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From 458 a.d. to 1909 \ 





BOOK OF THE WAR OF l8l2" ETC., ETC., ETC. ','",' '' 





















VOL. Ill 


Copyright, 1905, by Harper & Brothers. 

Copyright, 1901, by Harper & Brothers, 

^// rishts resefved. 



President Millard Fillmore Frentispieee 

Fac-simile op the Original Draft of the Decla- 
ration OF Independence Facing page 40 

Reading the Declaration of Independence, 

City Hall Square, New York City . . . . " "38 

Independence Hall, Philadelphia " "48 

PoNTiAc's Attack on Fort Detroit " ** 108 

Admiral George Dewey " "112 

Admiral David G. Farragut ....... *' "318 

The Battle of Fredericksburg — Volunteers 

Crossing the River " " 430 

* ^ t"" *^ <pa '''-^ 



Dablon, Claude, Jesuit missionary; 
born in Dieppe, France, in 1618; began a 
mission to the Onondaga Indians in New 
York in 1655, and six years afterwards he 
accompanied Druillettes in an overland 
journey to the Hudson Bay region. In 
1668 he went with Marquette to Lake 
Superior, and in 1670 was appointed su- 
perior of the missions of the Upper Lakes. 
He prepared the Relations concerning New 
France for 1671-72, and also a narrative 
of Marquette's journey, published in John 
Gilmary Shea's Discovery and Explora- 
tion of the Mississippi Valley (1853). He 
died in Quebec, Canada, Sept. 20, 1697. 

Dabney, Richard Heath, educator; 
born in Memphis, Tenn., March 29, 
1860; graduated at the University of Vir- 
ginia in 1881; Professor of History in the 
University of Virginia in 1897. He is the 
author of John Randolph ; The Causes of 
the French Revolution, etc. 

Dabney, Robert Lewis, clergyman; 
born in Louisa county, Va., March 5, 
1820; graduated at the University of Vir- 
ginia in 1842; ordained a Presbyterian 
minister in 1847; and became Professor 
of Church History in Union Seminary, Vir- 
ginia, in 1853. When the Civil War bi'oke 
out he entered the Confederate army as 
chaplain, and later became chief of staff to 
Gen. Thomas J. Jackson. His publica- 
tions include Life of T. J. Jackson, and 
Defence of Virginia and the South. He 
died in Victoria, Texas, Jan. 3, 1898. 

Dabney, Waltek David, lawyer; born 
in Albemarle county, Va., in 1853; grad- 
UI. — A 1 

uated at the law department of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1875; appointed 
legal secretary of the United States in- 
ter-State commerce commission in 1890, 
and, later, solicitor of the State Depart- 
ment. In 1895 he became Professor of 
Common and Statute Law in the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. He died in Charlottes- 
ville, Va., March 12, 1899. 

Dabney's Mills, Va. See Hatcher's 

Dacres, James Richard, naval officer; 
born in Suffolk, England, Aug. 22, 1788; 



son of Vice-Admiral Dacres, who was a 
commander in the battle with Arnold on 
Lake Champlain in 1776. The son en- 
tered the royal navy in 1796, and, being 
placed in command of the frigate Guer- 
riere in 1811, was sent to fight the Amer- 
icans. He proudly boasted that he would 
" send the Constitution to Davy Jones's 
locker " when he should be so fortunate 
as to meet her. She had escaped him in 
her famous retreat, but willingly met and 
fought the Guerriere afterwards. Dacres 
was then captain. He attained the rank 
of flag-officer in 1838, and in 1845 was 
vice-admiral and commander - in - chief of 
the fleet at the Cape of Good Hope. He 
was presented with a gratuity from the 
" Patriotic Fund " at Lloyd's, in con- 
sideration of his wound. He was mar- 
ried, in 1810, to Arabella Boyd, who 
died in 1828. He died in Hampshire, 
England, Dec. 4, 1853. See Constitution 
(frigate) . 

Dade, Francis Langhorn, military 
officer ; born in Virginia ; entered the army 
as third lieutenant in 1813. During the 
war with the Seminole Indians, while on 
the march to Fort King, he, with almost 
the entire detachment, was destroyed by 
a treacherous attack of the Indians, Dec. 
28, 1835. A monument at West Point was 
erected to the memory of Major Dade and 
the men in his command, and Fort Dade, 
35 miles from Tampa, Fla., is named in 
his honor. 

Daggett, Naphtali, clergyman; born 
in Attleboro, Mass., Sept. 8, 1727; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1748; ordain- 
ed pastor of a Presbyterian church at 
Smithtown, Long Island, in 1751; and 
in 1755 was chosen professor of divinity 
at Yale, which place he held until his 
death, in New Haven, Conn., Nov. 25, 
1780. In 1766, on the resignation of 
President Clap, he was chosen presi- 
dent of, the college pro tempore and 
officiated in that capacity more than a 
year. He was an active patriot when 
the War of the Revolution broke out; and 
when the British attacked New Haven, in 
1779, he took part in the resistance made 
by the citizens and surrounding militia. 
Dr. Daggett was made a prisoner, and the 
severe treatment to which he was sub- 
jected so shattered his constitution that 
he never recovered his health. After the 

famous Dark Day {q. v.), in 1780, he 
published an account of it. 

Dahlgren, John Adolph, naval officer; 
born in Philadelphia, Nov. 13, 1809; en- 
tered the navy in 1826, and was made rear- 
admiral in 1863. He was the inventor of 


the Dahlgren gun, which he perfected at 
the navy-yard at Washington, and in 1862 
he was made chief of the bureau of ord- 
nance. In July, 1863, he took command 
of the South Atlantic squadron, and, with 
the land forces of General Gillmore, capt- 
ured Morris Island and Fort Wagner, 
and reduced Fort Sumter to a heap of 
ruins. He conducted a successful ex- 
pedition up the St. John's River, in 
Florida, in 1864, and co-operated with 
General Sherman in the capture of Savan- 
nah. After the evacuation of Charleston 
he moved his vessels up to that city. 
Admiral Dahlgren, besides being the in- 
ventor of a cannon, introduced into the 
navy the highly esteemed light boat- 
howitzer. He was author of several 
works on ordnance, which became text- 
books. He died in Washington, D. C. 
July 12, 1870. 

Dahlgren, Madeleine Vinton, author; 
born in Gallipolis, 0., about 1835; widow 
of Rear-Admiral John A. Dahlgren. She 
established and was the vice-president for 
several years of the Literary Society of 
Washington; was opposed to woman suf- 
frage, against which she published a 
weekly paper for two years, and also sent 



a petition bearing many signatures to Con- 
gress, requesting that women should not be 
given the elective franchise. Popes Pius 
IX. and Leo XIII. several times thanked 
her for the various services she had ren- 
dered to the Roman Catholic Church. Her 
publications include Thoughts on Female 
Suffrage; Memoirs of John A. Dahlgren, 
etc. She. died in Washington, D. C, May 
28, 1898. 

Dahlgren, Ulric, artillery officer ; born 
in Bucks county. Pa., in 1842; son of 
Eear-Admiral Dahlgren. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War he became aide first to 
his father and later to General Sigel, and 
was Sigel's chief of artillery at the second 
battle of Bull Run. He distinguished 
himself in an attack on Fredericksburg 
and at the battle of Chancellorsville, and 
on the retreat of the Confederates from 
Gettysburg he led the charge into Hagers- 
town. He lost his life in a raid under- 
taken for the purpose of releasing Na- 

Huguenot faith in 1683, and removed t« 
New York to work among the French 
under the Reformed Church. In 1688 the 
French erected their first church in 
Marketfield Street, between Broad and 
Whitehall streets; in 1692 Daille narrowly 
escaped imprisonment because he had de- 
nounced the violent measures of Jacob 
Leisler {q. v.); and in 1696 he became 
pastor of the School Street Church in 
Boston. He died in Boston, Mass., May 
21, 1715. 

Daiquiri, a sea-coast town in the 
province of Santiago, about 15 miles east 
of Santiago, Cuba. It was here that the 
American army of invasion disembarked 
after the declaration of war against Spain 
in 1898. After Gen. William Rufus 
Shafter iq. v.), commander of the expe- 
dition, had accepted the ofl'er of the services 
of the Cuban troops under General Garcia, 
he furnished them with rations and am- 
munition. A number of sharp-shooters. 


tional prisoners at Libby prison and Belle machine - guns, and mountain artillery 

Isle, near King and Queen's Court-house, were landed to aid the Cubans in clear- 

Va., March 4, 1864. ing the hills, after which 6,000 men were 

Daille, Pierre, clergyman; born in put ashore on June 22. The landing was 

France in 1649; banished because of his difficult on account of the defective trans- 


port facilities, but still the Spaniards 
could offer no serious opposition, as they 
were held in check by the Cubans and the 
shells of the American warships, and also 
by the feint of Admiral Sampson to bom- 
bard Juragua. On June 23, 6,000 more 
troops were landed, and a division under 
Maj.-Gen. Henry W. Lawton (q. v.) 
inarched to Sibonet (q.v.) in order to give 
place to the division of Maj.-Gen. Jacob 
F. I^NT {q. V.) While General Shafter 
conducted the disembarkation, Maj.-Gen. 
Joseph Wheeler directed the operations 
ashore. The only losses sustained in this 
landing were one killed and four wounded. 

Dakota, originally formed a part of 
Minnesota Territory. It was a portion 
of the great Louisiana purchase in 1803. 
The Nebraska Territory was formed in 
1854, and comprised a part of what be- 
came Dakota. The latter Territory was 
organized by act of Congress, approved 
March 2, 1861, and included the present 
States of Montana and Washington. In 
1803 a part of the Territory was included 
in Idaho, of which the northeastern part 
was organized as Montana in 1864, and 
the southern part was transferred to 
Dakota. In 1868 a large area was taken 
from Dakota to form Wyoming Territory. 
The first permanent settlements of Euro- 
peans in Dakota were made in 1859, in 
what were then Clay, Union, and Yank- 
ton counties. The first legislature con- 
vened March 17, 1862, Emigration was 
limited until 1866, when settlers began to 
flock in, and population rapidly increased. 
In 1889, two States were created out 
of the Territory of Dakota, and ad- 
mitted to the Union as North Dakota 
and South Dakota (qq. v.). 

Dakota Indians. See Sioux Ind- 

Dale, Richard, naval officer; born 
near Norfolk, Va., Nov. 6, 1756; went 
to sea at twelve years of age, and at 
nineteen commanded a merchant ves- 
sel. He was first a lieutenant in the 
Virginia navy, and entered the Con- 
tinental navy, as midshipman, in 1776. 
He was captured in 1777, and confined 
in Mill PrisOii, England, from which 
be escaped, but was recaptured in Lon- 
don and taken back. The next year 
he escaped, reached France, joined 
Paul Jones, and soon became lieu- 

tenant of the Bon Homme Richard, recefiv- 
ing a wound in the famous battle with the 
Serapis. He continued to do good service 


to the end of the war, and in 1794 was 
made captain. He commanded the squad- 
ron ordered to the Mediterranean in 1801, 
and in April, 1802, returning home, he 
resigned his commission. He spent the 
latter years of his life in ease in Phila- 
delphia, where he died, Feb. 24, 1826. 
The remains of Commodore Dale were 
buried in Christ Church-yard, Philadel- 
phia, and over the grave is a white marble 
slab with a long inscription. 




Dale, Samuel, pioneer; born in Rock- 
bridge county, Va., in 1772. His parents 
emigrated to Georgia in 1783. In 17'J3, 
alter the death of his parents, he enlist- 
ed in the United States army as a scout, 
and subsequently became well known as 
'■ Big Sam." In 1831 he supervised the re- 
moval of the Choctaw Indians to the Ind- 
ian Territory. He died in Lauderdale 
county. Miss., May 24, 1841. 

Dale, Sir Thomas, colonial governor; 
was a distinguished soldier in the Low 
Countries, and was knighted by King 
James in 1G06. Appointed chief magis- 
trate of Virginia, he administered the gov- 
ernment on the basis of martial law; 
planted new settlements on the James, 
towards the Falls (now Richmond) ; and 
introduced salutary changes in the land 
laws of the colony. He conquered the Ap- 
pomattox Indians. In IGll Sir Thomas 
Gates succeeded him, but he resumed the 
office in 1614. In 1616 he returned to 
England; went to Holland; and in 1619 
was made commander of the East India 
fleet, when, near Bantam, he fought the 
Dutch. He died near Bantam, East Indies, 
early in 1620. 

Dall, William Healey, naturalist; 
born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 21, 1845 ; took 
part in the international telegraph ex- 
pedition to Alaska in 1865-68; appointed 
assistant in the United States coast sur- 
vey of Alaska in 1871, where he spent 
several years in various kinds of work, 
which included the geography, natural his- 
tory, geology, etc., of Alaska and adjacent 
islands. Among his books are Alaska and 
its Resources; Tribes of the Extreme 
Xorthtoest ; Scientific Results of the Ex- 
ploration of Alaska, etc. 

Dallas, a city in Georgia, where, dur- 
ing the Atlanta campaign, Sherman's ad- 
vance under General Hooker was tempo- 
rarily checked. May 25, 1864. Three days 
later Hardee attacked McPherson on the 
right, with great loss. The Confederates 
retired May 29. 

Dallas, Alexander James, statesman; 
born in the island of Jamaica, June 21, 
1759; lett iiume in 1783, settled in Phila- 
delphia, and was admitted to the bar. 
He soon became a practitioner in the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. He 
wrote for the newspapers, and at one time 
was the editor of the Columbian Maf/a~i)i< 

He was appointed secretary of state ot 
Pennsylvania in 1791, and was engaged as 
paymaster of a force to quell the Whiskey 
Insurrection (q. v.). In 1801 he was ap- 
pointed United States attorney for the 
Eastern Department of Pennsylvania, and 
he held that place until called to the cabi- 
net of Madison as Secretary of the Treas- 
ury in October, 1814. In 1815 he also 
performed the duties of the War Office, 
and was earnest in his efforts to re- 
establish a national bank. He resigned 
in November, 1810, and resumed the prac- 
tice of law. He died in Trenton, N. J., 
Jan. 16, 1817. 

Dallas, George Mifflin, statesman; 
born in Philadelphia, July 10, 1792 ; a 
son of the preceding; graduated at the 
College of New Jersey in 1810, and ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1813. He went 
with Mr. Gallatin to Russia aa private 
secretary, and returned in 1814, when 
he assisted his father in the Treasury 
Department. In 1828 he was mayor of 
Philadelphia; United States Senator from 
1832 to 1833. and declined a re-election. 
He was ambassador to Russia from 
1837 to 1839, and Vice-President of the 
United States from 1845 to 1849. From 
1856 to 1861 he was American minister 
in London. INIr. Dallas was an able 
lawyer and statesman. He died in Phila- 
delphia, Dec. 31, 1864. 

Dallas-Clarendon Treaty, a convention 
negotiated in 1S5G for the adjustment of 
difficulties between the United States and 
Great Britain arising under the Clay- 
ton-Bulwer Treaty ( q. v. ) . It was re- 
jected by the Senate. 

Dalton, a city in Georgia, strongly 
fortified by the Confederates under Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston, who checked the ad- 
vance of General Sherman until forced to 
evacuate by a flank movement by General 
McPherson, May 12, 1864. 

Daly, Charles Patrick, jurist; born 
in New York City, Oct. 31, 1816; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1839; elected to the 
New York Assembly in 1843; became jus- 
tice in 1844, and chief- justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas in 1871 ; presi- 
dent of the American Geographical So- 
ciet}'' for more than forty years. Among 
his writings are History of Natural- 
ization ; First Settlement of Jeics in 
"North America; What We Know of Maps 



and Map-Making before the Time of Mer- 
cator, etc. He died on Long Island, 
N. Y., Sept. 19, 1899. 

Dalzell, James, military officer; was in 
early life a companion of Israel Putnam. 
He marched to the relief of the garrison 
of Detroit with 260 men in 1763; and on 
July 30, the day after his arrival, he led 
a sally against the Indians, in which they 
Avere Isadly defeated. During the struggle 
Dalzell was killed. The rivulet which was 
the scene of this defeat is known to this 
day as " Bloody Run." 

Dalzell, Robert M., inventor; born 
near Belfast, Ireland, in 1793; was driven 
into exile with his family by the Irish 
Rebellion of 1798, and came to New York. 
In 1826 he settled in Rochester, N. Y., 
where he became a millwright. Later he 
invented and introduced the elevator sys- 
tem for handling and storing grain. He 
died in Rochester. N. Y., Jan. 22, 1873. 

Dames of the Revolution, a patriotic 
organization established in the United 
States in 1896. The qualifications for 
membership are that applicants be above 
the age of eighteen years, of good moral 
standing, and descended in their own 
right from a military, naval, or marine 
officer, or official, who aided in founding 
American independence during the Revo- 
lutionary War. Local chapters may be 
formed when authorized by the board 
of managers of the society. The presi- 
dent in 1900 was Mrs. Edward Paulet 
Steers, and the secretary and historian 
Miss Mary A. Phillips. The headquarters 
were at 64 Madison Avenue, New York. 

Dana, Charles Anderson, journalist; 
born in Hinsdale, N. H., Aug. 8, 1819; 
was for a time a student in Harvard 
College; joined the Brook Farm Associa- 
tion iq. V.) in 1842; and, after two years 
of editorial work in Boston, became at- 
tached to the staff of the New York 
Tribune in 1847. In 1848 he went to 
Europe as correspondent for several 
American newspapers, dealing particu- 
larly with the numerous foreign revolu- 
tions. Soon after his return to New 
York he became managing editor of the 
Tribune, and held the place till 1862, 
when he was appointed assistant Secre- 
tary of War. In 1866 he organized the 
stock company which bought the old New 
York Sun, of which he became editor- 

in-chief, continuing so till his death. In 
addition to his work as a journalist, in 
conjunction with the late George Ripley, 
he planned and edited the New American 



Cyclopcedia (16 vols., 1857-63), which 
they thoroughly revised and reissued 
under the title of the American Cyclopcedia 
(1873-76). In 1883, in association with 
Rossiter Johnson, he edited Fifty Perfect 
Poems, and subsequently, in association 
with Gen. James H. Wilson, he wrote the 
Life of Ulysses 8. Grant. In 1897 his 
Reminiscences of the Civil War and East- 
ern Journeys were published posthumous- 
ly; he was also the compiler of House- 
hold Book of Poetry. He died on Long 
Island, N. Y., Oct. 17, 1897. 

Dana, Francis, jurist; born in Charles- 
town, Mass., June 13, 1743; son of Rich- 
ard Dana; graduated at Harvard in 
1762. He was admitted to the bar in 
1767; was an active patriot; a delegate 
to the Provincial Congress in 1774; went 
to England in 1775 with confidential let- 
ters to Franklin; was a member of the 
executive council from 1776 to 1780; 
member of the Continental Congress from 
1776 to 1778, and again in 1784; member 
of the board of war, Nov. 17, 1777; and 
was at the head of a committee charged 
with the entire reorganization of the 
army. When Mr. Adams went on an em- 
bassy to negotiate a treaty of peace and 
commerce with Great Britain, Mr. Dana 
was secretary of the legation. At Paris, 


early in 1781, he received the appointment 
from Congress of minister to Russia, 
clothed with power to make the accession 
of the United States to the " armed neu- 
trality." He resided two years at St. Pe- 
tersburg, and returned to Berlin in 1783. 
He was again in Congress in the spring of 
1784, and the next year was made a justice 
of the Supreme Court ■ of Massachusetts. 
In 1791 he was appointed chief-justice of 
Massachusetts, which position he held 
fifteen years, keeping aloof from political 
life, except in 1792 and 1806, when he was 
Presidential elector. He retired from the 
bench and public life in 1806, and died in 
Cambridge, Mass., April 25, 1811. 

Dana, James Dwight, mineralogist; 
born in Utica, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1813; 
graduated at Yale College in 1833; went 
to the Mediterranean in the Delaware as 
teacher of mathematics in the United 
States navy, and was mineralogist and 
geologist of Wilkes's exploring expedi- 
tion, 1838-42 (see Wilkes, Charles). 
For thirteen years afterwards Mr. Dana 
was engaged in preparing the reports of 
this expedition and otlier scientific labors. 
These rejjorts were published by the gov- 
ernment, with atlases of drawings made by 

1 »4»\\\ffll 


Mr. Dana. He was elected to the chair of 
Silliman Professor of Natural History 
and Geology in Yale College in 1850, 
entered on his duties in 1855, a place he 

held till 1890, and was for many years 
associated with his brother-in-law, Ben- 
jamin Silliman, Jr., in editing and pub- 
lishing the American Journal of Scieiice 
and Art, founded by the elder Silliman in 
1819. Professor Dana contributed much 
to scientific journals, and was a member 
of many learned societies at home and 
abroad. In 1872 the Wollaston gold 
medal, in charge of the London Geologi- 
cal Society, was conferred upon him. He 
died in New Haven, April 14, 1895. 

Dana, Napoleon Jackson TECtfMSEH, 
military officer; born in Fort Sullivan, 
Eastport, Me., April 10, 1822; gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1842; served in the 
war with Mexico; resigned in 1855; and 
in October, 1801, became colonel of the 1st 
Minnesota Volunteers. He was in the bat- 
tle at Ball's Bluff (q. v.) ; was made 
brigadier-general early in 1862; was ac- 
tive throughout the whole campaign on 
the Peninsula, participating in all the 
battles ; and at Antietam commanded a 
brigade, and was wounded. A few weeks 
later he was promoted to major-general 
of volunteers; was with the Army of the 
Gulf in 1863; commanded the 13th Army 
Corps a while; and had charge of the 
district of Vicksburg and west Tennes- 
see in 1864. From December, 1864, to 
May, 1865, he was in command of the 
Department of the Mississippi. He re- 
signed in 1865, and was reappointed to 
the army with the rank of captain, and re- 
tired in 1894. 

Dana, Richard, jurist ; born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., July 7, 1099; graduated 
at Harvard in 1718; and was a leader of 
the bar in the Revolutionary period. He 
was a member of the Sons of Liberty, and 
also a member of the committee to in- 
vestigate the incidents of the Boston 
massacre in 1770. He died May 17, 1772. 

Dana, Richard Henry, poet and essay- 
ist ; born in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 15, 
1787; son of Francis Dana; chose the 
profession of law, but his tastes led him 
into literary pursuits. In 1814 he and 
others founded the North American Re- 
view, of which he was sole conductor for 
a while. He closed his connection with 
it in 1820. It was while Dana was editor 
of the Review that Bryant's Tlianatopsis 
was published in its pages, the author 
beins: then unknown. In 1821 the first 


volume of The Idle Man was published. 
It was unprofitable, and Mr. Dana 
dropped it. In it he published stories 
and essays from his own pen. In the 
same year he contributed to the New 
York Review (then under the care of Mr. 
Bryant) his first poem of much preten- 
sion, The Dying Raven. In 1827 his most 
celebrated poetical production. The Bucca- 
neer, was published, with some minor 
poems. After 1833 Mr. Dana wrote but 
little. He died in Boston, Feb. 2, 1879. 

Dana, Richard Henry, 2d, lawyer 
born in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 1, 1815 
graduated at Harvard University in 1837 
admitted to the ba-r in 1840; author of 
Tioo Years Before the Mast and many ar- 
ticles on legal subjects; reviser of Whea- 
ton's International Law; nominated min- 
ister to Great Britain in 1876, but not 
confirmed by the Senate; United States 
counsel at the Halifax conference. He 
died in Rome, Italy, Jan. 7, 1882. 

Danbury, Destruction of. Governor 
Tryon was one of the most malignant foes 
of the American patriots during the Revo- 
lutionary War. He delighted, apparently, 
in conspicuously cruel acts ; and when any- 
thing of that nature was to be done he 
was employed to do it by the more re- 
spectable British officers. He was chosen 
to lead a marauding expedition into Con- 
necticut from New York in the spring of 
1777. At the head of 2,000 men, h'e left 
that city (April 23), and landed at 
Compo, between Norwalk and Fairfield, 
two days later. They pushed on towards 
Danbury, an inland town, where the 
Americans had gathered a large quantity 
of provisions for the army. The maraud- 
ers reached the town unmolested (April 
25) by some militia that had retired, and, 
not contented with destroying a large 
quantity of stores gathered there, they 
laid eighteen houses in the village in 
ashes and cruelly treated some of the 
inhabitants. General Silliman, of the 
Connecticut militia, was at his home in 
Fairfield when the enemy landed. He im- 
mediately sent out expresses to alarm the 
country and call the militia to the field. 
The call was nobly responded to. Hear- 
ing of this gathering from a Tory scout, 
Tryon made a hasty retreat by way of 
Ridgefield, near which place he was con- 
fronted by the militia under Generals 

Wooster, Arnold, and Silliman. A sharp 
skirmish ensued, in which Wooster was 
killed, and Arnold had a narrow escape 
from capture, after his horse had been 
shot under him. For his gallantry on that 
occasion the Congress presented him with 
a horse richly caparisoned. Tryon spent 
the night in the neighborhood for his 
troops to rest, and early the next morn- 
ing he hurried to his ships, terribly smit- 
ten on the way by the gathering militia,, 
and at the landing by cannon-shot direct- 
ed by Lieutenant-Colonel Oswald. They 
escaped capture only through the gal- 
lant services of some marines led by Gen- 
eral Erskine. About sunset the fleet de- 
parted, the British having lost about 300 
men, including prisoners, during the in- 
vasion. The Americans lost about 100 
men. The private losses of property at 
Danbury amounted to about $80,000. 
Danbury is now a city widely known for 
its extensive manufactures of hats, and 
has an assessed property valuation ex- 
ceeding $11,500,000. The population in 
1890 was 16,552; in 1900, 16,537. 

Dane, Nathan, jurist; born at Ips- 
wich, Mass., Dee. 27, 1752; graduated 
at Harvard in 1778. An able lawyer 
and an influential member of Congress 
(1785-88), he was the framer of the cele- 
brated ordinance of 1787. He was a 
member of the Massachusetts legislature 
several years, and was engaged to revise 
the laws of the State (1799), and rfevise 
and publish the charters (1811) which 
had been granted therein. Mr. Dane was 
a member of the Hartford Convention (see 
Hartford) in 1814. His work entitled A 
General Abridgment and Digest of Amer- 
ican Laio, in 9 large volumes (1823-29), 
is a monument of his learning and in- 
dustry. He founded the Dane professor- 
ship of law in Harvard University. He 
died in Beverly, Feb. 15, 1835. 

Danenhower, John Wilson, explorer; 
born in Chicago, 111., Sept. 30, 1849; 
graduated at the United States Naval 
Academy in 1870 ; served on the Vandalia 
during Gen. U. S. Grant's visit to Egypt 
and the Levant; and was promoted lieu- 
tenant in 1879. He joined the Arctic 
steamer Jeanette as second in command 
in 1878. The vessel sailed from San 
Francisco on July 8, 1879, through Ber- 
ing Straits into the Arctic Ocean, where 



it was held in the ice-pack for twenty-two Daniel, William, prohibitionist; born 

months. From the place where the in Somerset county, Md., Jan. 24, 1826; 

steamer was caught the crew travelled graduated at Dickinson College in 1848; 

south for ninety-five days over the ice, admitted to the bar in 1851; elected 

drawing three boats with them. They to the Maryland legislature in 1853, 

then embarked, but were separated by a and to the State Senate in 1857; was 

storm. Lieutenant Danenhower's boat an ardent supporter of temperance meas- 

reached the Lena delta, where the Tun- ures, and in 1884 joined the National 

guses saved the crew, Sept. 17, 1881. Prohibition party, which nominated him 

After making an unsuccessful search for for Vice-President of the United States 

'the other boats he left Engineer George with William St. John for President. The 

W. Melville {q. v.) to continue the Prohibition ticket received about 150,000 

search for Lieut. George W. De Long votes. 

{q. v.), and with his crew made a journey Daniels, William Haven, author; born 

of 6,000 miles to Orenburg. He arrived in in Franklin, Mass., May 18, 1836; edu- 

the United States in June, 1882. He pub- cated at Wesleyan University; Professor 

lished The Narrative of the Jeannctte. of Rhetoric there in 1868-69. He then 

He died in Annapolis, Md., April 20, 1887. devoted himself to religious work, chiefly 

Danforth, Thomas, colonial governor ; in the capacity of an evangelist. His pub- 
born in Suffolk, England, in 1622; set- lications include The Illustrated History 
tied in New England in 1634; in 1679 was of Methodism in the United States; A 
elected president of the province of Maine; Short History of the People called 
and was also a judge of the Superior Methodist, etc. 

Court, in which capacity he strongly con- Danish West Indies, a group of 

demned the action of the court in the islands lying east by southeast of Porto 

witchcraft excitement of 1692. He died Rico, and consisting of St. Croix, St. 

in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 5, 1699. Thomas, and St. John. St. Croix is the 

Dangers from Slavery. See Parker, largest, being about 20 miles long and 5 

Theodore. miles wide, with an area of 110 square 

Daniel, John Moncure, editor; born in miles. It is generally flat, well watered, 
Stafford county, Va., Oct. 24, 1825; in and fertile. Two-fifths of the surface is 
1853 was appointed minister- to Italy, in sugar plantations, and the principal 
Garibaldi requested Daniel to annex Nice crops are sugar, cotton, coffee, indigo, 
to the United States, but Daniel declined and rum. The climate is unhealthful at 
on the ground that such action would be all seasons, and hurricanes and earth- 
contrary to the Monroe doctrine. When quakes occur frequently. The population 
the Civil War broke out Daniel hastened is about 18,000. St. Thomas is about 
home and entered the Confederate army, 17 miles long by 4 miles wide. Its sur- 
but resigned and resumed the editorship face is rugged and elevated, reaching its 
of the Richmond Examiner, in which he greatest height towards the centre. The 
attacked Jefferson Davis. He died in soil is sandy, and mostly uncultivated. 
Richmond, Va., March 30, 1865. Charlotte Amalie, which is the principal 

Daniel, John Warwick, legislator; town and the seat of government for the 

born in Lynchburg, Va., Sept. 5, 1842; Danish West Indies, has an excellent 

served through the Civil War in the Con- harbor and large trade. The population 

federate army; member of Congress in of the island is about 14,000. St. John 

1885-87 and of the United States Senate has an area of 42 square miles. The 

in 1887-1905; author of Attachments chief exports are cattle and bay-rum, 

under the Code of Virginia, etc. and the population is about 1,000. Ne- 

Daniel, Petl: Vivian, statesman; born gotiations with Denmark for the cession 
in Stafford county, Va., April 24, 1784; of the islands to the United States began 
graduated at Princeton in 1805; appoint- in 1898, after the close of the war with 
ed judge of the LTnited States Circuit Spain; but owing to political changes in 
Court in 1836; and to the United States the Danish government, no definite re- 
Supreme Court in 1841. He died in Rich- suits were then attained. In December, 
niond. Va., June 30, 1860. 1900, Congress became favorable to the 



bill of Senator Lodge, advising the pur- for the ships to return to England for 
chase of the islands, and negotiations to supplies, and, to hasten them, White went 
that end were reopened. On Dec. 29, with them, leaving behind eighty - nine 
1900, the United States offered to pay men, seventeen women, and two children. 
$3,240,000 for the islands; but the Danish Among the women was his married daugh- 
Upper House rejected the treaty to sell, ter, Eleanor Dare, who had given birth 
Oct. 22, 1902. to a daughter, in August, 1587, to whom 

Danites, an alleged secret - order so- they gave the name of Virginia. On his 
ciety of the Mormons, accused of various way home, White touched at Ireland, 
crimes in the interest of Mormonism. where he left some potatoes which he took 
These are denied by the Mormons. " Dan from Virginia — the first of that kind ever 
shall be a serpent by the way, an adder seen in Europe. He started back with two 
in the path," Gen. xlix. 17. TTie members ships laden with supplies; but instead 
were also known as the Destroying An- of going directly to Virginia, he pur- 
gels. See Mormons. sued Spanish ships in search of plunder. 
Darby, William, geographer; born in His vessels were so battered that he was 
Pennsylvania in 1775; served under Gen- obliged to return to England, and Span- 
eral Jackson in Louisiana ; and was one isli war - vessels in British waters pre- 
of the surveyors of the boundary between vented his sailing for America again until 
Canada and the United States. Among 1590. He found Roanoke a desolation, 
his works are Oeographical Description of and no trace of the colony was ever 
Louisiana; Geography and History of found. It is believed that they became 
Florida; Vieiv of the United States; Lect- mingled with the natives, for long years 
ures on the Discovery of America; etc. afterwards families of the Hatteras tribe 
He died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 9, 1854. exhibited unmistakable specimens of blood 
Darbytown Road, Va., the place of mixed with that of Europeans. It is sup- 
three fights during the Richmond and pcsed the friendly " Lord of Roanoke " 
Petersburg campaigns. The first, July 29, had saved their lives. 

1864, between Hancock's corps under Darien Ship Canal, one of the great 
Gregg and Kautz and the Confederates; interoceanic canal projects which have 
the second, Oct. 7, when Kautz was de- attracted the attention of interested na- 
feated; and the third, Oct. 13, when the tions for many years, and, most particu- 
Nationals under Butler were defeated, larly, the United States. In 1849 an 
General Lee claimed to have captured Irish adventurer published a book in 
1 000 Nationals. which he said he had crossed and re- 

Dare, Virginia, the first child of Eng- crossed the Isthmus of Darien, and that 
lish parents born in the New World. In in the construction of a canal there 
1587 John White went to Roanoke Island only "3 or 4 miles of deep rock cut- 
as governor of an agricultural colony sent ting " would be required. Believing this, 
out by Sir Walter Raleigh. He was ac- an English company was formed for the 
companied by his son - in - law, William purpose, with a capital of $75,000,000, 
Dare, and his young wife. It was in- and an engineer was sent to survey a 
tended to plant the colony on the main- route, who reported that the distance be- 
land, but White went no farther than tween " tidal effects " was only 30 mile^, 
Roanoke. The new colonists determined to and the summit level only 150 feet. The 
cultivate the friendship of the Indians, governments of England, France, the 
Manteo (the chief who accompanied United States, and New Granada joined, 
Amidas and Barlow to England), living late in 1853, in an exploration of the best 
with his mother and relatives on Croatan route for a canal. It was soon ascer- 
Island, invited the colonists to settle on tained that the English engineer had 
his domain. White persuaded him to re- never crossed the isthmus at all. The 
ceive the rites of Christian baptism, and summit level to which he directed the 
bestowed upon him the title of baron, expedition was 1,000 feet above tide- 
as Lord of Roanoke — the first and last water, instead of 150 feet. The expedi- 
peerage ever created on the soil of the tion effected nothing. 

American republic. It became necessary In 1854 Lieut. Isaac Strain led an 



American expedition for the same purpose. 
They followed the route pointed out by 
the English engineer, and, after intense 
suffering, returned and reported the pro- 
posed route wholly impracticable. The 
success of the Suez Canal revived the 
project, and in 1870 two expeditions were 
sent out by the United States govern- 
ment — one under Commander T. O. Sel- 
fridge, of the United States navy, to the 
Isthmus of Darien; and the other, under 
Captain Shufeldt, of the navy, to the 
Isthmus of Tehuanteijec. Three routes 
were surveyed across the narrow part 
of the Isthmus of Darien by Selfridge, 
and he reported all three as having ob- 
stacles that made the construction of a 
canal impracticable. He reported a 
route by the Atrato and Napipi rivers as 
perfectly feasible. It would include 150 
miles of river navigation and a canal less 
than 40 miles in extent. It would call 
for 3 miles of rock cutting 125 feet 
deep, and a tunnel of 5 miles, with a roof 
sufficiently high to admit the tallest- 
masted ships. Selfridge estimated the en- 
tire cost at $124,000,000. The whole mat- 
ter was referred in 1872 to a commission 
to continue investigations. A French 
company undertook the construction of a 
canal between Aspinwall and Panama in 
1881, under the direction of Ferdinand 
de Lesseps. After expending many mill- 
ions, the project was temporarily aban- 
doned in 1890. See Clayton - Bulwer 
Treaty; Nicaragua Ship Canal; Pan- 
ama Canal. 

Dark and Bloody Ground. Two sec- 
tions of the United States have received 
this appellation. First it was applied 
to Kentucky, the great battle-field be- 
tween the Northern and Southern Indians, 
and afterwards to the portion of that 
State wherein Daniel Boone and his com- 
panions were compelled to carry on a 
warfare with the savages. It was also 
applied to the Valley of the Mohawk, in 
New York, and its vicinity, known as 
Tryon county, wherein the Six Nations 
and their Tory allies made fearful forays 
during the Revolution. 

Dark Day. On May 12, 1780, a re- 
markable darkness overspread all New 
England, varying in intensity at different 
places. In some sections persons could 
not read common printed matter in the 

open air. Birds became silent and went 
to rest; barn-yard fowls went to roost, 
and cattle sought their accustomed even- 
ing resorts. Houses were lighted with 
candles, and nearly all out-of-door work 
was suspended. The obscuration began 
at ten o'clock in the morning and con- 
tinued until night. The cause of the 
darkness has never been revealed. The 
air was unclouded. 

Darke, William, military officer; born 
in Philadelphia county, Pa., in 1736; 
served under Braddock in 1755, and was 
with him at his defeat; entered the patriot 
army at the outbreak of the Revolution as 
a captain ; was captured at the battle of 
Germantown ; subsequently was promoted 
colonel; and commanded the Hampshire 
and Berkeley regiments at the capture of 
Cornwallis in 1791. He served as lieuten- 
ant-colonel under General St. Clair, and 
was wounded in the battle with the Miami 
Indians, Nov. 4, 1791. He died in Jeffer- 
son county, Va., Nov. 20, 1801. 

Darley, Felix Octavius Carr, de- 
signer and painter ; born in Philadel- 
phia June 23, 1822; evinced a taste for 
drawing at an early age, and while a lad 
in a mercantile house spent his leisure 
time in sketching. For some of these 
he was offered a handsome sum, and this 
induced him to choose art as a life pur- 
suit. He spent several years in Phila- 
delphia, always living by his pencil, and 
in 1848 he went to New York, where he 
made admirable illustrations for some of 
Irving's humorous works. Among these 
were The Legend of Slcepij Hollow and 
Rip Van WinJcle. These works procured 
for him the reputation, at home and 
abroad, as a leader in the art of outline 
illustrations. He illustrated a great many 
books and made numerous admirable de- 
signs for bank-notes. For Cooper's works 
he made 500 illustrations. More than 
sixty of them were engraved on steel. 
He executed four large works ordered by 
Prince Napoleon while in this country. 
These were: Emigraats Attacked by 
Indians on the Prairies; The Village 
Blacksmith; The Unwilling Laborer, and 
Ihe Repose. He illustrated several of 
Dickens's works, and during the Civil 
War delineated many characteristic 
scenes. Some of the more elaborate pict- 
ures on the United States government 



bonds were made by liim ; and also the 
beautiful design of the certificate of stock 
given as evidence of subscription for the 
Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Among 
his later works in book illustrations 
were 500 beautiful designs for Lossing's 
Our Country. Mr. Darley went to Europe 
near the close of the war, studied models 
in Rome, and returned with a portfolio 
full of personal sketches. He died in 
Claymont, Del., March 27, 1888. 

Darling, Henky, clergyman; born in 
Reading, Pa., Dec. 27, 1823; graduated 
at Amherst College in 1842; ordained to 
the ministry of the Presbyterian Church 
in 1847; published Slavery and the War 
(1863), etc. He died in Clinton, N. Y., 
April 20, 1891. 

Darlington, William, scientist; born 
of Quaker parents in Birmingham, Pa., 
April 28, 1782; studied medicine, lan- 
guages, and botany, and went to Calcutta 
as surgeon of a ship. Returning in 1807, 
he practised medicine at West Chestet" 
with success; was a Madisonian in poli- 
tics, and when the war broke out in 1812 
he assisted in raising a corps for the ser- 
vice in his neighborhood. He was chosen 
major of a volunteer regiment, but did 
not see any active service. He was a mem- 
ber of Congress from 1815 to 1817 and 
from 1819 to 1823. In his town he 
founded an academy, an athenaeum, and a 
society of natural history. Dr. Darling- 
ton was an eminent botanist, and a new 
and remarkable variety of the pitcher 
plant, found in California in 1853, was 
named, in his honor, Darlingtonica Cali- 
fornia. He wrote "and published works 
on botany, medicine, biography, and his- 
tory. Dr. Darlington was a member of 
about forty learned societies in America 
and Europe. He died in West Chester, 
Pa., April 23, 1863. 

Darrah, Lydia, heroine; place and date 
of birth unknown; lived in Philadelphia 
in 1777. One of the rooms in her house 
was used by the British officers, who 
planned to surprise Washington's army. 
She overheard their plans, and early in 
the morning of Dec. 3 left her home, 
ostensibly for the purpose of purchasing 
flour, but in reality to give warning to 
Washington. After a walk of several 
miles in the snow she met one of Wash- 
ington's officers, to whom she revealed 

what she had overheard. Through this 
timely information Washington was pre- 
pared and the British expedition proved 
to be a failure. 

Dartmoor Prison, a notable place of 
detention in Devonshire, England. At the 
close of the War of 1812-15 prisoners 
held by both parties were released as soon 
as proper arrangements for their enlarge- 
ment could be made. At the conclusion 
of peace there were about 6,000 Ameri- 
can captives confined in Dartmoor Prison, 
including 2,500 American seamen im- 
pressed by British cruisers, who had re- 
fused to fight in the British navy against 
their countrymen, and were there when 
the war began. Some had been captives 
ten or eleven years. The prison was situ- 
ated on Dart Moor, a desolate region in 
Devonshire, where it had been con- 
structed for the confinement of French 
prisoners of war. It comprised about 30 
acres, enclosed within double walls, with 
seven distinct prison - houses, with en- 
closures. The place, at the time in ques- 
tion, was in charge of Capt. T. G. Short- 
land, with a military guard. He was 
accused of cruelty towards the captives. 
It was nearly, three months after the 
treaty of peace was signed before they 
were permitted to know the fact. From 
that time they were in daily expectation 
of release. Delay caused uneasiness and 
impatience, and symptoms of a deter- 
mination to escape soon appeared. On 
April 4 the prisoners demanded bread 
instead of hard biscuit, and refused 
to receive the latter. On the 6th, 
so reluctantly did the prisoners obey 
orders to retire to their quarters, that 
when some of them, with the appearance 
of mutinous intentions, not only refused 
to retire, but passed beyond the prescribed 
limits of their confinement, they were fired 
upon by order of Captain Shortland, for 
the purpose of intimidating all. The fir- 
ing was followed up by the soldiers, with- 
out excuse. Five prisoners were killed and 
thirty-three were wounded. This act was 
regarded by the Americans as a wanton 
massacre, and when the British authori- 
ties pronounced it " justifiable " the 
hottest indignation was excited through- 
out the republic. The last survivor of the 
Dartmoor prisoners was Lewis P. Clover, 
who died in Brooklyn, Long Island, N. Y., 




in February, 1879, at the age of eighty- 
nine years. 

Dartmouth College, one of the highest 
institutions of learning in the English- 
American colonies; chartered in 1769. It 
grew out of an earlier school established 
by Rev. Dr. Wheelock at Lebanon, Conn., 
designed for the education of Indian chil- 
dren, he being encouraged by his success 
in educating a young Mohegan, Samson 
Occom, who became a remarkable preacher. 
Pupils from the Delaware tribe were re- 
ceived, and the school soon attracted pub- 
lic attention. James Moor, a farmer, gave 
two acres of land and a house for the use 
of the school, and from that time it was 
known as Moor's Indian Charity School. 
Occom accompanied Rev. N. Whittaker to 
I'lngland to raise funds for the increase of 
the usefulness of the school, and about 
$50,000 were subscribed. A board of trus- 
tees was organized, of which Lord Dart- 
mouth, one of the subscribers, was elected 
president. The children of the New Eng- 
land Indians came to the school in large 
numbers, and Dr. Wheelock resolved to 
transfer it to a place nearer the heart of 
the Indian population in that region. He 
selected Hanover, on the Connecticut 

River, in the western part of New Hamp- 
shire, and grants of about 44,000 acres of 
land were made. Governor Wentworth 
gave it a charter (1769), under the title of 
Dartmouth College, so named in honor of 
Lord Dartmouth. The institution was re- 
moved, with the pupils, to Hanover, in 
1770, where President Wheelock and all 
others lived in log cabins, for it was an 
almost untrodden wilderness. Dr. Whee- 
lock held the presidency until his death, in 
1779 (see Wheelock, Eleazar), and was 
succeeded by his son, John, who was sent 
to Europe to procure funds for the sup- 
port of the college. He obtained consider- 
able sums, and philosophical implements. 
In 1816 a religious controversy led to a 
conflict with the legislature, and the latter 
created a new corporation, called Dart- 
mouth University, in which the property 
of the old corporation was vested. A law- 
suit ensued, carried on for the college by 
Daniel Webster, which resulted (1819), 
finally, in the establishment of the in- 
violability of chartered rights and the 
restoration of the old charter. Wheelock 
was raised to the presidency in 1817, by 
the new board, but died a few months 
afterwards. He was succeeded by William 



Allen. At the close of 1900 the college the constitution, are " social, literary, his- 
reported sixty-one professors and instruct- torical, monumental, benevolent, and hon- 
ors, 741 students, 85,000 volumes in the orable in every degree." In 1900 there 
library, 9,000 graduates, and $2,300,000 in were 400 chapters in the United States, 
productive funds. Eev. William J. Tucker, North and South, with about 8,000 mem- 
D.D., LL.D., was president. bers. The president was Mrs. Kate Cabell 

Dartmouth College Decision. By an Currie, Dallas, Tex.; recording secretary, 
act of the legislature of New Hampshire Mrs. John P. Hickman, Nashville, Tenn. 
in 1816, the name of Dartmouth College Daughters of the King, The, a re- 
was changed to Dartmouth University, the ligious society of the Protestant Episco- 
managementwas changed, and the State un- pal Church, founded in New York City, 
dertookto control the affairs of the college. Piaster evening, 1885. It is often eon- 
Daniel Webster was retained to oppose the fused with the King's Daughters {q. v.), 
action of the State, and the case was ulti- a society from which it differs in many 
mately carried up to the United States Su- respects. Its chief purposes are to aid 
preme Court, the decision of which estab- rectors in their parish work and to ex- 
lished the inviolability of private trusts. tend Christianity among young women. 

Daston, Saeah, an alleged witch; born In 1900 the president of the council was 

about 1613. When eighty years old she Mrs. E. A. Bradley; secretary, Miss 

was imprisoned in Salem as a witch, and Elizabeth L. Ryerson. The office of the 

although the practice of punishing sup- council is in the Church Missions House, 

posed witches was meeting with public dis- 281 Fourth Avenue, New York City, 
approbation the superstitious party clam- Daughters of the Revolution, an 

ored for her conviction. She was tried organization established in New York 

in Charlestown, Mass., in February, 1693, City, Aug. 20, 1891. Any woman is 

and was acquitted. Later her persecutor, eligible for membership who is a lineal 

Minister Parris, was driven out of Salem, descendant of a military, naval, or marine 

Daughters of Liberty, a society of officer, or of a soldier or marine or sailor 

women founded in Boston in 1709, pledg- in actual service under the authority of 

ing themselves to refrain from buying any State or colony or of the Continental 

English goods. Congress, or of the Congress of any of the 

Daughters of the American Revolu- colonies or States, or of a signer of the 

tion, a society organized in Washington, Declaration of Independence, or of a mem- 

D. C, Oct. 11, 1890. All women above ber of the Continental Congress, or of any 

eighteen years of age who are descended colonial or State Congress, and of any 

from patriots, soldiers, sailors, or civil other recognized official who supported 

officers who supported the cause of inde- the cause of American independence, 

pendence, are eligible to membership. In State societies exist in a large number of 

1900 there were 492 State chapters in States. In 1900 the president-general 

fourteen States and Territories, in the was Mrs. Henry Sanger Snow; recording 

District of Columbia, and in Hawaii, with secretary-general, Mrs. L. D. Gallison. 

a total membership of about 27,000. The The office of the general society is at 156 

president-general was Mrs. Daniel Man- Fifth Avenue, New York, 
ning ; recording secretary - general, Mrs. Davenant, Sir William, dramatist and 

Albert Ackers, Nashville, Tenn. The poet; born in Oxford, England, in 1605; 

membership was reported as 35,092 in sou of an innkeeper, at whose house 

February, 1901. Shakespeare often stopped while on his 

Daughters of the Confederacy, an journeys between Stratford and London, 

organization established in Nashville, and who noticed the boy. Young Davenant 

Tenn., Sept. 10, 1894. Its membership left college without a degree. Showing 

consists of the Avidows, wives, mothers, much literary talent, he was encouraged 

sisters, and lineal female descendants of in writing plays by persons of distinction, 

the men who served in the Confederate and on the death of Ben Jonson in 1637 

army and navy, or who were connected he was made poet-laureate. He adhered 

in any way with the Confederate cause, to the royal cause during the civil war 

The objects of the society, as declared in in England, and escaped to France, where 



he became a Roman Catholic. After the spiritual retreats for the laity. In 180G 

Itl f F r^^ T-J''*,'.^ ^.'^^'^ "" '^' ""'''^^"^ ^ professorship in the College 

colony of French people in Virginia, the of St. Mary's; in 1810 went West and 

only American province that adhered to founded the St. Thomas Theological 

royalty, and, with a vessel filled with Seminary in Bardstown, Ky.; and in Isi 

French men, women and children, he secured a charter from the Kentucky 

sailed for Virginia. The ship was capt- legislature raising the institution he had 

ured by a parliamentary cruiser, and the founded to the giade of a university He 

passengers were landed in England, where died in Bardstown Ky in 1841 
the We of Sir William was spared, it is be- Davidson, George, astronomer'; born in 

heved, by the intervention of John Milton, Nottingham, England, May 9, 1825- cane 

he poet, who was Cromwell's Latin secre- to the United States in 1832; gradu- 

tary. Sir William had a strong personal ated at the Central High School Phila- 

resemblance to Shakespeare, and it was delphia, in 1845; engaged in geodetic field 

currently believed that he was a natural and astronomical work in the Easte n 

son of the great dramatist This idea Sir States in 1845-50, and then went to San 

William encouraged. He died in April, 1668. Francisco, and became eminent in the 

Davenport Henry Kallock, naval coast survey of the Pacific; retiring after 

officer; born m Savannah, Ga., Dec. 10, fifty years of active service in June! 1895 

18-0; joined the navy m 1838; command- He then became Professor of Geography in 

ed the steamer Hetzel m 1861-64; took the University of California. Of his 

part in the engagements on James River numerous publications, The Coast Pilot 

c.lf.^ri".'r? i'"r'^"'^';'''P'°™"*'^ '^ f^^^^f^'-''^^'' Oregon, and Washington; 

captain "i 1868 He died m Franzensbad, and The Coast Pilot of Alaska are uni- 

Bohemia, Aug. 18, 1872. versally known and esteemed. 

Davenport John, colonist; born in Davidson, Joim Wynn, military 

Coventry England, in 1597. Educated at officer; born in Fairfax county, Va Au<. 

+ofr'^J'%?*''i'^^i.'™^''^'*'^°^*''''^"- ^^' ^^24; graduated at West Point in 
tabhshed Church. He finally became a 1845, entering the dragoons. Accompany- 
^on-confonnist, was persecuted, and re- ing Kearny to California in 1846 he 
tired to Holland, where he engaged in was in the principal battles of the war 
secular teaching in a private school. He with Mexico. He was also active in 
returned to London and came to America New Mexico, afterwards, against the.Ind- 
m June, 1637, where he was received with ians. In 1861 he was made maior of 
great respect. The next year he assisted cavalry, and early in 1862 bri^dier- 
m founding the New Haven colony, and general of volunteers, commanding^ bri- 
I? T XT ' f""''^ "''^'" P'"^^''"' gade in the Army of the Potomac? After 
.17 ^v^^^ ^™^- , ?,^ concealed Goffe serving in the campaign on the Peninsula, 
and Whalley, two of the "regicides," in he was transferred (August, 1862) to the 
his house, and by his preaching induced Department of the Mississippi, and co- 
the people to protect them from the King's operated with General Steele in the capt- 
commissioncrs sent over to arrest them ure of Little Rock, Ark. He was brevet- 
(see Regicides). In 1668 he was or- ted major-general of volunteers in March, 
darned minister of the first church in 1865; promoted to lieutenant-colonel, 
Boston, and left New Haven. He was the 10th Cavalry, in 1866; was Professor of 
Zl f A ^Z <^ontroversial pamphlets, Military Science in Kansas Agricultural 
and of A Discourse about Civil Govern- College in 1868-71; promoted to colonel 
ment ma Neio Plantation. He died in 2d Cavalry, in 1879. He died in St. Paul 
Boston March 15, 1670. Minn., June 26, 1881. 

David, Jean Baptist, clergyman; born Davidson, William, military officer; 
m France m 1761; educated at the born in Lancaster county. Pa., in 1746- 
Diocesan Seminary of Nantes; became a was appointed major in one of the North 

Fn i7oo" ^ ' ''''™^*''*''^^"'*'^^*^^^^ Carolina regiments at the outbreak of 
in 17 J- ; and was superintendent of mis- the Revolution; took part in the battles 
sions m lower Maryland. He was the of Brandywine, Germanto^vn, and Mon- 
nrst priest in America to establish mouth; commissioned brigadier-general; 



and was at Cowan's Ford, N. C, Feb. 1, 
1781, when the British army under Corn- 
wallis forced a passage. During the fight 
General Davidson was killed. 

Davie, William Richardson, military 
officer; born near Whitehaven, England, 
June 20, 1756; came to America in 1764 
with his father, and settled in South 
Carolina with his uncle, who educated 
him at the College of New Jersey (where 


he graduated in 1776), and adopted him 
as his heir. He prepared himself for 
the law as a profession, but became an ac- 
tive soldier in the Revolution in a troop of 
dragoons. When he was in command of 
the troop he annexed it to Pulaski's 
Legion. He fought at Stono, Hanging 
Rock, and Rocky Mount; and at the head 
of a legionary corps, with the rank of 
major, he opposed the advance of Corn- 
wallis into North Carolina. After the 
overthrow of the American army at Cam- 
den he saved the remnant of it; and he 
was a most efficient commissary under 
General Greene in the Southern Depart- 
ment. He rose to great eminence as a 
lawyer after the war, and was a delegate 
to the convention that framed the na- 
tional Constitution, but sickness at home 
compelled him to leave before the work 
Was accomplished. In the convention of 
North Carolina he was its most earnest 


and able supporter. In 1799 he was gov- 
ernor of North Carolina, but was soon 
afterwards sent as one of the envoys to 
the French Directory. Very soon after 
his return he withdrew from public life. 
In March, 1813, he was appointed a ma- 
jor-general, but declined the service on 
account of bodily infirmities. He died in 
Camden, S. C, Nov. 8, 1820. 

Davis, Andrew Jackson, spiritualist; 
born in Blooming Grove, Orange co., N. Y., 
Aug. 11, 1826. While a shoemaker's ap- 
prentice in Poughkeepsie, eariy in 1843, 
remarkable clairvoyant powers were de- 
veloped in him by the manipulation of 
mesmeric influences by William Leving- 
ston. He was quite uneducated, yet while 
under the influence of mesmerism or ani- 
mal magnetism he would discourse fluent- 
ly and in proper language on medical, 
psychological, and general scientific sub- 
jects. While in a magnetic or trance 
state he made medical diagnoses and gave 
prescriptions. In March, 1844, he fell 
into a trance state without any previous 
manipulations, during which he con- 
versed for sixteen hours, as he alleged, 
with invisible beings, and received inti- 
mations and instructions concerning the 
position he was afterwards to occupy as 
a teacher from the interior state. In 
1845, while in this state, he dictated to 
Rev. William Fishbough his first and 
most considerable work. The Principles of 
Nature, her Divine Revelations, and a 
Voice to Mankind, which embraces '. wide 
range of subjects. He afterwards pub- 
lished several works, all of which he 
claimed to have been the production c ;' his 
mind under divine illumination ant the 
influence of disembodied spirits. Among 
his most considerable works are T'/ie, 
Great Harmonia, in 4 volumes ; "he ' 
Penetralia; History and Philosophy of 
Evil; The Harbinger of Health; Stellar 
Key to the Summer Land; and Mental 
Diseases and Disorders of the Brain. Mr. 
Davis may be considered as the pioneer 
of modern spiritualism. 

Davis, Charles Henry, naval officer; 
born in Boston, Jan. 16, 1807; entered 
the naval service as midshipman in 1823; 
was one of the chief organizers of the ex- 
pedition against Port Royal, S. C, in 
1861, in which he bore a conspicuous part. 
For his services during the Civil War he 


received the thanks of Congress and pro- (q. v.). In 1872 he was nominated for 
motion to the rank of rear-admiral. In President by the Labor Keform party, but 
1805 he became superintendent of the declined to run after the re{j;uhir Demo- 
Naval Observatory at Washington. He cratic and Republican nominations had 
was a recognized authority on tidal ac- been made. He resigned in 1883 and re- 
tions and published several works on that tired to Bloomington, 111., where he died 
subject. He died in Washington, D. C, June 26, 1886. 

Feb. 18, 1877. Davis, George Wiiitefield, military 

Davis, CusHMAN Kellogg, statesman; officer; born in Thompson, Conn., July 26, 
born in Henderson, N. Y., June 16, 1838; 1839; entered the Union army as quarter- 
master's sergeant in the 11th Connecticut 
Infantry, Nov. 27, 18G1 ; became first lieu- 
tenant April 5, 1862; and was mustered 
out of the service, April 20, 1866. On 
Jan. 22, 1867, he was appointed captain 
in the 14th United States Infantry. At 
the beginning of the war with Spain he 
was commissioned brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers; and on Oct. 19, 1899, he was 
promoted to colonel of the 23d United 
States Infantry; and on the reorganiza- 
tion of the regular army, in February, 
1901, he was appointed one of the new 
brigadier - generals. He was for several 
years a member of the board on Public 
W^ar Records ; commanded a division in 
the early part of the war with Spain; in 
May, 1899, was appointed governor-general 
of Porto Rico; and in 1904 governor of the 
American zone of the Panama Canal ces- 


graduated at the University of Michi- 
gan in 1857 ; studied law and began prac- 
tice in Waukesha, Wis. During the Civil 

Davis, Henry Gassaway, legislator; 

War he served three years in the Union born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 16, 1823; re- 
army. In 1865 he removed to St. Paul, ceived a country-school education; was an 
Minn. He was a member of the Minne- employee of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
sota legislature in 1867; United States road Company for fourteen years; after- 
district attorney for Minnesota in 1868- 
73; governor of Minnesota in 1874-75; 
and elected to the United States Senate 
in 1887, 1893, and 1899. For several years 
he was chairman of the Senate committee 
on foreign relations, and was a member 
of the commission to negotiate peace with 
Spain after the war of 1898. He pub- 
lished The Laio in Shakespeare. He died 
in St. Paul, Nov. 27, 1900. 

Davis, David, jurist; born in Cecil 
county, Md., March 9, 1815; graduated 
at Kenyon College, O., 1832; admitted 
to the bar of Illinois in 1835; elected 
to the State legislature in 1834; and 
appointed a justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States in 1862. He resign- 
ed this post to take his seat in the United 
States Senate on March 4, 1877, having 
been elected to succeed John A. Logan 
III. — B 17 



ward engaged in banking and coal-raining 
in Piedmont, W. Va.; and was president 
of the Piedmont National Bank. In 1865 
he was elected to the House of Delegates 
of West Virginia; was a member of the 
national Democratic conventions in 1868 
and 1872; State Senator in 1867-69; and 
a United States Senator in 1871-83. He 
also served on the Inter-continental Rail- 
way Commission, as chairman of the 
American delegation to the Pan-American 
Congress, and was the Democratic candi- 
date for Vice-President in 1904. 

Davis, Henry Winter, legislator ; born 
in Annapolis, Md., Aug. 16. 1817; gradu- 
ated at Kenyon College in 1837; elected 

to Congress as a Whig in 1854, and ai 
the dissolution of that party joined the 
American or Know -No^iing party, and 
was re-elected to Congress in 1858. In 
1861 he announced himself in favor of an 
unconditional Union while a candidate 
for re-election. He was overwhelmingly 
defeated, but in 1863 was re-elected. Al- 
though representing a slave State, Senator 
Davis was a strong antislavery advo- 
cate. He died in Baltimore, Md., Dec. 30, 

Davis, Isaac, patriot; born in 1745; 
took part in the fight with the British 
soldiery at Concord bridge, April 19, 1775, 
and wag killed by the first volley. 


Davis, Jefferson, statesman; born in was a continuous ovation. He made 
ChristiaA county, Ky., June 3, 1808; twenty-five speeches on the way. Mem- 
sraduated at West Point in 1828; served bers of the convention and the authorities 
as lieutenant in the Black Hawk War of Montgomery met him eight "ules from 
(a V.) in 1831-32, and resigned in 1835 the city. He arrived at the Alabama 
to become a cotton-planter in Mississippi, capital at eight o'clock at night. Can- 
He was a member of Congress in 1845-46, non thundered a welcome, and the shouts 
and served as colonel of a Mississippi regi- of a multitude greeted hmi. Formally re- 
ment in the war with Mexico. He was ceived at the railway station, he made a 
United States Senator from 1847 to 1851, speech, in which he briefly reviewed the 
and from 1857 to 1861. He was called to position of the South, and said^the time 
the cabinet of President Pierce as Secre- for compromises had passed We are 

tarv of War in 1853, and remained four now determined," he said, to maintain 
years. He resigned his seat in the Senate our position, and make all who oppose us 
in January, 1861, and was chosen pro- smell Southern powder and feel Southern 

visional President of the Southern Con- steel We will maintain our rights 

federacy in February. In November, 1861, and our government at all hazards 
he was elected permanent President for six We ask nothing-we want nothing-and 
vears. Early in April, 1865, he and his we will have no complications. If the 
associates in the government fled from other States join our Confederacy, they 
Richmond, first to Danville, Va., and then can freely come in on our terms. Our 
towards the Gulf of Mexico. He was ar- separation from the Union is complete, 
rested in Georgia, taken to Fort Monroe, and no compromise, no reconstruction 
and confined on a charge of treason for can now be entertained The inaugural 
about two years, when he was released on ceremonies took place at noon Feb. 18 on 
bail, Horace Greeley's name heading the a platform erected in front of the portico 
list of bondsmen for $100,000. He was of the State-house. Davis and the Vice- 
never tried. He published The Rise and President elect, Alexander H. Stephens 
Fall of the Confederate Government {q. v.), with Rev. Dr. Marly, rode m 
(1881) He died in New Orleans, La., an open barouche from the Exchange 
Dec 6 1889 Hotel to the capitol, followed by a multi- 

Mr 'Davis was at his home, not far tude of State officials and citizens. The 
from Vicksburg, when apprised of his oath of office was administered to Davis 
election as President of the Confederacy by Howell Cobb, president _ of the Con- 
formed at Montgomery, February, 1861. gress, at the close ^^ ^i!/"f"f^^^l, 7; 
He hastened to that city, and his journey dress. In the eyening President Davis held 




a levee at Estelle Hall, and the city was 
brilliantly lighted up by bonfires and 
illuminations. President Davis chose for 
his constitutional advisers a cabinet com- 
prising Robert Toombs, of Georgia, Sec- 
retary of State; Charles G. Memminger, 
of South Carolina, Secretary of the 
Treasury; Le Roy Pope Walker, of Ala- 
bama, Secretary of War; Stephen R. 
Mallory, of Florida, Secretary of the 
Navy, and John H. Reagan, of Texas, 
postmaster-General. Afterwards, Judali 
P. Benjamin was made Attorney-General. 
Two days after President Lincoln's call 

for troops. President Davis issued a procla- 
mation, in the preamble of which he said 
the President of the United States had 
" announced the intention of invading the 
Confederacy with an armed force for the 
purpose of capturing its fortresses, and 
thereby subverting its independence, and 
subjecting the free people thereof to the 
dominion of a foreign power." He said 
it was the duty of his government to re- 
pel this threatened invasion, and " defend 
the rights and liberties of the people by 
all the means which the laws of nations 
and usages of civilized warfare placed at 



its disposal." He invited the people of family and property, riding rapidly 18 
the Confederacy to engage in privateering, miles. They were near Irwmsville, south 
and he exhorted those who had "felt the of Macon, Ga. The tents were pi ched at 
wrongs of the past" from those whose night, and the weaned ones retired o 
^nZty was "more implacable, because rest, intending to resume their flight m 
unp Ivok'd" to exert themselves in pre- the morning, ^-eral Wilson a Macon 
servinrord r and maintaining the author- hearing of Davis's flight towards the Gulf, 
t7of the Confederate laws. This procla- had sent out Michigan and Wiscons n 
mation was met by President Lincoln by cavalry, whose -f^^^-^-^^oOO for the 
a nublic notice that he should imme- by the offered reward of $100,000 lor the 
Lxtely order a blockade of all the South- arrest of the fugitive Simultaneously 
fports claimed as belonging to t^ from opposi^te PO-^s, ^^^-^^^^ P^;\'^^^^ 

fedeiacy; and also that if any person, approached the camp of Davis and his ht 
under the pretended authority of such tie party just at dawn. May 11, 1865. 
States or ^under any other pretence. Mistaking each other for foes, they ex- 
?1 ould molest a vessel of the United changed shots with such precision that 
S at s o" the person or cargo on board two men were killed and several wounded 
o her, "ich person would be held amen- before the error was discovered. Th 
able to the laws of the United States for sleepers were aroused. The camp was 
the prevention and punishment of piracy, surrounded, and Davis, while attempting 
With Iws opposing proclamation the to escape in disguise, was captured and 
^^a't cfvU wTr'was\cfively begun. conveyed to . ^^^^^^^^f jf ^wrapper" 

In April, 1865, Mr. Davis's wife and quarters. Davis had slept "^ ^J'^^PP^[^ 

children' ^nd his wife's sister, had -^ -^^^ ^^^^ thf t nt door He oi 

accompanied him from Danville to boots and went to the tent door ^iie OD 

Washington, Ga., where, for prudential served the Naional cavalry^ Then you 

reasons,%h; father separated from the are capturedf' ^-l-^f, \\ /^ ,pp'er 

others. He soon learned that some Con- an instant she fastened the JJ^pper 

federL soldiers, believing that the treas- around him before ^e jas ^ware^ and 

adieu, urged him 
to go to a spring 
near by, where his 
horse and arms 
were. He complied, 
and as he was 
leaving the tent- 
door, followed by 
a servant with a 
water - bucket, his 
sister-in-law flung 
a shawl over his 
head. It was in 
this disguise that 
he was captured. 
Such is the story 
as told by C. E. L. 
Stuart, of Davis's 
staff. The Confed- 
erate President 
was taken to Fort 
Monroe by way of 
ure that was carried away from Rich- Savannah and the sea. Reagan, who was 
mond was with Mrs. Davis, had formed captured with Davis and Alexander IL 
a plot to seize all her trunks in search Stephens were sent to Fort Warren, in 
of it. He hastened to the rescue of his Boston Harbor. 




Inaugural Address. — The following is serted llie right which the Declaration of 

the text of the inaugural address, deliv- Independence of 177G defined to be in- 

ered at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 18, 18G1: alienable. Of the time and occasion of 

its exercise they as sovereigns were the 

Gentlemen of the Congress of the Con- final judges, each for himself. The im- 
federate States of America, Friends, and partial, enlightened verdict of mankind 
Fellow-Citizens, — Called to the difficult will vindicate the rectitude of our con- 
and responsible station of chief executive duct; and He who knows the hearts of 
of the provisional government which you men will judge of the sincerity with which 
have instituted, I approach the discharge we labored to preserve the government of 
of the duties assigned me with an humble our fathers in its spirit, 
distrust of my abilities, but with a sus- The right solemnly proclaimed at the 
taining confidence in the wisdom of those birth of the States, and which has been 
who are to guide and aid me in the ad- affirmed and reaffirmed in the bills of 
ministration of public affairs, and an rights of the States subsequently ad- 
abiding faith in the virtue and patriotism mitted into the Union of 1789, undeniably 
of the people. Looking forward to the recognizes in the people the power to re- 
speedy establishment of a permanent gov- sume the authority delegated for the pur- 
ernment to take the place of this, and poses of government. Thus the sovereign 
which by its greater moral and physical States here represented proceeded to 
power will be better able to combat with form this Confederacy, and it is by the 
the many difficulties which arise from the abuse of language that their act has been 
conflicting interests of separate nations, denominated revolution. They formed a 
^ enter upon the duties of the office to new alliance, but within each State its 
which I have been chosen with the hope government has remained. The rights of 
that the beginning of our career as a person and property have not been dis- 
confederacy may not be obstructed by turbed. The agent through whom they 
hostile opposition to our enjoyment of communicated with foreign nations is 
the separate existence and independence changed, but this does not necessarily in- 
which we have asserted, and which, with terrupt their international relations, 
the blessing of Providence, we intend to Sustained by the consciousness that the 
maintain. transition from the former Union to the 

Our present condition, achieved in a present Confederacy has not proceeded 
manner unprecedented in the history of from a disregard on our part of our just 
nations, illustrates the American idea obligations or any failure to perform 
that governments rest upon the consent every constitutional duty, moved by no 
of the governed, and that it is the right interest or passion to invade the rights 
of the people to alter and abolish govern- of others, anxious to cultivate peace and 
ments whenever they become destructive commerce with all nations, if we may not 
to the ends for which they were estab- hope to avoid war, we may at least ex- 
lished. The declared compact of the pect that posterity will acquit us of hav- 
Union from which we have withdrawn ing needlessly engaged in it. Doubly 
was to establish justice, insvire domestic justified by the absence of wrong on our 
tranquillity, provide for the common de- part, and by wanton aggression on the 
fence, promote the general welfare, and part of others, there can be no cause to 
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves doubt the courage and patriotism of the 
and our posterity; and when, in the judg- people of the Confederate States will be 
ment of the sovereign States now com- found equal to any measures of defence 
posing this Confederacy, it has been per- which soon their security may require, 
verted from the purposes for which it was An agricultural people, whose chief in- 
ordained, and ceased to answer the ends terest is the export of a commodity re- 
for which it was established, a peaceful quired in every manufacturing country, 
appeal to the ballot-box declared that, as our true policy is peace, and the freest 
far as they were concerned, the govern- trade which our necessities will permit, 
ment created by that compact should It is alike our interest, and that of all 
cease to exist. In this they merely as- those to whom we would sell and from 



whom Ave would buy, that there should be required. These necessities have, doubt- 
be the fewest practicable restrictions upon less, engaged the attention of Congress, 
the interchange of commodities. There With a constitution differing only from 
can be but little rivalry between ours that of our fathers in so far as it is ex- 
and any manufacturing or navigating planatory of their well-known intent, 
community, such as the Northeastern freed from sectional conflicts, which have 
States of the American Union. It must interfered with the pursuit of the general 
follow, therefore, that mutual interest welfare, it is not unreasonable to ex- 
would invite good-will and kind offices, pect that the States from which we have 
If, however, passion or lust of dominion recently parted may seek to unite their 
should cloud the judgment or inflame the fortunes to ours, under the government 
ambition of those States, we must pre- which we have instituted. For this your 
pare to meet the emergency and maintain constitution makes adequate provision, 
by the final arbitrament of the sword but beyond this, if I mistake not, the judg- 
the position which we have assumed ment and will of the people are, that 
among the nations of the earth. union with the States from which they 

We have entered upon a career of inde- have separated is neither practicable nor 
pendence, and it must be inflexibly pur- desirable. To increase the power, de- v 
sued through many years of controversy velop the resources, and promote the hap- 
with our late associates of the Northern piness of the Confederacy, it is requisite 
States. We have vainly endeavored to there should be so much homogeneity that 
secure tranquillity and obtain respect for the welfare of every portion would be the . 
the rights to which we are entitled. As aim of the whole. Where this does not 
a necessity, not a choice, we have re- exist, antagonisms are engendered which 
sorted to the remedy of separation, and must and should result in separation, 
henceforth our energies must be directed Actuated solely by a desire to preserve 
to the conduct of our own affairs, and the our own rights, and to promote our own 
perpetuity of the Confederacy which we welfare, the separation of the Confeder- 
have formed. If a just perception of mu- ate States has been marked by no ag- 
tual interest shall permit us peaceably to gression upon others, and followed by no 
pursue our separate political career, my domestic convulsion. Our industrial pur- 
most earnest desire will have been ful- suits have received no check, the cultiva- 
filled. But if this be denied us, and the tion of our fields progresses as hereto- 
integrity of our territory and jurisdiction fore, and even should we be involved in 
be assailed, it will but remain for us war, there would be no considerable dimi- 
with firm resolve to appeal to arms and nution in the production of the staples 
invoke the blessing of Providence on a just which have constituted our exports, in 
cause. which the commercial world has an in- 

As a consequence of our new condition, terest scarcely less than our own. This 
and with a view to meet anticipated common interest of producer and con- 
wants, it will be necessary to provide a sumer can only be intercepted by an ex- 
speedy and efficient organization of the terior force which should obstruct its 
branches of the executive department hav- transmission to foreign markets, a course 
ing special charge of foreign intercourse, of conduct which would be detrimental to 
finance, military affairs, and postal ser- manufacturing and commercial interests 
vice. For purposes of defence the Con- abroad. 

federate States may, under the ordinary Should reason guide the action of the 
circumstances, rely mainly upon their government from which we have sepa- 
militia; but it is deemed advisable in the rated, a policy so detrimental to the civ- 
present condition of affairs that there ilized world, the Northern States included, 
should be a well-instructed, disciplined could not be dictated by even a stronger 
army, more numerous than would usually desire to inflict injury upon us ; but if it 
be required on a peace establishment. I be otherwise, a terrible responsibility will 
also suggest that, for the protection of rest upon it, and the suffering of millions 
our harbors and comrnerce on the high will bear testimony to the folly and wick- 
seas, "a navy adapted to those objects will cdness of our aggressors. In the mean 



time there will remain to us, besides the edged, we may hopefully look forward to 
ordinary remedies before suggested, the success, to peace, to prosperity, 
well-known resources for retaliation upon Davis, Jefferson C, military officer; 
the commerce of an enemy. born in Clarke county, Ind., March 2, 

Experience in public stations of a 1828; served in the war with Mexico; 
subordinate grade to this which your kind- was made lieutenant in 1852; and was 
ness had conferred has taught me that cne of the garrison of Fort Sumter dur- 
care and toil and disappointments are the ing the bombardment in April, 1861, The 
price of official elevation. You will see same year he was made captain, and be- 
many errors to forgive, many deficiencies came colonel of an Indiana regiment of 
to tolerate, but you shall not find in me volunteers. In December he was pro- 
either want of zeal or fidelity to the moted to brigadier-general of volunteers, 
cause that is to me the highest in hope and commanded a division in the battle 
and of most enduring affection. Your of Pea Ridge early in 1862, He partici- 
generosity has bestowed upon me an un- 
deserved distinction, one which I neither 
sought nor desired. Upon the continu- 
ance of that sentiment, and upon your 
wisdom and patriotism, I rely to direct 
and support me in the performance of the 
duties required at my hands. 

We have changed the constituent parts 
but not the system of our government. 
The Constitution formed by our fathers 
is that of these Confederate States. In 
their exposition of it, and in the judicial 
construction it has received, we have a 
light which reveals its true meaning. Thus 
instructed as to the just interpretation 
of that instrument, and ever remembering 
Vnat all offices are but trusts held for the 
people, and that delegated powers are 
to be strictly construed, I will hope by 
due diligence in the performance of my 
duties, though I may disappoint your ex- 
pectation, yet to retain, when retiring, pated in the battle of Corinth in 1862; 
something of the good-will and confidence commanded a division in the battles of 
which will welcome my entrance into Stone River, Murfreesboro, and Chicka- 
office, mauga in 1862-63; and in 1864 com- 

It is joyous in the midst of perilous manded the 14th Army Corps in the At- 
times to look around upon a people imited lanta campaign and in the March through 
in heart, when one purpose of high resolve Georgia and the Carolinas. He was 
animates and actuates the whole,, where brevetted major-general in 1865, and the 
the sacrifices to be made are not weighed next year was commissioned colonel ot 
in the balance, against honor, right, lib- the 23d Infantry. He was afterwards on 
erty, and equality. Obstacles may re- the Pacific coast; commanded troops in 
tard, but they cannot long prevent the Alaska; and also commanded the forces 
progress of a movement sanctioned by that subdued the Modocs, after the murder 
its justice and sustained by a virtuous of Gen. Edward R. S. Canby (q. v.), in 
people. Reverently let us invoke the God 1873. He died in Chicago, 111., Nov. 30, 
of our fathers to guide and protect us 1879. 

in our efforts to perpetuate the princi- Davis, John, jurist; born in Plymouth, 
pies which by His blessing they were able Mass., Jan. 25, 1761 ; graduated at Har- 
to vindicate, establish, and transmit to vard College in 1781 ; admitted to tlie 
their posterit}'; and Avith a continuance bar and began practice at Plymoiith in 
of His favor, ever gratefully acknowl- 1786. He was the last surviving member 





of the convention that adopted the federal active in other engagements. He wag pro- 
Constitution; comptroller of the United moted rear-admiral and retired m No- 
States Treasury in 1795-96; and eminent vember, 1886. He died in Washington, 
for his knowledge of the history of New March 12, 1889. u ■„ 

Engjand. In 1813 he made an address Davxs, John W., statesman; born in 
on the Landing of the Pilgrims before the Cumberland county, Pa., July 17, 1799; 
Massachusetts Historical Society, over paduated at the Baltimore Medical Col- 
which he presided in 1818-43. His pub- lege In 1821; settled in Carlisle Ind 
lications include an edition of Morton's in 1823; member of Congress m 1835-37 
Nezo England Memorial, with many im- 1839-41 and 1843-4J; speaker of the 
portant notes; Eulogy on George Wash- House of Representatives during his last 
ington; and An Attempt to Explain the term; United States commissioner to 
nscription on Dighton Roek. He died in China in 1848-50; and governor of Ore- 
T^lV+nr, Mpc,^ Tan 14 1847 gon in 1853-54. He was president of the 

''tavL J n^^^^^^^^^^ Lvention in 1/52 which nominated 

boro, Mass., Jan. 13, 1787; graduated at Franklin Pierce for President He died 
Yale in 1812 ; admitted to the bar in 1815 ; in Carlisle, Ind., Aug. 22 1859._ 
number of ' Congress in 1824-34, dur- ^.^fvis^^"' \TtAs ZZeoTZ 
i.g which time ^^;^oppos^d Henry^^^^^^^^^^^ ^w tr^k 'su^reml^'crt,' 1^857%rber 
:L' r 18t5^'and^ sYgn'^S^\n\'8\tl bl of Congress, f869-70; United States dis- 
: me go\^rnor of MasLhusetts. He was trict attorney, l^^^^^^-^^f ^Ve'pre! 
a stronrr antagonist of Jackson and Van New York Supreme Court, 1872 He pre 
Buren and was re-elected to the United sided at the trial of Stokes for the murder 
States Senate in 1845, but declined to of Jim Fiske and at the trial of William 
serve He protested st;ongly against the M. Tweed. He retired in 1887 and died 
war with Mexico, and was in favor of the m New York City, March 20, 1902. 
exclusion of sla^4ry in the United States Davis Richard Hahding, author ; born 
Territories. He died in Worcester, Mass. in Philadelphia, Pa., April 18, 1864 son 
April 19 1854 • of Rebecca Harding Davis; educated at 

Davis! John Chandler Bancroft, Lehigh University and Johns Hopkins 
statesman; born in Worcester, Mass., Dec. University. In 1888 he joined the staff 
29 1822; graduated at Harvard in 1840; of the New York Evemng Sun. In 1890 
appointed secretary of the United States he became the managing editor of Har- 
locration in London in 1849; and assistant per's Weekly. His publications include 
Secretary of State in 1869, which post Our English Cousins; About Parts; The 
he resigned in 1871 to represent the Rulers of the Mediterranean; Three 
United "states at the Geneva court of Gringos in Venezuela and Central Amer- 
arbitration on the Alabama claims. He ica; Cuba in War Time; Cuban and 
«'as appointed United States minister to Porto Rican Campaigns, etc. 
Germany S 1874, judge of the United Davis, Varina Anne Jefferson 
States court of cairns in 1878, and re- author; second daughter of Jeffer«,n 
porter of the United States Supreme Court Davis; born in Richmond, Va-, June 2J 
L 1883 He is the author of The Case 1864; known popularly in the South as 
of tie UnUed States laid before the Tri- "the Daughter of the Confederacy." Her 
inat of Arbitration at Geneva; Treaties childhood was mostly ^P^^t abroad and 
cTtLuM States, with Notes, etc. for several years she devoted herself to 
Davis John Lee, naval officer; born in literature. Her works include An Irish 
CaTltsTe Ind Sept 3, 1825; joined the Knight of the Nineteenth Century; 
naw1n'l84l' served ^th the Gulf block- Sketch of the Life of Robert Emmet; The 
adS^ sauadr;n [n 18^^ as executive offi- Veiled Doctor; Foreign Education for 
ferZZwateTwitch; and on Oct. 12 American Girls; and A Romance of Sum- 
Tf thit yea^toolc part in the action with rner Seas She died at Narraganset Pier, 
the Confederate ram Manassas, and in R. I., bept. l», i».i». 

that wUh the fleet near Pilot Town. Dur- Dawes, Henht La^ens statesman; 
ing the remainder of the war he was born in Cummington, Mass., Oct. 30, 1816, 
^ 24 


graduated at Yale in 1839; admitted to 1870; studied law and was admitted to 
the bar in 1842; served in the State leg- the bar in 1872; began practice at Can- 
islature in 1848-50, and in the State ton, 0.; served as judge in the court of 
Senate in 1850-52; member of Congress common pleas in 1886-90; appointed 
in 1857-73, and of the United States Sen- judge of the United States district court 
ate in 1875-93; and then became chairman for the northern district of Ohio in 1889, 
of the commission of the five civilized but resigned before taking ofiice on ac- 
tribes. He was author of many tariff 
measures, and to him was due the intro- 
duction of the Weather Bulletin in 1869. 
He died in Pittsfield, Mass., Feb. 5, 1903. 

Dawes, William, patriot. On April 18, 
1775, he accompanied Paul Revere, riding 
through Koxbury, while Revere went by 
way of Charlestown. On the following 
day, when Adams and Hancock received 
the message from Warren, Revere, Dawes, 
and Samuel Prescott rode forward, arous- 
ing tlie inhabitants. They were surprised 
bj' a number of British at Lincoln, and 
botli Dawes and Revere were captured, 
Prescott making good iiis escape to Con- 

Dawson, Henry Barton, author; born 
in Lincolnshire, England, Jime 8, 1821; 
came to New York with his parents in 
1834. He was the author of Battles of the 
United States by Sea and Land; Recol- 
lections of the Jersey Prison-ship ; West- 
chester County in the Revolution ; etc. For 
many years he was editor of the Histori- 
cal Magazine. He died in 1889. 


count of ill health. In March, 1397, he 
was made assistant Secretary of State, 

Day. The Washington Prime Meridian and on April 26, 1898, succeeded John 
Conference adopted a resolution declaring Sherman as head of the department, 
the universal day to be the mean solar While in the State Department he had 
day, beginning, for all the world, at the charge, under the President, of the deli- 
moment of mean midnight of the initial catc diplomatic correspondence preced- 
meridian, coinciding with the civil day, ing and during the war with Spain, and 
and that meridian be counted from zero of the negotiation of the protocol of 
up to 24 hours, Oct. 21, 1884. See Stand- peace. After the latter had been ac- 
ARD Time. cepted Judge Day was appointed chief 
Day, or Daye, Stephen, the first of the United States peace commission, his 
printer in the English-American colonies; place as Secretary of State being filled 
born in London in 1611; went to Massa- by John Hay, American ambassador to 
chusetts in 1638, and was employed to Great Britain. Judge Day was appointed 
manage the printing-press sent out by judge of the United States Circuit Court 
Rev. Mr. Glover. He began printing at for the sixth judicial circuit, Feb. 25, 1899, 
Cambridge in ]\Tarch, 1639. He was not and an associate justice of the United 
a skilful workman, and was succeeded in States Supreme Court in February, 1903. 
the management, about 1648, by Samuel Dayton, Elias, military officer; born 
Green, who employed Day as a journey- in Elizabethtown, N. J., in July, 1737; 
man. He died at Cambridge, Mass., Dec. fought with the Jersey Blues under Wolfe 
22, 1668. at Quebec; was member of the corn- 
Day, William Rufits, statesman ; born mittee of safety at the beginning of the 
in Ravenna, O., April 17, 1849; grad- Revolution, and became colonel of the 3^ 
uated at the University of Michigan in New Jersey Regiment. He served in New 



York and New Jersey; fought in several asylums have since been established, num- 
battles, the last at Yorktown, and in baring thirty-six in 1870, and a national 
January 1783, was made a brigadier-gen- deaf mute college was established at 
cral He was a member of Congress in Washington in 1864. In 1876 there were 
1787-88 and was afterwards in the New about 4,400 pupils in these institutions. 
Jersey legislature. He died in Elizabeth- At the close of the school year 1898 
town July 17, 1807. tlie total number of schools for deaf 

Dayton, Jonathan, statesman; born in mutes reporting to the United States 
Elizabethtown, N. J., Oct. 16, 1760; son of bureau of education was 105, with 1,100 
Elias; graduated at the College of New instructors and 10,878 pupils. There were 
Jersey in 1776; entered the army as pay- fifty-one State public schools, which had 
master of his father's regimeilt in August; 945 instructors in the departments of ar- 
aided in storming a redoubt at Yorktown, ticulation, aural development, and m- 
which was taken by Lafayette ; and served dustrial branches, and 9,832 pupils, about 
faithfully until the close of the war. He one-third of whom were taught by the com- 
was a member of the convention that bined system and the others by the manual 
framed the national Constitution in 1787, method. The above institutions had 
and was a representative in Congress from grounds and buildings valued at $11,175,- 
1791 to 1799. He was speaker in 1795, 933 and libraries containing 94,269 vol- 
and was made United States Senator in times. The total expenditure for support 
1799 He held the seat until 1805. He was $2,208,704. There were also 483 
served in both branches of his State legis- pupils with eighty-one instructors en- 
lature. Suspected of complicity in Burr's rolled in private schools for the deaf, and 
conspiracy, he was arrested, but was never 563 pupils with seventy-four instructors 
prosecuted. He died in Elizabethtown, in various public day schools for the deaf. 
Oct 9 1824 Dean, John Ward, historian; born in 

Dayton," William Lewis, statesman; Wiscasset, Me., March 13, 1815; became 
born in Baskingridge, N. J., Feb. 17, 1807; librarian of the New England Historical 
graduated at Princeton College in 1825; Genealogical Society, and edited 9 vol- 
studied at the famous law school in umes of its Register. He has also writ- 
Litchfield, Conn., and was admitted to ten Memoir of Nathaniel ^Yard; Michael 
the bar in 1830; became associate judge Wigglesworth; Story of the Embarkation 
of the Supreme Court of New Jersey in of Cromivell and his Friends for New 
1838, and entered the United States Senate England, etc. He died Jan. 22, 1902. 
in 1842 In 1856 he was the candidate of Deane, Charles, historian; born m 
the newly formed Republican party for Biddeford, Me., Nov. 10, 1813; became a 
Vice-President. From 1857 to 1861 he member of the chief historical societies 
was attorney-general of New Jersey, and of the country; author of Some Notices 
in the latter year was appointed minister of Samuel Gorton; First Plymouth Pat- 
to France, where he remained till his ent; BibliograpJiy of Governor Eutchm- 
death Dec. 1, 1864. son's Publications; Wingfield's Discourse 

Deaf Mutes, Education of. As early of Virginia; Smith's True Relation; and 
as 1793 Dr. W. Thornton published an editor of Bradford's History of Plymouth 
essay in Philadelphia on Teaching the Plantation, etc. He died in Cambridge, 
Dumb to Speak, but no attempt was made Mass., Nov. 13, 1889. 

to establish a school for the purpose here Deane, James, missionary to the bix 
until 1811, when the effort was unsuccess- Nations; born in Groton, Conn., Aug. 
ful. A school for the instruction of the 20, 1748; graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
silent that proved successful was opened in lege in 1773. From the age of twelve 
Hartford, Conn., by Rev. Thomas H. Gal- years he was with a missionary in the 
LAUDET (^. f;.) in 1817, and was chartered Oneida tribe of Indians, and mastered 
under the name of the "New England their language. After his graduation he 
Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb." Con- went as a missionary to the Caughnawa- 
gress granted for its support a township gas and St. Francis tribes for two years; 
of land in Alabama, the proceeds of which and when the Revolution broke out, Con- 
formed a fund of about $340,000. Other gress employed him to conciliate the 



tribes along the northern frontier. He 
was made Indian agent and interpreter 
at Fort Stanvvix with the rank of major. 
He was many years a judge in Oneida 
county, and twice a member of tlie New 
York Assembly. Mr. Deane wrote an Ind- 
ian mythology. He died in Westmore- 
land, N. Y., Sept. 10, 1823. 

Deane, Silas, diplomatist; born in 
Groton, Conn., Dee. 24, 1737; graduated 
at Y^ale College in 1758; became a 
merchant in Wethersfield, Conn. ; and 
was a delegate to the first Continental 


Congress. He was very active in Con- 
gress, in 1775, in fitting out a naval 
force for the colonies, and in the spring 
of 1776 was sent to France as a secret 
political and financial agent, with au- 
thority to operate in Holland and else- 
where. He was to ascertain the feeling 
of the French government towards the re- 
volted colonies and Great Britain, and 
to obtain military supplies. Mr. Deane 
went in the character of a Bermuda mer- 
chant ; and, the better to cover his de- 
signs, he did not take any considerable 
sum of money or bills of exchange with 
him for his support. The secret com- 
mittee was to send them after him by 
way of London, to arrive in Paris nearly 
as soon as himself, lest a capture should 
betray his secret. On his arrival in Paris 
he sought an interview with the Count de 
Vergennes, the minister for foreign afi'airs, 
but no notice was taken of him. He re- 
peated his application in vain. His re- 
mittances were all captured or lost. He 
soon expended the cash he took with him, 


and was in great distress. His landlady 
became importunate, and he was threat- 
ened with ejectment into the street. He 
again repeated his application for an in- 
terview with Vergennes, but was denied. 

Which way to turn he knew not. He 
walked in the fields in the suburbs in de- 
spair. There he met a citizen to whom 
he revealed his distressed condition. The 
citizen invited him to make his house his 
home until remittances should arrive. 
Losing hope of either funds or an inter- 
view with the minister, he resolved to 
return to America, and was actually pack- 
ing his wardrobe when two letters reached 
him, announcing the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence by Congress and the action of 
Arnold with the British fleet on Lake 
Champlain. Two hours later he received 
a card from Vergennes, requesting his 
company immediately. Deane, indignant 
at the treatment be had received, refused 
to go. The next morning, as he was ris- 
ing from his bed, an under-secretary 
called, inviting him to breakfast with the 
count. He again refused; but, on the 
secretary's pressing him to go, he con- 
sented, and was received very cordially 
by Vergennes. A long conversation on 
American affairs took place, when Deane 
acquainted the minister with the nature 
of his mission. So began the diplomatic 
relations between France and the United 
States which resulted in the negotiation 
of a treaty of amity and alliance between 
the two nations. 

To him were intrusted the receipts and 
expenditures of money by the commission- 
ers to Europe. Dr. Franklin had de- 
served confidence in his ability and 
honesty. The jealous, querulous Arthur 
Lee (q. v.), who became associated with 
him and Franklin, soon made trouble. He 
wrote letters to his brother in Congress 
(Richard Henry Lee), in which he made 
many insinuations against the probity of 
both his colleagues. Ralph Izard, com- 
missioner to the Tuscan Court, off'ended 
because he was not consulted about the 
treaty with France, had written home 
similar letters; and William Carmiehael, 
a secretary of the commissioners, who had 
returned to America, insinuated in Con- 
gress that Deane had appropriated the 
public money to his own use. Deane was 
recalled, by order of Congress, Nov. 21, 


1777; arrived at Philadelphia Aug. 10, Aug. 23, 1789. " In 1842 Deane's long- 
1778- and on the 13th reported to Con- disputed claim was adjusted by Congress, 
gress In that body he found false re- a large sum being paid over to his heirs, 
ports operating against him; and finally. Dearborn, Fort. See Chicago. 
exasperated by the treatment which he re- Dearborn, Henky, military officer; 
ceived at their hands, he engaged in a born in Northampton, N. H., i;eb. 23, 
controversy with influential members. 1751; became a physician, and employed 
Out of this affair sprang two violent par- his leisure time in the study of military 
ties, Robert Morris and other members of science. At the head of sixty volunteers 
Congress who were commercial experts he hastened to Cambridge on the day after 
taking the side of Deane, and Richard the affair at Lexington, a distance of 65 
Henry Lee, then chairman of the com- miles. He was appointed a captain in 
mittee on foreign affairs, being against Stark's regiment, participated in the bat- 
jjjjQ tie of Bunker Hill, and in September fol- 

Deane published in the Philadelphia lowing (1775) accompanied Arnold in his 
Gazette an " Address to the People of expedition to Quebec. He participated in 
the United States," in which he referred the siege of Quebec, and was made 
to the brothers Lee with much severity, prisoner, but was paroled in May, 1776, 
and claimed for himself the credit of ob- when he became major of Scammel's New 
taining supplies from France through Hampshire regiment. He was in the bat- 
Beaumarchais. Thomas Paine (q. v.), ties of Stillwater and Saratoga in the 
then secretary of the committee on for- fall of 1777, and led the troops in 
eign affairs, replied to Deane (Jan. 2, those engagements — in the^ latter as 
1779), availing himself of public docu- lieutenant-colonel. He was in the bat- 
ments in his charge. In that reply he tie of Monmouth, was in _ Sulli- 
declared that the arrangement had been van's campaign against the Indians m 
made by Arthur Lee, in London, and re- 1779, and in 1781 was attached to Wash- 
vealed the secret that the supplies, ington's staff as deputy quartermaster- 
though nominally furnished by a com- general, with the rank of colonel. In 
mercial house, really came from the that capacity he served in the siege of 
French government. This statement Yorktown. In 1784 he settled in Maine, 
called out loud complaints from the and became general of militia. He was 
French minister (Gerard), for it exposed marshal of Maine, by the appointment of 
the duplicity of his government, and to Washington, in 1789, member of Congress 
soothe the feelings of their allies. Con- from 1793 to 1797, and was Secretary of 
gress, by resolution, expressly denied that War under Jefferson from 1801 to 1809. 
any gratuity had been received from the irom 1809 till 1812 he was collector of 
French Court previous to the treaty of the port of Boston, when he was appointed 
alliance. This resolution gave Beau- senior major-general in the United States 
marchais a valid claim upon Congress for army, and commander-in-chief of the 
payment for supplies which he, under the Northern Department. On Sept. 1, 1812, 
firm name of Hortales & Co., had sent General Bloomfield had collected about 
to America (see Beaumarchais, Pierre 8,000 men— regulars, volunteers, and mili- 
AuGUSTiN). Paine's indiscretion cost tia— at Plattsburg, on Lake Champlam, 
him his place. He was compelled to re- besides some small advanced parties^ at 
sign his secretaryship. The discussion Chazy and Champlain. On the arrival 
among the diplomatic agents soon led to of General Dearborn, he assumed direct 
the recall of all of them excepting Dr. command of all the troops, and on Nov. 
Franklin, who remained sole minister at 16 he moved towards the Canada line 
the French Court. Deane, who was un- with 3,000 regulars and 2,000 militia. 
doubtedly an able, honest man, preferred He moved on to the La Colle, a small 
claims for services and private expen- tributary of the Sorel, where he was met 
ditures abroad, but, under the malign in- by a considerable force of mixed British 
fluence of the Lees, he was treated with and Canadian troops and Indians, under 
neglect and fairly driven into poverty Lieutenant-Colonel De Salaberry, an ac- 
and exile, and died in Deal, England, tive British commander. Just at dawn, 



on the morning of the 20th, Col. Zebulon 
M. Pike crossed the La Colle and sur- 
rounded a block-house. Some New York 
militia approaching were mistaken, in the 
dim light, for British soldiers. Pike's men 
opened fire upon them, and for nearly 
half an hour a sharp conflict was main- 
tained. When they discovered their mis- 
take, they found De Salaberry approach- 
ing with an overwhelming force. These 
were fiercely attacked, but the Americans 
were soon forced to retreat so precipi- 
tately that they left five of their number 
dead and five wounded on the field. The 
army, disheartened, returned to Platts- 
burg. Dearborn was superseded July 6, 
1813, in consequence of being charged with 
political intrigue. He asked in vain for 
a couit of inqviiry. In 1822-24 he was 
the American minister in Portugal. He 
died in Roxbury, near Boston, Juno 6, 

Bearing, James, soldier ; born in Camp- 
bell county, Va., April 25, 1840; gradu- 
ated at Hanover Academy; became a 
cadet at West Point, but at the outbreak 
of the Civil War resigned to join the Con- 
federate army, in which he gained the 
rank of brigadier-general. He took part 
in the principal engagements between the 
Army of the Potomac and the Army of 
Northern Virginia, and was mortally 
wounded in an encounter with Brig.-Gen. 
Theodore Eead, of the National army. The 
two generals met on opposite sides of the 
Appomattox in April, 1865, and in a pis- 
tol fight Read was shot dead and Bearing 
was so severely wounded that he died soon 
afterwards in Lynchburg, Va. 

Death Penalty. See Livingston, Ed- 

Deatonsville, Va. See Sailor's Creek. 

De Bow, James Dunwoody Brownson, 
journalist; born in Charleston, S. C, 
July 10, 1820; became editor of the South- 
ern Quarterly Review in 1844, but with- 
drew the next year and established De 
Bow's Commercial Review in New Orleans, 
which was successful until the Civil War. 
After the war it was resumed in New 
York City, subsequently in Nashville, 
Tenn. He died in Elizabeth, N. J., Feb. 
22, 1867. 

Debs, Eugene Victor, labor leader; 
born in Terre Haute, Ind., Nov. 5, 1855; 
grand secretary and treasurer of the 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen in 
1880-93; president of the American Rail- 
way Union in 1893-97 ; and in June of 
the latter year was made chairman of the 
national council of the Social Democracy 
of America. When president of the Amer- 
ican Railway Union he conducted a strike 
on the Great Northern Railway, and in 
1894 directed another on the Western rail- 
roads, for which he was charged with con- 
spiracy, but was acquitted, and subse- 
quently, in 1895, served a sentence of six 
months' imprisonment for contempt of 
court in violating its injunction. In 189G 
he lectured on The Relations of the Church 
to Labor, and in 1900, 1904, and 1908 
was the candidate of the Social Demo- 
cratic National party for President. 

Debt, National. Tlie tables on pages 
39 and 31 show the amount and details of 
the public debt of the United States on 
July 1, 1902, according to the official re- 
port of the Secretary of the Treasury. 
See Assumption ; National Debt. 

Debtors. In the United States even as 
late as 1829 it was estimated that there 
were 3,000 debtors in prison in Massa- 
chusetts; 10,000 in New York; 7,000 in 
Pennsylvania ; and a like proportion in 
the other States. Imprisonment for debt 
was abolished in the United States by an 
act of Congress in 1833, though not fully 
enforced until 1839. Kentucky abolished 
the law in 1821; Ohio in 1828; Maryland 
in 1830; New York in 1831; Connecticut 
in 1837; Alabama in 1848. 

In 1828 there were 1,088 debtors im- 
prisoned in Philadelphia; the sum total 
of their debts Avas only $25,409, and the 
expense of keeping them $362,076, which 
was paid by the city, and the total amount 
recovered from prisoners by this process 
was only $295. 

Debts, British. When the Revolution 
broke out many American citizens owed 
money to British creditors. These debts 
were generally repudiated, but the treaty 
of 1783 provided for their payment. Some 
of the State governments permitted the 
payment of such debts into the State 
Treasuries, and then refused to entertain 
suits on the part of the creditors. The 
United States Supreme Court, in the case 
of Ware vs. Hylton, decided that such 
debts should be paid, but payments were 
evaded in various ways. 



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Decatur, Stephen, naval officer; born 
in Sinnepuxent, Md., Jan. 5, 1779; died 
near Washington, D. C, March 22, 1820; 
entered the United States navy as a 
midshipman April 30, 1798, and rose to 


captain in 1804. His first notable ex- 
ploit was the destruction of the Phila- 
delphia in the harbor of. Tripoli, in the 
Preble Expedition, for which Congress 
gave him thanks, a sword, and promotion. 

The Philadelphia had chased a Tripolitan 
ship into the harbor in front of that town, 
and struck upon a rock not laid down on 
the charts. Fast bound,, she was captured 
by the Tripolitans, and Captain Bain- 
bridge and his officers were made 
prisoners of war, and the crew 
were made slaves. 

Decatur caught a Tripolitan 
ketch laden with maidens, whom 
the Bashaw was sending to the 
Sultan at Constantinople as a 

The captured ketch was taken 
into the United States service and 
renamed the Intrepid. In her 
Decatur and seventy -four brave 
young men sailed for Tripoli, ac- 
companied by the Siren, under 
Lieutenant (afterwards Commo- 
dore) Stewart. 

On a bright moonlit evening 
they sailed boldly into the harbor, 
warped alongside the Philadelphia, 
sprang on board, and after a fierce 
struggle all the Tripolitans were 
killed or driven into the sea, the 
Philadelphia was set on fire, and 
the Intrepid was towed out of the 
harbor by the boats of the Siren. 
The Bashaw was greatly alarm- 
ed by this display of American 
energy and boldness, and acted 
with more caution in the future. 

Decatur commanded a division 
of gunboats in the attack on Trip- 
oli, Aug. 3, 1804. In this action 
Decatur commanded a gunboat, 
which he laid. alongside of a large 
Tripolitan war-ship, which he 
captured after a brief struggle. 
Immediately boarding another ves- 
sel, Decatur had a desperate per- 
sonal struggle with the command- 
er. The fight was brief but deadly. 
Decatur slew his antagonist, 
and the vessel was captured. The 
Americans withdrew, but four 
days later renewed the confiict, 
which was indecisive, but on Aug. 
24 and 28, and Sept. 3, Preble re- 
peated the attack, and on the night of 
Sept. 4 the Intrepid, under Captain Som- 
crs as a fire-ship, was lost in the attack, 
with all on board. 

In command of the frigate United 


States, Decatur 
captured the 
frigate Macc- 
(Innlnn, Oct. 25, 
1812, for which 
Congress gave 
him a gold med- 
al. The Mace- 
donian was a 
new ship, rated 
at thirty - six, 
but carrying 
forty-nine guns. 
She was badly 
cut in the fight, 
and Decatur 
thought best to 
order his prize 
to Newport, 
while he return- 
ed in the United 
States to New 
London. Both 
vessels sailed 

into New York harbor on New Year's Day, 
1813. The Corporation gave Decatur the 
" freedom of the city," and requested his 
portrait for the picture-gallery in the City 
Hall, where it still hangs. In January, 1815, 
after a running fight, the President, his flag- 
ship, was captured by a British squadron ; 



ALGIEK.S l.\ lyl2. 

and a few months later he was sent to the 
Mediterranean, and compei 'ed the govern- 
ment of Algiers to relinquish its barbarous 
conduct towards other powers and to pay 
for American property destroyed (see Al- 
giers). He was appointed a navy com- 
missioner in November, 1815, and made 
his residence in the 
fine mansion of Kal- 
orama, about a mile 
from Georgetown, 
built by Joel Bar- 
low. Decatur had 
opposed the rein- 
statement of Barron 
to his former posi- 
tion in the navy, and 
a duel was the con- 
sequence. They 
fought at the famous 
duelling-ground near 
Bladensburg, when 
Decatur was mortal- 
ly wounded, and was 
taken to Washing- 
ton. Gen. Solomon 
Van Rensselaer 
wrote to his wife 
from that city, on 
March 20, 1820, as 
follows: " I have 
only time, after 


writing to several, to say that an affair to Philadelphia and reinterred, with ap- 
pf honor took place this morning between propriate ceremonies, in St. Peter's ceme- 
Commodores Decatur and Barron, in which tery. Over them a beautiful monument, 
both fell at the first fire. The ball en- delineated in the accompanying engraving, 
tered Decatur's body two inches above the was erected. 

hip and lodged against the opposite side. Decimal System. In 1782, Gouverneur 
I just came from his house. He yet lives, Morris, assistant fiscal agent of the Conti- 
but will never see another sun. Barron's nental Congress, reported a decimal cur- 
wound is severe, but not dangerous. The rency system, designed to harmonize the 

moneys of the States. He ascer- 

_-- ■ - tained that the 1,440th part of a 

Spanish dollar was a common di- 
visor for the various currencies. 
With this as a unit he proposed 
the following table of moneys: 10 
units to be equal to 1 penny, 10 
pence to 1 bill, 10 bills 1 dollar 
(about 75 cents of the present 
currency), 10 dollars 1 crown. In 
1784, Mr. Jefferson, as chairman 
of a committee of Congress, pro- 
posed to strike four coins upon the 
basis of the Spanish dollar, as fol- 
lows: A gold piece worth 10 dol- 
lars, a dollar in silver, a 10th of 
a dollar in silver, a 100th of a 
dollar in copper. Congress adopt- 
ed his proposition, hence the cent, 
dime, dollar, and eagle of the Unit- 
ed States currency. See Metric 

Declaration of Colonial Rights. 
In the first Continental Congress 
(1774) a committee of two from 
each colony framed and reported, 
in the form of a series of ten re- 
solves, a declaration of the rights 
of the colonies: 1. Their natural 
ball struck the upper part of his hip and rights; 2. That from their ancestry they 
turned to the rear. He is ruined in pub- were entitled to all the rights, liberties, 
lie estimation. The excitement is very and immunities of free and natural-born 
great." Decatur died March 22, and his subjects of England; 3. That by the emi- 
remains were taken from the house in gration to America by their ancestors they 
Washington to Kalorama by the following never lost any of those rights, and that 
officers: Commodores Tingey, Macdonough, their descendants were entitled to the 
Rodgers, and Porter, Captains Cassin, Bal- exercise of those rights ; 4. That the foun- 
lard, and Chauncey, Generals Brown and dation of all free governments is in the 
Jesup, and Lieutenant McPherson. The right of the people to participate in their 
funeral was attended by nearly all the legislative council; and as the Ainerican 
public functionaries in Washington, Amer- colonists could not exercise such right in 
ican and foreign, and a great number of the British Parliament, they were entitled 
citizens. While the procession was mov- to a free and exclusive power of legisla- 
ing minute-guns were fired at the navy- tion in their several provincial legislat- 
yard. His remains were deposited in Joel ures, where the right of representation 
Barlow's vault at Kalorama, where they could alone be preserved. (They conceded 
remained until 1846, when they were taken the right of Parliament to regulate ex- 




ternal commerce, but denied its right to That the exercise of legishitive power in 
tax them in any way, without their con- several colonies by a council appointed 
sent, for raising an internal or external during pleasure by the crown was uncon- 
revenue.) 5. That they were entitled to stitutional, dangerous, and destructive to 
the common law of England, and more the freedom of American legislation The 
especially the great privilege of being report of the committee designated the 
tried by their peers of the vicinage ac- various acts of Parliament which were 
cording to the course of law; 6. That they infringements and violations of the ri^^hts 
were entitled to the benefit of English of the colonists, and declared that the" re- 
statutes at the time of the emigration of peal of them was essentially necessary in 
their ancestors; 7. That they were en- order to restore harmony between Great 
titled to all the immunities and privi- Britain and the American colonies The 
leges conferred upon them by royal char- acts enumerated were eleven in number 
ters or secured to them by provincial laws; —namely. Sugar act, stamp act, two quar- 
8. That they had a right peaceably to as- tering acts, tea act, act suspending the 
semble, state their grievances, and peti- New York legislature, two acts for the 
tion the King without interference of trial in Great Britain of offences commit- 
ministers; 9. That the keeping of a stand- ted in America, Boston Port bill, the act 
ing army in any colony, without the con- for regulating [subverting] the govern- 
sent of the legislature, was unlawful; 10. ment of Massachusetts, and the Quebec act. 


