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From 458 a. d. to 1906 "'' 




BOOK OF THE WAR OF l8l3" ETC., ETC., ETC. ,'_■', 




WM. R. HARPER, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D. GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L., LL.D. 7 ', 




















v J° 

Copyright, 1905, by Harper & Brothbrs. 

Copyright, 10-.1, by Harper & Brothers. 

All rights rtser-ued. 



President Ulysses S. Grant 
President J. A. Garfield 
General Ulysses S. Grant . 
President Benjamin Harrison 
President W. H. Harrison . 
President R. B. Hayes . . 


Facing page 16 

" 132 

" " 256 

" " 272 

" ". 336 


Hawaii Facing page 320 




Gabriel's Insurrection (1800). Thom- 
as Prosser, of Richmond, Va., owned a 
slave called " Jack Bowler," or " General 
Gabriel," who fomented an insurrection 
among the slaves, with the intention of 
murdering the inhabitants of Richmond. 
The militia was ordered out; the ring- 
leaders were captured and punished. 

Gadsden, Christopher, patriot; born 
in Charleston, S. C, in 1724; was edu- 
cated in England; became a merchant in 
Charleston, and a sturdy champion of 
the rights of the colonies. He was a dele- 
gate to the Stamp Act Congress, and ever 
advocated openly republican principles. 
He was also a member of the first Con- 
tinental Congress. Chosen a colonel in 
1775, he was active in the defence of 
Charleston in 1776, when he was made a 
brigadier-general. He was active in civil 
affairs, and was one of the many civil- 
ians made prisoners by Sir Henry Clinton 
and carried to St. Augustine. He was ex- 
changed in 1781 and carried to Philadel- 
phia. In 1782 he was elected governor of 
his State, but declined on account of in- 
firmity. He died in Charleston, S. C, 
Aug. 28, 1805. See St. Augustine. 

Gadsden, James, statesman; born in 
Charleston. S. C, May 15, 1788; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1806. During 
the War of 1812 his service was marked 
with distinction, and when peace was 
concluded he became aide to General 
Jackson in the expedition to investigate 
the military defences of the Gulf of Mex- 
ico and the southwestern frontier. In 

1818 he participated in the Seminole 
War. Later he went with Jackson to 
Pensacola, when the latter took posses- 
sion of Florida, and was the first white 
man to cross that peninsula from the At- 
lantic to the Gulf. In 1853 he was minis- 
ter to Mexico, and on Dec. 10 of that year 
negotiated a treaty by which a new boun- 
dary was made between the United States 
and Mexico. He died in Charleston, S. C, 
Dec. 25, 1858. 

Gadsden Purchase, the name applied 
to the land bought from Mexico in 1853, 
because its transfer waS t negotiated by 
Gen. James Gadsden, who was United 
States minister to Mexico when the pur- 
chase was made. It includes a strip of 
land extending from Rio Grande del 
Norte, near El Paso, westward about 500 
miles to the Colorado and the border of 
Lower California, and from the Gila 
River to the border fixed by the treaty. 
Its greatest breadth is 120 miles; aiea, 
45,535 square miles; cost, $10,000,000. 

Gag-rule. Adopted by Congress on 
motion of John C. Calhoun in January, 
1836, providing that all anti-slavery peti- 
tions be laid on the table unnoticed. It 
was abolished Dec. 3, 1844. 

Gage, Lyman Judson, financier; born 
in De Ruyter, Madison co., N. Y., June 
28, 1836; was educated at the Academy 
in Rome, N. Y 7 . ; entered the Oneida Cen- 
tral Bank when seventeen years old, re- 
maining there till 1855, when he re- 
moved to Chicago. In 1868 he was made 
cashier, in 1882 vice-president, and 


Gaillardet, Theodore Frederic, jour- 
nalist; born in Auxerre, France, April 7, 
1808; emigrated to the United States and 
established the Courrier des Etats-Unis 
in New York; took part in the Presiden- 
tial canvass of 1872 on behalf of Horace 
Greeley. He is the author of Profession 
de foi et considerations sur le systeme re- 
publicain des Etats-Unis, and of a large 
number of communications on American 
subjects which appeared in the leading 
French newspapers. He died in Plessy- 
Bouchard, France, Aug. 12, 1882. 

Gaine, Hugh, journalist; born in Ire- 
land in 1726; emigrated to America and 
became a printer in New York City in 
1750; established The Mercury in 1752, 
originally a Whig journal. After the capt- 
ure of New York by the English, The 
Mercury was a strong advocate of the 
British. Upon the conclusion of the Rev- 
olutionary War he was permitted to re- 
main in New York, but was obliged to give 
up the publication of his newspaper. He 
died in New York City, April 25, 1807. 

Gaines, Edmund Pendleton, military 
officer; born in Culpeper county, Va., 
March 20, 1777; removed with his family 
to Tennessee in 1790; entered the army as 
ensign in 1799; and was promoted to lieu- 
tenant-colonel in the summer of 1812. He 
rcse to brigadier-general in March, 1814; 


his general good services during the war, 
Congress gave him thanks and a gold 
medal. Gaines served under Jackson in. 
the Creek War, and fought the Seminoles 
in 1836. Late in life he married Myra 
Clark, of New Orleans, heiress of a large 
estate, who, after his death, became fa- 


and after his gallant conduct at Fort mous for her successful persistence in liti- 
Erie in August, that year, he was brevet- gation to secure her rights. He died in 
ted major-general. For that exploit, and New Orleans, June 6, 1849. 


Gaines, Fort. See Mobile; Morgan 
and Gaines, Forts. 

Gaines, Myra Clark, claimant; wife 
of Edmund Pendleton Gaines; daughter of 
Daniel Clark, who was born in Sligo, 
Ireland, and emigrated to New Orleans, 
where Myra was born in 1805. Her fa- 
ther inherited a large estate from his 
uncle in 1799, and died in New Orleans, 
Aug. 16, 1813, devising all his property 
to his mother, Mary Clark. Myra married 
first W. W. Whitney in 1832, and on his 
death General Gaines in 1839. She 
claimed the estate of her father, who 
was reputed a bachelor at the time of his 
death, and after a litigation of over fifty 
years she succeeded in establishing her 
rights. She died in New Orleans, Jan. 
9, 1885. 

Gaines's Mill, Battle of. In June, 
1862, General McClellan transferred his 
army from the Chickahominy and his 
stores from the Pamunkey to the James 
River. He ordered the stores and muni- 
tions of war to be sent to Savage's Sta- 
tion, and what could not be removed to 
be burned, and supplies to be sent to the 
James as speedily as possible. He also 
sent his wounded to the same station, and 
prepared to cross the Chickahominy for 
the flight with the right wing — a perilous 
undertaking, for Jackson and Ewell were 
prepared to fall on Porter's flank. This 
movement was so secretly and skilfully 
made, however, that Lee was not informed 
of the fact until twenty-four hours after 
it was actually begun on the morning of 
the 27th. The duty of protecting the 
stores in their removal was assigned to 
General Porter. His corps (the 5th) was 
also charged with the duty of carrying 
away the siege-guns and covering the army 
in its march to the James. These troops 
were accordingly arrayed on the rising 
ground near Gaines's Mills, on the arc of 
a circle between Cold Harbor and the 
Chickahominy, when they were attacked 
by a Confederate force, in the afternoon, 
led by Generals Longstreet and A. P. Hill. 
A few of the siege-guns were yet in posi- 
tion. MorelFs division occupied the left, 
Sykes's regulars and DuryeVs Zouaves 
the right, and McCall's division formed a 
second line, his left touching Butterfield's 
right. Seymour's brigade and horse-bat- 
teries commanded the rear, and cavalry 

under Gen. Philip St. George Cooke were 
on flanking service near the Chickahom- 
iny. The brunt of the battle first fell upon 
Sykes, who threw the assailants back in 
confusion with great loss. Longstreet 
pushed forward with his veterans to their 
relief, and was joined by Jackson and D. 
H. Hill. Ewell's division also came into 
action. The Confederate line, now in com- 
plete order, made a general advance. A 
very severe battle ensued. 

Slocum's division was sent to Porter's 
aid by McClellan, making his entire force 
about 35,000. For hours the struggle 
along the whole line was fierce and per- 
sistent, and for a long time the issue was 
doubtful. At five o'clock Porter called 
for more aid, and McClellan sent him the 
brigades of Meagher and French, of Rich- 
ardson's division. The Confederates were 
making desperate efforts to break the 
line of the Nationals, but for a long time 
it stood firm, though continually grow- 
ing thinner. Finally a furious assault by 
Jackson and the divisions of Longstreet 
and Whiting was made upon Butterfield's 
brigade, which had long been fighting. It 
gave way and fell back, and with it sev- 
eral batteries. Then the whole line fell 
back. Porter called up all of his reserves 
and remaining artillery (about eighty 
guns), covered the retreat of his infantry, 
and checked the advance of the victors for 
a moment. Just then General Cooke, 
without orders, attacked the Confederate 
flank with his cavalry, which was repulsed 
and thrown into disorder. The horses, 
terrified by the tremendous roar of nearly 
200 cannon and the rattle of thousands 
of muskets, rushed back through the 
Union batteries, giving the impression 
that it was a charge of Confederate cav- 
alry. The artillerists recoiled, and Por- 
ter's whole force was pressed back to the 
river. While flying in fearful disorder, 
French and Meagher appeared, and gather- 
ing up the vast multitude of stragglers, 
checked the flight. Behind these the scat- 
tered brigades were speedily formed, while 
National batteries poured a destructive 
storm of shot and shell upon the head of 
the Confederate column. Seeing fresh 
troops on their front, and ignorant of their 
number, the Confederates fell back and 
rested upon the field they had won at a 
fearful cost. In this battle the Nationals 


lost about 8,000 men, of whom 6,000 were 
killed or wounded. The loss of the Con- 
federates was about 5,000. General Reyn- 
olds was made prisoner. Porter lost 
twenty-two siege-guns. During the night 
he withdrew to the right side of the 
Chickahominy, destroying the bridges be- 
hind him. 

Gaither, Henry, military officer; born 
in Maryland in 1751; was actively en- 
gaged throughout the Revolutionary War; 
served under General St. Clair in the cam- 
paign against the Miami Indians in 1791; 
and at one time was in command of Fort 
Adams and Fort Stoddart. He died in 
Georgetown, D. C, June 22, 1811. 

Gale, Levin, lawyer; born in Cecil coun- 
ty, Md., in 1824; was admitted to the bar 
and began practice at Elkton, Md. He 
published A List of English Statutes Sup- 
posed to be Applicable to the Several 
States of the Union. He died in Balti- 
more, Md., April 28, 1875. 

Gales, Joseph, journalist; born near 
Sheffield, England, April 10, 1786. His 
father emigrated to the United States in 
1793, and established the Independent 
Gazetteer in Philadelphia, and in 1799 re- 
moved to Raleigh, N. C, where he estab- 
lished the Register. Joseph became a 
printer, and subsequently a partner of 
Samuel Harrison Smith, publisher of the 
National Intelligencer, in Washington, 
D. C, the successor of the Independent 
Gazetteer. In connection with William 
Winston Seaton he made the Intelligencer 
a daily newspaper. Both partners were 
efficient reporters, and to their interest 
and foresight is due the preservation of 
many important speeches, notably those 
of Webster and Hayne. Gales died in 
Washington, D. C, July 21, 1860. 

Gallagher, William Davis, journalist; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 21, 1808; 
became a printer and eventually an edi- 
tor; was connected with the Backwoods- 
man at Xenia; the Cincinnati Mirror; 
the Western Literary Journal and Month- 
ly Review; The Hesperian; Ohio State 
Journal, and the Cincinnati Gazette. 
Among his writings are A Journey 
Through Kentucky and Mississippi; The 
I'rogress and Resources of the Northwest. 
He died in 1894. 

Gallatin, Alijert, financier; born in 
Geneva, Switzerland, Jan. 29, 1761; was 

a graduate of the University of Geneva. 
Both of his parents were of distinguished 
families, and died while he was an infant. 
Feeling great sympathy for the Americans 


struggling for liberty, he came to Massa- 
chusetts in 1780, entered the military 
service, and for a few months command- 
ed the post at Passamaquoddy. At the 
close of the war he taught French in 
Harvard University. Having received his 
patrimonial estate in 1784, he invested 
it in land in western Virginia; and in 
1786 he settled on land on the banks of 
the Monongahela, in Fayette county, Pa., 
which he had purchased, and became 
naturalized. Having served in the Penn- 
sylvania State convention and in the legis- 
lature (1789 and 1790-92), he was chosen 
United States Senator in 1793, but was 
declared ineligible on the ground that he 
had not been a citizen of the United States 
the required nine years. He was instru- 
mental in bringing about a peaceful ter- 
mination of the " Whiskey Insurrection," 
and was elected a member of the House 
of Representatives in 1795. An active 
member of the Republican, or Democratic, 
party, he even went so far, in a speech 
in Congress (1796), as to charge Wash- 
ington and Jay with having pusillani- 
mously surrendered the honor of their 
country. This, from the lips of a young 
foreigner, exasperated the Federalists. 
He was a leader of the Democrats in the 
House, and directed his attention par- 
ticularly to financial matters. Mr. Gal- 
latin remained in Congress until 1801, 


when President Jefferson appointed him 
Secretary of the Treasury, which office he 
held until 1813, and obtained the credit 
of being one of the best financiers of the 

The opponents of Jefferson's adminis- 
tration complained vehemently, in 1808, 
that the country was threatened with 
direct taxation at a time when the sources 
of its wealth, by the orders and decrees 
of Great Britain and France, were drying 
up. Gallatin replied to these complaints 
by reproducing a flattering but delusive 
suggestion contained in his annual re- 
port the preceding year. He suggested 
that, as the United States were not likely 
to be involved in frequent wars, a revenue 
derived solely from duties on imports, 
even though liable to diminution during 
war, would yet amply suffice to pay off, 
during long intervals of peace, the ex- 
panses of such wars as might be under- 
taken. Should the United States become 
involved in war with both France and 
Great Britain, no internal taxes would be 
necessary to carry it on, nor any other 
financial expedient, beyond borrowing 
money and doubling the duties on imports. 
The scheme, afterwards tried, bore bitter 

Gallatin's influence was felt in other de- 
partments of the government and in the 
politics of the country. Opposed to going 
to war with Great Britain in 1812, he ex- 
erted all his influence to avert it. In 
March, 1813, he was appohited one of the 
envoys to Russia to negotiate for the 
mediation of the Czar between the United 
States and Great Britain. He sailed for 
St. Petersburg, but the Senate, in special 
session, refused to ratify his appointment 
because he was Secretary of the Treasury. 
The attempt at mediation was unsuccess- 
ful. When, in January, 1814, Great Brit- 
ain proposed a direct negotiation for peace, 
Gallatin, who was still abroad, was ap- 
pointed one of the United States commis- 
sioners to negotiate. H" resigned his 
Secretaryship. In 1815 he was appointed 
minister to France, where he remained 
until 1S23. He refused a seat in the cabi- 
net of Monroe on his return, and declined 
to be a candidate for Vice-President, to 
which the dominant Democratic party 
nominated him. President Adams ap- 
pointed him minister to Great Britain, 

where he negotiated several important 
commercial conventions. Returning to the 
United States in 1827, he took up his resi- 
dence in the city of New York. He was 
the chief founder (1842) and first presi- 
dent of the American Ethnological Society, 
and was president of the New York His- 
torical Society from 1843 until his death, 
in Astoria, N. Y., Aug. 12, 1849. Although 
strictly in private life, Mr. Gallatin took 
special interest in the progress of the 

Gallaudet, Thomas Hopkins, educator ; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 10, 1787; 
graduated at Yale College in 1805, where 
he was a tutor for a while. At An- 
dover Theological Seminary he prepared 
for the ministry, and was licensed to 
preach in 1814. Becoming interested in 
the deaf and dumb, he began his labors 
for their instruction in 1817, with a class 
of seven pupils. He became one of the 
most useful men of his time, labored inces- 
santly for the benefit of the deaf and 
dumb, and was the founder of the first in- 
stitution in America for their instruction. 
He was president of it until 1830, when 
he resigned. The asylum was located at 
Hartford, where Dr. Gallaudet became 
chaplain for the Connecticut Retreat for 
the Insane in 1833, which office he re- 
tained until his death, Sept. 9, 1851. Dr. 
Gallaudet published several works for the 
instruction of the young, besides other 
books. He was of Huguenot descent. 
His two sons, Thomas and Edward 
Miner, also devoted their lives to the in- 
struction of the deaf and dumb. The 
former, an Episcopal clergyman, was in- 
strumental in organizing churches for the 
deaf and dumb; and the latter established 
in Washington, D. C, the National Deaf- 
Mute College, in 1864, of which he became 
president. Thomas died Aug. 27, 1902. 

Gallinger, Jacob H., legislator; born in 
Cornwall, Ont., March 28, 1837; was a 
printer; later studied medicine and prac- 
tised till he became a member of Congress. 
He was a member of the New Hampshire 
legislature in 1872-73 and in 1891 ; of the 
State constitution convention in 1876; of 
the State Senate in 1878, 1879, and 1880, 
and its president in 1879 and 1880; mem- 
ber of Congress in 1885-89; and United 
States Senator in 1891-1909. 

Gallitzin, Prince Demetrius Attgus- 


TINE, clergyman; born in The Hague. Hoi- abandoned tbe Whig, or republican, cause, 
land, Dec. 22, 1770, where his father was and was thenceforward an uncompromis- 
Russian ambassador. He belonged to one ing Tory. When the British army evacu- 
of the oldest and richest families among ated Philadelphia, in 1778, he left his 
the Russian nobles. In 1792 he came country, with his daughter, went to Eng- 
to the United States for the purpose of land, and never returned. He died in 
travel, but determined to become a Roman Watford, Hertfordshire, Aug. 29, 1803. 
Catholic priest. He entered the St. Sul- Gaily, Merritt, inventor; born near 
pice Seminary in Baltimore, and was or- Rochester, N. Y., Aug. 15, 1838; learned 
dained a priest March 18, 1795, being the the printer's trade; graduated at the Uni- 
first priest who had both received holy versity of Rochester in 1863, and at 
orders and been ordained in the United the Auburn Theological Seminary in 1866 ; 
States. He was sent on missions, but was was a Presbyterian minister for three 
recalled in consequence of his impetuos- years. In 1869 he founded a manufactory 
ity and over-zeal. In 1799 he was ap- for the construction of the " Universal " 
pointed pastor at Maguire's settlement, printing-press, which he had shortly before 
He purchased 20,000 acres in the present designed. His patents aggregate more 
Cambria county, Pa., which he divided than 400, including the " Orchestrone," 
into farms and offered to settlers on easy an automatic musical instrument; the 
terms. Although constantly hampered by back vent system, for tubular church 
lack of money to carry out the grand organs; the counterpoise pneumatic sys- 
schemes he contemplated, his colony took tem of the seolian, pianola, and other 
root and soon sent out branches. He had automatic musical instruments ; a ma- 
adopted the name of Schmettau, which chine for making type from cold metal; 
was anglicized into Smith, but in 1811 differential telephone; etc. 
he resumed his own name. He died in Galveston, city, seaport, and commer- 
Loretto, Pa., May 6, 1841. cial metropolis of Texas; on an island of 
Galloway, Joseph, loyalist; born near the same name. It was settled in 1837; 
West River, Anne Arundel co., Md., about captured by National forces in 1862; re- 
1730; was a member of the Pennsylvania taken by Confederates in 1863; was nearly 
Assembly in 1704, and at one time Speaker destroyed by fire in 1885; and was visited 
and, with Franklin, advocated a change of by a terrible tornado and flood, Sept. 8, 
the government of Pennsylvania from the 1900, which destroyed nearly 3,000 build- 
proprietary to the royal form. A mem- ings, caused a loss of between 8,000 and 
ber of the first Continental Congress, he 10,000 lives, and damaged property and 
was conservative in his views, yet his line trade to the extent of more than $45,000,- 
of argument in his first debates tended 000. To prevent a recurrence of the dis- 
towards political independence. He pro- aster the city constructed a sea-wall, 17,- 
posed a plan of colonial government, which 593 feet long, 16 feet wide at the base, 5 
was rejected. It contemplated a govern- feet wide at the top, standing 17 feet 
ment with a president-general appointed above mean low tide, and having a rip- 
by the King, and a grand council, chosen rap apron extending 27 feet out on the 
every three years by the colonial assem- Gulf side. The wall was completed in 
blies, who were to be authorized to act July, 1904, and cost $1,198,1 IS. The pro- 
jointly with Parliament in the regulation tective scheme also provided for the eleva- 
of the affairs of the colonies. Parliament tion of the grade of the city from one to 
was to have superior authority, with a fifteen feet, so that it will slope gradu- 
right to revise all acts of the grand coun- ally from the top of the sea-wall. This 
oil, which, in turn, was to have a negative work will cost $1,500,000 more. The 
in British statutes relating to the colonies, foreign commerce of the port in the fiscal 
This plan was, at first, favorably consid- year ending June 30, 1904, was: Imports, 
ered by many in the Congress; but it was $1,847,646; exports, $145,316,457; the 
rejected, and not permitted to be entered manufactures in the census year 1900 
on the minutes of the journal. aggregated in value $5,016,360; the assess- 
After the question of independence be- ed property valuation in 1903 was $20,- 
gan to be seriously agitated, Galloway 574,098; and the net citv debt, $2,747,541. 



The population in 1890 was 29,084; in 16, 1779. Galvez, without waiting to be 

1900, 37,789. reinforced, marched north and took Fort 

In the early part of the Civil War at- Manchac, Baton Rouge, Fort Panmure. 

tempts were made to " repossess " impor- and Fort Natchez. In February, 1780, he 

tant posts in Texas, especially Galveston, captured Mobile; and soon after invaded 

On May 17, 1862, Henry Eagle, in com- Florida, where he met with several suc- 

mand of war-vessels in front of Galves- cesses. On May 9, 1781, he forced the sur- 

ton, demanded its surrender, under a render of Pensacola and gained control of 

threat of an attack from a large land and the whole western coast of Florida. He 

naval force that would soon appear. died in the city of Mexico, Nov. 30, 1786. 

" When those forces appear," said the See Vasco da Gama. 

authorities, " we shall reply." So mat- Gamble, Hamilton PvOwan, statesman 

ters remained until Oct. 8, when Galves- bora in Winchester, Va., Nov. 29, 1798 

ton was formally surrendered by its civil admitted to the bar of Virginia in 1817 

authorities to Commodore Renshaw, of went to Missouri in 1818. In 1861 the 

the National navy. To hold the city more State constitution convention appointed 

securely, a Massachusetts regiment, under him provisional governor. He served in 

Colonel Burrill, was sent there from New this office until his death in Jefferson City, 

Orleans. In front of the city (Dec. 28) Mo., Jan. 31, 1864. 

lay six National war-vessels, under the Gamble, Robert Jackson, lawyer; 
command of Renshaw. General Magruder, horn in Akron, N. Y., Feb. 7, 1851 ; was 
of the Confederate army, then in com- graduated at Lawrence University in 
mand of the Department of Texas, col- 1874; admitted to the bar in 1875, and 
lected a land and naval force near Galves- hegan practice in Yankton, Dak. ; was a 
ton, and before daylight on Jan. 2, 1863, State Senator in 1S85; a member of Con- 
he attacked the National forces by land gress in 1895-97 and in 1899-1902; and a 
and water. At first the men from Massa- United States Senator from South Dakota 
chusetts repulsed those of Magruder, but, in 1901-07. 

Confederate vessels coming up with a Gammell, William, educator; born in 

fresh supply, the National soldiers were Medfield, Mass., Feb. 10, 1812; gradu- 

overpowered. After a brief action, the ated at Brown University in 1831; be- 

Earriet Lane (one of the National ves- came professor of history and political 

sels) was captured, and the Westfield, economy there in 18S0. His publications 

Renshaw's flag-ship, was blown up by his include the lives of Roger Williams and 

order, to prevent her falling into the Gov. Samuel Ward, in Sparks's American 

hands of the Confederates. The firing Biographies. He died in Providence, R. I., 

of the magazine of the Westfield was done April 3. 1889. 

prematurely, by an intoxicated man, and Gannett, Henry, scientist; born in 

Commodore Renshaw, a lieutenant, and an Bath, Me., Aug. 24, 1846; graduated at 

engineer, with about a dozen of her crew, Lawrence Scientific School in 1869; be- 

perished by the explosion. Nearly as came connected with the United States 

many officers and men were killed in a gig Geological Survey in 1882. He is the au- 

lying by the side of the Westfield. Ma- thor of Statistical Outlines of the Tenth 

grader's victory was almost a barren one, and Eleventh Censuses; Commercial Geog- 

for Farragut re-established the blockade raphy ; Building of a Nation: United 

before the Earriet Lane could be converted States; and was employed on the 10th, 

into a Confederate cruiser. 11th, and 12th Censuses, and on those of 

Galvez, Bernardo, military officer; born Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, 

in Malaga. Spain, in 1755; became govern- Ganse, Hervey Doddridge, clergyman; 

or of Louisiana in 1776; secretly aided the born in Fishkill. N. Y., Feb. 7, 1822; 

Americans with military supplies and graduated at Columbia University in 

$70,000 in money in 1778. About the 1S39. and at the New Brunswick Theo- 

same time Spain's offer of mediation be- logical Seminary in 1843; was ordained 

tween the United States and Great Brit- to the ministry of the Dutch Reformed 

ain was declined, whereupon Spain de- Church. He was the author of Bible 

clared war against Great Britain, June Slave-holding not Sinful, a reply to Dr. 



Samuel B. How's Slave-holding not Sin- 

Gansevoort, Henry Sandford, military 
officer; born in Albany, N. Y., Dec. 15, 
1835; grandson of Gen. Peter Ganse- 
voort; entered the regular artillery ser- 
vice, April, 1861, and fought gallantly 
during the Peninsular campaign of 1862, 
and in several battles afterwards. He 
first became lieutenant-colonel and then 
colonel of the 13th N. Y. Volunteer Cav- 
alry, with which he performed gallant 
service in Virginia. In 1865 he was 
brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers 
" for faithful and meritorious services," 
and became captain of artillery in the reg- 
ular army. His health failed, and when 
returning from the Bahama Islands he died, 
April 12, 1871. 

Gansevoort, Peter, military officer; 
born in Albany, N. Y., July 17, 1749; 
was appointed major of a New York regi- 
ment in July, 1775, and in August joined 
the army, under Montgomery, that in- 


vaded Canada. He rose to colonel the 
next year; and in April, 1777, he was 
put in command of Fort Schuyler (see 
Stanwix, Fort), which he gallantly de- 
fended against the British and Indians in 
August. He most effectually co-operated 
with Sullivan in his campaign in 1770, 
and afterwards in the Mohawk region. 
In 1781 he received from the legislature 
of New York the commission of brigadier- 

general. General Gansevoort filled civil 
offices, particularly that of commissioner 
for Indian affairs, with great fidelity. In 
1803 he was made military agent and 
brigadier-general in the regular army. He 
died in Albany, N. Y., July 2, 1812. 

Garakonthie, Daniel, chief of the On- 
ondaga Indians. In 1658, although the 
French were compelled to flee from On- 
ondaga, Garakonthie became a protector 
of Christian doctrines and an advocate for 
peace. It was not, however, till 1669 
that he was converted and baptized. The 
name Daniel was given him at his bap- 
tism, and he learned to read and write. 
His influence went far in checking the 
superstition of the Indians and in set- 
tling difficulties between Indian tribes, 
and also in protecting French colonists. 
He died in Onondaga, N. Y., in 1676. 

Garcia, Calixto, military officer; born 
in Holguin, Cuba, Oct. 14, 1836. He 
studied law and began practice, but subse- 
quently joined the struggling patriots in 
Cuba, and in 1868 (with Carlos Manuel 
Cespedes and Marmol) planned the revo- 
lution which is known historically as 
the "Ten Years' War." On Oct. 10, 1868, 
he took up arms with Marmol at the head 
of 150 men. For a time great success 
attended them, and they captured many 
towns. For courage and ability in these 
actions Garcia was made brigadier-gen- 
eral under Gomez. Later the provisional 
government made him commander-in-chief 
of the Cuban forces in place of Gomez, 
removed. On Sept. 3, 1873, his victorious 
career suffered a decided reverse. With 
twenty men he was attacked by 500 Span- 
iards at San Antonio del Babor. When 
commanded to surrender he determined to 
die by his own hand rather than submit 
to capture. Placing a revolver in his 
mouth he fired upward. The ball came 
out at his forehead, and he carried a scar 
for life. He was taken to Manzanillo in 
his wounded condition, and when he re- 
covered was sent to Spain. After peace 
was made in 1878 he was pardoned and 
returned to Cuba. He did not, however, 
consider the peace either honorable or 
binding, and took part in the " little 
war," in which he fought with Maceo. 
He was compelled to surrender, and was 
sent to Madrid, where he spent seventeen 
years under the surveillance of the po- 




lice. In September, 1895, he crossed the 
frontier into France, sailed to New York, 
and on Jan. 26, 1896, planned a filibuster- 
ing expedition which was successful. 
Afterwards, while fitting out another ex- 
pedition, he was arrested by the United 
States government. He forfeited his bail, 
and on March 15, 1896, met the Ber- 
muda, a filibustering steamer, off Cape 
Henlopen, and reached Cuba with sixty- 
two Cubans, six field-guns, and a quantity 
of dynamite. He won several brilliant 
victories, among them that at Victoria de 
los Yunos, the loss of which was one of 
the reasons for the recall of General Wey- 
ler. After the occupation of Santiago 
by the Americans, Garcia withdrew from 
the Cuban army, because General Shafter 
would not turn over to him the command 
of Santiago; but he was subsequently rec- 
onciled to the new military conditions. 
In November of the same year (1898), 
he came to the United States as chair- 
man of a commission to present the views 
of the Cuban leaders to President Mc- 
Kinley, but before accomplishing his pur- 
pose he suddenly died, Dec. 11. High 
official and military honors were paid to 
his remains in Washington. 

Garde, Pierre Paul Francis de la. 
See Jesuit Missions. 

Garden, Alexander, military officer; 
born in Charleston, S. C, Dec. 4, 1757; 
was educated abroad; returning to Amer- 
ica, he entered the Continental army in 
1780; was promoted lieutenant in Febru- 

ary, 1782. He was the author of Anec- 
dotes of the Revolutionary War, with 
Sketches of Character of Persons most 
Distinguished in the Southern States for 
Civil and Military Services. He died in 
Charleston, Feb. 29, 1829. 

Gardiner, Lion, military officer; born 
in England in 1599; was sent to America 
in 1635 by the proprietors for the pur- 
pose of laying out a city, towns, and forts 
at the mouth of the Connecticut River. 
He built the fort which he called Say- 
brook after Lord Saye and Sele and Lord 
Brooke. In 1639 he purchased Gardiner's 
Island, at the extremity of Long Island, 
then known by the Irdian name of Man- 
chonat, and at first called Isle of Wight 
by Gardiner. He secured a patent for the 
island, which made it a " plantation " en- 
tirely distinct and separate from any of 
the colonies. It contains about 3,300 
acres, and has descended by law of entail 
through eight lords of the manor, the 
last being David Johnson, who died in 
1829. From him the property was passed 
through the hands of his two brothers and 
two sons. This is believed to be the only 
property in the United States which has 
descended by entail to its present holders 
(see Entail of Estates). The manor 
house built in 1775 is still in existence. 
Ihe island was resorted to by Captain 
Kidd, who buried treasures there which 
were afterwards secured by Governor 
Bellomont, of New York. Gardiner died 
in Easthampton, N. Y., in 1663. 

Gardner, Caleb, military officer; born 
in Newport, R. I., in 1739. When the 
Revolutionary War began he recruited a 
company and joined Richmond's regiment; 
in 1778 he greatly distinguished himself 
by piloting with his own hands to a place 
of safety the French fleet under Count 
d'Estaing, who was blockaded in the 
harbor at Newport by a large British 
squadron. As a reward for this feat the 
French King sent him a money gift. He 
died in Newport, R. I., Dec. 24, 1806. 

Gardner, Charles K., military officer; 
born in Morris county. N. J., in 1787; 
joined the army in May, 1808; served 
in the War of 1812, being present at the 
actions of Chrysler's Field, Chippewa, 
Niagara, and Fort Erie: was in the Treas- 
ury Department in 1850-67. His publi- 
cations include A Dictionary of Commis- 



sioned Officers who have served in the 
Army of the United States from 1789 to 
1853; A Compendium of Military Tactics; 
and A Permanent Designation of Compa- 
nies, and Company Books, by the First 
Letters of the Alphabet. He died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Nov. 1, 1869. 

Gardner, Dorset, lexicographer; born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 1, 1842; was 
educated at Yale University. His publi- 
cations include A Condensed Etymological 
Dictionary of the English Language; a 
rearrangement of Webster's American 
Dictionary of the English Language ; etc. 
He died in Short Hills, N. J., Nov. 30, 1894. 

Gardner, John Lane, military officer; 
born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 1, 1793; took 
part in the War of 1812 as lieutenant of 
infantry; was also in the war with the 

Seminoles in Florida and in the Mexican 
War, where he received brevets for gallant 
conduct at the battles of Cerro Gordo and 
Contreras. He was in command at Charles- 
ton when South Carolina seceded, but was 
relieved from his command by order of 
Secretary Floyd. He was succeeded in 
the command of Fort Moultrie by Maj. 
Robert Anderson. He died in Wilming- 
ton, Del., Feb. 19, 1869. See Moultrie, 

Gardner, Thomas, military officer; 
born in Cambridge, Mass., in 1724; was 
a member of the committee of safety in 
1775, and in the same year raised a regi- 
ment in accordance with instructions from 
the Provincial Congress. At the battle 
of Bunker Hill he was severely wounded, 
and died the next day. 


Garfield, James Abram, twentieth President of the United States, and en- 
President of the United States; born in tered upon his duties on March 4, 1881. 
Orange, Cuyahoga co., 0., Nov. 19, 1831. After an administration of four months, 
Left an orphan, his childhood and youth he was shot by Charles J. Guiteau, a 
were spent alternately in school and in disappointed office-seeker, in Washing- 
labor for his support. He drove horses ton, July 2, 1881, and lingered until 
on the Ohio canal ; learned the carpen- 
ter's trade; worked at it during school 
vacations; entered the Geauga Academy, 
at Chester, O., in 1850, and, at the end 
of four years, had fitted himself for 
junior in college. He entered Williams 
College, Mass., that year; graduated in 
1S56; and then, till 1861, was first an in- 
structor in Hiram College, and afterwards 
its president; gave his first vote for the 
Republican candidates, and took part in 
the canvass as a promising orator; stud- 
ied law; was a member of the Ohio State 
Senate in 1859, and often preached to 
congregations of the Disciples' Church, 
of which he was a member. A firm sup- 
porter of the government, Garfield en- 
tered the military service in its defence, 
and in eastern Kentucky and elsewhere 
proved himself a skilful soldier, becom- 
ing a major-general of volunteers in 1863. 
In that year he was elected to Congress, 
where his career as a statesman was 
marvellous. He grasped every topic in 

debate with a master's hand. In 1880 Sept. 19 following, when he died at El- 
he was elected to the United States Sen- beron, on the sea-shore, in New Jersey, 
ate, and in the same year was elected His death was sincerely mourned in all 




parts of the civilized world. See Blaine, life has indicated the wisdom of the 

James Gillespie; Guiteau, Charles J. founders and given new hope to their de- 

Inaugural Address. — On March 4, 1881, scendants. Under this Constitution our 

President Garfield delivered the following people long ago made themselves safe 

inaugural address, in which he eloquently against danger from without and secured 

considered the condition of the country at for their mariners and flag equality of 

the turning of a century of its constitu- rights on all the seas. Under this Consti- 

tional existence: tution twenty-five States have been add- 

ed to the Union, with constitutions and 

Fellow-Citizens, — We stand to-day upon laws, framed and enforced by their own 

an eminence which overlooks 100 years citizens, to secure the manifold blessings 

of national life — a century crowded with of local self-government, 
perils, but crowned with the triumphs of The jurisdiction of this Constitution 

liberty and law. Before continuing the now covers an area fifty times greater than 

onward march let us pause on this height that of the original thirteen States and a 

for a moment to strengthen our faith and population twenty times greater than that 

renew our hope by a glance at the path- of 1780. 

way along which our people have trav- The supreme trial of the Constitution 

elled. came at last under the tremendous press- 
It is now three days more than 100 
years since the adoption of the first writ- 
ten Constitution of the United States 
— the Articles of Confederation and 

ure of civil war. We ourselves are wit- 
nesses that the Union emerged from the 
blood and fire of that conflict purified and 
made stronger for all the beneficent pur- 

Perpetual Union. The new republic was poses of good government. 

then beset with danger on every hand. It 
had not conquered a place in the family 
of nations. The decisive battle of the war 
for independence, whose centennial an- 
niversary will soon be gratefully cele- 

And now, at the close of this first cen- 
tury of growth, with the inspirations of 
its history in their hearts, our people have 
lately reviewed the condition of the na- 
tion, passed judgment upon the conduct 

brated at Yorktown, had not yet been and opinions of political parties, and have 
fought. The colonists were struggling registered their will concerning the future 
not only against the armies of a great administration of the government. To in- 
nation, but against the settled opinions terpret and to execute that will in accord- 
of mankind; for the world did not then ance with the Constitution is the para- 
believe that the supreme authority of mount duty of the executive. 

government could be safely intrusted to 
the guardianship of the people themselves. 

Even from this brief review it is mani- 
fest that the nation is resolutely facing 

We cannot overestimate the fervent love to the front, resolved to employ its best 
of liberty, the intelligent courage, and the energies in developing the great possibili- 
sum of common - sense with which our ties of the future. Sacredly preserving 
fathers made the great experiment of self- whatever has been gained to liberty and 
government. When they found, after a good government during the century, our 
short trial, that the confederacy of States people are determined to leave behind them 
was too weak to meet the necessities of a all those bitter controversies concerning 
vigorous and expanding republic, they things which have been irrevocably set- 
boldly set it aside, and in its stead estab- tied, and the further discussion of which 
lished a national union, founded directly can only stir up strife and delay the on- 
upon the will of the people, endowed with ward march. 

full power of self-preservation and ample The supremacy of the nation and its 

authority for the accomplishment of its laws should be no longer a subject of de- 

great object. 

bate. That discussion, which for half a 

Under this Constitution the boundaries century threatened the existence of the 
of freedom have been enlarged, the foun- Union, was closed at last in the high court 
dations of order and peace have been of war by a decree from which there is no 
strengthened, and the growth of our peo- appeal — that the Constitution and the 
pie in all the better elements of national laws made in pursuance thereof are and 



shall continue to be the supreme law of 
the land, binding alike upon the States 
and the people. This decree does not dis- 
turb the autonomy of the States nor in- 
terfere with any of their necessary rights 
of local self-government, but it does fix 
and establish the permanent supremacy of 
the Union. 

The will of the nation, speaking with 
the voice of battle and through the amend- 
ed Constitution, has fulfilled the great 
promise of 1776 by proclaiming " liberty 
throughout the land to all the inhabitants 

The elevation of the negro race from 
slavery to the full rights of citizenship 
is the most important political change we 
have known since the adoption of the Con- 
stitution of 1787. No thoughtful man can 
fail to appreciate its beneficent effect upon 
our institutions and people. It has 
freed us from the perpetual danger of 
war and dissolution. It has added im- 
mensely to the moral and industrial 
forces of our people. It has liberated the 
master as well as the slave from a re- 
lation which wronged and enfeebled both. 
It has surrendered to their own guardian- 
ship the manhood of more than 5,000,000 
people, and has opened to each one of 
them a career of freedom and usefulness. 
It has given new inspiration to the power 
of self-help in both races by making labor 
more honorable to the one and more neces- 
sary to the other. The influence of this 
force will grow greater and bear richer 
fruit with the coming years. 

