord county, Va., April 22, 1768; be- 
Yf'ars almost the whole of his subjects ('ame a lawyer and practisNI in Charles- 
<ktestf'd him. The foreign policy of ton, S. C., till lif)G. Iiemo\,pd to his 
the government was made subservient to native place and followed his profession 

that of France. Finall,y, the announce- 
ment that the Queen had given birth 
tu a son brought on a political crisis. 
The people had been restraineù from revo- 
lution by the belief that the govemment 
would soon fall into the hands of his eld- 
est daughter, who had married the Prot- 
estant Prince 'William of Orange. Now 
that event seemed remote, and \Yilliam 
was invited by leading men of the realm 
to invade England. He did so in Novem- 
ber, 1688, when the King -was abandoned 
by everyone but the Roman Catholics- 
even by his daughter Anne, who was after- 
wards Queen of England. James fled to 
:France, where he was receh'ed by Louis 
XIV. with open arms. He made efforts to 
regain his kingdom, but failed, and died 
in St. Germain, France, Sept. 6, 1701. 

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till 1808, when he settled permanently in press on engrossing questions of the day. 
Laurens district, S. C. He publishe(} t'ince 18ü!) he has lived chiefl,r in England. 
Digest of the Statute and Common Law His publications include Trans-Atlantic 
of ('arolina. He died in Laurens district, Hketches (18i5); A Pa!;sionate Pilgrim; 
S. C., Nov. 15, 1825. '}'IIc .--t mC1.ican
' The Europeans
' An Inter- 
James, ED
IUND JANES, educator; born national Episode; The Siege of London; 
in Jacksonville, Ill., May 21, 1855; was The Bostonians; Poor Richard; lI T atch 
educated at the Illinois 
tate Normal and WaT(l
' Life of Hawth()rne
' A Little 
School and at the Northwcstern and Har- 'four in France; A London Life; The 
yard universitie:'-\. In 18i8 -if) he was '1'l'agic Muse; The Lesson of the Master
principal of the High School at Evanston, l::mban'assments
' Tales of Three Cities; 
Ill.; in 187H-8
 principal of the Model Essays in London and Elsewhere J ' The 
chool at Konnal, Ill.; and in 1883- Wheel of Time; IT'hat tlaisie Knew, etc. 
fI;) Profpssor of Puhlic Finance and Ad- James, HENRY A1IIMON, lawyer; born in 
ministration in the \\'harton School of Baltimore, l\Id., April 24, 1834; graduated 
l.'inancl' and Economy of the Unin'n-;it
T of at Yale College in 18i4, and at its law 
ania. He was also Professor of school in 1878; hpgan practice in New 
Political and Social Science in the rniver- York City in 1880. He is the author of 
sity of Pennsylvania in I 88--1-f);) , and (10mmunism in Ame1'Ïca. 
editor of Political Economy and Public James, LEWIS GEORGE, historian; born 
Economy al/d Public Law Series, publish- in Providence, R. 1., Feb. 19, 1844; grad- 
ed by the elliversity of Pennsylvania, in uated at Providence High School; instruc- 
188G-9;). He became president of the tor in history in the Adelphia Academy, 
American Academy of Political and Social Brooklyn, in 1894-95. He is the author 
Science in 188!), and from 18!)0 to 1895 of Samuel G01.ton, a Forgotten Founder 
edited its .1_nnals. In the latter year he of our [,iberties, etc. 
was made associate editor. In 18!)5 he James, TIIO
fAS, clergyman; born in 
was chosen Professor of Public Adminis- :England in lö!)2; graduated at Cambridge 
tration and dil'ector of tlw Extension in lü14; emigrated to the rnited States 
Division in the rniversity of Chicago. In in 1632, where he became the first pastor 
IS91-!)5 he was president of the American of the church in Charlestown, :Mass. In 
Society for the Extension of L"niversity consequence of dissension he removed to 
Teaching. He is the author of Uur Legal- New Haven and subsequently to Virginia, 
Tendpr Drcisions; The Education of Busi- but was ohligf'd to leave Virginia as he 
ness JIlen; The Relation of the J[odern refused to conform to the English Church. 
M Lwicipality to the Gas Supply,. and also He returnf'd to New England in IG43, but 
numerous papers and addresf-,('s on polit- went hack to England, where he became 
ical and educational topic:5. pastor ùf a churcll in Needham till lüü2, 
James, EDWIN, geologist; horn in \"ey- wllPn he was removed for non-conformity 
hridp-e, Yt., Aug. 27, 17fJ7; graduated at aftpr the accession of Charles II. He died 
l\Iiddlebury College in 1816; and aftcr- in England in lüi8. 
wards studicd medicine, botany, and gpol- James, THOMAS. navigator; born in 
ogy in Boston. He is the author of a England about };)!)O. In lü31 he was 
Rrport of the Expedition to the Roel.-y sent out by an association at Bristol to 
lIlountains, 181R-lf),. 1\ arrative of .John search for a northwest passage. \Yith 
Tal/ner, etC'. He died in Burlington, Ia., twenty-one men, in the ship Henrietta 
Oct. 28, 1861. J[aria (named in honor of the Queen), 
James, HEN"RY, author; born in New he sailed May 3. On .Tune 2!) he spoke 
York (,it
T, April 1.3, 184-3; was educated in the ship of Capt. I
uke Fox, who had been 
France, Switzerland. and in the Hanard sent on the same errand by the King, and 
Law School. His literary career opened furnished with a letter to the Emperor 
in 18üti. A year or two later he began of Japan. if he should find that country. 
writing serial stories, hut produced no ex- Neither James nor Fox discovered the cov- 
tended novel till 1875. He has since been eted" passage," but the former made valu- 
a prolific writer, not only of novels hut able discoveries in Hudson Bay. James 
also of contributions to the periodiC'al was a man of science, and in his JournaZ 


he recorded his observationc; on rarities he 
had discovered, "both philosophicall and 
mathematicall." James and his crew suf- 
fered terribly, for they passed a winter in 
those high latitudes, and returned in 
1632. In the following year he published 
The Strange and Dangerous T oyage of 
Capt. Thomas ,Ta1l1,Cs for the Discovery of 
a :y orthu:est Passage to the South Sea. 
IUEL, journalist; 
born in Utica, N. Y., :March 29, 1831; 
proprietor of the Uadison County Jour- 
nal, published at Hamilton, N. Y., 1831- 
61; took an active interest in politics, 
serving the State and nation in various 
capacities; was appointed postmaster of 
New York City in 18ï3; Postmaster-Gen- 
eral, March 6, 1881; and resigned in 1882, 
when he organized and became president 
of the Lincoln National Bank, New York 
James, WILUA?I, psychologist; born in 
N"ew York City, Jan. 11, 1842; was edu- 
cated in private schools and at the Law- 
rence Scientific School. In 18ï2 he became 
Professor of Philosophy at Harnud Uni- 
versity. He is the author of Principles 
of Psychology; Psyclwlogy: Briefer 
. The 1Vill to Believe, and other 
Essays in Popular 
Philosophy. He 
was appointed Gif- 
ford lecturer on 
natural religion 
in the University 
of Edinburgh for 
Jameson, JOHN 
FRANKUN, educa- 
tor; born in Bos- 
ton, Sept. 19, 
183!); graduated 
at Amherst ill 
1879. In 1895, 
when the American 
llist01'ical Rericw 
was founded, he 
became its man- 
aging editor. In 
the same year, 
when the Historical Manuscript Commis- axe was first heard in Virginia. Tlw 
sion was instituted, he was made its first tree was felled for a dwplling on thfl 
chairman, and served as such till 18!)!). spot first settled, permanently, by English. 
He was Professor of History at Brown men in AnH'rica. The [ndians were at 
University in 1888-1f100. In the latter first hostile, and the settlement built a 
year he accepted a call to the chair of stockade. Their first church edifice there 
- p9 


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History at the University of Chicago. He 
is the author of William Usselinæ, Found- 
er of the Dutch and Swedish TV est India 
Companies; History of Historical Writing 
in America; Dictionary of United States 
History, etc. He is also the editor of Es- 
says on Constitutional History of the 
Un ited Sta tes; and The Correspondence of 
John C. ('alhoun. 
.Jamestown. On May 13, 1607, mon' 
than 100 Englishmen landed on a slightly 
elevated peninsula on the left bank of 
the "River of Powhatan," Virginia, 40 
or 50 miles from its mouth; chose the 
spot for the capital of a new colony; 
cleared the trees from the ground; and 
began the building of a village, which, in 
compliment to their King (James I.), 
they named Jamestown. They also gave 
his name to the river. The spot is more 
of an island than a peninsula, for the 
marshy isthmus that connects it with the 
mainland is often covered with water. The 
Rev. Robert Huut, the pastor of the col- 
ony, preached a sermon and invoked the 
blessings of God upon their undertaking. 
Then, in the warm sunshine, and among 
the shadowy woods and the delicious per- 
fume of flowers, the sound of the metal 


like a barn "-was burned while Captain 
Smith was a prisoner among the Indians, 
and he found the settlers building a house 
for the president of tM council. \Vhen, 
not long after, he was installed in 
that office, he ordered the "building 
of the palace to be stayed, as a thing 
needless," and the church to be re- 
built at once. 
Commissioners under the new 
charter arrived at Jamestown in 
the spring of 1610. Of the 490 
persons left there by Smith the 
previous autumn, only sixty remain- 
ed alive. They had refused to fol- 
low the admonitions of Smith to 
provide food for the winter, but 
relif'd upon the neighboring Indians 
to supply them. When Smith de- 
parted, the Indians showed hostility 
and withheld COIn and game. They 
matured a plan for the df't-itruetion 
of the settlers at Jamestown, when 
POCAHONTAS (q. v.), like an angel of 
mercy, hastened to the settlement un- 
der cover of darkness, warned them 
of their danger, put them on their 
guard, and saved them. Terrible had 
been the sufferings of the colonists 
through the winter. More than 400 
had perished by famine and sicknf'ss 
in the space of six: months. It was 
long after referred to by the sur- 
vÍ\-ors as "the starving time." The 
settlers were in the dppths of despair 
when thf' commissioners arrived. Sir 
Thomas Gates, who was acting gov- 
ernor, saw no other way to save the 
trees to shadow us from the sun; our lives of the starving men than to ahandon 
walls were rails of wood, our seats un- the settlement, sail to Newfoundland, and 
hewed trees, til1 we cut planks; our pul- distribute them among the fishermen 
pit a bar of wood nailed to two neighhor- there. They were embarked in four pin- 
jng trees; in foul weather we shifted naces, but, at dawn, they met Lord Dela- 
into an old, rotten tent, for we had few ware, with ships, supplies, and emigrants. 
better. . . . This was our church till at the mouth of the river. All turnf'd 
we built a homely thing, like a barn, set back and, landed at deserted Jampstown. 
upon crotchets, covered with rafts, sedge, they stood in silent prayer and thanks- 
and earth; so were also the walls. The giving on the shore, and then fol1owf'd 
best of our houses were of the like curios- Rev. :NIl". Ruckle (who had succeeded Mr. 
ity, but, for the most part, of far worse Hunt) to the church, where liP preached 
workmanship, that could neither well de- a sermon in the evening twilight. The 
fend wind nor rain. Yf't we had daily congregation sang anthems of praise, and 
common prayer morning and evening, were listened to by crouching savages in 
every Sunday two sermons, and every the adjacent woods. In that little chapel 
three months communion till our minister at .Jamestown Pocahontas was haptized 
died." The ehurch-" the homely thing, and married a few years later. The fire 


'Was very simple. "'Yhen I first went 
to Virginia," says Captain Smith, "I 
well remember we did hang an awning 
(which was an old sail) to three or four 



(From Capt. John Smith'. m8torie of Virginia.) 

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that consumed the first church also de- 
stroyed a large portion of the town 
and surrounding palisades. There seems 
to have been another destructive fire 
there afterwards, for Smith, speaking 
of the arrival of Governor Argall, in 
16Iï, sa;ys: "In .Jamcstown he found 
but five or six houses, the church down, 
the palisades broken, the bridge [across 
the marsh] in pieces, the well of fresh 
water spoiled, and the storehouse used 

colon;r was 4,000 strong and shipped to 
England 40.000 pounds of toba.cco. This 
was raised with the aid of many bound 
apprentices-boys and girls picked up in 
the streets of London and sent out-and 
of many "disorderly persons" sent by 
order of the King." 

uddenly a great calamity overtook the 
colony. Powhatan was dead, and his suc- 
cessor, OPECIIANCANOUGH (q. v.), always 
hostile, planned a blow for the extermina- 

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for a church." In the same year Smith's tion of the white people. It fell with 
Gencmll H isforip recalls a statenwnt hy terrihle force late in March, lG22. and 
John Rolfe: "About the last of August eighty plantations were reduced to eight. 
came a Dutch man-of-war and sold us The settlers at Jamestown escape<l the 
20 Negars." A more desirable accf'S- ealamity through the good offices of 
sion came in 1G21 through the ship- Chaneo. a friendly Inrlian, who gave them 
1TIent by the company of "respectahle timely warning of the plot, and t}wy were 
young women for wi,'es of those colonists prepared for defence. Jamestown became 
who would pay the cost of transport a- a refuge from the storm for tll(' western 
tion "-at first 120 lbs. of tobacco, af- settlements: Sickness and famine en- 
terwards 150 lbs. In July, lG20, the sued, and the -colony was greatly reduced 










in number, for many left through fear. having I'eached Bacon that the royalist 
It soon recovered, and increased in troops were coming upon him. The torch 
strength. A new and substantial church was applied just at twilight, and the Yir- 
was built, with a hea.yy brick tower, prob- gmia capital wa5 laid in ashes. 1\othing 
atly between lû20 and lG
.). During Ba- remained the next morning but the brick 


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con's Rebpllion. in !GiG. .JaulPstown-" HIP tower of the church and a few solitary 
only village in all Virginia "-was entered chimneys. 
bv that leader, after driving away the Jan
ey, SAMl:TEI. :MAf'PIIERRON, author; 
governor. and, in a c01meil of war it was horn in Loudon county, Ya., .Jan. II, 1801; 

ldermined to burn the town, a rumor became a Quaker preacher; was appointed 

 - . 


a. superintendent of Indian affairs in 18m). 
His puhlicationM include A_n Historical 
Sketch of tlte C!tristian U!turc!t durillg the 
_Middle Ages; Life of 1tïllÙlIn Penn; His- 
tory of tlte Rcligioll8 NociPly of Priends 
(l'om Its Rise to the rcctl' 18.!S, etc. He 
died in Loudon county, Va., April 30, 
Janvier, THO),[AA ALLmoxE, author; 
horn in Philadelphia, Pa., .July W, IS-tB. 
Ue is the author of The _1=teo Treasure- 
House,' In Old Xcw rork; Stories of Old 
Kcw Spain, etc. 
Japan and the United States. Japan, 
like China, had always bpen a sort of seal- 
pd kingdom to the commf'rce of the world. 
The foundation of the Htatf's of California 
and Oregon, on the Pacific coast, suggest- 
ed the great importance of commercial 
intercourse with Japan, because of the 
intimate relations which must soon exist 
between that coast .md the East Indies. 
This consideration caused an npedition 
to be fitted out by the rnited States gov- 
ernment in the summer of IS32 to carrv 
a letter from the Pre:-;ident ()Ir. FilÌ- 
more) to the Emperor of .Japan soliciting 
the negotiation of a treaty of friendship 
and commerce between the two nations, 
by which the ports of the latter should be 
thrown open to American ,"es
cls for pur- 
poses of trade. For this expedition seven 
ships-of-war were employed. The
- were 
placed undpr the command of Commodore 
1\1. C. Perry, a hrother of the -victor on 
Lake Erie. The diplomatic portion of the 
mission was al
o intrustt"d to Commodore 
Perry. He did not sail until Xo,-ember, 
IR.,)2. The letter whiC'h he borp to the Em- 
peror was drafted by :i\Ir. 'Yeh;;;ter before 
ñis decease, but connten;ignerl by Erlward 
E,-erett, his successor in oflke. Pf'rrv 
carried out many useful implements and 
inventions as presents to the Japanese 
government. including a small railway 
and equipments, telegraph, ptc. He was 
instructed to approach the Empf'ror in the 
most friendly manner; to use no violence 
unless attacked: hut if attacked, to let 
the Japanese feel the full weight of his 
J,ower, Perry delivered his letter of cre- 
dence. and waited some months for an 
answer, without being permitted to land 
on the shores of the empire. :Meanwhile 
ht> visited and surveyed the Loo Choo Isl- 

In February, 1834, he returned to the 
!Jay of .Jeddo, and tinally effected a land- 
ing and commenced negotiations, which 
were happily succeðsful. The treaty then 
wade stipulated that ports j;;hould be 
thrown open to American commerce, to a 
limited extent, in different Japanese isl- 
ands; that steamers from California to 
China should be furni:-\hed with supplies 
of coal; anù that .American j;;ailors ship- 
wrecked on the Japanese coasts ðhould re- 
ceive hospitable treatment. So .Tapan was 
first openpd to friendly relations with the 
Americans. Before this treaty the Dutch 
had monopolized the trade of Japan. Sub- 
sf'quently a peculiar construction of the 
treaty on the part of the Japanese au- 
thorities, in relation to the permanent 
lesidenC'e of Americans there, threatened 
a disturbance of the amicable telations 
which had been established, The matter 
was adjusted, and in 18GO the first em- 
bassy from .Japan visited the L'nited 

tates. It was an imposing array of Jap- 
anese oflìcials. There was great opposi- 
tIon in the empire to this intercourse with 
"the barbarians." Civil war ensued. A 
rapid change now marked public opinion 
iu Japan in regard to foreigners; and 
from that time the intimate relations, so- 
cial and commercial, between the L'nited 
States and Japan have constantly in- 
creased, with results wonderfully bene- 
fieial to both countries. Early in 1872 the 
government of Japan sent another emùa:-\- 
sy to the L'nited States, this one charged 
to inquire about the renewal of former 
treaties. It consisted of twenty-one per- 
sons, composed of the heads of the several 
deparbmmts of the .Tapanese government 
and their secreta1"Íes. Among them was 
an imperial prince--)Iori-who came to 
reprpsf'nt .Japan at \Yashington as ehargé 
d'affairrs, and also twelve students. The 
mission arriwd at \Vashington at the be- 
ginning of l\Iarch, and )Iori had the honor 
of being the first minister ever sent by 
his government to reside in a foreign 
Jarboe, JOII
 'V., inventor; born in 
O. HI' served through the Civil \Var 
in the ilst Xew York Regiment, and was 
later influential in securing the display 
of the -\merican flag over the public 
sdlO01-houses of the c()untry. lIe was the 
invpntor of a process of making house- 



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llold utensils fwm papier-maché and sev- 
eral articles employed in the manufacture 
of sugar. He died in New York City, 
June 30, 11)01. 
Jarnac, C.u,.ro
ons DE, military offi- 
cer; born in Align -dellle, France, in 1758; 
served in the French army during the 
Revolutionary \Yar; emigrated to the 
United States in 1 7!J;); returned to France 
in 1805, but, being obliged to leave the 
country on account of his criticisms of 
Napoleon, he again came to the United 
States, where he took service under Jean 
Lafitte, the Louisiana buccaneer. Jarnac 
was killed by the Indians in Texas, in 
Jarves, .JAMES JAf'K:SON, author; born 
in noston, 1\Iass., Aug. 20, 1820; estab- 
hed the first newspapér printed in the 
Hawaiian Islands, in 18,W. In 185U he 
WfiS appointed by King Kanwhameha rII. 
eommissioner to the enited Statcs, Great 
Britain, and France, for the purpose of 
npgotiating treaties, and in 1871) United 
Rtates vice-consul in Florence, Haly. 
Among b is works are History of H a wai i ; 
Pa1"i8ian Sights and French Principles 
sern through American Spectacles; Italian 
Sight,<i, etc. He died in Terasp, Switzer- 
land. June 28. 188R. 
Jasper, \YILLIAl\[, military hero; born 
in South Carolina, about 1750; became a 





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sergeant in the 2d South Carolina Regi- 
ment; and greatly distinguished himself 
in the attack on Fort Sullivan, June 28, 
1776, by the British fle
t. During the 
hottest of the attack the South Carolina 
flag that wayed oyer the fort fell to the 
ground outside the fort, its staff having 
heen cut in two by a cannon-ball. Ser- 
geant Jasper, seeing the flag fall, leaped 
down from one of the embrasures, seized 
the f'nsign, climbed back, fixed the colors 
to a sponge-staff, mounted the parapet, 
stuck the improvised flag-staff in the 
sand of one of the bastions, and returned 
to his place in the fort. A few days after- 
wards Governor Rutledge took his own 
sword from his side and presented it to 
Jaspcr. He also olTered him a Iieuten- 
aut's commission, -which the young man 
modestly declined, because he could 
neither read nor write, saying. "I am not 
fit to keep officers' company; I am but a 
sergeant." He was gh'en a sort of roving 
commission by Colonel Moultrie, and, 
with five or six men, he often hrought in 
prisonen; hefore his commander was 
aware of his ahsence. An earnest \Vhig 
lady of Charleston, Mrs. Susannah El- 
liot, pre
pnted Jasper's regiment with 
a stand of colol's wrought with her own 
hands. They were shot down at the as- 
sault on Savannah (177!)), and in trying 






to replace them on the parapet of a re- ization of the government under the 
doubt, Jasper was mortally wounded, but national Constitution. :Mr. Jay was as- 
brought them off. He died Oct. 9, 17ï9. sociated with Hamilton and Madison in 
Jay, JOHN, diplomatist; born in New writing the series of articles in support 
York City. June 23, 1817; graduated at of the Constitution known collectively as 
Columbia College in 1836; admitted to the 'l'he Pt'deralist. Washington appointed 
bar in 1839; appointed minister to Austria Jay the first chief-justice of the Supreme 
in HW!); chairman of the committee to Court of the United States. 
innstigate the Xew York custom-house On April 7, 1794, a motion was made 
in 18ï7; and member of the State civil in the House of Representatives that all 
service in ISR3. l\lr. Jay was a prominent commercial intercourse with Great Brit- 
abolitionist and author of a number of ain and her subjects be suspended, so far 
pamphlets, among them are The Dignity of as respected all articles of the growth or 
the Abolition (Yause; The A._merican Church manufacture of Great Britain or Ireland, 
and the Amcrican 
Ç;lave-Trade; The Great until the surrender of the \Yestern posts 
Conspiracy and England's Neutrality; and due compensation for all losses and 
Caste and Slat'e1"Y in the American damages growing out of British aggres- 
Church; America Free, or America RlrJ/Je, sions on our neutral rights should he 
etc. He died in New York City, May 5, made. This motion, if adopted, would 
18n4. lead directly to war. Its adoption seemed 
Jay, JOHN, statesman; born in New probable, and \Vashington, to avert the 
York City, Dec. 12, 1745; was of Hugue- calamitous consequences, proposed to send 
1I0t descent. Graduated at King's College a special minister to England to negotiate 
(now Columbia University) in 1764, he an amicable spttlement of the existing 
was admitted to the bar in 1768, and disputes. There were grave charges of 
formed a partnership with Robert R. Liv- violations of the treaty of 1783 made by 
ingston. In 1774 he was a delegate in the the two parties against each other. Wash- 
first Continental Congress, and the same ington desired to send Hamilton on the 
year he married a daughter of William mission. Violent opposition to this was 
I.ivingston, of New Jersey. In that Con- made by his political enemies, whose ha- 
gress, though the youngest member but tred and jcalousy were intense. Fearing 
one, he took a conspicuous part, being the Hamilton might not have the confirmation 
author of the Address to the P('ople of of the Senate, \Yashington nominated 1\1r. 
Great Britain. His facile pen was often Jay (.\pril 16), which nomination was 
employed in framing documents in the ccnfirmed 
\pril 19. The special minister 
Congress of 1775. Early in 1776 he left arrind in England in June, where he was 
Congress and engaged in the public affairs received with great courtesy by the Brit- 
of his own State, being a leading member ish government. He negotiated a treaty 
of the Provincial Congress in 17iG. He which wa!'! not wholly satisfactory to his 
wrote the able address of the convention ccuntrymen. closing his labors on Kov. HI; 
at Fishkill in December, Iï76; repol'ted a and from 17f>5 to 1801 he was governor 
hill of rights to the Kew York constitu- of Kew York, under whose administration 
tional conwntion in March, li7i; and slavery was abolished. This was his last 
was the chicf author of the first consti- public office. He died in Bedford, N. Y., 
tution of the State of Kew York. After :May Ii, 1820. See A
assisting in putting in motion the ma- Jay's Treaty.-After Mr. Jay's formal 
chincry of his Rtate gonrnment, and he- reception in London, Lord Grenville, then 
ing made a judge he entered Congre!'
 at the head of foreign affairs, expressed 
again late in 1778 and became presi- great anxiety to bring the negotiations 
dent of that body. In Septpmher, 177!), to a successful issue. There was a wide 
he was sent to Spain to negotiate a loan. difference of views concerning matters 
l\lr. Jay was one of the commissioners for in dispute. The Americans complained 
negotiating a treaty of peace with Great that, contrary to the proYÏsions of the 
Britain. He returned to New York in treaty of peace (1783), a large number 
li84, and was secretary for foreign of negroes had been carried off by the 
affairs from that year until the organ- e\ acuating armies; and for this loss com- 

dered on June 1, I7f>6, the present resi- 
dents to have the option of removing or 
of becoming American citizens. There 
was to be a mutual reciprocity of inland 
trade and intercourse between the North 
American territories of the two na- 
tions, inoluding the navigation of the 
Mississippi; but it did not e'ítend to 
the Hudson Bay Company, nor to the 
admission of American vessels into 
the harbors of the British North 
American colonies, nor to the naviga- 
tion of the rivers of those colonies 
below the highest port of entry. These 
were the principal features of the 
first ten a.rticles of the treaty, which 
were to be perpetual. Eighteen oth- 
ers, of the nature of a treaty of com- 
merce, were limited to two years. 
They provided for the admission of 
American vessels into :British ports 
in Europe and tIle East Indies on 
tprms of pqnality with British ves- 
<;('ls: but no tel'nlS were made con- 
cerning the )':nst India coasting trade, 
or the trade between Europe and the 
Britifliih 'Yest Indies. There were re- 
strictions upon the American trade to 
the HritiKh West lndies; and British 
,'esK(>ls were to be admitted to Anlf'l"Í- 
can POl'ts on terms of the most fa- 
vored nations. Privatper8 were to 
tions of their neutral rights, especially gin bonds to rc:"punù to any dam- 
on the high seas. such as t.he impressment ages they might. commit. against. npu- 
of seamen and the exclusion of American trals. anù other regulations of that ser- 
shipping from the trade of the British vice were made. The list of contraband 
'Vest Indies. There wpre other complaints artie1es was clearly defined. No vessel 
on the part of the Americans; but the attempting to enter a blockaded port was 
matters more immediately provocative to be captured unlesH she had first been 
of war were the disputed questions of notifipd and turned away. Neither nation 
neutral rights and the detpntion of the was to allow enlistments within its ter- 
\Vestern posts. Deeming it wise to adjust ritory by any third nation at war with 
these two important difficulties, .Jay the other; nor were the citizpns or sub- 
thought it best to yield, temporarily, other jpcts of eitlwr to he allowed to accept 
considerations, or leave them for future commissions from suph third nation, or 
adjustment, and he was induced to sign to enlist in its service. on penalty of 
a treaty, Nov. W, 17f>4, defective in some bcing treated as pirates. Ships-of-war 
respects and objectionable in others. It of the contracting parties were to be 
provided for the collection of :British debts mutually admitted in a friendly man- 
in the United States contractpd before the ner into the ports of {'ach other, !'mch 
Revolution, but it did not secure indem- vcssf'ls to be free from any claim of 
nity to those who lost slaves. It speured s(',HPh. hut Wf're to depart as slwedily 
indemnity for unlawful paptures on UIP as might. 1)('. Other and string-pnt regn- 
high seas, and the pvapuation of tllp lations wprp llI:Hlp ('on('prning prinltpers. 
military posts on the frontiers yet held 1n ease of rupturp or war, t.he ('itizpns 
by the British. These were to be surren- or subjects of either nation resident in 


pensation was demanded for the owners. 
They complained, also, of the detention 
of the \Vestern posts, which '\'\as the main 
cause of the hostility of the Northwestern 
tribes. They also alleged numerous viola- 





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the territories of the other were to be der of American rights. In order to pre- 
allowed to remain and to continue their nmt misrepresentations, and to elicit the 
trade so long as they behaved peaceably. expressions of the people, \Yashington 
They might be ordered off, in case of caused the whole treaty to be published. 
sUl"picion, on twelve months' notice, or A mad, seditious cry went over the land 
without any notice, if detected in viola- from the opposition. In- several cities 
tions of the laws. No reprisals were to mobs threatened personal violence to tIle 
be ordered by either party till satisfaction supporters of the treaty. Hamilton was 
had first been demanded. Fugitives from stoned at a public meeting in New York, 
justice charged with murder or forgery while speakin
 in the open air. The Brit- 
were to be mutually given up. ish minister at Philadelphia was insulted; 
Early Opposition.-The h'eaty was con- and in Charleston the British flag was 
eluded at London on Nov. HI, 1794. It trailed in the dust of the streets. Jay 
reached the President in March, 1795, was denounced as a traitor; and in Vir- 
after the adjournment of Congress. The ginia disunion was recommended as a cure 
Senate was convened, in special session, for political evils. The Democratic socie- 
to consider it, early in June, 1795. After ties and orators put forth claims for 
a debate for a fortnight, in secret session, sympathy for France. "She has a govern- 
a vote of 20 to 10-precisely a constÏtu- ment congenial to our own. Citizens, your 
tional majority-advised (,Tune 24) the security depends on France. J
et us unite 
ratifieation of the treaty, exeepting the with her and stand or fan to
article which related to the renunC'iation sllOuted opposition orators throughout the 
by the Amerieans of the privilege of trans- country. The DC'mocrats adorned their 
portation of sugar, molasses, coffee, co- hats with the FrenC'h cockade. Jay was 
coa, and cotton in the "Test India trade. hurned in effi:-."Y in many places, and long'- 
Cotton wa'! then just promising to be ings for the guillotine were freely express- 
of \'ast importnnC'e in the carrying-trade, ed in puhlic assemblies. 
and such an article was wholly inadmissi- \Yhen the President had proclaimed the 
ble. The President had determined, before treaty as the law of the land, he, accord- 
the meding of the Senate, to ratify the ing to promise, sent a copy of it, March 
treaty; and when it was laid before the 2. 1796. to the House. Its appearance was 
cahinet all agreed with him excepting the beginning of a violent debate in that 
the Secretary of State (Edmund Ran- body, which turned upon the question 
dolph. of Virginia), who raised the point whether the House possessed discretionary 
that by the ratification. hefore an ob- power to carry the treaty into execution 
noxious British Order in Council concern- or not at its pleasure. The debate arose 
ing neutrals should be repealed, the Brit- on a motion of Edward Livingston, of 
ish claim to the right of search and im- :Kew York, calling upon the President for 
pressment would he conceded by the his instructions to Jay and other papers 
American!'!. Hamilton, who had heen relating to the treaty. After about thirty 
.. consulted. advised the ratification, but speeches, in a dehate of three weeks, which 
to withhold the exchange of ratifications grew warmer and warmer the longer it 
until that order should be repealed. The lasted, the resolution was adopted, March 
:;;enate had rt"moved the seal of secrecy 24, by a vote of 62 to 37. The President 
from their proceedings, but had forbidden consulted his cahinet. and they unanimous- 
any publication of the treaty itself. State- ly decided tllat the House had no right 
ments concerning the provisions of the to make fmch a call, as they were not a 
treaty soon appeared. The Democratic part of the treaty-making power. They 
societies and newspapers had resolved to also deeided that it was not expedient 
oppose and attack the treatv whatevcr for the President to furnish the papers, 
might be its provisions. They had opposed for the call should be considered as an 
the mission to negotiate it. After it was unfounded claim of power on the part 
received Randolph revealed enough of its of the House to interfere with the privi- 
character to give a foundation for many leges of the Prt"sident and Senate. The 
attacks upon it in the newspapers. It President, therefore, declinQd to comply 
was denounced as a pusillanimous surren- with the request of the House, giving 


his reasons in a special message. Reso- A resolution declaring the treaty un con- 
lutions asserting the majesty of the House stitutional was defeated. The legislature 
were introduced (April 6), and were sup- of Delaware passed, Jan. 14, lïHli, a reso- 
ported by Madison. TIlese resolutions were lution of approval. Gov. Samuel Adams, 
adopted by a yote of 57 to 33, and the of Massachusetts, spoke of the treaty 
subject of the "British treaty" was a as" pregnant with evil," suggested a con- 
staple topic of d
bate for some time after- flict of authority IJPÌ\Vt-'t'n the Presiùent 
warùs. Finally, April 30, the House pass- and Senate and the House of Represcnta- 
eù a resolution-51 to 48-that it was tives, and transmitted to thc g-en era I 
c-xpedient to pass laws for carrying the court the resolutions of Yirginia on tll(' 
treaty into effect. subject of amendments to the Constitu- 
The discussions of the treaty were soon tion. The ::\Iassachusetts Senate dedared 
transferred from public meetings and the their concurrence in the bdief of the 
newspapers to the arena of State legisla- goyernor that the national government 
hu'es. Goyernor Shelbr, in his speech to was in "honest hands," and the house sug- 
the Kentucky legislature, attacked the gested "a respectful submission on the 
treaty. The House seemed to agree with part of the people to the constituted au- 
llim (Kov. 4,1794), but the Senate evaded thorities as the surest means of enjo
any decided committal. The house of and perpetuating the ÏllYaluable blessings 
deleg-ates of Virginia adopted, by a \'otp of our free and representative govern- 
of 100 to 50, a resolution approving the ment." TIle general conrt of Rhode Island 
conduct of their Senators in voting (Nov. expressed their confidence in the general 
20) against the treaty. A countex-resolu- government. So, also, did the legislature 
tion declaring tlleir undiminished confi- of Kew York. 
dence in thc President was lost-59 to Jay, JOHN, diplomatist; born in New 
ït\; but 
mother resolution disclaiming York City, June 23, 1817; son of 'Yilliam 
any imputation of the President's motives Jay; became manager of the New York 
,,'as passed-78 to 62. The legislature of Young ::\Jen's Anti-slavery Society in 1834; 
:Maryland resolvcd that they felt a deep was graduated at Columhia College in 
concern at efforts to detach from the 1836; admitted to the bar in 1839; acted 
President the "well-earned confidence of as counsel without pay for many fugitive 
Ids fellow-citizens," and declared their slaves; minister to Austria in 1860-75; 
<< unabated reliance in his juùgment, integ- chairman of the commiU('e to investigate 
rity, and patriotism." The Senate of Penn- the s:rstem of the New York Custom- 
sylvania made a similar declaration. The House in 187ï; and president of the New 
lq:dslature of New Hampshire expressed, York State Civil Service Commission in 
Dec. 5, 1795, their" abhorrenee of those 1883-88. He died in New York City, May 
disturbers of the peace" who had endeav- 5, 1894. 
or<,d to render abortive measures so well Jay, 'YILLIAl\[, jurist: born in New 
calculated to advance the Jlappiness of the York City, June 16. I i8f1: Son of .John 
country. The North Carolina legislature, Jay; graduated at Yale in 1807; appoint- 
hy a decided majority, adopted a series of ed judge of the Court of Common P](,HS in 
r<,solutions, Dec. 8, reprobating the treaty 1818; reappointed under thp new consti- 
and thanking their 
enators for having tution in 1822; R<'Tved tiH 18-t2. when he 
opposed it. In the legislature of South was superspded on aeconnt of his anti- 
f'amlina resolutions were introduced de- f:lavery views. Hf' was the author of lAfe 
claring the treaty "highly injurious to of John Jay: The .trtion of the Fcdrral 
the g('neral interests of the United GOt'ernmcllt in ßrha1t of Slarery: lrar 
Stat<,s "; wll<'n the friends of the treaty, and Peace, in which he suggf'sted t1mt 
finding themselves in a minority, declared international disputes should be settled 
the legislature had no business to interfere by arbitration: 1'lte JIr'xican lrar: etc. 
with the duties of the President and 
en- He died in Bedford. N. Y.. Oct. 14. 1858. 
ate of the United States, and refused Jayhawk.ers and Red Legs, names ap- 
to vote, the resolutions were adopted unan- plied to Free-State men wlw. during the 
imouslv. The House did not ventnre to Kansas conflict in 1854-59, began a serif's 
send u'p these resolutions to the Senate. of reprisals for outrages committed by 


pro-slavery mcn, but ultimately practical- 
ly became bandits. 
Jayne, HORACE, biologist; born in Phila- 
delphia, l\larch 3, 1859; graduated at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1879, 
and. at its medical school in 1882; stuJ.ied 
biology at Leipzig and Jcna in 1883-84; 
and, returning to the L'nited States, was 
first appointed lecturer in biology in the 
University of Pennsylvania, and subse- 
quently Professor of Vertebrate Morphol- 
ogy there. For a number of 
Tears he was 
dean of the faculty. In 1900 he was di- 
rector of the \Vistar Institute of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He is the author 
of Mammalian Anatomy,. Rcvision of the 
Dcrmcstidæ of -Korth A_nlerica,. 
ties Observed in ?\T orth American Coleop- 
tera, etc. 
Jeannette, VOYAGE OF THE. See DE 
Lo:vc:. If I am asked to reason from my knowl- 
Jeffers, \YILLTA1IJ NICIIOLSON, naval edge and engraft it on the history of 
officer; born in Gloucester county, N. J., the past, I would unhesitatingly declare 
Oct. 6, 1824; joinf'd the navy in 1840; that the stage is in a much better con- 
served in the war with Mexico, and also dition now than it ever was before. The 
through the Civil \Var; was promoted social and moral status of the whole 
commodore in February, 1878. His pub- world has undoubtedly improved, and gone 
lications include F:Jhort Jlethods in Navi- hand in hand with scientific and material 
gation,. Theory alld Practice- of Naval progress; and permit me to assure you 
Gunnery,. I Ilspcction and Proof of Can- that the stage in this respect has not been 
non,. Marine F:Jurveying,. Ordnance I n- idle, but that, to my knowledge, it has 
structions for United States Jl,T avy , etc. in the march of improvement kept pace 
He died in \Vashington, D. C., July 23, foot by foot with every social advance. 
1883. Even the coarse dramas of the olden 
Jefferson, the name proposed to be time were in keeping Witll the conditions 
given to what is now the State of Colo- of the social and literary society that sur- 
rado, in 18,:)8, when an attempt was made rounded it. Those plays that appealC'd 
to establish a provisional government. to the lowest tastes were not only welcome 
The scheme failed in consequence of con- but demanded b
T the court of Charles. 
flieting claims on the pal.t of the surround- Old Pepys, who lived during this timf', 
ing TC'lTÏtoriC's. \\Then, however, Congress says in his diary: "I went last night 
created the new Territory in 18ûl, the to see A. Midsummer Jl,Tight's Dream,. it 
name Colorado was gin'n to it. was a great waste of timp, and I hope I 
Jefferson, JOSEPH, actor; born in Phi1a- shall never again be C'omlemned to see 
delphia, Pa., FC'b. 2
, 182n; is descended such a poor pla
T. Ah, give me a com- 
from several gC'neratlOns of actors; made edy of Ethelridge, and let us have no more 
his first appearance on the stage when of this dull, vague Shakespeare." It was 
Tcars old; l)layed in the old Span- not, t}wrefol'e, that there were no good 
ish theatre in l\fntamoras, ::\[exico, two p
ays, hut that the vicious public wanted 
days after that city was takC'n b
T the haeI ones, and while rakes and unprin- 
Americans; and in HtJ7 estahlished his dpled gallant
 and vile wonwn wen> the 
rC'putation as a comedian by his perform- heroe
 and heroines of the stage, tlw 
ance a
 Asa Tn.nd1:1nl in Our tmaican plaYR of RhakeRpeaTe had heC'n written for 
Oousin, in New York City. In 18(i.:) he a hundn>d yearR. Ruch 10Yely creatures 
appeared for the first timp in his inimi- as Rosa Jiml, DesdC'mona. TIC'atricp, Ophelia, 
table rÔle of Rip ran 1íill1;1r, in t11e Imogene, Portia, and .Juliet, together with 
V.-I 129 

Adclphi Theatre, London, and, although 
he bas since played in many of the most 
popular comedies of the day, and in vari- 
ous parts of the world, he will be remem- 
bered longest for bis presentations of that 
cbaracter. l\Ir. Jefferson has also distin- 
guished himself as an orator and a paint- 
er. For many years his chief diversions 
were fishing and painting, and in 1899 
he permitted an exhibition of sixteen of 
his land.scape-paintings in oil in the 
national capita1. He published an auto- 
biography in HmO. 
As the representative of the dramatic 
profession, 1\Ir. Jefferson was invited by 
the faculty of Yale University to deliver 
a lecture on Dramatic Art, which was 
given on April 27, 1892, in the course of 
which he says: 


their noble mates, Orlando, Benedict, Ham- And so the people insisted that the actors 
]pt. ROllleo, anù a ho::;1 of pure and mar- shou1d give tllf'll1 an exhibition of the 
vellous creations, were moulding on the licentious times rather than the splendid 
sheIn's. because the managers had suffered lessons of Shakespeare. As the social 
bankruptcy for daring to produce them. world improved in its t:astes the drama 
Shakespeare says that the actors are" the followed it-nay, in some instances has 
abstract and brief chronicles of the times." led it. 


View of the Rights of British America, 
which, it is believed, procured for him 
a place in the list of American traitors 
denounced by the British Parliament. He 
had taken an active part against the 
Roston port bilL Mr. Jefferson took his 
seat in the Continental Congress in June, 
1775, when he was thirty-two years of 
age. In that body he served on the most 
important committees, and in drawing up 
state papers. On the committee to draft 
the Declaration of Independence, to 1\1r. 
Jefferson was assigned the duty of writ- 
ing that important paper, which he ad- 
vocated and signed. True to the procH vÏ- 
ties of his nature in favor of human 
liberty, he introduced a clause censuring 
slavery, which was stricken out. In Oc- 
tober, 177G, he retired from Congress to 
take part in his own State affairs, and 
for two years and a half was employed 
in revising the laws of Virginia and pro- 
curing some wise enactments, such as 
aboli<;hing the laws of primogeniture, giv- 
ing freedom to convicts, etc. During the 
entire Revolutionary 'Var Jefferson was 
very active in his o,Vll State, serving as 
its governor from June, 1779, to 1781. 
At the time of his retirement from the 
chair, Cornwallis, invading Virginia, des- 
olated Jefferson's estate at Elk Hill, and 
he and his family narrowly escaped capt- 
UTe. Mr. Jefi"erson was again in Con- 
gress in 1783, and, as chairman of a 
committee, reported to that body the 
definite treaty of peace with Great nrit- 
ain. Assisting the suggestions of nOU\Ter- 
he married Martha Skelton, a rich and neur :Morris, he proposed and carried a 
beautiful young widow of twenty-three. bill establishing the decimal system of 
He was a member of the committee of currency. In 1785 he succeeded Dr. 
cortespondence of Virginia, which he as- Frankli'n as minister at the French Court. 
sisted in forming, and was engaged in where he remained until 1789, when he 
active public life until his retirement rdurned and took a seat in Washing- 
from the Presidency of the United States. ton's cabinet as Secretary of State. 
In 1774 he wrote his famous Summary In France he had published his Notes 

Jeffersçm, THO-MAS, third President of 
the United States; born in Shadwell, Va., 
April 2, 1743; was educated at the Col- 
lege of William and :Mary; studied law 
under George Wythe; and was admitted 
to the bar in 17G7. Fronl 1769 to 1775 
he was an active member of the Virginia 
House of Burgesses. In that body he 
introduced a bill empowering masters to 
manumit their slaves. On Jan. I, 1771, 

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STATU'; u.. THUMA!:! J.I>....XKSOY. 


on "Virginia, and he had there become 
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of 
the French revolutionists previous to 
the bloody era of 1793. Not finding at 
home the same enthusiastic admiration 
of the French people in 
thcir struggle against" the 
conspiracy of the kings," 
hc became morbidly sus- 
picious of a monarchical 
party in the United States 
that might overthrow the 
government. He formed 
and led an active party 
called "Republican" or 
"Democratic," and there 
was much acrimonious 
feeling soon engendered 
between that and the 
Federal party, of which 
Alexander Hamilton was 
the active leader. Mr. Jef- 
ferson was an able leader 
of the Democratic party, 
and secured so large a fol- 
lowing that in 1800 he was 
elected President, and 
served eight years, retir- 
ing in March, 1809, when 
he withdrew from public 
life and retired to his seat 
at MonticelJo, near Char- 
lottesville, Va. Among the 
important events of his 
administration were the 
purchase of Louisiana, an 
exploration of the conti- 
nent from the Mississippi 
River to the Pacific Ocean, 
and difficulties with France and Great cemetery near his house pt Monticello, 
Britain on account of their violation of and over his grave is a granite monumcnt, 
tIle rights of neutrals. Mr. Jefferson was bearing the inscription, written by him- 
the founder of the University of Virginia self, and found among his papers after his 
(1819) at Charlottesville, Va., and was death, "Here lies buried Thomas Jeffer- 
its rector until his death, which occurred son, author of the Declaration of Inde- 
On the Eame day, and almost at the same pendence, of the Statute of Virginia for 
hour, as that on which John Adams died, religious freedom, and father of the Uni- 
who was his associate in drafting the versity of Virginia." Mr. Jefferson re- 
Declaration of Independence, and sign- garded slavery as a moral and political 
ing it, just fifty years bcfore (July 4, evil, and did much to alleviate its hard- 
1826). ships. His correspondence with men of 
Jefferson was a keen politician, though all classes was voluminous, for he was a 
no speaker; a Ulan of great learning and fluent writer and had a very wide ac- 
flne scholarly as well as scientific attain- quaintance. Few men ha\'e exerted as 
nwnts. and in conversation extremely at- much influence in establishing the free 
tracti\'e. IIis house was the resort of le:lrn- institutions of the enited States as 


ed men of his own country and of Europe. 
In person he was tall and slender, with 
sandy hair, florid complexion in his youth, 
and brilliant gray eyes, a little inclining 
to brown. He was buried in a family 




Friends and Fellow - citizens,-Called 
upon to undertake the duties of the first 
executive officer of our country, I avail 
myself of the presence of that portion of 
my fellow-citizens whieh is here assf'mbled, 
to express my grateful tJ1anks for the 
nominated their respective candidates for favor with which they have been pleased 
tIle Presidency in 1800, the Federalists to look towards me, to declare a sincere 
choosing to be voted for John Adams and consciommf'
s that the task is ahove my 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney; the Demo- talents, and that I approach it with those 
crats, Thomas .Jefferson and Aaron Burr. anxiou
 and awful prf'sentiments which 
There was a breach in the Federal party, the greatness of the charge and the weak- 
owing to extended dislike of Adams, and l1e8S of my powers so justly inspire. A 
the Democrats used the Alien and Sedition rising nation, spread over a wide and 

Thomas Jefferson. He adopted for the 
motto of his private seal that of Oliver 
Cromwell-" Rebellion to tyrants is 
obedience to God." See LEWIS, MERI- 
When, in the early summer of 1781, 
Cornwallis was overrunning a portion of 
Virginia, he sent Tarleton with his cav- 
alry to capture the Virginia Assembly 
siting at Charlottesville, and also Gov- 
ernor Jefferson, who lived 2 miles from 
that place. On the way Tarleton destroyed 
twelve wagon-loads of clothing intended 
for Greene's army in North Carolina. 
Within 10 miles of Charlottesville Tarle- 
ton detached Captain McLeod, with a 
party of horsemen, to capture Governor 
Jefferson at Monticello, while he pressed 
forward. On his way he captured some 
members of the legislature, but when he 
arrived at Charlottesville the remainder, 
forewarned, had fled and escaped. Mc- 
Leod's expedition to Monticello was quite 
as unsuccessful. Jefferson was entertain- 
ing several members of the legislature, in- 
cluding the presiding officers of both 
houses, when the British cavalry were 
seen coming up the winding road towards 
the mansion. Jefferson immediately sent 
his family away, while he and the others 
escaped on horseback. Jefferson had not 
been gone ten minutes when McLeod rode 
up and found the house deserted. 
The leaders of the two great parties 

l! "I 





Laws with powerful efreet against him. 
The Federalists were defcated. Jefferson 
and Burr had each seventy-three votes in 
the electoral college, a
nd, according to 
the provisions of the Constitution, the 
election was carried into the House of 
Representatives. There exciting scenes 
occurred. Two or three memben
, too 

MOTTO: "Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God." 

sick to appear oth
rwise, were hrought to 
the House on beds. For seven days the 
balloting went on. After it was ascer- 
tained that a Democrat was elected, the 
:Federalists all voted for Burr, as being 
less objectionable than Jefl'erson; but the 
friends of the latter were stronger than 
aU opposition, and he was elected. The 
whole Federal party were mortified 
and humiliated by the triumph of Jef- 
ferson, their arch - enemy. He was in- 
augurated March 4, 1801. See CABINET, 
Inaugural Address.-The following is 
the principal part of the inaug-ural ad- 
dress, delivered on March 4, 1801: 


fruitful land, traversing all the seas with which we have passed, the animation of 
the rich productions of their industry, discussions and of exertions has sometimes 
engaged in commerce with nations who worn an aspect which might impose on 
feel power and forget right, advancing strangers unused to think freely, and to 
rapidly to destinies beyond the reach of speak and to write what they think; but 
mortal eye; when I contemplate thcse this being now decided by the voice of the 
transccndent objects, and see the honor, nation, announced according to the rulcs 
the happiness, and the hopes of this be- of the Constitution, aU will of course ar- 
, loved country committed to the issue and range themsdves under the will of the law, 
the auspices of this day, I shrink from and unite in common efforts for the com- 
the contemplation, and humble myself be- mon good. All, too, will bear in mind 
fore the magnitude of the undertaking. this sacred principle, that though the will 
Utterly, indeed, should I despaÍ1', did of the majority is in all cases to prevail, 
not the presence of many whom I see that will, to be rightful, must be reason- 


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here remind me that, in the other high able; that the minority possess their 
authorities provided by our Constitu- cqual rights, which equal laws must pro-. 
tion, I shall find resources of wisdom, tect, and to violate which would be op- 
of virtue, and of zeal, on which to pression. Let us then, fellow-citizens. 
rely under all difficulties. To you, then, unite with one heart and one mind, let uS 
gentlemen, who are charged with the sov- restore to social intercourse that harmony 
ereign functions of legislation, and to and affection without which liberty and 
tlJOse associated with you. I look with en- even life itself are but dreary things. And 
cnuragement for that guidance and sup- let us reflect that, having banished from 
port which may enahlf' us to stepr with our land that religious intolerance under 
saff'ty the vcssel in which we are all em- which mankind so long bled and suffered, 
harked. amid the conflicting elements of we have yet gained little, if we counte- 
a troubled world. nance a poJitical intolerance as despotic, 
During tile contest of opinion tllTOlIgh as wicked, and as capable of hitter and 

that this government, the world's best 
hope, may, by l)ossihility, want pnprgy to 
preserve itself Y I trust not. I believe this, 
on the contrary, the strongest government 
on earth. J believe it is the only one 
where every man, at the call of the law. 
would fly to the standard of the law, and 
would meet Ïl1\"asions of the public order 
as his own personal conpern. SometinlPs 
it is said that man cannot be busted with 
the government of himself. Can he then 
be trusted with tIle government of others Y 
Or have we found angels, in the form of 
kings, to govern him? Let history answer 
tbis question. 
1..e.t us, then, with courage and confi- 
dence, pursue our own federal and repub- 
lican principles; our attachment to union 
and representative government. Kindly 
separated by nature and a wide ocean 
from the exterminating havoc of one quar- 
ter of the globe; too high-minded to en- 
dure the degradation of the others; pos- 
sessing a chosen country, with room 
cnough for our descendants to the thou- 
sandth generation; entertaining a due 
sense of our equal right to the use of 
our own faculties, to the acquisition of 
our own industry, 
to honor and con- 
fidence from our fel- 
low-ci tizens, rpsult- 
ìng not from hirth, 
but from our actions 
and their sense of 
th em; enlighteneù 
by a benign religion. 
pl'ofessed indeed anù 
practised in nll'iou"i 
forms. vet all of 
them b';cul ca t i ng 
honesty, truth. te1l1- 
perance, gratihlll('. 
and the love of 
man; acknowledging 
and adoring an over- 
ruling Providence, 
which. by all its dis- 
pensations, proves 
that it delights in 
the happiness of 
man here, and his 
grea ter happiness 
hereafter; with all 
these blessings, what 
more is necessary to 


bJoody persecutions. During the throes 
and convulsions of the ancient world, dur- 
ing the agonizing spasm!'! of infuriated 
man, seeking through blood and slaughter 
bis long-lost liberty, it was not wonderful 
that the agitation of the billows should 
reach evf'n this dÜ:tant and peaceful shore; 
that this should be more felt and feared 
by some, and less by others, and should 
divide opiJ;lions as to measures of safety; 
but every difference of opinion is not a 
difference of principle. We have caUed 
by different names brethren of the same 
principle. \Ve are all republicans; we 
are all federalists. If there be any 
among us who wish to dissolve this 
Union, or to change its republican form, 
let them stand undisturbed as monu- 
ments of the safety with which error 
of opinion may be tolerated, where reason 
is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, 
that some honest men fear that a republi- 
can government cannot be strong; that 
this government is not strong enough. But 
would the honest patriot, in the full tide 
of successful experiment, abandon a gov- 
ernment which has so far kept us free and 
firm, on the theoretic and -visionary fear 



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the general government in its whole con- 
stitutional vigor, as the sheet-anchor of 
our peace at home and safety abroad; a 
jealous care of the right of election by 
the people, a mild and safe corrective of 
abuses which are lopped by the sword of 
revolution where peaceable remedies are 
unprovided; absolute acqu.iescence in the 
decisions of the majority, the vital princi- 
ple of repubJics, from which there is no 
appeal but to force, the vital principle 
and immediate parent of despotism; a 
well-disciplined militia, our best reliance 
in peace, and for the first moments of 
war, till regulars may relieve them; the 
supremacy of the civil over the military 
authority; economy in the public expense, 
that labor may be lightly burdened; the 
honest payment of our debts, and sacred 
preservation of the public faith; encour- 
agement of agriculture, and of commerce 
as its handmaid; the diffusion of informa- 
tion, and arraignment of all abuses at the 
bar of the public reason; freedom of re- 
ligion, freedom of the press, and freedom 
of person, under the protection of the 
habeas corpus; and trial by juries impar- 
tially selected. These principles form the 
bright constellation which has gone before 
us, and guided our steps through an age 
of revolution and reformation. The wis- 
late their own pursuits of industry and dom of our sages, and blood of our heroes, 
improvement, and shall not take from the have been devoted to their attainment; 
mouth of labor the bread it has earned. they should be the creed of our political 
This is the sum of good government; and faith, the text of civic instruction, the 
this is necessary to close the circle of our touchstone by which to try the services of 
felicities. those we trust; and should we wander 
About to enter, fellow-citizens, upon the from them in moments of error or of 
exercise of duties which comprehend every- alarm, let us hasten to retrace our steps, 
thing dear and valuable to you, it is and to regain the road which leads alone 
proper you should understand what I deem to peace, liberty, and safety. . . . 
the essential principles of our government, The Jeffersonian Policy. - Soon after 
and, consequently, those which ought to his inauguration, Jefferson indicated his 
shape its administration. I will compress policy in a letter to Nathaniel Macon, 
them within the narrowest compass they ill Congress, as follows: "1. Levees are 
will bear, stating the general principle, done away with. 2. The first communi- 
but not all its limitations. Equal and ex- cation to the next Congress will be, like 
act justice to all men, of whateyer state all subsequent ones, by message, to which 
or persuasion, religious or political; peace, no answer will be e--xpected. 3. Diplo- 
commerce, and honest friendship with all matic establishments in Europe will be 
, f'ntangling alliances with none; reùuced to three ministers. 4. The com- 
tlw support of the Statf' goyernnwnts in pen<:ation of collf'ctorg depenùs on you 
aU their rights. as the most competent [Congress], and not on me. 5. The army 
administrations for our domestic conef'rns, is unrlf'rgoing a chaste }'eformation. 6. 
and the surest bulwarks against anti-re- The navy will be reduced to the legal 
publican tendencies; the preservation of e!'otablishment by the last of this month 

make us a happy and prosperous people? 
Still one thing more, fellow-citizens-a 
wise and frugal government, which shall 
restrain men from injuring one another, 
shall leave them otherwise free to regu- 