Declaration of Independence. It was ish armament, under the brothers Howe, 

very important to have Lee's resolution at Sandy Hook. Immediate and united 

for independence, offered June 7, 1776, action was essential. McKean, one of the 

prefaced by a preamble that should clear- two representatives of Delaware present, 

ly declare the causes which impelled the burning with a desire to have the vote 

representatives of the people to adopt it. of his colony recorded in the affirmative, 

To avoid loss of time, a committee was sent an express after the third delegate, 

appointed (June 11) to prepare such Caesar Rodney. He was 80 miles from 

declaration. The committee was composed Philadelphia. Ten minutes after receiving 

of^ Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benja- McKean's message Rodney was in the sad- 

niin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Rob- die, and, riding all night, he reached the 

ert R. Livingston. Mr. Lee having been floor of Congress (July 4) just in time 

called home before the appointment of the to secure the vote of Delaware in favor 

committee, Mr. Jefferson was put in his of independence. All three of the delegates 

place. He was requested by the com- from Delaware voted for the declaration, 

mittee, after discussing the topics, to The vote of Pennsylvania was also secured, 

make a draft of a declaration of inde- a majority of its seven delegates being in 

pendence. It was discussed in committee, favor of the measure; and on the 4th of 

amended very slightly, and finally report- July, 1776, the Declaration of Indepen- 

cd. Debates upon it were long and ani- dence was adopted by the unanimous vote 

mated. There was some opposition to of the Congress. See Wintiirop, R. C. 

voting for independence at all, and it was On Thursday, July 4, 1776, agreeable 

considerably amended. It was evident fo the order of the day. Congress resolved 

from the beginning that a majority of the itself into a committee of the whole to 

colonies would vote for independence (the consider the declaration, President John 

vote in Congress was by colonies), but it Hancock in the chair. The secretary, 

was important that the vote should be Benjamin Harrison, reported that the 

unanimous. committee had agreed upon a declaration, 

The declaration was warmly debated on which was read and adopted as follows: 

the day (July 2) when the resolution was 

passed, and also on the 3d. Meanwhile When, in the course of human events, 

news came of the arrival of a large Brit- it becomes necessary for one people to 



dissolve the political bands which have experience hath sho\vn that mankind are 
connected them with another, and to as- more disposed to suffer, while evils are 
sume among the powers of the earth the sufferable, than to right themselves by 
separate and equal station to which the abolishing the forms to which they are 

accustomed. But when a 
long train of abuses and 
usurpations, pursuing in- 
variably the same object, 
evinces a design to reduce 
them under absolute des- 
potism, it is their right, it 
is their duty, to throw off 
such government and to 
provide new guards for 
their future security. Such 
has been the patient suf- 
ferance of these colonies; 
and such is now the ne- 
cessity which constrains 
them to alter their formal 
system of government. The 
history of the present King 
of Great Britain is a his- 
tory of repeated injuries 
and usurpations, all hav- 
ing in direct object the es- 
tablishment of an abso- 
lute tyranny over these 
States. To prove this, 
let facts be submitted to a 
candid world, 
laws of nature and of nature's God en- He has refused his assent to laws the 
title them, a decent respect for the opin- most wholesome and necessary for the 
ions of mankind requires that they should public good. 

declare the causes which impel them to He has forbidden his governors to pass 
the separation. laws of immediate and pressing impor- 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: tance, unless suspended in their opera- 
that all men are created equal; that they tions till his assent should be obtained; 
are endowed by • their Creator with cer- and, when so suspended, he has utterly 
tain inalienable rights; that among these neglected to attend to them, 
are life, liberty, and the pursuit of hap- He has refused to pass other laws for 
piness; that, to secure these rights, the accommodation of large districts of 
governments are instituted among men, people, unless those people would relin- 
deriving their just powers from the con- quish the right of representation in the 
sent of the governed; that whenever any legislature — a right inestimable to them, 
form of government becomes destructive and formidable to tyrants only, 
of these ends, it is the right of the people He has called together legislative boiies 
to alter or to abolish it, and to institute at places unusual, uncomfortable, and dis- 
a new government, laying its foundation tant from the depository of their public 
on such principles, and organizing its records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing 
powers in such form, as to them shall them into compliance with his measures, 
seem most likely to effect their safety and He has dissolved representative houses 
happiness. Prudence, indeed, will die- repeatedly, for opposing, with manly firra- 
tate that governments long established ness, his invasions on the rights of the 
should not be changed for light and people. 

transient causes; and, accordingly, all He has refused, for a long time after 




such dissolutions, to cause others to be 
elected; whereby the legislative powers, 
incapable of annihilation, have returned 
to the people at large for their exercise; 
the State remaining, in the mean time, 
exposed to all the danger of invasion from 
without and convulsions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the popu- 
lation of these States; for that purpose 

He has made judges dependent on his 
will alone for the tenure of their offices 
and the amount and payment of theii 

He has erected a multitude of new of- 
fices, and sent hither swarms of officers, 
to harass our people and eat out their 

He has kept among us, in time of peace, 


obstructing the laws for naturalization of standing armies, without the consent of 

foreigners, refusing to pass others to en- our legislatures. 

courage their migration hither, and rais- He has ati"ected to render the military 

ing the conditions of new appropriations independent of and superior to the civil 

of lands. power. 

He has obstructed the administration of He has combined with others to subject 

justice, by refusing his assent to laws for us to a jurisdiction foreign to our consti- 

3stablishing judiciary powers. tution and unacknowledged by our laws- 




For abolishing the free system 
of English law in a neighboring 
province, establishing therein an ar- 
bitrary government, and enlarging 
its boundaries so as to render it at 
once an example and fit instru- 
ment for introducing the same ab- 
solute rule into these colonies: 

For taking away our charters, 
abolishing our most valuable laws, 
and altering fundamentally the 
forms of our government: 

For suspending our own legislat- 
vires, and declaring themselves in- 
vested with power to legislate for 
us in all cases whatsoever. 

He has abdicated government here 
by declaring us out of his protec- 
tion, and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, rav- 
aged our coasts, burned our towns, 
and destroyed the lives of our peo- 
giving his assent to their acts of pre- He is at this time transporting large 
tended legislation, — armies cf foreign mercenaries, to com- 

For quartering large bodies of armed plete the works of death, desolation, and 
troops among 

For protect- 
ing them, by a 
mock trial, from 
punishment • for 
any murders 
which they 
should commit 
on the inhabi- 
tants of these 

For cutting 
off our trade 
Avith all parts 
of the world: 

For imposing 
taxes on us 
without our 

For depriving 
us, in many 
cases, of the 
benefits of trial 
by jury: 

For trans- 
porting us be- 
yond seas, to be 
tried for pre- 
tended offences : table and chair used at the signing of the declaration op independenob. 






















tyranny, already begun, with circum- Britain is, and ought to be, totally dis- 
stances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely solved; and that, as free and independent 
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and States, they have full power to levy war, 

totally unworthy the head of a civilized conclude peace, contract alliances, estab- 

"'^^i^"- lish commerce, and to do all other acts and 

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, things which independent states may of 

taken captive on the high seas, to bear right do. And for the support of this 

arms against their country, to become the declaration, with a firm reliance on the 

executioners of their friends and breth- protection of Divine Providence, we mu- 

ren, or to fall themselves by their hands, tually pledge to each other our lives, our 

He has excited domestic insurrections fortunes, and our sacred honor, 

among us, and has endeavored to bring Signed by order and in behalf of the 

on the inhabitants of our frontiers the Congress. 

merciless Indian savages, whose known t tt -^ . , 

rule of warfare is an undistinguished de- , ,, , ^™ Hancock, President, 

struction of all ages, sexes, and condi- ^"^«^^^' Charles Thompson, Secretary. 

*'°"^- A'ett? Hampshire. 

In every stage of these oppressions we Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, 

have petitioned for redress in the most Matthew Thornton. 
humble terms; our petitions have been 

answered only by repeated injury. A Massachusetts Bay. 

prince whose character is thus marked Samuel Adams, John Adams, 

by every act which may define a tyrant, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry. 
is unfit to be ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attention Rhode Island, Etc. 

to our British brethren. We have warned Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery. 

them, from time to time, of attempts „ . 

made by their legislatures to extend an ^ Connecticut. 

unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We ^^^^ Sherman, Samuel Huntington, 

have reminded them of the circumstances ^"^^^^^^ Williams, Oliver Wolcott. 

of our emigration and settlement here. 2V^e^y York. 

We have appealed to their native justice William Floyd, Philip Livingston 

and magnanimity, and we have conjured Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris.' 
tnem, by the ties of our common kindred, 

to disavow these usurpations, which would "New Jersey. 

inevitably interrupt our connections and Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, 

correspondence. They, too, have been Francis Hopkinson, John Hart,' 

deaf to the voice of justice and consan- • Abraham Clark. 
guinity. We must therefore acquiesce in 

the necessity which denounces our separa- riorth Carolina. 

tion, and hold them, as we hold the rest William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, 

of mankind, enemies in war — in peace, John Penn. 

We, therefore, the representatives of t, r^ 01 gta. 

the United States of America, in general ^^^™^ Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, 

Congress assembled, appealing to the Su- George Walton. 

preme Judge of the world for the recti- Pennsylvania. 

\lfZ\T' '^^'''^•r'/?^ ''" *^r "'""f ^^'^^^•^^^ ^^«''^^^^«' Benjamin Rush, 

and by the authority of he good people Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, 

of these colonies, solemnly publish and q^orge Clymer, James Smith. 

declare that these united colonies are, Qeorge Taylor, William Pac-i 

and of good right ought to be, free and q^^rge Ross. 

independent States; that they are ab- 
solved from all allegiance to the British Delaware. 

crown, and that all political connection Caesar Rodney, George Read, 

between them and the states of Great Thomas M'Kean. 



Maryland. for such an act, he characterized it as 

Samuel Chase, James Wilson, made up of " glittering and sounding gen- 

Thomas Stone, eralities of natural right." What the 

Charles Carroll of Carrollton. great advocate then so unhesitatingly sug- 

gested, many a thoughtful American since 
then has at least suspected — that our 


George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, ^^^^^ proclamation, as a piece of political 

Thomas Jefferson, literature, cannot stand the test of modern 

Benjamin Harrison analysis; that it belongs to the immense 

Thomas Iselson, Jr., ^j^^^ ^^ over-praised productions; that it 

Francis Lightfoot Lee, j^^ .^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^j^ patch-work of sweep- 

Carter Braxton. .^^ propositions of somewhat doubtful 

South Carolina. validity; that it has long imposed upon 

Edward Rutledge, mankind by the well-known effectiveness 

Thomas Heyward, Jr., of verbal glitter and sound; that, at the 

Thomas Lynch, Jr., best, it is an example of florid political 

Arthur Middleton. declamation belonging to the sophomoric 

Declaration of Independence in tlie period of our national life, a period which, 
Light of Modern Criticism, The. As a as we flatter ourselves, we have now out- 
student, critic, and compiler of American grown. 

history Prof. Moses C. Tyler {q. v.) held Nevertheless, it is to be noted that what- 
an established position among the most ever authority the Declaration of Inde- 
eminent scholars. In 1867 he was appoint- pendence has acquired in the world, has 
ed to the chair of English Literature at been due to no lack of criticism, either at 
the University of Michigan, which he the time of its first appearance, or since 
occupied until 1881, when he was called then; a fact which seems to tell in favor 
to the University of Cornell as Professor of its essential worth and strength. From 
of American History. On the subject of the date of its original publication down 
criticisms on the Declaration of Indepen- to the present moment, it has been at- 
dence he writes: tacked again and again, either in anger 

or in contempt, by friends as well as by 
It can hardly be doubted that some enemies of the American Revolution, by 
hinderance to the right estimate of the liberals in politics as well as by conser- 
Declaration of Independence is occa- vatives. It has been censured for its sub- 
sioned by either of two opposite condi- stance, it has been censured for its form, 
tions of mind, both of which are often to for its misstatements of fact, for its fal- 
be met with among us: on the one hand, lacies in reasoning, for its audacious novel- 
a condition of hereditary, uncritical awe ties and paradoxes, for its total lack of all 
and worship of the American Revolution, novelty, for its repetition of old and 
and of that state paper as its absolutely threadbare statements, even for its down- 
perfect and glorious expression ; on the right plagiarisms ; finally for its grandiose 
other hand, a later condition of cultivated and vaporing style. 

distrust of the Declaration as a piece of One of the earliest and ablest of its 
writing lifted up into inordinate renown assailants was Thomas Hutchinson, the 
by the passionate and heroic circumstances last civil governor of the colony of Massa- 
o'f its origin, and ever since then extolled chusetts, who, being stranded in London 
beyond reason by the blind energy of by the political storm which had blown 
patriotic enthusiasm, Turning from the him thither, published there, in the 
former state of mind, which obviously autumn of 1776, his Strictures Upon the 
calls for no further comment, we may Declaration of the Congress at Phila- 
note, as a partial illustration of the latter, clelphia, wherein, with an unsurpassed 
that American confidence in the supreme knowledge of the origin of the contro- 
intellectual merit of this all-famous docu- versy, and with an unsurpassed acumen 
ment received a serious wound from the in the discussion of it, he traverses the 
hand of Rufus Choate, when, with a cour- entire document, paragraph by para- 
ao^e greater than would now be required graph, for the purpose of showing that 
"^ • 40 

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its allegations in support of American Philip II. to the people of the Nether- 
independence are " false and frivolous." lands. 

A better-written, and, upon the whole, This temperate criticism from an able 
a more plausible and a more powerful, and a liberal English statesman of the 
arraignment of the great declaration was nineteenth century may be said to touch 
the celebrated pamphlet by Sir John the very core of the problem as to the his- 
Dalrymple, The Rights of Great Britain toric justice of our great indictment of 
Asserted against the Claims of America: the last King of America; and there is 
Being an Answer to the Declaration of deep significance in the fact that this is 
the General Congress — a pamphlet scat- the very criticism upon the document, 
tered broadcast over the world at such a which, as John Adams tells us, he himself 
rate that at least eight editions of it had in mind when it was first submitted 
were published during the last three or to him in committee, and even when, 
four months of the year 1776. Here, shortly afterwards, he advocated its adop- 
again, the manifesto of Congress is sub- tion by Congress. After mentioning cer- 
jected to a searching examination, in tain things in it with which he was de- 
order to prove that " the facts are either lighted, he adds : 

wilfully or ignorantly misrepresented, " There were other expressions which I 

and the arguments deduced from premises would not have inserted if I had drawn it 

that have no foundation in truth." It is up — particularly that which called the 

doubtful if any disinterested student of King tyrant. I thought this too personal ; 

history, any competent judge of reason- for I never believed George to be a tyrant 

ing, will now deny to this pamphlet the in disposition and in nature. I always be- 

praise of making out a very strong case lieved him to be deceived by his courtiers 

against the historical accuracy and the on both sides of the Atlantic, and in his 

logical soundness of many parts of the official capacity only cruel. I thought the 

Declaration of Independence. expression too passionate, and too much 

Undoubtedly, the force of such cen- like scolding, for so grave and solemn a 
sures is for us much broken by the fact document; but, as Franklin and Sherman 
that they proceeded from men who were were to inspect it afterwards, I thought it 
themselves partisans in the Revolutionary would not become me to strike it out. I 
controversy, and bitterly hostile to the consented to report it." 
whole movement which the declaration A more minute and more poignant criti- 
was intended to justify. Such is not the cism of the Declaration of Independence 
case, however, with the leading modern has been made in recent years by still 
English critics of the same document, another English writer of liberal ten- 
who, while blaming in severe terms the dencies, who, however, in his capacity as 
policy of the British government towards critic, seems here to labor under the dis- 
the thirteen colonies, have also found advantage of having transferred to the 
much to abate from the confidence due to document which he undertakes to judge 
this official announcement of the reasons much of the extreme dislike which he has 
for our secession from the empire. For for the man who wrote it, whom, indeed, 
example, Earl Russell, after frankly he regards as a sophist, as a demagogue, 
saying that the great disruption pro- as quite capable of inveracity in speech, 
claimed by the Declaration of Indepen- and as bearing some resemblance to Robes- 
dence was a result which Great Britain pierre " in his feline nature, his malig- 
had " used every means most fitted to nant egotism, and his intense suspicions- 
bring about," such as " vacillation in ness, as well as in his bloody-minded, yet 
council, harshness in language, feebleness possibly sincere, philanthropy." In the 
in execution, disregard of American sym- opinion of Prof. Goldwin Smith, our great 
pathies and affections," also pointed out national manifesto is written " in a high- 
that "the truth of this memorable decla- ly rhetorical strain"; "it opens with 
ration " was " warped " by " one singular sweeping aphorisms about the natural 
defect" — namely, its exclusive and ex- rights of man, at which political science 
cessive arraignment of George III. " as now smiles, and which . . . might seem 
a single and despotic tyrant," much like strange when framed for slave-holding 



communities by a publicist who himself 
held slaves"'; while, in its specifications 
of fact, it " is not more scrupulously 
truthful than are the general utterances " 
of the statesman who was its scribe. Its 
charges that the several offensive acts of 
the King, besides " evincing a design to 
reduce the colonists under absolute 
despotism," " all had as their direct object 
the establishment of an absolute tyranny," 
are simply " propositions which history 
cannot accept." Moreover, the declara- 
tion " blinks the fact that many of the 
acts, styled steps of usurpation, were 
measures of repression, which, however 
unwise or excessive, had been provoked by 
popular outrage." " No government could 
allow its officers to be assaulted and their 
houses sacked, its loyal lieges to be tarred 
and feathered, or the property of mer- 
chants sailing under its flag to be thrown 
by lawless hands into the sea." Even 
" the preposterous violence and the mani- 
fest insincerity of the suppressed clause " 
against slavery and the slave-trade " are 
enough to create suspicion as to the spirit 
in which the whole document was framed." 

Finally, as has been already intimated, 
not even among Americans themseh^es has 
the Declaration of Independence been per- 
mitted to pass on into the enjoyment of 
its superb renown without much critical 
disparagement at the hands of statesmen 
and historians. No doubt Calhoun had 
its preamble in mind when he declared 
that " nothing can be more unfounded 
and false " than " the prevalent opinion 
tliat all men are born free and equal " ; 
for " it rests upon the assumption of a 
fact which is contrary to universal ob- 
servation." Of course, all Americans 
who have shared to any extent in Cal- 
lionn's doctrines respecting human society 
could hardly fail to agree with him in re- 
garding as fallacious and worthless those 
general propositions in the declaration 
which seem to constitute its logical start- 
ing-point, as well as its ultimate defence. 

Perhaps, however, the most frequent 
form of disparagement to which Jeffer- 
son's great state paper has been subjected 
among us is that which would minimize 
his merit in composing it, by denying to 
it the merit of originality. For example, 
Richard Henry Lee sneered at it as a 
thing " copied from Locke's Treatise on 

Government." The author of a life of 
Jefferson, published in the year of Jeffer- 
son's retirement from the Presidency, sug- 
gests that the credit of having composed 
the Declaration of Independence " has 
been perhaps more generally, than trul}', 
given by the public" to that great man. 
Charles Campbell, the historian of Vir- 
ginia, intimates that some expressions in 
the document were taken without ac- 
knowledgment from Aphra Behn's tragi- 
comedy, The Widow-Ranter, or the His- 
tory of Bacon in Virginia. John Stock- 
ton Littell describes the Declaration of 
Independence as " that enduring monu- 
ment at once of patriotism, and of genius 
and skill in the art of appropriation " — 
asserting that " for the sentiments and 
much of the language " of it, Jefferson 
was indebted to Chief-Justice Drayton's 
charge to the grand jury of Charleston, 
delivered in April, 177G, as well as to the 
Declaration of Independence said to have 
been adopted by some citizens of Mecklen- 
burg county, N. C, in May, 1775. Even 
the latest and most critical editor of the 
writings of Jefferson calls attention to 
the fact that a glance at the Declaration 
of Rights, as adopted by Virginia on June 
12, 177G, "would seem to indicate the 
source from which Jefferson derived a 
most important and popular part " of his 
famous production. By no one, however, 
has the charge of a lack of originality 
been pressed with so much decisiveness 
as by John Adams, who took evident 
pleasure in speaking of it as a document 
in which were merely " recapitulated " 
previous and well-known statements of 
American rights and wrongs, and who, 
as late as in the year 1822, deliberately 
wrote : 

" There is not an idea in it but what 
had been hackneyed in Congress for two 
years before. The substance of it is con- 
tained in the declaration of rights and the 
violation of those rights, in the journals 
of Congress, in 1774. Indeed, the essence 
of it is contained in a pamphlet, voted 
and printed by the to^vn of Boston, before 
the first Congress met, composed by 
James Otis, as I suppose, in one of his 
lucid intervals, and pruned and polished 
by Samuel Adams." 

Perhaps nowhere in our literature 
v/ould it be possible to find a criticism 



brought forward by a really able man opinions as to men and as to events in ali 

against any piece of writing less appli- that ugly quarrel, their notions of justice, 

cable to the case, and of less force and of civic dignity, of human rights; finally, 

value, than is this particular criticism by their memories of wrongs which seemed 

John Adams and others, as to the lack of to them intolerable, especially of wrongs 

originality in the Declaration of Inde- inflicted upon them during those twelve 

pendence. Indeed, for such a paper as years by the hands of insolent and brutal 

Jefferson was commissioned to write, the men, in the name of the King, and by his 

one quality which it could not properly apparent command? 

have had, the one quality which would Moreover as the nature of the task laid 
have been fatal to its acceptance either upon him made it necessary that he should 
by the American Congress or by the thus state, as the reasons for their in- 
American people — is originality. They tended act, those very considerations both 
were then at the culmination of a tre- as to fact and as to opinion which had 
mendous controversy over alleged griev- actually operated upon their minds, so 
ances of the most serious kind — a con- did it require him to do so, to some ex- 
troversy that had been steadily raging tent, in the very language which the 
for at least twelve years. In the course people themselves, in their more formal 
of that long dispute, every phase of it, and deliberate utterances, had all along 
whether as abstract right or constitu- been using. In the development of po- 
tional privilege or personal procedure, had litical life in England and America, there 
been presented in almost every conceiv- had already been created a vast literature 
able form of speech. At last, they had of constitutional progress — a literature 
resolved, in view of all this experience, no common to both portions of the English 
longer to prosecute the controversy as race, pervaded by its own stately tra- 
members of the empire; they had resolved ditions, and reverberating certain great 
to revolt, and, casting off forever their phrases which formed, as one may say, 
ancient fealty to the British crown, to almost the vernacular of English justice, 
separate from the empire, and to estab- and of English aspiration for a free, 
lish themselves as a new nation among manly, and orderly political life. In this 
the nations of the earth. In this emer- vernacular the Declaration of Indepen- 
gency, as it happened, Jefferson was called dence was written. The phraseology thus 
upon to put into form a suitable state- characteristic of it is the very phrase- 
ment of the chief considerations which ology of the champions of constitutional 
prompted them to this great act of revolu- expansion, of civic dignity and progress, 
tion, and which, as they believed, justified within the English race ever since Magna 
it. What, then, was Jefferson to do? Was Charta; of the great state papers of Eng- 
he to regard himself as a mere literary lish freedom in the seventeenth century, 
essayist, set to produce before the world particularly the Petition of Right in 1629. 
a sort of prize dissertation — a calm, ana- and the Bill of Rights in 1789; of the 
lytic, judicial treatise on history and poll- great English charters for colonization in 
tics with a particular application to Anglo- America; of the great English exponents 
American affairs — one essential merit of of legal and political progress— Sir Ed- 
which would be its originality as a con- ward Coke, John Milton, Sir Philip Sid- 
tribution to historical and political lit- ney, John Locke; finally, of the great 
erature? Was he not, rather, to regard American exponents of political liberty, 
himself as, for the time being, the very and of the chief representative bodies, 
mouthpiece and prophet of the people whether local or general, which had con- 
whom he represented, and as such required vened in America from the time of the 
to bring together and to set in order, in Stamp Act Congress until that of the 
their name, not what was new, but what Congress which resolved upon our in- 
was old; to gather up into his own soul, dependence. To say, therefore, that the 
as much as possible, whatever was then official declaration of that resolve is a 
also in their souls, their very thoughts and paper made up of the very opinions, be- 
passions, their ideas of constitutional liefs, unbeliefs, the very sentiments, prej- 
law, their interpretations of fact, their udices, passions, even the errors in judg- 



ment and the personal misconstructions — 
if they were such — which then actually 
impelled the American people to that 
mighty act, and that all these are ex- 
pressed in the very phrases which they 
had been accustomed to use, is to pay 
to that state paper the highest tribute as 
to its fitness for the purpose for which it 
was framed. 

Of much of this, also, Jefferson him- 
self seems to have been conscious; and 
perhaps never does he rise before us with 
more dignity, with more truth, than when, 
late in his lifetime, hurt by the captious 
and jangling words of disparagement then 
recently put into writing by his old com- 
rade, to the effect that the Declaration 
of Independence " contained no new ideas, 
that it is a commonplace compilation, its 
sentences hackneyed in Congress for two 
years before, and its essence contained in 
Otis's pamphlet," Jeft'erson quietly re- 
marked that perhaps these statements 
might "all be true: of that I am not 
to be the judge. . . . Whether I had 
gathered my ideas from reading or re- 
flection, I do not know. I only know that 
I turned to neither book nor pamphlet 
while writing it. I did not consider it 
as any part of my charge to invent new 
ideas altogether and to offer no senti- 
ment which had ever been expressed be- 

Before passing from this phase of the 
subject, however, it should be added that, 
while the Declaration of Independence 
lacks originality in the sense just indi- 
cated, in another and perhaps in a higher 
sense, it possesses originality — it is in- 
dividualized by the character and by the 
genius of its author. Jefferson gathered 
up the thoughts and emotions and even 
the characteristic phrases of the people 
for whom he wrote, and these he per- 
fectly incorporated with what was al- 
ready in his mind, and then to the music 
of his own keen, rich, passionate, and en- 
kindling style, he mustered them into that 
stately triumphant procession wherein, as 
some of us still think, they will go march- 
ing on to the world's end. 

There were then in Congress several 
other men who could have written the 
Declaration of Independence, and written 
it well — notably Franklin, either of the 
two Adamses, Richard Henry Lee, William 


Livingston, and, best of all, but for his 
own opposition to the measure, John 
Dickinson; but had any one of these other 
men written the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, while it would have contained, doubt- 
less, nearly the same topics and nearly 
the same great formulas of political state- 
ment, it would yet have been a wholly dif- 
ferent composition from this of Jeffer- 
son's. No one at all familiar with his 
other writings, as well as with the writ- 
ings of his chief contemporaries, could 
ever have a moment's doubt, even if the 
fact were not already notorious, that this 
document was by Jefferson. He put into 
it something that was his own, and that 
no one else could have put there. He put 
himself into it — his own genius, his own 
moral force, his faith in God, his faith in 
ideas, his love of innovation, his passion 
for progress, his invincible enthusiasm, 
his intolerance of prescription, of injus- 
tice, of cruelty; his sympathy, his clarity 
of vision, his affluence of diction, his 
power to fling out great phrases which 
will long fire and cheer the souls of men 
struggling against political unrighteous- 

And herein lies its essential original- 
ity, perhaps the most precious, and, in- 
deed, almost the only, originality ever 
attaching to any great literary product 
that is representative of its time. He 
made for himself no improper claim, 
therefore, when he directed that upon the 
granite obelisk at his grave should be 
carved the words : " Here was buried 
Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declara- 
tion of Independence." 

If the Declaration of Independence is 
now to be fairly judged by us, it must 
be judged with reference to what it was 
intended to be — namely, an impassioned 
manifesto of one party, and that the 
weaker party, in a violent race-quarrel ; 
of a party resolved, at last, upon the 
extremity of revolution, and already 
menaced by the inconceivable disaster of 
being defeated in the very act of armed 
rebellion against the mightiest military 
power on earth. This manifesto, then, is 
not to be censured because, being avow- 
edly a statement of its own side of the 
quarrel, it does not also contain a mod- 
erate and judicial statement of the op- 
posite side; or because, being necessarily 


partisan in method, it is likewise both fact, when he should make his first at- 

partisan and vehement in tone; or be- tempt to gain all power over his people, 

cause it bristles with accusations against by assuming the single power to take 

the enemy so fierce and so unqualified their property without their consent, 

as now to seem in some respects over- Hence it was, as Edmund Burke pointed 

drawn; or because it resounds with cer- out in the House of Commons only a 

tain great aphorisms about the natural few weeks before the American Revolution 

rights of man, at which, indeed, political entered upon its military phase, that: 
science cannot now smile, except to its " The great contests for freedom • . . 

own discomfiture and shame — aphorisms were from the earliest times chiefly upon 

which are likely to abide in this world as the question of taxing. Most of the con- 

the chief source and inspiration of heroic tests in the ancient commonwealths turned 

enterprises among men for self-deliver- primarily on the right of election of mag- 

auce from oppression. istrates, or on the balance among the sev- 

Taking into account, therefore, as we eral orders of the state. The question 
are bound to do, the circumstances of its of money was not with them so immediate, 
origin, and especially its purpose as a But in England it , was otherwise. On 
solemn and piercing appeal to mankind on this point of taxes the ablest pens and 
behalf of a small and weak nation against most eloquent tongues have been ex- 
the alleged injustice and cruelty of a ercised, the greatest spirits have acted 
great and powerful one, it still remains and suffered. . . . They took infinite pains 
our duty to inquire whether, as has been to inculcate, as a fundamental principle, 
asserted in our time, history must set that in all monarchies the people must in 
aside either of the two central charges efl'ect, themselves, mediately or immediate- 
embodied in the Declaration of Inde- ly, possess the power of granting their own 
pendence. money, or no shadow of liberty could sub- 

The first of these charges aflSrms that sist. The colonies draw from you, as 

the several acts complained of by the with their life-blood, these ideas and prin- 

colonists evinced "a design to reduce ciples. Their love of liberty, as with you, 

them under absolute despotism," and had fixed and attached on this specific point 

as their " direct object the establishment of taxing. Liberty might be safe or might 

of an absolute tyranny " over the Ameri- be endangered in twenty other particulars 

can people. Was this, indeed, a ground- without their being much pleased or 

less charge, in the sense intended by alarmed. Here they felt its pulse, and as 

the words " despotism " and " tyranny " they found that beat, they thought them 

— that is, in the sense commonly given selves sick or sound." 

to those words in the usage of the Eng- Accordingly, the meaning which the 
lish - speaking race? According to that English race on both sides of the Atlantic 
usage, it was not an Oriental despotism were accustomed to attach to the words 
that was meant, nor a Greek tyranny, nor " tyranny " and " despotism," was a mean- 
a Roman, nor a Spanish. The sort of ing to some degree ideal ; it was a meaning 
despot, the sort of tyrant, whom the dra^vn from the extraordinary political 
English people, ever since the time of sagacity with which that race is- endow- 
King John, and especially during the ed, from their extraordinary sensitive- 
period of the Stuarts, had been accus- ness as to the use of the taxing-power 
tomed to look for and to guard against, in government, from their instinctive per- 
was the sort of tyrant or despot that could ception of the commanding place of the 
be evolved out of the conditions of Eng- taxing-power among all the other forms 
lish political life. Furthermore, he was of power in the state, from their perfect 
not by them expected to appear among assurance that he who holds the purse 
them at the outset in the fully developed with the power to fill it and to empty it, 
shape of a Philip or an Alva in the holds the key of the situation — can main- 
Netherlands. They were able to recog- tain an army of his own, can rule without 
nize him, they were prepared to resist consulting Parliament, can silence criti- 
him, in the earliest and most incipient cism, can crush opposition, can strip hia 
stage of his being — at the moment, in subjects of every vestige of political life; 



in other words, he can make slaves of 
them, he can make a despot and a tyrant 
of himself. Therefore, the system which 
in the end might develop into results so 
palpably tyrannic and despotic, they 
bluntly called a tyranny and a despotism 
in the beginning. To say, therefore, that 
the Declaration of Independence did the 
same, is to say that it spoke good Eng- 
lish. Of course, history will be ready to 
set aside the charge thus made in language 
not at all liable to be misunderstood, just 
so soon as history is ready to set aside the 
common opinion that the several acts of 
the British government, from 1764 to 
1776, for laying and enforcing taxation in 
America, did evince a somewhat particu- 
lar and systematic design to take away 
some portion of the property of the Amer- 
ican people without their consent. 

The second of the two great charges 
contained in the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, while intimating that some share 
in the blame is due to the British Par- 
liament and to the British people, yet 
fastens npon the King himself as the one 
person chiefly responsible for the scheme 
of American tyranny therein set forth, 
and culminates in the frank description 
of him as " a prince whose character is 
thus marked by every act which may de- 
fine a tyrant." Is this accusation of 
George III. now to be set aside as unhis- 
toric? Was that King, or was he not, 
chiefly responsible for the American policy 
of the British government between the 
years 1764 and 1776? If he was so, then 
the historic soundness of the most im- 
portant portion of the Declaration of In- 
dependence is vindicated. 

Fortunately, this question can be an- 
swered without hesitation, and in a few 
words ; and for these few words, an 
American writer of to-day, conscious of 
his own basis of nationality, will rightly 
prefer to cite such words as have been 
uttered npon the subject by the ablest 
English historians of our time. Upon 
their statements alone it must be con- 
cluded that George III. ascended his 
throne with the fixed purpose of resum- 
ing to the crown many of those powers 
which, by the constitution of England, did 
not then belong to it, and that in this 
purpose, at least during the first twenty- 
fire years of his reign, he substantial- 


ly succeeded — himself determining what 
should be the policy of each administra- 
tion, what opinions his ministers should 
advocate in Parliament, and what meas- 
ures Parliament itself should adopt. Says 
Sir Erskine May: 

" The King desired to undertake per- 
sonally the chief administration of public 
affairs, to direct the policy of his minis- 
ters, and himself to distribute the patron- 
age of the crown. He was ambitious not 
only to reign, but to govern." " Strong 
as were the ministers, the King was re- 
solved to wrest all power from their 
hands, and to exercise it himself." " But 
what was this in effect but to assert that 
the King should be his own minister? . . . 
The King's tactics were fraught with dan- 
ger, as well to the crown itself as to the 
constitutional liberties of the people." 

Already, prior to the year 1778, accord- 
ing to Lecky, the King had " laboriously 
built up " in England a " system of per- 
sonal government"; and it was because 
he was unwilling to have this system dis- 
turbed that he then refused, " in defiance 
of the most earnest representations of his 
own minister and of the most eminent 
politicians of every party ... to send 
for the greatest of living statesmen at the 
moment when the empire appeared to be 
in the very agonies of dissolution. . . . 
Either Chatham or Rockingham would 
have insisted that the policy of the coun- 
try should be directed by its responsible 
ministers and not dictated by an irrespon- 
sible sovereign." 

This refusal of the King to pursue the 
course which was called for by the con- 
stitution, and which would have taken the 
control of the policy of the government 
out of his hands, was, according to the 
same great historian, an act " the most 
criminal in the whole reign of George III. 
. . . as criminal as any of those acts 
which led Charles I. to the scaffold." 

Even so early as the year 1768, accord- 
ing to John Richard Green, " George 
III. had at last reached his aim. . . . 
In the early days of the ministry " 
(which began in that year) "his in- 
fluence was felt to be predominant. In 
its later and more disastrous days it was 
supreme ; for Lord North, who became the 
head of the ministry on Grafton's retire- 
ment in 1770, was the mere mouthpiece 


of the King. ' Not only did he direct the 
minister,' a careful observer tells us, ' in 
all important matters of foreign and do- 
mestic policy, but he instructed him as 
to the management of debates in Parlia- 
ment, suggested what motions should be 
made or opposed, and how measures should 
be carried. He reserved for himself all 
the patronage, he arranged the whole cast 
of the administration, settled the relative 
place and pretensions of ministers of 
state, law officers, and members of the 
household, nominated and promoted the 
English and Scotch judges, appointed and 
translated bishops and deans, and dis- 
pensed other preferments in the Church. 
He disposed of military governments, 
regiments, and commissions, and himself 
ordered the marching of troops. He gave 
and refused titles, honors, and pensions.' 
All this immense patronage was steadily 
used for the creation of a party in both 
Houses of Parliament attached to the King 
himself. . . . George was, in fact, sole 
minister during the fifteen years which fol- 
lowed; and the shame of the darkest hour 
of English history lies wholly at his 

Surely, until these tremendous verdicts 
of English history shall be set aside, there 
need be no anxiety in any quarter, as to 
the historic soundness of the two great 
accusations which together make up the 
principal portion of the Declaration of 
Independence. In the presence of these 
verdicts also, even the passion, the in- 
tensity of language, in which those ac- 
cusations are uttered, seem to find a per- 
fect justification. Indeed, in the light of 
the most recent and most unprejudiced 
expert testimony, the whole document, 
both in its substance and in its form, 
seems to have been the logical response of 
a nation of brave men to the great words 
of the greatest of English statesmen, as 
spoken in the House of Commons precise- 
ly ten years before: 

" This kingdom has no right to lay a 
tax on the colonies. Sir, I rejoice that 
America has resisted. Three millions of 
people, so dead to all the feelings of lib- 
erty as voluntarily to submit to be slaves, 
would have been fit instruments to make 
slaves of the rest." 

Thus, ever since its first announcement 
to the world, and down almost to the 

present moment, has the Declaration of 
Independence been tested by criticism of 
every possible kind— by criticism intended 
and expected to be destructive. Apparent- 
ly, however, all this criticism has failed 
to accomplish its object. 

It is proper for us to remember, also, 
that Avhat we call criticism is not the 
only valid test of the genuineness and 
worth of any piece of writing of great 
practical interest to mankind : there is, 
in addition, the test of actual use and ser- 
vice, in direct contact with the common 
sense and the moral sense of large masses 
of men, under various conditions, and for 
a long period. Probably no writing which 
is not essentially sound and true has ever 
survived this test. 

Neither from this test has the great 
Declaration any need to shrink. As to 
the immediate use for which it was sent 
forth — that of rallying and uniting the 
friends of the Revolution, and bracing 
them for their great task — its effective- 
ness was so great and so obvious that it 
has never been denied. During the 
century and a quarter since the Revolu- 
tion, its influence on the political char- 
acter and the political conduct of the 
American people has been great beyond 
calculation. For example, after we had 
achieved our own national deliverance, 
and had advanced into that enormovis and 
somewhat corrupting material prosperity 
which followed the adoption of the Con- 
stitution and the development of the cot- 
ton interest and the expansion of the re- 
public into a' transcontinental power, we 
fell under an appalling temptation — the 
temptation to forget, or to repudiate, or 
to refuse to apply to the case of our 
human brethren in bondage, the principles 
which we had once proclaimed as the 
basis of every rightful government. The 
prodigious service rendered to us in this 
awful moral emergency by the Declara- 
tion of Independence was, that its public 
repetition, at least once every year, in the 
hearing of vast throngs of the American 
people in every portion of the republic, 
kept constantly before our minds, in a 
form of almost religious sanctity, those 
few great ideas as to the dignity of 
human nature, and the sacredness of per- 
sonality, and the indestructible rights of 
man as mere man, with which we had so 




gloriously identified the beginnings of our up in the nursery of every king, and 
national existence. It did at last become blazoned on the porch of every royal pal- 
very hard for us to listen each year to the ace," it is because it has become the 
preamble of the Declaration and still to classic statement of political truths which 
remain the owners and users and must at last abolish kings altogether, or 
catchers of slaves; still harder, to accept else teach them to identify their existence 
the doctrine that the righteousness and with the dignity and happiness of human 
prosperity of slavery was to be accepted nature. 

as the dominant policy of the nation. The Declaration of Independence, Dutch. 

logic of Calhoun was as flawless as usual. The following is the text of the declara- 

vvhen he concluded that the chief ob- tion of the States General of the United 

struction in the way of his system was Provinces, setting forth that Philip II. 

the preamble of the Declaration of In- had forfeited his right of sovereignty over 

dependence. Had it not been for the in- the said provinces, promulgated at The 

violable sacredness given by it to those Hague, July 26, 1581: 

sweeping aphorisms about the natural TJie States General of the United Prov- 

rights of man, it may be doubted whether 
Calhoun might not have won over an im- 
mense majority of the American people 
to the support of his compact and plaus- 

inces of the Loiv Countries, to all whom 
it may concern, do by these Presents 
send greeting: 
As 'tis apparent to all that a prince is 

ible scheme for making slavery the basis constituted by God to be ruler of a people, 
of the republic. It was the preamble of to defend them from oppression and vio- 
the Declaration of Independence which lence as the shepherd his sheep; and 
elected Lincoln, which sent forth the whereas God did not create the people 
Emancipation Proclamation, which gave slaves to their prince, to obey his com- 
victory to Grant, which ratified the Thir- mands, whether right or wrong, but 
teenth Amendment. rather the prince for the sake of the sub- 
We shall not here attempt to delineate jects (without which he could be no 
the influence of this state paper upon prince), to govern them according to 
mankind in general. Of course, the equity, to love and support them as a 
emergence of the American Republic as an father his children or a shepherd his flock, 
imposing world-power is a phenomenon and even at the hazard of life to defend 
which has now for many years attracted and preserve them. And when he does not 
the attention of the human race. Surely, behave thus, but, on the contrary, op- 
no slight efi"ect must have resulted from presses them, seeking opportunities to 
the fact that, among all civilized peoples, infringe their ancient customs and privi- 
the ■one American document best known leges, exacting from them slavish compli- 
is the Declaration of Independence and ance, then he is no longer a prince, but a 
that thus the spectacle of so vast and tyrant, and the subjects are to consider 
beneficent a political success has been him in no other view. And particularly 
everywhere associated with the assertion when this is done deliberately, unauthor- 
of the natural rights of man. " The doc- ized by the States, they may not only 
trines it contained," says Buckle, " were disallow his authority, but legally pro- 
not merely welcomed by a majority of the ceed to the choice of another prince for ' 
French nation, but even the government their defence. This is the only method 
itself was unable to withstand the gen- left for subjects whose humble petitions 
eral feeling." " Its eff'ect in hastening and remonstrances could never soften their 
the approach of the French Revolu- prince or dissuade him from his tyran- 
tion . . . was indeed most remark- nical proceedings; and this is what the 
able." Elsewhere, also, in many lands, law of na,ture dictates for the defence of 
among many peoples, it has been cited liberty, which we ought to transmit to 
again and again as an inspiration to po- posterity, even at the hazard of our lives, 
litical courage, as a model for political And this we have seen done frequently in 
conduct; and if, as the brilliant historian several countries upon the like occasion, 
just alluded to has affirmed, " that noble whereof there are notorious instances, and 
Declaration . . . ought to be hung more justifiable in our land, which has 
m. — D. 40 


teen always governed according to their 
ancient privileges, wliich are expressed in 
the oath taken by the prince at his ad- 
mission to the government; for most of 
the provinces receive their prince upon 
certain conditions, Avliich he swears to 
maintain, which, if the prince violates, he 
is no longer sovereign. Now thus it was 
with the King of Spain after the demise 
of the Emperor, his father, Charles the 
Fifth, of glorious memory (of whom he 
received all these provinces), forgetting 
the services done by the subjects of these 
countries, both to his father and himself, 
by whose valor he got so glorious and 
memorable victories over his enemies that 
his name and power became famous and 
dreaded over all the world, forgetting also 
the advice of his said imperial majesty, 
made to him before to the contrary, did 
rather hearken to the counsel of those 
Spaniards about him, who had conceived a 
secret hatred to this land and to its lib- 
erty, because they could not enjoy posts of 
honor and high employments here under 
the States as in Naples, Sicily, Milan, and 
the Indies, and other countries under the 
King's dominion. Thus allured by the 
riches of the said provinces, wherewith 
many of them were well acquainted, the 
said counsellors, I say, or the principal of 
them, frequently remonstrated to the King 
that it was more for his majesty's reputa- 
tion and grandeur to subdue the Low Coun- 
tries a second time, and to make himself 
absolute (by which they mean to tyran- 
nize at pleasure), than to govern accord- 
ing to the restrictions he had accepted, 
and at his admission sworn to observe. 
From that time forward the King of 
Spain, following these evil counsellors, 
sought by all means possible to re- 
duce this country (stripping them of their 
ancient privileges) to slavery, under 
the government of Spaniards having first, 
under the mask of religion, endeavored to 
settle new bishops in the largest and 
principal cities, endowing and incorporat- 
ing them with the richest abbeys, assign- 
ing to each bishop nine canons to assist 
him as counsellors, three whereof should 
superintend the inquisition. By this in- 
corporation the said bishops (who might 
be strangers as well as natives) would 
have had the first place and vote in the 
assembly of the States, and always the 


.prince's creatures at devotion ; and by 
the addition of the said canons he would 
have introduced the Spanish inquisition, 
which has been always as dreadful and 
detested in these provinces as the worst 
of slavery, as is well known, in so much 
that his imperial majesty, having once 
before proposed it to these States, and 
upon whose remonstrances did desist, and 
entirely gave it up, hereby giving proof of 
the great affection he had for his sub- 
jects. But, notwithstanding the many 
remonstrances made to the King both by 
the provinces and particular towns, in 
writing as well as by some principal lords 
by word of mouth; and, namely, by the 
Baron of Montigny and Earl of Egmont, 
who with the approbation .of the Duchess 
of Parma, then governess of the Low 
Countries, by the advice of the council of 
State were sent several times to Spain 
upon this affair. And, although the King 
had by fair words given them grounds to 
hope that their request should be com- 
plied with, yet by his letters he ordered 
the contrary, soon after expressly com- 
manding, upon pain of his displeasure, to 
admit the new bishops immediately, and 
put them in possession of their bishop- 
rics and incorporated abbeys, to hold 
the court of the inquisition in the places 
where it had been before, to obey and 
follow the decrees and ordinances of the 
Council of Trent, which in many articles 
are destructive of the privileges of the 
country. This being come to the knowl- 
edge of the people gave just occasion to 
great uneasiness and clamor among them, 
and lessened that good affection they had 
always borne toward the King and his 
predecessors. And, especially, seeing that 
he did not only seek to tyrannize over 
their persons and estates, but also over 
their consciences, for which they be- 
lieved themselves accountable to God only. 
Upon this occasion the chief of the nobil- 
ity in compassion to the poor people, in 
the year 1566, exhibited a certain re- 
monstrance in form of a petition, humbly 
praying, in order to appease them and 
prevent public disturbances, that it would 
please his majesty (by shewing that 
clemency due from a good prince to his 
people) to soften the said points, and 
especially with regard to the rigorous 
inquisition, and eanital punishments tor, 


matters of religion. And to inform the as one of its greatest enemies, accom- 
King of this affair in a more solemn man- panied with counsellors too like himself, 
ner, and to represent to him how neces- And, although he came in without the 
sary it was for the peace and prosperity least opposition, and was received by the 
of the public to remove the aforesaid in- poor subjects with all marks of honor 
novations, and moderate the severity of and respects, as expecting no less from 
his declarations published concerning di- him than tenderness and clemency, which 
vine worship, the Marquis de Berghen, the King had often hypocritically promised 
and the aforesaid Baron of Montigny had in his letters, and that himself intended 
been sent, at the request of the said to come in person to give orders to their 
lady regent, council of state, and of the general satisfaction, having since the de- 
States General as ambassadors to Spain, parture of the Duke of Alva equipped a 
where the King, instead of giving them fleet to carry him from Spain, and an- 
audience, and redress the grievances they other in Zealand to come to meet him at 
had complained of (which for want of a the great expense of the country, the bet- 
timely remedy did always appear in their tei to deceive his subjects, and allure 
evil consequences among the common them into the toils, nevertheless the said 
people), did, by the advice of Spanish duke, immediately after his arrival 
council, declare all those who were con- (though a stranger, and no way related 
ce.rned in preparing the said remonstrance to the royal family), declared that he had 
to be rebels, and guilty of high treason, a captain-general's commission, and soon 
and to be punished with death, and con- after that of governor of these provinces, 
fifecation of their estates ; and, what's contrary to all its ancient customs and 
more (thinking himself well assured of privileges; and, the more to manifest his 
reducing these countries under absolute designs, he immediately garrisons the 
tyranny by the army of the Duke of principal towns and castles, and caused 
Alva), did soon after imprison and put fortresses and citadels to be built in the 
to death the said lords the ambassadors, great cities to awe them into subjection, 
and confiscated their estates, contrary to and very courteously sent for the chief 
the law of nations, which has been always nobility in the King's name, under pre- 
religiously observed even among the most tence of taking their advice, and to em- 
tyrannic and barbarous princes. And, al- ploy them in the service of their country, 
though the said disturbances, which And those who believed his letters were 
in the year 1566 happened on the seized and carried out of Brabant, con- 
fcre-mentioned occasion, were now ap- trary to law, where thoy were imprisoned 
peased by the governess and her and prosecuted as criminals before him 
ministers, and many friends to lib- who had no right, nor could be a com- 
erty were either banished or sub- petent judge; and at last he, without 
dued, in so much that the King had not hearing their defence at large, sentenced 
any shew of reason to use arms and vio- them to death, which was publicly and 
lences, and further oppress this country, ignominiously executed. The others, bet- 
yet for these causes and reasons, long ter acquainted with Spanish hypocrisy, re- 
time before sought by the council of siding in foreign countries, were declared 
Spain (as appears by intercepted letters outlawries, and had their estates confis- 
from the Spanish ambassador, Alana, then cated, so that the poor subjects could 
in France, writ to the Duchess of Parma), make no use of their fortresses nor be as- 
to annul all the privileges of this conn- sisted by their princes in defence of their 
try, and govern it tyrannically at pleasure liberty against the violence of the pope; 
as in the Indies; and in their new con- besides a great number of other gentle- 
quests he has, at the instigation of the men and substantial citizens, some of 
council of Spain (shewing the little re- whom were executed, and others banished 
gard he had for his people, so contrary to that their estates might be confiscated, 
the duty which a good prince owes to his plaguing the other honest inhabitants, not 
subjects), sent the Duke of Alva with a only by the injuries done to their wives, 
powerful army to oppress this land, who children, and estates by the Spanish sol- 
for his inhumane cruelties is looked upon diers lodged in their houses, as likewise 



by diverse contributions, which they were 
forced to pay toward building citadels and 
new fortifications of towns even to their 
own ruin, besides the taxes of the hun- 
dredth, twentieth and ten the penny, to 
pay both the foreign and those raised in 
the country, to be employed against their 
fellow-citizens and against those who at 
the hazard of their lives defended their 
liberties. In order to impoverish the sub- 
jects, and to incapacitate them to hinder 
his design, and that he might with more 
ease execute the instructions received in 
Spain, to treat these countries as new 
conquests, he began to alter the course of 
justice after the Spanish mode, directly 
contrary to our privileges; and, imagin- 
ing at last he had nothing more to fear, 
he endeavored by main force to settle a 
tax called the tenth penny on merchandise 
and manufactury, to the total ruin of 
these countries, the prosperity of which 
depends upon a flourishing trade, notwith- 
standing frequent remonstrances, not by 
a single province only, but by all of them 
imited, which he had effected, had it not 
been for the Prince of Orange with diverse 
gentlemen and other inhabitants, who had 
followed this prince in his exile, most 
of whom were in his pay, and banished by 
the Duke of Alva with others who 
espoused the liberty of their country. 
Soon after the provinces of Holland and 
Zealand for the most part revolted, put- 
ting themselves under the protection of 
the Prince of Orange, against which 
provinces the said duke during his gov- 
ernment, and the great commander (whom 
the King sent ■ to these countries, not to 
heal the evil, but to pursue the same tyran- 
nical courses by more secret and cautious 
methods) who succeeded him, forced the 
provinces, who by garrisons and citadels 
were already reduced under the Spanish 
yoke, both with their lives and fortunes 
to conquer them, shewing no more mercy 
to those they employ to assist them than 
if they had been enemies, permitting the 
Spaniards, under pretence of mutiny, to 
enter the city of Antwerp forcibly, in the 
sight of the great commander, and to live 
there at discretion for the space of six 
weeks at the expense of the inhabitants, 
and obliging them (to be free from 
Spanish violence) to furnish the sum of 
four hundred thousand florins for the 

payment of the troops. After which 
the said troops, made more insolent 
by the connivance of their command- 
ers, proceeded to open violence, endeavor- 
ing first to surprise the city of Brus- 
sels, the prince's usual residence, to 
be the magazine of their plunder; but, 
not succeeding in that, they took by force 
the town of Alost, and after that surprised 
and forced Maestricht, and soon after the 
said city of Antwerp, which they plundered 
and biynt, and massacred the inhabitants 
in a most barbarous manner, to the irrep- 
arable loss not only of the citizens, but to 
all nations who had any effects there. And 
notwithstanding the said Spaniards had 
been, by the covmcil of state (upon which 
the King, after the decease of the great 
commander, had conferred the government 
of the country) in the presence of Jeron- 
imo de Rhoda, declared enemies to the 
States, by reason of their outrageous vio- 
lences, nevertheless the said Rhoda, upon 
his own authority (or as it is imagined) 
by virtue of certain private instructions 
which he might possibly have received 
from Spain, undertook to head the 
Spaniards and their accomplices, and to 
use the King's name (in defiance of the 
said council) and authority, to counterfeit 
the great seal, and act openly as governor 
and lieutenant - general, which gave oc- 
casion to the States at the same time to 
agree with the aforesaid Prince of Orange, 
in conjunction with the provinces of Hol- 
land and Zealand, which agreement was 
approved by the said council of state (as 
the only legal governors of the country), 
to declare war unanimously against the 
Spaniards as their common enemy, to 
drive them out of the country; at the 
same time, like good subjects, making use 
of all proper applications, humbly peti- 
tioning the King to have compassion on ac- 
count of the calamities already suffered, 
and of the greater expected hourly, unless 
his majesty would withdraw his troops, 
and exemplarily punish the authors of the 
plundering and burning of our principal 
cities as some small satisfaction to the 
distressed inhabitants, and to deter others 
from committing the like violences. 
Nevertheless, the King would have us be- 
lieve that all this was transacted without 
his knowledge, and .that he intended tc 
punish the authors, and that for the future 


we might expect all tenderness and clem- terest in order, by their assistance, to 

ency, and as a gracious prince would give force those who would not join with him 

all necessary orders to procure the public in making war against the Prince of 

peace. And yet he not only neglected to Orange, and the provinces of Holland and 

do us justice in punishing the oll'enders; Zealand, more cruel and bloody than any 

that, on the contrary, it is plain all was war before. But, as no disguises can long 

done by orders concerted in the council conceal our intentions, this project was 

of Spain; for soon after the letters were discovered before it could be executed; 

intercepted directed to Rhoda and other and he, unable to perform his promises, 

captains, who were the authors of all our and instead of that peace so much boasted 

miseries, under the King's own hand, in of at his arrival a new war kindled, not 

which he not only approves of their pro- yet extinguished. All these considera- 

ceedings, but even praises and promises tions give us more than sufficient reason 

them rewards, and particularly to the said to renounce the King of Spain, and seek 

Rhoda as having done him singular ser- some other powerful and more gracious 

vices, which he performed to him and to prince to take us under his protection ; 

all the rest who were ministers of his and, more especially, as these countries 

tyranny, upon his return to Spain. And, have been for these twenty years aban- 

the more to blind his subjects, he sent doned to disturbance and oppression by 

at the same time Don John, his natural their King, during which time the in- 

brother, as of his blood, to govern habitants were not treated as subjects, 

these countries, who under pretence but enemies, enslaved forcibly by their 

of approving the treaty of Ghent con- own governors. 

firming the promise made to the Having also, after the decease of Don 
States of driving out the Spaniards, John, sufficiently declared by the Baron 
of punishing the authors of the dis- de Selles that he would not allow the 
turbances, of settling the public peace, and pacification of Ghent, the which Don John 
of re-establishing their ancient liberties, had in his majesty's name sworn to main- 
endeavored to divide the said estates in tain, but daily proposing new terme of 
order to enslave one after another, which agreement less advantageous. Notwith- 
was soon after discovered by the provi- standing these discouragements we used 
dence of God, who is an enemy to all all possible means, by petitions in writing 
tyranny, by certain intercepted letters, from and the good offices of the greatest princes 
which it appeared that he was charged by in Christendom, to be reconciled to our 
the King to follow the instructions of King, having lastly maintained for a long 
Rhoda; and, the better to conceal this time our deputies at the Congress of 
fraud, they were forbidden to see one an- Cologne, hoping that the intercession of 
other, but that he should converse friendly his imperial majesty and of the electors 
with the principal lord of the country, would procure an honorable and lasting 
that, gaining them over to his party, he peace, and some degree of liberty, particu- 
might by their assistance reduce Holland larly relating to religion (which chiefly 
and Zealand, after which the other prov- concerns God and our own consciences), 
inces would be easily subdued. Whereupon at last we found by experience that noth- 
Don John, notwithstanding his solemn ing would be obtained of the King by 
promise and oath, in the presence of all prayers and treaties, which latter he 
the aforesaid States, to observe the pacifi- made use of to divide and weaken the 
cation of Ghent, and other articles stipu- provinces, that he might the easier exe- 
lated between him and the States of all cute his plan rigorously, by subduing 
the provinces, on the contrary sought, by them one by one, which afterwards plain- 
all possible promises made to the colonels ly appeared by certain proclamations and 
already at his devotion, to gain the Ger- proscriptions published by the King's 
man troops, who were then garrisoned in orders, by virtue of which we and all offi- 
the principal fortresses and the cities, cers and inhabitants of the United Prov- 
that by their assistance he might master inces with all our friends are declared 
them, as he had gained many of them al- rebels, and as such, to have forfeited our 
ready, and held them attached to his in- lives and estates. Thus, by rendering us 



odious to all, he might interrupt our 
commerce, likewise reducing us to despair, 
offering a great sum to any that would 
assassinate the Prince of Orange. So, 
having no hope of reconciliation, and find- 
ing no other remedy, we have, agreeable 
to the law of nature in our own defence, 
and for maintaining the rights, privi- 
leges, and liberties of our countrymen, 
wives, and children, and latest posterity 
from being enslaved by the Spaniards, 
been constrained to renounce allegiance 
to the King of Spain, and pursue such 
methods as appear to us most likely 
to secure our ancient liberties and privi- 
leges. Know all men by these pres- 
ents that, being reduced to the last ex- 
tremity, as above mentioned, we have 
unanimously and deliberately declared, 
and do by these presents declare, that the 
King of Spain has forfeited, ipso jure, all 
hereditary rights to the sovereignty of 
those countries, and are determined from 
henceforward not to acknowledge his 
sovereignty or jurisdiction, nor any act 
of his relating to the domains of the Low 
Countries, nor make use of his name as 
prince, nor suffer others to do it. In con- 
sequence whereof we also declare all offi- 
cers, judges, lords, gentlemen, vassals, and 
all other the inhabitants of this country 
of what condition or quality soever, to 
be henceforth discharged from all oaths 
and obligations whatsoever made to the 
King of Spain as sovereign of those 
countries. And whereas, upon the motives 
already mentioned, the greater part of 
the United Provinces have, by common 
consent of their members, submitted to 
the government and sovereignty of the il- 
lustrious Prince and Duke of Anjou. upon 
certain conditions stipulated with his 
highness, and whereas the most serene 
Archduke Matthias has resigned the gov- 
ernment of these countries with our ap- 
probation, we command and order all 
justiciaries, officers, and all whom it may 
concern, not to make use of the name, 
titles, great or privy seal of the King of 
Spain from henceforward; but in lieu of 
them, as long as his highness the Duke 
of Anjou is absent upon urgent affairs re- 
lating to the welfare of these countries, 
having so agreed with his highness or 
otherwise, they shall provisionally use 
the name anJ title of the president and 

council of the province. And, until such 
a president and counsellors shall be nomi- 
nated, assembled, and act in that capac- 
ity, they shall act in our name, except 
that in Holland and Zealand where they 
shall use the name of the Prince of 
Orange, and of the States of the said 
provinces till the aforesaid council shall 
legally sit, and then shall conform to the 
directions of that council agreeable to the 
contract made with his highness. And, 
instead of the King's seal aforesaid, they 
shall make use of our great seal, contre- 
seal, and signet, in affairs relating to the 
public, according as the said council shall 
from time to time be authorized. And in 
affairs concerning the administration of 
justice, and transactions peculiar to each 
province, the provincial council and other 
councils of that country shall use respec- 
tively the name, title, and seal of the said 
province, where the case is to be tried, 
and no other, on pain of having all let- 
ters, documents, and despatches annulled. 
And, for the better and effectual perform- 
ance hereof, we have ordered and com- 
manded, and do hereby order and com- 
mand, that all the seals of the King of 
Spain which are in these United Prov- 
inces shall immediately, upon the publi- 
cation of these presents, be delivered to 
the estate of each province respectively, 
or to such persons as by the said estates 
shall be authorized and appointed, upon 
peril of discretionary punishment. 

Moreover, we order and command that 
from henceforth no money coined shall be 
stamped with the name, title, or arms of 
the King of Spain in any of these United 
Provinces, but that all new gold and silver 
pieces, with their halves and quarters, 
shall only bear such impressions as the 
States shall direct. We order likewise and 
command the president and other lords of 
the privy council, and all other chancel- 
lors, presidents, and lords of the provin- 
cial council, and all presidents, account- 
ant-general, and to others in all the 
chambers of accounts respectively in these 
said countries, and likewnse to all other 
judges and officers, as we hold them dis- 
charged from henceforth of their oath 
made to the King of Spain, pursuant to 
the tenor of their commission, that they 
shall take a new oath to the States of 
that country on whose jurisdiction they 


depend, or to commissaries appointed by comprised a number of resolutions 
them, to be true to us against the King adopted at a meeting of the citizens of 
of Spain and all his adherents, according Mecklenburg covmty, N. C, in May, 1775, 
to the formula of words prepared by the thus antedating by more than a year that 
States General for that purpose. And which is now universally recognized as 
we shall give to the said counsellors, the American Declaration of Indepen- 
justiciaries, and officers employed in these dence. The Mecklenburg Declaration has 
provinces, who have contracted in our been a subject of historical controversy 
name with his highness the Serenisme, from the time that it was first made pub- 
Duke of Anjou, an act to continue them lie, and this controversy has given birth 
in their respective offices, instead of new to a literature which sharply questions 
commissions, a clause annulling the for- the authenticity of the declaration. The 
mer provisionally till the arrival of his circumstances alleged under which this 
highness. Moreover to all such counsel- declaration was made known are, in brief, 
lors, accomptants, justiciaries, and officers as follows: In the spring of 1775, Col. 
in these provinces, who have not contract- Adam Alexander called upon the people of 
ed with his highness aforesaid, we shall Mecklenburg county to appoint delegates 
grant new commissions under our hands to a convention to devise ways and means 
and seals, unless any of the said officers to assist their brethren in Boston. The 
are accused and convicted of having acted delegates met in Charlotte on May 19, al- 
under their former commissions against most immediately after the receipt of 
the liberties and privileges of this coun- news of the battle of Lexington. Colonel 
try or of other the like maladministra- Alexander was elected chairman, and John 
tion. We further command the president McKnitt Alexander clerk of the conven- 
and members of the privy council, chan- tion. After a free and full discussion of 
cellor of the Duchy of Brabant, also the the various objects for which the conven- 
chancellor of the Duchy of Gueldres, and tion had been called, it was unanimously 

county of Zutphen, to the president and ordained: 

members of the council of Holland, to the 

receivers of great officers of Beooster- 1. Resolved, that whosoever directly or 

Scheldt and Bewesterscheldt in Zealand, to indirectly abetted, or in any way, form, 

the president and council of Frise, and to or manner, countenanced the unchartered 

the Escoulet of Mechelen, to the president and dangerous invasions of our rights, as 

and members of the council of Utrecht, claimed by Great Britain, is an enemy 

and to all other justiciaries and officers to this country, to American, and to the 

whom it may concern, to the lieutenants inherent and inalienable rights of man. 

all and every of them, to cause this our 2. Resolved, that we, the citizens of 

ordinance to be published and proclaimed Mecklenburg county, do hereby dissolve 

throughout their respective jurisdictions, the political bands which have connected 

in the usual places appointed for that pur- us to the mother - country, and hereby 

pose, that none may plead ignorance. And absolve ourselves from allegiance to the 

to cause our said ordinance to be observed British crown, and abjure all political 

inviolably, punishing the offenders im- connection, contract, or association with 

partially and without delay; for so 'tis that nation, who have wantonly trampled 

found expedient for the public good. And, on our rights and liberties, and in- 

for better maintaining all and every arti- humanly shed the innocent blood of 

cle hereof, we give to all and every of American patriots at Lexington, 

you, by express command, full power and 3. Resolved, that we do hereby declare 

authority. In witness wherof we have ourselves a free and independent people; 

hereunto set our hands and seals, dated are, and of right ought to be, a sovereign 

in our assembly at the Hague, the six and and self-governing association, under the 

twentieth day of July, 1581, indorsed by control of no power other tlian that of 

the orders of the States General, and our God and the general qrovernment of 

signed J. de Asseliers. the Congress; to the maintenance of 

Declaration of Independence, Meck- which independence we solemnly pledge 

LENBURG, a document alleged to have to each other our mutual co-operation, 



our lives, our fortunes, and our most the crown of Great Britain never can be 

sacred honor. considered as holding rights, privileges, 

4. Resolved, that, as we acknowledge immunities, or authority therein, 
the existence and control of no law or 5. Resolved, that it is also further de- 
legal officer, civil or military, within this creed that all, each, and every military 
county, we do hereby ordain and adopt, officer in this county is hereby rein- 
as a rule of life, all, each, and every of stated to his former command and au- 
our former lawsj wherein, nevertheless, thority, he acting conformably to these 

J^ Jf}0m 'SJeM 

'ij^e f^l^yn^t 




regulations, and that every member pres- 
ent of this delegation shall henceforth be 
a civil officer — viz., a justice of the peace 
in the character of a " committee-man," to 
issue process, hear and determine all 
matter of controversy, according to said 
adopted laws, and to preserve peace, and 
union, and harmony in said county, and 
to use every exertion to spread the love 
of country and fire of freedom through- 
out America, until a more general and 
organized government be established in 
this province. 

These resolutions were supplemented by 
a number of minor provisions to insure 
the safety of the citizens, and at 2 a.m. 
on May 20, the resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted. A few days afterwards 
Capt. James Jack, of Charlotte, was ap- 
pointed messenger to convey a draft of the 
resolutions to the Congress then in session 
in Philadelphia, and on the return of 
Captain Jack, the Charlotte convention 
was informed that their proceedings had 
been individually approved by the mem- 
bers of Congress, but that it was deemed 
premature to lay them before the House. 

On April 30, 1818, a copy of the alleged 
Declaration of Independence was first 
made public in the Ealeigh Register, and 
folloAving the text was a certificate 
signed " James McKnitt," tending to show 
that the text was a true copy of the papers 
left in his hands by John Matthew Alex- 
o,nder, deceased ; and that the original 
book was burned in April, 1800. When 
the Raleigh Register published this state- 
ment there was a general demand for the 
proof concerning such an important event, 
that had been allowed to slumber for 
more than forty years. All the questions 
involved were investigated by a committee 
of the North Carolina legislature in 1831, 
and its report so far satisfied the people 
of that State that May 20 was made a 
State holiday. In 1838, Peter Force, a 
well-known scholar, announced the dis- 
covery of another set of resolutions, en- 
dorsed as having been adopted by the peo- 
ple of Mecklenburg county on May 31, or 
eleven days after the resolutions above 
quoted. The last set of resolutions num- 
bered twenty, and made no declaration 
of independence. Some parties who de- 
fended the resolutions of May 20 claimed 
that there should be no question as to the 


mere day of the month on the ground that 
this discrepancy was explainable by the 
use of the old style and the new style of 
calendars; but they ignored the facts that 
the two sets of resolutions were dissimi- 
lar, that the latter were comparatively 
mild, and that the former contained ex- 
pressions almost identical with the ac- 
cepted Declaration of Independence of 
1776. It is to be further slated that an 
attempt was made to reconcile these dis- 
crepancies and similarities on the ground 
that as the book alleged to have contained 
the original text had been destroyed by 
fire, some one, years afterwards, had pre- 
pared from recollection the draft of the 
resolutions which were published in the 
Raleigh Register. The fact has been es- 
tablished by acceptable evidence that the 
document taken to Philadelphia by Cap- 
tain Jack contained the twenty resolutions 
of May 31, and not the declaration of 
May 20. The foregoing are the principal 
facts touching this historical controversy; 
and while Bancroft accepts the declaration 
as an authentic document, equally emi- 
nent historians have agreed that it was 
not entitled to the standing of a verified 

Declaration of Paris. See Cuba: Mo- 
Kiriley'S Message. 

Declaration of Rights by Virginia. 
George Mason drafted for Virginia a 
declaration of rights, and on May 27, 1770, 
Archibald Carey presented it to the Vir- 
ginia convention. On June 12 it was 
adopted. It declared that all men are 
by nature equally free, and are invested 
with inalienable rights — namely, the en- 
joyment of life, liberty, property, and the 
pursuit of happiness and safety; that all 
power is vested in, and consequently de- 
rived from, the people ; that government 
is, or ought to be, instituted for the com- 
mon benefit and security of the people, 
nation, or community, and that when gov- 
ernment shall fail to perform its required 
functions, a majority of the people have 
an inalienable right to reform or abolish 
it; that, public services not being de- 
scendible, the office of magistrate, legis- 
lator, or judge ought not to be hereditary; 
that the legislative and executive powers 
of the state should be distinct from the 
judicature, and that the members of the 
first two should, at fixed periods, return 


unto the body from which they were and vehemently declared that " taxation 
originally taken, and the vacancies be sup- and representation are inseparable." The 
plied by frequent elections; that elections declaratory act became a law, but it was 
ought to be free; that all men having a distasteful to thinking Americans, for it 
permanent interest in and attachment to involved the kernel of royal prerogative, 
the country have the right of suffrage, which the colonists rejected. But it was 
and cannot be taxed or deprived of their overlooked. Pitt had the honor of the 
property for public uses without their own repeal. The London merchants lauded 
consent or that of their representatives him as a benefactor, and there was a 
freely elected, nor bound by any law to burst of gratitude towards him in Amer- 
which they have not, in like manner, as- ica. New York voted a statue to Pitt and 
sented; that there ought to be no arbi- the King; Virginia voted a statue to the 
trary power for suspending laws, for re- monarch ; Maryland passed a similar vote, 
quiring excessive bail, or for granting of and ordered a jiortrait of Lord Camden; 
general warrants; that no man ought to and the authorities of Boston ordered full- 
be deprived of liberty except by the law length portraits of Barre and Conway, 
of the land or the judgment of his peers, friends of the Americans, for Faneuil Hall, 
holding sacred the ancient trial by jury; Decoration Day. See Memorial Day. 
that the freedom of the press is one of De Costa, Benjamin Feanklin, clergy- 
the greatest bulwarks of liberty, and can man; born in Charlestown, Mass., July 
never be restrained but by despotic gov- 10, 1831; graduated at the Concord 
ernments; that a well-regulated militia. Biblical Institute in 1856; was a chaplain 
composed of the body of the people, trained in the National army in 1861-63; and is 
to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe the author of Tlie Pre-Columbian Dis- 
defence of a free state; that standing covery of America by the Northmen; The 
armies in times of peace should be avoided Northmen in Maine, etc. 
as dangerous to liberty, and in all cases Deep Bottom, Va. In Grant's Virginia 
the military should be under strict subor- campaign in 1864 this place, then held by 
dination to the civil power ; that the General Foster, was attacked by a part of 
people have a right to uniform govern- Lee's army without success, June 21. A 
ment; that no free government can be counter attack by the Nationals was order- 
preserved but by a firm adherence to jus- ed July 26 and 27, which was partly suc- 
tice, moderation, temperance, frugality, cessful. The Confederates retired to Cha- 
and virtue, and by frequent recurrences to pin's Bluff, which they continued to hold, 
fundamental principles; and that religion Deerfield, a town on the west bank of 
can be directed only by reason and con- the Connecticut River, in Franklin 
viction, not by force or violence; there- county, Mass.; notable as having been 
fore all men are equally entitled to the twice the victim of a foray by French and 
free exercise of. it according to the die- Indians. During King Philip's War a 
tates of conscience. The unanimous voice terrible slavighter occurred a mile from the 
of the convention approved of this dec- town, Sept. 18 (0. S.), 1675. The Ind- 
laration. ians had burned Deerfield and murdered 
Declaratory Act, The. Pitt concluded some of the inhabitants. Tlie survivors 
his speech in the British House of Com- fled, leaving about 3,000 bushels of wheat 
mons against the Stamp Act by a propo- in stacks in the field. Capt. Thomas Lo- 
sition for its absolute and immediate re- throp, commanding part of a force at Had- 
peal, at the same time recommending an ley, was sent with eighty men to secure 
act, to accompany the repeal, declaring, this grain. As they approached Deerfield 
in the most unqualified terms, the sov- they fell into an Indian ambush, and the 
ereign authority of Great Britain over her captain and seventy-six men were slain, 
colonies. This was intended as a salve In 1704, a party of French and Indians, 
for the national honor, necessary, as Pitt under Maj. Hertel de Rouville, who had 
knew, to secure the repeal of the act. But tiavelied on snow-shoes from Canada, ap- 
Lord Camden, who was the principal sup- proaelied Deerfield. The chief object of 
porter of the repeal bill in the Upper tlie expedition was to procure a little bell 
House, was opposed to the declaratory act, hung over the meeting-house in that vil- 



lage. It had been bought in Fiance for 
the church in tlie Indian village of 
Caughnawaga, 10 miles above Montreal. 
The vessel that bore it to America was 
captured by a New England privateer and 
taken into Boston Harbor. The bell was 
sold to the Deerfield congregation. Father 
Nicolas, the priest at Caughnawaga, per- 
suaded the Indians to accomjiany him, 
under De Rouville, to get the bell. When 
the invaders approached Deerfield, the 
snow lay 4 feet deep in that region, and 
was covered by a hard crust that bore the 
men. Upon drifts that lay by the pali- 
sades they were able to crawl over these 
defences in the gloom of night, while the 
inhabitants were slumbering. The first 
intimation the villagers had of danger was 
the bursting in of the doors before the 
dawn (March 1, 1704), and the terrible 
sound of the war-whoop. The people were 
dragged from their beds and murdered, 
without regard to age or sex, or carried 
into captivity. The village was set on 
fire, and every building, excepting the 
chapel and one dwelling-house, was laid in 
ashes. Forty-seven of the inhabitants 
were killed, and 120 were captives on their 
way through the wilderness towards 
Canada an hour after sunrise. Under the 
direction of Father Nicolas, the bell was 
carried away, and finally found its des- 
tined place in the belfry of the church 
at Caughnawaga, where it still hangs. 
Among the victims of this foray were 
Rev. John Williams {q. v.), pastor of 
the church at Deerfield, and his family, 
who were carried into captivity, except- 
ing two children, who were murdered. 

Deerhound, the name of an English 
yacht, which, while conveying arms to the 
Carlists, was seized by the Spanish gov- 
ernment vessel Buenaventura, off Biarritz, 
and captain and crew imprisoned, Aug. 13, 
1873; and released about Sept. 18. This 
yacht rescued Captain Semmes and part 
of his crew from the Alahama after her 
destruction by the Kearsarge, June 19, 

Defective Classes. In no country on 
earth has there been such a general and 
liberal provision by national and local 
authorities, societies, and individuals for 
the education of defective youth as in the 
United States. For details of this grand 
work, see Blind, Education of the; 

Deaf Mutes, Education of the; Feeble- 
minded, Education of the; and Reform 

De Forest, John William, military 
oflicer; born in Humphreysville (now 
Seymour), Conn., March 31, 1820; entered 
the National army as captain at the be- 
ginning of the Civil War; served con- 
tinuously till January, 18G5; and was ad- 
jutant-general of the Veteran Reserve 
Corps in 18G5-G8. His publications in- 
clude The History of the Indians of Con- 
necticut, from the Earliest-known Period 
to 1850, etc. 

De Grasse, Count. See Grasse-Tilly, 
Francois Joseph Paul, Count de. 

De Haas, John Philip, military offi- 
cer; born in Holland about 1735; was de- 
scended from an ancient family in north- 
ern France; came to America in 1750; 
was an ensign in the French and Indian 
War; participated in a sharp conflict 
with Indians near Pittsburg; and was 
colonel of the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment 
in 177G. He served in the American 
army in Canada, and afterwards at Ticon- 
deroga. He led his regiment from Lake 
Champlain to New York, and partici- 
pated in the battle on Long Island in 
August, 1776. In February, 1777, he was 
promoted to brigadier-general. General 
De Haas was a good disciplinarian, and 
served in various capacities during the 
entire war with credit to himself and 
benefit to his adopted country. The lat- 
ter years of his life were passed in Phila- 
delphia, where he died June 3, 1786. 

De Haven, Edwin J., explorer; born 
in Philadelphia in 1819; entered the navy 
as midshipman, rose to lieutenant in 1841, 
and resigned in 1857. He was with 
Wilkes in his great exploring expedition 
in 1838-42, and commanded the first ex- 
ploring expedition fitted out at New York 
to search for Sir John Franklin in the 
Arctic seas. The expedition consisted of 
the Advance, 140 tons, and the Rescue, 90 
tons. Dr. Kane, who accompanied the ex- 
pedition, published a full account of it. 
After his return Lieutenant De Haven 
was employed on coast survey duty and 
in the Naval Observatory. He died in 
Philadelphia Oct. 2, 1865. 

De Kalb, Johann, Baron. See Kalb, 
Johann, Baron de. 

Delafield, Richard, military engineer; 



born in New York City, Sept. 1, 1798; 
graduated at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in 1818, and entered the 
corps of engineers; was engaged in build- 
ing the defences of Hampton Roads, the 
fortifications in the district of the Mis- 
sissippi, and those within the vicinity 
of Delaware River and Bay in 1819-38; 
superintendent of West Point in 1838-45 
and in 185G-G1; and became chief of en- 
gineers in 18G4. At the close of the Civil 
War he was brevetted major-general, U. 
S. A., " for faithful, meritorious, and dis- 
tinguished services in the engineer depart- 
ment during the rebellion," He was re- 
tired in 1866. He died in Washington, 
D. C, Nov. 5, 1873. 

Delagoa Bay, a large bay, the estuary 
of several rivers, on the southeast coast 
of Africa, situated between lat. 25° 40' 
and 26° 20' S. It extends 60 miles from 
north to south, and 20 miles from east to 
west. It was discovered by the Portu- 
guese in 1498, and for nearly 400 years 
was in dispute between England and Por- 
tugal, the Boers also putting in a claim 
to it in 1835. It is the only seaport avail- 
able for the Transvaal, but it is not in 
that territory. The contention between 
England and Portugal was referred to 
President Thiers, and settled by President 
MacMahon, his successor, in 1875, in 
favor of Portugal. By an agreement Eng- 
land received the right of pre-emption. 
It was understood in the early part of the 
war between the British and the Boers 
(1899-1900) that Great Britain had 
either purchased the bay and its imme- 
diate surroundings outright or had nego- 
tiated an arrangement with Portugal by 
which the bay could not be used for any 
purpose hostile to British interest. In 
1883 Col. Edward McMurdo, a civil engi- 
neer of Kentucky, received from the King 
of Portugal an extremely liberal conces- 
sion for the construction of a railroad 
from Lorenzo Marques to the Transvaal 
frontier, a distance of 57 miles. This 
concession also included the grant of large 
tracts of land along the projected route, 
the territory upon which much of the 
town of Lorenzo Marques now stands, an 
island in Delagoa Bay, and certain com- 
mercial privileges along the shore. By 
the aid of British capital the road was 
completed in November, 1887, to what the 

Portuguese engineers certified was the bor- 
der of the Transvaal. In 1889 the Portu- 
guese government served notice on Colonel 
McMurdo that the real frontier was 6 
miles further inland, and that if the road 
was not built to that point within four 
months it would be seized by Portugal. 
Before McMurdo's side of the contro- 
versy could be heard, Portugal confiscated 
the entire property (June, 1889). The 
United States, in behalf of the McMurdo 
interests, united with England to compel 
Portugal to make proper reparation, and 
Portugal consented to have the dispute 
settled by arbitration. The tribunal was 
organized in Berne, Switzerland, in 1890, 
but it was not till March 29, 1900, that a 
conclusion was reached. The total award 
to the claimants was $3,202,800, with in- 
terest from 1889, and by a compromise 
the Reirs of Colonel McMurdo were award- 
ed $500,000 towards the close of 1900. 

De Lancey, Edwaed Ployd, historian; 
born at Mamaroneck, N. Y., April 3, 
1821; graduated at Hobart College in 
1843; is a member and officer of many 
historical organizations, and the author 
of biographies of James De Lancey, James 
W, Seekman, William Allen; Document- 
ary History of New York; Capture of Fort 
Washington, and many other historical 

De Lancey, Etienne (Stephen) ; mer- - 
chant; born in Caen, France, Oct. 24, 
1663; fled to Holland on the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes; and went thence 
to England and became a British subject. 
He landed in New York, June 7, 1686; 
became a merchant and amassed a large 
fortune; and was at all times a public- 
spirited citizen. In 1700 he built the De 
Lancey house, which subsequently became 
known as the " Queen's Head " and 
" Fraunce's Tavern." In the large room, 
originally Mrs. De Lancey's drawing-room, 
Washington bade farewell to the officers 
of the Army of the Revolution. He died 
in New York City, Nov. 18, 1741. 

De Lancey, James, jurist; born in 
NewJYork City, Nov. 27, 1703; eldest son 
of Etienne De Lancey; graduated at 
the University of Cambridge, England, 
and soon after his return to New York 
(1729) was made a justice of the Su- 
preme Court of that province, and chief- 
justice in 1733. For two years, as lieU' 



tenant-governor, he was acting governor 
(1753-55), after the death of Governor 
Osborn. Judge De Lancey was for many 
years the most influential man in the 
politics and legislation of the colony, and 
was one of the founders of King's Col- 
lege (now Columbia University). He 
wrote a Review of the Military Opera- 
tions from 1753 to 1156. He died in New 
York City, July 30, 17G0. 

De Lancey, Olivek, military officer; 
born in New York City, Sept. 16, 1708; 
brother of Judge De Lancey; for many 
years a member of the Assembly and 
Council, also a colonel of the pro- 
vincial troops, and when the Revolution 
broke out he organized and equipped, 
chiefly at his own expense, a corps of 
loyalists. In 1777 he was appointed a 
brigadier-general in the royal service. His 
military operations were chiefly in the 
region of New Y^ork City. At the evacua- 
tion of that city in 1783 he went to Eng- 
land. He died in Beverley, England, 
Nov. 27, 1785. 

De Lancey, Olivkk, military officer; 
born in New Y^ork City in 1752; edu- 
cated abroad ; entered the British army 
in 17GG, and rose to major in 1773; was 
with the British army in Boston during 
the siege in 1775-76, and accompanied it 
to Nova Scotia. He returned with it to 
Staten Island in June, and commanded the 
British cavalry when the army invaded 
Long Island in August, which formed the 
advance of the right column. To him Gen- 
eral Woodhull surrendered under promise 
of protection, but it was not afl'orded, and 
the patriot was murdered. He was active 
under Sir Henry Clinton throughout the 
war. In 1781 he succeeded Major Andre as 
adjutant - general, and on his return to 
England undertook the arrangement of the 
claims of the loyalists for compensation 
for losses in America. He was also at the 
head of a commission for settling all 
army accounts during the war. Because 
of defalcations in his public accounts, he 
was removed from office. He was elected 
to Parliament in 179G; was promoted to 
lieutenant-general in 1801, and to general 
in 1812. He died in Edinburgh, Scotland, 
Sept. 3, 1822. 

Delano, Columbus, statesman; born in 
Shoreham, Vt., June 5, 1809; settled in 
Mount Vernon, O., in 1817; admitted 

to the bar in 1831, and became prominent 
as a criminal lawyer. He was a member 
of Congress in 1844-64 and 1866-68; was 
appointed United States commissioner of 
internal revenue in 1869, and later by 
reorganizing the bureau increased the re- 
ceipts in eight months more than 100 per 
cent.; and was Secretary of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior in 1870-75. He died 
in Mount Vernon, 0., Oct. 23, 1890. 

Delaware, the first of the thirteen 
original States that ratified the federal 
Constitution; takes its name from Lord 
De la Warr (Delaware), who entered the 
bay of that name in 16 10, when he was 
governor of Virginia. It had been dis- 
covered by Hudson in 1609. In 1629 
Samuel Godyn, a director of the Dutch 
West India Company, bought of the Ind- 
ians a tract of land near the mouth of 
the Delaware; and the next year De 
Vries, with twenty colonists from Hol- 
land, settled near the site of Lewes. The 
colony was destroyed by the natives three 
years afterwards, and the Indians had 
sole possession of that district until 1638, 
when a colony of Swedes and Finns 


landed on Cape Henlopen, and purchased 
the lands along the bay and river as far 
north as the falls at Trenton (see New 
Sweden). They built Fort Christiana 
near the site of Wilmington. Their settle- 
ments were mostly planted within the 
present limits of Pennsylvania. The 
Svredes were conquered by the Dutch of 




New Netherland in 1655, and from 
that time until 1664, when New Nether- 
land was conquered by the English, 
the territory was claimed by the 
Dutch, and controlled by them. Then 
Lord Baltimore, proprietor of Maryland, 
claimed all the territory on the west side 
of Delaware Bay, and even to lat. 40° ; 
and settlers from Maryland attempted to 
drive away the settlers from the present 
State of Delaware. When William Penn 
obtained a grant of Pennsylvania, he v/as 
very desirous of owning the land on Dela- 
ware Bay to the sea, and procured from 
the Duke of York a release of all his title 

and claim to New Castle and 12 miles 
around it, and to the land between that 
tract and the sea ; and in the presence of 
all the settlers he produced his deeds 
(October, 1682), and formally accepted 
the surrender of the territory. Lord Bal- 
timore pressed his claim, but in 1685 the 
Lords of Trade and Plantations made a 
decision in Penn's favor. A compromise 
afterwards adjusted all conflicting claims. 
The tracts which now constitute the State 
of Delaware, Penn called " The Terri- 
tories," or " Three Lower Counties on the 
Delaware." They were governed as a 
part of Pennsylvania for about twenty 



years afterwards, and each county had 
SIX delegates in the legislature. Then 
Penn allowed them a separate legislature; 
but the colony was under the governor of 
Pennsylvania until 1776, when the in- 
habitants declared it an independent 
State. A constitution was adopted by a 
convention of the people of the three 
counties — New Castle, Kent, and Sussex 
— Sept. 20, 1776. A State government 
was organized, and John McKinley was 
elected its first governor. In 1792 a sec- 
ond constitution was framed and adopted. 
Although Delaware was a slave State, it 
refused to secede at the outbreak of the 
Civil War; and, though it assumed a 
sort of neutrality, it furnished several 
regiments of volunteers for the Union 
army. In all the wars Delaware patri- 
otically furnished its share of men and 
money for the public defence. In 1902 
*he State had an assessed property valua- 
tion of $09,351,696; and in 1904 had 
assets of $635,250, in excess of all lia- 
bilities. The population in 1890 was 
168,493; in 1900, 184,735. 

When Howe entered Philadelphia (Sep- 
tember, 1777) the Americans still held 
control of the Delaware River below that 
citJ^ On Mud Island, near the confluence 
of the Schuylkill and Delaware, was 
built Fort Mifflin. On the New Jersey 
shore, opposite, at Red Bank, was Fort 
Mercer, a strong redoubt, well furnished 
with heavy artillery. At Billingsport, on 
the same shore, 3 miles lower down, were 
extensive but unfinished works designed 
to guard some obstructions in the river 
there. Other formidable obstructions 
were placed in the river below forts 
Mifflin and Mercer, in the form of 
chcvaux-de-frise — sunken crates of stones, 
with heavy spears of iron-pointed timber, 
to receive and pierce the bows of vessels. 
Besides these, there were floating batteries. 
^ee Mekcer, Fort; Mifflin, Fort; Unit- 
ed States — Delaware, in vol. ix. 





From 16G4 up to 1G82, under the government of New 
York; and from 1083 up to 1773, under the proprietary 
government of Pennsylvauia. 


Peter Minuit 1638 to ]fi40 

Peter Hollender Ifi40 " 1642 

Johan Printz 1643 " 1652 

Johan Pappegoia 1653 " 1654 

Johan C. Rising 1654" 1655 


Peter Stnyvegant | 1655 to 1664 


John McKinley 

Caesar Rodney 

John Dicliinson 

John Cook 

Nicholas Van Dyke..., 

Thomas Collins 

Joshua Clayton 

Gunning Bedford 

Daniel Rodgers 

Richard Bassett 

James Sykes 

David Hall 

Nathaniel Mitchell 

George Truitt 

Joseph Hazlett 

Daniel Rodney 

John Clark 

Jacob Stout 

John Collins 

Caleb Rodney 

Joseph Hazlett 

Samuel Pnynter 

Charles Polk 

David Hazzard 

Caleb P. Bennett 

Charles Polk 

Cornelius P. Comegys. 
William B. Cooper.... 

Thomas Stockton 

Joseph Maul 

William Temple 

"William Thorp 

William H. Ross 

Peter F. Cansey 

William Burton 

William Gannon 

Grove Saulsbury 

James Ponder 

John P. Cochran 

John W. Hall 

Charles C. Stockley... 
Benjamin T. Biggs.... 
Robert J. Reynolds... 

Joshua H. Marvil 

William T. Watson... 

Ebe W. Tunnell 

John Hunn 

Preston Lea 


1776 to 1777 
1778 " 1781 
1782 " 1783 

1784 to 1786 
1786 " 1789 
1789 " 1796 

1796 " 1797 

1797 " 1798 

1798 " 1801 

1801 " 1802 

1802 " 1805 
1805 " 1808 
1808 " 1811 
1811 " 1814 
1814 " 1817 
1817 " 1820 

1820 " 1821 

1821 " 1822 

1822 " 18'23 

1823 " 1824 

1824 " 1827 
1827 " 1830 
1830 " 1833 
1833 " 1836 

1836 " 1837 

1837 " 1840 
1840 " 1844 
1844 " 1846 


1847 to 1851 
1851 " 1855 
1855 " 1859 
1859 " 1863 
1863 " 1867 
1867 " 1871 
1871 " 1875 
1875 " 1879 
1879 " 1883 
1883 " 1887 
1887 " 1891 
1891 " 1895 

1895 to 1897 
1897 " 1901 
1901 " 1905 
1905 " 1909 


Richard Bassett 

George Read 

Henry Latimer 

John Vining 

Joshua Clavton 

William Hill Wells.. 

Samuel White 

James A. Bayard. .. 
Outerbridge Horsev. 
William Hill Wells. 
Nicholas Van Dyke. 
Ccesar A. Rodney. .. 

Thomas Clayton 

Daniel Rodney 

Henry M. Ridgely.. 

Louis McLane 

John M. Clayton 

Arnold Naudain 

Richard H. Bayard. 

Thomas Clayton 

John M. Clayton.... 


No. of 

Congress | 

1st and 2d ( 


" 2d 


to 6th 


" 5th 

5 th 


to 8th 


" nth 


" 12lh 


" 16th 


" 14th 


" 19th 


7 th 


to 19th 

19th 1 


to 2nth 


" 21st 


" 23d 


" 23d 


" 28th 


" 29th 


" 30th 


1789 to 

1789 " 

1793 " 

1793 " 


1799 to 

1801 " 

1805 " 

1810 " 

1813 " 

1817 " 

1821 " 

1824 " 


1827 to 

1827 " 

1829 " 

1830 " 

1836 " 

1837 " 
1845 " 







No. of Congress. 


30th to 31st 
30th " 32d 

1849 to 
1847 " 


Presley Spru;inco 


James A. Bayard 

3'2d " 38th 

1851 " 


33d " 34th 

1853 " 


Joseph P. Comegys 

Martin Bates 

35 Ih 


Willard Saulsburv 

3Gth to 41st 

1859 to 


George Read Kiddle 

38th " 40th 

18G4 " 


James A. Bayard 


1867 " 


Thomas Francis Bayard.. 

41st to 48th 

1869 " 


i'2iX " 50th 
49th «' 5Gth 

1871 " 
1885 " 


George Gray 


Anthony Higgins 

51st " 54th 

1889 " 


Richard R. Kenney 

54th " 56th 

1897 " 


J.ewis H. Ball 

58th to 59th 
59th " ■ ■ 

1903 " 
1903 " 
1907 " 



Henry A. Dupont 

Delaware, or Delawarr, Thomas West, 
3d Lord; appointed governor of Virginia 
in 1609. He built two forts at the mouth 
of the James River, which he named 
Henry and Charles, in honor of the King's 
sons. In 1611 he sailed for the West 
Indies, but was driven back by a storm 
and landed at the mouth of the Delaware 
River, whence he sailed for England. In 
1618 he embarked for Virginia and died 
on the voyage. 

Delaware Indians, an important fam- 
ily of the Algonquian nation, also called 
Lenni-Lenapes, or " men." When the 
Europeans found them, they were dwell- 

ing in detached bands, under separate 
sachems on the Delaware River. The 
Dutch traded with tlitm as early as 1613, 
and held frieudly relations with them; 
but in 1632 the Dutch settlement of Swan- 
endael was destroyed by them. The 
Swedes found them peaceful when they 
settled on the Delaware. This family 
claim to have come from the west with 
the Minquas, to whom they became vas- 
sals. They also claimed to be the source 
of all the Algonquians, and were styled 
" grandfathers." The Delawares com- 
prised three powerful families (Turtle, 
Turkey, and Wolf), and were known as 
Minseys, or Munsees, and Delawares 
proper. The former occupied the northern 
part of New Jersey and a portion of Penn- 
sylvania, and the latter inhabited lower 
New Jersey, the banks of the Delaware 
below Trentou, and the whole valley of 
the Schuylkill. After the conquest of 
New Netherland, the English kept up 
trade with the Delawares, and William 
Penn and his followers bought large tracts 
of land from them. They were parties 
on the Indian side to the famous treaty 
with Penn. At that time the Indians 
within the limits of his domain were 
estimated at 6,000 in number. The Five 




Nations iq. v.) conquered the Delawares, of a treaty in 1787, a small band of Dela- 

and called them " women " in contempt ; v/ares returned to the Muskingum, the 

and when, at the middle of the eighteenth remainder being hostile. These fought 

century, the latter, dissatisfied with the Wayne, and were parties to the treaty at 

interpretation of a treaty, refused to Greenville in 1795. The scattered tribes 

leave their land, the Five Nations in Ohio refused to join Tecumseh in the _ 

haughtily ordered them to go. War of 1812, and in 1818 they ceded all " 

Commingling with warlike tribes, the their lands to the United States, and set- 

Delawareslbecame warlike themselves, and tied on the White River, in Illinois, to 

developed great energy on the war-path, the number of 1,800, leaving a small 

They fought the Cherokees, and in 1773 remnant behind. They finally settled in 

some of them went over the mountains Kansas, where missions were established 

and settled in Ohio. As early as 1741 among them, and they rapidly increased 

the Moravians had begun missionary work in the arts of civilized life. In the Civil 

among them on the Lehigh, near Bethle- War, the Delawares furnished 170 soldiers 

hem and Nazareth, and a little church for the National army. Having acquired 

was soon filled with Indian converts. At land from the Cherokees in the Indian 

the beginning of the French and Indian Territory, they now occupy the Coowees- 

War the Delawares were opposed to the coowee and Delaware districts; numbered 

English, excepting a portion who were led 754 in 1900. 

by the Moravians; but in treaties held Delaware River, Washington s Pas- 

at Easton Pa., at difTerent times, from sage of the. At the close of November, 

1756 until 17G1, they made peace with the 177G, the British occupied New Jersey, 

Eno-lish and redeemed themselves from and only the Delaware River shut of! Corn- 

thetr vassalage to the Six Nations ((Z.t^.). wallis from Philadelphia. On Dec. 2, 

They settled on the Susquehanna, the Washington, with a considerable force, 

Christian Indians apart. Then another crossed the river, securing every boat so 

emigration over the mountains occurred, that the British were unable to follow 

and they planted a settlement at Mus- him. Determined to surprise the Hessians, 

kin^um 0. These joined Pontiac, and under Colonel Rahl, at Trenton, Washing- 

besi1?c.ed Fort Pitt and other frontier ton recrossed the river a few miles above 

postst but were defeated in August, 17G3, Trenton on Dec. 25, with 2,400 men and 

by Colonel Bouquet, and their great chief, twenty pieces of artillery. Owing to the 

Teedyuscung, was killed. Their towns darkness and the floating ice it was 4 

were ravaged, and the Moravian converts, a.m. on the 26th before the entire force 

who were innocent, fled for refuge to had crossed. General Knox, the constant 

Philadelphia. These returned to the Sus- companion of Washington throughout the 
quehanna in 1764, and the Ohio portion war, had crossed the river before it became 
made peace at Muskingum the same choked with ice, and during the night 
year and at Fort Pitt in 1765. The that Washington and his party recrossed 
remainder in Pennsylvania emigrated to it, Knox stood on the opposite shore, and 

Ohio and in 1786 not a Delaware was indicated where a landing could be safely 

left 'east of the Alleghany Mountains, made. See Tkenton, Battle of. 

Moravian missionaries went with their Delfthaven, the port of Holland from 

flocks and the Christian Indians increased, which the Pilgrim fathers sailed m the 

The pagans kept upon the war-path until Speedwell, July 22, 1620, for Southamp- 

they were severely smitten in a drawn ton. They embarked on the Mayfloioer at 

tattle at Point Pleasant, in 1774. Plymouth. 

The Delawares joined the English when Delmar, Alexander, political 

the Revolutionary War broke out, but mist; born in New York, Aug. 9, 1S30; 

made peace with the Americans in 1778, edited Daihj American Ttmes ; Hunt s 

when a massacre of ninety of the Chris- Merchants' Magazine; Financial Chron- 

lian Indians in Ohio by the Americans iele, etc., and published Gold Money and 

aroused the fury of the tribe. Being Paper Money; Treatise on Taxation; The 

almost powerless, they fled to the Huron -National Banking System; History o) 

River and Canada. Under the provisions Money and the Monetary System, etc. 

III. — E 



De Long, George Washington, ex- port, Melville with his party started im- 

plorer; born in New York City, Aug. 22, mediately on a search for De Long and 

1844; graduated at the United States his companions, and on March 23, 1882, 

Naval Academy in 1865, and promoted found their remains, together with the 

ensign in 1866; master in 1868; lieuten- records of the expedition and De Long's 

ant in 1869; a^d lieutenant-commander, diary written up to Oct. 30 previous. The 

Nov. 1, 1879. He was with Capt. Daniel United States government had the remains 

L. Braine on the Juniata, when he was of De Long and his companions brought 

ordered, in 1873, to search for the miss- home and they were interred with appro- 

ing Arctic steamer Polaris and her crew, priate honors on Feb. 22, 1884. See The 

On July 8, 1879, he was given command of Voyage of the Jeannette, by Mrs. De 

the Jeannette, which had been fitted out Long; and In the Lena Delta, by George 

by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. {q. v.) , W. Melville. 

for a three years' exploration trip via Deming, William, gun-founder; born 
Bering Strait. By an act of Congress the in 1736; during the Revolution construct- 
vessel was placed under the authority of ed the first wrought-iron cannon ever made 
the government. After touching at Ouna- in America, one of which was captured 
laska, St. Michael's and St. Lawrence by the British at the battle of Brandy- 
Bay, the Jeannette sailed to Cape Serdze wine, and is kept as a curiosity at the 
Kamen, Siberia, in search of Professor Tower of London. He died in Mifflin, Pa., 
Nordenskjold, the Swedish explorer. Sail- Dec. 19, 1830. 

ing northward the vessel was caught in Democracy in New Netherland. 
the pack-ice, Sept. 5, 1879, off Herald Isl- Gov. William Kieft {q. v.) had resolved 
and, and, after drifting 600 miles to the to chasten the Raritan Indians for a grave 
northwest in a devious course, was crushed offence. He called upon the people to 
by the ice, June 13, 1881. Thus Lieuten- shoulder their muskets for a fight. They 
ant-Commander De Long and his crew knew his avarice and greed, and withal his 
were adrift in the Arctic Sea 150 miles cowardice, and boldly charged these things 
from the New Siberian Islands and more upon him. " It is all well for you," they 
than 300 miles from the nearest point of said, " who have not slept out of the fort 
the mainland of Asia. With his party he a single night since you came, to endanger 
started southward, and on July 28, 1881, our lives and our homes in undefended 
arrived at Bennett Island, and on Aug. 20 places," and they refused to obey. This 
at Thaddeus Island, from which place they attitude of the people transformed the 
travelled in boats. De Long, with four- governor. He invited (Aug. 23, 1641) the 
teen others out of his crew of thirty- heads of families of New Amsterdam to 
three, reached the main mouth of the meet him in consultation on public af- 
Lena River, Sept. 17, having travelled fairs. They assembled at the fort, and 
about 2,800 miles, and landing on the promptly chose twelve citizens to represent 
mainland about 500 miles from their ship. them. So appeared the first popular as- 
With his men he proceeded as fast as he sembly, and so was chosen the first rep- 
could until Oct. 9, when it became im- resentative congress in New Netherland. 
possible to travel farther owing to the It was a spontaneous outgrowth of the 
debility of the men. The party had sepa- innate spirit of democracy that animated 
rated into three branches, one command- the people. The twelve were the vigorous 
ed by De Long, the second by Lieutenant seeds of that representative democracy 
Chipp, and the third by Chief Engineer which bore fruit in all the colonies more 
George W. Melville {q. v.) . All of De than a century later. Again, when the 
Long's party, excepting two, perished; colony was threatened with destruction by 
Chipp's boat was lost in a gale, with the Indians, Kieft summoned the people 
eight men; but Melville, with nine others, into council (September, 1643), who 
succeeded in reaching a small village on chose eight men as the popular represen- 
the Lena. The two survivors of the De tatives to act with the governor in pub- 
Long party, who had been sent by that lie affairs. Again when Gov. Peter 
officer in search of relief, met the Melville Stxjyvesant {q. v.) found the finances of 
party on Oct. 29. On hearing their re- the colony of New Netherland in such a 



wretched condition that taxation was was to form and adopt a remonstrance 
necessary, he dared not tax the people against the tyrannous rule of the govern- 
without their consent, for fear of offend- or. It was drawn by Baxter, signed by 
ing the States-General, so he called a all the delegates present, and sent to the 
convention of citizens, and directed them governor, with a demand that he should 
to choose eighteen of their best men, of give a " categorical answer." In it the 
whom he might select nine as represen- grievances of the people were stated 
latives of the tax-payers, and who should under six heads. Stuyvesant met this 
form a co-ordinate branch of the local severe document with his usual pluck, 
government. He tried to hedge them He denied the right of some of the dele- 
around with restrictions, but the nine gates to seats in the convention. He de- 
proved to be more potent in promoting nounced the whole thing as the wicked 
popular liberty than had Kieft's twelve, work of Englishmen, and doubted whether 
They nourished the prolific seed of George Baxter knew what he was about, 
democracy, which burst into vigorous life He wanted to know whether there was 
in the time of Jacob {q. v.). no one among the Dutch in New Nether- 
Stuy\'esant tried to stifle its growth. The land " sagacious and expert enough to 
more it was opposed, the more vigorous draw up a remonstrance to the Director- 
it grew. General and his council," and severely 
Late in the autumn of 1G53 a conven- reprimanded the new city government of 
tion of nineteen delegates, who represented New Amsterdam (New York) for " seiz- 
eight villages or communities, assembled ing this dangerous opportunity for con- 
at the town-hall in New Amsterdam, os- spiring with the English [with whom 
tensibly to take measures to secure them- Holland was then at war], who were ever 
selves from the depredations of the bar- hatching mischief, but never performing 
barians around them and sea-rovers. The their promises, and who might to-morrow 
governor tried in vain to control their ally themselves with the North " — mean- 
action; they paid very little attention to ing Sweden and Denmark. The conven- 
his wishes or his commands. He stormed tion was not to be intimidated by bluster, 
and threatened, but prudently yielded to They informed Stuyvesant, by the mouth 
the demands of the people that he should of Beeckman, that unless he answered 
issue a call for another convention, and their complaints, they would appeal to 
give legal sanction for the election of dele- the States-General. At this the governor 
gates thereto. These met in New Am- took fire, and, seizing his cane, ordered 
sterdam on Dec. 10, 1653. Of the eight Beeckman to leave his presence. The 
districts represented, four were Dutch and plucky ambassador coolly folded his arms, 
four English. Of the nineteen delegates, and silently defied the magistrate, 
ten were of Dutch and nine were of Eng- When Stuyvesant's anger had abated, he 
lish nativity. This was the first really asked Beeckman's pardon for his rude- 
rcprcsentative assembly in the great State ness. He was not so complaisant with the 
of New York chosen by the people. The convention. He ordered them to dis- 
names of the delegates were as follows: perse on pain of his "high displeasure." 
From New Amsterdam, Van Hattera, The convention executed their threat by 
Kregier, and Van de Grist; from sending an advocate to Holland to lay 
Breucklen (Brooklyn), Lubbertsen, Van their grievances before the States-Gen- 
der Beeck, and Beeckman ; from Flushing, eral. 

Hicks and Flake; from Newtown, Coe and It has been observed how the first germ 

Hazard; from Heemstede (Hempstead), of democracy or republicanism appeared 

Washburn and Somers; from Amersfoort in New Amsterdam, and was checked in 

(Flatlands), Wolfertsen, Strycker, and its visible growth by the heel of power. 