No doubt this great change has caused 
serious disturbance to our Southern com- 
munities. This is to be deplored, though 
it was perhaps unavoidable. But those 
who resisted the change should remember 
that under our institutions there was no 
middle ground for the negro race between 
slavery and equal citizenship. There can 
be no permanent disfranchised peasantry 
in the United States. Freedom can never 
yield its fulness of blessings so long as 
the law or its administration places the 
smallest obstacle in the pathway of any 
virtuous citizen. 

The emancipated race has already made 
rcmarkaWe progress. With unquestion- 
ing devotion to the Union, with a patience 
and gentleness not born of fear, they 
have " followed the light as God gave 

them to see the light." They are rapidly 
laying the material foundations of self- 
support, widening their circle of intel- 
ligence, and beginning to enjoy the bless- 
ings that gather around the homes of the 
industrious poor. They deserve the gen- 
erous encouragement of all good men. So 
far as my authority can lawfully extend, 
they shall enjoy the full and equal pro- 
tection of the Constitution and the laws. 

The free enjoyment of equal suffrage 
is still in question, and a frank statement 
of the issue may aid its solution. It is 
alleged that in many communities negro 
citizens are practically denied the free- 
dom of the ballot. In so far as the truth 
of this allegation is admitted, it is answer- 
ed that in many places honest local gov- 
ernment is impossible if the mass of un- 
educated negroes are allowed to vote. 
These are grave allegations. So far as 
the latter is true, it is the only palliation 
that can be offered for opposing the free- 
dom of the ballot. Bad local government 
is certainly a great evil, which ought to be 
prevented; but to violate the freedom and 
sanctities of the suffrage is more than an 
evil. It is a crime which, if persisted in, 
will destroy the government itself. Sui- 
cide is not a remedy. If in other lands 
it be high treason to compass the death 
of the king, it shall be counted no less a 
crime here to strangle our sovereign power 
and stifle its voice. 

It has been said that unsettled ques- 
tions have no pity for the repose of na- 
tions. It should be said with the utmost 
emphasis that this question of the suffrage 
will never give repose or safety to the 
States or to the nation until each, within 
its own jurisdiction, makes and keeps the 
ballot free and pure by the strong 
sanctions of the law. 

But the danger which arises from 
ignorance in the voter cannot be denied. 
It covers a field far wider than that of 
negro suffrage and the present condition 
of the race. It is a danger that lurks 
and hides in the sources and fountains of 
power in every State. We have no stand- 
ard by which to measure the disaster that 
may be brought upon us by ignorance and 
vice in the citizens when joined to cor- 
ruption and fraud in the suffrage. 

The voters of the Union, who make and 
unmake constitutions, and upon whose will 



hang the destinies of our governments, to our moral and material well-being unite 

can transmit their supreme authority to us and offer ample employment of our 

no successors save the coming generation best powers. Let all our people, leaving 

of voters, who are the sole heirs of behind them the battle-fields of dead issues, 

sovereign power. If that generation comes move forward and in their strength of 

to its inheritance blinded by ignorance liberty and the restored Union win the 

and corrupted by vice, the fall of the re- grander victories of peace, 

public will be certain and remediless. The prosperity which now prevails is 

The census has already sounded the without parallel in our history. Fruitful 

alarm in the appalling figures which mark seasons have done much to secure it, but 

how dangerously high the tide of illit- they have not done all. The preservation 

eracy has risen among our voters and of the public credit and the resumption of 

their children. specie payments, so successfully attained 

To the South this question is of supreme by the administration of my predecessors, 

.importance. But the responsibility for have enabled our people to secure the 

the existence of slavery did not rest upon blessings which the seasons brought, 

the South alone. The nation itself is re- By the experience of commercial nations 

sponsible for the extension of the suffrage, in all ages it has been found that gold 

and is under special obligations to aid in and silver afford the only safe foundation 

removing the illiteracy which it has added for a monetary system. Confusion has 

to the voting population. For the North recently been created by variations in the 

and South alike there is but one remedy, relative value of the two metals, but I 

All the constitutional power of the nation confidently believe that arrangements can 

and of the States, and all the volunteer be made between the leading commercial 

forces of the people, should be surrendered nations which will secure the general use 

to meet this danger by the savory in- of both metals. Congress should provide 

fluenee of universal education. that the compulsory coinage of silver now 

It is the high privilege and sacred duty required by law may not disturb our 

of those now living to educate their sue- monetary system by driving either metal 

cessors and fit them, by intelligence and out of circulation. If possible, such an 

virtue, for the inheritance which awaits adjustment should be made that the pur- 

them. chasing power of every coined dollar will 

In this beneficent work sections and be exactly equal to its debt-paying power 
races should be forgotten and partisan- in all the markets of the world, 
ship should be unknown. Let our people The chief duty of the national govern- 
find a new meaning in the divine oracle ment in connection with the* currency of 
which declares that " a little child shall the country is to coin money and declare 
lead them," for our own little children its value. Grave doubts have been enter- 
will soon control the destinies of the re- tained whether Congress is authorized by 
public. the Constitution to make any form of pa- 

My countrymen, we do not now differ per money legal tender. The present issue 

in our judgment concerning the contro- of United States notes has been sustained 

versies of past generations, and fifty years by the necessities of war; but such paper 

hence our children will not be divided in should depend for its value and currency 

their opinions concerning our contro- upon its convenience in use and its prompt 

versies. They will surely bless their redemption in coin at the will of the 

fathers and their fathers' God that the holder, and not upon its compulsory cir- 

Union was preserved, that slavery was culation. These notes are not money, but 

overthrown, and that both races were promises to pay money. If the holders 

made equal before the law. We may demand it, the promise should be kept, 

hasten or we may retard, but we cannot The refunding of the national debt at 

prevent, the final reconciliation. Is it a lower rate of interest should be aeeom- 

not possible for us now to make a truce plished without compelling the withdrawal 

with time by anticipating and accepting of the national bank notes, and thus dis- 

its inevitable verdict? turbing the business of the country. 

Enterprises of the highest importance I venture to refer to the position I have 



occupied on financial questions during a 
long service in Congress, and to say that 
time and experience have strengthened the 
opinions I have so often expressed on 
these subjects. 

The finances of the government shall 
suffer no detriment which it may be pos- 
sible for my administration to prevent. 

The interests of agriculture deserve 
more attention from the government than 
they have yet received. The farms of the 
United States afford homes and employ- 
ment for more than one-half our people, 
and furnish much the largest part of all 
our exports. As the government lights 
our coasts for the protection of mariners 
and the benefit of commerce, so it should 
give to the tillers of the soil the best lights 
of practical science and experience. 

Our manufactures are rapidly making 
us industrially independent, and are open- 
ing to capital and labor new and profit- 
able fields of employment. Their steady 
and healthy growth should still be ma- 
tured. Our facilities for transportation 
should be promoted by the continued im- 
provement of our harbors and great in- 
terior water-ways and by the increase of 
our tonnage on the ocean. 

The development of the world's com- 
merce has led to an urgent demand for 
shortening the great sea voyage around 
Cape Horn by constructing ship-canals 
or railways across the isthmus which 
unites the continents. Various plans to 
this end have been suggested and will need 
consideration, but none of them has been 
sufficiently matured to warrant the United 
States in extending pecuniary aid. The 
subject, however, is one which will im- 
mediately engage the attention of the gov- 
ernment with a view to a thorough pro- 
tection to American interests. We will 
urge no narrow policy nor seek peculiar or 
exclusive privileges in any commercial 
route; but, in the language of my pred- 
ecessor, I believe it to be the right " and 
duty of the United States to assert and 
maintain such supervision and authority 
over any interoceanic canal across the 
fsthmus that connects North and South 
America as will protect our national in- 

The Constitution guarantees absolute 
religious freedom- Congress is prohibited 
from making any law respecting an estab- 

lishment of religion or prohibiting the free 
exercise thereof. The Territories of the 
United States are subject to the direct 
legislative authority of Congress, and 
hence the general government is respon- 
sible for any violation of the Constitution 
in any of them. It is therefore a reproach 
to the government that in the most popu- 
lous of the Territories the constitutional 
guarantee is not enjoyed by the people, and 
the authority of Congress is set at naught. 
The Mormon Church not only offends the 
moral sense of manhood by sanctioning 
polygamy, but prevents the administration 
of justice through ordinary instrumen- 
talities of law. 

In my judgment it is the duty of Con- 
gress, while respecting to the uttermost 
the conscientious convictions and relig- 
ious scruples of every citizen, to prohibit 
within its jurisdiction all criminal prac- 
tices, especially of that class which de- 
stroy the family relations and endanger 
social order. Nor can any ecclesiastical 
organization be safely permitted to usurp 
in the smallest degree the functions and 
powers of the national government. 

The civil service can never be placed 
on a satisfactory basis until it is regu- 
lated by law. For the good of the ser- 
vice itself, for the protection of those 
who are intrusted with the appointing 
power against the waste of time and 
obstruction to the public business caused 
by the inordinate pressure for place, and 
for the protection of incumbents against 
intrigue and wrong, I shall at the proper 
time ask Congress to fix the tenure of the 
minor offices of the several executive de- 
partments, and prescribe the grounds upon 
which removals shall be made during the 
terms for which incumbents have been 

Finally, acting always within the au- 
thority and limitations of the Constitu- 
tion, invading neither the rights of the 
States nor the reserved rights of the peo- 
ple, it will be the purpose of my adminis- 
tration to maintain the authority of the 
nation in all places within its juris- 
diction; to enforce obedience to all the 
laws of the Union in the interests of the 
people; to demand rigid economy in all 
the expenditures of the government, and 
to require the honest and faithful service 
of all executive officers, remembering that 



the offices were created, not for the bene- study in reference to our country, I will 

fit of incumbents or their supporters, but call attention to a few general facts con- 

for the service of the government. cerning its discovery and settlement. 

And now, fellow-citizens, I am about to First. — The Romantic Period of Dis- 

assume the great trust which you have covery on this Continent, 

committed to my hands. I appeal to you There can scarcely be found in the 

for that earnest and thoughtful support realms of romance anything more fasci- 

which makes this government in fact, nating than tne records of discovery and 

as it is in law, a government of the adventure during the two centuries that 

people. followed the landing of Columbus on the 

I shall greatly rely upon the wisdom soil of the New World. The greed for 

and patriotism of Congress, and of those gold; the passion for adventure; the 

who may share with me the responsibilities spirit of chivalry; the enthusiasm and 

and duties of administration, and, above fanaticism of religion — all conspired to 

all, upon our efforts to promote the wel- throw into America the hardiest and most 

fare of this great people and their gov- daring spirits of Europe, and made the 

ernments I reverently invoke the support vast wilderness of the New World the 

and blessings of Almighty God. theatre of the most stirring achievements 

The Western Reserve. — On Sept. 1G, that history has recorded. 

1873, General Garfield delivered the ad- Early in the sixteenth century, Spain, 

dress that follows before the Historical turning from the conquest of Granada and 

Society of Geauga county, Ohio: her triumph over the Moors, followed her 

golden dreams of the New World with the 

From the historian's stand-point, our same spirit that in an earlier day ani- 
country is peculiarly and exceptionally mated her Crusaders. In 1528 Ponce de 
fortunate. The origin of nearly all great Lecn began his search for the fountain of 
nations, ancient and modern, is shrouded perpetual youth, the tradition of which 
i a fable or traditionary legend. The story he had learned among the natives of the 
of the founding of Rome by the wolf- West Indies. He discovered the low-lying 
nursed brothers, Romulus and Remus, has coasts of Florida., and explored its in- 
long been classed among myths of history; terior. Instead of the fountain of youth, 
and the more modern story of Hengist and he found his grave among its everglades. 
Horsa leading the Saxons to England is A few years later De Soto, who had ac- 
almost equally legendary. The origin of companied Pizarro in the conquest of 
Paris can never be known. Its founda- Peru, landed in Florida with a gallant 
tion was laid long before Gaul had written array of knights and nobles, and corn- 
records. But the settlement, civilization, menced his explorations through the west- 
and political institutions of our country ern wilderness. In 1541 he reached the 
can be traced from their first hour by the banks of the Mississippi River, and, cross- 
clear light of history. It is true that ing it, pushed his discoveries westward 
over this continent hangs an impenetrable over the great plains; but, finding neither 
veil of tradition, mystery, and silence, the gold nor the South Sea of his dreams, 
But it is the tradition of races fast pass- he returned to be buried in the waters of 
ing away; the mystery of a still earlier the great river he had discovered. 
race, which flourished and perished long While England was more leisurely ex- 
before its discovery by the Europeans, ploring the bays and rivers of the Atlan- 
The story of the Mound-builders can never tic coast, and searching for gold and pel- 
be told. The fate of the Indian tribes try, the chevaliers and priests of France 
will soon be a half-forgotten tale. But were chasing their dreams in the North, 
the history of European civilization and searching for a passage to China and the 
institutions on this continent can b^ realms of Far Cathay, and telling the 
traced with precision and fulness, unless mystery of the Cross to the Indian tribes 
we become forgetful of the past, and neg- of the far West. Coasting northward, 
lect to save and perpetuate its precious her bold navigators discovered the mouth 
memorials. of the St. Lawrence; and in 1525 Cartier 

In discussing the scope of historical sailed up its broad current to the rocky 
TV.— B 17 


heights of Quebec, and to the rapids above 
Montreal, which were afterwards named 
La Chine, in derision of the belief that 
the adventurers were about to find China. 

In 1609 Champlain pushed above the 
rapids and discovered the beautiful lake 
that bears his name. In 1615 Priest La 
Caron pushed northward and westward 
through the wilderness and discovered 
Lake Huron. 

In 1635 the Jesuit missionaries founded 
the Mission St. Mary. In 1654 another 
priest had entered the wilderness of 
northern New York and found the salt 
springs of Onondaga. In 1659-60 French 
traders and priests passed the winter on 
Lake Superior and established missions 
along its shores. 

Among the earlier discoverers, no name 
shines out with more brilliancy than that 
of the Chevalier La Salle. The story of 
his explorations can scarcely be equalled 
in romantic interest by any of the stirring 
tales of the Crusaders. Born of a proud 
and wealthy family in the north of France, 
he was destined for the service of the 
church and of the Jesuit order. But his 
restless spirit, fired with the love of ad- 
venture, broke away from the ecclesiasti- 
cal restraints to confront the dangers of 
the New World, and to extend the empire 
of Louis XIV. From the best evidence ac- 
cessible, it appears that he was the first 
white man that saw the Ohio River. At 
twenty-six years of age we find him with 
a small party, near the western extremity 
of Lake Ontario, boldly entering the do- 
main of the dreaded Iroquois, travelling 
southward and westward through the win- 
try wilderness until ho reached a branch 
of the Ohio, probably the Alleghany. He 
followed it to the main stream, and de- 
scended that, until in the winter of 1669 
and 1670 he reached the Falls of the Ohio. 
near the present site of Louisville. His 
companions refusing to go farther, he re- 
turned to Quebec, and prepared for still 
greater undertakings. 

In the mean time the Jesuit missionaries 
had been pushing their discoveries on the 
northern lake. In 1673 Joliet and Mar- 
quette started from Green Bay. dragging 
llioir canoes up the rapids of Fox River; 
crossed Lake Winnebago; found Indian 
guides to conduct them to the waters of 
the Wisconsin ; descended that stream to 

the westward, and on the 16th of June 
reached the Mississippi near the spot 
where now stands the city of Prairie du 
Chien. To-morrow will be the 200th anni- 
versary of that discovery. One hundred 
and thirty-two years before that time De 
Soto had seen the same river more than 
1,000 miles below; but during that in- 
terval it is not known that any white man 
had looked upon its waters. 

Turning southward, these brave priests 
descended the great river, amid the awful 
solitudes. The stories of demons and 
monsters of the wilderness which abounded 
among the Indian tribes did not deter 
them from pushing their discoveries. 
They continued their journey southward 
to the mouth of the Arkansas River, tell- 
ing as best they could the story of the 
Cross to the wild tribes along the shores. 
Returning from the Kaskaskias, and 
travelling thence to Lake Michigan, they 
reached Green Bay at the end of Septem- 
ber, 1673, having on their journey pad- 
dled their canoes more than 2,500 miles. 
Marquette remained to establish missions 
among the Indians, and to die, three years 
later, on the western shore of Lake Michi- 
gan, while Joliet returned to Quebec to re- 
port his discoveries. 

In the mean time Count Frontenac, a 
noble of France, had been made governor 
of Canada, and found in La Salle a fit 
counsellor and assistant in his vast 
schemes of discovery. La Salle was sent 
to France, to enlist the Court and the 
ministers of Louis; and in 1677-78 re- 
turned to Canada, with full power under 
Frontenac to carry forward his grand en- 
terprises. He had developed three great 
purposes: first, to realize the old plan of 
Champlain, the finding of a pathway to 
China across the American continent; 
second, to occupy and develop the regions 
of the northern lakes; and, third, to de- 
scend the Mississippi and establish a for- 
tified post at its mouth, thus securing an 
outlet for the trade of the interior and 
checking the progress of Spain on the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Tn pursuance of this plan, we find La 
Salle and his companions, in January. 
1079, dragging their cannon and ma- 
terials for ahip-building around the Falls 
of Niagara, and laying the keel of a ves- 
sel 2 leagues above the cataract, at the 


mouth of Cayuga Creek. She was a 
schooner of 45 tons burden, and was 
named The Griffin. On Aug. 7, 1679, 
with an armament of five cannon and 
a crew and company of thirty-four men, 
she started on her voyage up Lake Erie, 
the first sail ever spread over the waters 
of our lake. On the fourth day she en- 
tered Detroit River; and, after en- 
countering a terrible storm on Lake 
Huron, passed the strait and reached 
Green Bay early in September. A few 
weeks later she started back for Niagara, 
laden with furs, and was never heard 

While awaiting the supplies which The 
Griffin was expected to bring, La Salle 
explored Lake Michigan to its southern 
extremity, ascended the St. Joseph, crossed 
the portage to Kankakee, descended the 
Illinois, and, landing at an Indian vil- 
lage on the site of the present village 
of Utica, 111., celebrated mass on New 
Year's Day, 1680. Before the winter 
was ended he became certain that The 
Griffin was lost. But, undaunted by 
his disasters, on March 3, with five com- 
panions, he began the incredible feat of 
making the journey to Quebec on foot 
in the dead of winter. This he accom- 
plished. He reorganized his expedition, 
conquered every difficulty, and on Dec. 
21, 1681, with a party of fifty-four 
Frenchmen and friendly Indians, set out 
for the present site of Chicago, and by 
way of the Illinois River reached the 
Mississippi, Feb. 6, 1682. He descended 
its stream, and on April 9, 1682, stand- 
ing on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, 
solemnly proclaimed to his companions 
and to the wilderness that, in the name 
of Louis the Great, he took possession of 
the Great Valley watered by the Missis- 
sippi River. He set up a column, and in- 
scribed upon it the arms of France, and 
named the country Louisiana. Upon this 
act rested the claim of France to the vast 
region stretching from the Alleghany to 
the Rocky Mountains, from the Rio 
Grande and the Gulf to the farthest 
springs of the Missouri. 

I will not follow further the career of 
the great explorers. Enough has been said 
to exhibit the spirit and character of their 
work. T would I were able to inspire the 
young men of this country with a desire 

to read the history of these stirring days 
of discovery that opened up to Europe 
the mysteries of this New World. 

As Irving has well said of their work: 
" It was poetry put into action ; it was 
the knight-errantry of the Old World car- 
ried into the depths of the American 
wilderness. The personal adventures ; the 
feats of individual prowess; the pictu- 
resque descriptions of steel-clad cavalier*, 
with lance and helm and prancing steed, 
glittering through the wilderness of 
Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and the 
prairies of the far West — would seem to 
us mere fictions of romance did they not 
come to us in the matter-of-fact narra- 
tives of those who were eye-witnesses, and 
who recorded minute memoranda of every 

Second. — The Struggle for National Do- 

I next invite your attention to the less 
stirring but not less important struggle 
for the possession of the New World which 
succeeded the period of discovery. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury North America was claimed mainly 
by three great powers. Spain held pos- 
session of Mexico and a belt reaching 
eastward to the Atlantic and northward 
to the southern line of Georgia except a 
portion near the mouth of the Mississippi 
held by the French. England held from 
the Spanish line on the south to the 
northern lakes and the St. Lawrence and 
westward to the Alleghanies. France held 
all north of the lakes and west of the Al- 
leghanies, and southward to the posses- 
sions of Spain. Some of the boundary- 
lines were but vaguely defined, others 
were disputed; but the general outlines 
were as stated. 

Besides the struggle for national pos- 
session, the religious element entered 
largely into the contest. It was a strug- 
gle between the Catholic and Protestant 
faiths. The Protestant colonies of Eng- 
land were enveloped on three sides by the 
vigorous and perfectly organized Catholic 
powers of France and Spain. 

Indeed, at an early date, by the bull of 
Pope Alexander VI., all America had been 
given to the Spaniards. But France, with 
a zeal equal to that of Spain, had entered 
the list to contest for the prize. So far 
as the religious struggle was concerned, 


the efforts of France and Spain were re- 
sisted only by the Protestants of the At- 
lantic coast. 

The main chain of the Alleghanies was 
supposed to be impassable until 1714, 
when Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, 
led an expedition to discover a pass to 
the great valley beyond. He found one 
somewhere near the western boundary of 
Virginia, and by it descended to the Ohio. 
On his return he established the " Trans- 
montane Order," or " Knights of the 
Golden Horse-shoe." On the sandy plains 
of eastern Virginia horse-shoes were rare- 
ly used, but, in climbing the mountains, 
he had found them necessary, and, on 
creating his companions knights of this 
new order, he gave to each a golden horse- 
shoe, inscribed with the motto, 

" Sic juvat transcendere montes." 

He represented to the British ministry 
the great importance of planting settle- 
ments in the western valley; and, with the 
foresight of a statesman, pointed out the 
danger of allowing the French the undis- 
puted possession of that rich region. 

The progress of England had been 
slower, but more certain, than that of her 
great rival. While the French were es- 
tablishing trading-posts at points widely 
remote from each other, along the lakes 
and the Mississippi, and in the wilderness 
of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, the English 
were slowly but firmly planting their set- 
tlements on the Atlantic slope, and pre- 
paring to contest for the rich prize of the 
great West. They possessed one great 
advantage over their French rivals. They 
had cultivated the friendship of the Iro- 
quois Confederacy, the most powerful com- 
bination of Indian tribes known to the 
New World. That confederacy held pos- 
session of the southern shores of lakes 
Ontario and Erie; and their hostility to 
the French bad confined the settlements 
of that people mainly to the northern 

During the first half of the eighteenth 
century many treaties were made by the 
English with these confederated tribes, 
and some valuable grants of land were ob- 
tained on the eastern slope of the Missis- 
sippi Valley. 

About the middle of that century the 
British government began to recognize the 

wisdom of Governor Spotswood, and per- 
ceived that an empire was soon to be 
saved or lost. 

In 1748 a company was organized by 
Thomas Lee and Lawrence and Avigustine 
Washington, under the name of " The Ohio 
Company," and received a royal grant of 
500,000 acres of land in the valley of the 
Ohio. In 1751 a British trading-post was 
established on the Big Miami; but in the 
following year it was destroyed by the 
French. Many similar efforts of the Eng- 
lish colonists were resisted by the French; 
and during the years 1751-53 it became 
manifest that a great struggle was im- 
minent between the French and the Eng- 
lish for the possession of the West. The 
British ministers were too much absorbed 
in intrigues at home to appreciate the im- 
portance of this contest; and they did 
but little more than to permit the colonies 
to protect their rights in the valley of the 

In 1753 the Ohio Company had opened 
a road, by " Will's Creek," into the west- 
ern valley, and were preparing to locate 
their colony. At the same time the 
French had sent a force to occupy 
and hold the line of the Ohio. As the 
Ohio Company was under the especial 
protection of Virginia, the governor of 
that colony determined to send a mes- 
senger to the commander of the French 
forces and demand the reason for in- 
vading the British dominions. For this 
purpose he selected George Washington, 
then twenty-one years of age, who, with 
six assistants, set out from Williams- 
burg, Va., in the middle of November, for 
11k- waters of the Ohio and the lakes. 
After a journey of nine days through 
sleet and snow, he reached the Ohio, at 
the junction of the Alleghany and the 
Monongahela; and his quick eye seemed 
to foresee the destiny of the place. " I 
spent some time," said he, " in viewing 
the rivers. The land in the fork has the 
absolute command of both." On this spot 
Fort Pitt was afterwards built, and still 
later the city of Pittsburg. 

As Bancroft has said, " After creating 
in imagination a fortress and city, his 
party swam across the Alleghany, and 
wrapped their blankets around them for 
the night on the northwest bank." Pro- 
ceeding down the Ohio to Logstown, he 



held a council with the Shawnees and the 
Delawares, who promised to secure the 
aid of the Six Nations in resisting the 
French. He then proceeded to the French 
posts at Venango and Fort Le Bceuf (the 
latter 15 miles from Lake Erie), and 
warned the commanders that the rights 
of Virginia must not be invaded. He re- 
ceived for his answer that the French 
would seize every Englishman in the Ohio 

Returning to Virginia in January, 
1754, he reported to the governor, and 
immediate preparations were made by 
the colonists to maintain their rights in 
the West and resist the incursions of the 
French. In this movement originated the 
first military union among the English 

Although peace existed between France 
and England, formidable preparations 
were made by the latter to repel en- 
croachments on the frontier, from Ohio 
to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Braddock 
was sent to America, and in 1755, at 
Alexandria, Va., he planned four expe- 
ditions against the French. 

It is not necessary to speak in detail 
ef the war that followed. After Brad- 
dock's defeat, near the forks of the Ohio, 
which occurred on July 9, 1755, England 
herself took active measures for prose- 
cuting the war. 

On Nov. 25, 1758, Forbes captured Fort 
Duquesne, which thus passed into the pos- 
session of the English, and was named 
Fort Pitt, in honor of the great minister. 
In 1759 Quebec was captured by General 
Wolfe; and the same year Niagara fell 
into the hands of the English. 

In 1760 an English force, under Major 
Eogers, moved westward from Niagara, 
to occupy the French posts on the upper 
lakes. They coasted along the south 
shore of Erie, the first English-speaking 
people that sailed its waters. Near the 
mouth of the Grand River they met in 
council the chiefs of the great warrior 
Pontiae. A few weeks later they took 
possession of Detroit. " Thus," says Mr. 
Bancroft, " was Michigan won by Great 
Britain, though not for itself. There 
were those who foresaw that the acquisi- 
tion of Canada was the prelude of Ameri- 
can independence." 

Late in December Rogers returned to 

the Maumee; and, setting out from the 
point where Sandusky City now stands, 
crossed the Huron River to the northern 
branch of White Woman's River, and, 
passing thence by the English village of 
Beaverstown, and up the Ohio, reached 
Fort Pitt en Jan. 23, 1761, just a month' 
after he left Detroit. 

Under the leadership of Pitt, England 
was finally triumphant in this great 
struggle; and by the treaty of Paris, of 
Feb. 10, 1763, she acquired Canada and 
all the territory east of the Mississippi 
River, and southward to the Spanish ter- 
ritory, excepting New Orleans and the 
island on which it is situated. 

During the twelve years which followed 
the treaty of Paris, the English colonists 
were pushing their settlements into the 
newly acquired territory; but they en- 
countered the opposition of the Six Na- 
tions and their allies, who made fruitless 
efforts to capture the British posts — De- 
troit, Niagara, and Fort Pitt. 

At length, in 1768, Sir William John- 
son concluded a treaty at Fort Stanwix 
with these tribes, by which all the lands 
south of the Ohio and the Alleghany were 
sold to the British, the Indians to re- 
main in undisturbed possession of the 
territory north and west of those rivers. 
New companies were organized to occupy 
the territory thus obtained. 

" Among the foremost speculators in 
Western lands at that time," says the 
author of Annals of the West, " was 
George Washington." In 1769 he was one 
of the signers of a petition to the King for 
a grant of 2,500.000 acres in the West. In 
1770 he crossed the mountains and de- 
scended the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha, to locate the 10.000 
acres to which he was entitled for services 
in the French War. 

Virginians planted settlements in Ken- 
tucky; and pioneers from all the colonics 
began to occupy the frontiers, from the 
Alleghany to the Tennessee. 

Third. — The War of the Revolution, and 
its Relations to the West. 

How came the thirteen colonies to pos- 
sess the valley of the Mississippi? The 
object of their struggle was independence, 
and yet by the treaty of peace in 1783 
not only was the independence of the 
thirteen colonies conceded, but there was 



granted to the new republic a western with the importance of warding off these 

territory bounded by the northern lakes, dangers, he appealed to the governor, 

the Mississippi, and the French and Span- I'atrick Henry, and received from him 

ish possessions. authority to enlist seven companies to go 

How did these hills and valleys become to Kentucky subject to his orders, and 

a part of the United States? It is true serve for three months after their arrival 

that by virtue of royal charters several in the West. This was a public commis- 

of the colonies set up claims extending to sion. 

the "South Sea." The knowledge which Another document, bearing date Will- 

the English possessed of the geography of iamsburg, Jan. 2, 1778, was a secret com- 

this country at that time is illustrated mission, which authorized him, in the 

by the fact that Capt. John Smith was name of Virginia, to capture the military 

commissioned to sail up the Chickahom- posts held by the British in the Northwest. 

iny and find a passage to China! But the 
claims of the colonies were too vague 
to be of any consequence in determining 

Armed with this authority, he proceedeJ 
to Pittsburg, where he obtained ammuni- 
tion and floated it down the river to Ken- 

the boundaries of the two governments, tucky, succeeded in enlisting seven corn- 
Virginia had indeed extended her settle- panies of pioneers, and in the month of 
ments into the region south of the Ohio June, 1778, commenced his march through 
River, and during the Revolution had the untrodden wilderness to the region of 
annexed that country to the Old Do- the Illinois. With a daring that is scarce- 
minion, calling it the county of Kentucky, ly equalled in the annals of war, he capt- 
ured the garrisons of Kaskaskia, St. Vin- 
cent, and Cahokia, and sent his prisoners 
to the governor of Virginia, and by his 
energy and skill won over the French in- 
habitants of that region to the Ameri- 

But previous to the Revolution the colo- 
nies had taken no such action in refer- 
ence to the territory northwest of the 

The cession of that great territory, un- 
der the treaty of 1783, was due mainly to can cause. 

the foresight, the courage, and the en- 
durance of one man, who never received 
from his country any adequate recogni- 

In October, 1778, the House of Burgesses 
passed an act declaring that " all the citi- 
zens of the Commonwealth of Virginia, 

tion for his great service. That man was who are already settled there, or shall 
George Rogers Clark ; and it is worth your hereafter be settled on the west side of 

while to consider the work he accom- 
plished. Born in Virginia, he was in early 
life a surveyor, and afterwards served in 

the Ohio, shall be included in the District 
of Kentucky, which shall be called 
Illinois county." In other words, George 

Lord Dunmore's War. In 1776 he settled Rogers Clark conquered the Territory of 

in Kentucky, and was, in fact, xhe founder the Northwest in the name of Virginia, 

of that commonwealth. As the war of and the flag of the republic covered it at 

the Revolution progressed, he saw that the close of the war. 

the pioneers west of the Alleghanies were In negotiating the treaty of peace at 
threatened by two formidable dangers: Taris, in 1783, the British commission- 
first, by the Indians, many of whom had ers insisted on the Ohio River as the 
joined the standard of Great Britain; northwestern boundary of the United 

and, second, by the success of the war it- 
self. For, should the colonies obtain their 

States; and it was found that the only 
tenable ground on which the American 

independence while the British held pos- commissioners relied, to sustain our claim 

session of the Mississippi Valley, the Al- to the Lakes and the Mississippi as the 

kphanies would be the western boundary boundary, was the fact that George Rogers 

of the new republic, and the pioneers of Clark had conquered the country, and Vir- 

the West would remain subject to Great 

Inspired by these views, he made two 
journeys to Virginia to represent the 
case to the authorities of that colony. 
Failing to impress the House of Burgesse? 

ginia was in undisputed possession of it 
at the cessation of hostilities. 

In his Notes on the Farh/ Settlement 
of the Northwest Territory, Judge Bur- 
net says. "That fact [the capture of the 
British posts] was confirmed and admit- 



ted, and was the chief ground on which Washington a portrait of Clark, which 
the British commissioners reluctantly gives unmistakable evidence of a char- 
abandoned their claim." acter of rare grasp and power. No one 

It is a stain upon the honor of our can look upon that remarkable face with- 

country that such a man — the leader of out knowing that the original was a man 

pioneers who made the first lodgment of unusual force. 

on the site now occupied by Louis- Fourth. — Organization and Settlement 

ville, who was in fact the founder of the of the Northwest Territory. 
State of Kentucky, and who by his per- Soon after the close of the Revolution 

sonal foresight and energy gave nine great our Western country was divided into 

States to the republic — was allowed to three territories — the Territory of the 

sink under a load of debt incurred for Mississippi, the Territory south of the 

the honor and glory of his country. Ohio, and the Territory northwest of the 

In 1799 Judge Burnet rode some 10 Ohio. For the purposes of this address 
or 12 miles from Louisville into 
country to visit this veteran hero. 

the I shall consider only the organization 
He and settlement of the latter. 

says he was induced to make this visit 
by the veneration he entertained for 
Clark's military talents and services. 
" He had," says Burnet, " the appear- 

It would be difficult to find any country 
so covered with conflicting claims of title 
as the territory of the Northwest. Sev- 
eral States, still asserting the validity of 

ance of a man born to command, and fit- their royal charters, set up claims more or 
ted by nature for his destiny. There was less definite to portions of this territory. 
a gravity and solemnity in his demeanor First — by royal charter of 1662, confirm- 
ing a council charter of 1630, Connecticut 
claimed a strip of land bounded on the 
east by the Narraganset River, north by 
Massachusetts, south by Long Island 
Sound, and extending westward between 

resembling that which so eminently dis 
tinguished the venerated Father of his 
Country. A person familiar with the 
lives and character of the military vet- 
erans of Rome in the days of her great- 
est power might readily have selected this the parallels of 41° and 42° 2' north lati- 
remarJcable man as a specimen of the tude, to the mythical " South Sea." Sec- 
model he had formed of them in his own ond — New York, by her charter of 1614, 
mind; but he was rapidly falling a vie- claimed a territory marked by definite 
tim to his extreme sensibility, and to the boundaries, lying across the boundaries of 
ingratitude of his native State, under the Connecticut charter. Third — by the 

whose banner he had fought bravely and 
with great success. 

grant to William Penn, in 1664, Pennsyl- 
vania claimed a territory overlapping part 

" The time will certainly come when of the territory of both these colonies, 

the enlightened and magnanimous citi- Fourth — the charter of Massachusetts also 

zens of Louisville will remember the debt conflicted with some of the claims above 

of gratitude they owe the memory of that mentioned. Fifth — Virginia claimed the 

distinguished man. He was the leader whole of the Northwest territory by right 

of the pioneers who made the first lodg- of conquest, and in 1779, by an act of her 

ment on the site now covered by their legislature, annexed it as a county. 

rich and splendid city. He was its pro- Sixth — several grants had been made of 

tector during the years of its infancy, and special tracts to incorporated companies 

in the period of its greatest danger. Yet by the different States. And, finally, the 

the traveller, who had read of his achieve- whole territory of the Northwest was 

ments, admired his character, and visited claimed by the Indians as their own. 

the theatre of his brilliant deeds, discov- The claims of New York, Massachu- 

ers nothing indicating the place where his setts, and part of the claim of Pennsylva- 

remains are deposited, and where he can nia had been settled before the war by 

go and pay a tribute of respect to the royal commissioners; the others were still 

memory of the departed and gallant hero." unadjusted. It became evident that no 

This eulogy of Judge Burnet is fully satisfactory settlement could be made ex- 
warranted by the facts of history. There cept by Congress. That body urged the 
is preserved in the War Department at several States to make a cession of the 



lands they claimed, and thus enable the 
general government to open the North- 
west for settlement. 

On March 1, 1784, Thomas Jefferson, 
Samuel Hardy, Arthur Lee, and James 
Monroe, delegates in Congress, executed a 
deed of cession in the name of Virginia, 
by which they transferred to the United 
States the title of Virginia to the North- 
west Territory, but reserving to that State 
150,000 acres of land which Virginia had 
promised to George Rogers Clark, and to 
the officers and soldiers who with him 
captured the British posts in the West. 
Also, another tract of land between the 
Scioto and Little Miami, to enable Vir- 
ginia to pay her promised bounties to her 
officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary 

On Oct. 27, 1784, a treaty was made 
at Fort Stanwix (now Rome, N. Y.) with 
the Six Nations, by which these tribes 
ceded to the United States their vague 
claims to the lands north and west of 
the Ohio. On Jan. 31, 17S5, a treaty was 
made at Fort Mcintosh (now the town 
of Beaver, Pa.) with the four Western 
tribes, the Wyandottes, the Delawares, 
the Chippewas, and the Tawas, by which 
all their lands in the Northwest Territory 
were ceded to the United States, except 
that portion bounded by a line from the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga up that river 
to the portage between the Cuyahoga and 
Tuscarawas, thence down that branch to 
the mouth of Sandy, thence westwardly to 
the portnge of the Big Miami, which runs 
into the Ohio, thence along the portage 
to the Great Miami or Maumee, and down 
the southeast side of the river to its 
mouth, thence along the shore of Lake 
Erie to the mouth of the Cuyahoga. The 
territory thus described was to be forever 
the exclusive possession of these Indians. 

In 1788 a settlement was made at Ma- 
rietta, and soon after other settlements 
were begun. But the Indians were dis- 
satisfied, and, by the intrigues of their 
late allies, the British, a savage and 
bloody war ensued, which delayed for 
several years the settlement of the State. 
The campaign of General Harmar in 1700 
was only a partial success. In the fol- 
lowing year a more formidable force was 
placed under the command of General 
St. Clair, who suffered a disastrous and 

overwhelming defeat on Nov. 4 of that 
year, near the head-waters of the Wa- 

It was evident that nothing but a war 
so decisive as to break the power of the 
Western tribes could make the settlement 
of Ohio possible. There are but few 
things in the career of George Washington 
that so strikingly illustrate his sagacity 
and prudence as the policy he pursued in 
reference to this subject. He made prep- 
arations for organizing an army of 5,000 
men, appointed General Wayne to the 
command of a special force, and early in 
1792 drafted detailed instructions for giv- 
ing it special discipline to fit it for Indian 
warfare. During that and the following 
year he exhausted every means to secure 
the peace of the West by treaties with the 

But agents of England and Spain were 
busy in intrigues with the Indians in 
hopes of recovering a portion of the great 
empire they had lost by the treaty of 
1783. So far were the efforts of England 
carried that a British force was sent to 
the rapids of the Maumee, where they 
built a fort, and inspired the Indians 
with the hope that the British would join 
them in fighting the forces of the United 

All efforts to make a peaceable settle- 
ment on any other basis than the abandon- 
ment on the part of the United States 
of all territory north of the Ohio having 
failed. General Wayne proceeded with that 
wonderful vigor which had made him fam- 
ous on so many fields of the Revolution, 
and on Aug. 20, 1794, defeated the Ind- 
ians and their allies on the banks of the 
Maumee, and completely broke the power 
of their confederation. 

On Aug. 3, 1795, General Wayne con- 
cluded at Greenville a treaty of lasting 
peace with these tribes and thus opened 
the State to settlement. In this treaty 
there was reserved to the Indians the 
same territory west of the Cuyahoga as 
described in the treaty of Fort Mcintosh 
of 1785. 