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[May, 1801]. 7. Agencies in every de- 
partment will be revived. 8. We shall 
push you to the uttermost in economiz- 
ing. 9. A very early recommendation 

1- - 

he had to abandon the undertaking. Jef. 
ferson, then governor of Virginia, gave 
instructions for the o<;,cupation of a sta- 
tion on the Mississippi River between the 
mouth of the Ohio 
and the parallel of 
36 0 30'; and in 
the spring of 1780 
Clarke chose a 

 I strong position 5 
miles below the 
mouth of the Ohio, 
whereon he built 
Fort Jefferson. 
Here the Ameri- 
cans planted their 
first sentinel to 
watch over the 
freedom of the 
navigation of 
the .. Fa ther of 
Jefferson and 
Taylor, FORTS. At 
lhe Garden Key, one of the Tortugas 
Islands, off the extremity of the Florida 
Peninsula, was Fort Jefferson; and at 
Key West was Fort Ta
'lor. Neither of 
these forts was quite finished at the be- 
ginning of 1861. The Confederates eady 
contemplated their seizure, but the 
laborers employed on them by the United 

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has been given to the Postmaster-General 
to employ no trilitor, foreigner, or Revo- 
lutionary Tory in any of his ofliccs." 
Three days after his inauguration he 
wrote to l\Ionroe: "I have firmly refused 
to follow the counsels of those who have 
desired the giving of offices to SOUle of the 
Federalist leaders in order to reconcile 
them. I have gi Yen, 
and will give, only ,----- 
to Republicans un- 
der e
isting cir- 
cumstances." The 
doctrine, "To the 
vietor belong the 
I'Ipoils," which has 
been accepted as 
orthodox in the 
po1itics of our re- 
public ever since, 
was then first pro- 
Jefferson, FORT, 
a fortification built 
(q. v.), on the west 
side of the Missis- 
sippi. He had designed to extend his in- States government were chiefly slaves, 
vas ion to Detroit, but troops to reinforce and their masters wished to reap the 
him had been added to the force of an- fruit of their labor as Jong as possible. 
other bold leader (see SUELBY, EVAN), and It was believed these forts might òe 


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seized at any time by the Floridians. Cap- make laws to that end; and when, in 1689, 
tain Brannan, with a company of artiI- 01(' Stuarts were driven from the throne 
lery, occupied barracks about half a mile of England, these people were pardoned, 
from Fort Taylor. Some of the military and the Virginians received them with 
and civil officers there were Confederates, open arms as brethren. Sir George dicd 
and they determined to oppose Captain il\ London, April 18, 1689. 
Brannan if he should attempt to take Jenckes, JOSEPH, colonial governor; 
posRession of that fort. Finally Captain born on the site of the city of Pawtucket, 
Brannan succeeded by a stratagem in R. I., in lG56; held a seat in the General 
gaining possession. The steamer Wyan- Assembly of Rhode Island in 1670-93; 
dotte lay near the fort, and her guns com- was appointed to arrange the boundary 
manded the bridge that connected it disputes with Connecticut and l\[assachu- 
"ith the island. One Sunday mornin
, setts, and afterwards those which had 
while the inhabitants were at church, arisen between Massachusetts and Ncw 
Captain Brannan marched his men by a Hampshire and :Maine. He was also 
back road, crossed the bridge, and entered made commissioner to answer a letter 
the fOl't. Supplies had already been for- of the King regarding the "condition 
warded by water. Both forts were of affairs in Rhode Island," and to re- 
strengthened and were lost to the Con- ply to a number of questions proposed 
federates. by the lords of the privy council. He 
Jeffreys, SIR GEORGE, juri!"t; born in was govemor of Rhode Island in 1727- 
Acton, Denbighshire, in HH8; was called 32. He died June 15, 1740. 
to the bar in 1668; became chief-justice Jenckes, THm.IAS ALLEN, legislator; 
of En
land in 1683; and was elevated to born in Cumberland, R. I., Nov. 2, 1818; 
the post of lord chancellor in 1685. He graduated at Brown University in 1838; 
was of a blood - thirsty and cruel dispo- admitted to the bar in 1840; served in 
sition, delighting in the severe punishment Congress in 186
-7I. He was the author 
of the enemies of the King. Aft
r the re- of the United States bankruptcy law, which 
belIion of the Duke of :Monmouth (1685) was passed in 1867; and was also one of 
was crushed he heJd courts in the insur- tIle earliest and most prominent advocates 
gent districts which are known in history of civil service reform. His bill in ad. 
as the "Bloody Assizes." The partisans vocacy of the same was passed in 1868. 
of :Monmouth in arms were fully 6,000 in He died ill Cumberland, R. I., Nov. 4, 
number, many of them persons of great re- 1875. 
spectabiJity. They were brought before Jenkins, f'IIARLES JONES, jurist; born 
the court of the çhief-justice by scores. in Beaufort district, S. C., Jan. 6, 1805; 
He seem
d to deJight in convicting and settled in Jefferson county, Ga., in 1816; 
punishing them. He caused 320 to be graduated at Union College in 1824; IleM 
IJanged or heheaded, and more than 800 a seat in the Georgia legislature in 1836- 
to he sold as slaves in the \Vest Indies and 50. He was a Union delegate to the Geor- 
Virginia. :Many of the latter were given to gia convention in 18,")0, and as chairman 
court favorites that they might sell them of that body drafted the resolutions known 
on speculation or extort money for th
ir as "The Platform of 1830," in which it 
pardon from those who had any to give. In was resolved "that the State of Georgia, 
this nefarious business I..ord Effingham, even to the disruption of every tie which 
governor of Virginia, engaged; and many binds her to the Union, resist any act 
men of culture, as well as good mechanics, of Congress abolishing slavery." He waS 
were sent to Virginia to be sold as slaves, a judge of the Supreme Court of Geor- 
rind so added excellent socia.l materials for gia in 1859 - 65, and governor in 1865- 
society in that colony. "Take care," 68. Mr. Jenkins receivC'd two votes for 
wrote King Charles to Bffingham, "that President of the United States in the 
they continue to serve for ten years at electoral college of 1872. He died in 
least, and that they be not permitted in Summerville, Ga., June 13, 1883. 
any manTI('r to rede
m tllemselves by .Jenkins, JAMES G., jurist; born in 
money or otherwise until that term be Saratoga Springs, N. Y., July 18, 1834; 
fuHy expired." The ARsembly refused to was liherally educated in New York State; 


and was admitted to the bar in New York IS6!)-71; and has since done much work 
City in 1855. Two years later he removed in bridge-building. He was in charge of 
to Milwaukee, Wis., where he practised the construction of the . Randolph bridge 
till 1888, when he was appointed United over the Missouri River, at Kansas, Mo., 
States judge for the district of Wiscon- and was employed on the Mississippi 
sin. In 1893 he was promoted to the levees. He has been chief engineer of 
bench of the United States Circuit Court raj]roads in the South and Southwest, 
of the 7th Judicial Circuit. In December, and was also chief engineer of the Ar- 
] 8D3, he issued an injunction forbidding ansas Pass harbor and jetty works in 
all employés of the Northern Pacific Rail- Texas. In 1898-D!) he was major of the 
road (which at that time was in the Volunteer Engineer Corps, and chief 
hands of receivers appointed by the court) engineer officer of the 1st Division of tho 
from joining or conspiring with others in 2d Army Corps. In 1887 he became a 
striking against reduced wages. The Cir- member of the American Society of Civil 
cuit Court of Appeals sustained this in- Engineers. 
junction in a modified form. Upon this Jenkinson, CHARLES, English po1iti- 
action the labor leaders endea,vored to cian; was private secretary to Lord Bute 
have Judge Jenkins impeached, but with- when he was the English premier, and, 
out result. when he resigned, Jenkinson became the 
Jenkins, JOHN, military officer; born principal secretary of the treasury. He 
in New London, Conn., Nov. 27, 1751; was an Oxford scholar, and, becoming per- 
served throughout the Revolutionary \Yar sonally acquainted with George III., when 
as a lieutenant; and during the Wyoming lle was Prince of 'Vales, became devoted 
mas!'acre commanded Forty Fort. He died to his service. He had great tact in 
in \Vyoming, Pa., March 19, 1827. dealing with delicate personal matters, 
Jenkins, JOHN STILWELL, author; born and so was fitted to plea
e all; or, rather, 
in Albany, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1818; edu- not to offend any. He was chiefly instru- 
cated at Hamilton College, and began the mental in pushing forward the English 
practice of law in \Veedsport, N. Y. His ministry in their schemes for taxing the 
publications include Generals of the Last English - American colonists, and was 
-War with Great Britain; a condensation reaUy the author of Townshend's obnox- 
of Hammond's History of New York; Life ious bills and Grenville's Stamp Act. He 
of Silas Wright; History of the Mexican held a place with I,ord North at the 
-War; Lives of the G ovm'nors of New Treasury board, in 17 (i8, and was the 
York; Lives of .Jackson, Polk, and Gal- cllief instigator of that minister's bills 
holtn, etc. He died in \Veedsport, N. Y., for asserting the absolute authority of 
Sept. 20, 1852. the Parliament over the American colo- 
Jenkins, THORNTON ALEXANDER, naval nies. 
officer; born in Orange county, Va., Dec. Jenkinson's Ferry, BATTLE AT. In 
II, 1811; appointed midshipman in 1828; 1864, General Steele, at Little Rock, Ark., 
commissioned lieutenant in 1839; pro- tried to co-operate with the Red Ri,'er 
moted captain in 1862; and rear-admiral expedition, but was unable to do so effect- 
in 1870. In 1834 to 1860 he was employed ually, for he was confronted by a heavy 
on the coast survey, and in the light- body of Confederates. He started south- 
house board. He was fleet captain. and wa;d, l\Iarch 23, with 8,000 troops, 
commanded the Hartford when Farragut cavalry and infantry. He was to be 
passed Forts Jackson and St. Philip be- joined by General Thayer at Arkadelphia, 
low New 'Orleans, April 24, 1862; com- with 5,000 men, but this was not thm 
manded the Richmond when Farragut accomplished. Steele pushed on for the 
captured l\Iohile in 1864. Hè died in purpose of flanking Camdeu and draw- 
\Yashington, D. C., Aug. 9, 18!)3. iug out Price from his fortifications there. 
Jenkins, WILLIAM DUNBAR. civil 
ngi. Early in April f.:teele was joined by 
neer; born in Adams county, Miss., Sept. Thayer, and on the e,'ening of the 15th 
19,. 18-19; was educated at military they entered Camden as victors. Serious- 
8('hools in France and Belgium;. studied Iy menaced by gatheriug ConfecIeratf's. 
civil engineering in Lexington, Va., in Steele, who, by the retreat of Banks, had 


been released from duty elsewhere, moved 
towards Little Rock. H(' crossed the 
Waðhita on the night of April 26. At 
Jenkinson's Ferry, on the Sabine River, 
he was attacked by an overwhelming 
force, led bJ' Gen. Kirby Smith in person. 
Steele's troops, though nearly famished, 
fought desperately during a most sangui- 
nary battle that ensued. Three times the 
Confederates charged heavily, and were 
repulsed. The battle was fought by in-'y alone, and the Nationals finally 
drove their ad,-ersaries and gained a com- 
plete victory. Then they crossed the 
river and moved on towards Little Rock. 
In the struggle at Jenkinson's Ferry the 
C'onfederates lost over 3,000 men, includ- 
ing more than 300 officers. The Kationals 
lost 700 killed and wounded. Steele's 
broken army reached Little Rock on 
May 2. 
Jenks, JEREMIAH \VHIPPLE, educator; 
born in St. Clair, Mich., Sept. 2, 1856; 
graduated at the University of Michi- 
gan in 18i8; and was admitted to the 
bar of that State. Later he taught Ger- 
man, Latin, and Greek at Mount Morris 
(Ill. ) College. In 1886-89 he was Pro- 
fessor of Political Seience and English 
IJiterature at Knox College, Galesburg, 
Ill.; in 188!)-!H was Professor of Political 
Economy and Social Science in the Indiana 
Unh-ersity; and in IS91 became Professor 
of Political Science in Cornell University. 
He is the author of Henry C. Carey als 
X ationalökonom; Road Lrgislation for the 
American State. and contributions on 
monopolies. political methods, etc., to 
l"cviews. magazÏIH's, and encyc10pædias 
iu the United States, Germany, and Eng- 
Jenks, .TOSEPTI, inventor; born near 
J,ondon; came to America in 1643, and 
i8 supposed to have been the first brass- 
f(lunder on this continent. On May 6, 
11148. he secured a patent from the l\Iassa- 
chusetts legislature for a water-mill and 
for a saw-mill. In lû:>2 he made the dies, 
it is said, for the silver coinage--the 
" pine-tree" money of that provinee. In 
16.34 he made a fire-engine for Boston, and 
in 1655 he received a patent for an im- 
proved method of manufacturing scythes. 
In 166i he had an appropriation for the 
encouragement of wire-drawing. He died 
in Lynn, Mass., in lG83. 

Jenney, \VILLIAl\[ LE BARO
, architect; 
horn in }.'airhaven, 1\[ass., Sept. 25, 1832; 
was educated at Phillips Academy, An- 
dover, :Mass.; graduated at the Éc01e 
Centrale des Arts et J\I?tiers, Paris. in 
lR.36. He also studied art and archi- 
tecture in Paris studios in 18;')8-59. On 
his return he was commissioned a cap- 
tain in the t!nited States army; was as- 
signed to engineer duty; and served on 
the staff of Gen. U. S. Grant from the 
battle of Cairo to Corinth, and then on 
that of Gen. \V. T. Sherman until 1866, 
receiving the brevet of major in 1864; 
he settled in Chicago as an architect in 
1868; was landscape engineer for the \Vest 
Chicago parks in 1870-71; invented the 
skeleton construction (now generally used 
in tall buildings) in 1883; and was the 
architect for the t'"nion League Club and 
the Siegel & Cooper Building, in New 
York City; The Fair, and the Horti- 
cultural Building at the World's Colum- 
bian Exp08ition, in Chicago, and other 
notable structures. 
Jersey Prison-ship, one of the prisons 
used by the British at New York during 
a part of the Revolutionary 'Val'. Noth- 
ing could exceed the horrors of these 
crowded prisons. The sugar-houses of 
New York being large, were used for the 
purpose, and therein scores suffered and 
died. But the most terrible scenes oc- 
curred on board several old hulks, which 


a _ .. __ 1(;. -_, 




were anchored in the waters around New 
York, and used for prisoners. Of them 
the ,Jersey was the most notOl'ious for the 
sufferings it contained. and the brutality 
of its officers. From these vessels. anchor- 
ed near the present navy-yal'd at Brook- 
lyn, almost 1I,000 victims were carried 
ashore during the war, and buried in 
shaJJow graves in the sand. Their re- 
mains were gathered in 1808 and put 
in a vanlt situated near the termination 



of Front Street and Hudson Avenue, to promote the power and dominion of 
Brooklyn. France in America. Within three years 
Jerseys, TilE. Collective name for the after the restmation of Canada to the 
colonies of East and 'Vest New Jersey. French there were fifteèn Jesuit priests 
Jervis, JOlIN BLOOMFIELD, engineer; in the province (1636). The first most 
born in Huntington, N. Y., Dec. 14, I i95; noted of these missionaries were Brf-beuf 
aF'sisted in the construction of the Erie and Daniel, who were bold, aggressive, 
and the Delaware and Hudson canals. He and self-sacrificing to the last degree. 
was connected with railroads from their Then came the more gentle Lallemande, 
t introduction, and made many im- ",-ho, with others, traversed the dark 
flwvcments in locomotives; and was chief wilderness with a party of Hurons who 
l'ngineer of the Croton aqueduct in 1836. lived far to the westward, on the borders 
He is the author of A Description of the of one of the Great Lakes. They suffered 
Croton Aqu.educt; A Report of the Bud. incredible hardships and privations-cat- 
son Ri1'cr Railroad; Railway Propcrty; ing the coarsest food, sleeping on the bare 
Labor and Capital, etc. He died in Rome. earth, and assisting their red companions 
N. Y., Jan. 12, 1885. in dragging their canoes at rough port- 
Jessup, HENRY HARIUS, clergyman; ages. On a bay of Lake Huron they 
born in 1\1ontrose, Pa., April 19, 1832; erected the first house of the society 
graduated at Yale University in IR.,)I, among the Korth American Indians. That 
and at Union Theological Sf'minary little chapd, which they called the cradle 
in 1855; and after ordination went to a of the Church, was dedicated to St. Jo- 
missionary to Tripoli, where he sened in seph, the lmsb:md of the Blessed Virgin. 
1856-60. In the latter year he went to They told to the wild children of the 
ncirut. In 187n he was moderator of the forest the stor:r of the love of Christ and 
General Assembly. He is the author of his crucifixion, and awed them with the 
Mohammedan lIlissionary Problem; The terrors of perdition. For fifteen years 
lJ1om('n of the Ambs
' The Greek Church Drr-henf carried on his missionary labors 
and Prot('stant Jlissions; Syrian II orne among the Hurons, sC'ourging his flesh 
Life; Kama, Moslf'm Convert, etc. twice a day with thongs; wearing an iron 
Jesuit Missions. In 1539 the Society girdle armed at all points with sharp pro- 
of Jesus, or Jesuits, was established by jections, and over this a bristly hair- 
Ignatius I,oyola. Its members were, by sllirt. which continually "mortified the 
its rules, never to become prelates. Their fl('sh"; fastf.rl frequently and long: kí'pt 
YowS were to be poor, chaste, and obe- his pious ,.igiIs Jate into the night, and 
dient, and in constant readiness to go on by penitential acts resisted every tempta- 
missions against hereF'Y and heathenism. tion of the flesh. 
Their grand maxim was the widest diffu- As missionary stations mnJtiplied in 
",ion of influence, and the closest internal the westf'rn wildprness, the central spot 
unity. Their missions soon spread to was ca1J('d Rt. Mary. It was upon the 
pvery part of the habitable globe then outJet of Lake Superior into l,ake Huron. 
known. TJH'y planted the cross in Europe, There, in one year, 3.000 Indians recpiyed 
Asia, Africa, and America, and on the a welcome at the hands of the priest. 
islands of the sea; and when Champlain This mission awakened great sympathy 
had opened thp way for the establishment in Ii'rance. Everywhpre pra
Yers wpre ut- 
of French dominion in Amprica. to the tered for its protection and prosperity. 
.Jesuits was assigned the task of bearing The KinO' sent maanificent1v embroid('rcd 
the Christian religion to the dusky in- garment; for the Indian 
onverts. The 
habitants in North America. ){ore per- Pope expressed his approhation. and to 
sf'Yering and more effective than the vo- confirm and strengthen these missions a 
taries of commerce and tradp, the Jesl1its college in New France was projected. ThC' 
hecame the pioneers of discovf'ry and set- pious young Marquis de Gaenache, with 
t1ement in North AmC'rÎea. Their para- the assent of his parents, entered the 80- 
mount ohject was the conversion of the ciety of .Tesns. and with a portion of their 
lwathen and an extension of the Church; ample fortnne he enr10wed a seminary for 
their secondary, yet powerful, object was education at Quebec. Its foundation was 


laid in 1635, just before the death of 
Champlain. That college was founded 
two years before the first high seminary 
of learning was established in the Protes- 
tant colonies in America by John Har- 
'\lard (see HARVARD UNIVERSITY). At 
the same time the Duchess d'Acquillon, 
aided hy her uncle, Cardinal Richelieu, 
endowed a public hospital at Quebec, 
open to the afflicted, whether white or 
red men, Christians or pagans. It was 
placed in charge of three young nuns, 
the youngest twenty-two, and the oldest 
twenty-nine years of age, who came 
from Paris for the purpose. In Hî40, 
Hochelaga (l\Iontreal) was taken pos- 
session of as a missionary station, with 
solemn religious ceremonies, and the 
Queen of Angels was petitioned to take 
the island of Montreal under her protec- 
tion. Within thirteen years the remote 
wildernes<; was visited by forty-two 
Jesuit missionaries, besides eighteen other 
devoted men. These assembled two or 
three times a year at St. Mary's; the re- 
mainder of the time they were scattered 
through the forests in their sacred work. 
A plan was conceived in lG38 of estab- 
1iE>hing missions among the Algon- 
quians, not only on the north, but on 
the south of the Great Lakes, and at 
Green Bay. Thp field of labor opened 
to the view of the missionaries a vast 
expanse of wilderness, peopled by many 
tribes, and they prayed earnestly for re- 
cruits. Very soon Indians from very re- 
mote points appeared at the mission 
stations. The hostilities of the Five 
Nations had kept the French from 
navigating Lakes Ontario and Erie; 
finally, in 1640, Brébeuf was sent to 
the NErTRAL NATION (q. v.), on the 
Niagara River. The further penetra- 
tion of the country south of the Lakes 
was then denied, but a glimpse of the 
marvelIous field soon to be entered upon 
was obtained. In September and October, carry the cross into Michigan was now 
1641, Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues the first to bear it to the villages of the 
penetrated to the Fan'! of St. Mary, in the Five Nations. At the villages on the way 
strait that forms the outlet of Lake from the St. Lawrence to the Mohawk 
Superior, where they heard of the Sioux. domain Father .Togues was compelled to 
They yearned to penetrate the country of suhmit to the horrors of running the 
this famous people. This favor was denied gantlet, yet he never repiní'd, but re- 
the missionaries. Father Raymbault re- joiced in his tribulations, and was made 
turned to Quebec and died, but Father happy by the conversion, here and there, 
Jogues was destined to endure many trials of one of the savages, whom, on one occa- 

and adventures of mIssIOnary life. On 
his way from Quebec to the Hurons he 
was captured by a roving band of Mo- 
hawks, and he who was one of the first to 

. =-- 




sion, he baptized with drops of dew. As 
he roamed through the forests of the :Mo- 
hawk Valley he carved the name of Jesus 
3 nd the figure of a cross on the trees, and 
with a chant took possession of the coun- 
try in the name of Christ. He was ran- 
somed by the Dutch at Albany, sailed for 
}'rance, but soon returned to Canada. 
Another mi
sionary (llressani), who 
suffered horribly, was also ransomed by 
the Dutch. In the summer of I64G the 
.Jesuits established a mission among the 
Indians of Maine, and so French out- 
posts were established on the Kennebec 
and the upper Lakes fourteen years after 
these missionary Ia bors were begun. 
There was then a lull in hostilities be- 
tween the French and the Five Nations, 
and Father .Togues went to the Mohawks 
as ambassador for Canada. His report 
caused an effort to establish a mission 

cast his body into the Mohawk River. 
In 1648, warriors from the Mohawk Valley 
fell upon the Hurons, and the Jesuit mis- 
sions among them werè destroyed, and 
priests and converts were murdered after 
horrible tortures. Finally, in 1654, when 
peace between the French and the Five 
Nations had been restored, Father Le 
Moyne was sent as ambassador to the 
Onondagas, when he was cheered by the 
sight of many Hurons holding on to their 
faith. Le Moyne was allowed to establish 
a mission in the Mohawk Valley. Yery 
soon the Onondagas received Father Da- 
blon and his companions kindly, and 
chiefs and followers gathered around the 
Jesuits with songs of welcome. A chapel 
was built in a day. "For marbles and 
precious metals," Dablon wrote, "we em- 
ployed only bark; but the path to 
heaven is as open through a roof of bark 



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among them, and he alone understand- as through arched ceilings of sih'el' and 
ing their language, was sent, but lost his gold." Fifty French people settled near 
life among the Mohawks, who hung his the missionary station, awl vpry SOOIl 
head upon the palisades of a village, and there were Christian laborers tllllong the 


Cayugas and Oneidas. A change came. Aug. 28, 1657, but was recalled to :Mon- 
War was again kindled, and .Tcsuits and treal. René :Ménard was with Le :Mercier 
settlers were ohliged to flee from the at Onondaga from 1656 to 1658, and after- 
hosom of the Five Nations. After that, wards among the Cayugas. Julien Gar- 
the self-sacrificing Jesuits penetrated the nier, sent to tIle :Mohawks in May, 1668, 
western wilderness to the l\Iississippi passed to Onondaga, and thence to the 
River, carrying the cross as the emblem Senecas, and was engaged in this mission 
of their religion, and the lilies of France until 1683. Claude Dablon, at Ononda
as tokens of political dominion. In these a few years after 1655, and was after- 
lahors they were assisted by the votaries wards among the tribes of the Upper 
of commerce. Seeds of civilization were I.akes. Jacques Fremin, at Onondaga 
planted here and there, until harvests from 1656 to 1658; was sent to the Mo- 
were beginning to blossom all along the hawks in July, 1667; left there for the 
J--,akes and the Mississippi to the Gulf of Senecas in October, 1668, where he re- 
l\Iexico. The discoveries of these priests mained a few years. Pierre Rafeix, at 
and traders gave to France a claim to Onondaga from 1656 to 16.38; chaplain in 
that magnificent domain of millions of Courcelle's expedition in 1665; sent to 
square miles, extending from Acadia the Cayugas in 1671, thence to Seneca, 
along the St. Lawrence and the Lakes, where he was in 1679. Jacques Bruyas, 
and the establishment of French domin- s{'nt to the }Iohawks, July, lG67, and to 
ion in Louisiana, on the borders of the the Oneidas in September, where he spent 
Gulf of Mexico. It has been truthfully four years, and thence returned to the 
said, ., The history of these [Jesuit] Mohawks in 1672; was at Onondaga in 
labors is connected with the origin of 1679, 1700, and 1701. Etienne de Car- 
every celebrated town in the annals of heil, sent to Cayuga in 1668, and was ab- 
French America; not a cape was turned or sent in 1671-72; returned, and remained 
a river entered but a Jesuit led the way." until 1684-. Pierre Milet was sent with 
There were twenty-four different Jesuit De Carheil to the Cayugas in 1668, and 
missionaries among the Six Nations be- left in 1684; was at :Niagara in 16RR, 
tween 1657 and 1769. Their names and and was taken prisoner at Cataraqua in 
places of service were as foIJows: Paul 1689. Jean Pierron was sent to the "l\T,)- 
Ragueneau, at Onondaga, from July, lG57, hawks in July, 1667; went among the 
to March, lfÎ.38. Isaac Jogues, prisoner Cayugas in October, 1668, and was with 
among the Mohawks from August, 1642, the Senecas after 1672, where he was in 
to August, 1643; a missionary to the same 1679. Jean de Lambervi1Ie was at Onon- 
nation in 1646, and killed in October of daga in 16il-72; was sent to Niagara in 
the same year. Francis Joseph Le Mer- 1687. Francis Boniface was sent to the 
cier, at Onondaga, from May 17, 1656, to :Mohawks in 1668, and was there after 
l\rarch 20, 165ft Francis Duperon, at 1673. Francis Vaillant de Gueslis suc- 
Onondaga, from 1657 to 16.38. Rimon Le reeded Boniface among the Mohawks about 
Moyne, at Onondaga, July, 1634; with 1674: accompanied the expedition against 
the :Mohawks from Sept. 16, 1655, until the Senecas in 1687; was sent to New York 
Kov. 9 of the same year; then again in in December, 1687, and to the Senecas in 
11156. until Nov. 5; again there (third 1703. Pierre de Mareui1 was at Onon- 
time) from Aug. 26, 1657, until May, daga in June, 1709, where he surrendered 
11158; at Onondaga, from July, lG61, until himself to the English in consequence of 
Septemher, 1662; ordered to the Senecas war breaking out between the latter and 
in .July, Hî63, but remained at :l\Iontrea1. the French, and was courteously treated 
Hp died in Canada in 1665. Francis .To- at Albany. .Jacques d'Heu was among 
spph Bressani, a prisoner among the Mo- the Onondagas in 1708, and the Senecas 
hawks from April 30 to Aug. 19, 1644. in 1709. Anthony Gordon founded St. Re- 
Pierre Joseph Mary Chaumont, at Onon- gis in 1769, with a colony from St. Louis. 
daga from September. lü:J5, until 
Iarch There were two" Sulpicians" as mission- 
20, 16:58. .Joseph Anthony Poncet was a uries in northern Kew York, Francis 
prisoner among the Iroquois from Aug. Piqupt, who founded Oswegatchie (Og-dens- 
20 to Oct. 3, 1652; started for Onondaga burg) in 1748, and his SllCCeS!'IOr at Oswe. 


gatchie, Pierre PauJ Francis de Ja Garde. for his services in the battle of Lundy's 
J1'or Jesuit missions in California, see Lane, or Niagara, in which he was severe- 
JUNIPERO. Jy wounded. After the war, he was pro- 
Jesup, MORRIS KETCHUM, phiJanthro- moted to adjutant-gen
ral and quarter- 
pist; born in \Vestport, Conn., June 21, master-general of the army in 1818,with the 
1830; removed to New York City; was a rank of brigadier-general, and was brevet- 
clerk in a manufacturing house till 1852, ted major-general in 18
8. In 1836 he was in 
and thence till 1884 was engaged in command of the army in the Creek nation, 
banking business. He was ejected presi- and at the close of the year he commanded 
dent of the Five Points House of Industry the army in Florida.' He was wounded 
in 1872, and the same year became a by the Seminoles in .January, 1838. He 
founder and president of U;e Young l\Ien's died in Washington, D. C., June 10, 1860. 
Christian Association of New York City. Jewell, :MARSHALL, diplomatist; born 
In 1881 he was elf'cted presiùent of the in Winchester, N. H., Oct. 20, 1825; learn- 
New York City Mip-sion and Tract Society, ('d thE> tannpr's trade; and established a 
for which he Imilt the De\Vitt l\Iemorial leathpr businel;:s. He was ejected g'overnor 
Church, in memory of his father-in-Jaw, of Connecticut in 1869. re-elected in 1871 
anù also president of the Museum cf and 1872; appointed minister to Russia 
Katural History, to which he presented in ] 873; and becamp Postmaster-Gene.ral 
a collection of native woods valued at in 1874. He died in Hartford, Conn., Fpb. 
$100.000. He was elect('d president of 10. 1883. 
the New York l'hnmher of Commerce in Jewett, SAUAH ORNE, author; born in 
IS!)!). Besides the above institutionR, he South Berwick, l\Ie., S('pt. 3, 1849; was 
has been an officer in the leading bf'nevo- educated at the Berwick .Academy. She 
lent and educational institutions in Nf'w has traveUed exb>nsively in the rnited 
York City and elsewhere. 1\1r. .Tesup has States, Canada, and Europe; and is 
been exceedingly liberal in his benefac- widely known as a short-story writer. 
!ions, and has extended his aid to a large Her works include Dcephavcn; Play 
variety of interests. In 18D7 he as<:umed Days; Old F,.irnds and Y rlO
' A 1rhite 
the expense, estimated at from $,'50,000 Hcron; A lI/arsh 18land
' Betty Leicrster; 
to $75,000, of a series of expeditions to Country BY-1
' Thr M atc of the Day- 
secure anthropological material for the light, and Fricnds _4.shore; A Country 
Museum of Natural History, with special Doctor; The FUory of th(' -,...7 ormans; The 
leference to the origin of the aneient King of Folly Island, and other Pcople; 
population of this continent and its re- Rtrangers and IT'aYfarcrs
' A -Kative of 1Vin- 
lation to the ancient inhabitants of the by, and Othcr Talcs
' The Lifc of Nancy; 
Old World. This project involves the Tlte Country of the Pointed Firs, etc. 
thorough exploration of the coast of the Jews. The Jewish citizenship of the 
north Pacific Ocean. In 18Di he gaY(' to United States is one of the most subs tan- 
Yale Divinity School $51,000, and the tial of all foreign constituents of our com- 
\Vomen's Hospital, in New York City, plex population. The Jews are an exceed- 
$100,000; in IS!)!) he erected .Tesup Han ingly law-abiding pf'ople, and in their 
for Williams College, at a cost of $3.'5.000; charities are unsurpassed hy any race 
Dnd in 1900 he presented to Yale Univ('r- among us. Their JlOmes, asylums, bospi- 
sity the collection of Arabic manuscripts tals, and educational establishments are 
made by Count Landberg, a distinguished among the b('st endowed and most pro- 
Swedish collector and traveller, for whieh gressive institutions in the country, and 
he paid $20,000. He also erected, for the the benevolent acts of prosperous Hebrew 
'l'"nion Theological F\eminary, a building men towardR ohjf'ets and inRtitntions other 
known as Jesup Hall. than those of tlwir own pf'OI)le Jmve re- 
Jesup, 'rnmrAS SIDNEY, military om- ceived a high ana a desf'rved recognition. 
eel'; born in Virginia, in 1788; entered At the fiftef'nth nnnual m('eting of the 
the army in 1808. and was Hun's adjn- Association of .Tewish Immigrants, in 
tant-general in 1813. For his good con- Philadelphia, in lRDD, PreRirlent Levy's re- 
duct at the battle of C'hippf'wa, he was port treatf'd espf'ein lly of the general in- 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel; also colon('1 crf'ase in immigration. Of the 312,000 im- 

migrants to this country, representing an 
iucrease of 36 per cent. over the figures 
oÌ the preceding year, the Jewish con- 
tingent was 37,000, an increase of 32.1 
per cent. A large proportion of the Jew- 
ish immigrants came from Russia. where, 
however, the persecutions to which the 
Jews were subjecteù were being less rigor- 
ously enforced than formerly. The fer- 
went infused into the European social 
body by the DreJ'fus affair appeared to 
have had a clarifying effect, even the Pro- 
curator of the Russian Holy Synod hav- 
ing in a recent interview disavowed anti- 
Semitic sentiments. The a-etual storm 
centre of Slavic anti-Semitism had moved 
0\ er the border from Russia to Austria 
and Rumania, and in Bohemia the condi- 
tion of affairs was described as gravely 
foreboding. In Vienna. the fever of anti- 
Semitism had passed its critical stage. 
This had been, in part, due to the disclos- 
ure of colossal frauds in the administra- 
tion of the city finances by numerous 
leaders of the anti-Semite majority. In 
Germany and France the conditions were 
still more favorable. 
Turning to the subject of Jewish colo- 
nization, President Levy said that the 
movement to colonize Jews in Palestine 
had been stemmed by the interference of 
the Turkish government. Jewish colonies 
had been established in Cyprus, anù the 
De Hirsch colonies in Argentine were 
sllowing unmistakable signs of progress. 
Of the New Jersey colonies, the one at 
Woodbine, under the fostering care of the 
AmerieaJl De Hirsch Fund trustees, was 
growing in importance, and left no doubt as 
to its ultimately successful establishment. 
The other colonies at Alliance, Norma, Car- 
mel, and Rosenhayn had passed the prob- 
lematic stage and gave promise of success. 
In the American-Jewish Year-Book for 
1809-1000 (Hebrew year, 5660), Cyrus 
Adler, the editor, considering the number 
of Jews in the United States, said: "As 
the census of the United States has, in 
accordance with the spirit of American 
imtitutions, taken no heed of the religious 
convictions of American citizens, whether 
uative-born or naturalized, all statements 
concerning the number of Jews living in 
this country are based upon estimate, 
tllough several of the estimates have been 
most conscientiously made. 


"In 1818 Mordecai 1\1. Noah estimated 
the Jewish population at 3,000. In 1826 
Isaac C. Harby placed the figures at 6,000, 
and in 1840 these were further increased 
by the estimate published in the .American 
Almanac to 15,000. In 1848 l\:I. A. Berk 
made their number 50,000. In 1880 Will- 
iam B. Hackenburg put the figures at 
230,257; in 1888 Isaac :Markens put them 
at 400,000, and in 189i David Sulzberger 
estimated the total at 937,800." 
The following figures are then given: 

Year. New York. Philadelphia. Baltimore. 
1RH5.......... . 18,535 1,076 .... . 
1!;t;6.... ....... 27,348 2,310 . .... 
1887. . . . . ... .. . 25,788 1,680 ..... 
1888.......... . 29,602 1,761 .... . 
181,i9.......... . 22,674 1,288 .... . 
1890........ .. 32,321 1,982 
1891. . . .. .. .. . . 62,574 4,984 1,681 
1892.......... . 52,134 3,039 5,152 
1893........... 25,678 5,324 1.941 
1894........... 16,381 3,826 1. 902 
1895. .. . . .. . .. . 27,066 2,79] 2,221 
1896.... ... . .. . 23,802 2,499 1.817 
1897.... .. . .... 17,278 1,7:'2 1,1;151 
1R!IH.... .. . .... 22,921 2,079 2,409 
ToJnly, ]8!19... 12,909 .... . 1,463 
Total. . . .. . . 4]7,010 36,390 20,140 

Immigration for 1881-84........... 74,310 
Kew York, 188:J-9!L............... 417,010 
Philadelphia, 188;)-99.............. 36,390 
Baltimore, 188;)-m),............... 20,140 


Total ....................... 547,850 
"If we add this immigration to the 
estimate of 1\11'. Hackenburg made in 
1880," says 1\11'. Adler, "we can secure a 
total of 778,107, without making any al- 
lowance for the natural increase in twenty 
years, nor for the immigration through 
Canada and other ports of the United 
States than New York, Philadelphia, and 
Early in 1904 Professor Haman, of 
Basel, Switzerland, calculated that there 
were about 19,000,000 Jews in the world, 
of whom nearly 11.000,000 were in Europe 
and 8,000,000 outside of Europe, including 
1.000,000 in the United States. Accord- 
ing to his eRtimates RusAia had 5,500,000; 
Austria-Hungary, 1.860.000; Germany, 
568,000; Rumania, 300,000; Great Britain, 
22.000; Turkey, 120.000; Hol1a1ld. 97,000; 
Franee, 77,000; Italy, fiO,OOO; Bulgaria, 
:n,ooo; Switzerland. 12,000; Greece, 6,000; 

f'rv!a, 5.000; Denmark, 4,000; Sweùen, 


3,500; Belgium.. 3,000; Spain, 2,500; and 
Portugal, 300. 
The American .Jewish Year-Book for 
1903-04 stated the Jewish population of 
the United 
tates at 1,127,268, which 
would make the United States l'ank third 
among the' nations of the world in respect 
to Jewish citizens. The Year-Book esti- 
matRd that fully 500,000 Jews were resi- 
dents of New York State, the greater 
part being on Manhattan Island. The 
following States were credited with hav- 
ing 10,000 or more Jews among their 
p{'ople: California, 28,000; Illinois, 75,000; 
Indiana, 25,flOO; K{'ntucky, 12,000; Loui- 
f\iana, 12,000; Maryland, 26,500; Massa- 

chl1setts, 80,000; Minnesota, 10,000; Mis- 
souri. 50,000; New Jersey, 23,000; New 
York, 500,000; Ohio. 50,000; Pennsylvania, 
H5,OOO; Tennessee, 1 O,QOO; Texas, 15,000; 
Virginia, 15,000; Wisconsin, 15,000. The 
immigration figures for 1903 show that 
in 1902
3, 58,079 Jews entered the port 
of New York, of whom 30,536 were Rus- 
sians, 18,113 Austrians, 8,314 Rumanians, 
527 Germans, 271 Turks, 233 English, 35 
Dutch, 28 French, 12 Swedes, 5 Scotch, 
and 5 South Americans. From Aug. 27 , 
1002, to Aug. 25, 1903, 24 synagogues were 
d{'dicated in fourteen of the United States, 
16 hospitals and many other institutions 
were opened. 


.Jews and .Judaism. Professor Richard 
J. H. GottheiI, the scholarly writer on 
.Tewish questions, and son of the well- 
known Rabbi GottheiI, of New York, 
writes as follows regarding Hebraism in 

dependent upon the political conditions of 
these countries. More than seventy J'ears 
of the century had passed before this 
struggle had been fought out. 
The cause of .Jewish emancipation in 
England suffered no such sudden changes 
as it did on the continent. It proceeded 
For the Jew the Middle Ages did not by regular stages through the abrogation 
end with the Reformation and the Renais- of the Act of Test in 1828, the admission 
sa nee ; but only disappeared in the trans- of Jews as citizens of London in 1830, as 
formation brought about gradually by the sheriffs in 1835, as magistrates in 1845, 
French Revolution. During this period and in 1858 as members of Parliament by 
the Jew has passed through more up- the removal of the words" upon the faith 
heavals than many nations have during of a Christian" in the oath taken by the 
three or four times the number of years. members. 
The modern European and American world Thpre are between 10,000,000 and 11,- 
has had a hard fight to find its way into 000,000 Jews to-day in the world; of these, 
its present changed condition; but much about 9,000,000 live in Europe; 1,000,000 
harder by far was the task laid upon the in the United States and Canada; 350,000 
Jew; and, whether he has succeeded or in Africa; 350,000 in Asia; and 16.000 
not, he has made an honest fight. The in Australasia. 
tale of the Jew of the nineteenth century In England and Am<>rica no organiza- 
is a record of his endeavor to do justice tion of the Jews has been effected, as thp 
to the two demands which were made upon state does not there take cognizance of tIll' 
him: the one from the outside world-to religious belief of the people. In both 
fit himself to take his place worthily and these countries attempts han been madp 
do his work side by side with the other b;r the Jews thems{'lves to organize under 
citizens of the state in which he lived; the one head upon a purely religious basis, 
other from within his own ranks to har- but without much success. The congr{'g-a- 
monize his religious belief with his new tional system has been carried to its ut- 
point of view and to adapt his religious most limits in the United States, where 
exercises to modern social conditions. The each congregation is a Jaw unto itself and 
struggle of the Jews in the various Euro- absolutely rejects any interference on the 
pean countries for civil rights and for part of any Jarger body. From time to 
equality before the law was long drawn time a desire has been manifested to super- 
out, and was marked by varying fortunes sede this purely congregational system by 


some form of union. The late Dr. Isaac of the French language and of French cult- 
M. Wise. of Cincinnati. had at various ure in the East. This one-sidednees of 
times attempted to bring the Jews of the its work is best iieen in the fact that by its 
United States together with an authorita- side similar organizations have been cre- 
tive synod at their head. Out of this and nted in other countrieii', ;, The Board of 
other attempts have come the Central Con- Delegates of American Israelites" in the 
fcrence of American Rabhis and The Union United States, " The An
lo-.Je\Vish Associa- 
uf American Congregations (foundcd iJ]. tion" in England, the 
"Israelitische AI- 
IHj3), which now comprises about ninety- liance" in Austria, and the" Deutsche Ge- 
one cOllgregation
. These organizations, meindebund" in German
-. At one point 
lu)wever, do not by any means represent it was hopell that the B'nai ß'rith, estab- 
either all of the Jewish ministers or all lished in this country in 1843, by !sidor 
of the Jewish congl'egations, and the Busch, Julius Bien, and others, would 
Lnion itself is merely a deliberative body form such a union of Jews, where the 
having no power to do anything in the in- theological differences would be eliminated. 
ternal affairs of one of its constituent But though this order, which has 315 
synagogues, Since the union of American lodges in the United States and Canada, 
Jf'wish congregations comprises only such has established itself in such countries 
as stand upon a Reform platform, a union as Germany, Rumania, Austria, Algeria, 
of Orthodox congregations was formed in Bulgaria, and Egypt, and despite the good 
Kew York two or three years ago, and it work it has so far done. the mere fact 
is hoped that this organization will do that it is a secret organization prevents it 
much towards binding together the very from standing forth as the representative 
many congregations of those who adhere of international Jewry. \Vhere, then, and in 
s1rietly to traditional ,Judaism. what manner is such a body to be found? 
But the organization of Jews as a It is a mistake to suppose that the Jews 
church has not been found sufficient. It as a people are rich. The proletariat 
was early felt that some more secular among them is proportionately much 
bond must be found which should unite larger than it is among other people; and 
the Jews of various pprsuasions for com- thus it came about that the Jewish quar- 
IrIon and concerted action. The first at- tel'S in all the large cities were already 
tempt in this direction was nobly made wen filled when they were (almost at a 
hy Narcisse I
even, Eugene Emanuel, mompnt's notice) called upon to receive 
Charles Netter, and a f{'w others, in found- double or triple the number they already 
ing (1880) the "Alliance Isral'lite l!ni- hpld. The actual number of the Jewish 
\erselle" in Paris, whose object it was to r,oor was thereby greatly increased; for 
aid in removing Jewish disabilities wher- many a family that had been wealthy or 
ever they might exist, and to raise the in easy cirrumstances in Russia, Galicia. 
spiritual condition of tlH'ir coreIigionists or Rumania, had been reduced to want 
in northern Africa, eastern Europe. and and heen compeI1ed to take its place 
western Asia by the founding of schools. among those who needed the help of their 
From these small beginnings the Alliance hrethren. This help was freely and cheer- 
has grown to be an important factor in fuIly given all the world over. Great 
the conservation of Jewish interests. sacrifices weloe made by the richer Jews 
Faithful to its programme. it has estab- to meet the pr{'ssing needs of the hour, 
Iished a large number of elementary and and, with no help from the outside world, 
technical schools, and has inten-ened ac- ex('eptin
 the London Mansion House 
tively in Algeria, l\Iorocco, the Turkish Fund in 1882, the thousands and tens of 
Empire, and Persia whenever Jews or Jew- thousands of immigrants were cared for. 
ish interests were in any way threatened. The Jewish charitable organizations, the 
Its attempt, however, to rppresent the development of which has bf'en during the 
whole Jewish people has not been success- latter half of thp nineteenth century the 
ful j for the reason that it has been allied brightest spot in Jewish communal life. 
too closely with French national interests; rose to the demands of the occasion, and 
and Bide by side with the" Alliance Fran- the more than princely munificence of 
çaise" it has been an active propagandist Baron and Baroness 
!aurice de Hirsch, 


in regard to the Russian Jews, may justly of Jews there must be stopped, and the 
be looked upon with pride. crowding into certain distinct fields of 
New Ghettos, however, were formed in work must be brought to an ('nd. A deter- 
nearly all the cities to which these immi- mined effort has alraady been made to 
grants came; and this name for the habi- force the new immigrants into less crowded 
tat of the poorer Jews became again famil- parts of the land to which they come. In 
iar, aided by the popularity which some this country this is being done by the 
modern novelists had given to it. In the United Hebrew Charities, and notably by 
Middle Ages and down to our own time the B'nai B'rith. A distinct clanuish feel- 
tIle Jews bad been forced by the state iIlg has, however, to be overcome, and a 
to live apart in such Ghettos; sometimes fear of venturing into an unknown coun- 
for their own protection, sometimes to tI-y where the immigl'ant will be surround- 
preserve the outside world from contact ed by people who do not understand his 
with tlH'm. The modern Ghetto is a volun- peculiar social and religious customs. 
bry gathering of the Jews for the purpose That the Jew has taken by preference 
of mutual help and from a feeling of re- to certain branches of trade and WOl"k is 
ciprocal ohligations. To the outside ob- due to the fact that anti.Jpwish legisla- 
senTer it presents an unsightly appear- tion has for centuries dosed manv walks 
ance; it is the abode of poor people, and üf life to him, and the guild orga
its population is usuaIly strange in dress, excluded him rigorously from many 
manners, and speech. The sweating sys- spheres of activity. Then. too. Ilis richl,\' 
tern (which in one form or another is to developed horne life has induepd a certain 
he found in all these Ghettos) has bepn a distastC' for occupations whieh take the 
dreadful incentive towards grinding the wage-earner out of his llOnlP and away 
face of the poor; and the results of too from his family. That, however, these 
great a hoarding are often quite apparent; inherited instincts can easily be overcome 
so that the general morality of the Jews is clparly seen whf'never the occasion 
in these Ghettos has suffered in eonse- offers. Even in Amsterdam, where three- 
quence. A people ignorant of the lan- fourths of the diamond industry is in the 
guage of their new home are a prey to the :hands of Jews, tbere are to be found Jew- 
evil - intended, who make use of thpir ish cohblers, cigar-makprs, plumbers, car- 
ignorance for their own commercial and pet - weavers, mattress - makers, watch- 
political advancement. This has been makers, etc. In the East End of London 
notably seen in the city of New York, tIlere are, it is tI-ue, 10,000 Jews who 
where a lax city government has permitted are engaged in the clothes - making 
the vampires of society to fasten their trades, but the rest of 40,000 ,Tewish 
fangs upon the Ghetto and to produce con- wage - earners of this quarter are scat- 
àitions which call for the active interfer- tered over all possible branehes of 
enC'e of all those forces which seek to work-masonr
T, metal-working, textile 

tamp out crime and vice. But, on the industries, furniture-making, cap-making, 
other hand, to one who is acquainted with and the like. The same is true of Ncw 
tlJe inner life of the Ghetto the virtues York, wllere, although the number of Jews 
which have hitherto characterized the employed in the tailoring industries is 
Jews-industry and sobriety-are stilI to disproportionately large, the following 
be found there; much more frequently list of Hehrew unions "hows how far 
than in those parts where the richer afield the Jewish workman has gone: 
classes congregate, and whose wea]th Cap-:Ylakers, Cap-Blockers, :-:hirt-Makers, 
enables them to withdraw their doings Mattress-Makers, Purse-1Iakers, Liberty 
from the public gaze. Its members are as Musical Union, Jewish CHorus lInion, 
industrious as bees in a hive; and though Jewellers' Union. Tin-Rmithers' Union, 
extremely litigatious, drunkenness is un- Bill-Posters, \Yaiters' Alliance, Architect- 
known and actual crime is comparatively ural Ironworkers, Hebrew Typographical 
rare. Union. Tobacco Cutters, Paper - Makers, 
In order to correct the abuses of the Bookbinders. The same is relatively true 
Ghetto, two things are absolutely neces- of all other countries where Jews live in 
sary-the increase of the actual numbC'r In.rge numbers. 