Swartwout; from Midwont (Flatbush), It grew, nevertheless. It was stimulated 

Elbertsen and Spieer; and from Graves- by the kind acts of Gov. Thomas Dongan 

end, Baxter and Hubbard. Baxter was {q. v.) ; and when the English revolution 

at that time the English secretary of of 1688 had developed the strength of 

the colony, and he led the English the people's will, and their just aspira- 

delegates. The object of this convention tions were formulated in the Bill of 



Rights, it sprang up into a vigorous 
fruit-bearing plant. Its power was mani- 
fested in the choice and administration 
of Leisler as ruler until a royal governor 
was appointed, and his death caused the 
line of separation between democracy and 
aristocracy — republicanism and monarchy 
— " Leislerians " and " Anti-Leislerians " 
— to be distinctly drawn. During the 
exciting period of Leisler's rule, the 
aristocratic or royalist party were led by 
Nicholas Bayard (q. v.), a wealthy and 
influential citizen, who was warmly sec- 
onded by Robert Livingston {q. v.). 
These two men were chiefly instrumental 
in bringing Leisler to the scaffold and 
treating his family and friends in a 
shameful manner. This conduct was con- 
tinued until the Earl of Bellomont suc- 
ceeded Fletcher as governor, when the 
" Anti-Leislerians " were reduced to a 
minority, and kept quiet for a while. 
After the death of Bellomont (March 5, 
1701), John Nanfan, his lieutenant, ruled 
for a while. Nanfan favored the demo- 
cratic party. As soon as it was known 
that Lord Cornbury {q. v.), a thorough 
aristocrat and royalist, had been appointed 
governor. Bayard and his party heaped 
abuse not only upon the dead Bellomont, 
but upon Nanfan. The latter saw that 
Bayard was on the verge of a pit which 
he had digged himself, and he pushed him 

into it. Bayard had procured an act, in 
1691, aimed at Leisler and his supporters, 
providing that any person who should in 
any manner endeavor to disturb the gov- 
ernment of the colony should be deemed 
■'■ rebels and traitors unto their majesties," 
and should incur the pains and penalties 
of the laws of England for such offence. 
Bayard was arrested on a charge of 
treason, tried, convicted, and received the 
horrid sentence then imposed by the Eng- 
lish law upon traitors — to be hanged, quar- 
tered, etc. Bayard applied for a reprieve 
until his Majesty's pleasure should be 
known. It was granted, and in the mean 
time Cornbury arrived, when all was re- 
versed. Bayard was released and rein- 
stated. The democrats were placed under 
the lash of the aristocrats, which Bayard 
and Livingston used without mercy by the 
hand of the wretched ruler to whom they 
offered libations of flattery. The chief- 
justice who tried Bayard, and the advocate 
who opposed him, were compelled to fly to 
England. From that time onward there 
was a continuous conflict by the democ- 
racy of New York with the aristocracy 
as represented by the royal governors and 
their official parasites. It fought bravely, 
and won many victories, the greatest of 
which was in a fierce battle for the free- 
dom of the press, in the case of John 
Peter Zenger (g. v.). 


Democracy in the United States, 
Character of.*- — Prof. Woodrow Wilson 
of Princeton University (Professor of 
Jurisprudence and Politics), the well- 
known author, critic, and lecturer, writes 
as follows: 

Everything apprises us of the fact that 
we are not the same nation now that 
we were when the government was form- 
ed. In looking back to that time, the im- 
pression is inevitable that we started with 
sundry wrong ideas about ourselves. We 
deemed ourselves rank democrats, whereas 
we were in fact only progressive English- 
men. Turn the leaves of that sage man- 
ual of constitutional interpretation and 

* By courtesy of Messrs. Charles Scribner's 

advocacy, the Federalist, and note the 
perverse tendency of its writers to refer 
to Greece and Rome for precedents — that 
Greece and Rome which haunted all our 
earlier and even some of our more mature 
years. Recall, too, that familiar story of 
Daniel Webster which tells of his coming 
home exhausted from an interview with 
the first President-elect Harrison, whose 
Secretary of State he was to be, and ex- 
plaining that he had been obliged in the 
course of the conference, which concerned 
the inaugural address about to be deliver- 
ed, to kill nine Roman consuls whom it 
had been the intention of the good con- 
queror of Tippecanoe publicly to take into 
office with him. The truth is that we long 
imagined ourselves related in some un- 
explained way to all ancient republicans. 



Strangely enough, too, we at the same syniioathy also, though little justification, 

time accepted the quite incompatible for such as caught a generous elevation 

theory that we were related also to the of spirit from the speculative enthusiasm 

French philosophical radicals. We claim- of Rousseau. 

ed kinship with democrats everywhere — For us who stand in the dusty matter- 

with all democrats. We can now scarcely of-fact world of to-day, there is a touch 

realize the atmosphere of such thoughts, of pathos in recollections of the ardor for 

We are no longer wont to refer to the democratic liberty that filled the air 

ancients or to the French for sanction of of Europe and America a century ago 

what we do. We have had abundant ex- with such quickening influences. We 

perience of our own by which to reckon, may sometimes catch ourselves regretting 

" Hardly any fact in history," says Mr. that the inoculations of experience have 

Bagehot, writing about the middle of the closed our systems against the infections 

century, " is so incredible as that forty of hopeful revolution, 
and a few years ago England was ruled 

by Mr. Perceval. It seems almost the " S!,'f ,7,tf '* '° ^''^^ ^^"^l *° ^^ ^l!^^; 

■^ , . , J , X, T. , ^"t to ^^ young was very heaven ! O tlmef 

same as being ruled by the Record news- lu which the meagre, stale, forbidding 

paper." (Mr. Bagehot would now prob- ways 

ably say the Standard newspaper.) "He Sf custom law and statute took at once 

, , -, t ii: i,i ii, ^^^ attraction of a country in romance ! 

had the same poorness of thought, the ^hen Reason seemed the most to assert 

same petty conservatism, the same dark her rights. 

and narrow superstition." " The mere fact When most intent on making of herself 

of such a premier being endured shows A prime Enchantress, to assist the work 

, 1 1 i, , , j_- T ■ -^ 1 \\hich then was going forward in her 

how deeply the whole national spirit and name ! 

interest was absorbed in the contest with Not favored spots alone, but the whole 

Napoleon, how little we understood the r.,,®^',*:^' 

1 <r t 111 1 i -i. The beauty wore of promise, that which 

sort of man who should regulate its con- gg(^g , i ai, 

duct — 'in the crisis of Europe,' as Sydney (As at some moment might not be unfelt 

Smith said, ' he safely brought the cu- Among the bowers of paradise itself) 

rates' salaries improvement bill to a hear- '^''biown.'^.*^'"^ ''""^^ ^^""^^ ^^^^ ''"'^ ^"" 
ing'; and it still more shows the horror 

of all innovation which the recent events Such was the inspiration which not 
of French history had impressed on our Wordsworth alone, but Coleridge also, 
wealthy and comfortable classes. They and many another generous spirit whom 
were afraid of catching revolution, as old we love, caught in that day of hope, 
women of catching cold. Sir Archibald It is common to say, in explanation of 
Alison to this day holds that revolution our regret that the dawn and youth of 
is an infectious disease, beginning no one democracy's day are past, that our prin- 
knows how, and going on no one knows ciples are cooler now and more circum- 
where. There is but one rule of escape, spect, with the coolness and circum- 
explains the great historian: 'Stay still; spection of advanced years. It seems to 
don't move; do what you have been ac- some that our enthusiasms have become 
customed to do ; and consult your grand- tamer and more decorous because our 
mother on everything.' " sinews have hardened ; that as experience 
Almost equally incredible to us is the has grown idealism has declined. But to 
ardor of revolution that filled the world in speak thus is to speak with the old self- 
those first days of our national life — the deception as to the character of our 
fact that one of the rulers of the world's politics. If we are suflTering disappoint- 
mind in that generation was Rousseau, ment. it is the disappointment of an 
the apostle of all that is fanciful, unreal, awakening: we were dreaming. For we 
and misleading in politics. To be ruled never had any business hearkening to 
by him was like taking an account of life Rousseau or consorting with Europe in 
from Mr. Rider Haggard. And yet there revolutionary sentiment. The government 
is still much sympathy in this timid world which we founded one hundred years ago 
for the dull people who felt safe in the was no type of an experiment in ad- 
hands of Mr. Perceval, and, happily, much vanced democracy, as we allowed Europe 



and even ourselves to suppose; it was freedom of thought and the diffusion of 
simply an adaptation of English consti- enlightenment among the people. Steam 
tutional government. If we suffered Eu- and electricity have co-operated with sys- 
rope to study our institutions as instances tematic popular education to accomplish 
in point touching experimentation in this diffusion. The progress of popular 
politics, she was the more deceived. If education and the progress of democracy 
we began the first century of our national have been inseparable. The publication 
existence under a similar impression our- of their great encyclopaedia by Diderot 
selves, there is the greater reason why and his associates in France in the last 
we should start out upon a new century century, was the sure sign of the change 
of national life with more accurate con- that was setting in. Learning was turn- 
ceptions. ing its face away from the studious few 
To this end it is important that the towards the curious many. The intellect- 
following, among other things, should be ual movement of the modern time was 
kept prominently in mind: emerging from the narrow courses of 

1. That there are certain influences scholastic thought, and beginning to 
astir in this country which make for spread itself abroad over the extended, if 
democracy the world over, and that these shallow, levels of the common mind. The 
influences owe their origin in part to the serious forces of democracy will be found, 
radical thought of the last century; but upon analysis, to reside, not in the dis- 
that it was not such forces that made ua turbing doctrines of eloquent revolution- 
democratic, nor are we responsible for firy writers, not in the turbulent discon- 
them. tent of the pauperized and oppressed, so 

2. That, so far from owing our gov- much as in the educational forces of the 
ernments to these general influences, we last 150 years, which have elevated the 
began, not by carrying out any theory, masses in many countries to a plane of 

■ but by simply carrying out a history — understanding and of orderly, intelligent 

inventing nothing, only establishing a purpose more nearly on a level with the 

specialized species of English govern- average man of the classes that have 

ment; that we founded, not democracy, hitherto been permitted to govern. The 

but constitutional government in America, movements towards democracy which 

3. That the government which we thus have mastered all the other political ten- 
set up in a perfectly normal manner dencies of our day are not older than the 
has nevertheless changed greatly under niddle of the last century ; and that is just 
our hands, by reason both of growth and the age of the now ascendant movement 
of the operation of the general democratic towards systematic popular education, 
forces — the European, or rather world- Yet organized popular education is only 
wide, democratic forces of which I have one of the quickening influences that have 
spoken. been producing the general enlighten- 

4. That two things, the great size to ment which is everywhere becoming the 
which our governmental organism has promise of general liberty. Rather, it is 
attained, and, still more, this recent ex- only part of a great whole, vastly larger 
posure of its character and purposes to than itself. Schools are but separated 
the common democratic forces of the age seed-beds, in which the staple thoughts 
of steam and electricity, have created new of the steady and stay-at-home people are 
problems of organization, which it be- prepared and nursed. Not much of the 
hooves us to meet in the old spirit, but world, moreover, goes to school in the 
with new measures. school-house. But through the mighty 

influences of commerce and the press the 

I world itself has become a school. The 

First, then, for the forces which are air is alive with the multitudinous voices 

bringing in democratic temper and method of information. Steady trade-winds of 

the world over. It is matter of familiar intercommunication have sprung up which 

knowledge what these forces are, but it carry the seeds of education and enlight- 

will be profitable to our thought to pass enment, wheresoever planted, to every 

them once more in review. They are quarter of the globe. No scrap of new 



thought can escape being borne away without stirring from home, by merely 

from its place of birth by these all- spelling out the print that covers every 

absorbing currents. No idea can be kept piece of paper about him. If men are 

exclusively at home, but is taken up thrown, for any reason, into the swift 

by the trader, the reporter, the tra-weller, and easy currents of travel, they find 

the missionary, the explorer, and is given themselves brought daily face to face with 

to all the world in the newspapers, the persons native of every clime, with prao- 

novel, the memoir, the poem, the treatise, tices suggestive of whole histories, with 

till every community may know, not only a thousand things which challenge 

itself, but all the world as well, for the curiosity, inevitably provoking inquiries 

small price of learning to read and keep- such as enlarge knowledge of life and 

ing its ears open. All the world, so shake the mind imperatively loose from 

far as its news and its most insistent old preconceptions. 

thoughts are concerned, is fast being made These are the forces which have estab- 

every man's neighbor. lished the drift towards democracy. 

Carlyle unquestionably touched one of When all sources of information are 
the obvious truths concerning modern accessible to all men alike, when the 
democracy when he declared it to be the world's thought and the world's news are 
result of printing. In the newspaper scattered broadcast where the poorest 
press a whole population is made critic may find them, the non-democratic forms 
of all human affairs; democracy is "virtu- of government must find life a desperate 
ally extant," and " democracy virtually venture. Exclusive privilege needs pri- 
extant will insist on becoming palpably vacy, but cannot have it. King.inip of 
extant." Looked at in the large, the the elder patterns needs sanctity, but can 
newspaper press is a type of democracy, find it nowhere obtainable in a world of 
bringing all men without distinction un- news items and satisfied curiosity. Tire 
der comment made by any man without many will no longer receive submissively 
distinction; every topic is reduced to a the thought of a ruling few, but insist 
common standard of news; everything upon having opinions of their own. The 
is noted and argued about by everybody, reaches of public opinion have been in- 
Nothing could give surer promise of finitely extended; the number of voices 
popular power than the activity and that must be heeded in legislation and 
alertness of thought which are made in executive policy has been infinitely 
through such agencies to accompany the multiplied. Modern influences have in- 
training of the public schools. The ae- clined every man to clear his throat for 
tivity may often be misdirected or un- a word in the world's debates. They have 
wholesome, may sometimes be only fever- popularized everything they have touched. 
ish and mischievous, a grievous product In the newspapers, it is true, there is 
of narrow information and hasty con- very little concert between the writers; 
elusion ; but it is none the less a stirring little but piecemeal opinion is created by 
and potent activity. It at least marks their comment and argument; there is 
the initial stages of effective thought. It no common voice amid their counsellings. 
makes men conscious of the existence and But the aggregate voice thunders with 
interest of affairs lying outside the dull tremendous volume; and that aggregate 
round of their own daily lives. It gives voice is " public opinion." Popular edu- 
them nations, instead of neighborhoods, cation and cheap printing and travel 
to look upon and think about. They vastly thicken the ranks of thinkers every- 
catch glimpses of the international con- where that their influence is felt, and by 
nections of their trades, of the universal rousing the multitude to take knowledge 
application of law, of the endless variety of the affairs of government prepare the 
of life, of diversities of race, of a world time when the multitude will, so far as 
teeming with men like themselves, and possible, take charge of the affairs of 
yet full of strange customs, puzzled by government — the time when, to repeat 
dim omens, stained by crime, ringing with Carlyle's phrase, democracy will become 
voices familiar and unfamiliar. palpably extant. 

And all this a man can nowadays get But, mighty as such forces are, demo- 



cratic as they are, no one can fail to per- 
ceive that they are inadequate to produce 
of themselves such a government as ours. 
There is little in them of constructive 
efficacy. They could not of themselves 
build any government at all. They are 
critical, analytical, questioning, quizzing 
forces; not architectural, not powers that 
devise and build. The influences of pop- 
ular education, of the press, of travel, 
of commerce, of the innumerable agen- 
cies which nowadays send knowledge and 
thought in quick pulsations through every 
part and member of society, do not neces- 
sarily mould men for effective endeavor. 
They may only confuse and paralyze the 
mind with their myriad stinging lashes of 
excitement. They may only strengthen 
the impression that " the world's a stage," 
and that no one need do more than sit 
and look on through his ready glass, the 
newspaper. They overwhelm one with im- 
pressions, but do they give stalwartness 
to his manhood? Do they make his hand 
any steadier on the plough, or his pur- 
pose any clearer with reference to the 
duties of the moment? They stream light 
about him, it may be, but do they clear 
his vision? Is he better able to see be- 
cause they give him countless things to 
look at? Is he better able to judge be- 
cavise they fill him with a delusive sense 
of knowing everything? Activity of mind 
is not necessarily strength of mind. It 
may manifest itself in mere dumb show; 
it may run into jigs as well as into stren- 
uous work at noble tasks. A man's farm 
does not yield its fruits the more abun- 
dantly in their season because he reads 
the world's news in the papers. A mer- 
chant's shipments do not multiply because 
he studies history. Banking is none the 
less hazardous to the banker's capital and 
taxing to his powers because the best 
writing of the best essayists is to be 
bought cheap. 


Very diff"erent were the forces behind 
us. Nothing establishes the republican 
state save trained capacity for self-gov- 
ernment, practical aptitude for public af- 
fairs, habitual soberness and temperate- 
ness of united action. When we look 
back to the moderate sagacity and stead 
fast, self-contained habit in self-govern 

ment of the men to whom we owe the 
establishment of our institutions in the 
United States, we are at once made aware 
that there is no communion between their 
democracy and the radical thought and 
restless spirit called by that name in 
Europe. There is almost nothing in com- 
mon between popular outbreaks such as 
took place in France at her great Revolu- 
tion and the establishment of a government 
like our own. Our memories of the year 
1789 are as far as possible removed from 
the memories which Europe retains of 
that pregnant year. We manifested 100 
years ago what Europe lost, namely, self- 
command, self-possession. Democracy in 
Europe, outside of closeted Switzerland, 
has acted always in rebellion, as a de- 
structive force: it can scarcely be said 
to have had, even yet, any period of 
organic development. It has built such 
temporary governments as it has had op- 
portunity to erect on the old foundations 
and out of the discredited materials of 
centralized rule, elevating the people's 
representatives for a season to the throne, 
but securing almost as little as ever of 
that every-day local self-government which 
lies so near to the heart of liberty. Democ- 
racy in America, on the other hand, and 
in the English colonies has had, almost 
from the first, a truly organic growth. 
There was nothing revolutionary in its 
movements ; it had not to overthrow other 
polities; it had only to organize itself. 
It had not to create, but only to expand, 
self-government. It did not need to 
spread propaganda: it needed nothing but 
to methodize its ways of living. 

In brief, we were doing nothing essen- 
tially new a century ago. Our strength 
and our facility alike inhered in our tra- 
ditions; those traditions made our char- 
acter and shaped our institutions. Lib- 
erty is not something that can be created 
by a document ; neither is it something 
which, when created, can be laid away in 
a document, a completed work. It is an 
organic principle — a principle of life, re- 
newing and being renewed. Democratic 
institutions are never done ; they are like 
living tissue, always a-making. It is a 
strenuous thing, this of living the life of 
a free people; and our success in it de- 
pends upon training, not upon clever 



Our democracy, plainly, was not a body 
of doctrine; it was a stage of develop- 
ment. Our democratic state was not a 
piece of developed theory, but a piece of 
developed habit. It was not created by 
mere aspirations or by new faith ; it was 
built up by slow custom. Its process was 
experience, its basis old wont, its meaning 
national organic oneness and effective life. 
It came, like manhood, as the fruit of 
youth. An immature people could not have 
had it, and the maturity to which it 
was vouchsafed was the maturity of free- 
dom and self-control. Such government 
as ours is a form of conduct, and its only 
stable foundation is character. A par- 
ticular form of government may no more 
be adopted than a particular type of 
character may be adopted : both institu- 
tions and character must be developed 
by conscious effort and through trans- 
mitted aptitudes. 

Governments such as ours are founded 
upon discussion, and government by dis- 
cussion comes as late in political as scien- 
tific thought in intellectual development. 
It is a habit of state life created by long- 
established circumstance, and is possible 
for a nation only in the adult age of its 
political life. The people who success- 
fully maintain such a government must 
have gone through a period of political 
training which shall have prepared them 
by gradual steps of acquired privilege 
for assuming the entire control of their 
affairs. Long and slowly widening ex- 
perience in local self-direction must have 
prepared them for national self-direction. 
They must have acquired adult self-re- 
liance, self-knowledge, and self-control, 
adult soberness and deliberateness of 
judgment, adult sag&jcity in self-govern- 
ment, adult vigilance of thought and 
quickness of insight. When practised, not 
by small communities, but by wide na- 
tions, democracy, far from being a crude 
form of government, is possible only 
among peoples of the highest and steadi- 
est political habit. It is the heritage of 
races purged alike of hasty barbaric pas- 
sions and of patient servility to rulers, 
and schooled in temperate common counsel. 
It is an institution of political noonday, 
not of the half-light of political dawn. 
It can never be made to sit easily or safely 
on first generations, but strengthens 

through long heredity. It is poison to the 
infant, but tonic to the man. Monarchies 
may be made, but democracies must grow. 

It is a deeply significant fact, therefore, 
again and again to be called to mind, that 
only in the United States, in a few other 
governments begotten of the English race, 
and in Switzerland, where old Teutonic 
habit has had the same persistency as in 
England, have examples yet been furnish- 
ed of successful democracy of the modern 
type. England herself is close upon 
democracy. Her backwardness in entering 
upon its full practice is no less instruc- 
tive as to the conditions prerequisite to 
democracy than is the forwardness of her 
offspring. She sent out to all her colonies 
which escaped the luckless beginning of 
being made penal settlements, compara- 
tively small, homogeneous populations of 
pioneers, with strong instincts of self- 
government, and with no social materials 
out of which to build government other- 
wise than democratically. She, herself, 
meanwhile, retained masses of population 
never habituated to participation in gov- 
ernment, untaught in political principle 
either by the teachers of the hustings or of 
the school-house. She has had to approach 
democracy, therefore, by slow and cau- 
tious extensions of the franchise to those 
prepared for it ; while her better colonies, 
born into democracy, have had to receive 
all comers within their pale. She has 
been paring down exclusive privileges and 
levelling classes; the colonies have from 
the first been asylums of civil equality. 
They have assimilated new while she has 
prepared old populations. 

Erroneous as it is to represent govern- 
ment as only a commonplace sort of busi- 
ness, little elevated in method above mer- 
chandising, and to be regulated by count- 
ing-house principles, the favor easily won 
for such views among our own people is 
very significant. It means self-reliance in 
government. It gives voice to the emi- 
nently modern democratic feeling that 
government is no hidden cult, to be left 
to a few specially prepared individuals, 
but a common, every-day concern of life, 
even if the biggest such concern. It is 
this self-confidence, in many cases mis- 
taken, no doubt, which is gradually 
spreading among other peoples, less justi- 
fied in it than are our own. 



One cannot help marvelling that facts by neighbors, by peoples not only homo- 
so obvious as these should have escaped geneous, but characterized within by the 
the perception of some of the sagest existence among their members of a quick 
thinkers and most thorough historical sympathy and easy neighborly knowl- 
scholars of our day. Yet so it is. Sir edge of each other. Not foreseeing steam 
Henry Maine, even, the great interpreter and electricity or the diffusion of new3 
to Englishmen of the historical forces and knowledge which we have witnessed, 
operative in law and social institutions, our fathers were right in thinking it im- 
has utterly failed, in his plausible work possible for the government which they 
on Popular Government, to distinguish had founded to spread without strain or 
the democracy, or rather the popular break over the whole of the continent, 
government, of the English race, which Were not California now as near neighbor 
is bred by slow circumstance and founded to the Atlantic States as Massachusetts 
upon habit, from the democracy of other then was to New York, national self-gov- 
peoples, which is bred by discontent and ernment on our present scale would as- 
founded upon revolution. He has missed suredly hardly be possible, or conceivable 
that most obvious teaching of events, that even. Modern science, scarcely less than 
successful democracy diflfers from unsuc- our pliancy and steadiness in political 
cessful in being a product of history — ■ habit, may be said to have created the 
a product of forces not suddenly become United States of to-day. 
operative, but slowly working upon whole Upon some aspects of this growth it is 
peoples for generations together. The very pleasant to dwell, and very profit- 
level of democracy is the level of every- able. It is significant of a strength which 
day habit, the level of common national it is inspiring to contemplate. The ad- 
experiences, and lies far below the eleva- vantages of bigness accompanied by 
tions of ecstasy to which the revolutionist abounding life are many and invaluable, 
climbs. It is impossible among us to hatch in a 
JII corner any plot which will affect more 
than a corner. With life everywhere 

While there can be no doubt about the throughout the continent, it is impossi- 

derivation of our government from habit ble to seize illicit power over the whole 

rather than from doctrine, from English people by seizing any central offices. To 

experience rather than from European hold Washington would be as useless to 

thought; while it is evident that our in- a usurper as to hold Duluth. Self-gov- 

stitutions were originally but products of ernment cannot be usurped, 

a long, unbroken, unperverted constitu- A French writer has said that the au- 

tional history; and certain that we shall tocratic ascendency of Andrew Jackson 

preserve our institutions in their integrity illustrated anew the long - credited ten- 

and efficiency only so long as we keep dency of democracies to give themselves 

true in our practice to the traditions from over to one hero. The country is older 

which our first strength was derived, now than it was when Andrew Jackson 

there is, nevertheless, little doubt that delighted in his power, and few can be- 

the forces peculiar to the new civilization lieve that it would again approve or ap- 

of our day, and not only these, but also plaud childish arrogance and ignorant 

the restless forces of European democratic arbitrariness like his ; but even in his 

thought and anarchic turbulence brought case, striking and ominous as it was, it 

to us in such alarming volume by immi- must not be overlooked that he was suf- 

gration, have deeply affected and may fered only to strain the Constitution, not 

deeply modify the forms and habits of to break it. He held his office by order- 

our politics. ]y election; he exercised its functions 

All vital governments — and by vital within the letter of the law; he could 
governments I mean those which have silence not one word of hostile criticism; 
life in their outlyir* members as well and, his second term expired, he passed 
as life in their heads — all systems in into private life as harmlessly as did 
which self-government lives and retains James Monroe. A nation that can quiet- 
its self-possession, must be governments ly reabsorb a vast victorious army is no 



more safely free and healthy than is a 
nation that could reabsorb such a Presi- 
dent as Andrew Jackson, sending him 
into seclusion at the Hermitage to live 
without power, and die almost forgotten. 

A huge, stalwart body politic like 
ours, with quick life in every individual 
town and county, is apt, too, to have 
the strength of variety of judgment. 
Thoughts which in one quarter kindle en- 
thusiasm may in another meet coolness 
or arouse antagonism. Events which are 
fuel to the passions of one section may 
be but as a passing wind to another sec- 
tion. No single moment of indiscretion, 
surely, can easily betray the whole coun- 
try at once. There will be entire popula- 
tions still cool, self-possessed, unaffect- 
ed. Generous emotions sometimes sweep 
whole peoples, but, happily, evil passions, 
sinister views, base purposes, do not and 
cannot. Sedition cannot surge through 
the hearts of a wakeful nation as patriot- 
ism can. In such organisms poisons dif- 
fuse themselves slowly; only healthful 
life has unbroken course. The sweep of 
agitations set afoot for purposes unfamil- 
iar or uncongenial to the customary pop- 
ular thought is broken by a thousand ob- 
stacles. It may be easy to reawaken old 
enthusiasms, but it must be infinitely 
hard to create new ones, and impossible 
to surprise a whole people into unpre- 
meditated action. 

It is well to give full weight to these 
great advantages of our big and strenu- 
ous and yet familiar way of conducting 
affairs ; but it is imperative at the same 
time to make very plain the influences 
which are pointing towards changes in 
our politics — changes which threaten loss 
of organic wholeness and soundness. The 
union of strength with bigness depends 
upon the maintenance of character, and 
it is just the character of the nation 
which is being most deeply affected and 
modified by the enormous immigration 
which, year after year, pours into the 
country from Europe. Our own tem- 
perate blood, schooled to self-possession 
and to the measured conduct of self-gov- 
ernment, is receiving a constant infusion 
and yearly experiencing a partial corrup- 
tion of foreign blood. Our own equable 
habits have been crossed with the fever- 
ish humors of the restless Old World. 

We are unquestionably facing an ever-in- 
creasing difficulty of self-command with 
ever-deteriorating materials, possibly with 
degenerating fibre. We have so far suc- 
ceeded in retaining 

" Some sense of duty, something of a faith, 
Some reverence for the laws ourselves have 

Some patient force to change them when 

we will, 
Some civic manhood firm against the 

crowd ;" 

But we must reckon our power to con- 
tinue to do so with a people made up of 
" minds cast in every mould of race — 
minds inheriting every bias of environ- 
ment, warped by the diverse histories of 
a score of different nations, warmed or 
chilled, closed or expanded, by almost 
every climate on the globe." 

What was true of our early circum- 
stances is not true of our present. We 
are not now simply carrying out under 
normal conditions the principles and 
habits of English constitutional history. 
Our iasks of construction are not done. 
We have not simply to conduct, but also 
to preserve and freshly adjust our gov- 
ernment. Europe has sent her habits 
to us, and she has sent also her politi- 
cal philosophy, a philosophy which has 
never been purged by the cold bath of 
practical politics. The communion which 
we did not have at first with her heated 
and mistaken ambitions, with her radi- 
cal, speculative habit in politics, with her 
readiness to experiment in forms of gov- 
ernment, we may possibly have to enter 
into now that we are receiving her popu- 
lations. Not only printing and steam 
and electricity have gotten hold of us to 
expand our English civilization, but also 
those general, and yet to us alien, forces 
of democracy of which mention has al- 
ready been made; and these are apt to 
tell disastrously upon our Saxon habits in 

IV . 

It is thus that Ave are brought to our 
fourth and last point. We have noted 
( 1 ) the general forces of democracy which 
have been sapping old forms of govern- 
ment in all parts of the world; (2) the 
error of supposing ourselves indebted to 
those forces for the creation of our gov- 



ernment, or in any way connected with 
them in our origins; and (3) the effect 
they have nevertheless had upon us as 
parts of the general influences of the age, 
as well as by reason of our vast immigra- 
tion from Europe. What, now, are the 
new problems which have been prepared 
for our solution by reason of our growth 
and of the effects of immigration? They 
may require as much political capac- 
ity for their proper solution as any that 
confronted the architects of our govern- 

These problems are chiefly problems of 
organization and leadership. Were the 
nation homogeneous, were it composed 
simply of later generations of the same 
stock by which our institutions were 
planted, few adjustments of the old ma- 
chinery of our politics would, perhaps, 
be necessary to meet the exigencies of 
growth. But every added element of va- 
riety, particularly every added element 
of foreign variety, complicates even the 
simpler questions of politics. The dan- 
gers attending that variety which is hete- 
rogeneity in so vast an organism as ours 
are, of course, the dangers of disintegra- 
tion — nothing less; and it is unwise to 
think these dangers remote and merely 
contingent because they are not as yet 
very menacing. We are conscious of one- 
ness as a nation, of vitality, of strength, 
of progress ; but are we often conscious of 
common thought in the concrete things of 
national policy? Does not our legislation 
wear the features of a vast conglomerate? 
Are we conscious of any national leader- 
ship? Are we not, rather, dimly aware 
of being pulled in a score of directions 
by a score of crossing influences, a multi- 
tude of contending forces? 

This vast and miscellaneous democracy 
of ours must be led ; its giant faculties 
must oe schooled and directed. Leader- 
ship cannot belong to the multitude; 
masses of men cannot be self - directed, 
neither can groups of communities. We 
speak of the sovereignty of the people, 
but that sovereignty, we know very well, 
is of a peculiar sort ; quite unlike the 
sovereignty of a king or of a small, easily 
concerting group of confident men. It 
is judicial merely, not creative. It passes 
judgment or gives sanction, but it can- 
not direct or suggest. It furnishes stand- 

ards, not policies. Questions of govern- 
ment are infinitely complex questions, and 
no multitude can of themselves form clear- 
cut, comprehensive, consistent conclusions 
touching them. Yet without such conclu- 
sions, without single and prompt purposes, 
government cannot be carried on. Neither 
legislation nor administration can be done 
at the ballot-box. The people can only 
accept the governing act of representa- 
tives. But the size of the modern de- 
mocracy necessitates the exercise of per- 
suasive power by dominant minds in the 
shaping of popular judgments in a very 
different way from that in which it was 
exercised in former times. " It is said 
by eminent censors of the press," said Mr. 
Bright on one occasion in the House of 
Commons, " that this debate will yield 
abovit thirty hours of talk, and will end 
in no result. I have observed that all 
great questions in this country require 
thirty hours of talk many times repeat- 
ed before they are settled. There is much 
shower and much sunshine between the 
sowing of the seed and the reaping of the 
harvest, but the harvest is generally reap- 
ed after all." So it must be in all self- 
governing nations of to-day. They are 
not a single audience within soimd of an 
orator's voice, biit a thousand audiences. 
Their actions do not spring from a single 
thrill of feeling, but from slow conclu- 
sions following upon much talk. The talk 
must gradually percolate through the 
whole mass. It cannot be sent straight 
through them so that they are electrified 
as the pulse is stirred by the call of a 
trumpet. A score of platforms in every 
neighborhood must ring with the insistent 
voice of controversy; and for a few hun- 
dreds who hear what is said by the public 
speakers, many thousands must read of 
the matter in the newspapers, discuss it 
interjeetionally at the breakfast - table, 
desultorily in the street-cars, laconically 
on the streets, dogmatically at dinner; 
all this with a certain advantage, of 
course. Through so many stages of con- 
sideration passion cannot possibly hold 
out. It gets chilled by over-exposure. It 
finds the modern popular state organized 
for giving and hearing counsel in such a 
way that those who give it must be care- 
ful that it is such counsel as will wear 
well. Those who hear it handle and ex- 



amine it enough to test its wearing quali- 
ties to the utmost. All this, however, 
when looked at from another point of 
view, but illustrates an infinite difficulty 
of achieving energy and organization. 
There is a certain peril almost of disinte- 
gration attending such phenomena. 

Every one now knows familiarly enough 
bow we accomplished the wide aggre- 
gations of self-government characteristic 
of the modern time, bow we have articu- 
lated governments as vast and yet as 
whole as continents like our own. The 
instrumentality has been representation, 
of which the ancient world knew nothing, 
and lacking which it always lacked nation- 
al integration. Because of representation 
and the railroads to carry representatives 
to distant capitals, we have been able to 
rear colossal structures like the govern- 
ment of the United States as easily as the 
ancients gave political organization to a 
city; and our great building is as stout 
as was their little one. 

But not until recently have we been 
able to see the full effects of thus send- 
ing men to legislate for us at capitals dis- 
tant the breadth of a continent. It makes 
the leaders of our politics, many of them, 
mere names to our consciousness instead 
of real persons whom we have seen and 
heard, and whom we know. We have to 
accept rumors concerning them, we have 
to know them through the variously col- 
ored accounts of others ; we can seldom 
test our impressions of their sincerity by 
standing with them face to face. Here 
certainly the ancient pocket republics had 
much the advantage of us: in them citi- 
zens and leaders were always neighbors ; 
they stood constantly in each other's pres- 
ence. Every Athenian knew Themisto- 
cles's manner, and gait, and address, and 
felt directly the just influence of Aris- 
tides. No Athenian of a later period need- 
ed to be told of the vanities and fop- 
peries of Alcibiades, any more than the 
elder generation needed to have described 
to them the personality of Pericles. 

Our separation from our leaders is the 
greater peril, because democratic govern- 
ment more than any other needs organiza- 
tion in order to escape disintegration ; and 
it can have organization only by full 
knowle(}ge of its leaders and full confi- 
dence in them. Just because it is a vast 

body to be persuaded, it must know its 
persuaders; in order to be effective, it 
must always have choice of men who are 
impersonated policies. Just because none 
but the finest mental batteries, with pure 
metals and unadulterated acids, can send 
a current through so huge and yet so rare 
a medium as democratic opinion, it is the 
more necessary to look to the excellence 
of these instrumentalities. There is no per- 
manent place in democratic leadership 
except for him who " hath clean hands 
and a pure heart." If other men come 
temporarily into power among us, it is 
because we cut our leadership up into 
so many small parts, and do not subject 
any one man to the purifying influences 
of centred responsibility. Never before 
was consistent leadership so necessary; 
never before was it necessary to concert 
measures over areas so vast, to adjust 
laws to so many interests, to make a com- 
pact and intelligible unit out of so many 
fractions, to maintain a central and domi- 
nant force where there are so many 

It is a noteworthy fact that the admira- 
tion for our institutions which has during 
the past few years so suddenly grown to 
large proportions among publicists abroad 
is almost all of it directed to the restraints 
we have effected vipon the action of gov- 
ernment. Sir Henry Maine thought our 
federal Constitution an admirable reser- 
voir, in which the mighty waters of de- 
mocracy are held at rest, kept back from 
free destructive course. Lord Rosebery 
has wondering praise for the security of 
our Senate against usurpation of its func- 
tions by the House of Representatives. 
Mr. Goldwin Smith supposes the saving 
act of organization for a democracy to 
be the drafting and adoption of a written 
constitution. Thus it is always the static, 
never the dynamic, forces of our govern- 
ment which are praised. The greater part 
of our foreign admirers find our success 
to consist in the achievement of stable 
safeguards against hasty or retrogressive 
action; we are asked to believe that we 
have succeeded because we have taken Sir 
Archibald Alison's advice, and have resist- 
ed the infection of revolution by staying 
quite still. 

But, after all, progress is motion, gov- 
ernment is action. The waters of democ- 



racy are useless in their reservoirs unless We shall not again have a true national 
they may be used to drive the wheels of life until we compact it by such legisla- 
policy and administration. Though we tive leadership as other nations have. But 
be the most law-abiding and law-directed once thus compacted and embodied, our 
nation in the world, law has not yet nationality is sate. 

attained to such efficacy among us as to Democratic Clubs. The opposiHon 
frame, or adjust, or administer itself, party to Washington formed many clubs 
It may restrain, but it cannot lead us; or societies to express sympathy with 
and I believe that unless we concentrate France and the principles of the French 
legislative leadership— leadership, that is, Revolution in 1793 and 1794. They 
in progressive policy — unless we give leave passed out of existence about the end of 
to our* nationality and practice to it by the 18th century. See Genest, Edmox^, 
such concentration, we shall sooner or later Charles: Democratic Societies. 
suffer something like national paralysis in Democratic Party. For the origin and 
the face of emergencies. We have no one early development of the party, see the 
in Congress who stands for the nation, article Republican Party. Its mam 
Each man stands but for his part of the tenets were strict construction of the 
nation ; and so management and combina- Constitution and opposition to extension 
tion, which may be effected in the dark, of the federal powers. Jefferson, Madi- 
are given the place that should be held son, and Monroe were members of the then 
by centred and responsible leadership, dominant party, and under the last-named 
which would of necessity work in the President party lines for a short time 
focus of the national gaze. disappeared in the so-called " era of 

What is the valuable element in mon- good feeling." Soon afterwards the 
archy which causes men constantly to turn Democrats came under the leadership of 
to it as to an ideal form of government, Jackson, and were opposed to the Na- 
could it but be kept pure and wise? It tional Republicans and Whigs. Jackson's 
is its cohesion, its readiness and power to successor, Van Buren, was a Democrat. A 
act, its abounding loyalty to certain con- Whig interval (1841-45) ensued. Then 
Crete things, to certain visible persons, its followed the Democratic administration 
concerted organization, its perfect model of Polk, succeeded (1849-53) by another 
of progressive order. Democracy abounds Whig administration. Pierce and Bu- 
with vitality; but how shall it combine chanan were the last Presidents elected 
with its other elements of life and by the party for a long period. In the 
strength this power of the governments general confusion caused by the increas- 
that know their own minds and their own ing prominence of slavery the Democrats 
aims? We have not yet reached the age at first profited, while the Whigs disap- 
when government may be made imper- peared. In the Civil War many "war 
gonal. Democrats" acted temporarily with the 

The only way in which we can preserve Republicans. McClellan, though defeated, 
our nationality in its integrity and its received a large popular vote in 1864. 
old-time originative force in the face of Seymour in 1868, Greeley in 1872 were de- 
growth and imported change is by concen- feated. In 1876 the Democrats came near 
trating it; by putting leaders forward, success (see Electoral Commission; 
vested Avith abundant authority in the Hayes, Rutherford Burchard; Tilden, 
conception and execution of policy. There Samuel Jones). The House was now 
is plenty of the old vitality in our na- frequently Democratic, but the Presidency 
tional character to tell, if we will but was again taken by their competitors in 
give it leave. Give it leave, and it will 1880. In 1884 they succeeded in a close 
the more impress and mould those who campaign. The two wings of the party, 
come to us from abroad. I believe that revenue reform and protectionist, long re- 
we have not made enough of leadership. fused to work together. Under the leader- 
ship of Morrison, Carlisle, and Cleveland, 
" A people is but the attempt of many ^^^^j^ reform became the dominating issue. 

To rise to the completer life of one; -^ \. , , ■ -.^.r,,-. j^t. t-v j. • j 

And those who live as models for the mass Defeated m 1888, the Democrats _ gained 
Are singly of more Talue than they all." a sweeping victory in 1890, and in 1892 



regained control of all departments, only 
to lose all again in 189G, when the party 
allowed itself to be diverted from its orig- 
inal principles by the Populists and sil- 
ver men. In 1900 the same elements con- 
trolled it, with the addition of the Anti- 
Expansionists. In both 1896 and 1900 it 
lost its national ticket. See Bkyan, 
William Jennings. 

Democratic Societies. In imitation of 
the Jacobin clubs in Paris, members of 

tificate of every member, in which he was 
commended to the good offices of every 
similar society in the Union. The in- 
formed and thoughtful citizens saw scarce- 
ly any resemblance between French and 
American democracy. The former as- 
sumed the aspect of violence in every 
form, while the latter was calm, just, and 
peaceful. A pamphlet was published in 
1790 in which the difference is delineated 
by an engraving called The Contrast. It 


the Eepublican party, at about the time was soon after that these societies began 

when Genet arrived from France, formed to dwindle in numbers and soon disap- 

secret associations, which they called peared. 

" Democratic societies." Their ideas and The certificate of membership in these 

feelings were almost wholly French, and societies read as follows: "To all other 

a large proportion of their membership societies established on principles of 

consisted of French people. They were Liberty, 

disloyal to the government of the United Equality, 

States, and sought to control the politics Union, P a - 

of the Union. They seem to have been triotic Vir- 

inspired with the fanaticism which at that tue, and Per- 

time controlled France. They vigorously severance: We, 

denounced and opposed Washington's the members of 

proclamation of neutrality. The societies the Republican 

existed in various States, and first intro- Society of 

duced the word " Democrat " into Ameri- Baltimore, cer- 

can politics. Many of the Republican par- tify and declare 

ty would not adopt the word, preferring to all Repub- 

the old name, until the combined oppo- lican or Demo- 

sition became known as the Democratic cratic societies, 

Eepublican party. The Democratic so- and to all Re- seal. 

cieties flourished for a while with great publicans in- 

vigor. Their members were pledged to dividually, that citizen hath been 

secrecy. Each society had a distinct seal admitted, and now is a member of our 

of its own, which was attached to the cer- society, and that, from his known zeal 



to promote Republican principles and the full powers to settle and rule in a region 
rights of humanity, we have granted extending over six degrees of latitude, 
him this our certificate (which he has from Cape May to Quebec. The domain 
signed in the margin), and do recommend was named Cadie in the charter (see 
^ Acadia). Vested with the 

monopoly of the fur-trade in 
the region of the river and 
gulf of St. Lawrence, they at- 
tempted to make a settlement 
on the former. Making ar- 
rangements with Champlain 
as chief navigator, De Monts 
sailed from France in March, 
1604, with four ships, well 
manned, accompanied by his 
bosom friend, the Baron de 
Poutrincourt, and Pont- 
Greve as his lieutenants; and 
finding the St. Lawrence ice- 
bound, on his arrival early in 
April, he determined to make 
a settlement farther to the 
southward. The ships also 
bore a goodly company of 
Protestant and Eoman Cath- 
olic emigrants, with soldiers, 
artisans, and convicts. There 
were several Jesuits in the 
company. Passing around 
Cape Breton and the penin- 
sula of Nova Scotia into the 
Bay of Fundy, they anchored 
in a fine harbor on the north- 
ern shore of that peninsula 
early in May. Poutrincourt 
was charmed with the coun- 
try, ard was allowed to re- 
main with a part of the com- 
pany, while De Monts, with 
the remainder, seventy in 
number, went to Passama- 
qvioddy Bay, and on an isl- 
and near the mouth of the 
him to all Republicans, that they may re- St. Croix, built a fort, and there spent a 
ceive him with fraternity, which we offer terribly severe winter, that killed halt ot 
to all those who may come to us with them. , . t, +.•« 

similar credentials. In witness where- In the spring they returned to Poutrm- 
of etc. Alexander McKinn, president; court's settlement, which he had named 
George Sears, secretary." The seal of the Port Royal— now Annapolis, N. b^ Lariy 
Baltimore Society, which issued the the next autumn De Monts and Poutrm- 
above certificate, is composed of a figure court returned to France, leaving Cham- 
of Liberty, with pileus, Phrygian cap, and plain and Pont-Grev6 to make further ex- 
fasces, with the name of the society. plorations. There was a struggle for rule 
De Monts, Sieur (Pierre de Gast), and existence at Port Royal tor a lew 
was a wealthy Huguenot, who was com- years. Poutrincourt returned to France 
missioned viceroy of New France, with for recruits for his colony. Jesuit 




priests who accompanied him on his re- 
turn to Acadia (Nova Scotia) chximed 
the right to supreme rule by virtue of 
their holy office. Poutrincourt resisted 
their claim stoutly, saying, " It is my part 
to rule you on earth; it is your part to 
guide me to heaven." When he finally 
left Port Royal (1612) in charge of his 
son, the Jesuit priests made the same 
claim on the fiery young Poutrincourt, 
who threatened them with corporal pun- 
ishment, when they withdrew to Mount 
Desert Island and set up a cross in token 
of sovereignty. They were there in 10 13, 
when Samuel Argall, a freebooter of the 
seas, went, under the sanction of the gov- 
ernor of Virginia, to drive the French 
from Acadia as intruders on the soil of 
a powerful English company. The Jesuits 
at Mount Desert, it is said, thirsting for 
vengeance, piloted Argall to Port Royal. 
He plundered and burned the town, drove 
the inhabitants to the woods, and broke 
up the settlement. Unable to contend 
with the .English company, De Monts 
abandoned Acadia and proposed to plant 
a colony on the St. Lawrence River, under 
the direction of Champlain and Pont- 
Greve. But his monopoly was partially 
revoked in 1G08. Under the auspices of 
a company of merchants at Dieppe and 
St. Malo, settlements were begun at 
Quebec and Montreal. Soon afterwards 
the fortune of De Monts was so much re- 
duced that he could not pursue his scheme 
of colonization, and it was abandoned. 

Denison, Daniel, military officer; born 
in England in 1613; settled in New Eng- 
land about 1631 ; was commissioner to 
arrange the differences with D'Aulny, the 
French commander at Penobscot, in 1646 
and 1653; and later was major-general of 
the colonial forces for ten years. He was 
made commander-in-chief of the Massa- 
chusetts troops in 1675, but owing to ill- 
ness during that year was not able to 
lead his forces in the Indian War. He 
published Irenicon, or Salve for New Eng- 
land's Sore. He died in Ipswich, Mass., 
Sept. 20, 1682. 

Denison, Frederic, clergyman ; born in 
Stonington, Conn., Sept. 28, 1819; grad- 
uated at Brown College in 1847; or- 
dained to the Baptist ministry; chaplain 
of the 3d Rhode Island Heavy Artillery 
for three years in the Civil War. His pub- 
ni. — F 8 

lications include History of the 1st Rhode 
Island Cavalry; Westerly and Its Wit- 
nesses for 250 Years; History of the 3d 
Rhode TsJ-and Hexivy Artillery, etc. Tb 
died in Providence, R. I., Aug. 16, lOO^ 

Dennie, Joseph, journalist; born in 
Boston, Aug. 30, 1768; graduated at 
Harvard in 1790; became a lawyer; but 
abandoned his profession for the pursuit 
of literature. He contributed articles to 
various newspapers, while yet practising 
low, over the signature of " Farrago." In 
1795 he became connected with a Boston 
weekly newspaper called The Tablet. It 
survived only three months, when Dennie 
became the editor of the Farmer's Weekly 
Museum, at Walpole, N. H., which ac- 
quired an extensive circulation. To it he 
contributed a series of attractive essays 
under the title of The Lay Preacher. These 
gave their author a high reputation and 
were extensively copied into the news- 
papers of the country. He went to Phil- 
adelphia in 1799, where he was confiden- 
tial secretary to Timothy Pickering, then 
Secretary of State. In that place he re- 
mained for a few months, and after edit- 
ing for a short time the United States 
Gazette, he commenced, in conjunction 
with Asbury Dickens, the Portfolio, at 
first a weekly, but afterwards a monthly 
periodical, which acquired a high reputa- 
tion. In that publication he adopted the 
literary name of " Oliver Oldschool." The 
Portfolio became the recognized leader in 
periodical literature, and was enriched by 
the contributions of some of the foremost 
writers in the country. Mr. Dennie con- 
tinued his connection with it until his 
death, Jan. 7, 1812. 

Dennison, William ; war governor ; 
born in Cincinnati, O., Nov. 23, 1815; was 
educated at the Miami University, and 
graduated in 1835. Admitted to the bar 
in 1840, he became an eminent practi- 
tioner. In 1848-50 he was a member of 
the Ohio legislature; and he took an 
active part in financial and railroad mat- 
ters. Mr. Dennison was one of the 
founders of the Republican party in 1856. 
In 1860 he was chosen governor of Ohio, 
which office he held two years, during 
which time he performed most important 
official service in putting troops into the 
field for the Union army. From October, 
1864, to July, 1866, he was Postmaster- 



General, when he withdrew from the cab- 
inet of President Johnson. He died in 
Columbus, 0., June 15, 1882. 

De Nonville, Marquis, military officer ; 
after reaching the rank of colonel in the 
French army was appointed (1685) gov- 
ernor of Canada, with instructions to 
** humble the pride of the Iroquois," who 
were the friends of the English and had 
rejected overtures from the French. He 
took post at Fort Frontenac, on the site 
of Kingston, Canada, and there prepared 

ing from the west. Thence he pene- 
trated to Ontario county, where he was 
attacked by a party of Senecas in ambush, 
but he repulsed his assailants. The next 
day two old Seneca prisoners, after hav- 
ing been confessed by the Jesuit priests, 
were cooked and eaten by the savages and 
the French. Withdrawing to a point in 
Monroe county, De Nonville proceeded to 
take possession of the whole Seneca 
country (July, 1687) in the name of 
King Louis, with pompous ceremonies. 
After destroying all the stored corn (more 
than 1,000,000 bushels), the growing 
crops, cabins, and a vast number of swine 
belonging to the natives whose country 
he had invaded, De Nonville returned to 
Irondequoit Bay and thence to Montreal. 
An act of gross treachery committed by 
him before he undertook the expedition, 
in seizing deputies from those nations and 
sending them to France, gave the death- 
blow to Jesuit missions among the Five 
Nations. Lamberville, a faithful mis- 
sionary, barely escaped with his life, 
through the generosity of the Ononda- 

Dent, Frederick Tracy, military offi- 
cer; born in White Haven, Mo., Dec. 17, 
1820; graduated at the United States 

for an expedition against a portion of the Military Academy in 1843; served in the 

war with Mexico with marked distinction; 
and later was prominent in frontier duty. 
In 1863-64 he commanded a regiment in 
New York City to suppress riots; in the 
latter year he became a staff officer to 
General Grant; and in 1865 was command- 
ant of Richmond and of the garrison at 
Washington. After the war he received 
the brevets of brigadier-general in the 
regular and volunteer armies; retired in 
1883. He died in Denver, Col., Dec. 24, 

Dent, John Herbert, naval officer; 
born in Maryland in 1782; entered the 
navy in 1798; served on the frigate Con- 
stellation in 1799 when she captured the 
French vessels Insurgente and La Ven- 
geance. He had command of the Nautilus 
and Scourge in Preble's squadron during 
the war with Tripoli, and took part in 
the assault on the city of Tripoli in 
1804; and was promoted captain in 1811. 
He died in St. Bartholomew's parish, Md., 
July 31, 1823. 

Dentistry, Schools of. The develop- 

Five Nations. He declared to his 
sovereign that the Indians sustained 
themselves only by the aid of the English, 
who were " the chief promoters of the in- 
solence and arrogance of the Iroquois." 
He tried to indvice them to meet him in 
council, to seduce them from the influence 
of the English, and a few went to Fronte- 
nac; but when Dongan heard of the de- 
signs of the French he invited representa- 
tives of the Five Nations to a council in 
New York City. They came, and Dongan 
told them the King of England would be 
their " loving father," and conjured them 
not to listen to the persuasions of the 
French. Finally, in May, 1687, De Non- 
ville was joined by 800 French regulars 
from France, and soon afterwards he, 
assembling more than 2,000 French regu- 
lars, Canadians, and Indians, proceed- 
ed, at their head, to attack the Sene- 
cas. He coasted along the southern shores 
of Lake Ontario to Irondequoit Bay, in 
Monroe county, where he landed and was 
joined by some French and Indians com- 



ment of the science of dentistry in the 
United States is well attested by the num- 
ber of institutions giving instruction 
therein. For the most part these schools 
are departments of the universities and 
large colleges which are authorized to 
grant degrees and diplomas. At the end 
of the school year 1898 there were fifty 
such departments or schools, having 961 
professors and instructors, 6,774 students, 
and graduating classes aggregating 1,849 

students. In the ten years then ending 
tlie number of schools had exactly doubled, 
and the number of students showed an in- 
crease of 327 per cent. 

Denton, Daniel, author; in 1670 he 
published in London A Brief Description 
of New York, which in 1845 was repub- 
lished with notes in New York. It is be- 
lieved that this was the first printed Eng- 
lish history of New Yorlc and New Jer- 


Dependent Children, Care of. Henri- and the reduction to mechanical routine 
etta Christian Wright, an American lady of all the ordinary offices of life, the child 
who has taken an active interest in had become dulled in faculty, unthinking, 
philanthropic work, and has been specially and dependent. In the institution, he had 
interested in the condition of poor chil- been, during the formative period of his 
dren deprived of their natural protectors, life, a " number," and he " ate, drank, 
and whose education and training, there- studied, niarched, played and slept in 
fore, have to be assumed by the com- companies, platoons, and regiments." A 
munity, writes as follows: visitor to one institution found a class of 
boys between eleven and thirteen years of 

The history of the state care of children age who had never brushed their own hair, 

the world over has been that of the work- 
house or almshouse. In France, indeed, 
boarding-out seems to have been applied 
widely as early as 1450, when an ordi- 
nance was passed regulating the salaries 

the matron having found it easier to stand 
them in rows and perform this service for 
them than to teach each individual boy 
how to do it for himself. Hundreds of 
girls in their teens left the institution 

of the nurses and agents employed in car- yearly who had never made a fire, placed 

ing for pauper children in country homes, a tea-kettle to boil, or performed any of 

Fosterage existed even earlier in England, the minor household duties so necessary 

Avhere, in the reign of Edward III., an to their training as domestic servants. It 

act was passed forbidding English chil- was, in fact, discovered that the child, 

dren from being cared for by Irish foster who, at great expense to the state, had 

parents, as it had been found that such been fed and taught for a long period of 

care denationalized the children. Statis- years, was less capable of earning his 

tics attest the evils of the workhouse and living than the youth who had grown up 

the almshouse, where the children were *' half naked and half starved " in his 

herded with adult paupers, unfitting them parents' cottage in the peat bogs of Ire- 

for anything but lives of pauperism and land. 

lowest crime. The pauper child, helpless and hopeless. 

The efTorts of private individuals at last had made an appeal to nature, and nature 

rescued the workhouse waifs, and placed had avenged him. In place of the promise^ 

them in institutions set apart for the care of youth and the ideals which were to 

of children alone. Here the child was guarantee the security of the state, she 

made cleanly in habit, and amenable to returned, for value received, the institu- 

discipline, while ophthalmia, scrofula, and tionalized youth, a drag upon society, and, 

other diseases inherent in institution life in the end, an added burden to the tax- 

showed some signs of abatement. But 
when the child left the institution, it was 
found that he still lacked in the great es- 
sential to success — capacity. From the sys- 
tem of constant espionage and guidance, 

payer. Grave as were these defects, there 
was added the still graver one that in- 
stitutions increased juvenile pauperism. 
Wherever a new institution arose, there 
sprang up, as if from the ground, hun- 



dreds of applicants for admission. The sent themselves and their wards at the 
idle and vicious parents eagerly took ad- annual meetings of the society, the so- 
vantage of the means thus offered for the ciety paying the travelling expenses. It 
support of their children during the non- was found that the cost under the board- 
wage-earning period; and, with every ing-out system was one-third per capita 
new gift of a costly edifice, the state of that expended in institutions, while 
found itself putting a premium upon the the rate of mortality was under 1 per 
poverty it was vainly endeavoring to cent. In 1859, thirty-one years after the 
stamp out. establishment of the society, the death 

In the mean time a remedy for the evil rate of the children in a single work- 
had already arisen. In 1828, an educa- house in Cork was 80 per cent, in one 
tion inquiry commission, reporting upon year, while nearly all the survivors were 
the condition of the Protestant charter aifiicted with scrofula. These horrors 
schools of Ireland, found so discredit- were exceeded by the revelations of the 
able a state of things that the schools Dublin workhouse, which so excited popu- 
were abolished, no provision being made, lar indignation that an act was passed 
meanwhile, for the orphans of that faith, in 1862 authorizing the boarding-out of 
Not long afterwards, three Protestant workhouse children. 

Irish workingmen, considering it their That the problem of the state care of 

duty to care for the children of a com- children was solved by the incorporation 

rade who had just died, started a sub- of the Protestant Orphan Society of Ire- 

scription of a penny a week, and, with land is proved by the subsequent history 

the sum of threepence as capital, founded of dependent child-life in nearly every 

a refuge for the children among some re- civilized quarter of the globe. In places 

spectable laboring people of their own widely separated by geographical limits, 

faith. as well as by the differences of race and 

On the ruins of the charter schools creed, the state care of children is evolv- 
arose, from the act of these workingmen, ing from institutionalism to the natural 
the Protestant Orphan Society of Ireland, conditions of home life. England, Ire- 
which has been the parent of the modern land, Russia, Italy, Scotland, Germany, 
system of boarding - out the dependent Switzerland, and other European coun- 
children of the state. The methods of tries have their several modifications of 
this society have been sustained, in the the boarding-out system, attributable to 
main, by succeeding organizations. The the varying conditions of social life, but 
orphans were placed, as far as possible, conforming in the main to the leading 
in the families of small farmers, or features of the original plan. And al- 
laborers, whose station in life corre- though no one of these countries is yet 
sponded to their own. In every case, the freed entirely from the bane of institu- 
children were given into the charge of tionalism, yet year by year fosterage 
the mother of the family, who was made is becoming more popular, as its benefi- 
directly responsible for their care. A cent effects become more and more widely 
certificate of character was required from known. In Belgium, so thoroughly rec- 
the parish priest and the nearest magis- ognized is the value of home training 
trate, attesting to her " morality and for future citizens, that all boys under 
sobriety, to the suitability of her house the care of the state are boarded out. 
and family, and the possession of one or though the girls are in many cases still 
more cows," while it was also stipulated retained in institutions. In some of the 
that she receive no children from the departments of France, the system of 
foundling hospital or any other chari- fosterage has arrived at the precision 
table institution. The homes were visited of a military organization. Here the 
by inspectors, whose reports contained child, who would otherwise be placed 
the history of every child while u/ider the in a foundling or orphan asylum, is en- 
care of the society. The Protestant rolled at birth as an enfant de la patrie, 
clergyman of each district was also a and, whenever possible, is placed at once 
regular correspondent of the society, and in a foster-home in the country. There 
the foster-mothers were required to pre- his physical and moral welfare and his 



odiication are watched over by the agent 
de surveillance, in whose quarterly reports 
is recorded the history of the child until 
his twelfth year. He is then eligible for 
apprenticeship, and he receives from the 
state a certain sum of money for an out- 
fit. But, in nearly all cases, the affec- 
tion between the' child and its foster- 
parents has become by this time so strong 
that he is either adopted legally or re- 
tained in the family as an apprentice, 
the money that he earns being placed in 
the savings-bank, in order that he may 
liave a little capital to begin the world 
with on reaching his majority. 

Australia has, perhaps, the most perfect 
system of boarding-out yet evolved. As 
early as 1852 the first legislature of 
South Australia decreed that no public 
money should be given to denominational 
schools, whether educational or charitable. 
Twenty-five years ago the state began 
boarding-out its dependent children; the 
saving to the government, as well as the 
rapid decrease in the juvenile pauper class, 
at once made the new departure accept- 
able, though the law compelling children 
to attend school throughout tlie entire 
year increased the expense of fosterage in 
Australia beyond that in European coun- 

The American poorhouse, from the first 
fell into line with the English workhouse 
in its influence as a breeder of crime and 
pauperism. The poorhouse child came 
either from the directly vicious class, or 
from those " waterlogged " families with 
whom pauperism was hereditary, and, as a 
rule, he left his early home but to return 
to it in later life. The enactment of each 
new law to mitigate the evils of the alms- 
house only made the idle and vicious 
parent more eager to accept the advan- 
tages thus offered to his offspring, and 
pauperism increased out of all proportion 
to the growth of the country. 

Outside the almshouse there was a con- 
dition even worse. All over the country, 
and especially in cities, there arose a class 
of children who anticipated in character 
the adult tramp of to-day. These were 
in many cases runaways, to whom the 
restraints of the almshouse were irksome, 
and they also formed the larger propor- 
tion of juvenile criminals. Tn 1848 there 
were, in New York City alone, 30,000 such 

waifs, known as " street children," who 
had no homes, who begged and stole their 
food, who slept in the streets, assisted 
professional criminals in their nefarious 
practices, and in time were graduated into 
the ranks of the adult criminal. This 
menace to society, undreamed of by the 
more orderly class, was made officially 
public by the report of the superintendent 
of police, and out of the exigency arose, in 
1853, the New York Children's Aid So- 
ciety, whose president, Charles Loring 
Brace, grasped with the intuition of genius 
the true solution of the problem of child- 
saving. When Mr. Brace asked the chief 
of police to confer with him in regard to 
means for saving these children, the chief 
replied that the attempt would be use- 
less. Nevertheless Mr. Brace began his 
work ; and, knowing that this wreckage 
of civilization could be saved only by a 
return to nature, he at once began 
placing the wards of the society in 
homes in the East and West. In 
1854 the first company of forty-six 
children left the office of the society, 
the greater number to find homes in 
Michigan and Iowa. Within the sec- 
ond year the society had placed nearly 
800 children in homes in the Eastern and 
Western States. The society has contin- 
ued its work on the same lines, and 
through its efforts thousands of men and 
women have been saved from lives of 
pauperism and crime. The reports of the 
society, which has always kept in touch 
with its wards, show how fully the faith 
of its founders has been justified, and how 
they builded even better than they knew. 
From out this army of waifs, rescued from 
the gutter and the prison, there have 
come the editor, the judge, the bank presi- 
dent, the governor, while thousands of 
simpler careers attest the beneficence of 
this noble charity. There is small reason 
to doubt that, if the guardianship of the 
entire dependent children of the State had 
been given over to the Children's Aid So- 
ciety, the question of juvenile pauperism 
and crime would long since have been 
solved. But this was not to be, and alms- 
houses and institutions still retained the 
greater number of children committed to 
their care. The evil was greatly aug- 
mented by the passage of the now cele- 
brated " children's law " in 1875, which 



contained a clause providing that all chil- before the passage of the " children's 
dren committed to institutions should be law," showed that only 8 per cent, of the 
placed in those controlled by persons of total had been in institutions over five 
the same religious faith as the parents of years. An equally striking fact is that, 
the children. Mrs. Charles Russell Low- since the passage of the " children's 
ell says: "The direct effect of this pro- law," the number of children placed in 
vision is found in the establishment of families by institutions has greatly de- 
nine Roman Catholic and two Hebrew in- creased. In 1875, out of 14,773 children 
stitutions to receive committed children, in institutions, there were 823 placed in 
all except three having between 300 and families. In 1884, out of 33,558 children 
1,300 inmates each." in institutions, there were only 1,370 

Within twenty years after this law placed in families. While the population 
passed the number of inmates in the of the State of New York increased but 
twenty-seven institutions benefited direct- 38 per cent, during the first seventeen 
ly by it increased from 9,000 to 16,000. years after the passage of the law, the 
In 1889, of the 20,384 children cared for number of children in institutions in- 
in the city institutions, only 1,776 were creased 96 per cent. 

orphans and 4,987 half-orphans. The re- In New York City a report of 1894 
maining 13,621 had been committed by shows the distribution of its 15,331 de- 
magistrates, many on the request of par- pendent children as follows: 1,975 in 
ents, or had been brought by parents Hebrew institutions, 2,789 in Protestant 
voluntarily to the institution. In Kings institutions, 10,567 in Roman Catholic 
county alone, five years after the passage institutions. This did not include the 
of the " children's law," the number of blind, deaf, feeble-minded, and delinquent 
dependent children increased from 300 to children who are cared for in special in- 
1,479, most of the commitments being stitutions. 

made by parents anxious to be relieved As opposed to its institutions, the State 
of the care of their children until the has, in several of its counties, adopted to 
wage-earning period was reached. An- some degree the more natural method of 
other objectionable feature arose from the child-saving,with marked results. Alarmed 
greater length of time that children have at the increasing expense of its juvenile 
been retained in institutions since the institutions, Erie county in 1879 began 
passage of the law. With a direct per to take measures for boarding-out its de- 
capita income from the State, the institu- pendent children, and through the me- 
tions have not been able to withstand the diumship of the newspapers the agent 
temptation to keep their charges as long placed the needs of the county before the 
as possible. The reports of the comp- people. He also interested clergymen and 
troller's office for October, 1894, showed editors in the project. Advertising cards, 
that 1,935 children in institutions had with pictures of the children, were sent 
been inmates over five years; fifty-five of out, and this vigorous canvass resulted in 
these were in Protestant institutions, 268 speedy applications for the children, who 
in Hebrew institutions, and 1,612 in Roman were sent to good country homes by the 
Catholic institutions. The same year show- score. The agent always impressed upon 
ed an average of 567 children in institu- the foster-parents the fact that the child 
tions between thirteen and fourteen years was still the ward of the county, which 
of age, 444 between fourteen and fifteen, expected them to co-operate with it in 
and 247 between fifteen and sixteen years training him to a life of usefulness. The 
of age. One institution in 1892 had wards chief opposition came from the institu- 
twenty-two years old, and was " caring tions, which in many cases refused to let 
for " 129 youths over seventeen years of the children go. But the board of super- 
age. In 1894 it was found that 23 per visors met this obstacle by reducing the 
cent, of the dependent children of New per capita price of board, and by passing 
York City had been in institutions at pub- a resolution declaring that, if any child 
lie cost over periods ranging from five was refused to the county's agent, the 
to fourteen years. A report of the State superintendent of the poor would at once 
board of charities for 1873, three years stop payment for his board. This opened 



the doors of the institutions, and Erie as fast as the general population. When 

county, which in 1879 was paying $48,000 
yearly for the support of its dependent 
children, had by 1892 decreased its ex- 
penses two-thirds, though the population 
had increased one-third. Monroe, West- 
chester, and Orange counties also placed 
out their children to some extent. 

When the revised constitution went into 
ofTect there were 15,000 children, or more, 
in institutions in New York City, costing 
the city over $1,500,000 yearly. The in- 

New York City had a population of 
1,750,000, it supported over 15,000 chil- 
dren in institutions, or one dependent child 
to every 117 of population. The number of 
dependent children in Philadelphia in 
1894 was one to every 1,979 of its popula- 
tion. This difference arises from the fact 
tliat Philadelphia had ceased to be an 
institutionalized city, and boarded or 
placed out nearly all its dependent chil- 
dren, the Philadelphia Children's Aid So- 

stitutions througliout the State received ciety being the agent employed. Nearly 
about $2,500,000 yearly for the support of every county poor-board also takes advan- 
their charges. The revised constitution tage of its aid to place its dependent 
gave the State board of charities juris- children, as far as possible, in its care, 
diction over all the charities in the State, During the thirteen years of its exist- 
whether public or private, and a law was ence the Children's Aid Society had re- 
enacted by the legislature putting the ceived about 6,004 children from the vari- 
placing-out of children into the hands of ous almshouses, poor-boards, and courts, 
this board. Under this law, during the and placed them in homes in the country, 
years 1896 and 1897, 1,500 children were It has the names of over 700 families 

placed in homes in the rural communities. 
The number of children in institutions 
was further decreased by the action of the 
State Charities Aid Association in ap- 
pointing examiners to investigate the 

whose respectability and fitness are 
vouched for, the society's agents having 
visited and ascertained by personal in- 
vestigation their status in the commu- 
nity. Most of these families are at a dis- 

status of the children already in institu- tance of at least 100 miles from any large 
tions, or for whom application had been city, it being deemed best, in case of de- 
made. The official report of the examin- linquent children especially, to bring 
ers for 1896 and 1897 shows that, out of them up amid strictly rural surroundings. 
26,561 investigations, 7,303 cases were dis- The attitude of the society towards its 

approved, though the children in many 
cases had been in the institutions for 

Boys of twelve, thirteen, fifteen, six- 
teen, and seventeen years of age were 
found, whose families were amply able 
to provide for them, but who had been 
supported by the State for periods rang- 
ing from six to nine years. One girl of 
sixteen was found who had spent twelve 
years of her life in institutions, being left 
at the critical age without home ties or 
interests, and with an utter lack of train- 
ing in ordinary domestic affairs. The 
monthly reports from the comptroller's 
office show a pecuniary saving from the 
decrease of dependent children, while the 
moral gains through the return of these 
children to the normal ways of life is, 
of course, incalculable. Hitherto the 

charges is that " its duty to the child is 
not one of mere support, but one of 
preparation for life," and that the sole 
question arising in the mind of the ob- 
server of city-institution life should be, 
" Is the precise thing which I am looking 
at the very best thing that can be pro- 
vided, in order that the child may have 
the same reliance which makes the coun- 
try boy, on the whole, the best wage- 
earner that the city ever sees?" 

The society possesses thousands of rec- 
ords attesting the happiness and well- 
being of its wards, and the imwritten 
records obtained through personal visits 
from its agents are more satisfactory 
still. The agent finds the little sickly 
two-year-old, whom she left a few months 
before hardly expecting to see it alive 
again, well nourished and radiant with 

State of New Y^ork has paid two-fifths of returning vitality, surrounded by toys, 
all the money spent in the United States dressed in clean clothing, the care and 
for the care of dependent children, while the pet of the whole family. One baby, 
child pauperism has increased three times left at the age of eleven months unable 



to hold up its head or sit alone, had been 
restored to perfect health. The foster- 
mother here had expressed a preference 
for a " real smart baby," one that she 
could show off to her neighbors. But, as 
she bent over this tiny sufferer, his little, 
thin face made its undeniable appeal, and 
she said, as she cried over him, that 
'•' somebody vi^ould have to keep him, and 
she calculated she could do it as well 
as any one else." The agent carries away 
innumerable mental pictures of these 
little waifs who have found home and 
health in the beautiful hill country of 
Pennsylvania. She sees the children on 
the benches of the village school, or shar- 
ing the innocent pleasures of childhood in 
wood and meadow. She finds them in the 
barn or field with the foster-father, pick- 
ing up useful knowledge, learning ways 
of industry and honest living, and, above 
all, sharing the interest of the family as 
if he were to the manor born. Very 
often these boarded-out children step 
into a place left vacant by death, and 
often they bring to a childless home the 
first knowledge of the privileges and bless- 
ings that come with children. The so- 
ciety has innumerable photographs show- 
ing the children in their comfortable 
homes, studying in the cosey sitting- 
rooms, playing games with the farmer's 
older boys, or with the farmer himself, 
and sharing, in fact, in all the simple and 
sv;eet scenes of family life. 

A most careful method of supervision 
is enforced by the society, not only 
through frequent visits of its agents, but 
through numerous reports made by the 
physicians, school - teachers, and other 
reliable and interested persons. Ques- 
tion blanks are sent for these reports, 
which are filed and make a full record of 
the child's history while under the care 
of the society. As far as possible, the 
children are boarded in families of the 
same religion as that of their parents. 
In order not to create a class distinction, 
the society does not allow the boarded-out 
children of a village or farming district 
ever to exceed 2 or 3 per cent, of the 
child population. 

Massachusetts, with a population to 
the square mile exceeding that of New 
York, and in which the artificial condi- 
tions of living are practically the same. 

has no dependent children, technically 
speaking, in institutions supported by tht 
State. Largely affected by the problem 
of immigration, and under the strain pro- 
duced by great centres of population en- 
gaged in mill and factory work, and so 
removed from the more healthful in- 
fluences of smaller village and country 
life, this State has yet so successfully 
solved the problem of juvenile pauperism 
that, out of a population of 2,500,000, it 
has only 2,852 wards to support. The 
State has a nursery at Roxbury, where 
destitute infants are cared for while re- 
quiring medical or surgical treatment, 
and where children boarded out are 
brought for treatment when necessary. 
The nursery is a temporary home only in 
the strictest sense of the word, boarding- 
out being the end in view. There is also 
a temporary boarding-place at Arlington, 
and a home for wayward boys. The 
State has two industrial schools, the Ly- 
man School for Boys, and the State In- 
dustrial School for Girls. There are 
also two reform schools. With these 
exceptions, the dependent children of 
Massachusetts are placed or boarded 

In 1889 California paid $231,215 for 
the support of 36,000 children in 
asylums, while Michigan, with double the 
population of California, paid only $35,- 
000 for the support of 230 children. In 
1893, California, still working under the 
old system, paid $250,000 for the support 
of 40,000 children in institutions, while 
Minnesota, with a population about equal 
to California, supported only 169 depend- 
ent children in its State public schools, 
the remainder being placed or boarded 

There are, in all, perhaps eight or nine 
States in the Union in which boarding- 
out and placing-out are carried on in 
greater or less degree, these systems af- 
fecting about three-tenths of the depend- 
ent children in the country. The remain- 
ing seven-tenths, numbering more than 
70,000, are still in institvitions. 

The United States is an institutional- 
ized land, and the great republic, which 
boasts of freedom and equality, still re- 
gards her dependent children as aliens 
and brands them with the stigma ot 



The evolutionist sees the earliest mani- posited in the letter-boxes were delivered? 

festation of altruism in that primary in- 
stinct, found even in the lowest forms 
of plant life, to protect the young in 
the seed and bud — the instinct of mother- 
hood. Upon this eternal principle of life 
the problem of child-saving must rest. 
There is no one so morally fit to rear an 
unfortunate child as the mother of a re- 
spectable family, whose experience with 
her own brood has taught her the needs 
and demands of childhood. Nowhere else 
is so abundantly manifested that trust in 
the " larger hope," as in the patience that 
waits upon motherhood. To this patience 
and this hope the State may well com- 
mit the welfare of its most unfortunate 
class. For, although the institution life 
of to-day is not accompanied by all the 
horrors that once disfigured it, yet sore 
eyes, diseased bodies, and a high death 
rate still prevail. According to the official 
report of 1897 the death rate at the In- 
fants' Asylum on Randall's Island was, 
for foundlings, 80 per cent.; for other 
children without their mothers, 59 per 
cent.; children with their mothers, 13 per 
cent. Out of 366 children under six 
months of age, admitted without their 
mothers in 1896, only twelve lived, the 
remainder dying between five and six 
weeks after admission to the asylum. In- 
stitutionalism is an artificial system, with 
the stigma of failure attaching to it, in- 
asmuch as its presence always indicates 
an increase of the very evil it was origi- 
nally meant to combat. Without admit- 
ting as truth the statement, made by some 
experts, that all institution-bred children 
turn out either knaves or fools, sufficient 
testimony may be found to force home 
the startling argument that, of the 100,- 
000 children cared for by the State to- 
day, there is grave danger that the seven- 
tenths who are in institutions will carry 
through life the brand of a system which 
has handicapped them in the race for 

Mr. Homer Folks, secretary of the State 
Charities Aid Association of New York, 
in speaking of child-saving, says: "Would 
the directors of a bank be satisfied with 
knowing that most of its funds were not 
stolen? Would the working of the pos- 
tal department be considered satisfactory 
if simply a majority of the letters de- 

Would the community rest contented iii 
the satisfaction that a large majority of 
its citizens were not unjustly thrown into 
prison? Would a father be satisfied to 
know that five of his six children were 
not actually suffering from hunger and 
cold?" And this is the principle upon 
which child-savers must act. The insti- 
tution may save the child up to a certain 
point. But we want him saved for all 
time. Only the abandonment of the cost- 
ly institutions — the expensive buildings 
might with profit in New York City be 
turned into public schools — and an ac- 
ceptance of the method which experience 
has so far shown to be the best, can solve 
the question of pauperism in the United 
States with success. 

The boarding-out system is another ex- 
ample of the truth of the adage that 
" mercy is twice blessed." The love and 
care of the foster-parents are in large 
measure repaid by their charges, who yield 
them in old age that affectionate pro- 
tection which is the privilege of children. 
\Vnien at service, they save their wages 
and deny themselves little luxuries, that 
they may help their foster-parents. They 
come back to their former homes to be 
married; and, in case of a family, if 
either parent dies, the survivor brings the 
children to the foster-mother to be cared 
for. Joy and sorrow are shared together, 
and, when attacked by fatal sickness, it 
is to the foster-home that the child re- 
turns to die. 

Nature, the wise teacher, has sealed her 
approval of fosterage by forging that 
mysterious tie which binds parent and 
child, which no absence may sunder and 
v/hich remains unbroken even in death. 
Boarding-out has paid in every sense. Out 
of the class in which pauperism was 
hereditary — sometimes three or four gen- 
erations of the same family being paupers 
— it has created a respectable working 
class, at a cost in dollars and cents far be- 
low the cost of institution life. Over the 
neglected and despised pauper child it has 
extended the a^gis of the State, making 
the least of these little ones understand 
that, though deprived of love and home by 
fate, he has still a mother-land whose care 
will guard him lovingly and whose honol 
must be his sacred ideal. 



Depew, tiiAUNCEY Mitchell, capital- the following oration at the centennial of 

ist; born in Peekskill, N. Y., April 23, Washington's inauguration as first Presi- 

1834; graduated at Yale University in dent of the United States, in New York 

1856; studied law and was admitted to City: 
the bar in 1858; member of New York 

Assembly in 1861-62; secretary of state We celebrate to-day the centenary of 

of New York in 1863. He became attorney our nationality. One hundred years ago 

for the New York and Harlem River Rail- 
road in 1866, and for the New York Cen- 

the United States began their existence. 
The powers of government were assumed 
by the people of the republic, and they 
became the sole source of authority. The 
solemn ceremonial of the first inaugura- 
tion, the reverent oath of Washington, the 
acclaim of the multitude greeting their 
President, marked the most unique event 
of modern times in the development of free 
institutions. The occasion was not an 
accident, but a result. It was the culmina- 
tion of the working out by mighty forces 
through many centuries of the problem of 
self-government. It was not the triumph 
of a system, the application of a theory, 
or the reduction to practice of the ab- 
stractions of philosophy. The time, the 
country, the heredity and environment of 
the people, the folly of its enemies, and 
the noble courage of its friends, gave to 
liberty, after ages of defeat, of trial, of 
experiment, of partial success and sub- 
stantial gains, this immortal victory. 
Henceforth it had a refuge and recruiting 
station. The oppressed found free homes 
in this favored land, and invisible armies 
marched from it by mail and telegraph, 
tral and Hudson River Railroad in 1869. by speech and song, by precept and ex- 
He was second vice-president of the last ample, to regenerate the world, 
mentioned road in 1885-98, and also presi- Puritans in New England, Dutchmen in 
dent of the West Shore Railroad until New York, Catholics in Maryland, Hugue- 
1898, when he became chairman of the nots in South Carolina, had felt the fires 
board of directors of the New York Cen- of persecution and were wedded to re- 
tral and Hudson River, the Lake Shore ligious liberty. They had been purified 
and Michigan Southern, the Michigan in the furnace, and in high debate and on 
Central, and the New York, Chicago, and bloody battle-fields had learned to sacri- 
St. Louis railroads. In 1885 he refused to fice all material interests and to peril 
be a candidate for the United States Sen- their lives for human rights. The prin- 
ate, and also declined the office of United ciples of constitutional government had 
States Secretary of State, offered by Presi- been impressed upon them by hundreds of 
dent Benjamin Harrison. In 1888 he was years of struggle, and for each principle 
a prominent candidate for the Presidential they could point to the grave of an an- 
nomination in the National Republican cestor whose death attested the ferocity 
Convention, and in 1899 was elected of the fight and the value of the conces- 
United States Senator from New York, sion wrung from arbitrary power. They 
He is widely known as an orator and knew the limitations of authority, they 
after-dinner speaker. could pledge their lives and fortunes to 

Washington Centennial Oration. — On resist encroachments upon their rights, 
April 30, 1889, Senator Depew delivered but it required the lesson of Indian massa- 




eres, the invasion of the armies of France 
from Canada, the tyranny of the British 
crown, the seven years' war of Revolu- 
tion, and the five years of chaos of the 
Confederation to evolve the idea upon 
which rest the power and permanency of 
the republic, that liberty and union are 
one and inseparable. 

The traditions and experience of the 
colonists had made them alert to discover 
and quick to resist any peril to their lib- 
erties. Above all things, they feared and 
distrusted power. The town-meetings 
and the colonial legislature gave them 
confidence in themselves, and courage to 
check the royal governors. Their inter- 
ests, hopes, and aff"ections were in their 
several commonwealths, and each blow by 
the British ministry at their freedom, 
each attack upon their rights as English- 
men, weakened their love for the mother- 
land, and intensified their hostility to 
the crown. But the same causes which 
broke down their allegiance to the central 
government increased their confidence in 
their respective colonies, and their faith 
in liberty wa§ largely dependent upon the 
maintenance of the sovereignty of their 
several States. The farmers' shot at Lex- 
ington echoed round the world, the spirit 
which it awakened from its slumbers 
could do and dare and die, but it had not 
yet discovered the secret of the perma- 
nence and progress of free institutions. 
Patrick Henry thundered in the Virginia 
convention ; James Otis spoke with trump- 
et tongue and fervid eloquence for united 
action in Massachusetts; Hamilton, Jay, 
and Clinton pledged New York to respond 
with men and money for the common 
cause; but their vision only saw a league 
of independent colonies. The veil was not 
yet drawn from before the vista of popu- 
lation and power, of empire and liberty, 
which would open with national union. 

The Continental Congress partially 
grasped, but completely expressed, the 
central idea of the American republic. 
More fully than any other body which 
ever assembled did it represent the victo- 
ries won from arbitrary power for human 
rights. In the New World it was tlie con- 
servator of liberties secured through cen- 
turies of struggle in the Old. Among the 
delegates were the descendants of the men 
who had stood in that brilliant array 

upon the field of Runnymede, which 
wrested from King John Magna Charta, 
that great charter of liberty, to which 
Hallam, in the nineteenth century, bears 
witness " that all which had been since 
obtained is little more than as confirma- 
tion or commentary." There were the 
grandchildren of the statesmen who had 
summoned Charles before Parliament and 
compelled his assent to the Petition of 
Rights, which transferred power from the 
crown to the commons, and gave repre- 
sentative government to the English- 
speaking race. And there were those who 
had sprung from the iron soldiers who 
had fought and charged with Cromwell at 
Naseby and Dunbar and Marston Moor. 
Among its members were Huguenots, 
whose fathers had followed the white 
plume of Henry of Navarre and in an age 
of bigotry, intolerance, and the deification 
of absolutism had secured the great edict 
of religious liberty from French despot- 
ism; and who had become a people with- 
out a country, rather than surrender their 
convictions and forswear their consciences. 
In this Congress were those whose ances- 
tors were the countrymen of William of 
Orange, the Beggars of the Sea, who had 
survived the cruelties of Alva, and broken 
the proud yoke of Philip of Spain, and 
who had two centuries before made a 
declaration of independence and formed 
a federal union which were models of 
freedom and strength. 

These men were not revolutionists, 
They were the heirs and the guardians of 
the priceless treasures of mankind. The 
British King and his ministers were the 
revolutionists. They were reactionaries, 
seeking arbitrarily to turn back the hands 
upon the dial of time. A year of doubt 
and debate, the baptism of blood upon bat- 
tle-fields, where soldiers from every colony 
fought, under a common standard, and 
consolidated the Continental arm.y, grad- 
ually lifted the soul and understanding of 
this immortal Congress to the sublime 
declaration : " We, therefore, the repre- 
sentatives of the United States of Amer- 
ica, in general Congress assembled, appeal- 
ing to the Supreme Judge of the World 
for the rectitude of our intentions, do, 
in the name and by the authority of the 
good people of these colonies, solemnly 
publish and declare that these united 



colonies are, and of right ouglit to be, 
free and independent States." 

To this declaration John Hancock, pro- 
scribed and threatened with death, affixed 
a signature which stood for a century like 
the pointers to the north star in the fir- 
mament of freedom; and Charles Carroll, 
taunted that among many Carrolls, he, 
the richest man in America, might escape, 
added description and identification with 
'• of Carrollton." Benjamin Harrison, a 
delegate from Virginia, the ancestor of 
the distinguished statesman and soldier 
who to-day so worthily fills the chair of 
Washington, voiced the unalterable de- 
termination and defiance of the Congress. 
He seized John Hancock, upon whose head 
a price was set, in his arms, and placing 
him in the Presidential chair, said: "We 
will show Mother Britain how little we 
care for her by making our President a 
Massachusetts man, whom she has excluded 
from pardon by public proclamation " ; 
and when they were signing the declara- 
tion, and the slender Elbridge Gerry ut- 
tered the grim pleasantry, " We must hang 
together or surely we will hang separate- 
ly," the portly Harrison responded with 
a more daring humor, " It will be all over 
■ with me in a moment, but you will be 
kicking in the air half an hour after I 
am gone." Thus flashed athwart the 
great charter, which was to be for the 
signers a death-warrant or a diploma of 
immortality, as with firm hand, high pur- 
pose and undaunted resolution, they sub- 
scribed their names, this mockery of fear 
and the penalties of treason. 

The grand central idea of the Declara- 
tion of Independence was the sovereignty 
of the people. It relied for original power, 
not upon States or colonies, or their citi- 
zens as such, but recognized as the au- 
thority for nationality the revolutionary 
rights of the people of the United States. 
It stated with marvellous clearness the 
encroachments upon liberties which 
threatened their suppression and justified 
revolt, but it was inspired by the very 
genius of freedom, and the prophetic pos- 
sibilities of united commonwealths cover- 
ing the continent in one harmonious re- 
public, when it made the people of the 
thirteen colonies all Americans and de- 
volved upon them to administer by them- 
selves, and for themselves, the preroga- 

tives and powers wrested from crown and 
parliament. It condensed Magna Charta, 
the Petition of Rights, the great body of 
English liberties embodied in the common 
law and accumulated in the decisions of 
the courts, the statutes of the realm, and 
an undisputed though unwritten constitu- 
tion; but this original principle and dy- 
namic force of the people's power sprang 
from these old seeds planted in the virgin 
soil of the New World. 

More clearly than any statesman of the 
period did Thomas Jefferson grasp and 
divine the possibilities of popular govern- 
ment. He caught and crystallized the 
spirit of free institutions. His philosophi- 
cal mind was singularly free from the 
power of precedents or the chains of preju- 
dice. He had an unquestioning and abid- 
ing faith in the people, which was ac- 
cepted by but few of his compatriots. 
Upon his famous axiom, of the equality 
of all men before the law, he constructed 
his system. It was the trip-hammer es- 
sential for the emergency to break the 
links binding the colonies to imperial au- 
thority, and to pulverize the privileges 
of caste. It inspired him to write the 
Declaration of Independence,, and per- 
suaded him to doubt the wisdom of 
the powers concentrated in the Con- 
stitution. In his passionate love of 
liberty he became intensely jealous of au- 
thority. He destroyed the substance 
of royal prerogative, but never emerged 
from its shadow. He would have the 
States as the guardians of popular rights, 
and the barriers against centralization, 
and he saw in the growing power of the 
nation ever - increasing encroachments 
upon the rights of the people. For the 
success of the pure democracy which must 
precede presidents and cabinets and con- 
gresses, it was, perhaps, providential that 
its apostle never believed a great people 
could grant and still retain, could give 
and at will reclaim, could delegate and 
jet firmly hold the authority which ulti- 
mately created the power of their re- 
public and enlarged the scope of their 
own liberty. 

Where this master-mind halted, all 
stood still. The necessity for a permanent 
union was apparent, but each State must 
have hold upon the bowstring which en- 
circled its throat. It was admitted that 



union gave the machinery required suc- 
cessfully to fight the common enemy, but 
yet there was fear that it might become 
a Frankenstein and destroy its creators. 
Thus patriotism and fear, difficulties of 
communication between distant com- 
munities, and the intense growth of 
provincial pride and interests, led this 
Congress to frame the Articles of Con- 
federation, happily termed the League of 
Friendship. The result was not a govern- 
ment, but a ghost. By this scheme the 
American people were ignored and the 
Declaration of Independence reversed. The 
States, by their legislatures, elected dele- 
gates to Congress, and the delegate rep- 
resented the sovereignty of his common- 
wealth. All the States had an equal 
voice without regard to their size or popu- 
lation. It required the vote of nine States 
to pass any bill, and five could block the 
wheels of government. Congress had none 
of the powers essential to sovereignty. It 
could neither levy taxes nor impose duties 
nor collect excise. For the support of 
the army and navy, for the purposes of 
war, for the preservation of its own func- 
tions, it could only call upon the States, 
but it possessed no power to enforce its 
demands. It had no president or executive 
authority, no supreme court with gen- 
eral jurisdiction, and no national power. 
Each of the thirteen States had seaports 
and levied discriminating duties against 
the others, and could also tax and thus 
prohibit interstate commerce across its 
territory. Had the Confederation been a 
union instead of a league, it could have 
raised and equipped three times the num- 
ber of men contributed by reluctant States, 
and conquered independence without for- 
eign assistance. This paralyzed govern- 
ment, without strength, because it could 
not enforce its decrees ; without credit, 
because it could pledge nothing for the 
payment of its debts ; without respect, 
because without inherent authority; 
would, by its feeble life and early death, 
have added another to the historic trag- 
edies which have in many lands marked 
the suppression of freedom, had it not 
been saved by the intelligent, inherited, 
and invincible vmderstanding of liberty 
by the people, and the genius and pa- 
triotism of their leaders. 

But while the perils of war had given 

temporary strength to the Confederation; 
peace developed this fatal weakness. It 
derived no authority from the people, and 
could not appeal to them. Anarchy 
threatened its existence at home, and con- 
tempt met its representatives abroad. 
" Can you fulfil or enforce the obliga- 
tions of the treaty on your part if we 
sign one •^'ith you?" was the sneer of the 
courts of the Old World to our ambassa- 
dors. Some States gave a half-hearted 
support to its demands; others defied 
them. The loss of public credit was 
speedily followed by universal bankruptcy. 
The wildest fantasies assumed the force 
of serious measures for the relief of the 
general distress. States passed exclusive 
and hostile laws against each other, and 
riot and disorder threatened the disin- 
tegration of society. " Our stock is stolen, 
our houses are plundered, our farms are 
raided," cried a delegate in the Massa- 
chusetts Convention ; " despotism is better 
than anarchy!" To raise $4,000,000 a 
year was beyond the resources of the gov- 
ernment, and $300,000 was the limit of the 
loan it could secure from the money-lend- 
ers of Europe. Even Washington ex- 
claimed in despair: "I see one head 
gradually changing into thirteen ; I see 
one army gradually branching into thir- 
teen; which, instead of looking up to Con- 
gress as the supreme controlling power, 
are considering themselves as depending 
on their respective States." And later, 
when independence had been won, the 
impotency of the government wrung from 
him the exclamation : " After gloriously 
and successfully contending against the 
usurpation of Great Britain, we may fall 
a prey to ovir own folly and disputes." 

But even through this Cimmerian dark- 
ness shot a flame which illuminated the 
coming century and kept bright the beacon 
fires of liberty. The architects of constitu- 
tional freedom formed their institutions 
with wisdom which forecasted the future. 
They may not have understood at first the 
whole truth, but, for that which they 
knew, they had the martyrs' spirit and the 
crusaders' enthusiasm. Though the Con- 
federation was a government of checks 
without balances, and of purpose without 
power, the statesmen who guided it 
demonstrated often the resistless force of 
great souls animated by the purest pa- 



iriotisin, and united in judgment and 
effort to promote the common good, by 
lofty appeals and high reasoning, to ele- 
vate the masses above local greed and 
apparent self-interest to their own broad 

The most significant triumph of these 
moral and intellectual forces was that 
which secured the assent of the States to 
the limitation of their boundaries, to the 
grant of the wilderness beyond them to 
the general government, and to the in- 
sertion in the ordinance erecting the 
Northwest Territories, of the immortal 
proviso prohibiting " slavery or invol- 
untary servitude" within all that broad 
domain. The States carved out of this 
splendid concession were not sovereign- 
ties which had successfully rebelled, but 
they were the children of the Union, born 
of the covenant and thrilled with its life 
and liberty. They became the bulwarks 
of nationality and the buttresses of free- 
dom. Their preponderating strength first 
checked and then broke the slave power, 
their fervid loyalty halted and held at 
bay the spirit of State rights and seces- 
sion for generations ; and when the crisis 
came, it was with their overwhelming as- 
sistance that the nation killed and buried 
its enemy. The corner-stone of the edifice 
whose centenary we are celebrating was 
the ordinance of 1787. It was constructed 
by the feeblest of Congresses, but few en- 
actments of ancient or modern times have 
had more far-reaching or beneficial in- 
fluence. It is one of the sublimest para- 
doxes of history that this weak confed- 
eration of States should have welded the 
chain against which, after seventy-four 
years of fretful efl'orts for release, its 
own spirit frantically dashed and died. 

The government of the republic by a 
Congress of States, a diplomatic con- 
vention of the ambassadors of petty com- 
monwealths, after seven years' trial was 
falling asunder. Threatened with civil 
war among its members, insurrection and 
lawlessness rife within the States, foreign 
eommerce ruined and internal trade para- 
lyzed, its currency worthless, its mer- 
chants bankrupt, its farms mortgaged, its 
markets closed, its labor unemployed, it 
was like a helpless wreck upon the ocean, 
tossed about by the tides and ready to be 
engulfed by the storm. Washington gave 

the warning and called for action. It was 
a voice accustomed to command, but now 
entreating. The veterans of the war and 
the statesmen of the Revolution stepped 
to the front. The patriotism which had 
been misled, but had never faltered, rose 
above its interests of States and the 
jealousies of jarring confederates to find 
the basis for union. " It is clear to 
me as A B C," said Washington, " that 
an extension of federal powers would 
make us one of the most happy, wealthy, 
respectable, and powerful nations that 
ever inhabited the terrestrial globe. With- 
out them we should soon be everything 
which is the direct reverse. I predict the 
worst consequences from a half-starved, 
limping government, always moving upon 
crutches, and tottering at every step." 
The response of the country was the con- 
vention of 1787, at Philadelphia. The 
Declaration of Independence was but the 
vestibule of the temple which this illustri- 
ous assembly erected. With no successful 
precedents to guide, it auspiciously 
worked out the problem of constitutional 
government, and of imperial power and 
home rule, supplementing each other in 
promoting the grandeur of the nation and 
preserving the liberty of the individual. 

The deliberations of great councils have 
vitally affected, at different periods, the 
history of the world and the fate of em- 
pires, but this congress builded, upon 
popular sovereignty, institutions broad 
enough to embrace the continent, and 
elastic enough to fit all conditions of race 
and traditions. The experience of a hun- 
dred years has demonstrated for us the 
perfection of the work, for defence against 
foreign foes and for self-preservation 
against domestic insurrections, for limit- 
less expansion in population and material 
development, and for steady growth in 
intellectual freedom and force. Its con- 
tinuing influence upon the welfare and 
destiny of the human race can only be^ 
measured by the capacity of man to culti- 
vate and enjoy the boundless opportuni- 
ties of liberty and law. The eloquent 
characterization of Mr. Gladstone con- 
denses its merits: "The American Consti- 
tution is the most wonderful work ever 
struck off at a given time by the brain 
and purpose of man." 

The statesmen who composed this great 



senate were equal to their trust. Their render the advantage of their position 
conclusions were the result of calm de- and the smaller States saw the dan-er to 
bate and wise concession. Their character their existence. Roman conquest and as- 
and abilities were so pure and great as similation had strewn the shores of time 
to command tlie confidence of the country with the wrecks of empires, and plun-ed 
for the reversal of the policy of the in- civilization into the perils and horrors" of 
dependence of the State of the power of the dark ages. The government of Crom- 
the general government, which had well was the isolated power of the mic^ht- 
hitherto been the invariable practice and iest man of his age, without popular "au- 
almost universal opinion, and for the thority to fill his place or the hereditary 
adoption of the idea of the nation and its principle to protect his successor The 
supremacy. _ past furnished no light for our State 

lowering in majesty and influence builders, the present was full of doubt 
al)Dve them all stood Washington, their and despair. The future, the experiment 
President. Beside him was the vener- of self-government, the perpetuity and 
able Franklin, who, though eighty-one development of freedom, almost the 
years of age, brought to the deliberations destiny of mankind, was in their hands 
ot the convention the unimpaired vigor At this crisis the courage and confi^ 
and resources of the wisest brain, the dence needed to originate a system 
most hopeful philosophy, and the largest weakened. The temporizing spirit of 
experience of the times. Oliver Ells- compromise seized the convention with 
T-f ; J^/tf'-^^'-^^-^^ chief-justice of the the alluring proposition of not proceed- 
United States, and tlw profoundest juror ing faster than the people could be edu- 
in the country; Robert Morris, the won- cated to follow. The cry "Let us not 
derful financier of the Revolution, and waste our labor upon conclusions which 
Gouverneur Morris, the most versatile will not be adopted, but amend and ad^ 
genius of his period; Roger Sherman, one journ," was assuming startling unanim- 
of the most eminent of the signers of ity. But the supreme force and majestic 
the Declaration of Independence; and sense of Washington brougiit the assem- 
John Rutledge, Rufus King, Elbridge blage to the lofty plane of its duty and 
(jerry, Edmund Randolph, and the Pinck- opportunity. He said: "It is too prob- 
neys, were leaders of unequalled patriot- able that no plan we propose will be 
ism, courage, ability, and learning; while adopted. Perhaps another dreadful con- 
Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, flict is to be sustained. If, to please the 
as original thinkers and constructive people, we offer what we ourselves dis- 
statesmen, rank among the immortal few approve, how can we afterwards defend 
whose opinions have for ages guided our work? Let us raise a standard to 
ministers of state, and determined the which the wise and honest can repair- 
aestinies of nations. the event is in the hands of God." " 1 

rhi^ great convention keenly felt, and am the state," said Louis XIV., but his 
with devout and serene intelligence met, line ended in the grave of absolutism 
is tremendous responsibilities. It had "Forty centuries look down upon you" 
the_ moral support of the few whose aspi- was Napoleon's address to his army in 
rations for liberty had been inspired or the shadow of the Pyramids, but his 
renewed by the triumph of the American soldiers saw only the dream of Eastern 
Revolution, and the active hostility of empire vanish in blood. Statesmen and 
every government in the world. parliamentary leaders have sunk into 

Ihere were no examples to follow, and oblivion or led their party to defeat by 
the experience of its members led part of surrendering their convictions to the 
them to lean towards absolute central- passing passions of the hour; but Wash- 
ization as the only refuge from the an- ington in this immortal speech struck 
archy of the confederation, while the rest the keynote of representative obligation, 
clung to the sovereignty of the States, for and propounded the fundamental prin- 
tear that the concentration of power ciple of the purity and perpetuity of 
would end in the absorption of liberty, constitutional government 
The large States did not want to sur- Freed from the Jimitations of its en- 



vironment, and the question of the adop- 
tion of its work, the convention erected 
its government upon the eternal foun- 
dations cf the power of the people. It dis- 
missed the delusive theory of a compact 
between independent States, and derived 
national power from the people of the 
United States. It broke up the ma- 
chinery of the Confederation and put in 
practical operation the glittering gener- 
alities of the Declaration of Independence. 
From chaos came order, from insecurity 
came safety, from disintegration and civil 
war came law and liberty, with the prin- 
ciple proclaimed in the preamble of the 
great charter: "We, the people of the 
United States, in order to form a more 
perfect union, establish justice, insure 
domestic tranquillity, provide for the com- 
mon defence, promote the general welfare, 
and secure the blessings of liberty to our- 
selves and our posterity, do ordain and 
establish this Constitution for the United 
States." With a wisdom inspired of God, 
to work out upon this continent the lib- 
erty of man, they solved the problem of 
the ages by blending and yet preserving 
local self-government with national au- 
thority, and the rights of the States with 
the majesty and power of the republic. 
The government of the States, under the 
Articles of Confederation, became bank- 
rupt because it could not raise $4,000,000; 
the government of the Union, under the 
Constitution of the United States, raised 
$6,000,000,000, its credit growing firmer 
as its power and resources were demon- 
strated. The Congress of the Confed- 
eration fled from a regiment which ^ it 
oould not pay ; the Congress of the Union 
reviewed the comrades of 1,000,000 of 
its victorious soldiers, saluting, as they 
marched, the flag of the nation, whose 
supremacy they had sustained. The 
promises of the confederacy were the scoff 
of its States; the pledge of the republic 
was the honor of its people. 

The Constitution, which was to be 
straightened by the strains of a century, 
to be a mighty conqueror without a sub- 
ject province, to triumphantly survive 
the greatest of civil wars without the con- 
fiscation of an estate or the execution of 
a political offender, to create and grant 
home rule and State sovereignty to 
twenty-nine additional commonwealths, 

and yet enlarge its scope and broaden its 
powers, and to make the name of an 
American citizen a title of honor through- 
out the world, came complete from this 
great convention to the people for adop- 
tion. As Hancock rose from his seat in 
the old Congress, eleven years before, to 
sign the Declaration of Independence, 
Franklin saw emblazoned on the back of 
the President's chair the sun partly above 
the horizon, but it seemed setting in a 
blood-red sky. During the seven years of 
the Confederation he had gathered no 
hope from the glittering emblem, but now, 
as with clear vision he beheld fixed upon 
eternal foundations the enduring struct- 
ure of constitutional liberty, pointing to 
the sign, he forgot his eighty-two years, 
and with the enthusiasm of youth elec- 
trified the convention with the declara- 
tion : " Now I know that it is the rising 


The pride of the States and the am- 
bition of their leaders, sectional jealousies, 
and the overwhelming distrust of central- 
ized power, were all arrayed against the 
adoption of the Constitution. North 
Carolina and Rhode Island refused to join 
the Union until long after Washington's 
inauguration. For months New York was 
debatable ground. Her territory, extend- 
ing from the sea to the lakes, made her 
the keystone of the arch. Had Arnold's 
treason in the Revolution not been foiled 
by the capture of Andre, England would 
have held New York and subjugated the 
colonies, and in this crisis, unless New 
York assented, a hostile and powerful 
commonwealth dividing the States made 
the Union impossible. 

Success was due to confidence in Wash- 
ington and the genius cf Alexander Ham 
ilton. Jefl'erson was the inspiration 
independence, but Hamilton was the 
carnation of the Constitution. In no age 
or country has there appeared a more 
precocious or amazing intelligence than 
Hamilton. At seventeen he annihilated 
the president of his college upon the ques- 
tion of the rights of the colonies in a series 
of anonymous articles which were credited 
to the ablest men in the country; at 
forty-seven, when he died, his briefs had 
become the law of the land, and his 
fiscal system was, and after 100 years re- 
mains, the rule and policy of our govern- 


ige 1 
ore 1 


ment. He gave life to the corpse of na- 
tional credit, and the strength for self- 
possession and aggressive power to the 
federal union. Both as an expounder of 
the principles and an administrator of 
the affairs of government he stands su- 
preme and unrivalled in American his- 
tory. His eloquence was so magnetic, his 
language so clear and his reasoning so 
irresistible, that he swayed with equal 
ease popular assemblies, grave senates, 
and learned judges. He captured the peo- 
ple of the whole country for the Constitu- 
tion by his papers in The Federalist, and 
conquered the hostile majority in the New 
York convention by the splendor of his 

But the multitudes whom no arguments 
could convince, who saw in the executive 
power and centralized force of the Con- 
stitution, under another name, the dread- 
ed usurpation of king and ministry, were 
satisfied only with the assurance, " Wash- 
ington will be President." " Good," cried 
John Lamb, the able leader of the Sons 
of Liberty, as he dropped his opposition, 
''■ for to no other mortal would I trust 
authority so enormous." " Washington 
will be President" was the battle-cry of 
the Constitution. It quieted alarm and 
gave confidence to the timid and courage 
to the weak. The country responded with 
enthusiastic unanimity, but the chief with 
the greatest reluctance. In the supreme 
moment of victory, when the world ex- 
pected him to follow the precedents of the 
past and perpetuate the power a grateful 
country would willingly have left in his 
hands, he had resigned and retired to 
Mount Vernon to enjoy in private sta- 
tion his well-earned rest. The convention 
created by his exertions to prevent, as he 
said, " the decline of our federal dignity 
into insignificant and wretched fragments 
of empire," had called him to preside over 
its deliberations. Its work made possible 
the realization of his hope that "we 
might survive as an independent repub- 
lic," and again he sought the seclusion of 
his home. But, after the triumph of the 
war and the formation of the Constitu- 
tion, came the third and final crisis: the 
initial movements of government which 
were to teach the infant State the steadier 
Bteps of empire. 

He alone could stay assault and in- 
III. — G f) 

spire confidence while the great and com- 
plicated machinery of organized govern- 
ment was put in order and set in motion. 
Doubt existed nowhere except in his mod- 
est and unambitious heart. " My move- 
ments to the chair of government," he 
said, "' will be accompanied by feelino-s 
not unlike those of a culprit who is goinw 
to the place of his execution. So unwill- 
ing am I, in the evening of life, nearly 
consumed in public cares, to quit a peace- 
ful abode for an ocean of difficulties, with- 
out that competency of political skill, 
abilities, and inclination, which are neces- 
sary to manage the helm." His whole 
life had been spent in repeated sacrifices 
for his country's welfare, and he did not 
hesitate now, though there is an under- 
tone of inexpressible sadness in this entry 
in his diary on the night of his departure: 
" About 10 o'clock I bade adieu to Mount 
Vernon, to private life, and to domestic 
felicity, and with a mind oppressed with 
more anxious and painful sensations than 
I have words to express, set out for New 
York with the best disposition to render 
service to my country in obedience to its 
call, but with less hope of answering its 

No conqueror was ever accorded such a 
triumph, no ruler ever accorded such a 
welcome. In this memorable march of 
six days to the capital, it was the pride 
of States to accompany him with the 
masses of their people to their borders, 
that the citizens of the next common- 
wealth might escort him through its terri- 
tory. It was the glory of cities to re- 
ceive him with every civic honor at their 
gates, and entertain him as the savior of 
their liberties. He rode under triumphal 
arches from which children lowered laurel 
wreaths upon his brow. The roadways 
were strewn with flowers, and as they 
were crushed beneath his horse's hoofs, 
their sweet incense wafted to heaven the 
ever-ascending prayers of his loving 
countrymen for his life and safety. The 
swelling anthem of gratitude and rever- 
ence greeted and followed him along the 
country-side and through the crowded 
streets: "Long live George Washington! 
Long live the father of his people!" 