Fifth. — Settlement of the Western Re- 

I have now noticed briefly the adjust- 
ment of the several claims to the North- 
western Territory, excepting that of Con- 
necticut. It has already been seen that 



Connecticut claimed a strip westward from 
the Narraganset River to the Mississippi, 
between the parallels of 41° and 42° 2'; 
but that portion of her claim which cross- 
ed the territory of New York and Penn- 
\vlvania had been extinguished by adjust- 
ment. Her claim to the territory west of 
Pennsylvania was unsettled until Sept. 14, 
1786, when she ceded it all to the United 
States, except that portion lying between 
the parallels above named and a line 120 
miles west of the western line of Penn- 
sylvania and parallel with it. This tract 
of country was about the size of the pres- 
ent State, and was called " New Con- 

In May, 1792, the legislature of Con- 
necticut granted to those of her citizens 
whose property had been burned or other- 
wise spoliated by the British during the 
war of the Revolution half a million of 
acres from the west end of the reserve. 
Thejse were called " The Fire Lands." 

On Sept. 5, 1795, Connecticut executed 
a deed to John Caldwell, Jonathan Brace, 
and John Morgan, trustees for the Con- 
necticut Land Company, for 3,000,000 
acres of reserve lying west of Pennsyl- 
vania, for $1,200,000, or at the rate of 
40 cents per acre. The State gave only 
a quit-claim deed, transferring only such 
title as she possessed, and leaving all the 
remaining Indian titles to the reserve to 
be extinguished by the purchasers them- 
selves. With the exception of a few hun- 
dred acres previously sold in the neigh- 
borhood of the Salt Spring tract on the 
Mahoning, all titles to lands on the re- 
serve east of " The Fire Lands " rest on 
this quit-claim deed of Connecticut to 
the three trustees, who were all living 
as late as 1836, and joined in making 
deeds to the lands on the reserve. 

On the same day that the trust deed 
was made, articles of association were 
signed by the proprietors, providing for 
the government of the company. The 
management of its affairs was intrusted 
to seven directors. They determined to 
extinguish the Indian title, and survey 
their land into townships 5 miles square. 
Moses Cleaveland, one of the directors, 
was made general agent; Augustus Por- 
ter, principal surveyor; and Seth Pease, 
astronomer and surveyor. To these were 
added four assistant surveyors, a com- 

missary, a physician, and thirty-seven 
other employees. This party assembled 
at Schenectady, N. Y., in the spring of 
1796, and prepared for their expedition. 

It is interesting to follow them on 
their way to the Reserve. They ascended 
the Mohawk River in bateaux, passing 
through Little Falls, and from the present 
city of Rome took their boats and stores 
across into Wood Creek. Passing down 
the stream, they crossed the Oneida Lake, 
thence down the Oswego to Lake Ontario, 
coasting along the lake to Niagara. After 
encountering innumerable hardships, the 
party reached Buffalo on June 17, where 
they met Red Jacket and the principal 
chiefs of the Six Nations, and on the 23d 
of that month completed a contract with 
those chiefs, by which they purchased all 
the rights of those Indians to the lands 
on the Reserve, for £500, New York cur- 
rency, to be paid in goods to the Western 
Indians, and two beef cattle and 100 gal- 
lons of whiskey to the Eastern Indians, 
besides gifts and provisions to all of 

Setting out from Buffalo on June 27, 
they coasted along the shore of the lake, 
some of the party in boats and others 
marching along the banks. 

In the journal of Seth Pease, published 
in Whittlesey's History of Cleveland, I 
find the following: 

" Monday, July 4, 1796. — We that came 
by land arrived at the confines of New 
Connecticut, and gave three cheers pre- 
cisely at five o'clock p.m. We then pro- 
ceeded to Conneaut, at five hours thirty 
minutes, our boats got on an hour after; 
we pitched our tents on the east side." 

In the journal of General Cleaveland is 
the following entry: 

" On this Creek (' Conneaugh ') , in New 
Connecticut Land, July 4, 1796, under 
General Moses Cleaveland, the surveyors 
and men sent by the Connecticut Land 
Company to survey and settle the Con- 
necticut Reserve, were the first English 
people who took possession of it. . . . 

" We gave three cheers and christen- 
ed the place Fort Independence; and, af- 
ter many difficulties, perplexities, and 
hardships were surmounted, and we were 
on the good and promised land, felt that 
a just tribute of respect to the day ought 
to be paid. There were in all, including 


women and children, fifty in number. The 
men, under Captain Tinker, ranged them- 
selves on the beach and fired a federal 
salute of fifteen rounds, and then the 
sixteenth in honor of New Connecticut. 
Drank several toasts. . . . Closed with 
three cheers. Drank several pails of grog. 
Supped and retired in good order." 

Three days afterwards General Cleave- 
land held a council with Paqua, chief of 
the Massasagas, whose village was at Con- 
neaut Creek. The friendship of these Ind- 
ians was purchased by a few trinkets and 
$25 worth of whiskey. 

A cabin was erected on the bank of Con- 
neaut Creek ; and, in honor of the com- 
missary of the expedition, was called 
" Stow Castle." At this time the white 
inhabitants west of the Genesee River and 
along the coasts of the lakes were as fol- 
lows: the garrison at Niagara, two fam- 
ilies at Lewiston, one at Buffalo, one at 
Cleveland, and one at Sandusky. There 
were no other families east of Detroit: 
and, with the exception of a few advent- 
urers at the Salt Springs of the Mahon- 
ing, the interior of New Connecticut was 
an unbroken wilderness. 

The work of surveying was commenced 
at once. One party went southward on 
the Pennsylvania line to find the 41st 
parallel, and began the survey; another, 
under General Cleaveland, coasted along 
the lake to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, 
which they reached on July 22, and there 
laid the foundation of the chief city of the 
Reserve. A large portion of the survey 
was made during that season, and the 
work was completed in the following 

By the close of the year 1800 there 
were thirty-two settlements on the Re- 
serve, though as yet no organization of 
government had been established. But 
the pioneers were a people who had been 
trained in the principles and practices of 
civil order; and these were transplanted 
to their new home. In New Connecticut 
there was but little of that lawlessness 
which so often characterizes tie people 
of a new country. In mny instances 
a township organization was completed 
and their minister chosen before the pio- 
neers left home. Thus they planted the 
institutions and opinions of Old Connecti- 
cut in their new wilderness homes. 

There are townships on this Western 
Reserve which are more thoroughly New 
England in character and spirit than most 
of the towns of the New England of to- 
day. Cut off as they were from the 
metropolitan life that had gradually been 
moulding and changing the spirit of New 
England, they preserved here in the wil- 
derness the characteristics of New Eng- 
land, as it was when they left it at the 
beginning of the century. This has given 
to the people of the Western Reserve 
those strongly marked qualities which 
have always distinguished them. 

For a long time it was difficult to as- 
certain the political and legal status 
of the settlers on the Reserve. The State 
of Connecticut did not assume jurisdic- 
tion over its people, because the State 
had parted with her claim to the soil. 

By a proclamation of Governor St. Clair, 
in 1788, Washington county had been or- 
ganized, having its limits extended west- 
ward to the Scioto and northward to the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga, with Marietta as 
the county seat. These limits included 
a portion of the Western Reserve. But 
the Connecticut settlers did not consider 
this a practical government, and most of 
them doubted its legality. 

By the end of the century seven coun- 
ties, Washington. Hamilton. Ross. Wayne. 
Adams, Jefferson, and Knox, had been 
created, but none of them were of any 
practical service to the settlers on the 
Reserve. No magistrate had been ap- 
pointed for that portion of the country, 
no civil process was established, and no 
mode existed of making leeal conveyances. 

But in the year 1800 the State of Con- 
necticut, by act of her legislature, trans- 
ferred to the national government all 
her claim to civil jurisdiction. Congress 
assumed the political control, and the 
President conveyed by patent the fee of 
the soil to the government of the State 
for the use of the grantees and the parties 
claiming under them. Whereupon, in pur- 
suance of this authority, on Sept. 
22, 1800, Governor St. Clair issued 
a proclamation establishing the county 
of Trumbull, to include within its boun- 
daries the " Fire Lands " and adjacent 
is'ands, and ordered an election to be 
held at Warren, its county seat, on 
the second Tuesday of October. At that 


election forty -two votes were cast, of 
which General Edward Paine received 
thirty-eight, and was thus elected a mem- 
ber of the Territorial legislature. All 
the early deeds on the Reserve are pre- 
served in the records of Trumbull county. 

A treaty was held at Fort Industry 
on July 4, 1805, between the commis- 
sioners of the Connecticut Land Company 
and the Indians, by which all the lands 
in the Reserve west of the Cuyahoga be- 
longing to the Indians were ceded to the 
Connecticut Company. 

Geauga was the second county of the 
Reserve. It was created by an act of 
the legislature, Dec. 31, 1805; and by a 
subsequent act its boundaries were made 
to include the present territory of Cuy- 
ahoga county as far west as the Four- 
teenth Range. 

Portage county was established on Feb. 
10. 1807; and on June 16, 1810, the act 
establishing Cuyahoga county went into 
operation. But that act all of Geauga 
west of the Ninth Range was made a part 
of Cuyahoga county. Ashtabula county 
was established on Jan. 22, 1811. 

A considerable number of Indians re- 
mained on the Western Reserve until the 
breaking out of the War of 1812. Most 
of the Canadian tribes took up arms 
against the United States in that struggle, 
and a portion of the Indians of the West- 
ern Reserve joined their Canadian breth- 
ren. At the close of that war occasional 
bands of these Indians returned to their 
old haunts on the Cuyahoga and the Ma- 
honing; but the inhabitants of the Re- 
serve soon made them understand that 
they were unwelcome visitors after the 
part they had taken against us. Thus 
the War of 1812 substantially cleared the 
Reserve of its Indian inhabitants. 

In this brief survey I have attempted 
to indicate the general character of the 
leading events connected with the discov- 
ery and settlement of our country. I 
cannot, on this occasion, further pursue 
the history of the settlement and building 
up of the counties and townships of the 
Western Reserve. I have already noticed 
the peculiar character of the people who 
converted this wilderness into the land of 
happy homes which we now behold on ev- 
ery hand. But I desire to call the atten- 
tion of the young men and women who 

hear me to the duty they owe to them- 
selves and their ancestors to study care- 
fully and reverently the history of the 
great work which has been accomplished 
in this New Connecticut. 

The pioneers who first broke ground 
here accomplished a work unlike that 
which fell to the lot of any succeeding 
generation. The hardships they endured, 
the obstacles they encountered, the life 
they led, the peculiar qualities they need- 
ed in their undertakings, and the traits 
of character developed by their works 
stand alone in our history. The genera- 
tion that knew these first pioneers is fast 
passing away. But there are sitting in 
this audience to-day a few men and wom- 
en whose memories date back to the early 
settlement. Here sits a gentleman near 
me who is older than the Western Re- 
serve. He remembers a time when the 
axe of the Connecticut pioneer had never 
awakened the echoes of the wilderness 
here. How strange and wonderful a 
transformation has taken place since he 
was a child! It is our sacred duty to 
rescue from oblivion the stirring recol- 
lections of such men, and preserve them 
as memorials of the past, as lessons for 
our own inspiration and the instruction 
of those who shall come after us. 

The materials for a history of this Re- 
serve are rich and abundant. Its pioneers 
were not ignorant and thoughtless ad- 
venturers, but men of established charac- 
ter, whose opinions on civil and religious 
liberty had grown with their growth and 
become the settled convictions of their 
maturer years. Both here and in Con- 
necticut the family records, journals, and 
letters, which are preserved in hundreds 
of families, if brought out and arranged 
in order, would throw a flood of light 
on every page of our history. Even the 
brief notice which informed the citizens 
of this county that a meeting was to be 
held here to-day to organize a Pioneer 
Society has called this great audience to- 
gether, and they have brought with them 
many rich historical memorials. They 
have brought old colonial commissions 
given to early Connecticut soldiers of the 
Revolution, who became pioneers of the 
Reserve and whose children are here to- 
day. They have brought church and oth- 
er records which date back to the besin- 



ning of these settlements. They have lowed the occupation of a soap-boiler 
shown us implements of industry which on Staten Island. In 1854 he returned 
the pioneers brought in with them, many to Italy, and purchased the northern part 
of which have been superseded by the supe- of Caprera, where he remained until 1859, 
rior mechanical contrivances of our time, when he organized and commanded an in- 
Some of these implements are symbols of dependent corps, known as the " Hunters 
the spirit and character of the pioneers 
of the Reserve. Here is a broad - axe 
brought from Connecticut by John Ford, 
father of the late governor of Ohio; and 
we are told that the first work done with 
this axe by that sturdy old pioneer, after 
he had finished a few cabins for the fam- 
ilies that came with him, was to hew out 
the timbers for an academy, the Burton 
Academy, to which so many of our older 
men owe the foundation of their educa- 
tion, and from which sprang the Western 
Eeserve College. 

These pioneers knew well that the 
three great forces which constitute the 
strength and glory of a free government 
are the family, the school, and the church. 
These three they planted here, and they 
nourished and cherished them with an 
energy and devotion scarcely equalled in 
any other quarter of the world. On this 
height were planted in the wilderness the 
symbols of this trinity of powers; and 
here, let us hope, may be maintained for- 
ever the ancient faith of our fathers in 
the sanctity of the home, the intelligence 

of the 


Alps," in the Sardinian service 
the war of Sardinia and France 

of the school, and the faithfulness of the against Austria. Secretly abetted by Sar- 
church. Where these three combine in dinia, after peace was made, he organ- 
prosperous union, the safety and prosperity ized an expedition against the Two Sici- 
of the nation are assured. The glory of lies, having as his object the union of 
our country can never be dimmed while Italy. In May, 1800. he descended upon 
these three lights are kept shining with Sicily with 1.000 volunteers, and when 
an undimmed lustre. he had made himself dictator he crossed 
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, patriot; born at to the mainland and expelled Francis II. 
Nice, Italy, July 4, 1807; because of his from Naples and entered the capita!, Sept. 
political opinions was driven into exile 7, 1860. Upon the union of the Two Sici- 
in 1834, and went to South America, where lies with Sardinia, and the proclamation of 
he was employed in the service first of Victor Emmanuel as King of Italy, March 
the republic of Rio Grande do Sul, and 17, I860, he retired to Caprera. Anxious 
subsequently in that of Uruguay, in 1836- for the complete unification of Italy, he 
48. Returning to Italy, he entered the organized an expedition against Rome 
service of the Roman republic in 1849, and in 1862, but was defeated and taken pris- 
supreme command was given to him and oner by the Sardinians at Aspromonte, 
to General Roselli. The grand defence of in August. A few years later he was again 
Rome against French intervention in 1S49 in arms against the Pope. Marching 

was due principally to bis tact and brav- 
ery. After this cause became hopeless, 
in 1850, he came to the United States, 
where he became a naturalized citizen, 
and where for about three years he fol- 


into the Campagna, he defeated the Papal 
troops at Montorotondo on Oct. 25, 1867, 
but shortly after, while moving upon 
Rome, he was defeated by the French and 
Papal army near Mentana. In 1870 tho 


misfortunes of France and an appeal force of the National army at Carrick's 

from Gambetta decided him to take up Ford, in which action his troops were 

the French cause against the Germans, defeated and himself killed, July 13. 

He received the command of a corps call- Gamier, Julien. See Jesuit Mis- 

ed the " Volunteers of the Vosges." His sions. 

son Ricciotti won a small victory over Garrard, Kenner, military officer; born 
the Germans on Oct. 19, and that the in Cincinnati, 0., in 1830; graduated at 
latter advanced no further in that direc- the United States Military Academy in 
tion was due to the management of 1851; was taken prisoner by the Con- 
Garibaldi. He died at Caprera, June 1, federates while on frontier duty in 
1882. Texas, April 12, 1861, and paroled until 

Garland, Augustus Hill; born in Tip- exchanged in August, 1862; served with 

ton county, Tenn., June 11, 1832; was ad- marked distinction through the remainder 

mitted to the bar of Arkansas in 1853, to of the war, taking part in many impor- 

which State his parents had removed when tant actions, including that of Blakely, 

he was a child. He opposed the secession which place was captured by his command; 

of his State, but accepted the same and was brevetted major-general, U. S. A., Nov. 

was sent as delegate to the Provisional 9, 1866. He died in Cincinnati, O., May 

Congress at Montgomery, Ala., in 1861. 15, 1879. 

He was also elected to the first Confederate Garrett, Edmund H., author; born in 

Congress, and afterwards to the Confeder- Albany, N. Y., Oct. 19, 1853; was edu- 

ate Senate. In 1867 he was elected United cated in Paris. His publications include 

States Senator, but was not allowed to Three Heroines of New England Romance; 

take his seat; in 1876 was again elected Romance and Reality of the Puritan 

in place of Powell Clayton, and was ad- Coast; and the Pilgrim Shore. 

mitted. He remained in the Senate until Garrett, Thomas, abolitionist; born in 

March, 1885, when he resigned to take Upper Darby, Pa., Aug. 21, 1783; acquired 

the post of Attorney-General of the United a fortune in the iron business. In 1807 

States, offered him by President Cleve- his sympathy for the slaves was first 

land. He resumed practice in 1889, and aroused, and for forty years thereafter 

died in court, in Washington, D. C, Jan. he aided escaping slaves so skilfully that 

26, 1899. when their owners found the fugitives 

Garlington, Ernest A., military offi- had reached his house they generally 

cer; born in Newberry Court-house, S. C, abandoned the chase. He was instru- 

Feb. 20, 1853; graduated at the United mental within the limits of the law in 

States Military Academy in 1876; com- liberating about 3,000 slaves from Mary- 

manded the Greeley Relief Expedition in land, Delaware, and Virginia. Later, 

1883 (see Arctic Exploration) ; was in- however, he was forced to part with his 

spector-general of a cavalry division in whole fortune in paying damages to the 

Cuba in 1898, and participated in the owners of runaway slaves. Afterwards 

siege of Santiago. His publications in- his friends loaned him money to again 

elude Historical Sketches of the 7th engage in business, and before his death 

Cavalry Regiment; Cavalry Outposts, Ad- he accumulated a second fortune. He 

vance and Rear Guards; Reconnoissance, died in Wilmington, Del., Jan. 23, 1871. 

etc. Garrison, Joseph Fithian, clergyman; 

Garnett, Robert Selden, military of- born in Fairton, N. J., Jan. 20, 1823; 
ficer; born in Essex county, Va., Dec. 16, graduated at Princeton College in 1842; 
1819; graduated at the United States Mili- became a Protestant Episcopal minister 
tary Academy in 1841; served as aide to in 1855; later accepted the chair of Litur- 
General Taylor in the war with Mexico, gics and Canon Law in the Philadelphia 
When the Civil War broke out he re- Divinity School. His publications in- 
signed from the National army, and in elude The Formation of the Protestant 
June, 1861, was appointed brigadier-gen- Episcopal Church in the United States, 
eral in the Confederate service, and assign- etc. 

ed to the western part of Virginia. In Garrison, Wendell Phillips, journal- 

the following month he was met by a large ist ; born in Cambridgeport, Mass., June 



4, 1840; graduated at Harvard in 1861; 
became literary editor of The Nation; 
author of The Benson Family of Newport, 
R. I.; joint author of Life of William 
Lloyd Garrison. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, abolitionist; 
born in Newburyport, Mass., Dec. 12, 
1804; was a shoemaker's apprentice, but 
finally learned the art of printing, and 
became a contributor to the press in early 
life. In all his writings he showed a 
philanthropic spirit, and a sympathy for 
the oppressed everywhere. In 1827 he 
edited the National Philanthropist, in 
Boston; and, as assistant editor of a Ba 1 - 
timore paper, he denounced the taking of 
a cargo of slaves from that city to New 
Orleans as " domestic piracy." For this 
he was fined, and imprisoned forty-nine 
days, until Arthur Tappan, of New York, 
paid the fine. On Jan. 1, 1831, he began 
the publication of his famous Liberator, a 
weekly newspaper and uncompromising 
opponent of slavery, which was discontin- 
ued in 1865, when the result for which he 
had devoted the best energies of his life 
had been effected by the Emancipation 
Proclamation of President Lincoln. Mr. 
Garrison was a founder (1832) of the 
American Anti-slavery Society, and was 
its president from that time until 1865. 


Attending, as a delegate, the World's Anti- 
slavery Convention, in London (1840), he 
refused to take his seat, because the wom- 
en delegates from the United States were 
refused seats in that body. In 1866 ne 

received about $30,000 as a national tea 
timonial from his friends for his ardu- 
ous labors in the cause of humanity. He 
died in New York, May 24, 1879. See 
Phillips, Wendell. 

Lessons of Independence Day. — On July 
4, 1842, he delivered the following oration 
in Boston: 

I present myself as the advocate of my 
enslaved countrymen, at a time when 
their claims cannot be shuffled out oi 
sight, and on an occasion which entitles 
me to a respectful hearing in their behalf. 
If I am asked to prove their title to lib- 
erty, my answer is, that the Fourth of 
July is not a day to be wasted in estab- 
lishing " self-evident truths." In the 
name of the God who has made us of one 
blood, and in whose image we are created ; 
in the name of the Messiah, who came to 
bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim 
liberty to the captives, and the opening 
of a prison to them that are bound — 1 
demand the immediate emancipation of 
those who are pining in slavery on the 
American soil, whether they are fatten- 
ing for the shambles in Maryland and 
Virginia, or are wasting, as with a pesti- 
lent disease, on the cotton and sugar plan- 
tations of Alabama and Louisiana; wheth- 
er they are male or female, young or old, 
vigorous or infirm. I make this demand, 
not for the children merely, but the par- 
ei.ts also; not for one, but for all; not 
with restrictions and limitations, but un- 
conditionally. I assert their perfect 
equality with ourselves, as a part of the 
human race, and their inalienable right 
to liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 
That this demand is founded in justice, 
and is therefore irresistible, the whole 
ration is this day acknowledging, as upon 
oath at the bar of the world. And not 
until, by a formal vote, the people re- 
pudiate the Declaration of Independence 
as a false and dangerous instrument, and 
cease to keep this festival in honor of lib- 
erty, as unworthy of note or remem- 
brance; not until they spike every cannon, 
and muffle every bell, and disband every 
procession, and quench every bonfire, and 
gag every orator; not until they brand 
Washington, and Adams, and Jefferson, and 
Hancock as fanatics and madmen; not 
until they place themselves again in the 


condition of colonial subserviency to sequences! To save them from danger, I 
Great Britain, or transform this republic am not obligated to suppress the truth, 
into an imperial government; not until or to stop proclaiming liberty "through- 
they cease pointing exultingly to Bunker out all the land, unto all the inhabitants 
Hill, and the plains of Concord and Lex- thereof." No, indeed. There are two 
ington; not, in fine, until they deny the important truths, which, as far as prac- 
authority of God, and proclaim them- ticable, I mean every slave shall be made 
selves to be destitute of principles and to understand. The first is, that he has 
humanity, will I argue the question, as a right to his freedom now; the other is, 
one of doubtful disputation, on an occa- that this is recognized as a self-evident 
sion like this, whether our slaves are en- truth in the Declaration of Independence, 
titled to the rights and privileges of free- Sedition, forsooth. Why, what are the 
men. That question is settled irrevoca- American people doing this day? In 
bly. There is no man to be found, un- theory, maintaining the freedom and equal- 
less he has a brow of brass and a heart ity of the human race; and, in practice, 
cf stone, who will dare to contest it on declaring that all tyrants ought to be 
a day like this. A state of vassalage is extirpated from the face of the earth! 
pronounced, by universal acclamation, to We are giving to our slaves the follow- 
tie such as no man, or body of men, ought ing easy sums for resolution: If the 
to submit to for one moment. I there- principle involved in a threepenny tax 
fore tell the American slaves that the on tea justified a seven years' war, how 
time for their emancipation is come; that, much blood may be lawfully spilt in 
their own task-masters being witnesses, resisting the principle that one human 
they are created equal to the rest of man- being has a right to the body and 
kind, and possess an inalienable right to soul of another, on account of the color 
liberty; and that no man has a right to of the skin? Again, if the impressment 
hold them in bondage. I counsel them of 6,000 American seamen by Great Brit- 
not to fight for their freedom, both on ac- ain furnished sufficient cause for a bloody 
count of the hopelessness of the effort, struggle with that nation, and the sac- 
and because it is rendering evil for evil; rifice of hundreds of millions of capital 
but I tell them, not less emphatically, it in self-defence, how many lives may be 
is not wrong for them to refuse to wear taken, by way of retribution, on account 
the yoke of slavery any longer. Let them of the enslavement as chattels of more 
shed no blood — enter into no conspiracies than 2.000,000 of American laborers? 
— raise no murderous revolts; but, how- Oppression and insurrection go hand-in- 
ever and wherever they can break their hand, as cause and effect are allied to- 
feiters, God give them courage to do so! gether. In what age of the world have 
And should they attempt to elope from tyrants reigned with impunity, or the 
their house of bondage, and come to the victims of tyranny not resisted unto 
North, may each of them find a covert blood? Besides our grand insurrection 
from the search of the spoiler, and an against the authority of the mother coun- 
invincible public sentiment to shield them try, there have been many insurrections, 
from the grasp of the kidnapper! Sue- during the last 200 years, in various 
cess attend them in their flight to Can- sections of the land, on the part of the 
ada, to touch whose monarchical soil victims of our tyranny, but without the 
insures freedom to every republican success that attended our own struggle, 
slave! The last was the memorable one in 
Is this preaching sedition? Sedition Southampton, Va., headed by a black 
against what? Not the lives of the patriot, nicknamed, in the contemptuous 
Southern oppressors, for I renew the nomenclature of slavery, " Nat " Turner, 
solemn injunction, " Shed no blood!" — but The name does not strike the ear so 
against unlawful authority, and barba- harmoniously as that of Washington, or 
rous usage, and unrequited toil. If slave- Lafayette, or Hancock, or Warren; but 
holders are still obstinately bent upon the name is nothing. It is not in the 
plundering and starving their long-suf- power of all the slave - holders upon 
fering victims, let them look well to con- earth to render odious the memory of 



that sable chieftain. " Resistance to ty- their rights, but also of their wrongs! 
rants is obedience to God " was our Rev- That must be a rare piece of information 
olutionary motto. We acted upon that to them, truly. Tell a man who has just 
motto — what more did Nat Turner? Says had his back flayed by the lash, till a 
George McDuffie: "A people who deliber- pool of blood is at his feet, that somebody 
ately submit to oppression, with a full has flogged him! Tell him who wears an 
knowledge that they are oppressed, are fit iron collar upon his neck, and a chain 
only to be slaves. No tyrant ever made upon his heels, that his limbs are fettered, 
a slave; no community, however small, as if he knew it not! Tell those who re- 
having the spirit of freedom, ever yet had coive no compensation for their toil that 
a master. It does not belong to men to they are unrighteously defrauded! In 
count the costs and calculate the hazards spite of all their whippings, and depriva- 
of vindicating their rights and defending tions, and forcible separations, like cattle 
their liberties." So reasoned Nat Turner, in the market, it seems that the poor 
and acted accordingly. Was he a patriot, slaves realized a heaven of blissful igno- 
or a monster? Do we mean to say to the ranee, until their halcyon dreams were 
oppressed of all nations, in the sixty-third disturbed by the pictorial representations 
year of our independence, and on July 4, and exciting descriptions of the aboli- 
that our example in 1776 was a bad one, tionists! What! have not the slaves 
and ought not to be followed? As a eyes? Have they not hands, organs, di- 
Christian non-resident I, for one, am pre- mensions, senses, affections, passions? 
pared to say so; but are the people ready Are they not fed with the same food, hurt 
to say no chains ought to be broken by with the same weapons, subject to the 
the hands of violence, and no blood spilt same diseases, healed by the same means, 
in defence of inalienable human rights, in warmed and cooled by the same winter and 
any quarter of the globe ? If not, then summer, as freemen are ? " If we prick 
our slaves will peradventure take us them, do they not bleed? If we tickle 
at our word and there will be given unto them, do they not laugh? If we poison them, 
us blood to drink, for we are worthy, do they not die? And if we wrong them, 
Why accuse abolitionists of stirring them will they not be revenged?" 
up to insurrection? The charge is false; "For the slave-holders," we are told, 
but what if it were true? If any man "there is no peace, by night or by day; 
has a right to fight for liberty, this right but every moment is a moment of alarm, 
equally extends to all men subjected to and their enemies are of their own house- 
bondage. In claiming this right for them- hold." It is the hand of a friendly vindi- 
selves, the American people necessarily cator, moreover, that rolls up the cur- 
concede it to all mankind. If, therefore, tain! What but the most atrocious 
they are found tyrannizing over any part tyranny on the part of the masters, and 
of the human race, they voluntarily seal the most terrible sufferings on the part 
their own death-warrant, and confess that G f the slaves, can account for such alarm, 
they deserve to perish. sucn insecurity, such apprehensions that 

" even a more horrible catastrophe " than 

« Wftat are the banners ye exalt?— the deeds that of arson and murder may transpire 

Th f a Le? 1Sed y ° Ur fatbCrS ' Pyi ' amid ° f lightly? It requires all the villany that 

Ye show the wound that still In history has ever been charged upon Southern op- 

bleeds, pressors, and all the wretchedness that 

And talk exulting of the patriot's name— la ever been ascribe( j to the oppressed, 

Then, when your words have waked a kin- . , . . , , ,, rl , ,, , 

dred flame to work out so fearful a result — and that 

And slaves behold the freedom ye adore, the statement is true, the most dislin- 

And deeper feel their sorrow and their guished slave-holders have more than once 

Ye^ouble all the fetters that they wore, certified. That it is true the entire code 

And press them down to earth, till hope of slave laws — whips and yokes and fet- 

exults no more!" tors — the nightly patrol — restriction of 

locomotion on the part of the slaves, ex- 

But. it seems, abolitionists have the ccpt with passes — muskets, pistols, and 

audacity to tell the slaves, not only of bowie-knives in the bed-chambers during 



the hours of rest — the fear of intercom- our character, can disturb the serenity o! 
munication of colored freemen and the our minds; nor can any threats of vio- 
slaves — the prohibition of even alphabeti- knee, or prospect of suffering, deter us 
eal instruction, under pains and penalties, from our purpose. That we manifest a 
to the victims of wrong — the refusal to bad spirit is not to be denied on the tes- 
admit their testimony against persons of timony of the Southern slave-driver, or his 
a white complexion — the wild consterna- Northern apologist. That our philan- 
tion and furious gnashing of teeth exhib- thropy is exclusive, in the favor of but 
ited by the chivalric oppressors at the one party, is not proved by our denouncing 
sight of an anti-slavery publication — the the oppressor, and sympathizing with his 
rewards offered for the persons of aboli- victim. That we are seeking popularity, 
tionists — the whipping of Dresser, and is not apparent from our advocating an 
the murder of Lovejoy — the plundering of odious and unpopular cause, and vindicat- 
the United States mail — the application ing, at the loss of our reputation, the 
of lynch law to all who are found sym- rights of a people who are reckoned among 
pathizing with the slave population as the offscouring of all things. That our 
men, south of the Potomac — the reign of motives are disinterested, they who swim 
mobocracy in place of constitutional law — with the popular current, and partake 
and, finally, the Pharaoh-like conduct of of the gains of unrighteousness, and 
the masters, in imposing new burdens and plunder the laborers of their wages, are 
heavier fetters upon their down-trodden net competent to determine. That our 
vassals — all these things, together with a language is uncharitable and un-Christian, 
long catalogue of others, prove that the tbey who revile us as madmen, fanatics, 
abolitionists have not " set aught down incendiaries, traitors, cut-throats, etc., 
in malice" against the South; that cannot be allowed to testify. That our 
they have exaggerated nothing. They measures are violent is not demon- 
warn us, as with miraculous speech, that, strated by the fact that we wield no 
unless justice be speedily done, a bloody physical weapons, pledge ourselves not to 
catastrophe is to come, which will roll a countenance insurrection, and present the 
gory tide of desolation through the land, peaceful front of non-resistance to those 
and may, peradventure, blot out the mem- who put our lives in peril. That our ob- 
ory of the scenes of Santo Domingo. They ject is chimerical or unrighteous is not 
are the premonitory rumblings of a great substantiated by the fact of its being 
earthquake — the lava token of a heaving commenced by Almighty God, and sup- 
volcano! God grant that, while there is ported by His omnipotence, as well as ap- 
time and a v/ay to escape, we may give proved by the wise and good in every age 
heed to these signals of impending retri- and in all countries. If the charge, so 
bution! often brought against us, be true, that 

One thing I know full well. Calumni- our temper is rancorous, and our spirit 

ated, abhorred, persecuted as the aboli- turbulent, how has it happened that, dur- 

tionists have been, they constitute the ing so long a conflict with slavery, not a 

body-guard of the slave-holders, not to single instance can be found in which an 

strengthen their opposition, but to shield abolitionist has committed a breach of 

them from the vengeance of their slaves, the peace, or violated any law of his 

Instead of seeking their destruction, country? If it be true that we are not 

abolitionists are endeavoring to save them actuated by the highest principles of rec- 

from midnight conflagration and sudden titude, nor governed by the spirit of for- 

death, by beseeching them to remove the bearanee, I ask once more how it has 

cause of insurrection; and by holding come to pass that, when our meetings 

out to slaves the hope of a peaceful de- have been repeatedly broken up by lawless 

Iterance. We do not desire that any men, our property burned in the streets, 

should perish. Having a conscience void our dwellings sacked, our persons brutally 

of offence in this matter, and cherishing assailed, and our lives put in imminent 

a love for our race which is " without par- peril, we have refused to lift a finger in 

tiality and without hypocrisy," no im- self-defence, or to maintain our rights 

peachment of our motives, or assault upon in the spirit of worldly patriotism? 
rv.— c 33 


If it must be so, let the defenders of 
slavery still have all the brick-bats, 
bowie-knives, and pistols, which the land 
can furnish; but let us possess all the 
arguments, facts, warnings, and promises 
which insure the final triumph of our 
holy cause. 

Nothing is easier than for the abo- 
litionists, if they were so disposed, as it 
were in the twinkling of an eye, to " cry 
havoc and let slip the dogs of war," and 
fill this whole land with the horrors of a 
civil and servile commotion. It is only 
for them to hoist but one signal, to kindle 
but a single torch, to give but a single 
bugle-call, and the 3,000,000 of colored vic- 
tims of oppression, both bond and free, 
would start up as one man, and make 
the American soil drunk with the blood 
of the slain. How fearful and tremen- 
dous is the power, for good and evil, thus 
lodged in their hands! Besides being 
stimulated by a desire to redress the 
wrongs of their enslaved countrymen, 
they could plead in extenuation of their 
conduct for resorting to arms (and their 
plea would be valid, according to the 
theory and practice of republicanism), 
that they had cruel wrongs of their own 
to avenge, and sacred rights to secure, 
inasmuch as they are thrust out beyond 
the pale of the Constitution, excluded from 
one-half of the Union by the fiat of the 
lynch code, deprived of the protection of 
the law, and branded as traitors, because 
they dare to assert that God wills all men 
to be free! Now, I frankly put it to 
the understandings of Southern men, 
whether, in view of these considerations, 
it is adding anything to their safety, or 
postponing the much-dreaded catastrophe 
a single hour — whether, in fact, it is 
not increasing their peril, and rendering 
an early explosion more probable — for 
them to persevere in aggravating the con- 
dition of their slaves, by tightening their 
chains and increasing the heavy burdens 
— or wreaking their malice upon the free 
people of color or in adopting every bas* 
and unlawful measure to wound the char- 
acter, destroy the property, and jeopard 
the lives of abolitionists, and thus leaving 
no stone unturned to inflame them to des- 
peration? All this Southern men have 
done, and are still doing, as if animated 
by an insane desire to be destroyed. 

The object of the Anti-slavery Asso- 
ciation is not to destroy men's lives, des- 
pots though they be, but to prevent the 
spilling of human blood. It is to en- 
lighten the understanding, arouse the con- 
science, affect the heart. We rely upon 
moral power alone for success. The 
ground upon which we stand belongs to 
no sect or party — it is holy ground. 
Whatever else may divide us in opinion, 
in this one thing we are agreed, that 
slave-holding is a crime under all circum 
stances, and ought to be immediately and 
unconditionally abandoned. We enforce 
upon no man either a political or a re- 
ligious test as a condition of membership; 
but at the same time we expect every 
abolitionist to carry out his principles 
consistently, impartially, faithfully, in 
whatever station he may be called to act, 
or wherever conscience may lead him to 
go. I hail this union of hearts as a 
bright omen that all is not lost. To the 
slave-holding South it is more terrible 
than a military army with banners. It is 
indeed a sublime spectacle to see men for- 
getting their jarring creeds and party 
affinities, and embracing each other as one 
and indivisible in a struggle in behalf of 
our common Christianity and our com- 
mon nature. God grant that no root of 
bitterness may spring up to divide us 
asunder! "United we stand, divided we 
fall," and if we fall what remains for our 
country but a fearful looking for of judg- 
ment and of fiery indignation that shall 
consume it? Tall we cannot if our trust 
be in the Lord of Hosts and in the power 
of His might — not in man, nor any body 
of men. Divided we cannot be if we truly 
" remember them that are in bonds as 
bound with them," and love our neighbors 
as ourselves. 

Genuine abolitionism is not a hobby 
got up for personal or associated aggran- 
dizement; it is not a political ruse; it is 
not a spasm of sympathy which lasts but 
for a moment, leaving the system weak 
and worn ; it is not a fever of enthusiasm ; 
it is not the fruit of fanaticism; it is not 
a spirit of faction. It is of Heaven, not 
of men. It lives in the heart as a vital 
principle. It is an essential part of 
Christianity, and aside from it there can 
be no humanity. Its scope is not con- 
fined to the slave population of the United 


States, but embraces mankind. Opposi- 
tion cannot weary it out, force cannot put 
it down, fire cannot consume it. It is the 
spirit of Jesus, who was sent " to bind 
up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty 
to the captives, and the opening of the 
prison to them that are bound; to pro- 
claim the acceptable year of the Lord, 
and the day of vengeance of our God." 
Its principles are self-evident, its meas- 
ures rational, its purpose? merciful and 
just. It cannot be diverted from the 
path of duty, though all earth and hell 
oppose; for it is lifted far above all 
earth-born fear. When it fairly takes 
possession of the soul, you may trust the 
soul-carrier anywhere, that he will not be 
recreant to humanity. In short, it is a 
life, not an impulse — a quenchless flame 
of philanthropy, not a transient spark of 

Will it be retorted that we dare not 
resist — that we are cowards? Cowards! 
no man believes it. They are the dastards 
who maintain might makes right; whose 
arguments are brick-bats and rotten eggs; 
whose weapons are dirks and bowie- 
knives; and whose code of justice is lynch 
law. A love of liberty, instead of un- 
nerving men, makes them intrepid, heroic, 
invincible. It was so at Thermopylae — it 
was so on Bunker Hill. 