It is a popular misconception that the Alexanilria, into :l\Joorish culture in Spain, 
./pw has an innate distaste for agricult- into Sla\-'ism in Russia and Poland. \Vhen 
\lr('. His continued eonllnercial life, forced the first waye of the moder-n spirit com- 
\lpon him for many centuries, has, it menced to break from France eastward 
is true, disaccustomed the Jew to the over the whole of Europe, it reached the 
life of a tiller of the soil. But the Jewish Jew also. While in France the new spirit 
state was largely an agricultural one; the was largely political in Germany it was 
legislation of the Bible and the later Law more spiritual. In its political form as 
Books was clearly intended for an agri- well as in its spiritual form it reacted 
cultuml people; and Jews have never not only upon the political condition of 
shown an unwillingness to return again the Jew, but especially upon his mental 
to the soil. In Southern Russia there are attitude. The new spirit was intensely 
to-day 22.3 Jewish colonies with a popula- modern, intensely cosmopolitan, intensely 
tion of 100,000. In Palestine there are Occidental, and intensely inductive. The 
now more than twenty colonies with a treW had preserved to a great degree his 
population of more than 5,000, and similar deductive, Oriental, particularistic, and 
3gricultural colonies have been established ancient mode of thought and aspect of 
at various times in the United Stat{>s, life. Th{> two forces were bound to meet. 
Canada, and the Argentine Republic. In As a great oak is met by the storm. so wa
wany cases, it is true, these colonies have Israel set upon by the fury of this terrilJle 
not yet bf'come self-supporting, but this on<;laught. It is of interest to see in what 
1ms been due in a large measure to mal- mannel" he emerged from this storm- 
administration and to the popular con- whether he has been able to bend to its 
ditions ulllIer which the colonies weloe fury, to lose perhaps some of his leavf's 
founded. and even some of his branC'lws, but to 
It cannot be denied that a goodly part change only in snch a way as to be able 
of the J{>wish proletariat belonçs to the 10 stand upright again when the storm 
Socialist part
-. The whole Biblical s
's- iH past. 
tem is in itself not without a Socialist It was in the United Rtates that the 
tinge; and the two great foundel's of the Reform movement developed its full ca- 
IIlodern system, Lasalle and :Marx, were l'aeity and bore its most perfect fruit. 
Jews. nut the Jew is by nature peaee- In a new land, whieh was untrammeHed 
loying; and under more favorable circum- by traditions of the past, and where the 

tances, and with the opportunity of a congregational system became the basis of 
greater development of his faeuItif's, Jcwish communal life, the ideas which the 
ðocialism in his midst has no very active German Reformers had sown had a most 
life; the Jew very soon becoming an ar- fruitful ground in which to grow. It can- 
dent partisan of the existing state of 110t be said that the Reform movement 
a11'airs. here was actually started by the Ger- 
The facility with which the Jews attach mans, for already, in 1825, one of the 
thcmseh'es to changed circumstances congregations in Charleston, S. C., made 
stands out characteristically through their up almost entirely of Sefardic Jews, 
whole history. It might, indeed, be said had developed "The Rf'formed Rociety of 
with some !5how of truth that this pli- Israelites"; and the formation of the 
ability is the weak side in the 
Tewish society seems to have been due, not only 
clmractf'r. 1'11(' readiness of the- Jew to be to the demand for an æsthetic service, hut 
almost anything and not simply his own to an attempt to formulate a creed which 
self has been one of the factors producing should omit all reference to the coming of 
a certain ill will against him. Disraeli the ]\1:{>ssiah, the return to Pal{>stine. and 
was tJw most jingo of all imperialists in the bodilv resnrrection. This attempt at 
England; T--,asl
er, the most an1f'nt a <1\'0- fmmulating a Theistic Church, however, 
cate of the newly constituted German P.m- was unsuceessful; and it 'was not until tIll' 
pire. 'l'his pliahility is the rf'sult of thf' advent from Germain' in the 50's and 60"s 
wandering life he has led and the various of rabbis who hRd b'een inflnenced by the 
cÎ\'iJi7.ations of whieh he has becn a part. n
O\-'{>n1ent in Germanv that reform com- 
H(í has to find his way into Hellenism in menced to make itseÌf felt hf'r('. 


bacl1er in New York, Isaac 1\1. Wise in AI- l'aradise, are to be rejected; anù that it is 
bany and Cincinnati, f:. Hirsch in Phila- the duty of .Jews to participate in the 
delphia, David Einhorn in Baltimore, are great task of modern times to solve 011 the 
onlv a few of the names of those who hasis of justice and' righteou8ness the 
fought in thp thick of the fi
ht. About the problems presented br the transitions and 
)"<,ar 1843 the fir,>t real Reform congrega- evils of the present organization of soci- 
tions were eHta hli;;hed, the Temple Emanu- ety. Such a platform as this could not 
el in New York and Har Sinai in HaIti- fail to arouse intensc opposition on the 
more. It cannot be my purpose here part of the Orthodox Jews, and to lose for 
to trace the history of the movement in the conference even some of its more con- 
this country; suffice it to say that the un- servative adherents. As in Charleston, in 
trammelled frpedom which existed here 1825, a platform of Theism was here postu- 
"\"Cry soon played havoc with most of the lated, which was bereft of all distinctively 
institutions of the Jewish religion. Each .Jewish characteriHtics, and wl1Ïch practi- 
congregation and each minister, being a cally meant a breaking away from historic 
law to itself. shortened the service, excised .Tudaism. This position of the ad,yanced 
prayers, and did away with ohservances Reformers is also manifested in tIle stand 
as it thought best. Not that the leaders which thf'Y have taken in regard to the 
did not try, from time to time, to regulate nccessity of tIle Abrabamic covenant. At 
the measure of reform to be introduced. It meeting of the Central Conference of 
and to evolve a platform upon whieh the Amprican (Reformf'd) Rabbis, held at 
movement should stand. Rabbinical eon- Baltimore in 1881, a resolution was passed 
ferences were held for tIlat purpose in to the effect that no initiatory rite or cere- 
Cleveland (1856), Philadelphia ( 1869), mony was necessary in the case of one de- 
Cincinnati (1871), and Pittsburg (1883). siring to enter the Covenant of Israel, and 
\Yhile in the earlier conferences tbe at- that such a one had merely to declare his 
tempt was made to find some authoritathye or her intention to worship tbe one sole 
statement upon which all parties could and eternal God, to be conscientiously gov- 
flg-ree, in thp Rubsequcnt ones the attempt erned in life by God's lam.;, and to adhere 
was given up. They became more and to the sacred cause and mission of Israel 
more meeting-places simply for the ad- as marked out in Holy Writ. 
vanced Reform wing of the .Tewish Church. The service in Reform synagogues in the 
The position of this wing of the Reformed "Cnited States has kf'pt pace with this de- 
synagogue may best be seen in the decla)Oa- velopment of doctrinc. or rather with this 
tion of principles which was publisheù by sloughing-off of so mueh that is distinctive- 
the Pittsburg conference. It declared ly Jewish. Tllf'observance of the :-<f'cond-day 
that Judaism presents the highest con- festivals has been entirely abolished. as 
c('ption of the God idea; that the Bible well as the separation of the sexes and the 
contains the record cf the consecration of covering of the head in prayer. The ritual 
the .Tewish people; that it is a potent in- bas been gradually shortened, the ancient 
strument of religious and moral instruc- language of prayer (Hebrew) has been 
tion; that it reveals, however, the primi- pushed further and further into the back- 
tive ideas of its own age; that its moral ground, so that in some congregations the 
laws only are binding; and that all cere- service is altogether English; and in a 
monies therein ordained which are not few congregations an additional service 
fldapted to the views and habits of modern on Sunday, intended for those who cannot 
civilization are to be rejected; that all attend upon the regular Sabbath-day, has 
:Mosaic and rabbinical laws regulating Pf'en introduced. Only one congregation, 
diet, priestly functions, and dress, are for- Sinai in Chicago, has iollowed the old Ber- 
pign to our present mental state: that the lin Reform synagogue and has entirely 
.Tf'wS are no longer a nation, and therefore abolished the service on Fdday night and 
cIo not expf'C-.t a return to Palestine; that Saturday morning. But whatever criti- 
.Tudaism is a progressive religion, always cism one might like to offer on the Reform 
striving to he in accord with the postulates movement in the- United Stat{'s, it deserves 
of reason; that the belief in bodily resur- great praise for the serious attempt it 
}"f'ction, in the pxi!'.tence of a hen and a has made to understand its own position 


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and to square its observance with that Cincinnati). It has published a Union 
I,osition. It has also been most active in Prayer-book and a Union Hymn-book, and 
its modern institutional development. It has given great care to the development of 
lias certainly beautified and spiritualized the Confirmation and the bettering of the 
the synagogue service; it has founded a Sunday-school. It has tried to make the 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, synagogue a centre for the religious and 
and a seminary (Hebrew Union College in spiritual development of its members; 


and it cannot be denied that the very hold upon things which are supern&tural 
large mass of educated Jews in this coun- will lead many of its members to seek 
try, in so far as they have any affiliation satisfaction elsewhere. That thev will 
with the synagogue, belong to the Re- seck it in the Jewish sY1lagogue is 
form wing. l
ut at the same time l'robable, seeing how the racial and other 
it must not be forgotten that there is bes have been broken or at least greatly 
a very large body of Orthodox and loosened. They Or their children will 
conservative Jews, whose number has glide rather into some form of the domi- 
been greatly increascd during the last nant church, possibly, in the swinging of 
twenty years through the influx of Rus- the pendulum, into some orthodox form 
sian, Galician, and Rumanian Jews. of that church. I cannot help quoting the 
Reform Judaism without some centrif- words of an intelligent outside observer 
ugal force is bound to continue on the of the .Jewish question, the Right Hon. 
road it has once taken. The logical out- 
Tames Bryce, 1\1. P.: "If .Tudaism be- 
come of the principles formulated at the comes nwrely Theism, there will be little 
Pittsburg conference is a gradual develop- to distinguish its professors from .the per- 
ment into an ethical Theism without any sons, now pretty numerous, who, while 
distinctive Jewish coloring. The leader of Christian in name, sit loose to Christian 
advanced Reform Judaism in this country doctrine. The children of Jewish theists 
has recently Raid that Judaism must be will be almost as apt as the children of 
recast along the lines of a universal ethi- other theists to be caught up b
7 the move- 
cal religion; that then all distinctive J ew- r.lent which carries the sons and daughters 
ish elements of the synagogue f'ymbolism of evangplical Anglicans and of Nonc'on- 
wiII pass away, and that such a denation- formists towards, or all the way to, the 
alized Jewish temple will seek a closer al- CllUrch of Rome." 
Iiance with Unitarianism and Theism, and \Yh<>re, thcn, is this cpntrifngal force to 
with them, perhaps in a few decades, will be found, which wiII hold together the 
form a new church and a new religion for various elements in Israel, no matter what 
united humanity. That such a teudency thl'ir theological opinions may be? Before 
is inherent in Reform Judaism is seen also attempting to answer this question. a word 
in the formation of the Socil'ty of Ethical must be said in regard to the anti-Semitic 
Culture in New York. The leader of this movement, the recrudescence of which has 
It/Ovement is the son of a former prom i- so profoundly affected the .Tewish people 
nent rabbi of the leading Reform congre- during the last twenty ycars of the nine- 
gation in this country. In seeking to teenth century. A word only, because the 
hring out the tmdprlying ethical prin- facts are of too recent date to need a de- 
ciples of Judaism, he has gone entirely tailed statement here. The great master- 
outside the pale of the ancient faith; and mind, Zunz, writing in Germany in 1832, 
the movement would not coneprn us here hp]ieved that persecution for religious be- 
were it not that nearly all the memhers Hef could not withstand the onslaughts of 
(at least of the parent f'ociety in New the new era. Theodore Reinach, some 
York) are Jews, whose evident desire it fifty years later, asserted that anti-Semi- 
is not to be repognized as such, at least tiem was impossible in France. How 
f:O far as religious ceremonies and social sadly has a démenti been given to the 
affiliations are concerned. The society hopes thus expressed, especially in these 
does not even bear the nanU' 
Tewish, but two countries!- 
with a certain leaning towards liberal I pass over the outhreaks againHt the 
Christianity tries to find a basis for the Jcws during the early 
7ears of the nine- 
morality and cthics of the old synagogue teenth century, even the Damascus blood- 
outside the sphere of supernatural re- accusation in 1840, and the forcible bap- 
ligion. While the Ethical Culture Society tism of little Edgar Mortara in 18:58; they 
has been quite a power in certain Jines of were believed to belong to the old order of 
cl1aritable and educational work, it may things, with which the new, at least in 
reasonably be questioned whether it has tl1at direction, had nothin
 in common. 
any future as a form of church organiza- Starting in Germany, perhaps as n po- 
tion. The inborn longing of man for some Jitical move on the part of Bismarck, it 


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spread into Russia, Galicia, Austria, Ru- 
mania, and France. In most of these coun- 
tries it not only found expression in the 
exclusion of the Jews from all social inter- 
course with tbeir fellows, but in Ru<;sia 
l/roduced the riots of 1881 and 1882; in 
Austria and Bohemia tIle turbulent scene 
in the Reichstag, and eYen the pillaging of 
Jewish hOll!'ìCS and Jewish synagogues; in 
llumania it received the active support 
of the government and reduced the 
there to practical penury; while in France 
it showl'd itself in aeeusa tions against the 
Jews which for barbëlrity could mateh any 
that were brought ag
inst them in the 
)Iiddle Ages. The charges against the 
Jews are varied in their clwracter. In 
G<-rmany they have been blamed for ex- 
ploiting" the agricultural class and for 
Eerving the interests of the Liberal party, 
forgetting that Leo and Stahl, the found- 
ers of the Orthodox party in Prussia, 
were themselvps .Jcws, and that Disraeli 
in England was born of the same race. 
The most foolish accusations on almost 
('"ery conceivable subject ha\'e been lodged 
against them by snch men as Ahlwart, 
Stöcker, Lueger, and Drumont; and in 
late years the old and foolish charge that 
the Jews use the blood of Christian chil- 
dren in the making of Passover bread has 
been reviwd, in order to infuriate the 
populace; despite the fact that popes, 
ecclesiastics, and hosts of Christian pro- 
fessors have declared the accusation to be 
purely imaginary and malignant. The 
false charge that a Jcwish officer in France 





Among the few bright spots on the 
world's chart are those countries inhabited 
by the Anglo-Saxon race. Anti-Semitism 
is unknown in England (though the at- 
tempt has been made to fix the blame for 
the Boer war on the Jews): and the in- 
stitutions of the United States have up 
tm now prevented the entrance here of 
the disease, though in the mild form of 
social anti-Semitism which debars Jewish 
children from private schools and .Jewish 
people from club'! and summer hotels, it 
has insinuated itself into some of the 
Eastern cities, notably into New York. 
Jogues, ISAAC, missionary; born at 
Orleans, :France, Jan. 10, IGOï; became a 
Jesuit at Roupn in lü24; was ordained in 
lü3G; and, at his own request, was imme- 
diately sent to Canada. He was a most 
earnest missionary among the Indians on 
both sides of the Lakes. Caught, tortured, 
and made a slaye by the Mohawks, he re- 
mained with them until lü-t3, when he es- 
caped to Albany, and was taken to 
hattan. Retm'ning to Europe, he was 
shipwrccked on the English coast. He 
returned tn Canada in IG-t6, where he con- 
cluded a treaty between the French and 
Iohawks. Visiting Lake George, he 
named it St. Sacrament, and, descending 
the Hudson Ri,'er to Albany, he wpnt 
among the Mohawks as a missionary, who 
seized and put him to death as a sorcerer, 
at Caughna\\Taga, N. Y., Oct. 18, 1646. 
J' ohn Adams, THE. The naval opera- 
tions on the sea in 1814, though not so 
important as in the two preceding years 

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had betrayed f'ecret:'! of hi!'! government was 
Rufficient to unlooRen the most savage at- 
tacks upon the Jews which the modern 
world has seen. 

in some respectR. fully sustained the char- 
acter of the Americ
m navy. The .John 
A.dams frigate had been cut down to a 
corvette of twenty-eight gunR in Hn:J. antI 


was the first that figured after the open- 
ing of 1814. She started on a cruise from 
Washington in January, and on the night 
of the 18th passed the British blockading 
squadron in Lynn Haven Bay, put to sea, 
and ran to the northeast to cross the track 
of the 'Vest India merchantmen. She 
made a few prizes, and on March 25 she 
captured the Indiaman Woodbridge. While 
taking possession of her the commander 
of the Adams (Capt. Charles Morris) ob- 
served twenty-five merchant vessels, with 
two ships-of-war, bearing down upon her 
with a fair wind. Morris abandoned his 
prize, and gave the Adams wings for flight 
from danger. In A pril she entered the 
harbor of Savannah for supplies, and on 
May 5 sailed for the Manila. Reef to watch 
for the Jamaica convoy, but the fleet pass- 
ed her in the night. She gave chase in the 
morning, hut was kept at bay by two yes- 
s('ls of war. She crossed the AtJantic, and 
on .July 3 was off the Irish coast, where 
she was chased by British vessels, but al- 
ways escaped. For neady two months the 
weather was foggy, cold, and damp, be- 
cause the ocean was dotted with icebergs. 
Her crew sickened, and Captain Morris de- 
tf'rmined to go into port. He entered 
Penobscot Bay, and was nearly disabled 
by striking a rock, Aug. 17, 1814, and 
madc his way up the Penobscot River to 
Hampden. British vessels followed, and 
to prevent her falling into the hands of 
his enemy, l\Iorris burned her. 
John Doe and Richard Roe, names 
used in legal fictions, especially as stand- 
ing pledges for the prosecution of suits. 
In early times real and substantial persons 
were required to pledge themselves to 
answer to the crown for an amercement, 
or fine, set upon the plaintiff, for raising 
a false accusation, if he brought action 
without cause, or failed in it; and in 1285, 
13 Edward I., sheriffs and bailiffs were, 
before deliverance of a distress, to receive 
pledges for pursuing a suit, and for the 
return of the property, if awarded. But 

this becoming a matter of form, the :ficti- 
tious names of Doe and Roe were used 
until the form was abolished by the com- 
mon-law procedure act, 1852. 
In the United States these names 
used in place of the unknown real names 
of pal.ties against whom legal proceedings 
have been undertaken; and the form Jane 
Doe is similarly applied in cases of women. 
Johnes, EDWARD RODOLPH, lawyer; born 
in Whitesboro, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1852; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1873 and at 
Columbia Law School in 1876. He was the 
Venezuelan representative in the boundary 
dispute of that country and also counsel 
in the Nicaragua and Costa Rica boun- 
dary case. His publications include The 
iJ-[ onroe Doctrine as Applied to Venezuelan 
Boundary Question; English and American 
Bankruptcy and Insolvency Laws; Histor'lJ 
of Southampton, R. I., etc. 
Johns Hopkins University, a non- 
sectarian institution in Baltimore, Md.; 
organized in 1876 with funds provided by 
JOHNS HOPKINS (q. v.); coeducational in 
its medical department. At the close of 
1900 the university had 131 professors and 
instructors; 645 students in an depart- 
ments; 94,000 volumes in the library; 
1,204 graduates; and an endowment of 
$3,000,000. Under the presidency of 
Daniel C. Gilman the institution achieved 
a large measure of success and influence, 
a distinctive feature being the original re- 
search conducted by the students. Presi- 
dent Gilman resigned his charge in 1901, 
and was succeeded by Ira Remsen, LL.D., 
who had been Professor of Chemistry in 
the university since its opening. 
Johnson, AI,EXANDER BRYAN, banker; 
born in Gosport, England, May 29, 1786; 
came to the United States in 1801 and 
sett1ed in Utica, N. Y.; was in the banking 
business over forty-five years. His pub- 
lications include The Nature of Value, 
Capital, etc.; Guide to Right Understamd- 
ing of our American Union, etc. He died 
in Utica, N. Y., Sept. 9, 1867. 


Johnson, ANDREW, seventeenth Presi- to read. After working as a journeyman 
dent of the United States; born in Ra- in South Carolina, he went to GreenviIIe, 
leigh, N. C., Dec. 29, 1808. He learned Tenn., taking with him his mother, who 
the trade of a tailor, and taught himself was dependent on him. There he worked 


at his trade, married, and was taught by Congress as an illegal body, deserving of 
his wife to write; became alderman and no respect. The tour, made wholly for 
mayor; a member of the legislature political effect, extended to St. Louis. 
(1832-33 and 1839); presidential elector His conduct at Cleveland and St. Louis 
(1840) ; State Senator in 1841; and mem- was so offensive that the common coun- 
bel' of Congress from 1843 to 1853. From cils of Cincinnati and Pittsburg refused 
1853 to 1857 he was governor of Tennes- to accord him a public reception. The at- 
see, and from 1857 to 1863 United States tempt to establish a new party with 
Senator. In 1862 he was appointed mili- President Johnson as a leader was a fail- 
tary governor of Tennessee, and in 1864 ure. 
was elected Vice-President of the United When the cabinet of President John- 
States. On the death of President Lin- son resigned, the friends of Mr. Stanton, 
coIn he succeeded to the office, in accord- Secretary of 'Val', urged him to 
ance with the provisions of the Constitu- the office, for it was believed the chief 
tion. On the morning of the death of Mr. magistrate was contemplating some revo- 
J.incoln, April 15, 1865, the cabinet offi- lutionary movement. The tenure of office 
cers, excepting Mr. Seward, who was suf- act seemed to guarantee Mr. Stanton 
fering from a murderous assault, ad- against removal. The Fortieth Congress 
dressed a note to the Vice-President, offi- met immediately after the adjournment 
cially notifying him of the decease of the of the Thirty-ninth, and adjourned March 
President, and that the emergency of the 31, 1867, to meet on the first Wednf'sday 
government demanded that he should im- in July following, for the cxpress pur- 
mediately enter upon the duties of the pose of preventing the President from 
Presidency. 1\11'. Johnson appointed ten <Ioing serious mischief. After removing 
o'clock that mmning, when he would be obstnlctions cast in the way of reor- 
ready to take the oath of office. That ganization by the President, Congress 
oath was administered by Chief-Justice adjourned, July 20, to meet Nov. 21, 
Chase, in the presence of the cabinet offi- hoping the President would no longer 
cers and several members of Congress. disturb the public peace by his conduct. 
Then the President delivered a brief They were mistaken. As soon as Con- 
speech to the gentlemen present. There, gress adjourned, in violation of the ten- 
in the midst of universal and unparalleled ure of office act he proceeded to remove 
f'xcitement, the authority of the nation Mr. Stanton from office. He first asked 
was quif'tly transferred to other hands a him, Aug. 5, to resign. "Grave public 
f(-'w hours after the death of President considerations," he said, "constrain me 
Lincoln. Mr. Johnson requested Mr. Lin- to request your resignation as Secretary 
coIn's cabinet to remain, and the govern- of 'Var." Stanton replied, " Grave public 
ment went on without a shock to its considerations constrain me to continue 
Rteady movement. See CABINET, PRES!- in the office of Secretary of 'Val' until the 
DENT'S. next meeting of Congress." He shared 
On Aug. 14, 1866, a convention was held in the general suspicion that Johnson 
in Philadelphia, composed largely of Con- was contemplating a revolutionary move- 
federate leaders and their sympathizers ment in favor of the Confederates. A 
in the North, for the purpose of organ- week later the President directed Gen- 
izing a new political party, with Pres i- ('ral Grant to assume the position and 
dent Johnson as its standard - beal"er. duties of Secretary of 'Val'. As a duti- 
Whereupon Johnson and a part of his ful soldier, he obeyed his commander-in- 
cabinet made a circuitous journey to Chi- chif'f. Stanton. knowing the firmness 
cago, ostensibly for the purpose of being and inC'Ol"l'llptible patriotism of Grant, 
present at the dedication of a monument withdrew under protest. This change 
to Senator Douglas. He harangued the was followed by such arbitrary acts on 
f'f'ople on the way in language so un- the part of the Preeident that the country 
becoming the dignity of a chief magis- was thoroughly alarmed. Even the Presi- 
trate of the republic that the nation felt dent's private friends were amazed ani! 
a rf'lief from mortification after his re- mortified by his conduct. He gave un- 
tUTn in September. He had denounced satisfactory rf'asons for dismissing Stan. 


ton. On Jan. 13, 1868, the Renate rein- of themselves and an the people of the 
btated Stanton, when Grant quietly with- Cnited States, against .Andrew Johnson, 
drew. The enraged President reproached }->resiùent of the l;nited t'tates, in main- 
the latter for ;yielding to the Senate, tenance and support of their impeachment 
charged him with having broken his against him for high crimes and misde- 
promises, and tried to injure his reputa- meanors. 
tion as a citizen and a soldier. A ques- ARTICLE I. 
tion of veracity between them arose, when That said Andrew Johnson, President 
the general-in-chief felt comþelled to say, of the United States, on the 21st day of 
in a letter to the President: "'Vhen my :February, in the 
'ear of our Lord 18G8, 
honor as a soldier and my integrity as a at 'Vashington, in the District of Colum- 
man han
 been so violently assailed, par- bia, unmindful of the high duties of his 
don me for saying that I can but regard o11ìce, of his oath of office, and of the re- 
this whole matter, from beginning to end, qUÍ1'ement of the Constitution that he 
as an attempt to involve me in the resist- should take care that the laws be faith- 
ance of law for which you have hesitated fully executed, did unlawfully, and in 
to ab'5Ume the reE>ponsibility in orders, violation of the Constitution and laws of 
and thus to destroy my character before the United States, issue an order in writ- 
the country." The President's conduct ing for the removal of Edwin 1\1. Stan- 
concerning Stanton led immediately to ton from the office of Secretary for the 
his impeachment. Department of 'Val', said Edwin 1\1. Stan- 
On }"eb. 22, 18G8, the House of Repre- ton having been therf'tofore duly appoint- 
scntatives, by a vote of 126 to 47, "Re- ed and commissioned, by and with the 
soh-cd, that Andrew Johnson, President aùvice and consent of the Senate of the 
of the United States, be impeached of United States, as such Secretary. and said 
high crimes and misdemeanors." A com- Andrew Jolmson, President of the United 
mittee presented nine articles of impeach- States, on the 12th day of August, in the 
ment (see below). 1\Ianagers were ap- year of our Lord ISG7, amI during the 
pointed, and on March 3 they presented recess of said Renate, having suspended 
two other charges. The Senate organized by his order Edwin :J[. Stanton from said 
as a high court of impeachment, with office; and within twenty days after the 
Chief-.Tustice Chase presiding, on the 5th; first day of the next meeting of said 
the President was summoned to the bar Scnate-that is to say, on the 12th day of 
on the 7th, and appeared by counsel on December, in the year Jast aforesaid- 
the 13th; and the trial was begun on the having reported to said Senate such sus- 
30th. The examination of witnesses IJension, with the evidence and reasons 
end(>l1 April 22; the arguments of counsel for his action in the case, and the name 
were concluded l\Iay 6; and twenty days of the person designated to perform the 
were consumed in debates in the Senate. duties of such office temporarily until 
The votes of fifty-four Senators present the next meeting of the Senate, and said 
w<>re taken on the verdict on May 26, Senate thereafterward, on the 13th (]a." 
",h(>n thirty-five were for conviction, and of .January, in tIle year of our Lord 
nineteen for acquittal. As two-thirds of 1868, having duly eow;Ïdercd the eyi- 
the votes were necessary for conviction, dence and reasons reported by said 
the President was acquitted by one vote. Andrew Johnson for said suspension and 
Soon after the expiration of his term having refused to concur in said suspen- 
as President, he was an unsuccessful can- sion, whereby, and by force of the pro- 
didate for the United States Senate; in visions of an act entitled" An act regn- 
1872 he was defeated for Congressman- latinO' tJJe tenure of cf'rtain civil offices." 
arge: and in .January, 1875, he was passe'"'d 
rar('h 2, 18G7, said Edwin 
eJectC'd a United States Sf'nator. He died Stanton did forthwith rpsume the func- 
nf'ar Carter's Station, Tenn., July 31, tions of his office, whereof the said An- 
1875. drew .Johnson had tJJen and there due 
Impeachment Proccedin!7.<J. - Artielf's notice, and said Edwin :\1. Stanton, by 
exhibited by the House of Rcpresenta- r<>ason of the prf'mises, on said 21st day 
tives of the United States, in the name of February, being lawfully entitled to 


1101d said office as Secretary for the De- 
partment of 'Var, which said order for 
the removal of said Edwin 1\1. Stanton is, 
in sub
tance, as follows-that is to lâay: 

.. WASHINGTON, D. C., Peb. 21, 1868. 
.. SIR,-By virtue of the power and au- 
thority vested in me as President by the 
Constitution and laws of the -enited States, 
you are hereby removed from office as Secre- 
tary for the Department of War, and your 
function as such will terminate upon re- 
ceipt of this communication. 
.. You wi1l transfer to Brevet :Maj.-Gen. 
Lorenzo Thomas, adjutant-general of the 
army, who has this day been authorized and 
empowered to aet as 
ecretary of 'Yar, acZ 
interim, all records, books, papers, and other 
pubHc property now In your custody and 

.. Respectfully yours, 
., lIon. Edwin :M. Stanton, "rashington, D. C." 

"nich order was unlawfully issued, 
with intent then and there to violate the 
act entitled" An act regulating the tenure 
of certain civil offices," passed March 2, 
ISG7; and, with the further intent, con- 
trary to the provisions of said act, in 
,riolation thereof, and contrary to the pro- 
visions of the Constitution of the United 
States, and without the advice and con- 
8ent of the Senate of the United States, 
t};e said Senate then and there being in 
session, to remove said Edwin 1\1. Stanton 
from the office of Secretary of the Depart- 
ment of War, the said Edwin 1\1. Stanton 
 then and tJwre Secretary of 'Var, 
and being then and there in due and law- 
ful execution and discharge of the duties 
of said office, whereby said Andrew J ohn- 
Ron, President of the Unit{'d States, did 
then and there commit and was guilty 
of a high misdemeanor in office. 

session, and without authority of law, 
did, with intent to violate the Constitu- 
tion of the United States and the act 
afon>said, issue and deliver to one Loremw 
Thomas a letter of authority, in subliìtance 
as follows, that is to say: 

.. 'VASJlINGTON, D. C., Peb. 21, 1868. 
.. Sm,-Hon. Edwin M. Stanton baving 
this day been removed from office as Secre- 
tary for the Department of '''ar, you are 
bereby authorized and empowered to act as 
Secretary of 'Yar, all intr1"im, and wiII im- 
mediately enter upon the discharge of ,the 
duties pertaining to that office. 
.. :Mr. Stanton has been instructed to trans- 
fer to you all the records, books, papers, and 
other public property now In his custody 
and charge. 

.. Respectfully yonrs, 
" To TIreV'et Maj.-Gen. Lorenzo Thomas, 
Adjutant-General United States Army, 
"rashington, D. C." 

then and tl1ere bein
 no vacancy in said 
office of Secretary for the Department of 
'Var; wllPreby said Andrew Johnson. 
President of the United States. did tlwn 
and there commit and was guilty of a 
high misdemeanor in office. 


That said Andrew Jolmson, President of 
the United States, on the 21st day of Feb- 
ruary, in the year of our Lord 1868, at 
'Vashington, in the District of Columbia, 
did commit and was guiJty of a hi
misdemeanor in office, in thi!'\, that, with- 
out authority of law, while the Senate of 
the United States was then and there in 
8ession, he did appoint one Lorenzo 
Thomas to be Secretary for the Depart- 
ment of '''ar, ad interim, without the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate. and with 
intent to violate the Constitution of the 
United I':tates, no vacancy hayin
pened in 8aid office of Secretary for the 
Department of 'Var during the recess of 
tIle I':enate, and no va('ancv existin
said office at the time. aJld ,
hich said ap- 
rointment, so made by said Andrew John- 
son, of said Lorenzo Thomas, is in sub- 
stance as follows, that is to say: 
(Same as in Article II.) 

That on the said 21st day of February, 
in the year of our I.ord 18G8, at '\'a5h- 
ington, in the District of Columbia, said 
Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
Rtates, unmindful of the high duties of 
lJÌs office, of his oath of office, and in yio- 
tion of the Constitution of the United 
States, and contrary to the provisions of 
an act entitled "An act regulating the 
tenure of certain civil offices." passed 
March 2, 1867, without the advice and ARTICLE IV. 
consent of the Renate of thp United Rtates, TJlat said Andrew Johnson, President 
eaid Senate then and there being in of the: United States, unmindful of tile 


high duties of his office, and of his oath 
of office, in violation of the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, on the 21st 
day of February, in the year of our Lord 
1868, at Washington, in the District of 
Columbia, did unlawfully conspire with 
one Lorenzo Thomas, and with other per- 
sons, to the House of Representatives un- 
known, with intent by intimidation and 
threats unlawfully to hinder and prevent 
Edwin 1\1. Stanton, then and there the 
Secretary for the Department of 'V ar, 
duly appointed under the laws of the Unit- 
ed States, from holding said office of Sec- 
retary for the Department of War, con- 
trary to and in violation of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. and of the pro- 
visions of an act entitled" An act to de- 
fine and punish certain conspiracies," ap- 
proved July 31, 1861, whereby said An- 
drew Johnson, President of the United 
States, did then and there commit and 
was guilty of a high crime in office. 

That said Andrew .Johnson, President of 
the United States, unmindful of the high 
duties of his office, and of his oath of office, 
on the 21st day of February, in the year 
of our Lord 18G8, and on divers other days 
and times in said year, before the 2d day 
of 1\1arch, A.D. 1868, at Washington, in 
the District of Columbia, did unlawfully 
conspire with one Lorenzo Thomas, and 
with other persons to the House of Rep- 
resentatives unknown, to prevent and hin- 
der the execution of an act entitled "An 
act regulating the tenure of certain civil 
offices," passed March 2, 1867, and in pur- 
suance of said conspiracy did unlawfulIy 
attempt to prevent Edwin ::\I. Stanton, 
t hen and there being Secretary for the De- 
partment of War, duly appointed and com- 
missioned under the laws of the United 
States, from holding said office, whereby 
th(> said Andrew Johnson, President of the 
United States, did then and there commit 
and was guilty of a high misdemeanor in 

the District of Columbia, did unlawfully 
conspire with one Lorenzo Thomas by 
force to seize, take, and possess the prop- 
eIty of the United States in the Depart- 
ment öf War, then and there in the cus- 
tody and charge of Edwin M. Stanton, 
Secretary for ::;aid Department, contrary 
tn the provisions of an act eutitled "An 
a(.t to define and punish certain con
acies," approved July 31. 1861, and with 
intent to violate and disregard an act en- 
titled "An act regulating the tenure of 
certain civil offices," passed March 2, 1867, 
whereby said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, did then and there 
commit a high crime in office. 

That said Andrew Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States, unmindful of 
the high duties of his office and of his 
oath of office, on the 21st day of February, 
in the year of our Lord 1868, at \Vashing- 
ton, in the District of Columbia, did 
unlawfully conspire with one Lorenzo 
Thomas with intent unlawfully to seize, 
take, and possess the property of the 
United States in the Department of War, 
in the custody and charge of Edwin M. 
Stanton, Secretary of said department, 
with intent to violate and disregard the 
act entitled" An act regulating the tenure 
of certain civil offices," passed March 2, 
1867, whereby said Andrew Johnson, Pres- 
ident of the United States, did then and 
there commit a high misdemeanor in 


That said Andrew Johnson, Presi- 
d('nt of the United States, unmindful of 
the high duties of his office and of his 
oath of office, with intent unlawfully to 
control the disbursement of the moneys 
appropriated for the military service and 
for the Department of 'Var, on the 21st day 
of February, in the year of our Lord 1868, 
at \Yashington, in the District of Colum- 
bia, did unlawfully and contrary to the 
provisions of an act entitled "An act reg- 
ulating the tenure of certain civil offices," 
That said .Andrew Johnson, President passed March 2, 1867, and in violation of 
of the United States, unmindful of the the Constitution of the United States, and 
high duties of his office and of his oath of without the advice and consent of the Sen- 
office, on the 21st day of February, in the nte of the United States, and while the 
year of our Lord 1868, at Washington, in Senate was then and there in session, 



there being no vacancy in the office of Sec- 
retary for the Department of War, with 
intent to violate and disregard the act 
aforesaid, then and there issue and deliver 
to one Lorenzo Thomas a letter of author- 
ity in writing, in substance as follows, 
that is to say: 
(Same as in Article II.) 
Whereby said Andrew Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States, did then and 
there commit and was guilty of a high 
n1Ïsdemeanor in office. 


Gnited States, according to the provisions 
of said act, and with the further intent 
thereby to enable him, the said Andrew 
Johnson, to prevent the execution of an 
act entitled" An act regulating the tenure 
of certain civil offices," passed :March 2, 
1867, and to unlawfully prevent Edwin 
1\1. Stanton, then being Secretary for the 
Department of 'Val', from holding said 
office and discharging the duties thereof, 
",hereby Raid Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, did then and there 
commit and was guilty of a high misùe- 
meanor in office. 

That said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, on the 22d day of 
February, in the year of our Lord 1868, That said Andrew Johnson, President 
at Washington, in the District of Colum- of the Cnited States, unmindful of tJif> 
bia, in disregard of the Constitution and high duties of his office and the dignity and 
the laws of the United States, duly en- proprieties thereof, and of the harmony 
acted, as commander-in-chief of the army and courtesies which ought to exist and 
of the United States, did bring before be maintained between the executive amI 
himself then and there William H. Emory, legislative branches of the government of 
a major-general by brevet in the army of the United States, designing and intend- 
the United States, actually in command of ing to set aside the rightful authority and 
the Department of \Vashington and the powers of Congress, did attempt to bring 
military forces thereof, and did then and into disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, 
there, as such commander-in-chief, declare and reproach the Congress of the United 
to and instruct said Emory that part of a States and the several branches thereof, 
law of the United States, passed l\Iarch 2, to impair and destroy the regard and re- 
1867, entitled" An act making appropria- spect of all the good people of the United 
tions for the support of the army for the States for the Congress and legislative 
year ending June 30, 1868, and for other power thereof (which all officers of the 
}mrpose!\," especially the second section government ought inviolably to presen'e 
thereof, which provides, among other and maintain), and to excite the odium 
things, that "all orders and instructions, and resentment of all the good people of 
relating to military operations, issued by the United States against Congress and 
the President or Secretary of War, shall the laws by it duly and constitutionally 
be issued through the general of the army, enacted; and, in pursuance of said de- 
and, in case of his inability, through the sign and intent, openly and publicly, and 
next in rank," was unconstitutional, and in before divers assemblages of the citizens 
contravention of the commission of said of the United States convened in divers 
Emory, and which said provisions of law parts thereof to meet and receive said 
had been theretofore duly and legally pro- .Andrew Johnson, as the chief magistrate 
mulgated by general order for the govern- of the United States, did, on the 18th day 
ment and direction of the army of the of August, in the year of our l..ord 1866, 
United States, as the said Andrew John- and on divers other days and times, as 
son then and there well knew, with intent well before as afterwards, make and de- 
thereby to induce said Emory, in his offi- liver, with a loud voice, certain intemper- 
cial capacity as commander of the Depart- ate, inflammatory, and scandalous ha- 
ment of \Vashington, to violate the pro- rangues, and did therein utter loud threats 
visions of Aaid act, and to take and re- and bitter menaces as well against Con- 
ceive, act upon, and obey such orders as gress as the laws of the United States 
he, the said Andrew Johnson, might make duly enacted thereby, amid the cries. 
and - give, and which should not be issued jeers, and laughter of the multitudes then 
through the general of the army of the assembled and within hearing, which are 



lating the tenure of certain civil offices," 
passed l\Iarch 2, 18G7, by unlawfully devis- 
ing and contriving, and attempting to 
devise and contrive, means by which he 
should prevent Edwin 1\1. Stanton from 
forthwith resuming the functions of the 
ofIi('e of Secretary for the Department of 
"'ar, notwithstanding the I'efusal of the 
Senate to concur ill the suspension there- 
tofore made by Andrew Johnson of said 
Edwin 1\1. Stanton from said office of 
Secretary for the Department of 'Val', and 
also by further unlawfully devising and 
contriving, and attempting to devise and 
contrive, means then and thcre to pre- 
,pnt the execution of an act cntitled " An 
act making appropriations for the sup- 
port of the army for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 18G8, and for other pur- 
}Joses," approved l\Iarch 2, 18G7, and also 
to prevent the execution of an act en- 
ti tied "An act to provide for the more 
That said Andrew Johnson, President efficient government of the rebel States," 
oi the rnited States, unmindful of the passcd March 2, ISG7; weherhy the said 
high duties of his office and of his oath Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
of office, and in disregard of the Consti- States, did then, to wit: on the 21st day 
tution and laws of the United States, of }i'ebruary. 18GS, at the city of 'Vashing- 
did heretofore, to wit: on the 18th day of ton, commit anù was guilty of a high mis- 
August, 18GG, at the city of \Vashington, demeanor in office. 
in the District of Columbia, by public And the Hou
e of Representatives by 
speech. declare and affirm in substance that protestation, saving to themselves the 
the Thirty-ninth Congress of the United liberty of exhibiting at any time here- 
States was not a Congress of the United vJter any further articles or other accu- 
States authorized by the Constitution to f'ation, or impeachment against the said 
ercise legislative power under the same, Andrew Johnson, Presidf>nt of the Unitcd 
but, on the contrary, was a Congress of States, aud also of replying to his an- 
only part of the States, thereby dcnying swers which he shall make unto the arti- 
and intending to deny that the legi
la- dcs herein preferred against him, and of 
t:on of said Congress was valid or obIi- offering proof to the same and eyery 
gatory upon him, the said Andrcw Johnson, part thereof, and to all and every other 
except in so far as he saw fit to approve article, accusation, or impcachment which 
the same, and also tllf'reby denying shall be exhibited by them, as the case 
and intending to deny the power of said shall require, do demand that the said 
Thirty-ninth Congress to propose amend- Andrew .Johnson may he put to answcr 
ments to the Constitution of the United the high crimps and misdemeanors in of- 
States; and, in pursuance of said deda- flce herein charged against him, and that 
I"ation, the said Andrew Johnson, Presi- such proceedings, examinations, trials, 
dent of the United States, aft
rwards, and judgments may bc thereupon had and 
to wit: on the 21st day of February, Riven as may be agreeable to law anù 
18G8, at the city of \Vashington, in justice. 
the District of Columbia, did unlawful- Senate of the United States, sitting as 
1y and in disregard of the requirements a court of impeachment for the trial of 
of the Constitution, that he should take .Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
care that the laws he faithfully exe- States. 
cuted, attempt to prevent the execu- The answer of the said Andre'" .Tohn- 
tion of an act entitled "An act regu- son, Pre:,;ident of the rnited States, io 

:,;et forth in the several specifications 
hereinafter written, in substance and 
effect, that is to say: 
[Here are set out three specifications, 
quoting parts of speeches alleged to have 
been made by the President, Aug. 15, 
Sept. 3, and Sept. 8, 18GG.] 
'Yhich said utterances, declarations, 
threats, and harangues, highly censurable 
in any, are peculiarly indecent and un- 
becoming to the chief magistrate of the 
United States, by means whereof said An- 
drew Johnson has brought the high office 
of the President of the United States into 
contempt, ridicule, and disgrace, to the 
great scandal of all good citizens, wherehy 
said Andrew Johnson, President of the 
(Tnited States, did commit and was tllPn 
and there guilty of a high misdemeanor in 




the articles of impeachment exhibited touching the department aforesaid, and 
against him by the House of Representa- for whose conduct in such capacity, sub- 
tives of the United States. ordinate to the President, the President 
is, by the Constitution and laws of the 
ANSWER TO ARTICLE I. "Cnited States, made responsible. And 
For answer to the first article he says: this respondent, further answering, says 
that Edwin 1\1. Stanton was appointed he succeeded to the office of President of 
Secretary for the Department of \Var on the United States upon, and by reason 
the 13th day of January, A.D. 18G2, of, the death of Abraham Lincoln, then 
by Abraham Lincoln, then President of l>resident of the United States, on the 
the United States, during the first term 15th day of April, 18G5, and the said 
of his Presidency, and was commission- Stanton was then holding the said office 
ed, according to the Constitution and of Secretary for the Department of \Var, 
ws of the -enited f'tates, to hold the said under and by reason of the appointment 
office during the pleasure of the President; and commission aforesaid; and, not hav- 
that the office of Secretary for the De- ing been removed from the said office by 
partment of \Yar was created by an act this respondent, the said Stanton con- 
of the First Congress, in its first session, tinued to hold the same under the ap- 
passed on the 7th day of August, A.D. pointment and commission aforesaid, at 
liS!), and in and by that act it was the pleasure of the President, until the 
provided and enaded that the said Sec- time hereinafter particularly mentioned; 
retary for the Department of \Yar shall and at no time received any appointment 
perform and execute such duties as shall or commission save as above detailed. 
from time to time be enjoined on and in- 
\.nd this respondent, further answering, 
trusted to him by the President of the says that on and prior to the 5th day 
rnited States, agreeably to the Constitu- of August, A.D. 18(;7, this respondent, 
tion, relative to the subjects within the the President of the United States, re- 
scope of the said department; and fur- sponsible for the conduct of the Secre- 
thermore, that the said Secretary shall tary for the Department of \Var, and 
conduct the business of the said depart- having the constitutional right to resort 
ment in such a manner as the President to and rely upon the person holding that 
of the enited States shall, from time to office for advice concerning the great and 
time, order and instruct. difficult public duties enjoined on the 
And this respondent, further answer- President by the Constitution and laws 
ing, says that, by force of the act afore- of the Pnited States, became satisfied 
said, and hy reason of his appointment that he could not allow the said Stanton 
aforesaiil, the said Stanton became the to continue to hold the office of Secretary 
principal officer in one of the executive for the Department of \Var, without 
departments of the government within hazard of the public interest; that the 
the true intent and meaning of the sec- relations between the said Stanton and 
ond section of the second article of the the President no longer permitted the 
Constitution of the United States, and President to resort to him for advice, or 
according to the true intent and meaning to be, in the judgment of the President, 
of that provision of the Constitution of safely responsible for his conduct of the 
the 1Jnited States; and in accordance affairs of the Department of 'Var, as by 
with the settled and uniform practice of law required, in accordance with the 
each and every President of the United orders and instructions of the President; 
States, the said Stanton then became, and thereupon, by force of the Constitu- 
and. so long as he should continue to tion and laws of the United States, which 
hoM the said office of Secretary for the devolve on the President the power and 
Department of 'Var, must continue to be. the dut:r to control the conduct of the 
one of the advisers of the President of business of that executive department of 
Hie United States, as well as the person the government, and by reason of the con- 
intrusted to act for and represent the siitutional duty of the President to take 
President in matters enjoined upon him care that the laws be faithfully exe- 
or intrusted to him by the President. cuted, this respondent did necessarily 
V.-L 161 


believed that it was practically settled 
by the First Congress of the United States, 
and had been so considered and, uniform- 
ly and in great numbers of instances, act- 
ed on by each Congress and President of 
the lJnited States, in succession, from 
President Washington to and including 
President Lincoln, and from the First 
Congress to the Thirty - ninth Congress, 
that the Constitution of the United States 
conferred on the President, as part of the 
executive power, and as one of the neces- 
sary means and instruments of perform- 
ing the executive duty expressly imposed 
on him by the Constitution, of taking care 
that the laws be faithfully executed, the 
To which note the said Stanton made power at any and all times of removing 
the following repl;y: from office all executive officers, for cause, 
to be judged by the President alone. This 
I espondent had, in pursuance of the Con- 
stitution, required the opinion of each 
principal officer of the executive depart- 
ments, upon this question of constitutional 
executive power and duty, and l}ad been 
üdvised by each of them, including the 
said Stanton, Secretary for the Depart- 
ment of \Var, that under the Constitution 
of the United States this power was 
lodged by the Constitution in the Presi- 
dcnt of the United States, and that, con- 
sequently, it could be lawfully exercised 
This respondent, as President of the hy him, and the Congress could not de- 
Cnited States, wa-s thereon of opinion that, prive him thereof; and this respondent, 
having regard to the necessary oflicial re- in his capacity of President of the United 
lations and duties of the Secretary for the States, and because in that capacity hc 
Department of \Var to thc President of the was both enabled and bound to use his 
United States, according to the Constitu- Lest judgment upon this question, did, in 
tion and laws of the United States, and good faith. and with an earnest desire to 
having regard to the responsibility of the arrive at the truth, come to the conclusion 
J>resident for the conduct of the said Sf'C- and opinion, and did make the same known 
retary, and having regard to the para- to the honorable the Senate of the United 
mount executive authority of the office States, by a message dated on the 2d day 
which the respondent holds under the Con- of l\Iarch, 1867 (a true copy whereof is 
stitution and laws of the United States, hereunto annexed and marked A), that 
it was impossible, consistently with the thC' power last mentioned was conferred 
public interest!'!, to allow the said Stanton and the duty of exercising it, in fit cases, 
to continue to hold the said office of Secre- was imposed on the President by the Con- 
tary for the Department of War; and it sOtution of the United States, and that 
then became the official duty of the re- the President could not be deprived of 
spondent, as President of the United this power or relieved of this duty, nor 
States, to consider and decide what act could the same be vested by law in the 
or acts should and might lawfully be done President and the Senate jointly, either 
by him, as President of the United States, in part or whole; and this has ever since .j 
to cause the said Stanton to surrender l'emained, and was the opinion of this re- ' 
the said office. spondent at the time when he was forced. 
This respondent was informed and verily as aforesaid, to consider and decide what 

consider, and did determine, that the said 
Stanton ought 1).0 10l!ger to hold the said 
office of Secretary for the Dep
rtmellt of 
War. And this respondent, by virtue of 
the power and authority vested in him 
as President of the United States, by the 
Constitution and laws of the United 
States, to give effect to such his decision 
and determination, did, on the 5th day 
of August, A.D. 1867, address to the said 
Stanton a note, of which the following is 
a true copy: 

"Sm,-Publlc considerations of a high 
character constrain me to say that your 
resignation as Secretary of War will be 
accepted. .. 

.. WASHINGTON, Aug. 5, 1867. 
.. Rm,-Your note of this day bas been 
received, stating that 'public considerations 
of a high character constrain you' to say 
. that my resignation as Secretary of 'War 
will be accepted.' 
.. In reply I have the honor to say, that 
public considerations of a high character, 
which alone have induced me to continue at 
the head of this Department, constrain me 
not to resign the office of Secretary of -War 
lJPfore the next meeting of Congress. 
.. Very respectfully yours, 


act or acts should and might lawfully be of \Var, and having, in his capacity of 
done by this respondent, as President of President of the {;nited States, so ex- 
the United States, to cause the said Stan- amined and considered, did form the 
ton to surrender the said office. opinion that the case of said Stanton and 
This re8pondent was also then aware his tenure of office were not affected by 
that by the first section of " An act regu- the section of the last-named act. 
lating the tenure of certain civil offices" And this respondent, fm"ther answer- 
passed ::\Iarch 2, 18G7, by a constitutional ing, saJ's that, although a case thus ð_- 
majority of both Houses of Congress, it isted which, in his judgment as President. 
was enacted as follows: of the Cnited States, called for the ðcr- 
That every person holding any civil of- cise of the executive power to remove the 
flce to which he has been appointed by and said Stanton from the office of Secretary 
with the advice and consent of the Senate, for the Department of \Yar, and although 
and every person who shall hereafter be this respondent was of opinion, as is 
appointed to any such office, and shall above shown, that under the Constitution 
become duly qualified to act therein, is of the Cnited States the power to remove 
and shall be entitled to hold such office the said Stanton from the said office was 
until a successor shall have been in like vested in the President of the United 
manner appointed and duly qualified, ex- States; and although this respondent was 
cept as herein otherwise provided; Pl'O- also of the same opinion, as is above 
vided, that the Secretaries of State, of the shown, that the case of the said Stanton 
Treasurr. of \Yar, of the Navy. and of was not affected by the first section of the 
the Interior, the Postmaster-General, and last-named act; and although each of the 
the Attorney-General, shall hold their said opinions had been formed bJr this re- 
offices respectively for and during the term spondent upon an actual case, requiring 
of the President by whom they may have him, in his capacity of President of the 
been appointed, and one month thereafter, United States, to come to some judgment 
subject to removal by and with the ad- and determination thereon, yet this re- 
vice and consent of the Senate. spondent, as President of the enited 
This respondent -was also aware that States, desired and determined to avoid, 
this act was understood and intended to if possible, any question of the construc- 
be an expression of the opinion of the tion and effect of the said first section of 
Congress by which that act was passed, the last-named act, and also the broader 
that the power to remove executive officers question of the executive power conferred 
for cause might, by law, be taken from the on the President of the United States by 
President and vested in him and the Sen- the Constitution of the United States to 
ate jointly; and although this respondent remove one of the principal officers of one 
had arrived at and still retained the of the executive departments for cause 
opinion above expressed and verily believed. seeming to him sufficient; and this re- 
as he still believes, that the said first spondent also desired and determined that 
section of the last-mentioned act was and if, from causes over which he could exert 
is wholly inoperative and void by reason no control, it should become absolutely 
of its conflict with the Constitution of necessary to raise and have in some way 
the L"nited States, yet, inasmuch as the determined either or both of the said last- 
same had been enacted by the constitu- named questions, it was in accordance 
tional majority in each of the two Houses with the Constitution of the Cnited 
of that Congress, this respondent consid- States, and was required of the President 
('red it to be proper to examine and decide thereby, that questions of so much gravity 
whether the particular caRe of the said and importance, upon which the legisla- 

tanton, on whiC'h it was this respondent's tive and executive departments of the 
duty to act. wa'! within or without the government had disagreed, which involved 
terms of that first section of the act; or, powers considered by all branches of the 
if within it, whether the President had government, durin
 its entire history 
not the power, according to the terms of down to the year 18G7, to have been con- 
the act, to remove the said Stanton from fided by the Constitution of the United 
the office of Secretary for the Department States to the President and to be neces- 


sar.r for the complete and proper execu- 
tion of his constitutional duties, should 
be in some proper way submitted to that 
judicial department of the government in- 
trusted by the Constitution with the 
power, and subjected by it to the duty, 
not only of determining finally the con- 
struction and effect of all acts of Con- 
gress, but of comparing them with the 
Constitution of the United States, and 
pronouncing them inoperative when found 
in conflict with that fundamental law 
which the people have enacted for the 
government of all their scrvants. And to 
these ends, first, that, through the action 
of the Senate of the United States, the 
absolute duty of the l>resident to substi- 
tute some fit person in place of Mr. Stan- 
ton as one of his advisers, and as a 
principal subordinate officer whose official 
conduct he was responsible for, and had 
lawful right to control, might, if possible, 
be accomplished without the necessity of 
raising anyone of the questions afore- 
said; and, second, if this duty could not 
be so performed, then that these questions, 
or such of them as might necessarily 
arise, should be judicially determined in 
manner aforesaid, and for no other end 
or purpose, this respondent, as President 
of the Pnited States, on the 12th day of 
August, 18G7, seven days after the recpp- 
tion of the letter of the said Rtanton, of 
the 5th of August, hereinbefore stated, 
did issue to the said Stanton the order 
following, namely: 

States, I am suspended from office as Secre- 
tary of "'aI', and will cease to exercIse any 
and all functIons pertaining to the same; 
and also dIrectIng me at once to tl.ansfer 
to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant,' who has this day 
been authorized and empowered to act as 
Secretary of "'aI', ad interim, all recol.ds, 
books, papers, and other public property now 
In my custody and charge. rnder a sense 
of public duty, I am compelled to deny your 
right, under the ConstItution and laws of 
the United States, without the advice and 
consent of the Senate, and without legal 
cause. to suspend me from office as Secre- 
tary of "'ar. or the exel'!'ise of any or all 
functions pertaining to the same, or without 
such advice and consent to compel me to 
transfer to any person the records, books, 
Impel'S, and public property In my cnstody 
as Secretary. But, Inasmuch as tile general 
commanding the armies of the Pnited States 
has been appointed, ad interim, and has 
notified me that he has accepted the ap- 
pointment, I have no alternative but to sub- 
mit, under protest, to superIor force. 
.. To the President." 

And this respondent, further answering, 
says, that it is provided, in and by the 
second section of "An act to regulate 
the tenure of certain civil offices," that 
the President may suspend an officer from 
the performance of the duties of the office 
held by him, for certain causes then'in 
designated, until the ncxt meeting of the 
Senate and until the case shall be acted 
on by the Senatp; that this respondent, as 
President of the United States, was ad- 
vised, and he wrily believed and still be- 
lieves. that the executive power of removal 
from office, confided to him by the Consti- 
tution aforesaid. includes the powpr of 
suspension from on-if'e at the pleasure of the 
President. and this respondent. by the or- 
der aforesaid, did suspcnd the said Stan- 
ton from office, not until the next meeting 
of the 
enate. or until He Senate should 
haw acted upon the case. but by force of 
the power and authority vested in him 
hv the Constitution and laws of the ITnited 
Rtates, indpfinitely, and at the pleasure 
of the President, and the order. in form 
aforesaid. was made known to the Renat<' 
of the United States on tIle 12th day of 
December, A.D. 1867, as will be more 
To whieh said order the said Stanton fully hereinafter stated. 
made the following reply: And this respondent. further answer- 
.. WAR DF.PART:\IENT. ing. says that, in and by the act of Ii'pb. 
.. WASIIIXGTON CITY. A 110. 12, 1867. 13. 1795, it was. among other things. pro- 
.. SIR.-Your note of this date has been vided and enacted that, in case of vacancy 
received, informing me that by vIrtue of in the office of Secretary for the Depart- 
the powers vestí'(I In you as Prf'sldent. by I f I f tl 
the Constitution and laws of the l"nited ment of \Yar, it shan be aw u or Ie 

.. W.-\SHI:>lGTON, .-lIlY. 12, 18G7. 
.. SIR.-Hy virtue of the powpr and author- 
ity vested In me, as PresIdent. by the Consti- 
tution and laws of the rnited States. you 
are hereby suspended from office as Secre- 
tary of War. and will cease to exercise any 
and aU functions pertaining to the samf'. 
.. You will at once transfer to Gpn. 
rlysses S. Grant. who has thIs day bepn 
authorized and empowered to act as Secre- 
tary of \"ar, ad interim, all records, books, 
papers. anrl other pnblic property now In 
your custody and charge. 
.. lIon. Edwin 1\1. Stanton, Secretary of War." 


President. in case he shall think it nl:.'cl's- l' copy whereof is hereunto anlle'\.cd and 
!":try, to authorize any person to perform marked B, wherein he made kno\\n the 
the duties of that office until a succe
sor orders aforesaid, and tlw rea
ons which 
be appointed or such vacancy filled, but had induced the same, so far as this n- 
not exceeding the term of six months; spondent then considered it material and 
and this respondent, being advised and necessary that the same should be set 
hf'lieving that SUe'h law was in full force forth, and reiterated his views concern- 
and not repealed, by an order dah'd Aug. ing the constitutional power of removal 
12, 1867, did authorize and empower \'ested in the President, and also ex. 
Ulysses S. Grant, general of the annies pt'\'ssed his views concet"ning the con. 
of the Cnited States, to act as Secretary struction of the said first section of the 
for the Department of \Var, ad interim, in last-mentioned act, as respected the power 
the form in which similm' authority had of the President to remove t1le said Stan- 
theretofore becn given, not until the next ton from the said office of Secretary for 
meeting of the Senate, and until the Sen- the Department of \Var, wf'll 110ping that 
ate should act on the case, but at the this respondent could thus perform what 
pleasure of t11f' President, subject only to he then beliend, and still believes, to be 
the limitation of six months, in the said his imperative duty in t'eference to the 
last-mentioned act contained; and a copy said Stanton, without derogating from the 
of the last-named order was made known powers which this respondent believed 
to the F:enate of the enited States, on the were confided to the President, by the 
th day of December, A.D. 18G7, as will Constitution and laws, and without the 
be herf'inafter more fully stated; and, in necessity of raising, judicially, any ques- 
pursuance of the design and intention tion concerning the same. 
aforesaid, if it should become necessary, And _this respondent, further answering, 
to submit the said questions to a judicial says that, this hope not having heen real- 
determination, this respondent, at or near ized. the President was compelled either 
tIle date of the last-mentioned order, did to alJow the said Stanton to resume the 
make known such his purpose to obtain a said office and remain therein contrary 
judicial decision of the said questions, or to the settled convictions of the Presi- 
such of them as might be nece:5sary. dent, formed as aforesaid, respecting the 
And this respondent, further answering, powers confided to him. and the duties re- 
says that, in further pursuance of his in- quired of him by the Constitution of the 
tentions and design, if possible, to per- rnited States, and contrary to the opinion 
form what he judged to be his imperative formed as aforesaid, that the first sec- 
duty, to prevent the said Stanton from tion of the last - mentioned act did not 
longer holding the office of Secretary for affect the case of the said F:tanton. and 
the Department of \Var, and at the same eontrary to the fixed helief of the Presi. 
time avoiding, if possible, any question re- dent that he eould no longer advise with 
speeting the extent of the power of re- or trust or be responsible for the said 
moval from executive offie'e confided to 
tanton, in the said office of Secretary for 
the President. by the Constitution of the the Department of \Var, or els
 he was 
Unitf'd States. and any question respect- comp(>]]('d to take such stf'pS as might, 
ing the construction and effect of the first in the judgment of the President. he law- 
section of the said "act regulating the ful and necessary to raise. for a ju<1i('ia\ 
tenure of certain civil offices," whUp he d<>cison. the ql1C'stions affecting the lawful 
shou1d not, hy any aet of his, abandon right of t1H' said Rtanton to resume the 
and relinquish. either a power which he s:\id office. or the power of the said F:tanton 
believed thf' Constitution had conferred to persist in rf'fl1sing- to quit the said 
on the President of the United Rtates. to officp. if lie should persist in actnal1y rf'- 
enable him to pel'form the duties of l1is fusing to quit tl1f' same; and to this ('nel. 
office, or a power designedly left to him and to this end only. t11Ïs respondent did. 
hy the first section of the act of Congress on the 21st dav of Fehruarv, 1R68, issue 
last afore
ai<1. t11is T('spondent did. on the the order for the removal of the said Rtan- 
12th day of Decemhf'r, IR67, transmit to ton, in the said first article mentioned 
the Senate of the United States a message. and set forth, and the order authorizing 


the saiù Lorenzo ThoHUlR to act as Secre- 
tary of \\'ar, ad interim, in the said "Iecond 
article set forth. 
And this respondent, proceeding to an- 
swer specificalJy each substantial allega- 
tion in the said first article, says: He 
denies that the said Stanton, on the 21st 
day of February, 1868, was lawfuUy in 
PORsPRsion of the said office of Secretary 
tor the Department of \Var. He denies 
that the Raid Stanton, on the day last 
Ilwntioned, was lawfully entitled to hold 
t he said office against the will of the 
Presidmt of the United States. He 
denies that the said order for the re- 
moval of the said Stanton was unlaw- 
fl1)]y issued. He denies that said order 
was issued with intent to violate the act 
entitled, "An act to regulate the tenure 
of certain civil offices." He denies that 
th(' said order was a violation of the last- 
nwntioned act. He denies tllat the said 
orùer was a violation of the Constitution 
of the United States, or of any law there- 
of, or of his oath of office. He denies that 
the said order was issued with an intent 
to violate the Constitution of the enited 
States, or any law thereof, or this re- 
spondent's oath of office; and he respect- 
fully, but earnestly, insists that not only 
was it issued by him in the performance 
of what he believed to be an imperative 
official duty, but in the performance of 
what this honorable court wiJ) consider 
was, in point of faf't, an imperati,-e offi- 
cial duty. And he denies that any and 
all substantive matters, in the said first 
article contained, in manner and form 
as the same are therein stated and set 
forth, do, by law, constitute a high mis- 
demeanor in office, within the true intent 
and meaning of the Constitution of the 
Cnited States. 