His entry into New York was worthy 
the city and State. He was met by the 
chief officers of the retiring government 


of the country, by the governor of the and of hope from the generous assistance 
commonwealth, and the whole population, of France, and peace had come and inde- 
This superb harbor was alive with fleets pendence triumphed. As the last soldier 
and flags., and the ships of other na- of the invading enemy embarks, Wash- 
tions, with salutes from their guns and ington, at the head of the patriotic host, 
the cheers of their crews, added to the enters the city, receives the welcome and 
joyous acclaim. But as the captains who gratitude of its people, and in the tavern 
had asked the privilege, bending proudly which faces us across the way, in silence 
to their oars, rowed the President's barge more eloquent than speech, and with 
swiftly through these inspiring scenes, tears which choke the words, he bids 
Washington's mind and heart were full farewell forever to his companions in 
of reminiscence and foreboding. arms. Such were the crowding memories 

He had visited New York thirty-three of the past suggested to Washington m 
years before, also in the month of April, 1789 by his approach to New York. But 
in the full perfection of his early man- the future had none of the splendor of 
hood, fresh from Braddock's bloody field, precedent and brilliance of promise which 
and wearing the only laurels of the battle, have since attended the inauguration of 
bearing the prophetic blessing of the ven- our Presidents. An untried scheme, 
erable President Davies, of Princeton Col- adopted mainly because its administra- 
lege, as " that heroic youth Colonel Wash- tion was to be confided to him, was to 
ington, whom I cannot but hope Provi- be put in practice. He knew that he was 
dence has hitherto preserved in so signal to be met at every step of constitutional 
a manner for some important service to progress by factions temporarily hushed 
the country." It was a fair daughter of into unanimity by the terrific force of 
our State whose smiles allured him here, the tidal wave which was bearing him to 
and whose coy confession that her heart the President's seat, but fiercely hostile 
was another's recorded his only failure upon questions affecting every power of 
and saddened his departure. Twenty years nationality and the existence of the 
passed, and he stood before the New York federal government. 

Congress, on this very spot, the unani- Washington was never dramatic, but 
mously chosen commander-in-chief of the on great occasions he not only rose to the 
Continental army, urging the people to full ideal of the event, he became him- 
more vigorous measures, and made pain- self the event. One hundred years ago to- 
fully aware of the increased despera- day, the procession of foreign ambassa- 
tion of the struggle, from the aid dors, of statesmen and generals, of civic 
to be given to the enemy by domestic societies and military companies, which 
sympathizers, when he knew that the escorted him, marched from Franklin 
same local military company which es- Square to Pearl street, through Pearl to 
corted him was to perform the like ser- Broad, and up Broad to this spot, but 
vice for the British Governor Tryon on the people saw only Washington. As he 
his landing on the morrow. Returning stood upon the steps of the old govern- 
for the defence of the city the next sum- ment building here, the thought must 
mer, he executed the retreat from Long have occurred to him that it was a cradle 
Island, which secured from Frederick the of liberty, and, as such, giving a bright 
Great the opinion that a great com- omen for the future. In these halls in 
niander had appeared, and at Harlem 1735, in the trial of John Zenger, had 
Heights he won the first American vie- been established, for the first time in its 
tory of the Revolution, which gave that history, the liberty of the press. Here 
confidence to our raw recruits against the the New York Assembly, in 1764, made 
famous veterans of Europe which carried the protest against the Stamp Act, and 
our army triumphantly through the war. proposed the general conference, which 
Six years more of untold sufferings, was the beginning of united colonial ac- 
cf freezing and starving camps, of tion. In this old State-house, in 1765, 
marches over the snow by barefooted the Stamp Act Congress, the first and the 
soldiers to heroic attack and splendid father of American congresses, assembled 
"victory, of despair with an unpaid army, and presented to the English government 



that vigorous protest which caused the 
repeal of the act and checked the first 
step towards the usurpation which lost the 
American colonies to the British Empire. 
Within these walls the Congress of the 
Confederation had commissioned its am- 
bassadors abroad, and in ineffectual efforts 
at government had created the necessity 
for the concentration of federal authority, 
now to be consummated. 

The first Congress of the United States 
gathered in this ancient temple of liberty, 
greeted Washington, and accompanied him 
to the balcony. The famous men visible 
about him were Chancellor Livingston, 
Vice-President John Adams, Alexander 
Hamilton, Governor Clinton, Roger Sher- 
man, Richard Henry Lee, General Knox, 
and Baron Steuben. But we believe that 
among the invisible host above him, at 
this supreme moment of the culmination 
in permanent triumph of the thousands 
of years of struggle for self-government, 
were the spirits of the soldiers of the 
Revolution who had died that their coun- 
try might enjoy this blessed day, and 
with them were the barons of Runny- 
mede, and William the Silent, and Sidney, 
and Russell, and Cromwell, and Hampden, 
and the heroes and martyrs of liberty of 
every race and age. 

As he came forward, the multitude in 
the streets, in the windows, and on the 
roofs sent up such a rapturous shout that 
Washington sat down overcome with emo- 
tion. As he slowly rose and his tall and 
majestic form again appeared, the people, 
deeply affected, in awed silence viewed the 
scene. The chancellor solemnly read to 
him the oath of office, and Washington, 
repeating, said : " I do solemnly swear 
that I will faithfully execute the office of 
President of the United States, and will, 
to the best of my ability, preserve, pro- 
tect, and defend the Constitution of the 
United States." Then he reverently bent 
low and kissed the Bible, uttering with 
profovind emotion : " So help me, God." 
The chancellor waved his robes and shout- 
ed: "It is done; long live George Wash- 
ington, President of the United States!" 
" Long live George Washington, our first 
President!" was the answering cheer of 
the people, and from the belfries rang the 
bells, and from forts and ships thundered 
the cannon, echoing and repeating the cry 

with responding acclaim all over the 
land: "Long live George Washington, 
President of the United States!" 

The simple and imposing ceremony over, 
the inaugural read, the blessing of God 
prayerfully petitioned in old St. Paul's, 
the festivities passed, and Washington 
stood alone. No one else could take 
the helm of state, and enthusiast and 
doubter alike trusted only him. The 
teachings and habits of the past had edu- 
cated the people to faith in the indepen- 
dence of their States, and for the supreme 
authority of the new government there 
stood against the precedent of a century 
and the passions of the hour little besides 
the arguments of Hamilton, Madison, and 
Jay in The Federalist, and the judgment 
of Washington. With the first attempt 
to exercise national power began the duel 
to the death between State sovereignty, 
claiming the right to nullify federal laws 
or to secede from the Union, and the 
power of the republic to command the re- 
sources of the country, to enforce its au- 
thority, and protect its life. It was the 
beginning of the sixty years' war for the 
Constitution and the nation. It seared 
consciences, degraded politics, destroyed 
parties, ruined statesmen, and retarded 
the advance and development of the coun- 
try; it sacrificed thousands of precious 
lives and squandered thousands of 
millions of money; it desolated the fair- 
est portion of the land, and carried mourn- 
ing into every home. North and South ; 
but it ended at Appomattox in the abso- 
lute triumph of the republic. 

Posterity owes to Washington's ad- 
ministration the policy and measures, the 
force and direction, which made possible 
this glorious result. In giving the organ- 
ization of the Department of State and 
foreign relations to Jefferson, the Treas- 
ury to Hamilton, and the Supreme Court 
to Jay, he selected for his cabinet and 
called to his assistance the ablest and 
most eminent men of his time. Hamil- 
ton's marvellous versatility and genius 
designed the armory and the weapons for 
the promotion of national power and 
greatness, but Washington's steady sup- 
port carried them through. Parties 
crystallized, and party passions were in- 
tense, debates were intemperate, and the 
Union openly threatened and secretly 



plotted against, as the firip pressure of the Deity and believed liberty impossible 
this mighty personality funded the debt without law. He spoke to the sober judg- 
and established credit, assumed the State ment of the nation, and made clear the 
debts incurred in the War of the Eevo- danger. He saved the infant government 
lution and superseded the local by the from ruin, and expelled the French minis- 
national obligation, imposed duties upon ter who had appealed from him to the 
imports and excise upon spirits, and ere- people. The whole land, seeing safety only 
ated revenue and resources, organized a in his continuance in office, joined Jeflfer- 
national banking system for public needs son in urging him to accept a second term, 
and private business, and called out an " North and South," pleaded ine becrfe- 
army to put down by force of arms resist- tary, " will hang together while they have 
ance to the federal laws imposing un- you to hang to." 

popular taxes. Upon the plan marked No man ever stood for so much to his 
out by the Constitution, this great ar- country and to mankind as George Wash- 
chitect, with nnfailing faith and unfalter- ington. Hamilton, Jefferson and Adams, 
ing courage, builded the republic. He Madison and Jay, each represented some 
gave to the government the principles of of the elements which formed the Union, 
action and sources of power which carried Washington embodied them all. They 
it successfully through the wars with fell, at times, under popular disapprov- 
Great Britain in 1812 and Mexico in 1848, al, were burned in effigy, were stoned, 
wliich enabled Jackson to defeat nullifica- but he, with unerring judgment, was 
tion, and recruited and equipped millions always the leader of the people. Milton 
of men for Lincoln, and justified and said of Cromwell, " that war made him 
sustained his proclamation of emancipa- great, peace greater." The superiority 
tion. of Washington's character and genius 
The French Revolution was the bloody were more conspicuous in the formation 
reality of France and the nightmare of the of our government and in putting it 
civilized world. The tyranny of centuries on indestructible foundations than in 
culminated in frightful reprisals and reck- leading armies to victory and conquering 
less revenges. As parties rose to power the independence of his country. "The 
and passed to the guillotine, the frenzy of Union in any event," is the central 
the revolt against all authority reached thought of his farewell address, and all 
every country and captured the imagina- the years of his grand life were devoted 
tions and enthusiasm of millions in every to its formation and preservation. He 
land, who believed they saw that the mad- fought as a youth with Braddock and in 
ness of anarchy, the overturning of all the capture of Fort Duquesne for the pro- 
institutions, the confiscation and distribu- tection of the whole country. As com- 
tion of property, would end in a millenni- mander-in-chief of the Continental army, 
um for the masses and the universal his commission was from the Congress 
brotherhood of man. Enthusiasm for of the united colonies. He inspired 
France, our late ally, and the terrible the movement for the republic, was the 
commercial and industrial distress occa- president and dominant spirit of the con- 
sioned by the failure of the government vention which framed its Constitution, 
under the Articles of Confederation, and its President for eight years, and 
aroused an almost unanimous cry for guided its course until satisfied that, mov- 
the yoiing republic, not yet sure of its ing safely along the broad highway of 
own existence, to plunge into the vor- time, it would be surely ascending towards 
tex. The ablest and purest statesmen of the first place among the nations of the 
the time bent to the storm, but Washing- world, the asylum of the oppressed, the 
ton was unmoved. He stood like the rock- home of the free. 

ribbed coast of a continent between the Do his countrymen exaggerate his vir- 

surging billows of fanaticism and the child tues? Listen to Guizot, the historian of 

of his love. Order is Heaven's first law, civilization: "Washington did the two 

and the mind of Washington was order, greatest things which in politics it is 

I'he Revolution defied God and derided permitted to man to attempt. He main- 

the law. Washington devoutly reverenced tained by peace the independence of his 



country wliicli he conquered by war. lie 
founded a free government in the name 
of the princijiles of order and by re- 
establishing their s^way." Hear Lord 
Ersl-cine, the most faivious of English ad- 
vocates: "You are the only being for 
whom I have an awful reverence." Re- 
member the tribute of Charles James Fox, 
the greatest parliamentary orator who 
ever swayed the British House of Com- 
mons: "Illustrious man, before whom all 
borrowed greatness sinks into insig- 
nificance." Contemplate the character 
of Lord Brougham, pre-eminent for two 
generations in every department of hu- 
man activity and thought, and then im- 
press upon the memories of your children 
his deliberate judgment: "Until time 
shall be no more will a test of the prog- 
ress which our race has made in wisdom 
and virtue be derived from the venera- 
tion paid to the immortal name of Wash- 

Chatham, who, with Clive, conquered 
an empire in the East, died broken- 
hearted at the loss of the empire in the 
West, by follies which even his power 
and eloquence could not prevent. Pitt 
saw the vast creations of his diplomacy 
shattered at Austerlitz, and fell murmur- 
ing: "My country! how I leave my 
country!" Napoleon caused a noble 
tribute to Washington to be read at the 
head of his armies, but, unable to rise 
to Washington's greatness, witnessed the 
vast structure erected by conquest and 
cemented by blood, to minister to his own 
ambition and pride, crumble into frag- 
ments, and, an exile and a prisoner, he 
breathed his last babbling of battle-fields 
and carnage. Washington, with his finger 
upon his pulse, felt the presence of death, 
and, calmly reviewing the past and fore- 
casting the future, answered to the sum- 
mons of the grim messenger, " It is well," 
and, as his mighty soul ascended to God, 
the land was deluged with tears and the 
world united in his eulogy. Blot out from 
the page of history the names of all the 
great actors of his time in the drama of 
nations, and preserve the name of Wash- 
ington, and the century would be re- 

We stand to-day upon the dividing line 
between the first and second century of 
constitutional government. There are no 

clouds overhead and no convulsions under 
our feet. We reverently return • thanks 
lo Almighty God for the past, and with 
confident and hopeful promise march upon 
sure ground towards the future. The sim- 
ple facts of these 100 years paralyze the 
imagination, and we contemplate the vast 
accumulations of the century with awe 
and pride. Our population has grown 
from 4,000,000 to 05,000,000. Its centre, 
moving westward 500 miles since 1789, is 
eloquent with the founding of cities and 
the birth of States. New settlements, 
clearing the forests and subduing the 
prairies, and adding 4,000,000 to the few 
thousands of farms which were the sup- 
I^ort of Washington's republic, create one 
of the great granaries of the world, and 
open exhaustless reservoirs of national 

The infant industries, which the first 
act of our first administration sought to 
encourage, now give remunerative employ- 
ment to more people than inhabited the re- 
public at the beginning of Washington's 
Presidency. The grand total of their 
annual output of $7,000,000,000 in value 
places the United States first among the 
manufacturing countries of the earth. 
One-half the total mileage of all the rail- 
roads, and one-quarter of all the telegraph 
lines of the world within our borders, 
testify to the volume, variety, and value 
of an internal commerce which makes 
these States, if need be, independent 
and self-supporting. These 100 years of 
development under favoring political con- 
ditions have brought the sum of our na- 
tional wealth to a figure which has passed 
the results of 1,000 years for the mother- 
land herself, otherwise the richest of mod- 
ern empires. 

During this generation, a civil war of 
unequalled magnitude caused the expendi- 
ture and loss of $8,000,000,000, and kill- 
ed 000,000, and permanently disabled over 
1,000,000 young men, and yet the impetu- 
ous progress of the North and the mar- 
vellovis industrial development of the new 
and free South have obliterated the evi- 
dences of destruction, and made the war 
a memory, and have stimulated pro- 
duction until our annual surplus nearly 
equals that of England, France, and Ger- 
many combined. The teeming millions of 
Asia till the patient soil and work tha 



shuttle and loom as their fathers have rope. Most of the kings, princes, dukes, 

done for ages ; modern Europe has felt the and margraves of Germany, who reigned 

influence and received the benefit of the in- despotically, and sold their soldiers for 

calculable multiplication of force by in- foreign service, have passed into history, 

ventive genius since the Napoleonic wars; and their heirs have neither prerogatives 

and yet, only 269 years after the little nor domain. Spain has gone through 

band of Pilgrims landed on Plymouth many violent changes, and the permanency 

Rock, our people, numbering less than of her present government seems to depend 

one-fifteenth of the inhabitants of the upon the feeble life of an infant prince, 

globe, do one-third of its mining, one- France, our ancient friend, with repeated 

fourth of its manufacturing, one-fifth of and bloody revolution, has tried the gov- 

its agriculture, and own one-sixth of its ernment of Bourbon and convention, of di- 

wealth. rectory and consulate, of empire and citi- 

This realism of material prosperity, zen king, of hereditary sovereign and re- 
surpassing the wildest creations of* the ro- public, of empire, and again republic. The 
mancers who have astonished and delighted Hapsburg and Hohenzollern, after convul- 
mankind, would be full of dangers for sions which have rocked the foundations 
the present and menace for the future, if of their thrones, have been compelled to 
the virtue, intelligence, and independence concede constitutions to their people and 
of the people were not equal to the wise to divide with them the arbitrary power 
regulation of its uses and the stern pre- wielded so autocratically and brilliantly 
vention of its abuses. But following the by Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great, 
growth and power of the great factors. The royal will of George III. could crowd 
whose aggregation of capital made possible the American colonies into rebellion, and 
the tremendous pace of the settlement wage war upon them until they were lost 
of our national domain, the building of to his kingdom, but the authority of the 
our great cities and the opening of the crown has devolved upon ministers who 
lines of communications which have hold office subject to the approval of 
united our country and created our re- the representatives of the people, and 
sources, have come national and State the equal powers of the House of Lords 
legislation and supervision. Twenty mill- have been vested in the Commons, leaving 
ions, a vast majority of our people of in- to the peers only the shadow of their an- 
telligent age, acknowledging the author- cient privileges. But to-day the American 
ity of their several churches, 12,000,000 people, after all the dazzling developments 
of children in the common schools, 345 of the century, are still happily living un- 
universities and colleges for the higher der the government of Washington. The 
education of men and 200 for women, 450 Constitution during all that period has 
institutions of learning for science, law, been amended only upon the lines laid 
medicine, and theology, are the despair of down in the original instrument, and in 
the scoffer and the demagogue, and the conformity with the recorded opinions of 
firm support of civilization and liberty. the Fathers. The first great addition was 

Steam a^nd electricity have changed the the incorporation of a bill of rights, and 

commerce not only, they have revolution- the last the embedding into the Constitu- 

ized also the governments of the world, tion of the immortal principle of the 

They have given to the press its power, Declaration of Independence — of the 

and brought all races and nationalities equality of all men before the law. No 

into touch and sympathy. They have test- crisis has been too perilous for its powers, 

ed and are trying the strength of all sys- no revolution too rapid for its adaptation, 

tems to stand the strain and conform to and no expansion beyond its easy grasp 

the conditions which follow the germinat- and administration. It has assimilated 

ing influences of American democracy. At diverse nationalities with warring tradi- 

the time of the inauguration of Washing- tions, customs, conditions, and languages, 

ton, seven royal families ruled as many imbued them with its spirit, and won their 

kingdoms in Italy, but six of them have passionate loyalty and love, 

seen their thrones overturned and their The flower of the youth of the nations 

countries disappear from the map of Eu- of continental Europe are conscripted from 



productive industries and drilling in ing past and splendid present, the people 

camps. Vast armies stand in battle array of these United States, heirs of 100 years 

along the frontiers, and a kaiser's whim marvellously rich in all which adds to 

or a minister's mistake may, precipitate the glory and greatness of a nation, with 

the most destructive war of modern times, an abiding trust in the stability and elas- 

Both monarchical and republican govern- ticity of their Constitution, and an 

ments are seeking safety in the repression abounding faith in themselves, hail the 

and suppression of opposition and criti- coming century with hope and joy. 

cism. The volcanic forces of democratic De Peyster, Abraham, jurist; born in 

aspiration and socialistic revolt are rapid- New Amsterdam (New York), July 8, 

ly increasing and threaten peace and se- 1G58; eldest son of Johannes De Peyster, 

curity. We turn from these gathering a noted merchant of his day. Between 1691 

storms to the British Isles and find their and 1605 he was mayor of the city of 

people in the throes of a political crisis in- New York; was first assistant justice and 

volving the form and substance of their then chief-justice of New York, and was 

government, and their statesmen far from one of the King's council under Governor 

confident that the enfranchised and un- Hyde (afterwards Lord Cornbury), and 

prepared masses will wisely use their as its president was acting-governor for 

power. a time in 1701. Judge De Peyster was 

But for us no army exhausts our re- colonel of the forces in New York and 

sources nor consumes our youth. Our treasurer of that province and New 

navy must needs increase in order that the Jersey. He was a personal friend and 

protecting flag may follow the expanding correspondent of William Penn. Having 

commerce which is successfully to compete amassed considerable wealth, he built a 

in all the markets of the world. The sun fine mansion, which stood, until 1856, in 

of our destiny is still rising, and its rays Pearl street. It was used by Washington 

illumine vast territories as yet unoccu- as his headquarters for a while in 1776. 

pied and undeveloped, and which are to He died in New York City Aug. 10, 1728. 

be the happy homes of millions of people. De Peyster, Johannes, founder of the 

The questions which affect the powers of De Peyster family; born in Haarlem, Hol- 

government and the expansion or limita- land, about 1600; emigrated to America 

tion of the authority of the federal Con- on account of religious persecution, and 

stitution are so completely settled, and so died in New Amsterdam (now New York 

unanimously approved, that our political City) about 1685. 

divisions produce only the healthy antag- De Peyster, John Watts, military his- 

onism of parties, which is necessary for torian ; born in New York City, March 

the preservation of liberty. Our insti- 9, 1821; elected colonel New York militia 

tutions furnish the full equipment of in 1845; appointed adjutant-general New 

shield and spear for the battles of freedom, York, 1855; is author of The Dutch at 

and absolute protection against every dan- the North Pole; The Dutch in Maine; 

ger which threatens the welfare of the peo- Decisive Conflicts of the Late Civil War; 

pie will always be found in the intelli- Life of Gen. Philip Kearny, etc. He died 

gence which appreciates their value, and in N. Y. City, May 5, 1907. 

the courage and morality with which Dermer, Thomas, an active friend of 

their powers are exercised. The spirit of colonization schemes, and a man of pru- 

Washington fills the executive office, dence and industry, was employed by the 

Presidents may not rise to the full meas- Plymouth Company after his return from 

ure of his greatness, but they must not Newfoundland, in 1618, to bring about, if 

fall below his standard of public duty possible, reconciliation with the Indians 

and obligation. His life and character, of New England, and to make further ex- 

consoientiously studied and thoroughly plorations. He sailed from Plymouth with 

understood by coming generations, will two vessels (one a small, open pinnace) 

be for them a liberal education for pri- in February, 1619, touched at Mohegan 

vate life and public station, for citizen- Island, and then visited the coast. Der- 

ship and patriotism, for love and devotion nier was accompanied from England by 

to union and liberty. With their inspir- Squanto; also by Samoset, a native of 



Sagadalioek, whom John Mason, governor the siege of Louisburg {q. v.) , and was 

of Newfoundland, had lately sent home, aide-de-camp to Wolfe when he fell at 

he having been one of Hunt's captives. Quebec, that general dying in Desbarres's 

Dermer succeeded, in a degree, and pro- arms. He was active in the retaking of 

ceeded to explore the coast to Virginia. Newfoundland in 1762, and for ten years 

He sent home his ship from Mohegan Isl- afterwards he was employed in a coast 

and, laden with fish and furs, and, leav- survey of Nova Scotia. He prepared 

ing Squanto at Saco, sailed southward, charts of the North American coasts in 

Near Cape Cod he was captured by Ind- 1775 for Earl Howe, and in 1777 he pub- 

dians, but ransomed himself by a gift of lished The Atlantic Neptune, in two large 

some hatchets. Passing Martin's (Mar- folios. He was made governor of Cape 

tha's) Vineyard, he navigated Long Isl- Breton, with the military command of 

and Sound by the help of an Indian pilot, Prince Edward's Island, in 1784, and in 

the first Englishman who had sailed upon 1804, being then about eighty-two years 

these waters, and passed out to sea at of age, he was made lieutenant-governor 

Sandy Hook. The current was so swift of Prince Edward's Island. He died in 

that he did not stop at Manhattan; but Halifax, N. S., Oct. 24, 1824. 
on his return from Virginia (1620) he Deseret, Proposed State of. See Mor- 

touched there and held a conference with mons. 

some Dutch traders " on Hudson's River," Desert Land Act, passed March 3, 
warning them that they were on English 1877, allowing settlers 640 acres for pur- 
territory. Dermer sent a journal of his poses of irrigation and improvement, 
proceedings to Gorges, and thus, no doubt,- De Smet, Peter John, missionary; 
hastened the procurement of the new char- born in Termonde, Belgium, Dec. 31, 1801; 
ter for the Plymouth Company {q. v.). studied in the Episcopal seminary of 

Derne Expedition. See Tripoli, War Mechlin. With five other students he 

WITH. sailed from Amsterdam in 1821 for the 

Derry, Joseph T., author ; born in Mil- United States, and entered the Jesuit 

ledgeville, Ga., Dec. 13, 1841 ; graduated school at Whitemarsh, Md. In 1828 he 

at Emory College in 1860; enlisted in the went to St. Louis and aided in founding 

Oglethorpe Infantry in January, 1861, the University of St. Louis, where he 

and with his company joined the Confed- later became a professor. In 1838 he 

erate army, March 18, 1861 ; served founded a mission among the Pottawat- 

throughout the war, participating in the tomie Indians on Sugar Creek. In July, 

West Virginia, the Tennessee, and the 1840, he went to the Peter Valley in the 

Atlanta campaigns, being taken prisoner Rocky Mountains, where he met about 

at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, June 1,600 Flathead Indians. By the help of 

27, 1864. Among his works are a School an interpreter he translated the Command- 

Eistory of the United States; History of ments, the Lord's Prayer, and the Creed 

Georgia; and the volume on Georgia in into their language, and these within two 

the Confederate Military History of which weeks' time the Flatheads learned. Dur- 

Gen. Clement A. Evans is editor. ing his journey back to St. Louis he was 

De Russy, Fort ( La. ) , captured March several times surrounded by the Black- 

14, 1864, by Gen. A. J. Smith with 10,000 feet Indians, who, when they saw his cru- 

Nationals. Gen. Dick Taylor surrendered cifix and black gown, showed him the 

with about 10,000 men. See Red Rivee greatest respect. On Sept. 24, 1841, with 

Expedition. a party of other missionaries, he reached 

Desbarres, Joseph Frederick Wal- Bitter Root River, where the mission of 

let, military officer; born in England, of St. Mary's was begun. After spending 

French ancestry, in 1722; educated for about a year in learning the Blackfeet 

the army at the Royal Military College language and in endeavoring to make St. 

at Woolwich, and, as lieutenant, came to Mary's a permanent mission, he went to 

America in 1756, and, raising 300 recruits P]urope to solicit aid. After arousing 

in Pennsylvania and Maryland, formed great enthusiasm in Belgium and France 

them into a corps of field-artillery. He he sailed from Antwerp in December, 

distinguished himself as an engineer in 1843, wuth five Jesuits and six sisters, 



and in August, 1844, arrived at Fort Van- 
couver, and planted a central mission on 
the Willamette River. In 1845 he under- 
took a series of missions among the Sin- 
poils, Zingomenes, Okenaganes, Koote- 
nays, and Flatbows. He made several 
trips to Europe for aid. Father De Smet 
wrote The Oregon Missions and Travels 
Over the Rocky Mountains ; Western Mis- 
sions and Missionaries; New Indian 
Sketches, etc. He died in St. Louis, Mo., 
in May, 1872. 

De Soto, Fernando, discoverer ; born 
in Xeres, Estremadura, Spain, about 1496, 
of a noble but impoverished family. Da- 
vila, governor of Darien, was his kind 
patron, through whose generosity he re- 
ceived a good education, and who took 
him to Central America, Avhere he en- 
gaged in exploring the coast of the Pacific 
Ocean hundreds of miles in search of a 
supposed strait connecting the two oceans. 
When Pizarro went to Peru, De Soto ac- 
companied him, and was his chief lieu- 
tenant in achieving the conquest of that 
country. Brave and judicious, De Soto 
was the chief hero in the battle that re- 
sulted in the capture of Cuzco, the capital 


of the Incas, and the destruction of their 
empire. Soon after that event he re- 
turned to Spain with large wealth, and 
was received by King Charles V. with 
great consideration. He married Isabella 

Bobadilla, a scion of one of the most re- 
nowned of the Castilian families, and his 
influence at Court was thereby strength- 
ened. Longing to rival Cortez and Pi- 
zarro in the brilliancy of his deeds, and 
believing Florida to be richer in the pre- 
cious metals than Mexico or Peru, De Soto 
offered to conquer it at his own expense. 
Permission was readily given him by his 
King, who commissioned him governor of 
Cuba, from which island he would set out 
on his conqviering expedition. Elegant in 
deportment, winning in all his ways, an 
expert horseman, rich and influential, and 
then thirty-seven years of age. hundreds 
of young men, the flower of the Spanish 
and Portuguese nobility, flocked to his 
standard, the wealthier ones dressed in 
suits of gorgeous armor and followed by 
trains of servants. With these and his 
beautiful young wife and other noble 
ladies De Soto sailed from Spain early in 
April, 1538, with seven large and three 
small vessels, the San Christoval, of 800 
tons, being his flag-ship. 

Amply supplied and full of joy in the 
anticipation of entering an earthly para- 
dise, gayety and feasting, music and 
dancing prevailed on board the flag-ship 
during that sunny voyage, in which richly 
dressed ladies, with handsome pages to do 
their bidding, were conspicuous, especially 
on warm moonlit nights within the tropic 
of Cancer. At near the close of May the 
fleet entered Cuban waters. De Soto occu- 
pied a whole year preparing for the expe- 
dition, and at the middle of May, 1539, he 
sailed from Cuba with nine vessels, bearing 
1,000 followers, and cattle, horses, mules, 
and swine, the first of the latter seen on 
the American continent. He left public af- 
fairs in Cuba in the hands of his wife and 
the lieutenant-governor. The voyage to 
Florida was pleasant, and the armament 
landed on the shores of Tampa Bay on 
May 25, near where Narvaez had first 
anchored. Instead of treating the natives 
kindly and winning their friendship, 
De Soto unwisely sent armed men to 
capture some of them, in order to learn 
something about the country he was to 
conquer. The savages, cruelly treated by 
Narvaez, and fearing the same usage by 
De Soto, were cautious. They were also 
wily, expert with the bow, revengeful, and 
fiercely hostile. With cavaliers clad in 




glided across the 
river, and with kind 
words welcomed the 
Spaniards and of- 
fered them her 
services. Presents 
were exchanged. A 
magnificent string of 
peai'ls was hung 
upon her neck. This 
she drew over her 
head and hung it 
around the neck of 
De Soto as a token 
of her regard. Then 
she invited him and 
his followers to cross 
over to her village. 
In canoes and on 
log-rafts they pass- 
ed the stream, and, 
encamping in the 
shadows of mul- 
berry-trees, they 
soon received a 

bountiful supply of 

steel and riding 113 horses, with many venison and wild turkeys. There they en- 
footmen armed with arquebuses, cross- joyed the young queen's hospitality until 
bows, swords, shields, and lances, and a May, and when they departed De Soto 
single cannon, and supplied with savage requited the kindness of the royal maiden 
bloodhounds from Cuba, and handcuffs, with foul treachery. He carried her away 
iron neck-collars, and chains for the cap- a prisoner, and kept her near his person 
tives, De Soto began his march in June, as a hostage for the good behavior of her 
1539. He was accompanied by mechanics, people towards the Spaniards. She finally 
priests, inferior clergy, and monks in escaped, and returned home a bitter 
sacerdotal robes bearing images of the enemy of the perfidious white people. 
Virgin, holy relics, and sacramental bread De Soto crossed the beautiful country 
and wine, wherewith to make Christians of the Cherokees (see Cherokee Indians), 
of the captured pagans. and penetrated the fertile Coosa region. 

At the very outset the expedition met where the Spaniards practised the^ most 
with determined opposition from the dusky cruel treachery towards the friendly 
inhabitants, but De Soto pressed forward natives. De Soto was rewarded in kind 
towards the interior of the fancied land not long afterwards, and in a terrible 
of gold. He wintered east of the Flint battle with the Mobilians, on the site of 
River, near Tallahassee, on the borders of Mobile, the expedition was nearly ruined. 
Georgia, and in March, 1540, broke up his Turning northward with the remnant of 
encampment and marched northward, hav- his forces, he fought his way through the 
ing been told that gold would be found in Chickasaw country (see Chickasaw Ind- 
that direction. He reached the Savannah lANS), and reached the upper waters of 
Eiver, at Silver Bluff. On the opposite the Yazoo River late in December, where 
side of the stream, in (present) Barnwell he wintered, in great distress. Moving 
county, lived an Indian queen, young, beau- westward in the spring, he discovered the 
tiful, and a maiden, who ruled over a large Mississippi River, in all its grandeur, m 
extent of country. In a richly wrought May, 1541. It was near the Lower Chica- 
canoe, filled with shawls and skins and saw Bluff, in Tunica county, Miss. Cross- 
other things for presents, the dusky ca<;ica ing the mighty stream, De Soto went west- 



ward in his yet fruitless search for gold, 
and spent a year in the country towards 
the eastern slojics of the Rocky Mountains. 
Returning to the Mississij)pi in May, 
1542, he died of a fever on its banks on 
the 21st. 

As he had declared to the Indians, who 
were sun-worshippers, that he was a son of 
the sun, and that Christians could not die, 
it was thought wise to conceal his death 
from the pagans. He was secretly buried 
in the gateway of the Spanish camp. The 
Indians knew he was sick. He was not to 
be seen, and they saw a new-made grave. 
They looked upon it and pondered. Mos- 
eoso ordered the body to be taken up at 
the dead of night. He was wrapped in 
mantles in which sand had been sewed up, 
taken in a boat to the middle of the great 
river, and there dropped to the bottom in 
19 fathoms of water. Ilerrera says it 
was sunk in a hollow live-oak log. When 
the Indian chief asked Moscoso for De 
Soto, that leader replied, " He has ascend- 
ed to heaven, but will retui-n soon." 

Before his death De Soto had conferred 
the leadership of the expedition upon 
Moscoso, his lieutenant, who, with the 
wretched remnant of the expedition, 

made their way to Mexico, where the ele- 
gant Castilian ladies at the court of the 
viceroy were enraptured by the beauty of 
the dusky Mobilian girls. The news of 
De Soto's death cast a gloom over Havarja, 
and poor Dona Isabella, wife of the great 
leader, who had so long waited ^or his 
return, died of a broken heart. 

Despard, John, military officer; born 
in 1745; joined the British army in 1760; 
came to America in 1773; was present 
at the capture of Fort Montgomery and 
of Charleston; and was with Cornwallis 
in the campaign which culminated in the 
surrender at Yorktown. He was promoted 
colonel in 1795, and major-general in 
1798. He died in Oswestry, England, 
Sept. 3, 1829. 

D'Estaing, Count. See Estaing, 
Charles Hector, Count d'. 

Destroying Angels. See Danites. 

De Trobriand, Philippe Regis, mili- 
tary officer; born in Chateau des Ro- 
chettes, France, June 4, 1816; came to the 
United States in 1841; joined the Nation- 
al army as colonel of the 55th New York 
Regiment in August, 1861 ; took part in 
the engagements at Fredericksburg, Chan- 
cellorsville, Gettysburg, etc.; was present 


wandered another year in the region west 
of the Mississippi ; and returning to that 
river in May, 1543, they built rude ves- 
sels, and, with a number of beautiful Ala- 
bama girls whom thoy had carried away 
captive after the battle at Maubila, they 

as the commander of a division at Lee's 
surrender; received the brevet of major- 
general of volunteers in April, 1865. He 
joined the regular army in 1866; received 
the brevet of brigadier-general in 1867; 
retired in 1879. He published Quatre ans 



de campagnes a I'armee du PotonMc. He 
died in Bayport, L. I., July 7, 1897. 

Detroit, a city, port of entry, metropolis 
of Michigan, and county seat of Wayne 
county; on the Detroit River, 7 miles 
from Lake St. Clair, and about 18 miles 
from Lake Erie. It is noted for the 
variety and extent of its manufactures 
and for its large traffic on the Great 
Lakes. For the defence of the harbor and 

Foreign commerce and interstate trade 
are facilitated by an excellent harbor, ex- 
tensive dry-docks, and important steam- 
boat and railroad connections. According 
to the census of 1000 the city had 2,847 
manufacturing establishments, employing 
$71,751,193 capital and 45,707 wage- 
earners; paying $18,718,081 for wages and 
$52,349,347 for materials used; and hav- 
ing a combined output valued at $100,- 


city the federal government is construct- 
ing Fort Wayne, a short distance below 
the city, which is designed to be the 
strongest American fortification on the 
northern frontier. The value of the 
foreign trade of the city in merchandise 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1904, was: Imports, $4,467,154; exports, 
$23,698,435, both a considerable increase 
over the returns of the previous year. 
The principal shipments are grains, meat, 
wool, iron and copper ores, and lumber. 

892,838. The principal manufactures were: 
Foundry and machine-shop products, $8,- 
943,311; druggists' preparations, $4,915,- 
913; smoking and chewing tobacco and 
snuff, $3,746,045; iron and steel, $3,198,- 
881; packed meat, $3,167,430; cigars and 
cigarettes, $2,790,268; malt liquors, $2,- 
593,093; and steam-heating apparatus, $2,- 
104,066. In 1903 the assessed property 
valuations were: Real estate, $190,197,- 
060; personal, $81,671,860— total, $271,- 
868,920; and the tax rate was $16.57 per 



$1,000. The city owned property free were forced to make a precipitate retreat 
from all encumbrance estimated in 1902 in the darkness, leaving twenty of their 
at $25,427,139. The net general city debt, comrades killed and forty-two wounded 
Jan. 1, 1904, was $3,637,938; net special on the border of the brook, which has 
debt, $291,276— total net debt, $3,929,214, ever since been called Bloody Run. Dal- 
besides a water debt of about $1,000,000. zell was slain while trying to carry off 
The population in 1890 was 205,876; in some of the wounded, and his scalp be- 
1900, 285,704. came an Indian's trophy. Pontiac con- 
Detroit was first settled by Antoine Ca- tinued the siege of Detroit until the ar- 
dillac, July 24, 1701, with fifty soldiers rival of Colonel Bradstreet in May, 1704. 
and fifty artisans and traders. Three In January, 1774, the British Parlia- 
years later the first white child, a daugh- ment included Detroit and its dependent 
ter of Cadillac, was baptized in the place, territory with Canada, and the first civil 
which was- called by the French "La Ville government was instituted June 22, 1774, 
d'Etroit." The French surrendered Detroit with General Henry Hamilton {q.v.) ag 
to the English, under Maj. Robert Rodgers, governor. Governor Hamilton, a human 
Nov. 29, 1700. tiger, delighting in blood, instigated the 
The tragedy of Pontiac's War opened Indians to murder the defenceless set- 
in Detroit. Under pretext of holding a lers on the border. He organized an ex- 
friendly council with Major Gladwin, com- pedition in 1779 to capture Vincennes, 
mander of the fort, the wily chief entered but General George Rogers Clark {q. v.) 
it in May, 1703, with about 300 warriors, attacked him on the way on March 5, 
each carrying a knife, tomahawk, and and forced him to an unconditional sur- 
short gun under his blanket. When Pon- render. Hamilton was sent to Virginia, 
tiac should rise and present the green side put into irons by Thomas Jefferson, and 
of a belt, the massacre of the garrison escaped hanging only through the inter- 
was to begin. Gladwin was warned of cession of Washington, but was finally 
the plot the day before by a friendly Ind- paroled. The British troops were allowed 
ian, and the calamity was averted by to return to Detroit. 

the appointment of another day for the In 1782 Detroit had a permanent popu- 
council. When the Indians retired, the lation of 2.190, of whom 178 were slaves, 
gates of the fort were closed upon them, but the withdrawal of the British gar- 
and, knowing the reason, Pontiac began risen and the exodus of the English set- 
a siege that lasted a year. tiers to found Amherstburg reduced the 
General Amherst hastily collected a inhabitants to about 500. most of whom 
small body in the East for the rel::' of were of French descent. During the forty- 
Detroit and reinforcement of Fort Ni- five years after the close of the war 
agara, and sent them under the command Detroit grew slowly, in 1828 having a 
of Captain Dalzell, one of his aides. Dal- population of 1,517 only. The opening of 
zell left reinforcements at Niagara, and the Erie Canal in 1825 sent a tide of emi- 
proceeded to Detroit with the remainder gration westward, and Detroit began its 
of his troops and provisions in a vessel marvellous growth. Beginning with 2,222 
that arrived on the evening of July 30. inhabitants in 1830, it has on an average 
They succeeded in entering the fort with doubled each decade. 

provisions. Pontiac had already sum- The city was the scene of disastrous 

moned Gladwin to surrender; now Dal- operations in the early part of the War 

zell proposed to make a sortie and attack of 1812-15. In August, 1812, General 

the besieging Indians. Gladwin thought Brock, governor of Upper Canada, with 

it would be imprudent, but Dalzell per- a few regulars and 300 militia, hastened 

sisted, and before daylight on the morn- to Amherstburg, arriving there on the 

ing of July 31 he- sallied out with 240 night of Aug. 13, and on the following 

chosen men to attack the Indians, who lay morning hckl a conference with Tecumseh 

about a mile up the river. Pontiac was and 1,000 Indians, telling them he had come 

on the alert, and, at a small stream on to assist in driving the Americans from 

the northern verge of Detroit, the Eng- their rightful hunting-grounds north of the 

lish, furiously assailed by the Indians, Ohio. The Indians were pleased, and, at 



a subsequent interview with Tecumseh 
and the other chiefs, they assured him 
that the Indians would give him all 
their strength in the undertaking. Then 
Broc^.c marched from Maiden to Sandwich, 
which the Americans had deserted, and a 
battery was planted opposite Detroit, 
which commanded the fort there. The 
American artillerists begged permission 
to open fire upon it, and Captain Snelling 
asked the privilege of going over in the 
night to capture the British works, Hull 
would not allow any demonstrations 
against the enemy, and the latter pre- 
pared for assault without any molesta- 
tion. Hull was much deceived by letters 
intended to be intercepted, showing 
preparations for large and immediate re- 
inforcements to Brock's army; and he 
had also been deceived into the belief 
that a large portion of the followers of 
the latter, who were only militia, were 
regulars. The militia had been dressed 
in scarlet uniforms, and were paraded so 
as to show treble their real number. Hull 
was hemmed in on every side; his pro- 
visions were scarce, and he saw no chance 
of receiving any from Ohio. He knew 

that if the Indians were exasperated 
and the fort should be taken there 
would be a general massacre of the 
garrison and the inhabitants, and his 
kindness of heart and growing caution, 
incident to old age, made him really 
timid and fearful. When Brock's prepa- 
rations for attack were completed (on the 
15th), he sent a summons to Hull for an 
unconditional surrender of the post. In 
that demand was a covert threat of let- 
ting loose the bloodthirsty Indians in 
case of resistance. Hull's whole effective 
force at that time did not exceed 1,000 
men. The fort was thronged with trem- 
bling women and children and decrepit 
old men of the village and surrounding 
country, who had fled to it for protection 
from the Indians. He kept the flag that 
bore the summons waiting fully two hours, 
for his innate bravery and patriotism bade 
him refuse and fight, while his fear of 
dreadful consequences to his army and the 
people bade him surrender. His troops 
were confident in their ability to success- 
fully confront the enemy, and he finally 
refused compliance with the demand. Ac- 
tive preparations were then made for de- 




fence. The British opened a cannonade 
and bombardment from their battery, 
which was kept up until near midnight. 
The firing was returned with spirit; but 
Hull would listen to no suggestion for 
the erection of a battery at Spring Wells 
to oppose the enemy if they should at- 
tempt to cross the river. Early on the 
morning of the 16th they crossed and 
landed unmolested; and as they moved 
towards the fort, in single column, Te- 
cumseh and his Indians, 700 strong, who 
had crossed 2 miles below during the 
night, took' position in the woods on their 
left a%s flankers, while the right was pro- 
tected by the gims of the Queen Charlotte. 
in the river. They had approached to a 
point witliin 500 yards of the American 
line, when Hull sent a peremptory order 
for the soldiers to retreat within the al- 
ready overcrowded fort. The infuriated 
soldiers reluctantly obeyed; and while 
the enemy were preparing to storm the 
fort, Hull, without consulting any of his 
oflicers, hoisted a white flag, and a capitu- 
lation for a surrender was soon agreed 
upon. The surrender took place at noon, 
Aug. 10, 1812. The fort, garrison, army, 
and the Territory of Michigan were in- 
cluded in the terms of surrender. The 
spoils of victory for the British were 
2,.500 stand of arms, twenty-five iron and 
eight brass pieces of ordnance, forty bar- 
rels of gunpowder, a^ stand of colors, a 
great quantity of military stores, and the 
armed brig John Adams. One of the 
brass cannon bore the following inscrip- 
tion: "Taken at Saratoga on the 17th 
of October, 1777." General Hull and his 
fellow-captives were sent first to Fort 
George and then to Montreal, where they 
arrived Sept. 6, when they were paroled, 
and returned to their homes. Hull was 
tried for treason and cowardice, and sen- 
tenced to be shot, but was pardoned by 
the President. His character has since 
been fully vindicated. See Hull, Will- 

Detroit, Fort. The old French village 
of Detroit contained 160 houses in 1812, 
and about 800 souls. It stretched along 
the river at a convenient distance from 
the water, and the present Jefferson Ave- 
nue was the principal street. On the high 
ground in the rear, about 250 yards from 
the river, stood Fort Detroit, built by the 

English after the conquest of Canada, in 
1760. It was quadrangular in form, with 
bastions and barracks, and covered about 
two acres of ground. The embankments 
were nearly 20 feet high, with a deep 
ditch, and were surrounded with a double 
row of pickets. The fort did not com- 
mand the river. The town, also, was sur- 
rounded by pickets 14 feet in height, with 
loop-holes to shoot through. 

De Vaca. See Cabeza de Vaca. 

Devens, Charles, jurist; born in 
Charlestown, Mass., April 4, 1820; grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1838; 
studied at the Cambridge Law School, and 
practised the profession of law several 
years. In 1848 he was a State Senator, 
and from 1849 to 18.53 was United States 
marshal for Massachusetts. He was en- 
gaged in his profession at Worcester, 
Mass., when the Civil War began, and 
was one of the earliest Union volunteers, 
becoming major of a rifle battalion April 
16, 1861, and colonel of the 15th Massa- 
chusetts Regiment in July following. Be- 
fore the arrival of Colonel Baker, he com- 
manded at Ball's Bluff (q.v.), and again 
after that officer's death. In April, 1862, 
te was made brigadier-general ; served on 
the Peninsula; was wounded at Fair 
Oaks; was in the battles of South Moun- 
tain and Antietam; and commanded a 
division in the 11th Army Corps at 
Chancellorsville. In the Pichmond cam- 
paign of 1864-65 he was continually en- 
gaged, and in December, 1864, he was in 
temporary command of the 24th Army 
Corps. In April, 1865, he was brevetted 
major-general of volunteers, and in 1867 
was appointed a justice of the Superior 
Court of Massachusetts. He was United 
States Attorney - General in 1877-81, and 
justice of the Massachusetts Supreme 
Court from 1881 till his death, in Boston. 
Jan. 7, 1891. 

De Vries, David Pieterssen, colonist. 
In December, 1630, he sent out a number 
of emigrants from Holland who establish- 
ed a settlement called Swanendal, near the 
mouth of the Delaware Piver, where they 
began the cultivation of grain and to- 
bacco. Two years later when De Vries 
arrived at the head of a second party he 
found that all the first settlers had been 
massacred by the Indians. In April, 1634, 
he concluded that his enterprise was un* 


successful, and the expedition returned to 
Holland. He is the author of Voyages from 
Holland to America, from 1632 till 164^. 
Dewey, George, naval officer; born in 
Montpelier, Vt., Dec. 26, 1837; gradu- 
ated at the United States Naval Academy 
in 1858; and served on the frigate Wa- 
bash in the Mediterranean squadron until 
the beginning of the Civil War, when he 
was assigned to the steam sloop Missis- 
sippi of the West Gulf squadron. On 
April 19, 1861, he was commissioned lieu- 
tenant, and was with Admiral Farragut 
when the latter's squadron forced the 
passage of forts St. Philip and Jackson 
in April, 1862. He also took part in the 
attack on Fort St. Philip and the subse- 
quent battles with gunboats and iron- 
clads which gave Farragut control of New 
Orleans. In the smoke of the battle the 
Mississippi ran aground within range of 
the shore batteries. When it was seen 

in 1884 to captain; and in 1896 to com- 
modore. He was appointed to command 
the Asiatic squadron in January, 1898, an 
assignment then considered but little 
short of exile. About March of the same 
year, when it became evident that war 
would be declared between the United 
States and Spain, Commodore Dewey, act- 
ing on orders from Washington, began to 
mobilize his vessels in the harbor of 
Hong-Kong. After the declaration of 
war he received orders to capture or de- 
stroy the Spanish fleet known to be in 
Philippine waters. It was then supposed 
that the harbor of Manila, where the Span- 
ish fleet was most likely to rendezvous, 
was mined with explosives and supplied 
with search-lights, and that the forts of 
Cavite (g. V.) had been put in readiness 
for an attack. Taking all chances, the 
United States squadron sailed boldly into 
the bay on the night of April 30. Dewey's 


that the ship could not be saved, the offi- 
cers and men set her afire and escaped in 
the boats. Later, Dewey served in the 
North Atlantic blockading squadron, and 
still later with the European squadron. 
In 1872 he was promoted to commander; 

squadron comprised the flagship Olympia, 
a first-rate steel-protected cruiser; the 
Boston, the Baltimore, and the Raleigh, 
second-rate steel-protected cruisers; the 
Concord and Petrel, steel gunboats ; the 
McCulloch, revenue-cutter; and two new 





ly purchased supply ships. The Spanish 
squadron consisted of the Rcina Christina, 
steel cruiser ; the Castilia, wooden cruiser ; 
the Don Antonio de TJlloa, iron cruiser; 
the Don Juan dc Austria, iron cruiser; the 
Isla de Cuba, steel protected cruiser; the 
Isla de Luzon, steel protected cruiser; 
the Isla de Mindanao, auxiliary cruis- 
er; Ahe gunboats General Lezo, El Cano, 
and Marques del Duero, and two 
torpedo - boats. Early on Sunday morn- 
ing, May 1, Dewey attacked the Spanish 
squadron, under command of Admiral 
Montojo. Two engagements were fought; 
during the interval between them the 
American ships drew off to the east side 
of the bay, that the men might rest and 
have breakfast. The fight lasted two 
hours, and resulted in the destruction of 
the Spanish squadron, by fire and sinking, 
without the loss of an American ship or 
man. Immediately after the receipt of 
Dewey's brief message of victory, the Pres- 
ident promoted him to rear-admiral, and 
Congress voted him the thanks of the coun- 
try and a sword. Subsequently, the grade 
of admiral was revived, and the President 
conferred it on him. Holding the bay of 
Manila and the Cavite works, he had 
ni. — H 1 

the chief city of the Philippines at his 
mercy, but made no attempt to occupy 
that city. There ensued a period of mas- 
terful diplomacy, which won for the victor 
high commendation. Between the im- 
minent dangers of foreign complications 
and the operations of the native insur- 
gents under Aguinaldo {q. v.), he 
acquitted himself with rare judgment. 
After the occupation of Manila (q. v.) 
by the American troops, he was granted 
leave to return home, whenever and how- 
ever it should suit his convenience; and, 
sailing in his battle-scarred flag-ship, he 
reached New York on Sept. 26, 1899, and 
was given the grandest reception ever 
accorded a public officer, the demonstra- 
tions comprising a naval parade up the 
river to General Grant's tomb, on the 29th, 
and a land parade on the following day. 
Subsequently, he established his residence 
in Washington, D. C, in a dwelling pre- 
sented to him by popular subscription. 

Dewey, Melvil, librarian; born in 
Adams Centre, N. Y., Dec. 10, 1851; 
graduated at Amherst in 1874; edited the 
Library Journal in 1876-81; became di- 
rector of the New York State Library in 
1888; is author of Decimal Classification 


and Relative Index; Library School Rules, 

De Witt, Simeon, surveyor; born in 
Ulster county, N. Y., Dec. 26, 1756; 
graduated at Queen's (now Rutgers) Col- 
lege in 1776; joined the army under 
Gates; and was made assistant geog- 
rapher to the army in 1778, and chief 
geographer in 1780. He was surveyor- 
general of New York fifty years (1784- 
1834). In 1796 he declined the appoint- 
ment of surveyor-general of the United 
States. He was regent, vice-chancellor, 
and chancellor of the State of New York, 
member of many learned societies, and 
author of Elements of Perspective (1835). 
He died in Ithaca, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1834. 

Dexter, Henry Martyn, clergyman; 
born in Plympton, Mass., Aug. 13, 1821 ; 
graduated at Yale in 1840; became pas- 
tor of the Congregational Church in 
Manchester in 1844; removed to Boston 
as pastor of the Berkeley Street Church 
in 1849. He is the author of Congregation- 
alism of the Last 300 Years; As to Roger 
Williams and his Banishment from the 
Massachusetts Colony; History of Old 
Plymouth Colony; and the editor of 
Church's Eastern Expeditions ; Entertain- 
ing Passages Relating to Philip's War. He 
died in New Bedford,' Mass., Nov. 13, 1890. 

Dexter, Samuel, jurist; born in Bos- 
ton, May 14, 1701 ; graduated at Har- 
vard in 1781; studied law at Worces- 
ter, and became a State legislator, in 
which place he was distinguished for in- 
tellectual ability and oratory. President 
Adams appointed him, successively. Sec- 
retary of War (1800) and of the Treas- 
ury ( 1801 ) , and for a while he had charge 
of the State Department. On the acces- 
sion of Jefferson (1801) he resumed the 
practice of law. He declined foreign em- 
bassies offered by Adams and Madison. 
Mr. Dexter was a Federalist until the 
War of 1812, when, being in favor of that 
measure, he separated himself from his 
party. He was the first president of the 
first temperance society formed in Massa- 
chusetts. He died in Athens, N. Y., May 
4, 1816. 

Dexter, Timothy, merchant; born in 
Maiden, Mass., Jan. 22, 1743. Inordinate 
vanity and extraordinary shrewdness were 
combined in him with almost imbecility 
in all matters excepting those of trade. 


It is of him that the story is told that 
he sent a lot of warming-pans to the West 
Indies, which he disposed of at a large 
profit to the sugar manufacturers for use 
as skimmers. He died in Newburyport, 
Mass., Oct. 26, 1806. 

De Zeng, Frederick Augustus, Baron, 
military officer; born in Dresden, Saxony, 
in 1756; came to America in 1780 as cap- 
tain in one of the Hessian regiments; and 
at the end of the Revolutionary War mar- 
ried an American lady and settled in Red 
Hook, N. Y. He was naturalized in 1789, 
and became intimate with Chancellor 
Livingston, Governor Clinton, General 
Schuyler, and others, and was greatly in- 
terested in the opening of canals and in 
the navigation of the interior waters and 
lakes. He died in Clyde, N. Y., April 26, 

Diamond State. A name applied to 
the State of Delaware because of its 
small size, its wealth, and its importance. 

Diaz del Castillo, Bernal, military 
officer; born in Medina del Campo, Spain, 
about 1498; came to America as an ad- 
venturer in 1514, joining the expedition 
of Cordova in 1517, Grijalva in 1518, Cor- 
tez, 1519-21, and he was engaged in 119 
battles and skirmishes. He wrote a his- 
tory of the conquest of New Spain in 
1568 criticising Gomara's Chronicle of 
Neio Spain, in which nearly all the glory 
was given to Cortez. Diaz was a rough, 
unlettered soldier, and his history has 
been pronounced a " collection of fables." 
He died in Guatemala, about 1593. 

Dickerson, Mahlon, statesman ; born 
in Hanover, N. J., April 17, 1770; grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1789; practised law 
in Philadelphia, where he became recorder 
of the city court. He returned to New 
Jersey, was elected a member of the leg- 
islature in 1814, governor of the State 
in 1815, and United States Senator in 
1816. He was Secretary of the Navy un- 
der Presidents Jackson and Van Buren. 
He died in Succasunna, N, J., Oct. 5, 

Dickinson, Anna Elizabeth, reformer; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 28, 1842; 
made her first appearance among public 
speakers in 1857, and spoke frequently on 
temperance and slavery. During the Civil 
War she was employed by Republican com- 
mittees to make addresses, and after its 



conclusion she lectured on reconstruction May of that year. He was successively 
and on woman's work and wages. She president of the States of Delaware and 
was an advocate for woman's suffrage. Pennsylvania (1781-85), and a member 

Dickinson, Charles Wesley, inventor; of the convention that framed the na- 
born in Springfield, N. J., Nov. 23, 1823; tional Constitution (1787). Letters from 
became a machinist, and gave his attention his pen, over the signature of " FabiuB," 
to fine machinery. He perfected the bank- 
note engraving lathe, first used by the 
national government in 1862; and invent- 
ed a pantograph tracer, improved type- 
setting and type-distributing machines, 
etc. He died in Belleville, N. J., July 2, 

Dickinson, Don M., lawyer; born in 
Port Ontario, N. Y., Jan. 17, 1846; set- 
tled in Michigan in 1848; graduated at 
the Law Department of the University of 
Michigan in 1866; began practice in 
Detroit ; member of the Democratic 
National Committee in 1884-8.5; served as 
Postmaster-General of the United States 
in 1888-89. He was appointed senior 
counsel for the United States before the 
Bering Sea Claims Commission in 1896. 

Dickinson, Jacob McG., born in Col- 
umbus, Miss., Jan. 30, 1851, graduated at 
University of Nashville in 1871, appointed 
Secretary of War by President Taft in 

Dickinson, John, publicist; born in advocating the adoption of the national 
Maryland, Nov. 13, 1732; son of Chief- Constitution, appeared in 1788; and an- 
Justice Samuel D. Dickinson; studied law other series, over the same signature, on 
in Philadelphia and at the Temple in Lon- our relations with France, appeared in 
don, and practised his profession in Phila- 1797. Mr. Dickinson assisted in framing 
delphia. In the Pennsylvania Assembly, the constitution of Delaware in 1792. His 
to which he was elected in 1764, he showed monument is Dickinson College {q. v.), 
great legislative ability, and was a ready at Carlisle, Pa., which he founded and 
and vehement debater. At the same time, liberally endowed. He died in Wilmington, 
he wrote much on the subject of British Del., Feb. 14, 1808. 

infringement on the liberties of the colo- Dickinson, Philemon, military officer; 
nies. The most noted of these writings born in Croisedore, Md., April 5, 1739; 
were papers (twelve in number) entitled settled near Trenton, N. J. In July, 1775, 
Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer, etc., he entered the patriot army; in October 
published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle in of the same year was promoted brigadier- 
1767. Mr. Dickinson was a member of general ; in 1776 was a delegate to the Pro- 
the first Continental Congress, and wrote vincial Congress of New Jersey; in 1777 
several of the state papers put forth by was promoted major-general of the New 
that body. Considering the resolution of Jersey troops; in October of that year 
independence unwise, he voted against it marched against the British on Staten Isl- 
and the Declaration, and did not sign the and, for which he received the thanks of 
latter document. This made him unpopu- Washington; and served with marked dis- 
lar. In 1777 he was made a brigadier-gen- tinction during the remainder of the Revo- 
eral of the Pennsylvania militia. He was lutionary War. In 1784 he served on the 
elected a representative in Congress from commission to choose a site for the city 
Delaware in 1779, and wrote the Address of Washington. He died near Trenton, 
to the States put forth by that body in N. J., Feb. 4, 1809. 



Dickinson College, a co-educational 
institution in Carlisle, Pa. ; under the con- 
trol of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; 
organized in 1783; reported at the end of 
1900, thirty professors and instructors, 
480 students, 45,000 volumes in the 
library, 3,951 graduates, and $375,000 in 
productive funds; president, George E. 
Reed, S.T.D., LL.D. 

Dickson, John, statesman ; born in 
Keene, N. H., in 1783; graduated at 
Middlebury College in 1808; practised law 
in Rochester, N. Y., in 1813-25; member 
of Congress in 1831-35. He is credited 
with having delivered " the first important 
anti-slavery speech ever made in Con- 
gress." He published Remarks on the Pres- 
entation of Several Petitions for the 
Abolition of Slavery and the Slave-trade 
in the District of Columbia. He died in 
West Bloomfield, N. Y., Feb. 22, 1852. 

Dieskau, Ludwig August, Baron, mili- 
tary officer; born in Saxony in 1701; was 
lieutenant-colonel of cavalry under Mar- 
shal Saxe, and was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of infantry in 1748, and commander 
of Brest. In 1755 he was sent to Canada 
with the rank of major-general ; and in an 
attack upon the fortified encampment of 
Gen. William Johnson at the head of Lake 
George (Sept. 8, 1755) he was so severely 
wounded that he died in Surenne, near 
Paris, Sept. 8, 1757. 

Digges, Edward, colonial governor; 
born in England in 1620; came to Ameri- 
ca and introduced the silk-worm into Vir- 
ginia; became governor of that colony in 
1655, but before the close of the year 
resigned and became the bearer of a letter 
from the Virginia Assembly to Cromwell. 
He died in Virginia, March 15, 1675. 

Dimick, Justin, military officer; born 
in Hartford county, Conn., Aug. 5, 1800; 
graduated at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in 1819; served in the war 
with Mexico, and greatly distinguished 
himself at Contreras and Churubusco. In 
1861-63 he commanded the depot of 
prisoners at Fort Warren, Mass. He was 
retired in 1863; received the brevet of 
brigadier-general, U. S. A., in 1865. He 
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 13, 1871. 

Dingley, Nelson, legislator; born in 
Durham, Me., Feb. 15, 1832; gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1855; 
studied law in Auburn and was admitted 

to the bar there in 1856; and in the last 
mentioned year became editor and pro- 
prietor of the Lewiston Journal, a con- 
nection he retained till his death. From 
1861 till 1873 he was a member of the 
State legislature, and in 1873 and 1875 
was elected governor of Maine. In 1881 
he was elected to Congress to fill the va- 
cancy caused by the election of William 
P. Frye to the United States Senate, and 
by re-elections held the seat till his death. 


From the opening of his congressional 
career he was conspicuous as an advocate 
of high tariff. In 1890 he aided in the 
formulation of the McKinley tariff bill ; in 
1894 was a strong opponent of the Wilson 
bill ; and in 1897, as chairman of the 
committee on ways and means, he brought 
forward the tariff bill which was adopted 
under his name. President McKinley 
tendered him the post of Secretary of the 
Treasury, but he declined it. In 1898 he 
became a member of the Joint High Com- 
mission to negotiate a settlement of ex- 
isting differences between the United 
States and Canada. He died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, Jan. 13, 1899. 

Dinwiddle, Robert, colonial governor; 
born in Scotland about 1690. While act- 
ing as clerk to a collector of customs in 
the West Indies he discovered and ex- 
posed enormous frauds practised by his 
principal, and was rewarded with the 



office of surveyor of the customs, and 
afterwards with that of lieutenant-govern- 
or of Virginia. He arrived in the colony 
in 1752. He was rapacious, and unscrupu- 
lous in the accumulation of wealth. 
Owing to his exaction of enormous fees 
authorized by the board of trade for the 
issue of patents for lands, he gained the 
ill-will of the people of Virginia, and 
when he called for money to enable him 
to oppose the encroachments of the 
French, the House of Burgesses paid no 
attention to his expressed wishes. Din- 
widdle, unmindful of this conduct, en- 
listed a captain's command, and sent them 
to build a fort at the forks of the Ohio 
(now Pittsburg), and called on neighbor- 
ing colonies for aid in the work. He sent 
George Washington to the French com- 
mander on a mission of observation. 
Washington proved himself to be a zeal- 
ous officer; and Dinwiddle, discovering his 
capacity, made him adjutant-general of a 
military district. 

The revelations made to Washington 
at Fort Le Boeuf, the evident preparations 
of the French to make a concerted move- 
ment to secure the occupation of the Ohio 
region, and the tenor of St. Pierre's an- 
swer to Dinwiddle's letter, convinced the 










latter of the necessity of quick and ener- 
getic countervailing measures. St. Pierre 
declared that he was acting under the in- 
structions of his superior, the INIarquis 
Duquesne, at Montreal, and refused to 


withdraw his troops from the disputed 
territory. Dinwiddle immediately pre- 
pared for an expedition against the 
French, and a.sked the other colonies to 
co-operate with Virginia. This was the 
first call for a general colonial union 
against the common enemy. All hesi- 
tated excepting North Carolina. The 
legislature of that province promptly voted 
400 men, who were soon on the march 
for Winchester, the place of rendezvous; 
but they eventually proved of little worth, 
for, doubtful of being paid for their ser- 
vices, a great part of them were dis- 
banded before they reached the Shenan- 
doah Valley. Some volunteers from 
South Carolina and New York hastened 
to the gathering - place. Virginia respond- 
ed to the call to arms by organizing 
a regiment of 600 men, of which Joshua 
Fry was appointed colonel and Major 
Washington lieutenant-colonel. The Vir- 
ginians assembled at Alexandria, on 
the Potomac, whence Lieutenant - Colonel 
Washington, with the advance, marched 
(April 2, 1754) at their head for the 
Ohio. Meanwhile Captain Trent had re- 
cruited a company among the traders west 
of the mountains, and had begun the erec- 
tion of a fort at the forks of the Ohio. 
They were attacked (April 18) by a party 
of French and Indians, who expelled Trent 
and his men, completed the fort, and 
named it Duquesne, in honor of the cap- 
tain - general of Canada. News of this 
event reached Washington at Will's 
Creek (now Cumberland). He pushed 
foiward with 150 men to a point on the 
Monongahela less than 40 miles from Fort 
Duquesne. There he was informed that 
a strong force of French and Indians was 
marching to intercept him. He wisely fell 
back to the Great Meadows, where he 
erected a stockade, and called it Fort Ne- 
cessity. Before it was completed, a few 
of his troops attacked an advanced party 
of the enemy under Jumonville in the 
night, and the commander and several of 
his men were killed. Some of his capt- 
ured men were sent to Governor Dinwid- 
dle. Reinforced, Washington marched for 
Fort Duquesne again, but was driven back 
to Fort Necessity, which he was obliged 
to surrender on July 3. See Necessity, 

Dinwiddle was the first to suggest to 


the British board of trade the taxing of 
the colonies (1754) for funds to carry on 
the war with the French and Indians; 
and he was one of the five colonial gov- 
ernors who memorialized Parliament 
(1755) in favor of the measure. He had 
much clashing and vexation with the 
House of Burgesses; and worn out with 
trouble and age, he left Virginia under 
a cloud caused by a charge made by his 
enemies that he had appropriated to his 
own use £20,000 transmitted to him for 
compensation to the Virginians for money 
expended by them in the public service. 
He died in Clifton, England, Aug. 1, 1770. 
Dinwiddle Court-house, Actions at. 
In March, 1865, the National force under 
General Sheridan crossed the Appomat- 
tox Kiver from Bermuda Hundred, passed 
to the rear of the army before Peters- 
burg, and early on the morning of the 29th 
marched down the Jerusalem plank-road, 
and turning westward pushed on by way 
of Reams's Station to Dinwiddle Court- 
house, where he halted for the night at 
5 P.M. Sheridan expected to cut loose 
from the rest of the army on the 30th 
to make a raid on the South Side and Dan- 
ville railroads, but General Grant sud- 
denly changed his plans. General Lee, 
seeing that his only line of communication 
might be cut off at any hour, and feeling 
the necessity of maintaining his ex- 
tended line of works covering Peters- 
burg and Richmond, concentrated a force 
of about 15,000 men, and hastened to place 
them in front of the 5th and 2d Corps of 
*he National army. He then sought to 
strike a heavy blov? on the extreme west 
of Grant's lines, then held by Sheridan, 
which he supposed was a weak point. 
Sheridan captured the works at Five 
Forks, and so gained the key to the whole 
region that Lee was striving to protect. 
In the struggle to regain this point strong 
parts of both armies were soon facing each 
other at Dinwiddle Court - house. Here 
Sheridan won the day after a severe en- 
gagement, the Confederates being unable 
to make any rally, and the fighting ceased 
with darkness. During the night the Con- 
federates retired. 

Diocese, originally a division of de- 
partments or districts under the civil 
government of the Roman Empire, sub- 
sequently restricted to the territory under 

the supervision of a bishop. In the United 
States dioceses of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church bear the name of the State, 
part of the State, or Territory under the 
bishop's jurisdiction; in the Roman 
Catholic Church they take the name of 
the city containing the bishop's cathedral. 
Diplomatic Service. The following is 
a table of the chiefs of the United States 
embassies and legations in foreign coun- 
tries on Jan. 1, 1901: 

Argentine Eepublic. 

William P. Lord, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Buenos 


Addison C. Harris, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Vienna. 


Lawrence Townsend, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 



George H. Bridgman, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, La 


Charles Page Bryan, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Rio 
de Janeiro. 


Henry L. Wilson, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Santiago. 


Edwin H. Conger, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Peking. 


Charles Burdett Hart, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 

Costa Rica. 

William L. Merry, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, San 


Laurits S. Swenson, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 


Dominican Eeptjblic. Netherlands. 

William F. Powell, Cliarg6 d'Affaires, Stanford Newel, Envoy Extraordinary 
Port au Prince. and Minister Plenipotentiary, The Hague, 

Ecuador. Nicaragua and Salvador. 

Archibald J. Sampson, Envoy Extraor- William L. Merry, Envoy Extraordinary 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, and Minister Plenipotentiary, San Jo86. 


John G. Long, Agent and Consul-Gen 
eral, Cairo. 


(See Costa Rica.) 

Paraguay and Uruguay. 

Horace Porter, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary, Paris. 

German Empire. 

Andrew D. White, Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary, Berlin. 

Great Britain. 

Joseph H. Choate, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary, London. 

Greece, Rumania, and Servia. 
Arthur S. Hardy, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Athens. 

Guatemala and Honduras. 
W. Godfrey Hunter, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 
Guatemala City. 


William F. Powell, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Port 
au Prince. 


, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary, Rome. 


Alfred E. Buck, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Tokio. 

William R. Finch, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 


Herbert W. Bowen, Minister Resident 
and Consul-General, Teheran. 


Irving B. Dudley, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lima. 


John N. Irwin, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lisbon. 


Charlemagne Tower, Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 
St. Petersburg. 


Hamilton King, Minister Resident and 
Consul-General, Bangkok. 


Bellamy Storer, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Madrid. 

Sweden and Norway. 
William W. Thomas, Jr., Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 


Horace N. 
and Consul-General, Seoul. 

John G. A. Leishman, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 
Allen, Minister Resident Berne. 



Owen L. W. Smith, Minister Resident 
and Consul-General, Monrovia. 


Powell Clayton, Ambassador Extraor- nary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Cara- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary, Mexico. cas. 


Oscar S. Straus, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Constanti- 


Francis B. Loomis, Envoy Extraordi- 


The following is a table of the chiefs 
of the foreign embassies and legations in 
the United States on Jan. 1, 1901 : 

Argentine Eepublic. 
Dr. Eduardo Wilde, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Mr. Ladislaus Hengelmuller von Hen- 
gervar, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 


Count G. de Lichtervelde, Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 


Seiior Don Fernando E. Guachalla, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 


de Assis-Brasil, Envoy Ex- 
and Minister Plenipoten- 

Mr. J. F 

Senor Don Carlos Morla Vicuna, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- and Minister Plenipotentiary, 

China. Mexico, 

Mr. Wu Ting-Fang, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Herr von HoUeben, Ambassador Ex- 
traordinary and Plenipotentiary. 

Great Britain. 

The Right Honorable Lord Pauncefote, 
of Preston, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., Ambassador 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. 


Senor Don Antonio Lazo Arriaga, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 


Mr. J. N. Leger, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary. 


Baron de Fava, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Mr. Kogoro Takahira, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 

Mr. Chin Pom Ye, Envoy Extraordinary 


Senor Dr. Luis Cuervo Marquez, 
Chargg d' Affaires. 

Costa Rica, 
Senor Don Joaquin Bernardo Calvo, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiarj. 

Senor Don Manuel de Azpiroz, Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 


Baron W. A. F. Gevers, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Senor Don Luis F. Corea, Envoy Ex- 

Mr. Constantin Brun, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 

Dominican Republic. 

Senor Don Emilio C. Joubert, Charge 

Senor Don Luis Felipe Carbo, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 


M. Jules Cambon, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary. 



Mr. Manuel Alvarez Calderon, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 

Viscount de Santo-Thyrso, Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Comte Cassini, Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary. 

Senor Don Rafael Zaldivar, Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. 


Phya Prashiddhi, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, accredited 
both to the United States and Great 


Duke de Arcos, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Sweden and Norway. 
Mr. A. Grip, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Mr. J. B. Pioda, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary. 

Ali Ferrouh Bey, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary. 


Senor Dr. Don Juan Cuestas, Minis- 
ter Resident. 


Senor Don Augusto F. Pulido, Charge 
d'Affaires ad interim. 

See Consular Service. 

Directory, French, the name given to 
the government of the French Republic, 
established by a constitution in August, 
1795, framed by the moderate republican 
party after the fall of Robespierre and the 
end of the Reign of Terror. The executive 
directory consisted of five persons, who 
promulgated the laws, appointed the min- 
isters, and had the management of mili- 
tary and naval affairs. They decided ques- 
tions by a majority vote, and presided, by 
turns, three months each, the presiding 
member having the signature and the seal. 
During their terms of office none of them 
could have a personal command, or absent 
himself for more than five days from the 
place where the council held its sessions 
without its permission. The legislative 
power, under the constitution, was vested 
in two assemblies, the Council of Five 
Hundred and the Council of the Ancients, 
the former having the exclusive right of 
preparing laws for the consideration 
of the latter. The judicial authority was 
committed to elective judges. The first 
directors chosen (Nov. 1, 1795) were MM. 
Barras, Revelliere-Lepeaux, Rewbell, Le- 

tourneur, and Carnot. The latter organ- 
ized the armies with great skill. 

Disbanding of the Union Armies. 
See Arjiy, Disbanding of the Union 

Disbrowe, Samuel, magistrate; born 
in Cambridgeshire, England, Nov. 30, 
1C19; came to America in 1639; and 
bought from the Indians the site of Guil- 
ford, Conn. The constitution of this set- 
tlement in the writing of Disbrowe is still 
preserved and provides for judiciary, ex- 
ecutive, and legislative departments, etc. 
He returned to England in 1G50, and died 
in Cambridgeshire, Dec. 10, 1G90. 

Disciples of Christ, a religious body 
founded in Washington, Pa., 1811, by 
Thomas Campbell, a minister who had 
left the Presbyterian Church in Ire- 
land and came to the United States in 
1807. He deplored the divided state of 
the Church and the evils which arose there- 
from. He held that the only remedy for 
this was a complete restoration of primi- 
tive apostolic Christianity. This view met 
with some approval, a new sect was 
formed, and the first church was organized 
on May 4, 1811. In addition to the funda- 
mental truths which the Disciples of 
Christ hold in common with all Chris- 
tian bodies the following may be cited as 
some of their more particular principles: 
1. The Church of Christ is intentionally 
and constitutionally one; and all divisions 
which obstruct this unity are contrary to 
the will of God, and should be ended. 2. 
As schisms sprang from a departure from 
the New Testament Christianity, the rem- 
edy for them is to be found in the restora- 
tion of the Gospel in its purity. 3. Iq 
order to accomplish this restoration all 
human formulation of doctrine as authori- 
tative bases for church membership must 
be surrendered, and the Bible received 
alone as the basis of all faith and prac- 
tice; the exchange of all party names for 
scriptural names, and the restoration of 
the ordinances as they were originally. 
The polity of the Disciples is congrega- 
tional ; the local churches have elders and 
deacons. They have no general body for 
legislative purposes, but combine in dis- 
trict and national organizations for mis- 
sionary work. In 1900 they reported 6,528 
ministers, 10,528 churches, and 1,149,982 


Discoveries of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury. Alfred Russell Wallace, in his book, 
The Wonderful Century, makes a compari- 
son between the great inventions and dis- 
coveries of the nineteenth century and 
those of the entire previous historical pe- 
riod, which is as follows: 

Of the Nineteenth Century. 

1. Railways. 

2. Steamships. 

3. Electric telegraphs. 

4. The telephone. 

5. Lucifer matches. 

6. Gas illumination. 

7. Electric lighting. 

8. Photography. 

9. The phonograph. 

10. Rontgen rays. 

11. Spectrum- analysis. 

12. Anaesthetics. 

13. Antiseptic surgery. 

14. Conservation of energy. 

15. Molecular theory of gases. 

16. Velocity of light directly measured, 

and earth's rotation experimental- 
ly shown. 

17. The uses of dust. 

18. Chemistry, definite proportions. 

19. Meteors and the meteoritic theory. 

20. The Glacial Epoch. 

21. The antiquity of man. 

22. Organic evolution established. 

23. Cell theory and embryology. 

24. Germ theory of disease, and the 

function of the leucocytes. 

Of all Preceding Ages. 

1. The mariner's compass. 

2. The steam-engine. 

3. The telescope. 

4. The barometer and thermometer. 

5. Printing. 

6. Arabic numerals. 

7. Alphabetical writing. 

8. Modern chemistry founded. 

9. Electric science founded. 

10. Gravitation established. 

11. Kepler's laws. 

12. The differential calculus. 

13. The circulation of the blood. 

14. Light proved to have finite ve- 


15. The development of geometry. 
Disfranchisement. Several of the 

Southern States have revised, and others 

contemplate the revision, of their consti- 
tutions with a view to disfranchise illit- 
erate negroes. 

Louisiana. — There is an educational 
qualification, which, however, does not ap- 
ply to men or to the sons or grandsons of 
men who were qualified to vote in 1867, 
nor to foreigners naturalized before Jan. 
1, 1898. 

Mississippi. — An educational qualifica- 
tion and a poll tax of $2, which may be 
further increased by a county poll tax 
of $1. 

North Carolina. — An educational quali- 
fication and a poll tax are necessary, with 
the exception that the educational qualifi- 
cation shall not apply to any one who 
was entitled to vote under the laws of any 
State in the United States on Jan. 1, 1867. 
South Carolina. — On Jan. 1, 1896, a 
new constitution went into effect by which 
voters could be enrolled up to Jan. 1, 
1898, provided they could read or could 
explain to the satisfaction of the register- 
ing oSicer such parts of the Constitution 
of the United States as might be read 
to them, but after Jan, 1, 1898, only 
those able to read and write any re- 
quired part of the Constitution, or who 
could prove themselves tax-payers on 
property worth not less than $300, could 
be enrolled as voters. 

Maryland. — A new law was passed 
March 20, 1901, practically making an 
educational qualification to read and write 
necessary for enrolment as a voter. 
See also Elective Franchise. 
Dismal Swamp, a morass in southern 
Virginia, extending into North Carolina. 
It was formerly 40 miles long and 25 
miles wide, but has become somewhat re- 
duced in area by drainage of its border. 
It is densely timbered with cypress, juni- 
per, cedar, pine, etc. Lake Drummond, 
near its centre, covers about 6 square 
miles. This swamp rises towards its 
centre, which is considerably higher than 
its margin. The canal, constructed 
through the swamp to connect Chesapeake 
Bay with Albemarle Sound, has large his- 
toric interests. The company organized 
to build the canal received a joint charter 
from the legislative assemblies of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina on Dec. 1, 1787. 
The canal was opened to navigation in 
1822; was wholly finished in 1828; and 


was built with the assistance of the na- 
tional government and the State of Vir- 
ginia at a cost of $1,800,000. Originally 
it was 32 feet wide and 4 feet deep. Sub- 
sequently the width was increased to 40 
feet and the depth to 6 feet, and the de- 
caying wooden locks were replaced with 
stone ones. This canal was for many 
years the principal means of communi- 
cation between the North and the South, 
and was a very profitable venture. After 
the Civil War its usefulness departed. 
Early in 1899, the canal, as entirely re- 
constructed, was reopened to navigation. 
It now extends from the village of Deep 
Creek, Va., to South Mills, N. C, a dis- 
tance of 22 miles. The present canal is 
one of the most important links in the 
chain of inland waterways along the coast 
from New York to Florida, and, as the 
dangers of Cape Hatteras are avoided by 
it, it has a large value both in peace and 
war. Thomas Moore the poet, while at 
Norfolk, put into verse an Indian legend, 
under the title of Tlie Lake of the Dismal 

Disosway, Gabriel Poillon, anti- 
quary; born in New York City, Dec. 6, 
1799; graduated at Columbia College in 
1819; author of The Earliest Churches of 
New York and its Vicinity. He died on 
Staten Island, N. Y., July 9, 1868. 

District of Columbia, the Federal Dis- 
trict and seat of government of the United 
States. In 1791 the District was erected 
into two counties, as divided by the Poto- 
mac, and was placed under the jurisdic- 
tion of a circuit court, composed of a 
chief -justice and two assessors ; the judg- 
ment of this court to be final in criminal 
cases, but in civil cases, where the amount 
in dispute exceeded $100 in value, a writ 
of error to lie in the Supreme Court of 
the United States. This arrangement was 
afterwards modified. Instead of provid- 
ing a homogeneous code of laws for the 
District, those of Maryland and Virginia 
were continued. A bill to abolish slavery 
in the District was passed by the Congress 
(April 11, 1862), and became a law by 
the signature of the President, April 16. 
It provided for the payment, out of the 
treasury of the United States, of an aver- 
age of $300 to the master or mistress of 
each slave thus emancipated. Thus eman- 
cipation began at the national capital. In 

connection with this event was a curious 
proceeding. A free negro of the District, 
who had bought and paid for his slave 
wife, she and her children being, by the 
slave code, his lawful slaves, claimed and 
received compensation for her and her 
half-dozen children. In 1871, the District 
was organized as a Territory with a ter- 
ritorial form of government. So extrava- 
gant, however, were the expenditures made 
for public improvements by the officials of 
the Territory, that in 1874 Congress re- 
pealed the act creating the Territory, and 
invested the executive powers of the munic- 
ipality in three commissioners — two civil- 
ians and a United States engineer officer — • 
appointed by the President. All legisla- 
tive powers were assumed by Congress. 
The law provided was the common law of 
England, modified by acts of Congress. 
There is a supreme court of six justices, 
with other tribunals and officials. The 
expenses of the municipality are defrayed 
one-half by revenues from taxes levied on 
private property, and one-half by con- 
gressional appropriations. The citizens 
have no right to vote on national or local 

In 1900 the city of Washington (q.v.) 
was co-extensive with the District of Co- 
lumbia, the former corporations of George- 
town and Washington having been abol- 
ished, and the public affairs of the district 
placed under the management of three 
commissioners. The total funded debt was 
$1.5,091,300, and the assessed valuation 
$191,049,744. The population in 1890 was 
230,392; in 1900, 278,718. See United 
States — District of Columbia, in vol. ix. 

Disunion, Early Threats of. In 
angry debates in Congress on the subject 
of the fisheries, in 1779, threats of dis- 
imion were made by deputies of the 
North and the South. It was shown that 
the prosperity of New England depended 
on the fisheries; but in this the Southern 
States had no common interest. Indeed, 
in all the States the doctrine of State 
supremacy was so universally prevalent 
that the deputies in Congress, instead of 
willingly legislating for the whole, legis- 
lated for their respective States. When 
appeals had been made in Congress for a 
favorable consideration of New England 
in relation to the fisheries without eff"ect, 
Samuel Adams said that " it would be- 


come more and more necessary for the 
two empires [meaning the Northern and 
Southern States divided by Mason and 
Dixon's line] to separate." When the 
North offered a preliminary resolution 
that the country, even if deserted by 
France and Spain, would continue the war 
for the sake of the fisheries, four States 
drew up a protest, declaring peremptorily 
that if the resolution should be adopted 
they would withdraw from the confedera- 
tion. These sectional interests continu- 
ally stood in the Avay of a perfect union 
of the struggling colonists. The inflexible 
tenacity with which each State asserted 
its title to complete sovereignty often 
menaced the Union with destruction, and 
independence became, in the minds of 
some, an idle dream. When, in August, 
1781, envoys from Vermont were in Phila- 
delphia, entreating for the admission of 
their State into the Union, the measure 
was opposed by the Southern delegates, 
because it would " destroy the balance of 
power " between the two sections of the 
confederacy, and give the preponderance 
to the North. The purchase of Louisiana 
was deprecated and violently opposed by 
the Federalist leaders, because it would 
strengthen the Southern political influ- 
ence then controlling the national govern- 

ment. They professed to regard the meas- 
ure as inimical to the Northern and East- 
ern sections of the Union. The Southern 
politicians had made them familiar with 
the prescription of disunion as a remedy 
for incurable political evils, and they re- 
solved to try its efficacy in the case in 
question. All through the years 1803 and 
1804 desires for and fears of a dissolu- 
tion of the Union were freely expressed in 
what were free-labor States in 1861. East 
of the Alleghanies, early in 1804, a select 
convention of Federalists, to be held in 
Boston, was contemplated, in the ensuing 
autumn, to consider the question of dis- 
union. Alexander Hamilton was invited 
to attend it, but his emphatic condemna- 
tion of the whole plan, only a short time 
before his death, seems to have discon- 
certed the leaders and dissipated the 
t-oheme. The Rev. Jedidiah Morse, then 
very influential in the Church and in poli- 
tics in New England, advocated the sever- 
ance of the Eastern States from the Union, 
so as to get rid of the evils of the slave 
system; and, later, Josiah Quincy, in a 
debate in the House of Representatives, 
expressed his opinion that it might be- 
come necessary to divide the Union as a 
cure of evils that seemed to be already 


Divorce Laws. Excepting in South 
Carolina, which has no divorce laws, a 
violation of the marriage vow is cause 
for divorce in all' the States and Ter- 
ritories. Other legal causes are shown 

Alabama. — Voluntary abandonment for 
two years; habitual drunkenness after 
marriage and incapacity; imprisonment 
in penitentiary for two years on a sen- 
tence of seven years or more. In making 
decree chancellor may decide whether de- 
fendant may marry again or not. Resi- 
dence of one year in State required; but 
if the application is made on ground ot 
desertion, three years' residence is re- 

Arizona. — Excesses or cruel treatment; 
habitual intemperance ; abandonment for 
six months; wilful neglect to provide on 

part of husband; conviction of felony. 
Residence required, six months; either 
party may marry again. 

Arkansas. — Permanent or incurable in- 
sanity; wilful desertion one year; convic- 
tion of felony or other infamous crime; 
cruel treatment as to endanger life; per- 
sonal indignities such as to render con- 
dition intolerable; habitual drunkenness 
one year. Residence required, one year; 
either party may marry again. 

California.— E.ahii\\3\ drunkenness, neg- 
lect, or wilful desertion one year; ex- 
treme cruelty; conviction of felony. Resi- 
dence required, one year; either may re- 

Colorado. — Habitual drunkenness; wil- 
ful desertion or failure on part of hus- 
band to provide for wife, either continuea 
for one year; conviction of felony; ex- 
treme cruelty, causing either mental or 



physical suffering. Residence required, dence required, six months; either may 

one year; neither can remarry within remarry. 

one year. Illinois. — Extreme and repeated cruel- 

Connecticut. — Habitual intemperance; ty; conviction of felony or other infamous 

intolerable cruelty; sentence to imprison- crime; attempt by either party on life 

ment for life; fraudulent contract; wil- of other; wilful desertion two years. 

ful desertion and total neglect of duty Residence required, one year; no statute 

for three years; absent and unheard of as to remarrying. 

seven years; any infamous crime involv- Indiana. — Habitual drunkenness; cruel 

ing violation of conjugal duty, and pun- and inhuman treatment; abandonment 

ishable by imprisonment in State prison, two years; failure on part of husband to 

Residence required, three years; either support wife for two years. Residence 

may remarry. required, two years; either may marry 

Delaware. — Married under age; force or again, except as limited in decree, 
fraud in procuring marriage; extreme Kansas. — Fraudulent contract; convic- 
cruelty; habitual drunkenness; convic- tion of and imprisonment for felony; 
tion of felony; desertion three years; wil- habitual drunkenness; extreme cruelty; 
ful failure of husband to provide three gross neglect of duty; abandonment one 
years. No statute as to residence; either year. Residence required, one year; par- 
may remarry, but party guilty of infi- ties may remarry at once, unless appeal 
delity must not marry party with whom is taken, and then thirty days after final 
crime was committed. judgment on the appeal. 

District of Columbia. — Wilful desertion Kentucky. — Uniting with religious so- 

for two years; habitual drunkenness; ciety which forbids marriage of husband 

cruelty and abuse endangering life or and wife; abandonment one year; living 

health; insane at marriage. Divorces apart without cohabitation five years; 

from bed and board may be granted for condemnation for felony; force, duress or 

cruelty and reasonable apprehension of fraud in procuring marriage. Wife may 

physical harm. Residence required, two obtain divorce for husband's neglect to 

years; no statutory provision as to re- provide, and habitually treating her in 

marrying. such cruel and inhuman manner as to de- 

Florida. — Wilful, obstinate, and contin- stroy her peace and happiness; cruel beat- 

ued desertion one year; habitual intem- ing or injury indicating outrageous temper 

perance for one year; extreme cruelty; and endangering her life; confirmed hab- 

habitual indulgence in violent temper, its of intoxication. Residence required, 

A person who has been a resident of Flor- one year ; either may remarry. 

ida for two years, and whose husband Louisiana. — Desertion for five years, 

or wife has procured a divorce in any having been summoned to return within 

other State or country, may obtain a one year of filing claim; attempt on life 

divorce. Residence required, two years; of other; fugitive from justice; habitual 

either may marry again. intemperance to excess; condemnation to 

Georgia. — Habitual drunkenness; cruel ignominious punishment; cruel treat- 
treatment; wilful desertion three years; ment or outrages of such nature as to 
mental incapacity at time of marriage; render living together insupportable. No 
conviction of crime involving moral turpi- divorce, except for infidelity, shall be 
tude under which party has been sen- granted, except decree of separation pre- 
tenced to imprisonment for two years or viously had and parties lived apart one 
longer; force, menaces, threats, duress, year. No statute as to previous resi- 
and fraud in procuring marriage. In pro- dence ; woman cannot marry for ten 
curing divorce, concurrent verdict of two months after marriage is dissolved ; on 
juries at different terms of court are divorce for infidelity guilty party shall 
necessary. Applicant must reside in State: not marry person with whom crime was 
no statute as to marrying again. committed. 

Idaho. — Conviction of felony; extreme Maine. — Sentence to imprisonment for 

cruelty; habitual intemperance; wilful life; desertion for three years; failure 

desertion and neglect one year. Resi- of husband to provide for wife; cruel and 



abusive ti'eatment; gross and confirmed 
habits of intoxication. Residence re- 
quired, one year; either may remarry. 

Maryland. — Abandonment three years ; 
any cause which would render marriage 
void ab initio. Residence required, two 
years; in cases of divorce for infidelity, 
court may decree that guilty party shall 
not marry during life of other. 

Massachusetts. — Sentence to hard labor 
for five years or longer; where either 
party has joined religious society that 
professes to believe relation of husband 
and wife unlawful, and has continued 
with such society three years, refusing 
for that time to cohabit; husband cruelly 
and wantonly refusing to provide; gross 
and confirmed habits of intoxication with 
liquors, by opium or other drugs; cruel 
and abusive treatment; utter desertion 
three years. Residence required, three 
years where parties have resided together 
in State, otherwise five years; guilty 
party cannot marry for two years. 

Michigan. — Imprisonment for life or 
three years or more; where either has 
obtained divorce in another State ; neglect 
by husband to provide; habitual drunken- 
ness; desertion for two years. Resi- 
dence required, one year; court may or- 
der that guilty party shall not marry for 
term not exceeding two years. 

Minnesota. — Wilful desertion, one year; 
sentence to State prison; cruel and in- 
human treatment; habitual drunkenness 
one year. Residence required, one year; 
either party may marry again. 

Mississippi. — Insanity or idiocy at time 
of marriage unknown to other; habitual 
cruel and inhuman treatment; habitual 
drunkenness; wilful desertion two years; 
sentenced to penitentiary. Residence re- 
quired, one year; court may decree that 
guilty party shall not remarry. 

Missouri. — Conviction of crime or felony 
prior to marriage unknown to other; con- 
viction of felony or infamous crime; ab- 
sent without cause one year ; habitual 
drunkenness one year ; husband guilty of 
such conduct as to constitute him a va- 
grant; cruel or barbarous treatment as to 
endanger life; indignities as to render 
condition intolerable. Residence required, 
one year; either may remarry. 

Montana. — Extreme cruelty; conviction 
of felony or infamo'JS crime; habitual 

drunkenness one year; desertion one year, 
husband deserting wife and leaving State 
without intention of returning. Resi- 
dence required, one year. 

Nebraska. — Extreme cruelty; utter de- 
sertion two years; sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life or for three years or more; 
habitual drunkenness ; wilful desertion for 
five years. Divorce from bed and board 
or from bonds of matrimony may be 
granted for extreme cruelty by personal 
violence or other means, utter desertion 
two years, or failure of husband to pro- 
vide. Previous residence, six months; 
neither can remarry within time allowed 
for appeal, nor before final judgment if 
appeal is taken. 

Nevada. — Neglect of husband to pro- 
vide for one year; extreme cruelty; wilful 
desertion one year; conviction of felony 
or infamous crime; habitual gross drunk- 
enness. Residence required, six months; 
either may remarry. 

New Hampshire. — Conviction of crime 
and imprisonment for one year ; extreme 
cruelty; where either party has treated 
other as to injure health or endanger 
reason; habitual drunkenness three years; 
absent and unheard of three years ; deser- 
tion for three years with refusal to co- 
habit; desertion for three years with re- 
fusal to support; where either party has 
joined society professing to believe rela- 
tion of husband and wife unlawful, and 
refusal to cohabit with other for six 
months; where wife has resided out of 
State ten years without husband's con- 
sent, without returning to claim her mari- 
tal rights; where wife of alien has resided 
in State three years, and her husband has 
left United States with intention of be- 
coming citizen of another country, not 
having made suitable provision for her 
support. One or the other must be resi- 
dent of State one year, unless both were 
domiciled in State when action was com- 
menced, or defendant was served with pro- 
cess in State, the plaintiff being domiciled 
therein; either can remarry. 

Nev) Jersey. — Extreme cruelty; wilful, 
continued and obstinate desertion for 
two years. Residence required, three 
years; no statutory provision as to re- 

New Mexico. — Neglect of husband to 
provide; habitual drunkenness; cruel or 



inhuman treatment; abandonment. Resi- 
dence required, one year. 

New York. — Absolute divorce granted 
only for adultery. Residence required, 
one year. When woman under age of six- 
teen is married without consent of parent 
or guardian, when consent was obtained 
by fraud, force or duress, or where either 
party was insane or idiot, marriage may 
be annulled. In such cases either party 
may remarry, but in cases of absolute di- 
vorce guilty party shall not marry during 
life of other, with the following excep- 
tions: He may be permitted by court to 
remarry upon proving that the other party 
has remarried, that five years have elapsed 
since divorce was granted, and that his 
conduct has been uniformly good. If the 
guilty party marries in another State in 
accordance with laws of that State, the 
marriage will be held good in New York. 

North Carolina. — Divorce may be 
granted to wife if husband is indicted for 
felony, and flees from the State and does 
not return for one year; to the husband 
if wife refuses relations with him for one 
year. Divorces from bed and board may 
be granted for habitual drunkenness, 
abandonment, cruel or barbarous treat- 
ment endangering life, indignities to per- 
son as to render condition intolerable, 
maliciously turning other out - of - doors. 
Residence ' required, two years ; on abso- 
lute divorce either may remarry. 

North Dakota. — Conviction of felony; 
extreme cruelty, wilful desertion, wilful 
neglect and habitual intemperance, each 
continued for one year. Residence re- 
quired, ninety days; guilty party cannot 
marry during life of other. South Dakota 

Ohio. — Imprisonment in penitentiary ; 
gross neglect of duty; extreme cruelty; 
habitual drunkenness for three years; 
fraudulent contract; divorce procured by 
either in another State. Residence re- 
quired, one year ; either may remarry. 

Oklahoma. — Habitual intemperance ; ex- 
treme cruelty; abandonment one year; 
fraudulent contract; gross neglect of 
duty; conviction of felony and imprison- 
ment. Residence required, ninety days; 
decree does not become absolute till six 
months after its date. 

Oregon. — Wilful desertion one year; 
habitual, gross drunkenness one year ; con- 

viction of felony; personal indignities or 
cruel and inhuman treatment rendering 
life burdensome. Residence required, one 
year; neither can marry until expira- 
tion of time for appeal, and in case of ap- 
peal, until after judgment on the appeal. 

Pennsylvania. — Conviction of felony 
and sentence for two years or longer; wil- 
ful and malicious desertion for two years, 
or where husband by cruelty and abuse 
has endangered his wife's life, or offered 
such indignities to her person as to render 
her condition intolerable and her life 
burdensome, and thereby forced her to 
withdraw from his home and family; 
where wife, by cruel and barbarous treat- 
ment, renders husband's condition intoler- 
able; fraud, force or coercion in procuring 
marriage. Residence required, one year; 
either may remarry. 

Rhode Island. — Where marriage was 
void or voidable by law; where either 
party is for crime deemed civilly dead, or 
from absence or other circumstances pre- 
sumed to be dead; wilful desertion for 
five years or for a shorter time, in discre- 
tion of court; extreme cruelty; continued 
drunkenness; neglect or refusal of hus- 
band to provide, or for any other gross 
misbehavior or wickedness in either party 
repugnant to or in violation of the mar- 
riage covenant, and where parties have 
lived apart for ten years. Residence re- 
quired, one year; no statute as to re- 

Tennessee. — Habitual drunkenness ; wil- 
ful or malicious desertion for two years; 
attempting life of other ; conviction of in- 
famous crime; conviction and sentence to 
penitentiary for felony; refusal of wife to 
move into this State, and wilfully absent- 
ing herself from husband for two years. 
Divorces from bed and board may be 
granted for cruel and inhuman treatment 
to wife, indignities to her person render- 
ing her condition intolerable, and forcing 
her to withdraw, abandoning her or turn- 
ing her out-of-doors, and refusing or neg- 
lecting to provide for her. Residence re- 
quired, two years; on absolute divorce 
either may remarry, but on divorce for in- 
fidelity guilty one shall not marry party 
with whom crime was committed during 
life of other. 

Texas. — Desertion for three years ; ex- 
cesses ; conviction of felony and imprison- 



ment in State prison; cruel treatment or ual drunkenness for one year; imprison- 
outrages, if of nature to render living to- ment for life or for three years or more; 
gether insupportable. Residence required, cruel and inhuman treatment by personal 
six months; either may remarry. violence; where parties have voluntarily 
Utah. — Conviction of felony; habitual lived apart five years. Residence re- 
drunkenness; wilful neglect to provide for quired, one year; either may remarry, 
wife; wilful desertion more than one Wyoming. — Conviction of felony or in- 
year; cruel treatment as to cause bodily famous crime prior to marriage unknown 
injuries or mental distress. Residence re- to other; conviction and sentence for fel- 

quired, one year; either may remarry. 

Vermont. — Sentence to hard labor in 
State prison for life or for three years or 
more; fraud or force in procuring mar- 
riage, or either under age of consent; hus- 
band grossly, wantonly, and cruelly neg- 
lecting to provide; wilful desertion three 
years, or absence seven years unheard of; 
intolerable severity. Petitioner must re- 
side in the State at least one year ; guilty beth Cady Stanton (q. v.) , 
party shall not marry again for the term known advocate of woman's 

ony; wilful desertion one year; neglect of 
husband to provide for one year; habitual 
drunkenness; such indignities as to ren- 
der condition intolerable. Residence re- 
quired, six months; no statute as to re- 

Divorce Laws, Uniform. Upon the 
question of the desirability of a uniform 
divorce law in the United States, Eliza- 

the well- 

of three years. writes as follows: 

Virginia. — Wilful desertion five years; 

fugitive from justice two years; convic- There has been much discussion of late in 
tion of infamous offence prior to mar- regard to the necessity for an entire re- 
riage unknown to other; sentenced to vision of the laws on divorce. For this pur- 
confinement in penitentiary. Divorces pose, the State proposes a committee of 
from bed and board may be granted for learned judges, the Church another of dis- 
cruelty, reasonable apprehension of bodily tinguished bishops, to frame a national 
harm, abandonment or desertion. Resi- law which shall be endorsed by both Church 
dence required, one year; court may de- and State. Though women are as deeply 
cree that guilty party may not remarry interested as men in this question, there 
without the consent of court. is no suggestion that women shall be 

Washington. — Abandonment one year; represented- on either committee. Hence, 
habitual drunkenness or neglect or re- the importance of some expressions of 

their opinions before any changes are 
made. As judges and bishops are pro- 
verbially conservative, their tendency 
would be to make the laws in the free 
States more restrictive than they now 
are, and thus render it more difficult for 
wives to escape from unhappy marriages. 
The States which have liberal divorce 

fusal to provide; consent to marriage ob- 
tained by force or fraud; cruel treatment 
or personal indignities rendering life bur- 
densome; chronic mania or dementia of 
either party for ten years; imprisonment 
in penitentiary or any other cause deemed 
sufficient by the court. Residence re- 
quired, one year; neither party can marry 
until time for repeal has elapsed, or if laws are to women what Canada was to 
appeal is taken, not until after final judg- the slaves before the emancipation. The 


West Virginia. — Wilful desertion three 
years ; husband notoriously immoral ; wife 
immoral before marriage unknown to hus- 
band; imprisonment in penitentiary. 
Divorces from bed and board may be 
granted for habitual drunkenness, aban- 
donment, desertion, cruel and inhuman 

applicants for divorce are chiefly women, 
a3 Naquet's bill, which passed the 
Chamber of Deputies of France, abun- 
dantly proves. In the first year there were 
3,000 applications, the greater number 
being women. 

Unhappy husbands have many ways of 
mitigating their miseries which are not 

treatment, or reasonable apprehension of open to wives, who are financial depend- 
bodily harm. Residence required, one ants and burdened with children. Hus- 
year; no statute as to remarriage. bands can leave the country and invest 

Wisconsin. — Neglect to provide; habit- their property in foreign lands. Laws 



affect only those who respect and obey necessary that a private act of Par- 

them. Laws made to restrain iinprin- liament should be passed in order that a 

cipled men fall with crushing weight on divorce could be obtained. In 1857, the 

women. A young woman with property State took action looking towards the 

of her own can now easily free herself granting of divorces by the courts with- 

from an unworthy husband by spending out the interposition of Parliament, but 

a year Ir a free State, and in due time this action has not been sanctioned by 

she can marry again. the Church of England. Hence has arisen 

Because an inexperienced girl has a peculiar state of affairs in England, 

made a mistake — partly, in many cases, which has led to considerable confusion, 

through the bad counsel of her advisers — The Church forbids the marriage of either 

shall she be denied the right to marry party, except of the innocent parties in 

again? We can trace the icy fingers of cases where the cause is adultery. But as 

the canon law in all our most sacred the State permits the marriage of divorced 

relations. Through the evil influences of parties, the ministers of the Church of 

that law, the Church holds the key to England were put in an awkward position, 

the situation, and is determined to keep As ministers of the Church, they were 

it. At a triennial Episcopal convention forbidden to marry these persons, but as 

held in Washington, D. C, bishops, with the Church is allied to the State, and to 

closed doors, discussed the question of a certain extent subject to it, a number 

marriage and divorce ad libitum, a large of them believed it their civil duty to per- 

majority of the bishops being in favor of form such marriages, and they performed 

the most restrictive canons; and, though them in violation of the canonical law. 

an auxiliary convention was held at the The agitation over this question has at- 

same time, composed of 1,500 women, tracted a great deal of attention during 

members of the Episcopal Church, they the last few years, and is looked upon as 

had no part in the discussion, covering being one of the most powerful causes 

a dozen or more canon laws. which may lead to the disestablishment of 

A recent writer on this subject says: the Church of England. 

Marriage should be regarded as a. civil 

"There is no doubt that the sentiment in contract, entirely under the jurisdiction 

the Episcopal Church, at least among the ^f ^^^ g^^^g_ ^j^^ 1 latitude the 

clergy, is strongly m favor of the Church „, , , . . , „. . 

setting its face firmly against divorce. An Church has in our temporal affairs, the 

evidence of this is the circulation of a peti- better. 

tion to the convention requesting that it Lord Brougham says: "Before woman 

adopt some stringent rule for this purpose, i • i- i j.i i r -n 

which has already received the signatures of ^^n have any justice by the laws of Eng- 

about 2,000 of the clergy. The proposition to land, there must be a total reconstruction 

adopt a stringent canon received the undivid- of the whole marriage system; for any at- 

ed support of the High Church ministers, ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ j^ ^^o\,,j .^^^ useless, 

and finds many supporters in the Low „, ^ , , , . ,,■,.,. 

Church." ^^^^ great charter, m establishing the su- 
premacy of law over prerogative, provided 

The question of marriage and divorce, only for justice between man and man; 

and the attitude the Church should take for woman nothing was left but common 

towards divorced persons who wish to law, accumulations and modifications of 

marry again, has been up before many original Gothic and Roman heathenism, 

general conventions. The attitude of the which no amount of filtration through ec- 

Episcopal Church has always been strongly clesiastical courts could change into 

against divorce, and particularly against Christian laws. They are declared un- 

the marriage of divorced persons. The worthy of a Christian people by great 

Catholic Church takes a still narrower jurists; still, they remain unchanged." 

ground, positively declining to recognize There is a demand just now for an 

such an institution as divorce. amendment to the United States Consti- 

As early as the year 1009, it was en- tution that shall make the laws of mar- 

aoted by the Church authorities of Eng- riage and divorce the same in all the 

land that a Christian should never marry States of the Union. As the suggestion 

a divorced woman. Down to 1857, it was comes uniformly from those who con- 

m.— I 129 


sider the present divorce laws too liberal, wholly to the civil rather than to the 

we may infer tliat the proposed national canon law, to the jurisdiction of the sev- 

law is to place the whole question on the eral States rather than to the nation, 

narrowest basis, rendering null and void As many of our leading ecclesiastics and 

the laws that have been passed in a statesmen are discussing this question, it 

broader spirit, according to the needs and is surprising that women, who are equally 

experiences of certain sections of the sover- happy or miserable in these relations, 

eign people. And here let us bear in mind manifest so little interest in the pending 

that the widest possible law would not proposition, and especially as it is not 

make divorce obligatory on any one, while to their interest to have an amend- 

a restricted law, on the contrary, would ment to the national Constitution estab- 

compel many, who married, perhaps, un- lishing a uniform law. In making any 

der more liberal laws, to remain in uncon- contract, the parties are supposed to have 

genial relations. an equal knowledge of the situation, and 

We are still in the experimental stage an equal voice in the agreement. This 
on this question; we are not qualified to has never been the case with the contract 
make a law that would work satisfactorily of marriage. Women are, and always 
over so vast an area as our boundaries now have been, totally ignorant of the pro- 
embrace. I see no evidence in what has visions of the canon and civil laws, which 
been published on this question, of late, men have made and administered, and 
by statesmen, ecclesiasts, lawyers, and then, to impress woman's religious nat- 
judges, that any of them have thought ure with the sacredness of this one-sided 
sufficiently on the subject to prepare a contract, they claim that all these heter- 
well-digested code, or a comprehensive ogeneous relations called marriage are 
amendment of the national Constitution, made by God, appealing to that passage 
Some view marriage as a civil contract, of Scripture, " What God hath joined 
though not governed by the laws of other together, let no man put asunder." 
contracts; some view it as a religious or- Now, let us substitute the natural laws 
dinance — a sacrament; some think it a for God. When two beings contract, the 
relation to be regulated by the State, State has the right to ask the question, 
others by the Church, and still others Are the parties of proper age, and have 
think it should be left wholly to the indi- they sufficient judgment to make so im- 
vidual. With this divergence of opinion portant a contract? And the State should 
among our leading minds, it is quite evi- have the power to dissolve the contract 
dent that we are not prepared for a na- if any incongruities arise, or any deception 
tional law. has been practised, just as it has the 

Local self-government more readily per- power to cancel the purchase of a horse, 

mits of experiments on mooted questions, if he is found to be blind in one eye, balks 

which are the outcome of the needs and when he should go, or has a beautiful 

convictions of the community. The false tail, skilfully adjusted, which was 

smaller the area over which legislation the chief attraction to the purchaser, 

extends, the more pliable are the laws. We must remember that the reading 

By leaving the States free to experiment of the marriage service does not signify 

in their local affairs we can judge of the that God hath joined the couple together, 

working of different laws under varying That is not so. Only those marriages that 

circumstances, and thus learn their com- are harmonious, where the parties are 

parative merits. The progress education really companions for each other, are in 

has made in America is due to the fact the highest sense made by God. But 

that we have left our system of public in- what shall we say of that large class of 

struction in the hands of local author- men and women who marry for wealth, 

ities. How different would be the solu- position, mere sensual gratification, with- 

tion of the great educational question of out any real attraction or religious sense 

manual labor in the schools, if the matter of loyalty towards each other. You might 

had to be settled at Washington! as well talk of the same code of regula- 

From these considerations, ovir wisest tions for honest, law-abiding citizens, and 

course seems to be to leave these questions for criminals in our State prisons, as for 



these two classes. The former are a law latures to aid the unfortunate, and was in- 
to themselves; they need no iron chains strumental in bringing about the founda- 
to hold them together. The other class, tion of several State asylums for the in- 
having no respect for law whatever, will sane. At the breaking out of the Civil War 
defy all constitutional provisions. The she was appointed superintendent of hos- 
time has come when the logic of facts pital nurses, and after the close of the 
is more conclusive than the deductions war she resumed her efforts in behalf of 
of theology. the insane. She died in Trenton, N. J., 

It is a principle of the common law of July 19, 1887. 
England that marriage is a civil contract, Dix, John Adams, military officer; 
and the same law has been acknowl- born in Boscawen, N. H., July 24, 1798. 
edged by statutes in several of our After he left the academy at Exeter, N. H., 
American States; and in the absence of he completed his studies in a French 
expressed statute to the contrary, the college at Montreal. He entered the army- 
common law of England is deemed the as a cadet in 1812, when the war with 
common law of our country. 