Who so tranquil, who so little agi- 
tated, in storm or sunshine, as the abo- 
litionists? But what consternation, what 
running to and fro like men at their wits' 
end, what trepidation, what anguish of 
spirit, on the part of their enemies! How 
Southern slave-mongers quake and tremble 
at the faintest whisperings of an abo- 
litionist ? For, truly, " the thief doth fear 
each bush an officer." Oh! the great poet 
of nature is right — 

" Thrice is he arm'd that hath his quarrel 
just ; 
And he but naked, though lock'd up in steel, 
Whose conscience with injustice is cor- 

A greater than Shakespeare certifies 
the "wicked flee when no man pursueth; 
but the righteous are bold as a lion." In 
this great contest of right against wrong, 
of liberty against slavery, who are the 
wieked, if they be not those who, like 
vultures and vampires, are gorging them- 

selves with human blood; if they be not 
the plunderers of the poor, the spoilers 
of the defenceless, the traffickers in 
" slaves and the souls of men " ? Who are 
the cowards, if not those who shrink from 
manly argumentation, the light of truth, 
the concussion of mind, and a fair field; 
if not those whose prowess, stimulated 
by whiskey potations or the spirit of mur- 
der, grows rampant as the darkness of 
night approaches; whose shouts and yells 
are savage and fiend-like; who furiously 
exclaim : " Down with free discussion ! 
down with the liberty of the press! down 
with the right of petition! down with 
constitutional law!"; who rifle mail-bags, 
throw type and printing-presses into the 
river, burn public halls dedicated to " vir- 
tue, liberty, and independence," and assas- 
sinate the defenders of inalienable human 
rights ? 

And who are the righteous, in this case, 
if they be not those who will " have no 
fellowship with the unfruitful words of 
darkness, but rather reprove them " ; who 
maintain that the laborer is worthy of his 
hire, that the marriage institution is sa- 
cred, that slavery is a system cursed of 
God, that tyrants are the enemies of man- 
kind, and that immediate emancipation 
should be given to all who are pining in 
bondage? Who are the truly brave, if 
not those who demand for truth and error 
alike free speech, a free press, an open 
arena, the right of petition, and no 
quarter? If not those, who, instead of 
skulking from the light, stand forth in the 
noontide blaze of day, and challenge 
their opponents to emerge from their 
wolf-like dens, that, by a rigid examina- 
tion, it may be seen who has stolen the 
wedge of gold, in whose pocket are the 
thirty pieces of silver, and whose gar- 
ments are stained with the blood of inno- 
cence ? 

The charge, then, that we are beside 
ourselves, that we are both violent and 
cowardly, is demonstrated to be false, in 
a signal manner. I thank God that the 
weapons of our warfare are not carnal, 
but spiritual. I thank Him that, by His 
grace, and by our deep concern for the op- 
pressed, we have been enabled, in Chris- 
tian magnanimity, to pity and pray for 
our enemies, and to overcome their evil 
with good. Overcome, I say: not merely 



Buffered unresistingly, but conquered glo- aground upon a low, sandy point (ever 

riously. since known as Gaspee Point) on the 

Gaspe, Philip Ignatius, military offi- west side of Narraganset Bay. The same 

cer; born in Canada, April 5, 1714; joined night (June 9, 1772), sixty- four armed men 

the army in 1727; served in a campaign went down from Providence in boats, capt- 


against the Natchez and Chicache Ind- 
ians in 1739; took part in the defeat of 
Washington at Fort Necessity; led the 
Canadian militia when Fort Carillon was 
attacked by the English, and was largely 
instrumental in their defeat. He died in 
Canada, June 19, 1787. 

Gaspee, an armed schooner in the Brit- 
ish revenue service, which greatly annoyed 
the American navigators in Narraganset 
Bay by her commander haughtily demand- 
ing the lowering of their flags whenever 
they passed her, in token of submission. 
They often disobeyed. For this disobedi- 
ence a Providence sloop was chased by the 
schooner. The former, by taking a pe- 
culiar course, caused the latter to run 

ured the people on board the Gaspee, and 
burned the vessel. A large reward was 
offered for the discovery of the perpetra- 
tors (who were well known in Provi- 
dence), but they were not betrayed. 
Joseph Wanton, the royal governor of 
Rhode Island, issued a proclamation or- 
dering diligent search for the perpetra- 
tors of the act. Admiral Montague made 
endeavors towards the same end, and the 
home government offered a reward of 
$5,000 for the leader, with the promise of 
a pardon if the informer should be an 
accomplice. Not one of the men betrayed 
their trusted leader, Abraham Whipple 
(q. v.), afterwards a commodore in the 
Continental navy. When, subsequently, 



the colonists were at war with Great 
Britain, the act of Captain Whipple 
was avowed, and Sir James Wallace, 
in command of a British ship-of-war 
in Narraganset Bay, wrote as fol- 
lows to the perpetrator of the act: 
" You, Abraham Whipple, on June 
9, 1772, burned his Majesty's vessel, 
the Gaspee, and I will hang you at 
the yard-arm." Whipple coolly re- 
plied : " Sir, always catch your man 
before you hang him." A ballad was 
written at the time, containing fifty- 
eight lines of doggerel verse, which 
ended as follows: 

" Now, for to And these people out, 
King George has offered very stout, 
One thousand pounds to find out one 
That wounded William Duddington. 
One thousand more he says he'll spare 
For those who say the sheriff's were. 
One thousand more there doth remain 
For to find out the leader's name ; 
Likewise five hundred pounds per man 
For any one of all the clan. 
But, let him try his utmost skill, 
I'm apt to think he never will 
Find out any of those hearts of gold, 
Though he should offer fifty-fold." 

After the destruction of the Gaspee, 
a commission, composed of Admiral 
Montague, the vice-admiralty judge at 
Boston, the chief-justices of Massachusetts 
(Peter Oliver), New York (D. Horsman- 
den), and New Jersey (F. Smyth), and 
the governor of Rhode Island (J. Wan- 
ton), met at Newport to inquire into the 
affair. Robert Auchmuty took the place 

ufcittfm tAn 


of Montague. The commissioners were 
notified that there had been no neglect of 
duty or connivance on the part of the 
provincial government, and it was inti- 
mated that this special court was unneces- 
sary and alarming. The Assembly of Rhode 
Island met at East Greenwich to watch 


the commissioners, and Governor Wanton 
laid before it his instructions to arrest 
offenders, and send them to England for 
trial. Chief - Justice Stephen Hopkins 
asked the Assembly how he should act. 
They left it to his discretion, for they 
were assured of his patriotism and sound 
judgment. " Then," said Hopkins, in the 
presence of both Houses, " for the purpose 
of transportation for trial I will neither 
apprehend any person by my own order, 
nor suffer any executive officer in the 
colony to do it." Ihe commissioners ad- 
journed without eliciting any positive 
knowledge of the persons who destroyed 
the vessel. See Brown, John. 

Gaston, William, jurist; born at New- 
bern, N. C, Sept. 19, 1778; graduated 
at the College of New Jersey in 1796, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1798, 
when he soon became the leading lawyer 
in his State. Serving in his State legis- 
lature, he was elected to Congress in 1812, 
and remained in that body until 1817. 
The laws and judicial organization of his 
State bear marks of his wisdom. He was 
judge of the Supreme Court of North 
Carolina from 1834 till hia death, in 
Raleigh, N. C, Jan. 23, 1844. Judge Gas- 
ton was an advocate of free suffrage foi 
colored men. 

Gates, Horatio, military officer ; born 
in Maldon, England, in 1728; was a god- 
son of Horace Walpole ; entered the Brit- 
ish army in his youth, and rose rapidly 
to the rank of major ; came to America; 
was severely wounded at Braddock's de- 
feat (1755); and was aide to General 
Monckton in the expedition against Mar- 
tinique in 1762. After the peace he 
bought an estate in Virginia, and when 
the Revolutionary War broke out Con- 
gress appointed him (June, 1775) ad- 
jutant-general of the Continental army, 
with the rank of brigadier-general. In 
1776-77 he was twice in command of the 
Northern army, having, through intrigue, 
displaced General Schuyler. He gained 
undeserved honors as commander of the 
troops that defeated and captured Bur- 
goyne and his army in the fall of 1777. 
He soon afterwards intrigued for the po- 
sition of Washington as commander-in- 
chief, using his power as president of the 
board of war for the purpose, but igno- 
miniously failed. In June, 1780, he was 

made commander of the Southern Depart- 
ment, but made a disastrous campaign, his 
army being utterly defeated and routed 
by Cornwall is near Camden, S. C, in 
August, 1780. This defeat terminated 
Gates's military career. He was removed 
from command and suspended from ser- 
vice, but was finally vindicated, and re- 
instated in command in 1782. He re- 
tired to his estate in Virginia, and in 
1790 made his residence in New York 
City, having first emancipated all his 
slaves, and provided for such of them 
as could not take care of themselves. He 
was presented with the freedom of the 
city of New York, and elected to the State 
legislature, but declined to serve. He died 
in New York City, April 10, 1806. 

Gates, Sir Thomas, colonial governor; 
born in England in the sixteenth century, 
and lived during a part of the seventeenth ; 
left England with r>00 settlers for the Vir- 
ginia colony in 1609. The expedition con- 
sisted of ten ships, three of which were 
lost during the voyage, which did not end 
till May 24, 1610. Gates soon after re- 
turned to England to report the affairs 
of the colony, and collected 300 new 
emigrants, with whom he arrived in Vir- 
ginia in August, 1611. He then became 
governor of the colony, but returned 
finally to England in 1614. 


Gates, William, military officer; born 
in Massachusetts in 1788; graduated at 
West Point in 1806; served throughout the 
War (A 1812, the Florida War, and the war 
with Mexico. He was retired from active 
service in 1863, and died in New York 
City, Oct. 7, 1868. 

Gatling, Richard Jordan, inventor; 
born in Hertford county, N. C, Sept. 12, 
1818. His first invention was a screw 


for propelling water-craft. Later he de- 
signed a machine for sowing rice, and, 
on removing to St. Louis in 1844, adapted 
it to sowing wheat in drills. In 1861 
he conceived the idea of his revolving bat- 
tery gun. This was first manufactured 
in 1862, at Indianapolis. Subsequently 
twelve were made and used on the James 
River, Va., by General Butler. In 1866 
Gatling further improved this invention, 
and after satisfactory trials at Washing- 
Ion and Fort Monroe the Gatling gun was 
adopted by the United States government. 
It is now in use also in nearly all Euro- 
pean countries. In 1886 he invented a 
new gun-metal, composed of steel and alu- 
minum. Later Congress voted him $40,000 
far proof experiments in a new method of 
<astiiig camion. He died in New York, 
Feb. 26, 1903. 

Gaul, Gilbert William, artist; born in 
Jersey City, March 31, 1855; elected as- 

sociate of the National Academy of 
in 1879, and academician in 1882. He has 
made a specialty of historical paintings, 
and has contributed many drawings il- 
lustrating the wars of the United States 
to the illustrated periodicals. 

Gay, Ebenezer, clergyman; born in 
Dedham, Mass., Aug. 26, 1696; gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1714; became pastor 
of the Congregational church at Hing- 
ham, Mass., which he served for seventy 
years. During the Revolution he sympa- 
thized with the British. The sermon 
which he preached upon the completion 
of his eighty-fifth year was published in 
America and reprinted in England. It 
is generally known as The Old Man's Cal- 
endar. He died in Hingham,Mass.,in 1787. 

Gay, Picard du, explorer; born in 
France and lived in the seventeenth cen- 
tury; was with Michael Ako and Father 
Hennepin on an expedition to discover the 
sources of the Mississippi River. On April 
11, 1680, they reached Wisconsin, and not 
long afterwards discovered the cataract 
which Hennepin named the " Falls of St. 
Anthony." They remained in this district 
about three months, and then returned 
to Canada by the way of the St. Lawrence 

Gay, Sydney Howard, historian; born 
in Hingham, Mass., in 1814; began the 
study ot law, but abandoned it and con- 
nected himself with the anti-slavery move- 
ment; was editor of the Anti- slavery 
Standard in 1844-57; managing editor of 
the New York Tribune for some years ; and 
subsequently was connected with the Chi- 
cago Tribune and the New York Evening 
Post. He wrote a History of the United 
States (4 volumes), to which William Cul- 
len Bryant furnished a preface, and also 
many valuable suggestions. He died on 
Staten Island, N. Y., June 25, 1888. 

Gayarre, Charles Etienne Arthur, 
historian; born in New Orleans, La., Jan. 
9, 1805; studied law in Philadelphia; ad- 
mitted to the New Orleans bar in 1830: 
served his State in various capacities until 
1835, when he was elected to the United 
States Senate, but was unable to take his 
seat on account of ill health. He was 
abroad eight years, and on his return was 
again sent to the State legislature; sub- 
sequently appointed secretary of state. 
Among his works are Louisiana as a 


French Colony; Louisiana under the 
Spanish Domination; Louisiana: Its Colo- 
nization, History and Romance; A Com- 
plete History of Louisiana, etc. He died 
in New Orleans, La., Feb. 11, 1895. 

Geary, John White, military officer; 
Lorn in Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland 
co., Pa., Dec. 30, 1819; became a civil 
engineer, and served as lieutenant-colonel 
of a Pennsylvania regiment of volunteers 
in the war with Mexico, wherein he was 
wounded, and for gallant services was 
made colonel of his regiment. He was 
first commander of the city of Mexico 
after its capture. He went to San Fran- 
cisco in 1848, and was the first mayor of 
that city. Returning to Pennsylvania, he 
was appointed territorial governor of 
Kansas in July, 1856, an office he held 
one year. Early in 1861 he raised and 
equipped the 28th regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers. In the spring of 1862 

ernor of Savannah and brevet major-gen- 
eral. In 1866 he was elected governor of 
Pennsylvania, and held the office till with- 
in two weeks of his death, in Harris- 
burg, Feb. 8, 1873. 

Geddes, James Lorraine, military offi- 
cer; born in Edinburgh, Scotland, March 
19, 1827; emigrated to Canada in 1837; 
subsequently returned to the continent and 
enlisted in the Indian army, serving in 
the Punjab campaign; emigrated to Iowa 
in 1857; at the outbreak of the Civil War 
enlisted as a private, but soon received a 
commission, and ultimately was made 
brevet brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
wrote a number of war songs which be- 
came very popular, among them The Stars 
and Stripes and The Soldier's Battle-pray- 
er. He died in Ames, la., Feb. 21, 1887. 

Geiger, Emily, heroine; born in South 
Carolina about 1760. While General 
Greene was pursuing Lord Rawdon 


he was promoted brigadier - general, and towards Orangeburg, he wished to send 
did good service throughout the war, be- « message to General Sumter, then on the 
coming, at the end of Sherman's march Santee, to take a position in front of the 
from Atlanta to the sea, military gov- enemy and impede his flight. The errand 



was a most perilous one, and no man in General Armstrong, The, a noted 
the army was bold enough to undertake it, privateer, fitted out in New York in 
for the Tories were everywhere on the 1812. The merchants of New York fitted 
alert. Emily Geiger, a girl of eighteen out no less than twenty-six fast-sailing 
years of age, volunteered to carry the let- privateers and letters-of-marque within 
ter to Sumter. Greene told her its con- 120 days after the declaration of war 
tents, so that, in case she found it neces- (1812), carrying about 200 pieces of arti!- 
sary to destroy it, the message might be lery, and manned by over 2,000 seamen, 
delivered orally. The girl mounted a fleet Among the most noted of these privateers 
horse, crossed the Wateree at the Camden was the General Armstrong, a moderate- 
ferry, and, while passing through a dry sized schooner, mounting a " Long Tom " 
swamp, was arrested by some Tory scouts. 42-pounder and eighteen carronades. Her 
As she came fi'om the direction of Greene's complement was 140 men; her first eom- 
army, her errand was suspected. She was mander was Captain Barnard; her see- 
taken to a house at the edge of a swamp, ond, Capt. G. R. Champlin. Early in 
and a woman employed to search her. March, 1813, while Champlin was cruising 
When left alone, she ate up Greene's let- oil' the Surinam River, on the coast of 
ter, piece by piece, and no evidence being South America, he gave chase to the Brit- 
found against her, she was released with ish sloop-of-war Coquette, mounting twen- 
many apologies. She passed on to Sum- ty-seven guns and manned by 126 men 
ter's camp, and very soon he and Marion and boys. They engaged in conflict be- 
were co-operating with Greene. Emily tween nine and ten o'clock (March 11, 
afterwards married a rich planter on the 1813). Supposing his antagonist to be a 
Congaree. British letter-of-marque, Champlin ran 

Gelelemend, or Kill-Buck, a chief of the Armstrong down upon her, with the 
the Delaware Indians; born in Penn- intention of boarding her. When it was 
sylvania in 1737. During the Revolution- too late, Champlin discovered that she 
ary War he did all in his power to keep was a heavier vessel than he suspected, 
his people neutral, a stand which aroused They poured heavy shot into each other, 
the animosity of those in his tribe who and for a while the fight was very obsti- 
had joined the English. In 1788 he join- nate, within pistol-shot distance. Champ- 
ed the Moravian mission in Salem, O., lin was wounded and his vessel severely 
receiving the name of William Henry, bruised, but, getting free from the Co- 
He died in Goshen, O., in 1811. quette by a vigorous use of sweeps, the 

Genealogies, American. In recent Armstrong escaped under a heavy fire 
years, and especially since the organization from her antagonist. The Tammany So- 
of the various patriotic societies, there ciety of New York gave the captain an 
has been a much larger attention paid to elegant sword, and voted thanks to his 
the gathering and perfecting of family companions in the fight. In 1814 the 
records than ever before. The chief pres- General Armstrong was under the cont- 
ent desire is confined in a large measure itiand of Capt. Samuel C. Reid, and in 
to an ambition to become allied to one September she was in the harbor of Fayal, 
or more of the patriotic orders, and this one of the islands of the Azores, belong- 
desire has become so widely spread and ing to Portugal. It was a neutral port, 
deep-rooted that the public libraries of and Reid did not expect to be disturbed 
the country have found it necessary to there by British vessels. He was mis- 
assemble county histories and genealogical taken. 

works in one place for the convenience On the 26th Commodore Lloyd appeared 

of this class of investigators. The same off the harbor with his flag-ship, the 

desire has also increased the publication 1'lantagenet, seventy-four guns; the frig- 

of family records. The genealogical lit- ate Rota, forty-four, Captain Somerville; 

erature of the United States is now ex- and the brig Carnation, eighteen, Captain 

ceedingly voluminous. One of the earliest Bentham; each with a full complement 

and most important publications of this of men. The Armstrong had only seven 

character is Savage's New England Gene- guns and ninety men, including her offi- 

alogies. cers. In violation of the laws and usages 



of neutrality, Lloyd sent into the harbor, 
at eight o'clock in the evening, four large 
and well-armed launches, manned by 
about forty men each. At that time Reid, 
suspecting mischief, was warping his ves- 
sel under the guns of the castle. The 
moon was shining brightly. The barges 
and the privateer opened fire almost 
simultaneously, and the launches were 
driven off with heavy loss. At midnight 
fourteen launches were sent in, manned 
by about 500 men. A terrible conflict en- 
sued, which lasted forty minutes, when 
the launches were again repulsed, with a 
loss of 120 killed and 130 wounded. At 
daylight (Sept. 27) a third attack was 
made by the brig Carnation, which opened 
heavily, but was soon so cut up by the 
well-directed guns of the Armstrong that 
she hastily withdrew. The privateer was 
also much damaged, and it being evident 
that she could not endure a fourth attack, 
Captain Reid directed her to be scuttled, 
to prevent her falling into the hands of 
the British. She was then abandoned, 
when the British boarded her and set her 
on fire. While the British lost over 300 
men in the three attacks, the Armstrong 
lost only two men killed and seven wound- 
ed during the ten hours. 

To Captain Reid and his brave men is 
justly due the credit of saving New 
Orleans from capture. Lloyd's squadron 
was a part of the expedition then gath- 
ering at Jamaica for the invasion of 
Louisiana. The object of the attack on 
the Armstrong was to capture her, and 
make her a useful auxiliary in the work. 
She so crippled her assailants that they 
did not reach Jamaica until ten days 
later than the expedition intended to sail 
from there. It had waited for Lloyd, and 
when it approached New Orleans Jackson 
had made ample arrangements to receive 
the invaders. Had they arrived ten days 
sooner the city must have fallen. The 
State of New York gave Captain Reid 
thanks and a sword, and he was greeted 
with enthusiasm on his return to the 
United States. The Portuguese government 
demanded and received from the British 
an apology for the violation of neu- 
trality, and restitution for the destruc- 
tion of Portuguese property at Fayal dur- 
ing the action. That government also de- 
manded satisfaction and indemnification 

for the destruction of the American vessel 
in their neutral port. This was refused, 
and neither the owners of the vessel nor 
their heirs ever received indemnification 
for their losses either from Great Britain 
or Portugal. 

Genest, or Genet, Edmond Charles, 
diplomatist; born in Versailles, France, 
Jan. 8, 1765. His literary talent was 
early developed. At the age of twelve 
years he received from the King of Swe- 


den a gold medal for a translation of the 
history of Eric XIV. into Swedish, with 
notes by himself. He was a brother of 
the celebrated Madame Campan, and was 
brought up in the French Court; yet he 
was a republican. Attached to the em- 
bassies of Berlin, Vienna, London, and 
St. Petersburg, he maintained his repub- 
lican bias, and on his return from the 
Russian Court (1792) was appointed min- 
ister to the United States. He had al- 
ready been made adjutant-general of the 
armies of France and minister to Hol- 
land by the revolutionists, and employed 
in revolutionizing Geneva and annexing 
it to France. He arrived at Charleston, 
S. C, April 0, 1793. He was received 
with open arms by the Republican, or 
Democratic, party. He was disposed to 
treat the United States government with 
contempt, believing the people would 



not sustain it in its coldness towards 
the French revolutionists. He came with 
blank commissions for naval and military 
service, and before he proceeded to the 
seat of government to present his creden- 
tials he fitted out two privateers at 
Charleston to prey on British commerce, 
and gave authority to every French con- 
sul in America to constitute himself a 
court of admiralty to dispose of prizes 
brought into American ports by French 
cruisers. One of these vessels, L'Embus- 
cade, went prowling up the coast, seizing 
several small vessels, and finally captur- 
ing a British merchantman within the 
capes of the Delaware, when she proceeded 
in triumph to Philadelphia, where she 
was received with acclamations of joy by 
the excited people. Upon the bow of 
L'Embuscade, her foremast, and her stern 
liberty-caps were conspicuous, and the 
British colors were reversed in the prize, 
with the French colors flying above them. 
Fourteen days later Genest arrived by 
land at Philadelphia, where, according to 
preconcert, a number of citizens met him 
at the Schuylkill and escorted him into 
the city, while cannon roared and church 
bells rang out merry peals of welcome. 
There he received addresses from various 
societies, and go anxious were his admir- 
ers to do homage to the representative of 
the authors of the Reign of Terror in 
France that they invited him to a public 
dinner before he had presented his cre- 
dentials to the President of the United 

Genest presented his credentials to 
Washington in person (April 19, 1793), 
and found himself in an atmosphere of the 
most profound dignity. He felt his own 
littleness as a mere political enthusiast 
while standing before the representative 
of true democracy in America, and of the 
soundest principles of the American re- 
public. He withdrew from the audience 
abashed and subdued. He had heard ex- 
pressions of sincere regard for the people 
of France that touched the sensibilities 
of his heart, and he had felt, in the cour- 
tesy and severe simplicity and frankness 
of the President's manner, wholly free 
from effervescent enthusiasm, a withering 
rebuke, not only of the adulators in pub- 
lic places, but also of his own pretensions, 
aspirations, and offensive conduct. Once 

out of the presence of Washington, he be- 
came the same defiant champion of the 
" rights of the people," affecting to be 
shocked at the evidences of monarchical 
sympathies in the President's house. He 
there saw a bust of Louis XVI., and de 
dared its presence in the house of the 
President of the United States was an 
" insult to France," and he was " aston- 
ished " to find that relatives of Lafayette 
had lately been admitted to the presence 
of the President. His feelings were speed- 
ily soothed in a great banquet-hall of his 
republican friends, May 23, 1793, where 
his ears were greeted with the Marseilles 
Hymn, and his eyes delighted with a " tree 
of Liberty" on the table. His heart was 
made glad by having the red cap of Lib- 
erty placed on his own head first and then 
upon the head of each guest, while the 
wearer, under the inspiration of its sym- 
bolism, uttered some patriotic sentiment. 
At dinner, at which the governor of Penn- 
sylvania (Mifflin) was present, a roasted 
pig received the name of the murdered 
French King, and the head, severed from 
his body, was carried around to each of 
the guests, who, after placing the cap of 
Liberty on his own head, pronounced the 
word " tyrant," and proceeded to mangle 
with his knife that of the poor pig. One 
of the Republican taverns in Philadelphia 
displayed as a sign a revolting picture of 
the mutilated and blood-stained corpse of 
Queen Marie Antoinette. 

This madness ran a short course, and its 
victims became heartily ashamed of it. 
Genest took this for a genuine and settled 
feeling, and acted upon it. Meanwhile 
the insulted government took most digni- 
fied action. The captured British mer- 
chantman was restored to its owners, and 
the privateers were ordered out of Ameri- 
can waters. Orders were sent to the col- 
lectors at all American ports to seize all 
vessels fitted out as privateers, and to 
prevent the sale of any prize captured by 
6uch vessels. Chief-Justice Jay declared 
it to be the duty of grand juries to present 
all persons guilty of such violation of the 
laws of nations with respect to any of the 
belligerent powers. The French ambassa- 
dor and his friends were greatly irritated. 
Pie protested, and the Secretary of State 
(Jefferson), who had favored the enthu- 
siasm of Genest's reception, finding he had 


a troublesome friend on his hands, plain- 
ly told Genest that by commissioning pri- 
vateers he had violated the sovereignty of 
the United States. With offensive per- 
tinacity, Genest denied this doctrine as 
contrary to right, justice, and the laws 
of nations, and threatened to " appeal 
from the President to the people"; and in 
this the Republican newspapers sustained 
him. Secret Democratic societies which 
had been formed became more bold and 
active, and Genest, mistaking the popular 
clamor for the deliberate voice of the na- 
tion, actually undertook to fit out a pri- 
vateer at Philadelphia, in defiance of the 
government, during the President's ab- 
sence at Mount Vernon. It was a vessel 
captured by L'Embuscade, and Genest 
named her The Little Democrat. 

Governor Mifflin, like Jefferson, had be- 
come sick of the " Citizen," and he inter- 
fered. Genest would not heed his threats 
nor the persuasion of Jefferson. He de- 
nounced the President as unfaithful to 
the wishes of the people, and resolved to 
force him to call Congress together. 
Washington, on his return to Philadel- 
phia, and informed of the insolence of 
Genest, exclaimed, " Is the minister of the 
French republic to set the acts of the gov- 
ernment at defiance with impunity?" Hia 
cabinet answered " No ! " The most ex- 
acting country could not counsel longer 
forbearance, and the French government 
was requested, July, 1793, to recall its 
minister; and it was done. There was a 
reaction in the public mind towards a 
more patriotic attitude. The insolence of 
Genest had shocked the national pride. 
On April 22, 1793, the President issued 
a proclamation of neutrality, which the 
radical Democrats denounced as an 
" edict of royalty." Genest — succeeded by 
M. Fouchet, a man equally indiscreet — 
did not leave the country, as he did not 
think it prudent to return. Marrying the 
daughter of Gov. George Clinton, he be- 
came a naturalized citizen of the United 
States. He was twice married, his second 
wife being a daughter of Mr. Osgood, the 
first Postmaster-General under the new 
Constitution. Fond of agriculture, he 
took great interest in its pursuit; and his 
last illness was occasioned by attendance 
at a meeting of an agricultural society 
of which he was the president. He was 

known as " Citizen Genest," a title as- 
sumed by the French revolutionists, and 
imitated by their American admirers. He 
died in Schodak, N. Y., July 14, 1834. 

Geneva Convention. See Red Cross. 

Geneva Tribunal of Arbitration. See 
Alabama Claims. 

Gentry, Meredith Poindexter, legis- 
lator; born in North Carolina, Sept. 15, 
1809; removed with his father to Tennes- 
see in 1813; elected to the State legislat- 
ure in 1835; to Congress in 1839. When 
his State seceded he entered the Confed- 
erate Congress. He died at Nashville, 
Tenn., Nov. 2, 1S66. 

Geographical Society, American, an 
organization established in 1852. It aims 
to encourage geographical exploration 
and discovery; to examine and spread 
new geographical information; and to 
found a suitable place in New York where 
accurate information of every part of the 
globe may be obtained. Its headquarters 
are at 11 West Twenty-ninth street, New 
York City. Its officers in 1900 were: 
President, Seth Low; vice-presidents, W. 
H. H. Moore, Gen. Egbert L. Viele, C. C. 
Tiffany, D.D. ; corresponding secretaries — 
foreign, William Libbey ; domestic, Chand- 
ler Robbins; recording secretary, Anton 
A. Raven. The membership in 1900 was 

Geological Society of America, 
founded in 1888. Officers: President, 
George M. Dawson, Canadian Geological 
Survey, Ottawa, Canada; secretary, H. L. 
Fairchild, University of Rochester; treas- 
urer, I. C. White; editor of the Bulletin 
of the Geological Society of America, J. 
Stanley Brown. In 1900 there were 245 
fellows. The entrance fee is $10, and the 
annual dues $10. 

Geological Survey of the United 
States, a branch of the Department of 
the Interior, founded in 1879, when it in- 
cluded only the geological examination of 
the Territories; but in 1881 it was en- 
larged so as to comprise the entire 
country, and its corps were gradually in- 
creased till the survey became the most 
important of all governmental organiza- 
tions for the purpose of geological ex- 
amination. The director of the survey 
has charge of the classification of the 
public lands, the examination of the geo- 
logical structures, mineral resources, and 


products of the national domain, and of George (Augustus) II., King of Great 
the survey of the forest reserves. In Britain; son of the preceding and Sophia 
1900 the chief officers were: Director, Dorothea; born in Hanover, Oct. 20, 1683. 
Charles D. Wolcott; Division of Hydrog- In his childhood and youth he was neg- 
raphy, chief, F. H. Newell; Division of looted by his father, and was brought up 
Mineral Resources, chief, David T. Day; by his grandmother, the Electress So- 
Division of Physical and Chemical Re- phia. In 1705 he married a daughter of 
searches, chief, G. F. Becker; Division of the Margrave of Brandenburg- Anspach, a 
Topography, Forest Reserves, Henry woman of superior character and ability. 
Gannett. He was made a peer of England the next 
George (Lewis) I., King of Great year, with the chief title of Duke of 
Britain, born in Osnabriick, Hanover, May Cambridge. He was a brave soldier under 
28, 1660; eldest son of Ernest Augustus, the Duke of Marlborough. In 1714 he ac- 
Elector of Hanover, and the first sover- companied his father to England, and was 
eign of the Hanoverian line. His mother proclaimed Prince of Wales Sept. 22. The 
was Sophia, daughter of James I. of Eng- prince and his father hated each other 
land. In 1681 he went to England to cordially, and he was made an instrument 
seek the hand of his cousin, the Princess of intrigue against the latter. The Prin- 
Anne (afterwards Queen), in marriage, cess of Wales was very popular, and the 
but, being ordered by his father not to father also hated her. At one time the 
proceed in the business, he returned, and King proposed to send the prince to Amer- 
married his cousin Sophia Dorothea. By ica, there to be disposed of so that he 
act of the convention of Parliament in should have no more trouble with him. 
1689, and by Parliament in 1701, the sue- He was crowned King Oct. 11, 1727. His 
cession of the English crown was so fixed most able minister was Walpole (as he 
that in the event of a failure of heirs by was of George I.), and he and the clever 
William and Mary, and Anne, it should Queen ruled the realm for fourteen years, 
be limited to the Electress Sophia, of He, in turn, hated his son Frederick, 
Hanover, George's mother, passing over Prince of Wales, as bitterly as he had 
nearer heirs who were Roman Catholics, been hated by his father. It was during 
By the treaty of union with Scotland the later years of the reign of George II. 
(1707) the same succession was secured that the War of the Austrian Sue- 
for its crown. By the death of Sophia cession and the French and Indian War 
three months before Queen Anne died, (in which the English- American colonies 
George became heir-apparent to the throne were conspicuously engaged) occurred, 
of the latter because of failure of heirs, During that reign England had grown 
and he succeeded her. His son, the Prince amazingly in material and moral strength 
of Wales, became openly hostile to his among the nations. The wisdom of Will- 
father in 1718, and at Leicester House iam Pitt had done much towards the ac- 
he established a sort of rival court. This quirement of the fame of England, which 
enmity arose from the treatment of the had never been greater than in 1760. 
prince's mother, the unfortunate Sophia George died suddenly, like his father, in 
Dorothea (to whom he was much at- Kensington Palace, Oct. 25, 1760. He had 
tached), who, accused of intrigue with never been popular with the English 
Count Konigsmarek, was divorced in 1694, people. 

and imprisoned from that time until her There had been peace between France 
death in 1726. George I. was a man of and England for about thirty years after 
moderate intellectual ability, a cruel hus- the death of Queen Anne, during which 
band, a bad father, but not a bad sover- time the colonists in America had enjoyed 
eign, for he allowed able men to manage comparative repose. Then the selfish 
the affairs of the kingdom. He was taken strifes of European monarchs kindled war 
with a fit in his carriage, while on his again. In March, 1744, France declared 
way to Osnabriick, and died before he war against Great Britain, and the colo- 
reached that place, June 10, 1727. His nists cheerfully prepared to begin the con- 
son, George, by the unfortunate Sophia test in America as King George's War; in 
succeeded him. Europe, the War of the Austrian Succes- 



sion. A contest arose between Maria 
Theresa, Empress of Hungary, and the 
Elector of Bavaria, for the Austrian 
throne. The King of England espoused 
the cause of the empress, while the King 
of France took part with her opponent. 
This caused France to declare war against 
Great Britain. The French had built the 
strong fort of Louisburg, on the island of 
Cape Breton, after the treaty of Utrecht, 
and, because of its strength, it was called 
the Gibraltar of America. When the war 
was proclaimed, Governor Shirley, of Mas- 
sachusetts, perceiving the importance of 
that place in the coming contest, plans 
for its capture were speedily laid before 
the Massachusetts legislature. That body 
hesitated, but the measure was finally 
agreed upon by a majority of only one 
vote. Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and 
Connecticut furnished their proper quota 
of troops. New York sent artillery, and 
Pennsylvania provisions. Commodore 
Warren was in the West Indies with a 
fleet, and was expected to join the provin- 
cials in the expedition. After waiting 
some time, the colonial forces, under Sir 
William Pepperell, sailed, April 4, 1745, 
for Louisburg. Warren joined them at 
Canso early in May, and on the 11th 
the combined land forces, 4,000 strong, 
debarked at Gabarus Bay, a short dis- 
tance from the fortress. The first intima- 
tion the French had of danger near was 
the sudden appearance of this formidable 
armament. Consternation prevailed in 
the fort and the town. A regular siege 
was begun on May 31. Other English 
vessels of war arrived, and the combined 
fleet and army prepared for attack on 
June 29. Unable to make a successful re- 
sistance, the fortress, the town of Louis- 
burg, and the island of Cape Breton were 
surrendered to the English on the 28th. 
This event mortified the pride of France, 
and the following year the Duke d'Anvillc 
was sent with a powerful naval armament 
to recover the lost fortress, and to destroy 
English settlements along the seaboard. 
Storms wrecked many of his vessels, sick- 
ness swept away hundreds of his men, and 
D'Anville abandoned the enterprise with- 
out striking a blow. Anchoring at Che- 
bucto (now Halifax), D'Anville died 
there by poison, it is believed. With the 
capture of Louisburg the war ended in the 

colonies. By a treaty made at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, all prisoners and property seized 
by either party were restored. The strug- 
gle had been costly, and fruitless of good 
except in making a revelation of the 
strength of the colonists. 

George (William Frederick) III., 
King of Great Britain; born in London, 
June 4, 1737; grandson of George II. 
His mind was narrow, his disposition 
was crafty and arbitrary, and during 
his long reign, while he was sane, 
his years were passed in continual com- 
bat against the growing liberal spirit of 
the age. Being a native of England (which 
his two royal predecessors were not), and 
young and moral, he was at first pop- 
ular on his accession to the throne, Oct. 
26, 1760. In his first speech in Parlia- 
ment he expressed pride in his English 
birth, and thereby great enthusiasm in 
his favor was excited. On Sept. 8, 1761, 
he married Charlotte Sophia, sister of the 
Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who shared 
his throne fifty-seven years, and bore him 
fifteen children, all but two of whom grew 
to maturity. Unfortunately for his king- 
dom, he neglected the wise counsels of 
Pitt, and made his preceptor, the Scotch 
Earl of Bute, his prime minister and con- 
fidential friend. The minister and his 
master became very unpopular, and in 
1763 Bute resigned, and was succeeded by 
George Grenville (q. v.), who inaugu- 
rated the Stamp Act policy and other ob- 
noxious measures towards the English- 
American colonies, which caused great dis- 
content, a fierce quarrel, a long war, the 
final dismemberment of the British em- 
pire, and the political independence of the 
colonies. With the Stamp Act began the 
terribly stormy period of the reign of 
George III. In 1783 he was compelled to 
acknowledge the independence of his lost 
American colonies. Then he had continual 
quarrels with his ministry, and talked of 
leaving England and retiring to his little 
kingdom of Hanover, but refrained on be- 
ing assured that it would be much easier for 
him to leave England than to return to it. 

Like his two royal predecessors, George 
hated his oldest son, the Prince of Wales, 
because he was generally in political op- 
position to him and led a loose life. After 
a serious dispute with Russia, which 
threatened to seize Turkey, and another 




with Spain, war with revolutionized 
France began in 1793, and the most arbi- 
trary rule was exercised in England, driv- 

at Waterloo, June, 1815. In 1810 the 
King lost his youngest and favorite 
daughter, Amelia, by death. His anxiety 

the people at times to the verge of during her illness deprived him of reason, 
revolution. Ireland was goaded into re* He had been threatened with insanity once 
tcllion, which was suppressed by the most or twice before; now his mind was cloud- 
cruel methods — equal in atrocity to any ed forever. The first indication of hi? 
perpetrated by the French in La Vendue malady appeared on the day of the com- 
and Brittany. The union of Great Brit- pletion of the fiftieth year of his reign, 
ain and Ireland was effected in 1800, the Oct. 25, 1810. From that date his reign 
parliament of the latter ceasing to exist, ceased in fact, and his son George, Prince 
Against the King's wishes, peace was made of Wales, was made regent of the king- 
with France in 1802; but war was again dom (Feb. 5, 1811). For nearly nine 
begun the next year. Then came the years the care of his person was intrusted 
struggle with Napoleon Bonaparte, which to the faithful Queen. In 1819 the Duke 
lasted until the overthrow of that ruler of York assumed the responsibility. The 



Queen was simple in her tastes and habits, to the army. The same evening a large 
rjgid in the performance of moral duties, concourse of soldiers and civilians as- 
kind and benevolent. Their lives were sembled at the Bowling Green, pulled 
models of moral purity and domestic hap- down the statue, broke it in pieces, and 
piness. The King died in Windsor Castle, sent a portion to the house of Oliver Wol- 
Jan. 29, 1820. cott, on the western edge of Connecticut, 
There were members of the aristocracy where it was run into bullets by his 
that, through envy, hated Pitt, who, in family. In a letter to General Gates 
spite of them, had been called to the upon this event, Ebenezer Hazard wrote: 
highest offices in the kingdom. When " His [the King's] troops will probably 
young Prince George heard of the death have melted majesty fired at them." The 
of the King, he went to Carleton House, venerable Zachariah Greene (q. v.), 
the residence of his mother, and sent for who was present at the pulling down of 
Newcastle, Pitt's political enemy. He the statue, said the artist had made an 
and Lord Bute prevailed upon the young omission of stirrups for the saddle of the 
King to discard Pitt and favor their own horse, and it was a common remark of the 

schemes. Newcastle prepared the first 
speech from the throne of George IIL; 
and when Pitt, as prime minister, went 
to him and presented the draft of an ad- 
dress to be pronounced at the meeting of 
the Privy Council, he was politely in- 
formed that the speech was already pre- 
pared and the preliminaries were ar- 
ranged. Pitt immediately perceived that 
the King's tutor and warm personal 
friend of the young King's mother, the 
Earl of Bute, had made the arrangements, 
and would occupy a conspicuous place 
in the administration. George chose Bute 
for his counsellor and guide, and Pitt, 
to whom England, more than to any other 
nan, owed its present power and glory, 
was allowed to retire and have his place 
filled by this Scotch adventurer. The 
people of England were disgusted, and 
by this blunder George created a power- 
ful opposition party at the beginning of 
his reign. 