,ice :md consent of the Senate of tIll' 
{-nited States, then in session; but he 
denies that he thereby violated the Con- 
stitution of the United' States, or any 
law thereof, or that he did thereby in- 
tend to violate the Constitution of the 
Pnited States, or the provisions of any 
act of Congress; and this respondent re- 
ff'rs to his answer to said first article 
for a full statement of the purposes and 
intentions with which said order was 
ÎE,sued, and adopts tIle same as part of 
his answer to this article; and he further 
denies that there was then and there no 
vacancy in the said office of SecretaQ' 
for the Department of \Yar, or that 
he did then and there commit, or was 
guilty of, a high misdemeanor in office; 
and this respondent maintains and will 
1. That at the date and delivery of said 
writing there was a vacancy existing in 
the said office of Secretary for the Depart- 
ment of 'Var. 
2. That, notwithstanding the Senate of 
the United States was then in session, it 
was lawful and accorùing to long and well- 
established usage to empower and author- 
ize the said Thomas to act as Secretary 
of 'Var, ad interim. 
3. That, if the said act regulating tIle 
tenure of civil offices be held to be a valid 
Jaw. no provision of the same was violated 
by the issuing of said order, or by the 
designation of said TllOmas to act as 
retary of 'Var, ad intprim. 

And for answer to said third article, 
this respondent says that he abides by his 
answer to said first and second articles, 
in so far as the same are responsive to 
the allegations contained in the said third 
article, and, without here again repeating 
the same answer, prays the same he taken 
And for answer to the second article, as an answer to this third article as fully 
this respondent says that he admits he a'3 if here again set out at length; and as 
did issue and deliver to said Lorenzo to the new allegation contained in said 
Thomas the said writing set forth in third article, that this respondent did ap- 
said second article, bearing date at \Vash- point the said Thomas to be Secretary for 
ington, District of Columbia, Feb. 21, the Department of War, ad interim, this 
1868, addressed to Brevet Maj.-Gen. respondent denies that he gave any other 
I.orenzo Thomas, adjutant-general Unit- authoritv to said Thomas than such as 
ed States army, Washington, District of appears "in said written authority, set out 
Columbia; and he further admits that in said article, by which he authorized 
the same waR sO issued without the ad- and empowered said Thomas to act as 



the question could be brought before that 
This respondent did not conspire or 
agree with the said Thomas or any other 
person or persons, to use intimidation or 
threats to hinder or prevent the said Stan- 
ton from holding the said office of Secre- 
tary for the Department of 'Val', nor did 
this respondent at any time command or 
advise the said Thomas or any other per- 
son or persons to resort to or use either 
threats or intimidation for that purpose. 
The only means in the contemplation of 
purpose of respondent to be used are set 
forth fully in the said orders of Feb. 
21, the first addressed to Mr. Stanton, 
Hnd the second to the said Thomas. By 
the first order the respondent notified 
Mr. Stanton that he was removed from 
the said office, and that his functions as 
Secretary for the Department of War 
were to terminate upon thf> receipt of that 
order, and he also thereby notified the 
And for answer to said fourth article said Stanton that the said Thomas had 
this respondent denies that on the said been authorized to act as Secretary for 

lst day of February, 18G8, at Washington the Department of War ad interim, amI 
aforesaid, or at any other time or place, ordered the said Stanton to transfer to 
he did unlawfully conspire with the said him all the records, books, papers, and 
Lorenzo Thomas, or with the said Thomas other public property in his custody and 
and any other person or persons, with in- eharge; and by the second order this re- 
tent by intimidations and threats unlaw- spondent notified the said Thomas of the 
fully to hinder and prevent the said Stan- removal from 011ìce of the said Stanton. 
ton from hoJding said office of Secretary and authorized him to act as Secretary 
for the Department of 'Val', in violation for the department, ad interim, and di- 
of the Constitution- of the United States rected him to immediately enter upon the 
or of the provisions of the said act of discharge of the duties pertaining to that 
Congress in said article mentioned, or that office, and to receive the transfer of all 
he did then and there commit or was guilty the records, books, papers, and other pub- 
of a high crime in office. On the con- lic property from Mr. Stanton, then in 
hary thereof, protesting that the said his custody and e:harge. 
f'blllton was not then and there lawfully Respondent gave no in
trl1ctions to the 
the Secretary for the Department of 'Val', said Thomas to usp intimidation or 
this respondf>nt states that his sole pur- threats to enforce obedience to these 
puse in authorizing the said Thomas to act orders. He gave him no authority to 
as Secretary for the Department of 'Var, call in the aid of the military, or any 
ad interim was, as is fully stated in his other force to enable him to obtain pos- 
answer to the said first article, to bring session of the office, or of the books, 
the question of the right of the said Stan- papers, records. or property thereof. The 
ton to hold said office, notwithstanding only agency resorted to or intended to be 
his said suspension, and notwithstanding resorted to was by means of the said ex- 
the said order of removal. and notwith- ecutive orders requiring obedience. Rut 
t'tanding the said authority of the said the Secretary for the Department of 'Val' 
Thomas to aet as Secretary of War, ad refused to obey these orders, and still 
interim, to the test of a final decision by holds undisturbed possession and custody 
the Supreme Court of the United States of that department, and of the records, 
ill the earliest practicable mode by which books, papers, and other public property 

Secretary for the Department of War, ad 
-interim; and he denies that the same 
amounts to an appointment, and insists 
that it is only a designation of an officer 
of that department to act temporarily as 
Secretary for the Department of 'Val', ad 
interim, until an appointment should be 
made. But, whether the said written au- 
thority amounts to an appointment, or 
to a temporary authority or designation, 
this respondent denies that in any sense 
he did thereby intend to violate the Con- 
stitution of the United States, or that he 
thereby intended to give the said order 
the character or effect of an appointment 
in the constitutional or legal sense of 
that term. He further denies that there 
was no vacancy in said office of Secre- 
tary for the Department of 'Val' exist- 
ing at the date of said written au- 



therein. Respondent further states that, 
in execution of the orders so by this re- 
spondent given to the said Thomas, he, 
the said Thomas, proceeded in a peace- 
ful manner to demand of the said Stan- 
ton a surrender to him of the public 
property in the said department, and to 
vacate the possession of the same, and to 
allow him, the said Thomas, peaceably to 
exercise the duties devolved upon him 
by authority of the President. That, as 
this respondent has been informed and 
believes, the said Stanton peremptorily 
refused obedience to the orders so issued. 
Ppon each refusal no force or threat of 
force was used by the said Thomas, on 
authority of the President, or otherwise, 
to enforce obedience, either then or at any 
Embsequent time. 
This respondent doth here except to 
-the sufficiency of the allegations contained 
in said fourth article, and states for 
ground of exception that it was not 
stated that there was any agreement be- 
tween this respondent and the said 
fhomas, or any other person or persons, 
to use intimidation and threats, nor is 
there any allegation as to the nature of 
said intimidation and threats. or that 
there was any agreement to carry them 
into execution, or that any step was taken 
or agreed to be taken to carry them into 
execution, and that the allegation in said 
article that the intent of said conspiracy 
was to use intimidation and threats is 
wholly insufficient, inasmuch as it is not 
allpged that the said intent formed the 
hasis or became a part of any agreement 
between the said alleged conspirators, 
and, furthermore, that there is no allega- 
tion of any conf':piracy or agreement to 
use intimidation or threats. 


that, in pursuance of said alleged con. 
spiracy, he did unlawfully attempt to pre- 
vent the said Edwin M. Stanton from 
holding said office of S
cretary for the 
Department of 'Yar, or that he was there- 
by guilty of a high misdemeanor in office. 
Respondent, protesting that said stanton 
was not tllf'n and there Secretary for the 
Department of 'Var, begs leave to refer to 
his answer given to the fourth article and 
to his answer given to the first article as 
to his intent and purpose in issuing the 
orders for the removal of Mr. Stanton, 
and the authority given to the said Thomas, 
and prays equal benefit therefrom as if 
the same were here again repeated and 
funy set forth. 
And this respondent excepts to the suf- 
ficiency of the said fifth article, and 
states his ground for such exception, that 
it is not alleged to what means or by what 
agreement the said alleged conspiracy was 
formed or agreed to be carried out, or in 
what way the same was attempted to be 
carried out, or what were the acts done in 
pursuance thereof. 

And for answer to the said sixth article. 
this respondent denies that on the said 
21st day of Fehruary, IRô8. at 'Vashing- 
ton aforesaid. Or at any other time or 
place, he did unlawfully conspire with 
the said Thomas by force to seize, take. 
or possess. the property of the United 
States in the Department of 'Val'. con- 
trary to thp provisions of thf' said af'ts 
referred to in the said article. or either 
of them. fir with intent to violate either 
of them. Respondent, protf'sting that 
said Stanton was not then and there Sec- 
retary for the Department of 'Val'. not 
only denies tlH> said conspiracy as charged, 
hut also denies unlawful intent in refer- 
ence to the custody and charge of the 
property of the United Rtates in the said 
Department of 'Var. and again refers to 
his former answers for a fun statement 
of his intent and purpose in the premises. 

And for answer to said fifth article, 
this respondent denies that on said 21st 
day of February, 18G8, or at any other 
time or times. in the same year, before 
the said 2d day of March, 1868. or at any 
prior or subsequent time, at \Vashington 
aforesaid, or at any other place, this re- 
spondent did unlawfully conspire with the And for answer to the said seYf'nth ar- 
said Thomas, or with any other person or ticle, respondent denies that on the said 
persons, to prevent or hinder the execution 21st day of Fehruat.v, 1SGR. at Washing- 
of the said act entitled "An act regulat- ton afo
esaid. or at' any other time and 
ing the tenure of certain civil offices," or place. he did unlawfulIy conspire with the 



said Thomas with intent unlawfully to 
seize, take, or possess the property of the 
Lnited States in the Department of War, 
with intent to violate or disregard the 
said act in the said seventh article re- 
ferred to, or that he did then and there 
commit a lligh misdemeanor in office. Ue- 
EpOlulent, protesting that the said Stan- 
ton was not then and there Secretary for 
the Department of \Yar, again refers to 
his fonner answers, in so far as they are 
applicable, to show the intent with which 
he proceeded in the premises, and prays 
equal benefit therefrom as if the same 
were here again fuHy repeated. Respon- 
dent further takes exception to the suf- 
ficiency of the allegations of this article as 
to the conspiracy alleged, upon the same 
ground as stated in the exceptions set 
forth in his answer to said article fourth. 


And for answer to said eighth article, 
this respondent denies that on the 21st 
day of February, lRG8, at \Vashington 
aforesaid, or at any other time or place, 
lIe did issue and deliver to the said 
Thomas the said letter of authority set 
forth in the said eighth article, with the 
intent unlawfuHy to control the disburse- 
ments of the money appropriated for the 
military service and for the Department 
of War. This respondent, protesting that 
there was a vacancy in the office of Secn>- 
tary for the Department of \Yar, admits 
that he did issue the said letter of author- 
ity, and he denies that the same was with 
any unlawful intent whatever, eit11er to 
late the Constitution of the United 
States or any act of Congress. On the 
contrary, this respondent again affirms 
that his sole intent was to vindicate his 
authority as President of the {
States, and by peaceful means to hring 
the question of the right of the said Stan- 
ton to continue to hold the offi('e of Secre- 
tary of \Var to a final decision before the 
Supreme Court of the United States, as 
has been lH'reinhefore set forth: and he 
prays the I-;ame benefit from his answer 
in the pl"emiRes as if the same were here 
again repeated at length. 

22d day of February, 18GS, the foHowing 
note was addressed to the said Emory by 
the private secretary of the respondent: 

.. EXECUTI\'E :\IA:-'SIO:S-, 
.. WASHI:-'GTON, D. C., Feb. 22, 1868. 
.. GEXERAL,-The President dh'ects me to 
say that he will be pleased to have you caH 
upon him as early as practicable. 
.. Respectfully and truly yours, 
.. "'ILLIA
l G. MOORE, U. S. A." 
General Emory caned at the Executive 
l\Iansion according to t)lis request. The 
object of respondent was to be advised by 
Genera] Emory, as commander of the De- 
parhnent of \Vashington, what changes 
had been made in the military affai
s of 
the department. Respondent had been in- 
formed that various changes had been 
made which in nowise had been brought 
to his notice or reported to him from the 
Department of \Yar, or from any other 
quarter, and desired to ascertain the facts. 
After the said }':mory had explained in 
detail the changes which had taken place, 
said Emory called the attention of re- 
spondent to a general order which he re- 
ferred to and which this respondent then 
sent for, when it was produced. It is as 
.. (GEXERAI, ORDERS, No. 17.) 
.. \Y.\SHINGTOX, March 14, 18G7. 
.. The foHowing acts of Congress are pub- 
li!'hpd for the information and government 
of aU concerned: 

"ll-PT'BLIC-XO. 8
.. An act making appropriations for sup- 
port of the army for the year ending June 
30, 18GS, and for other purposes. 

.. SEC. 2. ltlll1 be it furt1/('r ellorteil, that 
thp headquarters of the general of the 
al'my of the United States shaH be at the 
city of Washington, and aH orders and in- 
stl'Uctions relating to military operationR, 
Issupd by the PI'esidpnt or Hecretary of Wal", 
shall be issued through the generai of the 
army, and, In case of his inability, through 
the next in rank. The general of the at'my 
shaH not be removed. suspended. or relieved 
from command or assigned to duty else- 
where than at said headquarters, except at 
hIs own request. without the previous ap- 
proval of the Senate: and any orders or 
Instructions relating to milltal"y operations 
Issued contrary to the requirements of this 
section shaH be nuH and void: and any. 
officer, who shaH iSRue orders or instructions 
And for answer to the said ninth art i- contrary to the provisions of thIs section. 
!'11all be deemed guntv of a misdemeanor in 
ele. the respondent states that on the said office: and any officer' of the army who shall 



obey any law or any order issued in con- 
formity with any law, or intend to offer 
any inducement to the said Emory to 
violate any law. What. this respondent 
then said to General Emory was simply 
the expression of an opinion which he 
then full v believed to be sound and which 
he yet b
lieyes to be so, and that is that, 
by the express provisions of the Consti- 
tution, this respondent, as President, is 
made the commander - in - chief of the 
, Assistant Adjutant-General." armies of the United States, and as such 
General Emory not only called the at- he is to be respected, and that his 01'- 
tention of respondent to this order, but del's, whether issued through the -War De- 
to the fact that it was in conformity partment or through the general-in-chief, 
with a section contained in an appropri- or by other channels of communication, 
ation act passed by Congress. Respondent, are entitled to respect and obedience, and 
after reading the order, observed, "This that such constitutional power cannot be 
is not in accordance with the Constitu- taken from him by virtue of any act of 
tion of the Pnited States, which makes Congress. Respondent doth therefore 
me Commander-in-Chief of the Army and deny that by the expression of such 
Navy, nor with the language of the com- opinion he did commit or was guilty of a 
mission which you hold." General Em- high misdemeanor in office; and this re- 
ory then stated that this order had met spondent doth further say that the said 
ngpondent's approval. Respondent then article nine lays no foundations whatf',"er 
gaid in reply, in substance, "Am I to for the conclusion stated in the said 
understand that the President of the article, that the respondent, by reason of 
United States cannot give an order but the allegations therein contained, was 
tllrough the general- in - chief?" General guilty of a high misdemeanor in office. 
Emory again reih>rated the statement In reference to the statement made bv 
that it had met respondent's approval, General Emory, that this respondent had 
and that it was the opinion of some of approved of said act of Congress contain- 
the leading lawyers of the country that ing the section referred to, the respondent 
this order was constitutional. 'Vith admits that his formal approval was given 
some further conversation, respondent to said act, but accompanied the same 
then required the names of the lawyers by the following message, addressed and 
who had given the opinion, and he men- sent with the act to the House of Rep- 
tioned the names of two. Respondent resentath-es, in wl]ich House the said act 
then said that the object of the law was originated, and from which it came to 
very evident, referring to the dause in respondent: 
the appropriation act upon which the 01'- "To the House of Representatives,- 
del' purported to be based. This. accord- 'The act entitled 'An act making ap- 
ing to respondent's recollection, was the propriations for tI]e support of the army 
!-\ubstance of the conversation held with for the year ending June 30, 1868, and 
General Emorv. for other purposes,' contains provisions 
Hpspondent'denies that any allegations to which I must can attention. Thpse 
in the said artic1e of any instructions or provisions are contained in the second sec- 
df'c1arations given to the said Emory, tion. which, in certain cases, virtual1v de- 
then or at any other time, contrary to or prives the President of his constitutional 
in addition to what is hereinbefore set functions as commander - in - chief of the 
forth, are true. Respondent denies that. army. and in the sixth section, which de- 
in said conversation with said Emory, he nied to ten States in the Union their con- 
had any other intent than to express the stitutional right to protect themselves, in 
opinions then given to the said Emory, any emergency, by means of their own 
nor did he then nor at any other time militia. These provisions are out of 
request or order the said Èmory to dis- place in an appropriation act, but I am 

transmit, convey. or obey any -orders or in- 
structions so Issued, contrary to the pro- 
visions of this section, knowing that such 
orders were so Issued, shall be liable to im- 
prisonment for not less than two or more 
than twenty years, upon conviction thereof 
In any court of competent jurisdiction. 

. . . . . 
.. Approved March 2, 1867. 

. .... 
.. By order of the Secretary of 'War, 
.. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant- 
" Official: 


lieves substantially a correct report) is 
hereto annexed as part of this answer, 
and marked Exhibit C. 
That, thereupon, and in reply to the 
address of said committee by their chair- 
man, this respondent addressed the said 
committee so waiting upon him in one 
of the rooms of the Executive )Iansion; 
and this réspondent believes that this, 
his address to' said committee, is the 
occasion referred to in the first specifica- 
tion of the tenth article; but this re- 
spondent does not a(lmit that the pas- 
sage therein set forth, as if extracts from 
And in answer to the tenth article and a speech or address of this respondent 
specifications thereof, the respondent upon said occasion, correctly or justly pre- 
says that, on the 14th and 15th days of sent his speech or address upon said 
August, in the year 1866, a political con- occasion; but, on the contrary, this re- 
wntion of delegates from all, or most, of spondent demands and insists that if 
the States and Territories of the Union this honorable court shall deem the 
was held in the city of Philadelphia, said article and the said first specifica- 
Imùer the name and style of the National tion thereof to contain allegation of 
Union Convention, for the purpose of matter cognizable by this honorable 
maintaining and advancing certain polit- court as a high misdemeanor in offif'e, 
ical views and opinions before the peo- within the intent and meaning of the 
pIe of the United States, and for their Constitution of the Lnited States, and 
support and adoption in the exercise of sllall receive or allow proof in support of 
the constitutional suffrage in the elec- the same, that proof shall be required to 
tion of representatives and delegates in be made of the actual speech and address 
Congress, which were soon to occur in of this respondent on said occasion, 
many of the States and Territories of which this respondent denies that said 
the Union; which said convention, in article and specification contain or cor- 
the course of its proceedings, and in recUy or justly represent. 
furtheranf'e of the objects of the same, And this respondent, further answer- 
adopted a "declaration of principles" ing the tenth article and specifications 
and "an address to the people of th
 thereof. sa
's that at Cleveland, in the 
United Statps," and appointed a com- State of Ohio, and on the 3d day of Sep- 
mittee of two of its members from each tember, in the year 18G
, he was attended 
State, and of one from each Territory, by a large assembly of his fellow-citizens, 
and one from the District of Columbia, to and, in deference and obedience to their 
-wait upon the President of the United caU and demand, he addressed them upon 
Rtates and present to him a copy of the matters of public and political consid- 
pToceedings of the convention; that, on eration; and this respondent believes that 
tlJe 18th day of the said month of August, said occasion and address are referred to 
this committee waited upon the Presi- in tIle second specification of the tenth 
dmt of the United States, at the Exec- article; but this respondent does not ad- 
utive Mansion, and was receiwd by him mit that the passages therein set forth 
in one of thp rooms thereof. and by their as if extracts from a speech of this re- 
{'hairman, Hon. Reverdy Johnson, then spondpnt on said occasion. correctly or 
and now a Senator of the -enited States, ju!"tly present his speech or address upon 
ading and speaking in their behalf, pre- said occasion; but, on the contrary, this 
sC'nted a copy of the proceedings of the respondent demands and insists that, if 
((Invention, and addressed the President this honorable court shall deem the said 
of the United States in a speech, of which nrtic1e and the said second specification 
a copy {according to a published report thereof to contain allegation of matter 
of the same, and as the respondent h(>- cognizable by this honorable court as a 

f'ompelled to defeat these necessary ap- 
propriations if I withhold my signature 
from the act. Pressed by these consider- 

1.tions, I feel constrained to return the 
bill with my signature, but to accompany 
it with my earnest protest against the 
sections which I have indicated. 
"\Vashington, D. C., March 2, 1867." 
Respondent, therefore, did no more than 
to express to said Emory the same 
c.pinion which he had so expressed to the 
House of Representatives. 



high misdemeauor in officI'. "ithin tllp or to impair or de:,;troy the regard or re. 
intent. and meaning of the Constitution "pect of all or an
' of the good people of 
of the United Rtat
!'\, and !ihall rpceive the Pnited Statc!': for the .Congress or the 
or allow proof in support of t]1C' f-aUle, rightful legislative power thereof, or to 
that proof shall be required to be made e:xcite the odium or r
8entment of all or 
of the actual speech and address of this any of the good people of the United 
)"{'spomlent on - said occasion, which this States, against Congress, and the laws by 
respollllent df'nics that said article and it duly and constitutionally ena('ted. This 
specification contain or correctly or justly respondf'nt further says that at an times 
represent. he has. in his oflicial acts as Presidl'nt. rec- 
And this respondent, further answering ognizcd the authority of the several Con- 
the tenth articlc and the specifications gresses of the United States, as constituted 
thereof, "ays that at St. Louis, in the and organized during his administration of 
f-'tate of )'Ii:-;souri, and on the 8th day of the ofIice of President of the L'nited States. 
Reptemlwr, in the year 18GG, he was at- And this respondent, further answering, 
tended h,\' a numerous assemblage of his says that he has, from time to time, un- 
f('How-citizens, and in deference and obedi- der his constitutional right and duty as 
ence to their call and demand he addressed President of the Pnited States, communi- 
them upon matters of puhlic and political cated to Congress his views and opinions 
(.onsideration; and this respondent be- in regard to such acts or resolutions there- 
lievf's that said occasion and address are of, as, being submitted to him as Presi- 
referred to in the third specification of dent of the United States, in pursuance 
the tenth article; but this respondent docs of the Constitution, seemed to this re- 
not aùmit that the passages therein set spondcnt to require such communications; 
forth. as if extracts from a speech of this and he has, from time to time, in the ex- 
respondf'nt on said occasion, correctly or ercise of that freedom of speech wl1Îch be- 
justly present his speech or address upon longs to him as a citizen of the Unitf'd 
said occasion; but, on the contrary, this Rtates, and, in his political relations as 
'f'!:'pondent demands and insists that if President of the l:nited States, to the 
this honorable court shall deem the said people of the United States, is upon fit 
at ticle and the said third specification occasions a duty of the highest obligation, 
thereof to contain allegation of matter ðpresspd to his fellow-citizens his views 
('ognizahle by this honorable court as a and opinions rcspecting the measures and 
high misdemf'anor in office, within the in- proceedings of Congress; and that in SUd1 
tcnt and meaning of the Constitution of addresses to his fellow-citizens, and in 
the enited States, and sllan receive or such his communications to Congress, he 
allow proof in support of the same, that has expressed his views, opinions, and 
proof shall be required to be made of the judgment of and concerning the actual 
actual speech and address of this respon- constitution of the two House's of Congre!"s 
dent 011 said occasion, which this reRpon- without representation therein of certain 
dent denies that the said article and speci- 
tates of the Union. and of the effect that 
fication contain or correctly or justly rep- in wisdom and justice, in the opinion and 
1 esent. judgment of this rf'spondent, Congress in 
And this respondf'nt, further answering its legislation and proceedings shall give 
the tenth article, protesting' that he has to this political circumstance; anù what- 
not been unmindful of the high duties of soever he has thus communicated to Con- 
his office, or of the harmony or courtesics grcss or addressf'd to his fellow-citizens or 
which ought to exist and he maintained any assemblagf' thereof, this respondent 
between the executive and lq
islati\"p says was and is within awl aef'ording to 
branches of the governuwnt of the Pnitetl his right and pri"ilege as an AllIerican 
States, denies that lie Jm3 eve,' intf'nded or citizen, and his right and (Juty as Presi- 
dcsigned to set aside the rightful authority dent of the rnited States. 
or powers of Congress, or attempted to And this respondent not waiving or at 
bring into disgrace, rdicule, hatred, con- all disparaging his right of freedom of 
tf'mpt, or reproach, the Congrf'ss of the opinion and of freedom of speech. as 
rnitf>d States, or eitllCr branch theJ"f'of, Jlcrcinbefore or hereinafter more particu- 


lady set forth, but claiming and insist- the Pl"esident of the "Cnited States, to the 
iug upon the same, further answering the people of the United States, whose ser- 
!"aid tenth article, sa;ys that the views and vant, under the duties and responsibilities 
opinions expressed by this respondent in of the Constitution of the united Stat

his said addresses to the assemblages of the President of the Cnited Statps is and 
his fellow-citizens, as in said article or in should alwa
's remain, this respondent had 
this answer thereto mentioned, are not and has the full right, and in his office 
and were not intended to be other or dif- of l}resident of the United States is held 
ferent from those expressed by him in his t.o the high duty, of forming, and on fit 
communications to Congress-that t.he occasions expressing, opinions of and con- 
eleven States lately in insurrection never cerning the legislation of Congl'ess, pro- 
had ('cased to he :-:tates of the (fnion, and posed or completed, in respect of its 
that the
- wpre then entitled to repre
entn- wisdom, expediency, justiee, worthines
tion in Congress by local Representatives ohjects, purposes, and public and political 
and Senators as ful1y as the other States motives and tendencies; and within and 
of the Union, and that, consequently, the as a part of such right and duty to form, 
Congress, as then constituted, was not, in and on fit occasions to express, opinions 
fact, a Congress of all the St.ates, but a of and concerning the public character 
Congress of only a part of the States. and conduct, views, purposes, objects, mo- 
This respondent alwafs protesting against tiYCs, and tendencies of all men engagcd 
the unauthorized exclusion therefrom of in the public service, as well in Congress 
the said eleven States, nevertheless gave as otherwise, and under no other rules or 
his aS5cnt to all laws passcd by said Con- limits upnn this right of freedom of opin- 
gress. which did not, in his opinion and ion and of freedom of speech, or of re- 
judgment, violate the Constitution, e'\:er- f:'ponsihility and amenahilitJ- for the act- 
cising his constitutional authority of re- ual excrcise of such frcpdom of opinion 
turning bms to said Congrcss with his ob- and freedom of sl)f'ech than attcnd upon 
jections when they appcared to him to be such rights and their e)"f'rcise on the 
unconstitutional or incxpedicnt. part of all other citizens of the "Cnited 
And, further, this respondent has also States and on the part of all their public 
expressed the opinion, both in his com- servants. 
munieations to Congrcss, and in his ad- .lnd this respondent, furthcr answering 
dresscs to the people, that the policy said tenth article, says that the several 
adopted by Congress in reference to tIle opcasions on which, as is alleged in the 
f'tates lately in insurrection did not tend sf-nral spccifications of said article, this 
to peape, harmony. and union, but. on the l"f'spondent addressed his fellow-citizens 
eontrary, did tend to disunion and the on subjects of public and political consid- 
permanent disruption of the States, and ('rations were not, nor was anv one of 
that, in fol1owing its said policy. laws lmd them, sought or planned by thi
),pen passed by Congre!"s in violation of deut.; hut, on the contrary, each of said 
t.he fundamental principles of the govern- occasions arose upon the exercise of a 
ulf'nt, and which tended to conso
idation lawful amI accustomed right of the peo. 
and de
potism; and, such being his df'- pl(' of the rnited 
tat('s to call upon theil' 
Jiherate opinions, he would have felt him- puhJic scrvants, and e'\:press to them t.hpir 
sp]f unmindful of tlIe high duties of his opinions, wishes, and feelings upon mat- 
office if he had failed to express them in t('rs of public and political consideration, 
hi!> communi('at1ons to Congrpss or in IliR and to invite from s11ch. their public spr- 
addrpsses to the people when called upon '"ants. an ('''pression of their opinions, 
h.v them to express his opinionR on mat- views, and feelings on matters of puhlie 
tel'S of puhlic and political ponsideration. and political consideration: and this re- 
And this re
pondent, further answering- spondent claims and insists before this 
the tenth article. says that he has always honorahle court. and before all the people 
claimed and insisted, and now claims and of the United States, that of or concern- 
insists, that both in his personal and pri- lng this his right of freedom of opinion, 
\"ate capacity of a citizf'n of the Vnited and of freedom of speech, and this his ex- 
States, and in tIlC }I('lit ip31 relatione:.; of. C'rcisc of such rigllt on all matters of 


of the Union were denied representation 
therein; or that he made any or either 
of the declarations or affirmations in this 
behalf, in the said articlè alleged, as de- 
nying or intending to deny that the legis- 
lation of said Thirty-ninth Congress was 
valid or obligatory upon this respondent, 
except so far as this respondent sa\v fit 
to approve the same; and as to the alle- 
gation in said article, that he did thereby 
intend or mean to be understood that the 
said Congress had not power to propose 
amendments to the Constitution, this re- 
spondent says that in said addTess he 
said nothing in refcrcnee to the subject 
of amendments of the Constitution, nor 
was the question of the competency of 
the said Congress to propose such amend- 
ments, without the participation of said 
excluded States, at the time of said ad- 
dress, in any way mentioned or con- 
sidered or referred to by this respon- 
ncnt, nor in what he did say had he any 
intent regarding the same, and he denies 
the allegation so made to the contrary 
thereof. But this respondent, in further 
answer to, and in respect of the said alle- 
gations of the said ele\Tenth article here- 
inbefore traversed and denied, claims and 
insists upon his personal and official right 
of freedom of opinion and freedom of 
speech, and his duty in his political re- 
lations as President of tJH' L'nited States, 
to the people of the Vnited ðtates, in 
the f'xen-.i!öe of such freedom of opinion 
and freedom of speech, in the sanlP man- 
ner, form, and dfect as he has in 11Ís 
hehalf stated the same in his answer to 
the said tenth artide, and with the same 
effect as if hc here repeated the same; 
and he further claims and insh,ts, as in 
And in answer to the eleventh article said answer to {';aid tenth article he has 
this respondent denies that on the lRtll claimed and insif'ted. that he is not sub- 
day of August, in the year 1866, at the jcct to question, inquisition, impeachment, 
city of \Vashington, in the District of or inculpation. in any form or manner, 
Columbia, he did, by public speech or of or concerning such rights of freedom 
otherwise, declare or affirm, in substance of opinion or freedom of speech, or his 
or at all, that the Thirty-ninth Congress said alleged exercise thereof. 
of the United States was not a Congress And this respondent further denies that, 
of the Vnited States authorized by the on the 21st day of February, in the year 
Constitution to exercise legislative power 1868, or at any other time. at the city 
under the same, or that he did then and of Washington, in the District of Co- 
there declare or affirm that the said lumbia, in pursuance of any such dec1a- 
Thirty-ninth Congress was a Congress ration as is in that behalf in said eleventh 
of only part of the States in any sense article alleged, or otherwise, he did un- 
OI' meaning other than that ten States lawfully, and in disregard of the require- 

public and political consideration, and in 
respect of all public servants, or persons 
whatsoever engaged in or connected there- 
with, this respondent, as a citizen, or as 
President of the United States, is not 
subject to question, inquisition, impeach- 
ment, or inf'ulpation, in any -form or man- 
ner whatsoever. 
And this respondent says that neither 
the said tenth article, nor any specification 
thereof, nor any allegation therein con- 
tained, touches or relates to any official 
act or doing of this respondent in the 
office of President of the United States, 
or in the discharge of any of its constitu- 
tional or legal duties or responsibilities; 
but said article and the specifications and 
allegations thereof, wholly and in every 
part thereof, question only the discretion 
or propriety of fl"eedom of opinion or free- 
dom of speech, as exercised by this re- 
spondent as a citizen of the United States 
in his personal right and capacity, and 
without allegation or imputation against 
this respondent of the violation of any 
law of the United States, touching or re- 
lating to freedom of speech or its exer- 
cise by the citizens of the United States, 
or by this respondent as one of the said 
citizens or otherwise; and he denies that, 
by reason of any matter in said article 
or its specifications alleged, he has said 
or done anything indecent or unbecoming 
in the chief magistrate of the L"nitf'd 
States, or that he has brought the high 
office of the President of the Pnited States 
into contempt, ridicule, or disgrace, or 
that he has committed or has been guilty 
of a high misdemeanor in ollice. 




ruent of the Constitution that he should States, nor the omISSIon by this respon- 
take care that the laws should be faith- dent of any act <?f official obligation or 
fully executed, attempt to prevent the exe- duty in his office of President of the 
cution of an act entitled "An act regu- United States; nor does the said article 
lating the tenure of certain civil offices," nor the matters therein contained name, 
passed March 2, 1867, by unlawfully de- designate, describe, or define any act or 
vising or contriving, or attempting to mode or form of attempt, device, con- 
devise or contrive, means by which he trivance, or means, or of attempt at 
should prevent Edwin M. Stanton from device, contrivance, or means, whereby 
forthwith resuming the functions of Sec- this respondent can know or understand 
retary for the Department of 'Vßr; or what act or mode or form of attempt, de- 
hy unlawfully devising or contriving, or vice, contrivance, or means, or of at- 
attempting to devise or contrive, means tempt at device, contrivance, or means, 
to prevent the execution of an act en- are imputed to or charged against thi8 
titled, "An act making appropriations respondent in his office of President of 
for the support of the army for the fiscal the United States, or intended so to be, 
J'car cnding June 30. 1868, and for other or whereby this respondent can more fully 
purposes," approved }Iarch 2, 1867, or to or definitely make answer unto the said 
prevent the execution of an act entitled, article than he hereby does. 
" An act to provide for the more efficient And this respondent. in submitting to 
government of the rebel States," passed t his honorable court this his answer to 
:March 2, 1867. the articles of impeachment exhibited 
And this respondent, further answer- against him, respectfully reserves leave 
ing the said eleven-th article, says that he to amend and add to the same from time 
has, in answcr to the first article, set to time, as may become necessary or 
forth in detail the acts, steps, and pro- proper, and when and as such necessÌ'ty 
<,pedings done and taken by this respon- and propriety shall appear. 
dcnt to and towards or in the matter of ANDREW JOHNSON. 
the suspension or removal of the said Ed. HENRY STANBERY, 
win M. Stanton in or from the office of B. R. CuRTIR, 
Secretary for the Department of 'Val', TJIO
with the times, modes, circumstances, in- 'VILLIAM 1\1. EVARTS, 
tenb'!. views, purposes, and opinions of 'V. S. GROESBECK, 
official obligation and duty under and with Of Oounsel. 
which such acts, steps, and proceedings Johnson, BRADLEY TYLER, lawyer; 
were done and taken; and he makes an- born in Frederick, Md., Sept. 29, 1829; 
swer to this eleventh article, of the mat- graduated at Princeton in 1849; studied 
tprs in his answer to the first article. law at the Harvard Law School in 1850- 
pertaining to the suspension or removal 51, and began practice in Frederick. In 
of said Edwin 1\1. Stanton, to the same 1851 he was State attorney of Frederick 
intent and effect as if they were here re- county. In 1860 he was a delegate 
pf'ated and set forth. to the National Democratic Conventions 
And this respondent further answering in Charleston and Baltimore; voted for 
the said eleventh article denies that by the States' Rights platform; and, with 
means or reason of anything in said most of the Maryland delegates, with- 
article al1pged this respondent. as Presi- drew from the convention, and gave hÍs 
dent of the United States, did on the support to the Brpckinridge and Lane 
2]st day of February, 1868, or at any ticket. During the Civil 'Val' he served 
other day or time, commit or that he in the Confederate army, rising from the 
was guilty of a high misdemeanor in office. rank of captain to that of brigadier-gen- 
And this respondent, further answering era!. After the war he practised law in 
the said eleventh article, says that the Richmond, Va., tiB 1879, and then in 
same and the matters therein contained Baltimore till 1890. He was a member 
do not charge or allege the commission of the State Senate in 1875-79. His pub- 
of any act whatever by this respondent, lications include Ohase's Decisions; The 
in his office of President of the United Foundation of J.[oryland
' Life of General 


lfashingto/ 1 ; J[f'moir.
 of .Jo,
cph E. ,John- puhlishcd in l(;.')--1 under the title of Won- 
stOll; Confederate 11 Îstory of Mary- dcr-It"Orking Providence of Zion's Saviour 
land; ete. ill p,'cu; England. He died in Woburn, 
Johnson, BFSHROD ResT, ll1ilitar
' offi- :\lass., April 
3, 16;2. . 
('f'r; horn in Belmont county, 0., tkpt. Johnson, FORT, a former protectin' 
n. ISH; graduated at \Yest Point in work on the Cape l"ear Hi\'er, ncar \Yil- 
1840; he serYed in the Florida and l\Ie
i- mington, N. C. On .Tune 14, liï5, the 
<:an wars; and was Professor of l\Iathe- royal governor, Joseph Martin, took refuge 
matics in military academies in Kentucky in the fort, as the indignant people had 
amI Tennessee. He joined the Confed- begun to rise in rebellion against royal 
erate army in 1861; was made a briga- rule. From that stronghold he sent forth 
dier-general early in 1862; was captured a menacing proclamation, and soon after- 
at Fort Donelson, but soon afterwards wards preparations for a sen'ile insur- 
escaped; was woundcd in the battle of rection were discovcred. The rumor went 
Shiloh; and was made major-general in abroad that l\Iartin 11ad incited the slaw's. 
ISfì-l. He was in command of a division The exaspcrated people determined to drive 
in Lee's army at the time of the sur- him from the fort and demolish it. _\ 
render at Appomattox Court-house, and body of 300 men, led by .Tohn Ashe and 
after the war was chancellor of the Un i- Cornelius Harnett, marched to the fort. 
\ersity of Nashville. He died in Brigh- Martin had fled on board a British vessel 
ton, II 1. , Sept. 11. 1880. of war in the riwr. The munitions of 
Johnson, ('AYE, jurist; born in Robert- war had all been removed on board of a 
son county, Tenn., .Tan. II, 1 ï!)3; elN'ted transport, and the garrison also had f1f'(1. 
circuit judge in lR20; serwd in Congress, The peop1e burned the barracks and demol- 
!)-37; and appointed Postmaster-Gen- ished the walls. 
f'mI in 184.3. He dicd in Clarksvil1e, Tenn., Johnson, _FRANKLIN, f'ducator; born 
Xov. 23, 1866. in Frankfort, 0., Kov. 2, 1836; grad- 
Johnson, CLIFTON, author; born in uated at Colgate Theological Seminary 
Hadley, 1\1ass., Jan. 25, 186.); recein'd a in 1861. He held p:il.storates in 1\1ichi
common-school education. lIe is the au- :1JId New Jersf'Y in 1 R02-7:-l, and in Cam- 
thor of 'l'hc Yew RJlgland Country; lrhat bridge, l\Iass., in 18;4-8R. In lRflO he 
'l'hey RaJJ in K ('10 En,qland; Rtudirs of N ("W ])('came president of the Ottawa Pniver- 
En.'llanrl Life and YatuTe, etc. sity, Kansas, and remained there t\\'o 
Johnson, EAST
L\N, artist; born in ypars, when he was called to the chair 
Lovell, Me., July 2D, 1824; was educated of History find Homi1etics in the "Cni- 
in the public schools of Augusta, 1\le.; wJ'f'ity of Chicago. 
studied in the Royal Academy of Dilssel- Johnson, GUY, military offieer; born in 
dorf for two ;\'{'ars, and was el('eted an Ireland in 1740; married a daughter of 
academician of the National Academy of :;;IR \YILLIA)[ tTOnXSON (q. v.), and in 
Design in lRfiO. He has paintf'd many I ïi4 sucC'f'eded him as Indian agent. He 
notable pictures, including 'l'he ](cntucky sf'rved against the French from Iï:í7 to 
Home j Husking Bee; The Stage Coach; I ï60. At the outbreak of the Revolution 
Pension Agent; Prisoner of Statc, etc. he fled to Canada, and thence went with 
His portraits include Tlco Men, ('x-Presi- the British troops who took possession of 
dents Arthur, Cle\'eland, and Harrison, Kew York City in September, lï76; he re- 
Commodore Vanderbilt, 'V. H. Vander- mained there some time, and became man- 
hi1t, DaniC'1 '''ehster, .Tohn Quincy Adams, aper of a theatre. lIe joined Brant, and 
John D. Rockeff'l1er, ::\lrs. Dolly l\Iadison, participated in some of the bloody out- 
Mrs. August Delmont, l\Irs. Hamilton ragf'S in the 1\1ohawk 'TalIey. In I ïï!) he 
It'ish, and many others. fought with the lndians against Sullivan. 
Johnson, ED\\' AIW, author; born in He died in London, l\Iarch 5, 1 ï88. 
Herne I-Ii]], England, in Ii}9D; emigrated Johnson, HALE, lawyer; born in 
to t1Ie Pnit(>d f;tate8 in 16:-l0; eleeted Montgomery eOllnty. Ind., _\ug. 21, 1847; 
sl't':\l...(>r of the Massachusetts House of admitted to the bar of Illinois in ISï!}; 
Heprf'sf'ntatiYCs in lfi5!). lIe is the author has been actiwly identified with the 
of a history of New England which was Prohihition party for twenty years, and 


has been its candidate for governor of the Indian afl'airs for thirty-one years; served 
State of lllinois and for Vice-President in in thc \Var of 1812, becoming quarter- 
1896. master. In 1841-42 he was commissioner 
Johnson, HELE
 KEXDRlCK, author j to arrange with the lndians of Ohio for 
born in Hamilton, N. Y., Jan. 4, 1843; their emigration from that district. He 
daughter of Asahel C. Kendrick, the was the author of an A_ccount of the lnd- 
GIeck scholar and author; was educated -ian Tribcs of Ohio. He died in Wash- 
at the Oread Institute, \Vorcester, l\Iass. ington, D. C., April 19, 1861. 
She has edited Our l'amiliar Songs, and Johnson, SIR JOHN, military officer; 
Those Who Made Them; The American born in l\Iount Johnson, N. Y., Nov. 5, 
lI'oman's .Tou'mal, ete. Her original works 1742; son of Sir \Villiam Johnson; wa.s 
are The Roddy Books; Raleigh Westgate; a stanch loyalist, and in lï76 the \Vhigs 
and Woman and the Republic. She has tried to get possession of his person. He 
contributed many articles to periodicals, tied to Canada with about 700 followers, 
find is specially known as an opponent of whcre he was commissioned a colonel, and 
woman 8uffrage. raiscd a corps chiefly among the loyalists 
Johnson, HENRY PUELPS, historian; of X ew York, known as the ROJTal Greens. 
born in 1842; became Professor of History He was among the most acti\ e and bitter 
in the College of the City of New York. foes of the patriots. While inYesting Fort 
He is the author of Loyalist History of the Stanwix in 1777, he defeated General 
' The Campaign of 1776 iround Herkimer at Oriskany, but was defeated 
Xew Yorl.-; The Yorktou;n Campaign; himself by General Van Rensselaer in 
Yale and the Honor Roll in the American 1780. After the war Sir John went to 
Re1 7 0llltion, etc. England, but returned to Canada, where 
Johnson, HERSCHEL VESPASIAN, legis- he resided as superintendent of Indian 
lator; born in Burke county, Ga., Sept. afl"airs until his death, in l\Iontreal, Jan. 
18, 1812; graduated at the University of 4, 1830. He married a daughter of John 
Georgia in 183-1; appointed for an unex- \Vatts, a 
ew York loyalist. 
pi red term to the United States Senate in Johnson, JOHN BUTLER, e(lucator j born 
18-18; elected judge of the Superior Court in Marlboro, 0., June 11, 1830; grad- 
of Georgia in 184!); governor in 1833 and uated at the University of 
1ichigan in 
1855. In the Civil \Var he was a member Wi8, and became a civil engineer in the 
of the Confederate Senate; was elected United States Lake and Mississippi River 
to the "Cnited States Senate during the surveys. In 1883-98 he was Professor of 
reconstruction period, but was not al- Ci\Til Engineering in 'Vashington Univer- 
lowed to take his seat, and was appointed sity, St. Louis. Later he was made dean 
judge of the circuit court in 1873. In of the College of 
fechanics and Engineer- 
1860 Mr. Johnson was the candidatf' foJ' ing in the Pniyersity of \YiHconHill. Hf' 
the Vice - Presidency on the ticket with was director of a testing Jahoratory in St. 
I':;tephen A. Douglas. He died in .Jefferson Louis, where all the United f'tates timher 
county, Ga., Aug. IG, 1880. h:
ts were made. He also had charge of 
Johnson, Jony, educator j born in the inde" department of the journal pub- 
Bristol, :1Ie., Aug. 23, 1806; graduated at lif;hed by the Association of Engineering 
Bowdoin College in 1832; Professor of Societies, and compiled two volumes of 
Xatural Sciences at 'Vesleyan University lndcx Notes to Engineering Literat1tre. 
in 1837-73, when he was made professor He is author of Theory and Practice of 
emeritus. He was the author of .4_ His- Surveying; -'[odern Framed Structurrs: 
tory of the Tou:ns of Bristol and Bremen Engineering Contracts and Specification.
in the State of Maine, etc. He died in j[aterials of Construction, etc. 
Clifton, S. I., Dec. 2, 187Ð. Johnson, JOSIAH STODDARD, author; 
Johnson, JOHN, Indian agent; born in born in New Orleans, Feb. 10, 1833; grad- 
nallyshannon, Ireland, in March, 1775; uated at Yale College in 1853 and at the 
came to the United States in 1786 and University Law School in 1834. He joinC'd 
settled in Cumberland county, Pa. He par- the Confederate arm v in 18G3, and served 
ticipated in the campaign againHt the tm the dose of th
 war. Later he en- 
Indians in Ohio in 1792-93; was agent of gaged in the practice of law and in jour- 
V.--M 177 

dent Grant in 1869; supported Horace 
Greeley in the Presidential campaign of 
1872. He died in Annapolis, :Md., Feb. 10, 
.Johnson, RICHARD MENTOR, Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United Stah's; born in 
Bryant's Station, Ky., Oct. 17, 1781; 
graduated at Transylvania University; 
became a lawyer and State legislator, and 
raised a regiment of cavalry in 181
\"ith them he served under Harrison, and 
was in the battle of the Thames in 1813, 
where he was dangerously wounded. From 
1807 to 1819 and lR20 to 1837 he \vas a 
member of Congress. He was United 
States Senator fl'om 1819 to 1829, and 
Yice-President of the United States from 
lR37 to 1841. He died in Frankfort, Ky., 
Kov. 19, 1850. 
.Johnson, RICHARD 'V., military officer; 
born in Livingston county, Ky., Feb. 'j, 
1827; graduated at West Point in 184f>' 
He was a captain of cavalry in the 
Civil War until August. 1861, when he 
was made lieutenant-colonel of a Ken- 
tucky cavalry regiment. In October he 
was commissioned a brigadier-general of 
volunteers, and served under Buell. In 
question, which was rejected by the United the summer of 1862 he commanded a divi- 
States Senate. He was recalled by Pres i- sion of the Army of the Tennessee, and 


nalisUl. He is the author of Memorial 
H isto-ry of Louisville; First Eæplomtions 
of Kentucky; Confederate Hi.<;tory of Ken- 
t/lcky, etc. 
.Johnson, SIR NATHANIEL, colonial gov- 
ernor of South Carolina in 1703-9. Dur- 
ing his administration he defeated the 
French who had attacked the colony in 
1706. He died in Charleston in 1713. 
.Johnson, OLIVER, journalist; born in 
Peacham, Vt., Dec. 27, 1809; was man- 
aging editor of The Independent in 1865- 
70; and later was editor of the Christian 
Vnion. He was the author of William 
Lloyd Garrison and His Times, or Sketches 
of the A.nti-Slavery Jlovement in Amer- 
ica. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 10, 
.Johnson, REVERDY, statesman; born in 
Annapolis, :Md., May 21, 17nG; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1815. After serving 
two terl11S in his State Senate, he was 
United States Senator from 184fi to 1849, 
when he became United States Attorney- 
General under President Taylor. :Mr. 
.Johnson \Vas a delegate to the Peace Con- 
vention; United States Senator from 1863 
to 1868; and minister to Great Britain in 
1868-69, negotiating a treaty for the set- 
tlement of the ALABA
fA CLABfS (q. v.) 