Questions involved in marriage and 
divorce should be, in the churches, mat- 
ters of doctrinal teaching and discipline 
only; and, after having discussed for 
centuries the question as to what the 
Bible teaches concerning divorce, without 
arriving at any settled conclusion, they 
should agree somewhat among themselves 
before they attempt to dictate State legis- 
lation on the subject. It simplifies this 
question to eliminate the pretensions of 
the Church and the Bible as to its reg- 
ulation. As the Bible sanctions divorce 
and polygamy, in the practice of the 
chosen people, and is full of contradic- 
tions, and the canon law has been pliable 
in the hands of ecclesiastics, enforced or 
set aside at the behests of kings and 

nobles, it would simplify the discussion England began. While his father, Lieu- 
to confine it wholly to the civil law, re- tenant-Colonel Dix, was at Fort McHenry, 
garding divorce as a State question. Baltimore, young Dix pursued his studies 

Dix, Dorothea Lynde, philanthropist; at St. Mary's College. In the spring of 
born in Worcester, Mass., about 1794. 1813 he was appointed an ensign in the 
After her father's death she supported her- army, and was soon promoted to third 
self by teaching a school for young girls lieutenant, and made adjutant of an in- 
in Boston. Becoming interested in the dependent battalion of nine companies, 
welfare of the convicts in the State prison He was commissioned a captain in 1825, 
at Charlestown, her philanthropic spirit and having continued in the army sixteen 
expanded and embraced all of the unfort- years, in 1828 he left the military service, 
unate and suffering classes. Having in- His father had been mortally hurt at 
herited from a relative property sufficient Chrysler's Field, and the care of extri- 
to render her independent, she went to eating the paternal estate from difficulties, 
Europe for her health. Returning to Bos- for the benefit of his mother and her nine 
ton in 1837, she devoted her life to the children, had devolved upon him. He had 
investigation and alleviation of the con- studied law while in the army. After 
dition of paupers, lunatics, and prisoners, visiting Europe for his health, Captain 
encouraged by her friend and pastor, Dr. Dix settled as a lawyer in Cooperstown, 
Channing. In this work she visited every N. Y. He became warmly engaged in 
State in the Union east of the Rocky politics, and in 1830 Governor Throop ap- 
Mountains, endeavoring to persuade legis- pointed him adjutant-general of the State. 








In 1833 he was elected secretary of state 
of New York, which office made him a 
member of the Board of Regents of the 
University and conferred upon him other 
important positions. Chiefly through his 
exertions public libraries were introduced 
into the school districts of the State and 
the school laws systematized. In 1842 
he was a member of the New York As- 
sembly, and from 1845 to 1849 of the 
United States Senate. In the discussion of 
the question of the annexation of Texas and 
of slavery he expressed the views of the 
small Free Soil party whose candidate for 
governor he was in 1848. In 1859 he was 
appointed postmaster of New York City; 
and when in January, 1861, Buchanan's 
cabinet was dissolved, he was called to the 
post of Secretary of the Treasury. In that 
capacity he issued a famous order under 
the following circumstances : He found 
the department in a wretched condition, 
and proceeded with energy in the adminis- 
tration of it. Hearing of the tendency 
in the slave-labor States to seize United 
States property within their borders, he 
sent a special agent of his department 
(Hemphill Jones) to secure for service 
revenue cutters at Mobile and New Or- 
leans. He found the Lewis Cass in the 
hands of the Confederates at Mobile. The 
Robert McClelland, at New Orleans, was 
in command of Capt. J. G. Breshwood, of 
the navy. Jones gave the captain an 
order from Dix to sail to the North. 
Breshwood absolutely refused to obey the 
order. This fact Jones made known, by 
telegraph, to Dix, and added that the col- 
lector at New Orleans (Hatch) sustained 
the rebellious captain. Dix instantly tele- 
graphed back his famous order, of which 


a fac-simile is given on the opposite pages. 
The Confederates in New Orleans had pos- 
session of the telegraph, and did not allow 
this despatch to pass, and the McClelland 

was handed over to the authorities of 
Louisiana. As Secretary Dix's order was 
flashed over the land it thrilled every heart 
with hope that the temporizing policy of 
the administration had ended. The loyal 
people rejoiced, and a small medal was 
struck by private hands commemorative 
of the event, on one side of which was 
the Union flag, and around it the words, 
" The Flag of our Union, 1863 " ; on the 
other, in two circles, the last clause of 
Dix's famous order. After the war the 
authorship of the famous order was 
claimed for different persons, and it was 
asserted that General Dix was only the 
medium for its official communication. 
In reply to an inquiry addressed to Gen- 
eral Dix at the close of August, 1873, 
he responded as follows from his country 

Seafield, West Haven, N. Y , Sept. 21, 1873. 
" Your favor Is received. The ' order ' al- 
luded to was written by myself, without any 
suggestion from any one, and it was sent off 
three days before it was communicated to the 
President or cabinet. Mr. Stanton's letter to 
Mr. Bonner, of the Ledger, stating that it 
was wholly mine, was published in the New 
York Times last October or late in Septem- 
ber, to silence forever the misrepresentations 
in regard to it. After writing it (about seven 
o'clock in the evening), I gave it to Mr. 
Hardy, a clerk in the Treasury Department, 
to copy. The copy was signed by me, and 
sent to the telegraph office the same evening, 
and the original was kept, like all other 
original despatches. It is now, as you state, 
in possession of my son. Rev. Dr. Dix, No. 
27 West Twenty-fifth street, New York. It 
was photographed in 1863 or 1864, and you, 
no doubt, have the facsimile thus made. 
" Very truly yours, John A. Dix." 

General Dix was appointed major-gen- 
eral of volunteers May 16, 1861; com- 
mander at Baltimore, and then at Fort 
Monroe and on the Virginia peninsula; 
and in September, 1862, he was placed in 
command of the 7th Army Corps. He was 
also chosen president of the Pacific Rail- 
way Company. In 1866 he was appointed 
minister to France, which post he filled 
until 1869. He was elected governor of 
the State of New York in 1872, and re- 
tired to private life at the end of the 
term of two years, at which time he per- 
formed rare service for the good name of 
the State of New York. General Dix was 
a fine classical scholar, and translated 
several passages from Catullus, Virgil, and 


others into polished English verse. He Docks, artificial basins for the re- 
made a most conscientious and beautiful ception of vessels for safety, for repairing, 
translation of the Dies Irce. He died in and for commercial traffic. Those for the 
New York City, April 21, 1879. safety of vessels are known as wet-docks; 

Dixie, a supposed imaginary land of those for repairing only, as dry - docks ; 
luxurious enjoyment somewhere in the and those for commercial traffic, as basins 
Southern States, and during the Civil War or docks. Wet and dry docks are float- 
it became a collective designation for the ing or stationary, according to construc- 
slave-labor States. " Dixie " songs and tion. Basins or docks are constructed over 
" Dixie " music prevailed all over those large areas, comprising docks for loading 
States and in the Confederate army. It and unloading vessels, and convenient 
had no such significance. It is a simple waterways for the movement of vessels. 
refrain that originated among negro emi- The most notable dry-docks in the United 
grants to the South from Manhattan, or States are at Boston, Mass.; Portland, 
New York, island about 1800. A man Me.; Norfolk, Va. ; Savannah, Ga. ; Mare 
named Dixy owned a large tract of land Island, Cal.; Detroit, Mich.; and Puget 
on that island and many slaves. They Sound, Wash. The costliest of these are 
became unprofitable, and the growth of at the navy-yards. In 1901 one of the 
the abolition sentiment made Dixy's largest dry-docks in the world was under 
slaves uncertain property. He sent quite construction at Newport News. At New 
a large number of them to Southern York City, as well as all the largfe ports, 
planters and sold them. The heavier there are numerous floating dry-docks for 
burdens imposed upon them there, and the repair of the merchant marine. The 
the memories of their birthplace and its most notable basins or docks for com- 
comforts on Manhattan, made them sigh mercial traffic are in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
for Dixy's. It became with them synon- where over 4,000 vessels are annually un- 
ymous with an earthly paradise, and the loaded. The chief of these is the Atlantic 
exiles sang a simple refrain in a pathetic Docks, covering an area of 40 acres, 
manner about the joys of Dixy's. Ad- and capable of accommodating 500 ves- 
ditions to it elevated it into the dignity sels at one time. South of this artiflcial 
of a song, and it was chanted by the construction are the Erie and Brooklyn 
negroes all over the South, which, in the basins, similar in design and purpose, and 
Civil War, was called the "Land of still further south are two other docks 
Dixie." ^^ the repair character. 

Dixon, William Hepworth, author; Dodge, Gkenville Mellen, military 
born in Yorkshire, England, June 30, officer; born in Danvers, Mass., April 12, 
1821; was mostly self-educated. He visit- 1831; educated at Partridge's Mill- 
ed the United States in 1866 and 1874. tary Academy, Norwich, Conn., and be- 
His treatment of the United States in his came a railroad surveyor and engineer 
published works has been considered un- in Illinois, Iowa, and the Rocky Moun- 
fair and incorrect in this country. His tains. He was sent to Washington in 
books relating to the United States in- 1861 to procure arms and equipments for 
elude White Conquest (containing in- Iowa volunteers, and became colonel of 
formation of the Indians, negroes, and the 4th Iowa Regiment in July. He com- 
Chinese in America) ; Life of William nianded a brigade on the extreme right at 
Penn; and New America. He died in Lon- the battle of Pea Ridge, and was wounded, 
don, Dec. 27, 1879. For his services there he was made 

Dobbin, James Cochrane, statesman; brigadier - general. He was appointed to 

born in Fayetteville, N. C, in 1814; grad- the command of the District of the 

uated at the University of North Caro- Mississippi in June, 1862. He was with 

Una in 1832; elected to Congress in 1845; Sherman in his Georgia campaign, and 

and in 1848 to the State legislature, of vvas promoted to major-general. He final- 

which he became speaker in 1850. In ly commanded the 16th Corps in that 

1853 President Pierce appointed him campaign, and in December, 1864, he 

Secretary of the Navy. He died in succeeded Rosecrans in command of the 

Fayetteville, Aug. 4, 1857. Department of Missouri. In 1867-69 he 



was a member of Congress from Iowa, 
and subsequently was engaged in railroad 

Dodge, Henry, military ofScer; born 
in Vincennes, Ind., Oct. 12, 1782; com- 
manded a company of volunteers in the 
War of 1812-15, and rose to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel of mounted infantry 
in 1814. He fought the Indians from 
1832 to 1834, when he made peace on the 
frontiers, and in 1835 commanded an ex- 
pedition to the Rocky Mountains. He 
was governor of Wisconsin and superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs from 1836 to 
1841; a delegate in Congress from 1841 
to 1845; and United Slates Senator from 
1849 to 1S57. He died in Burlington, 
la., June 19, 1867. 

Dodge, Richard Irving, military offi- 
cer ; born in Huntsville, N. C, May 19, 
1827; graduated at the United States 
Military Academy in 1848 ; served 
through the Civil War; was commissioned 
colonel of the 11th Infantry June 26, 
1882; retired May 19, 1891. His pub- 
lications include The Black Hills; The 
Plain of the Great West; Our Wild Ind- 
ians, etc. He died in Sackett's Harbor, 
June 18, 1895. 

Dodge, Theodore Ayraxjlt, military 
officer; born in Springfield, Mass., May 
28, 1842; graduated at London Uni- 
versity in 1861; enlisted in the National 
army in 1861; promoted first lieutenant 
Feb. 13, 1862; brevetted colonel in 1866; 
retired in 1870. He is the author of 
Bird's-Eye View of the Civil War; Cam- 
paign of Chancellor sville ; Great Cap- 
tains, etc. 

Dole, Sanford Ballard, statesman; 
born in Honolulu, Hawaii, April 23, 
1844; son of American missionaries; edu- 
cated at Oahu College, Hawaii, and 
Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. ; 
was admitted to the bar in Boston, and 
returned to Honolulu to practise. He 
v/as a member of the Hawaii legislature 
in 1884 and 1886; became active in the 
reform movement of 1887 ; was judge of 
the Supreme Court of Hawaii in 1887-93; 
was chosen chief of tlie provisional gov- 
ernment in 1893, and in the following 
year was elected president under the con- 
stitution of the newly formed republic 
for the period of seven years. He Avas 
an active promoter of the movement for 



the annexation of Hawaii to the United 
States, was governor of the Territory of 
Hawaii in 1900-03; then became United 
States district judge for Hawaii. 

Dollar. Stamped Spanish dollars 
(value 4s. 9d. ) were issued from the 
British mint in March, 1797, but called 
in in October following. The dollar is the 
unit of the United States money. It is 
coined in silver, formerly also in gold, and 
is worth 4s. \y^d. English money. See 

Dominion of Canada. See Canada. 

Donaldson, Edward, naval officer; born 
in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 17, 1816; joined 
the navy in 1835; during the Civil War 
he took part in the capture of New 
Orleans, the passage of Vicksburg, the 
battle of Mobile Bay, etc. ; was promoted 
rear-admiral Sept. 21, 1876, and retired 
a few days later. He died in Baltimore, 
Md., May 15, 1889. 

Donaldson, James Lowry, military of- 
ficer; born in Baltimore, Md., March 7, 
1814; graduated at the United States 
Military Academy in 1836; served in the 
war with Mexico and through the Civil 
War; was promoted colonel and brevetted 
major-general of volunteers; resigned in 
January, 1874. He was a personal friend 
of Gen. G. H. Thomas, to whom he made 
known a plan to establish cemeteries for 
the scattered remains of soldiers who had 
been killed in battle. It was this sugges- 
tion which led to the institution of Deco- 
ration, or Memorial, Day. He died in Bal- 
timore, Md., Nov. 4, 1885. 



Donelson, Andrew Jackson, states- 
man; born in Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 25, 
1800; graduated at West Point in 1820; 
resigned from the army in 1822; appoint- 
ed minister to the republic of Texas in 
1844; minister to Prussia in 1846; and 
to the Federal Government of Germany 
in 1848. He abandoned the Democratic 
party, joined the American party, and was 
its candidate for Vice-President on the 
ticket with Millard Fillmore in 1856. He 
died in Memphis, Tenn., June 26, 1871. 

Donelson, Fort, a notable fortification 
on the Cumberland Eiver in Tennessee, 
63 miles northwest of Nashville. After 
the capture of Fort Henry (q. v.), there 
was no hinderance to the river navy going 
up the Tennessee to the fertile cotton 
regions of the heart of the Confederacy. 
Foote sent Lieut.-Com. S. L. Phelps, with 
three vessels, to reconnoitre the borders 

ated on the high left bank of the Cum- 
berland River, at Dover, the capital of 
Stewart county, Tenii. It was formed 
chiefly of outlying intrenchments, cover- 
ing about 100 acres, upon hills furrowed 
by ravines. At Fort Henry, General 
Grant reorganized his army in three di- 
visions, under Generals McClernand, 
Smith, and Lew. Wallace. Commodore 
Foote returned to Cairo to take his mor- 
tar-boats up the Cumberland River to 
assist in the attack. On the morning of 
Feb. 12, 1862, the divisions of McCler- 
nand and Smith marched for Fort Donel- 
son, leaving Wallace with a brigade tc 
hold the vanquished forts on the Ten- 
nessee. On the same evening Fort 
Donelson was invested. 

Grant resolved to wait for the arrival 
of the flotilla bearing troops that would 
complete Wallace's division before making 

i,)i|f|p]i!|!|!i!psifii;™|»^^ ,!!!!liR!l!;iiifflt1Ji 

-1 , ,^:f|!,,„. 



of that river. They penetrated to Flor- the attack. General Pillow was in com- 

ence, Ala., seizing Confederate vessels and mand of the fort; but, on the morning 

destroying Confederate property, and dis- of the 13th, General Floyd arrived from 

covered the weakness of the Confederacy Virginia with some troops and superseded 

in all that region, for Unionism was him. They were assisted by Gen. Simon 

everywhere prevalent, but suppressed by B. Buckner {q. v.), a better soldier than 

the "mailed hand of the Confederate lead- either. All day (Feb. 13) there was skir- 

ers. Phelps's report caused an immediate mishing, and at night the weather became 

expedition against Fort Donelson, situ- extremely cold, while a violent rain-storm 



was falling. { Thf National troops, biv- 
ouacking without tents, suffered intense- 
ly. Tliey dared not light camp-tires, for 
they would expose them to the guns of 
their foes. They were without sufficient 
food and clothing. Perceiving the perils 
of his situation, Grant had sent for Wal- 
lace to bring over his troops. He arrived 
about noon on the 14th. The transports 
had arrived, and Wallace's division was 
completed and posted between those of 
McClernand and Smith, by which the 
thorough investment of the fort was com- 
pleted. At three o'clock that afternoon 
the bombardment of the fort was begun 
by the Carondelet, Captain Walke, and 
she was soon joined by three others ar- 
mored gunboats in the front line. A sec- 
ond line was formed of unarmored boats. 
The former were exposed to a tremendous 
pounding by missiles from the shore-bat- 
teries; and they were compelled to retire, 
after receiving 140 shots and having fifty- 
four men killed and wounded. Foote re- 
turned to Cairo to repair damages and to 
bring up a sufficient naval force to assist 
in carrying on the siege. Grant resolved 
to wait for the return of Foote and the 
arrival of reinforcements. But he was 
not allowed to wait. 

>0n the night of the 14th the Confeder- 
ate leaders held a council of war and it 
was concluded to make a sortie early the 
next morning, to rout or destroy the in-^ 
vading forces, or to cut through them and 
escape to the open country in the direc- 
tion of Nashville. This was attempted 
at five o'clock (Feb. 15). The troops en- 
gaged in it were about 10,000 in number, 
commanded by Generals Pillow and Bush- 
rod R. Johnson. They advanced from 
Dover — Mississippians, Tennesseeans, and 
Virginians — accompanied by Forrest's 
cavalry. The main body was directed to 
attack McClernand's division, who occu- 
pied the heights that reached to the river. 
Buckner was directed to strike Wallace's 
division, in the centre, at the same time, 
so that it might not be in a condition to 
help McClernand. These movements were 
not suspected by the Nationals, and so 
quick and vigorous was Pillow's attack 
that Grant's right wing was seriously 
menaced within twenty minutes after the 
sortie of the Confederates was known. The 
attack was quick, furious, and heavy. 


Oglesby's brigade received the first shock, 
but stood firm until their ammunition 
began to fail, when they gave way under 
the tremendous pressure, excepting the ex- 
treme left, held by Col. John A. Logan 
(q. v.), with his Illinois regiment. Imi- 
tating their commander, they stood as 
firmly as a wall, and prevented a panic 
and a rout. The light batteries of Tay- 
lor, McAllister, and Dresser, shifting posi- 
tions and sending volleys of grape and 
canister, made the Confederate line recoil 
again and again. At eight o'clock Mc- 
Clernand's division was so hard pressed 
that he sent to Wallace for help. Wallace, 
being assigned to a special duty, could 
not comply without orders, for which he 
sent. Grant was away, in consultation 
with Commodore Foote, who had arrived. 

Again McClernand sent for help, say- 
ing his flank was turned. Wallace took 
the responsibility. Then Buckner ap- 
peared. The battle raged fiercely. McCler- 
nand's line was falling back, in good 
order, and calling for ammunition. Wal- 
lace took the responsibility of order- 
ing some up. Then he thrust his brigade 
(Colonel Thayer commanding) between 
the retiring troops and the advancing 
Confederates, flushed with hope, and 
formed a new line of battle across the 
road. Back of this was a reserve. In this 
position they awaited an attack, while 
McClernand's troops supplied themselves 
with ammunition frOm wagons which Wal- 
lace had ordered up. Just then the com- 
bined forces of Pillow and Buckner fell 
upon them and were repulsed by a bat- 
tery and the 1st Nebraska. The Confed- 
erates, after a severe struggle, retired to 
their works in confusion. This was the 
last sally from the fort. " God bless you!''' 
wrote Grant's aide the next day to Wal- 
lace, " you did save the day on the right." 

It was now noon. Grant was in the 
field, and after consultation with McCler- 
nand and Wallace, he ordered the former 
to retake the hill he had lost. This was 
soon bravely done, and the troops biv- 
ouacked on the field of victory that cold 
winter night. Meanwhile, General Smith 
had been smiting the Confederates so vig- 
orously on their right that, when night 
came on, they were imprisoned within 
their trenches, unable to escape. Find- 
ing themselves closely held by Grant, the 


question, How shall we escape? was a duke's domain, and he took measures to 
paramount one in the minds of Floyd protect the territory from encroach- 
and Pillow. At midnight the three Con- ments. Dongan managed the relations 
federate commanders held a private coun- between the English, French, and Indians 
oil, when it was concluded that the gar- with dexterity. He was not deceived by 
rison must surrender, "/ cannot sur- the false professions of the French rulers 
render," said Floyd ; " you know my po- or the wiles of the Jesuit priests ; and 
sition with the Federals; it won't do, when De Nonville (q. v.) invaded the 
it won't do." Pillow said, "I will not country of the Five Nations (1G86) he 
surrender myself nor my command; I showed himself as bold as this leader in 
will die first." " Then," said Buckner, defence of the rights of Englishmen, 
coolly, " the surrender will devolve on Dongan sympathized with the people of 
me." Then Floyd said, "General, if his province in their aspirations for lib- 
you are put in command, will you allow erty, which his predecessor (Andros) had 
me to take out, by the river, my brigade?" denied; and he was instrumental in the 
" If you will move before I surrender," formation of the first General Assembly 
Buckner replied. Floyd offered to sur- of New York, and in obtaining a popular 
render the command, first, to Pillow, who form of government. When the King vio- 
replied, " I will not accept it — I will never lated his promises while he was duke, 
surrender." Buckner said, like a true Dongan was grieved, and protested; and 
soldier, " I will accept it, and share the when the monarch ordered him to intro- 
fate of my command." Within an hour duce French priests among the Five Na- 
after the conference Floyd fled up the tions, the enlightened governor resisted 
river with a part of his command, and Pil- the measure as dangerous to English 
low sneaked away in the darkness and power on the continent. His firmness in 
finally reached his home in Tennessee, defence of the rights of the people and 
The Confederates never gave him employ- the safety of the English colonies in 
ment again. The next morning, the fort America against what he could not but 
and 13,500 men were surrendered, and the regard as the treachery of the King 
spoils of victory were 3,000 horses, forty- finally offended his sovereign, and he was 
eight field-pieces, seventeen heavy guns, dismissed from office in the spring of 
20,000 muskets, and a large quantity of 1688, when Andros took his place, bear- 
military stores. During the siege the ing a vice-regal commission to rule all 
Confederates lost 237 killed and 1,000 New England besides. Dongan remained 
wounded ; the National loss was estimated in the province until persecuted by Leisler 
at 446 killed, 1,755 wounded, and 152 in 1690, when he withdrew to Boston. He 
made prisoners. died in London, England, Dec. 14, 1715. 

Dongan, Thomas, colonial governor; On May 24, 1901, eight loose sheets of 
born in Castletown, county Kildare, Ire- parchment, containing the engrossed acts 
land, in 1634; a younger son of an Irish passed during 1687-88, and bearing the 
baronet; was a colonel in the royal army, signature of Thomas Dongan as governor 
and served under the French King. In of the province of New York, were re- 
1678 he was appointed lieutenant-governor stored to the State of New York by the 
of Tangier, Africa, whence he was re- Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This in- 
called in 1680. The relations between teresting historical find was accounted 
England and France were then delicate, for on the presumption that the docu- 
and Dongan being a Roman Catholic, like ments had formed a part of the archives 
the proprietor of New York, he was of Massachusetts since the time of Sir Ed- 
chosen by Duke James governor of that mund Andros, and the fact that they 
province (1683), as it was thought his related to the province of New York had 
experience in France might make it easier been entirely overlooked, 
to keep up friendly relations with the The dates and titles of the Dongan 
French on the borders. Dongan caused acts are: 

a company of merchants in New York to March 17, 1686-87.— An Act to Prevent 

be formed for the management of the Frauds and Abuses in the County of Suf- 

fisheries at Pemaquid, a part of the folk. 



June 17, 1687. — An Act for Raising i^c?. and from Concord, April 19, 1775, by the 

per Pound on All Real Estates. 

Aug. 20, 1687.— A Bill for Raising Id. 
per Pound on All Persons, Estates, etc. 

Sept. 2, 1687.— An Act for Raising y^d. 
per Pound on All Persons, Estates, etc. 

rebels." He died near Bristol, England, 
in March, 1821. 

Donnelly, Ignatius, author; born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 3, 1831; removed 
to Minnesota in 1856; elected lieutenant- 

Sept. 2, 1687. — An Act for Regulating governor of the State in 1859 and 1861; 

the Collection of His Majesty's Excise. Representative in Congress, 1863-69; 

Sept. 27, 1687. — An Act for Naturaliz- president of the State Farmers' Alliance 

ing Daniel Duchemin. of Minnesota for several years ; nominee of 

Oct. 11, 1087. — A Bill to Prevent Frauds the Anti - Fusion People's party for Vice- 
in His Majesty's Excise by Ordinary Keep- President of the United States in 1900. 
ers. He was the author of Atlantis, the Antedi- 

May 17, 1688. — An Act for Raising liivian World; The Great Cryptogram, in 

£2,555 6s. on or before the First Day of which he undertook to prove by a word 

November, 1688. See New York. cipher that Francis Bacon was the author 

Dongan Charter, The. See New York of Shakespeare's plays; The American 

City. People's Money, etc. He died in Min- 

Doniphan, Alexander William, mili- neapolis, Minn., Jan. 2, 1901. 

tary officer; born in Kentucky, July 9, Donnohue, Dilliard C, lawyer; born 

1808; graduated at Augusta College in in Montgomery county, Ky., Nov. 20, 1814; 

1826; admitted to the bar in 1830. In was appointed a special commissioner to 

addition to his legal studies he was in- Haiti in 1863 to investigate the practica- 

terested in military matters and became bility of colonizing the slaves of the South 

brigadier-general in the Missouri State in that republic after their freedom. Both 

militia. In 1838 he compelled the Mor- President Lincoln and Secretary Seward 

MONS (q. v.), under Joseph Smith, to give favored this plan, but the report of Mr. 

up their leaders for trial, lay down their Donnohue showed that it would not be 

arms, and leave the State. In 1840 he feasible. He died in Greencastle, Ind., 

entered the United States service as colo- April 2, 1898. 

nel of the 1st Missouri Regiment; in De- Donop, Carl Emil Kurt von, mili- 

eember of that year he defeated a superior tary officer; born in Germany, in 1740; 

force of Mexicans at Braceti Kiver ( tj. was in command of a detachment of mer- 

V. ) ; two days later he occupied El Paso, eenary Hessian troops during the early 

In February, 1847, with less than 1,000 part of the Revolutionary War. On Oct. 

men, after a march of over 200 miles 22, 1777, while leading a charge against 

through a sterile country, he met a force Fort Mercer, at Red Bank, N. J., he 

of 4,000 Mexicans at the pass of Sacra- was mortally wounded, and died on the 

mento. He attacked with such vigor that 25th. 

the Mexicans were soon overpowered, hav- Doolittle, Amos, engraver ; born in 

ing lost over 800 in killed and wounded, Cheshire, Conn., in 1754; was self-edu- 

Doniphan's own loss being one man killed, cated ; served an apprenticeship with a 

eleven wounded. He subsequently marched silversmith ; and established himself as 

700 miles through a hostile country until an engraver on copper in 1775. While a 

he reached Saltillo. He died in Richmond, volunteer in the camp at Cambridge 

Mo., Aug. 8, 1887. (1775) he visited the scene of the skir- 

Donkin, Robert, military officer; born mish at Lexington and made a drawing 
March 19, 1727; joined the British army and engraving of the affair, which fur- 
in 1746; served through the Revolution- nishes the historian with the only correct 
ary War, first as aide-de-camp to General representation of the buildings around 
Gage, and then as major of the 44th the " Green " at that time. He after- 
Regiment. He published Military Col- wards made other historical prints of the 
lections and Remarks, " published for the time. He died in New Haven, Conn., 
benefit of the children and widows of the Jan. 31, 1832. 

valiant soldiers inhumanly and wantonly Dorchester Heights, an elevation south 

butchered when peacefully marching to of Boston, which, on March 4, 1776, was 



occupied by the Americans, who threw of the Territories of Iowa and Wisconsin, 
up strong intrenchments during the night. He aided in founding Madison, Wis., which 
This movement had much to do with city was made the capital of the State 
the evacuation of Boston by the British through his efforts. He held a seat in 
on March 17 following. Congress in 1836-41 and 1849-53; 

Dornin, Thomas Aloysius, naval of- governor of Wisconsin in 1841-44; and 
ficer; born in Ireland about 1800; entered was appointed governor of Utah in 1864. 
the United States navy in 1815; prevented He died in Salt Lake City, Ut., June 13, 
William Walker's expedition from invad- 1865. 

ing Mexico in 1851; later sailed to Ma- Doubleday, Abner, military officer; 
zatlan and secured the release of forty born in Ballston Spa, N. Y., June 26, 
Americans there held as prisoners; after- 1819; graduated at West Point in 1842; 
wards captured two slavers with more 
than 1,400 slaves, and took them to Li- 
beria; was promoted commodore and re- 
tired during the Civil War. He died in 
Norfolk, Va., April 22, 1874. 

Dorr, Thomas Wilson, politician; 
born in Providence, R. I., Nov. 5, 1805; 
graduated at Harvard in 1823; stud- 
ied law with Chancellor Kent; and be- 
gan its practice in 1827. He is chiefly 
conspicuous in American history as the 
chosen governor of what was called the 
" Suffrage party," and attempted to take 
the place of what was deemed to be 
the legal State government (see Rhode 
Island). He was tried for and convicted 
of high treason, and sentenced to im- 
prisonment for life in 1842, but was par- 
doned in 1847; and in 1853 the legislat- 
ure restored to him his civil rights and 
ordered the record of his sentence to be 
expunged. He lived to see his party tri- served in the artillery in the war with 
umph. He died in Providence, Dec. 27, Mexico; rose to captain in 1855; and 
1854. served against the Seminole Indians 

Dorr's Rebellion. See Dorr, Thomas in 1856-58. Captain Doubleday was an 
Wilson; Rhode Island. efficient officer in Fort Sumter with Major 

Dorsey, Stephen Wallace, politician; Anderson during the siege. He fired the 
born in Benson, Vt., Feb. 28, 1842; re- first gun (April 12, 1861) upon the Con- 
ceived a common - school education; re- federates from that fort. On May 14 he 
moved to Oberlin, O. ; served in the Civil was promoted to major, and on Feb. 3, 
War in the National army; was elected 1862, to brigadier-general of volunteers, 
president of the Arkansas Central Rail- In Hooker's corps, at the battle of Antie- 
way; removed to Arkansas; chosen chair- tam, he commanded a division; and when 
man of the Republican State Committee; Reynolds fell at Gettysburg, Doubleday 
was United States Senator in 1873-79; took command of his corps. He had been 
was twice tried for complicity in the Star made major-general in November, 1862, 
Route Frauds (q. v.), the second trial and had been conspicuously engaged in 
resulting in a verdict of not guilty. the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancel- 

Doty, James Duane, governor; born in lorsville. He was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
Salem, N. Y., in 1799; studied law and eral and major-general of the United States 
settled in Detroit; member of the Michi- army in March, 1865; was commissioned 
gan legislature in 1834, and there intro- colonel of the 35th Infantry in September, 
duced the bill which provided for the 1867 ; and was retired in December, 1873. 
division of Michigan and the establishment He died in Mendham, N. J., Jan. 26, 1893. 




General Doubleday was author of Reminis- 
cences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie in 
1860-61; Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, 
and other military works. 

Doughfaces. During the great debate 
on the slavery question in 1820, elicited 
by proceedings in relation to the admis- 
sion of Missouri as a free-labor or slave- 
labor State, eighteen Northern men were 
induced to vote for a sort of compromise, 
by which the striiving out the prohibition 
of slavery from the Missouri bill was car- 
ried by 90 to 87. John Randolph, who 
denounced the compromise as a " dirty 
bargain," also denounced these eighteen 
Northern representatives as " dough- 

faces " — plastic in the hands of expert 
demagogues. The epithet was at once 
adopted into the political vocabulary of 
the republic, wherein it remains. 

Douglas, Sir Charles, naval officer; 
born in Scotland; joined the British navy; 
was placed in command of the fleet sent 
to the Gulf of St. Lawrence at the begin- 
ning of the Revolutionary War. Early 
in 1776 he relieved Quebec, then under 
siege by the Americans, after a difficult 
voyage through the drifting ice of the 
river. He introduced locks in lieu of 
matches for firing guns on board ships ; 
and was promoted rear-admiral in 1787. 
He died in 1789. 


Douglas, Stephen Arnold, statesman; the leading political topics which now agi- 
born in Brandon, Vt., April 23, 1813; tate the public mind. By an arrangement 
learned the business of cabinet-making; between Mr. Lincoln and myself, we are 
studied law; became an auctioneer's clerk present here to-day for the purpose of bav- 
in Jacksonville, 111. ; and taught school ing a joint discussion, as the representa- 
until admitted to the bar, when he soon fives of the two great political parties of 
became an active politician. Because of the State and Union, upon the principles 
his small stature and power of intellect in issue between those parties; and this 
and speech he was called " The Little vast concourse of people shows the deep 
Giant." He was attorney-general of Illi- feeling which pervades the public mind in 
nois in 1835; was in the legislature; regard to the questions dividing us. 
chosen secretary of state in 1840; judge Prior to 1854, this country was divided 
in 1841 ; and was in Congress in 1843-47. into two great political parties, known as 
He was a vigorous promoter of the war the Whig and Democratic parties. Both 
with Mexico, and was United States Sena- were national and patriotic, advocating 
tor from 1847 to 1861. He advanced and principles that were universal in their 
supported the doctrine of popular sov- application. An old-line Whig could pro- 
ereignty in relation to slavery in the Terri- claim his principles in Louisiana and 
torics, and was the author of the Kansas- Massachusetts alike. Whig principles 
Nebraska bill (see Kansas) ; and in had no boundary sectional line: they were 
1856 was a rival of Buchanan for the not limited by the Ohio River, nor by the 
nomination for the Presidency. He took Potomac, nor by the line of the free and 
sides in favor of freedom in Kansas, and slave States, but applied and were pro- 
so became involved in controversy with claimed wherever the Constitution ruled 
President Buchanan, He was a candidate or the American flag waved over the 

of the Democratic party in 1860 for Presi- 
dent of the United States, but was de- 
feated by Abraham Lincoln. He died in 
Chicago, 111., June 3, 1861. See Kansas. 

The Douglas-Lincoln Debate. — In open- 
ing this famous debate, in Ottawa, 111., 

American soil. So it was and so it is 
with the great Democratic party, which, 
from the days of Jefferson until this 
period, has proven itself to be the historic 
party of this nation. While the Whig 
and Democratic parties differed in regard 

on Aug. 21, 1858, Mr. Douglas spoke as tc a bank, the tariff, distribution, the 
follows: specie circular, and the sub-treasury, they 

agreed on the great slavery question which 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I appear before now agitates the Union. I say that the 

you to-day for the purpose of discussing Whig party and the Democratic party 




agreed on the slavery question, while they the Presidency, the first thing it did was 

differed on those matters of expediency to to declare the compromise measures of 

which I have referred. The Whig party 1S50, in substance and in principle, a suit- 

and the Democratic party jointly adopted able adjustment of that question. [Here 

the compromise measures of 1850 as the the speaker was interrupted by loud and 

basis of a proper and just solution of the long-continued applause.] My friends, 

slavery question in all its forms. Clay silence will be more acceptable to me in 

was the great leader, with Webster on the discussion of these questions than 

his right and Cass on his left, and sus- applause. I desire to address myself to 

tained by the patriots in the Whig and your judgment, your understanding, and 

Democratic ranks who had devised and your consciences, and not to your passions 

enacted the compromise measures of 

In 1851 the Whig party and the Demo- 
cratic party united in Illinois in adopting 
resolutions endorsing and approving the 
principles of the compromise measures 
of 1850 as the proper adjustment of that 

or your enthusiasm. When the Demo- 
cratic convention assembled in Baltimore 
in the same year, for the purpose of nom- 
inating a Democratic candidate for the 
Presidency, it also adopted the com- 
promise measures of 1850 as the basis of 
Democratic action. Thus you see that up 

question. In 1852, when the Whig party to 1853-54 the Whig party and the Demo- 
assembled in convention at Baltimore for cratic party both stood on the same plat- 
tbe purpose of nominating a candidate for form with regard to the slavery question. 

142 " " 


That platform was the right of the peo- was then about to become vacant, and 
pie of each State and each Territory to that Trumbull should have my seat when 
decide their local and domestic institu- my term expired. Lincoln went to work 
tions for themselves, subject only to the to abolitionize the Old Whig party all 
federal Constitution. over the State, pretending that he was 

During the session of Congress of 1853- then as good a Whig as ever; and Trum- 
54 I introduced into the Senate of the bull went to work in his part of the State 
United States a bill to organize the Ter- preaching abolitionism in its milder and 
ritories of Kansas and Nebraska on that lighter form, and trying to abolitionize 
principle which had been adopted in the the Democratic party, and bring old 
compromise measures of 1850, approved by Democfi-ats handcuffed and bound hand 
the Whig party and the Democratic party and foot into the abolition camp. In pur- 
in Illinois in 1851, and endorsed by the suance of the arrangement the parties met 
Whig party and the Democratic party at Springfield in October, 1854, and pro- 
in national convention in 1852. In order claimed their new platform. Lincoln 
that^ there might be no misunderstand- was to bring into the abolition camp the 
ing in relation to the principle involved cld-line Whigs, and transfer them over to 
in the Kansas and Nebraska bill, I put Giddings, Chase, Fred Douglass, and Par- 
forth the true intent and meaning of the 
act in these words : " It is the true in- 
tent and meaning of this act not to legis- 
late slavery into any State or Territory, 
or to exclude it therefrom, but to leave 
the people thereof perfectly free to form 
and regulate their domestic institutions 
in their own way, subject only to the fed- 
eral Constitution." Thus you see that up 
to 1854, when the Kansas and Nebraska 
bill was brought into Congress for the 
purpose of carrying out the principles 
which both parties had up to that time en- 
dorsed and approved, there had been no 
division in this country in regard to that 
principle except the opposition of the abo- 
litionists. In the House of Representa- 
tives of the Illinois legislature, upon a 
resolution asserting that principle, every 
Whig and every Democrat in the House 
voted in the affirmative, and only four 
men voted against it, and those four were 
old-line abolitionists. 

In 1854 Mr. Abraham Lincoln and Mr. 
Lyman Trumbull entered into an arrange- 
ment, one with the other, and each with 
his respective friends, to dissolve the old 
Whig party on the one hand, and to dis- 
solve the old Democratic party on the 
other, and to connect the members of 
both into an abolition party, under the 
name and disguise of a Republican party 
The terms of that arrangement between 
Lincoln and Trumbull have been pub- 
lished by Lincoln's special friend, James 
H. Matheny, Esq. ; and they were that 
Lincoln should have General Shields's 
place in the United States Senate, which 




son Lovejoy, who were ready to receive sitions; and yet I venture to say that 
them and christen them in their new you cannot get Mr. Lincoln to come out 
faith They laid down on that occasion and say that he is now in favor of each one 
a platform for their new Republican party, of them. That these propositions one and 
which was thus to be constructed. I have all, constitute the platform of the Black 
the resolutions of the State convention Republican party of this day, I have no 
then held, which was the first mass State doubt; and, when you were not aware for 
convention ever held in Illinois by the what purpose I was reading them, your 
Black Republican party; and I now hold Black Republicans cheered them as good 
them in my hands and will read a part Black Republican doctrines. My object 
of them, and cause the others to be in reading these resolutions was to put 
printed Here are the most important the question to Abraham Lincoln this day, 
and material resolutions of this abolition whether he now stands and will stand by 
platform: ^^^^^ article in that creed, and carry it 


" 1. Resolved, That we believe this truth j desire to know whether Mr. Lincoln 

to be self-evident, that, when parties become ^^.^j stands as he did in 1854, in favor 

lSnsi.'.l°or"'r.o''aAlI'"o,"';S„;S ?;: of the unconditional repeal of the fugitive- 

government to the true principles of the Con- slave law. I desire him to answer whether 

stitution, it is the right and duty of the peo- 
ple to dissolve the political bands by which 
they may have been connected therewith, and 
to organize new parties upon such principles 
and with such views as the circumstances 
and the exigencies of the nation may de- 
mand. ^. , 
'2. Resolved, That the times imperatively 

he stands pledged to-day, as he did in 
1854, against the admission of any more 
slave States into the Union, even if the 
people want them. I want to know 
whether he stands pledged against the ad- 
mission of a new State into the Union 

"2. Resolved, mat tne vimes imijciaui.cij ,., ,. .i t ^f 

demand the reorganization of parties, and, with such a constitution as the people oi 

repudiating all previous party attachments, ^^^^^ State may see fit to make. I want 

names, and P^f "actions we unite ourselves whether he stands to-day pledged 

SftuU^n of r/rc^olnty'lnd'wlfl h^ereSe'r to the abolition of slavery in the District 

co-operate as the Republican party, pledged 
to the accomplishment of the following pur- 
poses : to bring the administration of the 
government back to the control of first prin- 
ciples ; to restore Nebraska and Kansas to 
the position of free Territories ; that, as the 
Constitution of the United States vests in the 
States, and not in Congress, the power to 
legislate for the extradition of fugitives from 
repeal and entirely abrogate the 

of Columbia. I desire him to answer 
whether he stands pledged to the pro- 
hibition of the slave-trade between the 
different States. I desire to know whether 
he stands pledged to prohibit slavery in 
all the Territories of the United States, 
north as well as south of the Missouri 
Compromise line. I desire him to answer 

labor, to -„^__- _ _ ^ 

fugitive-slave law ; to restrict slavery to ^yj^g^j^gj. ^e is opposed to the acquisition 

those States in which it exists; to prohibit territory unless slavery is 

the admission of any more slave States into ot any more territory unies,b j 

the UnTon : to abolish slavery in the District prohibited therein. I want his answer 

of Columbia ; to exclude slavery from all the ^^ these questions. Your affirmative 

Territories over which the general govern- 
ment has exclusive jurisdiction ; and to resist 
the acquirement of any more Territories un- 
less the practice of slavery therein forever 
shall have been prohibited. 

" 3. Resolved. That in furtherance of these 

cheers in favor of this abolition plat- 
form are not satisfactory. I ask Abraham 
Lincoln to answer these questions, in 
order that, when I trot him down to lower 

furtherance ottnese ^^^ ^^^^ questions to 

nrincinles we will use such constitutional and ^-'eJt^^> ^ •; ^. , xr, ^^.^r.^ 

fawful means as shall seem best adapted to him. My principles are the same every- 

their accomplishment, and that we will sup- where. I can proclaim them alike m the 

port no man for office, under the general or -^^^^^ ^^^ South, the East, and the West 

State government, who is not positively and '• „;^i.„ ,„;n ov>t^W wliorpvpr thp Con 

My principles will apply wherever the Con- 
stitution prevails and the American flag 
waves. I desire to know whether Mr. 
Lincoln's principles will bear transplant- 
ing from Ottawa to Jonesboro? I put 
Now, gentlemen, your Black Republi- these questions to him to-day distinctly, 
cans have" cheered every one of those propo- and ask an answer. I have a right to an 


fully committed to the support of these prin 
ciples, and whose personal character and con- 
duet is not a guarantee that he is reliable, 
and who shall not have abjured old party 
allegiance and ties. 


answer; for I quote from the platform of brated proviso, and the abolition tornado 
the Republican party, made by himself swept over the country, Lincoln again 
and others at the time that party was turned up as a member of Congress from 
formed, and the bargain made by Lincoln the Sangamon district. I was then in the 
to dissolve and kill the Old Whig party. Senate of the United States, and was 
and transfer its members, bound hand and glad to welcome my old friend and com- 
foot, to the abolition party, under the panion. While in Congress, he distin- 
direction of Giddings and Fred Douglass, guished himself by his opposition to the 
In the remarks I have made on this plat- Mexican War, taking the side of the corn- 
form, and the position of Mr. Lincoln mon enemy against his own country; 
upon it, I mean nothing personally dis- and, when he returned home, he found 
respectful or unkind to that gentleman, that the indignation of the people fol- 
I have known him for nearly twenty-five lowed him every^vhere, and he was again 
years. There were many points of sym- submerged, or obliged to retire into pri- 
pathy between us when we first got ac- vate life, forgotten by his former friends, 
quainted. We were both comparatively He came up again in 1854, just in time 
boys, and both struggling with poverty to make this abolition or Black Repub- 
in a strange land. I was a school-teacher lican platform, in company with Gid- 
in the town of Winchester, and he a dings, Lovejoy, Chase, and Fred Doug- 
flourishing grocery-keeper in the town lass, for the Republican party to stand 
of Salem. He was more successful upon. Trumbull, too, was one of our own 
in his occupation than I was in mine, contemporaries. He was born and raised 
and hence more fortunate in this world's in old Connecticut, was bred a Federalist, 
goods. but, removing to Georgia, turned nulli- 
Lincoln is one of those peculiar men fier when nullification was popular, and, 
who perform with admirable skill ev- as soon as he disposed of his clocks and 
erything which they undertake. I made wound up his business, migrated to Illi- 
as good a school-teacher as I could, nois, turned politician and lawyer here, 
and, when a cabinet-maker, I made a and made his appearance in 1841 as a 
good bedstead and tables, although my member of the legislature. He became 
old boss said I succeeded better with noted as the author of the scheme to re- 
bureaus and secretaries than with any- pudiate a large portion of the State debt 
thing else! but I believe that Lincoln of Illinois, which, if successful, would 
was always more successful in business have brought infamy and disgrace upon 
than I, for his business enabled him to the fair escutcheon of our glorious State, 
get into the legislature. I met him The odium attached to that measure con- 
there, however, and had sympathy with signed him to oblivion for a time. I 
him, because of the uphill struggle we helped to do it. I walked into a public 
both had in life. He was then just as meeting in the hall of the House of Repre- 
good at telling an anecdote as now. sentatives, and replied to his repudiating 
He could beat any of the boys wrestling speeches, and resolutions were carried 
or running a foot-race, in pitching over his head denouncing repudiation, 
quoits or tossing a copper; could ruin and asserting the moral and legal obliga- 
more liquor than all the boys of the town tion of Illinois to pay every dollar of the 
together; and the dignity and impartial- debt she owed and every bond that bore 
ity with which he presided at a horse- her seal. Trumbull's malignity has fol- 
race or fist-fight excited the admiration lowed me since I thus defeated his infa- 
and won the praise of everybody that was mous scheme. 

present and participated. I sympathized These two men, having formed this 
with him because he was struggling with combination to abolitionize the Old Whig 
difficulties, and so was I. Mr. Lincoln party and the old Democratic party, and 
served with me in the legislature in 1836, put themselves into the Senate of the 
when we both retired ; and he subsided or United States, in pursuance of their bar- 
became submerged, and he was lost sight gain, are now carrying out that arrange- 
of as a public man for some years. In ment. Matheny states that Trumbull 
1846, when Wilmot introduced his cele- broke faith; that the bargain was that 
in. — K 145 


Lincoln should be the Senator in Shields's I am delighted to hear you Black Re- 
place, and Trumbull was to wait for publicans say, " Good." I have no doubt 
mine; and the story goes that Trumbull that doctrine expresses your sentiments; 
cheated Lincoln, having control of four and I will prove to you now, if you will 
or five abolitionized Democrats who were listen to me, that it is revolutionary and 
holding over in the Senate. He would destructive of the existence of this gov- 
not let them vote for Lincoln, which ernment. Mr. Lincoln, in the extract 
obliged the rest of the abolitionists to from which I have read, says that this 
support him in order to secure an aboli- government cannot endure permanently in 
tion Senator. There are a number of the same condition in which it was made 
authorities for the truth of this besides by its framers — divided into free and slave 
Matheny, and I suppose that even Mr. States. He says that it has existed for 
Lincoln will not deny. about seventy years thus divided, and yet 
Mr. Lincoln demands that he shall have he tells you that it cannot endure per- 
the place intended for Trumbull, as Trum- manently on the same principles and in 
bull cheated him and got his; and Trum- the same relative condition in which our 
bull is stumping the State, traducing me fathers made it. Why can it not exist 
for the purpose of securing the position divided into free and slave States? Wash- 
for Lincoln, in order to quiet him. It ington, Jefferson, Franklin, Madison, 
was in consequence of this arrangement Hamilton, Jay, and the great men of that 
that the Republican convention was im- day made this government divided into 
panelled to instruct for Lincoln and no- free States and slave States, and left each 
body else; and it was on this account ctate perfectly free to do as it pleased on 
that they passed resolutions that he was :ne subject of slavery. Why can it not 
their first, their last, and their onl--/ exist on the same principles on which 
choice. Archy Williams was nowher . our fathers made it? They knew when 
Browning was nobody, Wentworth was they framed the Constitution that in a 
not to be considered; they had no man country as wide and broad as this, with 
in the Republican party for the place ex- such a variety of climate, production, and 
cept Lincoln, for the reason that he de- interest, the people necessarily required 
nianded that they should carry out the ar- different laws and institutions in different 
rangement. localities. They knew that the laws and 
Having formed this new party for the regulations which would suit the granite 
benefit of deserters from Whiggery and hills of New Hampshire would be un- 
deserters from Democracy, and having suited to the rice plantations of South 
laid down the abolition platform which I Carolina; and they therefore provided 
Lave read, Lincoln now takes his stand that each State should retain its own 
and proclaims his abolition doctrines, legislature and its own sovereignty, with 
Let me read a part of them. In his the full and complete power to do as it 
speech at Springfield to the convention pleased within its own limits, in all that 
which nominated him for the Senate he was local and not national. One of the 
said: reserved rights of the States was the 

right to regulate the relations between 
master and servant, on the slavery ques- 
At the time the Constitution was 
framed there were thirteen States in the 

dure permanently half slave and half free ^nion, twelve of which were slave-hold- 

I do not expect the Union to be dissolved — I „ , - oa a o 

do not expect the house to fall— but I do mg States, and one a tree btate. bup- 

expect it will cease to be divided. It will be- pose this doctrine of uniformity preached 

come all one thing or all the other. Either ^^ jyjj. Lincoln, that the States should all 

the opponents of slavery will arrest the fur- .•' . „ , , , , „-i„j „„a 

ther spread of it, and place it where the be free or all be slave, had prevailed; and 

public mind shall rest in the belief that it what would have been the result? Of 

is in the course of ultimate extinction, or its course, the twelve slave-holding States 

advocates will push it forward till it shall n, i „,„ „„„„^„i^,q +i,« r^^a fvo^ Qfo+o- 

become alike lawful in all the States-old as ^o"!^ ^^^^ overruled the one free State, 

well as new, North as well as South." and slavery would have been fastened by 

" In my opinion, it will not cease until a 
crisis shall have been reached and passed. 
* A house divided against itself cannot tion 
stand.' I believe this government cannot en 

[" Good, " Good," and cheers.] 

a constitutional provision on every inch 


of the American republic, instead of being of schools and churches, reads from the 
left, as our fathers wisely left it, to each Declaration of Independence that all men 
State to decide for itself. Here I assert were created equal, and then asks how 
that uniformity in the local laws and can you deprive a negro of that equality 
institutions of the different States is which God and the Declaration of Inde- 
neither possible nor desirable. If uniform- pendence award to him? He and they 
ity had been adopted when the govern- maintain that negro equality is guaranteed 
ment was established, it must inevitably by the laws of God, and that it is assert- 
have betn the unformity of slavery every- ed in the Declaration of Independence. If 
where, or else the uniformity of negro they think so, of course they have a right 
citizenship and negro equality every- to say so, and so vote. I do not question 
where. Mr. Lincoln's conscientious belief that the 
We are told by Lincoln that he is utter- negro was made his equal, and hence is 
ly opposed to the Dred Scott decision, Ins brother; but, for my own part, I do 
and will not submit to it, for the reason not regard the negro as my equal, and 
that he says it deprives the negro of the positively deny that he is my brother or 
rights and privileges of citizenship. That any kin to me whatever. Lincoln has evi- 
ls the first and main reason which he as- dently learned by heart Parson Lovejoy's 
signs for his warfare on the Supreme catechism. He can repeat it as well as 
Court of the United States and its deei- Farnsworth, and he is worthy of a medal 
sion. I ask you. Are you in favor of from Father Giddings and Fred Douglass 
conferring upon the negro the rights and for his abolitionism. He holds that the 
privileges of citizenship? Do you desire negro was born his equal and yours, and 
to strike out of our State constitution that that he was endowed with equality by the 
clause which keeps slaves and free negroes Almighty, and that no human law can de- 
out of the State, and allow the free ne- prive him of these rights which were' 
groes to flow in, and cover your prairies guaranteed to him by the Supreme Ruler 
with black settlements? Do you desire of the universe. Now I do not believe that 
to turn this beautiful State into a free ihe Almighty ever intended the negro to 
negro oolony, in order that, when Missouri be the equal of the white man. If he did, 
abolishes slavery, she can send 100,000 he has been a long time demonstrating the 
emancipated slaves into Illinois, to be- fact. For thousands of years the negro 
come citizens and voters, on an equality has been a race upon the earth ; and dur- 
with yourselves? If you desire negro citi- ing all that time, in all latitudes and 
zenship, if you desire to allow them to climates, wherever he has wandered or 
come into the State and settle with the been taken, he has been inferior to the 
white man, if you desire them to vote on race which he has there met. He belongs 
an equality with yourselves, and to make to an inferior race, and must always oc- 
them eligible to office, to serve on juries, cupy an inferior position. I do not hold 
and to adjudge your rights, then support that, because the negro is our inferior, 
Mr. Lincoln and the Black Republican therefore he ought to be a slave. By no 
party, who are in favor of the citizenship means can such a conclusion be drawn 
of the negro. For one, I am opposed to from what I have said. On the contrary, 
negro citizenship in any and every form. I hold that humanity and Christianity 
I believe this government was made on both require that the negro shall have and 
the white basis. I believe it was made enjoy every right, every privilege, and 
by white men, for the benefit of white every immunity consistent with the safety 
men and their posterity forever: and I of the society in which he lives. On that 
am in favor of confining citizenship to point, I presume, there can be no diversity 
white men, men of European birth of opinion. You and I are bound to ex- 
and descent, instead of conferring it tend to our inferior and dependent beings 
upon negroes, Indians, and other inferior every right, every privilege, every facility, 
races. ond immimity consistent with the pub- 
Mr. Lincoln, following the example and lie good. The question then arises, 
lead of all the little abolition orators who What rights and privileges are con- 
go around and lecture in the basements sistent with the public good? This 



is a question which each State and 
each Territory must decide for it- 
self. Illinois has decided it for 
herself. We have provided that the negro 
shall not be a slave; and we have also 
provided that he shall not be a citizen, but 
protect him in his civil rights, in his life, 
his person, and his property, only depriv- 
ing him of all political rights whatsoever, 
and refusing to put him on an equality 
with the white man. That policy of Illi- 
nois is satisfactory to the Democratic 
party and to me, and, if it were to the 
Republicans, there would then be no ques- 
tion upon the subject; but the Republi- 
cans say that he ought to made a citi- 
zen, and, when he becomes a citizen, he 
becomes your equal, with all your rights 
and privileges. They assert the Dred 
Scott decision to be monstrous because it 
denies that the negro is or can be a citi- 
zen under the Constitution. 

Now I hold that Illinois had a right 
to abolish and prohibit slavery as she did, 
and I hold that Kentucky has the same 
right to continue and protect slavery that 
Illinois had to abolish it. I hold that New 
York had as much right to abolish slavery 
as Virginia had to continue it, and that 
each and every State of this Union is a 
sovereign power, with the right to do as 
it pleases upon this question of slavery 
and upon all its domestic institutions. 
Slavery is not the only question which 
comes up in this controversy. There is a 
far more important one to you; and that 
is. What shall be done with the free negro? 
We have settled the slavery question as 
far as we are concerned: we have prohibit- 
ed it in Illinois forever, and, in doing so, 
I think we have done wisely, and there 
is no man in the State who would be 
more strenuous in his opposition to the 
introduction of slavery than I would; but, 
when we settled it for ourselves, we ex- 
hausted all our power over that subject. 
We have done our whole duty, and can 
do no more. We must leave each and 
every other State to decide for itself the 
same question. In relation to the policy 
to be pursued towards the free negroes, 
we have said that they shall not vote; 
while Maine, on the other hand, has said 
that they shall vote. Maine is a sovereign 
State, and has the power to regulate the 
qualifications of voters within her limits. 


I would never consent to confer the right 
of voting and of citizenship upon a negro, 
but still I am not going to quarrel with 
Maine for differing from me in opinion. 
Let Maine take care of her own negroes, 
and fix the qualifications of her own voters 
to suit herself, without interfering with 
Illinois; and Illinois will not interfere 
with Maine. So with the State of New 
York. She allows the negro to vote pro- 
vided he owns two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars' worth of property, but not otherwise. 
While I would not make any distinc- 
tion whatever between a negro who 
held property and one who did not, yet, 
if the sovereign State of New York 
chooses to make that distinction, it is 
her business, and not mine ; and I will 
not quarrel with her for it. She can do as 
she pleases on this question if she minds 
her own business, and we will do the 
same thing. Now, my friends, if we will 
only act conscientiously and rigidly 
upon this great principle of popular 
sovereignty, which guarantees to each 
State and Territory the right to do as 
it pleases on all things local and domes- 
tic, instead of Congress interfering, we 
will continue at peace one with another. 
Why should Illinois be at war with Mis- 
souri, or Kentucky with Ohio, or Vir- 
ginia with New York, merely because 
their institutions differ? Our fathers 
intended that our institutions should 
differ. They knew that the North and 
the South, having different climates, pro- 
ductions, and interests, required different 
institutions. This doctrine of Mr. Lin- 
coln, of uniformity among the institu- 
tions of the different States, is a new 
doctrine, never dreamed of by Washing- 
ton, Madison, or the framers of this 
government. Mr. Lincoln and the Re- 
publican party set themselves up as 
wiser than these men who made this gov- 
ernment, which has flourished for seventy 
years under the principle of popular 
sovereignty, recogniziag the right of each 
State to do as it pleased. Under that 
principle, we have grown from a na- 
tion of .3,000,000 or 4,000,000 to a nation 
of about .'50,000,000 people. We have 
crossed the Alleghany Mountains and 
filled up the whole Northwest, turning 
the prairie into a garden, and building 
up churches and schools, thus spreading 


civilization and Christianity where before the subject of slavery. On his return, in 
there was nothing but savage barbarism. 1847, he began the publication, at Roches- 
Under that principle we have become, ter, N. Y., of the 'North iStar (afterwards 
from a feeble nation, the most powerful Frederick Douglass's Paper). In 1870 he 
on the face of the earth ; and, if we only 
adhere to that principle, we can go for- 
ward increasing in territory, in power, 
in strength, and in glorj' until the re- 
public of America shall be the north star 
that shall guide the friends of freedom 
throughout the civilized world. And 
why can we not adhere to the great prin- 
ciple of self-government upon which 0'>t 
institutions were originally based? I 
believe that this new doctrine preached 
by Mr. Lincoln and his party will dis- 
solve the Union if it succeeds. They are 
trying to array all the Northern States 
in one body against the South, to excite 
a sectional war between the free States 
and the slave States, in order that the 
one or the other may be driven to the 

For Mr. Lincoln's reply, see Lincoln, 

Douglas, William, military officer; 
born in Plainfield, Conn., Jan. 17, 1742; 
served in the French and Indian War, 
and was present at the surrender of Quebec. 
He recruited a company at the beginning lumbia; in 1876-81 was United States 
of the Revolutionary War and accom- marshal for the District; in 1881-86 was 
panied Montgomery in the expedition recorder of deeds there; and in 1889-91 
against Canada. He participated in the was United States minister to Haiti. He 
unfortunate campaign which ended in the was author of Narrative of My Experi- 
fall of New York, and greatly distinguished ences in Slavery (1844); My Bondage 
himself in the engagements on Long Island and My Freedom (1855); and Life and 
and Harlem Plains. He died in North- Times of Frederick Douglass (1881). He 
ford. Conn., May 28, 1777. died near Washington, D. C, Feb. 20, 

Douglass, Frederick, diplomatist; 1895. 
born in Tuckahoe, Talbot co., Md., in Feb- Dow, Lorenzo, clergyman; born in 
ruary, 1817; was a mulatto, the son of a Coventry, Conn., Oct. 16, 1777; was 
slave mother; lived in Baltimore after he ordained in the Methodist ministry; went 
was ten years of age, and secretly taught as a missionary to Ireland in 1799 and 
himself to read and write. Endowed with 1805; introduced camp-meetings into Eng- 
great natural moral and intellectual abil- land; and through a discussion which re- 
ity, he fled from slavery at the age of suited from these the Primitive Methodist 
twenty-one years, and, going to New Bed- Church was organized. On account of his 
ford, married, and supported himself by eccentricities he was nicknamed " Crazy 
day-labor on the wharves and in work- Dow." He died in Georgetown, D. C, 
shops. In 1841 he spoke at an anti-slavery Feb. 2, 1834. 

convention at Nantucket, and soon after- Dow, Neal, reformer; born in Port- 
wards was made the agent of the Massa- land. Me., March 20, 1804. From the 
chusetts Anti - slavery- Society. He lect- time he was a boy he was noted for his 
ured extensively in New England, and, zeal in the temperance cause, and was 
going to Great Britain, spoke in nearly one of the founders of the Prohibition 
all the large towns in that country on party. In 1851 he drafted the famous 



became editor of the National Era at 
Washington City; in 1871 was appointed 
assistant secretary of the commission to 
Santo Domingo; then became one of the 
Territorial Council of the District of Co- 


prohibitory law of ?»Iaine, and was elected 
mayor of Portland in 1851 and 1854. In 
the Civil War he was commissioned colonel 
of the 13th Maine Volunteers; was pro- 
moted to brigadier-general; and was a 
prisoner of war at Mobile and in Libby 
prison. In 1880 he was the candidate of 
the Prohibition party for President, and 
in 1894 temperance organizations through- 
out the world observed his ninetieth birth- 
day. He died in Portland, Me., Oct. 2, 1897. 

Dowie, John Alexander, adventurer; 
born in Scotland. At one time a pastor 
in Australia, he afterwards went to Chi- 
cago, III., and became a " healer," real- 
estate operator, newspaper proprietor, and 
manufacturer. He founded a lace-making 
industry near Waukegan, 111. The place 
was called " Zion " and his followers 
" Zionites." He announced that he was 
the Prophet Elijah returned to earth, and 
surrounded himself with armed guards. 
In 1904 he proclaimed himself First Apos- 
tle of the Christian Catholic Church. He 
died in Chicago, March 9, 1907. 

Downie, George, naval officer; born in 
Eoss, Ireland; at an early age entered the 
British navy; in 1812 was given command 
of the squadron on the Lakes and com- 
manded the British fleet at the battle of 
Plattsburg, in which he was killed, Sept. 
11, 1814. 

Draft Riots. See Conscription; New 
York ( city ) . 

Dragoons, an old name for cavalry. 

Drainsville, Skirmish at. The loyal 
people of the country became impatient 
because the Army of the Potomac, fully 
200,000 strong at the end of 1861, was 
seemingly kept at bay by 60,000 Con- 
federates. There was a sense of relief 
when, on Dec. 20, Gen. E. O. C. Ord had 
a sharp skirmish with a Confederate 
force near Drainsville, led by Gen. J. E. B. 
Stuart. Ord had gone out to capture 
Confederate foragers, and to gather for- 
age from the farms of Confederates. He 
was attacked by Stuart, who had come up 
from Centreville. A severe fight occurred, 
and the Confederates were beaten and 
fled. The Nationals lost seven killed and 
sixty - three wounded ; the Confederates 
lost forty-three killed and 143 wounded. 
The Nationals returned to camp with six- 
teen wagon-loads of hay and twenty-two 
of corn. 


Drake, Sir Francis, navigator; born 
near Tavistock, Devonshire, England, be- 
tween 1539 and 1540. Becoming a seaman 
in early youth, he was owner and master 
of a ship at the age of eighteen years. 
After making commercial voyages to 
Guinea, Africa, he sold her, and invested 
the proceeds in an expedition to Mexico, 
under Captain Hawkins, in 1567. The 
fleet was nearly destroyed in an attack 
by the Spaniards at San Juan de Ulloa 
( near Vera Cruz ) , and Drake returned to 
England stripped of all his property. The 
Spanish government refused to indemnify 
him for his losses, and he sought revenge 
and found it. Queen Elizabeth gave him 
a commission in the royal navy, and in 
1572 he sailed from Plymouth with two 
ships for the avowed purpose of plunder- 
ing the Spaniards. He did so successfully 
on the coasts of South America, and re- 
turned in 1573 with greater wealth than 
he ever possessed before. Drake was wel- 
comed as a hero; he soon won the title 
honorably by circumnavigating the globe. 
He had seen from a mountain on Darien 
the w^aters of the Pacific Ocean, and re- 
solved to explore them. Under the patron- 
age of the Queen, he sailed from Plymouth 
in December, 1^577 ; passed through the 
Strait of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean; 
pillaged the Spanish settlements on the 
coasts of Peru and Chile, and a Spanish 
galleon laden with gold and silver bullion; 
and, pushing northward, discovered the bay 
of San Francisco, took possession of Cali- 
fornia in the name of his Queen, and 
named the country New Albion, or New 

He had sailed northward as high, prob- 
ably, as latitude 46°, or near the boundary 
between Oregon and the British posses- 
sions, and possibly he went farther north, 
for he encountered very cold weather in 
June, and turned back. Drake entered a 
fine bay and landed his stores, prepara- 
tory to repairing his ship; and he re- 
mained on the coast fully a month, 
hospitably treated by the natives. Late 
in June he was visited by the king of the 
country and his official attendants. The 
former was dressed in rabbit- skins — a 
peculiar mark of distinction. His officers 
were clad in feathers, and his other fol- 
lowers were almost naked. Drake received 
them cordially. The sceptre-bearer and 


another officer made speeches, after which 
the natives indulged in a wild dance, in 
which the women joined. Then Drake 
was asked to sit down, when the king and 
his people desired liim to " become the 
king and governor of the country." Then 

country to the English by the king and 
people. On the same plate were engraved 
the portrait and arms of the Queen and 
the navigator. Then he sailed for the 
Molucca Islands. It is believed that Sir 
Francis Drake entered the " Golden Gate " 


the king, singing with all the rest, set a 
crown upon Drake's head, and saluted him 
as Bioh, or sovereign. Drake accepted the 
honor in the name of Queen Elizabeth. 
After taking possession of the country he 
erected a wooden post, placed upon it a 
copper plate, with an inscription, on which 
was asserted the right of Queen Elizabeth 
and Jier successors to the kingdom, with 
the time of his arrival there, and a state- 
ment of the voluntary resignation of the 


of San Francisco Bay, and that near its 
shores the ceremony of his coronation took 

Fearing encounters with the Spaniards 
on his return with his treasure-laden ves- 
sels, Drake sought a northeast passage to 
England. Met by severe cold, he turned 
back, crossed the Pacific to the Spice Isl- 
nnds, thence over the Indian Ocean, and, 
doubling the Cape of Good Hope, reached 
England in November, 1580. The delighted 


Queen knighted Drake, who afterwards 
plundered Spanish towns on the Atlantic 
ecasts of America ; and, returning, took 
a distressed English colony from Roanoke 
Island and carried them to England. In 
command of a fleet of thirty vessels, in 
1587, he destroyed 100 Spanish vessels in 
the harbor of Cadiz; and from a captured 
vessel in the East India trade the English 
learned the immense value of that trade 
and how to carry it on. As vice-admiral, 
Drake materially assisted in defeating the 
Spanish Armada in 1588; and the next 
year he ravaged the coasts of the Spanish 
peninsula. After various other exploits 
of a similar kind, he accompanied Haw- 
kins to the West Indies in 1595. Haw- 
kins died at Porto Rico, and Drake, in 
supreme command, gained victory after 

raphy ; Life of Gen. Henry Knox; The 
Town of Roxhury ; Indian History for 
Young Folks, etc. He edited Schoolcraft's 
History of the Indians. He died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Feb. 22, 1885. 

Drake, Joseph Rodman. See Halleck, 

Drake, Samuel Adams, historian; born 
in Boston, Mass., Dec. 20, 1833; adopted 
journalism as a profession, but at the be- 
ginning of the Civil War entered the 
National service and rose to the rank 
of colonel of United States volunteers in 
1863. He wrote ^'ooks and Corners of the 
Neto England Coast; The Making of New 
England; Old Landmarks of Boston. He 
died in Kennebunkport, Me., Dec. 4, 1905. 

Drake, Samuel Gardner, antiquarian; 
born in Pittsfield, N. H., Oct. 11, 1798; re- 

-%J^ Q[}' ^ *- ^ 


victory over the Spaniards. He died near 
Puerto Bello, Dec. 27, 1595, and was 
buried at sea. 

Drake, Francis Samuel, biographer; 
born in Northwood, N. H., Feb. 22, 1828; 
son of Samuel Gardner Drake. He is the 
author of Dictionary of American Biog- 

ceived a common-school education, and 
taught in a district school for several 
years. Settling in Boston, he there estab- 
lished the first antiquarian book-store in 
the United States, in 1828. He was cne 
of the founders of the New England His- 
torical Genealogical Society, of which he 



was at one time president, and in 1847 
began the publication of the 'New England 
Genealogical Register, continuing it many 
years as editor and publisher, making 
large contributions of biography to its 
pages. Mr. Drake resided in London 
about two years (1858-60). He prepared 
many valuable books on biographical and 
liistorical subjects. His Book of the Ind- 
ians is a standard work on Indian history 
and biography. He prepared an excellent 
illustrated History of Boston, and his 
illustrative annotations of very old Amer- 
ican books and pamphlets aVe of exceed- 
ing value. He died in Boston, June 14, 

Drama, Early American. As early 
as 1733, there appears to have been a 
sort of theatrical performance in the city 
of New York. In October of that year, 
George Talbot, a merchant, published a 
notice in Bradford's Gazette, directing in- 
quiries to be made at his store " next 
door to the Play-house." In 1750 some 
young Englishmen and Americans got up 
a coffee-house representation of Otway's 
Orphans in Boston. The pressure for en- 
trance to the novelty was so great tliat 
a disturbance arose, which gave the au- 
thorities reason for taking measures for 
the suppression of such performances. At 
the next session of the legislature a law 
was made prohibiting theatrical enter- 
tainments, because, as it was expressed 
in the preamble, they tended not only " to 
discourage industry and frugality, but 
likewise greatly to increase immoral- 
ity, impiety, and a contempt for religion." 
Regular theatrical performances were in- 
troduced into America soon afterwards, 
when, in 1752, a company of actors from 
London, led by William and Lewis Hal- 
lam, played (a part of them) the Beaux' 
Stratagem at Annapolis. Soon afterwards 
the whole brought out the play of the 
Merchant of Venice at Williamsburg, Va. 
The same company afterwards played at 
Philadelphia, Perth Amboy, New York, 
and Newport. The laws excluded them 
from Connecticut and Massachusetts. 

Dramatic Art. See Jefferson, Jo- 

Draper, John William, scientist; born 
in St. Helen's, near Liverpool, England, 
May 5, 1811; was educated in scientific 
studies at the University of London ; came 

to the United States in 1833, and con- 
tinued his medical and chemical studies 
in the University of Pennsylvania, where 


he took the degree of M.D. He became 
(1836-30) Professor of Chemistry, Natural 
Philosophy, and Physiology in Hampden- 
Sidney College, Virginia. From 1839 Dr. 
Draper was connected, as professor, with 
the University of the City of New York, 
and aided in establishing the University 
Medical College, of which he was appoint- 
ed (1841) Professor of Chemistry. In 1850 
physiology was added to the chair of 
chemistry. From that year he was the 
president of the medical faculty of the in- 
stitution, and in 1874 he was also presi- 
dent of the scientific department of the 
university. Dr. Draper was one of the 
most patient, careful, and acute of scien- 
tific investigators. His industry in ex- 
perimental researches was marvellous, and 
his publications on scientific subjects are 
voluminous. He contributed much to 
other departments of learning. His His- 
tory of the Intellectual Development of 
Europe appeared in 1862; his Thoughts 
on the Future Civil Policy of America, in 
1865; and his History of the American 
Civil War, in 3 volumes, appeared be- 
tween 1867 and 1870. To Dr. Draper are 
due many fundamental facts concerning 
the phenomena of the spectrum — of light 
and heat. Among his later productions 
were reports of experimental examinations 
of the distribution of heat and of cherai- 



cal force in the spectrum. Dr. Draper's 
researches materially aided in perfecting 
Daguerre's great discovery. In 1876 the 
Rumford gold medal was bestowed upon 
Dr. Draper by the American Academy of 
Sciences. He died Jan. 4, 1882. 

Draper, Lyman Copeland, historian; 
born in Evans, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1815. In 
1833 he gathered information regarding 
the Creek chief Weatherford, and from 
that time onward he was an indefatigable 
student, devoting his life to the collection 
of materials bearing upon the history of 
the Western States and biographies of 
the leading men of the country. In 1853 
he was appointed secretary of the Wis- 
consin State Historical Society and was 
connected with the library of the society, 
with a few short intervals, till his death. 
He published the Collections of the State 
Historical Society (10 volumes); The 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, 
etc. He died in Madison, Wis., Aug. 26, 

Drayton, Percival, naval officer; born 
in South Carolina, Aug. 25, 1812; entered 
the navy as a midshipman in 1827; was 
promoted lieutenant in 1838; took part in 
the Paraguay expedition in 1858; com- 
manded the monitor Passaic in the bom- 
bardment of Fort McAllister, and Far- 
ragut's flag - ship, the Hartford, in the 
battle of Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 1864; and 
afterwards became chief of the bureau of 
navigation. He died in Washington, D. C, 
Aug. 4, 1865. 

Drayton, William Henry, statesman; 
born in Drayton Hall, S. C, in Septem- 
ber, 1742; educated in England, and on 
his return he became a political writer. 
In 1771 he was appointed privy coun- 
cillor for the province of South Carolina, 
but he soon espoused the cause of the 
patriots, and protested against the pro- 
ceedings of his colleagues. In 1774 he 
addressed a pamphlet to the Continental 
Congress, in which he stated the griev- 
ances of the Americans, and drew up a 
bill of rights, and substantially marked 
out the line of conduct adopted by the 
Congress. He was appointed a judge in 
1774, but was suspended from the office 
when he became a member of the com- 
mittee of safety at Charleston. The first 
charge to the grand jury at Camden, S. C, 
in 1774, by Judge Drayton is conspicuous 


in American history. " In order to 
stimulate your exertions in favor of your 
civil liberties, which protect your relig- 
ious rights," he said, " instead of dis- 
coursing to you on the laws of other 
states and comparing them to our own, 
allow me to tell you what your civil lib- 
erties are, and to charge you, which I do 
in the most solemn manner, to hold them 
dearer than your lives — a lesson and 
charge at all times proper from a judge, 
but particularly so at this crisis, when 
America is in one general and grievous 
commotion touching this truly important 
point." The judge then discoursed on 
the origin of the colony, the nat- 
ure of the constitution, and their 
civil rights under it, and concluded by 
saying that some might think his charge 
inconsistent with his duty to the King 
who had just placed him on the bench; 


" but, for my part," he said, " in my 
judicial character I know no master but 
the law. I am a servant, not to the King, 
but to the constitution; and, in my esti- 
mation, I shall best discharge my duty 
as a good servant to the King and a trusty 
officer under the constitution when I 
boldly declare the laws to the people and 
instruct them in their civil rights." This 
charge, scattered broadcast by the press, 
had a powerful influence in the colonies, 
and, with other patriotic acts, cost Judge 
Drayton his office. In 1775 ha was presi- 
dent of the Provincial Congress of South 
Carolina. In 1776 he became chief- jus- 
tice of the State; and his published charge 


to a grand jury in April, that year, dis- "all men are created equal"; that the 
played great wisdom and energy, and was patriots of the Revolution and their pro- 
widely circulated and admired. Mr. Dray- gcnitors "for more than a century be- 
ton was chosen president, or governor, of fore " regarded the negro race as so far 
South Carolina in 1777, and in 1778-79 inferior that they had no rights which 
was a member of the Continental Congress, the white man was bound to respect and 
He wrote a history of the Revolution to that they were never spoken of except as 
the end of the year 1778, which was pub- property. He also declared that the 
(ished by his son in 1821. He died in framers of the national Constitution 
Philadelphia, Sept. 3, 1779. held the same views. The chief-justice 

Dred Scott Case, The. At about the went further in his extra-judicial decla- 
hme that Mr. Buchanan became Presi- rations, saying that the Missouri 
dent-elect of the republic, a case of much Compromise (g. v.) and all other acts 
moment was adjudicated by the Supreme restricting slavery were unconstitu- 
Court of the United States. A negro tional, and that neither Congress nor 
named Dred Scott had been the slave of local legislatures had any authority for 
a United States army officer living in restricting the spread over the whole 
Missouri. He was taken by his master Union of the institution of slavery. The 
to a military post in Illinois, to which dominant party assumed that the de- 
the latter had been ordered in the year ciaion was final; that slavery was a na- 
1834. There Scott married the female tional institution, having the right to 
elave of another officer, with the consent exist anywhere in the Union, and that 
of their respective masters. They had the boast of a Georgia politician that 
two children born in that free-labor Ter- he should yet " count his slaves on 
ritory. The mother was bought by the Bunker Hill" might be legally carried 
master of Scott, and parents and chil- out. President Buchanan, who had been 
dren were taken by that officer back to informed of this decision before its 
Missouri and there sold. Scott sued for promulgation, foreshadowed his course in 
his freedom on the plea of his involun- the matter in his inaugural address 
tary residence m a free-labor Territory (March 4, 1857), in which he spoke of 
and State for several years. The case the measure as one which would " speed- 
was tried in the Circuit Court of St. ily and finally" settle the slavery ques- 
Louis, and the decision was in Scott's tion. The decision was promul<^ated 
favor. The Supreme Court of the State March 6, 1857. "^ 

reversed the decision, and the case was Drewry's, or Drury's Bluff, See 
carried to the Supreme Court of the Unit- Rodgers, John. 

ed States, Chief- Justice Roger B. Drum, Richard Coulter, military otti- 
Taney [q. V.) presiding. The chief-jus- cer; born in Pennsylvania, May 28, 1835; 
tice and a majority of the court were joined the army in 184G, and served in the 
friends of the slave system, and their de- Mexican War, being present at the siege 
cision, which, for prudential reasons, was of Vera Cruz and the actions of Chapul- 
withheld until after the Presidential elec- tepee and Mexico City. He was com- 
tion in 1856, was against Scott. The missioned colonel and assistant adju- 
chief -justice declared that any person tant-general, Feb. 22, 1869; promoted 
" whose ancestors were imported into this brigadier-general and adjutant-general, 
country and held as slaves" had no right June 15, 1880; and retired May 28, 1889. 
to sue in a court in the United States; Drummond, Sir George Gordon, mili- 
in other^ words, he denied the right of tary officer; born in Quebec in 1771; en- 
citizenship to any person who had been tered the British army in 1789; served in 
a slave or was a descendant of a slave. Holland and Egypt; and in 1811 was 
The chief-justice, with the sanction of a made lieutenant-general. In 1813 he was 
majority of the court, further declared second in command to Sir George Prevost; 
that the framers and supporters of the planned the capture of Fort Niagara in 
Declaration of American Independence December of that year; took the villages 
did not include the negro race in our of Black Rock and Buffalo; captured Os- 
eountry in the great proclamation that wego in May, 1814; and was in chief com* 



mand of the British forces at the battle In 1783-84 he was a member of the coun- 
of Lundy's Lane (q. v.) in July. In Au- cil and State Senator, and in 1788 was a 
gust he was repulsed at Fort Erie, with member of the convention of New York 
heavy loss, and was severely wounded. He that adopted the national Constitution, 
succeeded Prevost in 1814, and returned From 1789 to 1794 he was United States 
to England in 1816. The next year he re- district judge. He died in Duanesburg, 
ceived^the grand cross of the Bath. He N. Y., Feb. 1, 1797. 
died in London, Oct. 10, 1854. Late in May, 1775, Judge Duane moved 

Drummond, William, colonial gov- in Congress, in committee of the whole, 
ernor; born in Scotland; was appointed the "opening of negotiations in order to 
o-overnor of the Albemarle county colony accommodate the unhappy disputes sub- 
by Sir William Berkeley, governor of Vir- sisting between Great Britain and the col- 
ginia, and joint proprietary of Carolina, onies, and that this be made a part of the 
During the Bacon rebellion (see Bacon, [second] petition to the King" prepared 
Nathaniel), when Berkeley retreated to by John Jay. It was a dangerous pro- 
Accomac, Drummond proposed that 
Berkeley should be deposed. This prop- 
osition met with the favor of the lead- 
ing planters, who met at Williamsburg 
and agreed to support Bacon against 
the government. The death of Bacon 
left the rebellion without a competent 
leader. Sir William Berkeley wreaked 
his vengeance on thirty-three of the 
principal offenders. When Drummond 
was brought before him Berkeley ex- 
claimed: "I am more glad to see you 
than any man in Virginia. You shall 
be hanged in half an hour." He died 
Jan. 20, 1677. 

Drury's Bluff, Battle at. See 
EoDGERS, John. 

Dry Tortugas, a group of several 
small, barren islands, about 40 miles 
west of the Florida Keys. They served 
as a place of imprisonment during the 
Civil War. 

Dryden, John Fairfield, states- 
man; born near Farmington, Maine, 
Aug. 7, 1839; educated at Yale Uni- 
versity; removed to New Jersey, 1871; 
established the Prudential Insurance 
Company in 1875; elected to the Unit- 
ed States Senate from New Jersey to 
fill vacancy caused by the death of 
General Sewell in 1901. 

Duane, James, jurist; born in New posal at that time, as it was calculated 
York City, Feb. 6, 1733. In 1759 he to cool the ardor of resistance which then 
married a daughter of Col. Robert Liv- animated the people. Duane was a stanch 
ingston. He was a member of the first patriot, but was anxious for peace, if it 
Continental Congress (1774) ; of the could be procured with honor and for the 
Provincial Convention of New York in good of his country. His proposition was 
1776-77; also in Congress, 1780-82. considered by Congress at the same time 
He returned to New York City in 1783*, when a proposition for a similar purpose 
after the evacuation, and was the first which had come from Lord North was 
mayor of that city after the Revolution, before that body. The timid portion of 



Congress prevailed, and it was resolved sion of Idaho to the Union in 1890; and 

to address another petition to his Majesty, was its first Senator, serving from 1891 

but at the same time to put the colonies to 1897; and was re-elected in 1901. 

into a state of defence. Duane's motion Dubois, William Edward B., educator; 

was carried, but against a most deter- born in Great Barrington, Mass., Feb. 23, 

mined and unyielding opposition, and it 

rather retarded the prospect of a peaceful ■*'^ '""''>¥,. 

solution. It had no practical significance, 

unless it was intended to accept the 

proposition of Lord North as the basis for 

an agreement. 

Duane, James Chatham, military offi- 
cer; born in Schenectady, N. Y., June 30, 
1824; graduated at the United States 
Military Academy in 1848, and served 
with the corps of engineers till 1854. 
He rendered excellent work during the 
Civil War, notably in the building of a 
bridge 2,000 feet long over the Chicka- 
hominy River. He was brevetted brig- 
adier-general in 18G5; promoted brig- 
adier-general and chief of engineers, U. S. 
A., in 1886; retired June 30, 1888. From 
his retirement till his death, Nov. 8, 1897, 
he was president of the New York 
Aqueduct Commission. 

Duane, William, statesman; born in 
Devonshire, England, March 18, 1747; re- \i 
moved to New York in 1768; member of Harvard University in 1890; and became 
the New York provincial congress; dele- professor of economics and history in At- 
gate to the Continental Congress, 1777-78; lanta University in 1896. He wrote The 
secretary of the treasury board, 1789; Suppression of the Slave Trade, etc. 
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury under Du Chaillu, Paul Belloni, explorer; 
Hamilton. He died in New York City, born in New Orleans, La., July 31, 1838. 
May 7, 1799. He is best known by the results of two 

Duane, William Alexander, jurist; exploring trips to west Africa, during 
born in Rhinebeck, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1780; which he discovered and examined consid- 
entered the United States navy in 1798; erable territory almost unknown previous- 
admitted to the bar in 1802; member of ly, and added sixty species of birds and 
the State Assembly; judge of the New twenty of mammals to the zoology of 
York Supreme Court, 1822-29; president Africa. His accounts of the gorillas and 
of Columbia College, 1829-42. He wrote pygmies excited a large interest among 
The Life of Lord Sterling, The Steamboat scientists, and for a time many of his as- 
Controversy, etc. He died in New York sertions were sharply contradicted as be- 
City, May 30, 1858. ing impossible; but subsequent explo- 

Duane, William John, la^vyer; born rations by others confirmed all that he 
in Ireland in 1780; was Secretary of the had claimed. His publications include 
United States Treasviry in 1833, but was Explorations and Adventures in Equa- 
opposed to General Jackson's action in the torial Africa; A Journey to Ashango 



of negro descent; was graduated at 

matter of the United States Bank, and 
was therefore removed from office. He 
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 27, 1865. 
Dubois, Fred T., legislator; born in 
Crawford county, 111., May 27, 1851 ; re- 

Land; Stories of the Gorilla Country; 
Wild Life Under the Equntor ; My Apingi 
Kingdom; The Country of the Dvxirfs; 
The Land of the Midnight Sun; The 
Viking Age; Ivar, the Y iking ; The 

moved to Idaho in 1880; was a member of People of the Great African Forest; etc. 
Congress in 1887-91; secured the admis- He died in St. Petersburg, April 29 1903. 



Duche, Jacob, clergyman; born in 
Philadelphia, in 1737; educated at the 
University of Pennsylvania; and became 
an eloquent Episcopalian. A descendant 
of a Huguenot, he naturally loved free- 
dom. He was invited by the Con- 
tinental Congress of 1774 to open 
their proceedings with prayer. In 1775 he 
became rector of Christ Church, and 
espoused the patriot cause. Of a timid 
nature, Duche, when the British took pos- 
session of Philadelphia ( 1777) , alarmed by 
the gloomy outlook, forsook the Amer- 
icans, and, in a letter to Washington, 
urged him to do likewise. This letter 
was transmitted to Congress, and Duche 
fled to England, where he became a popu- 
lar preacher. His estate was confiscated, 
and he was banished as a traitor. In 1790 
Duche returned to Philadelphia, where he 
died Jan. 3, 1798. 

First Prayer in Conr/ress. — The follow- 
ing is the text of Dr. Duche's first prayer 
in Congress: 

Lord, our Heavenly Father, high and 
mighty King of kings and Lord of lords, 
Who dost from Thy throne behold all the 
dwellers of the earth, and reignest with 
power supreme and uncontrollable over 
the kingdoms, empires, and governments, 
look down in mercy, we beseech Thee, on 
these American States, who have fled to 
Thee from the rod of the oppressor and 
thrown themselves on Thy gracious pro- 
tection. Desiring to be henceforth only 
dependent on Thee, to Tliee have they ap- 
pealed for the righteousness of their 
cause: to Thee do they now look up for 
that countenance and support which 
Thou alone canst give. Take them, there- 
fore. Heavenly Father, nnder Tliy nurtur- 
ing care: give them wisdom in covmcil 
and valor in the field. Defeat '^he 
malicious designs of our adversaries, 
convince- them of the unrighteousness of 
their cause; and, if they still persist in 
their sanguinary purpose, oh ! let the voice 
of Tliy unerring justice, sounding in their 
hearts, constrain them to drop the 
weapons of war in their unnerved hands 
in the day of battle. Be Thou present, O 
God of wisdom, and direct the councils of 
this honorable assembly; enable them 
to settle things on the best and surest 
foundation, that the scene of blood may 

be speedily closed; that order, harmony, 
and peace may be restored, and truth and 
justice, religion and piety prevail and 
flourish among the people. Preserve the 
health of their bodies and the vigor of 
their minds; shower down on them and 
the millions they represent such temporal 
blessings as Thou seest expedient for them 
in this world, and crown them with ever- 
lasting glory in the world to come. All 
this we ask in the name and through the 
merits of Jesus Christ, Thy Son, our 
Saviour. Amen. 

Duchesne, Philippa Rose, missionary; 
born in France in 1769; came to America 
in 1818 and engaged in religious work 
among the Indians of Louisiana. In 1820 
she founded in Barriens, on the Bois- 
Brule, the first permanent home of the 
sisterhood of the Sacred Heart in America, 
and lived to see the order established in 
all the large cities of the United States. 
She died in St. Charles, La., in 1852. 

Ducking-stool. The English colonies 
in America continued for a long time the 
manners and customs of their native land; 
among others, that of the use of the duck- 
ing-stool for the punishment of inveterate 
scolding women. Bishop Meade, in Old 
Churches, Ministers, and Families in Vir- 
ginia, says, " If a woman was convicted 
of slander, her husband was made to pay 
five hundred-weight of tobacco " ; but the 
law proving insufficient, the penalty was 
changed to ducking. Places for ducking 
were prepared at court-houses. An in- 
stance is mentioned of a woman who was 
ordered to be ducked three times from a 
vessel lying in the James River. The 
woman was tied to a chair at the longer 
end of a lever, controlled at the shorter 
end by men with a rope. The stool being 
planted firmly, the woman was raised on 
the lever, and then lowered so as to be 
plunged under the water. 

Dudley, Dean, genealogist; born in 
Kingsfield, Me., May 23, 1823; admitted 
to the bar in 1854. Among his works are 
genealogies of the Dudley and Swift 
families; Officers of Our Union Army and 
l^avy, etc. 

Dudley, Joseph, colonial governor; 
born in Roxbury, Mass., July 23, 1647; 
graduated at Harvard in 1665 ; pre- 
pared for the ministry, but, preferring 
politics, became a representative in th«3 



?«77f i^^'i^^"'^ "" magistrate. From 1644. He died in Eoxbury, Mass., July 
lb/7 to 1681 he was one of the commis- 31, 1653. 

sioners for the united colonies of New Eng- Duelling. See Bladensbukg Duel- 
land. He was in the battle with the Nar- ling Field. 

raganseta in 1675, and was one of the com- Duer, William, statesman; born in 
missioners who dictated the terms of a Devonshire, England March 18 1747- 
ti-eaty with that tribe. In September, 1685, in 1767 was aide to Lord Clive in India- 
King Jaines commissioned him president came to America, and in 1768 purchased 
of New England, and in 1687 he was made a tract of land in Washington county, 
chief -justice of the Supreme Court. Dud- N. Y.; became colonel of the militia 
ley was sent to England with Andros judge of the county court, member of the 
in 1689, and the next year was made New York Provincial Congress, and of 
chief-justice of New York. He went to the committee of safety. He was one of 
li-ngland m 1693, and was deputy govern- the committee that drafted the first consti- 
or of the Isle of Wight. He entered tution of the State of New York (1777) 
Parliament in 1701, and from 1702 to and was a delegate in Congress in 1777- 
1/15 he was captain-general and governor 78; and he was secretary of the Treasury 
of Massachusetts. Then he retired to his Board until the reorganization of the 
S 9 T'o''^ Ro-^bury, where he died, finance department under the national 
rnv, "'i^ ^"^^ ^^ . Constitution. He was assistant Secre- 

Ihe disputes between the royal govern- tary of the Treasury under Hamilton 
crs and the people, which continued until 1790. Colonel Duer married (1779) 
about seventy years, were begun in Mas- Catharine, daughter of Lord Stirling 
sachusetts with Dudley. In his first He died in New York City, May 7 1799 
speech he demanded a " fit and convenient Duffield, William Ward military 
house for the governor, and a settled officer; born in Carlisle, Pa., Nov 19 
and stated salary for him. The House, 1823; graduated at Columbia College 
in their answer the next day, observed in 1842; served with gallantry in the war 
that they would proceed to the considera- with Mexico. In 1801 he was made 
tion of these propositions "with all con- colonel of the 9th Michigan Infantry in 
venient speed. They resolved to present, 1862 he captured the Confederate fo/c^ at 
T^L ^ ^'J !f treasury, the sum of Lebanon, and was made commander of all 
±500 and said, as to settling a salary the troops in Kentucky. He was brevetted 
tor the governor, it is altogether new to major-general of volunteers in 1863 and 
us, nor can we think it agreeable to our was compelled by his wounds to resign 
present constitution, but we shall be from the army before the close of the 
ready to do, according to our ability, war. He published School of Brigade and 
what may be proper on our part for the Evolutions of the Line 
support of the government." The govern- Dug Springs, Battle at. General 
or sent for the speaker and the repre- Lyon was 80 miles from Springfield when 
sentatives to come to his chamber, when he heard of the perils of Sigel after the 
he declared his disappointment because fight at Carthage. He pushed on to the 
ot their procedure, and expressed a hope relief of the latter, and on July 13 1861 
that they would think better of the mat- he and Sigel joined their forces,' when 
T^ ^^ T *^^^ general took the chief command. The 

uuaiey, Ihomas, colonial governor; combined armies numbered, at that time 
born m Northampton, England, in 1576; about 6,000 men, horse and foot with 
was an officer of Queen Elizabeth, serving eighteen pieces of artillery. There Lyon 
in Holland; and afterwards he became a remained in a defensive attitude for some 
Puritan and retrieved the fortunes of time, waiting for reinforcements which had 
the Earl of Lincoln by a faithful care of been called for, but which did not come 
his estate as his steward. He came to The Confederates had been largely rein- 
Boston in 1630, as deputy governor, with forced; and at the close of July 
his son-m-law, Simon Bradstreet, and Lyon was informed that they were 
held the office ten years. He was ap- marching upon Springfield in two col- 
pointed major-general of the colony in umns — 20,000 — under the respective 



commands of Generals Price, McCul- erected on the site of what is now Brattle- 
loch, Pearce, McBride, and Rains, boro, in Vermont, the oldest English set- 
Lyon went out to meet them with tlement in that State. 

about 6 000 men, foot and horse, and Dummer, Jeremiah, patriot; born m 
eighteen' cannon, leaving a small force Boston, Mass., in 1680; was graduated at 
to'' guard Springfield. At Dug Springs, Harvard in 1099; went to England as 
19 miles southwest of Springfield, in a agent of Massachusetts in 1710, and re- 
broken, oblong valley, they encountered mained in London till 1721. He published 
a large Confederate force under G«n- a defence of the New England charters, 
eral Rains. While the National vanguard in which he claimed that the colonists 
of infantry and cavalry, under Steele and through redeeming the wilderness did not 
Stanley were leading, they were unex- derive their rights from the crown but 
pectedly attacked by Confederate infan- by purchase or conquest from the natives, 
try, who suddenly emerged from the He died in Plaistow, England, May 19, 
woods. A sudden charge of twenty-five of 1739. 

Stanley's horsemen scattered the Confed- Dunkards, or German Baptists, a 
erates in every direction. The charge was body of Christians who trace their origin 
fearful, and the slaughter was dreadful, back to Alexander Mack, one of a small 
" Are these men or devils, they fight so ?" number of Pietists who had migrated to 
asked some of the wounded. Confederate the province of Witgenstein, Germany, to 
cavalry now appeared emerging from the escape persecution. In 1708 he became 
woods when some of Lyon's cannon, man- their minister, and after they were bap- 
aged by Captain Totten, threw shells that tized in the Eder by being thrice im- 
frightened the horses, and the Confeder- niersed, a church was formed. In 1719 
ates were scattered. They then withdrew, Mr. Mack and all his followers came by 
leaving the valley in the possession of the way of Holland to America and settled 
Nationals. Lyon's loss was eight men in and around Philadelphia. From this 
killed and thirty wounded; that of Rains beginning the Dunkards have spread 
was about forty killed and as many through the Eastern, Northern, and West- 
wounded, ern States. Their doctrine is similar to 

Du Lhut, or Duluth, Daniel Grey- that of the Evangelical Churches. They 
SOLON, explorer; born in Lyons, France; endeavor to follow closely the teachings 
carried on a traffic in furs under the pro- of the Bible. They dress plainly, refrain 
tection of Count Frontenac; explored the from taking active part in politics, affirm 
upper Mississippi in 1678-80, at which instead of taking an oath, settle their 
time he joined Father Hennepin and his quarrels among themselves without going 
companions. He took part in the cam- to law, do not join secret societies, etc. 
paign against the Seneca Indians in 1687 They hold that every believer should be 
and brought with him a large number of immersed face forward, being dipped at 
Indians from the upper lakes. In 1695 he the mention of each name of the Trinity, 
was placed in command of Fort Frontenac The Dunkards now consist of three bodies 
and in 1697 was promoted to the command —the Conservative, Old Order, and Pro- 
of a company of infantry. He died near gressive. In 1900 they reported 2,993 
Lake Superior in 1709. The city of ministers, 1,123 churches, and 111,287 
Duluth was named after him. members, the strongest branch being 

Dummer, Fort. In the war against the Conservatives, who had 2,612 mmis- 
the Norridgewock Indians (1723) repeated ters, 850 churches, and 95,000 members. _ 
attempts were made to engage the as- Dunlap, John, printer; born m 
sistance of the Mohawks, but they were Strabane, Ireland, in 1747; learned the 
unsuccessful, and Massachusetts was ad- printing trade from his uncle, who was in 
vised, with justice, to make peace by re- business in Philadelphia, and at the age of 
storing to the Indians their lands. The eighteen began the publication of the 
attacks of the barbarians extended all Pennsylvania Packet. This was made a 
along the northern frontier as far west daily paper in 1784, and was the first 
as the Connecticut River. To cover the daily issued in the United States. The 
towns in that valley Fort Dummer was title was afterwards changed to the tiorth- 




American and United States Gazette. As was the same day which had been ap- 
printer to Congress Mr. Dunlap printed pointed by the Massachusetts legislature 
the Declaration of Independence. He died for the same purpose. 

in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 27, 1812, In 1775, finding the people of his 

Dunlap, William, painter, dramatist, colony committed to the cause of free- 
and historian; born in Perth Amboy, dom, he engaged in a conspiracy to bring 
N. J., Feb, 19, 1766. His father, being a the Indians in hostile array against 
loyalist, went to New York City in 1777, the Virginia frontier. He employed Dr. 
where William began to paint. He made John Connelly, whom he had commis- 
a portrait of Washington at Rocky Hill, sioned in 1774 to lead a movement for 
N. J., m 1783. The next year he went to sustaining the claims of Virginia to the 
England and received instructions from whole district of Pennsylvania west of 
Benjamin West. He became an actor 
for a short time, and in 1796 was one of 
the managers of the John Street Theatre, 
New York. He took the Park Theatre in 
1798. From 1814 to 1816 he was pay- 
master-general of the New York State 
militia. He began a series of paintings 
in 1816, In 1833 he published a History 
of the American Theatres, and in 1834 a 
History of the Arts of Design. His His- 
tory of New Netherland and the State of 

Neio York was published in 1840. Mr. ''-he Alleghany Mountains. He was a na- 
Dunlap was one of the founders of the tive of Petmsylvania, and lived at Pitts- 
National Academy of Design. He died in burg; and it is believed that he suggested 
New York City, Sept. 28, 1839. to Dunmore the plan of combining the 

Dunmore, John IMukray, Earl of, VVestern Indians against the colonists, 
royal governor; born in Scotland in t^^e visited General Gage at Boston early 
1732; was descended in the feminine line i» the autumn of 1775, and immediately 
from the house of Stuart. He was after his return to Williamsburg he left 
made governor of New York in January, Dunmore and departed for the Ohio ooun- 
1770, and of Virginia, July, 1771, arriv- try, with two companions. They were 
ing there early in 1772. When the Vir- slopped near Hagerstown as suspicious 
ginia Assembly recommended a committee persons, sent back to Frederick, and there 
of correspondence (March, 1773), he im- an examination of Connelly's papers re- 
vealed the whole nefarious plot. He bore 
Dunmore's commission of colonel, and was 
directed to raise a regiment in the west- 
ern country and Canada, the rendezvous 
to be at Detroit, where hostilities against 
the white people might be more easily 
fomented among the Indians. Thence he 
was to march in the spring, enter Vir- 
ginia with a motley force, and meet Dun- 
more at Alexandria, on the Potomac, who 
would be there with a military and naval 
force. Tlie arrest of Connelly frustrated 
the design. He was put in jail and his 
papers were sent to the Continental Con- 
gress. He was kept a prisoner until 
about the end of the war. 
mediately dissolved it, and in May, 1774, What is known historically as "Dun- 
he again dissolved the Assembly because more's War " was a campaign against 
it had passed a resolution making the 1st the Ohio Indians undertaken by Lord 
of June a day of fasting and prayer. This Dunmore in 1774. 
III.— L 161 



The cold-blooded murder of the family 
of Logan ( q. v. ) , an eminent Mingo chief, 
and other atrocities, had caused fearful 
retaliation on the part of the barbarians. 
While Pennsylvanians and the agents of 
the Six Nations were making eflorts for 
peace, Governor Dunmore, bent on war, 
called for volunteers, and 400 of these 
were gathered on the banks of the Ohio, a 
little below Wheeling. This force marched 
against and destroyed (Aug. 7, 1774) a 
Shawnee town on the Muskingum. They 
were followed by Dunmore, with 1,500 Vir- 
ginians, who pressed forward against an 
Indian village on the Scioto, while Col. 
Andrew Lewis, with 1,200 men, encoun- 
tered a force of Indians at Point Pleasant, 
at the mouth of the Great Kanawha 
Eiver (Oct. 10), where a bloody battle en- 
sued. The Indians were led by Logan, 
Cornstalk, and other braves. The Vir- 
ginians were victorious, but lost seventy 
men killed and wounded. Dunmore was 
charged with inciting the Indian war and 
arranging the campaign so as to carry out 
his political plans. It was charged that 
he arranged the expedition so as to have 
the force imder Lewis annihilated by the 
Indians, and thereby w^eaken the physical 
strength and break down the spirits of 
the Virginians, for they were defying royal 
power. His eflforts afterwards to incite 
a servile insurrection in Virginia for the 
same purpose show that he was capable 
of exercising almost any means to accom- 
plish his ends. The Indians in the Ohio 
country, alarmed at the approach of Dun- 
more, had hastened to make peace. Logan 
refused to attend the conference for the 
purpose, but sent a speech which became 
famous in history. Dunmore's officers in 
that expedition, having heard of the move- 
ments in New England, and of the Con- 
tinental Congress, held a meeting at Fort 
Gower (mouth of the Hockhocking River) , 
and after complimenting the governor and 
declaring their allegiance to the King, re- 
solved to maintain the rights of the colo- 
nists by every means in their power. 

The bold movement in the Virginia 
convention (March, 1775) excited the 
official wrath of Governor Dunmore, who 
stormed in proclamations; and to frighten 
the Virginians (or, probably, with a more 
mischievous intent), he caused a rumor 
to be circulated that he intended to excite 

an insurrection among the slaves. Final- 
ly, late in April, he caused marines to 
come secretly at night from the Fowey, 
a sloop-of-war in the York River, and carry 
to her the powder in the old magazine at 
Williamsburg. The movement was dis- 
covered. The minute-men assembled at 
dawn, and were with difficulty restrained 
from seizing the governor. The assembled 
people sent a respectful remonstrance to 
Dunmore, complaining of the act as spe- 
cially cruel at that time, when a servile 
insurrection was apprehended. The gov- 
ernor replied evasively, and the people de- 
manded the return of the powder. When 
Patrick Henry heard of the act, he gath- 
ered a corps of volunteers and marched 
towards the capital. The frightened gov- 



ernor sent a deputation to meet him. One 
of them was the receiver-general of the 
province. They met 16 miles from Will- 
iamsburg, where the matter was com- 
promised by the receiver-general paying 
the full value of the powder. Henry sent 
the money to the public treasury and re- 
turned home. 