The people of New York City, grateful 
for the repeal of the Stamp Act, voted a 
statue to the King and to Pitt. That of 
the former was equestrian, made of lead, 
and gilded. It was placed in the centre 
of the Bowling Green, near Fort George, 
at the foot of Broadway. Raised upon a 
pedestal, with the head of the King and 
the horse facing westward, it made an 
imposing appearance. It was set up, with 
great parade, Aug. 21, 1770. Within six 
years afterwards the people pulled it 
down, with demonstrations of contempt. 
Washington occupied New York with 
Continental troops in the summer of 1776. 
There he received the Declaration of 
Independence (July 9), and it was read 

soldiers, " The King ought to ride a hard- 
trotting horse without stirrups." Por- 
tions of that statue are now in possession 
of the New York Historical Society. 

(From a sketch by Gear.) 

The arrival of Richard Penn in London 
with the second petition of Congress 
aroused the an^er of the King towards, 
and his fixed determination concerning, 



the " rebellious colonies." He refused to 
see Penn or receive the petition, and on 
Aug. 23 he issued a proclamation for sup- 
pressing rebellion and sedition in Amer- 
ica. " There is reason," said the procla- 
mation, " to apprehend that such re- 
bellion [in America] hath been much pro- 
moted and encouraged by the traitorous 
correspondence, counsels, and comfort of 
divers wicked and desperate persons with- 
in our realm," and he called upon all 
officers of the realm, civil and military, 
and all his subjects, to disclose all " trait- 
orous conspiracies," giving information 
of the same to one of the secretaries of 
state, " in order to bring to condign pun- 
ishment the authors, perpetrators, and 
abettors of such traitorous designs." This 
proclamation was aimed at Chatham and 
Camden in the House of Lords, and Barre 
in the House of Commons, and their ac- 
tive political friends. When it was read 
to the people at the Royal Exchange it 
was received with a general hiss from the 
populace. But the stubborn King would 
not yield. He would rather perish than 
consent to repeal the alterations in tho 
charter of Massachusetts, or yield the 
absolute authority of Parliament. And 
North, who in his heart thought the King 
wrong, supported him chiefly, as was al- 
leged, because he loved office with its 
power and emoluments better than jus- 
tice. When, in November, the wife of 
John Adams read the King's proclamation, 
she wrote to her husband, saying, " This 
intelligence will make a plain path for 
you, though a dangerous one. I could 
not join to-day in the petitions of our 
worthy pastors for a reconciliation be- 
tween our no longer parent state, but ty- 
rant state, and the colonies. Let us sepa- 
rate; they are unworthy to be our 
brethren. Let us renounce them; and, 
instead of supplications as formerly for 
their prosperity and happiness, let us be- 
seech the Almighty to blast their coun- 
cils and bring to naught all their de- 
vices." The proclamation stimulated Con- 
gress to recommend the formation of State 
governments, and filled the minds and 
hearts of the people with thoughts of, 
and desires for, independence. Encour- 
aged by Franklin, Rush, and others, 
Thomas Paine (q. v.), an emigrant from 
England, and a clear and powerful writer, 

prepared an appeal to the people of Amer- 
ica in favor of independence. 

The British ministry, either blind or 
wicked, misled George III. into the be; 
lief that a few regiments could subdue 
Massachusetts, and that New York could 
easily be seduced to the support of the 
crown by immunities and benefactions. 
The deceived monarch, therefore, ordered 
letters to be written to Gage, at the mid- 
dle of April, 1775, to take possession of 
every colonial fort; to seize and secure 
all military stores of every kind col- 
lected for " the rebels " ; to arrest and im- 
prison all such as should be thought to 
have committed treason; to repress re- 
bellion by force; to make the public 
safety the first object of consideration, 
and to substitute more coercive measures 
for ordinary forms of procedure, without 
pausing to require the aid of a civil 
magistrate. Four regiments, at first 
destined for Boston, were ordered to New 
York, to assist in the progress of in- 
trigue; and a vessel carried out six pack-n , 
ages of pamphlets, containing a very., 
soothing and complimentary Address 0f„\ 
the People of Great Britain to the In-' 
habitants of America, written by Sir Johji| 
Dalrymple, at the request of Lord North. 
The Americans were not coaxed by thi&. 
persuasive pamphlet, nor awed by the at- 
tempts to execute the sanguinary orderfc J 
of Lord Dartmouth to Gage. I \ 

The great landholders in England, as. 
well as the more warlike classes, had be;-' 
come sick of trying to tax the American^ 
without their consent. Indeed, all classes, 
were convinced of its futility, and yearned -, 
for a change in the policy. Even the stub- # 
born King, though unrelenting in his pui^, 
pose to bring the Americans into submis,- , 
sion, declared that the man who should 
approve the taxing of them, in connection 
with all its consequences, was " more fit 
for a madhouse than for a seat in Parlia- 
ment." In the House of Commons (June, 
1779), Lord John Cavendish moved for 
orders to withdraw the British forces em- 
ployed in America; and the Duke of Rich- 
mond, in the House of Lords, proposed a 
total change of measures in America and 
Ireland. In both Houses these sensible 
measures were supported by increasing 
numbers. North was frequently dropping 
hints to the King that the advantages to 

IV. — D 



be gained by continuing the war would dent of the Royal Society in this wise: 
sever repay its expenses. The King, dis- The King unjustly requested the society to 
turbed by these propositions and the yield- publish, with the authority of its name, 
ing disposition of his chief minister, sum- a contradiction of a scientific opinion of 
moned them all to his library, June 21, the rebellious Franklin. Pringle replied 
1779, where, in a speech of more than an that it was not in his power to reverse 
hour in length, he expressed to them " the the order of nature, and resigned. The 
dictates of his frequent and severe self- pliant Sir Joseph Banks, with the prac- 
examination." He declared his firm reso- tice of a true courtier, advocated the opin- 
lution to carry on the war against Amer- ion patronized by his majesty, and was 
ica, France, and Spain; and that, "before appointed president of the Royal Society, 
he would hear of any man's readiness to As before stated, King George was 
come into office, he would expect to see it greatly disturbed by the action of Parlia- 
signed, under his own hand, that he was ment concerning the cessation of war in 
resolved to keep the empire entire, and America. He said they had lost the feel- 
that, consequently, no troops should be ings of Englishmen; and he took to heart 
withdrawn from America, nor its inde- what he called " the cruel usage of all the 
pendence ever be allowed." Stubbornly powers of Europe," who, excepting Spain, 

blind to well-known facts, he persisted in 
believing that, " with the activity of Clin- 
ton, and the Indians in the rear, the prov- 
inces, even now, would submit." This ob- 
stinacy left him only weak men to sup- 
port him; for it ranged every able states- 

had expressed a desire for the freedom 
and independence of the United States. 
His ministry (North's) having resigned, 
he was compelled to accept a liberal one. 
Lord Shelbourne brought about the call of 
Lord Rockingham (whom the King dis- 

.nan and publicist in the kingdom on the liked) to form a cabinet, and when his 

bide 01 the opposition. 

majesty finally yielded, he said, " Neces- 

Wright, in his England under the House sity made me yield to the advice of Lord 
of Hanover, says that, notwithstanding Shelbourne." And when, finally, he was 
the King, in his speech from the throne, compelled to acknowledge the indepen- 

Dec. 5, 1783, had said, 

have sacrificed dence of the United States, he said, " I 

every consideration of my own to the feel sensibly this dismemberment of 
wishes and opinions of my people. I make America from the empire, and I should be 
it my humble and earnest prayer to Al- miserable, indeed, if I did not feel that 
mighty God that Great Britain may not no blame on that account can be laid at 
feel the evils which might result from so my door," when he had been the chief 
great a dismemberment of the empire, and obstacle to reconciliation from the begin- 
that America may be far from those ning of the quarrel. He had such a poor 
calamities which have formerly proved, in opinion of the Americans that he consoled 
the mother country, how essential mon- himself for the dismemberment by saying, 

archy is to the enjoyment of constitu- 
tional liberty. Religion, language, inter- 
ns, affection may — and I hope will — yet 

" It may not in the end be an evil that 
they will become aliens of the kingdom." 
George (Augustus Frederick) IV., 

prove a bond of permanent union between King of Great Britain; born in St. 
the two countries. To this end neither James's Palace, London, Aug. 12, 1762. 

attention nor disposition shall be want- 
ing on my part," he nevertheless detest- 
ed everything American. The acknowledg- 
ment of the independence of the United 
States was wrung from him by dire ne- 

In consequence of the insanity of George 
III., George, the Prince of Wales, was 
created by Parliament regent of the king- 
dom. The act for that purpose passed 
Feb. 5, 1811, and from that time until 

cessity. Ever since the beginning of the the death of his father, George was act- 
troubles he had thoroughly hated Frank- ing monarch. On Jan. 9, 1813, he issued 
lin personally, to whom, on account of his from the royal palace at Westminster a 
coolness and adroitness, he had given the manifesto concerning the causes of the 
name of " Arch Rebel." The King carried war with the United States, and the sub- 

hia prejudices so far that Sir John Prin- 
gle was driven to resign his place as Presi- 


jects'of blockade and impressments. He 
declared the war was not the consequence 


of any fault of Great Britain, but that 
it had been brought on by the partial con- 
duct of the American government in over- 
looking the aggressions of the French, 
and in their negotiations with them. He 


alleged that a quarrel with Great Britain 
had been sought because she had adopted 
measures solely retaliatory as to France, 
and that as these measures had been 
abandoned by a repeal of the Orders in 
Council, the war was now continued on 
the questions of impressment and search. 
On this point he took such a decisive po- 
sition that the door for negotiation which 
the recommendation of the committee of 
the American Congress on foreign rela- 
tions proposed to open seemed irrevocably 
shut. " His royal highness," said the 
manifesto, " can never admit that the ex- 
ercise of the undoubted and hitherto un- 
disputed right of searching neutral mer- 
chant vessels in time of war, and the 
impressment of British seamen when 
found therein, can be deemed any viola- 
tion of a neutral flag; neither can he ad- 
mit that the taking of such seamen from 
on board such vessels can be considered 
by any neutral state as a hostile measure 
or a justifiable cause of war." After re- 
affirming the old English doctrine of the 
impossibility of self-expatriation of a 
British subject, the manifesto continued: 
" But if to the practice of the United 

States to harbor British seamen be added 
their asserted right to transfer the al- 
legiance of British subjects, and thus to 
cancel the jurisdiction of their legitimate 
sovereign by acts of naturalization and 
certificates of citizenship, which they pre- 
tend to be as valid out of their own 
territory as within it, it is obvious that 
to abandon this ancient right of Great 
Britain, and to admit these naval pre- 
tensions of the United States, would be 
to expose the very foundations of our 
maritime strength." The manifesto 
charged the United States government 
with systematic efforts to inflame the 
people against Great Britain; of ungener- 
ous conduct towards Spain, Great Brit- 
ain's ally, and of deserting the cause of 
neutrality. He spoke of the subserviency 
of the United States to the ruler of 
France, and against this course of con- 
duct the prince regent solemnly protested. 
He thought that while Great Britain was 
contending for the liberties of mankind, 
she had a right to expect from the United 
States far different treatment — not an 
" abettor of French tyranny." George 
became King in 1820, and died in Windsor, 
June 26, 1830. 

George, Fort, the name of four de- 
fensive works connected with warfare in 
the United States. The first was erected 
near the outlet of Lake George, N. Y., 
and, with Fort William Henry (q. v.) 
and other works, was the scene of im- 
portant operations during the French 
and Indian War (q. v.) of 1755-59. 

The second was on Long Island. In 
the autumn of 1780, some Rhode Island 


Tory refugees took possession of the 
manor-house of Gen. John Smith, at 
Smith's Point, L. I., fortified it and the 
grounds around it, and named the works 
Fort George, which they designed as a de- 



poeitory of stores for the British in New 
York. They began cutting wood for the 
British army in the city. At the solicita- 
tion of General Smith, and the approval 
of Washington, Maj. Benjamin Tallmadge 
crossed the Sound from Fairfield, with 
eighty dismounted dragoons, and landed, 
on the evening of Nov. 21, at Woodville. 
There he remained until the next night, 
on account of a storm. At the mills, 2 
miles from Fort George, he found a faith- 
ful guide, and at dawn he and his follow- 
ers burst through the stockade, rushed 
across the parade, shouting " Washing- 
ton and glory!" and so furiously assailed 

1,800. Besides that fort, they had several 
works along the Niagara River. The 
American troops were debarked May 8, 
and Chauneey sailed for Sackett's Harbor 
for supplies and reinforcements for the 
army. He returned to Dearborn's camp, 
in the Madison, on May 22, and the same 
evening Commodore Perry arrived there. 
Arrangements were immediately made for 
tin attack on Fort George. The commo- 
dore and Perry reconnoitred the enemy's 
batteries in the Lady of the Lake. Dear- 
born was ill, but on the morning of the 
27th the troops were conveyed by the 
squadron to a point a little westward of 

the redoubt on three sides that the gar 
son surrendered without resistance. Ta 
madge demolished the fort, burned vessels 
lying at the wharf, and, with 300 prison- 
ers, started for Fairfield. For this ex- 
ploit Tallmadge received the thanks of 

Another Fort George was near the 
mouth of the Niagara River. After the 
capture of York, the victors left that 
place early in May, 1813, to attack Fort 
George. Stormy weather had detained 
them at York for a week. Losses and 
sickness had reduced the number of the 
troops to 1.000. These were again con- 
veyed by the fleet of Chauneey, who, with 
Dearborn and other naval commanders, 
went before in the pilot-schooner Lady 
of the Lake, and selected a landing-place 
4 miles east of Fort Niagara. The British 
force at Fort George and vicinity, under 
General Vincent, then numbered about 

the mouth of the Niagara, and landed 
under cover of the guns of the fleet. The 
advance was led by Col. Winfield Scott, 
accompanied by Commodore Perry, who 
had charge of the boats. He and Scott 
both leaped into the water at the head of 
the first division of the men, and, in the 
face of a galling fire and gleaming bay- 
onets, they ascended the bank. The other 
troops followed, and. after a severe con- 
flict on the plain, the British fell back 
discomfited. General Vincent, satisfied 
that he must retreat, and knowing Fort 
George to be untenable, ordered the gar- 
rison to spike the guns, destroy the am- 
munition, and abandon it. This wa9 
done, and the whole British force retreat- 
ed westward to a strong position among 



the hills, at a place called "The Beaver the autumn of 1897 he was nominated for 
Dams," about 18 miles from the Niagara mayor of Greater New York, by several 
River. There Vincent had a deposit of organizations. Later these bodies united 

stores and provisions. The garrisons of 
forts Erie and Chippewa abandoned them, 
and the whole Niagara frontier passed into 
the hands of the Americans. 

Still another Fort George was at the 
end of Manhattan Island. When the 
English captured New Amsterdam the 
name was changed to New York, and 
the fort to Fort James, and later to Fort 

George, Henry, political economist; 
born in Philadelphia., Pa., Sept. 2, 1839; 
was educated in the public school of his 
native place, and after working in a store 
for a short time, went to sea and served 
as a cabin-boy for fourteen months. Later 
he shipped as an ordinary seaman on a 
coasting vessel running between Phila- 
delphia and Boston. In 1858 he went to 
British Columbia in search of gold, but, 
meeting with disappointment, went to 
San Francisco in 18G0, and with two others 
established a paper called the Journal. 
His inability to secure news from the 
Eastern States because he was not a mem- 

under the name of the " Democracy of 


Thomas Jefferson," and Mr. George accept- 
ed the nomination. He began the cam- 
paign with great energy. On the night 

ber of the press association led to the before his death he delivered four ad- 
speedy failure of this enterprise. After dresses. He retired about twelve o'clock, 
various other unsuccessful projects he was was seized with apoplexy, and died before 
offered a place on the staff of the San morning, Oct. 29. His son, Henry George, 
Francisco Times, of which he later became Jr., was placed at the head of the ticket, 
managing editor. He was subsequently and continued the canvass. Mr. George's 
connected with the San Francisco Vhron- writings include Progress and Povertij ; 
icle. the San Francisco Herald, and the The Irish Land Question; Social Prob- 
Oakland Recorder. In 1872 he was a dele- lems; Protection or Free Trade; a num- 
gate to the convention which nominated ber of pamphlets on The Condition of 
Horace Greeley for the Presidency, and Labor; An Open Letter to Pope Leo 
in the same year he established the San XIII.; A Perplexed Philosopher; and 
Francisco Evening Post, the first one - cent The Science of Political Economy. See 
paper on the Pacific coast. In 1880 he Single Tax. 

removed to New York, and in the following 
year went to Ireland to write up the land 
question for several American newspa- 

George, William Reuben, reformer; 
born in West Dryden, N. Y., June 4, 1866; 
settled in New York City in 1880. Later 

pers. In 1886 he was the candidate of he became interested in the welfare of the 
the United Labor Party (q. v.) for children of the very poor. In 1895 he 
mayor of New York, and in the election founded the " Junior Republic," a move- 
polled 68 J 10 votes. In 1887 he founded ment in which children govern themselves, 
The Standard and with the Rev. Edward receiving pay for all the work they per- 
McGlynn, D.D. {q. v.), an eminent Ro- form. Since this plan was instituted it 
man Catholic priest, organized the Anti- has become a successful method in caring 
poverty Society. In the same year he for delinquent and dependent children, 
was an unsuccessful candidate for secre- George Griswold, The, a ship sent 
tary of state. In 1889 he went to Eng- from the United States in 1862 with food 
land, and in 1890 visited Australia. In for starving English operatives. The 



blockade of Southern ports had caused a Vice-President of the Confederacy. The 
lack of the cotton supply in England and governor of Georgia ordered the seizure 
the running of mills on half-time or shut- of the public property of the United 
ting them up altogether. This produced States within the limits of his State, and 
wide-spread distress in the manufacturing war made havoc on its coasts and in 
districts. In Lancashire alone 1,000,000 the interior. Sherman swept through the 
depended for bread on the mills. In 1862 State with a large army late in 1864, 
a pitiful cry of distress came over the " living off the country," and within its 
sea. It was heard by the loyal people of borders the President of the Confederacy 
the North, who, repressing their just re- was captured in May, 1865 (see Davis, 
sentment against the British government Jefferson). Within its borders was the 
for the "aid and comfort" it had given famous Andersonville prison - pen (see 
to the enemies of the republic, heeded the Confederate Prisons ). In June, 1865, 
cry, and the George Griswold was laden 
at New York, chiefly through the liberal- 
ity of merchants there, with food for the 
starving English operatives of the value 
of more than $200,000. With her was 
sent a government war-vessel as a con- 
voy to protect her precious freight from 
any possible attack of the Anglo - Con- 
federate cruiser Alabama (q. v.), which 
was then lighting the ocean with a 
blaze of American merchant vessels 
which she had set on fire. See Cotton 

Georgia, the latest settled State of 
the original thirteen. It framed its first 
State constitution in 1777, its second in 
1789, and a third in 179S, which was 
several times amended. On June 2, 1788, 
Georgia ratified the national Constitution. 
The settlers on the frontier suffered 
much from incursions of the Creek and 
Cherokee Indians (qq. v.), but their 
friendship was secured by treaties in 
1790-01. By a treaty in 1802 the Creeks of secession, declared the war debt void. 

SEAL OF c:eoi:<;ia. 

a provisional governor was appointed for 
the State. A convention held at Milledge- 
ville late in October repealed the ordinance 

ceded to the United States a large tract, 
which was afterwards assigned to Georgia, 
now forming the southwestern counties of 
the State. The same year Georgia ceded 
to the United States all its claims to the 
lands westward of the boundaries of its 
present limits. Finally difficulties arose 
between the State and the national gov- 
ernment respecting the Cherokces, and 
on their removal to the country west of 

unended the constitution so as to abolish 
slavery, and in November elected a gov- 
ernor, legislature, and members of Con- 
gress. Congress did not approve these 
measures, and the Senators and Represent- 
atives chosen were not admitted to seats. 
In 1867, Georgia, with Alabama and 
Florida, formed a military district, and 
was placed under military rule. A con- 
vention at Atlanta, in March, 1868, 

the Mississippi, 

1838, Georgia came framed a constitution, which was rati- 

into possession of all their lands. Imme- 
diately after the election of Mr. Lincoln 
in 1860, the politicians of Georgia took 
measures for accomplishing the secession 
of the State. Its delegates in the Con- 
federate government organized at Mont- 
gomery, Ala., were conspicuous, At.ex- 

fied in April by a majority of nearly 18,- 
000 votes. On June 25, Congress, by act. 
provided for the roadmission of Georgia, 
with other States, upon their ratification 
of the Fourteenth Amendment to the na- 
tional Constitution. For a violation of 
the Reconstruction Act (q. v.), in not 

ander H. Stephens (7. v.) being made permitting colored men, legally elected, to 



occupy seats in the legislature, Georgia 
representatives were not permitted to take 
seats in Congress. The Supreme Court of 
the State declared that negroes were en- 
titled to hold office. A new election was 
held, both houses of the State legislat- 
ure were duly organized, Jan. 31, 1869, all 
the requirements of Congress were acceded 
to, and, by act of July 15, Georgia was 
readmitted into the Union. Its represent- 
atives took their seats in 'December, 1869. 
Since the close of the war Georgia has 
had a most remarkable material develop- 
ment, caused in large part by the intro- 
duction of cotton manufacturing. Its 
mills are among the largest in the world, 
and their output is steadily increasing. 
Th* State was the first to feel the life 
of the "New South." The Cotton Expo- 
sition in 1881 and the Cotton States and 
International Exposition in 1895, both in 
Atlanta, showed to the world the prac- 
tical accomplishments under the new 
order of things, and greatly stimulated 
all industrial efforts. In 1900 the as- 
sessed valuation of all taxable property 
was $435,000,000, and the recognized 
bonded debt was $7,836,000. The popu- 
lation in 1890 was 1,837,353; in 1900, 

When, in 1729, the proprietors of the 
Carolinas surrendered their charter to the 

crown, the whole country southward of 
the Savannah River to the vicinity of St. 
Augustine was a wilderness, peopled by 
native tribes, and was claimed by the 
Spaniards as a part of Florida. The Eng- 
lish disputed the claim, and war clouds 
seemed to be gathering. At that juncture 
Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe (q. v.), 
commiserating the wretched condition of 
prisoners for debt who crowded the Eng- 
lish prisons, proposed in Parliament the 
founding of a colony in America, partly 
for the benefit of this unfortunate class, 
and as an asylum for oppressed Protes- 
tants of Germany and other Continental 
states. A committee of inquiry reported 
favorably, and the plan, as proposed by 
Oglethorpe, was approved by King George 
II. A royal charter was obtained for a 
corporation (June 9, 1732) for twenty- 
one years, " in trust for the poor," to 
establish a colony in the disputed terri- 
tory south of the Savannah, to be called 
Georgia, in honor of the King. Individ- 
uals subscribed largely to defray the ex- 
penses of emigrants, and within two years 
Parliament appropriated $160,000 for the 
same purpose. The trustees, appointed 
by the crown, possessed all legislative and 
executive power, and there was no politi- 
cal liberty for the people. In November, 
1732, Oglethorpe left England with 120 





emigrants, and, after a passage of fifty with 300 emigrants, among them 150 
days, touched at Charleston, giving great Highlanders skilled in military affairs, 
joy to the inhabitants, for he was about John and Charles Wesley and George 
to erect a barrier between them and the Whitefield came to spread the gospel 
Indians and Spaniards. Landing a large among the people and the surrounding 
portion of the emigrants on Port Royal heathen. Moravians had also settled in 
Island, he proceeded to the Savannah Georgia, but the little colony was threat- 
River with the remainder, and upon ened with disaster. The jealous Span- 
Yamacraw Bluff (the site of Savannah) iards at St. Augustine showed signs of 
he laid the foundations of the future hostility. Against this expected trouble 
State in the ensuing spring of 1733. The Oglethorpe had prepared by building forts 
rest of the emigrants soon joined him. in that direction. Finally, in 1739, war 
They built a fort, and called the place broke out between England and Spain, 
Savannah, the Indian name of the river, and Oglethorpe was made commander of 
and there he held a friendly conference the South Carolina and Georgia troops, 
with the Indians, with whom satisfactory With 1,000 men and some Indians he in- 
arrangements for obtaining sovereignty vaded Florida, but returned unsuccessful, 
of the domain were made. Within eight In 1742 the Spaniards retaliated, and, 
years 2,500 emigrants were sent over from with a strong land and naval force, threat- 
England at an expense to the trustees of ened the Georgia colony with destruction. 
$400,000. Disaster was averted by a stratagem em- 
The condition upon which the lands ployed by Og'ethorpe, and peace was re- 
were parcelled out was military duty; and stored. 

so grievous were the restrictions, that Slavery was prohibited in the colony, 
many colonists went into South Carolina, and the people murmured. Many settle- 
where they could obtain land in fee. ments were abandoned, for tillers of the 
Nevertheless, the colony increased in num- soil were few. Finally, in 1750 the re- 
bers, a great many emigrants coming from strictions concerning slavery were re* 
Scotland and Germany. Oglethorpe went moved; and in 1752, the trustees having 
to England in 1734, and returned in 1736 surrendered their charter to the crown, 



Georgia became a royal province, with doni. The code of laws and regulations 

privileges similar to the others. A Gen- adopted by the trustees provided that 

eral Assembly was established in 1755, each tract of land granted to a settler 

and in 17G3 all the lands between the should be accepted as a pledge that the 

Savannah and St. Mary rivers were, by owner should take up arms for the com- 

royal proclamation, annexed to Georgia, mon defence whenever required; that no 

The colony prospered from the time of the tract should exceed 25 acres in extent, 

transfer to the crown. The Georgians and no person should possess more than 

sympathized with their Northern breth- 500 acres; that no woman should be 

ren in their political grievances, and bore capable of succeeding to landed property ; 

a conspicuous part in the war for inde- that, in default of male heirs, the prop- 

pendence. A State constitution was erty of a proprietor should revert to the 

adopted by a convention on Feb. 5, 1777, trustees, to be again granted to another 

and Georgia took its place among the emigrant; that if any portion of land 

independent States of the Union, with granted should not, within eighteen years 

Button Gwinnett (q. v.), one of the thereafter, be cleared, fenced, and culti- 

signers of the Declaration of Indepen- vated, it should relapse to the trustees, 

dence, as acting governor. It was recommended that the daughters 

Under the King's charter for planting of a deceased proprietor having no male 

the new colony, there were twenty-one heirs, unless provided for by marriage, 

trustees. Lord (Viscount) Perceval was should have some compensation, and his 

chosen president of the trustees, and a widow have the use of his house and half 

code of regulations for the colony, with his land during her life. No inhabitant 

agreements and stipulations, was speed- was permitted to leave the province with- 

ily prepared. The title of the association out a license; the importation of rum was 

was, Trustees for Settling and Estab- disallowed; trade with the West Indies 

lishing the Colony of Georgia. The was declared unlawful, and negro slavery 

trustees were: Anthony, Earl of Shaftes- wa° absolutely forbidden. It has been 

bury, John (Lord) Perceval, Edward well said that, with one or two exceptions, 

Digby, George Carpenter, James Edward this code did not exhibit a trace of com- 

Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas mon-sense. It is no wonder the colony 

Tower, Robert Moore, Robert Hucks, did not prosper, for the laws were hostile 

Roger Holland, William Sloper, Francis to contentment, discouraging every plant- 

Eyles, John La Roche, James Vernon, er whose children were girls, and offering 

William Beletha, John Burton, Richard very poor incentives to industry. When, 

Bundy, Arthur Beaford, Samuel Smith, in 1752, the trusteeship expired, and Geor- 

Adam Anderson, and Thomas Coram, gia was made a royal province, its growth 

They were vested with legislative powers was rapid. 

for the government of the colony, for the In 1742 the Spaniards at St. Augus- 
space of twenty-one years, at the expira- tine determined to invade, seize, and hold 
tion of which time a permanent govern- Georgia, and capture or drive the English 
ment was to be established by the King or settlers from it. With a fleet of thirty- 
his successor, in accordance with British six vessels from Cuba and a land force 
law and usage. They adopted a seal for about 3,000 strong, they entered the harbor 
the colony, which indicated the avowed of St. Simon's in July. Oglethorpe, always 
intention of making it a silk-producing vigilant, had learned of preparations for 
commonwealth. On one side was repre- this expedition, and he was on St. Simon's 
sented a group of toiling silk-worms, and Island before them, but with less than 
the motto, " Non sibi, sed alms"; on the 1,000 men, including Indians, for the gov- 
other, the genius of the colony, between ernor of South Carolina had failed to fur- 
two urns (two rivers), with a cap of nish men or supplies. The task of defend- 
liberty on her head, in her hands a spear ing both provinces from invasion devolved 
and a horn of plenty, and the words, upon the Georgians. When the Spanish 
" Colonia Georgia Aug." This was a fleet appeared Oglethorpe went on board 
strange seal for a colony whose toilers his own little vessels and addressed the 
and others possessed no political free- seamen with encouraging words ; but when 



he saw the ships of the enemy pass the Sir James Wright was appointed roj?vl 
English batteries at the southern end of governor of Georgia in 1764. He rul«4 
the island, he knew resistance would be wisely, but was a warm adherent of t><e 
in vain, so he ordered his squadron to royal cause. His influence kept down 
run up to Frederica, while he spiked the open resistance to the acts of Parliament 
guns at St. Simon's and retreated with for some time; but when that resistant 
his troops. There, waiting for reinforce- became strong, it was suddenly overpower- 
ments from South' Carolina (which did ing. In January, 1776, Joseph Haber- 
not come), he was annoyed by attacks sham, a member of the Assembly, raisec 
from Spanish detachments, but always re- a party of volunteers and made Governoi 
pulsed them. Finally, he proceeded to Wright a prisoner, but set him free od 
make a night attack on the Spanish camp his parole not to leave his own house 
at St. Simon's. When near the camp a This parole he violated. A sentinel was 
Frenchman in his army ran ahead, fired placed before his door, and all intercourse 
his musket, and deserted to the enemy, between Wright and friends of the crown 
The Spaniards were aroused, and Ogle- was forbidden. One stormy night (Feb. 
thorpe fell back to Frederica, and accom- 11, 1776), Governor Wright escaped from 
plishcd the punishment of the deserter in a back window of his house, with an at- 
a novel way. He addressed a letter to tendant, fled to a boat at the river-side, 
the Frenchman as a spy in the Spanish and went down the Savannah 5 miles to 
camp, telling him to represent the Geor- Bonaventure, the residence of his com- 
gians as very weak in numbers and arms, panion; thence he was conveyed before 
and to advise the Spaniards to attack daylight to the British armed ship Scar- 
them at once; and if they would not do borough, in Tybee Sound. So ended the 
so, to try and persuade them to remain at rule of the last royal governor in Georgia. 
St. Simon's three days longer; for within Sir James was a native of Charleston, 
that time a British fleet, with 2,000 land S. C; the son of a chief-justice (Robert 
troops, would arrive to attack St. Augus- Wright) of that province; agent of the 
tine. This letter was sent to the deserter province in Great Britain; and attorney- 
by a Spanish prisoner, who, as it was ex- general; and in 1760 was appointed chief- 
pected he would, carried it to the Spanish justice and lieutenant-governor. In 1772 
commander. The Frenchman was put in he was created a baronet. After his 
irons, and afterwards hanged. A council escape from Savannah he retired to 
of war was held, and while it was in England, losing all his large estate in 
session vessels from Carolina, seen at sea, Georgia by confiscation. He died in 
were mistaken for the British fleet al- 1786. 

luded to. The Spaniards determined to Late in 1771 Noble Wimberley Jones 
attack Oglethorpe immediately, and then was chosen speaker of the Georgia As- 
hasten to the defence of St. Augustine, sembly. He was a man of exemplary life, 
They advanced on Frederica, along a nar- but the royal governor, Sir James Wright, 
row road flanked by a forest and a who had reported him a strong opposer 
morass; and when within a mile of the of government measures, would not con- 
fort Oglethorpe and his Highlanders, ly- sent to the choice. The Assembly voted 
ing in ambush, fell upon them furiously, this interference a breach of their privi- 
Nearly the whole of the advanced division leges. Hillsborough, the secretary of 
were killed or captured, and a second, state for the colonies, censured the House 
pressing forward, shared their fate. The for their "unwarrantable and inconsist- 
Spaniards retreated in confusion, leaving ent arrogance," and directed the governor 
about 200 dead on the field. They fled to " put his negative upon any person 
to their ships, and in them to St. Augus- whom they should next elect for speaker, 
tine, to find that they had been out- and to dissolve the Assembly in case they 
generaled by Oglethorpe. The place of the should question the right of such nepa- 
slaughter is called " Bloody Marsh " to five." So the affections of the colonies, 
this day. This stratagem probably saved one after another, were alienated from 
Georgia and South Carolina from utter the mother country by her unwise 
destruction. rulers, 



The Provincial Congress of Georgia as- approach. He crossed and pursued, and 
sembled at Tondee's Long Room, in Savan- at Brier Creek, about half-way to Savan- 
nah, July 4, 1775, at which delegates from nah, he lay encamped, when he was sur- 

fourteen districts and parishes were in 
attendance — namely, from the districts 
of Savannah, Vernonburg, Acton, Sea Isl- 
and, and Little Ogeechee, and the parishes 
of St. Matthew, St. Philip, St. George, 
St. Andrew, St. David, St. Thomas, St. 
Mary, St. Paul, and St. John. Archi- 

prised, and, after a sharp skirmish, was 
defeated, and his troops dispersed. The 
British reoccupied Augusta and opened 
a communication with the South Caro- 
lina Tories and the friendly Creek Ind- 
ians. Now secured in the quiet posses- 
sion of Georgia, Prevost issued a procla- 

bald Bullock was elected president of the mation reinstating Sir James Wright as 

Congress, and George Walton secretary, governor, and the laws as they had 

The Congress adopted the American been before 1775. Savannah became the 

Association, and appointed as delegates headquarters of the British army in the 

to the Continental Congress Lyman Hall South. 

(already there), Archibald Bullock, Dr. 
Jones, John Houstoun, and Rev. Dr. Zub- 
ley, a Swiss by birth, who soon became a 
Tory. Sir James Wright (the governor) 
issued proclamations to quench the flames 
of patriotism, but in vain. His power 
had departed forever. 

By a compact between the national gov- 
ernment and Georgia, made in 1802, they 
forever agreed, in consideration of the lat- 
ter relinquishing her claim to the Missis- 
sippi territory, to extinguish, at the na- 
tional expense, the Indian title to the 
lands occupied by them in Georgia, " when- 

In the winter of 1778-79, General Lin- ever it could be peaceably done on reason- 
able terms." Since making that agree- 
ment, the national government had ex- 
tinguished the Indian title to about 
15,000,000 acres, and conveyed the same 
to the State of Georgia. There still re- 
mained 9,537,000 acres in possession of 
the Indians, of which 5,292,000 acres be- 
longed to the Cherokees and the remainder 

coin was sent to Georgia to take the place 
of General Howe. General Prevost, com- 
manding the British forces in east Flor- 
ida, was ordered to Savannah, to join 
Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell for the sub- 
jugation of Georgia to British rule. On 
his way, Prevost captured Sunbury (Jan. 
9, 1779) and took 200 Continental prison- 

As soon as he reached Savannah he to the Creek nation. In 1824 the State 
sent Campbell against Augusta, which government became clamorous for the en- 
was abandoned by the garrison, who es- tire removal of the Indians from the com- 
caped across the river. The State now monwealth, and, at the solicitation of 
seemed at the mercy of the invader. An Governor Troup, President Monroe ap- 
invasion of South Carolina was antici- pointed two commissioners, selected by 


The militia of that State 

were the governor, to make a treaty with the 

summoned to the field. Lincoln was at Creeks for tho purchase of their lands. 

Charleston. With militia lately arrived 
from North Carolina snd the fragments 
of Howe's force, he had about 1,400 men, 
whom he stationed to guard the fords 
of the Savannah. The force under Pre- 

The latter were unwilling to sell and move 
away, for they haS begun to enjoy the 
arts and comforts of civilization. They 
passed a law forbidding the sale of any 
of their lands, on pain of death. After 

vost was much larger, but he hesitated the breaking up of the general council, a 
to cross the river, the marshy borders of few of the chiefs violated this law by 

which were often overflowed to the width 
of 3 or 4 miles, threaded only at 
one or two points by a narrow causeway. 

negotiating with the United States com- 
missioners. By these chiefs, who were 
only a fraction of the leaders of the tribes, 

A detachment sent by Prevost to take all the lands of the Creeks in Georgia 

possession of Port Royal Island was re- 
pulsed by Colonel Moultrie. Lincoln, be- 
ing reinforced, sent Colonel Ashe, of North 
Carolina, with 1,400 troops, to drive the 
British from Augusta. The British fled 

were ceded to the United States. The 
treaty was ratified by the United States 
Senate, March 3, 1825. When informa- 
tion of these proceedings reached the 
Creeks, a secret council determined not to 

down the Georgia side of the river at his accept the treaty and to slay Mcintosh, 



the chief of the party who had assented to 
it. He and another chief were shot, April 
30. A new question now arose. Govern- 
or Troup contended that upon the ratifi- 
cation of the treaty the fee simple of the 
lands vested in Georgia. He took meas- 
ures for a survey of the lands, under the 
authority of the legislature of Georgia, 
and to distribute them among the white 
inhabitants of the State. The remon- 
strances of the Creeks caused President 
Adams to appoint a special agent to in- 
vestigate the matter, and General Gaines 
was sent with a competent force to pre- 
vent any disturbance. The agent reported 
that bad faith and corruption had marked 
the treaty, and that forty-nine-fiftieths of 
the Creeks were hostile to it. The Presi- 
dent determined not to allow interference 
with the Indians until the next meeting of 
Congress. Troup determined, at first, to 
execute the treaty in spite of the Presi- 
dent, but the firmness of the latter made 
the governor hesitate. A new negotia- 
tion was opened with the Creeks, and 
finally resulted in the cession of all the 
Creek lands in Georgia to the United 
States. By this new treaty the Creeks 
retained all their lands in Alabama, 
which had been ceded by a former 

On the recommendation of Senator 
Toombs and others at Washington, in the 
winter of 18G0-G1, the governor of Geor- 
gia (Joseph Brown) ordered the seizure 
of the United States coast defences on the 
border of the State before the secession 
convention met. Fort Pulaski, on Cock- 
spur Island, at the mouth of the Savan- 
nah River, and Fort Jackson, near the city 
of Savannah, were seized on Jan. 3, 1SG1. 
On the same day the National arsenal at 
Savannah was taken possession of by Con- 
federates, and 700 State troops, by the 
orders and in the presence of the governor, 
took possession of the arsenal at Augusta, 
Jan. 24, when the National troops there 
were sent to New York. In the arsenal 
were 22 000 muskets and rifles, some can- 
non, and a large amount of munitions of 
war. The forts wore without garrisons, 
and each was in charge of only two or 
three men. 