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afterwards had the same command in the ary. His original books are A History 
Army of the Cumberland. In the battles of the War Bet'ween the United Statcs 
at Stone River and near Chickamauga, and Great Britain, 181'2-15; A History 
and in the Atlanta campaign, he was a of the French lJ'ar, Ending in the Con- 
most useful officer. He was severely quest of Canada}' A History of the lVar 
wounded at New Hope Church, and com- of Secession (1888; enlarged and illus- 
manded a division of cavalry in the battle tratpd, under the title Camp-fire and Bat- 
of Kashville, in December, 1864. He -was lle-field, 1894)}' The Hem of Manila, etc. 
brevetted major-general, U. S. V. and U. S. He has been president of the Quill Club, 
A., for gallant services during the war; the Society of the Genesee, the New 
was retired in 1867; and was Professor York Association of Phi Beta Kappa, and 
of Military Science in the Missouri State of the People's University Extension So- 
Uni\"ersity in 18ß8-69, and in the Univer- ciety. He received the degree of Ph.D. 
sity of .:\1innesota in 1869-71. He died in in 1888, and that of LL.D. in 1893. 
SL Paul, 
Iinn., April 21, 1897. .Johnson, SA
IUEL, jurist; born in Dun- 
.Johnson, RODERT, colonial governor; dee, Scotland, Dec. 15, 1733; was taken to 
born in England in 1682; was appointed North Carolina by his father when he was 
governor of South Carolina in 1717; and three years of age, and was in civil office 
royal governor in 1731. He died in there under the crown until he espoused 
Charleston, S. C., May 3, 1755. the cause of the patriots. In 1773 he 
Johnson, ROBERT U
DERWOOD, editor; was one of the North Carolina committee 
born in \Vashington, D. C., Jan. 12, of correspondence and an active mem- 
1853; graduated at Earlham College, Indi- ber of the Provincial Congress. He was 
ana, in 1871. He became connected with chairman of the provincial council in 
the editorial staff of the Century in 1873; 1775, and during 1781-82 was in the Con- 
edited the Century War Series (with tinental Congress. In 1788 he was govern- 
Clarence Clough Buel), and subsequently or of the State, and presided over the 
extended the work by 4 volumes, covering convention that adopted the national Con- 
the battles and leaders of the Civil War. stitution. From 1789 to 1793 he was 
It was he who induced General Grant to United States Senator, and from 1800 
write his Memoirs, the first part of which to 1803 was judge of the Supreme Coud. 
was published in the Century lVar Series. He died near Edenton, N. C., Aug. 18, 
He originated the movement which re- 1816. 
suited in the establishment of the Yosem- .Johnson, THmrAs, jurist; born in St. 
ite Xational Park; and was secretary of Leonards, Calvert co., Md., Nov. 4, 1732; 
the American Copyright League. His was an eminent lawyer, and was chosen a 
works include The nïnter Hour}' Songs delegate to the second Continental Con- 
of [.liberty, etc. gress in 1775. He had the honor of nomi- 
.Johnson, ROSSITER, author and editor; nating George Washington for the post of 
born in Rochester, N. Y., Jan. 27, 1840; commander-in-chief of the Continental 
gradlwted at the University of Roch- armies. He was chosen governor of the 
ester in HHì3. In 18ß4-68 he was an as- new State of Maryland in 1777, and was 
sociate editor of the Rochester Democrat.. associate-justice of the Supreme Court of 
in 186!}-72 was editor of the Concord the Lnited States from 1791 to 17!J3, 
(N. H.) Statpsman}' and in 1873-77 was when he resigned. He was offered the post 
an associate editor of the A_merican Cyclo- of chief-justice of the District of Colum- 
l)ædia. In 1879 - 80 he assisted Sydney Lia in 1801, but declinpd it. He died at 
Howard Gay in preparing the last two Rose Hill. near Frederickton, Oct. 26, 1819. 
volumes of the Bryant and Gay History Johnson, TIIOJ\IAS CARY, c]ergyman; 
of the United Rtates. Since 1883 he has born in Fishbok Hill, Va., July 19, 1859; 
been the sole editor of Appleton's A_nnual graduated at Hampden-Sidney College in 
ryclopædia. He edited The Authorized 1881 and at Union Theological Seminary, 
History of the 1Vorld's Colnmbian Exposi- Va., in 1887; was ordained in the Pres- 
tion (4 vols.. 1898); and The World's byterian Church; became Professor of 
Great Books (1898-1901). He is also an Ecclesiastical History and Polity at Union 
associate editor of the Standard Dictwn- Theological Seminary, Va., in 1892. He 

the Indian trade. Dealing honestly with 
the Indians and learning their language, 
he became a great favorite with them. 
He conformed to their lll\lnners, and, in 
time, took 1.IarJ', a sister of Brant, the 
famous 1\Iohawk ehief, to his home as his 
wife. When the I,'rench and Indian War 
hroke out .10hnson was made sole sup(>r- 
intendent of Indian <tffairs, and his great 
influence kept the Hix Nations steadily 
from any favoring of the French. He 
kept the frontier from injury until the 
tn-aty of Aix-Ia-Chapelle (li48). 
In 17.10 he was a memher of the pro- 
vincial counciL He withdrew from hi
post of slllwrintelllient of Indian affairs 
in I 7i)
, a III I was a member of the con- 
wntion at Albany in li34. He also at- 
tended grand councils of the Indians, and 
was adopted into the Mohawk tribe and 
made a sachem. At 1.hC' council of gov- 
ernors, eonv(>ned by Braddock at Ale
andria in 17f);), .Tohnson was appointf>d 
sol(> superintendent of the Sh Nations. 
created a major-general, and afterwards 
led an expf'dition intended for the eapturc 
of Crown Point. The following year he 
was kniglIted, and the King gaye him the 
appointnwnt of superintendent of Indian 
:1fl'airs in the North; he was also made a 
colonial agent. He contimled in the 
military ser\'Ìce during the remaindpr of 
the war, and was rewarded by his King 
with tl)e gift of 100,000 acres of land 
Jlorth of the }\fohawk River, whieh was 
known as "Kingsland," or th
(irant." f'ir '''imam first introduced 
sllPf'p amI hloodf'd horses into the :!\foha wk 
Ya llp
'. Hp married a (1erman girl. h.v 
whom he had a son and two daughtpr!';; 
a 1",0 eigl1t chi1drf'n by Mary (or l\I01lie) 
Brant. who lived with l)im until his death. 
Sir Wi1Jiam Jiwd in })aronial style and 
ewrcÏsed great hospitality. He died in 
.To1111stown, N. Y., July 11, 1774. 
J'ohnson, 'VILLIAM SA:MrEL, jurist; 
horn in F:tratford, Conn., Oct. 7, 1727: 
gradlHl.tpc] at Yale College in 174-1-: 
1wcame a lawyer; and was distinguisllf',l 
for 11is e}oquC'nce, He was a delegate to 
the STAMP ACT CONGRESS ('I. v.), and for 
America in 1738 to take charge of lanrled fiye years (from 17GG to 1771) was agent 
property of his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter for Connecticut in England. He cor- 
'Varren, in the region of the Mohawk rf>sponcled with the eminent Dr. Johnson 
Valley, and seated himself there, about 24 s('yera I yeaTs. IIp was a jurlge of the 
miles west of Schenectady, engaging in Suprem
 Court of Connecticut and a com- 

is the author of A History of the Southern 
PresbyterianChm'ch; A Brief Sketch of the 
United J
ynod of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America, etc. 
Johnson, 'VILLlAM, jurist; born in 
Charleston, S. C., Dec. 2i, 1771; grad- 
uated at Princeton in liOO; admitted to 
the bar in 1793; elected to the State legis- 
lature in li!)4; appointed an associate 
justice of the Lnited States Supreme 
Court in 1804-; sen-cd until his death, 
in Brooklyn, N. y" Aug. II, 1834. He 
is the author of the Life and Con'c- 
8Jlondcnce of _Uaj.-Gen. Nathanael Grecl/('. 
Johnson, 'VILLlA:\[, lawyer; born in 
l\Iiddletown, Conn., about 1770; grnduatf'd 
at Yale College in 1788; reporter of the 
Supreme Court of New York in 180G-23, 
and of the N ew York Court of Chancf'ry 
in 1814-23. He was the author of ]l.T ew 
York Supreme Court Reports, 1 "i99-18n3 ; 
Xcw York rhaneer!! Reports 1811,-2.'1; and 
Digest of rases in the ,ç:uprcmc Court of 
ew York. He died in New York City in 
July, 1848. 
Johnson, Sm 'VILLlAl\[, miJitary offi- 
cer; born in - Smithtown, County :Meath, 
Ireland, in 1715; was educated for a l11f'r- 
chant, but an unfortunate love affair 
changed the tenor of his life. He came to 



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mif':sioner for adjusting the ('on- 
troversy between the proprie- 
tors, of Pennsylvania and the 
Susquehanna Company. Judge 
Johnson was in Congress (1784 
to 1787), and was also a mem. 
bel' of the convention that 
framed the national Constitu- 
tion, in which he was the first 
to propose the organization of 
the Senate as a distinct branch 
of the national legislature. He 
was Cnited States Senator from 
178!) to 17!H, and, with his col- 
league, Oliver Ellsworth, drew 
up the bill for establishing the 
judiciary system of the Pnitpd 
States. He was president of 
Columbia College from 1787 to 
1800. He died in Stratford, 
Kov. 14, 181!). 
Johnson - Clarendon Con- 
vention, the treaty negotiated 
by Reverdy Johnson, while 
minister to England, dated Jan. 
14, 1869. This treaty proposed 
a mixed commission for thc 
consiùeration of all claims, 
including the Alabama claims. 
The treaty, which was the foun- 
dation of the subsequent successful one, 
was rejected by the United States Senate, 
as the provision made in it for national 
losses was not satisfactory. See JOHNSON, 
Johnston, ALBERT SIDNEY, military 
officer: born in "-ashington, ::\1ason co., 
Ky., Feb. 3, 1803; graduated at West 
l)oint in 1826; sened in the Black Hawk 
War, and resigned in 1834. lIe entered 
the Te
an army as a private in 1836 and 
\Vas soon made a brigadier-general, and 
in 1838 became commandcr-in-chief of the 
army and Secretary of 'Val'. He retired 
to pri,-ate life in Texas. He served in 
the war with Mexico, and became pay- 
mastf'r in the rnited States army in IS--W. 
Tn 18GO-61 he commanded the Pacific De- 
partment, and, sympathizing with the 
Confederates, was supersedf'd hy General 

nmnpr and entered the Confederate ser- 
vi('e, in command of the Division of the 
\Yest. At his death, in the hattle of 

hiloh. April 6, 1862, General Beauregard 
suc('eedf'd him. 
Johnston, ALEXA
DER, historian; 

. ,\ 




in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 2, 18--H); 
graduated at Rutgers College, studied law, 
and Iwcame a few years Inter Professor 
of Jurisprudence and Political Economy 
in Princeton University. His contribu- 
tions to Amcrican history were valuable. 
They incl ude a History of A_III rrican PoU- 
t ics, histories of Connecticut and the 
"United States, the political articles in 
Lalor's CYf'lopædia of Political Scicnce, 
and the political sketch under the article 
.. United States" in the Encyclopædia 
ßritannica. He died in Princeton, N. J., 
July 20, 1889. 
Johnston, JOSEPH EGGLESTON, mili- 
tary ofIlcer; born in Longwood.. Va., Fcb. 
3, 1809; graùuated at \Vest Point in 
182!), and entered the artillery. He 
seryed in the wars with the Florida Inù- 
ians, amI with :Mexico, in which lIP \Va:'! 
twice wounded. He hecame lieutenant- 
colonel of cavalry in 1855, and quartf'r- 
master-general, with the rank of brig-a- 
dier-general. in June. I8fìO. He joiupd 
the Confederates in the spring of ISfìl. 
born and was commissioned a major-general in 


severe struggle. The Confeùerates ral- 
Jieù, and, returning with all overwhelm- 
ing force, 1"etook the hill. Palmer, find- 
ing his adversaries gathering in force 
larger than his own, and learning that 
the object of his expedition had been ac- 
compHshed, in the calling back of Hardee 
by Johnston, fell back and took po:;t 
(March 10) at Ringgold. In thi8 short 
campaign the National:,; lost 330 killed 
and wounded; the Confederates about 
With the surrender of, the Ci\'il 
War was virtually ended. Although he 
was general-in-chief, .his capitulation in- 
cluded only the Army of Korthern Yir- 
ginia. That of Johnston, in North Caro- 
lina, and smaller bodies, were yet in the 
field. When Sherman, who confronted 
Johnston, heard of the victory at Five 
Forks and the evacuation 
of Petersburg and Rich- 
mond, he moved on J olm- 
ston (April 10, 18(5), with 
his whole army. The lat- 
ter was at Smithfield, on 
the Neuse River, with ful- 
ly 30,000 men. Jefferson 
Davis and the Confeder- 
ate cabinet were then at 
DanviUe, on the southern 
border of Virginia. and had 
just proposed to Johnston 
a plan whereby they might 
secure their own personal 
safety and the treaS11re<; 
they had brought with 
them from Richmond. It 
was to disperse his arm
excepting two or three bat- 
teries of artmery, the cav- 
alry, and as many infan- 
try as he could mount. 
with which he should form 
a guard for the "govern- 
ment," and strike for the 
Mississippi and beyond. 
with l\fpxico as their final 
objective. Johnston spurn- 
where Johnston was encamped. The Con- ed the proposition. and. deprecating the bad 
federates were constantly pushed back and example of Lee in continuing what he 
there was almost continual heavy skirmish- knew to be a llOpeless war, had the moral 
ing. In the centre of Rocky Face VaHey, courage to do his duty according to the 
on a rocky eminence, the Confederates dictates of his conscience and his nice 
made a stand, but were soon driven from sense of honor. He refused to fight 
the crest by General Turchin, after a any more, or to basely desert his 

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the Army of Yirginia. TIe was in com- 
mRnd at the battle of Hull Run. and 
fought gallantly on the Virginia penin- 
sula, until wouuded at the battle of Fair 
Oaks, or Seven Pines (1862), when he 
was succeeded by Lee. He afterwards 
opposed Grant and Sherman in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. He was in command dur- 
ing the Atlanta campaign in 1864 until 
.July, when he was superseded bJ' General 
\Vhen .Johnston heard of Sherman's raid, 
and perc('Ì\'ed that Polk could not resist 
him, he sent two divisions of Hardee's 
corps, under Generals Stewart and Ander- 
Ron, to assist Polk. Grant, in command 
at Chattanooga (February, 18(4), Bent 
General Palmer with a force to counter- 
act this movement. Palmer moved with 
his corps directly upon Dalton (Feb. 22), 








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army far away from their home, as 
the "government" proposed, and stated 
frankly to the people of North and 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, in- 
cluded within bis military department, 
that "war could not be longer contin- 
ued by them, except as robbers," and 
that he should take measures to stop 
it and save the army and people from 
further evil, and "avoid the crime of 
waging a hopeless war." Sherman was 
pushing Johnston with -great vigor, when 
the former received a note from the lat- 
tE-r (April 14, 1865), asking if a tem- 
porat.y suspension of 
active hostilities might be 
arranged to allow the 
"civil authorities to enter 
into the needful arrange- 
ments to terminate the 
existing war." Sherman 
promptly replied that he 
would do so, and was will- 
ing to hold a conference. 
He said that, as a basis 
of action, he would under- 
take to abide by the terms 
made by Grant and Lee at 
Appomattox Court-house. 
Sherman and Johnston 
met at Durham's Station, 
half-way between Raleigh 
and Hillsboro, at ten 
o'clock, April 17. John- 
ston said he regarded the 
Confederate cause as lost, 
and admitted that Grant's terms wpre Thatcher. After the war he engaged in 
magnanimous; but he insisted upon con- the fire insurance business; was a Demo- 
ditions involving political guarantees, cratic member of Congress in 1876-78; 
which Sherman had no authority to grant. and United States commissioner of rail- 
At a second conference the next day, roads in I 88;J-8D. He died in \Vashington, 
Sherman consented to a memorandum of D. C., !\Iarch 21, 1891. 
agreement as a basis for the considera- .Johnston, RICHARD l\fAU'OL
{, author; 
tion of the government, which, if carried born in Powelton, Ga., March 8, 1822; 
out, would have instantly restored to all graduated at .Mercer University, Geor- 
persons engaged in the rebellion every gia, in 1841, and a year later was 
right and privilege, social and political, admitted to the bar. In 18;J7-ûl he 
which they had enjoyed before the war, was Professor of Literature in the lTni- 
without any liability of punishment. It versity of Georgia. He was an officer in 
was adroitly drawn up by Breekinridge, the Confederate army throughout the 
and was signed by the respective com- Civil War. In 1867 he moved to BaIti- 
manding generals. The national govern- more, and engaged in authorship. His 
ment instantly rejected it, and General works include Georqia Sketches; Dukes- 
Grant was sent to Raleigh to declare that borough Tales; Ii istorical Sketch of 
rejection, which he did April 24, and English Literature (with \V. H. 
vroclaimed that the truce would end in Browne); Old .1lark Langston; Two Gray 


forty-eight hours. This notification was 
accompanied by a demand for the sur- 
render of Johnston's army, on the terms 
granted to Lee. The capitulation was 
agreed upon at the house of James Ben- 
nE-tt, near Durham's Station, April 26. 
A bout 25,000 troops were surrendered. 
The capitulation included all the troops 
in .Tohnston's military department. Gen- 
eral Taylor surrendered at Citronelle, 
Ala., to General Canby, on the same 
terms, and the Confederate navy on the 
Tombigbee River was surrendered by 
Commander Farrand to Rear - Admiral 







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1<'alls. The passengers and haggage of the 
j'(cl were put on shore and the \"('ssel was 
burned, because her captors could not 
manage her. Governor Marcy, of New 
York, declared .Johnston an outlaw, and 
ofi'ered a reward of $300 for his person. 
The governor of Canada (Earl of Dur- 
ham) offered $5,000 for the conviction of 
any person concerned in the "infamous 
outrage." Johnston, in a proclamation 
il"sued from" Fort \Yatson," declared him- 
self the leadpr of the band; that his com- 
panions were nearly all Englishmen; and 
that his headquarters were on an island 
within the jurisdiction of the United 
States. Fort Watson was a myth. It 
was wherever .Johnston was Reated among 
the Thousand Island"" where for a long 
time he was concealed, going from one 
island to another to avoid arrest. His 
daughter, a handsome maiden of eighteen 
rears, who was an exp('rt rower, went to 
his retreat at night with food. At length 
he was arrpsted, tried at Syracuse on a 
charge of violating the neutrality laws, 
and acquitted. Again arrested and put in 
jail, he managpd to escape, whf'n a rf'ward 
of $
OO was offered for him. He gave him- 
self up at Albany, was tried, convicted, 
Island, not far below Clayton, on the and sentenced to one year's imprisonment 
night of May 2\), 1838. They were armed in the jail there and to pay a fine of $250. 
with muskets and bayonets and painted His faithful daughter, who had acquired 
like Indians, and appeared with a shout, t.he title of " The Heroine of the Thousand 

Tourists,. !lIr. Absolom Billingslea, and 
Other Georg
'a Folk,. Ogeechee ("ross Fir- 
Ù:gs; nïdo-w Guthrie; The Primes and 
Their Neighbors; Rtudies: Litera)'y and 
Social; Old Times in j[ iddle Georgia; 
Pearse A_1)l('1"son's Trill, etc. He died in 
Baltimore, :Md., Sept. 23, 18\)8. 
Johnston, \VILLIA:U, revolutionist; born 
in Canada, in 1780; was an American spy 
on the Canada frontier during the "-ar 
of ISI
-15. He was living at Clayton, 
N. Y., on the bank of the St. Lawrence, 
when the" patriot" war in Canada broke 
out in 1837. Being a bold and adventur- 
ous man, and cordially hating the British, 
Johnston was easily persuaded by the 
American sympathizers in the movemcnt 
tt) join in the strife. The leaders regarded 
him a!'l a valuable assistant, for he was 
thoroughly aCCJuainted with the whole re- 
gion of the Thousand J slands, in the St. 
Lawrence, from Kingston to Ogdensburg. 
TIe was employed to capture the steam- 
boat Robert Perl, that carried passengprs 
and the mail between Prescott and To- 
ronto, and also to seize the Great Britain, 
another steamer, for the use of the "pa- 
triots." \Vith a desperate band, Johnston 
rushed on board of the Peel at \Yells's 

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Islands," hastened to Albany and shared 
t.he prison with her father. He procured 
a key that would unlock his prison-door. 
His daughter departed and waited for him 
at Rome. He left the jail, walked 40 
miles the first night, and soon joined her. 
They went home, and Johnston was not 
molested afterwards. The "patriots" 
urged him to engage in the struggle again. 
He had had enough of it. They sent him 
the commission of a commodore, dated at 
"\Vindsor, U. C., Sept. 5, 183\)," and 
signed "H. S. Hand, Commander-in-Chief 
of the Northwestern Army, on Patriot 
Service in Upper Canada." On that com- 
mission was the device seen in the engrav- 
<\merican eagle carrying off the 
Bl"itish lion. The maple-leaf is an emblem 
of Canada. He refus('d to serve, and re- 
mained quietly at home. President Pierce 
appointed him light-house keeper on Rock 
Island, in the St. Lawrence, in sight of 
the place where the Peel was burnerl. 
, educator; 
born in Louisville, Ky., Jan. 5, 1831; son 
of Gcn. Albert Sidney Johnston. He grad- 
uated at Yale University in lR52, and 
at the Louisyille Law Rchool in the fol- 
lowing year, and began practice in Louis- 
ville. \\'hen the Ciyj} "Var broke out, he 
eT.terf'd the Confederate army as major of 
the 1st Kentucky Regiment. In 1862 he 
was appointed hy Presidpnt Dayis his 
aide-de-f'amp with the rank of colonel. 
\Yhpn Lee o;:urrendered Colonel .Johnston 
rc-mained with the President, and was 
captured with him. After his relcase he 
lh'ed a year in Canada and then resumed 
law practice in Louisyille. In 1867, when 
General Lee was made presidpnt of \Vash- 
illgton and Lce Pniwrsity, Colonel John- 
Rton was appointed Professor of English 
History and Litprature therp, where he 
ed till 18ï7. During 1880-83 he 
was president of the Louisiana State Cni- 
VHsity and the Agricultural and -:\rpchani- 
(>al Collegp at Raton Rouge. Tn 1883, when 
Tulane Pniversity, in New Orleans, was 
fonnrled, he was elected its president. amI 
served as such till his death, in I_exing- 
ton, Va., July 16, 1899. His publication!'! 
in<'lude Life of Albert Sidnf'Y J ohnston
The Prototype of Hamlet,. The .10hnstolls 
of Ftalisbury,. also the poems, illy Garden 
lV a IT.;.. Pictures of the Pa triarchs ,. and 
Sf'('kers A-fter God. 

Johnstone, GEORGE, diplomatist; born 
ill Dumfries, Scotland; entered the British 
navy j became post-captain 17G2, and gov- 
ernor of \Yest Florida in 1763 j and was 
one of the commissioners sent to the Unit- 
ed States to treat with Congress in 1778. 
He had been an advocate of the Americans 
ill the House of Commons, and brought 
l<.'tters of introduction to Robert :
Joseph Reed, and other leading patriots. 
Finding the commissioners could do noth- 
ing, oflicia11 y, with Congress, Johnstone 
attempted to gain by bribery what could 
not be acquired by diplomacy. To :Morris 
and others he wrote letters, urging the ex- 
pediency of making arrangements with the 
government, and sugw'sting, in some of his 
letters, that those pcrsons who should be 
instrumental in bringing it about would 
not fail of high honors and rewards from 
the government. An American lady in 
Philadelphia, whose husband was in the 
British service, and who was a relative of 
:I!'erguson, the Recretary of the commission, 
,"as induced by .Johnstonc to approach 
Joseph Reed with a proposition. 1\1rs. Fer- 
guson was a daughter of Dr. Græme, of 
Pennsylvania. a hright woman. in whose 
prudence and patriotism the Whigs had 
such confidpnce that the interchange of 
visits among them and the Tories never 
led to a suspicion that she would betray 
the cause of her country. .Johnstone made 
her believe he was a warm friend of the 

<\mericans, and he entreated her to go to 
General Reed and Ray to him that if he 
could, conscientiously, e'\:ert his influence 
ill bringing about a reconciliation, he 
might command $50;000 and the highest 
post in the government. "That," said 
Mrs. Ferguson, "General Repd would con- 

ider the offer of a hribe." Johnstone dis- 
claimpd any such intention, and 1\1rs. Fer- 
gueon carried the message to Reed as soon 
aR the British left Philadelphia. Reed in- 
dignantly replied, "I am not worth pur- 
chasing, but, such as I am, the King of Eng- 
land is not rich enough to do it." These 
fact!'! being made known to Congress, reso- 
lution!'! were passed, Aug. II, 1778, accus- 
ing the commisc;ioner of an attempt at 
bribery and corruption, and declining to 
hold any further communication with him. 
He died .Jan. 8, 178ï. 
Johnstown Flood. See INUNDATIONS. 
John the Painter. While SILAS 



DEANE (q. v.), commissioner of the Conti- wanted a top to it, and had one made by 
nental Congress, was in Paris (1777), a a tinman. The same evening the naval 
stranger, advanced in years, called upon storehouses were fired by this "infernal 
him one day, and requested a strictly pri- machine," and $500,000 wo
th of property 
vate interview. It was granted, when the was destroyed. Strict search was made 
stranger told Deane that he was a native for the incendiary in the morning at every 
of Scotland, but was an American citizen, house in the town. The old woman told 
and had lived at Amboy, N. J., where he them of John the Painter and his mys- 
had a comfortable house. The British terious tin box. The tinman reported 
troops stationed there, suspecting him of making a top for it. John was fixed upon 
bring a 'Vhig, had greatly abused him, as the incendiary. Not doubting he had 
and finally burned his house to ashes. been sent by the enemy for the purpose, 
He told Deane he had resolved on revenge; and that relays of horses had been fur- 
that he had determined to kill King nished for his escape, horsemen were sent 
George, and had come to Europe for the out on every road, with orders to pur- 
purpose. He had been to England, had sue any person they should find riding 
laid his plans, and was ready to execute very fast. John, meanwhile, was trudg- 
them. He thought it right to acquaint ing on foot towards London. :Men came 
Deane, the United States minister, with up to him and asked him if he had seen 
his scheme. He said he passed by the finy person riding post-haste. "'Vhy do 
name of "John the Painter." Mr. D
ane you inquire?" asked John. He was prop- 
opposed the assassination of the King as erly answe!ed. when John told the pur- 
cowardly and unjust. He was innocent suers they "...ere mistaken, for he-" .Tohn 
of '\Tong' in the matter. If he must have the Painter "-was the incendiary. and 
revenge, he should take it in a manly, gave them his reasons for the act. They 
generous way; he should go into the took him hack to Portsmouth, where he 
American army, and meet his enemy as a was recognized by the old woman and the 
soldier, and not as a vulgar assassin; tinman. Hp C'Rmlidlv told thpm that hp 
and if he could so meet King George, at should certainly hav
 killf'd the King hnl1 
the head of his army, he could kill him not :Mr. Deane dissuadf'd him. and that 
with propriety. It would be lawful to h(' was revenged. and was ready to dip. 
so kill his generals. The man was finally He was tried, condemned. nnd hung. A 
pprsuaded by Deane to abandon his regi- f:iJsp and unfair nccount of his trial was 
cidal plan, and left. He SOOn returned, Tll1bJished, and no mention was made of 
t.hanked Deane for persuading him not to ::\Tr. Deane's having saved the life of the 
lay violent hands on "the Lord's King. 'fhe Gentlcmfln's Ma.rlGzil1C for 
Anointed," and said h
 was determined to 1777 contains the English acC'Ount of the 
seek revenge by burning the naval stores affair, with a portrait. The above iR 
at Portsmouth, England. Deane said that compilpd from manuscript notes maò(' 
would tend to weaken the enemy in carry- from the lips of Deane by Elias Boudi- 
ing on the war, and was legitimate husi- not. 
ness. He was astonished at the wisdom J'oint High Commission. TIl<' g'ov- 
of the mnn's plans. He warned him. hmv- ernment of the Pnited Stah's, in hphalf 
e,-er, that if he should be caught his life of its citizens, C'laimed from Great Britain 
would pay the penalty of his crime. "I damages inflicted on the American ship- 
am an oM man," was the reply, "and it ping interests hy th
 depredations of 
matters little whether I die now or five the ALABA::\fA (q. v.) and other Anglo- 
years hence." He borrowed a guinea from Confederate cruisers. To effect a peace- 
Deane. and crossed the channel. ful solution of the difficultv, REVERDY 
At Portsmouth he took lodgings at the JOHNSON (q. v.). of Maryland, was scnt 
house of a very poor woman on the out- to England, in 1868, to negotiate a treaty 
skirts of the town. 'Vhile he was ab- for that purpo!'le. His mission was not 
sent, she had the curiosity to examine a satisfactory. The treaty which he ne::ro- 
hundle which he had brought with him. tiated was almost universaIIy condemneJ 
] t contained some clothing and a tin box, br his countrymen, and was rejected hy 
with some sort of a machine inside. John the Senate. His successor, JOHN La- 


THROP )IOTLEY (q. v.), appointed minister federate cruiser!'!; (6) claims of British 
at the British Court, was charged with subjects against the United States for 
the same mission, but failed in that par- losses and injuries arismg out of acts 
ticular, and was recalled in 1810. The committed during the Civil War. A 
matter was finally settled by arbitration. treaty was agreed to, and was signed 
Much correspondence succeeded the efforts May 8, 1871, which provided for the 
to settle by treaty. Finally, in January, settlement, by arbitration, by a mixed 
II'HI, the British minister at \Yashing- commission, of all claims on both !'!ides 
ton, Sir Edward Thornton, in a letter to for injuries by either government to the 
Secretary Fish, proposed, under instruC'- citizens of the other, during the Civil 
tions from his government, a Joint High \Yar, and for the permanent settlement of 
Commission, to be appointed by the two all questions in dispute between the two 
governments, respectively, to settle dis- nations (see \VASHINGTON, TREATY OF). 
}lutes of every kind between the United Arbitrators were appointed, who, at 
Htates and Great Britain, and so estab- Geneva, Switzerland, formed what was 
]ish a permanent friendship between the known as the Tribunal of Arbitration, 
two nations. Mr. Fish proposed that the and reached a decision in which both par- 
commission should embrace in its in- ties acquiesced. See ARBITRATION, TRI- 
quiries the matter of the "Ahtbama In'NAL OF. 
Claims," so that nothing should remain Joliet, LOUIS, discoverer; born in Que- 
to disturb amicable relations. The sug- bee, Canada, Sept. 21, 1645; was edu- 
gcstion was approved, and each govern- cated at the Jesuit college in his native 
ment appointed commissioners. The city, and afterwards engaged in the fur- 
President appointed, for the Cnited trade in the Western wilderness. In lü7;
States, Hamilton Fish, Secretary of Intendant Talon, at Quebec, with the 
State; Samuel Nelson, associate-justice sanction of Governor Frontenac, selected 
of the United States Supreme Court; Joliet to find and ascertain the direc- 
Robert C. Schenck, minister to England: tion of the course of the Mississippi and 
Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, late United its mouth. Starting from l\Iackinaw, in 
States Attorney-General; and George H. May, IG73, with Father Marquette and 
\yill iams, Lnited States Senator from five other Frenchmen, they reached the 
Oregon. Queen Victoria appointed :Mississippi June 17. They studied the 
George Frederick Samuel, Earl de Gray country on their route, made maps, and 
anI.! Earl of Ripon: Sir Stratford Henry gained much information. After inter- 
Korthcote; Sir Edward Thornton, her course with Indians on the lower Missis- 
minister at 'Vashington; Rir Alexander sippi, near the mouth of the Arkansas. 

rcDonald, of the privy council of Can- who had trafficked with Europeans, they 
ada, and attorney - general of that prov- were satisfied tbat the 
ince; and Montague Bernard, Profess- emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, and 
01" of International Law in Oxford Uni- madp their way back to Green Bay, where 
versity. The commissioners first met in Joliet started alone for Quebec to repm t 
\Vashington, Feb. 27, 1871. Lord Tenter- to his superiors. His canoe was upset 
dpn, secrehlry of the British commission, in Lachine Rapids, above Montreal, and 
and J. C. Bancroft Davis, assistant Secre- his journals and charts were lost, but 
tary of State of the United States, were he wrote out his narrative from memory, 
chosen clerks of the Joint High Commis- which agreed, in essentials, with that of 
sion. The commissioners of the United Marquette. Joliet afterwards went on an 
States were instructed to consider: (I) expedition to Hudson Bay, in the service 
the fisheries; (2) the navigation of the of his King, and was rewarded by hi.;; 
St. Lawrence River; (3) reciprocal trade sovereign with the appointment of hydrog- 
between the United States and the Do- rapher to his Majesty, and was favored 
minion of Canada; (4) the Northwest with the seigniory of the island of Anti- 
water boundary and the island of San costi in 1680. La Salle's pretensions de- 
Juan; (5) the claims of the Cnited nied him the privilege of making explo- 
States against Great Britain for com- rations in the West. He died in Canada 
pensation for injuries committed by Con- in May, 1700. 


Jonathan, BU()TTlER, the nalllf' popular- 
ly applied to the C'nited State
, m\ .JOIIN 
BULl. is to Great Britain; originated 
in \Yashington's humorous allusion to 
.JONATHAN TRu}!BULL (q. v.), governor of 
Connecticut, the only colonial gon>rnor 
who favored independence. 
Joncaire, or Jl)nquière, JACQUES 
naval officer; born in La .Jonquil"-re, 
France, in lúSG; entered the navy in 
IG!)8, and in 1703 was adjutant in the 
French army. He was a brave and skil- 
ful officer, and was in many buttles. He 
became captain in the navy in 173G, and 
accompanied Ð'AnviUe in his expedition 
against Louisburg in 1745. In 1747 he 
was appointed governor of Canada. hut. 
being captured by the British, he did not 
arrive until 174a. He died in Quebec, 
May 17, 175:!.. 
.Jones, CHARLES COLCOCK, clergyman; 
born in Liberty county, Ga., Dec. 20, 1804; 
receind his theological training at An- 
dover and Princeton Theologiml Semi- 
naries; was ordained in the Presùyterian 
Church, and ùecame active in the work 
of edueating the negro raee. His publi- 
cations inelude Religious Instruction for 
]I; cgroes in the Southern States,. Sugges- 
tions on the Instrurtion of Xegroes in 
the South: and a History} of the Ohurch and entered the navy as a midshipman in 
of God. He died in l..ibf'rty county, Ga., I ïÐ9. He was an officer of the Philfl- 
:March Hì. ISG:J. de1phia when she was captured at Trip- 
Jones, CUAm.Es COLCOCK, lawyer; born olio In 1810 he was made commander, 
in Savannah, Ga., Oct. 28, 1831: grad- and when the \Var of IS12-15 broke out 
nated at Princeton in 18.3:!.; admitted to he was in charge of the sloop-of-war 
the bar of neorg-ia in lR;;G; during th
 1J 7 asp, in whi(.h he gained a victory. lIe 
Civil \Var he served as colonel of artillery. commanded the Maccdonian, in Demtur's 
Among his historical works are Jlonumcn- squadron, as post-captain. After the war 
tal Remains of Gcorgia,,. Historical Sketch h(' commanded the ::\Ipditerranean squad- 
of the (,lwtTwm A_rtillcry,. Life of Gcn. ron; was a commissioner of the navy 
J[ cn'ry TJcr,. Commodore Josiah Tatnoll,. board; and governor of the naval asylum 
,!can Pir1-re Purry,. Richard Henry n'ildr: at P1Iiladf'lphia. Congress voted him 
Riege of Sm-annah in 177Ð,. De Soto and thanks and a gold medal and several 
Hi8 MaI"ch throu.fJh Gcorgia, etc. States prf'sented him with swords. He 
J'ones, HOHATlO GATES. lawypr; born died in Philadelphia. Aug. 3. 18.")0. 
in Philadelphia. Pa., Jan. !). lR22; gradu- .Jones, JAMES ATTH:ARN, author; horn 
atf'd at the Uninrsity of P('JJnsylvauia in in Tisbury. Mass., June 4. 17ÐO; receÌ\'pd 
1841; wad admitted to thp 1mr in ] S-H; a common - school education, and engaged 
became connpctpd with many historical in journalism in Philadelphia in 1826; 
societi('s. llls publications includp History later was editor in Baltimmf'. 
fd., and 
of Roxboroll.'lh and Jlanayu 11 1. : Report of in TIuffalo, N. Y. His publications in- 
the Oommittee of the Historical SOf'icty elude Traditiol1.<i of the " A_merican 
of Prnnsylrania on the Bradf01'd Bicen- Tnr1irl11s, or Tales of an Indian ('amp; 
tenary,. Andrew Bradford, Foundcr of t!lr T ritcr to an English Gentleman on Eng- 

),'c",spo/J('r ['rcss ill the Middle Stfltrs of 
..llt/crica, etc. 
.Jones, J Acon. na ,'al officer; born near 
Smyrna, Del.. in ::\larch,' 1768; gradu- 
ated at the Lni,'ersity of Penns.rlvania, 



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JACOB JO:S)';8. 



lish Libels of America; and Haverhill, 
or Memoirs of an Officer in the Army of 
Wolfe. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 
August, 18:;3. 
Jones, JOHN )IATIIER, journalist; born 
in Bangor, North "
ales. June !), 1826; 
came to the Cnited States in 1S4!); was 
the founder of the 'Yelsh town of 
Cambria, Mo., and also of Avonia. in Kan- 
::;a5. In 18fi5-74 he was the owner and 
publisher of The Jlin'or, the first Welsh 
newspaper established in the United 
Statf's. He was the author of a History 
of the Rebellion (in Welsh). He died 
in rtica, N. Y., Dec. 21, 1874. 
Jones, JOIIX PArL, naval oflicer: horn 
in Kirhhean, Scotland, July n, li-H. Hf'- 
forf> lie was eÌQ'hteen vears old he COIll- 
manded a ve><sf'l that traded with Ow 
"'est Illdif's. .Jones eame to \ïrgillia in 
1773, inheriting the ('state of 11is hrother, 
who died there. Offering his sen-ices 
to Congress, he was made first lieutenant 
in the navy in December, 177:;, when, 
out of gratitude to General .Tone!'!, of 
North Carolina, he assumed his name. 
Before that he was John Paul. He was 
a hold and skilful sea - rover, gathering 
up many prizes. Made captain in the 
fall of 1776, he raised the first flag ever 
displayed on a Cnite<1 Statcs ship-of-war 
the A If1-rd. He destroyed the Port Royal 
. S.) fisheries, capturing all the vessels 
rmd freight. In the snmmer of 1777 he Jones anchored his vessel. the Ran- 
sailed in thf> Ranger to Europe, and in ger, in the Solway at noon, and with 
Fehruary, 177R, received from a French a few men, in a Ringle boat, he went to a 

commander the first salute ever given to 
t.he Americi1Jl flag by a foreign man-oÎ-war. 
In April he scaled the walls of White- 
hawn, in England, on the borders of the 
Irish Sea, and 8piked thirty-eight can- 

In 177!), while cruising up and down 
the easC coast of Scotland, between the 
Sol way and the Clyde, he tried to capture 
the Earl of Selkirk, in ordf'r to secure a 
notable pl"Ïsoner for exchange. He had 
heen an early friend of Jones's father. 
His .,eat was at the mouth of the Dee. 

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wooded promontory on which the earl's tember, while Jones's squadron lay a few 
tine estate lay, where he learned that his leagues north of the mouth of the Hum- 
lordship was not at home. Disappointed, bel', he discovered the Baltic fleet of forty 
he ordered his men back to the boat, when merchantmen (convoyed by the Serapis, 
his lieutenant, a large and fiery man, pro- a 44 - gun ship, and the Countess of 
posed to go to the mansion and plunder Scarborough, of twenty - two guns), 
it of the family plate. Jones would not stretching out from Flamborough Head. 
listen to the proposition, for the memory Jones signalled for a chase, and all but 
of old associations made his heart tender the Alliance, Captain Landais, obeyed. 
towards Lady Selkirk, who had been very \Vhile the opposing war-ships were ma- 
kind to him. Again he ordered his men næuvring for advantage, night fell upon 
back, but they and the lieutenant, eager the scene. At seven o'clock in the even- 
for prize-money, in defiance of his ex- ing of Sept. 23, 177D, one of the most des- 
postulations, went to the house and de- perate of recorded sea-fights began. The 
manded the plate. The frightened Lady Bon Homme Richard and FJerapis, Captain 
Selkirk surrendered it with her own Pearson, came so cloae to each other that 
hands. \Vhen the prizes of the Ranger 'cheir spars and rigging became entangled, 


were sold Jones bought this plate, and and Jones attempted to board his antago- 
sent it back to Lady Selkirk with a letter nist. A short contest with pike, pistol, 
in which he exprpssed his regret because and cutlass ensued, and Jones was re- 
of the anno;yance she had suffered. pulsed. The vessels separated, and were 
During the spring and summer of I77D, SOOn placed broadside to broadside, so 
American cruisers were very active, both close that the muzzles of their guns 
in American and European waters. At touched each other. Both vessels were 
the middle of August Jones was sent out dreadfully shattered: and, at one time, 
from the French port of L'Orient, with the Srrapis was on fire in a dozen places. 
five vessels, to the coast of Scotland. His .T ust as the moon rose, at half-past nine 
flag-ship was the Bon Homme Richard. As o'clock, the Richard, too, caught fire. A 
he was about to strike some armed Brit- terrific hand - to - hand fight now ensued. 
ish vessels in the harbor of Leith a storm Jones's ship, terribly damaged, ('ould not 
arose, which drove him into the North float much longer. The flames were 
Sea. When it ceased, he cruised along creeping up the rigging of the Sera pis, 
the Scottish coast, capturing many prizes and by their light Jones saw that his 
and producing great alarm. Late in Sep- double-headed shot had cut the mainmast 



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of the Serapis almost in two. He hurled to Jones he said, in a surly tone, "It is 
another, and the tall mast fell. Pearson painful to deIiyer up my sword to a man 
f;aw his great peril, hauled down his flag, who has fought with a rope around his 
and surrendered. As he handed his sword neck!" (Jones had been declared a 

made vice - admiral and knighted. He 
resigned from the Russian service, 
and was appointed consul of the United 
States at Algiers in 17
2, but he died 
before the commission reached him. 
He died in Paris, July 18, 17Ð2. His 
body was brought back to the United 
States by a squadron of war - ships in 
June, 1905. 
JonQs, JOliN PERCIVAL, "Lnited States 
Senator; born in HaYJ Wales, in 1830; 
came to the United States while a child; 
lemon'd to California in 1849; served 
several terms in the State legislature. 
1\11'. Jones removed to Nevada in 1867, 
and was elected to the rnited States 
Senate for the term beginning March 4, 
1873, and several times re-elected. Origi- 
nally a Republican, he was one of the 
founders of the "Silver" Republican 
party, which acted with the Democratic 
party in the campaigns of IS!)6 and I!JOO. 
Jones, JOliN \VINSTON; born in 
Chesterfield, Va., Nov. 22, 1791; grad- 
uated at William and Mary College in 
1803; elected to Congress in 1835; served 
until March, 1845; during his last term 
he was speaker of the House. He died 
Jan. 29, 1848. 
Jones, JOSEPII, jurist; born in Yir- 
ginia in 1727; elected a member of the 
House of Burge:,;ses; to the Continental 
Congress in 1778; also to the convention 
of 1778; in 1778 he was appointed judge 
of the general court of Virginia; resigned 
in 1779, but accf'pted a reappointment 
1he same ;\'ear. He died at his home in 
Virginia, Oct. 28, 1805. 
Jones, LEONAUD AUGUSTUS, author; 
horn in Templeton, Mass., Jan. 13, 1832; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1855, and 
at its I,aw School in 1858; began practice 
in Boston. His publications include A 
Trmtise on the Law of Mortgages of 
Rcal P1'opcrty; A_ Trmtise on the Law 
 --= _--=- _-"
6<J1fC.""'" of Railroads and Other Corporatel::Jecuri- 
JOSES RAISI'G TnE FIRST FLAG KVER DISPLAYED ON A ties; Pl('dges, including Collateral Seetlri- 
USn'El> STATES SHIP-OF-WAR. tips; A_n Index to Legal PC1"iodical Liter- 
ature, etc. 
the America, which ship was soon pre- Jones, MARCUS EUGENE, scientist; born 
sented to France. The King of France in .Jefferson, 0., April 25, 1852; grad- 
made Jones a knight of the Order of uated at Iowa College, in 1875; instructor 
Merit, and presented him with a gold there in 1876-77; Professor of Natural 
sword. Jones entered the service of Rml- Science in Colorado College in 1879-80; 
f:ia as rear-admiral in 1787, and, in conse- the same in Salt Lake City in 1880-81. 
quence of a vidory over the Turks, was He was appointed a special expert in the 

pirate by the British government.) The 
battle ceased, after raging three hours. 
The vessels were disengaged, and the Rich- 
urd soon went to the bottom of the North 
Sea. For this victory Congress gave 
Jones the thanks of the nation, a gold 
medal and a commission as commander of 



United States Treasury Department in 
1889, and was geologist for the Rio 
Grande Valley Railroad in 1890-!)3. Sub- 
sequently he established himself as an 
expert in botany, geology, and mining. 
He is author of Excursion Botanique j Salt 
Lake City j Ferns of the 1rest j Some 
Phases of Mining in Utah j Botany of the 
G I"eat Plateau j and Geology of Utah. 
Jones, SAMTEL PORTER, clergyman; 

horn in Chambers county, Ala., Oct. IG, 
1847; was admitted to the Georgia bar in 
18tH); but after beginning practice under 
bright prospects his health failed; and in 
1872 he was ordained to the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
:1<'01' eight years he served in various pas- 
torates in the North Georgia Conference, 
and for twelye years was agent of the 
:North Georgia Orphanage. Popularly 

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known as "Sam Jones," he has engaged ATLANTA (q. v.), on the night of Aug. 25. 
extensiwly in evangelistic work and in 1864. General Slocum, with the 20th 
lecturing, in all parts of the United COlopS, proceeded to the protection of the 
States. His publications include Sermons sick, wounded, and stores near the Chatta- 
and Sayings by Sam Joncsj Music Hall hoochee, and Howard and the rest of the 
Hermons J ' Quit Your Meannessj St. Loui8 army moved for the "
est Point Railway. 
Series j Sam Jones's 01Æ'n Book j and General Stanley's corps was on the ex- 
Thunderbolts. heme left, and the al'mies of Howard, 
Jones, THOMAS, lawyer; born in Fort Thomas, and Schofield pressed forward so 

eck, L. I., April 30, 1731; graduated sccretly that Hood was not informed of 
at Yale in 1750; admitted to the bar of the movement until the Nationals were de- 
New York in 1755, and practised in New stroying that road. This was done, Aug. 
York; was recorder of New York City 28, for 12 miles, and the next day they 
in 1769-73, when he was appointed judge struck the Macon road. I'3chofield reached 
of the Supreme Court. He was arrested the road at Rough-and-Ready Station, 10 
a number of times as a loyalist, and was miles from Atlanta. Thomas struck it at 
('xchanged for General Silliman in 1780; Couch's; and Howard, cro
sing the Flint 
went to England in 1781; was included River half a mile from Jonesboro, ap- 
in the New York State act of attainder proached it at that point. There he was 
in li82. His estate on Long Island, met by one-half of Hood's army, under 
Tryon Hall, descended to his daughter, Hardee. \Vith the remainder Hood wa<\ 
who had married Richard Floyd, upon holding the defences of Atlanta. but he 
("ondition t113.t the name Jones be added was too weak to attempt to strike Scho- 
to that of Floyd. The estate is still in the field. There was a Sf'vere fight at the 
Floyd-Jones family. Judge Jones wrote passage of the Flint River, on the morn- 
n Eli
dor!l of New Y01'k During the Rcvolu- ing of Aug. 31, between the forces of How- 
fiona-ry 1Yor, a valuable contribution to ard and Hardee. Howard's army was di
llistorv, aR it is the only one from the posf'd with mail"" corps in the centre, and 
view-point of a loyalist ,
'ho participated rudc breastworks Wf're cast np. The con- 
in the event<\ of that tinH'. He died in test was T<'newed \,('ry soon, when Hardf'c 
England, .Tuly 25, 1792. attemptcd to crush Howard he fore he 
Jones, THOMAS Ap CATESBY, naval of- could rf'ccÏ\'f' reinforcenwnts. He failf'd. 
ficer; born in Virginia, in 17H!); entered The Nationals thus attacked were veterans. 
the navy in 1805. From 1808 to 1812 he For two hours there was a desperate strife 
nas engagf'd in the Gulf of l\Iexico in the for victory, which was won hy Howard. 
suppression of piracy, smuggling, and the Hardee recoiled, and in his hasty retreat 
slave-trade. He fought the British flotilla left 400 of his dead on the field and 300 
on Lake Borgne late in 1814, when he was of his badly wounded at .Toneshoro. His 
wounded and made captive. He command- loss was estimated at 2.500 men. How- 
cd the Pacific squadron in 1842. He died ard's loss was about 500. Meanwhile 
in Georgetown, D. C.. May 30, 1858. Sherman had sent relief to Howard. Kil- 
Jones, \VILLIAM; born in Philadelphia, patrick and Garrard were very active, and 
Pa., in 1760; served throughout the Revolu- General Davis's corps soon touched How- 
tionary War, at first in the army and later ard's left. At four o'clock in the after- 
in the navy; elected to Congress in 1801; noon Davis charged and carried the Con- 
appointed Secretary of the Navy in 1813. ff'derate works covering .Tonesboro on the 
He died in Bethlehem, Pa., Sept. 5, 1831. north, and captured General Govan and a 
Jones, \YILLIAM ALFRED; born in New greater part of his brigade. In the morn- 
York City, June 26, 1817; g-raduated at ing Hardee had fled, pursued by the Na- 
Columbia College in 1836; appointed Ii- tionals to J
hrarian of Columbia CoHege in 1851. He Jordan, DAVID STARR, educator; born 
is the author of The Library of Oolumbia in Gainesville, N. Y., Jan. 19. 1851; 
Oollege j The First Oentury of Oolumbia graduated at Cornell University in 1872; 
Oollege, etc. and at the Indiana Medical College in 
.Tonesboro, BATTLE AT. Sherman began 1875. He was Professor of Biology in But- 
his flanking when he raised the siege of leI' University, Indiana, in 1875-79; held 


the same chair in Indiana University in 
1879-85; and was president there in 1885- 
91. In the latter year he was elected presi- 
dent of the Leland Stanford, Jr., Uni- 
versity. Since 1877 he has held several 
appointments under the United States 
government in connection with the fisheries 
and the fur-seal industry. He is author of 
A Manual of TTertebrate Animals of North- 
ern United States; Science Sketches; Fish- 
eries of North and Middle America; Fac- 
tors of Organic Evolution
' A/atka and 
Kotik; Care and Culture of Men; The In- 
numerable Company
' and many papers on 
Jordan, JOHN \VOOLF, antiquarian; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 14, 1840; 
graduated at Nazareth Hall in 1856; be- 
came editor of the Pennsylrania Magazine 
of History and Biography. He is the au- 
thor of Friedensthal and Its Stockaded 
JIill; A Moravian Chronicle, 17 4-9-6"1 ; 
Bethlehem During the Revolution; The 
Military Hospitals at Bethlehem and Li- 
titz During the Revolution; Occupation of 
Xev-, York by the British, 117'5-83, etc. 
Jordan, THmIAs, military officer; born 
in Luray, Va., Sept. 30, 1819; graduated 
at 'Vest Point in 1840; took part in the 
Seminole \Var, and in the war with 
Mexico; be entered the Confederate army 
in 1861 as lieutenant - colonel, but was 
made adjutant - general; served on the 
staff of General Beauregard, and on that 
of General Bragg. In 1869 he joined the 
CUQan insurgents, but resigned the next 
year and returned to the United States. 
Josselyn, .JoHN, author; born in Eng- 
land ('arly in the seventeenth century; 
travelled in America in lG38-3g and 1663- 
71. He is the author of New England's 
Rarities Discovered; An Account of Two 
Voyages to NC'lv England, etc. 
Jouett, .JA1IES EDWARD, naval officer; 
born in Lexington, Ky., Feb. 27, 1828. He 
entered the navy as midshipman in 1841; 
fought in the war with Mexico. and 
graduated at the United States Naval 
Academy in 1847. He went with the ex- 
pedition to Pa,raguay and served in the 
Bf'rriby war. Later he was promoted 
rassed midshipman and in 1855 became 
master and lieutenant. In 1861 he de- 
stroyed the Confederate war vessel Royal 
racht, in Galveston Harbor, while in 
command of the frigate Santee. For this 

exploit he was given command of the 
Montgomery. On July 16, 1862, he was 
promoted to lieutenant-commander. In 
U;64 when the entrance to :Mobile Bay was 
forced he took a conspicuous part. In 
18ß6 he was promoted commander; in 
1874, captain; in 1883, commodore; in 
1886, rear-admiral; and in 1890 was re- 
tired. He had charge of the operations on 
the Isthmus of Panama in 1885 and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a free transit across 
the isthmus and in restoring peace between 
the rebels and the gOVf'rnment of Colom- 
bia, for which he was thanked by the Pres- 
ident of that country. Congress voted him 
full pay for life. 
Journal of Congress, the official name 
of the authorized record of the proceed- 
ings of the Congress of the United States; 
has regularly been kept and published 
from the first meeting of the Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, September, 1774. 
Joutel, HENRY, explorer; born in Rouen, 
France, in the seventeenth century; took 
part in La Salle's expedition; built Fort 
St. Louis
 and was made its commander; 
f'scaped assassination at the time La Salle 
was killed; and later returned to France 
by way of the Great Lakes and the St. 
I.awrence River. He wrote a History of 
the La Salle Expedition, which was pub- 
lished in Paris in 1713. 
Juarez, BENITO PABLO, statesman; born 
in San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, Mexico, 
March 21. 1806; was descended from the 
ancient Indian race. Well educated, he 
gained distinction as a lawyer. He was a 
legislator, and was governor of his na- 
tive state from 1848 to 1852. Banished 
hy Santa Ana in 1853, he lived in New 
Orleans until 1855, when he returned, and 
b"came minister of justice. Experiencing 
the vicissitudes of public life in that 
<,otmtry, he was elected President of 
l\1exico in June, 1861. Then came the 
French usurpation and the short-lived 
empire of ::\rAXIMILIA
 (q. v.). He de- 
feat<,d the imperial forces in 1867 and 
caused the Emperor to be shot. In Oc- 
toher Juarez was re-f'lected President. aml 
for five veal'S Mexico was distracted bv 
s. Peace was restored in 1872. 
but Juarez, then Pre!"ident. worn dow!l 
with perplexities, died of apoplexy in the 
city of Mexico, July 18 of that year. 
Judaism. See JEWS. 


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Judd, ALBERT FRANCIS, jurist; born in 
the Hawaiian Islands, Jan. 7, 1838; grad- 
uated at Yale University in 18G2; elect- 
ed to the Hawaiian legislature in 18G8; 
appointed attorney - general of the Ha.- 
waiian Islands in 1873; a justice of the 
Supreme Court of the islands in 1874; 
chief-justice in 1881. He died in Hono- 
Iay 20, 1000. 
Judd, DAVID WRIGHT, journalist; born 
in Lod.port, N. Y.. Sept. 1, 1838; gradu- 
atpil at Williams Collt'ge in 18GO; later 
hecame proprietor and editor of Hearth 
and HOme. He served in the National 
army during a part of the Civil War. 