In November, 1775, Lord Dunmore pro- 
ceeded in the war-ship Foioey to Norfolk, 
where he proclaimed freedom to all slaves 
who should join the royal standard, which 
he had unfurled, and take up arms against 
the " rebels." He declared martial law 
throughout Virginia, and made Norfolk 
the rendezvous for a British fleet. He sent 
marauding parties on the shores of the 
Elizabeth and Jaines rivers to distress the- 
Whig inhabitants. Being repelled with 
spirit, he resolved to strike a severe blow 
that should produce terror. He began to 
lay waste the country around. The peo- 
ple were aroused and the militia were 
rapidly gathering for the defence of the 
inhabitants, when Dunmore, becoming 


alarmed, constructed batteries at Norfolk, the preparation of his system of military 

tactics for the use of the United States 
troops. From 1781 to 1783 he was secre- 
tary to Robert R. Livingston, then at the 

armed the Tories and negroes, and fortified 
a passage over the Elizabeth River, known 
as the Great Bridge, a point where he ex- 
pected the militiamen to march to 
attack him. Being repulsed in a 
battle there (Dec. 9, 1775), Dun- 
more abandoned his intrenchments 
at Norfolk and repaired to his 
ships, when, menaced by famine 
— for the people would not furnish 
supplies — and annoyed by shots 
from some of the houses, he can- 
nonaded the town (Jan. 1, 177G) 
and sent sailors and marines 
ashore to set it on fire. The 
greater portion of the compact 
part of the city was burned while 
the cannonade was kept up. The 
part of the city which escaped was 
presently burned by the Virgin- 
ians to prevent it from becoming 

a shelter to the enemy. Thus perished, a head of the foreign office of the govern- 
prey to civil war, the largest and richest ment; and then studying law, was ad- 
of the rising towns of Virginia. After mitted to practice in 1785, becoming emi- 
committing other depredations on the Vir- nent in the profession on questions of civil 
ginia coast, he landed on Gwyn's Isl- and international law. He finally devoted 


and, in Chesapeake Bay, with 500 men, 
black and white, cast up some intrench- 
ments, and built a stockade fort. Virginia 
militia, under Gen. Andrew Lewis, at- 
tacked and drove him from the island. 
In this engagement Dunmore was wounded. 
Burning several of his vessels that were 
aground, Dunmore sailed away with the 
remainder, with a large amount of booty, 
among which were about 1,000 slaves. 
After more plundering on the coast the 

himself to literature and science, and 
made many valuable researches into the 
language and literature of the North 
American Indians. In 1819 he published 
a Memoir on the Structure of the Indian 
Languages. When seventy-eight years of 
age (1838) he published a Dissertation on 
the Chinese Language ; also a translation 
of a Description of New Sweden. In 1835 
the French Institute awarded him a prize 
for a disquisition on the Indian languages 

vessels were dispersed, some to the West of North America. Mr. Duponceau opened 

Indies, some to the Bermudas and St. 
Augustine, and Dunmore himself pro- 
ceeded to join the naval force at New 
York, and soon afterwards went to Eng- 
land. In 1786 Dunmore was made gov- 

a law academy in Philadelphia in 1821, 
and wrote several essays on the subject of 
law. He died in Philadelphia, April 2, 
Du Pont, Eleuthere Irenee, scientist; 

ernor of Bermuda. He died in Ramsgate, born in Paris, France, June 24, 1771; son 

England, in May, 1809. of Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours; 

Dunmore's War. See Cresap, Mi- emigrated to the United States in 1799; 

ciiAEL; Dunmore, John Murray, Earl bought a tract of land near Wilmington, 

of; Logan. Del., where he established the powder 

Duponceau, Peter Stephen, philolo- woi-ks, which have since been maintain- 
gist; born in the Isle of Rht?, France, 

June 3, 17G0; went to Paris in 1775, where 
he became acquainted with Baron Steu- 
ben, and accompanied him to America as 
his secretary. He was brevetted a captain 
(February, 1778), and assisted Steuben in 

ed by the Dupont (modern form) family. 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 31, 

Dupont, Samuel Francis, naval officer ; 
born in Bergen Point, N. J., Sept. 27, 
1803; entered the United States navy as 



midshipman at twelve years of age, and 
became commander, Oct. 28, 1842. He 
saw much active service on the California 
coast during the war with Mexico, clear- 
ing the Gulf of California of Mexican ves- 
sels. He was promoted to captain in 
1855; and in October, 1861, he pro- 
ceeded, in command of the South Atlantic 
squadron, to capture Port Royal Island, 
on the South Carolina coast, to secure 
a central harbor and depot of supplies on 
the Southern shores. In July Commodore 
Dupont was made a rear-admiral, and in 
April, 1863, he commanded the fleet which 
made an unsuccessful effort to capture 
Charleston. Admiral Dupont assisted in 
organizing the naval school at Annapolis, 
and was the author of a highly com- 


mended report on the use of floating bat- 
teries for coast defence. He died in Phila- 
delphia, June 23, 1865. 

Duportail, Louis Lebegue, Chevalier, 
military officer; born in France in 1736; 
came to America in the early part of the 
E evolutionary War, and was appointed 
brigadier-general in the Continental army 
in November, 1777, and major - general, 
November, 1781. He was directing engi- 
neer at the siege of Yorktown in the fall 
of 1781. Returning to France, he was 
named mnrechal-de-camp ; and in Novem- 
ber, 1790, was made minister of war. In 
December, 1791, he resigned; and when 
engaged in military service in Lorraine, 
he received a warning of the designs of 
the Jacobins, and sought safety in 

America. He died at sea in 1802, when 
returning to France. 

Dupratz, Antoine Simon Le Page, ex- 
plorer ; born in Tourcoing, France, in 
1689; settled on the Mississippi River 
among the Natchez Indians in 1720. For 
eight years he explored the regions water- 
ed by the Missouri and Arkansas rivers. 
He published a History of Louisiana, or of 
the Western Parts of Virginia and Caro- 
lina. He died in Paris, France, in 1775. 

Duquesne, Fort, a fortification erected 
by the French on the site of the city of 
Pittsburg, Pa., in 1754. While Captain 
Trent and his company were building this 
fort. Captain Contrecceur, with 1,008 
Frenchmen and eighteen cannon, went 
down the Alleghany River in sixty bateaux 
and 300 canoes, took possession of the un- 
finished fortification, and named it Fort 
Duquesne, in compliment to the captain- 
general of Canada. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Washington, with a small force, hurried 
from Cumberland to recapture it, but 
was made a prisoner, with about 400 men, 
at Fort Necessity. In 1755 an expedition 
for the capture of Fort Duquesne, com- 
manded by Gen. Edward Braddock 
{q. V.) , marched from Will's Creek ( Cum- 
berland) on June 10, about 2,000 sti-ong, 
British and provincials. On the banks 
of the Monongahela Braddock was de- 
feated and killed on July 9, and the ex- 
pedition was ruined. 

Washington was a lieutenant-colonel 
imder Braddock in the expedition against 
Fort Duquesne, in 1755, and in that of 
1758. In the former he was chiefly in- 
strumental in saving a portion of the 
British and provincial troops from utter 
destruction. At the battle near the Mo- 
nongahela, where Braddock was killed, ev- 
ery officer but Washington was slain or 
wounded; and he, alone, led the surviv- 
ors on a safe retreat. He was not injured 
during the battle. To his mother he 
wrote : " I luckily escaped unhurt, 
though I had four bullets through my 
coat, and two horses shot under me." 
I'o his brother he wrote : " By the all- 
powerful dispensation of Providence, I 
have been protected beyond all human 
probability or expectation. Death was 
levelling my companions on every side." 
An Indian chief, who, fifteen years after- 
wards, travelled a long way to see Wash* 




Ington when he 
was in Ohio, said 
he had singled him 
out for death, and 
directed his fellows 
to do the same. 
He fired more than 
a dozen fair shots 
at him, but could 
not hit him. " We 
felt," said the 
chief, " that some 
Manitou guarded 
your life, and that 
you could not be 

The expedition of 
1 7 5 8 w a s c o m - 
manded by Gen. 
John Forbes, who 
had about 9,000 
men at his dis- 
posal at Fort 
Cumberland and 
Raystown. These 
included Virginia 

troops under Colonel Washington, the 
Eoyal Americans from South Carolina, 
and an auxiliary force of Cherokee Ind- 
ians. Sickness and perversity of will 
and judgment on the part of Forbes 
caused delays almost fatal to the expedi- 
tion. He was induced, by the advice of follow. When the Virginians were within 
some Pennsylvania land speculators, to a day's march of the fort, they were dis- 
use the army in constructing a military covered by some Indians, who so alarmed 
road farther north tlian the one made by the garrison by an exaggerated account 
Braddock. Washington, who knew the of the number of the approaching troops 
country well, strongly advised against that the guardians of Fort Duquesne, re- 
this measure, but he was unheeded, and duced to 500, set it on fire (Nov. 24), and 
so slow was the progress of the troops fled down the Ohio in boats with such 
towards their destination, that in Sep- haste and confusion that they left every- 
teniber, when it wag known that there thing behind them. The Virginians took 
were not more than SOO men at Duquesne, possession, the next day, and the name 
Forbes, Avith 6,000 troops, was yet east of the fortress was changed to Fort Pitt, 


Forbes intended to propose an abandon- 
ment of the enterprise, when three 
prisoners gave information of the ex- 
treme weakness of the French garrison. 
Washington was immediately sent for- 
ward, and the whole army prepared to 

of the Alleghany Mountains. Major 
Grant, with a scouting-party of Colonel 
P'ouquet's advance corps, was attacked 
(Sept. 21), defeated, and made a pris- 
oner. Still Forbes went creeping on, 

in honor of the great English statesman. / 

Durand, Asiier Brown, painter and en- 
graver; born in JefTerson, N. J., Aug. 21, 
1796. His paternal ancestors were Hugue- 
nots. His father was a watch-maker, and 

wasting precious time, and exhausting the in his shop he learned engraving. In 1812 

patience and respect of Washington and he became an apprentice to Peter Mave- 

other energetic officers; and when Bou- rick, an engraver on copper-plate, and be- 

quet joined the army it was 50 miles came his partner in 1817. Mr. Durand's 

from Fort Duquesne. The winter was ap- ilrst large work was his engraving on 

proaching, the troops were discontented, copper of Trumbull's Declaration of In- 

and a council of war was called, to which dependence. He was engaged upon it a 



year, and it gave him a great reputation. 
His engravings of Musidora and Ariadne 
place him among the first line-engravers of 
his time. In 1835 he abandoned that art 
for painting. Mr. Durand was one of the 
first officers of the National Academy of 
Design, and was its president for several 
years. He died in South Orange, N. J., 
Sept. 17, 1886. 

Durant, Henry Towle, philanthropist; 
born in Hanover, N. H., Feb. 20, 1822; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1841 ; 
admitted to the bar in 1846; and be- 
came connected with Rufus Choate and 
other celebrated lawyers in practice in 
Boston. Later he devoted himself to the 
promotion of education, and through his 
eff"orts Wellesley College was founded at 
a cost of $1,000,000. It was opened in 
1875, was maintained by him at an ex- 
pense of $50,000 a year until his death, 
and afterwards was aided by his widow. 
He died in Wellesley, Mass., Oct. 3, 1881. 

Durell, Edward Henry, jurist; born in 
Portsmouth, N. H., July 14, 1810; gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1831; removed to New 
Orleans in 1836. He held many offices 
under the State government; resisted se- 
cession in 1861 ; president of the Louisiana 
constitutional convention in 1864. Among 
his publications are History of Seventeen 
Years from 1S60 to 1877; Essay on the 
History of France; etc. He died in Scho- 
harie, "n. Y., March 29, 1887. 

Durrie, Daniel Steele, antiquarian; 
born in Albany, N. Y., Jan. 2, 1819; 
appointed librarian of the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin in 1858; published 
genealogies of the Steele and Holt 
families; also a BihliograpMca Genea- 
logica Americana; History of Madison, 
Wis.; History of Missouri; and the Wis- 
consin Biographical Dictionary. 

Duryee, Abram, military officer; born 
in New York City, April 29, 1815; joined 
the State militia in 1833; became colonel 
of the 27th Regiment, now the 7th, in 
1849; commanded his regiment during the 
Astor Place riots. In April, 1861, he 
raised a regiment known as " Duryee's 
Zouaves," which took part in the battle of 
Big Bethel. In 1861 he was promoted to 
brigadier-general, and served with the 
Army of the Potomac until 1863, when he 
resigned. He died in New York City, 
Sept. 27, 1890. 

Dustin, Hannah, heroine; born about 
1660; married Thomas Dustin, of Haver- 
hill, Mass., Dec. 3, 1677. When, in the 
spring of 1697, the French and Indians 
devastated the New England frontier set- 
tlements, Haverhill, within 30 miles of 
Boston, suff"ered severely, forty of its in- 
habitants being killed or carried into cap- 
tivity. Among the latter were a part of 
the family of Thomas Dustin, who was in 
the field when the savages first appeared. 
Mounting his horse, he hastened to his 
house to bear away his wife, eight chil- 
dren, and nurse to a place of safety. His 
youngest child was only a week old. He 
ordered his other children to fly. While 
he was lifting his wife and her babe from 
the bed the Indians attacked his house. 
" Leave me," cried the mother, " and fly 
to the protection of the other children." 
Remounting his horse he soon overtook the 
precious flock, and placing himself be- 
tween them and the pursuing Indians, he 
defended them so valiantly with his gun 
that he pressed back the foe. Meanwhile 
the savages had entered the house, ordered 
the feeble mother to rise and follow them, 
killed the infant, and set fire to the dwell- 
ing. Half dressed, she was compelled to 
go with her captors through melting snow 
in their hasty retreat, accompanied by 
her nurse. They walked 12 miles the first 
day without shoes, and were compelled to 
lie on the wet ground at night, with no 
covering bvit the cold gray sky. This was 
repeated day after day, until they reached 
an island in the Merrimae 6 miles above 
Concord, N. H., the home of the leader of 
the savages, who claimed Mrs. Dustin and 
her nurse as his captives. They were 
lodged with his family, which consisted 
of two men, three women, seven children, 
and a captive English boy, who had been 
with them more than a year. They were 
told that they would soon start for an 
Indian village where they would be com- 
pelled to "run the gantlet"; that is, be 
stripped naked, and run for their lives be- 
tween two files of Indian men, women, 
and children, who would have the privilege 
of scoffing at them, beating them, and 
wounding them with hatchets. 

The two women resolved not to endure 
the indignity. Mrs. Dustin planned a 
means of escape, and leagued the nurse 
and the English boy with her in the exe- 



cution of it. Believing in the faithful- 
ness of the lad and the timidity of the 
women, the Indians did not keep watch 
at night. Through inquiries made by the 
lad, Mrs. Dustin learned how to kill a 
man instantly, and to take off his scalp. 
Before daylight one morning, when the 
whole family were asleep, Mrs. Dustin 
and her companions instantly killed ten 
of the slumberers, she killing her captor, 
and the boy despatching the man who 
told him how to do it. A squaw and a 
child fled to the woods and escaped. After 
scuttling all the boats but one, they fled 
in it down the river, with provisions from 
the wigwam. Mrs. Dustin remembered 
they had not scalped the victims, so, re- 
turning, they scalped the slain savages, 
and bore their trophies away in a bag, as 
evidence of the truth of the story they 
might relate to their friends. At Haver- 
liill they were received as persons risen 
from the dead. Mrs. Dustin found her hus- 
band and children safe. Soon afterwards 
she bore to the governor, at Boston, the 
gun, tomahawk, and ten scalps, and the 
general court gave these two women $250 

shire erected a commemorative monu- 
ment in 1874. On it are inscribed the 
names of Hannah Dustin, Mary Neff, and 
Samuel Leonardson, the latter the Eng- 
lish lad. 

Dutch Gap Canal. There is a sharp 
bend in the James River between the 
Appomattox and Richmond, where the 
stream, after flowing several miles, ap- 
proaches itself within 500 yards. To 
flank Confederate works and to shorten 
the passage of the river 6 or 7 miles. 
General Butler set a large force of 
colored troops at work, in the summer of 
1864, in cutting a canal for the passage 
of vessels across this peninsula. This 
canal was completed, with the exception 
of blowing out the bulkhead, at the close 
of December, 1804. It was 500 yards in 
length, 60 feet in width at top, and 65 
below the surface of the bluff. It was 
excavated 15 feet below high- water mark. 
On New Year's Day, 1865, a mine of 
12,000 lbs. of gunpowder was exploded 
under the bulkhead, and the water 
rushed through, but not in sufficient 
depth for practical purposes, for the mass 


each, as a reward for their heroism. They 
received other tokens of regard. The 
island where the scene occurred is called 
Dustin's Island. On its highest point 
citizens of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 

of the bulkhead (left to keep out the 
water) fell back into the opening after 
tlie explosion. The canal was then swept 
by Confederate cannon, and could not be 
dredged. As a military operation, it was 



a failure. It was excavated in 140 days, 
and has since been made navigable. 
While a greater part of the National 
naval force on the James River was on 
the expedition against Fort Fisher 
{q. v.), the Confederates sent' down from 
the shelter of Fort Darling, on Drewry's 
Bluff, a squadron of vessels for the pur- 
pose of breaking the obstructions at the 
lower end of the Dutch Gap Canal, and 
destroying the pontoon bridges below, so 
as to separate the National troops lying 
on both sides of the James. The squad- 
ron moved silently under cover of dark- 
ness, but was observed and fired upon 
when passing Fort Brady. The vessels 
responded, and dismounted a 100-pounder 
Parrott gun in the fort. The Fredericks- 
burg broke the obstructions at Dutch Gap 
and passed through, but two other 
iron-clads and an unarmored gunboat 
grounded. At dawn the gunboat Drewry 
had been abandoned, and a shell from a 
National battery exploded her magazine, 
when she was blown to a wreck. So hot 
was the fire from the shore that the voy- 
age of the Confederate vessels -was 
checked, and all but the ruined Drewry 
fied up the river. 

Dutch West India Company. The 
Dutch East India Company was a great 
monopoly, the profits of the trade of which 
were enormous. Their ships whitened the 
Indian seas, and in one year the share- 
holders received in dividends the amount 
of three-fourths of their invested capital. 
It was believed that trade with the West- 
ern Continent might be made equally 
profitable, and as early as 1607 William 
Ussellinx suggested a similar association 
to trade in the West Indies. The States- 
General of Holland Avere asked to incor- 
porate such an association. The govern- 
ment, then engaged in negotiations for a 
truce with Spain, refused; but when that 
truce expired, in 1621, a charter was 
granted to a company of merchants which 
gave the association almost regal powers 
to " colonize, govern, and protect " New 
Netherland for the term of twenty- four 
years. It was ordained that during that 
time none of the inhabitants of the United 
Provinces (the Dutch Republic) should be 
permitted to sail thence to the coasts of 
Africa between the tropic of Cancer and 
the Cape of Good Hope; nor to the coasts 


of America or the West Indies between 
Newfoundland and the Strait of Magellan, 
except with the permission of the com- 
pany. It was vested with sovereign 
powers, to be exercised in the name of the 
States-General, and to report to that body, 
from time to time, all its transactions. 
The government of the company was 
vested in five separate chambers of mana- 
gers, the principal one at Amsterdam, and 
the other four in as many separate cities. 
General executive powers were intrusted 
to a board of nineteen delegates, called the 
College of Nineteen, in which one dele- 
gate represented the States-General, by 
whom the company was guaranteed pro- 
tection, and received assistance to the 
amount of $380,000. 

The company was organized on June 
21, 1623; and with such a charter, 
such powers, and such privileges, it be- 
gan the settlement and development of 
New Netherland. The English claimed 
the domain, and the Dutch hastened to ac- 
quire eminent domain, according to the 
policy of England, by planting permanent 
settlements there; and the same year 
(1623) they sent over thirty families, 
chiefly Walloons, to Manhattan. The 
management of New Netherland was in- 
trusted to the Amsterdam chamber. Their 
traffic was successful. In 1624 the ex- 
ports from Amsterdam, in two ships, were 
worth almost $10,000, and the returns 
from New Netherland were considerably 
more. The company established a trad- 
ing-post, called Fort Orange, on the site 
of Albany, and traffic was extended east- 
ward to the Connecticut River, and even 
to Narraganset Bay; northward to the 
Mohawk Valley, and southward and west- 
ward to the Delaware River and beyond. 
To induce private capitalists to engage in 
the settlement of the country, the com- 
pany gave lands and special privileges to 
such as would guarantee settlement and 
cultivation. These became troublesome 
landholders, and in 1638 the rights of the 
company, it was claimed, were interfered 
with by a settlement of Swedes on the 
Delaware. In 1640 the company establish- 
ed the doctrines and rituals of the Re- 
formed Church in the United Provinces 
as the only theological formula to be al- 
lowed in public worship in New Nether- 
land. The spirit of popular freedom, 


which the Dutch brought with them from 
Holland, asserted its rights under the 
tyranny of William Kieft (q. v.), and a 
sort of popular assembly was organized at 
New Amsterdam. Its affairs in New 
Netherland were necessarily under the di- 
rect management of a director-general 
or governor, whose powers, as in the 
case of Kieft and Stuyvesant, were 
sometimes so arbitrarily exercised that 
much popular discontent was mani- 
fested, and their dealings with their 
neighbors Avere not always satis- 
factory to the company and the States- 
General ; yet, on the whole, when we 
ctmsider the spirit of the age, "the colony, 
which, before it was taken possession of 
by the English in 1664, was of a mixed 
population, was managed wisely and well ; 
and the Dutch West India Company was 
one of the most important instruments in 
planting the good seed from which our 
nation has sprung. 

Button, Clarence Edward, military 
officer; born in Wallingford, Conn., May 
15s 1841 ; graduated at Yale College 
in 1860 ; served in the National army in 
1862-64 and took part in several impor- 
tant engagements ; was appointed a second 
lieutenant of ordnance, U. S. A., Jan. 20, 
1864; and was promoted major May 1, 
1890. After the close of the Civil War 
he was assigned to duty with the United 
States Geological Survey. His publi- 
cations include Geology of the High 
Plateaus of Utah; natvaiian Volcanoes; 
The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 ; Ter- 
tiary History of the Grand Canon Dis- 
trict; Mount Taylor and the Zuni 
Plateau, etc. 

Duval, Gabriel, statesman; born in 
Prince George county, Md., Dec. 6, 1752; 
was a member of Congress, 1794-96, when 
he resigned upon his appointment as judge 
of the Supreme Court of Maryland. In 
1811 he was appointed to the United 
States Supreme Court and served until 
1836, when he resigned. He died in Prince 
George county, March 6, 1844. 

Duyckinck, Evert Augustus, author; 
born in New York City, Nov. 23, 1816; 
graduated at Columbia College in 1835. 
His father was a successful publisher, 
and Evert early showed a love for 
books and a taste for literary pursuits. 
In December, 1840, he commenced the pub- 

lication of Aroturus: a Journal of Books 
and Opinions, in connection with Cor- 
nelius Matthews, which was continued 
about a year and a half. He contributed 
to the early numbers of the New York 
Review. In 1847, in connection with his 
brother George, he commenced the Liter- 
ary World, a periodical which continued 
(with an interval of a year and five 
months) until the close of 1853. In 
1856 the brothers completed the Cyclo- 
pcedia of American Literature, in 2 vol- 
umes, a work of great research and value. 
To this Evert added a supplement in 1865. 
His other important works are. Wit and 
Wisdom of Sidney Smith; 'National Por- 
trait-Gallery of Eminent Americans ; His- 
tory of the War for the Union; History 
of the World from the Earliest Period 
to the Present Time; and Portrait - Gal- 
lery of Eminent Men and Women of 
Europe and America (2 volumes). Mr. 
Duyckinck's latest important literary 
labor was in the preparation, in connection 
with William Cullen Bryant {q. v.), of 
a ne^Y and thoroughly annotated edition 
of Shakespeare's writings. Evert died in 
New York City, Aug. 13, 1878. His 
brother, George Long, was born in New 
York City, Oct. 17, 1823; graduated 
at the University of the City of New 
York in 1843. Besides his assistance in 
the conduct of the Literary World and 
the preparation of the Cyclopcedia of 
American Literature, he published biog- 
raphies of George Herbert (1858), Bishop 
Thomas Ken (1859), Jeremy Taylor 
(1860), and Bishop Latimer (1861). He 
died in New York City March 30, 1863. 

Dwight, Theodore, journalist; born 
in Northampton, Mass., Dec. 15, 1764; 
was a grandson of the eminent theologian 
Jonathan Edwards ; became eminent as a 
lawyer and political writer ; was for 
many years in the Senate of Connecticut ; 
and in 1806-7 was in Congress, where 
he became a prominent advocate for the 
suppression of the slave-trade. During 
the War of 1812-15 he edited the Mirror, 
at Hartford, the leading Federal news- 
paper in Connecticut ; and was secretary 
of the Hartford Convention (q. v.) in 
1814, the proceedings of which he pub- 
lished in 1833. He published the Albany 
Daily Advertiser in 1815, and was the 
founder, in 1817, of the New York Daily 



Advertiser, with which he was connected 
until the great fire in 1835, when he re- 
tired, with his family, to Hartford. Mr. 
Dwight was one of the founders of the 
American Bible Society. He was one of 
the writers of the poetical essays of the 
" Echo " in the Hartford Mercury. He 
was also the author of a Dictionary of 
Roots and Derivations. He died in New 
York City, July 12, 1846. 

Dwightj Theodore, author; born in 
Hartford, Conn., March 3, 1796; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1814; set- 
tled in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1833. In as- 
sociation with George White it is said 
that he induced about 9,000 people to 
leave the East and settle in Kansas. He 
was the author of a New Gazetteer of the 
United States (with William Darby) ; 
History of Connecticut ; The Kansas War: 
or the Exploits of Chivalry in the 'Nine- 
teenth Century ; Autobiography of General 
Garibaldi, etc. He died in Brooklyn, N. 
Y., Oct. 16, 1866. 

Dwight, TnEODOBE William, educator 
and jurist; born in Catskill, N. Y., July 
18, 1822; graduated at Hamilton College 
in 1840; appointed Professor of Municipal 
Law in Columbia in 1858; Professor of 
Constitutional Law in Cornell in 1868, 
and lecturer on constitutional law in Am- 
herst in 1869; appointed a judge of the 

Dwight, Timothy; born in Norwich, 
Conn., Nov. 16, 1828; graduated at Yale 
in 1849; tutored at Yale 1851-55; Profes- 


commission of appeals in January, 1874. 
Professor Dwight was the most distin- 
guished teacher of law in the United 
States. He died in Clinton, N. Y., June 
28, 1892. 


sor of Sacred Literature and New Testa- 
ment Greek at Yale, 1858-86; president 
of Yale University, 1886-99, when he re- 
signed the office. 

Dwight, Timothy, educator; born in 
Northampton, Mass., May 14, 1752; 
graduated at Yale College in 1769, and 
was a tutor there from 1771 to 1777, when 
he became an army chaplain, and served 
until October, 1778. In 1781 and 1786 
was a member of the Connecticut legis- 
lature. In 1783 he was a settled minister 
at Greenfield and principal of an academy 
there; and from 1795 until his death was 
president of Yale College. He published 
Travels in New England and New York, 
in 4 volumes. He died in New Haven, 
Conn., Jan. 11, 1817. 

Dyer, David Patterson, lawyer; born 
in Henry county, Va., Feb. 12, 1838; re- 
moved to Missouri in 1841; educated at 
St. Charles College; admitted to the bar 
in 1859, and practised till 1875. He was 
a member of Congress in 1869-71; ap- 
pointed United States attorney in 1875; 
removed to St. Louis; prosecuted the 
great "Whisky Ring" in 1875-76; was 
defeated for governor of Missouri in 1880; 
delegate-at-large to the National Republi- 
can Convention in 1888 and 1900; and be- 
came United States attorney for the east- 
ern district of Missouri in 1902. 

Dyer, Eliphalet, jurist; born in 



Windham, Conn., Sept. 28, 1721; gi'ad- 
uated at Yale College in 1740; became 
a lawyer ; and was a member of the 
Connecticut legislature from 174.5 to 1762. 
He commanded ? regiment in the French 
and Indian War; was made a member 
of the council in 1702; and, as an active 
member of the Susquehanna Company, 
went to England as its agent in 17G3. 
Mr. Dyer was a member of the Stamp Act 
Congress in 1765, and was a member of 
the first Continental Congress in 1774. 
He remained in that body during the en- 
tire war excepting in 1779. He was judge 
of the Supreme Court of Connecticut in 
1766, and was chief -justice from 1789 to 
1793. He died in Windham, May 13, 
1807. Judge Dyer is alluded to in the 
famous doggerel poem entitled Laicyers 
and Bullfrogs, the introduction to which 
aver-s that at Old Windham, in Connecti- 
cut, after a long drought, a frog-pond be- 
came almost dry, and a terrible battle was 
fought one night by the frogs to decide 
which should keep possession of the re- 
maining water. Many " thousands were 
defunct in the morning." There was an 
uncommon silence for hours before the 
battle commenced, when, as if by a pre- 
concerted agreement, every frog on one 
side of the ditch raised the w'ar-cry, 
'•' Colonel Dyer! Colonel Dyer!" and at 
the same instant, from the opposite side, 
resounded the adverse shout of " ElderJcin 
too ! Elder'kin too !" Owing to some pecu- 
liarity in the state of the atmosphere, the 
sounds seemed to be overhead, and the 
people of Windham were greatly fright- 
ened. Tlie poet says: 

" This terrible night the parson did fright 
His people almost in despair ; 
For poor Windham souls among the bean- 
He made a most wonderful prayer. 

Lawyer Lucifer called up his crew ; 
Dyer and I-Mderliin, you must come, too: 
Old Colonel Dyer you know well enough. 
He had an old negro, his name was Cuff." 

Dyer, Mary, Quaker martyr; was the 
wife of a leading citizen of Rhode Island. 
Having embraced the doctrines and dis- 
cipline of the Friends, or Quakers, she 
became an enthusiast, and went to Boston, 
whence some of her sect had been banished, 
to give her " testimony to the truth." In 
that colony the death penalty menaced 
those who should return after banish- 
ment. Mary was sent away and returned, 
and was released while going to the gal- 
lows with Marmaduke Stevenson with a 
rope around her neck. She unwillingly 
returned to her family in Rhode Island; 
but she went back to Boston again for the 
purpose of ofTering up her life to the 
cause she advocated, and she was hanged 
in 1660. Mary had once been whipped on 
her bare back through the streets of Bos- 
ton, tied behind a cart. 

Dyer, Oliver, author; born in Porter, 
N. Y., April 26, 1824; was educated at 
the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, Lima, 
N. Y. ; taught school; and later lectured 
on and taught the Isaac Pitman system of 
phonography. In 1848 he became a re- 
porter in the United States Senate; later 
studied law and practised for a short time, 
abandoning it to devote himself to jour- 
nalism; and was on the staff of the 
Tribune, Sun, and Ledger of New York. 
He was ordained in the Swedenborgian 
Church in 1876. and had charge of a 
church in Mount Vernon. He was au- 
thor of The Wickedest Man in New 
York; Great Senators of the United 
States Forty Years Ago; Life of An- 
dreio Jackson; and Sketch of Henry W. 


E Pluribus Unum. Its earliest oc- 
currence is in a Latin poem called More- 
turn, which is ascribed to Virgil. It was 
suggested as the motto for the Seal of 
THE United States [q. v.) by the com- 
mittee of the Great Seal, consisting of 
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and 
Thomas Jefferson, on Aug. 10, 1776. 

Eads, James Buchanan, engineer; 
born in Lawrenceburg, Ind., May 23, 1820. 
In 1861 he was employed by the national 
government to construct gunboats suit- 
able for use in Western rivers. In the 
space of sixty-five days he constructed 
seven iron-clad gunboats. In 1862 he built 
six more; also heavy mortar-boats. At 


the beginning of July, 1874, he completed 
the magnificent iron railroad bridge across 
the Mississippi at St. Louis. Then he 
pressed upon the attention of the govern- 
ment his plan for improving the naviga- 


tion of the mouth of the Mississippi by 
jetties. He was authorized to undertake 
it (and was very successful), for which 
the government paid him $5,125,000. At 
the time of his death, in Nassau, N. P., 
March 8, 1887, he was engaged in the pro- 
motion of a project he had conceived of 
constructing a ship railway across the 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec, between the At- 
lantic and Pacific oceans. In 1881 he re- 
ceived the Albert medal from the British 
Society of Arts, the first American to be 
thus honored. 

The jetty system consists simply of a 
dike or embankment projecting into the 
water, whose purpose is to narrow the 
channel so that the natural action of the 
water will keep it clear of sediment or 
other obstruction. The Mississippi River 
is, at its mouth, 40 feet deep and 1% 
miles wide, and carries every minute 
72,000,000 feet of water to the Gulf, 
which holds in solution nearly 20 per 
cent, of mud and sand. The river has 
three channels to the sea — the Southwest 
Pass, the Passe I'Outre, and the South 
Pass — the first carrying out about 50 
per cent, of its water, the second 40 per 
cent., and the third 10 per cent. There 
is a bar at the mouth of each pass, and 
each has a channel Ihrough which large 
vessels may pass. This channel is about 
1,200 feet wide and 50 feet deep in the 
large passes, and 600 feet wide and 35 
feet deep in the small one. The swift 
and concentrated current keeps the chan- 
nel open, but the bar is continually 
spreading outward, and as it thus 
spreads the water excavates a channel 
through it, though not of a uniform depth 
or width. Thus, a frequent dredging of 
the channel was necessary to prevent the 
continual grounding of vessels upon it. 
Captain Eads was the first to suggest 
that this laborious and expensive dredg- 
ing process might be done away with by 


the use of jetties. He reasoned that if in the Gulf. Five and a half million cubic 

the banks of the passage through the bar yards of earth had been removed, mainly 

could be extended, not gradually, but by the action of the strong current 

immediately, into the deep water of the created by the jetty. In the construc- 


Gulf some 2 miles or more, it would tion of this important improvement the 

produce force enough to excavate a following amount of material had been 

channel the whole length of the bar. used: Willow, 502,000 cubic yards; stone. 

This project he imdertook to carry out 100,000 cubic yards; gravel, 10,000 cubic 

at his own expense, agreeing not to re- yards; concrete, 9,000 tons; piling and 

ceive compensation for the work until it lumber, 12,000,000 feet. Captain Eads's 

was completed; and the truth of his rea- plan has been proved to be very success- 

soning was proved by the results. In ful, for the banks of the jetty continue 

the winter of 1874-75 he laid his plan be- firm, and the channel is kept clear by 

fore Congress, and in March, 1875, a bill the movement of the concentrated current 

was passed empowering him to put it between them. 

into execution. The work was begun in Eagan, Charles Patrick, military offi- 
June, 1875. The jetties were laid out cer ; born in Ireland in January, 1841; 
parallel with the current of the river, served through the Civil War in the 1st 
and at right angles with the Gulf cur- Washington Territory Infantry; was corn- 
rent, extending with a slight curve 214 missioned 2d lieutenant 9th United States 
miles out from the mouth of the river. Infantry in 1866; and became brigadier- 
Piles were first driven in to mark the general and commissary-general May 3, 
path of the jetties; then willows fastened 1898. During the American-Spanish War 
together in enormous mattresses were he was in charge of the commissary de- 
sunk, and these filled in with stones and partment of the army, and in January, 
gravel. This work was done on the 1899, was tried by court-martial for criti- 
South Pass, the narrowest of the three cising General Miles during an investiga- 
channels of the Mississippi delta. Cap- tion into the character of supplies furnish- 
tain Eads wished to try his experiment ed to the army during the war; was sus- 
on the Southwest Pass, the deepest and pended from rank and duty for six years 
widest channel, but Congress would not on Feb. 9 ; and was restored and imme- 
permit him to do so. The work of mak- diatcly retired Dec. 6, 1900. 
ing the South Pass jetties was completed Eagle, the standard of the Persian and 
July 9, 1879. A channel 30 feet deep, the Roman; also adopted by Charlemagne 
with a minimum width of 45 feet, had with a second head as the standard of the 
been made from the river to deep water holy Roman empire of Germany. The 



eagle was the standard of France during Englaiid; Chirm- Collecting in America; 
the empire, as it is now of Austria, Rus- Customs and Fashions in Old New Eng- 
sia, and Prussia. The great seal of the land; Life of Margaret Winthrop; Diary 
United States (see Seal of the United of a Boston School- Girl; Costume of 
States) bears a shield on the breast of Colonial Times; Colonial Dames and 
the eagle. The $10 gold coin of the Goodmives; Old Narraga/nsett ; Colonial 
United States is also called an eagle. It Days in Old New York; Curious Punish- 
was first coined in 1794. No eagles were 7nents of Bygone Days; Home Life in 
coined between 1805 and 1837. The $20 Colonial Days; Child Life in Colonial 
gold coin is popularly known as the double Days; Coach and Tavern Days ; and was 
ea^le. part author of Early Prose and Verse; 

Eagle, Henry, naval officer; born in Historic New York; Chap Book Essays; 
New York City, April 7, 1801; entered the Old-Time Gardens, Sundials, and Roses of 
navy in 1818; and had command of the Yesterday; etc. 

bomb-vessel JEtna and also a part of the Earle, Pliny, inventor; born in Leices- 
Gulf fleet during the Mexican War. At ter, Mass., Dec. 17, 1762; became connect- 
the beginning of the Civil War he carried ed with Edward Snow in 1785 in the man- 
important messages from Brooklyn to ufacture of machine and hand cards for 
Washington. While in command of the carding wool and cotton. Mr. Earle had 
MonticeUo he was engaged in the first first made them by hand, but afterwards 
naval engagement of the war, silencing the by a machine of his own invention, 
guns of Sewell's Point battery, Va., May Oliver Evans (q. v.) had already invent- 
19, 1861. He was promoted commodore in ed a machine for making card-teeth, which 
1862; retired in January, 1863. He died produced 300 a minute. In 1784 Mr. Crit- 
in November, 1882. tenden, of New Haven, Conn., invented a 

Eagle, James Phillip, clergyman ; born machine which produced 86,000 card- 
in Maury county, Tenn., Aug. 10, 1837 ; teeth, cut and bent, in an hour. These 
acquired a country-school and a collegiate card-teeth were put up in bags and dis- 
education; served in the Confederate tributed among families, in which the 
army in the Civil War, and attained the women and children stuck them in the 
rank of colonel. After the war he became leather. Leicester was the chief seat of 
a Baptist minister and cotton-planter; this industry, and to that place Samuel 
was a member of the Arkansas legislature Slater {q. v.) , of Rhode Island, went 
for four years; and of the constitutional for card clothing for the machines in his 
convention in 1874; one of the commis- cotton-mill. Hearing that Pliny Earle 
sioners to adjust the debt of the Brook- Avas an expert card-maker, he went to him 
Baxter war over the governorship in 1874; and told him what he wanted. Mr. Earle 
and was governor of Arkansas in 1889-93. invented a machine for pricking the holes 

Eames, Wilberforce, librarian; born in the leather — a tedious process by hand 
in Newark, N. J., Oct. 12, 1855; appointed — and it worked admirably. A few years 
assistant in the Lenox Library, 1885; li- afterwards Eleazer Smith (see Whitte- 
brarian in 1893. He is the author of more, Amos) made a great improvement 
many bibliographical books, among them by inventing a machine that not only 
an account of the early New England cat- pricked the holes, but set the teeth more 
echisms, a comparative edition of the va- expertly than human fingers could do. 
rious texts of Columbus's letter announc- About 1843 William B. Earle, son of 
ing the discovery of America, and editor Pliny, improved Smith's invention, and 
of several volumes of Sabin's Dictionary the machine thus produced for making 
of Books relating to America, besides card clothing proved the best ever made, 
many articles on bibliographical subjects. By Mr. Earle's first invention the labor of 

Earle, Alice Morse, author; born in a man for fifteen hours could be perform- 
Worcester, Mass.. April 27, 1853. She ed in fifteen minutes. Mr. Earle possessed 
has written extensively on the manner and extensive attainments in science and liter- 
customs of the colonial periods in New ature. He died in Leicester, Nov. 19, 1832. 
England and New York. Among her publi- Earle, Thomas, statesman ; born in Lei- 
cations are The Sabbath in Puritan New cester, Mass., April 21, 1796; removed to 



J'hiladelphia in 1817; he edited succes- 
sively The Columhian Observer, standard, 
Fennsylvanimi, and Mechanics' Free Press 
and Reform Advocate. He was a member 
of the Pennsylvania constitution conven- 
tion of 1837, and is believed to have draft- 
ed the new constitution. He died in Phila- 
delphia, July 14, 1849. 

Early, Jubal Anderson, military offi- 
cer ; born in Franklin county, Va., Nov. 
3, 1816; graduated from West Point in 
1837, and served in the Florida war the 
same year. In 1838 he resigned his com- 
mission and studied law. In 1847 he 


served as a major-general of volunteers 
during the war with Mexico. He was ap- 
pointed colonel in the Confederate ser- 
vice at the outbreak of the Civil War. He 
was one of the ablest and most successful 
ef the Confederate generals, but was de- 
feated at Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and 
Cedar Creek. At Gettysburg he com- 
manded a division of Lee's army, and the 
second at Cedar Creek, where Sheridan 
arrived in time to rally his men after his 
famous ride. In 1888 he published a book 
giving the ni3tory of the last year of the 
Divil War, during which time he was in 
command of the army of the Shenandoah. 
He died in Lynchburg, Va., March 2, 1894. 
Earthquakes. On June 1, 1038, be- 
tween the hours of 3 and 4 p.m., the 
weather clear and warm, and the wind 
westerly, all New England was violently 
shaken by an internal convulsion of the 
earth. It came on with a noise like con- 


tinned thunder, and the shock lasted about 
four minutes. The earth shook with such 
violence that in some places the people 
could not stand upright without difficulty, 
and many movable articles in the houses 
were thrown down. The earth was unquiet 
for twenty days afterwards. On Jan. 26, 
1663, a heavy shock of earthquake was 
felt in New England and in New York, 
and was particularly severe in Canada, 
where it was recorded that " the doors 
opened and shut of themselves with a 
fearful clattering. The bells rang with- 
out being touched. The walls were 
split asunder. The floors separated and 
fell down. The fields put on the appear- 
ance of precipices, and the mountains 
seemed to be moving out of their places." 
Small rivers were dried up; some moun- 
tains appeared to be much broken and 
moved, and half-way between Quebec and 
Tadousac two mountains were shaken 
down, and formed a point of land extend- 
ing some distance into the St. Lawrence. 
On Oct. 29, 1727, there was a severe 
earthquake in New England, lasting about 
two minutes. Its course seemed to be 
from the Delaware River, in the south- 
west, to the Kennebec, in the northeast, 
a distance of about 700 miles. It oc- 
curred at about twenty minutes before 
eleven o'clock in the morning, and the 
sky was serene. Pewter and china were 
cast from their shelves, and stone walls 
and chimney-tops were shaken down. In 
some places doors were burst open, and 
people could hardly keep their feet. 
There had been an interval of fifty-five 
years since the last earthquake in New 
England. On the same day the island of 
Martinique, in the West Indies, was 
threatened with total destruction by an 
earthquake which lasted eleven hours. 
On Nov. 18, 1755, an earthquake shock 
was felt from Chesapeake Bay along the 
coast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, about 800 
miles; and in the interior it seems to 
have extended, from northwest to south- 
east, more than 1,000 miles. In Boston 
100 chimneys were levelled with the roofs 
of the houses, and 1,500 shattered. The 
vane on the public market was thrown to 
the earth. At New Haven, Conn., the 
ground moved like waves of the sea; the 
houses shook and cracked, and many 
chimneys were thrown down. It oc- 


5 " 


curred at four o'clock in the morning, 2,000 houses were overthrown; and half 
and lasted four and a half minutes. At of the island of Madeira, 660 miles south- 
the same time there was a great tidal- west from Portugal, became a waste, 
wave in the West Indies. In April, the The last earthquake of consequence was 
same year, Quito, in South America, was on Aug. 31, 1886, when a large part of 
destroyed by an earthquake; and eighteen the city of Charleston, S. C, was de- 
days before the earthquake in North stroyed, with many lives. 
America there was an awful and exten- East India Company, The. At the 
sive one in southern Europe that extend- close of 1600, Queen Elizabeth granted a 
ed into Africa. The earth was violently charter to a company of London mer- 
shaken for 5,000 miles — even to Scotland, chants for the monopoly of the trade over 
In eight minutes the city of Lisbon, with a vast expanse of land' and sea in the re- 
50,000 inhabitants, was swallowed up. gion of the East Indies, for fifteen years. 
Other cities in Portugal and Spain were The charter was renewed from time to 
partially destroyed. One half of Fez, in time. The first squadron of the company 
northern Africa, was destroyed, and more ffive vessels) sailed from Torbay (Feb. 
than 12,000 Arabs perished. In the islan . 15, 1601) and began to make footholds, 
of Mitylene, in the Grecian Archipelago, speedily, on the islands and continental 



shores of the East, establishing factories 
in many places, and at length obtaining 
a grant (1098) from a native prince of 
Calcutta and two adjoining villages, with 
the privilege of erecting fortifications. 
This was the first step towards the ac- 
quirement by the company, under the 
auspices of the British government, of 
vast territorial possessions, with a popu- 
lation of 200,000,000, over which, in 1877, 
Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress. 
The company had ruled supreme in India, 
with some restrictions, until 1858, when 
the government of that Oriental empire 
was vested in the Queen of England. 
Though the company was not abolished, 
it was shorn of all its political power, as 
it had been of its trade monopoly. The 
East India Company first introduced tea 
into England, in the reign of Charles 

Eastman, Harvey Gridley, educator; 
born in Marshall, Oneida co., N. Y., Oct. 
16, 1832: after attending the common 
schools of his neighborhood, completed his 
education at the State Normal School at 
Albany; and at the age of twenty-three 
opened a commercial school at Oswego, 
N. Y., having been a teacher in a similar 
school kept by his uncle in Rochester. In 
that school he first conceived the plan of a 
commercial or business college. On Nov. 3, 
1859, Mr. Eastman opened a business col- 
lege in Poughkeepsie, with a single pupil. 
In 1865 there were more than 1,700 stu- 
dents in the college. It was the first insti- 
tution in which actual business was 
taught. Mr. Eastman was a very liberal 
and enterprising citizen, foremost in every 
judicious measure which promised to bene- 
fit the community in which he lived. He 
was twice elected mayor of the city, and 
held that office at the time of his death, 
in Denver, Col., July 13, 1878. On the 
day of his funeral the city was draped in 
mourning and nearly all places of busi- 
ness were closed, for he was eminently re- 
spected as a citizen and as a public officer. 

Easton, James, military officer; born in, 
Hartford, Conn. : became a builder, and 
settled in Pittsfield, Mass., in 1763. Ac- 
tive in business and strong in intellect, he 
became a leader in public affairs there, 
and was chosen to a seat in the Massa- 
chusetts Assembly in 1774. He was also 
colonel in the militia, and held the posi- 


tion of leader of the minute-men of that 
town. When the expedition to assail 
Ticonderoga was organized in western 
Massachusetts, Colonel Easton joined 
Allen and Arnold in accomplishing the 
undertaking, and it was he who bore the 
first tidings of success to the Provincial 
Congress of Massachusetts. He died in 
I'ittsfield, Mass. 

Easton, John, colonial governor; son 
of Nicholas; was governor of Rhode Island 
in 1690-95. He was the author of a 'Nar- 
rative of the Causes which led to Philip's 
Indian War. 

Easton, Langdon Cheves, military offi- 
cer; born in St. Louis, Mo., Aug. 10, 1814; 
graduated at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in 1838; and served in the 
Florida, Mexican, and Civil wars. In 
December, 1863, he was appointed chief 
quartermaster of the Army of the Cumber- 
land; and in May, 1864, was assigned the 
same post in the army under General 
Sherman. He received the brevet of ma- 
jor-general in March, 1865; retired in Jan- 
uary, 1881. He died in New York City, 
April 29, 1884. 

Easton, Nicholas, colonial governor; 
born in 1593; came to America in 1634, 
and settled in Ipswich, Mass. In 1638 
he removed to Rhode Island and erected 
the first house in Newport; was govern- 
or of Rhode Island and Providence in 
1650-52. He died in Newport, R. I., Aug. 
15, 1675. 

Eastport, Capture of. Early in July, 
1814, Sir Thomas M. Hardy sailed secretly 
from Halifax with a squadron, consisting 
of the Ramillics (the flag-ship), sloop 
Martin, brig Borer, the Bream, the bomb- 
ship Terror, and several transports, with 
troops under Col. Thomas Pilkington. The 
squadron entered Passamaquoddy Bay on 
the 11th, and anchored off Fort Sullivan, 
at Eastport, Me., then in command of Maj. 
Perley Putnam with a garrison of fifty 
men, having six pieces of artillery. Hardy 
demanded an instant surrender, giving 
Putnam only five minutes to consider. 
The latter promptly refused, but at the 
importunity of the alarmed inhabitants, 
who were indisposed to resist, he surren- 
dered the post on condition that, while the 
British should take possession of all 
public property, private property should 
be respected. This was agreed to, and 


1,000 armed men, with women and chil- the United States Bureau of Education 
dren, a battalion of artillery, and fifty or for sixteen years, addresses, and numerous 
sixty pieces of cannon were landed on the magazine articles. He died in Washing- 
main, when formal possession was taken ton, D. C, Feb. 9, 1906. 
of the fort, the town of Eastport, and all Eaton, John Henry, statesman; born 
the islands and villages in and around in Tennessee in 1787; was United States 
Passamaquoddy Bay. Several vessels laden Senator from Tennessee in 1818-20; re- 
with goods valued at $300,000, ready to be signed to become Secretary of War under 
smuggled into the United States, were President Jackson; appointed governor 
seized. Sixty cannon were mounted, and of Florida Territory in 1834; resigned to 
civil rule was established under British become United States minister to Spain 
officials. The British held quiet posses- in 1836. He published a Life of Andrew 
eion of that region until the close of the Jackson, who was his colleague in the 
■war. Senate for two years. He died in Wash- 

ngton, D. C, Nov. 17, 1856. See Eaton, 
sIargaret Ij. O'Neill. 

Eaton, Margaret L. O'Neill, daughter 
3f William O'Neill, an Irish hotel-keep- 
er in Washington; born in 1796, and after 
the death of her first Viusband, John B. 
Timberlake, she married John Henry 
Eaton, United States Senator from Ten- 
nessee. Upon the appointment of her 

Eaton, DoRMAN Bridgman, lawyer; borr 
in Hardwick, Vt., June 27, 1823; grad- 
uated at the University of Vermont ii 
1848; was active in promoting civil ser 
vice reform, and was a membei' of th 
United States Civil Sei'vice Commissio 
for many years. He was the author oi 
Civil Service in Great Britain; The In- 
dependent Movemerd in New York, etc.; 

and editor of the 7th edition of Kent's husband to the office of Secretary of War, 

Commentaries. He died in New York Mrs. Eaton was not recognized socially 

City, Dec. 23, 1900. by the wives of the other members of the 

Eaton, John, educator ; born in Sut- cabinet. President Jackson interfered, and 

ton, N. H., Dec. 5, 1829; was graduated demanded that Mrs. Eaton should receive 

at Dartmouth College in 1854; applied the usual social courtesies. In consequence 

himself to educational pursuits till 1859, of these social quarrels, a disruption of the 

when he entered Andover Theological cabinet took place in 1831. After Mr. 

Seminary, and in 1862, after his ordi- Eaton's death his widow married an Ital- 

nation, was appointed chaplain of the ian. She died in Washington, Nov. 8, 

27th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In No- 1879. 

vember of the same year he was made Eaton, Theophiltts, colonial governor; 
superintendent of freedmen, and later born in Stony Stratford, England, in 
was given supervision of all military 1591 ; was bred a merchant, and was for 
posts from Cairo to Natchez and Fort some years the English representative at 
Smith. In October, 1863, he became the Court of Denmark. Afterwards he was 
colonel of the 63d United States Colored a distinguished London merchant, and ac- 
Infantry, and in March, 1865, was companied Mr. Davenport to New Eng- 
brevetted brigadier-general. He was editor land in 1637. With him he assisted in 
of the Memphis Post in 1866-67, and founding the New Haven colony, and was 
State superintendent of public instruc- chosen its first chief magistrate. Mr. 
tion in Tennessee in 1867-69. From 1871 Eaton filled the chair of that office con- 
to 1886 he was commissioner of the United tinuously until his death, Jan. 7, 1658. 
States Bureau of Education, and then be- Eaton, William, military officer; born 
came president of Marietta College, O., in Woodstock, Conn., Feb. 23, 1764; grad- 
where he remained until 1891; was presi- uated at Dartmouth College in 1790; en- 
dent of the Sheldon Jackson College of tered the Continental army at the age 
Salt Lake City in 1895-98, when he was of sixteen; and was discharged in 1783. 
appointed inspector of public education In 1797 he was appointed American con- 
in Porto Rico. He is author of History sul at Tunis, and arrived there in 1799. 
of Thetford Academy; Mormons of To- He acted with so much boldness and tact 
day; The Freedman in the War (re- that he secured for his country the free- 
port) ; Schools of Tennessee; reports of dom of its commerce from attacks by 



Tunisian cruisers. He returned to the 
United States in 1803; was appointed 
naval agent of the United States for the 
Barbary States, and accompanied the 
American fieet to the Mediterranean in 
1804. He assisted Hamet Caramelli, the 
rightful ruler of Tripoli, in an attempt to 
recover his throne, usurped by his brother. 
Soon afterwards Eaton returned to the 
United States, and passed tlie remainder of 
his life at Brimfield. For his services to 
American commerce the State of Massa- 
chusetts gave him 10,000 acres of land. 
The King of Denmark gave him a gold 
box in acknowledgment of his services to 
commerce in general and for the release 
of Danish captives at Tunis. Burr tried 
1o enlist General Eaton in his conspiracy, 
and the latter testified against him on 
his trial. He died in Brimfield, Mass., 
June 1, 1811. See Tripoli, War with. 

Eben-Ezer or Amana Community. 
A communistic society originating in Ger- 
many at the beginning of tlie eighteenth 
century. They removed to America in 
1843 and settled near Buffalo, N. Y., but 
removed to Iowa in 1855. 

Eckford, Henry, naval constructor; 
born in Irvine, Scotland, March 12, 1775; 
learned his profession with an uncle at 
Quebec, began business for himself in New 
York in 1796, and soon took the lead in 
his profession. During the War of 18 IS- 
IS he constructed ships-of-war on the 
Lakes with great expedition and skill ; 
and soon after the war he built the steam- 
ship Robert Fulton, in which, in 1822, 
he made the first successful trip in a craft 
of that kind to New Orleans and Havana. 
Made naval constructor at Brooklyn in 
"820, six ships-of-the-line were built after 
his models. Interference of the board of 
naval commissioners caused him to leave 
the service of the government, but he 
afterwards made ships-of-war for Euro- 
pean powers and for the independent 
states of South America. In 1831 he 
built a war-vessel for the Sultan of Tur- 
key, and, going to Constantinople, organ- 
ized a navy-yard there, and there he died, 
Nov. 12, 1832. 

Econochaca, Battle at. Marching 
from Fort Deposit, in Butler covmty, Ala. 
(December, 1813), General Claiborne, 
pushing through the wilderness nearly 
30 miles with horpe and foot and friendly 

Choctaw Indians, arrived near Econocha- 
ca, or Holy Ground, a village built by 
Weathersford upon a bluflT on the left 
bank of the Alabama, just below Powell's 
Ferry, Lowndes co., in an obscure place, 
as a "city of refuge" for the wounded 
and dispersed in battle, fugitives from 
their homes, and women and children. 
No path or trail led to it. It had been 
dedicated to this humane purpose by 
Tecumseh and the Prophet a few months 
before, and the Cherokees had been assured 
by them that, like Auttose, no white man 
could tread upon the ground and live. 
There the Indian priests performed their 
incantations, and in the square in the 
centre of the town the most dreadful 
cruelties had already been perpetrated. 
White prisoners and Creeks friendly to 
them had been there tortured and roasted. 
On the morning of Dec. 23 Claiborne ap- 
peared before the town. At that moment 
a number of friendly half-bloods of both 
sexes were in the square, surrounded by 
pine-wood, ready to be lighted to consume 
them, and the prophets were busy in their 
mummery. The troops advanced in three 
columns. The town was almost surround- 
ed by swamps and deep ravines, and the 
Indians, regarding the place as holy, and 
having property there of great value, 
though partially surprised, prepared to 
fight desperately. They had conveyed 
their women and children to a place of 
safety deep in the forest. By a simul- 
taneous movement, Claiborne's three col- 
umns closed upon the town at the same 
moment. So unexpected was the attack 
that the dismayed Indians broke and fled 
before the whole of the troops could get 
into action. Weathersford was there. The 
Indians fled in droves along the bank of 
the river, and by swimming and the use 
of canoes they escaped to the other side 
and joined their families in the forest. 
Weathersford, when he found himself de- 
serted by his warriors, fled swiftly on a 
horse to a bluff on the river between two 
ravines, hotly pursued, when his horse made 
a mighty bound from it, and the horse 
and rider disappeared under the water for 
a moment, when both arose, Weathersford 
grasping the mane of his charger with one 
hand and his rifle with the other. He 
escaped in safety. Econochaca was plun- 
dered by the Choctaws and laid in ashes. 



Fully 200 houses were destroyed, and office many of the tea-party disguised 

thirty Indians killed. The Tennesseeans themselves, and were there regaled with 

lost one killed and six wounded. punch after the exploit at the wharf was 

Eddis, William, royalist; born in Eng- performed. He began, with Mr. Gill, in 

land about 1745; came to America in 1769, 1755, the publication of the Boston Gazette 

and settled in Annapolis, Md. He was and Country Journal, which became a 

surveyor of customs till the troubles be- very popular newspaper, and did eminent 

tween the colonies and the home govern- service in the cause of popular liberty, 

ment became so strong that it was unsafe Adams, Hancock, Otis, Quincy, Warren, 

for royalists to remain in the country. On and other leading spirits were constant 

June 11, 1776, he was ordered, with others, contributors to its columns, while Mr. 

by the patriot " Committee of Observa- Edes himself wielded a caustic pen. He 

tion," to leave the country before Aug. 1. was in Watertown during the siege of 

His time, however, was extended, and he Boston, from which place he issued the 

continued in office till April, 1777, when Gazette, the " mouth-piece of the Whigs." 

he returned to England. He was the au- It was discontinued in 1798, after a life, 

thor of Letters from America. sustained by Edes, of forty years. He 

Eddy, Richard, author; born in Provi- died in Boston, Dec. 11, 1803. 

dence, R. I., June 21, 1828; removed to Edes, Henry Herbert, historian; born 

Clinton, N. Y., in 1848; studied theology in Charlestown, Mass., March 29, 1849; 

there, and was ordained to the ministry of is a member of many historical societies, 

the Unitarian Church. In 1861-63 he was and the author of History of the Harvard 

chaplain of the 60th New York Regiment; Church in Charlestown; Historical Sketch 

in 1878 was elected president of the Uni- of Charlestown ; editor of Wy man's 

tarian Historical Society; and became edi- Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown; 

tor of the Universalist Quarterly. His Foote's Annals of King's Chapel, Boston, 

publications include a History of the 60th etc.; and a contributor to the Memorial 

Regiment, Neto York State Volunteers; History of Boston. 

Vniversalism in America, a History ; Alco- Edes, Peter, patriot; born in Boston, 

hoi in History; and three sermons on Lin- Mass., Dec. 17, 1756; educated at the 

coin, entitled The Martyr to Liberty. Boston Latin School. Shortly after the 

Eden, Charles, colonial governor; battle of Bunker Hill he was impris- 

born in England in 1073; appointed gov- oned by General Gage, who charged him 

ernor of North Carolina, July 13, 1713. with having fire-arms concealed in his 

During his administration he arrested house. He spent 107 days in a room of 

the pirate Edward Teach, usually called the Boston jail. He was the publisher 

" Black-Beard." He died in North Caro- of an edition of the Fifth of March Ora- 

lina, March 17, 1722. tions ; also an oration on Washington. 

Eden, Sir Robert,, royal governor ; born In 1837 the diary of his imprisonment, 

in Durham, England. Succeeding Gov- containing a list of the prisoners capt- 

ernor Sharpe as royal governor of Mary- ured at Bunker Hill, was published in 

land in 1768, he was more moderate in Bangor, and a letter about the " Boston 

his administration than his predecessors, tea-party," addressed to his grandson, ap- 

He complied with the orders of Congress pears in the Proceedings of the Massa- 

to abdicate the government. He went to chusetts Historical Society. He died in 

England, and at the close of the war re- Bangor, Me., March 30, 1840. 

turned to recover his estate in Maryland. Edgar, Henry Cornelius, clergyman; 

He had married a sister of Lord Balti- born in Rahway, N. J., April 11, 1811; 

more, and was created a baronet, Oct. 19, graduated at Princeton College in 1831 ; 

1776. He died in Annapolis, Md., Sept. 2, became a merchant; was licensed to 

1786. preach by the Presbyterian Church in 

Edes, Benjamin, journalist; born in 1845. During the Civil War he spoke 

Charlestown, Mass., Oct. 14, 1732; was forcibly against slavery. His published 

captain of the Ancient and Honorable Ar- orations and sermons include Three Lect- 

tillery Company in 1760, and one of the tires on Slavery; Four Discourses Occa- 

Boston Sons of Liberty. In his printing- sioned hy the Death of Lincoln; An Ex- 



position of the Last Nine Wars/ Chris- 
tianity our Nation's Wisest Policy; A 
Discourse Occasioned 
President Garfield., etc, 
Pa., Dec. 23, 1884. 

Edgren, August 
born in Wermland, 

1840; graduated at the University of Up- 
sola ; came to the United States, and 
joined the National army in January, 

the news headings of his papers. The re- 
lations which he thus formed with tele- 
hy the Death of graph operators awakened a desire to 
He died in Easton, learn telegrapliy. Not content with the 
opportunities ofi'ered by the railway tele- 
graph, he, with a neighbor who had simi- 
lar inclinations, built a line a mile long 
through a wood which separated their 
homes. Edison made the instruments, but 
having no way of getting a battery felt 

Hjalmar, author 
Sweden, Oct. IS 

1862; was promoted first lieutenant and at a loss as to how he should proceed. He 

assigned to the Engineer Corps in Au- soon thought of a novel expedient, but 

gust, 1863. Soon after he returned to its application proved a total failure. 

Sweden. His publications include The Lit- Having noticed that electric sparks were 

erature of America; The Public Schools generated by rubbing a cat's back, he fas- 

and Colleges of the United States; Amer- tened a wire to a cat's leg, and rubbing 

ican Antiquities, etc. 

Edict of Nantes, The, an edict pro- 
mulgated by Henry IV. of France, which 
gave toleration to the Protestants in 
feuds, civil and religious, and ended the 
religious wars of the country. It was 
published April 13, 1598, and was con- 

its fur briskly, watched for an effect upon 
the instrument, but none followed. While 
engaged in commercial telegraphy in Cin- 
cinnati in 1867, he conceived the idea of 
transmitting two messages over one wire 
at the same time, totally ignorant that 
this had been attempted by electricians 

firmed by Louis XIII. in 1610, after the many years before. He continued to make 
murder of his father; also by Louis XIV. experiments in every branch of telegraphy, 
in 1652; but it was revoked by him, Oct. attending to his office duties at night and 
22, 1685. It was a great state blunder, experimenting in the daytime. In 1869 
for it deprived France of 500,000 of her he retired from the operator's table, and, 
best citizens, who fled into Germany, Eng- leaving Boston, where he was then em- 
land, and America, and gave those coun- 
tries the riches that flow from industry, 
skill, and sobriety. They took with them 
to England the art of silk-weaving, and 
60 gave France an important rival. in that 
branch of industry. 

Edison, Thomas Alva, electrician; 
born in Milan, O., Feb. 11, 1847. He was 
taught by his mother till he was twelve 
years old, when he began work as a news- 
paper boy, obtaining an exclusive contract 
for the sale of newspapers on the Detroit 
division of the Grand Trunk Railway. He 
continued at this work for five years. 
Meanwhile he bought a small printing 
outfit, which he carried on the train, and 
by which he printed a small weekly paper, 
called The Grand Trunk Herald. Its sub- 
scription list showed 450 names. When 
the Civil War broke out the enormous in- 
crease in newspaper traffic confined his 
whole attention to that branch of his busi- 
ness. He conceived and carried out the 
idea of having large bulletin-boards set 
up at every station along the line of the 
railroad, on which he caused to be chalked 
by telegraph operators and station agents In New York he soon formed an alliance 



ployed, went to New York with original 
apparatus for duplex and printing teleg- 
raphy, the latter being the basis of nearly 
all the subsequent Gold and Stock Ex- 
change telegraph reporting instruments. 



with electricians and manufacturers, and, elusion of twenty-five years of uninter- 
after a few years of varied experience with rupted service. In 1897 he was chosen 
partners in the laboratory and in tlie shop, chairman of the monetary commissiou 
he removed to Menlo Park, N. J., in 1876, 
where he established himself on an inde- 
pendent footing, with everything which 
could contribute to or facilitate invention 
and research. In 1886 Mr. Edison bought 
property in Llewellyn Park, Orange, N. 
J., and later removed there from Menlo 
Park. His inventions are many and 
varied. His contributions to the develop- 
ment of telegraphy are represented by 
sixty patents and caveats assigned to the 
Gold and Stock Telegraph Company of 
New York, and fifty to the Automatic 
Telegraphy Company. His inventions in- 
clude the incandescent electric light, the 
carbon telegraph transmitter, the micro- 
tasimeter for the detection of small 
changes in the temperature; the mega- 
phone, to magnify sound; the phonograph, 
the patent of which he sold for $1,000,000; 
the aerophone; the kinetoscope, etc. On 
Sept. 27, 1889, he was made a Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor by the French gov- 
ernment, appointed by the Indianapolis monetary 

Edmonds, John Worth, lawyer; born conference, which reported to Congress a 
in Hudson, N. Y., March 13, 1799; grad- scheme of currency reform, 
uated at Union College in 1816; ad- Education. Popular education made 
mitted to the bar in 1819; elected to the rapid progress in the United States dur- 
New York Assembly in 1831, and the New ing the nineteenth century. In 1776 there 
York Senate in 1832; became a circuit were seven colleges in the English- 
judge in 1845, and was appointed to the American colonies, and the common 
Court of Appeals in 1852. He was the schools were few and very inferior. At 
author of Spiritualism; Letters and the end of the school year, 1898-99, the 
Tracts on Spiritualism, besides a number population of the country was estimated 
of law books. He died in New York City, at 76,000,000, of which 201/3 per cent. 
April 5, 1874. was enrolled in the public elementary 

Edmunds, George Franklin, states- and high schools, or 15,138,715; and the 
man; born in Richmond, Vt., Feb. 1, total in all schools, elementary, second- 
1828; took an early and active part in ary, and higher, both public and private, 
Vermont politics, serving several terms in was 16,738,362. Of the total enrolment, 
both houses of the legislature; was 10,389,407 were in average daily attend- 
speaker of the House of Representatives ance in the public schools. There was a 
and president pro tern., of the Senate. In total of 415,660 teachers (males, 131,793; 
1866 he entered the United States Senate females, 283,867), to whom $128,662,880- 
as a Republican, and till 1891 was one was paid in salaries. All public-school 
of the foremost men in Congress. Towards property had a value of $524,689,255. The 
the close of his senatorial career he was receipts of the school-year were $194,- 
the author of the acts of 1882 and 1887 998,237; the expenditures, exclusive of 
for the suppression of polygamy and the payments on bonded debts, $197,281,603. 
regulation of affairs in Utah, and of the The expenditure per capita of population 
anti-trust law (1890). In 1886 he framed was $2.67, and the average daily expendi- 
thc act for counting the electoral vote, ture per pupil, 13.3 cents. These figures 
He resigned his seat in 1891 at the con- exclude statistics of the education of the 



blind, the deaf, and other defective 
classes, which are treated separately in 
this work, and also Secondary Schools 
(q. v.). 

Education, American Public. See 
Holland, Josiah Gilbert. 

Education, Chautauqua System of. 
See Chautauqua System of Education. 

Education, Elementary. William 
ToRREY Harris (q. v.), the U. S. Com- 
missioner of Education since 1S89, one of 
the highest authorities on the subject of 
education, writes as follows: 

At the meeting in 1892 the National 
Educational Association appointed a com- 
mittee of ten persons to consider and re- 
port upon the subjects of study and the 
methods of instruction in secondary 
schools, including public high schools, 
private academies, and schools preparing 
students for college. President Eliot, of 
Harvard, was appointed chairman, with 
nine associates, four of whom were presi- 
dents of colleges, one a professor in a col- 
lege, two principals of public high 
schools, and one head master of a pre- 
paratory school. This committee of ten, 
as it is generally called, had author- 
ity to select the members of special con- 
ferences and to arrange meetings for the 
discussion of the principal subjects taught 
in preparatory schools. The subjects rep- 
resented were Latin, Greek, English, other 
modern languages, mathematics, natural 
philosophy (including physics, astronomy, 
and chemistry), natural history (and 
biology, including botany, zoology, and 
physiology), history (including also civil 
government and political economy), 
geography (including physical geography, 
geology, and meteorology). The National 
Educational Association appropriated the 
sum of .$2,500 towards defraying the ex- 
penses of the conferences. 

The report was completed and pub- 
lished in the spring of 1894. Thirty 
thousand copies were distributed by the 
national bureau of education, and since 
then edition after edition has been print- 
ed and sold by the National Educational 
Association through an agent. 

No educational document before pub- 
lished in this country has been more 
widely read or has excited more helpful 
discussion. The secondary instruction of 

the country has been considered to be the 
weakest part of the entire system, al- 
though it is conceded on all hands that 
the teachers in secondary schools are, on 
the average, much superior in profes- 
sional and general culture to the teachers 
in elementary schools, if not to those in 
colleges. The reason for this defect in 
secondary schools has been found in the 
course of study. A majority of the pub- 
lic high schools and a larger majority of 
the private academies dilute their sec- 
ondary course of study by continuing ele- 
mentary studies beyond their proper limit. 
Arithmetic, descriptive geography, gram- 
mar, history of one's native country, lit- 
erature written in the colloquial vocabu- 
lary, are each and all very nourishing to 
the mind when first begun, but their edu- 
cative value is soon exhausted. The 
mind needs for its continuous develop- 
ment more advanced branches, such as 
algebra and geometry, physical geogra- 
phy, a foreign language, general history. 
But for these the secondary school often 
substitutes other branches that involve no 
new methods nor more complex ideas, 
and the pupil stops in the elementary 
stage of growth. 

The influence of the report of the com- 
mittee of ten has been to impel secondary 
schools towards the choice of well-bal- 
anced courses of study containing subjects 
which belong essentially to secondary edu- 
cation, like algebra, Latin, or physics ; and 
at the same time either to discontinue 
elementary branches, or to apply to the 
study of these a superior method, by which 
their principles are traced into higher 
branches and explained. 

The success of the report of the com- 
mittee of ten has been such as to arouse 
eager interest in a similar inquiry into 
the work of the elementary schools. Al- 
ready, in February, 1893, a committee 
had been appointed by the department of 
superintendence in the National Educa- 
tional Association. It was made to con- 
sist of fifteen members instead of ten, 
and has been known as the committee of 

The report of this committee of fif- 
teen was submitted to the department 
of superintendents at the meeting in 1895. 
It is the object of this paper to indicate 
briefly the points that give it importance. 



If one were to summarize concisely the 
bistory of educational progress in the 
United States for the nineteenth century 
as regards the elementary schools, he 
would say that there has been a change 
from the ungraded school in the sparsely 
settled district to the graded school of 
the city and large village. The ungraded 
school held a short session of three or 
four months, was taught by a makeshift 
teacher, had mostly individual instruc- 
tion, with thirty or forty recitations to 
be heard and five minutes or less of the 
teacher's time ])er day for each. 

The graded school has classified its 
pupils according to the degree of advance- 
ment and assigns two classes to a teacher. 
Instead of five minutes for a recitation, 
there are twenty or thirty minutes, and 
the teacher has an opportunity to go be- 
hind the words of the book and by discus- 
sion and questioning probe the lesson, find 
what the pupil really understands and 
can explain in his own words. Each mem- 
ber of the class learns more from the an- 
swers of his fellow-pupils and from the 
cross-questioning of the teacher than he 
could learn from a lesson of equal length 
with a tutor entirely devoted to himself. 

The graded school continues for ten 
months instead of three, and employs or 
may employ a professional educated teach- 
er. This is the most important item of 
progress to be mentioned in the history 
of our education. Normal schools, 200 
in number, have been created in the va- 
rious States, and it is estimated that the 
cities, large and small, have an average 
of 50 per cent, of professionally trained 
teachers, while the ungraded schools in 
the rural districts are taught by persons 
who leave their regular vocations and re- 
sort to teaching for a small portion of the 

The urban and suburban population, 
counting in the large villages, is at pres- 
ent about 50 per cent, of the population 
of the whole country. 

One improvement leads to another, and 
where the graded school has been estab- 
lished with its professionally trained 
teachers it has been followed by the ap- 
pointment of experts as superintendents, 
until over 800 cities and towns in the 
nation have such supervision. The fifty 
States have each a State superintendent, 


who, in most cases, controls the licensing 
of teachers in rural districts. 

With the advent of the professional 
teacher and the expert supervisor, there 
has arrived an era of experiment and agi- 
tation for reforms. 

The general trend of school reforms may 
be characterized as in the direction of se- 
curing the interest of the pupil. All the 
new devices have in view the awakening 
of the pupil's inner spring of action. Pie 
is to be interested and made to act along 
lines of rational culture through his own 
impulse. The older methods looked less 
to interesting the pupil than to disciplin- 
ing the will in rational forms. " Make 
the pupil familiar with self - sacrifice, 
make it a second nature to follow the be- 
hest of duty and heroically stifle selfish 
desires " — this was their motto, expressed 
or implied. It was an education ad- 
dressed primarily to the will. The new 
education is addressed to the feelings and 
desires. Its motto is: "Develop the 
pupil through his desires and interests." 
Goethe preached this doctrine in his Wil- 
helm Meister. Froebel founded the 
kindergarten system on it. Colonel 
Parker's Quincy school experiment was, 
and his Cook County Normal School is, 
a centre for the promulgation of this 
idea. Those who advocate an extension 
of the system of elective studies in the 
colleges and its introduction even into 
secondary and elementary schools justify 
it by the principle of interest. 

It is noteworthy that this word " in- 
terest " is the watchword of the disciples 
of the Herbartian system of pedagogy. 
Herbart, in his psychology, substituted 
desire for will. He recognizes intellect 
and feeling and desire (Begierde) . De- 
sire is, of course, a species of feeling — 
for feeling includes sensations and desires, 
the former allied to the intellect and the 
latter to the will. But sensation is not 
yet intellect, nor is desire will ; both are 
only feeling. 

I have described and illustrated this 
general trend of school reform in order 
to show its strength and its weakness, 
and to indicate the province marked out 
for a report that should treat of the 
branches of study and the methods of in- 
struction in the elementary schopl and. 
suggest improvement.. 


While the old education in its exclusive 
devotion to will-training has slighted the 
intellect and the heart (or feelings), the 
new education moves likewise towards an 
extreme as bad, or worse. It slights di- 
rect will-culture and tends to exaggerate 
impulse and inclination or interest. An 
educational psychology that degrades will 
to desire must perforce construct an 
elaborate system for the purpose of de- 
veloping moral interests and desires. 
This, however, does not quite succeed until 
the old doctrine of self-sacrifice for the 
sake of the good is reached. 

" Our wills are ours, to make them thine." 

The philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita 
holds that the goal of culture is to anni- 
hilate all interest and attain absolute in- 
difference — this is adopted by Buddhism 
in the doctrine of Nirvana. Indian re- 
nunciation reaches the denial of selfhood, 
while the Christian doctrine of renunci- 
ation reaches only to the denial of selfish- 
ness and the adoption of altruistic in- 

However this may be, the pedagogic im- 
pulse to create devices for awakening the 
interest of the pupil becomes sometimes 
a craze for novelty. Change at any price 
and change of any kind is clamored for. 
It is a trite saying that change is not 
progress. It is more apt to be movement 
in a circle or even retrogression. An 
amusing example was lately furnished in 
educational circles. A superintendent of 
rural schools defended their want of classi- 
fication as an advantage. It was " individ- 
ual instruction," and, as such, an improve- 
ment over that of the graded school of 
the cities. His reactionary movement re- 
ceived the support of some of the advo- 
cates of educational reform on the ground 
that it was a new departure. This hap- 
pened at a time when one-half of the 
school children in the United States are 
still taught, or rather allowed to memo- 
rize their text-books, by this method. 

The sub-committees on training of 
teachers and on organization of city 
school systems have brought forward, in 
their respective reports, the latest de- 
vised measures for the perfection of nor- 
mal schools and the procurement of ex- 
pert supervisors for city school systems. 
The importance of the recommendations 

regarding schools for the training of 
teachers is seen when one recalls to mind 
the fact that the entire upward movement 
of the elementary schools has been in- 
itiated and sustained by the employment 
of professionally trained teachers, and 
that the increase of urban population has 
made it possible. In the normal school 
the candidate is taught the history of 
education, the approved methods of in- 
struction, and the grounds of each 
branch of study as they are to be found 
in the sciences that it presupposes. 

The method of eliminating politics 
from the control of a city school system is 
discussed in Judge Draper's frank and 
persuasive style, and a plan in essential 
particulars similar to that adopted in 
the city of Cleveland is recommended for 
trial in all large cities. A small school- 
board of five or ten members is appointed 
by the mayor, which, in turn, elects a 
school-director (but this officer may also 
be appointed by the mayor), who takes 
charge of the business side of the manage- 
ment of schools. For the professional 
side of the work a superintendent is ap- 
pointed by the school-director, with the 
approval of two-thirds or three-fourths 
of the school-board. The terms of office 
suggested are, respectively, for the mem- 
bers of the school-board appointed by the 
mayor, five years ; for the school-director, 
five years; for the superintendent, five 
to ten years. The superintendent ap- 
points all teachers from an eligible list 
of candidates whose qualifications are de- 
fined by the school-board. 

This plan of government is based on 
the idea of the importance of personal 
responsibility at all points in the ad- 
ministration. Only an actual trial can 
determine its strength or weakness. All 
plans, as Judge Draper well says, pre- 
suppose a public spirit and a moral sense 
on the part of the people; they presuppose 
a sincere desire for good schools and a fair 
knowledge of what good schools are and of 
the best means of creating them. Where 
the whole people possesses political power, 
the intelligent and virtuous citizens must 
exert a continual influence or else the 
.demagogues will come into office. For the 
natural representative of the weakling 
classes is the demagogue. Whether the 
citizen is weak in intellect, or thrift, or 



morals, it is all the same ; he will vote peal to experimental psychology in dealing 
for the demagogue as ruler. 

The report on the correlation of studies 
is an attempt to reconcile the old and the 
new in education by discovering what in 
the course of study is or should be perma- 
nent and what in the nature of things is 
transient. It admits the claims of the new 
education, as to making the appeal to the 
child's interest paramount, so far as this 
relates to the methods of instruction, but 
it finds a limit to this in the matters to 
be taught. It discusses the educational 
value of the five principal factors of the 
course of study in order to determine 
clearly where the proposed new branches 
of study belong and what they add to the 
old curriculum. These five components of 
a course of study are : ( 1 ) Grammar, as a 
study of the structure of language; (2) 
Literature, as a study of the art form of 
language — literature as furnishing a reve- 
lation of human nature in all its types; 

(3) Mathematics, as furnishing the laws 
of matter in movement and rest — the laws 
grounded in the nature of space and time; 

(4) Geography, as a compend of natural 
and social science — unfolding later, in 
secondary and higher education, into 
geology, botany, zoology, meteorology on 
the one hand, and into anthropology and 
sociology, economics and politics on the 
other; (5) History, as showing the origin 
and growth of institutions, especially of 
the state. It appears that these five 
branches cover the two worlds of man and 
nature, and that all theoretical studies fall 
within these lines. This is the correlation 
of study. Each essential branch has some 
educational value that another does not 
possess. Each branch also serves the func- 
tion of correlating the child to his environ- 
ment — namely, to the two worlds of 
nature and human society. 

Hitherto, we are told in this report, 
the course of study has been justified on 
psychological grounds — " literature culti- 
vates the memory and the imagination " ; 
" arithmetic the reason," etc. But each 
branch has in some measure a claim on 
all the faculties. Arithmetic cultivates 
the memory of quantity, the imagination 
of successions, and the reason in a peculiar 
figure of the syllogism different from the 
three figures used in qualitative reasoning. 

The report, however, makes frequent ap- 

with the question of the time devoted to 
the several branches. For example, it 
often discusses the danger of too much 
thoroughness of drill in teaching and the 
use of processes that become mechanical 
after some time. The rapid addition of 
numbers, the study of the geometrical 
solids, the identification of the colors of 
the spectrum, the reading of insipid pieces 
written in the colloquial vocabulary, the 
memorizing of localities and dates; all 
these things may be continued so long un- 
der the plea of " thoroughness " as to para- 
lyze the mind, or fix it in some stage of ar- 
rested growth. 

The committee have been at much pains 
to point out the importance of leaving a 
branch of study when it has been studied 
long enough to exhaust its educational 
value. It is shown in the case of arithme- 
tic that it ought to be replaced by algebra 
two years earlier than is the custom in 
the public schools at present. The arith- 
metical method should not be used to solve 
the class of problems that are more easily 
solved by algebra. So, too, it is contended 
that English grammar should be discon- 
tinued at the close of the seventh year, 
and French, German, or Latin — preferably 
the last — substituted for it. The edu- 
cative value of a study on its psychological 
side is greatest at the beginning. The 
first six months in the study of algebra 
or Latin — it is claimed that even the first 
four weeks — are more valuable than the 
same length of time later on. For the 
first lessons make one acquainted with a 
new method of viewing things. 

In recommending the introduction of 
Latin and algebra into the seventh and 
eighth years of the elementary school 
course, the committee are in accord with 
the committee of ten, who urged the 
earlier commencement of the secondary 
course of study. 

The committee urge strongly the subor- 
dination of elocution and grammar in the 
reading exercises to the study of the con- 
tents of the literary work of art, holding 
that the best lesson learned at school is 
the mastery of a poetic gem or a selection 
from a great prose writer. It is contend- 
ed that the selections found in the school 
readers often possess more literary vmity 
than the whole works from which they 



were takerij as in the case of Byron's Bat- called Fort Lyman after their commander. 

tie of Waterloo from Childc Harold. The A garrison of 2,500 men under the Earl of 

importance of studying the unity of a London, and later under General Webb, 

work of art is dwelt upon in different made several expeditions against Canada, 

parts of the report, and the old method After Munro's defeat at Fort William 

of parsing works of art censured. Henry (q. v.) the remnant of the Amer- 

An example of the Herbartian correla- ican army fled to Fort Edward. During 
tion is found in the method recommended Burgoyne's advance in July, 1777, General 
for teaching geography — namely, that the Schuyler sought shelter here. See Hur.- 
industrial and commercial idea should be rardton. Battle of: McCrra. .Tw^ 
the centre from which the pupil moves Edward VII., Albert Edward, King 
out in two directions — from the supply of of Great Britain and Emperor of India; 
his needs for food, clothing, shelter, and born in Buckingham Palace, Nov. 9, 
culture he moves out on the side of nat- 1S41 ; eldest son of Queen Victoria and 
lire to the "elements of difference," that Ihe Prince Consort; created Prince of 
is to say, to the differences of climate, soil, Wales and Earl of Chester a month after 
productions, and races of men, explaining his birth ; educated by private tutors, 
finally by geology, astronomy, and meteor- at Christ Church, Oxford, and at Cam- 
ology how these differences arose. On the bridge. In 18G0, under the guidance of 
other hand, he moves towards the study the Duke of Newcastle, he visited the 
of man, in his sociology, history, and United States, where he received an en- 
economics, discovering what means the thusiastie welcome. President Buchanan 
race has invented to overcome those " ele- and his official family extended to him 
ments of difference " and supply the mani- a grand entertainment at the national 
fold wants of man wherever he lives by capital, and the cities which he visited 
making him participant in the produc- vied with one another in paying him 
tions of all climes through the world com- high honors. The courtesies so generous- 
merce. ly extended to hini laid the foundation 

Likewise in the study of general his- for the strong friendship which he always 

tory the committee suggest that the old afterwards manifested for Americans, 

method of beginninof with the earliest ages After this trip he travelled in Germany, 

be discontinued and that a regressive Italy, and the Holy Land. In 1863 he 

method be adopted, proceeding from married the Princess Alexandra, daughter 

United States history back to English of Christian IX., King of Denmark, and 

history, and thence to Rome, Greece, and after his marriage he made prolonged 

Judea, and the other sources of our civili- tours in many foreign countries, most 

zation. notably in Egypt and Greece in 1809, and 

In contrast to this genuine correlation in British India in 1875-76. He has al- 

the report describes an example of what ways been exceedingly fond of out-door 

it calls "artificial eorrelation " — where sports and athletics in general, and has 

Rohinson Crusoe or some literary work of kept himself in close touch with his peo- 

art IS made the centre of study for a con- pie. On the death of Queen Victoria, 

siderable period of time, and geography, Jan. 22, 1901, he succeeded to the throne, 

arithmetic, and other branches taught in- and was formally proclaimed king and 

eidentally in connection with it. emperor at St. James's Palace, London, 

Educational Land Grants. The United on the 24th. 

States has granted nearly 100,000,000 Edward, Fort, a defensive work built 

acres to the individual States for educa- by the New England troops in 1755 on the 

tional endowments, or the erection of east bank of the Hudson River, 45 miles 

schools and colleges. In many instances north of Albany. 

these grants were mismanaged, but in Edwards, Jonathan, theologian; born 

others they have proved of great service, in East Windsor, Conn., Oct. 5, 1703; 

Edward, Fort, on the Hudson River, giaduated at Yale College in 1720, having 

forty-five miles north of Albany; built by begun to study Latin when he was six 

the 6,000 New England troops in the years of age. He is said to have reasoned 

French and Indian war in 1755; originally out for himself his doctrine of free-will 

— 187 


before he left college, at the age of seven- fice until its organization as a State in 
teen. He began preaching to a Presby- 1818. From 1818 till 1824 he was United 
terian congregation before he was twenty States Senator, and frqm 1826 to 1830 
years old, and became assistant to his governor of the State. He did much, by 
grandfather. Rev. Mr. Stoddard, minister promptness and activity, to restrain Indian 
at Northampton, Mass., whom he sue- hostilities in the Illinois region during the 
ceeded as pastor. He was dismissed in War of 1812. He died in Belleville, 111., 
1750, because he insisted upon a purer July 20, 1833. See A. B. Plot. 
and higher standard of admission to the Edwards, Oliver, military officer ; born 

in Springfield, Mass., Jan. 30, 1835; was 
commissioned first lieutenant in the 10th 
Massachusetts Volunteers at the outbreak 
of the Civil War, and was promoted brig- 
adier-general. May 19, 1865, for " con- 
spicuous gallantry." He received the 
surrender of Petersburg, Va., and com- 
manded Forts Hamilton and Lafayette, in 
New York Harbor, during the draft riots 
of 18G3. He was mustered out of the 
army in 1806. 

Edwards, Pierrepont, jurist; born in 
Northampton, Mass., April 8, 1750; the 
youngest son of Jonathan Edwards, Sr. ; 
graduated at the College of New Jersey 
in 1768. His youth was spent among 
the Stockbridge Indians, where his father 
was missionary, and he acquired the 
language perfectly. He became an emi- 
nent lawyer ; espoused the cause of the 
communion - table. Then he began his patriots, and fought for liberty in the 
missionary work (1751) among the Stock- army of the Revolution. He was a mem- 
bridge Indians, and prepared his greatest ber of the Congress of the Confederation 
work, on The Freedom, of the Will, which in 1787-88, and in the Connecticut con- 
was published in 1751. He was inaugu- vention warmly advocated the adoption of 
rated president of the College of New the national Constitution. He was judge 
Jersey, in Princeton, Feb. 16, 1758, and of the United States District Court in 
died of small-pox, March 22, 1758. He Connecticut at the time of his father's 
married Sarah Pierrepont, of New Haven, death. Mr. Edwards was the founder of 
in 1727, and they . became the grand- the "Toleration party" in Connecticut, 
parents of Aaron Burr. which made him exceedingly unpopular 

Edwards, Ninian, jurist; born in with the Calvinists. He died in Bridge- 
Montgomery county, Md., in March, 1775. port. Conn., April 5, 1826. 


William Wirt directed his early educa- 
tion, which was finished at Dickinson Col- 

Egbert, Harry C, military officer ; born 
in Pennsylvania, Jan. 3, 1839; joined the 

lege, and in 1819 he settled in the Green 12th United States Infantry, Sept. 23, 
River district of Kentucky. Before he 1861 ; served with distinction in the ac- 
was twenty-one he became a member of tions of Gaines's Mills, Malvern Hill, Cedar 
the Kentucky legislature; was admitted Mountain, Gettysburg, etc. He was taken 
to the bar in Kentucky in 1798, and to prisoner at Cedar Mountain and at Get- 
that of Tennessee the next year, and rose tysburg, and was seriously wounded at 
very rapidly in his profession. He passed Bethesda Church. When the war with 
through the offices of circuit judge and Spain broke out he was lieutenant-colonel 
judge of appeals to the bench of chief-jus- of the 6th United States Infantry, which 
tice of Kentucky in 1808. The next year he commanded in the Santiago campaign 
he was appointed the first governor of the until he was shot through the body at 
Territory of Illinois, and retained that of- El Caney, July 1, 1898. He was pro- 



moted colonel of the 22d Infantry, and 
before his wound was completely healed 
sailed for the Philippine Islands. He ar- 
rived at Manila with his command, March 
4, 1899, and while leading a charge 
against Alalinta he received a wound, 
from which he died March 26 following. 

Eggleston, Edward, author; born in 
Vevay, Ind., Dec. 10, 1837; was mainly 
self-educated ; later became a minister 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church. His 
publications of a historical character in- 
clude History of the United States and 
Its People; Household History of the 
United States and Its People; A First 
Book of Americam. History ; and The Be- 
ginners of a Nation-. He died at Lake 
George, N. Y., Sept. 3, 1902. 

Eggleston, George Gary, author; born 
in Vevay, Ind., Nov. 26, 1839; brother of 
Edward Eggleston; began the practice of 
law in Virginia; served in the Confed- 
erate army during the Civil War, and 
then removed to the West. His publica- 
tions include Red Eagle and the War 
with the Creek Indians; Strange Stories 
from History; an edition of Haydn's Dic- 
tionary of Dates; and compilations of 
Ainerican War Ballads and Southern Sol- 
dier Stories. 

Eggleston, Joseph, military officer; 
born in Amelia county, Va., Nov. 24, 1754; 
was graduated at William and Mary Col- 
lege in 1776; joined the cavalry of the 
American army; became captain, and ac- 
quired the reputation of being an officer 
of great efficiency. In 1781 he displayed 
remarkable bravery in the action of Guil- 

ford Court-house and in the siege of Au- 
gusta; later in the same year he won the 
hrst success in the battle of Eutaw by a 
well-directed blow against the vanguard 
of the British column. He held a seat 
in Congress in 1798-1801. He died in 
Amelia county, Va., Feb. 13, 1811. 

Egle, William Henry, librarian; born 
in Harrisburg, Pa., Sept. 17, 1830; grad- 
uated at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1859; is the author of History of 
Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania in the Rev- 
olution; Pennsylvania Genealogies; His- 
torical, Biographical, and Genealogical 
Notes and Queries; Some Pennsylvania 
Women in the Revolution, etc. 

Elbert, Samuel, military officer; born 
in Prince William parish, S. C., in 1743; 
was made captain of a grenadier company 
in 1774; joined the Revolutionary army 
in 1776. He led an expedition into East 
Florida in April, 1778, and took Fort 
Oglethorpe; afterwards displayed great 
bravery in the assault on Savannah in 
December, 1778. He was captured by the 
British in the engagement at Brier Creek, 
March 3,1779; afterwards was exchanged 
and re-entered the American army; was 
brevetted brigadier-general, Nov. 3, 1783; 
became governor of Georgia in 1785. He 
died in Savannah, Ga., Nov. 2, 1788. 

El Caney, an elevated suburban vil- 
lage 3 miles northeast of Santiago, in the 
province of Santiago, Cuba. It was here, 
on July 1, 1898, that the American army 
of liberation met its first serious oppo- 
sition. After the landing of the troops 
at Daiquiri (g. v.) on June 20-22, a 




forward movement began, and by the 27th 
the whole army, 16,000 strong, had 
reached points within 3 miles of Santiago. 
General Shatter, in consultation with the 
other generals, determined on an envelop- 
ing movement to prevent a junction of 
the forces under General Pando and those 
under General Linares in Santiago. In 
accordance with this plan the division of 
General Lawton moved out on June 30, 
into positions previously determined. By 


daylight on July 1, Capt. Allyn K. Cap- 
ron's light battery reached a commanding 
hill, 2,400 yards from the village. The 
brigade of Ma j. -Gen. Adna E. Chaffee was 
assigned a position east of El Caney that 
be might be prepared to attack after the 
first bombardment, and Brig.-Gen. Will- 
iam Ludlow went around to the west with 
his brigade for the purpose of preventing 
a retreat of the Spaniards into Santiago. 
As soon as the battery opened fire upon 
the stone block-house and church in the 
centre of the village, and also the 
trenches where the Spanish infantry was 
situated, General Chaffee's brigade, com- 
posed of the 7th, 12th, and 17th Infantry, 
moved to attack in the front, keeping up 
a constant but careful fire, as the men 

had only 100 rounds of ammunition each- 
In the rear. General Ludlow moved his 
troops forward, and from the south came 
the reserves of Brig.-Gen. Evan Miles, 
I'hus the village was the centre of a con- 
centrated fire and was nearly encircled 
with the lines steadily closing in. So 
stubborn, however, was the defence that 
reinforcements under Ma j. -Gen. John C. 
Bates were ordered up to strengthen the 
line, which had been considerably weak- 
ened in the desperate assaults. After the 
enemy left their intrenchments, the 
fire was concentrated upon the brick fort, 
from which the Spaniards poured a gall- 
ing musketry fire into the American lines. 
The fort could not long withstand the 
attack, and rents were soon torn in its 
thick walls. At this juncture the com- 
mands under Chaffee, Bates, and Miles 
made a charge, and captured the work, 
but not until all the men defending it 
were killed or wounded. After its capt- 
ure the smaller block-houses ceased fight- 
ing, with the exception of one which was 
soon destroyed by a few shots of Cap- 
ron's battery. The brave defence of El 
Caney was directed by Brig.-Gen. Vera de 
Rey (who died fighting), with 520 men, of 
whom scarcely a fifth remained alive at the 
end of the action. See San Juan Hill. 

Eldorado, the fabled country in Amer- 
ica containing nuraerovis kingdoms, the 
cities of which were filled with gold. 

Eldridge, Hamilton N., military offi- 
cer; born in South Williamstown, Mass., 
Aug. 23, 1831; graduated at Williams 
College in 1856; and engaged in law 
practice in 1857. He recruited the 127th 
Illinois Regiment in July, 1862; was pro- 
moted colonel ; and was brevetted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers in recognition of 
his bravery at Vicksburg. He died in Chi- 
cago, 111., Nov. 27, 1882. 


Election Bill, Federal. During the cussion which it aroused, both in and out 

discussion on the Federal Election Bill, of Congress, is a long bill. Yet if anj^ one 

the Hon. Thomas Brackett Reed, Speak- will take the trouble to compare it with 

er of the House of Representatives (q. v.), the general election laws of most, if not all, 

wrote as follows: of the States, he will find that in its class 

— it is more conspicuous for brevity than 

The national election bill of 1890, as was for length. The truth is that no election 

pointed out several times during the dis- law which attempts to provide accurately 



for all the diflferent stages of an election 
can be otherwise than long. At the same 
time, although it takes many paragraphs 
in a bill to state exactly how each act, 
great and small, having relation to an 
election shall be performed, it is perfectly 
easy to put into very few words the pur- 
pose of an election law and the methods 
by which it proposes to accomplish that 

The first object of the national elec- 
tion law was to secure entire publicity 
in regard to every act connected with the 
election of members of Congress. To ef- 
fect this it provides for the appointment 
of United States officers, selected from the 
two leading political parties, to watch 
over and report upon naturalization 
registration, the conduct of the election 
the count of the ballots, and the certifi 
cation of the members. These officers 
have no power whatever to interfere with 
local officers or existing methods. Their 
only duty is to protect the honest voter, 
secure evidence to punish wrong-doers, 
and make public every fact in connection 
with the election. The State systems, 
whether they provide for the secret and 
official ballot or otherwise, are all care- 
fully protected under this law against 
any interference from United States offi- 
cera. Moreover, if the officers of the 
United States at any election precinct 
exercise their powers improperly, the 
local officers are there to report their 
conduct. Thus is obtained a double as- 
surance of publicity from two sets of men, 
among whom both the leading political 
parties are represented, without any in- 
terference with local officers or local sys- 

At only one point does the United 
States take what may be called control 
of any essential step in the election of 
Representatives. Where an entire con- 
gressional district is placed under the 
law, a United States board of canvassers 
appointed for the district receives the 
supervisors' returns, and on those returns 
issues a certificate for the candidate who 
appears to be elected. If that certificate 
agrees with the certificate of the State 
officers, the name of the candidate who 
holds them both is, of course, placed upon 
the roll of members of the House. If the 
two certificates disagree, then the certifi- 


cate of the United States board is prima 
facie evidence and places the name of the 
holder upon the roll of Representatives; 
but in this case any candidate may appeal 
from the decision of the board of can- 
vassers to the circuit court of the United 
States, which has power to set aside the 
certificate of the canvassers and virtually 
decide whose name shall be placed on the 
roll of the House. A candidate who is 
not willing to have his cause tried by a 
court of high jurisdiction must be hard 
to please, when we consider that the only 
other known method is that of a com- 
mittee of Congress made up of party 

Thus it will be seen that the whole pur- 
pose of this bill may be summed up in 
one word — " publicity." It proceeds on 
the sound American theory that all that 
is necessary, in the long run, to secure 
good government and to cure evils of any 
kind in the body politic is that the people 
should be correctly informed and should 
know all the facts. It proposes, therefore, 
by making public all the facts relating to 
elections, to protect the voters and to 
render easy the punishment of fraud. If 
wrong exists, it will disclose and punish 
it. If all is fair and honest, it proves that 
all is well, restores public confidence, and 
removes suspicion. There is absolutely 
nothing in this bill except provisions to 
secure the greatest amount of publicity 
in regard to elections, and to protect 
the ballot-box by making sure the pun- 
ishment of those who commit crimes 
against the suflfrage. It interferes with 
no man's rights ; it changes no local 
system; it disturbs no local officers; but 
it gives publicity to every step and detail 
of the election, and publicity is the best, 
as it is the greatest, safeguard that we 
can have in this country for good govern- 
ment and honest voting. No wrong can 
long continue when the people see and 
understand it, and nothing that is right 
and honest need fear the light. The 
Southern Democrats declare that the en- 
forcement of this or any similar law will 
cause social disturbances and revolution- 
ary outbreaks. As the negroes now dis- 
franchised certainly will not revolt be- 
cause they receive a vote, it is clear, there- 
fore, that this means that the men who 
now rule in those States will make social 


disturbances and revolution in resistance 
to a law of the United States. It is also 
not a little amusing to observe that small 
portion of the newspaper press which has 
virtue generally in its peculiar keeping, 
raving in mad excitement merely because 
it is proposed to make public everything 
which affects the election of the repre- 
sentatives of the people in Congress. There 
must be something very interesting in the 
methods by which these guardians of vir- 
tue hope to gain and hold political power 
when they are so agitated at the mere 
thought of having the darkness which now 
overhangs the places where they win their 
victories dispersed. 

So much for the purpose of the bill. 
A word now as to some of the objections 
which have been raised against it. The 
most common is that which is summed up 
in the phrase " force bill." There is noth- 
ing very novel in this epithet, for it can 
hardly be called an argument, or the sug- 
gestion of one. It proceeds on the old 
doctrine of giving a dog a bad name — a 
saying which is valuable, but perhaps a 
trifle musty. There was a bill introduced 
many years ago to which that description 
was applied not without effect; and the 
persons opposed to the new measure, whose 
strongest intellectual quality is not orig- 
inality, brought out the old name with- 
out much regard to its appropriateness. 
The trouble with this is that the old bill 
and the new one are totally unlike, and 
that what applies to one has no applica- 
tion to the other except that they both 
aim to protect American voters in their 
rights. There is no question of force in 
the new bill. One able editor referred to 
it as " bristling with bayonets in every 
line"; but as there is absolutely no allu- 
sion to anything or anybody remotely con- 
nected with bayonets, it is to be feared 
that the able editor in question had not 
read the bill. So anxious, indeed, are the 
opponents of the measure on this point 
that, not finding any bayonets in the bill, 
they themselves have put them in rather 
than not have them in at all. One news- 
paper took a clause from the revised 
statutes of the United States relating to 
United States troops and printed it as a 
part of the election bill, although the 
bill contains no such clause, but merely 
re-enacts a law which has been on the 

statute-books for twenty years, and which 
would have remained and been in force, 
whether re-enacted or not, so long as it 
was not repealed. 

The President of the United States has 
from the beginning of the government had 
power to use the army and navy in sup- 
port of the laws of the United States, and 
this general power was explicitly con- 
ferred many years ago in that portion of 
the revised statutes which now comes 
under the title " civil rights." The new 
election bill neither adds to nor detracts 
from that power, and as the liberties of 
the country have been safe under it for 
at least twenty years, it is not to be ap- 
prehended that they will now be in danger. 
The fact is that the talk about this being 
a " force bill " and having bayonets in 
every line is mere talk designed to 
frighten the unwary, for the bill is really 
an " anti-force " bill, intended to stop the 
exercise of illegal force by those who use 
it at the polls North or South; and it is 
exactly this which the opponents of the 
bill dread. The United States have power 
to enforce all the laws which they make, 
whether they are laws regulating elections 
or for other purposes. That power the 
United States must continue to hold and 
to exercise when needful, and the na- 
tional election law neither affects nor 
extends it in any way. 

The objection next in popularity is that 
the measure is sectional, and not national. 
That this should be thought a valuable 
and important shibboleth only shows how 
men come to believe that there is real 
meaning in a phrase if they only shout it 
often enough and loudly enough. Repeti- 
tion and reiteration are, no doubt, pleas- 
ant political exercises, but they do not 
alter facts. In the first place, if we look 
a little below the surface, it will be found 
that no more damaging confession could 
be made than this very outcry. The law 
when applied can have but one of two 
lesults. It will either disclose the exist- 
ence of fraud, violence, or corruption in 
a district, or show that the election is 
fair and honest. If the latter proves to 
be the case, no one can or would object 
to any law which demonstrates it. If, on 
the other hand, fraud is disclosed, then 
the necessity of this legislation is proved. 
The election law is designed to meet and 



overcome fraud, force, or corruption, as abridgment of those liberties with tht 
the case may be, in elections anywhere and ballot-box of which the performances in 
everywhere, and if it is sectional, it can Hudson county, N. J., have afforded the 
only be so because fraudulent elections are most recent illustration. The South 
sectional. Those who rave against the bill shouts loudest, but it is merely because 
as sectional — that is, as directed against the ruling statesmen there think they have 
the South, for Southern and sectional ap- most to lose by fair elections. What 
pear to have become synonymous terms— chiefly troubles the opponents of the bill 
admit by so doing that they have a North and South is, not that it is sec- 
monopoly of impure elections. If it were tional, but that it will check, if not stop, 
otherwise, che law, even when applied, cheating at the polls everywhere, 
would not touch them except to exhibit Another objection of a sordid kind 
their virtues in a strong light. brought forward against the bill is that 

In the sense, however, in which the it will cost money. If this or any other 
charge of sectionalism is intended there measure will tend to keep the ballot-box 
is no truth in it. Why, it has been asked, pure, it is of little consequence how much 
did not the Republicans accept the amend- it costs. The people of the United States 
ment of Mr. Lehlbach, of New Jersey, and can afford to pay for any system which 
make the measure really national? The protects the vote and makes the verdict 
Lehlbach amendment, if adopted, would of the ballot-box so honest as to command 
have made the bill universally compulsory, universal confidence; but it is, of course, 
but would not have made it one whit more for the interest of the enemies of the law 
national than it now is. The clause on to make the expense seem as startling as 
which the accusation of sectionalism rests possible. They talk about $10,000,000 be- 
is that which makes the application of the ing the least probable expenditure. As- 
bill optional ; but to make a measure op- suming, as they do, that the law will be 
tional is not to make it sectional. If put in operation everywhere, this sum is 
everybody and every part of the country at least twice too large. Careful and lib- 
have the option, the bill is as broadly na- eral estimates put the cost, supposing the 
tional as if every provision in it were law were to be applied in every district, 
compulsory. No one would think of call- at less than $5,000,000; but as there is 
ing the local-option liquor laws, which are no probability that the law will be asked 
not uncommon in the States, special and for in a third of the districts, the cost 
not general legislation ; and it is equally would not reach a third of the sum ac- 
absurd to call an election law containing tually necessary for all districts. Admit- 
the local-option principle sectional. A ting, however, that $5,000,000 or $6,000,- 
law which may be applied anywhere on 000 would be expended, no better expendi- 
the fulfilment of a simple and easily-ful- ture of money could be made than one 
filled condition is as national and general which would protect the ballot, 
as a law which must be applied every- licity to the conduct of elections, and 
where, whether asked for or not. demonstrate to all men their fairness and 

Moreover, the origin of the legislation honesty. The States of the North have 

of which this is a mere continuance is the not hesitated to take upon themselves the 

best proof of its national character. The burden of the expense of their own elec- 

original supervisors' law, of which this tions under the secret and official ballot, 

is an extension, was designed especially and the wisdom of this policy is beyond 

to meet the notorious frauds in the city question. It is difficult to see why the 

of New York, and the new bill aims quite policy which is sound for the States is 

as much to cure frauds in the great cities not sound for the United States, 

of the North as in any part of the coun- It is also objected that the penal clauses 

try. It is, indeed, the knowledge of this are very severe. This is perfectly true, 

fact which sharpens the anguish of the They are very severe; and if any crime is 

Northern Democrats at what they pa- more deserving of severe punishment or 

thetically call an invasion of State rights, more dangerous to the public weal than 

It is not the peril of State rights which a crime against the ballot, it has not yet 

afflicts them, but the thought of an been made generally known in this eoun- 
ra.— N 193 


try. The penal clauses of the law are of the House materially, and as Congress 
intentionally severe, and the penalties are has no such power, the cry, of course, is 
purposely made heavy. The penalties wholly without meaning. So keen, how- 
against murder, highway robbery, and ever, is the sympathy of the Northern 
burglary are also heavy and severe, but in Democrats with this view of the subject, 
every case it is easy to avoid them. Do that definite threats of war against the 
not be a murderer, a burglar, or a high- national government have been heard, 
wayman; do not commit crimes against But there is, unfortunately, a much 
the ballot, and the penalties for these more serious side to this phase of the 
offences will be to you as if they never question. Legislation is proposed which 
existed. the South does not like, and, thereupon. 
The last objection here to be touched, headed by the gallant Governor Gordon, 
and the only one remaining which has Southern leaders and Southern news- 
been zealously pushed, is that the enforce- papers begin to threaten and bluster as 
ment of this law will endanger Northern if we were back in the days of South 
property and affect Northern business in Carolinian nullification. It is the old 
the South. It is not easy to see why honest game of attempting to bully the North 
elections, whether State or national, should and West by threats. The North and 
affect injuriously either property or busi- West are to be boycotted for daring to 
ness. If honest elections are hostile to protect citizens in their constitutional 
property and business, then the American rights, and even more dreadful things are 
system of free government is indeed in to follow. It has been generally believed 
danger; and no more infamous reflection that the war settled the proposition that 
could be made upon the people of America this country is a nation, and that the 
than to say that they cannot be trusted to nation's laws lawfully enacted are su- 
express their will by their votes, but preme. Yet here we have again the old 
must have their votes suppressed in the slavery spirit threatening to boycott 
interests of order and virtue. No one. Northern business, trying to bully the 
however, really believes in anything of Northern people, raising the old sectional 
the sort. This is simply a revival of the cry, and murmuring menaces of defiance 
old cry of the Northern " doughface " and resistance if a certain law which can 
against the agitation of the slavery ques- injure no honest man is enacted. The 
tion in the days before the war. It was war was not wholly in vain, and it is 
base and ignoble then, but at that dark time that this vaporing was stopped, 
period there was at least a real danger The laws of the United States will be 
of war and bloodshed behind the issue, obeyed; election laws, as well as every 
Now it is not only as utterly ignoble and other, will be enforced; and the sensible 
base as before, but it is false and ludi- way is to discuss the question properly 
crous besides. Property and business in and have the people pass upon it, and 
the Southern States, as elsewhere, de- to throw aside these threats of boycott 
pend almost wholly for protection on and nullification as unworthy the use or 
State laws and municipal ordinances; notice of intelligent men. 
and neither this nor any other national The difficulty, however, with all these 
law, even if it could be conceived to be objections, both for those who make them 
injurious to business interests, could and those who reply to them, is that they 
touch either State or municipal govern- are utterly unreal. They are but the 
ments. The proposition, without any beating of gongs and drums, without any 
disguise, really is that fair elections of greater significance than mere noise can 
Congressmen would endanger business possess. The national election bill is a 
and property in the Southern States ; and moderate measure. It is not a force bill ; 
the mere statement of the proposition it does not interfere in any way with 
is its complete confutation, for, even if local elections or local government. It 
Congress had the power or the desire to does not involve extravagant expendi- 
interfere in local legislation, the election ture, nor is it sectional in its scope. It 
of fifteen or twenty Republicans in the does not seek to put the negro or any 
South would not affect the composition other class of citizens in control any- 



where, but aims merely to secure to 
every man who ought to vote the right 
to vote and to have his vote hon- 
estly counted. No one knows these 
facts to be true better than the opponents 
of the bill; but their difficulty is that they 
cannot bring forward their real and hon- 
est objection, and so they resort to much 
shrieking and many epithets. They be- 
lieve, whether rightly or wrongly, that 
fair elections mean the loss of the na- 
tional House at least nine times out of 
ten to the party to which they belong. 
They believe that fair elections mean the 
rise of a Republican party in every South- 
ern State, led by and in good part com- 
posed of white men, native to the ground, 
whose votes are now suppressed under the 
pretence of maintaining race supremacy as 
against the negro. They believe that the 
law threatens the disappearance of the 
race issue on which they found their power 
and the fall of the narrow oligarchy which 
for so many years has ruled with iron 
hand in the Southern States and in the 
national conventions of the Democratic 

The real objection to the bill, in other 
words, comes from the fact that one of 
the two great parties believes that free 
elections imperil their power. They know 
that by this bill the United States officers, 
taken from both parties, are appointed by 
the courts, the body furthest removed 
from politics. They know that these United 
States officers will be held in check by 
local officers and be utterly unable to in- 
terfere with the proper conduct of the 
election. But they know also that the 
result will be publicity, and they believe 
that in consequence of publicity many dis- 
tricts will be lost to them. This law is as 
fair to one party as another; but if one 
party is cheating that party will suffer, 
and where the cry against the law is loud- 
est it is the best evidence of its necessity, 
and proves that those who resist it profit 
by the wrong-doing which it seeks to cure. 