Late in November, 18G1, Commodore 
Dupont went down the coast from Port 
Royal (q. v.) with a part of his fleet, 

and with ease took possession of the Big 
Tybee Island, at the mouth of the Savan- 
nah River, from which Fort Pulaski, 
which was within easy mortar distance, 
might be assailed, and the harbor of Sa- 
vannah perfectly sealed against block- 
ade runners. On the approach of the 
National gunboats the defences were aban- 
doned, and on Nov. 25, Dupont wrote to 
the Secretary of War: "The flag of the 
United States is flying over the territory 
of Georgia." Before the close of the year 
the National authority was supreme from 
Warsaw Sound, below the mouth of the 
Savannah, to the North Edisto River, be- 
low Charleston. Every fort on the islands 
of that region had been abandoned, and 
there was nothing to make serious oppo- 
sition to National authority. When the 
National forces reached those sea islands 
along the coasts of South Carolina and 
Georgia, there was a vast quantity of val- 
uable sea-island cotton, gathered and un- 
gathered, upon them. When the first 
panic was over the Confederates re- 
turned, stealthily, and applied the torch 
to millions of dollars' worth of this 

On Jan. 2, 1861, elections were held 
in Georgia for members of a convention 
to consider the subject of secession. The 
people, outside of the leading politicians 
and their followers, were opposed to seces- 
sion ; and Alexander H. Stephens, the most 
consistent and able statesman in Georgia, 
though believing in the right of secession, 
opposed the measure as unnecessary and 
full of danger to the public welfare. On 
the other hand, Robert Toombs, a shallow 
but popular leader, unscrupulous ir 
methods of leadership, goaded the people 
on to disaster by harangues, telegraphic 
despatches, circulars, etc. He was then 
one of the most active of the conspirators 
in the national Congress, and worked 
night and day to precipitate his State into 
revolution. The vote at the election was 
from 25.000 to 30.000 less than usual, and 
there was a decided majority of the mem- 
bers elected against secession. The con- 
vention assembled at Millodgoville, the 
capital of the State, on Jan. 1G. There 
were 205 members present, who chose Mr. 
Crawford to preside. " With all the ap- 
pliances brought to bear, with all the 
fierce, rushing, maddening ftvents of the- 


hour," said the writer of the day, " the 
co-operationists had a majority, notwith- 
standing the falling-off of nearly 30,000, 
and an absolute majority of elected dele- 
gates of twenty-nine. But, upon assem- 
bling, by coaxing, bullying, and all other 
arts, the majority was changed." On the 
ISth a resolution was passed by a vote of 
105 to 130, declaring it to be the right 
and duty of the State to withdraw from 
the Union. On the same day they ap- 
pointed a, committee to draft an ordinance 
of secession. It was reported almost im- 
mediately, and was shorter than any of 
its predecessors. It was in a single para- 
graph, and simply declared the repeal and 
abrogation of all laws which bound the 
commonwealth to the Union, and that the 
State of Georgia was in " full possession 
and exercise of all the rights of sover- 
eignty which belong and appertain to a 
free and independent State." The ordi- 
nance elicited many warm expressions of 
Union sentiments. Mr. Stephens made a 
telling speech in favor of the Union, and he 
and his brother Linton voted against seces- 
sion in every form. When, at two o'clock 
in the afternoon of Jan. 19, 1861, the or- 
dinance of secession was adopted, by a 
vote of 208 against 89, Stephens declared 
that he should go with his State, and, 
in accordance with a resolution adopted, 
he signed the ordinance. A resolution to 
submit the ordinance to the people of the 
State for ratification or rejection was re- 
jected by a large majority. At that stage 
of the proceedings, a copy of a resolution 
passed by the legislature of the State of 
New York, tendering to the President of 
the United States all the available forces 
of the State, to enable him to enforce the 
laws, was received, and produced much ex- 
citement. Toombs immediately offered the 
following resolution, which was adopted 
unanimously: " As a response to the reso- 
lution of New York, that this convention 
highly approve of the energetic and pa- 
triotic conduct of the governor of Georgia 
in taking possession of Fort Pulaskt 
\q. v.) by Georgia troops, and request 
him to hold possession until the relations 
of Georgia with the federal government 
he determined by this convention, and that 
i copy of this resolution be ordered to be 
transmitted to the governor of New 

While General Mitchel was holding the 
Charleston and Memphis Railway in 
northern Alabama, he set on foot one of 
the most daring enterprises attempted 
during the war. It was an efl'ort to break 
up railway communications between Chat- 
tanooga and Atlanta, in Georgia. For 
this purpose J. J. Andrews, who had been 
engaged in the secret service by General 
Buell, was employed. In April, 1862, 
with twenty picked men, in the guise of 
Confederates from Kentucky seeking 
Georgia's freedom, Andrews walked to 
Marietta. At that place they took the 
cars for a station not far from the foot 
of Great Kenesaw Mountain, and there, 
while the engineer and conductor were at 
breakfast, they uncoupled the engine, 
tender, and box-car from the passenger 
train and started up the road at full 
speed. They told inquirers where they 
were compelled to stop that they were con- 
veying powder to Beauregard's army. 
They passed several trains before they 
began to destroy the road. The first train 
that came to a broken spot had its engine 
reversed and became a pursuer of the 
raiders. Onward they dashed with the 
speed of a gale, passing other trains, 
when, at an important curve in the road, 
after destroying the track a considerable 
distance, Andrews said, " Only one more 
train to pass, boys, and then we will put 
our engine at full speed, burn the bridges 
after us, dash through Chattanooga, and 
on to Mitchel, at Huntsville." The excit- 
ing chase continued many miles. The 
raiders cut telegraph wires and tore up 
tracks. The pursuers gained upon them. 
Finally their lubricating oil became ex- 
hausted, and such was the speed of the 
engine that the brass journals in which 
the axles revolved were melted. Fuel fail- 
ing, the raiders were compelled to leave 
their conveyance, 15 miles from Chatta- 
nooga, and take refuge in the tangled 
woods on Chickamauga Creek. A great 
man-hunt was organized. The mountain 
passes were picketed, and thousands of 
horse and foot soldiers scoured the country 
in all directions. The whole party were 
finally captured, and Andrews and seven 
of his companions were hanged. To each 
of the survivors the Secretary of War gave 
a bronze medal in token of approval. See 
United States, Georgia, vol. ix. 








John Reynolds 

Henry Ellis 





Archibald Bullock, acting 
Button GwiuDett, acting.. 
John A Trueitlen 

(Appointed by the 
| Georgia Assembly. 
< Under the new Slate 
( constitution. 

Georgia in the hands of j 
the British, with Sir ! 
James Wright as roy- f 

George Matthews 

George Handley 



George Walton 

Edward Telfair 

George Matthews 

Jared Irwin 

James Jackson 

David Emanuel 

Josiah Tattnall 

John Milledge 

Jared Irwin 

David B. Mitchell 

Peter Early 

David B. Mitchell 

William Rabun 

M itthew Talbot, acting. 

John Clark 

George M. Troup 

John Forsyth 

George R. Gilmer 

Wilson Lumpkin 

William Schley 

George R. Gilmer 

Charles J. McDonald 

George W. Crawford.... 
George W. B. Towns... 

Howell Cobb 

Herschel V. Johnson. . . . 

Joseph E. Brown 

James Johnson 

Charles J. Jenkins 

Gen. T. H Ruger 

Rufus B. Bullock 

James Milton Smith. . . . 

Alfred H. Colquitt 

Alexander H. Stephens. 

Henry D. McDaniel 

John B. Gordon 

William J. Northen.... 
William Y. Atkinson... 

Allen D Candler 

Joseph M. Terrell 








































William Few 

James Gunn 

James Jackson 

George Watson 

Josiah Tattnall 

Abraham Baldwin 

James Jackson 

John Milledge 

George Jones 

William H. Crawford. 

No. of Congress. 

1st and 2d 
1st to 7th 


4th to 5th 
6th " 9th 
7th " 8th 
9th " 12th 

10th to 12th 


1789 to 1793 

1789 " 1801 

1794 " 1795 


1796 to 1799 

1799 " 1807 

1801 « 1806 

1806 " 1809 

1807 to 1813 


No. of Congress. 



13th to 14th 
14th " 15th 

ICth to 18th 

17th to 18th 
18th '• 2Uth 
19th " 20th 

21st to 23d 
21st " 22d 
23d " 27 th 
23d " 24th 
25th " 20th 
27th " 32d 
28th " 30th 

31st to 33d 

33d to 36th 
34th " 36th 
36th " 41st 
41st " 42d 

42d to 43d 
43d " 46th 
45th " 47th 
47th " 51st 

48th to 53d 
52d " 55th 

54th " 

55th " 

William B. Bullock 

William Wyatl Bibb 

1813 to 1816 


1819 to 1824 

Freeman Walker 

1819 " 1821 
1821 " 1824 

1824 " 1828 

John McPhersou Berrien. 

1825 " 1829 

Alfred Cuthbert 

1834 " 1843 

1833 " 1837 

Wilson Lumpkin 

John McPherson Berrien. 

Walter T. Colquitt 

Herschel V. Johnson 

William C. Dawson 

Robert M. Charlton 

1837 '« 1841 
1841 " 1852 
1843 " 1848 

1849 to 1855 

1853 to 1861 

1861 " 1871 

Joshua Hill 

1871 " 1873 

H. V. M. Miller 


Thomas M. Norwood 

1871 to 1875 
1873 " 1881 

Benjamin H. Hill 

Joseph E. Brown.. 

1877 " 1882 

1881 " 1891 


Alfred H. Colquitt 

1883 to 1894 
1891 " 1897 

A ugustus O. Bacon 

Alexander S. Clay 

1895 " 

1897 « . 

Gerard, James Watson, lawyer; born 
in New York City in 1794; graduated 
at Columbia in 1811; practised law 
in New York till 1869; secured the incor- 
poration of the House of Refuge for Ju- 
venile Delinquents in New York, which 
was the first institution of this kind in 
the United States. He was also an ar- 
dent advocate for a uniformed police. He 
died in New York, Feb. 7, 1874. 

Gerard de Rayneval, Conrad Alex- 
andre, diplomatist; born in France. On 
the ratification of the treaty between 
France and the United States, of Feb. 6, 
1778, diplomatic relations were fully es- 
tablished between the two governments by 
the French sending M. Gerard (who had 
been an active participator in the ne- 
gotiations) as minister plenipotentiary 
to the young republic. He sailed for 
America in D'Estaing's flag-ship, in com- 
pany with Silas Deane, and arrived at 
Philadelphia early in July. There being 
no traditionary rules of etiquette suitable 
for the occasion, the ceremonials which 
took place at his reception by Congress, 
on Aug. 6, were entirely new. Richard 
Henry Lee and Samuel Adams, delegates 


in Congress, in a coach drawn by six 
horses, provided by that body, waited upon 
the minister at his lodgings. A few min- 
utes afterwards the two delegates and 
M. Gerard entered the coach; the minis- 
ter's chariot, being behind, received his 
secretary. The carriages arrived at the 
State-house a little before one o'clock, 
when the minister was conducted by 
Messrs. Lee and Adams to a chair in the 
Congress chamber, the members of that 
body and the president sitting; M. 
Gerard, being seated, presented his cre- 
dentials into the hands of hie secretary, 
who advanced and delivered them to the 
president of Congress. The secretary of 
Congress then read and translated them, 
which being done, Mr. Lee introduced the 
minister to Congress, at the same moment 
the minister and Congress rising. M. 
Gerard bowed to the president (Henry 
Laurens) and Congress, and they bowed 
to him, whereupon the whole seated them- 
selves. In a moment the minister arose, 
made a speech to Congress (they sitting), 
and then, seating himself, he gave a copy 
of his speech to his secretary, who pre- 
sented it to the president. The presi- 
dent and Congress then rose, when the 
former made a reply to the speech of the 
minister, the latter standing. Then all 
were again seated, when the president 
gave a copy of his answer to the secre- 
tary of Congress, who presented it to the 
minister. The president, the Congress, 
and the minister then arose again to- 
gether. The minister bowed to the presi- 

31. GERARD. 

dent, who returned the salute, and then 
to the Congress, who bowed in return; 
and the minister, having bowed to the 
president, and received his bow in return, 
withdrew, and was attended home in the 

same manner in which he had been con- 
ducted to the audience. Within the bar 
of the House, the Congress formed a semi- 
circle on each side of the president and 
the minister, the president sitting at one 
extremity of the semicircle, at a table 
upon a platform elevated two steps, the 
minister sitting at the opposite extremity 
of the semicircle, in an arm-chair, upon 
the same level with the Congress. The 
door of the Congress chamber being 
thrown open below the bar, about 200 
gentlemen were admitted to the audience, 
among whom were the vice-presidents of 
the supreme executive council of Penn- 
sylvania, the supreme executive council, 
the speaker and members of the assembly, 
several foreigners of distinction, and 
officers of the army. The audience being 
over, the Congress and the minister at a 
proper hour repaired to an entertainment 
given by the Congress to the minister, 
at which were present, by invitation, sev- 
eral foreigners of distinction and gentle- 
men of public character. Such was the 
unostentatious manner in which the first 
foreign minister of the United States was 
received, and he from the gayest court in 
Europe. M. Gerard died in Strasburg 
in April, 1790. 

Gerhardt, Karl, sculptor; born in Bos- 
ton, Mass., Jan. 7, 1853. He has made 
a specialty of portraiture. Among his 
works are busts of General Grant, Henry 
Ward Beecher, Mark Twain, and statues 
of General Putnam, Nathan Hale, and 
John Fitch. 

Germain, Lord George, Viscount 
Sackville, statesman; born in England, 
Jan. 26, 1716; third son of the first Duke 
of Dorset, lord-lieutenant of Ireland; was 
educated there; entered the army, and 
rose to the rank of lieutenant-general. 
He entered Parliament in 1761, and was 
made colonial secretary in 1775, ever 
evincing a most vindictive spirit towards 
the Americans. He became so unpopular 
at home that, during the London riots in 
1780, he felt compelled to barricade his 
house in the city. So consonant were his 
views with those of the King that he was 
a great favorite at court. His influence 
over the young King at the time of his 
coronation, and soon afterwards, was so 
well known that a handbill appeared 
with the words, " No Lord George Sack- 



ville! No Petticoat Government!" allud- 
ing to the influence of the monarch's 
mother. He died in England, Aug. 26, 

Lord George seemed to take pride and 
comfort in employing agents who would 


incite the savages of the wilderness to 
fall on the Americans. He complained 
of the humanity of Carleton, who, in the 
autumn of 1776, hesitated to employ the 
Indians in war; but in Hamilton, govern- 
or of Detroit, he found a ready agent in 
the carrying out of his cruel schemes. 
Early in September (1776) that function- 
ary wrote he had assembled small parties 
of Indians in council, and that the Ot- 
tawas, Chippewas, Wyandottes, and Potta- 
wattomies, with the Senecas, would " fall 
on the scattered settlers on the Ohio and 
its branches"; and saying of the Ameri- 
cans, " Their arrogance, disloyalty, and 
imprudence has justly drawn upon them 
this deplorable sort of war." It was Ger- 
main and his agents (sometimes un- 
worthy ones) who excited the Indians to 
scalp and murder the white settlers, with- 
out distinction of age or sex, all along 
the frontier line from New York to 
Georgia. He reproved every commander 
who showed signs of mercy in his conduct 
in this business. 

German Flats. Sir William Johnson 
concluded a treaty of peace with the West- 
ern Indians at German Flats, N. Y., in 
1765. During the Revolution the Six Na- 

tions were induced by him to aid the Brit- 
ish, and were led by Joseph Brant and 
Walter Butler. The Indians plundered 
and burned Cobleskill, Springfield, Ger- 
man Flats, and Cherry Valley. In retali- 
ation the Americans, led by Colonel Van 
Schaick and Colonel Willett, laid waste 
the Indian villages, seizing all provisions 
and weapons which they could find. 

German Mercenaries. Soon after the 
opening of the British Parliament in the 
autumn of 1775, that body, stimulated 
by Lord North, the premier, and Lord 
George Germain, secretary for the colo- 
nies, and at the suggestion of Admiral 
Howe, promptly voted 25,000 men for 
service against the Americans. It was 
difficult to obtain enlistments in Great 
Britain, and mercenaries were sought in 
Germany. At the close of the year, and 
at the beginning of 1776, bargains were 
effected between representatives of the 
British government and the reigning 
princes of Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Hanau, 
Brunswick, Anhalt, Ai'spach, and Wal- 
deek. In the bargains, :he fundamental 
law of trade — supply and demand — pre- 
vailed. The King of England had money, 
but lacked troops ; the German rulers had 
troops, but wanted money. The bargain 
was a natural one on business principles; 
the morality of the transaction was an- 
other affair. About 30.000 German 
troops, most of them well disciplined, 
were hired. The German rulers were to 
receive for each soldier a bounty of 
$35, besides an annual subsidy, the 
whole amounting to a large sum. 

The British government agreed to make 
restitution for all soldiers who might per- 
ish from contagious disease while being 
transported in ships and in engagements 
during sieges. They were to take an oath 
of allegiance to the British sovereign dur- 
ing their service, without its interfering 
with similar oaths to their respective 
rulers. Their chief commanders, when 
they sailed for America, were Generals 
Baron de Riedesel, Baron Knyphausen. 
and De Heister. The general name of 
" Hessians " was given to them by the 
Americans, and, because they were merce- 
naries, they were heartily detested by the 
colonists. When any brutal act of op- 
pression or wrong was to be carried out, 
such as a plundering or burning expedi- 



tion, the Hessians were generally em- 
ployed in the service. The transaction 
was regarded by other nations as disgrace- 
ful to the British. The King of Great 
Britain shrank from the odium it inflict- 
ed, and refused to give commissions to 
German recruiting officers (for he knew 
their methods of forcing men into the 
service), saying, "It, in plain English, 
amounts to making me a kidnapper, which 
I cannot think a very honorable occupa- 
tion." All Europe cried "Shame!" and 
Frederick the Great, of Prussia, took every 
opportunity to express his contempt for 
the " scandalous man-traffic " of his neigh- 
bors. Without these troops, the war 

it was resolved to attack the British army 
at Germantown. Washington had been 
reinforced by Maryland and New Jersey 
troops. His army moved m four columns 
during the night of Oct. 3, the divisions 
of Sullivan and Wayne, flanked by Gen- 
eral Conway's brigade on the right, mov- 
ing by way of Chestnut Hill, while Arm- 
strong, with Pennsylvania militia, made 
a circuit to gain the left and rear of the 
enemy. The divisions of Greene and 
Stephen, flanked by McDougall's brigade 
(two-thirds of the whole army), moved 
on a circuitous route to attack the front 
of the British right wing, while the Mary- 
land and New Jersey militia, under Small- 

would have been short. A part of them, wood and Forman, marched to fall upon 
under BJedesel, went to Canada (May, the rear of that wing. Lord Stirling, 
1776) ; the remainder, under Knyphausen with the brigades of Nash and Maxwell, 
and De Heister, join- 
ed the British under 
Howe, before New 
York, and had their 
first encounter on 
Long Island, Aug. 27. 
See Hessians. 

Germantown, Bat- 
tle of. There were 
formidable obstructions 
in the Delaware River 
below Philadelphia, 
placed there by the 
Americans, and also two 
forts and a redoubt that 
commanded the stream. 
The British fleet was in 
Delaware Bay, Sept. 
25, 1777, but could 
not reach Philadel- 
phia before these ob- 
structions were re- 
moved. General Howe 
prepared to assist his 
brother in removing 
these obstructions, 
and sent strong de- 
tachments from his 
army to occupy the 
shores of the Delaware 
below Philadelphia, 
which the Americana 
still held. Perceiving 
the weakening of 
Howe's army, and feeling 
sity of speedily striking a 

the neces- 
blow that 

should revive the spirits of the Americans, with 
iv. — e 65 


formed the reserve. Howe's force stretched 
across the country from Germantown, 

a battalion of light infantry and 


Simcoe's Queen's Rangers (American loy- American small-arms upon the building 
alists) in the front. In advance of the was ineffectual. Finally Maxwell's artil- 
ieft wing were other light infantry, to lorists brought cannon to bear upon the 
support pickets on Mount Airy, and the house, but its strong walls resisted the 

heavy, round shot. Then an attempt 
was made to set fire to the man- 
sion. This check in the pursuit 
brought back Wayne's division, 
leaving Sullivan's flank uncovered. 
This event, and the failure of 
Greene to attack at the time or- 
dered, disconcerted Washington's 
plansi. Greene's troops had fallen 
into confusion in the fog, as they 
traversed the broken country, but 
they soon smote the British right 
with force. The failure of the other 
troops to co-operate with them by 
turning the British left caused 
Greene to fail, and the golden op- 
portunity to strike a crushing blow 
had passed. 

In the fog that still prevailed, 
parties of Americans attacked each 
other on the field; and it was after- 
wards ascertained that, while the assault 
on Chew's house was in progress, the whole 
tration), at the head of the village, was a British army were preparing to fly across 
strong regiment under Colonel Musgrave. the Schuylkill, and rendezvous at Chester. 
Washington's army, moving stealthily, At that moment of panic General Grey ob- 
tried to reach Chestnut Hill before the served that his flanks were secure, and 
dawn (Oct. 4), but failed. It was near Knyphausen marched with his whole force 
sunrise when they emerged from the woods to assist the beleaguered garrison and the 
on that eminence. The whole country contending regiments in the village, 
was enveloped in a thick fog. The Brit- Then a short and severe battle occurred in 
ish were surprised. The troops of Wayne the heart of Germantown. The Ameri- 
and Sullivan fell, unexpectedly and with cans could not discern the number of their 
heavy force, upon the British infantry in assailants in the confusing mist, when 
front, and they were hurled back upon suddenly the cry of a trooper, " We are 
their main line in confusion by a storm surrounded!" produced a panic, and the 


extreme left was guarded by Hessian 
yagers (riflemen). Near the large stone 
mansion of Chief- Justice Chew (see illus- 

of grape-shot. This cannonade awakened 
Cornwallis, who was sleeping soundly in 
Philadelphia, unconscious of danger near. 
Howe, too, nearer the army, was aroused 
from slumber, and arrived near the scene 
of conflict to meet his flying battalions. 

patriots retreated in great confusion. 
The struggle lasted about three hours. 
The Americans lost about GOO killed, 
wounded, and missing; the British about 
800. Washington fell back to his encamp- 
ment on Skippack Creek. General Nash, 

Then he hastened to his camp, to prepare while covering the retreat with his bri- 

his troops for action. Musgrave sent a gade, was mortally wounded, 
part of his regiment to support the fugi- Geronimo, Apache Indian chief; became 

tives, and, with six companies, took refuge a war-chief when sixteen years old, and 

in Chew's strong dwelling. He barricaded for almost fifty years led a band of blood- 

the doors and lower windows, and made thirsty savages; was a constant terror to 

it a castle. From its upper windows he the settlers in the Southwest, where he 

poured such a volley of bullets upon perpetrated Tiiany frightful atrocities. He 

Woodford's pursuing brigade that their was captured near Prescott, Ariz., in 18SG, 

march was chocked. The fire of the by Generals Miles and Lawton, after a 

no ' 


continued chase of four years, at the ex- 
pense of hundreds of lives. He was first 



imprisoned at Mount Vernon, Ala., but 
bter at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. 

Gerrish, Theodore, author; born in 
Houlton, Me., June 19, 1846; received 
an academic education; served in the Civil 
War, being wounded four times. In 1871- 
88 he was a Methodist Episcopal min- 
ister at various places in Maine. His pub- 
lications include Reminiscences of the 
War; The Blue and the Gray, etc. 

Gerry, Elbridge, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence; born in Marblehead, 
Mass., July 17, 1744; graduated at Har- 
vard in 1762; took part in the early 
strife before the Revolution, and in 1772 
represented his native town in the State 
legislature. Gerry was the first to pro- 
pose, in the Provincial Congress of Massa- 
chusetts, a law for fitting out armed ves- 
sels and establishing a court of admi- 
ralty. He took a seat in the Continental 
Congress early in 1776, signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and remained in 
that body, with few intermissions, until 
1785. He was an efficient member of 
finance committees in the Congress, and 
was president of the treasury board in 
1780. A delegate in the convention that 
framed the national Constitution, he was 

one of those who refused to sign the in- 
strument. He was a member of Congress 
from 1789 to 1793, and in 1797 was sent 
as one of the special envoys on a mission 
to France. He was elected governor of 
Massachusetts by the Democratic party 
in 1810, and in 1812 was chosen Vice- 
President of the United States. He died 
in Washington, D. C, while Vice-Presi- 
dent, Nov. 23, 1814. 

Gerrymandering, a political term em- 
ployed in the United States since 1812. 
After a bitter contest for power in Massa- 
chusetts between the , Federalists and 
Democrats, the latter succeeded, in 1811, 
in electing their candidate for governor, 
Elbridge Gerry, and a majority of both 
Houses of the legislature. In order to se- 
cure the election of United States Senators 
in the future, it was important to per- 
petuate this possession of power, and 
measures were taken to retain a Demo- 
cratic majority in the State Senate in 
all future years. The senatorial districts 
had been formed without any division of 
counties. This arrangement, for the pur- 
pose alluded to, was now disturbed. The 
legislature proceeded to rearrange the 
senatorial districts of the State. They 
divided counties in opposition to the pro- 
tests and strong constitutional arguments 


of the Federalists; and those of Essex 
and Worcester were so divided as to form 



a Democratic majority in each of those 
Federal counties, without any apparent 
regard to convenience or propriety. The 
work was sanctioned and became a law 
by the signature of Governor Gerry, for 

Gerstaecker, Friedrich. German au- 
thor; born in Hamburg, Germany, May 
16, 1816; emigrated to America in 1837; 
remained in the country about six years, 
when he returned to Germany, but sub- 

which act the opposition severely castigat- sequently made many trips to every quar- 

ed him through the newspapers and at ter of the globe. He is best known by his 

public gatherings. In Essex county the writings, originally published in German, 

arrangement of the district, in relation but many of which were translated and re- 

to the towns, was singular and absurd, published in the United States. Among 

Russell, the veteran editor of the Boston his writings are The Regulators of Ar- 

Ccntinel, who had fought against the kansas; Pictures of the Mississippi; Jour- 

scheme valiantly, took a map of that ney through the United States, Mexico, 

county, and designated by particular col- etc.; Incidents of Life on the Mississippi, 

oring the towns thus selected, and hung etc. He died in Vienna, Austria, May 31, 

it on the wall of his editorial room. One 1872. 

day Gilbert Stuart, the eminent painter, 
looked at the map, and said the town9 
which Russell had thus distinguished re- 
sembled some monstrous animal. He took 
a pencil, and with a few touches repre- 
sented a head, wings, claws, and tail. 
" There," said Stuart, " that will do for 
a salamander." Russell, who was busy 
with his pen, looked up at the hideous 
figure, and exclaimed, " Salamander ! 
Call it Gerry-mander." The word was im- 

Getty, George Washington, military 
officer; born in Georgetown, D. C, Oct. 
2, 1819; was graduated at West Point 
in 1840; served in the war with Mexico, 
and in the Seminole War in Florida ; and, 
becoming brigadier-general of volunteers 
in 1862, did excellent service in the cam- 
paign on the Peninsula. He was in the 
battles of South Mountain, Antietam, and 
Fredericksburg in 1862; also in the cam- 
paign against Richmond in 1864 until 
August, when he was brevetted 
major - general of volunteers. 
He was in the army in the 
Shenandoah Valley the remain- 
der of the year. He was also 
in the battle at Sailor's Creek, 
and at the surrender of Lee. 
On Aug. 1, 1864, he was bre- 
vetted major-general of volun- 
teers, and March 13, 1865, ma- 
jor-general in the regular army. 
He was commissioned colonel 
of the 37th Infantry in 1866, 
and retired Oct. 2, 1883. His 
last service was as commander 
of the United States troops 
along the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad during the riots of 
1877. He died in Forest Glen. 
Md., Oct. 2, 1901. 

Gettysburg, Battle op. On 
the day when General Meade 
took command of the Army of 
the Potomac, June 28, 1863, 
Lee was about to cross the Sus- 
mediately adopted into the political quehanna at Harrisburg and march on 
vocabulary as a term of reproach for Philadelphia. The militia of Pennsylvania, 
those who change boundaries of districts who had shown great apathy in responding 
for a partisan purpose. to the call for help, now, when danger was 



at their door, turn- 
ed out with con- 
siderable spirit ; 
and Lee, observing 
this, and hearing 
that the augment- 
ed Army of the 
Potomac was in 
Maryland and 
threatening his 
rear and flanks, 
immediately aban- 
doned his scheme 
for further inva- 
sion, and ordered 
a retrograde move- 
ment. On the 
same day, Stuart, 
with a large force 
of cavalry, crossed 
the Potomac, push- 
ed on to Westmin- 
ster, at the right 

of the Nationals, crossed over to Car- Marsh Creek, a few miles distant, was 
lisle, encountering Kilpatrick and his cav- then advancing with his own corps, fol- 
alry, and followed Ewell in his march lowed by Howard's, having those of Sickles 
towards Gettsyburg. Longstreet had been and Slocum within call. The sound of 
ordered to cross the South Mountain fire-arms quickened his pace, and he 
range, and press on through Gettysburg marched rapidly to the relief of Buford, 
to Baltimore to keep Meade from cutting who was holding the Confederates in 
Lee's communications. Lee hoped to crush check. While Reynolds was placing some 
Meade, and then march in triumph on of his troops on the Chambersburg road, 
Baltimore and Washington; or, in the Confederates made an attack, when a 
case of failure, to secure a direct line volley of musketry from the 56th Penn- 
of retreat into Virginia. Meanwhile sylvania led by Col. J. W. Hoffman, opened 
Meade was pushing towards the Susque- the decisive battle of Gettysburg, 
hanna with cautious movement, and on Meredith's " Iron Brigade " then 
the evening of June 30 he discover- charged into a wood in the rear of the 
ed Lee's evident intention to give bat- Seminary, to fall upon Hill's right, under 
tie at once. On the day before, Kil- General Archer. The Nationals were 
patrick and Custer's ca.artv had de- pushed back, but other troops, under the 
feated some of Stuart's a few' miles from personal direction of Reynolds, struck 
Gettysburg. Buford's cavalry entered Archer's flank, and captured that officer 
Gettysburg; and on the 30th the left wing and 800 of his men. At the moment 
of Meade's army, led by General Reyn- when this charge was made, the bullet of 
olds, arrived near there. At the same a Mississippi sharp-shooter pierced Reyn- 
time the corps of Hill and Longstreet olds's neck, when he fell forward and ex- 
were approaching from Chambersburg, and pired. General Doubleday had just ar- 
Ewell was marching down from Carlisle rived, and took Reynolds's place, leaving 
in full force. On the morning of July 1 his own division in charge of General 
Buford, with 6,000 cavalry, met the van Rowley. Very soon the Mississippi bri- 
of Lee's army, led by General Heth, be- gade, under General Davis, was captured, 
tween Seminary Ridge (a little way from and at noon the whole of the 1st Corps, 
Gettysburg) and a parallel ridge a little under General Doubleday, was well post- 
farther west, when a sharp skirmish en- ed on Seminary Ridge, and the remain- 
sued. Reynolds, who had bivouacked at der of Hill's corps was rapidly approach- 


ing. Meanwhile, the advance division of of Reynolds, and he ordered General Han- 
Ewell's corps had taken a position on a cock, Howard's junior, to leave his corps 
ridge north of the town, connecting with with Gibbons and take the chief command 
Hill, and seriously menacing the National at Gettysburg. He arrived just as the 
right, held by General Cutler. Double- beaten forces were hurrying towards 
day sent aid to Cutler, when a severe Lemetery Hill. He reported to Meade 
struggle ensued for some time, and three that he was satisfied with Howard's dis- 
North Carolina regiments were captured, position of the troops. The latter had 
Now the battle assumed far grander pro- called early upon Sloeum and Sickles, and 
portions. Howard's corps, animated by both promptly responded. Sickles joined 
the sounds of battle on its front, pressed the left of the troops on Cemetery Hill 
rapidly forward, and reached the field of that night. Hancock had gone back; and, 
strife at a little past noon. He left Stein- meeting his own corps, posted it a mile 
wehr's brigade on Cemetery Hill, placed and a half in the rear of Cemetery Hill. 
General Schurz in temporary charge of Meade had now given orders for the con- 
the corp3, and, ranking Doubleday, took centration of his whole army at Gettys- 
the chief command of all the troops in burg, and he aroused them at one o'clock 
action. The Confederate numbers were in the morning of July 2, when only the 
continually augmented, and, to meet an corps of Sykes and Sedgwick were absent, 
expected attack from the north and west, Lee, too, had been bringing forward his 
Howard was compelled to extend the Na- troops as rapidly as possible, making his 
tional lines, then quite thin, about 3 headquarters on Seminary Ridge. On the 
miles, with Culp's Hill on the right, morning of the 2d a greater portion of 
Round Top on the left, and Cemetery Hill the two armies confronted each other. 
in the centre, forming the apex of a Both commanders seemed averse to tak- 
redan. At about three o'clock in the ing the initiative of battle. The Nation- 
afternoon there was a general advance als had the advantage of position, their 
of the Confederates, and a terrible battle lines projecting in wedge-form towards 
ensued, with heavy losses on both sides, the Confederate centre, with steep rocky 
The Nationals were defeated. They had acclivities along their front. It was late 
anxiously looked for reinforcements from in the afternoon before a decided move- 
the scattered corps of the Army of the ment was made. Sickles, on the left, be- 
Potomac. These speedily came, but not tween Cemetery Hill and Round Top, ex- 
pecting an at- 
tack, had ad- 
vanced his corps 
well towards 
the heaviest 
columns of the 
Confedera tes. 
Then Lee at- 
cked him with 
L o ngstreet's 
corps. There 
was first a se- 
vere struggle 
for the posses- 
sion of the 
rocky eminence 
on Meade's ex- 
treme left, 
where R-irney 
until the preliminary engagement in the was stationed. The Nationals won. 
great battle of Gettysburg was ended. Meanwhile tliere was a fierce contest 

General Meade was at Taneytown, 13 near the centre, between Little Round 
miles distant, when he heard of the death Top and Cemetery Hill. While yet there 





was strife for the former, General Craw- where General Slocum was in chief com- 

ford, with six regiments of Pennsylvania mand. Ewell had attacked him with a 

reserves, swept down its northwestern part of his corps at the time Longstreet 

side with tremendous shouts, and drove assailed the left. The assault was vigor- 

the Confederates through the woods to ous. Up the northern slopes of Cemetery 

the Emmettsburg road, making 300 of Hill the Confederates pressed in the face 

them prisoners. Generals Humphreys of a murderous fire of canister and shrap- 

and Graham were then in an advanced nel to the muzzles of the guns. Another 

position, the former with his right on part of Ewell's corps attempted to turn 

the Emmettsburg road, when Hill, ad- the National right by attacking its weak- 

vancing in heavy force from Seminary ened part on Culp's Hill. The Confeder- 

Ridge, fell upon him and pushed him ates were repulsed at the right centre; 

back, with a loss of half his 

and, after a severe battle on the extreme 

lost a leg, and Birney took command 
of the corps. Elated by this success, 

and three guns. In this onset Sickles right of the Nationals, the Confederates 

there were firmly held in check. So end- 
ed, at about ten o'clock at night, the see- 
the Confederates pushed up to the base ond day's battle at Gettysburg, when 
of Cemetery Hill and its southern slope, nearly 40,000 men of the two armies, who 
throwing themselves recklessly upon sup- were " effective " thirty-six hours before, 
posed weak points. In this contest were dead or wounded. 
Meade led troops in person. Finally The advantage seemed to be with the 
Hancock, just at sunset, directed a general Confederates, for they held the ground in 
charge, chiefly by fresh troops under advance of Gettysburg which the Na- 

Doubleday, who had hastened to his as- 
sistance from the rear of Cemetery Hill. 
These, with Humphreys's shattered regi- 

tionals had held the previous day. Dur- 
ing the night Meade made provision for 
expelling the Confederate intrusion on the 

ments, drove the Confederates back and National right by placing a heavy artil- 
recaptured four guns. The battle ended lery force in that direction. Under cover 
on the left centre at twilight. Then the of these guns a strong force made an at- 
battle was renewed on the National right, tack, and for four hours Geary's division 



kept up a desperate struggle. Then the 
Confederates fell back, and the right was 
made secure. Now Ewell was repulsed on 
the right, and Round Top, on the left, 
was impregnable; so Lee determined to 
strike Meade's centre with a force that 
should crush it. At noon (July 3) he 
had 145 cannon in battery along the line 
occupied by Longstreet and Hill. All 
night General Hunt, of the Nationals, had 
been arranging the artillery from Ceme- 
tery Hill to Little Round Top, where the 
expected blow would fall. Lee determined 
to aim his chief blow at Hancock's posi- 
tion on Cemetery Hill. At 1 o'clock p.m. 
115 of his cannon opened a rapid concen- 
trated fire on the devoted point. Four- 
score National guns replied, and for two 
hours more than 200 cannon shook the 
surrounding country with their detona- 
tions. Then the Confederate infantry, in 
a line 3 miles in length, preceded by 
a host of skirmishers, flowed swiftly over 

the undulating plain. Behind these was 
a heavy reserve. Pickett, with his Vir- 
ginians, led the van, well supported, in a 
charge upon Cemetery Hill. In all, hie 
troops were about 15,000 strong. The 
cannon had now almost ceased thundering, 
and were succeeded by the awful roll of 
musketry. Shot and shell from Han- 
cock's batteries now made fearful lanes 
through the oncoming Confederate ranks. 
Hancock was wounded, and Gibbons was 
placed in command. Pickett pressed on- 
ward, when the divisions of Hayes and 
Gibbons opened an appalling and con- 
tinuous fire upon them. The Confed- 
erates gave way, and 2,000 men were 
made prisoners, and fifteen battle-flags be- 
came trophies of victory for Hayes. Still 
Pickett moved on, scaled Cemetery Hill, 
burst through Hancock's line, drove back 
a portion of General Webb's brigade, and 
planted the Confederate flag on a stonewall. 
But Pickett could go no farther. Then 




Stannard's Vermont brigade of Double- 
day's division opened such a destructive 
fire on Pickett's troops that they gave 
way. Very soon 2,500 of them were made 
prisoners, and with them twelve battle- 
flags, and three-fourths of his gallant men 
were dead or captives. Wilcox supported 
Pickett, and met a similar fate at the 
hands of the Vermonters. Meanwhile 
Crawford had advanced upon the Confed- 
erate right from near Little Round Top. 
The Confederates fled; and in this sortie 
the whole ground lost by Sickles was re- 
covered, with 260 men captives, 7,000 
small-arms, a cannon, and wounded Union- 
ists, who had lain nearly twenty-four 
hours uncared for. Thus, at near sunset, 
July 3, 1863, ended the battle of Gettys- 
burg. During that night and all the next 
day Lee's army on Seminary Ridge pre- 
pared for flight back to Virginia. His in- 
vasion was a failure; and on Sunday 
morning, July 5, his whole army was 
moving towards the Potomac. 

This battle, in its far-reaching effects, 
was the most important of the war. The 
National loss in men, from the morning 
of the 1st until the evening of the 3d of 
July, was reported by Meade to be 23,186, 
of whom 2,834 were killed, 13,709 wound- 
ed, and 6,643 missing. Lee's loss was 
probably about 30,000. The battle-ground 
is now the National Soldiers' Cemeterv, 

nearly all of the Confederate dead having 
been removed to Southern cemeteries. 
The battle-field is now studded with State 
and regimental monuments marking the 
most important spots in the three-days' 
battle. Near the centre of the battle-field 
stands a national monument of gray gran- 
ite, erected at a cost of $50,000, and also 
a bronze statue of General Reynolds. 