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He published Tu;o Y ('a,rs' 
Campaigning in. Virginia and 
Mm'yland, and edited The 
IJife and Writings of [,'rank 
Porester, and 'l'he Education- 
(11 Cyclopcrdia. He dipd in 
New York City, Feb. 6, 1888. 
Judd, SYLVESTER, author; 
born in Westhampton, Mass., April 23, 
1789; was a member of the State legislat- 
ure in 1817, and owner of the Hampshire 
Oazette in 1822-34. He is the author of 
History of Hadley, and Thomas Judd and 
[Jis Descendants. He died in Korthamp- 
ton, Mass., April 18, 18GO. 
Judiciary, FIRST NATIONAL. While 
the House of Representatives of the first 
Congress was employed (1789) in provid- 
ing means for a sufficient revenue, the Sen- 



ate was busy in organizing a judiciary. A 
bill drafted by Oliver Ellsworth, of Con- 
necticut, which embodied a plan of a judi- 
ciar,y, was, after several am
ed by both Houses and became a law. 
It provided for a Supreme Court, having 
one chief - justice and five associate jus- 
tices, who were to hold two sessions annu- 
ally at the seat of the national capital. 
Circuit and district courts were also es- 
tablished, which had jurisdiction over 
certain speeified cases. Each State was 
made a district. as were also the Terri- 
tories of Kentucky and Maine. The dis- 
tricts, eÀcepting Kentucky and Maine, 
were grouped together into three circuits. 
An appeal from these lower courts to the 
Supreme Court of the L'nited States was 
allowed, as to points of law, 
1 in all civil cases where the 



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matter in (lispute amounted to $2,000. 
A marshal for each was to be appointed 
by the President, having the general pow- 
ers of a sheriff; and a district attorney, 
to act for the Lnited States in all cases 
in which the national government might 
1)(' interested, was also appointed. John 
Jay was made the first chief-justice of 
the United States. 
Judiciary of the United States. Su- 


preme Court. Under the confederation lished and organized by Congres!I, consists 
there was no national judicial department. of one chi
f-justice and four associate 
The Suprf'me Court was organized in 1789, judges; salary, $6,000 per annum. Su- 
with one chief-justice and five associate preme Court of the Di"trict of Columbia. 
judgf's. There are now eight associate established and organized by Congress. 
justices. It holds one term annually at consists of one chief-justice and four as- 
the seat of government, commencing on sociate judges; salary of chief-justice. 
the second Monday in October. The United $6,500; associate judges, $6.000. Terri- 
States are divided for judicial purposes torial courts, estab1ished and organized 
into nine circuits, and these circuits are by Congress. Arizona. one chief-justice 
subdivided into two or more districts. and three associate judges; Indian Terri- 
The 1st circuit consists of the States tory. one judge; New Me-xico, one judge 
of Maine, l\Iassaclmsptts, New Hampshire, and four associate judges; Oklahoma. one 
and Rhode Island; 2d, Connecticut, New ('hid-justice and two associate judges; 
York, and Vermont; 3d, Delaware, New salary, $4,000 per annum. When any 
Jf'rsey, and Pennsylvania; 4th, 
[aryland, judge of any court of the rnitf'd Rtates 
North Caro1ina, South Caro1ina, Virginia, resigns his office, after haying held his 
and 'Vest Virginia; 5th, Alabama. Flor- commission as such at least ten years, 
ida, Gc,orgia. Louisiana. Mississippi, and and haying reached seventy years 
f age 
Tf'Xas; (jth, Kf'JlÌuck.v. Michigan. Ohio, during his seryice, he shan recf'ive during 
and Tennessee; 7th, lninois, Indiana. and life the same salary as at the time of 
\Yisconsin: 8th, Arkansas, Colorado. Towa, his rf'signation. This right is given to 
Kansas. l\finnpsota. l\[issouri, K f'braska, no other dass of civil officers under the 
North Dakota, Routh Dakota. and \"yo- g'ovf'rnnlf'nt of the United Rtates. The 
ming; nth. Ca1ifornia, Idaho. Nenlda. Ore- AUornpy-Gpneral apl1f'ars in the Supreme 
gon, Montana, and \Vashington. Each Court of the Unitpd 
tatcs in behaH of 
judge of thp Supreme Court is anottf'(] a the government. There is also a United 
circuit, and is required to attend that States district attornf'Y appointed for each 
circuit at If'ast one tprm every two years. district in which circuit and district courts 
Salary of chief - justic
, $13,000; each are held, to look after the interest of the 
justice, $1
,500 a Yf'ar. Circuit courts, gOVf'rnment in all cases that concern it. 
established and organized by Congress. \Vomen were admitted to practise in the 
Each of the circuits has allotted to it one Supreme Court of the rnited Statf's by 
of the judg'es of the Supreme Court, and act of Congrf'ss, approved Feb. 15. 1879. 
Ims a local judge appointed, termed cir- In addition to the aboYf', tl1f're are 
cuit judge. There are twenty-seven circuit special courts created from time to time 
judges, all excepting two circuits hav- for specific purposes, as the court on 
ing three judges each; salary, $7,000 a Spanish \Yar claims. 
year. Circuit ('omt of appeals, estab1ish- In 1900 Congreqs established a district 
ed and organized by Congress, 18m, for court for Alaska, with judgf's residing 
the re1ief of the Supreme Court. The jus- iu .Juneau, St. l\1ichad's, and Eagle City, 
tice of the Supreme Court presiding over and also provided a civil code for the 
the circuit, the circuit judge, and a judge Territory. In cases where constitutional 
appointed for this special court constitute questions are involved, appf'als and writs 
it; salary. $7,000 a year. Distdct courts, of error from this court may be takf'n 
estab1ished and organized by Congress. Of to the Pnitf'd States Rupreme Court; 
tl1f'se districts there are eighty-five, each where other questions arc involved tllf'Y 
presided over by a judge, termed district may be taken to the rnited States Cir- 
judge; salary, $(j.000 a year. Court of cuit Court of thl' 9th District. 
claims, established and organized by Con- For a full Iist of the judges of the Su- 
gress, 18.");), to hear and determine claim!'! preme Court, Circuit Courts, District 
against the United States. It consists of Courts. Court of Claims, etc., see FEDERAL 
one chief-justice and four associate judgf's. GOVERNMENT. 
The solicitor-general appears before this Judson, ADO
IRAl\r, missionary; 
court; salary of judges, $ß.OOO pf'r an- in Malden. 1\[ass., Aug. 9. 1788; 
HUm. Court of private land claims, estah- uated at Brown enh'ersity in 



and Andover Theological Seminary in The Jlississippi ralley (in the United 
1810. He was ordained on Feb. 6, 1812, States of America, by Shaler); and The 
and with his wife, Anne Hasseltine, sailed Young .imerican, etc. 
for Calcutta on the 19th. In Rangoon, Julian, GEORGE W ASHJiNGTON, legÏ!
Burma, he toiled nearly forty years, lator: born near Centrevi1le, Ind.. 1\la;\' 
gathering around him thousands of con- 5, 1817. He was seH-educated; and was 
verts and many assistants, Americans and admitted to the bar in 18-10. After pmc- 
nurmese. He translated the Bible into Using for five years, he was elected to 
the Burmese language, and had nearly the legislature, and in IS-HI-51 repr('- 
completed a dictionary of that language sented the Free-soil party in Congrf'ss. 
at the time of his death. His wife dying and in 1852 was tIle càndidate for tlw 
in 1826. hI' married (April, 1834) the Vice-Presidency on the Free-soil tickf't. 
widow of a missionary (Mrs. Sarah H. H(' also received five votes for Vice-Pres i- 
Boardman), who died in September, 1845. dent in the electoral college of 18i2. He 
While on a visit to the United States in was a strong opponent of slavery, and 
IS-16. he married Miss Emily Chubbuck a stanch supporter of the homestead 
(" Fanny Forester," the poet), who ac- policy. He was again a member of Con- 
companied him back to Burma. His first gress in 1861-71. During the last period 
wife, Anne Hasse1tine, was the first Amer- lIe was a member of the committees on 
ican woman missionary in the East Indies. conduct of the war, on reconstruction, 
HI' died at sea. April 12. 1850. and on the preparation of articles of im- 
Judson, EOWARD. clergyman: horn in peachment against President ,Tohnson. 
l\fauhnain, Burma, Dec. 27, 1844; son of In 1872 he joinl'd the Libcral Republican 
Adoniram Judson. He was brought to party. In 1885-S!J he was surveyor-gen- 
the "Cnited States in 1850; studied in eral of New Mexico. His publications 
Hamilton and Madison (now Colgate) include Speeches on Political Qncstiow<I; 
universities: graduat('d at Brown Uni- Political Rccollertions; liater Speeches: 
wr!"ity in 1863. In IS67-74 he was Pro- and Life of .Joshlla H. Oidd-in,Qs. He died 
f(,Bsor of Latin and .Modern Languages in in Irvington, Ind., July 7, 1899. 
Madison University; in 1874-75 travelled Julian, ISAAC HOOVER; born in Centre- 
in forl'ign countries; and. returning to tll(' ville, Ind., June HI, 1823; editor and pro- 
tTnited States, was Ilastor of the North prietoI' of The True Republican at Rich- 
Baptist Church in Orange, N. J., till 1881, mond, Ind., and subsequently of the Peo- 
when he resigned to take up mission work 1)lp's Era at San Marco, Texas; he is the 
f'w York. He hecame pastor of the author of the early history of the White 
Berean Baptist Church, and afterwards Water Valley. 
built the Judson 1\Iemorial on Washington Julien, ALEXIS ANA STAY, geologist; 
Rquare. In 1897 he was appointed in- born in New York, :Fl'b. 13, 1840; grad- 
structor in pastoral theology at Colgate uated at Union College in 1859, and 
Theological Seminary, and in 1903 was the following year Wf'llt as chemist to 
('alled to the University of Chicago. He the guano island of Somhrero, where he 
has published a Life of Adoniram Judson. studied geology and natural history. 
Judson, HARRY PRATT, educator; born \Vhile there he also collected birds and 
in Jamestown, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1849; shells and made meteorological observa- 
graduated at Williams College in 1870; tions for the Smithsonian Institution. Re- 
called to the chair of History at the Uni- turning to New York in 1864, he soon 
v('rsity of Minnesota in 1885; and was after became assistant in charge of the 
nlRde head Professor of Political Science, quantitative laboratory in the newl;\' 
and dean of the faculties of Arts, Litera- founded Columbia School of 1\Iines. In 
hue, and Science at the University of 1885-97 he had charge of the department 
Chicago in 1892. He is the author of of biology in the same institution, and in 
History of the Troy Oitizens' Oorps,' the latter year became instructor in geol- 
Casar's Army; Europe in the Nineteenth ogy. In IS75-78 he was connected with 
Century; The Grol.l:th of the American the North Carolina Geological Survey. 
Nation; 'I'he Higher Education as a Train- He is a fellow of the American Geologi- 
ing for Business; The Latin in English; cal Society, the Geological Society of 


America, the American Society of N at- 
uralists, and other organizations, and 
a past vice-president of the New York 
Academy of Sciences. 
Julio, E. B. D. FABRINO, artist; born 
on the island of St. Helena in 1843; edu- 
cated in Paris; came to the Cnited States 
about 1861, and after living in the North 
a number of years settled in New Or- 
leans, where he engaged in portrait-paint- 
ing. He is principally known through 
his painting, The Last Meeting of Lee 
and .J ackson. He died in Georgia, Sept. 
15, 1879. 
J umel, ELIZA BOWEN, society leader; 
born at sea in 1769. She married Col. 
Peter Croix in 1786, and, after his death, 
Stephen Jumel, a wealthy merchant in 
New York City, in 1801. Upon Jumel's 
death she married Aaron Burr in 1830, 
whom she sued for a divorce, which was 
not granted. She died in New York, July 
16, 1865. 
ION, pioneer; 
born near )'fontreal, Canada, Aug. 9, 1793; 
was the first white settler in ::\-1ilwaukee, 
where he traded in furs. He was the 
first postmaster and mayor of ::\Iilwaukee. 
He died in Shawano, \Yis., Nov. 14, 1856. 
His remains were removed to Milwaukee, 
\Vis., in 1887, and a statue of heroic size 
erf'cted in honor of his memory. 
Jungman, JOHN GEORGE, clergyman; 
horn in Hockheimer, Germany, April 19, 
H20; became a lay evangelist to the Ind- 
ians in 1742; ordained a deacon in the 
:Moravian Church in 1770. Jungman was 
one of the earliest pioneers in the terri- 
tory of the Ohio. In 1781 Jungman was 
taken prisoner by the Hurons and con- 
fined in the fort at Detroit. At the close 
of the war of the Revolution Jungman 
continued his mis!'ions among the Ind- 
ians in :Michigan, but, broken in health, 
he was obliged to give up his labors in 
1785. He died in Bethlehem, Pa., July 
17, 1808. 
Junipero, MIGrEL JosÊ SERRA, mission- 
ary; born in the island of :\fajorca, Nov. 
2-t-, 1713; entered the order of St. Francis 
in 1729; was sent to Mexico in 1750, where 
he was assigned to labor among the Ind- 
ians of Sierra Gorda. When the Jesuits 
were expelled from Lower California in 
lï67, the Franciscans, under Junipero, 
were appointed to take charge of all the 

California mISSIOns. He founded the fol- 
lowing missions: San Diego, Cal., July 16, 
1769; San Carlos, at Monterey, June 3, 
1770; San Antonio, July 14, 1771 j San 
Gabriel, near Los Angeles, Sept. 8, 1771; 
San Luis Obispo, Sept. 1, 1772; San Fran- 
cisco, June 27, 1776 j San Juan Capis- 
trano, Nov. 1, 1776; Santa Clara, Jan. 
18, 1777; San Buenaventura, March 31, 
1782. He died in l\Ionterey, Cal., Aug. 
28, 1784. 
Junius, LETTERS OF. During the 
quarrel between Great Britain and her 
colonies (1765-75), a series of letters ad- 
dressed to King George III., his ministers, 
and other distinguished public men in 
England, were published in the Public 
Advertiser, and were generally signed 
" Junius" or "Philo-Junius." In the first 
authorized collection of these letters there 
were forty-four by "Junius" and fifteen 
by "Philo-Junius." They treated of 
public men and public measures of 
that day in a style that produced a pro- 
found impression and interest in the 
public mind, and excited the hottest in- 
dignation of those who felt the lash. The 
style was condensed but lucid j full of 
studied epigrammatic sarcasm, brilliant 
metaphor, and fierce personal attack. 
The government and those interested in 
the matter tried in vain to ascertain the 
name of the author. It was evident 
that he was a man of wealth and refine- 
ment, and possessing access to minute in- 
formation respecting ministerial measures 
and intrigues. The most eminent legal 
advisers of the crown tried in vain to 
get a clew to the secret of his identity; 
and the mystery which has ever since 
mveloped the name of the author of the 
letters of "Junius" has kept up an in- 
terest in them, which, because of the re- 
moteness of their topics, could not other- 
wise have been kept alive. Some after- 
wards claimed their authorship, but with- 
out a particle of proof in favor of the 
claim. The names of more than fifty per- 
sons have been mentioned as the sus- 
pected authors. An array of facts, cir- 
cumstances, and fair inferences has satis- 
fied the most careful inquirers that Sir 
Philip Francis was "Junius." The let- 
ters were chiefly written between 1769 
and 1772. 
Juries. Trial by jury was introduced 


into England during the Sa-xon heptarchy, cases by jury, but not of civil cases. This 
six \\'elsh and six Anglo-Saxon Í1"eemen caused dissatisfaction, people claiming 
being appointed to try causes between that 4;;he omission was intended to abolish 
.Englishmen and 'Velshmen of property, trial by jury in civil cases, hence the 
and made responsible with their whole Seventh Amendment was adopted at an 
tates, real and personal, for false ver- early day, securing the rights of trial by 
dicts. By most authorities the institu- jury in suits at common-law where the 
tion is ascribed to Alfred about 886. In value in controversy exceeds $20. Grand 
Magna Charta, juries are insisÌ{>d on as juries (of not less than twelve or more 
a bulwark of the people's liberty. _\n act than t\\ent
.-three persons) decide whetll(>r 
for trial by jury in civil cases in Scot- sufficient evidence is adduced to put the 
Jand was passed in 181.,. The con
titu- accused on trial. In the L'nited States, 
tion of liDI established trial by jury in owing to many striking instances of the 
France. An imperial decree abolished miscarriage of justice, there has been in 
trial by jury throughout the Austrian recent J'ears an influential sentiment in 
Empire Jan. 15, 1832. Trial by jury be- fa"or of having verdicts of juries rendered 
gan in Russia Aug. 8, 1866; in Rpain, on the majority vote of the jurors. 
IHRU. In Scotland, Guernsey, Jersey, and Justice, ÐEPART:\fENT OF. See CABINET, 
France juries decide by a majority; in I'RE
France. since 1831, a majority of two- Justices of the Supreme Court. A 
thirds is requirf'd. Fnder the original complete list of all the .iu
tices wiII he 
('onstitution of the rnited Statf's pro- found in the article on the SUPREME 
vision is made for the trial of criminal COURT. 


trous battle at Sander's Creek, nea.r Cam- 
den, S. C., he was mortally wounded, and 
òied three daJ"s afterwards, Aug. 19, li80. 

Kalb, JOHANN, BARON DE, military offi- 
cer; born in Hiittendorf, Bavaria, June 29, 
1721; entered the French military service 
in 1743, and in 1747 rose to the rank of 
brigadier-general under l\Iarshal Broglie, 
and obtained the order of milita,ry merit 
in 1761. The next year he visited the 
English-American colonies as a secret 
agent of the French government, to ascer- 
tain their political temper. He was a 
brigadier-general in the French army when 
(November, 17i6) he -was engaged by 

Franklin and Deane to serve in the Con- 
tinental army. He accompanied Lafayette 
t(. America in 1777, and was appointed 
major-general, Sept. 13, 1777, by the Con- 
tinental Congress. He served under the 
immediate command of \Vashington until 
after the evacuation of Philadelphia, June, 
1778; tbcn in New Jersey and )[aryland 
until April, !iSO, when he was sent to as- 
sist Lincoln, besieged in Charleston. He 
arrived too late. De Kalb became chief 
commander in the South after the fall of 







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His body was pierced with eleven wounds. 
I t was buried at Camden. A marble mon- 
ument was erected to his memory in front 
of the Presbyterian Church at Camden, 
the corner-stone of which was laid by 
Lafayette in 1825. 
Kanakas. See HAW All. 
Kanawha, the name which was pro- 
posed for the State consisting of the 
western portion of Virginia, which had 
refU';ed to ratify the State ordinance of 
seces1"ion. See \VEST VIRGINIA. 
Kane, ELISHA KENT, explorer; born in 
l'hiladelphia, Feb. 20, IS20; was educated 
at the universities of Virginia and Penn- 
Eylvania, taking his medical degree in 
184:3. Ill-health led to his entering the 
navy, and he sailed as physician to the 
embassy to China in 1843. He travelled 
Charleston, but was soon succeeded by extensively in Asia and Europe, traversed 
General Gates, when he became that offi- Greece on foot, explored western Africa 
cer's second in command. In the disas- to some extent, was in the war with )Iex- 





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ico, and in l\1ay, 1850, sailed as surgeon 
and naturalist under Lieut. Edwin J. De 
Haven, in search of Sir John Franklin. 
Sir John, an English navigator, had 
sailed on a voyage of discovery and ex- 
ploration with two vessels, in May, 1845. 
Years passed by, and no tidings of him or 
his companions came. 
Expeditions were sent 
fro m England in 
search of him. Pub- 
Hc interest in the fate 
of Sir John was ex- 
cited in Europe and 
the United States, and 
in May, 1850, Henry 
Grinnell, a merchant 
of New York, fitted 
out two ships, the Ad- 
vance and Rescue, and 
placed them in charge 
of Lieutenant De Ha- 
ven, to assist in the 
effort. These vessels 
returned, after 1'1'- 
markable adventures 
in the polar sea.s, in 
the autumn of 1851, 
without success. In 
connection with the 




United StateF! government, Mr. Grinnell 
fitted out another expedition for the same 
purpose in 1853. Two vessels, under the 
command of Dr. Kane, saoiled from New 
York in May. Kane and his party made 
valuable discoveries, among others, of an 
"open polar sea," long suspected and 
sought for by scientific men and navi- 
gators. But they failed to find Sir John 
Franklin. The companies of these two 
vessels suffered much, and were finally 
compelled to abandon the ships and make 
their way in open boats to a Danish set- 
tlement in Greenland. Tht!ir long absence 
created fears for their safety, and a relief 
expedition was sent in search of them. 
They returned home in the vessels of the 
latter in the autumn of 1855. Gold med- 
als were awarded Dr. Kane by Congress, 
the legislature of New York, and the Royal 
Geogra phical Society of London; but his 
own life and those of most of his compan- 
ions were sacrificed. His health failed, and 
he went first to London and then to Ha- 
vana, Cuba, where he died, Feb. 16, 1857. 


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Kansas, STATE OF, was part of the Lou- repealed the Missouri Compromise act. 
isiana purchase in 1803. The Territories Tl)is produced great agitation through- 
of Kansas and Nebraska were established out the country, and great commotion 
in 1854 by act of Congress, which really among the settlers in Kansas. On Jan. 


29, 1861, Kansas was admitted into 
the Union ali a State. During the war 
Kansas furnished to the National army 
more than 20,000 soldiers. It is very rap- 
idly increasing in population and wealth. 
Its population in 1890 was 1,427,096; in 
1900, 1,470,495. Much of the State is a 
fine grazing country, well supplied with 
ri\"ers and watered by numerous creeks. 


On its eastern border the navigable Mis- 
souri River presents a waterfront of al- 
most 150 miles. It has a coal - bear- 
ing region which occupies the whole of 
the eastern part of the State, and em- 
hraces about 17,000 square miles. The 
climate of Kansas is beautiful and healthy, 
and probably no other 'Vestern State 
of the Union has so many bright, sun- 
ny day!:'!. The raisin
 of cattle is a 
prominent industry. Kansas is a very 
attractive State for enterprising set- 
tlers, and promi!'leR to be one of the 
finest portions of the Union. In 1903 
the a
gregate assessed valuation of tax- 
able property was $388,724,480, the 
Statp tax rate was 6.40 per $1,000; and 
the 1}onded debt (July I) was $632,000, 
all held in State funds. See UNITED 
STATES, KANSAS, vol. ix. 



A nilrpw H. Reeder. Pa............ -.. .. . 
Wilson Rhannon. 0...._................ 
.John W. Ge:Jrv. Pa _ " . . ................ . 
Robprt .T. Waiker, Miss.... ............. 
.T W. Denver.......................... 

flmueJ Mednry.............. .......... 
r,porge M. Bebee....................... 

IR54 to 1R55 
1855 .. 1R5/1 
1856 .. 1Rtí7 
1857 .. 1858 
1858 to 1861 




Cbarles Robinson...................... 1861 to IH()2 
Thomas Carney.... .. . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . 1862 .. 1864 
S. J. Crawford........................ 1864" 1868 
James M. Harvey................ .. ... _ 1868 .. 1872 
Thomas A. Osborn..................... 1873 " 1875 
George T. Antbony..................... 1876 " 1878 
Jobn P. St. Jobn.. .. . . . .... .... .. ..... . 1879 " 188:-1 
George W. Glick....................... 1883 " It!85 
Jobn A. Martin........................ 1885 .. 1887 
Lyman U. Humpbreys...... .... ....... 1887 .. 1893 
L. D. Lewelling..... ........ ... ..... ... 1893 .. 1t!95 
E. N. Morrill........................... 1895 "-1t!Y7 
Jnhn W. Leedy........................ 1897 .. 1899 
William E. stanley.....................- 1 1899 " 190:i 
WilIis J. Bailpy _ ... ....... .. ... . .. " .. . 1903 .. 1905 
Edward W. Hoell....................... 1905 .. 1907 



1\0. of Congr_. 


James H. Lane.......... 37tb to 39th 

amuel C. l'omeroy..... 37th C& 43d 
}:dmund G. Ross........ 39tb" 41st 
Alexander Caldwell...... 4:!d 
Robert Crozier.......... 43d 
James M. Harvey....... 43d to 44tb 
John J. Ingalls.......... 43d "51st 
Preston B. l'lumb....... 45tb " 52d 
William A. Peifer........ 52d .. 55tb 
Bisbop W. Perkins...... 52d 
Jobn Martin............ 63d 
L'lcien Baker............ !'i4th to 56th 
\\"ilIiam A. Harris...... . 1 65tb .. 67th 
.I..!<eph Ralph Burton.... 57tb " - 
Chester I. Long......... 6t!tb .. - 

1861 to 18G6 
1861 .. 1873 
1866 .. 1871 
1871 " It!7a 
1873 .. 1874 
1874 " 1877 
1873 " 1891 
1877 u 1891 
1891 .. 1897 
1892 " 1893 
1895 to ]901 
1897 " 19Ua 
1901 .. - 
1903 " - 

'l'hc ](ansas-S ebrasl..:a Act.-The com- 
promise of 1850 (see O
not stop the agitation of the slaVel"Y ques- 
tion. The following resolution was intro- 
duced in Congress in 1852: "That the 
series of acts passed during the first ses- 
sion of the Thirty-first Congress, known as 
compromises, are regarded as a final ad- 
justment and a permanent settlement of 
the questions therein embraced, and .3hould 
be maintained and executed as such." In 
January, 1854, SenatOl" Stephen A. Doug- 
las, of Illinois, presented a bill in the 
Senate for the erection ûf two vast Terri- 
tories in mid-continent, to be called, re- 
spectively, Kansas and Nebraska. 
The following are some of the principal 
provisions of this act: 

The executive power is vested in a gov- 
ernor appointed by the President and 
Sena te. 
A secretary of the Territory, appointed 
for five years. 
The legislative power to be vested in th
governor and a legislative Assembly, con- 
sisting' of a council and a House of Rep- 


resentativeø; the council to consist of 
thirteen members, anù the House of 
twenty-six. The lattf'r may be inC'reased, 
but may not exceed thirty-nine. 
The first election of members of the 

one years of age and upward, actual resi- 
dents of the Territory and citizens of the 
United States, or having declared on oath 
their intention to becon1e citizens were 
entitled to vote at the first election; the 




.: k: 



legislature was to be held at such time qualifications of votf'rs at subsequent 
anù place, and was to be conducted in elections to be prescribed by the legisla- 
such manner, as the governor should pre- tive Assembly. 
scribe. He was also to appoint the in- Bills passed by tIle legislature were to 
spectors of election, and to direct the man- be submitted to the governor, but might 
ner of making the returns. be passed against the veto by two-thirds 
All free white male inhabitants, twenty- majorities. 


The judicial power was to be vested in 
a supreme court, district courts, probate 
courts, and in justices of the peace. The 
supreme court to consist of three judges, 
one in each judicial district, and one of 
them to be chief-justice. They were to be 
appointed by the President and Senate. 
The first election of delegates to Con- 
gress, and the time and places of election, 
were subject to the appointment and direc- 
tion of the governor. 
The act also provided that the acts of 
Congress for the reclamation of fugitive 
slaves should extend to the Territories. 
Not the least important was the follow- 
" That the Constitution and all the laws 
of the United States which are not 10calIy 
inapplicable, shall have the same force 
and effect within the said Tprritory as 
(>lsewhere within tbe L"nited States, ex- 
cept the eighth section of the act pre- 

1820, either protecting, establishing, pro- 
hibiting, or abolishing slavery." 
After long and bitter discussions in 
both Houses of Congress, the bill was 
passed, and became a law by receiving 
the signature of the President, l\lay 31, 
1854. From that day the question of 
slavery was a subject of discussion find 
s('ctional irritation, until it was abolished 
in 1863. 
Civil Wm" in Kansas.-The Kansas- 
Nebraska act left all the Territories of 
the United States open to the establish- 



para tory to the admission of Missouri nwnt in them of the social institutions of 
into the Pnion. approved March 6, 18
0, eycry State in the Union, that of slavery 
which, heing inconsistent with tbe p1'Ín- among others. It was a virtual repe
ciple of non - intervention hy Congress of the MISSOURI COMPROMISE (q. v.). 
with slavery in the States and Terri- The question immediately arose, 51mB the 
turies. as recognized by the legislation of domain of the republic be the theatre of 
1850, commonly cal1ed the compromise II]] free or all slave labor, with the corre- 
measures, h.; llereby declared inoperative sponding civilization of each condition as 
a'1d void; it being the true intent and a consequenc(>? This question was suc- 
meaning of this act, not to legislate ceeded by positive action by the friends of 
slavery into any Territory or State, nor each labor system. Those in favor of the 
to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the slave system, viewing the willingness of 
people thereof perfectly free to form and tllOse in the free-labor States to accede to 
regulate their domestic institutions in the wishes of the Southern politicians so 
their own way, subject only to the Con- as to secure Southern trade, felt confident 
stitution of the Fnited States; Pro1,idcd, that their supremacy was secure. That 
that nothing herein contained shall be party sounded the trumpet for battle, and 
construed to revive or put in force any thf' Territory of Kansas was the chosen 
law or regulation which may have existed hattle-field. The fugitive slave law had 
prior to the act of the 6th of 
farch, created an intense and wide-spread feel- 


ing of hostility to slavery in the free-labor 
f:-;tates, and when the advocates of slavery 
began to assert their exclusive right to 
the government of Kansas, and thus cast 
down the gauntlet before their opponents, 
the latter gladly took it up. They re- 
solved to carryon the contest with the 
peaceful wmpons of the ballot-box. Sud- 
denly, emigration began to flow in a 
steady, copious, and ever-increasing 
stream from the free-labor States, espe- 
ciaJly from New England, into the new 
Territory. It soon became evident that the 
settlers from those States in Kansas 
would soon outnumber and outvote those 
from the slave-labor States. 
The dominant power in politics was 
pro-slavery in its proclivities. Alarmed 
by this emigration, it proceeded to organ- 
ize physical force in Missouri to counter- 
act the moral force of its opponents if 
necessary. Combinations were formed 
under various names-" Social Band," 
"Friends' Society," "Blue Lodge," "The 
Sons of the South," etc. A powerful or- 
ganization under the title of the "Emi- 
grant Aid Society" had been formed in 
Roston under the sanction of the legislat- 
ure of Massachusetts immediately after 
the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill 

. :

t>- j!l ,:"<, 

 .-:_ el 
..< . 

(May, 1854); and the Southern societies 
just mentioned were organized to oppose 
this " Emigrant Aid Society." At a meet- 
ing at Westport, Mo., early in July, 1854, 
it was resolved that :Missourians who 
formed the associations represented there 
should be ready at all times to assist, 
when called upon by pro-slavery citizens 
of Kansas, in removing from the Territory 
Ly force every person who should attempt 
to settle under the auspices of the Emi- 
grant Aid Society. Both parties planted 
the seeds of their respective systems in 
Kansas. They founded towns: those from 
the free-labor States founded Lawrence, 
Topeka, Boston, Grasshopper Falls, Paw- 
nee, and one or two otbers. Those from 
the slave-labor States founded Kickapoo, 
Doniphan, Atchison, and others on or near 
the Missouri River. Immediately after 
the paEsage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, 
hundreds of Missourians went to Kansas 
and selected a tract of land, and put a 
mark upon it for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a sort of pre-emption title to it, 
and at a public meeting resolved. "That 
we will afford protection to no abolition- 
ist as a settler of this Territory; that we 
recognize the institution of slavery as al- 
ready existing in this Territory, and ad- 

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vise slave-holders to introduce their prop- It made Kansas a free-labor State, and 
erty as soon as possible." under this constitution they asked for 
The national government appointed A. admission into the Union, as such. The 
H. Reeder governor of the new Territory. strife mtween freedom and slavery was 
He arrived in October, 1854, and took then transferred to the national capital. 
measures for the election of a territorilll Reeder made a contest for a seat in Con- 
legislature. \Vith the close of this elec- bl'ess with the delegate chosen by the 
tion (March. 1855), the struggle for su- illegal votes. Meanwhile, elections had 
premacy in Kansas between the friends been held (Jan. 17, 1856) in Kansas under 
and opponents of the slave system began the legally adopted new State constitu- 
in dead earnest. The pro-slavery men tion, and matters seemed very dark for 
had an overwhelming majority in the the pro-slavery party in Kansas, when 
legislature, for Missourians had gone over President Pierce, in a message to Con- 
the border by hundreds and voted. \Vhen, gress (Jan. 24, 1856), represented the ac- 
in November, 18;)4, a delegate to Congress tìon of the legal voters in the Territory 
for Kansas was elected, of nearly 2,900 in framing a State constitution as r
votes cast, over 1,700 were put in by b
llion. All through the ensuing spring 
Missourians who had no right there. At vwlence and bloodshed prevailed in the 
the election of the legislature, there were unhappy Territory. 
('nly 1,410 legal votes in the Territory of Seeing the determination of the actual 
Kansas; but there were 6.218 votes poBed. settlers to maintain their rights, armed 
mostly illegal ones by :Missourians. Fully men flocked into the Territory from the 
1,000 men came from 
Iissouri, armed with slave-labor States and attempted to coerce 
deadly weapons, two cannon, tents, and the inhabitants into submission to the 
other paraphernalia of war, led by Clai- laws of the illegally chosen legislature. 
IJorne F. Jackson, and encamped around Finally Congress sent thither a com- 
the little town of Lawrence, and in like mittee of investigation. The majority re- 
manner such intruders C'ontrolled every ported, July 1, 1856, that every election 
poB in the Territory. Then a reign of had been controlled by citizens from Mis- 
terror was hegun in Kansas. All classes souri; that the action of the legal voters 
of men carried deadly weapons. The il- of Kansas was valid, and that the State 
leg-any chosen legislature met at a point constitution was the choice of the major- 
on the border of Missouri. and proceeded ity of the people. The canvass for a new 
to enact barbarous laws for upholding President was now in operation, and so 
slavery in the Territory. These Governor absorbed public attention that Kansas had 
Reeder vetoed, and they were instantly rest for a while. James Buchanan was 
passed over his veto. He was so oh- elected by the Democratic party. At the 
noxious to the pro-slavery party that. at beginning of his administration the Dred 
the request of tl1e latter, President Pierce Scott case greatly intensified the strife 
removed him. and sent WIlson Shannon, between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery 
of Ohio, to fin his place. men, especially in Kansas. Mr. Buchanan 
The actual settlers in Kansas, who were favored the views of the pro-slavery men, 
chiefly anti-slavery men, held a convention, and his strong support gave them, in Kan- 
Sept. 5, 1855, when they resolved not to sas, renewed courage. Then the opposing 
recognize the laws of the illegal legislat- parties were working with energy for the 
ure as binding upon them. They refused admission of Kansas as a State, with op- 
to vote for a delegate to Congress at an posing ends in view. The pro-slavery 
election appointed by the legislature, and party, in convention at Lecompton early 
they called a delegate convention at in September, 1857, framed a constitu- 
'l'opeka on Oct. 19. At that convention tion in which was a clause providing that 
Governor Reeder was elected delegate to the" rights of property in slaves now in 
Congress by the legal votes of the Ter- the Territory shall in no manner be inter- 
ritory. On the 23d another convention fered with," and forbade any amendments 
of legal voters assembled at Topeka and of the instrument until 1864. It was sub- 
framed a State constitution. It was ap- mitted to the votes of the people on Dec. 
provea by the legal vote of the Territory. 21, but by the terms of the election law 


passed by the illegal legislature no one 
might vote against that constitution. 
The vote was taken, "For the constitu- 
tion with slavery," or "For the constitu- 
tion without slavery"; so in either 
case a constitution that protected and 
perpetuated slavery would be voted for. 
Meanwhile, at an election for a territorial 
legislature, the friends of free labor suc- 
ceeded in electing a delegate to Con- 
The legally elected legislature ordered 
the I.ecompton constitution to be sub- 
mitted to the people for adoption or re- 
jection. It was rejected by ovel' 10,000 
majority. Notwithstanding this strong 
popular condemnation of the Lecompton 
constitution, President Buchanan sent it 
in to Congress (Feb. 2, 1838), wherein 
was a large Democratic majority. with a 
mesMage in which he I"ecommended its ac- 
cf>ptance and ratification. In that mes- 
sage, referring to the opinion of Chief- 
Justice Taney, the President said: " It 
has been solemnly adjudged, by the high- 
est judicial tribunal known to Our laws, 
that slavery exists in Kansas by virtue of 
the Constitution of the United States; 
Kansas is, therefore, at this moment, as 
much a slave State as Georgia or South 
Carolina." The constitution was ac- 
cepted by the Senate by a "Vote of 32 
against 25, hut in the House a substitute 
was adopted, which provided for the re- 
8ubmission of the Lecompton constitution. 
It was done, and that instrument was 
again rejected by 10,000 majority, Aug. 
2, 183R. A ccnvf>ntion at Wyandotte 
adoptcd a new constitution, which was 
franlcd by the opponents of slavery. 'fhis 
was accepted, Oct. 4, 1859, by a vote of 
10,42l against 5,;;30, under which, .Jan. 
21. 18Gl, Kan<;a;:; was admitted into the 
l'nion as a free-labor State. 
During the political excitement in Kan- 
sas there was actual civil war, and some 
blood was shed. l<:arly in April, 185û, 
armed men from Southern States, under 
Colonel Buford, arrind in Kansas. The 
United States marshal there took Bu- 
ford's men into the pay of the govern- 
ment, and anneil them with governnwnt 
muskets. I,awrence was again besieged 
(May 5), and on the 21st the inhabi- 
tants, under a promise of safety to per- 
J30ns and property, were induced to give 

up their arms to the sheriff. The in- 
vaders immediately entered the town, 
blew up and burned the hotel, destroyed 
two printing-oflices, and plundered stores 
and houses. The free-labor party were 
furnished with arms from the free-labor 
States. CollisiollS occurred, and on May 
2ü a fight took place at Ossawatomie, in 
,...hich the anti-slavery men were led by 
JOHN BROWN (q. v.), where five men 
were killed. There was another skirmish 
at Black Jack (.June 2), which resulted 
in the capture of Captain Pots and thirty 
of his men. Emigrants from the free- 
labor States, on their way through Mis- 
souri, were turnC'd back by armed parties. 
On _\ug. 14, anti - slavery men captured 
a fort near Lecompton, occupied by Colo- 
nel Titus with a party of pro - slavery 
men, and made prisoners the commander 
and twenty of his men. On Aug. 25 
the acting-governor ( Woodin) declared 
the TC'rritory in a state of rebellion. lIe 
and David R. .Atchison. late United 
Statcs Senator from Missouri, gatllered a 
considerable force, and, on Aug. 29, a 
detaC'hment sent by the latter attacked 
Osspwatomie, which was defended by a 
smaH band under John Brown. The 1at- 
tf>r was defeated, with the loss of two 
),.illed, fi,'e wounded, and seven made 
prisoners. The as<;a ilants lost fiye killed. 
and thirty buildings werf> burned. .At 
the annual elC'ction at I.eavenworth. a 
party from Missouri killed and wounded 
several of the anti-slavery men, bInned 

heir houses, and forced about 150 to em- 
bark for St. Louis. .John 'V. Geary. who 
had bf>en appoiutf>d governor, arriyed in 
hansas early in September. and ordered 
all armed men to lay down their weap- 
Gns; but :ì\Iissouri men. in number about 
2.000, and forming three regimf>nts of 
artillery. marched to attack I.awrenC'P. 
Geary, with "Cnited States troops. prevail- 
ed upon them to desist. and near the close 
of the year (] 856) he was enabled to 1'('- 
port that peace and ordcr prevailed in 
The t lIihor on His Bill.-The follow- 
ing is the substance of the speech of 
f'enator Rtephen A. Douglas on the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska bill, delivered in the Sen- 
ate on March 3, 1854: 

The principle which we propose to 


carry into effect by the bill is this: originally framed by the territorial com- 
That Congress shall neither legislate mittee. On the first trial, the Senate re- 
slayery into any Territories or :State', fused to strike it out, but subsequently did 
nor out of the same; but the pcople shall :"0, after full debate, in order to establish 
be left free to regulate their ÙOIl1C
- that principle as the rule of action in ter- 
tic concern:" in their own way, stlhjf>ct ritorial organizations. . . . Rut my ae- 
only to the Con:"titution of the Unitcd ctlsers attempt to raif'e up a fa.lse issue, 
States. and thereby divert public attention from 
In order to carry this principle into the real one, by the cry that the Missouri 
practical operation, it becomes necessary Compromise is to be repealed or violated 
to remove whatevel' legal obstructions by the passage of this bill. 'Yell, if the 
might be found in the way of its free ex- eighth section of the 
Iissouri act, which 
ercise. It is only for the purpose of carry- attempted to fix the destinies of future 
ing out this great fundamental principle gf'nerations in those Territories for all time 
of self-government that the bill renders to come, in utter disregard of the rights 
the eighth section of the Missouri act in- and wishes of the people when they shall 
operative and void. be rf>ceiyed into the Union as States, be 
Now, let me ask, will these Senators inconsistent with the great principles of 
who haw> arra.igned me, or anyone of self-government and the Constitution of 
t}lem, have the assurance to rise in his the United States, it ought to be abrogated. 
I,lace and df>clare that this great principle The legislation of 1850 abrogated the Mis- 
was neyer thought of or advocated as ap- souri compromise, so far as the country 
plicable to territorial bills, in 1850; that embraced within the limits of Uta-h and 
from that session until the present, no- New Mexico was covered by the slavery re- 
body ever thought of incorporating this striction. It is true that those acts did 
principle in all new territorial organiza- not in terms and by name repeal the act 
tions; that the committee on Territories (Ii lR
O. as originally adopted, or as ex- 
did not recommend it in their report; and tendf>d by the resolutions annexing Texas 
t.hat it required the amendment of the in 18-15, any more than the report of the 
Rf'nator from Kentucky to bring us up to committee on Territories proposed to re- 
that point? Will anyone of my accusers peal the same acts this session. But the 
dare to make the issue, and let it be tried acts of 1850 did authorize the people of 
by the record? I will begin with the com- those Territories to exercise "all right- 
promi!'es of 18.')0. Any Senator who will ful powers of legislation consistent with 
take the trouble to examine our journals. the Constitution," not excepting the ques- 
will find that on March 25 of that year I tion of slavery; and did provide that, 
reported from the committee on Territories when those Territories should be admitted 
two bills including the following meflsures: into the Union, tlwy should be received 
the admission of California, a territorial with or without slavery as the peoplf' 
gúvernment for New Mexico, and the ad- thereof might determine at the date of 
jusblH'nt of the Texas boundary. These tlleir admission. These provisions were in 
bills proposed to leave the people of "['"tah direct conflict with a clause in the former 
and Kf>w Mexico free to decide tIle slavery enactment, df>('laring that slavery should 
question for themselves, in the precise lan- 1:>e forever prohibited in any portion of said 
guage of the Nebraska bill now under dis- Territories, and hence rendered such clause 
cussion. A few weeks afterwards the com- inoperative and void to the extent of such 
mittee of thirteen took these two bills and cf'nflict. This was an inevitable conse- 
put a wafer bC'tween them, and reported quencf', resulting from the provisions in 
them back to the Rf>nate as one hill with thosf> aC'ts, which gave the people the right 
some slight amendments. One of these to decide the slavery qllf'stion for them- 
amendments was t.hat the territorial legis- selves, in conformity with the Constitu- 
l.ltures should not legislate upon the sub- tion. It was not necessary t.o go further 
j('('t of African slayery. I objected to and declare that certain previous enact- 
that provision on the ground that it sub- ments, which were incompatible witll the 
verted the great principl
 of self-gov- exercise of the powers conferred. in 
ernment upon whieh the bill had been the bills, are hereby repC'aled. The 
V.-o 209 


very act of granting those powers March, 1820, to authorize the people uf 
and rights has the legal effect of re- Missouri to form a constitution and a 
moving all obstructions to the exercise State government, preparatory to the ad. 
of them by the people, as prescribed mission of such State into'the Union. The 
in those territorial bills. Following first section provided that slavery should 
that example, the committee on Terri- be "forever prohibited" in all the terri- 
tories did not consider it necessary to tory which had been acquired from France 
declare the eighth section of the Missouri north of 36 0 30', and not included within 
act repealed. 'Ve were content to or- the limits of the State of Missouri. There 
ganize Nebraska in the precise language is nothing in the terms of the law that 
of the Utah and New Mexico bills. Our purports to be a compact, or indicates 
object was to leave the people entirely free that it was anything more than an ordi- 
to form and regulate their domestic insti- nary act of legislation. To prove that it 
tutions and internal concerns in their own was more than it purports to be on its 
way, under the Constitution; and we face, gentlemen must produce other evi- 
deemed it wise to accomplish that object dence, and prove that there was such an 
in the exact terms in which the same thing understanding as to create a moral obli- 
had been done in Utah and New Mexico gation in the nature of a compact. Have 
by the acts of 1850. This was the princi- they shown it? 
pIe upon which the committee voted; and Now, if this was a compact, let us 
our bill was supposed, and is now believed, see how it was entered into. The bill 
to have been in accordance with it. When originated in the House of Representa- 
doubts were raised whether the bill did tives, and passed that body without a 
fully carry out the principle laid down in Southern vote in its favor. It is proper 
the report, amendments were made from to remark, however, that it did not at 
time to time, in order to avoid all mis- that time contain the eighth section, pro- 
construction, and make the true intent of ltibiting slavery in the Territories; but, 
the act more explicit. The last of these in lieu of it, contained a provision pro- 
amendments was adopted yesterday, on hibiting slavery in the proposed State of 
the motion of the distinguished Senator :Missouri. In the Senate, the clause pro- 
from North Carolina (Mr. Badger), in hi biting slavery in the State was stricken 
regard to the revival of any laws or regu- (\ut, and the eighth section added to the 
lations which may have existed prior to end of the bill, by the terms of which 
1820. This amendment was not intended slavery was to be forever prohibited in 
to change the legal efrect of the bill. Its the territory not embraced in the State 
object was to repel the slander which had of Missouri north or 36 0 30'. The vote 
been propagated by the enemies of the on adding this section stood, in the Sen- 
measure in the North-that the Southern ate, 34 in the affirmative, and 10 in the 
supporters of the bill desired to legislate nE:gative. Of the Northern Senators, 20 
slavery into these Territories. The South voted for it, and 2 against it. On the 
denies the right of Congress either to question of ordering the bill to a third 
legislate slavery into any Territory or reading, as amended, which was the test 
State, or out of any Territory or State. vote on its passage, the vote stood 24 
Non-intervention by Congress with slavery yeas and 20 nays. Of the Northern Sen- 
in the States or Territories is the doctrine aiors, 4 only voted in the affirmative, and 
of the bill, and all the amendments which 18 in the negative. Thus it will be seen 
have been agreed to have been made with that if it was intended to be a compact, 
the view of removing all doubt and cavil the North never agreed to it. The North- 
as to the true meaning and object of the ern Senators voted to insert the prohi- 
measure. . . . bition of slavery in the Territories; and 
Well, sir, what is this Missouri Com pro- then, in the proportion of more than four 
mise, of which we have heard so much of to one, voted against the passage of thè 
late? It has been read so often that it is bill. The North, therefore, never signed 
not necessary to occupy the time of the the compact, never consented to it, never 
Senate in reading it again. It was an agreed to be bound by it. This fact be- 
act of Congress, passed on the Gth of comes very important in vindicating the 



character of the North for repudiating tories, Missouri was to be admitted into 
this a]leged compromise a few months the Union, in conformity with the act 
afterwards. The act was approved and of 1820, that compact was repudiated by 
became a. law on the 6th of :March, 1820. the North, and rescinded by the joint 
In the summer of that year, the people action of the two parties within twelve 
of Missouri formed a constitution and months from its date. Missouri was 
State government preparatory to admis- never admitted under the act of the 
sion into the Union, in conformity with 6th of March, 1820. She was refused 
the act. At the next session of Congress, admission under that act. She was voted 
the Senate passed a joint resolution de- out of the Union by Northern votes, not- 
elaring Missouri to be one of the States withstanding the stipulation that she 
of the Union, on an equal footing with should be received; and, in consequence 
the original States. This resolution was of these facts, a new compromise was 
sent to the House of Representatives, rendered necessary, by the terms of which 
where it was rejected by Northern votes, Missouri was to be admitted into the 
and thus Missouri was voted out of the Union conditionalJy-admitted on a con- 
Union, instead of being received into the dition not embraced in the act of 1820, 
"Cnion under the act of the 6th of March, and in addition to a full compliance 
1820, now known as the Missouri Com- with all the provisions of said act. If, 
promise. Now, sir, what becomes of our then, the act of 1820, by the eighth sec- 
plighted faith, if the act of the 6th of tion of which slavery was prohibited in 
:l\Iarch, 1820, was a solemn compact, as :Missouri, was a compact, it is clear to 
we are now told 
 They have all rung the comprehension of every fair-minded 
tIle changes upon it, that it was a sacred man that the refusal of the North to 
and irrevocable compact, binding in admit Missouri, in compliance with its 
honor, in conscience, and morals, which stipulations, and without further condi- 
could not be violated or repudiated with- tions, imposes upon us a high moral obli- 
out perfidy and dishonor! . . . Sir, gation to remove the prohibition of 
if this was a compact, what must be slavery in the Territories, since it has 
thought of those who violated it almost been shown to have been procured upon 
immediately after it was formed? I say a condition never performed. . . . 
it is a calumny upon the North to say The Declaration of Independence had 
tllat it was a compact. I should feel a its origin in the violation of that great 
flush of shame upon my cheek, as a fundamental principle which secured to 
Northern man, if I were to say that it the colonies the right to regulate their 
was a compact, and that the section of own domestic affairs in their own way; 
the country to which I belong received and the Revolution resulted in the tri- 
the consideration and then repudiated umph of that principle and the recogni- 
the obligation in eleven months after it tion of the right asserted by it. Abo- 
was entered into. I deny that it was a litionism proposes to destroy the right 
compact, in any sense of the term. But and extinguish the principle for which 
if it was, the record proves that faith our forefathers waged a seven years' 
was not observed; that the contract was bloody war, and upon which our whole 
nE:ver carried into effect; that after the system of free government is founded. 
North had procured the passage of the They not only deny the application of this 
nct prohibiting slavery in the Territories, principle to the Territories, but insist 
with a majority in the House large upon fastening the prohibition upon the 
enough to prevent its repeal, Missouri abolitionists; the doctrine of the oppo- 
was refused admission into the Union as nents of the Nebraska and Kansas biII, 
a slave-holding State, in conformity with and the advocates of the Missouri restric- 
the act of March 6, 1820. If the pro po- tion demands congressional interference 
sition be correct, as contended for by the with slavery not only in the Territories, 
opponents of this bilI-that there was a but in all the new States to be formed 
I!olemn compact between the North and therefrom. It is the same d'Jctrine, when 
the South that, in the consideration of applied to the Territories and new States 
the prohibition of slavery in the Terri- of this Union, which the British govern- 


ment attempted to enforce by the sword until the swelling tide of emigration 
upon the American colonies. It is this should burst through and accomplish by 
fundamental principle of self-government violence what it is the part of wisdom and 
which constitutes the distinguishing feat- statesmanship to direct ànd regulate by 
ure of the Nebraska bill. The opponents law. How long could you have postponed 
of the principle are consistent in oppos- action with safety? How long could you 
ing the bill. I do not blame them for maintain that Indian barrier and restrain 
their opposition. I only ask them to meet the onward march of civilization, Chris- 
the issue fairly and openly by acknowl- tianity, and free government by a bar- 
edging that they are opposed to the prin- barian wall? Do you suppose that you 
ciple which it is the object of the bill to could keep that vast country a howling 
carry into operation. It seems that there wilderness in all times to come, roamed 
is no power on earth, no intellectual over by hostile savages, cutting off all 
power, no mechanical power, that can safe communication between our Atlantic 
bring them to a fair discussion of the and Pacific possessions? I tell you that 
true issue. If they hope to delude the the time for action has come and cannot 
people and escape detection for any con- be postponed. It is a case in which the 
sirlerable length of time under the catch- "let-alone" policy would precipitate a 
words, " Missouri Compromise" and crisis which must inevitably result in vio- 
"faith of compacts," they will find that lence, anarchy, and strife. 
the people of this country have more pene- You cannot fix bounds to the onward 
tration and intelligence than they have march of this great and growing country. 
given them credit for. You cannot fetter the limbs of tl1e young 
i'lr. President, there is an important giant. He will burst all your chains. He 
fact connected with this slavery regula- wm e'{pand. and grow, and increase, and 
tion which should never he lost sight of. extend civilization, Christianity, and lib- 
It has always arisen from one and the eral principles. Then, sir, if you cannot 
same cause. 'Yhenever that cause has check the growth of the country in that 
been removed, the agitation has ceased; direction, is it not the part of wisdom to 
and whenever the cause has been renewed, look the danger in the face, and provide 
the agitation has sprung into existence. for an event which you cannot avoid? I tell 
That cause is, and ever has been. the at- you. sir, 
'ou must providC' for lines of 
tempt on the part of Congress to interfere continuous settlement from the l\Iississippi 
with the question of slavery in the Terri- Yalley to the Pacific Ocean. And in mak- 
tories and new States formed tl1erefrom. ing this provision, you must decide upon 
Is it not wise, then, to confine our action what principles the Territories shall he 
within the sphere of our legitimate duties organized; in other words. whether the 
and leave this vexed question to take care people shall be allowed to regulate their 
of itself in each State and Territory, ac- domestic institutions in their own way. 
cording to the wishes of the people thereof, according to the provisions of this bm, or 
in conformity to the forms and in sub- whether the opposite doctrine of congres- 
jection to the provisions of the Constitu- sional interference is to prevail. Post- 
tion? pone it, if you wm: but whenever you do 
The opponents of the hill tell us that act, this question must be met and de- 
agitation is no part of their policy; tl1at cided. . . . 
their great desire if'! peace and harmony: There is another reason why I desire to 
and they complain bitterly that I should s('e this principle recognized as a rule of 
have disturbed the repose of the country action in all time to come. It wm have 
by the introduction of this measure. Let the effect to destroy all sectional parties 
me ask these professed friends of peace, and sectional agitations. If, in the lan- 
and avowed enemies of agitation, how the gl1ag(' of th(' report of the C'ommittee, yon 
issue could haw' been avoided? They tell withdraw the slavery qlH'stion from the 
me that I should have let the qnestion halls of Congress and the politiml arena. 
alone; that is, that I should have left and commit it to the arbitranwnt of th08(, 
Kehraska unorganized, the people un pro- who are immediately interested in and 
tected, and the Indian barrier in existence alone responsible f
r its consequenc:es, 


there is nothing left out of which sectional 
parties can be organiZf'd. It never was 
done, and ne,-er can be done, on the bank, 
tariff, distrihution, or all
' party i
which has existed or IIlay e
t, after this 
slavery qUf:!,tion iH drawn from politics. 
On every other political question these 
have always supporters and opponents in 
every portion of the Union-in each State, 
county, village, and neighborhood-resid- 
ing together in harmony and good-fellow- 
ship, and combating each other's opinions 
and correcting each other's errors in a 
spirit of kindness and friendship. These 
differences of opinion between neighbors 
and friends, and the discussions that grow 
out of them. and the sympathy which each 
feels with the advocates of his own opin- 
ions in every portion of this widespread 
republic, add an overwhelming and irre- 
sistible moral weight to the strength of 
the confederacy. Affection for the "Cnion 
can never be alienated or diminished bv 
any other party issues than those which 
are joined upon sectional or geographical 
lines. "
hen the people of the North shall 
be rallied under one banner, and the whole 
South marshalled under another banner, 
and each section excited to frenzy and 
madness by hostility to the institutions 
of the other, then the patriot may well 
tremble for the perpetuity of the Union. 
\Yithdraw the slavery question from the 
political arena, and remove it to the States 
and Territories, each to decide for itself, 
and such a catastrophe can never happen. 
Then you will never be able to tell. by any 
Senator's vote for or against any meas- 
ure, from what State or section of the 
Union he comes. 
Why, then, can we not withdraw this 
vexed question from politics Y \Vhy can 
we not adopt the principle of this hill 
as a rule of action in all new territorial 
organizations Y \Yhy can we not deprive 
these agitators of thpir vocation and ren- 
der it impossible for Spnators to come 
hf're upon bargains on the slavery ques- 
tion Y I believe that the peace. the har- 
mony, and perpetuity of the Union require 
us to f!o back to the doctrines of the 
Revolution. to the principles of the Com- 
promise of 18.')0, and leave the people, 
under the Constitution, to do as they may 
see proper in respect to their own in- 
ternal affairs. 