The Constitution of the United States 
promises equal representation to the peo- 
ple, and it makes the negro a citizen. 
Equality of representation has been de- 
stroyed by the system in the South which 
makes one vote there overweigh five or 
six votes in the North, and the negro has 
been deprived of the rights the nation 

gave. No people can afford to stand quiet 
and see its charter of government made a 
dead-letter; and no wrong can endure and 
not be either cured or expiated. Fair elec- 
tions North and South are vital to the 
republic. If we fail to secure them, or if 
we permit any citizen, no matter how 
humble, to be wronged, we shall atone 
for it to the last jot and tittle. No 
great moral question of right and 
wrong can ever be settled finally except 
in one way, and the longer the day 
of reckoning is postponed the larger 
will be the debt and the heavier its pay- 

Elections, Federal Control of. When 
the question of the federal control of 
elections was under discussion, the Hon. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, U. S. Senator from 
Massachusetts, wrote: 

No form of government can be based on 
systematic injustice; least of all a repub- 
lic. All governments partake of the im- 
perfections of human nature, and fall far 
short not only of the ideals dreamed of by 
good men, but even of the intentions of 
ordinary men. Nevertheless, if perfection 
be unattainable, it is still the duty of 
every nation to live up to the principles 
of simple justice, and at least follow the 
lights it can clearly see. 

Whatever may have been the intentions 
of our forefathers, the steady growth of 
our government has been towards a 
democracy of manhood. One by one the 
barriers which kept from the suffrage the 
poor and the unlearned have been swept 
away, and, in the long run, no majority 
has been great enough, no interest has 
been strong enough, to stand up against 
that general public opinion which con- 
tinually grows in the direction of larger 
liberty. That public opinion has never 
known a refluent wave. What democracy 
has gained it has always kept. If you 
suppose that the progress of democracy 
among white men has been pleasant for 
those gentlemen who were at ease in their 
possessions, you have not read history. 
It is not an agreeable thing in any day 
or generation to distribute power which 
any set of men have always had exclu- 
sively to themselves among those who nev- 
er had it before. It lessens one and exalts 
the other. 



We of the North have by no means 
reached the perfection of self-government. 
Our apportionments of congressional dis- 
tricts are by no means utterly fair; but 
there is a limitation to injustice beyond 
which no party does to go, except in In- 
diana, where 4,000 majority in the State 
gives Republicans but three out of thir- 
teen Congressmen. Our voters are not 
entirely free from undue influence, but 
there is a point beyond which no employer 
dares to go; and the votes in manufact- 
uring districts show how sturdy is the 
defiance of most workingmen to even a 
dictation which is only inferred. Many 
a man seems to vote against his own and 
his employer's interest to show that he 
is in every way his own master. But 
whichever way he votes, his vote gets 
counted, and his will, whether it be feeble 
or sturdy, gets expressed. 

It often happens that when debate 
springs up about the condition of affairs 
in other parts of the Union, when in- 
timidation with shot-guns and mobs, when 
systematic falsifications of returns, are 
made subjects of comment, the errors and 
shortcomings in the North are dragged 
in as a justification for all that has hap- 
pened of illegal action elsewhere. This 
kind of answer is so common, and so re- 
minds one of the beam and the mote of 
Scripture, that it is worth analyzing. 
It is founded on the axiom of geometry 
that things which are equal to the same 
thing are equal to each other. This is 
undoubtedly true, if you are sure of the 
first equality. All things arc not equal 
because they have the same names. 
When an employer intimates to some of 
his workmen that he cares most for men 
who look after his interests, and that his 
interests are with such and such a party, 
that employer is guilty of intimidation. 
When the interesting collection of gentle- 
men in a- Southern district go forth to fire 
guns all night, in order, as the mem- 
ber from that distiict phrased it in open 
House, " to let the niggers know there is 
going to be a fair election the next 
day," they also are guilty of intimidation. 
Nevertheless, there is a difference ; espe- 
cially if there be an honest eye to see it. 
Murder and catching fish out of season 
are both crimes; but there are odds in 
crimes. Is a community where men vio- 

late the laws relating to close time de- 
barred from complaining of murder else- 
where when its own families suffer by it? 
Must we ourselves reach absolute perfec- 
tion before we ask others to treat us de- 
cently? Is robbery by violence to be tol- 
erated and approved until we have utterly 
abolished petty larceny? The difference 
between the nation of highest and the 
nation of lowest civilization is only in 

But, after all, have we any right to 
complain of bad actions in the South? 
Why should not the citizens of each State 
be allowed to manage their own affairs? 
If you have any confidence in a repub- 
lican form of government, why not show 
it? Let them wrestle with their problem 
alone. It is theirs ; let them manage it. 
If it were founded on fact, this would be 
a powerful appeal to one who believes as 
does the writer of this article, in democ- 
racy — which is to say, in government by 
all the people; who believes that no com- 
munity can permanently dethrone justice; 
who believes that all the laws of this uni- 
verse are working towards larger liberty, 
greater equality, and truer fraternity. 

But so far as federal elections are con- 
cerned, this appeal is founded on no fact 
"whatever. When he goes to elect a mem- 
ber of Congress, the man from Missis- 
sippi or the man from Maine does not go 
to the polls as a citizen of Mississippi or 
of Maine, but as one of the people of the 
United States. All meet on common 
ground. They are citizens of one great 
republic — one and indivisible. Each one 
votes for the government of himself and 
of the other. The member from Missis- 
sippi whom the one elects and the mem- 
ber from Maine whom the other sends to 
Washington must unite in making the 
laws which govern both. The member 
from Mississippi has the same right to de- 
mand that the member from Maine shall 
be elected according to the law of the 
land as he has to demand the same thing 
of a colleague from his own State, 

The object of assembling the Congress 
together is to declare the will of the peo- 
ple of the United States. How can that 
Avill be declared if there be more than 
twenty men returned to the House who 
never were elected, whose very presence 
is a violation of the Constitution of the 



United States and of the law of the hind? 
Still less will the will of the people be 
declared if those twenty men shift the 
control of the House from one party to 
the other. All free countries are gov- 
erned by parties. They can never be gov- 
erned any other way. If, then, fraud 
clianges the very principles on which a 
country be governed, how can it be justi- 

The attempted justification is this: 
We in the South, inasmuch as you have 
conferred the right of suffrage on the 
negro, and inasmuch as he is in the ma- 
jority in many of our States, are in grave 
danger of being overwhelmed by mere 
ignorant numbers. We white people who 
pay the taxes will never permit these bar- 
barians to rule over us. When we 
thought it necessary to prevent their 
domination, we swarmed around their 
cabins by night ; we terrorized them ; we 
showed them by examples that to be a 
politician was dangerous — that it led to 
death even. Those things have in great 
measure passed away now, and we simply 
falsify the count; we stuff the ballot- 
boxes. That makes less trouble and is 
just as effectual. Finding that their 
votes do not count, the negroes have lately 
ceased to vote. Whether clothed in the 
fervid eloquence of the late Mr. Grady or 
in the strange language of the governor 
of South Carolina, which will be quoted 
further on, this is the justification. 

But this justification docs not in the 
least touch the subject of federal elec- 
tions. Every Southern man knows that 
there is no possibility of negro domination 
in the United States. No federal taxes 
will ever be imposed by the negro. No 
federal control is within his power. If 
all this wrong at the ballot-box be needed 
to preserve a proper local State govern- 
ment, to keep the Caucasian supreme in 
the State, not a living soul can dare to 
say that the same wrong, or any other, 
is necessary for Caucasian supremacy in 
the United States. In fact, transferred to 
thfc broader arena, the struggle is between 
the proud Caucasian and the Caucasian 
who is not so proud. If it be a race ques- 
tion, is there any reason why the white 
man in the South should have two votes 
to my one? Is he alone of mortals to eat 
his cake and hare it too? Is he to sup- 

I>ress his negro and have him also? Among 
all his remedies, he has never proposed 
to surrender the representation which he 
owes to the very negro whose vote he re- 
fuses. The negro is human enough to be 
represented, but not human enough to 
have his vote counted. 

Suppose it were a fact that negro domi- 
nation and barbarism would follow from 
honest voting in the Southern State elec- 
tions; suppose it were a fact that disre- 
gard of law and complete violation of the 
rights secured to the negro by the Con- 
stitution were absolutely necessary to pre- 
serve the civilization of the South; what 
has that to do with federal elections? 
Violation of law and disregard of statutes 
are not needed to save the United States. 

Evidently, then, the question of race 
supremacy and of good government in the 
South has nothing whatever to do with 
that other question which concerns our 
whole people, whether the Republican 
party of the United States shall receive 
and have counted the votes which belong 
to it by virtue of the Constitution of the 
country. If you tell us that these are 
ignorant votes and ought not to be 
counted, we answer — and the answer is 
conclusive— that ignorance is everywhere, 
and that the Democratic party never 
failed to vote its ignorance to the vitter- 
most verge of the law. Why should they, 
of all partisans, claim that only scholars 
should vote? Is the high and honorable 
esteem in which the cliief officers of the 
greatest Democratic city — the city of New 
York — are now held among men an ex- 
ample of what intelligence will do for a 
community? If a man thinks the same 
thing of the republic that I do, must 
there be an inquest held over his intelli- 
gence before I can have his vote counted 
with mine in the government of the 
United States? 

Or, to put it more directly, in the lan- 
guage of ex-Governor Bullock, of Georgia, 
which is quoted in the Atlanta Constitu- 
tion, " It is now generally admitted with 
us that there is no more danger to the 
body politic from an ignorant and vicious 
black voter than from an illiterate and 
vicious white voter." 

This system of false counting is not in- 
dulged in with impunity. Its baleful in- 
fluence has nowhere more clearly shown 



itself than in its effects upon the sense of 
justice of Southern men. Where else on 
earth would you get such a declaration 
as came from John P. Finley, of Green- 
ville, Miss., for twelve years treasurer of 
his county — a declaration made in the 
presence of his fellow-citizens — that he did 
not consider ballot-box stuffing a crime, 
but a necessity; that in a case of race 
supremacy a man who stuffed a ballot- 
box would not forfeit either his social or 
business standing; and that ballot-box 
stuffing, so far as he knew, was looked 
upon by the best element in the South as 
a choice between necessary evils? You 
would search far before you would find 
the parallel of what Watt K. Johnson 
said in the same case (Hill vs. Catchings). 
" I would stuff a ballot-box," said he, " if 
required to do it, to put a good Republi- 
can in office, as I would a Democrat, as 
my object is to have a good honest gov- 

" Good honest government " by ballot- 
box stuffing! Think of the moral condi- 
tion of a community where a man would 
dare openly to make such an avowal. In 
saying this there is no purpose to speak 
unkindly, but only to point out the inevi- 
table effect upon public morals of con- 
tinued violation of law. No commimity 
can encourage systematic disregard of 
law, even for purposes deemed justifiable, 
without injury to all other laws and to 
its own moral sense. It only needs to 
have the fence broken down in one place 
to have the bad cattle range through the 
whole garden. 

While this state of things exists in Mis- 
sissippi, a glance at South Carolina will 
give even more food for reflection. In 
that State, by law there was but one reg- 
istration at the home of the voter (at the 
polling precinct), which took place in 
1882. Since that time all additions to the 
list have been made at the county seats. 
Whenever a man moves not merely from 
county to county, not merely from town 
to town, not only from precinct to pre- 
cinct, but whenever he removes from house 
to house in the same precinct, he 
must have a new certificate from the 
supervisor of registration, who, nomi- 
nally at least, has his office at the county 
seat. Without this changed certificate, he 
is disfranchised. If he travels to the county 

seat and cannot find his supervisor, he 
has no remedy. Even among the most 
intelligent and alert politicians it is easy 
to see what a vast chance there is for mis- 
behavior, and it needs no specification to 
show how it works in South Carolina 
among that part of the population which 
has just struggled to manhood. But in 
order that the work of government by the 
minority may be complete, the law decrees 
that there shall be eight different ballot- 
boxes, so that those who can read can 
know where to put their tickets and those 
who cannot read can exercise their ingenu- 
ity. The law also provides that the officials, 
who alone are present with the voter, 
shall read to him the inscriptions on the 
ballot-boxes; but as the governor provides 
that all the officials shall be of one party, 
it is easy to see how valuable this provi- 
sion is. In order that the negro shall 
have no advantage from the position of 
the boxes becoming known, the boxes are 
shuffled from time to time, and if a ballot 
gets into a wrong box it cannot be count- 
ed. In the Miller and Elliott case, Mr. 
Elliott's counsel, unable to deny the shift- 
ing of ballot - boxes, justifies it on the 
ground that there is no law against it, 
and on the further ground that it is in 
the spirit of the law; which last defence 
is true. 

With this preliminary statement the 
reader can enter into the grim humor of 
the reply of the governor of South Caro- 
lina, himself a candidate for re-election, 
when the Republicans asked that among 
the judges of election should be some Re- 
publicans. It would seem not unreason- 
able that one of the great parties to the 
political contest should have a " sworn 
official " to see that the voter was correct- 
ly told which box to put his vote into, and 
to see that the vote was rightly counted. 
The governor, however, rose above party, 
rejected the Republican request, put none 
but Democrats on guard, and in his reply 
used, among other similar things, the fol- 
lowing words: 

" To the eternal honor of our State and 
the Democratic party, it can now be said 
that oiu' elections are the freest and fairest 
in the world, and that not a single citizen 
of hers, no matter what his rank, color, or 
condition, can, under her just and equal 
laws, impartially administered, as they are, 
be by any perversion or intimidation barred 



at the polls from the free and full exercise which it did after waitinc for the death 

of his suffrage. There is not only perfect ^f ^j contestaiit 

freedom in voting, but the amplest protection contestant. 

afforded the voter." if any man replies, as sometimes peo- 
ple do, " You are assuming that the 

These words were in his letter of Sept. colored man will vote your ticket, and 

29, 1888. On July 30 preceding, just that is not so," the plain answer is: "It 

two months before, that same governor is either so or not so. If it is so, then 

said, in a public speech, which you will we are deprived of a vote which belon"-s 

find in the Charleston News and Courier to us under the Constitution of the 

of the 31st, the following: United States. If it be not so, and the 

., „, , negro is voting the Democratic ticket 

army at Austerlitz or Waterloo or Gettys- ^^ "°'-". White man and negro are agreed 
burg could ever be wielded like that mass of on white supremacy, why do you send 
(iOO,()00 people. The only thing which stands so much Southern eloquence North to 
to-day between us and their rule is a flimsy +,,,,,.1, ^,„, n,,,„„ ■ i j. «)> 
statute-the eight-box law-which depends ^""''f. °7 Caucasian hearts?" 
for its effectiveness upon the unity of the ^'^^^ state of things cannot be good for 
white people." this nation, either North or South. Re- 

member that this is not a question of 

Of course, the utterance of July 30 was outcries and epithets, of reproaches and 
for the home market, and the letter of hysterics. It is a plain question of jus- 
September for export. But when you tice and fair-dealing. Both sections of 
consider that both these statements were this country can aiford to be fair and 
made to the same community, by the open with each other. If you say that 
governor of the State, you can form you have a right of local self-government 
some idea of the effect which this system which we have no business to interfere 
of action at the polls has had on the with, and that, unless you are allowed 
morale of the people. to go on in your own way, you fear 

This course of utterly riding over the disaster most foul, the next thing for 
will of the voter has been carried to such all of us to do is to find some plan 
excess as was never dreamed at the out- which will give us the votes of the whole 
set, even by those who planned the first people of the United States, and leave 
great wrongs. When South Carolina, by you your local self-government. 
a gerrymander which remains up to date To put this whole matter in a nutshell, 
the greatest spectacle that has ever been the Republican party alleges that it is 
put upon a map, and which to this day deprived by all manner of devices— differ- 
almost defies belief, put 31,000 colored ing in different States, but having one 
people in one district with only 0,000 common purpose — of votes which under 
whites, the framers of the act meant at the Constitution of the land that party 
least that that district should have the is entitled to. To this the parties offend- 
representative of its choice. But, en- ing reply that the suppression of votes 
couraged by the success of the Southern and voters is necessary to prevent the 
plan elsewhere, even that district has threatened destruction of local self-gov- 
been taken away. It is well knowTi that eminent by the numerical superiority of 
in the South itself this was regarded as race ignorance in very many States. We 
an outrage, but the voice of those so re- have a right, say they, to prevent, by vio- 
garding it has fallen into the silence of lence or by fraiid, if need be, the control 
consent. of the ignorant in our own States. 

In Alabama the 4th district was so Suppose all that to be so; suppose that 
made that 27,000 colored men were all you are doing is needful for your pres- 
packed in with 0,000 whites, and at every ervation, and that you must keep on at 
election the Democratic candidate is re- all costs: how does that give you the 
turned. So flagrant was one of the in- right to govern us by your methods? 
stances that the Forty-eighth Congress, If you have the right of local self-govern- 
Democratic by ninety-five majority, was ment, have we not the right of national 
obliged to disgorge the sitting member, self-government? If you of the States 



are willing to take all hazards to save 
yourselves from ignorant negro domina- 
tion, are you going to blame us of the 
United States if we refuse to submit to 
fraudulent domination? You think negro 
domination unbearable. We think fraudu- 
lent domination a crime. 

But we need not quarrel. There must 
be some remedy consistent with the Con- 
stitution, which was intended to provide 
for this very local government, and for 
this very federal government. Each was 
to be respected within its sphere, and each 
was to subsist side by side with the other. 
So far as the election of members of Con- 
gress was concerned, the Constitution pro- 
vides for the very condition in which we 
find ourselves. In the first instance, the 
legislature of the State may make the 
regulations for the election of members, 
but Congress may make or alter them in 
accordance with its own will. It may 
alter them by providing for federal super- 
vision, or it may make such new regula- 
tions as will assume the entire election 
from registration to certification. 

We have, then, two kinds of remedy — 
the alteration of State regulations and the 
making of new ones ot our own. As to 
the first method, so far as it was ex- 
hibited in the proposed Senate bill for su- 
pervision, the Senator from Alabama, Mr. 
Pugh, when the bill was presented in the 
Senate, rose and declared: 

" If the bill becomes a law, its execution 
will insure the shedding of blood and the 
destruction of the peace and good order 
of this country. Its passage will be resisted 
by every parliamentary method, and every 
method allowed by the Constitution of the 
United States." 

This declaration, made at a time when 
debate is not usual on a bill, will attract 
attention to the objections which are urged 
against the supervisor law. Some of 
them are worth reproducing in order that 
people may carefully consider all parts 
of a question which must have a settle- 
ment, and can never have any final settle- 
ment which is not right. The supervisor 
law is the subject of objection, among 
other things, because, while it leaves the 
elections in the hands of the States, it 
proposes to set watchers over the State 
officials, and to use a kind of dual control 
liable to all manner of friction. More- 

over, the exercise of this supervisorj) 
power is to be called into being by 
petition, thus singling out by their own 
signatures those persons who are respon- 
sible for the claim that the elections need 
supervision, and who thereby become ob- 
noxious to the very violence which they 
are striving to avoid. 

In some States, like North Carolina 
and Virginia, a supervisor law would be 
very helpful; but there are States and 
communities with regard to which it is 
said that it would be assuming a terrible 
responsibility to enact it. Against such 
a law the South urges sectionalism and its 
interference with local self-government; 
for no supervision which does not examine 
all the boxes and count all the votes is 
worth the trouble of enacting. It is true 
that in New York City, under the able and 
thorough management of the chief super- 
visor, great results have been accom- 
plished by this law, and elections are held 
so satisfactory to both parties that there 
have been no contested elections from that 
city in my remembrance. Whether in 
other regions, among a different people, in 
sparsely settled places, this could be so 
well done is the point at issue. 

In what we call theory, no really valid 
objection can be urged against federal 
supervision, for an honest count can hurt 
no one. Even if all the boxes are sub- 
jected to the supervision of a second set 
of men, the result in New York proves 
that when once established it is a solid 
safeguard satisfactory to honest people. 
So easily does the system now move, and 
so free is it from friction, that it is doubt- 
ful if a tenth of the readers of this article 
even remember that the system is fully 
established. Many contests, however, 
were necessary to thus establish it in New 
York City. But this is a practical world, 
where all unnecessary difficulties ought to 
be avoided, and where the middle way is 
often the best because it is the middle 

In this case the middle course is ap- 
parently — but only apparently — the most 
radical. Let the country at once assume 
at least the count and return of its own 
elections. It may be that this could be 
done in a way that would leave the States 
%Adiich object to supervision free from all 
interference from their neighbors, as it 



ivould certainly leave us free from false ton in cities and towns and in voting pre 

counting and false returns. They could 
then govern their own people in their own 
way, free from federal supervision in 
congressional elections, and the United 
States could govern itself free from all 
fear of those practices deemed indispen- 
satile to local government. All we ask is 
that in national matters the majority 
of the voters in this country may rule. 
Why should any Southern man object to 

Elective Franchise. During the Colo- 
nial period the people elected their repre- 
sentatives in the nssemblies or legislatures 
by ballot or, as in Virginia, by a i^ira voce 
vote. The governors of Rhode Island 
and Connecticut were the only ones elected 
by the people, with the exception of Massa- 
chusetts from 1620 to 1601. The Consti- 
tution OF THE United States {q. v.) pre- 
scribes the methods of electing the Presi- 
dent, Vice-president, and members of each 
House of Congress. Local elections are 
regulated by State laws. In all the 
States except Wyoming and Colorado 

cincts having 250 voters or more. 

In Texas cities of 10,000 or over may 
require registration. In Rhode Island 
non-taxpayers are required to register be- 
fore Dec. 31, each year. Registration is 
prohibited by constitutional provision in 
Arkansas and West Virginia. 

The qualifications for voting in each 
State and the classes excluded from suf- 
frage are as follows: 

Alabama. — Citizen or alien who has de- 
clared intention ; must have resided in 
State one year, county three months, town 
or precinct thirty days ; persons convicted 
of crime punishable by imprisonment, 
idiots or insane excluded from suffrage. 

Arkansas. — Citizen or alien who has 
declared intention ; must have resided in 
State one year, county six months, pre- 
cinct thirty days ; persons convicted of 
felony, until pardoned, failing to pay poll 
tax, idiots or insane excluded. 

California. — Citizen by nativity, nat- 
uralization or treaty of Queretaro; must 
have resided in State one year, county 

(where women are entitled to full suf- ninety days, precinct thirty days; Chinese, 

frage) the right to vote at general elec- 
tions is restricted to males twenty-one 
years of age or over. 

The registration of voters is required in 
the following States and Territories: 
Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, 
Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, 
Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Mon- 
tana, Nevada, Xew Hampshire, New Jer- 
sey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Penn- 
sylvania, South Carolina, Utah, Vermont, 
Virginia and Wyoming. In some counties 
in Georgia registration is required by 
local law. In Kentucky registration is 

insane, embezzlers of public moneys, con- 
victed of infamous crime excluded. 

Colorado. — Citizen or alien who has 
declared intention four months previous 
to offering to vote; must have resided in 
State six months, county ninety days, 
towu or precinct ten days; persons under 
guardianship, in prison, insane or idiots 

Connecticut. — Citizen who can read 
constitution or statutes; must have re- 
sided in State one year, town six months; 
persons convicted of felony or theft ex- 

Delaware. — Citizen and paying county 

required in cities; in Kansas in cities of tax after age of twenty-two; must have 
the first and second class ; in Nebraska resided in State one year, county one 
and Iowa in cities of 2,500 population month, precinct fifteen days; idiots, in- 
and over ; in North Dakota in cities of sane, paupers, felons excluded, 
over 3,000; in Ohio in some cities; in Florida. — Citizen or alien who has de- 
Maine in towns of 500 or more voters; in clared intention and paid capitation tax 
South Dakota in cities and towns of over two years ; must have resided in State one 
1,000 voters and in counties where regis- year, county six months ; persons under 

tration has been adopted by popular vote; 
in Tennessee in all counties of 50,000 or 
more inhabitants; in New York in all 
cities and villages of over 5,000 popula- 
tion ; in Missouri in cities of 100,000 ; in 
'rViaconsin in some cities. In Washing- 


guardianship, insane, convicted of felony 
or any infamous crime excluded. 

Georgia. — Citizen who has paid all his 
taxes since 1877; must have resided in 
State one year, county six months ; idiots, 
insane, convicted of crime punishable by 


imprisonment until pardoned, tax delin- Massachusetts. — Citizen who can read 

quents excluded. constitution in English, and write; must 

Idaho. — Citizen; must have resided in have resided in State one year, town six 

State six months, county thirty days; Chi- months; paupers (except United States 

nese, Indians, Mormons, felons, insane, soldiers and sailors honorably discharged) 

convicted of treason or election bribery and persons under guardianship excluded, 

excluded. Michigan: — Citizen or inhabitant who 

Illinois. — Citizen; must have resided has declared intention under United States 

in State one vear, county ninety daj's, laws two years and six months before elec- 

town or precinct thirty days; persons con- tion and lived in State two and a half 

victed of crime punishable in penitentiary years; must have resided in State six 

until pardoned and restored to rights ex- months, town or county twenty days; 

eluded. Indians, duellists, and accessories ex- 

Indiana. — Citizen or alien who has de- eluded, 

clared intention and resided one year in Minnesota. — Citizen or alien who has 

United States and six months in State; declared intention and civilized Indians; 

must have resided in State six months, must have resided in United States one 

town sixty days, precinct thirty days; year prior to election, State four months, 

persons convicted of crime and disfran- town oi- precinct ten days; persons con- 

chised by judgment of court excluded. victed of treason or felony unless pardon- 

loica. — Citizen; must have resided in ed, under guardianship or insane excluded. 

State six months, county sixty days; idiots, Mississippi. — Citizen who can read or 

insane, convicted of infamous crime, non- understand constitution after Jan. 1, 

resident United States soldiers and ma- 1S92; must have resided in State two 

rines excluded. years, town or precinct one year (except 

Kansas. — Citizen or alien who has de- clergymen, who are qualified after six 
clared intention; must have resided in months in precinct) ; insane, idiots, Ind- 
State six months, town or precinct thirty ians not taxed, felons, persons who have 
days; idiots, insane, convicts, rebels not not paid taxes excluded, 
restored to citizenship, persons under Missouri. — Citizen or alien who has de- 
guardianship, public embezzlers, bribed, clared intention not less than one year nor 
excluded. more than five before off'ering to vote; 

Kentucky. — Citizen; must have resided must have resided in State one year, town 

in State one year, county six months, town sixty days ; United States soldiers and 

or precinct sixty days; idiots, insane, marines, paupers, criminals convicted once 

persons convicted of treason, felony, or until pardoned, felons and violators of 

bribery at election excluded. sufi"rage laws convicted a second time 

Louisiana. — Citizen or alien who has de- excluded, 

clared intention; must have resided in Montana. — Citizen; must have resided 

State one year, county six months, pre- iii State one year, county thirty days; 

cinct thirty days ; idiots, insane, persons Indians, felons, and soldiers excluded, 

convicted of treason, embezzlement of pub- Neiraska.- — Citizen or alien who has de- 

lic funds, or any crime punishable by im- clared intention thirty daj^s prior to elec- 

prisonment in penitentiary excluded. tion ; must have resided in State six 

Maine. — Citizen; must have resided in months, county forty days, town or pre- 

town three months; paupers, persons un- cinct ten days; idiots, insane, convicted 

der guardianship, Indians not taxed, and of treason or felony unless pardoned, sol- 

in 1893 all new voters who cannot read diers and sailors excluded, 

constitution or write their own names in 'Nevada. — Citizen ; must have resided in 

English excluded. State six months, town or precinct thirty 

Maryland. — Citizen; must have resided days; idiots, insane, convicted of treason 
in State one year, county six months ; per- or felony, unamnestied Confederates who 
sons over twenty-one years convicted of bore arms against the United States ex- 
larceny or other infamous crime unless eluded. 

pardoned, under guardianship as lunatics 'Neio Hampshire. — Inhabitants, native or 

or non compos mentis excluded. naturalized ; must have resided in town 



six months; paupers (except United 
States soldiers and sailors honorably dis- 
charged ) , persons excused from paying 
taxes at their own request excluded. 

New Jersey. — Citizen ; must have re- 
sided in State one year, county five 
months; idiots, insane, paupers, persons 
convicted of crimes (unless pardoned) 
which exclude them from being witnesses 

New York. — Citizen ninety days previ- 
ous to election; must have resided in 
State one year, county four months, town 
or precinct thirty days; persons convicted 
of bribery or any infamous crime, unless 
sentenced to reformatory or pardoned, bet- 
tors on result of any election at which 
they offer to vote, bribers and bribed for 
votes excluded. 

North Carolina. — Citizen; must have 
resided in State one year, county ninety 
days; persons convicted of felony or other 
infamous crime, idiots, and lunatics ex- 

North Dakota. — Citizen, alien who has 
declared intention one year, or civilized 
Indian who has severed tribal relations 
two years prior to election ; must have re- 
sided in State one year, county six months, 
precinct ninety days; United States sol- 
diers and sailors, persons non compos men- 
tis, and felons excluded. 

Ohio. — Citizen; must have resided in 
State one year, county thirty days, pre- 
cinct twenty days; persons convicted of 
felony until pardoned and restored to citi- 
zenship, idiots, insane, United States sol- 
diers and sailors excluded. 

Oregon. — Citizen or alien who has de- 
clared intention one year ; must have re- 
sided in State six months ; idiots, insane, 
convicted of felony. United States soldiers 
and sailors, and Chinese excluded. 

Pennsylvania. — Citizen one month, and 
if twenty-two years or over must have 
paid tax within two years; must have re- 
sided in State one year, or six months if 
after having been a qualified elector or 
native he shall have removed and return- 
ed ; in precinct two months ; non - tax- 
payers and persons convicted of some of- 
fence whereby right of suffrage is forfeit- 
ed excluded. 

Rhode Island. — Citizen ; must have re- 
sided in State two years, town six 
months; paupers, lunatics, persons non 

eoinpos mentis, convicted of bribery or in- 
famous crime until restored to right to 
vote, under guardianship excluded. 

South Carolina. — Citizen; must have 
resided in State one year, town sixty days ; 
persons convicted of treason, murder, or 
other infamous crime, duelling, paupers, 
insane, and idiots excluded. 

South Dakota. — Citizen or alien who 
has declared intention; must have resided 
in United States one year. State six 
months, county thirty days, precinct ten 
days; persons under guardianship, idiots, 
insane, convicted of treason or felony un- 
less pardoned excluded. 

Tennessee. — Citizen ; must have resided 
in State one year, county six months, and 
be resident of precinct or district ; persons 
convicted of bribery or other infamous of- 
fence excluded. 

Texas. — Citizen; must have resided in 
State one year, town six months, and be 
actual resident of precinct or district; 
idiots, lunatics, paupers. United States 
soldiers and sailors, and persons convicted 
of felony excluded. 

Vermont.- — -Citizens must have resided 
in State one year, town or precinct three 
months (if residing in State one year, 
bona fide resident in precinct at time of 
registration may vote) ; unpardoned con- 
victs, deserters during Civil War, and ex- 
Confederates excluded. 

Virginia. — Citizen ; must have resided 
in State one year, town three months, 
precinct thirty days ; idiots, lunatics, 
persons convicted of bribery at election, 
embezzlement of public funds, treason, 
felony, and petty larceny, duellists and 
abettors, unless pardoned by legislature, 
excluded. See Disfranchisement. 

Electoral Colleges, The. The people 
do not vote directly for President and 
Vice-President, but they choose, for each 
congressional district in the respective 
States, a representative in an electoral 
college, which consists of as many mem- 
bers as there are congressional districts 
in each State, besides its two Senators. 
The theory of the framers of the Consti- 
tution was that by this means the best 
men of the country would be chosen in the 
several districts, and they would better 
express the wishes of the people concern- 
ing a choice of President and Vice-Presi- 
dent than a vote directly by the people 



for these officers. The several electors 
chosen in the different States meet at 
their respective State capitals on the first 
Wednesday in December, and name in 
their ballots the persons for President and 
Vice-President. Then each electoral col- 
lege makes three lists of the names voted 
for these offices. These lists must be sent 
to the president of the Senate by the first 
Wednesday of January. Congress meets 
in joint session to count the votes on the 
second Wednesday of February. See 
President, Vote for. 

Electoral Commission. A Republican 
National Convention assembled at Cincin- 
nati, June 16, 187G, and nominated 
Eutherford Birchard Hayes, of Ohio, for 
President, and William A. Wheeler, of 
New York, for Vice-President. On the 
27th a Democratic National Convention 
assembled at St. Louis and nominated 
Samuel J. Tilden, of New York, for Presi- 
dent, and Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indi- 
ana, for Vice-President. A very excited can- 
vass succeeded, and so vehement became 
the lawlessness in some of the Southern 
States that at times local civil war seemed 
inevitable. The result of the election was 
in doubt for some time, each party claim- 
ing for its candidate a majority. In the 
electoral college 185 votes were necessary 
to the success of a candidate. It was de- 
cided after the election that Mr. Tilden 
had 184. Then ensued a long and bitter 
contest in South Carolina, Florida, and 
Louisiana over the official returns, each 
party charging the other with fraud. 
There was intense excitement in the Gulf 
region. In order to secure fair play, 
President Grant issued an order (Nov. 10, 
1876) to General Sherman to instruct 
military officers in the South to be vigi- 
lant, to preserve peace and good order, and 
see that legal boards of canvassers of the 
votes cast at the election were unmo- 
lested. He also appointed distinguished 
gentlemen of both political parties to go 
to Louisiana and Florida to be present at 
the reception of the returns and the count- 
ing of the votes. The result was that it 
was decided, on the count by returning 
boards, that Hayes had a majority of the 
electoral votes. The friends of Mr. Tilden 
were not satisfied. There was a. Demo- 
cratic majority in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. On Dec. 4 a resolution was 

adopted, providing for the investigation of 
the action of returning boards in South 
Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana. There 
was much excitement in Congress and anx- 
iety among the people. Thoughtful men 
saw much trouble at the final counting 
of the votes of the electoral colleges by 
the president of the Senate, according to 
the prescription of the Constitution, for 
already his absolute power in the matter 
was questioned. Proctor Knott, of Ken- 
tucky, oft'ered a resolution for the appoint- 
ment of a committee of seven members, to 
act in conjunction with a similar commit- 
tee that might be appointed by the Senate, 
to prepare and report a plan for the crea- 
tion of a tribunal to count the electoral 
votes, whose authority no one could ques- 
tion, and who^ decision all could accept 
as final. The resolution was adopted. 
The Senate appointed a committee; and on 
Jan. 18, 1877, the joint committee, con- 
sisting of fourteen members, reported a 
bill that provided for the meeting of both 
Hoiises in the hall of the House of Repre- 
sentatives on Feb. 1, 1877, to there count 
the votes in accordance with a plan which 
the committee proposed. In case of more 
than one return from a State, all such re- 
turns, having been made by apj)ointed 
tellers, should be, upon objections being 
made, submitted to the judgment and de- 
cision, as to which was the lawful and true 
electoral vote of the State, of a commis- 
sion of fifteen, to be composed of five mem- 
bers from each House, to be appointed 
viva voce, Jan. 30, with four associate 
justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, who should, on Jan. 30, 
select another of the justices of the Su- 
preme Court, the entire commission to be 
presided over by the associate justice long- 
est in commission. After debate, 
the bill passed both Houses. It became 
a law, by the signature of the Presi- 
dent, Jan. 29, 1877. The next day the 
two Houses each selected five of its 
members to serve on the Electoral Com- 
mission, the Senate members being George 
r. Edmunds (Vt.), Oliver P. Morton 
(Ind. ), Frederick T. Frelinghuysen 
(N. J.), Thomas F. Bayard (Del.), and 
Allen G. Thurman (0.), and the House 
members, Henry B. Payne (O. ), Eppa 
Hunton (Va. ), Josiah G. Abbott (Mass.), 
James A. Garfield (O.), and George F, 




floar (Mass.). Senator Francis Kernan Faraday pronounced it perfect. Starr 
(N. Y. ) was afterwards substituted for was so excited by his success that he died 
Senator Thurman, who liad become ill. that night, and nothing more was done 
Judges ClifTord, Miller, Field, and Strong, with the invention. In 18.50 Prof. Moses 
of the Supreme Court, were named in the C Farmer (g. v.) liglited a parlor at 
bill, and these chose as the fifth member Salem, Mass., by an 
of associate justices Joseph P. Bradley, electric lamp, but the 
The Electoral Commission assembled in cost of producing it, 
the hall of the House of Representatives, by means of a gal- 
Feb. 1, 1877. The legality of returns vanic battery in the 
from several States was questioned, and cellar, was so great 
was passed upon and decided by the com- that the use of it was 
mission. The counting was completed on abandoned. These 
March 2, and the commission made the were the pioneers in 
final decision in all cases. The president our country. Now the 
of the Senate then announced that Hayes generation of electric- 
and Wheeler were elected. The forty- ity by dynamos, mag- 
fourth Congress finally adjourned on Sat- nets, etc., produces 
urday, March 3. March 4, prescribed as brilliant light at less 
the day for the taking of the oath of office cost than by illumi- 
by the President, falling on Sunday, Mr. nating gas. It is used 
Hayes, to prevent any technical objections so extensively in cities 
that might be raised, privately took the for various purposes 
oath of office on that day, and on Monday, that it has created a 
the 5th, he was publicly inaugurated, in new phrase in our 
the presence of a vast multitude of his vocabulary. — " Indus- 
fellow-citizens, trial Electricity." For 
Electricity. The employment of elec- the provision of light, 
tricity for illumination, and as a mover heat, and motive power, extensive plants 
of machinery, has added an interesting are established in almost every city, 
chapter to the' volume of our national town, and village in the country. For 
history; and the name of Edison as one light, two kinds of lamps are used — 
of the chief promoters of the use of the the arc and the incandescent. Elec- 
mysterious agent for light- tricity moves sewing-machines, elevators, 
ing, heating, and motive street-railway cars, the machinery of fac- 
power is coextensive with tories, agricultural implements, and min- 
the realm of civilization, ing drills; and, with all its marvellous 
Ever since the discovery of adaptations and achievements towards 
electro-magnetism, thought- the close of the nineteenth century, its 
ful men have contemplated development was then considered still in 
the possibility of producing its infancy. 

a controllable electric il- Electricity, Farming by. See Farm- 

luminator and motor. In inq by Electricity. 

184.5 John W. Starr, of Electricity in the Nineteenth Cen- 

Cincinnati, filed a caveat in tury. Eliiiu Thomson [q. v.), the cele- 

tlie United States Patent brated inventor and electrician, writes as 

Office for a "divisible elec- follows: 
trie light." He went to 

England to complete and The latter half of the nineteenth cen- 

prove the utility of his in- tury must ever remain memorable, not 

vention. There George Pea- only for the great advances in nearly all 

body, the American banker, offered him the useful arts, but for the peculiarly 

all the money he miglit need, in case his rapid electric progress, and the profound 

experiment should be successful. It effect which it has had upon the lives and 

proved so at an exhibition of it at Man- business of the people. In the preceding 

Chester before scientific men. Professor century we find no evidences of the ap- 




plication of electricity to any useful pur- enough to stop and start a current in a 
pose. Few of the more important prin- line of wire connecting two points, but 
ciples of the science were then known, something more than that was requisite. 
Franklin's invention of the lightning-rod A good receiver, or means for recognizing 
was not intended to utilize electric force, the presence or absence of current in the 
but to o-uard life and property from the wire or circuit, did not exist. The art 
perils of the thunder-storm. Franklin's had to wait for the discovery of the effects 
kite experiment confirmed the long-sus- of electric current upon magnets and the 
pected identity of lightning and electric production of magnetism by such currents, 
sparks. It was not, however, until the Curiously, even in 1802 the fact that a 
discovery by Alexander Volta, in 1799, wire conveying a current would deflect 
of his pile, or battery, that electricity a compass needle was observed by 
could take its place as an agent of prac- Romagnosi, of Trente, but it was after- 
tical value. Volta, when he made this wards forgotten, and not until 1819 was 
great discovery, was following the work any real advance made. 
of Galvani, begun in 1786. But Galvani It was then that Oersted, of Copenhagen, 
in his experiments mistook the effect for showed that a magnet tends to set itself 
the cause, and so missed making the at right angles to the wire conveying cur- 
unique demonstration that two different rent and that the direction of turning 
metals immersed in a solution could set depends on the direction of the current, 
up an electric current. Volta brought to The study of the magnetic effects of elee- 
the notice of the world the first means for trie currents by Arago, Ampere, and the 
obtaining a steady flow of electricity. production of the electro-magnet by Stur- 

The simplest facts of electro-magnetism, geon, together with the very valuable 
upon which much of the later 'electrical work of Henry and others, made possible 
developments depend, remained entirely the completion of the electric telegraph, 
unknown until the first quarter of the This was done by Morse and Vail in 
nineteenth century. Davy first showed America, and almost simultaneously by 
the electric arc or " arch " on a small workers abroad, but, before Morse had 
scale between pieces of carbon. He also entered the field. Prof. Joseph Henry 
laid the foundation for future electro- had exemplified by experiments the work- 
chemical work by decomposing by the bat- ing of electric signalling by electro- 
tery current potash and soda, and thus magnets over a short line. It was Henry, 
isolating the alkali metals, potassium and in fact, who first made a practically use- 
sodium, for the first time. A fund was ful electro-magnet of soft iron. The his- 
soon subscribed by " a few zealous culti- tory of the electric telegraph teaches us 
vators and patrons of science," interested that to no single individual is the in- 
in the discovery of Davy, and he had at vention due. The Morse system had been 
his service no less than 2,000 cells of demonstrated in 1837, but not until 1844 
voltaic battery. With the intense cur- was the first telegraph line built. It con- 
rents obtained from it he again demon- nected Baltimore and Washington, and 
strated the wonderful and brilliant the funds for defraying its cost were only 
phenomenon of the electric arc, by first obtained from Congress after a severe 
closing the circuit of the battery through struggle. The success of the Morse tele- 
terminals of hardwood charcoal and then graph was soon followed by the establish- 
separating them for a short distance. A ment of telegraph lines as a means of 
magnificent arch of flame was maintained -communication between all the large cities 
between the separated ends, and the light and populous districts. Scarcely ten 
from the charcoal pieces was of dazzling years elapsed before the possibility of a 
splendor. Thus was born into the world transatlantic telegraph was mooted. The 
the electric arc light, of which there are cable laid in 1858 was a failure. A few 
now many hundreds of thousands burn- words passed, and then the cable broke 
ing nightly in our own country alone. down completely. A renewed effort to 

As early as 1774 attempts were made lay a cable was made in 1866, but disap- 

by Le Sage, of Geneva, to apply frictional pointment again followed: the cable broke 

electricity to telegraphy. It was easy in mid-ocean. The great task was suc- 



eei;.oXully accomplished in the following may be delivered to the electric line a& 

year. Even the lost cable of 1866 was electric energy. The electric motor, now 

found,' spliced to a new cable, and com- so common, is a machine like the dynamo, 

pleted soon after as a second working line, in which the principle of action is simply 

The delicate instruments for the working reversed; electric energy delivered from 

of these long cables were due to the genius the lines becomes again mechanical motion 

of Sir William Thomson, now Lord Kel- or power. 

vin. The number of cables joining the The decade between 1860 and 1870 open- 
Eastern and Western hemispheres has ed a new era in the construction and work- 
been increased from time to time, and the ing of dynamo machines and motors, 
opening of a new cable is now an ordinary Gramme, in 1870, first succeeded in pro- 
occurrence, calling for little or no especial dncing a highly efficient, compact, and 
"ote- durable continuous-current dynamo. It 

The introduction of the electric tele- was in a sense the culmination of many 

graph was followed by the invention of years of development, beginning with the 

various signalling systems, the most im- early attempts immediately following 

portant being the fire-alarm telegraph, Faraday's discovery, already referred to. 

automatic clock systems, automatic elec- In 1872 Von Hefner Alteneck, in Berlin, 

trie fire signals, burglar alarms, telegraphs modified the ring winding of Gramme and 

which print words and characters, as in produced the " drum winding," which 

the stock " ticker," the telautograph, in avoided the necessity for threading wire 

which writing is reproduced at the re- through the centre of the iron ring as in 

eeiving end of the line, the duplex, quad- the Gramme construction. 

ruplex, and multiplex systems of teleg- At the Centennial Exhibition, held at 

raphy, automatic transmitting machines Philadelphia in 1876, but two exhibits of 

and rapid recorders, etc. electric-lighting apparatus were to be 

The most important invention is proba- found. Of these one was the Gramme and 

bly that of wireless telegraphy, Avhich is the other the Wallace-Farmer exhibit. The 

in use on ships, and, to a limited extent, Wallace exhibit contained other examples 

on land. reflecting great credit on this American 

The first example of a working type pioneer in dynamo work. Some of these 
of an arc lamp was that of W. E. Staite, machines were very similar in construction 
in 1847. But it was a long time before to later forms which went into very ex- 
the electric arc acquired any importance tensive use. The large search-lights oc- 
as a practical illuminant; the expense was casionally used in night illumination dur- 
too great, and the batteries soon became ing the exhibitions were operated by the 
exhausted. Michael Faraday, a most current from Wallace-Farmer machines, 
worthy successor of Davy, made the ex- The Centennial Exhibition also marks 
ceedingly important observation that a the beginning — the very birth, it may be 
wire, if moved in the field of a magnet, said— of an electric invention destined tn 
would yield a current of electricity, become, before the close of the century, a 
Simple as the discovery was, its effect has most potent factor in human affairs. The 
been stupendous. The fundamental prin- speaking telephone of Alexander Graham 
ciple of the future dynamo electric ma- Bell was there exhibited for the first time 
chine was discovered by him. This was in to the savants, among whom was the dis- 
1831. Both the electric motor and the tinguished electrician and scientist Sir 
dynamo generator were now potentially William Thomson. For the first time in 
present with us. Here, then, was the em- the history of the world a structure of 
bryo dynamo. The century closed with copper wire and iron spoke to a listening 
single dynamo machines of over 5,000 ear. The instruments were, moreover, the 
horse-power capacity, and with single acme of simplicity. Within a year many 
power stations in which the total electric a boy had constructed a pair of telephones 
generation by such machines is 75,000 to at an expenditure for material of only a 
100,000 horse-power. So perfect is the few pennies. The transmitter was only 
modern dynamo that out of 1,000 horse- suited for use on short lines, and was soon 
power expended in driving it, 950 or more afterwards replaced by various forms of 



carbou microphone transmitters, to the idea of incandescent platinum strips or 
production of which many inventors had wires, but without success. Tlie announce- 
turned tlieir attention, notably Edison, ment of his lamp caused a heavy drop 
Hughes, Blake, and Runnings. in gas shares, long before the problem 

Few of those who talk between Boston was really solved by a masterly stroke in 
and Chicago know that in doing so they his carbon filament lamp. Curiously, the 
have for the exclusive use of their voices nearest approach to the carbon filament 
a total of over 1,000,000 lbs. of copper lamp had been made in 1845, by Starr, 
wire in the single line. There probably an American, who described in a British 
now exist in the United States alone be- patent specification a lamp in which elec- 
tween 75,000 and 100,000 miles of hard- trie current passed through a thin strip 
drawn copper wire for long-distance tele- of carbon kept it heated while surrounded 
phone service, and over 150,000 miles of by a glass bulb in which a vacuum was 
wire in underground conduits. There are maintained. Starr had exhibited his 
upward of 750,000 telephones in the lamps to Faraday, in England, and was 
United States, and, including both over- preparing to construct dynamos to furnish 
head and underground lines, a total of electric current for them in place of bat- 
more than 500,000 miles of wire. teries, but sudden death put an end to his 

The display of electric light during the labors. 
Paris Exposition of 1878 was the first The Edison lamp differed from those 
memorable use of the electric light on a which preceded it in the extremely small 
large scale. The source of light was the section of the carbon strip rendered hot by 
" electric candle " of Paul JablochkoflF, a the current, and in the perfection of the 
Russian engineer. It was a strikingly vacuum in which it was mounted. Edison 
original and simple arc lamp. Instead of first exhibited his lamp in his laboratory 
placing the two carbons point to point, at Menlo Park, in December, 1879; but 
as had been done in nearly all previous before it could be properly utilized an 
lamps, he placed them side by side, wnth a enormous amount of work had to be done, 
strip of baked kaolin between them. Owing His task was not merely the improvement 
to unforeseen difficulties it was gradually of an art already existing; it was the 
abandoned, after having served a great pur- creation of a new art. The details of all 
pose in directing the attention of the world parts of the system were made more per- 
to the possibilities of the electric arc feet, and in the hands of Edison and others 
in lighting. the incandescent lamps, originally of high 

Inventors in America were not idle, cost, were much cheapened and the quality 
By the close of 1878, Brush, of Cleve- of the production was greatly improved, 
land, had brought out his series system In spite of the fact that it was well 
of arc lights, including special dynamos, known that a good dynamo when reversed 
lamps, etc., and by the middle of 1879 had could be made a source of power, few 
in operation machines each capable of electric motors were in use until a con- 
maintaining sixteen arc lamps on one wire, siderable time after the establishment of 
Weston, of Newark, had also in operation the first lighting stations. Even in 1884, 
circuits of arc lamps, and the Thomson- at the Philadelphia Electrical Exhibition, 
Houston system had just started in com- only a few electric motors were shown, 
mercial work with eight arc lamps in Twenty years ago an electric motor was 
series ffom a single dynamo. Maxim and a curiosity; fifty years ago crude examples 
Fuller, in New York, were working arc run by batteries were only to be oc- 
lamps from their machines. easionally found in cabinets of scientific 

Almost simultaneously with the begin- apparatus. Machinery Hall, at the Cen- 
ning of the commercial work of arc light- tennial Exhibition of 1876, typified the 
ing, Edison, in a successful effort to mill of the past, never again to be re- 
provide a small electric lamp for general produced, with its huge engine and line? 
distribution in place of gas, brought to of heavy shafting and belts conveying 
public notice his carbon filament incan- power. The wilderness of belts and pul 
descent lamp. Edison worked for nearly leys is gradually being cleared away, and 
two years on a lamp based upon the old electric distribution of power substituted. 



Moreover, the lighting of the modern mill 
or factory is done from the same electric 
plant which distributes power. 

The electric motor has already partly 
revolutionized the distribution of power 
for stationary machinery, but as applied 
to railways in place of animal power the 
revolution is complete. The period which 
has elapsed since the first introduction of 
electric railways is barely a dozen years. 
It is true that a few tentative experimente 
in electric traction were made some time 
in advance of 1888, notably by Siemens, 
in Berlin, in 1879 and 1880, by Stephen D. 
Field, by T. A. Edison, at Menlo Park, by 
-J. C. Henry, by Charles A. Van Depoele, 
and others. Farmer, in 1847, tried to pro- 
pel railway cars by electric motors driven 
by currents from batteries carried on the 
cars. These efi'orts were, of course, doom- 
ed to failure, for economical reasons. The 
plan survives, however, in the electric 
automobile, best adapted to cities, where 
facilities for charging and caring for the 
batteries can be had. 

The modern overhead trolley, or under- 
running trolley, as it is called, seems to 
have been first invented by Van Depoele, 
and used by him in practical electric rail- 
way work about 1886 and thereafter. The 
year 1888 may be said to mark the be- 
ginning of this work, and in that year 
Frank J. Sprague put into operation the 
electric line at Richmond, Va., using 
the under-running trolley. The Richmond 
line was the first large undertaking. It 
had about 13 miles of track, numer- 
ous curves, and grades of from 3 to 10 per 
cent. The Richmond installation, kept 
in operation as it was in spite of all diffi- 
culties, convinced Mr. Henry M. Whitney 
and the directors of the West End Street 
Railway, of Boston, of the feasibility of 
equipping the entire railway system of 
Boston electrically. 

The West End Company, with 200 miles 
of track in and around Boston, began to 
equip its lines in 1888 with the Thomson- 
Houston plant. The success of this great 
undertaking left no doubt of the future 
of electric traction. The difficulties which 
had seriously threatened future success 
were gradually removed. 

The electric railway progress was so 
great in the United States that about 
Jan. 1, 1891, there were more than 240 

lines in operation. About 30,000 horses 
and nuiles were rejjlaced by electric power 
in the single year of 1891. In 1892 the 
Thomson-Houston interests and those of 
the Edison General Electric Company 
were merged in the General Electric Com- 
pany, an event of unusual importance, as 
it brought together the two great com- 
petitors in electric traction at that date. 
Other electric manufacturers, chief among 
which was the Westinghouse Company, 
also entered the field and became promi- 
nent factors in railway extension.. In a 
few years horse traction in the United 
States on tramway lines virtually disap- 
peared. While the United States and 
Canada have been and still are the theatre 
of the enormous advance in electric trac- 
tion, as in other electric work, many elec- 
tric car lines have in recent years been 
established in Great Britain and on the 
continent of Europe. Countries like 
Japan, Australia, South Africa, and South 
America have also in operation many elec- 
tric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly 
extending. Most of this work, even in 
Europe, has been carried out either by 
importation of equipment from America, 
or by apparatus manufactured there, but 
following American practice closely. 

In Chicago the application of motor- 
cars in trains upon the elevated railway 
followed directly upon the practical dem- 
onstration at the World's Fair of the 
capabilities of third-rail electric traction 
on the Intramural Elevated Railway, and 
the system is rapidly extending so as to 
include all elevated city roads. A few 
years will doubtless see the great change 

The motor-car, or car propelled by its 
own motors, has also been introduced upon 
standard steam roads to a limited extent 
as a supplement to steam traction. The 
earliest of these installations are the one 
at Nantasket, Mass., and that between 
Hartford and New Britain, in Connec- 
ticut. A number of special high-speed 
lines, Tising similar plans, have gone into 
operation in recent years. 

The three largest and most powerful 
electric locomotives ever put into service 
are those which are employed to take 
trains through the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad tunnel at Baltimore. They have 
been in service about seven or eight years, 



and are fully equal in power to the large obtained from residues in sufficient amount 

steam locomotives used on steam roads, to pay well for the process. 

There was opened, in London, in I'JOO, At Niagara also are works for the 

the Central Underground, equipped with production of the metal aluminum from 

twenty-six electric locomotives for draw- its ores. This metal, which competes in 

ing its trains. The electric and power price with brass, bulk for bulk, was only 

equipment was manufactured in America obtainable before its electric reduction 

to suit the needs of the road. at $25 to $30 per pound. The metal 

The alternating current transformer not sodium is a' so extracted from soda. A 
only greatly extended the radius of supply large plant at Niagara also uses the elec- 
from a single station, but also enabled trie current for the manufacture of 
the station to be conveniently located chlorine for bleach, and caustic soda, both 
where water and coal could be had without from common salt. Chlorine of potas- 
difficulty. It also permitted the distant slum is also made at Niagara by elec- 
water-powers to become sources of electric trolysis. The field of electro-chemisty 
energy for lighting, power, or for other is, indeed, full of great future pos- 
service. For example, a water-power sibilities. Large furnaces heated by elec- 
located at a distance of 50 to 100 miles tricity, a single one of which will Con- 
or more from a city, or from a large man- sume more than LOOO horse- power, exist 
ufacturing centre where cost of fuel is at Niagara. In these furnaces is manuf act- 
high, may be utilized. ured from coke and sand, by the Acheson 

A gigantic power-station has lately been process, an abrasive material called car- 
established at Niagara. Ten water-wheels, borvmdum, which is almost as hard as 
located in an immense wheel-pit about diamond, but quite low in cost. It is 
200 feet deep, each wheel of a capacity of made into slabs and into wheels for grind- 
5,000 horse-power, drive large vertical ing hard substances. The electric furnace 
shafts, at the upper end of which are furnishes also the means for producing 
located the large two-phase dynamos, each artificial plumbago, or graphite, almost 
of 5,000 horse-power. The electric energy perfectly pure, the raw material being 
from these machines is in part raised in coke powder. 

pressure by huge transformers for trans- A large amount of power from Niagara 

mission to distant points, such as the city is also consumed for the production in 

of Buffalo, and a large portion is delivered special electric arc furnaces of carbide 

to the numerous manufacturing plants of calcium from coke and lime. This is 

located at moderate distances from the the source of acetylene gas, the new il- 

power-station. Besides the supply of luminant, which is generated when water 

energy for lighting, and for motors, in- is brought into contact with the carbide, 

eluding railways, other recent uses of While it is not likely that electricity will 

electricity to which we have not yet al- soon be used for general heating, special 

hided are splendidly exemplified at Niag- instances, such as the warming of electric 

ara. The arts of electro-plating of cars in winter by electric heaters, the oper- 

metals, such as electro-gilding, silver- ation of cooking appliances by electric 

plating, nickel-plating, and copper de- current, the heating of sad-irons and the 

position as in electrotyping, are now like, give evidence of the possibilities 

practised on a very large scale. Moreover, should there ever be found means for the 

since the introduction of dynamo current, generation of electric energy from fuel 

electrolysis has come to be employed in with such high efficiency as 80 per cent, 

huge plants, not only for separating or more. Present methods give, under 

metals from each other, as in refining most favorable conditions, barely 10 per 

them, but in addition for separating cent., 90 per cent, of the energy value of 

them from their ores, for the manufacture the fuel being unavoidably wasted, 

of chemical compounds before unknown, The electric current is used for welding 

and for the cheap production of numer- together the joints of steel car-rails, for 

ovis substances of use in the various arts welding teeth in saws, for making many 

on a large scale. Vast quantities of cop- parts of bicycles, and in tool making. An 

per are refined, and silver and gold often instance of its peculiar adaptability to 



unusual conditions is the welding of the velopments are to come, who can predict? 

iron bands embedded within the body of The electrical progress has been great — 

a rubber vehicle tire for holding the tire very great — but after all only a part of 

in place. For this purpose the electric that grander advance in so many other 

weld has been found almost essential. fields. Man still spends his best effort, 

Another branch of electric development and has always done so, in the construc- 
concerns the storage of electricity. The tion and equipment of his engines of 
storage battery is based upon principles destruction, and now exhausts the mines 
discovered by Gaston Plante, and applied, of the world of valuable metals, for ships 
since 1881, by Brush, by Faure, and of war, whose ultimate goal is the bottom 
others. Some of the larger lighting sta- of the sea. Perhaps all this is necessary 
tions employ as reservoirs of electric now, and, if so, well. But if a fraction 
energy large batteries charged by surplus of the vast expenditure entailed were 
dynamo current. This is afterwards turned to the encouragement of advance 
drawn upon when the consumer's load is in the arts and employments of peace, can 
heavy, as during the evening. The storage it be doubted that, at the close of the 
battery is, however, a heavy, cumbrous ap- twentieth century, the nineteenth century 
paratus, of limited life, easily destroyed might come to be regarded, in spite of its 
unless guarded with skill. If a form not achievements, as a rather wasteful, semi- 
possessing these faults be ever found, the barbarous transition period? 
field of possible application is almost Electrocution. The popular name of a 
limitlese. method of inflicting capital punishment 

The wonderful X-rays, and the rich by electricity as ordered by the legislature 
scientific harvest which has followed the of New York in 1888 and amended in 1892. 
discovery by RiJntgen of invisible radiation New York is the only State in the coun- 
from a vacuum tube, was preceded by try where this metliod of capital punish- 
much investigation of the effects of elec- ment has been sanctioned. The first per- 
tric discharges in vacuiim tubes, and Hit- son executed by the new method was 
torf, followed by Crookes, has given special William Kemmler, a convicted murderer, 
study to these effects in very high or on whom the death sentence was thus 
nearly perfect vacua. It was as late as carried out in Auburn Prison, Aug. 6, 
1896 that Rontgen announced his dis- 1S90. The apparatus used in the execu- 
covery. Since that time several other tion, as officially described, consisted of a 
sources of invisible radiation have been stationary engine, alternating-current 
discovered, more or less similar in effect dynamo and exciter, a voltmeter with 
to the radiations from a vacuum tube, but extra resistance coil, calibrated from a 
emitted, singular as the fact is, from rare range of from 30 to 2,000 volts, an am- 
substances extracted from certain min- meter for alternating currents from 0.10 
erals. Leaving out of consideration the to 3 amperes, a Wheatstone-bridge rheostat, 
great value of the X-ray to physicians and bell signals, and a number of switches, 
surgeons, its eft'ect in stimulating scientific The death-chair had an adjustable head- 
inquiry has almost been incalculable. It rest, binding-straps, and two adjustable 
is as unlikely that the mystery of the electrodes, one of which was placed on 
material universe will ever be completely the top of the head and the other at the 
solved as it is that we can gain an lower part of the spine. The execution 
adequate conception of infinite space or room contained only the death-chair, the 
time. But we can at least extend the electrodes, and the wires attached to them, 
range of our mental vision of the processes the remainder of the equipment being in 
of nature as we do our real vision into the adjoining room. At the end of seven- 
space depths by the telescope and spectro- teen seconds after the contact was made 
scope. the victim was pronounced dead. The 

The nineteenth century closed with current strength was believed to have been 
many imjjortant problems in electrical at least 1,500 volts, although there was no 
science unsolved. What great or far- official record kept of many details, but 
reaching discoveries are yet in store, who in later executions the electromotive press- 
can tell? What valuable practical de- ure varied from 458 to 716 volts, while 



the ammeter has shown a variation in 
current of from 2 to 7 amperes. After 
the first execution there was rather a 
widespread protest against this method of 
carrying out capital punishment, and the 
constitutionality of the legislative act was 
taken to the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and was there affirmed. 

Electro-magnetic Telegraph. This 
invention, conceived more than a century 
ago, was first brought to perfection as an 
intelligent medium of communication be- 


tween points distant from each other by 
Prof. Samuel F. B. Morse (q. v.) , of New 
York, and was first presented to public 
notice in 1838. In the autumn of 1837 
he filed a caveat at the Patent Office; and 
he gave a private exhibition of its mar- 
vellous power in the New York Univer- 
sity in January, 1838, when intelligence 
was instantly transmitted by an alphabet 
composed of dots and lines, invented by 
IVTorse, through a circuit of 10 miles of 
wire, and plainly recorded. Morse ap- 
plied to Congress for pecuniary aid to 
enable him to construct an experimental 
line between Washington and Baltimore. 
For four years he waited, for the action 
of the government was tardy, in conse- 
quence of doubt and positive opposition. 
At the beginning of March, 1842, Congress 


appropriated $30,000 for his use; and in 
May, 1844, he transmitted from Washing- 
ton to Baltimore, a distance of 40 miles, 

the first message, furnished him by a 
young lady — " What hath God wrought ! " 
The first public message was the announce- 
ment of the nomination by the Democratic 
National Convention in Baltimore (May, 
1844) of James K. Polk for President of 
the United States. Professor Morse also 
originated submarine telegraphy. He pub- 
licly suggested its feasibility in a letter 
to the Secretary of the Treasury in 1843. 
As early as 1842 he laid a submarine cable, 
or insulated wire, in the harbor of New 
York, for which achievement the American 
Institute awarded him a small gold medal. 
In 1858 he participated in the labors and 
honors of laying a cable under the sea be- 
tween Europe and America. (See Atlan- 
tic Telegraph ) . Monarchs gave him med- 
als and orders. Y^ale College conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of LL.D., 
and in 18.58, at the instance of the Emper- 
or of the French, several European govern- 
ments combined in the act of giving Pro- 
fessor Morse the sum of $80,000 in gold as 
a token of their appreciation. Vast im- 
provements have been made since in the 
transmission of messages. For more than 
a quarter of a century the messages were 
each sent over a single wire, only one way 


at a time. Early in 1871, through the in- 
ventions of Edison and others, messages 
were sent both ways over the same wire 
at the same instant of time. Very soon 
four messages were sent the same 'way. 
Now multiplex transmission is a matter 
of every-day business. See Vail, A. H. 

Eliot, Andrew, clergyman; born in 
Boston, Mass., Dec. 28, 1718; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1737; ordained 
associate pastor of the New North Church 
in Boston, where he was sole pastor 
after 1750. When the British occupied 


Boston he did much to ameliorate 
the condition of the people. He also 
saved valuable manuscripts, among them 
the second volume of the History of 
Massachusetts Bay, when the house of 
Governor Hutchinson was invested by a 
mob. He died in Boston, Mass., Sept. 
13, 1778. 

Eliot, Charles William, educator; 
born in Boston, Mass., March 20, 1834; 
graduated at Harvard University in 
1853; was a tutor in mathematics at 
Harvard and a student in chemistry with 
Prof. Josiah P. Cooke, 1854-58; served as 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics and 
Chemistry, Lawrence Scientific School, 
Harvard, in 1858-63; when he went 
abroad, studied chemistry and investigated 
European educational methods. In 18G5- 
09 he was Professor of Analytical Chem- 
istry, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, and in 18G9 became president of 


Harvard University, retiring in 1909. He 
is a Fellow of the American Academy ot 
Arts and Sciences, the American Philo- 
sophical Society, etc. He has given many 
noteworthy addresses on educational and 
9c-ientific subjects. He is the author of 
Manual of Qualitative Chemical Analysis 
(with Prof. Francis H. Storer) ; Manual 
of Inorganic Chemistry (with the same) ; 
Five American Contributions to Civiliza- 
tion, and other Essays; Educational Re- 
form, etc. 

Eliot, Jared, educator and clergyman; 
born in Guilford, Conn., Nov. 7, 1685; 
sou of Joseph and grandson of John 
Eliot; graduated at Yale College in 1706, 
and from 1709 until his death he was 
minister of the first church at Killing- 
worth, Conn. He was a most practical 
and useful man, and did much for the ad- 
vancement of agriculture and manufact- 
ures in New England. He strongly 
urged in essays the introduction into the 
colonies of a better breed of sheep. In 
1747 he wrote: "A better breed of sheep 
is what we want. The English breed of 
Cotswold sheep cannot be obtained, or at 
least not without great difficulty; for 
wool and live sheep are contraband goods, 
which all strangers are prohibited from 
carrying out on pain of having the right 
hand cut off." In 1761 the London So- 
(iety for the Encouragement of Arts, 
Manufactures, and Commerce honored him 
with its medal, for produsing malleable 
iron from American black sand, and he 
was made a member of the Royal Society 
of London. He was the first to introduce 
the white mulberry into Connecticut, and 
with it silk-worms, and published a 
treatise on silk-culture. Mr. Eliot was 
also an able physician, and was particu- 
larly successful in the treatment of in- 
sanity and chronic complaints. He died 
in Killingworth, Conn., April 22, 1763. 

Eliot, Joiix, the Apostle to the Indians ; 
born either in Nasing, Essex, or Widford, 
Hertfordshire, England, presumably in 
1604, as he was baptized in Widford, Aug. 
5, 1604. Educated at Cambridge, he re- 
moved to Boston in 1631, and the next 
year was appointed minister at Roxbury. 
Seized with a passionate longing for the 
conversion of the Indians and for improv- 
ing their condition, he commenced his 
labors among the twenty tribes within 
the English domain in Massachusetts in 
October, 1646. He acquired their lan- 
guage through an Indian servant in his 
family, made a grammar of it, and trans- 
lated the Bible into the Indian tongue. 
It is claimed that Eliot was the first 
Protestant minister who preached to the 
Indians in their native tongue. An Ind- 
ian town called Natick was erected on the 
Charles River for the "praying Indians" 
in 1657, and the first Indian church was 
established there in 1660. During King 




Philip's War Eliot's efforts in behalf of 
the praying Indians saved them from de- 
struction by the white people. He trav- 
elled extensively, visited many tribes, 
planted several churches, and once 
preached before King Philip, who treated 
him with disdain. He persuaded many to 

adopt the customs of civilized life, and 
lived to see twenty-four of them become 
preachers of the Gospel to their own 
tribes. His influence among the Indians 
was unbounded, and his generosity in 
helping the sick and afllicted among them 
was unsparing. Cotton Mather affirmed, 
'• We had a tradition that the country 
could never perish as long as Eliot was 
alive." He published many small works 
on religious subjects, several of which 
were in the Indian language. His great- 
est work was the translation of the Bible 
into the Indian language (1661-66), and 
was the first Bible ever printed in Amer- 
ica. It is much sought after by collectors. 
The language in which it was written has 
perished. He died in Roxbury, Mass., 
May 20, 1690. 

The Brief 'Narrative. — This was the 
last of Eliot's publications relating to the 
progress of Christianity among the 
American Indians. Its full title was: 

" A Brief Narrative of the Progress of 
the Gospel amongst the Indians In New Eng- 
land, in the Year 1670, given in by the Rever- 
end Mr. John Elliot, Minister of the Gospel 
there, in a Letter by him directed to the 
Right Worshipfull the Commissioners under 
Jiis Majesties Great-Seal for Propagation of 
the Gospel amongst the poor blind Natives in 




those United Colonies. LONDON, I'rinted 
tor John Allen, formerly living iu Littlc- 
Britain at the Rising-Sun, and now in Went- 
worth Street near Bel-Lane, 1671." 

Eliot, John, clergyman; born in Bos- 
ton, Mass., May 31, 1754; son of Andrew; 
Eliot; graduated at Harvard College in 
1772; succeeded his father as minister 
of the New North Church in November, 
1779; was one of the founders of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. He 
published a Biographical Dictionary of 
Eminent Characters in New England. 
He died in Boston, Mass., Feb. 14, 1813. 

Eliot, Samuel, historian; born in Bos- 
ton, Mass., Dec. 22, 1821; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1839; professor of 
History and Political Science in Trinity 
College in 18.'5G-G4. His publications in- 
clude Passages from the History of Lib- 
erty; History of Liberty (in five parts, 
the last of which is entitled the Amer- 
ican Nation) ; and a Manual of United 
States History between the Years 1792 
and 1850. He died in Beverly, Mass., 
Sept. 14, 1898. 

Elizabeth, Queen of England ; born in 
Greenwich, Sept. 7, 1533; daughter of 
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. Under the 
tuition of Roger Ascham she acquired 
much proficiency in classical learning, and 
before she was seventeen years of age 
she was mistress of the Latin, French, and 
Italian languages, and had read several 
works in Greek. By education she was 
attached to the Protestant Church, and 
was persecuted by her half-sister, Mary, 
who was a Roman Catholic. Elizabeth 
never married. When quite young her 
father negotiated for her nuptials with 
the son of Francis I. of France, but it 
failed. She flirted awhile with the am- 
bitious Lord Seymour. In 1558 she de- 
clined an offer of marriage from Eric, 
King of Sweden, and also from Philip of 
Spain. Her sister Mary died Nov. 17, 
1558, when Elizabeth was proclaimed 
Queen of England. With caution she pro- 
ceeded to restore the Protestant religion 
to ascendency in her kingdom. Her re- 
form began by ordering a large part of the 
church service to be read in English, and 
forbade the elevation of the host in her 
presence. Of the Roman Catholic bishops, 
only one consented to officiate at her coro- 
nation. In 1559 Parliament passed a bill 


wliich vested in the crown the supremacy 
claimed by the pope; the mass was abol- 
ished, and the liturgy of Edward VI. re- 
stored. In one session the whole system 
of religion in England was altered by the 
will of a single young woman. When 
Francis II. of France assumed the arms 
and title of King of England in right 
of his wife, Mary Stuart, Elizabeth sent 
an army to Scotland which drove the 
French out of the kingdom. She sup- 
ported the French Huguenots with money 
and troops in their struggle with the 
Roman Catholics in 1562. In 1563 the 
Parliament, in an address to the Queen, 
entreated her to choose a husband, so as 
to secure a Protestant succession to the 
crown. She returned an evasive answer. 
She gave encouragement to several suitors, 
after she rejected Philip, among them 
Archduke Charles of Austria, the Duke of 
Anjou, and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leices- 
ter. The latter remained her favorite un- 
til his death in 1588. During the greater 
part of Elizabeth's reign, Cecil, Lord Bur- 
leigh, was her prime minister. For more 
than twenty years from 1564 England was 
at peace with foreign nations, and enjoyed 
great prosperity. Because of the opposite 
interests in religion, and possibly because 
of matrimonial affairs, Elizabeth and 
Philip of Spain were mutually hostile, 
and in 1588 the latter sent the " invincible 
Armada " for the invasion of England. 
It consisted of over 130 vessels and 30,000 
men. It was defeated and dispersed (Aug. 
8), and in a gale more than fifty of the 
Spanish ships were wrecked. On the death 
of Leicester the Queen showed decided 
partiality for the Earl of Essex. Her 
treatment and final consent to the execu- 
tion, by beheading, of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, has left a stain on the memory of 
Elizabeth. She assisted the Protestant 
Henry IV. of France in his struggle with 
the French Roman Catholics, whom Philip 
of Spain subsidized. Her reign was vigor- 
ous, and is regarded as exceedingly bene- 
ficial to the British nation. Literature 
was fostered, and it was illustrated dur- 
ing her reign by such men as Spenser, 
Shakespeare, Sidney, Bacon, and Raleigh. 
Elizabeth was possessed of eminent ability 
and courage, but her personal charac- 
ter was deformed by selfishness, incon- 
stancy, deceit, heartlessness. and other un- 



womanly faults. She signified her will 
on her death-bed that James VI. of Scot- 
land, son of the beheaded Mary, shovild 
be her successor, and he was accordingly 
crowned as such. She died March 24, 

Elizabethtown Claimants. For more 
tlian a century the dispute between the 
first settlers at Elizabethtown, N. J. (who 
came from Long Island and New Eng- 
land), and, first, the proprietors of New 
Jersey, and, next, the crown, arose and 
continued concerning the title to the lands 
on which these settlers were seated. The 
dispute occurred in consequence of con- 
flicting claims to eminent domain, caused 
by a dispute about the original title of 

the soil. The Elizabethtown settlers ob- 
tained their land from the Indians, with 
the consent of Governor Nicolls ; but al- 
ready the Duke of York, without the 
knowledge of Nicolls or the settlers, had 
sold the domain of New Jersey to Berke- 
ley and Carteret. The new proprietors ig- 
nored the title of the settlers, and made 
demands as absolute proprietors of the 
soil, which the latter continually resisted 
themselves, and so did their heirs. Fre- 
quent unsuccessful attempts at ejectment 
were made; the settlers resisted by force. 
The Assembly, called upon to interfere, 
usually declined, for that body rather fa- 
vored the Elizabethtown claimants. Final- 
ly, in 1757, Governor Belcher procured an 


act of assembly by which all past differ- 
ences should be buried. It was not ac- 
ceptable; and in 1751 the British govern- 
ment ordered a commission of inquiry to 
determine the law and equity in the case. 
The proprietors also began chancery suits 
against the heirs of the Elizabethtown set- 
tlers, and these were pending when the 
Revolution broke out (1775) and settled 
the whole matter. 

Elizabethtown, or Elizabeth, as the place 
is now called, was settled in 1GG5; was the 
colonial capital from 1755 to 1757, and 
the State capital till 1790, when Trenton 
became the seat of government; and be- 
came a city in 1865. It contains an old 
tavern where Washington stopped on his 
way to New York for his first inaugura- 
tion, Gen. Winfield Scott's home, the Bou- 
dinot House, and the old Livingston Man- 
sion. The College of New Jersey, now 
Princeton University, chartered in 1746, 
was opened here in May, 1747. 

Elizabethtown Expedition, a military 
movement in the War of 1812-15, in 
which an American force under Major 
Forsyth captured Elizabethtown (near 
Brockville), Canada, Feb. 7, 1813, released 
the American prisoners, seized some of the 
garrison and a quantity of stores, and re- 
turned to the United States without the 
loss of a man. 

Elk Creek, or Honey Springs, a local- 
ity in the Indian Territory, where, on July 
17, 1863, Gen. James G. Blunt, with a 
force of Kansas cavalry, artillery, and 
Indian home guards, defeated a Confeder- 
ate force under Gen. S. H. Cooper, the 
latter losing nearly 500 in killed and 

Elkhorn, Battle of. See Pea Ridge. 

Elkins, Stephen Benton, legislator; 
born in Perry county, Ohio, Sept. 26, 
1841; graduated at the Missouri Univer- 
sity in 1860; admitted to the bar in 1863; 
captain in the 77th Missouri Regiment 
1862-63; removed to New Mexico in 
1864, where he engaged in mining; elect- 
ed member of the Territorial legislature 
in 1864; became attorney-general of the 
Territory in 1868; United States district 
attorney in 1870; member of Congress in 
1873-77; Secretary of War in 1891-94; 
and elected United States Senator from 
West Virginia in 1895 and IDOL 

Blkswatawa, Indian, known as the 

Prophet; brother of the famous Tecumseh ; 
born in Piqua, the seat of the Piqua 
clan of the Shawnees, about 4 miles 
north of Springfield, O., early in 1775. He 
was a shrewd deceiver of his people by 
means of pretended visions and powers of 
divination. By harangues he excited the 
superstition of the Indians; and such be- 
came his fame as a " medicine-man," or 
prophet, that large numbers of men, wom- 
en, and children of the forest came long 



distances to see this oracle of the Great 
Spirit, who they believed could work mir- 
acles. His features were ugly. He had 
lost one eye in his youth, and, owing to 
dissipation, he appeared much older than 
his brother Tecumsch. The latter was 
really an able man, and used this brother 
as his tool. The Prophet lost the con- 
fidence of his people by the events of the 
battle of Tippecanoe. On the evening be- 
fore the battle the demagogue pre- 
pared for treachery and murder. He 
brought out a magic bowl, a sacred 
torch, a string of holy beans, and his 
followers were all required to touch these 
talismans and be made invulnerable, and 
then to take an oath to exterminate 
the pale-faces. When this was accom- 
plished the Prophet went through a 



long series of incantations and mystical revenue at Newport. Mr. Ellery was a 
movements; then, turning to his highly strenuous advocate of the abolition of 
excited band — about 700 in number — slavery. He died in Newport, Feb. 15, 
he told them that the time to attack 1820. 

the white men had come. " They are Ellet, Charles, engineer ; born in 
in your power," he said, holding up Penn's Manor, Buclcs co., Pa., Jan. 1, 
the holy beans as a reminder of their 
oath. " They sleep now, and will never 
awake. The Great Spirit will give light to 
us and darkness to the white men. Their 
bullets shall not harm us; your weapons 
shall be always fatal." Then followed 
war songs and dances, until the Indians, 
wrought up to a perfect frenzy, rushed 
forth to attack Harrison's camp, without 
any leaders. Stealthily they crept through 
the long grass of the prairie in the deep 
gloom, intending to surround their en- 
emy's position, kill the sentinels, rush 
into the camp, and massacre all. The re- 
sult of the battle of Tippecanoe (g. v.) 
caused the Indians to dovibt his inspira- 
tion by the Great Spirit. They covered 
him with reproaches, when he cunningly 
told them that his predictions concerning 
the battle had failed because his wife had 

touched the sacred vessels and broken the 1810; planned and built the first wire 
charm. Even Indian superstition and suspension bridge in the United States, 
credulity could not accept that transparent across the Schuylkill at Fairmount ; and 
falsehood for an excuse, and the Prophet planned and constructed the first sus- 
was deserted by his disappointed followers pension bridge over the Niagara Eiver 
and compelled to seek refuge among the below the Falls, and other notable 
Wyandottes. bridges. When the Civil War broke out 
Ellery, William, a signer of the he turned his attention to the construc- 
Declaration of Independence ; born in tion of steam " rams " for the Western 
Newport, R. I., Dec. 22, 1727; grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1747; became _ 

a merchant in Newport; and was 
naval officer of Rhode Island in 
1770. He afterwards studied and 
practised law at Newport, and gain- 
ed a high reputation. An active 
patriot, he was a member of Con- 
gress from 1776 to 1785, excepting 
two years, and was very viseful in 
matters pertaining to finance and 
diplomacy. He was especially ser- 
viceable as a member of the marine 
committee, and of the board of ad- 
miralty. During the occupation of 
Rhode Island by the British he suf- 
fered great loss of property, but 
bore it with quiet cheerfulness as a 

sacrifice for the public good. He was rivers, and a plan proposed by him to 
chief - justice of the Superior Court of the Secretary of War (Mr. Stanton) was 
Rhode Island, and in 1790 collector of the adopted, and he soon converted ten or 




twelve powerful steamers on the Missis- 
sippi into " rams," with which he ren- 
dered great assistance in the capture of 
Memphis. In the battle there he was 
struck by a musket-ball in the knee, from 
the effects of which he died, in Cairo, 111., 
June 21, 18G2. Mr. Ellet proposed to 
General McClellan a plan for cutting off 
the Confederate army at Manassas, wliich 
the latter rejected, and the engineer wrote 
and published severe strictures on Mc- 
Clellan's mode of conducting the war. 

Ellet, Elizabeth Fries, author; born 
in Sodus Point, N. Y., in 1818; was au- 
thor of Domestic History of the American 
Revolution ; Women of the American Rev- 
olution; Pioneer Women of the West ; and 
Queens of American Society. She died 
June 3, 1877. 

Ellicott, Andrew, civil engineer; born 
in Bucks county, Pa., Jan. 24, 1754. His 
father and uncle founded the town of 
Ellicott's Mills (now Ellicott City), Md., 
in 1790. Andrew was much engaged in 
public surveying for many years after 
settling in Baltimore in 1785. In 1789 
he made the first accurate measurement 
of Niagara River from lake to lake, and 
in 1790 he was employed by the United 
States government in laying out the city 
of Washington. In 1792 he was made 
surveyoi'-general of the United States, and 
in 179G he was a commissioner to de- 
termine the southern boundary between 
the territory of the United States and 
Spain, in accordance with a treaty. 
From Sept. 1, 1813, until his death, Aug. 
29, 1820, he was professor of mathematics 
and civil engineering at West Point. 

Elliott, Charles, clergyman; born in 
Creenconway, Ireland, May 16, 1792; be- 
came a member of the Wesleyan Church ; 
came to the United States about 1815; 
joined the Ohio Methodist conference in 
1818. He was the author of History of 
the Great Secession from the Methodist 
Episcopal Church; Southiocstcrn Method- 
ism; two publications against slavery, etc. 
He died in Mount Pleasant, la., Jan. 0, 

Elliott, Charles Loring, painter; 
born in Scipio, N. Y., in December, 1812; 
was the son of an architect, who pre- 
pared him for that profession. He be- 
came a pupil of Trumbull, in New York, 
and afterwards of Quidor, a painter of 

fancy-pieces. Having acquired the tech- 
nicalities of the art, his chief employ- 
ment for a time was copying engravings 
in oil, and afterwards he attempted por- 
traits. He practised portrait-painting in 
the interior of New York for about ten 
years, when he went to the city (1845), 
where he soon rose to the head of his pro- 
fession as a portrait-painter. It is said 
that he painted 700 portraits, many of 
them of distinguished men. His like- 
nesses were always remarkable for fidel- 
ity, and for beauty and vigor of coloring. 
He died in Albany, Aug. 25, 1868. 

Elliott, Charles Wyllys, author; born 
in Guilford, Conn., May 27, 1817. His pub- 
lications relating to the United States in- 
clude New England History, from the 
Discovery of the Continent by the North- 
men, A. D. 968, to 1776; and The Book 
of American Interiors, prepared from ex- 
isting Houses. He died Aug. 23, 1883. 

Elliott, Jesse Duncan, naval officer; 
born in Maryland, July 14, 1782; entered 
the United States navy as midshipman in 


April, 1804; and rose to master, July 24, 
1813. He was with Barron in the Tripoli- 
tan War, and served on the Lakes with 
Chauneey and Perry in the War of 1812- 
15. He captured two British vessels, De- 
troit and Caledonia, at Fort Erie, for 
which exploit he was presented by Con- 
gress with a sword. He was in command 
of the Niagara in Perry's famous combat 
on Lake Erie, to which the Commodore 




went from the Lawrence during the ac- 
tion. He succeeded Perry in command on 
Lake Erie in October, 1813. Elliott was 
with Decatur in the Mediterranean in 1815, 
and was promoted to captain in March, 
1818. He commanded the West India 
squadron (1829-32); took charge of the 
navy-yard at Charleston in 1833; and af- 
terwards cruised several years in the Med- 
iterranean. On his return he was court- 
martialled, and suspended from command 
for four years. A part of the sentence 
was remitted, and in 1844 he was ap- 
pointed to the command of the navy-yard 
at Philadelphia. For the part which Elli- 
ott took in the battle of Lake Erie Con- 
gress awarded him the thanks of the na- 
tion and a gold medal. He died in 
Philadelphia, Dec. 10, 1845. 

Elliott, Jonathan, author; born in 
Carlisle, England, in 1784; emigrated to 
New York in 1802; served in the United 
States army in the War of 1812. Among 
his writings are American Diplomatic 
Code; Debate on the Adoption of the Con- 
stitution; The Comparative Tariffs, etc. 
He died in Washington, D. C, March 12, 

Elliott, Susannah, heroine; born in 
South Carolina about 1750; made for 
Colonel Moultrie's regiment two stand- 
ards, which she embroidered; and assist- 
ed several American officers in escaping 
by concealing them in a hidden room in 
her house. 

Ellis, George Edward, clergyman; born 
in Boston, Mass., Aug. 8, 1814; grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1833; ordained a 
Unitarian pastor in 1840; president of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, and au- 
thor of History of the Battle of Bunker 
mil, and biographies of John Mason, Will- 
iam Penn, Anne Hutchinson, Jared Sparks, 
Count Rumford, etc. He died in Boston, 
Mass., Dec. 20, 1894. 

Ellis, Henry, colonial governor; born 
in England in 1721; studied law; appoint- 
ed lieutenant - governor of Georgia, Aug. 
15, 1756; became royal governor. May 17, 
1758. He proved himself a wise admin- 
istrator, and succeeded in establishing 
good-will between the colonists and the 
Creeks. The climate proving bad for his 
health, he returned to England in Novem- 
ber, 1760. He was author of Heat of the 
Weather in Georgia, etc. He died Jan. 
21, 1806. 

Ellis, John Willis, governor; born in 
Rowan county, N. C, Nov. 25, 1820; 
graduated at the University of North 
Carolina in 1841, and admitted to the bar 
in 1842. He was governor of North Caro- 
lina in 1858-61. In the name of his State 
he occupied Fort Macon, the works at 
Wilmington, and the United States arse- 
nal at Fayetteville, Jan. 2, 1861. In 
April of the same year he ordered the 
seizure of the United States mint at 
Charlotte. He died in Raleigh, N. C, 
in 1861. 



Ellis, Seth H.. politician; was can- 
date of the Union Kefoiin party for 
President in 1900, with Samuel T. Nicho- 
las, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-President. 
They received a popular vote of 5,698. 

Ellison's Mill. See Mechanicsville, 
Battle ob\ 

Ellmaker, Amos, jurist; born in New 
Holland, Pa., Feb. 2, 1787; admitted to 
the bar in 1808; elected to the State legis- 
lature in 1812; appointed district judge 
in 1815; attorney-general of the State in 
1816; was candidate for Vice-President on 
the Anti-Masonic ticket in 1832. He 
died in Lancaster, Pa., Nov. 28, 1851. 

Ellsworth, Epiiraim Elmer, military 
officer; born in Mechanicsville, N. Y., 
April 23, 1837 ; was first engaged in mer- 
cantile business in Troy, N. Y., and as a 
patent solicitor in Chicago he acquired 
a. good income. While studying law he 
joined a Zouave corps at Chicago, and 
in July, 1860, visited some of the Eastern 
cities of the Union with them and at- 
tracted great attention. On his return he 
organized a Zouave regiment in Chicago; 
and in April, 1861, he organized another 
from the New Yoi'k Fire Department. 
These were among the earlier troops that 
hastened to Washington. Leading his 
Zouaves to Alexandria, Ellsworth was 
shot dead by the proprietor of the Mar- 
shall House, while he was descending the 
stairs with a Confederate flag which he 


It was then taken to New York, where 
it lay in state in the City Hall, and, after 
being carried in procession through the 
streets of the city, it was conveyed to his 
birthplace for burial. He was young and 
handsome, and his death, being the first 
of note that had occurred in the opening 
war, produced a profound sensation 
throughout the country. 

Ellsworth, Oliver, LL.D., jurist; 
born in Windsor, Conn., April 29, 1745; 

had pulled down. May 24, 1861. His body 
was taken to Washington, and lay in state 
in the East Room of the White House. 


graduated at the College of New Jer- 
sey in 1766; was admitted to the bar 
in 1771; practised in Hartford, Conn.; 
and was made State attorney. When the 
Revolutionary War was kindling he took 
the side of the patriots in the leg- 
islature of Connecticut, and was a dele- 
gate in Congress from 1777 to 1780. He 
became a member of the State council, 
and in 1784 was appointed a judge of the 
Supreme Court. Judge Ellsworth was one 
of the framers of the national Constitu- 
tion, but, being called away before the 
adjournment of the convention, his name 
was not attached to that instrument. He 
was the first United States Senator from 
Connecticut (1789-95), and drew up the 
bill for organizing the Judiciary Depart- 
ment. In 1796 he was made chief-justice 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
and at the close of 1799 he was one of the 
envoys to France. He died in Windsor. 
Nov.' 26, 1807. 

Elmira, Battle of. See Sullivan, 



El Molino del Bey, Capture of. Al- 
most within cannon-shot distance of the 
city of Mexico is Chapultepec, a hill com- 
posed of porphyritic rock, and known in 
the Aztec language as "Grasshoppers' Hill." 
It rises from the ancient shore of Lake 
Tezcuco, and was the favorite resort of the 
Aztec princes, it was also the site of the 
palace and gardens of Montezuma. That 

hill was crowned with a strong castle and 
military college, supported by numerous 
outworks, which, with the steepness of the 
ascent to it, seemed to make it impregna- 
ble. Only the slope towards the city was 
easily ascended, and that was covered with 
a thick forest. At the foot of the hill 
was a stone building, with thick high 
walls, and towers at the end, known as El 




Molino del Rey — " The King's Mill." About 
400 yards from this was another massive 
stone building, known as Casa de Mata. 
The former was used (1847) as a cannon 
foundry by the Mexicans, and the latter 
was a depository of gunpowder. Both 
were armed and strongly garrisoned. Gen- 
eral Scott, at Tacubaya, ascertained that 
Santa Ana, while negotiations for peace 
were going on, had sent church-bells out 
of the city to be cast into cannon, and he 
determined to seize both of these strong 
buildings and deprive the Mexicans of 
those sources of strength. He proposed to 
first attack El Molino del Rey, which was 
commanded by General Leon. The Mex- 
ican forces at these defences were about 
14,000 strong, their left wing resting on 
El Molino del Rey, their centre forming 
a connecting line with Casa de ]\Iata. and 
supported by a field-battery, and their 
right wing resting on the latter. To the 
division of General Worth was intrust- 
ed the task of assailing the works 
before them. At three o'clock on the 
morning of Sept. 8 (1847) the assaulting 
columns moved to the attack, Garland's 
brigade forming the right wing. The bat- 
tle began at dawn by Huger's 24-pounder 
opening on El Molino del Rey, when Ma- 
jor Wright, of the 8th Infantry, fell upon 
the centre with 500 picked men. On the 
left was the 2d Brigade, commanded by 
Colonel Mcintosh, supported by Duncan's 
battery. The assault of Major Wright on 
the centre drove back infantry and artil- 
lery, and the Mexican field-battery was 
captured. The Mexicans soon rallied and 
regained their position, and a terrible 
struggle ensued. El Molino del Rey was 
soon assailed and carried by Garland's 
brigade, and at the same time the battle 
around Casa de Mata was raging fiercely. 
For a moment the Americans reeled, but 
soon recovered, when a large column of 
Mexicans was seen filing around the right 
of their intrenchments to fall upon the 
Americans who had been driven back, 
when Duncan's battery opened upon them 
so destructively that the Mexican column 
was scattered in confusion. Then Sum- 
ner's dragoons charged upon them, and 
their rout was complete. The slaughter 
had been dreadful. Nearly one-fourth of 
Worth's corps were either killed or wound- 
ed. The Mexicans had left 1,000 dead on 

the field. Their best leaders had been 
slain, and 800 men had been made prison- 
ers. The strong buildings were blown up, 
and none of the defences of Mexico out- 
side its gates remained to them, excepting 
the castle of Ciiapultepec {q. v.) and 
its supports. 

Elwyn, AxFRED Langdon, philanthro- 
pist; born in Portsmouth, N. H., July 
9, 1804; graduated at Harvard College 
in 1823; studied medicine, but never 
practised; became known as a philanthro- 
pist. He originated the Pennsylvania 
Agricultural Society and Farm-school, of 
which he was president in 1850; was also 
president of various philanthropic insti- 
tutions. He was the author of Glossary 
of Supposed Americanisms; and Letters 
to the Hon. John Langdon, during and 
after the Revolution. He died in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., March 15, 1884. 

Ely, Alfred, lawyer; born in Lyme, 
Conn., Feb. 18, 1815; settled in Rochester, 
N. Y., in 1835; admitted to the bar in 
1841; member of Congress in 1859-63. 
He was taken prisoner by the Confederates 
while visiting the battle-field of Bull Run 
in July, 18G1, and confined in Libby 
prison for six months; was then ex- 
changed for Charles J. Faulkner, the min- 
ister to France, who had been arrested 
for disloyalty. While in Libby prison 
he kept a journal, which was later pub- 
lished as the Journal of Alfred Ely, a 
Prisoner of War in Richmond. He died 
in Rochester, N. Y., May 18, 1892. 

Ely, RicPiARD Theodoke, political econ- 
omist; born in Ripley, N. Y., April 13, 
1854; graduated at Columbia University 
in 1876; became Professor of Politi- 
cal Economy in the University of Wis- 
consin in 1892. Among his works are 
French and German Socialism ; Taxation 
in American States; Socialism and Social 
Reform; The Social Law of Service; The 
Labor Movement in Aynerica, etc. 

Ely, William G., military officer; born 
about 1835; joined the National army on 
the first call for volunteers. On June 
13, 1863, he was captured in the engage- 
ment at Fort Royal Pike. After spend- 
ing eight months in Libby prison, he en- 
deavored to make his escape with 108 
others through the famous underground 
passage dug beneath Twentieth Street. 
Four days later fifty of the number, in- 



eluding Colonel Ely, were retaken. He 
was, however, soon afterwards exchanged, 
and led his regiment, on June 4, 18(31, 
at the battle of Piedmont; received the 
brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers 
in the same year. 

Elzey, Arnold, military officer; born in 
Somerset county, Md., Dec. 18, 1816; 
graduated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1837; served with distinction 
through the Florida and Mexican wars. 
When the Civil War broke out he resigned 
from the National army and entered 
that of the Confederates; was promoted 
on the field to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral by Jefferson Davis for gallant ser- 
vice, and later attained to that of major- 
general. He died in Baltimore, Md., Feb. 
21, 1871. 

Emancipatioii Proclamations. For 
many years there has been a fiction that 
Gen. Benjamin F. Butler issued the first 
proclamation freeing the slaves. That 
officer never issued such a proclamation, 
but he was the first to suggest to the gov- 
ernment a partial solution of the very 
perplexing question as to what was to be 
done with the slaves during the Civil War. 
It was held that the Constitution of the 
United States did not give to Congress, or 
to the non-slave-holding States, any right 
to interfere with the institution of slavery. 
This was reaffirmed by Congress in a reso- 
lution passed by the House, Feb. 11, 1861, 
Vv'ithout a dissenting voice, to reassure the 
South that, in spite of the election of Mr. 
Lincoln, the North had no intention of 
usurping power not granted by the Con- 
stitution. But when, after the outbreak 
of the war, the army began to occupy 
posts in the seceding and slave-holding 
States, the negroes came flocking into thv^ 
Union lines, large numbers being set free 
bj- the disorganized condition of affairs 
from the usual labor on the farms and 
plantations of the South. Then the ques- 
tion arose. What can be done with them? 
General Butler, when they came into his 
camp at Fort Monroe, detained them and 
refused to surrender them upon the appli- 
cation of their owners on the plea that 
they were contraband of war, that is, 
property which could be used in military 
operations, and therefore, by the laws of 
war, subject to seizure. He set the able- 
bodied men to work upon government for- 

tifications, and when they brought their 
women and children with them he issued 
rations to them and charged them to the 
service of the men. The President sustain- 
ed General Butler's action in this case and 
the example was followed by other com- 
manders. The government ordered strict 
accounts to be kept of the labor thus per- 
foi'med, as it was not yet determined that 
these laborers should be regarded as free. 
On Aug. 6, 1861, the President signed an 
act passed by Congress which declared that 
when any slave was employed in any mili- 
tary or naval service against the govern- 
ment the person by whom his labor was 
claimed, that is, his owner, should forfeit 
all claims to such labor. The intent at the 
time this bill was passed was that it should 
be in force only tentatively, for few were 
then able to see what proportions the 
war would assume and what other meas- 
ures would be found necessary to end it. 
General Fremont, then in command of the 
Western Department of the army, chose 
to assume that the confiscation act of 
Congress had unlimited scope, and Aug. 
31, 1861. issued a proclamation confis- 
cating the property and freeing the 
slaves of all citizens of Missouri who had 
taken, or should take, up arms against 
the government. This action of Fremont 
embarrassed President Lincoln greatly. 
For whatever may have been his hope that 
the outcome of the war would be the final 
abolition of slavery, he could not fail to 
see that to permit the generals of the 
army to take such a course then in this 
matter was rather premature. He ac- 
cordingly wrote to General Fremont re- 
questing him to modify his proclamation. 
The general replied with a request that 
the President himself would make the 
necessary modifications. President Lin- 
coln therefore issued a special order, 
Sept. 11, 1861, declaring that the emanci- 
pation clause of General Fremont's procla- 
mation " be so modified, held, and con- 
strued as to conform with and not to 
transcend the provisions on the same sub- 
ject contained in the act of Congress ap- 
proved Aug. 6," preceding. 

Another instance of the kind occurred 
at the hands of General Hunter, the fol- 
lowing year. That officer, being in com- 
mand at Hilton Head, N. C, proclaimed 
the States of Georgia, Florida, and South 



Carolina, in his department, under mar- tained in the act. Finally, in September, 

tial law, and May 'J, 18G2, issued an he issued the following warning procla- 

order in which occurred these words: niation: 

" Slavery and martial law in a free *' PROCLAMATION, 
country are altogether incompatible. The .. j^ Abraham I/incoln, President of the 
persons in these States — Georgia, Florida, United States of America, and Commander- 
and South Carolina — heretofore held as in-chief of the Army and Navy thereof, do 
slaves are therefore declared forever ^""''f^ proclaim and declare that hereafter, 
IT-,., • , 1 ^s heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for 
free. Though President Lincoln had the object of practically restoring the con- 
been bitterly censured by extremists for stitutional relation between the United 
his action towards General Fremont, and states and each of the States, and the peo- 
,, 1 1 1 .1 . . • . r •;i. pie thereof, in which States that relation is 
though he knew that to interfere with ^^ ^.^y be suspended or disturbed. 
General Hunter would only bring upon " That it is my purpose, upon the next 
him even a worse storm of reproaches, meeting of Congress, to again recommend 
he did not shrink from what he believed ^^^ adoption of a practical measure tender- 
. TT • ,-1 ^^S pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or 
his duty m the matter. He immediately rejection of all slave States, so-called, the 
issued a proclamation sternly revoking people whereof may not then be in rebellion 
General Hunter's order, saying that the against the United States, and which States 
,,, ii.ji ij may then have voluntarily adopted, or there- 
government had not had any knowledge ^^^^^ ^^^ voluntarily adopt, immediate or 
of the general's intention to issue an gradual abolishment of slavery within their 
order, and distinctly stating that "neither respective limits ; and that the efforts to 
General Hunter nor any other commander ^'olonize persons of AfMcan descent, with 
'' . their consent, upon this continent or else- 
or person has been authorized by the gov- where, with the previously obtained consent 
ernment of the United States to make of the governments existing there, will be 

proclamation declaring the slaves of any continued. , „ , ^ , , ^^ 
c,, i r 5j ii T r fu 11 » That on the first day of January, in the 
State free. "I further make known, ^^^^ ^j ^^^. Lord one thousand eight hun- 
he continued, " that whether it be com- dred and sixty-three, all persons held as 
petent for me, as commander-in-chief of slaves within any State, or designated part 
the army and navy, to declare the slaves f ^ f ^^te, the people whereof shall then be 
, •' , ^-, / ' . J 1 ,, In rebellion against the United States, shall 
of any State or States free; and whether, ^g tj^gQ^ thenceforward, and forever free; 
at any time or in any case, it shall have and the Executive Government of the United 
become a necessity indispensable to the States, including the military and naval 
. ./ ^ , . authority thereof, will recognize and main- 
maintenance of the government to exer- ^^j^ ^he freedom of such persons, and will 
else such supposed power, are questions do no act or acts to repress such persons, 
v/hich, under my responsibilitv, I reserve or any of them, in any efforts they may 
to myself, and which I cannot feel justi- '^'^I^^^T th'^ Exeamve^witon the first day 
fied in leaving to commanders in the /^ January aforesaid, by proclamation, des- 
field." Though much displeasure was ex- ignate the States and parts of States, If 
pressed by many at the time concerning any. in which the people thereof respectively 
t, .,. .1.1 1 xv -n -if shall then be in rebellion against the United 
the position thus taken by the President, ^^^^^^^ and the fact that any State, or the 
it was generally admitted later that he people thereof, shall on that day be in good 
was justified in taking it, since it was faith represented in the Congress of the 
from no lack of sympathy with the cause United States by "^/^^ers chosen thereto 
, . . , , , -ii 1 11 1 ■ at elections wherein a majority of the quali- 
of emancipation that he withheld his ^^(j voters of such State shall have partic- 
sanction from the premature attempts ipated. shall, in the absence of strong coun- 
to secure it tervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive 
^ T 1 ic lo^o <-i J „ evidence that such State, and the people 
On July 16, 1862, Congress passed an thereof, are not then in rebellion against 
act for the suppression of slavery, one the United States. 
provision of which declared the absolute " That attention is hereby called to an act 

"freedom of the slaves of rebels" under oL^.?"^'T'* t^V*'^**. w ° /"■* *.° .n^Mm-^ih 

,,.,„, additional Article of War,' approved March 

certain operations of Avar therein defined, jg^ ^ggo, and which act is in the words and 

This gave the President a wide field for figures following : 

the exercise of executive power, but he " ' Be it enacted by the fSenate and House 

J .. ... i. J rri, i- i. of Representatives of the United States of 

ttsed It with great prudence. The patient /„,,^j^„ ^„ Conffress assembled. That here- 

Lincoln hoped the wise men among the after the following shall be promulgated as 

Confederates might heed the threat con- an additional article of war for the govern- 
Ill.— P 225 


ment of the army of the United States, and 
shall be obeyed and observed as such : 

" ' Article — . All oflicers or persons in the 
military or naval service of the United 
States are prohibited from employing any 
of the forces under their respective com- 
mands for the purpose of returning fugitives 
from service or labor who may have escaped 
from any persons to whom such service or 
labor is claimed to be due ; and any officer 
who shall be found guilty by a court martial 
of violating this article shall be dismissed 
from the service. 

" ' Sec. 2. And be it further enacted. That 
this act shall take effect from and after its 

" Also, to the ninth and tenth sections 
af an act entitled ' An Act to Suppress In- 
surrection, to Punish Treason and Rebellion, 
to Seize and Confiscate I'l'operty of Rebels, 
and for other Purposes," approved July 17, 
1862, and which sections are in the words 
and figures following : 

" ' Sec. 9. And ie it further enacted. That 
all slaves of persons who shall hereafter be 
engaged in rebellion against the Government 
of the United States, or who shall In any 
way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping 
from such persons and taking refuge within 
the lines of the army ; and all slaves captured 
from such persons, or deserted by them and 
coming under the control of the Government 
of the United States ; and all slaves of such 
persons found on (or) being within any 
place occupied by rebel forces and after- 
ward occupied by the forces of the United 
States, shall be deemed captives of war, and 
shall be forever free of their servitude, and 
not again held as slaves. 