Almost immediately after the battle the 
government determined to acquire and set 
apart the battle-field for a National Sol- 
diers' Cemetery. On Nov. 19, 1863, the 
field, which then contained the graves of 
3,580 Union soldiers, was dedicated by 
President Lincoln, who delivered the fol- 
lowing memorable speech: 

" Fourscore and seven years ago our 
fathers brought forth on this continent a 
new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedi- 
cated to the proposition that all men are 
created equal. 

" Now we are engaged in a great civil 
war, testing whether that nation, or any na- 
tion so conceived and so dedicated, can long 
endure. We are met on a great battle- 
field of that war. We have come to dedicate 
a portion of that field as a final resting- 
place for those who here gave their lives 
that thatnation might live. It is altogether 
fitting and proper that we should do this. 

" But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedi- 
cate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot 



hallow this ground. The brave men, liv- and that government of the people, by the 
ing and dead, who struggled here have people, for the people, shall not perish 
consecrated it, far above our poor power 

to add or detract. The world will little 

from the earth." See Adams, Charles 
Francis; Everett, Edward. 

Ghent, Treaty of, the treaty between 
the United States and Great Britain, 
which terminated the War of 1812. The 
American commissioners were John 
Quincy Adams, James Bayard, Henry 
Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Galla- 
tin; the British commissioners were 
Lord Gambier, Henry Goulburn, and Will- 
iam Adams. The American commis- 
sioners assembled in the city of Ghent, 
Belgium, in July, 1814; the British com- 
missioners early in the following month. 
The terms of the treaty were concluded 
Dec. 24, following, and the ratifications 
were exchanged Feb. 17, 1S15. While the 
negotiations were in progress the leading 
citizens of Ghent took great interest in 
the matter. Their sympathies were with 
the Americans, and they mingled their 
rejoicings with the commissioners when 
the work was done. On Oct. 27 the 
Academy of Sciences and Fine Arts at 
Ghent invited the American commis- 
sioners to attend their exercises, when they 
were all elected honorary members of the 
academy. A sumptuous dinner was 
given, at which the intendant, or chief 
magistrate, of Ghent offered the following 
sentiment: "Our distinguished guests 
and fellow-members, the American minis- 
ters — may they succeed in making an 
honorable peace to secure the liberty and 
independence of their country." The 
band then played Bail, Columbia. The 
British commissioners were not present. 
After the treaty was concluded, the 
American commissioners dined the British 
commissioners, at which Count H. van 
note, nor long remember, what we say Steinhuyser, the intendant of the depart- 
here, but it can never forget what they ment, was present. Sentiments of mutual 
did here. It is for us the living, rather, friendship wore offered. A few days after- 
to be dedicated here to the unfinished wards the intendant gave an entertainment 
work which they who fought here have to the commissioners of both nations, 
thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather The leading provisions of the treaty 
for us to be here dedicated to the great were: (1) Bestoration of all territory, 
task remaining before us, that from these places, and possessions taken by either 
honored dead we take increased devotion party from the other during the war, ex- 
to that cause for which they gave the last eept the islands mentioned in Article IV. 
full measure of devotion, that we here Public property remaining in such places 
highly resolve that these dead shall not at the time of ratifying the treaty was 
have died in vain, that this nation, under not to be destroyed or carried away, and 
God, shall have a new birth of freedom, the same engagement was made as *• 




slaves and other private property (Article 
I.). (2) Article IV. provides the appoint- 
ment of a commission to decide to which 
of the two powers certain islands in and 
near Passamaquoddy Bay belong; and if 
the commission should fail to rome to a 
decision, the subject was to be referred 
to some friendly sovereign or state. (3) 
Articles V.-VI1I. provide for several com- 
missions to settle the line of boundary as 
described in the treaty of 1783, one com- 
mission to settle the line from the river 
St. Croix to where the 45th parallel 
cuts the river St. Lawrence (called tha 
Iroquois or Cataraqua in the treaty) ; an- 
other to determine the middle of the wa- 
ter communications from that point to 
Lake Superior: and a third to adjust the 

deavors to abolish the slave-trade, as be- 
ing " irreconcilable with the principles of 
humanity and justice. ' 

Gherardi, Bancroft, naval officer ; born 
in Jackson, La., Nov. 10, 1832; appointed 
midshipman June 29, 1846; took part in 
the attack on Fort Macon and in the bat- 
tle of Mobile Bay; promoted to rear-ad- 
miral in 1887; retired Nov. 10, 1894. 

Giauque, Florien, author; born near 
Berlin, 0., May 11, 1843; served in the 
Civil War in 1862-65; graduated at 
Kenyon College in 1869; admitted to the 
bar in 1875. His publications include Re- 
vised Statutes of Ohio; Present Value Ta- 
bles; Naturalization and Election Laics of 
the United States; Ohio Election Laws, etc. 

Gibault, Peter, Roman Catholic priest. 

limits from the " water-communication be- 
tween Lakes Huron and Superior to the 
most northwestern point of the Lake of 
the Woods." If either of these commis- 
sions should not make a decision, the sub- 
ject was to be referred to a friendly sover- 
eign or state as before. (4) Article IX. 
binds both parties to use their best en- 

The bishop of Quebec in 1770 sent him to 
the territory now included in Illinois and 
Louisiana. He lived a portion of the time 
in Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and St. 
Genevieve. During the Bevolutionary War, 
through his influence, the settlers in this 
territory, who were mostly French, became 
ardent advocates of the American cause, 



and he also induced the Indians to remain 
neutral. Judge Law says: " Next to Clark 
and Vigo, the United States are indebt- 
ed more to Father Gibault for the acces- 
sion of the States comprised in what was 
the original Northwest Territory than to 
any other man." 

Gibbes, Robert Wilson, historian; 
born in Charleston, S. C, July 8, 1809; 
graduated at the South Carolina Col- 
lege in 1827; was the editor of the Week- 
ly Banner and the Daily South-Carolini- 
an, and was also twice elected mayor of 
Columbia. During the Civil War he was 
surgeon-general of South Carolina. Among 
his writings are A Documentary History 
of the American Revolution, consisting of 
letters and papers relating to the contest 
for liberty, chiefly in South Carolina. He 
died in Columbia, S. C, Oct. 15, 1866. 

Gibbes, William Hasell, lawyer; born 
in Charleston, S. C, March 16, 1754; stud- 
ied law in London, and was one of the 
thirty Americans living there who signed a 
petition to the King against the Parlia- 
mentary enactments which resulted in the 
Revolutionary War. He entered the Con- 
tinental army as captain-lieutenant of ar- 
tillery. In 1783-1825 he was master in chan- 
cery of South Carolina. He died in 1831. 

Gibbon, Edward, historian ; born in 
Putney, Surrey, England, April 27, 1737; 
was from infancy feeble in physical con- 
stitution. His first serious attempt at 
authorship was when he was only a 
youth — a treatise on the age of Sesostris. 
He was fond of Oriental research. Read- 
ing Bossuet's Variations of Protestant- 
ism and Exposition of Catholic Doctrine, 
he became a Roman Catholic, and at 
length a free-thinker. He was a student 
at Oxford when he abjured Protestantism, 
and was expelled. He read with avidity 
the Latin, Greek, and French classics, and 
became passionately fond of historical re- 
search. He also studied practically the 
military art, as a member of the Hamp- 
shire militia, with his father. In 1751 
he published a defence of classical studies 
against tlie attacks of the French phi- 
losophers. In 1764 he went to Rome, and 
studied its antiquities with delight and 
seriousness, and there he conceived the 
idea of writing his great work, The De- 
cline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 
"It was at Pome," he wrote, "on the 

15th of October, 1764, as I sat musing 
amid the ruins of the Capitol, while bare- 
footed friars were singing vespers in the 
Temple of Jupiter, that the idea of writ- 
ing the decline and fall of the city first 
started to my mind." But that work 
was not seriously begun until 1770, and 
the first volume was completed in 1775. 
In 1774 he became a member of the House 
of Commons, and at first took sides with 
the Americans, writing much in their 
favor. He finally became a firm sup- 
porter of the British ministry in their 
proceedings against the Americans, writ- 
ing in their defence a pamphlet in the 
French language, when he was provided 
by them with a lucrative sinecure office 
worth $4,000 a year. His mouth (or, 
rather, pen) was thus stopped by the 
government favor. To this venality the 
following epigram alludes. It was writ- 
ten, it is said, by Charles James Fox: 

" King George, in a fright, lest Gibbon should 
The story of Britain's disgrace. 
Thought no means more sure his pen to 
Than to give the historian a place. 

" But his caution is vain, 'tis the curse of 
his reign 
That his projects should never succeed : 
Though he write not a line, yet a cause of 
In the author's example we read." 

1 I'.v vlll. IMHHON. 

On the downfall of the North adminis- 
tration, and the loss of his salary, Gib- 
bon loft England and went to live at 


Lausanne, Switzerland. There he com- Charles College, Maryland, and in 1857 
pleted his great work in June, 1787, and, was transferred to St. Mary's Seminary, 
sending the manuscript to England, it Baltimore. He was ordained a priest 
was issued on his fifty-first birthday. It June 30, 1861; was made an assistant in 
is said that his booksellers realized a 
profit on the work of $300,000, while the 
author's profits were only $30,000. On 
setting out for England, in the spring of 
1793, he was afflicted with a very serious 
malady, which he had long concealed, 
until it finally developed into a fatal dis- 
order, which terminated his life suddenly 
in London, Jan. 16, 1794. 

Gibbon, John, military officer; born 
near Holmesburg, Pa., April 20, 1827; 
graduated at West Point in 1847; served 
to the close of the Mexican War in the 
artillery. During the Civil War he was 
chief of artillery to General McDowell till 
May, 1862, when he was promoted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. His brigade 
was in constant service, and Gibbon was 
soon promoted colonel, U. S. A., and ma- 
jor-general, U. S. V. He took part in the 
battles of the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Baltimore; and 
and Petersburg. He received the brevet soon after was appointed pastor of St. 
of major-general, U. S. A., March 13, 1865. Bridget's Church, in Canton, a suburb of 
He published The Artillerist's Manual. He Baltimore. Subsequently he was private 


died in Baltimore, Md., Feb. 6, 1896. 

Gibbons, Abigail Hopper, philanthro- 
pist; born in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 7, 

secretary to Archbishop Spalding, and 
chancellor of the diocese. In October, 
1866, he was appointed assistant chan- 

1801; wife of James Sloan Gibbons; was cellor to the Second Plenary Council of 
the chief founder of the Isaac T. Hopper the American Roman Catholic Church, 
Home, and was interested in numerous which met in Baltimore, and in 1868 
other charitable movements. During the became vicar-apostolic of North Carolina, 
draft riots of 1863 her home was among with the title of bishop. On May 20, 
the first to be entered by the mob be- 1877, he was appointed coadjutor arch- 
cause of her abolition sympathies. She bishop of Baltimore, and on Oct. 3 of the 

died in New York City, Jan. 10, 1893. 

same year succeeded to the see. In No- 

Gibbons, Edward, colonist; born in vember, 1884, he presided at the Third 

England; came to America in 1629 and National Council at Baltimore. In 1886 

settled in Boston; became sergeant-major he was elevated to the dignity of cardi- 

of the Suffolk regiment in 1644; was nal, being the second prelate in the United 

major-general of militia in 1649-50. He States to attain that high distinction, 

was a member of the commission of 1643 Cardinal Gibbons boldly put an end to 

to establish the confederation of the Cahensleyism (q. v.) in the United 

Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, States, and has shown himself to be a 

and New Haven colonies. He died in Bos- thorough American citizen. He is the 

ton, Mass., Dec. 9, 1654. author of The Faith of Our Fathers; Our 

Gibbons, James, clergyman; born in Christian Heritage; and The Ambassador 

Baltimore, Md., July 23, 1834; removed of Christ. 

to Ireland with his parents at an early Gibbons, James Sloan, banker; born 
age, and there received his preliminary in Wilmington, Del., July 1, 1810; set- 
education, and in 1848 returned with his tied in New York City in 1835, and en- 
parents to the United States, settling in gaged in banking. His publications in- 
New Orleans. In 1855 he entered St. elude The Banks of New York, their Deal- 



ers, the Clearing-House, and the Panic In the battle, Nov. 4, 1791, in which St. 

of 1851; The Public Debt of the United Clair was defeated, Colonel Gibson was 

Slates; and a song, We are Coming, Father mortally wounded, dying in Fort Jeffer- 

Abraham, Three Hundred Thousand More son, O., Dec. 14, 1791. His brother John 

(popular during the Civil War). He died was also a soldier of the Revolution; born 
in New York City, Oct. 17, 1892. 

in Lancaster, Pa., May 23, 1730; was in 
Gibbons, Joseph, abolitionist ; born in Forbes's expedition against Fort Duquesne, 
Lancaster, Pa., Aug. 14, 1818; grad- and acted a conspicuous part in Dunmore's 
n 1845; was war in 1774. He commanded a Conti- 
of the nental regiment in the Revolutionary War. 

uated at Jefferson College 

one of the principal conductor 

" underground railroad," through which He was made a judge of the Common 

institution he and his father aided hun- 
dreds of slaves to freedom. He died in 
Lancaster, Pa., Dec. 8, 1883. 

Gibbs, Alfred, military officer; born 
in Sunswick, Long Island, N. Y., April 

Plea? of Alleghany county, and in 1800 
was appointed by Jefferson secretary of 
the Territory of Indiana. He died near 
Pittsburg, Pa., April 10, 1S22. 

Gibson, James, merchant; born in Lon- 

23, 1823; graduated at West Point in don in 1G90; became a merchant in Bos- 

1846: served under Scott in Mexico, and ton, Mass.; took part in the capture of 

afterwards against the Indians; and Louisburg, and after its surrender superin- 

when the Civil War broke out he was in tended the removal of the prisoners to 

Texas. He was made prisoner, and when France. He published an account of the 

exchanged in 1862 he was made colonel Louisburg expedition, under the title of 

of the 130th New York Volunteers, and A Boston Merchant of 17J f 5. He died in 

served under Sheridan, in the latter part the West Indies in 1752. 
of the war, in command of a cavalry Gibson, John, military officer; born in 

brigade. He was active in the Army of Lancaster, Pa., May 23, 1740. While still 

the Potomac at all times, and was a a boy he was with the expedition which 

thoroughly trustworthy officer. In March, captured Fort Duquesne in 1757. He mar- 

1S65, he was brevetted major-general of ried the Indian chief Logan's sister; took 

volunteers. He was mustered out of the part in the negotiations between Logan 

service Feb. 1, 1866; was commissioned and Lord Dunmore in 1774; was in active 

major of the 7th Cavalry on July 28 fol- service throughout the Revolutionary 

lowing; and served in Kansas till his War. In 1801 Jefferson appointed him see- 

death^in Fort Leavenworth, Dec. 26, 1868. retary of the Indiana Territory, which of- 

Gibbs, George, historian; born in 
Astoria, N. Y., July 17, 1815; was at- 
tached to the United States boundary 

commission for many years; did military 
duty in Washington during the Civil 

fice he held till it became a State. He died 
at Braddock's Field, Pa.. April 10. 1822. 

Gibson, Paris, legislator; born in 
Brownfield, Me., July 1, 1830; was gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin College in 1851; re- 

War; was a member of the New York mo^ed to Minneapolis, Minn., in 1S58. 

Historical Society for many years and w here with W. W. Eastman he built the 

its secretary for six years. Among his fi rs t flour and woollen mills in the city: 

works are Memoirs of the Administrations member of the convention that framed the 

of Washington and John Adams; A 
Dictionary of the Chinese Jargon: Ethnol- 
ogy and Philology of America, etc. He 
died in New Haven, Conn., April 9, 1873. 
Gibson, Geouce, military officer; born 

constitution of Montana in 1889; elected 
a State Senator in 1891; and a United 
States Senator in 1901. 

Gibson, Randall Lee, statesman; 1mm 
in Spring Hill, Ky.. Sept. 10, 1S:>2; grad- 

Lancaster, Pa., Oct. 10, 1747. On the uated at Yale in 1853; at the begin- 
breaking-out of the devolution he raised ning of the Civil War enlisted as a private, 
a company of 100 men at Fort Pitt, who hut soon received a commission as captai 
were distinguished for their bravery and 
as sharp-shooters, and were called " Gib- 
son's Lambs." These did good service 

in the Louisiana Artillery, and sub- 
sequently was elected colonel of the 13th 
Louisiana Infantry, lie took part in the 
throughout the war. A part of the time battles of Shiloh, Murfrcesboro, and 
Gibson was colonel of a Virginia regiment. Chickamauga. At Nashville he covered 



the retreat of Hood's army. After the 
war he resumed the practice of law and 
was elected to the United States House of 
Representatives, but was not allowed to 
take his seat until a subsequent election. 
In 1882 and 1888 he was elected to the 
United States Senate. He died in Hot 
Springs, Ark., Dec. 15, 1892. 

Gibson, Tobias, clergyman; born in 
Liberty, S. C, Nov. 10, 1771; became a 
minister of the Methodist Church in 1702; 
went as a missionary to Natchez in 1800; 
travelled alone through the forests for 
600 miles to the Cumberland River; sailed 
800 miles in a canoe to the Ohio River; 
and then went down the Mississippi. He 
is noted chiefly for the introduction of 
Methodism in the Southwest. He died in 
Natchez, Tenn., April 10, 1804. 

Giddings, Franklin Henry, educator; 
born in Sherman, Conn., March 23, 1855; 
graduated at Union College in 1877; be- 
came Professor of Sociology in Colum- 
bia University in 1S04. He is the au- 
thor of Democracy and Empire; The 
Principle of Sociology; Modern Distri- 
butive Process; Theory of Socialization, 

Giddings, Joshua Reed, statesman; 
born in Athens, Pa., Oct. 6, 1795. His 
parents removed to Ohio, and in 1812 he 
enlisted in a regiment under Colonel 
Hayes, which was sent on an expedition 
against the Sandusky Indians. In 1826 
he was elected to the Ohio legislature; in 
1838 to the United States Congress. 
While still a young man Giddings was 
known to be an active abolitionist. In 
1841 the Creole sailed from Virginia to 
Louisiana with a cargo of slaves who, on 
the voyage, secured possession of the ves- 
sel and put into Nassau, Bahama Isl- 
ands. In accordance with British law 
these negroes were declared free men. 
The United States set up a claim against 
the British government for indemnity. 
Giddings offered a resolution in the House 
to the effect that slavery was an abridg- 
ment of a natural right, and had no effect 
outside of the territory or jurisdiction 
that created it; and that the negroes on 
the Creole had simply asserted their nat- 
ural rights. Under the leadership of 
John Minor Botts, of Virginia, the House 
censured Giddings. and as it gave him no 
opportunity for defence he resigned and 

appealed to his constituents for a re- 
election. He was sent back within six 
weeks, and subsequently re-elected, serving 
in all twenty years. Giddings opposed the 
annexation of Texas. During the contro- 
versy in reference to the northern boun- 
dary of the United States he held that 
the United States was entitled to the line 
" Fifty-four, forty." He refused to support 
the candidates of his party if their views 
on the slavery question were not in con- 
formity with his own. As a result of this 
opposition Robert C. Winthrop (q. v.) 
failed of an election to the speakership 
in 1849, the Democratic candidate, Howell 
Cobb (q. v.), of Georgia, being success- 
ful. Giddings opposed the Fugitive Slave 
Law and the repeal of the Missouri Com- 

promise. He published a selection of his 
speeches and The Rebellion: Its Authors 
and Causes. He died in Montreal, Canada, 
where he was United States consul-gen- 
eral, May 27, 1864. 

Gilbert, David McConatjghy, clergy- 
man ; born in Gettysburg, Pa., Feb. 4, 
1836; graduated at Pennsylvania College 
in 1857; ordained to the ministry 
of the Lutheran Church in 1860. His 
publications include The Lutheran Church 
in Virginia, 1776-1876 ; The Synod of Vir- 
ginia, Its History and Work; Muhlen- 
berg's Ministry in Virginia, a Chapter of 



Colonial Luthero-Episcopal Church His- 
tory, etc. 

Discourse of a Disco verie for a New Pas- 
sage to Cathaia and the East Indies. He 

Gilbert, Rufus Henry, inventor; born obtained letters-pateut from Queen Eliza- 

in Guilford, N. Y., Jan. 26, 1832; studied 
medicine; served as surgeon throughout 

bcth, dated June 11, 1578, empowering 
him to discover and possess any lands in 

the Civil War. He is best known through North America then unsettled, he to pay 

the Gilbert Elevated Railroad Company, to the crown one-fifth of all gold and silver 

which extended from the Battery through which the countries he might discover and 

Greenwich Street and Ninth Avenue to colonize should produce. It invested him 

Thirtieth Street, New York City. This with powers of an absolute ruler over his 

was the first elevated railroad. Soon after colony, provided the laws should not be 

the Sixth Avenue railroad was built, and in derogation of supreme allegiance to the 

these two were merged into one with the crown. It guaranteed to his followers all 

other elevated railroads in New York the rights of Englishmen; and it also 

City, under the title of the Metropolitan guaranteed the absolute right of a ter- 

Elevated Railroad Company. He died in 
New York City, July 10, 1885. 

Gilbert, Sib Humphrey, navigator; 

ritory where they might settle, within 
200 leagues of which no settlement should 
be permitted until the expiration of six 

born at Compton, near Dartmouth, Eng- years. This was the first colonial charter 
land, in 1539; half-brother of Sir Walter granted by an English monarch. Armed 
Raleigh. Finishing his studies at Eton and with this, Gilbert sailed for Newfound- 
Oxford, he entered upon the military pro- land in 157C with a small squadron; for 
fession; and being successful in suppress- he did not believe there would be profit 
ing a rebellion in Ireland in 1570, he was in searching for gold in the higher lati- 
made commander-in-chief and governor of tudes, to which Frobisher had been. 
Munster, and was knighted by the lord- He was accompanied by Raleigh; but 

deputy. Returning to England soon after 
wards, he married a rich heiress. In 

heavy storms and Spanish war-ships de- 
stroyed one of his vessels, and the re- 
mainder were compelled to turn back. 
Gilbert was too much impoverished 
to undertake another expedition until 
four years afterwards, when Raleigh 
and his friends fitted out a small 
squadron, which sailed from Plym- 
outh under the command of Gilbert. 
The Queen, in token of her good-will, 
had sent him as a present a golden 
anchor, guided by a woman. The 
flotilla reached Newfoundland in 
i s August, and entered the harbor of St. 
<<v John, where Cartier had found La 
« 'l< J^i&fiik^^^^^^!^^^^^ R 0( l u e almost fifty years before. 

There, on the shore, Gilbert set up a 
column with the arms of England 
upon it, and in the presence of hun- 
dreds of fishermen from western Eu- 
rope, whom he had summoned to thr 
spot, he took possession of the island 
in the name of his Queen. Storms 
had shattered his vessels, but, after 
making slight repairs, Gilbert pro- 
ceeded to explore the coasts south- 
1572 he commanded a squadron of nine ward. Off Cape Breton he encountered a 
ships to reinforce an armament intended fierce tempest, which dashed the larger 
for the recovery of Flushing; and soon vessel, in which he sailed, in pieces on the 
after his return he published (1576) a rocks, and about 100 men perished. The 




commander was saved, and took refuge in Britain in 1796, and opposed the proposed 

a little vessel (the Squirrel) of ten tons, war with France in 1798. He was ap- 

His little squadron was dispersed, and pointed United States Senator in 1804, 

with the other vessel (the Hind), he and was subsequently elected, serving 

turned his prow homeward. Again, in until March 3, 1815, when he resigned; 

a rising September gale, the commander of governor of Virginia in 182G-30, resign- 

the Hind shouted to Gilbert that they ing to take part in the Constitutional 

were in great peril. The intrepid navi- Convention. He died in Albemarle county, 

gator was sitting abaft, with a book in Va., Dec. 4, 1830. 

his hand, and calmly replied, "We are as Gillet, Bansom H., legislator; born in 

near heaven on the sea as on land." The New Lebanon, N. Y., Jan. 27, 1800; elected 

gale increased, and when night fell the to Congress in 1833; appointed' Indian 

darkness was intense. At about midnight commissioner in 1837; register of the 

the men on the Hind saw the lights of Treasury in 1845; solicitor of the Court of 

the Squirrel suddenly go out. The little Claims in 1858. He wrote a History of the 

bark had plunged beneath the waves, and Democratic Party; Life of Silas Wright; 

all on board perished, Sept. 9, 1583. Only and The Federal Government. He died in 

the Hind escaped, and bore the news of the Washington, D. C, Oct. 24, 1876. 

disaster to England. Gillett, Ezra Hall, educator; born in 

Gilbert, Thomas, royalist; born in Colchester, Conn., July 15, 1823; gradu- 

1714; took part in the capture of Louis- ted at Yale in 1841; appointed Professor 

burg in 1745, and also in the attack on of Political Economy in the University of 

Crown Point in 1755. He raised a com- New York in 1868. Among his writings 

pany of 300 royalists at the request of are History of the Presbyterian Church 

General Gage, but was obliged to leave in the United States; Ancient Cities and 

the country, as the legislature of Massa- Empires, etc. 

chusetts had declared him " a public Gillmore, James Clarkson, naval offi- 

enemy." He died in New Brunswick in cer; born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 10, 

1796. 1854; graduated at the United States 

Gilder, William Henry, explorer; born Naval Academy in 1875; promoted lieu- 

in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 16, 1838; served tenant in 1891. He was ordered to 

through the Civil War and received the Manila, Jan. 14, 1899, where he was as- 

brevet of major at its close. In 1878 he signed to the Yorktown. In April of that 

was appointed second in command of the year he was captured with seven others 

expedition to King William's Land, and while scouting at Baler, Luzon. After 

while so engaged made a sledge-journey spending over eighteen months in captiv- 

of 3,251 statute miles, the longest on ity and suffering great privations the 

record. In 1881 he was with the Rodgers party was rescued in the mountains near 

expedition to look for the Jeannette. After Cagayan by Col. Luther B. Hare, in De- 

the Rodgers was burned he journeyed from cember, 1899. 

Bering Strait across Siberia, a distance of Gillmore, Quincy Adams, military offi- 
2,000 miles, in the depth of winter, and cer; born in Black Biver, Lorain co., O., 
sent a despatch of the misfortune to the Feb. 28, 1825; graduated at West Point 
Secretary of the Navy. His publications in 1849, and entered the engineer corps, 
include Schwatka's Search, and Ice-Pack He was for four years (1852-56) assist- 
ant Tundra. He died in Morristown, ant instructor of engineering at West 
N. J., Feb. 5, 1900. Point. In October, 1861, he was appointed 

Giles, William Branch, legislator; chief engineer of an expedition against 

born in Amelia county, Va., Aug. 12, 1762; the Southern coasts under Gen. W. T. 

was a member of Congress in 1791-1803, Sherman. He superintended the eonstruc- 

with the exception of two years. Origi- tion of the fortifications at Hilton Head, 

nally a Federalist he soon affiliated and planned and executed measures for 

with the Democrats; attacked Alexander the capture of Fort Pulaski in the spring 

Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, ac- of 1862, when he was made brigadier-gen- 

cusing him of corruption; he also opposed eral of volunteers. After service in west- 

the ratification of the treaty with Great ern Virginia and Kentucky, he was brevet- 
iv.— v 81 


Colonization of America; The Making of 
the American Nation, etc 

Gilman, Daniel Coit, educator; born 
in Norwich, Conn., July 6, 1831; grad- 
uated at Yale University in 1852; and 
continued his studies in Berlin. In 1856- 
72 he served as librarian, secretary of 
the Sheffield Scientific School, and Pro- 
fessor of Physical and Political Geog- 
raphy at Yale University; in 1872 be- 
came president of the University of Cali- 
fornia, where he remained until 1875. 
when he was chosen president of Johns 
Hopkins University, which had just been 
founded. In 1893-99 he was president of 
the American Oriental Society; in 1896- 
97 a member of the United States com- 
mission on the boundary - line between 
Venezuela and British Guiana; in 1901 re- 
signed the presidency of the university 
ttd colonel in the United States army, and and became editor-in-chief of The Neio 


succeeded Hunter (June, 1863) in com- 
mand of the Department of South Caro- 
lina, when he was promoted to major- 

International Cyclopaedia and president 
of the National Civil Service Reform 
League; and in 1902 was elected president 

general. After a long and unsuccessful of the Carnegie Institution. He has writ- 
attempt to capture Charleston in 1862, he ten Life of James Monroe; University 
was assigned to the command of the 10th 
Army Corps, and in the autumn of 1863, 
resumed operations in Charleston Harbor, 
which resulted in his occupation of Mor- 
ris* Island, the reduction of Fort Sumter, 
and the reduction and capture of Fort 
Wagner and Battery Gregg. General 
GilJmore was the author of many works 
on engineering and a notable one on The 
Strength of the Building Stones of the 
United States (1874). For these services 
during the war he was brevetted major- 
general in the regular army. He died in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., April 7, 1888. 

■Gillon, Alexander, naval officer; born 
in Rotterdam, Holland, in 1741; came to 
.America and settled in Charleston. S. C, 
in 1766. He captured three British 
cruisers in May, 1777: was promoted com- 
modore in 1778; and captured the Bahama 
islands in May, 1782, while commander Problems 


Introduction to De Tocque- 
ville's Democracy in America: etc. 

Gilman, Nicholas, legislator: born in 
Exeter, N. II., Aug. 3, 175.">; entered the 
Continental army in 1776: and served dur- 

of a large fleet. He died at Gillon's Re- 
treat, on the Congaree River, S. C, Oct. 
6, 1794. 

Gilman, Arrnin:. author; horn in Al- 
ton, 111., June 22, 1837; was the executive ing 11k 1 remainder of the war. He was 
officer of tlie Harvard Annex, and ils re- willi Washington at the surrender of 
gent when it became Radcliffe College. Yorktown, where it became his duty to 
Among his works are Tales of the Path- take an account of the prisoners. In 
finders: The Discovery of America; The September, 1787, he was a delegate to the 



convention to frame the Constitution of 
the United States; and in 1805-14 held 
a seat in the United States Senate. He 
died in Exeter, N. H., May 2, 1814. 

Oilman, Nicholas Paine, educator; 
born in Quincy, 111., Dec. 21, 1849; was 
graduated at Harvard Divinity School in 
1871; became Professor of Sociology and 
Ethics in the Meadville Theological School 
in 1895. He published Socialism and the 
American Spirit, etc. 

Gilmer, George Rockingham, lawyer; 
born in Wilkes (now Oglethorpe) county, 
Ga., April 11, 1790. He was made lieu- 
tenant of the 43d Infantry in 1813, and 
sent against the Creek Indians; was gov- 
ernor of Georgia in 1829-31 and 1837-39. 
He was the author of Georgians (a his- 
torical work). He died in Lexington, Ga., 
Nov. 15, 1859. 

Gilmer, Thomas Walker, statesman; 
born in Virginia; governor 6f the State 
in 1840; member of Congress, 1841-44, 
when he became Secretary of the Navy; 
killed by the explosion of a gun on the 
Princeton ten days later, Feb. 28, 1844. 

Gilmor, Harry, military officer; born 
in Baltimore county, Md., Jan. 24, 1838 ; 
entered the Confederate army at the be- 
ginning of the Civil War. In May, 1863. 
he recruited a battalion of cavalry and 
was commissioned major. He was the 
author of Four Years in the Saddle. He 
died in Baltimore, Md., March 4, 1883. 

Gilmore, James Roberts, author; born 
in Boston, Mass., Sept. 10, 1823. In July, 
1864, with Colonel Jaquess he was sent 
on an unofficial mission to the Confederate 
government to see if peace could be estab- 
lished. Jefferson Davis gave answer that 
no proposition of peace would be con- 
sidered except the independence of the 
Confederacy. Mr. Gilmore's publications 
include My Southern Friends; Down in 
Tennessee; Life of Garfield; the Rear- 
Guard of the Revolution ; Among the Pines 
(a novel which had a remarkable sale) ; 
John Sevier as a Commonioealtli-Builder ; 
The Advance-Guard of Western Civiliza- 
tion; etc. He died in Glens Falls,. N. Y., 
Nov. 16, 1903. 

Gilmore, Joseph Albree, " war gov- 
ernor"; born in Weston, Vt., June 10, 
1811; settled in Concord, N. H., in 1842: 
elected governor of New Hampshire in 
1863 and 1864. When a draft was or- 

dered in 1863, although the spirit of 
patriotism had somewhat waned, he re- 
cruited the 18th Infantry, the 1st Heavy 
Artillery, and the 1st Cavalry, which 
brought the whole number of New Hamp- 
shire troops supplied during the war up 
to 31,000, about 10 per cent, of the popu- 
lation. He died in Concord, N. H., April 
17, 1867. 

Gilmore, Patrick Sarseield, musi- 
cian and composer ; born near Dublin, Ire- 
land, Dec. 25, 1830; was employed for a 
short time in a mercantile house in Ath- 
lone, when his employer, having noticed 
his remarkable taste for music, hired him 
to instruct his son in music. In 1849 he 
came to the United States, went to Bos- 
ton, and became the leader of a band. 
His fame as a cornet player soon spread 
throughout the country. After having 
been bandmaster in nearly 1,000 concerts 
he established in 1858 what bocame popu- 
larly known as Gilmore's Band, and which 
later gave concerts throughout the United 
States and in more than half of Europe. 
When the Civil War broke out Gilmore 
and his band volunteered and went to the 
front with the 24th Massachusetts Regi- 
ment. He was with General Burnside in 
North Carolina, and later, while in New 
Orleans, General Banks placed him in 
charge of all the bands in the Department 
of the Gulf. After the war he returned 
to Boston and resumed his profession. In 
1869 he organized a great peace jubilee 
in Boston, in which over 20,000 people, 
2,000 musicians, and the best military 
bands of Europe took part. He conducted 
a similar grand musical event in 1872. 
In 1873 he removed to New York, and be- 
came bandmaster of the 22d Regiment. 
During 1873-76 he gave more than 600 
concerts in what was known as Gilmore's 
Garden. In the latter year his band was 
employed to play at the Centennial Expo- 
sition in Philadelphia. Later he took 
the band to Europe, where he gave con- 
certs in all the principal cities. Two 
days before his death he was appointed 
musical director of the World's Columbian 
Exposition. Among his most popular 
compositions are Good News from Borne; 
When Johnny Comes Marching Home; and 
The Voice of the Departing Soul, or Death 
at the Door (which was rendered at his 
own funeral). His anthems are On-- 



lumbia; Ireland to England; and a na- morality, leaving them to adopt their own 
tional air for the republic of Brazil. He religious opinions. The beneficiaries are 
died in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 24, 1892. admitted between the age of six and ten 

Gilpin, Henry Dilwood, lawyer: born years; fed, clothed, and educated; and 
in Lancaster, England, April 14, 1801; between the age of fourteen and eighteen 
graduated at the University of Pennsyl- are bound out to mechanical, agricultural, 
vania in 1819; began law practice in or commercial occupations. At the end 
Philadelphia in 1822; was Attorney-Gen- of 1900 the college reported sixty-seven 
eral of the United States in 1840-41. His professors and instructors; 1,731 students, 
publications include Reports of Cases in 16,800 volumes in the library, 4,754 grad- 
the United States District Court for the uates, and $15,958,293 in productive funds. 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 1828- A. H. Fetterolf, LL.D., was president. 
36; Opinions of the Attorney-Generals of Girard College. See Giraed, Stephen. 
the United States, from the Beginning of Girty, Simon, partisan; born in Penn- 
the Government to 18^1. He also edited sylvania about 1750; was a spy for the 
The Papers of James Madison. He died British at Port Pitt in 1774. When the 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 29, 1860. Revolutionary War broke out he became a 

Girard, Stephen, philanthropist; born leader of the Indians and took part in 
near Bordeaux, France, May 24, 1750; numerous atrocities. In 1778 he went to 
engaged in the merchant service in early Detroit, inciting the Indians on the way 
life; established himself in mercantile to hostility against the United States, 
business in Philadelphia in 1769, and He was present when Col. William Craw- 
traded to the West Indies until the be- ford (q. v.) was tortured to death by the 
ginning of the Revolutionary War. Re- savages, and it is alleged that he mani- 
suming his West India trade after the fested joy in Crawford's agony. In 1791 
war, he accumulated a large fortune; but he was present at the defeat of Gen. 
the foundation of his great wealth was Arthur St. Clair, and while Gen. William 
laid by events of the negro insurrection Butler lay wounded he ordered an Indian 
in Santo Domingo. Two of his vessels to kill and scalp him. He also took up 
being there, planters placed their effects the cause of the British in the War of 
on board of them, but lost their lives in 1812. He died in Canada about 1815. 
the massacre that ensued The property 
of owners that could not be found was 
left in Girard's possession. In 1812 he 
bought the building and much of the stock 
of the old United States Bank, and began 
business as a private banker. He amassed 
a large fortune, and at his death, in Phil- 
adelphia. Dec. 26, 1831, left property 
valued at almost $9,000,000. Besides 
large bequests to public institutions, he 
gave to Philadelphia $500,000 for the im- 
provement of the city. His most note- 
worthy gift was $2,000,000 and a plot of 
ground in Philadelphia for the erection 
and support of a college for orphans, 
which was opened Jan. 1, 1848. In it as 
many poor white orphan boys as the en- 
dowment will support are admitted. By 
a provision of the will of the founder, no 
ecclesiastic, missionary, or minister of any 
sect whatever is to hold any connection 
with the college, or be admitted to the 
premises as a visitor; but the officers of 
the institution are required to instruct 
the pupils in ihe purest principles of 


Gist, Mordecai, military officer; bora 
in Baltimore, Md., in 1743; was captaia 



of the first troops raised in Maryland at 
the breaking out of the Revolution; was 
made major of Smallwood's regiment in 
1776; and commanded it at the battle of 
Long Island. Promoted to colonel in 
1777, ant brigadier-general early in 1779, 
he did good service throughout the war, 
saving the remnant of the army after 
Gates's defeat, and being present at the 
surrender of Cornwallis. He died in 
Charleston, S. C, Sept. 2, 1792. 

Gladden, Washington, clergyman; 
born at Pottsgrove, Pa., Feb. 11, 1836; 

Gleig, Geouge Robert, author; born In 
Stirling, Scotland, April 20, 1796; was 
educated at Glasgow and Baliol College. 
His publications include Campaigns of 
Washington and New Orleans, etc. He 
died in Berkshire, England, July 11, 

Glendale, or Frazier's Farm, Battle 
of. There was a sharp contest at White 
Oak Swamp Bridge on the morning of 
June 30, 1862, after the Army of the Po- 
tomac had passed on its way to the James 
River. General Franklin had been left 


ordained in 18G0; connected with the In- 
dependent as editor, 1871-75, and Sunday 
Afternoon, 1875-82. He has been a suc- 

with a rear-guard to protect the passage 
of the bridge and to cover the withdrawal 
of the wagon-trains at that point. The 

cessful lecturer and writer for many Confederate pursuers, in two columns 

years. See Protestantism in the Unit- 
ed States. 