The Crime Again8t Kallsas.-On May 
l!}-20, 183(;, Charles Rumner delivcred the 
following speech in the Pnitf'Ù States Sen- 
ate on what he dedared to be a crime 
against Kansas: 

1\Ir. President, J'ou are now called to 
redress a great transgression. Seldom in 
the history of nations has such a question 
been presented. Tariffs, army bil1s, navy 
bil1s, land bills, are important, and justly 
occupy your care; but these all belong 
to the course of ordinary legislation. As 
means and instruments only, they are nec- 
essarily subordinate to the conservation 
of government itself. Grant them or deny 
them, in greater or less degree, and you 
will inflict no shock. The machinery of 
government will continue to move. The 
state will not cease to exist. Far other- 
wise is it with the eminent question now 
before you, involving, as it does, liberty 
in a broad territory, and also involving 
the peace of the whole country, with our 
good name in history forevermore. 
Take down your map, sir, and you will 
find that the Territory of Kansas, more 
than any other region, occupies the mid- 
dle spot of 
orth America, equally dis- 
tant from the Atlantic on the east, and 
the Pacific on the west; from the frozen 
waters of Hudson Bay on the north, and 
the tepid Gulf Stream on the south, con- 
stituting the prpcise tplTitorial centre of 
the whole vast continent. To such ad- 
vantages of situation, on the very high- 
way hetween two oceans, are added a 
soil of unsurpassed richness, and a fas- 
cinating. undulating beauty of surface, 
with a health-giving climate, calculated to 
nurture a powerful and generous people, 
worthy to be a central pivot of American 
institutions. A few short months only 
have passed since this spacious and medi- 
terranean country was open only to the 
savage who ran wild in its woods and 
prairies, and now it has already drawn 
to its bosom a population of freemen 
larger than Athens crowded within her 
llistoric gates, when her sons, under 
1\[iltiades. won liberty for mankind on the 
field of Marathon; more than Sparta con- 
tained when she ruled Greece, and sent 
forth her devoted children. qnickened by a 
Tl1othpr's benediction, to return with their 
shields. or on them; more than Rome 


gathered on her seven hills, when, under of popular institutions, more sacred than 
her kings, she commenced that sovereign any heathen altar, have been desecrated; 
sway, which afterwards embraced the where the ballot-box, more precious than 
whole earth j more than London held when, any work, in ivory or marble, from the 
on the fields of Crecy and Agincourt, the cunning hand of art, hae been plundered j 
English banner was carried victoriously and where the cry, "I am an American 
oyer the chivalrous hosts of France. citizen," has been interposed in vain 
Against this Territory, thus fortunate against outrage of every kind, even upon 
in position and population, a crime has life itself. Are you against sacrilege? 
been committed, which is without example I present it for your execration. Are 
in the records of the past. Not in pi un- 
TOU against robbery? I hold it up to 
dered provinces or in the cruelties of self- your scorn. Are you for the protection of 
ish governors will you find its parallel j American citizens? I show you how their 
and yet there is an ancient instance, dearest rights have been cloven down, 
which may show at least the path of jus- while a tyrannical usurpation has sought 
tice. In the terrible impeachment by to install itself on their very necks! 
which the great Roman orator has blasted But the wickedness which I now begin 
through all time the name of Verres, to expose is immeasurably aggravated by 
amid charges of robbery and sacrilege, the motive which prompted it. Not in 
the enormity which most aroused the any common lust for power did this un- 
indignant voice of his accuser, and which common tragedy have its origin. It is 
still stands forth with strongest distinct- the rape of a virgin Territory, compelling 
ness, arresting the sympathetic indigna- it to the hateful embrace of slavery; and 
tion of aU who read the story, is that it may be clearly traced to a depraved 
away in Sicily he had scourged a citi- longing for a new slave State, the hide- 
zen of Rome-that the cry, "I am a ous offspring of such a crime, in the hope 
Roman citizen," had been interposed in of adding to the power of slavery in the 
vain against the lash of the tyrant gov- national government. Yes, sir j when the 
ernor. Other charges were that he had whole world alike, Christian and Turk, 
carried away productions of art, and that is rising up to condemn t.his wrong, and 
he had violated the sacred shrines. It to make it a bissing to the nations, here 
was in the presence of the Roman senate in our republic, force-ay, sir, FORCE- 
that this arraignment proceeded; in a has been openly employed in compelling 
temple of the Forum; amidst crowds- Kansas to this pollution, and all for the 
such as no orator llad ever before drawn sake of political power. There is the 
together - thronging the porticoes and simple fact, which you will in vain at- 
colonnades, even clinging to the house- tempt to deny, but which in itself pre- 
tops and neighboring slopes-and under sents an essential wickedness that makes 
the anxious gaze of witnesses summoned other public crimes seem like public 
from the scpne of crime. But an audi- virtues. 
ence grander far-of higher dignity-of But this enormity, vast beyond com- 
mort> various people, and of wider intelli- parison, swells to dimensions of wicked- 
gence-the countless multitude of suc- ness which the imagination toils in vain 
ceeding generations, in every land, where to grasp, when it is understood that for 
eloquence has been studied, or where the tl1is purpose are hazarded the llOrrors 
Roman name has been recognized, has of intestine feud not only in this distant 
listened to the accusation, and throbbed Territory, but everywhere throughout the 
with condemnation of the criminal. Sir, country. Already the muster lIas begun. 
speaking in an age of light, and a land The strife is no longer local, but na- 
of constitutional liberty, where the safe- tional. Even now, while I speak, portents 
guards of elections are justly placed llang on all the archei of the horizon 
among the highest triumphs of civiliza- threatpning to darken the broad land, 
tion, I fearlessly assert that the wrongs which already yawns with the mutterings 
of much-abused Sicily, thus memorable of civil war. The fury of the propagan- 
in history, were small by the side of the dists of slavery, and the calm determina- 
wrongs of Kansas, where the very shrines tion of their opponents, are now diffused 
. 214 


from the distant territory oyer widespread ings I now arraign derive their fearful 
communities, and the whole country, in all consequences only from this connection. 
its extent-marshalling hostile divisions, In now opening this great matter, I 
D.nd foreshadowing a strife which, unless am not insensible to the austere demands 
lJappily averted by the triumph of free- of the occasion; but the dependence of the 
dom, will become war-fratricidal, parri- crime against Kansas upon the slave- 
cidal war-with an accumulated wicked- power is so peculiar and important that I 
ness beyond the wickedness of any war trust to be pardoned while I impress it 
in human annals; justly provoking the with an illustration, which to some mav 
3.\'enging judgment of Providence and the seem trivial. It is related in Norther
avenging pen of history, and constituting mythology th
t the god of Force, visiting 
a strife, in the language of the ancient an enchanted region, was challenged by 
writer, more than foreign, more than his royal entertainer to what seemed an 
social, more than civil; but something humble feat of strength-merely, sir, to 
compounded of all these strifes, and in lift a cat from the ground. The god 
itself more than war; sed potiu8 commune smiled at the challenge, and calmly plac- 
quoddam eæ omnibus, et plus quam bellum. ing his IJand under the belly of the animal, 
Such is the crime which you are to with superhuman strength strove while 
judge. But the criminal also must be the back of the feline monster arched far 
dragged into day, that you may see and upward, even beyond reach, and One paw 
measure the power by which an this wrong actually forsook the earth, until at last 
is sustained. From no Common source the discomfited divinity desisted; but he 
could it proceed. In its perpetration was was little surprised at his defeat when 
needed a spirit of vaulting ambition which he learned that this creature, which 
would hesitate at nothing; a hardihood seemed to be a cat, and nothing more, 
of purpose which was insensible to the was not merely a cat, but that it belonged 
judgment of mankind; a madness for to and was a part of the great terrestrial 
slavery which would disregard the Consti- serpent, which, in its innumerable folds, en- 
tution, the laws, and all the great exam- circled the whole globe. Even 80 the 
pIes of our history; also a consciousness creature, whose paws are now fastened 
of power such as comes from the habit upon Kansas, whatever it may seem to be, 
of power; a combination of energies found constitutes in reality a part of the slave- 
only in It hundred arms directed by a hun- power, which, in its loathsome folds, is 
dred eyes; ß control of public opinion now coiled about the whole land. Thus 
through venal pens and a prostituted do I expose the extent of the present con- 
press; an ability to subsidize crowds in test, where we encounter not merely local 
every vocation of life-the politician with resistance, but also the unconquered sus- 
his local importance, the lawyer with his taining ftrm behind. But out of the vast- 
subtJe tongue, and even the authority of ness of the crime attempted, with all its 
the judge on the bench; and a familiar woe and shame, I derive a well-founded as- 
use of men in places high and low, so that surance of a commensurate vastness of 
none, from the President to the lowest effort against it by the aroused masses of 
border postmaster, should decline to be its the country, determined not only to vindi- 
tool; all these things and more were need- cate right against wrong, but to redeem 
ed, and they were found in the slave-power the republic from the thraldom of that 
of our republic. There, sir, stands the oligarchy which prompts. directs, and 
criminal, all unmasked before you-heart- concentrates the distant wrong. . . . 
less, gl"lsping-, and tyrannical-with an But, before entering upon the argu- 
audacity beyond that of Verres, a subtlety ment, I must sav something of a general 
beyond that of Machiavelli, a meanness 00- character, particularly in response to 
yond that of Bacon, and an ability beyond what has fanen from Senators who have 
that of Hastings. Justice to Kansas can raised themselves to eminence on this floor 
be Bf'cured only by the prostration of this In championship of human wron
. I 
Influence; for this is the power hehind- mean the Senator from South Carolina 
greater than any President-which succors (Mr. Butler) and the Senator from 
and sustains the crime. Nay, the proceed- TIlinois (Mr. Douglas), who, though un- 


like as Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, over the repuh1ic, and yet, with a ludicrous 
yet, like this couple. sally forth together ignorance of his own position-unable to 
in the same adventure. I regret much to see himself as others see him--or with an 
miss the elder Senator from his seat; but effrontery which even hiB white head 
the cause, against which he has run atilt ought not to protect from rebuke, he ap- 
with such activity of animo
ity, dcmands plies to those here who resist his section- 
that the opportunity of exposing him alism the very epithet which designates 
r;hould not be lost; and it is for the cause himself. The men who strive to bring 
that I speak. The Senator from Routh back the government to its original policy, 
Carolina has read many books of chivalry, when freedom and not slavery was sec- 
and believes himself a chivalrous knight, tional, he arraigns as sectional. This will 
'ith sentiments of honor and courage. not do. It invoh'es too great a perversion 
Of course, he has chosen a mistress to of terms. I tell that Senator that it is to 
whom he has made his vows, and who, himself, and to the "organization" of 
though ugly to others, is always lovely which he is the "committed advocate," 
to him; though polluted in the sight of the that this epithet belongs. I now fasten it 
world, is chaste in his sigl1t-I mean the upon them. For myself, I care little for 
harlot, Slavery. For her, his tongue is names; but since the question has been 
always profuse in words. Let l}er be im- raised here, I affirm that the Republican 
peached in character, or any proposition party of the Union is in nO just sense 
made to shut her out from tIle extension sectional, but, more than any other party, 
of her wantonnf>ss, and no extravagance national; and that it now goes forth to 
of manner or hardihood of assertion is dislodge from the high places of the gov- 
then too great for this Senator. The ernment the tyrannical sectionalism of 
frenzy of Don Quixote. in behalf of his which the Senator from South Carolina 
wench, Dulcinea del Toboso, is all sur- is one of the maddest zealots. . . . 
passed. The asserted rights of slavery, As the Senator from South Carolina is 
which shock equality of all kinds, are the Don Quixote, the Senator from Illinois 
cloaked by a fantastic claim of equality. CUr. Douglas) is the squire of slavery, 
If the slave States cannot enjoy what, in its very Sancho Panza, rpady to do all its 
mockery of the great fathers of the re- humiliating offices. This Rpnator, in hi!'! 
public. he misnames equality under the labored address, vindicating his labored 
Constitution-in other words, the full report-piling one mass of elaborate error 
power in the national Territories to com- upon another mass-constrained himself, 
pel fellow-men to unpaid toil, to separate flS you will remember, to unfamiliar de- 
husband and wife, pnd to sell little chil- cencies of speech. Of that address I have 
dren at the auction blo('k-then, sir, the nothing to say at this moment, though be- 
chivalric Senator will conduct the State of fore I sit down I shall show something of 
Routh Carolina out of the Union! Heroic its falIaci
s. But I go back now to an 
knight! Exalted Senator! A second l\-Ioses earlier occasion, when, true to his native 
come for a second e"{odus! impulses, he threw into this discussion, 
Rut not content with this poor menace, "for a charm of powerful trouble," per- 
which we have been twiee told was" meas- sonalities most discreditable to this body. 
ured," the Senator, in the unrestrainpd I wiII not stop to repel the imputation!'! 
chivalry of his nature, has undf>rtaken to which he cast upon myself; but I mention 
apply opprobrious words to those who them to remind you of the "sweltered 
differ from him on this floor. He calls vmom sleeping not," whidl, with other 
f..heJn " spctional and fanatical"; and oppo- poisoned ingredients, he cast into the 
sition to the mmrpation in Kansas he elp- caldron of this df'hatf>. Of ot}wr things I 
nounees as " an unealculating fanaticism." sppak. Sta1l<ling on this tloor, the Sen- 
To be sure, thf>sf> ehargps lack all grnep of ator issupd his rescript. requhing sub- 
? and all sf'ntiment of truth; mission to the nsurped powpr of Kansa!'1: 
l,ut the adwnturolls 
enator does not hf>si- amI this was :1.l'l'ompanif'd hy n mannpr- 
tatp. Hp is the uncompromising, unbhlHh- all his own-finch as hf'fits thp tyrannical 
ing representative on this floor of a fla- threat. Very well. I-et the Renator try. 
grant sectionalism, which now domineers I ten him now that he cannot force any 


such submission. The Senator. with the miliar with the life of Franklin; and yet 
slave-power at his back, is strong; but he he referred to this household character, 
is not strong enough for this purpo::,e. He while acting agent of our fathers in Eng- 
is bold. He shrinks from nothing. Like land, as abO\'e suspicion; and this was 
Danton, he may cry, "L'audacc! l'audacc! donc that he might give a point to a false 
toujollrs l'audace /" but even his auùacity contrast with the agent of Kansas-not 
cannot compa::,:; this work. The Senator knowing that, however they may differ in 
copies the British officer who, with boast- genius and fame, in this experience they 
ful'swagger, said that with the hilt of are alike: that Franklin, when intrusted 
his sword he would cram the "stamps" with the petitions of l\Iassachusetts Bay, 
down the throats of the American people, was assaulted by a foul-mouthed speaker, 
anù he will meet with a similar failure. where he could not be heard in defence, 
He may convulse this country with a and denounced as a "thief," even as the 
civil feud. Like - the ancient madman, he agent of Kansas has been assaulted on 
may set rire to this temple of constitu- this floor, and denounced as a "foraer." 
tional liberty, grander than the Ephesian And let not the vanity of the Senat
r be 
dome; but IlP cannot enforce obedience to inspired by the parallel with the British 
that tyrannical usurpation. statesman of that day; for it is only in 
The Sen<l1or dreams that he can subdue l)ostility to freedom that any parallel can 
the Korth. He disclaims the open threat, be recognized. 
but his conduct still implies it. How lit- But it is against the people of Kansas 
tIe that Senator knows himself or the that the sensibilities of the Senator are 
strength of the cause which he persccutes! particularly aroused. Coming, as he an- 
He is but a mortal man: against him is nounces, "from a State "-ay, sir. from 
an immortal principle. 'Yith finite power South Carolina
he turns with lordly dis- 
he wrestles with the infinite, and he must gust from this newly formed community, 
fall. Against him are stronger battalions which he wiJI not recognize even as a 
than any marshalled by mortal arm-the "body politic." Pray, sir, by what title 
inborn, ineradicable, invincible sentiments does he indulge in this egotism? Has he 
of thp human heart; against him is nature read the history of " the State II which he 
in all her subtle forces; against him is represents? He cannot surely have for- 
God. Let him try to subdue these. gotten its slJameful imbecility from sla- 
'Vith regret, I come again upon the very, confessed throughout the Revolution, 
Senator from South Carolina (ßIr. But- fclJowed by its more shameful as sump- 
ler), who, omnipresent in this debate, over- tions for slavery since. He cannot have 
flowed with rage at the simple sup-gestion forgotten its wretched persi
tence in the 
that Kansas had applied for admi
sion as slave-trade as the very apple of its eye, 
a State; and, with incoherent phrases, dis- and the condition of its participation in 
charged the loose expectoration of his the "Gnion. HI" cannot have forgotten its 
speech, now upon her representative, and constitution, which is republican only in 
then upon 1wr people. There was no ex- name, confirming power only in the hands 
travagance of the ancient parliamentary of the few, and founding the qualifications 
dchate which hp did not repeat; nor was of its legislators on a "settled frce- 
thf're any possihle deviation from truth ho
d estate and ten negroes." And yet 
which he did not make. with so much of the Senator, to whom that" State" has 
passion, I am glad to add, as to save him in part I'ommitted the guardianship of its 
from the suspicion of intf>ntional alwrra- good name. instead of moving, with back- 
tiOl't. TIut Hie Renator tonclwq noUling ward treading stf>pS, to cover its naked- 
which lIe does not disguise with enol', IWSS, rushps forward in the very ecsta,"y 
sometimes of prîu('iplC'. somet imes of fact. of madness, to p\:po"e it by pro\'oking a 
He shows an ineapa(Oity of accuracy, comparison with Kansas. South Carolina 
whf>ther in stating the Constitution, or in is old: KaU
:1S is yonng. South Carolina 
stating the law, w1wthpr in the <If>h\ils of counts hy ('cnturips whpre Kansa-!'\ counts 
statistics or the diversions of f',cholars11ip. hy years. Hut a hcnefiC'cnt e""ample ma
He cannot open his mouth, but out there h(> horn in a day: and I venture to 
flies a blunder. Surely he ought to be fa- that, against the two centuries of the OldCf 


" State," may be already set the two years Frederick the Great and the United States. 
of trial, evolving corresponding virtue, in He died in Berlin, Germany, Oct. 27, 
the younger community. In the one is 1884. 
the long wail of sla.very; in the other, Kaskaskia. The Illinois country under 
the hymns of freedom. .And if we glance the rule of the French contained six dilS- 
at special achievements, it will be difficult tinct settlements, one of which was Kas- 
to find anything in the history of South kaskia, situated upon the Kaskaskia 
Carolina which presents so much of heroic River, 5 miles above its mouth, and with- 
spirit in an heroic cause as appears in in 2 miles of the Mississppi River. Kas- 
that repulse of the Missouri invaders by kaskia, under the French régime, was, 
the beleaguered town of Lawrence, where comparatively speaking, a large town, con- 
even the women gave their effective efforts taining from 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants. 
to freedom. . . . "Vhen the French were expelled from this 
Already in Lawrence alone there are region by the British and Americans, the 
newspapers and schools, including a high population rapidly decreased. On July 
school, and throughout this infant Terri- 5, 1778, the town was captured by the 
tory there is more mature scholarship Americans under GEORGE ROGERS CLARKE 
far, in proportion to its inhabitants, than (q. v.), who was acting under authoriza- 
in all South Carolina. Ah, sir, I tell the tion of Patrick Henry, at that time gov- 
Senator that Kansas, welcomed as a free ernor of Virginia. 
State, will be a "ministering angel" to Kasson, JOHN ADAM, diplomatist; 
the republic when South Carolina, in the born in Charlotte, Vt., Jan. 11, 1822; 
cloak of darkness which she hugs, "lies graduated at the University of Vermont 
howling." . . . in 1842; and was admitted to the bar in 
To overthrow this usurpation is now Massachusetts. Removing to St. Louis, 
the special, importunate duty of Congress, Mo., he practised till 1857, when he set- 
admitting of no hesitation or postpone- tIed in Des Moines, la. In 1861-62 he 
ment. To this end it must lift itself from was first assistant Postmaster-General; in 
the cabals of candidates, the machinations 1863-67 was a member of Congress, and 
of party, and the low level of vulgar in 1863 and 1867 the United States 
shife. It must turn from that slave commissioner to the international postal 
oligarchy and refuse to be its tool. Let the Congress. He again served in Congress 
power be stretched forth towards this in 1873-77, and in the latter year was ap- 
distant Territory, not to hind, but to un- pointed United States minister to Aus- 
bind; not for the oppression of the weak, tria, where he remained till 1881, when he 
but for the subversion of the tyrannical; was again elected to Congress. In 1884- 
not for the prop and maintenance of a re- 85 he was minister to Germany, and in 
vo1ting usurpation, but for the confirma- 1893 envoy to the Samoan international 
tion of liberty. . . . conferen('e. President McKinley ap- 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill. See KANSAS. pointed him United States special com- 
Kapp, FRIEDRICH, author; born in missioner plenipotentiary to negotiate rec- 
Hamm, Prussia, April 13, 1824; educated iprocity treaties in 1897, tInder the Ding- 
at the University of Heidelberg, and be- ley tariff act; and in 1898 he became a 
came a lawyer; came to the United States member of the Anglo-American Joint 
in 1850, and practised in New York till High Commission. He resigned the offi('e 
1870, when he returned to Germany. His of reciprocity commissioner in March, 
publications include The Slave Question 1901, owing to the failure of the Fifty- 
in the United States; Life of the Ameri- sixth Congress to act On several commer- 
can General Friedrich Wilhelm von Stell,- cial treaties he had negotiated. 
hen; History of Slavery in the United Katipunan League, a revolutionary 
States of America; The Tmding in Sol- organization in the Philippine Islands. 
diers of the German Princes with Amer- The aim of the society was to expel the 
ica; A History of the German Migration Spaniards and the monastic orders from 
into America; On Immigration and the the islands. The most inhuman atrocities 
Commission of Emigration; Life of the were committed by both the Spanish troops 
A merican General Johann de Kalh; and and the Katipunan insurgents. The re- 


volt was brought to an end by a compact 
made Dec. 14, 1897, between Aguinaldo 
and thirty-four other leaders, who agreed 
to quit the Philippine Islands, not to re- 
turn until authorized by the Spanish gov- 
ernment; the Spanish government agree- 
ing to pay $1,ïOO,OOO in instalments, 
provided the rebellion was not renewed 
within a certain time. A first instalment 
of $400,000 was paid, but the promised 
rdorm was not carried out and the 
families of the fonner leaders were per- 
secuted by the Spanish authorities. 
Kaufman, THEODORE, artist; born in 
Nelsen, Hanover, Dec. 18, 1814; studied 
painting in Munich and Hamburg; came 
to the United States in 1855, and served 
during the Civil War in the National 
army. Later he settled in Boston. His 
works include General Sherman near the 
Watchfire; On to Liberty; A Pacific Rail- 
u:ay Train attacked by Indians
' Slaves 
seeking Shelter under the Flag of the 
Union; Admiral Farragut entering Har- 
bOr through Torpedoes; and Farragut 
in the Rigging. 
Kautz, ALBERT, naval officer; born in 
Georgetown, 0., Jan. 29, 1839; entered 
the na "y as acting midshipman in 1854; 

raduated at the Naval Academy in This notice resulted in hostilities which 
1839; promoted to passpd midshipman, lasted for several days. About 175 sailor!!! 
master, and lieutenant, in 1861; and was were landed from the American and Brit- 
a prisoner of war in North Carolina, and ish war-ships. Before order was restored, 
at Richmond, Va., in June-October, 1861. several American and British officers and 
In 1862 he was flag-lieutenant to Farra- sailors were killed, and others wounded. 
gut, on the Hartford, and, after tIle sur- The loss of the natives was supposed to 
render of Kew Orleans, he entered the have been very heavy (!!lee SA
city, remond the "Lone Star" flag from Admiral Kautz was retired in January, 
the city hall, and raised the stars and If101. 
stripes over the custom-house. He was Kautz, AUGUST VALENTINE, military 
also on the Hm.tfm'd when that ship took officer; born in Ispringen, Germany, Jan. 
part in the engag-ement with the batteries 5, 1828; brother of Admiral Kautz. His 
of Vicksburg. He was promoted to lieu- parents came to the l;nited States the 
tenant-commander in 1865; commander year of his birth, and in 1832 settled in 
in 1872; captain in 1885; commodore in Ohio. He graduated at the United States 
fl7: and rear-admiral in 1898; and in 
filitary Academy in 1852; commis- 
the latter ypar was placed in command of sioned second lieutenant in the 4th In- 
the Pacific station. In 1899 Admiral fan try in 1853; promoted first lieu ten- 
Kautz figured prominently in settling the ant in 1855; captain in the 6th Cavalry 
troubles at Samoa. In :March of that ill 1861; colonel 8th Infantry in 1874; 
year. after he arrived at the scene of the brigadier-general in IS!)}; and was re- 
trouble, on board the Philadelphia, be tired Jan. 5, 1892. In the volunteer ser- 
spent two days in making inquiries, and vice he was commissioned colonel of the 
tIlen called a meeting of all tbe consuls 2d Ohio Cavalry, Sept. 2. 1862; promoted 
and the senior officers of the English and to brigadier - general, :May 7, 1864; and 
German war-ships in the harbor. After brevetted major - general, Oct. 28, fonow- 

this meeting he issued a proclamation 
ill which he declared that the so-called 
prO\'isional government under Mataafa 
was without legal status, according to 
the terms of the Berlin treaty. He, 
therefore, ordered 
Iataafa and his fol- 
lowers to lay down their arms and return 
to their homes. The German consul, 
however, would not agree to this procla- 
mation, and issued a counter one, which 
was translated into the Samoan language, 
a.nd circulated among the supporters of 
l\Iataafa. This proclamation waS as fol- 

<<Notice to all Samoans: 
.. By the proclamation of the admiral of 
the United States, dated :\Iarch 11, was made 
known that the three consuls of the signa- 
tory powers of the Berlin treaty, as well as 
the three commanders of men-of-war, had 
been unanimous to no more recognize the 
provisional government, composed of l\lataafa 
and the thirteen chiefs. 
.. I, therefore, make known to you that this 
proclamatIon is quite false. I. the German 
consul-general, continue to recognize the 
provisIonal government of Samoa untfI I 
receive contrary Instructions from my govern- 

.. ROSE, German Consul-General. 
co APIA, 1Jlarch 13, 1899." 


ing. During the Ciyi1 War he distingni
erl himself at Monticello. Ky.: at I'l'ten;- 
hurg, Va.; in the action on thp Darhy- 
town road in \Tirginia: in the pur!:-'uit and 
capture of .John Morgan. the <. 'onfederate 
raider; and in the final Hichmond cam- 
paign. After Ul(' war he served in \ri- 
zona, California, and Nebraska. General 
Kautz published 'l'he Company Clerk; 
Customs of Srrvice for Non-commissioned 
Officers and Soldiers; and CustOms of 
Service for Officers. He died in Seattle, 
Wash., Sept. 4, 18!);). 
Kean, JOHN, legislator; born in Crsino, 
N. J., Dec. 4, 1852; was educated at Yale 
College; graduated at the Law School of 
Columbia CoHí'ge in 1875; admitted to 
the New Jersey bar in 1877. but never 
practised; waR a member of Congress in 
1883-85 and ] 887-BB ; and a Republican 
United States Senator in 1889-1905. 
Keane. JOHN JOSEPH, clergyman; born 
in TIaHyshannon. Ireland, Sept. 12, 1830; 
carne to the United States in lR46; was 
educated in St. Charlps's College and St. 
Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; ordained a 
priest of the Roman Catholic Church in 
1866, and assigned to St. Patrick's 
Church, \Vashin/!ton. He remained there 
till Aug. 25, 1878. when he was conse- 
crated Bishop of Richmond, Va. He was 
rector of the Catholic University of Amer- 
ica, \Vashington, D. C., in 1886-97, whcn 
he resigned and went to Rome. In 1900 
lw was appointed Archbishop of Dubuque. 
Kearns, THO'IAS, legislator; born near 
\Yoodstock, Ontario, Canada, April II, army in Africa as a volunteer, and re- 
G2; removed to Utall, whí're he worked turncd in 1840 with the cross of the Le- 
in a mine, later IJPcoming owner of two gion of Honor. Aide to General Scott 
mines. He was a delegate to the TIepubli- ( I B-1 1-44), he was made captain in the 
(.an National Convention in 18!JG and 1000; United 
tates army, and served on the 
nd a Republican United States Senator staff of Scott in the war with Mexico, re- 
in If)Ol-():). cf'iving great applause. Near the city of 
Kearny, T
CE, naval officer; born Mpxico he lost his left arm in battle. 
in Perth Amboy, N. J., Nov. 30, 1780; After serving a campaign on the Pacific 
entered the navy in 1807; performed im- ('oast against the Indians, he went to Eu- 
portant services on the coast of South rope, and served on the staff of the French 
Carolina and fldjoining States during the General l\Iamier in the Italian \Var 
War of 1812-15; anù after the war, in (I850). He received from the French gov- 
command of the schooner Enterprise, as- C'rnment a second decoration of the Legion 
sisted with efficiency in ridding the West of Honor. He hastened home when the 
Indies and Gulf of 1\Ipxi('o of pirates. Civil War broke out; was made brigadier- 
He also, in the lVarrcn, drove the Greek general of volunteers just after the bat- 
pirates from the Levant in 1827, and tIe of BuH Run, and commanded a brigade 
broke up their nests. In command of the of New Jersey troops in Franklin's di- 
East India squadron in 1851, he secured vision, Army of the Potomac. He com- 

from the Chinese authorities the recogni- 
tion of the right of Americans to trade 
there, and thp same protection and fa('ili- 
ties to our merchants as Wl're about being 
granted by treaty to Great Britain. He 
diC'd in Perth 
\mhoy. Nov. 2D, 1868. 
Kearny, PHILIP, military ollicer; born 
in New York City, June 2, 1815; studied 
law, but, preferring the military pro- 
fession, entered the army at twenty- 
two years of age as lieutenant of 
dragoonH. f;oon afterwards the govern- 
ment Rent him to I':urope to stuùy and 
rf'port upon French cavalry tactics. 
While there he fought in the French 





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wanded a division in Heintzelman's corps; \Yashington, from Aug. 2.3 till his death, 
behaved gallantly during the Peninsula near Chantilly, \
ept. 1, 1862. He 
campaign; was malte major-general of had placed his division in preparation for 
volunteers in July, 186
; was the first l'attle, and after dark was reconnoitring 
to reinforce Pope; and was engaged in within the enemy's lines when he was dis- 
the battles between the Rappahannock and covered and shot dead. 


Kearny, STEPHEN \YATTS, military 
officer; born in Newark, N. J., Aug. 30, 
1794; uncle of Gen. Philip Kearny. When 
the War of 181
-15 broke out young 
Kearny left his studies at Columbia Col- 
lege, entered the army as lieutenant of 
infantry, and distinguished himself in the 
battle of Queenston Heights. In April, 
lR13, he was made captain, and rose to 
hrigadier - general in June, 1846. He was 
in command of the Army of the \Yest 
at the beginning of the war with l\kxico, 
and with that army marched to California, 
conquering Xew 
Ieè\.ico on the way. He 
established a provisional government at 
Santa Fé, pressed on to California, and 
was twice wounded in battlf'. For a few 
months in I8-H he was governor of Cali- 
fornia; joined the army in )'Ieè\.ico; in 
1\1arch. 1848, was governor, military and 
civil, of Yera Cruz, and in 1\1ay of the 
;ame :vear was madf' governor of the city 
of Mf'xico. In August, 1848. he was 
hrevetted major-general. and died in St. 
Louis, 1\10.. on Oc>t. 31, foJlowing. 
The Kearny-F::tockton f'ollfrol'crsy.- 
The differences hf'tween General Kearny 
and C'ommorlore StoC'kton. after the occu- 
pation of California, originated primarily 
in the indefiniteness of the instructions 
which were issued from the SE"at of govern- 
ment. Those adrlressf'd to tl1P naval com- 
mandE"rs on thf' PHcific. in tlwir jnrlgnwnt, 
justified the organization of a military 
force and a civil governmf'nt in California, 
and under those instructions C'ommodore 

tockton anthorin'd Colonel Frémont to 
organize thp California hattalion and take 
its command with the title of major. By 
virtue of thosf'. he likewise took the neces- 
sary steps for thE" organization of a civil 
gm'ernment f(lr California and inw'stf'd 
Frémont with thf' titlE" and responsibiJitif's 
of governor. 
As soon as 
sl1mmated, Kit 

escort of fifteen men, to hear the intelli- 
gence overland to \Vashington, as soon as 
possible. .J ust as he had crossed the 
desert and was approaching the Anierican 
frontier, he was met by General Kearny, 
with a small force of dragoons. marching 
westward, under instructions from his 
go,'ernment to conquer California and or- 
ganize a civil government in tlw terri- 
tory, a work which had already been suc- 
ce""fuJIy accomplished. 
Upon learning what had occurred, 
Kearny insisted upon Carson's rf'turning 
with him, as his guide, to CalifOl'nia, 
ha ,-ing forwarded the df'spatches to 
\\'ashington by another messenger of his 
own selection. rpon the general's 
at Los Angeles, the capital of California, 
and the seat of the n{'w government, thE' 
contest soon aro,,(' he tween himself and 
Commodore Stockton. The process by 
which Colonel Frémollt became involved 
in this controversy is obvious. He held 
a commission in tIle army as lieutenaHt 
of topographical f'ngineers, and, as such. 
was. primarily, subject to the orders of 
his superior general officer of the army. 
He had since yielded to the exigencies of 
the occa
ion. and, from motive and for 
reasons which cannot be impeached. 
waind any privileges he might have 
claimed. as the real conqueror of Korth 
California, and. in point of rank, the su- 
perior representative of the army on the 
PacifiC' coast, and, with his men, volun- 
teered to Sf'rve under Commodore Stock- 
ton in the further prosecution of the war 
in South California, the subjugation of 
which could not be so successfully effected 
without th(' aid of a fleet. By accepting 
the govE"rnorship of California, a vacancy 
lweI lWE"n erf'ated in the command of the 
California battalion, and othE"r changes 
had hecome necessary. The fir,.;t intima- 
thes," results "erE" com- tion which Colonel Frémont received of 
Carson was sent, with an General Kearny's intention to test the 


,'alidity of Commodore Stockton's acts, 
through him, was conveyed in the follow- 
ing note: 
"Jan. 16, 1847. 
"By direction of Brigadier - General 
Kearny, I send you a copy of a com- 
munication to him from the Secretary of 
\Var, dated June 18, 1846, in which is 
the following: 'These troops, and such 
as may be organized in California, will 
be under your command.' The general 
directs that no change will be made in 
the organization of your battalion of 
volunteers, or officers appointed in it, 
without his sanction or approval being 
first obtained. WIlL F. EMORY, 
"Lieutenant and Acting Assistant 
" Adjutant-General." 

This note at once raised the question 
whether he was to obey General Kearny, 
and thereby, so far as his example could 
go, inval ida te the acts of Commodore 
Stockton, in which he had co-operated, or 
obpy Commodore Stockton, and, so far 
as his decision would go, sustain the 
validity of those proceedings which he be- 
lieved to be both legal and patriotic. If 
he took the former course, he incurred 
the liability to be arraigned, and, in his 
judgment, justly disgraced for disobeying 
an officer whose rank and authority he 
had deliberately recognized; and he fur- 
tber incurred the charge of base ingrati- 
tilde towards an officer whose courtesy 
and confidence he had shared, whose con- 
duct he ha'd approved, and who unex- 
pectedly found himseU in a situation to 
need the support of his friends. Frêmont 
was incapable of deserting either a friend 
or what he deemed a post of duty; he 
accordingly addressed to General Kearny 
the following reply, on the following day: 

this morning to make such a reply as the 
brief time allowed for reflection will en- 
able me. 
"1 found Commodore Stockton in poe- 
session of the country, exercising the func- 
tions of military commandant and civil 
governor, as early as July of last year; 
and shortly thereafter I received from him 
the commission of military commandant, 
the duties of which I immediately entered 
upon, and have continued to exercise to 
the present moment. 
"I found also, on my arrival at this 
place, some three or four days since, Com- 
modore Stockton still exercising the func- 
tions of civil and military governor, with 
the same apparent deference to his rank 
on the part of aU officers (including your- 
self) as he maintained and required when 
he assumed them in July last. 
"I learned also, in conversation with 
you, that on the march from San Diego, 
recent]y, to this place, you entered upon 
and discharged duties implying an ac- 
knowledgment on your part of supremacy 
to Commodore Stockton. 
"I feel, therefore, with great deference 
to your professional and personal charac- 
ter, constrained to say that, until you and 
Commodore Stockton adjust between your- 
selves the question of rank, where I re- 
spectfully think the difficulty belongs, I 
shall have to report and receive orders, as 
heretofore, from the commodore. 
"\Vith considerations of high regard, I 
am, sir, your obedient servant, 
"Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. A., and Mili- 
tary Commandant of the Territory 
of California. 
"Brig.-Gen. S. W. Kearny, U. S. A." 

The same day that General Kearny ad- 
dressed the note above quoted to Colonel 
Frêmont, a yet more serious correspond- 
ence commenced between him and Commo- 
"CnmAD DE Los ANGELES, dore Stockton. It is here given at length. 
"Jan. 17, 1847. with the introductory remarks of Commo- 
"SIR,-I have the honor to be in receipt dore Stockton's biographer, who evidently 
of your favor of last night, in which I wrote under the eye and approval of thp 
am directed to suspend the execution of commodore: 
orders which, in my capacity of military "Frl'mont throug-hout the California 
commandant of this territory, I had re- war was strictly and technicany in the 
ceived from Commodore Stockton, gov- naval service, under Commodore Stockton. 
ern or and commander - in - chief in Cali- He had taken service under him with an 
fornia. I a,'aiI myseU of an early hour express agreement that be would continue> 


subject to his orders as long as he con- 
tinued in command in California. This 
engagement both he and Captain Gillespie 
had entered into from patriotic motives, 
and to render the most efficient service to 
the country. He visited California origi- 
nally upon topographical, and not on mili- 
tary, duty. His volunteering under Stock- 
ton on special service was a patriotic im- 
}Julse, in complying with which the gov- 
ernment were in honor bound to sustain 
him. He therefore very properly refused 
to violate his agreement with Stockton, 
and unite with Kearny against him. 
.. Having failed to compel Frémont to 
acknowledge bis authority, the general ad- 
dressed himself to the commodore and de- 
manded that he should abdicate the com- 
"The commodore, considering the sub- 
jugation of California complete, and that 
no further hostilities were likely to take 
place, was of opinion that he might now 
relinquisb his governorship and com- 
mand-in-chief and return to his ship. 
But, having informed the government that 
upon that eYent he intended to appoint 
Colonel Frémont governor, be now pro- 
ceeded to carry that design into execu- 
"General Kearny, learning this to be 
the purpose of the commodore, and de- 
sirous of exercising the functions of gov- 
ernor himself, addressed to him the fol- 
lowing letter:" 

to form such government and make such 
" If you have such authority, and will 
show it to me or furnish me with a cer- 
tified copy of it, I will cheerfully acqui- 
esce in what you are doing. If you have 
not such authority, I then demand that 
you cease all further proceedings relating 
to the formation of a civil government of 
this Territory, as I cannot recognize in 
you any right in assuming to perform 
duties confided to me by the President. 
.. Very respectfully, 'your obedient ser- 
vant, S. \-V. KEARNY, 
"Brigadier-General U. S. A. 
"Commodore R. F. Stockton, Acting 
"Governor of California." 


"Jan. 16, 1847. 
"Sm,-In answer to your note, received 
this afternoon, I need say but little more 
than that which I communicated to you 
in a conversation at San Diego-that 
California was conquered and a civil gov- 
ernment put into successful operation; 
that a copy of the laws made by me for 
the government of the Territory, and the 
names of the officers selected to iiee them 
faithfuUy executed, were transmitted to 
the President of the United States before 
you arrived in the Territory. 
"I will only add that I cannot do any- 
thing nor desist from doing anything on 
your demand, which I will submit to the 
President and ask for your recall. In the 
mean time you will consider yourself sus- 
pended from the command of the United 
States forces in this place. 
"Faithfully, your obedient servant, 
" Commander-in-Chief. 
"To Brevet Brig.-Gen. S. ,V. Kearny." 

"Jan. 16, 1847. 
"SIR,-I am informed that you are en- 
gaged in organizing a civil government, 
and appointing officers for it in this terri- 
tory. As this duty has been speciaUy as- 
signed to myself, by orders of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, conveyed in let- GENERAL KEAR:NY TO COM1IIODORE STOCKTON. 
ters to me from the Secretary of War, of 
June 3, 8, and 18, 1846, the original of "HEADQUARTERS, ARMY OF THE 'VEST, 
which I gave to you on the 12th, and "CIUDAD DE Los ANGELES, 
which you returned to me on the 13tb, "Jan. 17, 1847. 
and copies of which I furnished you with "SIR,-In my communication to you of 
on the 26th December, I have to ask if yesterday's date I stated that I had 
you have any authority from the Presi- learned that you were engaged in organiz- 
dent, from the Secretary of the Navy, or ing a civil government for California. I 
from any other channel of the President referred you to the President's instruc- 


tions to me (the original of which you 
ha,-e seen) and copies of which I furnished 

ou, to perform that dut
., and added that 
'ou had any authority from the Presi- 
dent, or any of his organs, for wha.t 
were doing, I would cheerfully acquiesl'C', 
and if you had not j,nIch authorit,y I de- 
manded that ;you would cease further pro- 
ceedings in the ma Uer. 
" Your reply of the same date refers me 
to a converRation held at San Diego, and 
addR that you cannot do anything or de- 
sist from duing anything or aIter anything 
011 )'our (my) demand. As, in COllF;e- 
quenee of the defpat of the enemy on the 
8th and 9th inst., by the troops under 
my command, a.nd the capitulation en- 
tered into on the 13th inst. by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Frémont with the leaders of the 
Californians, in which the people under 
arms and in the field agree to disperse and 
remain qniet and peaceable, the country 
may now, for the first time, be considered 
as conquered, and taken possession of by 
1]8; and as I am prepared to carry out the 
President's im;tructions to me, which you 
opposc, I must, for the purpose of prevent- 
ing a C'ollision between us and possibly a 
civil war in consequence of it. remain 
silent for the present, leaving with you the 
great 1'eðpon
Úhility of doing that for 
which )'ou have no authority, a.nd pre- 
venting me from compl
'ing with the Pres- 
ident's orders. 
.. Very respectfully, your obedient ser- 
yant, S. 'V. KEARNY, 
"Brigadier-General U. S. A. 
"Commodore R. F. Rtockton, Acting 
"Governor of C'alifornia." 

cumstances. I, therefore, immediately on 
my arrival, waited upon the governor and 
cümmander-in-l'hief, COlllllludore Stockton, 
:md, a few minutes afterwards, called 
Hl,on Ucneral Kearn
'. I boon found them 
ol'enpying a hostile attitude, and each 
'ing the right of the oUwr to aðSUme 
the direction of al1'airs in this country. 
"The ground aSRumed by General 
Kearny was that he held in his hand 
plenary instructions from the President 
directing him to conqupr California, and 
organize a civil government, and that con- 
sequently he would not recognize the acts 
of Commodore Stockton. 
"The latter maintained that 11is own 
instructions were to the same effect as 
"s; that this officer's commission 
was obsolete, and never would have been 
given could the government have antici- 
pated that the entire country, seaboard 
and inÜ'rior, would have been conquered 
and held by himsC'lf. The country had 
been conquered and a civil go\'ernment in- 
stituted since September last, the consti- 
tution of the Tcrritory and appointments 
Hnder tl1C constitution had been sent to 
the government for its approval, and 
decisive action undoubtedly long since had 
upon them. General Kearny was in- 
structed to conquer the country, and upon 
its threRholù his command had been near- 
ly cut to pieces, and, but for relief from 
Hm (Commodore Stockton), would have 
been destroyed. More men were lost than 
in General Taylor's battle of the 8th. In 
regard to the remaining part of his in- 
structions, how couM he organize a 
government without first proceeding to 
di"ìorganize the present one? His work 
The motives which actuated Colonel Fré- had been anticipated; his commission was 
mont in el(:cting to pursue the course absolutelv null and void and of no effect. 
wllich he did upon the arrival of Gcneral "But if General Kearny believed that 
Kearny, are scarcely open to misconstrue- his instructions gave him paramount au- 
tion. There ha.ppens, 11Owe,'e1'. to be the thority in tlle country, he made a fatal 
best of evidence in regard to them in a errOr on his arrival. He was received 
letter addresspd to Colonel Bpnton at the with kindness and distinction by the 
time of the collision, which rewals in all commodore, and oft'cred by him the com- 
the confidence of Iwrsonal friel1dslJip tlle mand of llis land forees. (ienpral Kearny 
innermost secrets of his heart. In that I"ejected the offN' and declined interfering 
Iptter, he sa
rs: with Commodore Stockton. This ofIicer 
". . . 'Vhen I entered Los Angeles I was then preparing for a march to Ciu- 
was ignorant of the relations subsisting dad de Los An
C'les, his force being princi- 
bC'twepn these gentlemen, having received pal1y sailors and marines, who were all 
from npitlwr any order or information on foot (fortunately for thC'm), and who 
which might serve as a guide in the cir- were to be prm'ided with supplies on tlleir 


march through an enemy's country, where 
all the people are cavalry. His force was 
paraded, and ready to start, 700 in num- 
ber, supported by six pieces of artillery. 
The command, under General Stockton, 
had been conferred upon his first lieuten- 
ant, Mr. Rowan. At this juncture Gen- 
eral Kearny expressed to Commodore 
Stockton his expectation that the com- 
mand would have been given to him. The 
commodore informed the general that 
Lieutenant Rowan was in his usual line 
of duty, as On board ship, relieving him 
nf the detail of the drudgery of the camp, 
while he himself remained the com- 
mander-in-chief; that if General Kearny 
was willing to accept Mr. Rowan's place, 
under these circumstances, he could have 
it. The general assented. Commodore 
Rtockton called up his officers and ex- 
plained the case. Mr. Rowan gave up 
his post generously and without hesita- 
tion; and Commodore Stockton desired 
them clearly to understand that he re- 
mained commander-in-chief; under this 
arrangement the whole force entered 
Angeles; and on the day of my arrival 
at that place General Kearny told me 
that he did then, at that moment, recog- 
nize Commodore Stockton as governor of 
the Territory. 
"You are aware that I had con- 
tracted relations with Commodore Stock- 
ton, and I thought it neither right nor 
politically honorable to withdraw my sup- 
port. No reason of interest shall ever 
compel me to act towards any man in 
such a way that I should afterwards be 
ashamed to meet him." 
Early in the spring, new instructions, 
bearing date Nov. 5, reached Commodore 
Stockton, which put an end to the latter's 
supremacy in the quarter. In his des- 
patch the Secretary of the Navy says: 
"The President has deemed it best for 
the public interests to invest the military 
officer commanding with the direction of 
the operations on land, and with the ad- 
ministrath-e function!'; of the government 
over the people and Territory occupied 
by us. You will relinquish to Colonel 
Mason, or to Gpneral Kearny, if the latter 
shall arrh-e before you have done so, the 
entire control over these matters, and turn 
over to him all papers necessary to the 
performance of his duties." 

Instructions of a corresponding import 
were of course received from the \Var De- 
partment, by General Kearny, and with 
them, or not long afterwards, a despatch 
from Mr. Marcy, of which the following 
is an extract: 

"WAR DEPARTMENT, June 17, 18
". . . 'Vhen the despatch from this de- 
partment was sent out in November last, 
there was reason to believe that Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Frémont would desire to re- 
turn to the United States, and you wel'e 
then directed to conform to his wishes in 
that respect. It is not now proposed to 
change that direction. But since that 
time it has become known here that he 
bore a conspicuous part in the conquest 
of California, that his services have been 
very valuable in that country, and doubt- 
less will continue to be so should he re- 
main there. 
.. Impressed, as aU engaged in the pub- 
lic service must be, with the great im- 
portance of harmony and cordial co-opera- 
tion in carrying on military operations in 
a country so distant from the seat of 
authority, the President is persuaded that 
when his definite instructions were re- 
ceived, an questions of difficulty were set- 
tled, and aU feelings which had been 
f'licited by the agitation of them had sub- 
"Should Lieutenant-Colonel Frêmont, 
who has the option to return or remain, 

dopt the latter alternative, the President 
does not doubt you will employ him in 
such a manner as will render his services 
most available to public interest, having 
reference to his extensive acquaintance 
with the inhabitants of California, and 
Ilis knowledge of their language, qualifi- 
cations independent of others, which it is 
supposed may be very useful in the pres- 
ent and prospective state of our affairs in 
that t>ountry. . . . 
"Very respectfully, your ob't servant, 
"W. L. MARCY, 
"Secretar:r of 'Var." 
The "definite instructions" to which 
reference is here made were never com- 
municated to Colonel Frémont, and their 
suppression was very justly esteemed by 
him a grievance for several reasons, and 


among others, because they show that by 
the President's directions it was at 
Colonel Frémont's option whether he 
would remain in California or not, an 
option, however, which was denied him by 
General Kearnv. 
Early in Ma"rch, and after taking the 
<;upreme command in California, General 
Kearny addressed Colonel Frémont the 
following letter: 


"MOKTEREY, U. CAL., MUTch 1, 1847. 
"Sm,-By Department orders, 1'0. 2, 
of this date (which will be handed to 
you by Captain Turner, 1st Dragoons, 
A.A.A.G., for my command), you will see 
that certain duties are there required of 
you as commander of the battalion of 
è'alifornia volunteers. 
"In addition to the duties above re- 
ferred to, I have now to direct that you 
will bring with you, and with as little de- 
lay as possible, all the archive8 and pub- 
Hc documents and papers which may be 
!'ubject to your control, and which apper- 
tain to the government of California, that 
I may receive them from your hands at 
this place, the capital of the Territory. 
"I have directions from the general-in- 
chief not to detain you in this country, 
against your wishes, a moment longer 
than the necessities of the service may 
require; and you will be at liberty to 
leave here after you have complied with 
these instructions, and those in the order 
referred to. 
" Yery respectfully, your ob't servant, 
" S. 'V. KEARNY. 
.. Lieut.-Col. J. C. Frémont, Regiment of 
Mounted Riflemen, Commanding Bat- 
talion of California Volunteers, Ciu- 
dad de Los Angeles." . 

military, in that st:'ctio!l of the country 
as he may deem lnoper and necessary. 
Any instructions he may give you will be 
considered as coming from'myself." 
A few weeks later Colonel Frémont re- 
ceived orders from General Kearnv to re- 
port himself at Monterey with such of the 
members of his topographical corps as 
\\ere still under pay, prepared to set out 
at once for Washington. Colonel Frémont 
then applied for permission to join his 
regiment, under General Taylor's com- 
mand, supposed to be on its way to Vera 
Cruz. This request was refused without 
explanation or apology, and on June 
}4. Colonel Frémont addressed General 
Kearny as follows: 

"June 1
, 18p. 
"Sm,-In a communication which I re- 
ceiYed from vourself in March of the pres- 
cnt year I a;n informed that you had been 
directed bv the commander-in-chief not to 
detain m
 in this country against my 
wishes longer than the abgolute necessities 
of the service might require. 
"Private letters in which I have entire 
confidence further inform me that the 
President has been pleased to direct that 
I should be permitted the choice of join- 
ing my regiment in 
Iexico, or returning 
directly to the United States. An applica- 
tion which I had the honor to make to you 
at the Ciudad de Los Angeles for permis- 
sion to proceed immediately to Mexico 
having been rejected, and t.he duties of 
the exploring expedition which had been 
confided to my direction having been 
minated by 
rourself, I respectfully reo 
quest that I may now be relieved of all 
connection with the topographical party 
which vou have taken under your charge, 
and be" permitted to return to the United 
States. Travelling with a small pa.rty 
About a month later, he received the bJ' a direct route, my knowledge of the 
following order from General Kearny: country and free
om from professional 
business will enable me to reach the States 
"HEADQUARTERS, 10TH :MILITARY DEPT., some forty or fifty days earlier than your- 
"MONTEREY, CAL., Jlurch 28. self, which the present condition of affairs 
"Sm,-This will be handed to you by and a long absence from my family make 
Colonel Mason, 1st Dragoons, who goes to an object of great importance to me. 
the southern dish-ict, clothed by me with "It may not be improper to say to you 
full authority to give such orders and in- that my journey will be made with priv
st.ructions upon all matters, both civil and means, and will not, therefore, occaSIOn 


tenant-Colonel Frémont having performed 
the above dut
r, will consider himself 
under arrest, and will then repair to 
Washington City, and report himself to 
the adjutant-general of the army." . . 
For Colonel Frémont's subsequent ac- 
tions, see FRI:;
{üxT, Jou
To this request Colonel Frémont re- Kearny's Expedition and Conquest 
ceived the following reply: of New Mexico. See KEARXY, STEPHE
Kearsarge, TIlE. \YreC'ked on Ronca- 
dol' Reef, in Caribbean Sea, Feb. 2, 18!)4. 
See _\LABA:
IA, TIlE. 
Keeler, J A
[ES Enw ARD, asÌ1"ononlPr; 
born in La Salle, Ill.. f'ept. 10. lR:)ï: 
graduated at .J
hns Hopkins Cniversity in 
18RI; accompanied Prof. Langle
' on the 
:Mount \Yhitne
' expedition; studied two 
years with Quincke, in Heidelberg, and 
with Yon Helmholz, in Berlin. He was ap- 
pointed assistant astronomer of the Lick 
Observatory in 1886, and when the ob- 
sHvatory was transferred to the f'tate 
(.June, lR88), he was made fnn astrono- 
mer. He was director of the Allegheny 
Obseryatory in lR8!>-DR, and on Jun(> 1, 
18H8, was made director of the Lick Obser- 
vatory. Professor Keeler was a mem- 
ber of many American and foreign scien- 
tific societies, among them the Royal 
Astronomical Society of Great Britain, 
and in 1898 was awarded the Rumford 
medal of the American Academy of Arts 
and Science8. He wrote extensively for 
'The Astrophysical Journal and other tech- 
nïeal periodicals. He died on }'Iount Ham- 
ilton, Cal., Aug. 13, 1900. 
Keely, JOHN \VORRELL, mechanic; born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 3, 1837: was 
a carpenter till 1872. Prior to that date 
he had become interested in music, claim- 
ing that the tuning-fork had suggested 
to him a new motive power. After )'ears 
of experiment he exhibited a machine 
which appeared to have great power, its 
"FORT LEAVENWORTH, Aug. 22, 1847. motion, according to him, being produced 
" Lieutenant - Colonel Fr(>mont, of the neither by steam. electricity, nor compress- 
Regiment of 1Iountf'd Riflemen, will turn ed air, but bv the vibrations of a violin 
oyer to the officers of the different de- bow. This m;chine was called the" Køely 
pnrtments at this post, the horses, mules, motor," and in lRi4 a stock company was 
and other puhlic property in tl\e use of f'stahlishf'd which pontrilmtel1 thousands 
the topographical party now under his of dollars to pnahlp him to perf(.ct his 
C'ha rge, for which rpcei[lts will be given. alleged rlisconry. From lRï2 to 1891 he 
He wiII arrange the accounts of these built and rejected 129 different modeli'; 
men (nineteen in numher), so that they in 1881 a wealthy woman of Philadelphia 
can be paid at the earliest date. l..ieu- huilt a new lahoratory for him, and also 

any expenditure to thc go\'crnment. I 
have the honor to be, with lUuch respect, 
your obedient sen-ant, 
"J. C. FRÊ
Iounted Riflemen. 
"Brig.-Gen. S. \V. Kearny, Commanding, 


"CALIFORXIA, June 1-1, 18-p.- 
" Sm,- The request contained in your 
communication to me of this date, to be 
relieved from all connection with the 
topographical party (nineteen men), and 
be permitted to return to the United 
Slates with a small party made up by 
your pri\-ate means, cannot be granted. 
"I shall leave here on Wednesday, the 
Wth instant, and I require of you to be 
with J'our topographical party in my camp 
(which will probably be' about 1.3 miles 
from liNe) on the evening of that day, 
and to continue with me to 
" Yery respectfully, your obedient 
servant, S. \V. KEARNY, 
" Brigadier-General. 
"Lieutenant-Colonel Frémont, Regiment 
"Mounted Riflemen, New Helvetia." 

General Kearny broke up his camp near 
Sutter's fort on the day after issuing this 
order, and set out for the United States, 
attended by Colonel Frémont, who was 
treated, however, with deliberate dis- 
rpspeet throughout the journey. The 
party reached Fort Leavenworth about 
Aug. 22. On that day General Kearny 
sent for him, and directed Lieutenant 
"'harton to read to him a copy of the first 
paragraph of an order he had just issued 
of that date, as follows: 


furnished a w{'ekly salary that he might of Asa Trenchard and Edward _-\.. Sothern 
continue his experiments. At various ex- that of Lord Dundreary, then a minor 
hibitions he produced wonderful effects, character, which :\11'. Sothern afterwards 
but never revealed how these were ac- made the principal one in' a new version 
complished. After hh, death the whole of the play. In 1860 she brought out 
scheme was examined. and it was claimed The Set'cn Sisters, which ran for lü9 
by many to be a fraud-that the machine nights. It was while her company was 
was operated by a compressed-air motor playing Our A mcrican Cousin, at Ford's 
in the cellar. He died in Philadelphia, Theatre, Washington, on April 14, 1865, 
Pa., Nov. 18, 1898. that President Lincoln was fatally shot. 
Keen, GREGORY BERNARD, librarian; She remained on the stage till within two 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 3, 1844; years of her death, in Montclair, N. J., 
graduated at the Pni\'('rsit
r of Pennsyl- Nov. 4, 1873. 
vania in 18fH, and at the Divinity School Kegs, BATTLE OF THE. See HOPKINSON, 
of the l>rotestant Episcopal Church, PhiJa- FRANCIS. 
delphia, in 1866; became a Roman Catho- Keifer, JOSEPH WARREN, lawyer; born 
lie in 18fi8; was librarian of the Uni- in Clark county, 0., Jan. 30, 1836; edu- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1887-97; and cated at Antioch College; was admitted to 
hecame librarian of the Historical Society the ba,r and began practice in Springfield, 
of Penns;ylYania in 189R. He is the editor O. [n the Civil War he served in the 
of the Pcnn.sylt'ania Jlaga,dne of History Union army, rising from the rank of 
and Biography, and the author of a num- major to colonel and brevet brigadier-gen- 
bel' of articles on The Descendants of eral and major-general. At the close of 
Jörall Kyn, the Pounder of Upland, and the war he declined the appointment of 
the chapters on New Sweden and New Al- lieutenant-colonel of the 26th United 
bion in the Km'rative and Critical His- States Infantry. In 1868-69 he was a 
tory of A_ merira. State SC'nator; in 1877 - 83 a Republican 
Keenan, PETER, military officer; born Representative in Congress; and in 1881- 
in York, N. Y., Nov. fl. 1834; was adopt- 83 speaker of the nou,-;e. During the war 
cd by a wealthy Philadelphia family; be- with Spain President McKinley appointed 
came a captain in the 8th Penns
rlvania him a major-general of volunteers. Since 
Cavalry in 186!. After the rout of the ] 873 he has been president of a national 
11th Corps on the right wing at the bat- bank. In ApriJ, If101, he published Sla- 
tie of ChancellorsviIIe, May 2, 1863, with vrr.1l and Four Years of 1Far. 
less than 500 men, he charged the Con- Keith, GEORGE, clergyman: born in 
federate!'. taking them by complete sur- Aherdeen, Scotland, about 1645; belong- 
prise, so that their advance was sufficient- ed to the Society of Friends; came to East 
ly checked until the National guns were Jersey; was surveyor-genera] in 1682; 
got into position. This charge saved the and in 16R9 taught school in Philadelphia. 
National army from complete rout. He He wrote and spoke much in favor of the 
was killed during the action. Quakers, and visited New England in their 
Keene, T.<ArRA, actress; born in Chelsea, interest; but about 1691 he established a 
London, -England. in 1820; real name, s('ct who caned themselYes "Christian 

[ARY 1\1oss; made her first appearance Quakers." Keith was irritable, quarrf'l- 
on the stage in London, in 1845; was mar- some, and imperious. He finally left the 
ried to Henry ,V. Taylor in 1847, and to Quakers altogether; took orders in the 
John TÆtz in 1857. She won her greatest Church of England; and died rector of 
successes in light comedy. She first ap- Edburton, Su!'sex. England, in 1715. 
pea red in the United States at 'ValIack's Keith, SIR WILLIAM; born near Peter- 
Theatre. Xew York. in 18!J2, where sh
 head, England, in }(j
O; appointC'd gov- 
subsequentl,\' took the management of the ernor of Pennsyh'ania and Dela ware in 
Yarietips Theatre. and later opened a 1717 by George I. at the request of the 
theatre undpr her name, which she man- principal inhabitants. He was the only 
aged till 18()3. At this house, in 1858, she pre - Revolutionary governor who S.VIIl- 
first brought out Onr A_ml'rican Oousin, pathized with the colonists in their strug- 
in which Joseph Jefferson took the part {.!les with the pr<?prietarie:s or British gov- 


rnment. He was super!'eded in his office away by the Hudson Bay Company. He 
in 1726, and was elf'C'ted a member of the was the author of a Geographical J/emoir 
colonial ]p
d8Iature. He returned to Eng- of Orcgon, and A lli.<;tory of the Settle- 
land in I j"
S. and projected a series of mellt of Oregon alld of the Interior of 
colonial histories. of which that on Yir- Upper California, alld of Persecutions and 
ginia was the on1r onp published. He died A_lflictions of Forty Years' Continuance 
in London, Xm-. IR. I j" 4!1. Endured by the Author. He died in 
Kell, JOHN 
TOSH, nand officer; Palmer, :Mass., Jan. 17, 1874. 
born in Darien, Ga., .J an. 26, 182:J; en- Kelley, HENRY H., jurist; born in 
tered the "United States Xaval Academy in Huntsville, Ala., in 1823; served through- 
41; sen'ed under Commodores Sloat and out the )'Iexican 'Yar as lieutenant of the 
Perry in California and Japan; joined the 14th U. S. V.; resigned in 1848; re- 
('onfederatp navy as e-...:ecutive officer of entered the army in 183:;; resigned in 
the Rumter; transff'rred to the A.labama 18tH to enter the Confederate army. He 
in HHi2; was in the fight with the 1\('([r- wal-' a judge in the Louisiana Court of 
sarge, but resclwd hy the English :raeht Appea]s from 1884 till his death at New 
Deerhound when the Alabama sank; pro- Orleans, June lG, 18!14. 
moted captain C. S. N. He wrote Cruise Kelley, JA1tIES DOLGLAS JERROLD, naval 
and Combats of the .4.labama in Battles officpr; born in Xew York City, Dec. 2;), 
alld Leaders of the Civil War. He died 18H; graduated at the Cnited States 
in Sunnyside. Ga., Oct. 5, 1900. :Kaval Academy in 18G8; promoted ensign 
Keller, HELEN ADAlIIS, deaf, dumb, and in 1860; master in 1870; lieutenant in 
blind; born in Tuscumbia, A]a., June 27, ] 872; lieutenant-commander in 1893; and 
1880. She was sent to the 'Yright- commander in 18!}9. For a prize essay 
Humason School in New York City when written in 1881 he received a gold medal 
seven years of age, where she made rapid from the L'nited States Kaval Institute. 
progress under her teacher. :Miss SuJIimn. During the war with Spain (1898) he was 
In umi ",he was sent to the Arthur Gil- chairman of the board on auxiliary ves- 
man I':chool, and in 1899 she entered Rad- Eels; and in 1900-1 was on duty in Chi- 
cliffe College. where she studied Greek, nese waters. He is widely known by his 
Latin, and the higher mathematics. This numerous writings on naval subjects. His 
is probably the most wonderful instance publications include The Question of 
in the history of education where seeming- Ships
' Our ?\7 avy; A Desperate Chance; 
ly insuperable difficulties have been suc- A_merican Yachts; The S1f,ip's Company; 
cessfully surmounted. 1he Story of Coast Defence; American 
Kelley, BEX.TA)IIX FRANKLIN, military J[en-o'-U'ar; The Navy of the United 
officer; born in Xew Hampton, N. H., April Statcs, 1875-99, etc. 
10, 1807; removed to western Virginia in Kelley, 'VILLIAM DARRAH, legislator; 
182û. He entered the national army as horn in Philadelphia, Pa., April 12, ISl4; 
('o]one] of the 1st Virginia Regiment; took admitted to the bar in 1841; was a Free- 
part in the battle of Philippi, where he trade Democrat till 1848. when he entered 
was severely wounded; promoted brig- the Republican party, becoming a firm 
adier-general in 18Gl, major-general in abolitionist and proteetionist. He was 
186.3. After the Civil 'Val' he was col- elected to Congress in IRlìO, and held a 
lector of internal revenue and examiner seat in that body for many :rears. He 
of pensions. He died in Oakland, )'Id., was the author of Slavery in the Terri- 
July lG, 18!)!. tories (an address); .-tddress at the Col- 
Kelley, HAI.L JACKSO:V, colonist; born ored Deportment of the HOll.<iC of Refuge; 
in Korthwood, X. H., Feb. 
8, Ii!}O: grad- Reasons for A_bandoning the Theory of 
uated at 
Iiddlehury College in 1813; be- Free-Trade and Adopting the Principle of 
came interested in colonizing Oregon. and Protection to American Industry; Letters 
influenced the )'Iassachusetts legislature on Industrial and Financial Questions; 
to incorporate the" American Society for The 

ew South, etc. He died in 'Yashing- 
:Encouraging the Settlement of the Oregon ton, D. C.. Jan. 9. 1890. 
Territory." Later he conducted a number KeIleysville, BATTLE OF. See KELLY'S 
ettlers thither, but they were driven FORD. 