" ' Sec. 10. And he it further enacted. That 
no slave escaping into any State, Territory, 
or the District of Columbia, from any other 
State, shall be delivered up, or in any way 
impeded or hindered of his liberty, except 
for crime, or some offence against the laws, 
unless the person claiming said fugitive shall 
first make an oath that the person to whom 
the labor or service of such fugitive is alleged 
to be due is his lawful owner, and has not 
borne arms against the United States in the 
present rebellion, nor In any way given aid 
and comfort thereto ; and no persons en- 
gaged in the military or naval service of the 
United States shall, under any pretence 
whatever, assume to decide on the validity 
of the claim of any person to the service 
or labor of any other person, or surrender 
up any such person to the claimant, on pain 
of being dismissed from the service.' 

" And I do hereby enjoin upon and order 
ull persons engaged in the military and naval 
service of the United States to observe, obey, 
and enforce, within their respective spheres 
of service, the act and sections above re- 

" And the Executive will in due time rec- 
ommend that all citizens of _ the United 
States who shall have remained loyal thereto 
throughout the rebellion shall (upon the 
restoration of the constitutional relation be- 
tween the United States and their respec- 
tive States and people, if that relation shall 

have been suspended or disturbed) be com- 
pensated for all losses by acts of the United 
States, including the loss of slaves. 

" In witness whereof I have hereunto set 
my hand and caused the seal of the United 
States to be attixed. 

" Done at the city of Washington, this 
twenty-second day of September, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and. 
sixty-two, and of the Independence of the 
United States the eighty-seventh. 

" Abraham Lincoln. 
" By the President : 

" William H. Sewahd, Secretary of State." 

This warning was unheeded, and on the 
day mentioned the President issued the 
following proclamation : 


" Whereas, On the 22d day of September, 
In the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was 
issued by the President of the United States, 
containing, among other things, the follow- 
ing, to wit : 

" ' That on the first day of January, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three, all persons held 
as slaves within any State or designated 
part of a State, the people whereof shall then 
be in rebellion against the United States, 
shall be then, thenceforward, and forever 
free ; and the Executive Government of 
the United States, including the military 
and naval authorities thereof, will recognize 
and maintain the freedom of such persons, 
and will do no act or acts to repress such 
persons, or any of them, in any efforts they 
may make for their actual freedom. 

" ' That the Executive will, on the first 
day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, 
designate the States and parts of States, 
if any. In which the people thereof, respec- 
tively, shall then be in rebellion against the 
United States ; and the fact that any State, 
or the people thereof, shall on that day he 
in good faith represented in the Congress 
of the United States by members chosen 
thereto at elections wherein a majority of the 
qualified voters of such States shall have 
participated, shall, in tlie absence of strong 
countervailing testimony, be deemed con- 
clusive evidence that such State, and the 
people thereof, are not then in rebellion 
against the United States.' 

" Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, 
President of the United States, by virtue of 
the power in me vested as Commander-in- 
chief of the Army and Navy of the United 
States in time of actual armed rebellion 
against the authority and Government of the 
United States, and as a fit and necessary 
war measure for suppressing said rebellion, 
do, on this first day of January, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hi^dred and 
sixty-three, and in accordance with my pur- 
pose so to do, publicly proclaimed for the 
full period of one hundred days from the da.^j 
first above mentioned, order and designate. 



(//' i^i^tCu ijLuJX^uiij tf!cSS» CtfT»'<22«u-^ C4yti*4n^ arC^^*^ ^^U«^ /?& 

" That on the first day of January, In the day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, 

year of our Lord one thousand eight hun- designate the States and parts of States, if 

dred and sixty-three, all persons held as any, in which the people thereof, respec- 

slaves within any State or designated part tively, shall then be in rebellion against the 

of a State, the people whereof shall then be United States ; and the fact that any State, 

in rebellion against the United States, shall or the people thereof, shall on that day be 

be then, thenceforward, and forever free ; in good faith represented in the Congress of 

and the Executive Government of the United the United States, by members chosen thereto 

States, including the military and naval at elections wherein a majority of the quali- 

authority thereof, will recognize and maintain fled voters of such State shall have partic- 

the freedom of such persons, and will do ipated, shall, in the absence of strong coun- 

no act or acts to repress such persons, or tervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive 

any of them, in any efforts thty may make evidence that such State, and the people 

for their actual freedom. thereof, are not then in rebellion against the 

" That the Executive will, on the first United States." 

/Cpffy^.^^%^^^,£U'^-^>C*^- iy^~ Ib^Hu-e^ 0^^^ sA^^ a^^^-^^y J\ra^ cr^L-^f^ 


>^n*t»*<W. Jnu^^^ff^, lfe/yift£rv>*^^, tB^ptx^ ^A, I^^T^KoAy, nP^PUMaS^. 
tOtS^C^ w*^ ^^»w«t/ 'nl&fvCCj^c'rfWM^c' j/t'^fCa'£e^ ^^^i /P'*'^! tf^**- * *" t-^^tn* 

fJ^^iOO fi.u^4>^ A^v<knw ojf >^**vOi^6 <?,^rvua^cZZin»/ A/lAA^ 
/iJUjet<^eMj i^*^ jt^l^Ui oy^yt^^ju,^ A^%'xrx>^:2i cr^jt^vo CC*\yCO^^^ 


74l Io<^tClJ/ irMijY ^/ax>^ iUAxu^fuH SJ7'~0yy^ , 

?-<^Wt <^ Kcvs...JAj~A Cu^ SU^^fFef iUuLlL^ £C^ <rT ^IjU 


as the Statef5 and parts of States^ wherein 
the people thereof, respectively, are this day 
in rebellion against the United States, the 
following, to wit : 

" Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the 
parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jeffer- 
son, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, As- 
cension, Assumption, Terre Bonne, La- 
fourche, Ste. Marie, St. Martin, and Orleans, 
including the city of New Orleans), Missis- 
sippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Caro- 
lina, North Carolina, and Virginia (except 
the forty-eight counties designated as West 
Virginia, and also the counties of Berkeley, 
Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, 
Princess Anne and Norfolk, including the 
cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and 
which excepted parts are, for the present, 
left precisely as if this proclamation were 
not Issued. 

" And by virtue of the power and for the 
purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare 
that all persons held. as slaves within said 
designated States and parts of States are, 
and henceforward shall be, free ; and that the 
Executive Government of the United States, 
including the military and naval authorities 
thereof, will recognize and maintain the free- 
dom of said persons. 

" And I hereby enjoin upon the people so 
declared to be free to abstain from all 
violence, unless in necessary self-defence ; and 
I recommend to them that, in all cases when 
allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable 

" And I further declare and make known 

that such persons, of suitable condition, will 
be received into the armed service of the 
United States, to garrison forts, positions, 
stations, and other places, and to man ves- 
sels of all sorts in said service. 

" And upon this act, sincerely believed to 
be an act of justice, warranted by the Con- 
stitution, upon military necessity, I invoke 
the considerate judgment of mankind, and 
the gracious favor of Almighty God. 

" In testimony whereof I have hereunto 
set my name, and caused the seal of the 
United States to be affixed. 

" Done at the City of Washing- 
ton, this first day of January, in 
[L.S.] the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-three, and 
of the Independence of the United 
States the eighty-seventh. 

" Abraham Lincoln.* 
" By the President : 

" William H. Seward, Secretary of State." 
By the Emancipation Proclamation 
3,063,392 slaves were set free, as follows : 

Arkansas 111,104 

Alabama 435,132 

Florida 61,753 

Georgia 462,232 

Mississippi 436,696 

North Carolina 275,081 

South Carolina 402,541 

Texas 180,682 

Virginia (part) 450.437 

Louisiana (part) 247,734 

* The pen with wiiioh I'resident Lincoln wrote his Proclamation of Emancipation was given to Senator Sumner 
by the President, at the request of the former, and by him presented to the late George IJvermore, of Boston. It 
is a steel-pen, of the l<ind called "The Washington," in a common cedar holder— all as plain and unostentatious as 
was the President himselt. 



The institution was not disturbed by the 
proclamation in eight States, which con- 
tained 831,780 slaves, distributed as fol- 

Delaware 1,798 

Kentucky 225,490 

Maryland 87,188 

Missouri 114,465 

Tennessee 275,784 

Louisiana (part) 85,281 

West Virginia 12,761 

Virginia (part) 29,013 

The remainder were emancipated by the 
Thirteenth Amendment to the national 
Constitution, making the whole number 
set free 3,895,172. 

On the preceding pages is given a fac- 
simile of the Proclamation of Emancipa- 

Embargo Acts. The British Orders in 
Council (Nov. 6, 1793) and a reported 
speech of Lord Dorchester (Guy Carleton) 
to a deputation of the Western Indians, 
produced much indignation against the 
British government. Under the stimulus 
of this excitement Congress passed 
(March 26, 1794) a joint resolution lay- 
ing an embargo on commerce for thirty 
days. The measure seemed to have chief- 
ly in view the obstructing the supply of 
provisions for the British fleet and army 
in the West Indies. It operated quite 
as much against the French. Subse- 
quently (April 7) a resolution was intro- 
duced to discontinue all commercial inter- 
course with Great Britain and her sub- 
jects, as far as respected all articles of 
the growth or manufacture of Great 
Britain or Ireland, until the surrender of 
the Western posts and ample compen- 
sation should be given for all losses and 
damages growing out of British aggres- 
sion on the neutral rights of the Ameri- 
cans. It was evident from the course that 
the debate assumed and from the temper 
manifested by the House that the resolu- 
tion would be adopted. This measure 
would have led directly to war. To avert 
this calamity, Washington was inclined 
to send a special minister to England. 
The appointment of John Jay (q. v.) fol- 

On the receipt of despatches from Minis- 
ter Armstrong, at Paris, containing infor- 
mation about the new interpretation of 
the Berlin decree and also of the British 

Orders in Council, President Jeflferson, 
who had called Congress together earlier 
than usual (Oct. 25, 1807), sent a mes- 
sage to that body communicating facts in 
his possession and recommending the pas- 
sage of an embargo act — " an inhibition 
of the departure of our vessels from the 
ports of the United States." The Senate, 
after a session of four hours, passed a 
bill — 22 to 6 — laying an embargo on all 
shipping, foreign and domestic, in the 
ports of the United States, with specified 
exceptions and ordering all vessels abroad 
to return home forthwith. This was done 
in secret session. The House, also with 
closed doors, debated the bill three days 
and nights, and it Avas passed by a vote 
of 82 to 44, and became a law Dec. 22, 

Unlimited in its duration and uni- 
versal in its application, the embargo 
was an experiment never before tried by 
any nation — an attempt to compel two 
belligerent powers to respect the rights 
of neutrals by withholding intercourse 
with all the world. It accomplished noth- 
irg, or worse than nothing. It aroused 
against the United States whatever spirit 
of honor and pride existed in both na- 
tions. Opposition to the measure, in and 
out of Congress, was violent and incessant, 
and on March 1, 1809, it was repealed. 
At the same time Congress passed a law 
forbidding all commercial intercourse with 
France and England until the Orders in 
Council and the decrees should be re- 

Bonaparte's response to the Embargo 
Act of 1807 was issued from Bayonne, 
April 17, 1808. He was there to dethrone 
his Spanish ally to make place for one 
of his own family. His decree authorized 
the seizure and confiscation of all Ameri- 
can vessels in France, or which might 
arrive in France. It was craftily an- 
swered, when Armstrong remonstrated, 
that, as no American vessels could be 
lawfully abroad after the passage of 
the Embargo Act, those pretending to 
be such must be British vessels in dis- 

Feeling the pressure of the opposition 
to the embargo at home, Pinckney was 
authorized to propose to the British min- 
istry a repeal of the Embargo Act, as to 
Great Britain, on condition of the recall 



of her Orders in Council. Not wishing the least sign of yielding while the slight- 
to encounter a refusal, Pinckney sounded est doubt existed of its unequivocal fail- 
Canning, the secretary of foreign af- ure, or the smallest link in the confed- 
fairs, who gradually led the American eracy against her remained undissolved. 

The disconcerted 
American ambassador, 
evidently piqued at 
the result of his prop- 
osition, advised his 
government to perse- 
vere in the embargo. 
The embargo was far 
less effectual abroad 
than it was supposed 
it would be, and the 
difficulty of maintain- 
ing it strictly at home 
caused its repeal in 
March, 1809. The de- 
cided support of the 
embargo given by both 
Houses of Congress 
was supplemented by 
resolutions of the leg- 
islatures of Georgia, 
minister into making a formal proposi- the Carolinas, Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylva- 
tion. To this Canning made a reply nia, and New Hampshire. An enforce- 
(Sept. 28, 1808) in writing, unsurpassed ment act was passed (January, 1809), 
in diplomatic cunning and partially con- and, to make it efficient, the employment 
cealed sarcasm. It also contained sound of twelve additional revenue cutters was 
views on the whole subject of the orders authorized; also the fitting out for ser- 
and decrees. Canning insisted that, as vice of all the ships-of-war and gunboats. 
France was the original aggressor, by the This enforcement act was despotic, and 
issuing of the Berlin decree, retaliation Avould not have been tolerated except as a 
(the claimed cause of the embargo) temporary expedient, for the Orders in 
ought, in the first instance, to have been Council were mild in their effects upon 
directed against that power alone; and American trade and commerce compared 
England could not consent to buy off a with that of this Embargo Act. It pretty 
hostile procedure, of which she ought effectually suppressed extensive smug- 
never to have been made the object, at gling, which was carried on between the 
the expense of a concession made, not to United States and Canada and at many 
the United States, upon whom the opera- sea-ports, especially in New England, 
tion of the British orders was merely in- But the opposition clamored for its re- 
cidental, but to France, against which peal. At the opening of 1814 there were 
country, in a spirit of just retaliation, expectations, speedily realized, of peace 
they had been originally aimed. The Ber- near; also of a general pa.cification of 
lin decree had been the beginning of an Europe. These signs were pointed to by 
attempt to overthrow the political power the opposition as cogent reasons for the 
of Great Britain by destroying her com- repeal. These considerations had weight, 
merce, and almost all Europe had been added to which was the necessity for in- 
compelled to join in that attempt; and creasing the revenue. Finally, on Jan. 
the American embargo had, in fact, come 19 (1814), the President recommended 
in aid of Napoleon's continental system, the repeal of the Embargo Act, and it was 
This attempt, Canning said, was not like- done by Congress on April 14. There 
ly to succeed, yet it was important to the were great rejoicings throughout the coun- 
reputation of Great Britain not to show try, and the demise of the Terrapin was 



hailed as a good omen of commercial 
prosperity. The Death of the Embargo 
was celebrated in verses published in the 
Federal Republican newspaper of George- 
town, in the District of Columbia. These 
were reproduced in the New York Even- 
ing Post, with an illustration designed by 
John Wesley Jarvis, the painter, and 
drawn and engraved on wood by Dr. Alex- 
ander Anderson. The picture was re- 
drawn and engraved by Dr. Anderson, on 
a reduced scale, in 1864, after a lapse of 
exactly fifty years. The lines which it 
illustrates are as follows: 


" Reflect, my friend, as you pass by, 
As you are now, so once was I : 
As / am now, so you may be — • 
Laid on your bacl< to die like me ! 
I was, iudeed, true sailor born ; 
To quit my friend in death I scorn. 
Once Jemmy seemed to be my friend, 
But basely brought me to my end ! 
Of head bereft, and light, and breath, 
I hold Fidelity in death : 
For 'Sailors' Rights' I still will tug; 
And Madison to death I'll hug, 
I'or his perfidious zeal displayed 
For ' Sailors' Rights and for Free-trade.' 
This small atonement I will have — 
I'll lug down Jemmy to the grave. 
Then trade and commerce shall be free, 
And sailors have their liberty. 
Of head bereft, and light, and breath, 
The Terrapin, still true in death. 
Will punish Jemmy's perfidy — 
Leave trade and brother sailors free." 


Yes, Terrapin, bereft of breath. 
We see thee faithful still in death. 
Stiek to't — ' Free-trade and Sailors' Rights.' 
Hug Jemmy — press him — hold him — bite. 

Never mind thy head — thou'lt live with- 
out It ; 
Spunk will preserve thy life — don't doubt 

Down to the grave, t' atone for sin, 
Jemmy must go with Terrapin. 
Bear him but off, and we shall see 
Commerce restored and sailors free I 
Hug, Terrapin, with all thy might — 
Now for ' Free-trade and Sailors' Right.' 
Stick to him. Terrapin ! to thee the nation 
Now eager looks — then die for her salva- 

" Ploreat Respublica. 

" Banks of Goose Creek, City of Wash- 
ington, 15th April, 1814." 

The continued aggressions of the British 
upon American commerce created a power- 
ful war party in the United States in 
1811, and a stirring report of the com- 
mittee on foreign relations, submitted to 
Congress in November, intensified that 
feeling. Bills were speedily passed for 
augmenting the army, and other prepara- 
tions for war were made soon after the 
opening of the year 1812. The President 
v/as averse to war, but his party urged 
and threatened him so pertinaciously that 
he consented to declare war against Great 
Britain. As a preliminary measure he 
sent a confidential message to Congress 
(April 1, 1812) recommending the pas- 
sage of an act laying an embargo for sixty 
days. A bill was introduced to that effect 
by Mr. Calhoun, of South Carolina, which 
prohibited the sailing of 
any vessel for any foreign 
port, except foreign ships 
with such cargoes as they 
might have on board when 
notified of the act. The 
bill was passed (April 6), 
and was speedily followed 
by a supplementary act 
(April 14) prohibiting ex- 
po r t a t i o n s by land, 
whether of goods or specie. 
The latter measure was 
called the land embargo. 
It was vehemently de- 
nounced, for it suddenly 
suppressed an active and 
lucrative trade between the 
United States and Canada. 
It was ascertained that the British 
blockading squadron in American waters 
was constantly supplied with provisions 
from American ports by unpatriotic men ; 



also that British manufactures were being 
introduced on professedly neutral vessels. 
Such traffic was extensively carried on, 
especially in New England ports, where 
magistrates were often leniently disposed 
towards such violators of law. In a con- 
fidential message (Dec. 9, 1813) the Presi- 
dent recommended the passage of an em- 
bargo act to suppress the traffic, and one 
passed both Houses on the 17th, to remain 
in force until Jan. 1, 1815, unless the war 
should sooner cease. It prohibited, under 
severe penalties, the exportation, or at- 
tempt at exportation, by land or water, of 
any goods, produce, specie, or live-stock; 
and to guard against evasions even the 
coast trade was entirely prohibited. This 
bore heavily on the business of some of 
the New England sea-coast towns. No 
transportation was allowed, even on inland 
waters, without special permission from 
the President. While the act bore so 
heavily on honest traders, it pretty effect- 
ually stopped the illicit business of 
'■ speculators, knaves, and traders, who en- 
riched themselves at the expense of the 
community." This act, like all similar 
ones, was called a " terrapin policy " ; and 
illustrative of it was a caricature repre- 
senting a British vessel in the offing, some 
men embarking goods in a boat on the 
shore, and a stout man carrying a barrel 
of flour towards the boat, impeded by 
being seized by the seat of his pantaloons 
by an enormous terrapin, urged on by a 
man who cries out, " D — n it, how he nicks 
'em." The victim exclaims, " Oh ! this 

ing gratuitously. He died in Camden, 
N. Y., in August, 1775. 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, author; 
leader of the transcendental school of 
New England; born in Boston, May 25, 
1803; graduated at Harvard in 1821; 
taught school five years, and in 1826 was 
licensed to preach by the Middlesex 
(Unitarian) Association. In the winter 
of 1833-34, after retui'ning from Europe, 
he began the career of a lecturer and es- 
sayist. Marrying in 1835, he fixed his 


residence at Concord, Mass., and was a 
contributor to, and finally editor of. The 
Dial, a quarterly magazine, and organ of 
the New England transcendentalists. He 
lived the quiet life of a literary man and 
philosopher for more than forty years. 

cursed Ograbme!"— the letters of the last He published essays, poems, etc. He died 
word, transposed, spell embargo. This act in Concord, Mass.. April 27, 1882 
was repealed in April,' 1814 

See Thayer, 

Embry, James Crawford, clergyman; 
born of negro parents in Knox county, 
Ind., Nov. 2, 1834 ; became a minister in 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church 
in 1863; author of Condition and Pros- 
pects of the Colored American. 

Embury, Philip, clergyman; born in 
Ballygaran, Ireland, Sept. 21, 1729; came 
to New Yoi'k in 1760, and at the solicita- 
tion of Barbara Heck he began to hold 
services in his own house, and later on in 
a rigging-loft. This was the foundation 
of Methodism in the United States. The 
first Methodist church was built in John 
Street in 1768, under the supervision of 
Embury, he himself working on the build- 

Emigrant Aid Company. 

Emigration. See Immigration. 

Emmet, Thomas Addis, patriot; born 
in Cork, Ireland, April 24, 1763; grad- 
uated at Trinity College, Dublin; first 
studied medicine, and then law, and was 
admitted to the Dublin bar in 1791. He 
became a leader of the Association of Unit- 
ed Irishmen, and was one of a general 
committee whose ultimate object was to 
secure the freedom of Ireland from British 
rule. With many of his associates, he was 
arrested in 1798, and for more than two 
years was confined in Fort George, Scot- 
land. His brother Robert, afterwards 
engaged in the same cause, was hanged in 



Dublin in 1803. Thomas was liberated and Emott, James, jurist; born in Pough- 

banished to France after the treaty of keepsie, N. Y., March 14, 1771; grad- 

Amiens, the severest penalties being pro- uated at Union College in 1800, and began 

iiounced against him if he should return the practice of law at Ballston Centre, but 

to Great Britain. His wife was permitted soon removed to Albany. He represented 

to join him, on condition that she should that district in the legislature in 1804. He 

never again set foot on British soil. He practised law a while in New Ybrk City, 

came to the United States in 1804, and be- and then returned to Poughkeepsie. He 

came very eminent in his profession in the was in Congress from 1809 to 1813, and 

city of New York. He was made attorney- v/as a leader of the Federal party therein, 

general of the State in 1812. A monu- He was again in the legislature (1814-17), 

ment — an obelisk — was erected to his and was speaker of that body. From 1817 

memory in St. Paul's cliurch-yard. New to 1823 he was first judge of Dutchess 

York, on Broadway. He died in New county, and was judge of the second cir- 

York, Nov. 14, 1827. cuit from 1827 to 1831, when he retired 

Emmons, George Foster, naval officer; from public life. He died in Poughkeepsie, 

born in Clarendon, Vt., Aug. 23, 1811; April 10, 18.50. 

entered the navy in 1828; took part in sev- Em.pire State, a popular name given 

eral engagements during the Mexican to the State of New Y'ork, because it is 

War; served through the Civil War, and the most populous, wealthy, and politi- 

in 1866 commanded the Ossipee, which cally powerful State in the Union, it 

carried the United States commissioners is sometimes called the " Excelsior State," 

to Alaska for the purpose of hoisting the from the motto Excelsior — " higher " — 

American flag over that region. He was on its seal and coat-of-arms. The city of 

promoted rear-admiral in 1872; retired in New York, its commercial metropolis, 

1873; author of The Navy of the United and the largest city in the Union, is some- 

States from 1775 to 1853. He died in times called the " Empire City. " 

Princeton, N. J., July 2, 1884. Employers' Liability Law, approved 

Emory, William Helmsley, military April 22, 1008, regulated tlie liability of 
officer; born in Queen Anne's county, common carriers by railroad to their em- 
Md., Sept. 9, 1811; graduated at West ployees in certain cases. 
Point in 1831. He was appointed lieu- Emucfau, Battle of. On a bend in 
tenant of the topographical engineers July the Tallapoosa River, in Alabama, was 
7, 1833; was aide to General Kearny in a Creek village named Emucfau. Jack- 
California in 1846-47, and was made lieu- son, with a considerable force, approaching 
tenant-colonel, Sept. 30, 1847. He was as- the place (Jan. 21, 1814), saw a well- 
tronomer to the commission to determine beaten trail and some prowling Indians, 
the boundary between the United States and prepared his camp that night for an 
and Mexico. He was serving as captain attack. At six o'clock the next morning 
of cavalry in Mexico when the Civil War a party of Creek warriors fell upon him 
broke out, and brought his command into with great fury. .\t dawn a vigorous 
Kansas in good order. In May, 1861, he cavalry charge was made upon the foe 
was made lieutenant - colonel of the 6th by General Coflfee, and they were dis- 
Cavalry; served in the campaign of 1802 persed. Coffee pursued the barbarians 
in the Army of the Potomac, and was made for 2 miles with much slaughter. Then 
brigadier-general of volunteers in March a party was despatched to destroy the 
of that year. He did good service under Indian encampment at Emucfau, but it 
Banks in Louisiana, and under Sheridan was found to be too strongly fortified to 
in the Shenandoah Valley. He was made be taken without artillery. When Coffee 
colonel of the 5th Cavalry in the fall of fell back to guard approaching cannon, 
1863; in March, 1865, was brevetted brig- the Indians, thinking it was a retreat, 
adier-general and major-general of the again fell upon Jackson, but, after a 
United States army; and in 1876 was re- severe struggle, were repulsed. Jackson 
tired with the full rank of brigadier- made no further attempt to destroy the 
general. He died in Washington, D, C, encampment at Emucfau. He was aston- 
Dec. 1, 1887. ished at the prowess of the Creek war- 



yiors. In their retrograde movement 
(Jan. 24), the Tennesseeans were again 
threatened by the Indians, near Eno- 
tochopco Creek. A severe engagement 
soon ensued; but the Tennesseeans, hav- 
ing planted a (i-pounder cannon on an 
eminence, poured a storm of grape-shot 
on the Indians, which sent them yelling 
in all directions. The slaughter among 
the Indians was heavy, while that among 
the white troops was comparatively 
light. In the two engagements (Emucfau 
and Enotochopco) , Jackson lost twenty 
killed and seventy-five wounded. 

Endicott, John, colonial governor; 
born in Dorchester, England, in 1589; was 


sent by the Massachusetts Company to 
superintend the plantation at Naumkeag; 
arrived there Sept. 6 (N. S.), and in 
April next year was appointed governor 
of the colony, but was succeeded by John 

Winthrop. In 1636 he was sent with 
Captain Underhill, with about ninety 
men, on an expedition against Indians 
on Block Island and the Pequods. Mr. 
Endicott was deputy-governor of Massa- 
chusetts several years, and also govern- 
or, in which office he died, March 15, 
1665. Bold, energetic, sincere, and 
bigoted, he was the strongest of the Puri- 
tans, and was severe in the execution of 
laws against those who differed from the 
prevailing theology of the colony. He 
was one of the most persistent persecut- 
ors of the Quakers, and stood by unmoved, 
as governor, when they were hanged in 
Boston; and so violent were his feelings 
against the Roman Catholics, and any- 
thing that savored of " popery," that he 
caused the red cross of St. George to be 
cut out of the military standard. He 
opposed long hair on men, and insisted 
that the women should use veils in public 
assemblies. During his several adminis- 
trations many were punished for the 
slightest offences, and four Quakers were 
hanged in Boston. 

Endicott, William Crowninshield, 
jurist; born in Salem, Mass., Nov. 19, 
1827; graduated at Harvard in 1847; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1850; appointed 
judge of the Supreme Court of Massa- 
chusetts in 1873; became Secretary of 
War in 1885. Judge Endicott was a 
Democrat, and the unsuccessful candidate 
of his party for governor of Massachu- 
setts in 1884. His daughter, Mary, mar- 
ried Joseph Chamberlain, English colo- 
nial secretary. He died in Boston, May 
6, 1900. 


Engineering. Mr. Thomas C. Clarke divided into structural engineering, or 
(q. v.), Past President of the Society of that of railways, bridges, tunnels, build- 
Civil Engineers, writes as follows on the ings, etc.; also, into hydraulic engineer- 
subject of engineering, with special refer- ing, which governs the application of wa- 
ence to American engineers and their ter to canals, river improvements, harbors, 
works in the United States. the supply of water to towns and for ir- 

rigation, disposal of sewage, etc. 

Dynamical engineering can be divided 

Engineering is sometimes divided into into mechanical engineering, which cov- 

civil, military, and naval engineering, ers the construction of all prime motors. 

The logical classification is: statical en- the transmission of power, and the use of 

gineering and dynamical. machines and machine tools. Closely al- 

Statical engineering can be again sub- lied is electrical engineering, the art of 



the transformation and transmission of 
energy for traction, lighting, telegraphy, 
telephoning, operating machinery, and 
many other uses, such as its electrolytic 
application to ores and metals. 

Then we have the combined application 
of statical, mechanical, and electrical en- 
gineering to what is now called indus- 
trial engineering, or the production of 
articles useful to man. This may be di- 
vided into agricultural, mining, metal- 
lurgical, and chemical engineering. 

Structural Engineering. — This is the 
oldest of all. We have not been able to 
surpass the works of the past in grandeur 
or durability. The pyramids of Egypt 
still stand, and will stand for thousands 
of years. Roman bridges, aqueducts, and 
sewers still perform their duties. Joseph's 
canal still irrigates lower Egypt. The 
great wall of China, running for 1,500 
miles over mountains and plains, con- 
tains 150,000,000 cubic yards of mate- 
rials and is the greatest of artificial 
works. No modern building compares in 
grandeur with St. Peter's, and the me- 
diaeval cathedrals shame our puny imita- 

Railways. — The greatest engineering 
work of the nineteenth century was the 
development of the railway system which 
has changed the face of the world. Be- 
ginning in 1829 with the locomotive of 
George Stephenson, it has extended with 
such strides that, after seventy years, 
there are 406,000 miles of railways in the 
world, of which 190,000 miles are in the 
United States. Their cost is estimated at 
$40,000,000,000, of which $10,000,000,000 
belong to the United States. 

The rapidity with which railways are 
built in the United States and Canada con- 
trasts strongly with what has been done 
in other countries. Much has been writ- 
ten of the energy of Russia in building 
3,000 miles of Siberian railway in five 
or six years. In the United States an 
average of 6,147 miles was completed ev- 
ery year during ten successive years, and 
in 1887 there were built 12,982 miles. 
They were built economically, and at first 
in not as solid a manner as those of Eu- 
rope. Steeper gradients, sharper curves, 
and lighter rails were used. This ren- 
dered necessary a different kind of roll- 
ing-stock suitable to such construction. 

The swivelling-truck and equalizing-beam 
enabled our engines to run safely on tracks 
where the rigid European engines would 
soon have been in the ditch. 

Our cars were made longer, and by the 
use of longitudinal framing much stronger. 
A great economy came from the use of 
annealed cast-iron wheels. It was soon 
seen that longer cars would carry a great- 
er proportion of paying load, and the 
more cars that one engine could draw in 
a train, the less would be the cost. It 
was not until the invention by Bessemer 
in 1864 of a steel of quality and cost 
that made it available for rails that much 
heavier cars and locomotives could be 
used. Then came a rapid increase. As 
soon as Bessemer rails were made in this 
country, the cost fell from $175 per ton to 
$50, and now to $26. 

Before that time a wooden car weighed 
16 tons, and could carry a paying load of 
15 tons. The 30-ton engines of those days 
could not draw on a level over thirty cars 
weighing 900 tons. 

The pressed steel car of to-day weighs 
no more than the wooden car, but carries 
a paj'ing load of 50 tons. The heaviest 
engines have now drawn on a level fifty 
steel cars, weighing 3,750 tons. In the 
one case the paying load of an engine was 
450 tons; now it is 2,500 tons. 

Steep grades soon developed a better 
brake system, and these heavier trains 
have led to the invention of the auto- 
matic brake worked from the engine, and 
also automatic couplers, saving time and 
many lives. The capacity of our rail- 
ways has been greatly increased by the 
use of electric block-signals. 

The perfecting of both the railway and 
its rolling-stock has led to remarkable 

In 1899 Poor gives the total freight ton- 
nage at 975,789,941 tons, and the fi-eight 
receipts at $922,436,314, or an average 
rate per ton of 95 cents. Had the rates 
of 1867 prevailed, the additional yearly 
cost to the public would have been $4,275,- 
000,000, or sufficient to replace the 
whole I'ailway system in two and a half 
years. This much can surely be said: 
the reduction in cost of operating our 
railways, and the consequent fall in freight 
rates, have been potent factors in enabling 
the United States to send abroad last 



year $1,456,000,000 worth of exports and 
flood the world with our food and manu- 
factured products. 

Bridge Building. — In early days the 
building of a bridge was a matter 
of great ceremony, and it was conse- 
crated to protect it from evil spirits. Its 
construction was controlled by priests, as 
the title of the Pope of Rome, " Pontifex 
Maximus," indicates. 

Railways changed all this. Instead of 
the picturesque stone bridge, whose long 
line of low arches harmonized with the 
landscape, there came the straight girder 
or high truss, ugly indeed, but quickly 
built, and costing much less. 

Bridge construction has made greater 
progress in the United States than abroad. 
The heavy trains that we have described 
called for stronger bridges. The large 
American rolling-stock is not used in Eng- 
land, and but little on the continent of 
Europe, as the width of trmnels and other 
obstacles will not allow of it. It is said 
that there is an average of one bridge for 
every 3 miles of railway in the United 
States, making 63,000 bridges, most of 
which have been replaced by new and 
stronger ones during the last twenty 
years. This demand has brought into ex- 
istence many bridge - building companies, 
some of whom make the whole bridge, 
from the ore to the finished product. 

Before the advent of railways, highway 
bridges in America were made of wood, 
and called trusses. The coming of rail- 
ways required a stronger type of bridge 
to carry concentrated loads, and the Howe 
truss, with vertical iron rods, was in- 
vented, capable of 150-foot spans. 

About 1868 iron bridges began to take 
the place of wooden bridges. One of 
the first long-span bridges was a single- 
track railway bridge of 400 - foot span 
over the Ohio at Cincinnati, which was 
considered to be a great achievement in 

The Kinzua viaduct, 310 feet high and 
over half a mile long, belongs to this 
era. It is the type of the numerous high 
viaducts now so common. 

About 1885 a new material was given 
to engineers, having greater strength and 
tenacity than iron, and commercially 
available from its low cost. This is ba- 
sic steel. This new chemical metal, for 

such it is, is 50 per cent, stronger than 
iron, and can be tied in a knot when 

The efi'ect of improved devices and the 
use of steel is shown by the weights of the 
400-foot Ohio River iron bridge, built 
in 1870, and a bridge at the same place, 
built in 1886. The bridge of 1870 was of 
iron, with a span of 400 feet. The bridge 
of 1886 was of steel. Its span was 550 
feet. The weights of the two were nearly 

The cantilever design, which is a revi- 
val of a very ancient type, came into 
use. The great Forth Bridge, in Scot- 
land, 1,600-foot span, is of this style, as 
are the 500-foot spans at Poughkeepsie, 
and now a new one is being designed to 
cross the St. Lawrence near Quebec, of 
1,800-foot span. This is probably near 
the economic limit of cantilever con- 

The suspension bridge can be extended 
much farther, as it carries no dead weight 
of compression members. 

The Niagara Suspension Bridge, of 810- 
foot span, built by Roebling, in 1852, and 
the Brooklyn Bridge, of 1,600 feet, built 
by Roebling and his son, twenty years af- 
ter, marked a wonderful advance in bridge 
design. The same lines of construction 
will be followed in the 2,700-foot span, 
designed to cross the North River some 
time in the present century. The only 
radical advance is the use of a better steel 
than could be had in earlier days. 

Steel-arched bridges are now scientifical- 
ly designed. Such are the new Niagara 
Bridge, of 840-foot span, and the Alex- 
andra Bridge at Paris. 

That which marks more clearly than 
anything else the great advance in Amer- 
ican bridge building, during the last 
forty years, is the reconstruction of the 
famous Victoria Bridge, over the St. Law- 
rence, above Montreal. This bridge was 
designed by Robert Stephenson, and the 
stone piers are a monument to his engi- 
neering skill. For forty winters they 
have resisted the great fields of ice borne 
by a rapid current. Their dimensions 
were so liberal that the new bridge was 
jmt upon them, although four times as 
wide as the old one. 

The superstructure was originally made 
of plate-iron tubes, reinforced by tees and 



angles, similar to Stephenson's Menai petition. Mistakes mean ruin, and the 

Straits Bridge. There are twenty - two fittest only survives. 

spans of 240 feet each, and a central one The American system gives the grea-t- 

of 330 feet. est possible rapidity of erection of the 

It was decided to build a new bridge of bridge on its i)iers. A span of 518 feet, 

open-work construction and of open-hearth weighing 1,000 tons, was erected at Cairo 

steel. This was done, and the comparison on the Mississippi in six days. The parts 

is as follows: Old bridge, 16 feet wide, were not assembled until they were put 

single track, live load of one ton per foot ; upon the false works. European engi- 

new bridge, 07 feet wide, two railway neers have sometimes ordered a bridge to 

tracks and two carriage-ways, live load be riveted together complete in the maker's 

if 5 tons per foot. yard, and then taken apart. 

The old iron tubes weighed 10,000 tons. The adoption of American work in such 

cost $2,713,000, and took two seasons to bridges as the Atbara in South Africa, 

erect. The new truss bridge weighs 22,000 the Gokteik viaduct in Burmah, 320 feet 

tons, has cost $1,400,000, and the time of high, and others, was due to low cost, 

construction was one year. quick delivery and erection, as well as ex- 

The modern high office building is an cellence of material and construction, 
interesting example of the evolution of a Foundations, etc. — Bridges must have 

fiigh-viaduet pier. Such a pier of the re- foundations for their piers. Up to the 

quired dimensions, strengthened by more middle of the nineteenth century engi- 

cokmins strong enough to carry many neers knew no better way of making them 

floors, is the skeleton frame. Enclose the than by laying bare the bed of the river 

sides with brick, stone, or terra-cotta, add by a pumped-out cofferdam, or by driving 

windows, and doors, and elevators, and it piles into the sand, as Julius Ctesar did. 

is complete. About the middle of the century, M. 

Fortunately for the stability of these Triger, a French engineer, conceived the 
high buildings, the. effect of wind pressures first plan of a pneumatic foundation, 
had been studied in this country in the which led to the present system of corn- 
designs of the Kinzua, Pecos, and other pressing air by pumping it into an in- 
high viaducts. verted box, called a caisson, with air locks 

The modern elevated railway of cities on top to enable men and materials to go 

is simply a very long railway viaduct, in and out. After the soft materials were 

Some idea may be gained of the life of removed, and the caisson sunk by its own 

a modern riveted-iron structure from the weight to the proper depth, it was filled 

experience of the Manhattan Elevated with concrete. The limit of depth is that 

Railway of New York. These roads were in which men can work in compressed air 

built in 1878-79 to carry uniform loads without injury, and this is not much 

of 1,000 lbs. per lineal foot, except Second over 100 feet. 

Avenue, which was made to carry 2,000. The foundations of the Brooklyn and 

The stresses were below 10,000 lbs. per St. Louis bridges were put down in this 

square inch. manner. 

These viaducts have carried in twenty- In the construction of the Psughkeep- 

two years over 25,000,000 trains, weighing sie bridge over the Hudson in 1887-88. 

over 3,000,000,000 tons, at a maximum it became necessary to go down 135 feet 

speed of 25 miles an hour, and are still below tide-level before hard bottom was 

in good order. reached. Another process was invented 

We have now great bridge companies, to take the place of compressed air. Tini- 

which are so completely equipped with ap- ber caissons were built, having double 

pliances for both shop drawings and con- sides, and the spaces between them filled 

struction that the old joke becomes almost with stone to give weight. Their tops 

true that they can make bridges and sell were left open and the American single- 

them by the mile. bucket dredge was used. This bucket was 

All improvements of design are now pub- lowered and lifted by a very long wire 

lie property. All that the bridge compa- rope worked by the engine, and with it 

nies do is done in the fierce light of com- the soft mat-erial was removed. The in 



ternal space was then filled with concrete 
laid under water by the same bucket, and 
levelled by divers when necessary. 

While this work was going on, the gov- 
ernment of New South Wales, in Austra- 
lia, called for both designs and tenders for 
a bridge over an estuary of the sea called 
Hawkesbury. The conditions were the 
same as that at Poughkeepsie, except that 
the soft mud reached to a depth of 160 
feet below tide-level. 

The designs of the engineers of the 
Poughkeepsie bridge were accepted, and 
the same method of sinking open caissons 
(in this case made of iron) was carried 
out with perfect success. 

The erection of this bridge involved an- 
other difficult problem. The mud was too 
soft and deep for piles and staging, and 
the cantilever system in this site would 
have increased the cost. 

The solution of the problems presented 
at Hawkesbury gave the second introduc- 
tion of American engineers to bridge 
building outside of America. The first 
was in 1786, when an American carpenter 
or shipwright built a bridge over Charles 
River at Boston, 1,470 feet long by 46 
feet wide. This bridge was of wood sup- 
ported on piles. His work gained for 
him such renown that he was called to 
Ireland and built a similar bridge at 

Tunnelling by compressed air is a hori- 
zontal application of compressed-air foun- 
dations. The earth is supported by an 
iron tube, which is added to in rings, 
which are pushed forward by hydraulic 

A tunnel is now being made under an 
arm of the sea between Boston and East 
Boston, some 1,400 feet long and 65 feet 
below tide. The interior lining of iron 
tubing is not used. The tunnel is built of 
concrete, reinforced by steel rods. Success 
in modern engineering means doing a 
thing in the most economical way consist- 
ent with safety. Had the North River 
tunnel, at New York, been designed on 
equally scientific principles it would prob- 
ably have been finished, which now seems 

The construction of rapid - transit rail- 
ways in cities is another branch of engi- 
neering. Some of these railways are ele- 
vated, and are merely railway viaducts. 

but the favorite type now is that of sub- 
ways. There are two kinds, those near 
the surface, like the District railways of 
London, the subways in Paris, Berlin, and 
Boston, and that now building in New 
\ork. The South London and Central 
London, and other London projects, are 
tubes sunk 50 to 80 feet below the sur- 
face and requiring elevators for access. 

The construction of the Boston subway 
was difficult on account of the small 
width of the streets, their great traffic, 
and the necessity of underpinning the 
foundations of buildings. All of this was 
successfully done without disturbing the 
traffic for a single day, and reflects great 
credit on the engineer. Owing to the 
great width of New York streets, the 
problem is simpler in that respect. Al- 
though many times as long as the Boston 
subway, it will be built in nearly the 
same time. The design, where in earth, 
may be compared to that of a steel office 
building 20 miles long, laid flat on one of 
its sides. 

The construction of power-houses for 
developing energy from coal and from 
falling water requires much engineering 
ability. The Niagara power-house is in- 
tended to develop 100,000 horse -power; 
that at the Sault Ste. Marie as much ; that 
on the St. Lawrence, at Massena, 70,000 
horse-power. These are huge works, re- 
quiring tunnels, rock-cut chambers, and 
masonry and concrete in walls and dams. 
They cover large extents of territory. 

The contrast in size of the coal-using 
power-houses is interesting. The new 
power-house now building by the Manhat- 
tan Elevated Railway, in New, York, de- 
velops in the small space of 200 by 400 
feet 100,000 horse-power, or as much pow- 
er as that utilized at Niagara Falls. 

One of the most useful materials which 
modern engineers now make use of is con- 
crete, which can be put into confined 
spaces and laid under water. It costs less 
than masonry, while as strong. This is 
the revival of the use of a material used 
by the Romans. The writer was once al- 
lowed to climb a ladder and look at the 
construction of the dome of the Pantheon, 
at Rome. He found it a monolithic mass 
of concrete, and hence without thrust. It 
is a better piece of engineering construc- 
tion than the dome of St. Peter's, built 



1,500 years later. Tlie dome of Columbia to dig the sand with rude hoes, and carry 

College Library, in New York, is built of it away in baskets on their heads. They 

concrete. died by thousands for want of water and 

Hydraulic Engineering. — This is one of proper food. At last the French engineers 
the oldest branches of engineering, and ])ersuaded the Ivhedive to let them in- 
was developed before the last century, troduce steam dredging machinery. A 
The irrigation works of Asia, Africa, light railway was laid to supply pro- 
Spain, Italy, the Roman aqueducts, and visions, and a small ditch dug to bring 
the canals of Europe, are examples. Hy- pure water. The number of men em- 
draulic works cannot be constructed in ployed fell to one-fourth. Machinery did 
ignorance of the laws which govern the the rest. But for this the canal would 
flow of water. The action of water is re- never have been finished, 
lentless, as ruined canals, obstructed The Panama Canal now uses the best 
rivers, and washed-out dams testify. modern machinery, and the Nicaragua 

The removal of sewage, after having Canal, if built, will apply still better 
been done by the Etruscans before the methods, developed on the Chicago drain- 
foundation of Rome, became a lost art age canal, where material was handled at 
during the dirty Dark Ages, when filth a less cost than has ever been done be- 
and piety were deemed to be connected in fore. 

some mysterious way. It was reserved for The Erie Canal was one of very small 
good John Wesley to point out that cost, but its influence has been surpassed 
" Cleanliness is next to godliness." Now by none. The " winning of the West " was 
sewage works are as common as those hastened many years by the construction 
for water supply. Some of them have of this work in the first quarter of the 
been of great size and cost. Such are the century. Two horses were just able to 
drainage works of London, Paris, Berlin, draw a ton of goods at the speed of 2 
Boston, Chicago, and New Orleans. A miles an hour over the wretched roads 
very diflicult work was the drainage of of those days. When the canal was made 
the City of Mexico, which is in a valley these two horses could draw a boat carry- 
surrounded by mountains, and elevated ing 150 tons 4 miles an hour. 
only 4 or 5 feet above a lake having no The Erie Canal was made by engineers, 
outlet. Attempts to drain the lake had but it had to make its own engineers first, 
been made in vain for 600 years. It has as there were none available in this coun- 
lately been accomplished by a tunnel 6 try at that time. These self-taught men, 
miles long through the mountains, and a some of them land surveyors and others 
canal of over .30 miles, the whole work lawyers, showed themselves the equals of 
costing some $20,000,000. the Englishmen Brindley and Smeaton, 

The drainage of Chicago by locks and when they located a water route through 

<.'anal into the Illinois River has cost some the wilderness, having a uniform descent 

^35,000,000, and is well worth its cost. from Lake Erie to the Hudson, and which 

Scientific research has been applied to would have been so built if there had been 

the designing of high masonry and con- enough money. 

Crete dams, and we know now that no There should be a waterway from the 

well-designed dam on a good foundation Hudson to Lake Erie large enough for ves- 

should fail. The dams now building sels able to navigate the lakes and the 

across the Nile by order of the British ocean. A draft of 21 feet can be had at 

government will create the largest arti- a cost estimated at $200,000,000. 
ficial lakes in the world. The deepening of the Chicago drainage 

The Suez Canal is one of the largest hy- canal to the Mississippi River, and the 

draulic works of the last century, and is deepening of the Mississippi itself to tht 

a notable instance of the displacement of Gulf of Mexico, is a logical sequence of 

hand labor by the use of machinery. Is- the first project. The Nicaragua Canal 

mai'l began by impressing a large part of would then form one part of a great line 

the peasant population of P]gypt, just as of navigation, by which the products of 

Rameses had done over 3,000 years be- the interior of the continent could reach 

fore. These unfortunate people were set either the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. 
III. — Q 241 


The cost would be small compared with 
the resulting benefits, and some day this 
navigation will be built by the government 
of the United States. 

The deepening of the Southwest Pass of 
the Mississippi River from 6 to 30 feet 
by James B. Eads was a great engineer- 
ing achievement. It was the first ap- 
plication of the jetty system on a large 
scale. This is merely confining the flow 
of a river, and thus increasing its velocity 
so that it secures a deeper channel for 

The improvement of harbors follows 
closely the increased size of ocean and lake 
vessels. The approach to New York Har- 
bor is now being deepened to 40 feet, 
a thing impossible to be done without the 
largest application of steam machinery 
in a suction dredge boat. 

The Croton Aqueduct of New York was 
thought by its designers to be on a scale 
large enough to last for all time. It is 
now less than sixty years old, and the 
population of New York will soon be too 
large to be supplied by it. It is able 
to supply 250,000,000 to 300,000,000 gal- 
lons daily, and its cost, when the Cornell 
dam and Jerome Park reservoir are fin- 
ished, will be a little over $92,000,000. 

It is now suggested to store water in 
the Adirondack Mountains, 203 miles 
away, by dams built at the outlet of ten 
or twelve lakes. This will equalize the 
flow of the Hudson River so as to give 
3,000,000,000 to 4,000,000,000 gallons 
daily. It is then proposed to pump 
1,000,000,000 gallons daily from the 
Hudson River at Poughkeepsie, 60 miles 
away, to a height sviffieient to supply 
New York City by gravity through an 

If this scheme is carried out, the total 
supply will be about 1,300,000,000 gallons 
daily, or enough for a population of from 
12,000,000 to 13,000,000 persons. By put- 
ting in more puinps, filter-beds, and con- 
duits, this supply can be increased 40 
per cent., or to 1,800,000,000 gallons daily. 
This is a fair example of the scale of the 
engineering works of the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 

Mechanical Engineering. — This is em- 
ployed in all dynamical engineering. It 
covers the designs of prime motors of all 
sorts, steam, gas, and gasoline reciprocat- 

ing engines; also steam and water tur- 
bines, wind-mills, and wave-motors. 

It comprises all means of transmitting 
power, as by shafting, ropes, pneumatic 
pressure, and compressed air, all of which 
seem likely to be superseded by electricity. 

It covers the construction of machine 
tools and machinery of all kinds. It en- 
ters into all the processes of structural, 
hydraulic, electrical, and industrial engi- 
neering. The special improvements are: 
The almost universal use of rotary motion, 
and of the reduplication of parts. 

The steam-engine is a machine of re- 
ciprocating, converted into rotary, motion 
by the crank. The progress of mechanical 
engineering during the nineteenth century 
is measured by the improvements of the 
steam-engine, principally in the direction 
of saving fuel, by the invention of internal 
combustion or gas-engines, the application 
of electrical transmission, and, latest, the 
practical development of steam turbines 
by Parsons, Westinghouse, Delaval, Cur- 
tis, and others. In these a jet of steam 
impinges upon buckets set upon the cir- 
cumference of a wheel. Their advantages 
are that their motion is rotary and not 
reciprocal. They can develop speed of 
from 5,000 to 30,000 revolutions per min- 
ute, while the highest ever attained by a 
reciprocating engine is not over 1,000. 
Their thermodynamic losses are less, hence 
they consume less steam and less fuel. 

Duplication of parts has lowered the 
cost of all products. Clothing is one of 
these. The parts of ready-made garments 
and shoes are now cut into shape in num- 
bers at a time, by sharp-edged templates, 
and then fastened together by sewing- 

Mechanical engineering is a good exam- 
ple of the survival of the fittest. Millions 
of dollars are expended on machinery, 
when suddenly a new discovery or in- 
vention casts them all into the scrap heap, 
to be replaced by those of greater earning 

Prime motors derive their energy either 
from coal or other combinations of car- 
bon, such as petroleum, or from gravity. 
This may come from falling water, and 
the old-fashioned water-wheels of the 
eighteenth century were superseded in the 
nineteenth by turbines, first invented in 
France and since greatly perfected. These 



are used in the electrical transmission of 
water-power at Niagara of 5,000 horse- 
power, and form a very important part of 
the plant. 

The other gravity motors are wind- 
mills and wave-motors. Wind-mills are 
an old invention, but have been greatly 
Improved in the United States by the use 
of the self-reefing wheel. The great plains 
of the West are subject to sudden, violent 
gales of wind, and unless the wheel was 
automatically self-reefing it would often 
be destroyed. 

There have been vast numbers of patents 
taken out for wave-motors. One was in- 
vented in Chile, South America, which 
furnished a constant power for four 
months, and was utilized in sawing planks. 
The action of waves is more constant on 
the Pacific coast of America than else- 
where, and some auxiliary power, such as 
a gasoline engine, which can be quickly 
started and stopped, must be provided for 
. use during calm days. The prime cost 
of such a machine need not exceed that 
of a steam plant, and the cost of operat- 
ing is much less than that of any fuel- 
burning engine. The saving of coal is a 
very important problem. In a wider sense, 
we may say that the saving of all the great 
stores which nature has laid up for us 
during the past, and which have remained 
almost untouched until the nineteenth cen- 
tury, is the great problem of to-day. 

Petroleum and natural gas may disap- 
pear. The ores of gold, silver, and plat- 
inum will not last forever. Trees will 
grow, and iron ores seem to be practically 
inexhaustible. Chemistry has added a 
new metal in aluminum, which replaces 
copper for many purposes. One of the 
greatest problems of the twentieth cen- 
tury is to discover some chemical process 
for treating iron, by which oxidation will 
not take place. 

Coal, next to grain, is the most impor- 
tant of nature's gifts; it can be exhaust- 
ed, or the cost of mining it become so 
great that it cannot be obtained in the 
countries where it is most needed ; water, 
wind, and wave power may take its place 
to a limited extent, and greater use may 
be made of the waste gases coming from 
blast or smelter furnaces, but as nearly 
all energy comes from coal, its use must 
be economized, and the greatest economy 

will come from pulverizing coal and using 
it in the shape of a fine powder. Inven- 
tions have been made trying to deliver 
this powder into the fire-box as fast as 
made, for it is as explosive as gunpowder, 
j<nd as dangerous to store or handle. If 
this can be done, there will be a saving of 
coal due to perfect and smokeless combus- 
tion, as the admission of air can be en- 
tirely regulated, the same blast which' 
throws in the powder furnishing oxygen. 
Some investigators have estimated that 
the saving of coal will be as great as 
20 per cent. This means 100,000,000 tons 
of coal annually. 

Another problem of mechanical engi- 
neering is to determine whether it will 
be found more economical to transform 
the energy of coal, at the mines, into 
electric current and send it by wire to 
cities and other places where it is wanted, 
or to carry the coal by rail and water, as 
we now do, to such places, and convert it 
there by tlie steam or gas engine. 

Metallurgy and Mining. — All the proc- 
esses of metallurgy and mining employ 
statical, hydraulic, mechanical, and elec- 
trical engineering. Coal, without rail- 
ways and canals, would be of little use, 
imless electrical engineering came to its 

It was estimated by the late Lord Arm- 
strong that of the 4.50,000,000 to 500,000,- 
000 tons of coal annually produced in the 
world, one-third is used for steam produc- 
tion, one-third in metallurgical processes, 
and one-third for domestic consumption. 

Next in importance comes the produc- 
tion of iron and steel. Steel, on account 
of its great cost and brittleness, was only 
used for tools and special purposes until 
past the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. This has been all changed by the 
invention of his steel by Bessemer in 1864, 
and open-hearth steel in the furnace of 
Siemens, perfected some twenty years 
since by Gilchrist & Thomas. 

The United States have taken the lead 
in steel manufacture. In 1873 Great 
Britain made three times as much steel 
as the United States. Now the United 
States makes twice as much as Great 
Britain, or 40 per cent, of all the steel 
made in the world. 

Mr, Carnegie has explained the reasor 
why, in epigrammatic phrase: "Three 



lbs. of steel billets can be sold for 2 

This stimulates rail and water traffic 
and other industries, as he tells us 1 lb. 
of steel requires 2 lbs. of ore, !'/» lbs. of 
coal, and Vs lb. of limestone. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the 
States bordering on the lakes have created 
a traffic of 25,000,000 tons yearly through 
the Sault Ste. Marie Canal, while the Suez, 
which supplies the wants of half the pop- 
ulation of the world, has only 7,000,000, 
or less than the tonnage of the little Har- 
lem River at New York. 

Industrial Engineering. — This leads us 
to our last topic, for which too little 
room has been left. Industrial engineering 
covers statical, hydraulic, mechanical, and 
electrical engineering, and adds a new 
branch which we may call chemical engi- 
neering. This is pre-eminently a child of 
the nineteenth century, and is the conver- 
sion of one thing into another by a knowl- 
edge of their chemical constituents. 

When Dalton first applied mathematics 
to chemistry and made it quantitative, he 
gave the key which led to the discoveries 
of Cavendish, Gay-Lussac, Berzelius, Lie- 
big, and others. This new knowledge was 
not locked up, but at once given to the 
world, and made use of. Its first appli- 
cation on a large scale was made by Na- 
poleon in encouraging the manufacture of 
sugar from beets. 

The new products were generally made 
from what were called " waste material." 
We now have the manufacture of soda, 
bleaching powders, aniline dyes, and other 
products of the distillation of coal, also 
coal-oil from petroleum, acetylene gas, cel- 
luloid, rubber goods in all their numer- 
ous varieties, high explosives, cement, arti- 
ficial manures, artificial ice, beet-sugar, 
and even beir may now be included. 

The value of our mechanical and chem- 
ical products is great, but it is surpassed 
by that of food products. If these did 
not keep pace with the increase of pop- 
ulation, the theories of Malthus would be 
true — but he never saw a modern reaper. 

The steam-plough was invented in Eng- 
land some fifty years since, but the great 
use of agricultural machinery dates from 
our Civil War, when so many men were 
taken from agriculture. It became neces- 
sary to fill their places with machinery. 

Without tracing the steps which have led 
to it, we may say that the common type 
is what is called " the binder," and is a 
machine drawn chiefly by animals, and in 
some cases by a field locomotive. 

It cuts, rakes, and binds sheaves of 
grain at one operation. Sometimes 
threshing and winnowing machines are 
combined with it, and the grain is deliv- 
ered into bags ready for the market. 

Different machines are used for cutting, 
and binding corn, and for mowing and 
raking hay, but the most important of all 
is the grain-binder. The extent of their 
use may be known from the fact that 
75,000 tons of twine are used by these 
machines annually. 

It is estimated that there are in the 
United States 1,500,000 of these machines, 
but as the harvest is earlier in the South, 
there are probably not over 1,000,000 in 
use at one time. As each machine takes 
the place of sixteen men, this means that 
16,000,000 men are released from farming 
for other pursuits. 

It is fair to assume that a large part 
of these 16,000,000 men have gone into 
manufacturing, the operating of railways, 
and other pursuits. The use of agricult- 
ural machinery, therefore, is one explana- 
tion of why the United States produces 
eight - tenths of the world's cotton and 
corn, one-quarter of its wheat, one-third 
of its meat and iron, two-fifths of its 
steel, and one-third of its coal, and a large 
part of the world's manufactured goods. 

Conclusion. — It is a very interesting 
question, why was this great development 
of material prosperity delayed so late? 
Why did it wait until the nineteenth 
century, and then all at once increase with 
such rapid strides? 

It was not until modern times that the 
reign of law was greatly extended, and 
men were insured the product of their 
labors. Then came the union of scientists, 
inventors, and engineers. 

So long as these three classes worked 
separately but little was done. There was 
an antagonism between them. Ancient 
writers went so far as to say that the in- 
vention of the arch and of the potter's 
wheel were beneath the dignity of a phi- 

One of the first great men to take a dif- 
ferent view was Francis Bacon. Macau- 



lay, in his famous essay, quotes him as 
saying: " Philosophy is the relief of man's 
estate, and the endowment of the human 
race with new powers; increasing their 
pleasures and mitigating their sufferings." 
These noble words seem to anticipate the 
famous definition of civil engineering, em- 
bodied by Telford in the charter of the 
British Institution of Civil Engineers: 
'• Engineering is the art of controlling 
the great powers of nature for the use and 
convenience of man." 

The seed sown by Bacon was long in 
producing fruit. Until the laws of nature 
were better known, there could be no prac- 
tical application of them. Towards the 
end of the eighteenth century a great in- 
tellectual revival took place. In litera- 
ture appeared Voltaire, Rousseau, Kant, 
Hume, and Goethe. In pure science there 
came Laplace, Cavendish, Lavoisier, Lin- 
naeus, Berzelius, Priestley, Count Rum- 
ford, James Watt, and Dr. Franklin. The 
last three were tmong the earliest to bring 
about a union of pure and applied science. 
Franklin immediately applied his discov- 
ery that frictional electricity and light- 
ning were the same to the protection of 
buildings by lightning-rods. Count Rum- 
ford (whose experiments on the conver- 
sion of power into heat led to the dis- 
covery of the conservatism of energy) 
spent a long life in contriving useful in- 

James Watt, one of the few men w-ho 
have united in themselves knowledge of 
abstract science, great inventive faculties, 
and rare mechanical skill, changed the 
steam-engine from a worthless rattletrap 
into the most useful machine ever invent- 
ed by man. To do this he first discovered 
the science of thermodynamics, then in- 
vented the necessary appliances, and final- 
ly constructed them with his own hands. 
fie was a very exceptional man. At the 
beginning of the nineteenth century there 
were few engineers who had received any 
scientific education. Now there is in the 
profession a great army of young men, 
most of them graduates of technical 
schools, good mathematicians, and well 
versed in the art of experimenting. 

One of the present causes of progress is 
that all discoveries are published at once 
in technical journals and in the daily 
press. The publication of descriptive in- 

dexes of all scientific and engineering 
articles as fast as they appear is another 
modern contrivance. 

Formerly scientific discoveries were con- 
cealed by cryptograms, printed in a dead 
language, and hidden in the archives of 
learned societies. Even so late as 1821 
Oersted published his discovery of the uni- 
formity of electricity and magnetism in 

Engineering works could have been de- 
signed and useful inventions made, but 
they could not have been carried out with- 
out combination. Corporate organization 
collects the small savings of many into 
great sums through savings-banks, life 
insurance companies, etc., and uses this 
concentrated capital to construct the vast 
works of our days. This could not con- 
tinue unless fair dividends were paid. 
Everything now has to be designed so as 
to pay. Time, labor, and material must 
be saved, and he ranks highest who can 
best do this. Invention has been encour- 
aged by liberal patent laws, which secure 
to the inventor property in his ideas at 
a moderate cost. 

Combination, organization, and scien- 
tific discovery, inventive ability, and engi- 
neering skill are now united. 

It may be said that we have gathered 
together all the inventions of the nine- 
teenth century and called them works of 
engineering. This is not so. Engineering 
covers much more than invention. It in- 
cludes all works of suflScient size and in- 
tricacy to require men trained in the 
knowledge of the ])hysical conditions which 
govern the mechanical application of the 
laws of nature. First comes scientific dis- 
covery, then invention, and lastly engi- 
neering. Faraday and Henry discovered 
the electrical laws which led to the in- 
vention of the dynamo, which was per- 
fected by many minds. Engineering built 
such works as those at Niagara Falls to 
make it useful. 

An ignorant man may invent a safety- 
pin, but he cannot build the Brooklyn 

The engineer - in - chief commands an 
army of experts, as without specialization 
little can be done. His is the comprehen- 
sive design, for which he alone is respon- 

Such is the evolution of engineering 



which began as a craft and has ended as a ticket with Gen. Winfield S. Hancock in 
profession. 1880; published an historical and bio- 
Thoughtful persons have asked, will this graphical work on the constitution of 
new civilization last, or will it go the way the law-makers of Indiana ; and bequeath- 
of its predecessors? Surely the answer ed to the Indiana Historical Society, of 
is: all depends on good government, on the which he was president for many years, 
stability of law, order, and justice, pro- the funds to complete and publish his 
tecting the rights of all classes. It will History of Indiana. He died in Indian- 
continue to grow with the growth of good apolis, Ind., Feb. 7, 1896. 
government, prosper with its prosperity, English Language, a branch froin the 
and perish with its decay. Low-German of the Teutonic or Germanic 
Engineers, Societies of. American So- branch of the Indo-European family. It 
eiety of Civil Engineers, organized 1852; is closely related to the dialects spoken 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, on the north shores of the German Ocean, 
organized 1871; American Society of Me- especially with the Frisian dialect, 
chanical Engineers, organized 1880; English Revolution, The. When 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- James II. attempted to establish despot- 
necrs, organized 1884. ism in England by destroying the consti- 
English, Earl, naval officer; born in tution in Church and State, he arrayed 
Crosswicks, N. J., Feb. 18, 1824; entered against himself the united Church, the 
the navy Feb. 25, 1840; was actively en- aristocracy, and the intelligent people of 
gaged during the Mexican War on the the realm. He also resolved to make the 
Pacific coast in Mexico and California; Roman Catholic the religious system of 
also served throughout the Civil War. the kingdom, and sought to destroy all 
In 1868, when the Tycoon of Japan was forms of Protestantism. He prorogued 
defeated by the Mikado's party, he found Parliament, and ruled despotically as an 
refuge on Commander English's ship Iro- autocrat without it. So universal were 
quois. He was promoted rear-admiral in the alarm and indignation caused by his 
1884; retired in 1886. He died in Wash- conduct that there was a general longing 
ington, D. C, July 16, 1893. for relief; and the fires of revolution 
English, Thomas Dunn, author; born burned intensely in the hearts of the 
in Philadelphia, Pa., June 29, 1819; people before they burst into a flame. The 
graduated at the University of Pennsyl- King's daughter Mary, who had married 
vania in 1839; member of the New Jersey her cousin William, Prince of Orange, was 
legislature in 1863-64; and of Congress in heir to the throne of England in the a;b- 
1891-95; is the author of American Bal- sence of a male heir. When the people 
lads; Book of Battle Lyrics; Ben Bolt, etc. were ripe for revolution it was announced 
He died in Newark, N. J., April 1, 1902. that James's second wife had given birth 
English, William Hayden, capitalist; to a son (June 10, 1688). The hopes of 
born in Lexington, Ind., Aug. 27, 1822; the nation, which were centred on Mary, 
received a collegiate education and studied were grievously disapjwinted. The opin- 
law; was a Democratic Representative ion was general that the alleged heir 
in Congress in 1852-61; and was con- just born was a supposititious one, and 
spicuous there because of his opposition not the child of the Queen. The volcano 
to the policy of his own party in the con- was instantly uncapped, and on June 30 
troversy over the admission of Kansas (1688) leading men of the kingdom sent 
into the Union. He reported what was an invitation to William of Orange to 
known as the " English bill," which invade England and place his wife on 
provided that the question of admission its throne. He went, landed at Torbay 
under the Lecompton constitution be re- (Nov. 5) with 15,000 men, and penetrated 
ferred back to the people of Kansas. His the country. The people flocked to his 
report was adopted, and Kansas voted standard. King James fled to France, and 
against admission under that constitu- all England was speedily in the hands of 
tion. After his retirement from Congress the welcome invader. 

he engaged in various financial concerns; On Feb. 13, the Convention Parliament 

was candidate for Vice-President on the conferred the crown of England on Will- 



iam and iVluiy as joint sovereigns. Ban- 
croft says of the political theory of the 
revolution : " Tlic old idea of a Christian 
monarchy resting on the law of God was 
exploded, and political power sought its 
origin in compact. Absolute monarchy 
was denied to be a form of civil govern- 
ment. Nothing, it was held, can bind 
freemen to obey any government save their 
own agreement. Political power is a 
trust, and a breach of the trust dissolves 
the obligation to allegiance. The supreme 
power is the legislature, to whose guar- 
dianship it has been sacredly and unalter- 
ably delegated. By the fundamental law 
cf property no taxes may be levied on the 
people but by its own consent or that of 
its authorized agents. These were the doc- 
trines of the revolution, dangerous to 
European institutions and dear to the 
colonies; menacing the Old World with 
convulsive struggles and reforms, and es- 
tablishing for America the sanctity of its 
own legislative bodies. Throughout the 
English world the right to representation 
could never again be separated from the 
power of taxation. The theory gave to 
vested rights in England a bulwark 
against the monarch; it encouraged the 

tates to certain classes of descendants in 
which the legal course of succession of 
some descendants is cut off. The earliest 
English law of entail is found in the 
statute of Westminster in 1285. In the 
United States this law came over with 
the general body of enactments known as 
the " common law of England." South 
Carolina abolished entail in 1773, Vir- 
ginia in 1770, Georgia in 1777, Maryland 
in 1782, North Carolina in 1784. In re- 
cent years the purposes of entail are ac- 
complished by other legal procedure. It 
is believed that Gardiner's Island, N. Y., 
is the only property in the United States 
now held entail by direct descendants of 
the grantee. See Gardiner, Lion. 

Enterprise, The. The Enterprise, four- 
teen guns, was an American brig that ac- 
quired the reputation of being " lucky." 
She cruised for a long time olT the New 
England coast, the terror of British 
provincial privateers, under Capt. John- 
ston Blakeley, until he was promoted to 
the command of the new sloop-of-war 
Wasp, when Lieut. William Burrows be- 
came her commander. On the morning of 
Sept. 1, 1813, she sailed from Portsmouth, 
N. H., in quest of British cruisers. On 


colonists to assert their privileges, as pos- 
sessing a sanctity which tyranny only 
could disregard, and which could perish 
only by destroying allegiance itself." 
Entail of Estate. A disposition of es- 

the morning of the 5th she discovered a 
British brig in a bay near Pemaquid Point, 
which, observing the Enterprise, bore 
down upon her in menacing attitude. 
Burrows accepted the challenge, cleared 



of the Boxer 
was delivered to 
him, when he 
grasped it and 
said, " Now I 
am satisfied; I 
die contented." 
The command of 
the Enterprise 
devolved upon 
Lieut. E. R. Mc- 
Call, of South 
Carolina, who 
conducted his 
part of the en- 
gagement to its 
close with skill. 
He took both 
vessels into 
Portland Har- 
bor on the 
morning of the 
7th. The two 


manders were 
his ship for action, and, after getting a buried side by side in a cemetery at Port- 

proper distance from land to have ample 
sea-room for conflict, he edged towards 
the stranger, which proved to be the Brit- 
ish brig Boxer, fourteen guns, Capt. 
Samuel Blyth. At twenty minutes past 
three o'clock in the afternoon the brigs 
closed within half pistol-shot of each 
other and both vessels opened fire at the 
same time. The wind was light, with 
very little sea, and the cannonading was 
destructive. Ten minutes later the Enter- 
prise ranged ahead of the Boxer, and, 
taking advantage of her position, she 
steered across the bows of her antagonist. 

land. Congress presented a gold medal 
to the nearest masculine representative 
of Lieutenant Burrows; and another was 
presented to Lieutenant McCall. 

Envoy. A diplomatic or political rank 
inferior to that of Ambassador (q. v.). 
In the diplomatic service in the United 
States the official designation is envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary. The representatives of the United 
States in the countries with which it has 
mutually raised its representative above 
the rank of envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary are officially 
known as ambassadors extraordinary 

and delivered her fire with such precision 

and destructive energy that, at four and plenipotentiary. 

o'clock, the British officer in command Envoys to France. Monroe was re- 
shouted through his trumpet that he had called from France in 1796, and Charles 
surrendered ; but his flag being nailed to Cotesworth Pinckney {q. v.) , of South 
the mast, it could not be lowered until Carolina, was appointed to fill his place, 
the Americans should cease firing. It On his arrival in France, late in the year, 
was found that Capt. Blyth had been cut v\^ith the letter of recall and his own cre- 
nearly in two by an 18-pound cannon-ball, dentials, the Directory refused to receive 
Almost at the same moment when Blyth him. Not only so, but, after treating 
fell on the Boxer, Burrows, of the Enter- him with great discourtesy, the Directory 
prise, was mortally wounded. So also peremptorily ordered him to leave France, 
was Midshipman Kervin Waters. Blyth Pfe withdrew to Holland (February, 1797) , 
was killed instantly; Burrows lived eight and there awaited further orders from 
hours. The latter refused to be carried home. When Mr. Adams took the chair 
below until the sword of the commander of state, the United States had no diplo- 



matic agent in France. The " French 
party," or Republicans, having failed to 
elect Jefferson I'resident, the Dikectoky 
(q. V.) determined to punish a people 
who dared to thwart their plans. In 
May, 1797, they issued a decree which 
was tantamount to a declaration of war 
against the United States. At about the 
same time President Adams, observing 
the perilous relations between the United 
States and France, called an extraordi- 
nary session of Congress to consider the 
matter. There had been a reaction among 
the people, and many leading Democrats 
favored war with France. A majority of 
the cabinet advised further negotiations, 
and John Marshall, a Federalist, and 
Elbridge Gerry, a Democrat, were ap- 
pointed envoys extraordinary to join 
Pinckney and attempt to settle all mat- 
ters in dispute. They reached France in 
October (1797), and sought an audience 
with the Directory. Their request was met 
by a haughty refusal, unless the envoys 
would first agree to pay into the ex- 
luiusted French treasury a large sum of 
money, in the form of a loan, by the pur- 
chase of Dutch bonds wrung from that 
nation by the French, and a bribe to the 
amount of $240,000 for the private use of 
the five members of the Directory. The 
proposition came semi-officially from Tal- 
leyrand, one of the most unscrupulous 
politicians of the age. It was accompanied 
by a covert threat that if the proposition 
was not complied with the envoys might 
be ordered to leave France in twenty-four 
hours, and the coasts of the United States 
be ravaged by French cruisers from San 
Domino. They peremptorily refused, 
and Pinckney uttered, in substance, the 
noble words, " Millions for defence, but 
not one cent for tribute!" The envoys 
asked for their passports. They were given 
to the two Federalists under circumstances 
that amoimted to their virtual expulsion, 
but Gerry, the Democrat, was induced to 
remain. He, too, was soon treated with 
contempt by Talleyrand and his associates, 
and he returned home in disgust. 

Episcopacy in America. The Church 
and state in England worked in concert 
in forging fetters for the English-Ameri- 
can colonists. The Church of England was 
er.rly made a state establishment in the 
colony of Virginia, but elsewhere the free 

spirit of the people kept episcopacy at bay, 
for they remembered how much they had 
sufl'ered at the hands of the Church of 
England. On the accession of George III. 
and the administration of the Earl of 
Bute, among the reforms in the colonies 
contemplated and proposed by the minis- 
try was the curtailment or destruction of 
the Puritan and Dissenting influence in 
the provinces, which seemed inimical to 
monarchy, and to make the ritual of the 
Anglican Church the state mode of wor- 
ship. As early as 1748 Dr. Seeker, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, had proposed the 
establishment of episcopacy in America, 
and overtures were made to several emi- 
nent Puritan divines to accept the leader- 
ship, but they all declined it. A royalist 
churchman in Connecticut, in 17G0, in a 
letter to Dr. Seeker, and to the Earl of 
Halifax, then at the head of the board of 
trade and plantations, urged the necessity 
of providing two or three bishops for the 
colonies, the support of the Church, and a 
method for repressing the rampant repub- 
licanism of the people. " The rights of 
the clergy and the authority of the King," 
said the Bishop of London, " m'lst stand 
or fall together." 

The Anglican Church then had many ad- 
herents in all the colonies, who naturally 
desired its ascendency; but the great mass 
of the people looked upon that Church 
as an ally of the state in acts of oppres- 
sion, and earnestly opposed it. They well 
knew that if Parliament could create dio- 
ceses and appoint bishops, they would es- 
tablish tithes and crush out dissent as 
heresy. For years controversy in the 
colonies on this topic was warm, and some- 
times acrimonious. Essays for and against 
episcopacy appeared in abundance. The 
Bishop of Llandaff, in a sermon preached 
before the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts, in which he 
advocated the necessity of establishing 
episcopacy in America, heaped abuse with- 
out stint upon the colonists. " Upon the 
adventureis themselves," he said, " what 
reproach could he cast heavier than they 
deserve? who, with their native soil, aban- 
doned their native manners and religion, 
and ere long were found, in many parts, 
living without remembrance or knowledge 
of God, without any divine worship, in 
dissolute wickedness and the moef^ brutal 



piofligacy of manners." He charged them 
with having become " infidels and barba- 
rians " ; and the prelate concluded that the 
only- remedy for the great evil was to be 
found in a Church establishment. His 
recommendations were urged with zeal by 
cliurchmen in the colonies. The Dis- 
senters were aroused. They observed in 
the bishop's sermon the old persecuting 
spirit of the Church, and visions of Laud 
and the Star Chamber disturbed them. 
Eminent writers in America entered 
the lists in opposition to him. Among 
others, William Livingston, whose fa- 
mous letter to the bishop, issued in 
pamphlet form, refuted the charges 
of that dignitary so completely that 
they were not repeated. The theo- 
logical controversy ceased when the vital 
question of resistance to the oppressive 
jiower of both Church and state was 
brought to a final issue. The first Eng- 
lish bishop within the domains of the 
American republic was Samuel Seabury 
iq. v.), of Connecticut, who was conse- 
crated by three bishops of the Scottish 
Episcopal Church, Nov. 14, 1784. 

Eft'orts were early made by the English 
to supplant the Dutch Church as the pre- 
vailing religious organization in New York. 
The act of the Assembly procured by Gov- 
ernor Fletcher, though broad in its scope, 
was destined for that purpose. Under 
that act Trinity Church was organized, 
and Fletcher tried to obtain authority to 
appoint all the ministers, but the Assem- 
bly successfully resisted his designs. In 
1695 Rev. John Miller, in a long letter to 
the Bishop of London on the condition of 
religion and morals, drew a gloomy pict- 
ure of the state of society in the city of 
New York, and earnestly recommended as 
a remedy for all these social evils " to 
send over a bishop to the province of New 
York duly qualified as suflfragan " to the 
Bishop of London, and five or six young 
ministers, with Bibles and prayer-books; 
to imite New York, New Jersey, Con- 
necticut, and Rhode Island into one prov- 
ince; and the bishop to be appointed gov- 
ernor, at a salary of $7,200, his Majesty 
to give him the King's Farm of 30 
acres, in New York, as a seat for himself 
and his successors. When Sir Edward 
Hyde (afterwards Lord Cornbury) be- 
came governor of the combined provinces 

of New York and New Jersey, in 1702, 
even violent efforts were used to make the 
liturgy and ritual of the Church of Eng- 
land the state system of worship. He 
denied the right of preachers or school- 
masters to exercise their functions in the 
province without a bishop's license; and 
when the corporation of New York re- 
solved to establish a grammar-school, the 
Bishop of London was requested to send 
over a teacher. In violation of his posi- 
tive instructions, the governor began a 
systematic persecution of all religious de- 
nominations dissenting from the practices 
of the Church of England. This conduct 
reacted disastrously to Trinity Church, 
which, until the province was rid of Corn- 
bury, had a very feeble growth. 

Puritan austerity had extended to a 
large class of intelligent free-thinkers 
and doubters in New England, and they 
felt inclined to turn towards the freer, 
more orderly, and dignified Church of 
England. The rich and polite preferred 
a mode of worship which seemed to bring 
them into sympathy with the English 
aristocracy, and there were many who de- 
lighted in the modest ceremonies of the 
church. Nor were th€se influences con- 
fined to laymen. There were studious and 
aspiring men among the ministers to 
whom the idea of apostolic succession 
had charms; and they yearned for 
freedom from the obstinate turbulence 
of stiff - necked church - members, who, 
in theory, were the spiritual equals of 
the pastors, whom, to manage, it was nec- 
essary to humor and to suit. These ideas 
found expression in an unexpected quar- 
ter. Timothy Cutler, a minister of learn- 
ing and great ability, was rector of Yale 
College in 1719. To the surprise and 
alarm of the people of New England, Mr. 
Cutler, with the tutor of the college and 
two ministers in the neighborhood, took 
occasion, on Commencement Day, 1722, to 
avow their conversion to Episcopacy. 
Cutler was at once " excused " from all 
further service in the colege, and provi- 
sion was made for all future rectors to give 
satisfactory evidence of " soundness of 
their faith in opposition to Arminian and 
prelatical corruptions." Weaker ones en- 
gaged in the revolt halted, but others per- 
sisted. Cutler became rector of a new 
Episcopal church in Boston, and the dis- 


inissoQ ministers were iiiaintaincl as 
laissionaries by the Society for tlic I'ropa- 
f;ation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 
This secession from the Church resting 
on the Saybrook Platform ( q. v. ) , made 
the ministers of Massachusetts keen-eyed 
in the detection of signs of defection. 
John Checkly (afterwards ordained an 
Episcopal missionary) published Leslie's 
tihort and Easy Method, ivith Deists, with 
an appendix by himself, in which Episco- 
pal ordination was in&isted upon as neces- 
sary to constitute a Christian minister. 
The authorities in Boston were offended. 
Checkly was tried on a charge that the 
publication tended "' to bring into con- 
tempt and infamy the ministers of the 
holy Gospel established by law within 
his Majesty's province of Massachusetts." 
I'or this offence Checlcly was found guilty 
and fined £50. See Prote.stant Episco- 
pal Church. 

Episcopal Church, Reformed. See 
Reformed Episcopal Church. 

Epworth League, a religious society 
composed of the young members and 
friends of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, founded in May, 1889. Its aim 
is to promote intelligent and loyal piety 
among its members. Its constitution 
provides for religious, intellectual, and 
social development. In 1900 it numbered 
'27,700 chapters, with a membership of 
1.900,000. President, Bishop Isaac W. 
Joyce, Minneapolis, Minn. ; vice-presi- 
dents: Department of Spiritual Work, 
W. W. Cooper, Chicago, 111. ; Department 
of Mercy and Help, Rev. W. H. Jordan, 
D.D., Sioux Falls, S. D. ; Department of 
Literary Work, Rev. R. J. Cook, D.D., 
Chattanooga, Tenn. ; Department of Social 
Work, F. W. Tunnell, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
general secretary. Rev. Joseph F. Berry, 
D.D., 57 Washington Street, Chicago, 111., 
general treasurer, R. S. Copeland, M.D., 
Ann Arbor, Mich. The central office is 
located at 57 Washington Street, Chicago, 
111. There is also an Epworth League 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South ; founded in Memphis, Tenn., in 
1891. It has 5,838 chapters, with a total 
membership of 306,580. The central 
office is located at Nashville, Tenn. The 
officers are: President, Bishop W. A. 
Condler, Atlanta, Ga. : first vice-president. 
Rev. J. W. Newman, D.D., Birmingham, 

Ala.; second vice-president. Rev. W. T. 
McClure, Marshall, Mo.; third vice-presi- 
dent. Rev. J. M. Barous, Cleburne, Tex. ; 
treasurer, Mr. O. W. Patton, Nashville, 
Tenn.; secretary, Mr. G. W. Thomasson, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Equal Rights Party. In the ciiy of 
New York, in 1835, there arose in the 
ranks of the Democratic party a combina- 
tion of men opposed to all banking in- 
stitutions and monopolies of every sort. 
A " Workingman's party " had been 
formed in 1829, but had become. defunct, 
and the " Equal Rights party " was its 
successor. They acted with much caution 
and secrecy in their opposition to the 
powerful Democratic party, but never 
lose above the dignity of a faction. They 
made their first decided demonstration at 
Tammany Hall at the close of October, 
1835, when an event occurred which 
caused them afterwards to be known as 
Loco-Focos {q. v.), a name applied by the 
Whigs to the whole Democratic party. 
The faction soon became formidable, and 
the regulars endeavored to reconcile the 
irregulars by nominating tlicir favorite 
foi the Presidency, Richard M. Johnson, 
for Vice-President with Martin Van 

Era of Good Feeling, in United States 
history, the period of 1817-23. During 
these years there was scarcely an'- antag- 
onism manifested between the ^ 'itical 
parties, owing largely to the decline of 
the Federal party and to the abandonment 
of past issues. The War of 1812 had 
practically settled every question which 
had disturbed the parties since 1800. The 
inaugural speech of President James 
Monroe {q. v.) in 1817 was of such a 
nature as to quiet the Federal minority. 
It treated the peculiar interests of that 
party with magnanimity; congratulated 
the country upon its universal " har- 
mony," and predicted an increase of this 
harmony for the future. This good will 
was further augmented by a visit of 
President Monroe to the New England 
States, which had not seen a President 
since the days of Washington. Party feel- 
ing was forgotten, and all joined in pro- 
claiming that an " era of good feeling " 
had come. In 1824 this era was unhappi- 
ly terminated by the election of John 
QuiNCY Adams {q. t'.), during whose ad- 



ministration questions arose which resur- 
rected party antagonisms. 

Ericsson, John, engineer ; born in 

in mechanical science after he settled in 
"N^ew Yoric. He constructed the Monitor, 
which fought the Merrimac, using T. K. 

Wermeland, Sweden, July 31, 1803. He Timby's (q. v.) revolving turret, thus 

became an eminent engineer in his own revolutionizing the entire science of naval 

country, and attained the rank of cap- warfare. At the time of his death he was 

tain in the Swedish army. In 1826 he perfecting an engine to be run by solar 

visited England with a view to the in- lays. He died in New York City, March 

troduction of his invention of a flame 8, 1889, and his remains were sent to his 

engine. He engaged actively in mechani- 
cal pursuits, and made numerous inven- 
tions, notably that of artificial draft, 

native land in the United States cruiser 

Eric the Red, a Scandinavian navi- 

which is still used in locomotive engines, gator, who emigrated to Ireland about 
He won the prize offered by the Man- 982, after which he discovered Greenland. 
Chester and Liverpool Railway for the where he planted a colony. He sent out 
best locomotive, making one that attained an exploring party under his son Lief, 
the then astonishing speed of 50 miles about 1000, who seems to have discovered 
an hour. He invented the screw propeller the continent of America, and landed 
for navigation, but the British admiralty somewhere on the shores of Massachu- 
being unwilling to believe in its capacity setts or the southern portion of New Eng- 
and success, Ericsson came to the United land. See Vinland. 

States in 1839, and resided in the city Erie Canal, The, the greatest work of 
of New York or its immediate vicinity till internal improvement constructed in the 
his death. In 1841 he was engaged in the United States previous to the Pacific 
construction of the United States ship-of- Railway. It connects the waters of the 
war Princeton, to which he applied his Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean 
propeller. She was the first steamship by way of the Hudson River. It was 

contemplated by General Schuyler and 
Elkanah Watson, but was first definitely 
proposed by Gouverneur Morris, at about 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
Various writers put forth essays upon the 
subject, among them De Witt Clinton, 
who became its most notable champion. 
The project took such shape that, in 
181 0, canal commissioners were appointed, 
with Gouverneur Morris at their head. 
In 1812 Clinton, with others, was appoint- 
ed to lay the project before the national 
Congress, and solicit the aid of the 
np.tional government. Fortunately the 
latter declined to extend its patronage 
to the great undertaking. The War of 
1812-15 put the matter at rest for a 
while. That war made the transporta- 
tion of merchandise along our sea-coasts 
perilous, and the commercial intercourse 
ever built with the propelling machinery between seaboard cities was carried on in 
under the water-line and out of reach of a larger degree by wheeled vehicles. For 
shot. In 1840 he received the gold medal this purpose Conestoga wagons were used 
of the Mechanics' Institute of New York between New York and Philadelphia, and 
for the best model of a steam fire-engine, when one of these made the journey of 
and constructed the first one seen in the 90 miles in three days, with passengers, 
United States. King Oscar of Sweden it was called " the flying-machine." It 
made him Knight of the Order of Vasa has been estimated that the amount of 
in 1852. He accomplished many things increased expense by this method of trans- 




portation of merchandise for the coast governinent would do nothing in the mat- 
region alone would have paid the cost of ter, and the State of New York resolved 
a system of internal navigation from to construct the canal alone. Clinton was 
Maine to Georgia. made governor in 1816, and used all his 
The want of such a system was made oi!icial and private influence in favor of 
clear to the public mind, especially to the the enterprise. He saw it begun during 


population then gathering in the Western his first administration. The first exca- 

States. Then Mr. Clinton, more vigor- vation was made July 4, 1817, and it was 

Gusly than ever, pressed upon the public completed and formally opened by him, 

attention the importance of constructing as chief magistrate of the State, in 182."). 

the projected canal. He devoted his won- when a grand aquatic procession from Al- 

derful energies to the subject, and in a bany proceeded to the sea, and the gov- 

memorial of the citizens of New York, ernor poured a keg of the water of Lake 

prepared by him, he produced such a pow- Erie into the Atlantic Ocean. The canal 

erful argument in its favor that not only was constructed at a cost of $7,602,000. 

the people of his native State, but of Untold wealth has been won for the State 

other States, approved it. The national and the city of New York by its opera- 



tions, directly and indirectly. Up to 1904 
tlie canal had cost for construction, en- 
largement, and maintenance $52,540,800. 
At the State election in 190.3 the people 
sanctioned a legislative bill to expend 
$101,000,000 for the improvement of the 
I'^rie, Oswego, and Champlain canals. 

Erie, Fort, a small and weak forti- 
fication erected on a plain 12 or 15 feet 
above the waters of Lake Erie, at its foot. 
In the summer of 1812, Black Rock, 2 miles 
below Buflalo, was selected as a place for 
a dock-yard for fitting out naval vessels 
for Lake Erie. Lieut. Jesse D. Elliott, 
then only twenty - seven years of age, 
while on duty there, was informed of the 
arrival at Fort Erie, opposite, of two ves- 
sels from Detroit, both well manned and 
well armed and laden with valuable car- 
goes of peltry. They were the Caledonia, a 
vessel belonging to the Northwestern Fur 
Company, and the John Adams, taken at 
the surrender of Hull, with the name 
changed to Detroit. They arrived on the 
morning of Oct. 8 (1812), and. Elliott 
af once conceived a plan for their capture. 
Timely aid offered. The same day a de- 
tachment of unarmed seamen arrived from 
New York. Elliott turned to the military 
for assistance. Lieutenant-Colonel Scott 
was then at Black Rock, and entered 
warmly into Elliott's plans. General 
Smyth, the 'commanding officer, favored 
■ them. Captain Towson, of the artillery, 
was detailed, with fifty men, for the ser- 
vice; and sailors under General Winder, 
at Buffalo, were ordered out, well 
armed. Several citizens joined the expe- 
dition, and the whole number, rank 
-and file, was about 124 men. Two large 
boats were taken to the mouth of Buffalo 
Creek, and in these the expedition em- 
harked at midnight. At one o'clock in 
the morning (Oct. 9) they left the creek, 
while scores of people watched anxiously 
on the shore for the result. The sharp 
crack of a pistol, the roll of musketry, 
followed by silence, and the moving of 
two dark objects down the river pro- 
claimed that the enterprise had been suc- 
cessful. Joy was manifested on the 
shores by shouts and the waving of lan- 
terns. The vessels and their men had been 
made captives in less than ten minutes. 
The guns at Fort Erie were brought to 
bear upon the vessels. A struggle for 

their possession ensued. The Detroit was 
finally burned, but the Caledonia was 
saved, and afterwards did good service in 
Perry's fleet on Lake Erie. In this brill- 
iant aflfair the Americans lost one killed 
and five wounded. The loss of the Brit- 
ish is not known. A shot from Fort Erie 
crossed the river and instantly killed Maj. 
William Howe Cuyler, aide to General 
Hull, of Watertown, N. Y. The Caledonia 
was a rich prize; her cargo was valued at 

On Aug. 4, 1814, the British, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Drummond, began a 
siege of Fort Erie, with about 5,000 
men. Drummond perceived the impor- 
tance of capturing the American batteries 
at Black Rock and seizing or destroying 
the armed schooners in the lake. A force 
1,200 strong, that went over to Black 
Rock, were repulsed by riflemen, militia, 
and volunteers, under Major Morgan. 
Meanwhile Drummond had opened fire on 
Fort Erie with some 24-pounders. From 
Aug. 7 to Aug. 14 (1814) the cannonade 
and bombardment was almost incessant. 
General Gaines had arrived on the 5th, 
and taken the chief command as Brown's 
lieutenant. On the morning of the 7th 
the British hurled a fearful storm of 
round-shot upon the American works 
from five of their heavy cannon. Day by 
day the siege went steadily on. On the 
13th Drummond, having completed the 
mounting of all his heavy ordnance, be- 
gan a bombardment, which continued 
through the day, and was renewed on the 
morning of the 14th. When the attack 
ceased that night, very little impression 
had been made on the American works. 
Satisfied that Drummond intended to 
storm the works, Gaines made disposition 
accordingly. At midnight an ominous 
silence prevailed in both camps. It was 
soon broken by a tremendous uproar. At 
two o'clock in the morning (Aug. 15) the 
British, 1,500 strong, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Fischer, made a furious attack 
upon Towson's battery and the abatis, on 
the extreme left, between that work and 
the shore. They expected to find the 
Americans slumbering, but were mistaken. 
At a signal, Towson's artillerists sent 
forth such a continuous stream of flame 
from his tall battery that the British 
called it the " Yankee Light - house." 





Explanation' op the abovk Map.— A, old Fort Erie; a, a, demi-bastions; b, a ravelin, and c, c, block-houses. 
These were all built by the British previous to its capture at the beginning of .luly. d, d, bastions built by the 
Americans during the siege; e, e, a redoubt built for the security of the demi-bastions, a, a. 

■ B, the American camp, secured on the right by the line g, the Douglass Battery, i, and Fort Erie; on the left, 
and in front, by the lines/,/ / and batteries on the extreme right and left of them. That on the right, immedi- 
ately under the letter l in the words i.kvkl plain, is Towson's; fi, A, etc.. camp traverses; n, main traverse; o, 
magazine traverse, covering also the headquarters of General Gaines; p, hospital traverse; q. grand parade and 
provost-guard traverse; r, General Itrown's headquarters; s, a drain; t, road from Chippewa up the lake. 

C, the encami)ment of volunteers outside of the intrenchments, who joined the array a few days before the 

D, D, the British works. 1, 2, 3, their first, second, and third battery, v. the route of Porter, wiih the left 
column, to attack the British right flank on the 17th; x, the ravine, and route of Miller's command. 

Mr. Lossing was indebted to the late Chief .Engineer Gen. Joseph G. Totten for the manuscript map of which 
this is a copy. 



While one assailing column, by the use of 
ladders, was endeavoring to capture the 
battery, the other, failing to penetrate 
the abatis, because Miller and his brave 
men were behind it, attempted to gain the 
rear of the defenders. Both columns 
failed. Five times they made a gallant 

more furious attack, the bastion blew up 
with tremendous force. A column of 
flame, with fragments of timber, earth, 
stones, and the bodies of men, rose to the 
height of nearly 200 feet in the air, and 
fell in a shower of ruins to a great dis- 
tance around. This appalling explosion 


attack, when, after fearful loss, they aban- was followed by a galling cannonade, 
doned the enterprise. Meanwhile another when the British fled to their intrench- 
British column made a desperate attack ments, leaving on the field 221 killed, 174 
on the fort, when the exasperated Drum- wounded, and 186 prisoners. The loss of 
mond ordered his men to " give the Yan- the Americans was seventy killed, fifty- 
kees no quarter " if the fort should be six wounded, and eleven missing, 
taken, and had actually stationed some After the terrible explosion and the re- 
Indians near to assist in the execution pulse of the British, both parties pre- 
of the savage order. He obtained partial pared for a renewed contest. Each was 
possession of the weak fort, and ordered strengthened by reinforcements, but the 
his men to attack the garrison with pike struggle was not again begun for a month, 
and bayonet. Most of the officers and General Brown had recovered from his 
many of the men received deadly wounds, wound, and was again in command of his 
No quarter was given ; but very soon the army. The fort was closely invested by 
officer who gave the order was killed by the British, but Drummond's force, ly- 
the side of Lieutenant Macdonough, who ing upon low ground, was greatly weak- 
had askod him for quarter, bu was shot ened by typhoid fever. Hearing of this, 
dead by him. The battle raged furiously Bro\vn determined to make a sortie from 
a while longer. The British held the the fort. The time appointed for its ex- 
main bastion of the fort in spite of all ecution was Sept. 17. He resolved, he 
efforts to dislodge them. Finally, just said, " to storm the batteries, destroy the 
as the Americans were about to make a cannon, and roughly handle the brigade 



on duty, before those in reserve at the 
camp could be brought into action." 
Fortunately for the sallying troops, a 
thick fog obscured their movements as 
they went out, towards noon, in three di- 
visions — one under General Proctor, an- 
other under James Miller (who had been 
brevetted a brigadier-general), and a 
third under General Ripley. Porter 
reached a point within a few rods of the 
British right wing, at near three o'clock, 
before the movement was suspected by 
his antagonist. An assault was immedi- 
ately begun. The startled British on 
that flank fell back, and left the Ameri- 
cans masters of the ground. Two bat- 
teries were then stormed, and were car- 
ried after a close struggle for thirty 
minutes. This triumph was followed by 
the capture of the block-house in the rear 
of the batteries. The garrison were made 
prisoners, cannon and carriages were de- 
stroyed, and the magazine blown up. 
Meanwhile, General Miller had carried 
two other batteries and block-houses in 
the rear. Within forty minutes after 
Porter and Miller began the attack, four 

saved, with Buffalo, and stores on the 
Niagara frontier, by this successful sortie. 
In the space of an hour the hopes of 
Drummond were blasted, the fruits of the 
labor of fifty days were destroyed, and 
his force reduced by at least 1,000 men. 
Public honors were awarded to Brown, 
Porter, and llipley. Congress presented 
each with a gold medal. To the ehief 
commander (Brown), of whom it was 
said, " no enterprise which he undertook 
ever failed," the corporation of New York 
gave the freedom of the city in a gold box. 
The governor of New York (D. D; Tomp- 
kins) presented to him an elegant sword. 
The States of New York, Massachusetts, 
South Carolina, and Georgia each gave 
Eipley tokens of their appreciation of his 

Erie, Lake, Battle on. Who should 
be masters of Lake Erie was an important 
question to be solved in 1813. The United 
States government did not fulfil its prom- 
ise to Hull to provide means for securing 
the naval supremacy on Lake Erie. The 
necessity for such an attainment was so 
obvious before the close of 1812 that the 


batteries, two block-houses, and the whole government took vigorous action in the 
line of British intrenchments were in the matter. Isaac Chauncey was in command 
bands of the Americans. Fort Erie was of a little squadron on Lake Ontario late 
m.— » 257 



24th of the same month 
two brigs were put afloat. 
The whole fleet was finished 
on July 10, and consisted 
of the brig Laicrence, twenty 
guns; brig Niagara, twenty 
guns; brig Caledonia, three 
guns; schooner Ariel, four 
guns; schooner Scorpion, 
two guns and two swivels; 
sloop Trippe, one gun; 
schooner Tigress, one gun; 
and schooner Porcupine, one 
gun. The command of the 
fleet was given to Perry, 
and the Lawrence, so named, 
in honor of the slain com- 
mander of the Chesapeake, 
was his flag-ship. But men 
and supplies were wanting. 
A British squadron on the 
lake seriously menaced the 
fleet at Erie, and Perry 
pleaded for materials to put 
his vessels in proper order 
in 1812, and Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry, to meet danger. " Think of my situa- 
a zealous young naval officer, of Rhode Isl- tion," he wrote to Chauncey — " the enemy 
and, who was in command of a flotilla of in sight, the vessels under my command 
gunboats on the Newport station, offered more than sufficient and ready to make 
his services on the Lakes. Chauncey de- sail, and yet obliged to bite my fingers 
sired his services, and on Feb. 17 Perry re- with vexation for want of men." 
ceived orders from the Secretary of the Perry, anxiously waiting for men to 
Navy to report to Chauncey with all pos- man his little fleet at Erie, was partial- 
sible despatch, and to take with him to ly gratified by the arrival there of 100 
Sackett's Harbor all of the best men of men from Black Rock, under Captain El- 
the fiotilla at Newport. He sent them for- liott, and early in August, 1813, he went 
ward, in companies of fifty, under Sailing- out on the lake before he was fairly pre- 
Masters Almy, Champlin, and Taylor. He pared for vigorous combat. On Aug. 17, 
met Chauncey at Albany, and they jour- when off Sandusky Bay, he fired a signal- 
neyed together in a sleigh through the gun for General Harrison, according to 
then wilderness to Sackett's Harbor. In agreement. Harrison was encamped at 
March Perry went to Presque Isle (now Seneca, and late in the evening of the 
Erie, Pa.) to hasten the construction and 19th he and his suite arrived in boats 
equipment of a little navy there designed and went on board the flag-ship Lawrence, 
to co-operate with General Harrison in at- where arrangements were made for the fall 
tempts to recover Michigan. Four vessels campaign in that quarter. Harrison had 
were speedily built at Erie, and five others about 8,000 militia, regulars and Indians, 
were taken to that well-sheltered harbor at Camp Seneca, a little more than 20 
from Black Rock, near Buff'alo, where miles from the lake. While he was wait- 
Henry Eckford {q. v.) had converted ing for Harrison to get his army ready 
merchant-vessels into war-ships. The ves- to be transported to Fort Maiden, Perry 
sels at Erie were constructed under the cruised about the lake. On a bright 
immediate supervision of Sailing-Master morning, Sept. 10, the sentinel watching 
Daniel Dobbins, at the mouth of Cascade in the main-top of the Lawrence cried. 
Creek. Early in May (1813) the three "Sail, ho!" It announced the appear- 
smaller vessels were launched, and on the ance of the British fleet, clearly seen in 



the northwestern horizon. Very soon into shreds, her spars battered into splin- 

Perry's nine vessels were ready for the ters, and her guns dismounted. One mast 

enemy. At the mast-head of the Laivrcnce remained, and from it streamed the na- 

was displayed a blue banner, with the tional flag. The deck was a scene of 

words of Lawrence, the dying captain, in dreadful carnage, and most men would 

large white letters " DoxN't give up the have struck their flag. But Perry was 


Ship." The two squadrons slowly ap- hopeful in gloom. His other vessels 
proached each other. The British squad- had fought gallantly, excepting the 
ron was commanded by Com. Robert Niagara, Captain Elliott, the stanchest 
H. Barclay, who fought with Nelson at ship in the fleet, which had kept out- 
Trafalgar. His vessels were the ship De- side, and was unhurt. As she drew near 
troit, nineteen guns, and one pivot and the Laiorence, Perry resolved to fly to her, 
two howitzers; ship Queen Charlotte, and, renewing the fight, win the victory! 
seventeen, and one howitzer; bri^ Lady Putting on the uniform of his rank, that 
Prevost, thirteen, and one howitzer; brig he might properly receive Barclay as his 
Hunter, ten; sloop Little Belt, three; prisoner, he took down his broad pen- 
and schooner Chippewa, 
one, and two swivels. 
The battle began at noon, 
at long range, the Seor- 
pion, commanded by 
young Sailing - Master 
Stephen Champlin, then 
less than twenty-four 
years of age, firing the 
first shot on the Ameri- 
can side. As the fleets 
drew nearer and nearer, 
hotter and hotter waxed 
the fight. For two hours the Lawrence nant and the banner with the stirring 
bore the brunt of battle, until she lay woi'ds, entered his boat, and, with four 
upon the waters almost a total wreck stout seamen at the oars, he started on 
— her rigging all shot away, her sails cut his perilous voyage, anxiously watched by 



M Jr T "W 





w^^> ti/cm/ mx^cCo /rc^^^eco ci^ ^tiic^rrO 


those he had left on the Lawrence. Perry 
stood upright in his boat, with the pen- 
nant and banner partly wrapped about 
him. Barclay, who had been badly 
wounded, informed of Perry's daring, and 
knowing the peril of the British fleet if 
the young commodore should reach the 
decks of the Niagara, ordered big and 

the Niagara in safety. Hoisting his pen- 
nant over her, he dashed through the 
British line, and eight minutes afterwards 
the colors of the enemy's flag-ship were 
struck, all but two of the fleet surrender- 
ing. These attempted to escape, but were 
pursued and brought back, late in the 
evening, by the Scorpion, whose gallant 


little guns to be brought to bear on the commander (Champlin) had fired the 

little boat that held the hero. The voy- first and last gun in the battle of Lake 

age lasted fifteen minutes. Bullets tra- Erie. Assured of victory, Perry sat down, 

versed the boat, grape-shot falling in the and, resting his naval cap on his knee, 

water near covered the seamen with spray, wrote to Harrison, with a pencil, on the 

and oars were shivered by cannon-baHs, back of a letter, the famous despatch: 

but not a man was hurt. Perry reached " We have met the e»«my, and they are 



ours — two ships, two brigs, one schooner, 
and one sloop." The name of Perry was 
made immortal. His government thanl-ccd 
him, and gave him and l^^liiott each a 
gold medal. The legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania voted him thanks and a gold medal; 
and it gave thanks and a silver medal to 
each man who was engaged in the battle. 
The Americans lost twenty-seven killed 
and ninety-six wounded. The British loss 
was about 200 killed and GOO made prison- 
ers. At about nine o'clock in the evening 
of the day of the battle, the moon shin- 
ing brightly^ the two squadrons weighed 
anchor and sailed into Put-in-Bay, not 
far from Sandusky, out of which the 
American fleet had sailed that morning. 
The last survivor of the battle of Lake 
Erie was John Norris, who died at Peters- 
burg, Va., in January, 1879. 

Ernst, Oswald Herbert, military offi- 
cer ; born in Cincinnati, 0., June 27, 
1842; graduated at West Point in 
1864, and entered the Engineer Corps; 
superintendent of West Point in 1893- 
08 ; appointed a brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers in May, 1898, and served in 
the Avar against Spain. He was sent to 
Porto Rico, and had command of the 
troops in the action of Coamo. He is 
the author of Practical Military Engi- 

Erskine, David Montague, Baron, 
diplomatist; born in England in 1776; 
soon after 1806 was sent to the United 
States as British envoy. He was on duty 
in Washington at the time of Madison's 
accession to the Presidency. He found 
the new President so exceedingly anxious 
for peace and good feeling between the 
two countries that he had written to Can- 
ning, the British minister, such letters 
on the subject that he was instructed to 
propose to the Americans a reciprocal 
repeal of all the prohibitory laws upon 
certain conditions. Those conditions were 
so partial towards Great Britain, requir- 
ing the Americans to submit to the rule 
of 1756, that they were rejected. Very 
soon, however, arrangements were made 
by which, upon the Orders in Council be- 
ing repealed, the President should issue 
a proclamation declaring a restoration of 
commercial intercourse with Great Brit- 
ain, but leaving all restrictive laws as 
against France in full force. Mr. Erskine 

also offered reparation for the insult and 
injury in tlie case of the Chesapeake 
(q. v.), and also assured the government 
of the United States that Great Britain 
would immediately send over an envoy 
extraordinary, vested with power to con- 
clude a treaty that should settle all 
points cf dispute between the two gov- 
ernments. This arrangement was com- 
pleted April 18, 1809. The next day the 
Secretary of State received a note from 
Erskine, saying he was authorized to de- 
clare that his Majesty's Orders in Council 
of January and November, 1807, would 
be withdrawn on June 10 next ensuing. 
On the same day (April 19) the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation declaring that 
trade with Great Britain might be re- 
sinned after June 10. This proclamation 
gave great joy in the United States. 
Partisan strife was hushed, and the Presi- 
dent was toasted and feasted by leading 
Federalists, as a Washingtonian worthy 
of all confidence. In the House of Repre- 
sentatives, John Randolph, who lauded 
England for her magnanimity, offered 
(May 3, 1809) a resolution which declared 
" that the promptitude and frankness with 
v/hich the President of the United States 
has met the overtures of the government 
of Great Britain towards a restoration of 
harmony and freer commercial intercourse 
between the two nations meet the ap- 
proval of this House." The joy was of 
brief duration. Mr. Erskine was soon 
afterwards compelled to communicate to 
the President (July 31) that his govern- 
ment had refused to sanction his arrange- 
ment, ostensibly because the minister had 
exceeded his instructions, and was not 
authorized to make any such arrangement. 
Mr. Erskine was recalled. The true rea- 
son for the rejection by the British au- 
thorities of the arrangement made by 
Erskine probably was, that, counting upon 
the fatal effects of sectional strife in 
the Union, already so rampant in some 
places, the British government was en- 
couraged to believe that the bond of unio