Kellogg, ('I..\RA LonsE. opf'ra-singpr; Territory in 1861; colonel of the 7th Illi- 
horn in SUlIl(('ni11 f'. S. C., .Tul,\' l
. IH4
; uois lTnited States Volunteers in 18(il; 
removed to Kew Yurk in 18.j(j, amI there colI('ctor in 1865; Unitpd States Senator 
received her musical education. She made froUl Louisiana in 1868"; governor of 
her first appearance in Xew York as Louisiana, 1873-77; re - elected rnited 
Uilda, in Riyol('tto, in 18lil, and in Lon- States Rf'nator ill 1877; member of Con- 
don in Her \Iajesty's Theatre in UW7. gress, 1883-85. 
8he made tours through the United States Kelly, JAMES EDWARD, sculptor; born 
from 18(j8 till her reappearance in Lon- in New York' City, July :30, IS;;,); began 
don in .May, 1872. Returning to the studying art under Charl('s Parsons, of 
l Tnited States, she sang in Italian opera the art department of Harper & Brothf'rs. 
for a season; organized an English opera in 1873. and subspquentl
' at the Academy 
company; then an Italian opera company of Design; and in 18iS lwgan his carper 
( IS76); married her manager, Carl 
tra- as an illustrator in sculpture of person- 
kosch, in 1887, and retired to private ages and e,ents prominent in 
life. history by modelling the well - known 
, militaQT offi- statuette of f:;herid(/n's Ride, for which 
cer; born in Xe\\' York Cit
T, :March 
3, the general pospd. In the following ;year 
1842; entered the arm
T in April. 18(il. as he made a portrait bust of Thomas A. 
a sergeant in the 24th Ohio Infantry; was Edison with the first phonograph; and in 
promoted to second lieutenant in October 1882 produced the Paul Hevere statue. 
following; tllf'n resigned and enlisted as During 1883-8.3 he was engaged on the 
a private in the !Gth rnited Statt:'s In- five panels for the Monmouth Battle 
fantry. He was promoted to first lieu- Monument, representing the Council of 
tpnant, Aug. I, 18G2; attainf'd the rank ll"qr at Hopcu;ell.. Ramsey Defending Ilis 
of brigadier-general, Dec. 5. 18!)!). and was Guns
' H'oshÙ;gton [(allying /lis Troops
retired for disabilities Dec. 16, ISU!). In .1l0lly Pitcher
' and Wayne's Chargc. In 
the Cidl War he greatly distinguished 188û he completed Grant at Donelson, for 
himself in the battle of l\Iurfreesboro and which the general furnished sittings and 
in the Atlanta campaign, and in the war details. For the Sara toga Monument he 
with Spain (1898) he commanded the 10th produced the panels, J..nwld H'ound('û in 
l'nited States Infantrv in the battle of the Trenches; and Schuylcr Transferring 
San Juan Hill, near 
Santiago de Cuba, His Plans to Gatcs. For the 
on July 1. Cemetery at Gett
'sburg he was the seulp- 
Kellogg, ELIJAH, clerg
"man; born in tor of General Deven and the lith New 
Portland, l\Iaine, 
Iay 20, 1813; graduated York Cavalry and the Buford l\Ionument. 
at ßowJ.oin in 1840. He wrote many In IS!H he produced the colossal figun
popular books for young people, and wa
'! The Call to Arms, for the Soldiers' Mom1- 
the author of the well-known Address of m('nt at Troy, N. Y. In 18!):) he fur- 
Npúrt(/clts to the Gladiators. He died in nished the Island panel, for the Son,> 
Iarch 17. 1901. of the Revolution; in 1897 the memorial 
Kellogg, l\IARTIN. educator; born in of the battle of Harlem Heights on the 
Yernon, .Conn., l\Iarch 15, 182S; graduated grounds of Columbia University. also for 
at Yale College in 1850; went to Cali- the Sons of the Revolution: and in 1901 
fornia as a Congregational clergyman; was pngaw'd on a monument to commem- 
was Professor of 'I..atin in the old Cali- orate the defence of New Haven, for the 
fornia College in IS39-û!); and in 186!), Sons of the American Revolution. Besides 
when the Cniversity of California was these works lw has produced heads of the 
founded, became Professor of Ancient Lan- principal eommanders of the Ci\'il 'Val' 
guages thel'e. He held the chair till 1893, from life, including Gf'nerals Grant. Shpri- 
and wa., then president till 1899. He died dan, Sherman. Haneock. Stanley, Pleason- 
in 8an Francisco, Ca!., Aug. 26, 1903. ton, etc.; a portrait bust of Admiral \Yor- 
Kellogg, 'YILLIAM PITT, governor of den: busts and statuettes from life of 
Louisiana; born in Orwell, Vt., Dec. 8, Admiral Dewey, Rear-Admiral Sampson, 
1831; admitted to the bar of Illinois in and Lieutenant Hobson; and heads from 
1850; appointed chief-justice of Nebrao.;ka life of the c.
ptains of Dewey's and Samp- 
- 230 


son's fleets, and of the principal army offi- 
cers of the Spanish-American 'Yar, and 
an equestI'ian statue of Gen. Fitz-John 
Kelly's Ford, a locality on the Rappa- 
hannock Riyer in 'Tirginia, which was the 
:;:cene of several engagements between the 
Xational and Confederate forces during 
the Civil War. The first, on Aug. 20, 
ISG2, was with the cavalry of the Army 
of Virginia; the second, on 1\1arch 17, 
ISG3, in which the 1st and 5th L'nited 
States, the 3d, 4th, and 16th Pennsyl- 
yania, the 1st Rhode Island, the 6th 
Ohio, and the 4th New York cavalry 
regiments, and the Gth New York battery 
were engaged; the third, on Aug. 1-3, 
1863, being a part of the engagements at 
Rappahannock and Brandy stations; and 
the fourth, Kov. 7, 1863, in which the 
1st "Cnited States Sharp-shooters, the 40th 
Xew York, 1st and 20th Indiana, 3d and 
5th Michigan, and the BOth pennsyh'ania 
regiments, supported by the remainder of 
the 3d Corps of the Army of the Potomac, 
were engaged. On Jan. 27, 18G4, the 
cavalry division of the Army of the Ohio 
had an engagement at Fair Gardens, Tenn., cluding sixty-three American marines, 
otherwise known as French Broad or were sent by train to the capital, reach- 
Kelly's Ford. ing it on June l. The troubles grew rap- 
Kempff, J
OLIS, naval officer; born idly worse, and on June Ii the foreign ad- 
near Belleville, Ill., Oct. 11, 1841; grad- mirals at Taku, with the exception of Ad- 
uated at the enited States Naval Acad- miral Kempff, sent a demand for the 
emy in 1861; and was assigned to evacuation of the Taku forts by 2 P.l\f. 
the randalia on blockading duty off In answer to this demand the Chinese 
Charleston. While there he captured the opened fire upon the foreign war - ships 
schooner Henry Middleton, of Charleston, which had congregated in the harbor. 
and took it to New York. On Nov. 7 he The British, French, Russian, and Japa- 
participated in the battle at Port Royal, nese ships replied, and after seven hours 
R. C. He was made lieutenant in 18G
. the forts surrendered. At first there was 
During the remainder of the Civil '\"ar he general regret among naval officers and 
served on the Wabash and other vessels others that Admiral Kempff had not 
of the Atlantic and Gulf squadrons; took taken part in the bombardment of the 
part in the bombardment of Sewell's forts. J
ater, however, he gave as his rea- 
Point, Va., in May, 18G2; and in the l'e- sons that a stãte of war against China 
occupation of Norfolk, Va. In 1866 he did not exist; that such an attack would 
was promoted lieutenant-commander; in be legally an act of war; and that formal 
1876, commandcr: in IS!)!. captain; and aggression by the foreign governments 
in 1899, rear-admiral. In 1900, when the would be regarded by the Chinese as con- 
Roxer troubles broke out in China, he stituting a state of war, would unite all 
was assigned to the command of the the Chinese against the powers, and in- 
American na,'al forces in Chinese waters. crease the difficulty of settling the 
He arriwd at Taku on the -X ('work, ::\[ay trouble. These reasons were found to bp 
28. and on the following day sent ashore in strict harmony with the policy of 
108 marines. The other forpign war-!"hips the Pnited States governnwnt. Admiral 
in the harbor also landcd about 100 men Kempff's action was approved by his gO\- 

each. 'Yhen an attempt was made to send 
this international force to Peking to res- 
cue the members of the foreign legations 
there, the Tsung-li - Yamen (or Chinese for- 
eign office) refused permission, but subse- 
quently a portion of the allied troops, in- 

;\ . JtI 7 ...... 

. -: 

!/ ,
t;$...&.J. A\,J' ',\ - 
:/ /
. [
- ""- 
_ , ',t

t it I 
j) , 0 _ .;J', 
 / ., _I . I r </. -::r
. //1, ",/. '/ 
i i' 
 If / 
,,_ 1 

Lons KE1!PFF 


ernment, and was subsequently com- 
mended by many European statesmen. 
Kendall, AMos, statesman; born in 
Dunstable, Mass., Aug. 16, li8!); gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1811; removed to 
Kentucky, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1814. For some time he was tutor in 
Henry Clay's family; subsequently editor 
of several papers, of which the Argus 
of Western America, published in Frank- 
fort, Ky., was the most influential; was 
Postmaster - General in 1835-40, during 
which time he freed that department of 
debt, besides introducing numerous re- 
forms. He published the Life of Andrew 
Jackson, Pri1'Ute, Military, and Civil. He 
died in Washington, D. C., Nov. 11, 186!). 
Kendall, GEORGE WILKINS, journalist; 
born in Amherst (now Mount Vernon), 
N. H., Au
. 22, 1809; removed to New Or- 
leans in 1835, and with Francis A. Lums- 
den, founded the Picayune, the first cheap 
daily newspaper in that city. Later this 
paper became the best known in the South. 
His publications include Narrative of the 

- - 

-- - 











.. ;f; t

-" -' "'1 
- --r .

""" r
"<- ::- 
,,- .-,;-- 


Texan Banta Fé Expeditionj and The lrar 
betu;een the United States and Mexico. 
He died in Oak Spring, Tex., Oct. 22, 186i. 
Kenesaw Mountains,' ACTION NEAR. 
General Johnston, pursued by General 
Sherman, after evacuating Allatoona Pass, 
took a stand. At his back were the Big 
and Little Kenesaw mountains, within 
3 miles of :Marietta. With these lv- 
ing close t0 6 ether, Lost and Pine mou
tains formed a triangle. Confederate bat- 
teries covered their summits, and on the 
top of each Confederate signal-stations 
were placed. Thousands of men were 
busy in the forest casting up intrench- 
ments from base to base of these rugged 
hills in preparation for a great struggle. 
Sherman advanced to Big Shanty, and 
there made preparations to break through 
the Confederate works between Kenesaw 
and Pine mountains. Hooker was On the 
right and front of his line, Howard was 
on the left and front, and Palmer be- 
tween it and the railway. Under a heavy 
cannonade, the advance began, June 14, 
1864. The Nationals pushed over the 


=U- _ 

_ -::.'0 =
- =- 
, = 





_ s= 
-c ti














rough com try, fighting at almost every on his return lectured on that subject in 
step. That night the Confederates aban- the L'nited States and England. In May, 
doned Pine 
huntain, and took position 18\)8, he went to Cuba with the American 
in the intrencllments between Kenesaw National Red Cross Societ
T. His works 
and Lost mounh-ins. t:"pon the latter includf' Tent Life in Siberia; Siberia and 
eminence the Nationals advanced in a the Bæile System; Campaigning in Cuba, 
heavy rain-storm, and on the lith the Con- etc. 
federates abandoned lAst Mountain and Kennebec River Expedition. General 
the long line of intrenelunents connect- 'Yashington sent Gen. Benedict Arnold to 
ing it with Kenesaw. SllPrman continu- the Kennebec to co-operate with 
ally pressed them heavily, skirmishing in gomery in the Canadian expedition of 
dense forests, furrowed with ravines and 1775. Arnold, with 1,200 men, reached 
tangled with vines. Quebec and assaulted the town on Dec. 31. 
From the top of Kenesaw Johnston MONTGOMERY (q. v.) was killed, and 400 
could see the movements of the Nationals, Americans were captured. After a siege 
and from batteries on its summit could of tluee months, Arnold was driven away 
hurl plunging shot. The antagonists 1;>y Burgoyne. 
struggled on; and finally General Hood Kennedy, JOH
 PENDLETOX, statesman 
sallied out of the Confederate intrench- and author; born in Baltimore, Md., Oct. 
ments with a strong force to break through 25, 1793; graduated at the UniYersity of 
Sherman's line between Thomas and Scho- Maryland in 1812; admitted to the bar in 
field. He was received with a terrible 1816; elected to the House of Delegates, 
return blow, which made him recoil in Maryland, in 1820; to the House of Repre- 
great confusion, leaving, in his retreat, sentatives in 1838; was a member of the 
his killed, wounded, and many prisoners. twenty-fifth, twenty-seventh, and twenty- 
This struggle is known in history as the eighth Congresses; elected speaker of the 
battle of the Kulp House. This repulse 
Tland House of Delegates in 1846; ap- 
inspirited the Nationals. On June 27 pointed Secretary of the Navy under Pres- 
they made a furious assault on the Con- ident Fillmore in 1852. Among his works 
federate lines at two points south of are a Review of ][1'. Cambreling's Free- 
Kenesaw, to break them, separate their Trade Report; .4_ JI emorial on Domestic 
forces, and destroy their army. The Na- Industry;.4_ Report on the Commerce and 
tionals were repulsed, with an aggregate Navigation of the United States, by the 
loss of about 3.000 men. Among the killed Committee of Commerce, of which Mr. 
were Generals C. G. Harker and D. Mc- Kennedy was chairman; and also a Re- 
Cook, and many valuable officers of lower port on the -Warehouse System by the same 
grade were woullflerl. The loss of the committee; Life of -William TVirt; Di.<;- 
Confederates, behind their breastworks, courses on the Life of Trilliam 1Tïrt, and 
was slight. Sherman now disposed his George Calvert, the Fir.'lt Lord Baltimore. 
troops so as to seriously threaten John- :Mr. Kennedy as an author is, however, best 
ston's rpar. Turner's Ferry across the known by his novels, Su:allow Barn; .4_ 
Chattahoochee was menaced, and the in- Sojourn in the Old flominion; Horse-shoe 
tplHled effect was instantaneous. On the Robinson: _-1 Tale of the Tory Asccndency
night of July 2 Johnston abandonf'd Kene- Rob of the BOld, a Legend of St. Inigoes, 
saw and all his intrenchments, and when, a story of colonial 
Iaryland life. He died 
at dawn (July 3), the Nationals stood on in Kewport, R. 1., Aug. 28, 1870. 
the crest of that mountain, they saw the Kennedy, 'YILLIAM, author; born near 
Confederates flying through and beyond Paisley. Scotland. Dec. 2(i, 17!)!); was made 
::\Iarietta towards the Chattahoochee, in consul at Galveston, Tex., where he lived 
the direction of Atlanta. for lllany years, returning to England in 
Kennan, GEORGE, author; born in Nor- 18.17. He was the author of The Rise, 
walk, 0., Feb. !G, 18-15. In 1800-08 he Progress, and Pro.<
]Jects of the Republio 
directed the construction of the middle of Texas: and of a condensation of the 
division of the Russo-American telegraph same, entitled Te.ra8, Its Geography, Nat- 
line. In 1885-80 he went to Siberia to ural History, and Topography, etc. He 
t':\.amine the Rlls..,ian exile f;ystem; anù died near London, England, in 1847. 


Kent, J Acon FORD, military officer; 
born in Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 1835; en- 
tered the army as second lieutenant of 
the 3d Infantry, in May, 1861. For gal- 
lantry at Marye's Heights he was pro- 
moted first lieutenant, and brevetted cap- 
tain and major; was promoted captain 
of the 3d Infantry in 1864; and for 
gallantry in the battle of Spottsylvania, 
and for distinguished services in the 
fipld during the war, was brevetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel and colonel. At the close 
of the war he was commissioned colonel 
of the 24th -enited States Infantry. On 
July 8, 1808, he was appointed a major- 
general of volunteers. During the Cam- 
paign in Cuba hc commanded the first 
divi5ion of the 5th Corps. On Oct. 4, 
1898, he was promoted brigadier - gen- 
eral, U. S. A., and on Oct. 15 was retired 
at his own request. 
Kent, JAMES, jurist; born in Phillips- 
town, N. Y., July 31, 1763; studied law 

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with Egbert Benson; and began its prac- 
tice in 1787, at Poughkf>epsie, N. Y. He 
was a member of the New York legislat- 
ure from 17DO to 1793, and became Pro- 
fessor of Law in Columbia College in 
17!J3. Deeply verserl in the doctrine of 
civil law, he was made a master in chan- 
cery in 1796; city recOl'der in 17m; judge 
of the Supreme Court in 1798; chief- 
justice in 1804; and was chancellor from 
1814 to 1823. After taking a leading part 
in the State constitutional convention in 
1821, he again became law professor in 

Columbia College, and the l
ctures he 
there delivered form the basiF of his able 
Commentaries on the United, States Con- 
stitution, published in 4 volumes. He was 
one of the clearest legAl writers of his 
day. In 1828 he wa:> elected president 
of the New York Historical Society. He 
passed his later years in revising and en- 
larging his Comlnentaries, and in giving 
opinions on legal subjects. He died in 
New York City, Dec. 12, 1847. 
Kent Island Colony. In May, 1631, 
King Charles I. granted a license to Will- 
iam Claiborne " to traffic in those parts of 
America for which there was already no 
patent granted for sole trade." 'Vith the 
intention of monopolizing the Indian trade 
of Chesapeake Bay, Claiborne and his asso- 
ciates planted a small colony on Kent 
Island, situated in the centre of the prov- 
ince of :Maryland, soon afterwards granted 
to Lord Baltimore. This grant and settle- 
ment gave much trouble to the proprietor 
of :Maryland and the settlers there under 
his patent. See CLAIBORNE, \YILLIA:M. 
Kenton, Snwx; born in Fauquier coun- 
ty, Va., April 3, 1755. Supposing he had 
killed in an affray a rival in a love affair 
when he was sixteen years old, he fled to 
the wilderness west of the Alleghany 
:Mountains, where he was the friend and 
companion of Daniel Boone in many dar- 
ing feats. He was in expeditions against 
the Indians, was captured by them, and 
taken to Detroit. Escaping from a Brit- 

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ish prison there in 1 jjg, he distinguished 
himself in resisting the inmsion of Ken- 
tucky by the British and Inùians in that 

"ear. Finally, after an expedition against 
the Indians on the Miami, hc !',ettled 
( 1 ï84) near l\Iaysville. He accompanied 
""arne in his expedition in 1 j9-1. In 180;) 
he was seated Ileal' the 
Iud River, in 
Ohio, and was made brigadier-general of 
militia. In 1813 he served under Governor 
Shelby at the battle of the Thames. Beg- 
gared by lawsuits because of defective 
titles to lands, he lived in penur)T many 
years. In 182-1 he appeared at Frankfort, 
Ky., in tattered clothes, and succ
appealed to the legislature to release the 
claim of the State to lands which were hi:;. 
Congress aftf'rwards allowed him a pen- 
sion. He died in Logan county, 0., .-\pril 
29, 1831t 
Kentucky, STATE OF. In 1 ïï6 Ken- 
tucky was made a county of Yirginia, and 
in 1 jjj the first court was held at Har- 
burg. Conventions held at Danville in 
1 jS-1-8., recommended a peaceable and con- 
stitutional separation from Virginia. In 
17SG an aet was pa:;:.;;;ed by the Yirginia 
legislature compl:ring with the desires of 
l\:entucky, and on June 1, li9
, it was 
admitted into the Cnion as a State. Its 
lJOpulation at that time was about 75,000. 
For se'"eral years much uneasiness was 
felt alllong the people of Kentucky on ac- 
count of Indian depredations and the free 
navigation of the :Mississippi RiYer. These 
were settled satisfactorily by the purchase 
of Louisiana in 1803. During the \Yar of 
1812 Kentucky tonk an actin> part, send- 
 fully 7,000 men to the field; and after 
that war the State was undisturbed by 
[lny stirring events until the breaking out 
of the Cidl War. A second constitution 
took erfect in 1800, a third in 18.,0. At 
the beginning of the Civil 'Yar Kentucky 
assumed a position of neutrality, but it 
was really one of hostility to the e nion. 
The governor refused to cmnply with the 
President's requisition for troops; but 
Lieut. 'Yilliam Kelson, of the llaY,y, a 
native of the State, and then on ordnance 
duty at Washington, began to recruit for 


the Xational army; and towards the close 




of July, 1861, he established Camp Dick Isaac Shelby........................... 
Robinson, in Garrard county, for the 01'- Georre 
radison ....................... 
ganization of Kentucky volunteers. These 



flocked to this camp and to othcr recruit- Joseph Desha.......................... 

ing stations. _\ great majority of the 
people were loyal to the Lnion, but the 
gO\"erllOr was 110t, and the unfortunate 
position of neutrality which the latter, 
with the Confederates, caused Kentuckv 
to a

U!lle brought upon her the mberie":" 


of civil war. Steps were taken for the 
seeession of the State, and for the or- 
ganization of a Confederate State goyern- 
ment, but failed. The State was scarred 
by battles, im-al'.ions, and raids, and mar- 
tial law was proclaimed by President Lin- 
coln, July 5, 186-1. The civil authority 
was restored Oct. 18, 1865. A convention 
for revision of the State constitution, or- 
dered at the 1889 election by a majority 
of 3 I.Ð31, met at Frankfort, Sept. 8 of 
the same year. The new constitution was 
complpted on April 11, submitted to the 
people at the August election, and W.1S 
adopted bv an oyerwhelminO' vote. It 
was publi
hed as the funda
nental law 
of the State on Sept. 28, 18!)}. Popula- 
tion in 18!J0, 1,858,633; in lÐOO, 2,14ï,I7-1. 
T"{jCKY, in 
vol. ix. 




1792 to 179ß 
1796 " 1f10
180-1 " 1"08 
1808 " 1812 
1812 .. 1816 
1816 to 1820 
1820 " 1824 
 " 1828 



try beyond the mountains westward of 
North Carolina. In 1 ïli!) he returned to 
North Carolina and ga,-e glowing accounts 
of the f(>rtile country he had left. He 
persuaded Daniel Bo
ne and four other!' 
tn go with him to nplore it. Boone had 
}wcome a great hunter and expert in 
woodcraft. They reached the headwaters 
of the Kentucky, and, from lofty h.ills, 
beheld a vision of a magnificent valley. 
red with for
sts, stretching towards 
the Ohio, and abounding in game of the 
woods and watel'S of every kind. They 
fought Indians-some of the tribes who 
lllH'd 0' er Kentucky as a common 
hunting-ground. Roone was made a pris- 
OIH'r, but escaped. He determined to 
settle in the beautiful country between 
the upper Kentucky and Tennessee 
rivers, and, after remaining a while the 
sole white man in that region, he returned 
for his wife and children in 1771. Two 
years later he started with his own and 
five other families for the paradise in 
the wildernf'ss. Driven back upon settle- 
ments on the Clinch, he was detained a 
year and a half longer. He penetrated to 
the Kentucky, and, on June 14, 1775, com- 
pleted a log fort on the fiite of the present 
Boonesboro. He soon brought his family 
there, and planted the first pprmanent 
spUJement in Kentucky. :Mrs. Roone and 
her daughters were the first white women 
who ever stood on the banks of the Ken- 
tucky River. 
The precarious tenure by whieII places 
that were scttled in Kentucky by Boone 
and others were held, while the land was 
subjected to hloody incursions by Ind- 
ians, was changed aftcr George Rogers 
arke's operations in Ohio had made 
thE' tribf's there no longer invaders of the 
fwil south of that river. The number of 
" stations" bf'gan to multiply. A block- 
house was built (April, 1779) on the sitp 
of the city of Lexington. By a law of 
Yirginia C
Iay, 1779), all perf'ons who 
had settled west of the mountains before 
June, 1778, were entitled to claim 400 
acres of land, without any payment: and 
they had a right of pre-emption to an ad- 
joining 1,000 acres for a very small sum 
of money, while the whole region bf'tween 
the Grf'cne and Tennessee rivers was re- 
Barly Hettlcments.-ln 17G7 .John Fin- served for military bounties. Settlements 
ley, an Indian trader, nl)lored thp coun- quite rapidly increased under this libera1 



Thomas Metcalf".. . .. .. _ .. .. .. . .. ... . _ . Itj28 to Itj32 
John Breathitt... ..................... 1tj32 1834 
J. T. lIIorehead........... ........... Itj34 " 1836 
J ames Clark........................... 1836 .. 1tj37 
C. A. Wickline......................... 1837 " 1840 
Hobert P. Lelcher.... ................. Itj40 " 1814 
William Owsll')" _ ....................... 18,14 " 1848 
John J.Critlenden..................... 1848 " 1850 
John L. Helm......................... 1tj50 .. 1tj51 
Lazarus W. Powell........ ............ 1851 .. 1855 
Charles S. 
Ioreh"aù.... _ .. .. .. .... . . .. Itj55 " 1859 
Beriah Magoffin............... ....... 1859 " 1861 
J. F. Robinson......................... 1861 " 1H63 
Thomas E. BramleUe .. ............... 18m .. 1867 
.John L. Helm........ ................. IH67 
John W. Stevenson.......... ......... 1868 to 1871 
Preston II. Leslie...................... 1tj7I " 1875 
James B. 1\lcCrean-.... ............... 1875 " 1879 
Luke P. B1a('kbuni . . . ... . _.., .... . .. 1879 .. IH8:J 
J. Proctor Knolt........ ...... _ __ ... . I8tj3 " 18tj7 
Simon B. Buckner........ _............. 1887 " 18!H 
J. Y. Brown........................... 1891 .. 1895 
William O. Bradley.................... 1896 .. 1900 
Will iam S. Taylor... . .... .. . .. .. . .. .. .. 1900 
William Goebel........................ 1900 
J. C. W. Beckham ... ..... _........... 1900 to 

Name. No. of COßl(r... Term. 
John Brown _........... 2d to 9th 1792 to 1805 
John Edwards...... 2d .. 4th 1792 .. 1795 
Humphrey MarshaH..... 4th .. 7th 1795 " 1801 
John Breckinridge ..... 7tb " 9th 1801 " 1805 
John Adair............. 9tb 1tj05 .. 1806 
Henry Clay....... ...... 9tb 1806 " 1807 
John B. Thurslon....... 9th to 11th 1806 .. 1809 
John Pope.............. 10th .. 13 th 1t-!07 " 181S 
Henry Clay....-........ 11tb 1810 " 1811 
George 1\1. Bibb......... 12th to 13th 1dll " 1814 
George Walker.......... 13th 1814 
William T. ß,nry....... l:1th to 14th 1815 to 1818 
Jessie Bledsoe.... _..... l:lth " Ulh 1813 .. 18HI 
Isham Talbot........... 14tb .. 19th 1815 .. 1825 
Marlin D. Ibrdin....... 14th 1816 " 1817 
John J. Crittenden...... 15th 1817 " 1819 
Richard M. Johnson. .... 16th to 21st 1819 " 1829 
William Logan.......... 16th 1819 " 1820 
John Rowan............ 19th 1825 
George 1\1. Bibb......... 21st to 2Uh 1829 to 1835 
Henry Clay.... _........ 2
d " 27th 1831 " 1842 
John J. Crittenden...... 21th " 30lb 1835 .. 1848 
James T. Morehead...... 2ïtb 1842 
Thomas ?lletcalfe. ... . . . . 30lh lAt8 to 1849 
Joseph R. Underwood... 30th to 32d ]847 " 1852 
Henry Clay.... ........ 31st " 32d 1849 " 1852 
David 1\leriwether....... 32d 1852 
Archibald nixon........ 32d to 33d 1852 to 1855 
John B. Thompson...... 33d 1853 
John J. Crittenden...... 3Uh to 37th lA55 to 1861 
Lazarus W. PoweH...... 36tb " 3()lh 1859 " 1865 
John C. Breckinridge.... 37th 1861 
Garrett Davis.... ... 37tb to 4'2d 1861 to 1872 
J,\mes Guthrie......... 3()th " 40th 1865 " 1868 
Thomas C. 1\lcCreery.... 40th 1868 " 1871 
Willis B. Machen ...... 42d 1872 " 1873 
John W. Stevenson..... 42d to 45th 1871 " 1877 
Thomas C. McCreery.. . . . 4::Jd .. 46tb 1873 .. 1879 
James B. Beck......... 4!'ith .. 51st 1877 " 1890 
John S. Williams....... 46th .. 4()th 1879 .. 18811 
Joseph C. S. Blackburn. 49th " 55th 1A85 .. lA97 
John G. Carlisle..... .... 51st " lS
d 1890 II 1893 
William Lindsey........ 53d .. 56th 1'893 " 1901 
William J. Deboe. . .... . . 55th .. 57th 1897 " 1903 
Joseph C. S. Blackburn.. fi7th "- 1901 " - 
James B. McCreary. . . . . 58th "- 1903 " - 


\ïrginia land !'ystem. ßnd fourteen years 
after its passagf' Kentucky had a popu- 
lation that entitled it to admission into 
the Union as a State. 
In Civil War lJays.-The people were 
strongly attached to the Pnion, but its 

free-labor and slave-labor border States to 
decide upon just compromi:ses, and de- 
clared their willingness to support the 
national government, unless the incom- 
ing Prcsident should attempt to "coerce 
a State or States." The legislature, 

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governor (Beriah Magoffin) and leading which assembled about the same time, 
politicians of his party in the State sym- was asked by the governor to declare, by 
pathized with the Confederates. The ac- resoJution, the "unconditional disappro- 
tion of Kentucky waR awaited with great bation" of the people of the State of the 
anxiety throughout the Union. The gov- employment of force against "seceding 
ernor at first opposed secession, for the States." On Jan. 22 the legislature ac- 
people were decidedly hostile to revoJu- cordingl:v resolved that the Kentuck- 
tionary movpmpnts in the Gulf region; ianA, l1nited with their brethren of the 
r et they as decidedly opposed what was South. would reAiAt any invaBion of the 
eaUed the "coercion of a sovereign soil of that Af>etion at an hazards ßnd 
." At a Statp convention of "Cnion to the last exb'emitv. This aeti\)n waA 
and Douglas men, held on .Tan. 8. 1861, taken because the lpiâslatures of spyeral 
it was resolYed that the rights of Ken- free - labor States hèHl ofl"f'red troops for 
tucky should be maintained in the Union. the use of the national government in 
They were in favor of a convention of the enforcing the laws in .. seceding States." 


They decided 
gainst caIHng a conven- 
tion, and appointed delegates to the 
Peace Congress. 
On April 18 a great Union meeting was 
held in l..ouisvilIe, over which James 
Guthrie and other leading politicians of 
the State held controlling influence. At 
that meeting it was resruved that Ken- 
tucky resen'ed to hcrself "the right to 
choose her own position; and that, while 
her natural sympathies are with those 
who have a common interest in the pro- 
tection of slavery, she still acknowledges 
her loyalty and fealty to the government 
of the -enited States, which she will 
cheerfully render until that government 
becomes aggrcssive, tyrannical, and 1'C- 
ganlless of our 1"i.qhts in slavc propcrty." 
They declared that the States were the 
pecrs of the national government, and 
gave the world to understand that the 
latter should not be allowed to use "san- 
guiDllry or coercive measures to bring 
back the seceded States." They alluded to 
the Kentucky State Guard as the "bul- 
wark of the safety of the commonwealth, 
. . . pledged equally to fidelity to the 
United States and to Kentucky." 
Early in the summer the governor de- 

clared that arrangements had been made 
that IlPither National or Confederate 
troops should set foot on the soil of that 

tate. The neutrality of Kentucky was 
respected many months. Pillow had 
urged the seizure of the bluff at Colum- 
bus, in western Kentucky, as an aid to 
him in his attempt to capture Cairo and 
Bird's Point, but the f,Olenlll assurance 
of the Confederate government that Ken- 
tucky neutrality should be respected re- 
strained him; but on Sept. 4, General 
(Bishop) Polk, with a considerable force, 
seized the strong position at Columbus, 
11llder the pretext that National forces 
were prepal'ing to oecup
v that place. The 
Confederate Secretal'JT of War publicly 
graphed to Polk to withdmw his 
troops; President Davis priyately tele- 
gra phed to him to hold on, saying, "The 
end justifies the means." So Columbus 
was held and fortified by the Confederates. 
r.eneral Cirant, then in command of the 
district at Cairo, took military possession 
of Paducah, in nmthern Kentucky, with 
Kational troops, and the neutrality of 
Kentucky was no longer respected. The 
seizure of Columbus opened the way for 
the infliction upon the people of that 

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State of the horrors of war. All Ken- federates of Kentucky met in convention 
tucky, for 100 miles south of the Ohio at Russellville, Oct. 
!), 18Gl. They drew 
River, was made a military department, up a manifesto in which the grievances of 
with Gen. Robert Anderson. the hero of Kentucky were recited, and the action of 
Fort Sumter, for its commander. the loyal legislature was denounced. They 
Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, was in passed an ordinance of secession, declared 
command of the Confederate 'Yestern De- the State independent, organized a pro- 
partment, which included southern and visional government, chose George 'V. 
western Kentucky, then held by the Con- Johnston provisional governor, appointed 
federates, and the State of Tennes<:ee, delegates to the Confederate Congress at 
with his headquarters at Nashville. Un- Richmond, and called Bowling Green the 
der the shadow of his power the Con- State capital. Fifty-one counties were 




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represented in that conwntion by about These troOpR were from States north- 
200 men, without the sanction of the ward of the Ohio, and loyalists of Ken- 
people. tucky and TennesRee. They occupied an 
Late in 18Gl, the Confederates occupied irregular line aCI'OSS Kentucky, paral- 
a line of military posts across southern leI with that of the Confederates. Gen- 
Kentucky, from Cumberland Gap to Co- eral McCook led 50,000 men down the rail- 
lumbus, on the Mississippi River, a dis- road, and pushed the Confederate line to 
tance of nearly 400 miles. Don Carlos Bowling Green, after a sharp skirmish at 
Buen, major-general, had been appointed Mumfordsville, on the south side of the 
commander of the Department of the Ohio, Green River. In easterñ Kentucky Col. 
",ith his headquarters at Louisville. There James A. Garfield struck (Jan. 7, 18G
he gathered a large force, with which he the Confederates. under Humphrey Mar- 
was enabled to strengthen various ad- shan, near Prestonburg. on the Big Sandy 
vanced posts and throw forward along the River, and dispersed them. This ended 
line of the Nashville and Louisville Rail- Marshan's military career, and Garfield's 
way a large force destined to break the services there won for him the commis- 
Confederate line. He had under his com- sion of a brigadier-general. On the 19th, 
mand 114,000 men, arranged in four col- General Thomas defeated Gen. George B. 
umns, commanded respectively by Brig.- Crittenden near Mill Spring, when Gen- 
Gens. A. McDowen McCook, '0. M. eral ZoIIicoffer was slain and his troops 
Mitchel, G. H. Thomas, and T. L. Crit- driven into northwestern Tennessee. This 
tenden, acting as major-generals, and latter blow effectually sf>yered the Con- 
aided by twenty brigade commanders. federate lines in K
ntucky, and opened 


co-States forming, as to itself, the other 
party. That the gOVl'rnment created by 
this compact was not made the exclusive 
or final judge of the extent of the powers 
delegated to itself; since that would have 
made its discretion, and not the Constitu- 
tion, the measure of its powers; but that 
as in all other cases of compact among 
parties having no common judge, each 
party has an equal right to judge for it- 
self, as well of infractions as of the mode 
and measure of redress. 
II. Resolved, that the Constitution of 
the United. States haYin
 delegated. to Con- 
gress a power to punish treason, counter- 
feiting the securities and current coin of 
the United States. piracies and felonies 
committed on the high seas, and offences 
ag-ainst the laws of nations, and. no other 
crimes whatever, and it being true as a 
general principle, anJ one of the amend- 
nwnts to the Constitution having also de- 
declared ,. that the powers not delegated 
to the Pnited States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited. by it to the States, are re- 
sfirved to the States respectively, or to the 
people," therefore also the same act of 
Congress passed on July 14, 1798, and en- 
titled" An act in addition to the act en- 
titled an act for the punishment of cer- 
tain crimes against the United States," as 
also the act passed on June 27, I iD8, en- 
titled "An act to punish frauds com- 
mitted on the Bank of the rnited States" 
(and all other of their acts which assume 
to create, define, or punish crimes other 
than those enumerated in the Constitu- 
tion), are a.Jtogether void and of no forc<" 
and that the power to create, define, and 
I. Refwh'ed, that the several States com- punish such other crimes is reserved, and 
posing the United States of America are of right appertains solely and exclusively 
not united on the principle of unlimited to the respective States, each within its 
ion to their general government; own Territory. 
hut that by compact under the style and III. Rcsolved, that it is true as a gen- 
title of a Constitution for the United eral principle, and is also expressly de- 
States, and of amendments thereto, they clared by one of the amendments to the 
constitnteJ a general government for Com;titution, that "thc powers not dele- 
special purposes. dele
ated to that govern- gated to the rnited States by the Consti- 
ment certain definite powers, reserving tution, nor prohibited by it to the States, 
('ach State to itself, the residuary mass are reserved to the States respectively or 
of right to their own self-go\'ernment; and to the people"; and that no power over 
that whensoever the general government the freedom of religion, freedom of speech, 
assumes undelegated pow('rs, its acts are or freedom of the press heing delegated to 
unauthoritative, void, and are of no force. the Pnited States by the Constitution, nor 
That to this compact eaeh State acceded prohibited by it to the Statef'l, all law- 
as a State, and is an integral party, its ful powers respecting the same did of right 
V.-Q 2H 

the way by which the Confederates were 
soon driven out of the State and also out 
of Tennessee. The Confederate line was 
paralyzed eastward of Bowling Green, and 
their chief fortifications and the bulk of 
their troops were between Nashdlle 
and Bowling Green and the :\Iis
On that line "a,.; strong Fort Donel- 
son, on the Cumbedand River. Believ- 
ing Beauregard to be a more dashing om- 
eer than Johnston, the Confederates ap- 
pointed him commander of the \Vestern 
Depalotment, late in January, ISG2, and 
he was succeeded in the command at Ma- 
nassas by Gen. G. \\'. Smith, formerly of 
New York City. 
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, 
THE. The Federal party in the "Lnited 
States determined to crush out by law the 
anti-Federalists who were bitted." attack- 
ing the administration. In 17f1R they suc- 
ceeded in passing the :Katuralization act 
of June 18, the Alien acts of June 2;'). and 
July G, and the Sedition act of July 14. 
Virginia, Kew York, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Kentucky petitioned Con- 
gress to repeal these laws. Of thesc, Ken- 
tucky felt the most aggrieved, and on 
Nov. 8, 17f18, John Breckinridge intro- 
duced the Kentucky resolutions, which 
were substantially drafted by Jefferson. 
These were adopted by the Lower House 
on Nov. 10, by the rpper House on Nov. 
13, and approved by the governor on 
Nov. !G. Copies were immediately print- 
ed and sent to the officials of aU the other 
Rtates and to Congress. The following 
is the text of these resolutions: 


remain, and were reserved to the States, the act of the Congress of the "Cnited 
or to the people; that thus was manifested States pafi!'ed on June 2
, 17D8, en- 
their determination to retain to them- titled "An aet concerning aliens," whieh 
selves the right of judging how far the a!'sullws po" PI' ovcr alipll friends not 
licentiousness of speech and of the press delf'gate'd hy the Constitution, is not 
may be abridged without lessening their law, but is altogether void and of no 
freedom, and how far those abuscs, which force. 
cannot be separated from their use, Y. Resolved, that in addition to the 
should be tolerated, rather than the use be geneml principle, as well as the express 
destroyed; and thus also they guarded declaration, that powers not delegated arp 
against all abridgmcnt by the United reserved, another and mOl"e special pro- 
:-;tatps of the freedom of religious opinions vision insel.ted in the Constitution from 
and exel'cises, and retained to themselves abundant caution has declared "that the 
the right of protecting the same, as this migration or importation of such per- 
State, by a law passed on the general de- sons as any of the :;':tates now existing 
mand of its citizens, had already protected shall think proper to admit, shan not be 
them from all human restraint or inter- prohibited by the Congl'ess pdor to the 
ference; and that in addition to this gpn- 
year 1808." TlJat this commonwealth dops 
eral principle and express declaration, an- admit the migration of alien friends 
other and more special provision has been described as the subject of said act con- 
made by one of the amendments to the cerning aliem,; that it provision against 
Constitution, which expressly declares prohibiting their migration is a pro- 
013t "Congress shall make no law re- vision against all acts equivalpnt there- 

pecting an establishment of religion, or to, or it would be nugatory; that to 
prohihiting the free í:xercise thel'eof, or remove them when migrated is equiva- 
ahridging the freedom of speech, or of the lent to a prohibition of their migra- 
prN,s," thcrehy guarding in the same sen- tion, and is therefore contrary to the' 
tenee', and under the same words, the free- said provision of the Constitution, and 
dom of religion, of speech, and of the press, void. 
insomuch, that whatever violates either, VI. Rpfwlved, that the imprifwnment of 
throws down the sanctuary which covers a person under the protection of t1H' laws 
tlIP otlH'rs, and that libels, falsehoods, and of thi" eommonwcalth on his failure to 
dpfamation, equally with heresy and false obey the simple order of the President to 
rpligion, are withheld from the eogni- depart ont of the rnited States, as is un- 
7.ance of federal tribunals. That there- dertaken by the said act entitled" An act 
fon' t hc act of the Congress of the concerning aliens," is contrary to thp Con- 
Unitpd States, passed on July 14, 17US, stitution, one amendment to which has 
entitled "An act in addition to the act provided that" no person shall he depriwd 
for the punishment of certain crimes of liberty without due process of law," and 
against the lTnitcd States," which does that another having provided" that in all 
abddge the freedom of the press, is criminal prosecutions th(' accused shall 
not law, but is altogether void and of enjoy the right to a public trial by an 
no effect. impartial jury, to be informed of the nat- 
IV. TIesolved, that alien friends are un- lIre and canse of the accusation, to he 
del' the jurisdiction and protection of the confronted with the witnesses against him, 
laws of the State wherein they are; that to 11ave compulsory process for obtaining 
no power ovpr them has been delegated to witnesses in his favor, and to have tlw 
the rnited States, nor prohibited to the assistance of counsel for his ddf'nce," 
indh-idual States distinct from their the f'ame act undertaking to authorize' thp 
power over citizens; and it being true as President to rpmon' a pel'son out of the 
a general principle, and one of the amend- rnited States who is under the protection 
ments to the Constitution having also de- of the law, on his own sUfipicion, with- 
clared that" the powers not delegated to 011t al'cl1sation. without jury, without puh- 
the United States by the Constitution nor lie' trial, without confrontation of the 
prohibited by it to the Statef'l are reserveù witnesses against him, without having 
to the States respectively or to the people," witnesses in his favor, without defence, 


without counsel, is contrary to these pro- a repeal of the aforesaid unconstitutional 
visions also of the Constitution, is there- and obnm...ious acts. 
fore not law but utterly void and of no IX. Resolyed, lastly, that tlH' governor 
force. That transferring the powcr of of this commonwealth be, and is hereby 
judging any pcrson who is Undel" the pro- authorized and requested to communicate 
tection of the laws, from the courts to the the preceding resolutions to the legislat- 
President of the United States, as is un- ures of the several Rtates, to assure them 
dertaken by the same act concerning aliens, that this commonwealth considers "Cnion 
is against the article of the Constitution for specified national purposes, and par- 
which provides that "the judicial power ticularly for those specified in their late 
of the United States shall be vested in federal compact, to be friendly to the 
courts, the judges of which shall hold peace, happiness, and prosperity of all the 
their offices during good behayior," and States; that faithful to that compact, ac- 
that the said act is void for that reason cording to the plain intent and meaning 
also; and it is further to be noted that in which it was undf'r<;tood and accf'df'ù 
this transfer of judici
ry powers is to that to by the senral parties, it is sincerely 
magistrate of the general government :who anxious for its prcservation; that it does 
already possesses all the executive, and also believe, that to take horn the States 
a qualified negath"e in all the legislative all the powers of self - government, and 
power. transfer them to a general and consoli- 
YII. Resolnd, that the construction ap- dated government, without regard to the 
plied by the general government (as is special delegations and resen-ations sol- 
evinced by sundry of their proceedings) to emnly agreed to in that compact, is not 
those parts of the Constitution of the for the peace, happiness, or prosperity of 
rnited States which delegate to Congrcss these States. And that therefore thi
a power to lay and collect taxes, duties, monwealth is determined, as it doubts not 
imposts, and excises; to pay the debts its co-States are, tamely to submit to un- 
and provide for the common defence and delegated and consequently unlimited pow- 
general welfare of the United States, and ers in no man or body of men on earth; 
to make all laws which shall be neces<::ary that if the acts before specified should 
and proper for carrying into execution the stand, these conclusions would flow from 
powers vested by the Constitution in the them; that the general government may 
government of the United States, or any place any act they think proper on the 
department thereof, goes to the destruc- list of crimes and punish it themselves, 
tion of all the limits prescribed to their whether enumerated or not enumerated by 
power by the Constitution. That words the Constitution as cognizable by them; 
meant by that instrument to be subsid- that they may transfer its cognizance to 
iary only to the execution of the limit- the President or any other person, who 
ed powers, ought not to be so construed may himself by the accuser, counsel, judge, 
aR themselves to give unlimited powers, and jury, whose suspicions may be the 
nor a part so to be taken, as to destroy evidence, his order the sentence, his offi- 
the whole residue of the instrument. eel' the executioner, and his breast the 
That the proceedings of the general gov- sole record of the transaction; that a 
ernment, under color of these articles, will very numerous and valuable description 
be a fit and necessary subject for re- of the inhabitants of these States, being 
visal and correction at a time of greater by this precedent reduced as outlaws to 
tranquillity, while those specified in the the absolute dominion of one man, and 
preceding resolutions call for immediate Ule barrier of tlH' Constitution Oms sw<'pt 
redress. away from us all, no rampart now re- 
VIII. Resolved, that the preccding reso- mains against the passions and the pmnr 
lutions be transmitted to the Senators anù of a majority of Congn's
, to protect from 
Representati\'f's in Congress from this a like ('xpurtation or other more grievous 
commonwealth, who are llf'reby enjoiJH'tl punishment the minority of the samp 
to present the same to their respective body, the legislatures, judges, governors, 
Houses, nnd to use the best endf'avors to and counsellors of the States, nor their 
procure at the next session of Congress. other peaceable inhabitants who may ven- 


hue to reclaim the constitutional rights 
and liberties of the States and people, or 
who for other causes, good or bad, may 
bp obnoxious to the views or marked hy 
the suspicions of the President, or be 
thought dangerous to his or their elec- 
tions or other interests, public or person- 
a 1; that the friendless alien has indeed 
been selected as the safest subject of a 
first experiment; but the citizen will soon 
follow, or rather has already followed, 
for already lms a sedition act marked him 
as its prey; that these and successive acts 
of the same character, unless arrested on 
the threshold, may tend to drive these 
States into revolution and blood, and will 
furnish new calumnies against Republican 
govcrmnpnts, and new pretexts for those 
who wish it to be believed that men can- 
not be governed but by a rod of iron; that 
it would be a dangerous delusion were a 
confidence in the men of our choice to 
silence Our fears for the safety of our 
rights; that confidence is everywhere the 
parent of despotism; free government is 
founded in jealousy and not in confi- 
dence; it is jealousy and not confidence 
which prescribes limited constitutions to 
bind down those whom we are obliged to 
trust with power; that our Constitution 
has accordingly fixed the limits to which 
and no furtller our confidence may go; 
and let the honest advocate of confidence 
read the Alien and Sedition acts, and say 
if the Constitutiou has not been wise in 
fixing limits to the government it created, 
and whether we should be wise in destroy- 
ing those limits. Let him say what the 
 is if it be not a tyranny, 
which the men of our choice have confen-ed 
on the President, and the President of our 
choice has assented to and accepted over 
the friendly strangers, to whom the mild 
spirit of our country and its laws had 
pledged hospitality and protection; that Resolved. that the General Assembly 
the men of our choice have more respected of Virginia doth unequivocally express a 
the bare suspicions of the President than firm resolution to maintain and defend 
the solid rights of innocence, the claims the Constitution of the United States, and 
of justification, the- Racred force of truth. the C'onstitution of this State, against ev- 
and the forms and subsistence of law and ery aggrpssion, either foreign or domestic, 
justice. Tn ql1Pstions of power. tllf'n. let and that tlwy will support the govern- 
no more be heard of C'onfirlf'nce in man, ment of the rnited States in all measures 
hut bind him down from mischief by tlle wan-anted by tbe former. 
chains of the Constitution. That this That this Assembly most solemnly de- 
commonwealth does therefore call on its clares a warm attachment to the union of 
co-States for an expression of their senti- the States, to maintain which it pledges 

ments on the acts concerning aliens, and 
for the punishment of certain crimes 
hereinbefore specified, plainly declaring 
whether these acts are or are not au- 
thorized by the federal compact. And it 
doubts not that their sense will be so an- 
nounced as to prove their attachment un- 
altered to limited government, whether 
general or particular, and that the rights 
and liberties of their co-States will be ex- 
posed to no dangers by remaining em- 
harked on a common bottom with their 
own; that they will concur with this 
commonwealth in considering the said 
acts so palpably against the Constitution 
as to amount to an undisguised declara- 
tion, that the compact is not meant to 
be the measure of the powers of the gen- 
eral government, hut that it will pro- 
ceed in the exercise over these States of 
all powers whatsoever; that they will view 
this as seizing the rights of the States 
and consolidating them in the hands of 
the general government with a power as- 
sun1f'd to bind the States (not merely in 
cases made federal), but in all cases what- 
soever, by laws made, not with their con- 
sent, but by othPTs against their consent; 
that this would be to sun-('nder the form 
of government we have chosen, and to live 
under one deridng its powers from its 
own will, and not from our authority; 
and tlmt the co-States recurring to their 
natural right in cases not made federal 
will concur in declaring these acts void 
and of no force, and will each unite 
with this commonwealth in requesting 
their repeal at the next session of Con- 
Virginia affirmed substantially the same 
threatening doctrint', Dec. 21, 1798, more 
temperately and cautiously set forth in 
resolutions drawn by :Madison, as follows: 


all its powers; and that for this end it is of free government, as well as the particu- 
their duty to watch over and oppose cvery lar organization and positive provisions of 
infraction of those principles which con- the federal Constitution; and the other 
stitute the only basis of that union, he- of which acts exercises, in like manner, a 
cause a faithful obsen-ance of them can power not delegated by the Constitution, 
alone !òecure its uistcnce and the public hut on the contrary expressly and positive- 
ha ppin('
s. Iy forùidden by one of the amendments 
That this Assembly doth explicitly aud thereto; a power which more than any 
peremptorily declare that it views the pow- other ought to produce universal alarm, 
ers of the federal government, as result- because it is levelled against the right of 
ing from the compact to which the States freely examining public characters and 
al'e parties, as limited by the plain sense measures, and of free communication 
and intention of the instrument constitut- among the people thereon, which has never 
ing that compact; as no further valid than been justly deemed the only eft'ectual 
they are authorized by the grants enu- guardian of Hery other right. 
me rated in that compact, and that in case That thi'S State having, by its conven- 
of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous tion which ratified the federal Constitu- 
exercise of other powers not granted by tion, expressly declared "that, among 
the said compact, the States who are par- other essential rights, the liberty of con- 
ties thereto have the right, and are in science and of the press cannot be can- 
duty bound, to interpose for arresting the celled, abridged, restrained, or modified by 
progress of the evil, and for maintaining any authority of the United States," and, 
within their respective limits the au- from its extreme anxiety to guard these 
thorities, rights, and liberties appertain- rights from every possible attack of 
ing to them. sophistry or ambition, having with other 
That the General Assembly doth also States recommended an amendment for 
express its deep regret that a spirit has, that purpose, which amendment was in 
in sundry instances, been manifested by due time annexed to the Constitution, it 
the federal government to enlarge its would mark a reproachful inconsistency 
powers by forced constructions of the con- and criminal degeneracy. if an indifference 
stitutional charter which defines them; were now shown to the most palpable vio- 
and that indications have appearcd of a lation of one of the rights thus declared 
de!'ign to expound certain general phrases and secured, and to the establishment of 
(wllich having been eopies from the very a precedent which may be fatal to the 
limited grant of powers in the former a.rti- other. 
des of confederation were the less liable That the good people of this common- 
to be miRconstrued), !ìO as to destroy the wealth having ever felt and continuing 
meaning and effect of the particular f'nu- to feel the most sincere affection to their 
meration. which neces!"arily explains and I1rethren of the other States, the truest 
limits the gcneral pllra!'es; so as to anxiety for establishing and perpetuating 
consolidate the States by degrees into tlw union of all, and the most scrupulous 
one sovereignty, the obvious tendency and fidelity to 1:hat Constitution which is the 
inevitable consequence of which would be pledge of mutual fricndship, and the in- 
to transform the present republican !Oys- strument of mutual happiness, the Gen- 
tern of the rnitf'd States into an ahso- eral Assf'mbly doth solemnly appeal to the 
lute or, at best, a mixed monarchy. Hke dispositions of the other States, in 
That the Genera.l Assembly doth partic- confidence that they will concur with this 
ular]y protest against the palpable and comm