Glass. The oldest bottle glass man- 
ufactory in the United States was estab- 
lished at Glassboro, N. J., in 1775; a cut- 
glass manufactory was established at 
White's Mill, Pa., in 1852. To-day the 

were checked by the destruction of the 
bridges. Jackson, at noon, was met at 
the site of the destroyed bridge by the 
troops of Smith, Richardson, and Nablee, 
and the batteries of Ayres and Hazard, 
who kept him at bay during the day and 
evening. Hazard was mortally wounded, 

United States manufactures more glass of and his force was cut up, but Ayres kept 
almost every variety than any country in up a cannonade with great spirit. Dur- 
the world. ing the night the Nationals retired, leav- 



mg 350 sick and wounded behind, and was in a strong position on Malvern Hill, 
some disabled guns. At the same time a about 18 miles from Richmond, 
sharp battle had been going on at Glen- Glendy, John, clergyman; born in Lon 
dale, or Nelson's, or Frazier's Farm, about douderry, Ireland, June 24, 1755; edw- 
2 miles iistant. cated at the University of Glasgow; came 

Near Willis's Church General McCall's to the United States in 1799, and settled 
division was posted in reserve, General in Norfolk, Va.; was chaplain of the 
Meade's division on the right, Seymour's House of Representatives in 1815-16. He 
on the left, and that of Reynolds (who was the author of Oration in Commemora- 
was a prisoner) under Col. S. G. Sim- tion of Washington. He died in Phila- 
mons. The artillery was all in front of delphia, Pa., Oct. 4, 1832. 
the line. Sumner was some distance to Glenn, James, colonial governor; was 
the left, with Sedgwick's division; Hooker governor of South Carolina in 1744-55; 
was at Sumner's 'eft; and Kearny was made a treaty with the Cherokee Indians 
at the right of McCall. Longstreet and by which a large piece of territory was 
Hill had tried to intercept McClellan's ceded to the British government. He was 
army there, but were too late, and found the author of A Description of South 
themselves confronted by these Nationals. Carolina. 

General Lee and Jefferson Davis were with Glisson, Oliver S., naval officer ; born 
Longstreet. The Confederates waited for in Ohio in 1809; entered the navy in 1826; 
Magruder to come up, and it was between in 1862 was commander of the Mount 
three and four o'clock in the afternoon be- Vernon, which rescued the transport Mis- 
fore they began an attack. Longstreet sissippi, on which were General Butler 
then fell heavily upon McCall's Pennsyl- and 1,500 men. This vessel had grounded 
vania reserves, 6,000 strong. He was re- on the Frying-Pan Shoals, off North Caro- 
pulsed by four regiments, led by Colonel lina, while on the way to New Orleans. 
Simmons, who captured 200 of his men He was promoted rear-admiral in 1870; 
and drove them back to the woods. Then retired in 1871. He died in Philadelphia, 
the fugitives turned, and, by a murder- Pa., Nov. 20, 1890. 

ous fire, made the pursuers recoil and flee Glover, John, military officer; born in 
to the forest. In that encounter the Salem, Mass., Nov. 5, 1732; at the begin- 
slaughter was dreadful. ning of the Revolution raised 1,000 men 

The first struggle was quickly followed at Marblehead and joined the army at 
by others. The contending lines swayed Cambridge. His regiment, being coin- 
in charges and counter-charges for two posed almost wholly of fishermen, was 
hours. The Confederates tried to break called the " Amphibious Regiment," and 
the National line. Finally General in the retreat from Long Island it manned 
Meagher appeared with his Irish brigade, the boats. It also manned the boats at 
and made such a desperate charge across the crossing of the Delaware before the 
an open field that the Confederates were victory at Trenton. Glover was made 
driven to the woods. Then Randall's bat- brigadier-general in February, 1777, and 
tery was captured by the Confederates, joined the Northern army under General 
when McCall and Meade fought desperate- Schuyler. He did good service in the cam- 
ly for the recovery of the guns and carried paign of that year, and led Burgoyne's 
them back. Meade had been severely captive troops to Cambridge. He was 
wounded. Just at dark McCall was capt- afterwards with Greene in New Jersey, 
ured, and the command devolved on Sey- and Sullivan in Rhode Island. He died in 
mour. Very soon afterwards troops of Marblehead, Jan. 30, 1797. 
Hooker and Kearny came to help the re- Glynn, James, naval officer; born about 
serves, the Confederates were driven to 1800; joined the navy in March, 1815; 
the woods, and the battle at Glendale served in the Mexican War. In June, 
ended. Before dawn the next morning 1846, eighteen Americans were wrecked 
the National troops were all silently with- in Yeddo and made prisoners in Nagasaki, 
drawn; and early the next day the Army Japan. Later Glynn, in command of the 
of the Potomac, united for the first time P«cble, ran within a mile of Nagasaki, and 
since the Chickahominy first divided it, through the urgency of his demand 



secured the release of all ' the seamen. 
This success led Glynn to propose that the 
United States attempt to open trade with 
Japan by diplomacy. The plan was suc- 
cessfully carried out by Commodore 
Perry. Glynn was promoted captain in 
1855. He died May 13. 1871. 

Gmeiner, John, clergyman; born in 
Baernan, Bavaria, Dec. 5, 1847; came to 
the United States in 1849; was ordained 
a Roman Catholic priest in 1870; became 
professor of ecclesiastical history and 
homiletics in the Seminary of St. Francis 
of Sales, Milwaukee, in 1876. His publica- 
tions include The Church and the Various 
Nationalities of the United States, etc. 

Gobin, John Peter Shindel, lawyer; 
born in Sunbury, Pa., Jan. 26, 1837; be- 
came a brevet brigadier-general in the 
Civil War; brigadier-general of United 
States volunteers in the war against 
Spain (1898) ; lieutenant-governor of 
Pennsylvania in 1898; commander of the 
National Guard of Pennsylvania during 
the coal strike of 1902; State Senator 
since 1884; and commander-in-chief G. A. 
R. in 1897-98. 

Godfrey, Thomas, inventor; born in 
Bristol, Pa., in 1704; was by trade a 
glazier, and became a self-taught mathe- 
matician. In 1730 he communicated to 
James Logan, who had befriended him, 
an improvement on Davis's quadrant. In 
May, 1742, Logan addressed a letter to 
Dr. Edmund Hadley, in England, describ- 
ing fully Godfrey's instrument. Hadley 
did not notice it, when Logan sent a copy 
of this letter to Hadley, together with 
Godfrey's account of his inventions, to a 
friend, to be placed before the Royal So- 
ciety. Hadley. the vice-president, had 
presented a paper, a year before, describ- 
ing a reflecting-quadrant like Godfrey's. 
They both seem to have hit upon the same 
invention; and the society, deciding that 
both were entitled to the honor, sent God- 
frey household furniture of the value of 
$1,000. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., in 
December, 1749. 

Godkin, Edwin Lawrence, journalist; 
born in Ireland, Oct. 2. 1831; graduated 
at Queen's College, Belfast, in 1851 ; was 
the first editor of the Nation, which was 
merged with the New York Evening Post 
in 1882, which he also edited till 1899. 
He is the author of Problems of Democ- 

racy : Unforeseen Tendencies of Democ- 
racy ; Reflections and Comments, etc. He 
died in Brixham, England, May 20, 1902. 
See Newspapers. 

God Save the King (or Queen), 
the national hymn of Great Britain; sup- 
posed to have been written early in the 
eighteenth century as a Jacobite song, 
and the air has been, by some, attributed 
to Handel. It was sung with as much 
unction in the English-American colonies' 
as in England. The air did not originate 
with Handel in the reign of George I., for 
it existed in the reign of Louis XIV. of 
France. Even the words are almost a 
literal translation of a canticle which was 
sung by the maidens of St. Cyr whenever 
King Louis entered the chapel of that 
establishment to hear the morning prayer. 
The author of the words was De Brinon, 
and the music was by the eminent Lulli 
The following is a copy of the words: 

*• Grand Dieu sauve 'le Roi ! 
Grand Dieu venge le Roi ! 

Vive le Roi ! 
Que toujouis glorieux, 
Louis victorieux ! 
Voye ses ennemis 

Toujours sonmis ! 
Grand Dieu sauve le Roi i 
Grand Dieu sauve le Roi ! 

Vive le Roi !" 

Other authorities credit Henry Carey witfe 
the authorship of both words and music 
of the English hymn. The music of My 
Country, 'tis of Thee (words by Rev. S. F. 
Smith, D.D., q. v.), is the same as that 
of God Save the King. 

Godwin, Parke, author; born in Pater- 
son, N. J., Feb. 25, 1816; graduated at 
Princeton in 1834; one of the editors of 
the New York Evening Post from 1836 
to 1S86. Among his works are Pa-ciftc 
and Constructive Democracy ; Dictionary 
■jf Biography ; Political Essays; etc. He 
died in New York, Jan. 7. 1904. 

Goff, Nathan, statesman; born in 
Clarksburg, \V. Va., Oct. 9, 1843; enlisted 
in the National army in 1861; Secretary 
of the Navy in 1881 ; member of Congress. 

Goffe, William, regicide; born in Eng- 
land about 1605; son of a Puritan cler- 
gyman. With his father-in-law, GeneraJ 
Whalley, he arrived in Boston in the sum- 
mer of 1660. and shared his fortunes iff 



America, becoming a major-general in 
1665. When, during King Philip's War, 
Hadley was surrounded by the Indians, 
and the alarmed citizens every moment 
expected an attack (1675), Goffe sud- 
denly appeared among them, took com- 
mand, and led them so skilfully that 
the Indians were soon repulsed. He as 
suddenly disappeared. His person was 
a stranger to the inhabitants, and he was 
regarded by them as an angel sent for 
their deliverance. Soon after Goffe's ar- 
rival in Boston, a fencing-master erected 
a platform on the Common, and dared any 
man to fight him with swords. GofTe, 
armed with a huge cheese covered with a 
cloth for a shield, and a mop filled with 
muddy water, appeared before the cham- 
pion, who immediately made a thrust at 
his antagonist. Goffe caught and held 
the fencing-master's sword in the cheese 
and besmeared him with the mud in his 
mop. The enraged fencing-master caught 
up a broadsword, when Goffe cried, 
" Hold! I have hitherto played with you; 
if you attack me I will surely kill you." 
The alarmed champion dropped his sword, 
and exclaimed, "Who can you be? You 
must be either Goffe, or Whalley, or the 
devil, for there are no other persons who 
could beat me." He died, either in Hart- 
ford, Conn., in 1679, or in New Haven, 
in 1680. See Regicides. 

Goiogwen. See Cayuga Indians. 

Gold. The total production of the 
world of this metal in the calendar year 
1900 amounted in value to $256,462,438, 
a decrease from $313,645,534 in 1899, 
owing to the British-Boer war in the 
former South African (or Transvaal) re- 
public. Among countries the United 
States led, with $78,658,785; Australia 
ranking second with $75,283,215; Canada 
third (because of the Klondike produc- 
tion) with $26,000,000; and Russia, 
fourth with $23,000,862. The production 
in the American States and Territories 
was, in round numbers, as follows: Ala- 
bama, $4,300; Alaska, $5,450,500; Ari- 
zona, $2,566,000; California, $15,198,000; 
Colorado, $25,892,000; Georgia, $113,000; 
Idaho, $1,889,000; Maine, $3,600; Mary- 
land, $800; Michigan, $100; Missouri, 
$100; Montana, $4,760,000; Nevada, 
$2,219,000; New Mexico, $584,000; North 
Carolina, $34,500; Oregon, $1,429,500; 

South Carolina, $160,000; South Dakota, 
$6,469,500; Texas, $6,900; Utah, $3,450,- 
800; Vermont, $100; Virginia, $7,000; 
Washington, $685,000; and Wyoming, 

Golden Circle, The. The scheme for 
establishing an empire whose corner-stone 
should be negro slavery contemplated for 
the area of that empire the domain in- 
cluded within a circle the centre of which 
was Havana, Cuba, with a radius of 16 
degrees latitude and longitude. It will 
be perceived, by drawing that circle upon 
a map, that it included the thirteen slave- 
labor States of the American republic. 
It reached northward to the Pennsylvania 
line, the old " Mason and Dixon's 
line," and southward to the Isthmus of 
Darien. It embraced the West India Isl- 
ands and those of the Caribbean Sea, 
with a greater part of Mexico and Central 
America. The plan of the plotters seems 
to have been to first secure Cuba and then 
the other islands of that tropical region, 
with Mexico and Central America; and 
then to sever the slave-labor States from 
the Union, making the former a part of 
the great empire, within what they called 
" The Golden Circle." In furtherance of 
this plan, a secret association known as 
the " Order of the Lone Star " was formed. 
Another association was subsequently 
organized as its successor, the members 
of which were called " Knights of the 
Golden Circle " (q. v.). Their chief 
purpose seems to have been the corrupt- 
ing of the patriotism of the people to 
facilitate the iniquitous design. The lat- 
ter association played a conspicuous part 
as abettors of the enemies of the republic 
during the Civil War. They were the effi- 
cient allies of those who openly made war 
on the Union. 

Golden Gate. See San Francisco. 

Golden Hill, Battle of. The Bos- 
ton Massacre holds a conspicuous place 
in history; but nearly two months before, 
a more significant event of a similar 
character occurred in the city of New 
York. British soldiers had destroyed the 
Liberty Pole (Jan. 16, 1770), and, two 
days afterwards, two of them caught post- 
ing scurrilous handbills throughout the 
city, abusing the Sons of Liberty, were 
taken before the mayor. Twenty armed 
soldiers went to their rescue, when they 



were opposed by a crowd of citizens, who 
seized stakes from carts and sleds stand- 
ing near. The mayor ordered the soldiers 
to their barracks. They obeyed, and were 
followed by the exasperated citizens to 
Golden Hill (on the line of Cliff Street, 

Nearly all the National troops in North 
Carolina were encamped that night 
around Goldsboro. Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston, with the combined and concentrated 
forces of Beauregard, Hardee, Hood, the 
garrison from Augusta, Hoke, and the 

between Fulton Street and Maiden Lane), cavalry of Wheeler and Hampton, was at 

Smithfield, half-way between Goldsboro 

where the soldiers, reinforced, charged 
upon their pursuers. The citizens re- 
sisted with clubs, and a severe conflict en- 
sued, during: which an old sailor was 

and Raleigh, with about 40,000 troops, 
mostly veterans. 
Goldsborough, Charles Washington, 
mortally wounded by a bayonet. The author; born in Cambridge, Md., April 

mayor appeared and ordered the soldiers 
to disperse; but they refused, when a 
party of " Liberty Boys," who were play- 

18, 1779; became secretary of the naval 
board in 1841. He was the author of 
The United States Naval Chronicle; and 

ing ball on the corner of John Street and History of the American Navy. He died 

Broadway, dispersed them. The soldiers in Washington, D. C, Sept. 14, 1843. 
made another attack on citizens in the Goldsborough, John Rodgers, naval 

afternoon; and these conflicts continued, officer; born in Washington, D. C, July 

with intermissions, about two days, dur- 2, 

entered the navy in 1824; was 

ing which time several persons were badly midshipman on the Warren in 1824-30, 

injured. Twice the soldiers were 
armed by the citizens. See 

Golden Horseshoe, Knights of the 

dis- when the Mediterranean fleet was search- 
Libebty ing for Greek pirates. He captured the 
Helene, on which were four guns and fifty- 
eight pirates, with a launch and nineteen 

Sir Alexander Spottswood in 1716 headed men. During the Civil War, while in 

an expedition to visit the country beyond 
the Blue Rid^e Mountains. On their re- 

command of the Union, he sunk the York, 
a Confederate steamer, and rendered other 

turn to Williamsburg, Spottswood had important service; retired in 1870. He 

small golden horseshoes made, set with died in Washington, D. C, June 22, 1877. 

garnets, and inscribed " Sic juvat tran- Goldsborough, Louis Maleshebbes, 

scendere monies," which he presented to naval officer; born in Washington, D. C, 

those who had taken part in the expedi 

Goldsboro, Junction of National 
Armies at. The Confederates under Hoko 
fled from Wilmington northward, towards 
Goldsboro, towards which the Nationals 
rnder Schofield were pressing. It was at 
the railroad crossing of the Neuse River. 
General Cox, with 5,000 of Palmer'? 
troops, crossed from Newbern and es- 
tablished a depot of supplies at Kingston, 
after a moderate battle on the way with 
Hoke. Perceiving the Confederate force 
to be abotit equal to his own, Schofield or- 
dered Cox to intrench and wait for ex- 
peted reinforcements. On March 10, 
18(>5, Hoke pressed Cox and attacked him. 
but was repulsed with severe loss — 1,500 
men. The Nationals lost about 300. The 
Confederates fled across the Neuse, and 
Schofield entered Goldsboro on the 20th. 
Then Terry, who had been left at Wil- 
mington, joined Schofield (March 22), and 
the next day Sherman arrived there. 

Feb. 18, 1805; was appointed midship- 


man in 1821, and lieutenant in 1825. In 
the Seminole War {q. v.) he commanded 



ji. company of muunted volunteers, and 
also an armed steamer. Made commander 
in 1841, he took part in the Mexican War. 
From 1853 to 1857 he was superintendent 
of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. In 
the summer of 1861 he was placed in com- 
mand of the North Atlantic blockading 
squadron, and with Burnside commanded 

r reserve fund of $150,000,000 in gold cow 
and bullion, which fund shall be used for 
f-uch redemption purposes only, and whenever 
and as often as any of said notes shall be re- 
deemed from said fund it shall be the duty of 
the Secretary of the Treasury to use said 
notes so redeemed to restore and maintain 
such reserve fund in the manner following, 
to wit : 

" First. By exchanging the notes so re- 

the joint expedition to the sounds of ^ t ^f J^^ g ° W ^ ^ ^ SeDei ' al **'* 
North Carolina. For his services in the 
capture of Roanoke Island Congress 
afterwards dispersed 

thanked him. He 
the Confederate fleet under Lynch in 
North Carolina waters. He was made 
rear-admiral July 16, 1862; became com- 
mander of the European squadron in 
1865; and was retired in 1873. He died 
in Washington, D. C, Feb. 20, 1877. 

Gold Standard Act. The bill in the 
fifty-sixth Congress, first session, entitled, 
" An act to define and fix the standard 
of value, to maintain the parity of all 
forms of money issued or coined by the 
United States, to refund the public debt 

" Second. By accepting deposits of gold 
coin at the treasury or at any sub-treasury 
in exchange for the United States notes s* 

" Third. By procuring gold coin by the aeie 
of said notes, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Section 3,700 of the Revised Stat- 
utes of the United States. 

" If the Secretary of the Treasury is unable 
to restore and maintain the gold coin in the 
reserve fund by the foregoing methods, and 
the amount of such gold coin and bullion la 
said fund shall at any time fall below $100,- 
000,000, then it shall be his duty to restore 
the same to the maximum sum of $150,000,000 
by borrowing money on the credit of the 
United States, and for the debt thus incurred 
to issue and sell coupon or registered bonds 
of the United States, in such form as he may 

and for other purposes," as reported from prescribe, in denominations of $50 or any 
the conference committee of the two 
Houses, passed the Senate March 6, 1900, 
by a party vote of 44 to 26 (one Demo- 
crat, Mr. Lindsay, of Kentucky, support- 
ing the bill, and one Republican, Mr. 
Chandler, of New Hampshire, voting 
against it), and the House of Represen- 
tatives March 13, by a vote of 166 yeas 
to 120 nays, ten members present and 
not voting. The President signed the 
bill March 14. 

By this act the dollar consisting of 
twenty-five and eight-tenths grains of 
gold, nine-tenths fine, shall be the stan- 
dard of value, and all forms of money 
issued or coined shall be maintained at 
a parity of value with this gold standard. 
The United States notes and treasury 
notes shall be redeemed in gold coin, and 
a redemption fund of $150,000,000 of gold 
coin and bullion is set aside for that pur- 
pose only. The following is the text of 
the section carrying out this provision: 

" Sec. 2. That United States notes, and 
Treasury notes issued under the act of July 
14, 1800, when presented to the treasury for 
redemption, shall be redeemed in gold coin of 
the standard fixed in the first section of this 
act, and in order to secure the prompt and t)V the United States is not affected 

multiple thereof, bearing interest at the rate 
of not exceeding 3 per centum per annum, 
payable quarterly, such bonds to be payable 
at the pleasure of the United States after 
one year from the date of their issue, and to 
be payable, principal and interest, in gold 
coin of the present standard value, and to be 
exempt from the payment of all taxes or 
duties of the United States, as well as from 
taxation in any form by or under State, mu- 
nicipal, or local authority : and the gold coin 
received from the sale of said bonds shall 
first be covered into the general fund of the 
treasury and then exchanged, in the manner 
hereinbefore provided, for an equal amount of 
the notes redeemed and held for exchange, 
and the Secretary of the Treasury may, in 
his discretion, use said notes in exchange for 
gold, or to purchase or redeem any bonds of 
the United States, or for any other lawful 
purpose the public interests may require, ex- 
cept that they shall not be used to meet de- 
ficiencies in the current revenues. 

" That United States notes when redeemed 
in accordance with the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall be reissued, but shall be held in the 
reserve fund until exchanged for gold, as 
herein provided ; and the gold coin and bull- 
ion in the reserve fund, together with the 
redeemed notes held for use as provided In 
this section, shall at. no time exceed the max- 
imum sum of $150,000,000." 

The legal tender quality of the silver 
dollar and other money coined or issued 

certain redemption of such notes as herein 
provided It shall be the duty of the Secretary 
yt the Treasury to set apart in the treasury 

the act. 

The deposit of gold coin with the tre«*v 



\irer, and the issue of gold certificates difference between their present worth, cooi- 

therefor, and the coinage of silver bullion P" ted as aforesaid, and their par value, and 

,, . • , , ■ , ■ •, the payments to be made hereunder shall 

in the treasury into subsidiary silver be held t0 be payable on account of the gink _ 

coin are provided for. ing-fund created by Section 3,694 of the Re- 

The National Bank Law is amended to vised Statutes. 

permit banks to be created with $25,000 tl " A h ° d J!'°/ id , ed J?* 1 *. 6 *' T , nat * he 2 pe f . cen " 

1 ., . . . , i'.'\ lum bon ds to be issued under the provisions 

capital in places whose population does of this act shall be issued at not less than 

not exceed 3,000. Provision is made for par, and they shall be numbered consecutively 

the refunding of outstanding bonds at a ! n tne orde J' of their issue, and when payment 

low rate of interest, and under it bonds 

is made the last numbers issued shall be 
first paid, and this order shall be followed 

bearing 3, 4, and 5 per cent, interest have until all the bonds are paid, and whenever 

been refunded for bonds bearing 2 per any of the outstanding bonds are called for 

cent. The following are the sections E^ nt nSS^L ^n™. ^1! ceas \ thr K ee 

f months after such call ; and there is hereby 

covering these amendments: appropriated out of any money in the treas- 

«a <n mu 4. c ..: c „o * ^ r, !1 '* y not otherwise appropriated, to effect the 

• ? E ^V 1°; Th - at ^ eC \ i0n 5 ' 13 ! „° f thG R t exchanges of bonds provided for in this act, a 

vised statutes is hereby amended so as to sum not exceeding one-fifteenth of 1 per cen- 

as follows : 

Section 5,138. No association shall be 

of the face value of said bonds, to pay 
the expense of preparing and issuing the 

organized with a less capita) than $100,000, same and other expenses incident thereto, 
except that banks with a capital of not less 
than $50,000 may with the approval of the Section 12 provides for the issue of cir- 
Secretary of the Treasury, be organized in , ,. , r . , , , ., 

any place the population of which does not bating note s to banrcs on deposit of 

exceed 6.000 inhabitants, and except that bonds, and for additional deposits when 

banks with a capital of not less than $25,000 there is a depreciation in the value of 

may, with the sanction of the Secretary of i,„j n rril„ x„ + „i „ . e t ■, 

the Treasury, be organized in any place the bonds - The total amo " nt of notes issued 

population of which does not exceed 3,000 by an y national banking association may 

inhabitants. No association shall be organ- equal at any time, but shall not exceed, 

ized , in -A™ ty the P°P u , lation of which , ex " the amount at any such time of its capi- 

ceeds oO.OOO persons with a capital of less . , , , ,,,.,. r 

than $200,000.* lal stock actually paid in. 

" Sec. 11. That the Secretary of the Treas- Every national banking association 

ury is hereby authorized to receive at the shall pa^ a tax in January and July 

treasury any of the outstanding bonds of „ f „„„ # ',_ai. „* i „„ x .. 

the United States bearing interest at 5 or one-four Ji of 1 per cent, on the aver- 

per centum per annum, payable February 1, age amount of such of its notes in cireula- 

1904, and any bonds of the United States tion as are based on its deposit of 2 per 

bearing interest at 4 per centum per annum, cent< bondg and guch taxeg shall be • 

payable July 1, 1907, and any bonds of the .. . ,. .. .... 

United States bearing interest at 3 per cen- heu of the ta xes on its notes in circula- 

tum per annum, payable August 1, 1908, and tion imposed by Section 5,214 of the Re- 

to issue in exchange therefor an equal amount vised Statutes. Provision for interna- 

of coupon or registered bond* of the United .• . i,j„^„iu n „ :„ ™„j„ .• ±i. a „i 

States in such form as he may prescribe, in tlonal bimetallism is made in the final 

denominations of $50 or any multiple thereof, section of the act, which is as follows: 
bearing interest at the rate of 2 per centum 

per annum, payable quarterly, such bonds " Sec. 14. That the provisions of this act 

to be payable at the pleasure of the United are not intended to preclude the aecomplish- 

States after thirty years from the date of ment of international bimetallism whenever 

their issue, and said bonds to be payable, conditions shall make it expedient and prac- 

principal and interest, in gold coin of the ticable to secure the same by concurrent 

present standard value, and to be exempt action of the leading commercial nations of 

from the payment of all taxes or duties of the world and at a ratio which shall insure 

the United States, as well as from taxation permanence of relative value between gold 

in any form by or under State, municipal, or and silver." 
local authority. 

"Provided, That such outstanding bonds Goliad, MASSACRE AT. See Fanniw, 

may be received in exchange at a valuation James W. 

not greater than their present worth to yield Go Maximo, military officer; bom 

an income of 214 uer centum per annum ; and ' '. . * ' . 

in consideration of the reduction of interest or Spanish parents in Bam, San Domingo, 

effected, the Secretary of the Treasury is in 1838. He entered the Spanish army, 

authorized to pay to the ho'ders of the out- and served as a lieutenant of cavalry dur- 

standing bonds surrendered for exchange, out . „ ., lo , _-_'«_ „ f f i„. + • i„ A t_ 

of any money in the treasury not otherwise m £ the last occupation of that island by 

appropriated, a sum not greater than the Spain. In the war with Haiti he greatly 



distinguished himself in the battle of San 
Tome, where with twenty men he routed 
a much superior force. After San Domin- 
go became free he went with the Spanish 
troops to Cuba, and for a time was in 
Santiago. Becoming dissatisfied with the 
way in which the Spanish general, Villar, 
treated some starving Cuban refugees he 
called him a coward and personally as- 
saulted him. He at once became a bitter 
enemy of Spain, left the Spanish army, 
and settled down as a planter; but when 
the Ten Years' War broke out in 1868 
he joined the insurgents and received a 
command from the Cuban president,' 
Cespedes. Along with the latter and Gen- 
eral Agramonte, he captured Jugnani, 
Bayamo, Tunas, and Holguin. He also 
took Guaimaro, Nuevitas, Santa Cruz, and 


Cascorro, and fought in the battles of 
Palo Sico and Las Guasimas. Later he 
invaded Santa Clara and defeated Gen- 
eral Jovellar. He was promoted to the 
rank of major-general, and when General 
Agramonte died succeeded him as com- 
mander-in-chief. When Gen. Martinez 
Campos was sent to Cuba in 1878 and 
succeeded in persuading the Cuban leaders 
to make terms of peace, General Gomez 
withdrew to Jamaica, refusing to remain 
under Spanish rule. Subsequently he 
went to San Domingo, where he lived on 
a farm until the beginning of the revolu- 
tion in 1895. When Jose Marti, who had 

been proclaimed president of the new revo- 
lutionary party, sent for him he promptly 
responded. Landing secretly on the 
Cuban shore with Maceo and Marti, he 
pledged his faith with theirs, and began 
the war which ended with the American 
occupation in 1898. On Feb. 24, 1899, 
he was permitted to march through 
Havana with an escort of 2,500 of his 
soldiers, and on the following night was 
given a grand reception and banquet in 
that city by the United States military 
authorities. In the following month the 
Cuban military assembly removed him 
from his command as general-in-chief of 
the Cuban army, because the United States 
authorities treated with him instead of 
it concerning the distribution of $3,000,- 
000 among the bona-fide Cuban soldiers; 
but he ignored the action of the as- 
sembly and gave invaluable assistance to 
General Brooke, then American gov- 
ernor-general. See Cuba; Garcia, Ca- 

Gonannhatenha, Frances, Indian 
squaw; born in Onondaga, N. Y. ; con- 
verted to Christianity; captured by a 
hostile party; was tortured, and entreat- 
ed by a relative to recant. She refused, 
and was killed in Onondaga, N. Y., in 1692. 

Gompers, Samuel, labor leader; born 
in England, Jan. 27, 1850; an advocate 
of trades-unions for thirty-five years ; one 
of the founders of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and its president, with the 
exception of one year, since 1882. He has 
written largely on the labor question. 

Gooch, Sir William, colonial governor; 
born in Yarmouth, Eng., Oct. 21, 1681; 
had been an officer under Marlborough, 
and in 1740 commanded in the unsuccess- 
ful attack on Carthagena. In 1746 he 
was made a brigadier - general and wae 
knighted, and in 1747 a major-general. 
He ruled with equity in Virginia, and was 
never complained of. He returned to Eng- 
land in 1749. and died in London, Dec 17, 

Good, James Isaac, clergyman; born 
in York, Pa., Dec. 31, 1850; graduated 
at Lafayette College in 1872, and later at 
Union Theological Seminary; ordained a 
minister of the German Reformed Church; 
became Professor of Dogmatics and Pas- 
toral Theology at Ursinus College, Phila- 
delphia, in 1893. His publications in- 


elude History of the Reformed Church in 
the United States, etc. 

Goode, William Athelstane Mere- 
dith, author; born in Newfoundland, 
June 10, 1875; was a correspondent on 
board the flag-ship New York for the 
Associated Press during the war with 
Spain. He is the author of With Sampson 
Through the War. 

Goodrich, Aakon, jurist; born in 
Sempronius, N. Y., July 6, 1807; was ad- 
mitted to the bar and began practice in 
Stewart county, Tenn.; secretary of the 
United States legation at Brussels in 
1861-69. He published A History of the 
Character and Achievements of the So- 
oalled Christopher Columbus. 

Goodrich., Charles Augustus, clergy- 
man; born in Ridgefield, Conn., in 1790; 
graduated at Yale College in 1812. His 
publications include Lives of the Signers; 
History of the United States of American- 
Child's History of the United States; 
Great Events of American History, etc. 
He died in Hartford, Conn., Jan. 4, 1862. 

Goodrich, Frank Boott, author; born 
in Boston, Mass., Dec. 14, 1826; grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1845. His 
publications include History of Maritime 
Adventure, Exploration, and Discovery ; 
The Tribute-book, a Record of the Munifi- 
cence, Self-sacrifice, and Patriotism of 
the American People during the War for 
the Union. He died in Morristown, N. J., 
March 15, 1894. 

Goodrich, Samuel Griswold, author; 
popularly known as " Peter Parley " ; born 
in Ridgefield, Conn., Aug. 19, 1793; was 
a publisher in Hartford in 1824; soon 
afterwards he settled in Boston, and for 
many years edited The Token. He began 
the issuing of Peter Parley's Tales in 1827, 
and continued them until 1857. He also 
published geographical and historical 
school-books. From 1841 to 1854 he 
edited and published Merry's Museum and 
Parley's Magazine. Of 170 volumes writ- 
ten by him, 116 bear the name of " Peter 
Parley " ; and more than 7,000,000 copies 
of his books for the young have been sold. 
Mr. Goodrich was American consul at 
Paris during Fillmore's administration. 
He died in New York City, May 9, 1860. 

Good Roads. Prior to the advent and 
popularity of the bicycle, the matter of 
improving the public thoroughfares of the 

country, particularly in suburban dis- 
tricts, was almost entirely in the hands 
of county, township, and village officials. 
As the wheel grew in popularity, and peo- 
ple found it an admirable means of travel 
an agitation sprang up for the better 
improvement of roads leading through 
various parts of the country which the 
devotees of the wheel had come to pat- 
ronize. This agitation by petitions and 
bills personally introduced was soon mani- 
fested in State legislatures and boards 
of county commissioners. In the Middle 
States, particularly, the movement for 
good roads was actively promoted by the 
League of American Wheelmen, which 
issued numerous guide-maps for " cen- 
tury" runs, showing the best roads for 
wheelmen between popular points. State 
Good Roads associations were formed, 
and these in turn formed a national, or 
interstate, association. The latter body 
held a convention in Chicago in November, 
1900, with delegates from thirty - eight 
States present. The State associations 
operate principally in their respective ter- 
ritories with a view of securing the im- 
provements of the roads therein, while 
the national association seeks to secure 
congressional action for the improvement 
of the highways of the country. Much 
had already been accomplished at the 
time of this convention, and the radical 
improvements were undoubtedly due first 
to the wide-spread use of the bicycle and 
more recently to that of the automobile. 

Good Templars, Independent Order 
of, an organization the members of which 
pledge themselves not to make, buy, 
sell, furnish, or cause to be furnished, in- 
toxicating liquors to others as a beverage. 
It originated in the United States in 1851, 
and in Birmingham, England, in 1868. 
The order has since developed into an in- 
ternational organization, with supreme 
headquarters in Birmingham, England. 
In 1901 there were over 100 grand lodges 
and a membership of nearly 500,000. The 
order has a membership in nearly every 
State in the Union, and it also has a 
juvenile branch comprising about 200,000 

Goodwin, Daniel, lawyer : born in New 
York City, Nov. 26, 1832; graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1852; admitted to the 
bar; became United States commissioner 



for Illinois in 1861. He published James 1879. His publications include Congres- 

Pitts and His Sons in the American Rev- sional Currency; Befo' dc War; Echoes 

olution, etc. in Negro Dialect (with Thomas Nelson 

Goodwin, Nathaniel, genealogist; born Page): and For Truth and Freedom: 

in Hartford, Conn., March 5, 1782. His Poems of Commemoration. 
publications include Descendants of Gordon, George Henry, military offi- 

Thomas Olcott; The Foote Family; and cer; born in Charlestown, Mass., July 19, 

Genealogical Notes of Home of the First 1825; graduated at the United States 

Settlers of Connecticut and Massachu- Military Academy in 1846; served in the 

setts. He died in Hartford, Conn., May 29, war with Mexico, participating in the 

1855. siege of Vera Cruz, the actions of Cerro 

Goodwin, William Frederick, author; Gordo, Contreras, and Chapultepec, and 

born in Limington, Me., Sept. 27, 1823; the capture of the city of Mexico. During 

graduated at Bowdoin College in 1848; the Civil War his bravery was conspicu- 

began law practice in Concord, N. H., in ous in many battles. He received the 

1855; served with distinction in the Civil brevet of major-general of volunteers in 

War; was promoted captain in 1864. His April, 1865. He was the author of The 

publications include a History of the Con- Army of Virginia from Cedar Mountain 

stitution of New Hampshire of 1776, 1784, to Alexandria ; A War Diary ; and From 

1792; Record of Narragansett Township, Brook to Cedar Mountain. He died in 

No. 1, etc. He died in Concord, V. H., Framingham, Mass., Aug. 30, 1886. 
March 12, 1872. Gordon, John Brown, military officer: 

Goodyear, Charles, inventor; born in born in Upson county, Ga., Feb. 6, 1832: 
North Haven, Conn., Dec. 29, 1800; was was educated at the University of Geor- 
an early manufacturer of India rubber, gia; studied law; was admitted to the 
and made vast improvements in its prac- bar, and shortly after he began to prac- 
tical use in the arts. His first impor- tise the Civil War broke out, and he en- 
fant discovery was made in 1836 — a tered the Confederate army as a captain 
method of treating the surface of the gum. of infantry. He passed successively 
This process was superseded by his dis- through all grades to the rank of lieuten- 
covery early in 1849 of a superior method ant-general. During the war he was- 
of vulcanization. He procured patent wounded in battle eight times, the wound 
after patent for improvements in this received at Antietam being very severe. 
method, until he had more than sixty in He was a candidate for governor of Geor- 
number. in America and Europe. He gia on the Democratic ticket in 1868, and 
obtained the highest marks of distinction claimed the election, but his Republican 
at I lie international exhibitions at London opponent, Rufus B. Bullock, was given 
and Paris. He saw, before his death, his the office. He was a member of the Na- 
material applied to almost 500 uses, and tional Democratic conventions of 1868 
to give employment in England, France, and 1872, and presidential elector for the 
Germany, and the United States to about same years. He was elected to the United 
60,000 persons. He died in New York States Senate in 1873; re-elected in 1879: 
City, July 1, 1860. resigned in 1880, and again elected in 

Gookin, Daniel, military officer; born 1891; and was governor of Georgia, in 

in Kent. England, about 1612; removed 1887-90. On May 31. 1900. he was elected 

to Virginia with his father in 1621; set- commander-in-chief of the United Obn> 

tied in Cambridge, Mass., in 1644: be- federate Veterans. General Gordon at- 

eame major-general of the colony in 1681. tained wide popularity as a lecturer on the 

lie was author of Historical Collections events of the Civil War. He died in. 

of the Indians; of Massachusetts. He died Miami. Pla.. Jan. 9. 1904. 
in Cambridge, Mass.. March 19, 1687. Gordon, Patrick, colonial governor; 

Gordon, Anthony. See Jesuit Mis- born in England in 1644 ; became governor 

btons. of Pennsylvania in 172(1. lie was the au 

Gordon, Armistead CnuROHllx, law- thor of Two Indian Treaties at Conesto- 

▼er; born in Albemarle county, Va., Dec. goe. He died in Philadelphia. Pa., Aug. 

20. 1855; was admitted to the » : >r »n •">• 1736. 



Gordon, Thomas F., historian; born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1787; practised 

associates. In 1(515, after the return of 
Capt. John Smith (q. v.), he set sail 

law. His publications include Digest of for New England, but a storm compelled 
the Laivs of the United States; History the vessel to put back, while another 

of Pennsylvania from its Discovery to vessel, under Capt 

1776; History of New Jersey from its Dis 

eovery to 1789; History of America; Gaz 

etteer of New Jersey; Gazetteer of New on the River Saco through the winter: 

York, and Gazetteer of Pennsylvania. He and in 1619-20 Captain Dermer repeated 

Thomas Dermeb 
(q. v.), prosecuted the voyage. Gorges 
sent out a party (1616), which encamped 

died in Beverly, N. J., Jan. 17, 1860. 
Gordon, William, historian; born in 

the voyage. The new charter obtained 
by the company created such a despotic 

Hitchin, England, in 1730; came to monopoly that it was strongly opposed 
America in 1770; and was ordained at in and out of Parliament, and was finally 

rges had, mean- 
while, prosecuted colonization schemes 
with vigor. With John Mason and others 

Roxbury in 1772. He took an active dissolved in 1635. 
part in public affairs during the Revolu- 
tion, and in 1778 the College of New Jer- 
sey conferred upon him the degree of he obtained grants of land (1622), which 
doctor of divinity. Returning to Eng- now compose a part of Maine and New 
land in 1786, he wrote and published a Hampshire, and settlements were at- 
history of the Revolution, in 4 volumes, tempted there. His son Robert was ap- 
octavo. He died in Ipswich, England, pointed " general governor of the 
Oct. 19, 1807. country," and a settlement was made 
Gordy, Wilbur Fisk, educator ; born ( 1 624 ) on the site of York, Me. After 
near Salisbury, Md., June 14, 1854; grad- the dissolution of the company (1635), 
uated at Wesleyan University in 1S80; Gorges, then a vigorous man of sixty 
later became supervising principal of the years, was appointed (1637) governor- 
Hartford (Conn.) public schools. He is general of New England, with the powers 
author of A School History of the United of a palatine, and prepared to come to 

States, and joint author of The Pathfind- 
er in American History. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, colonial pro- 
prietor; born in Ashton Phillips, Somer- 

America, but was prevented by an acci- 
dent to the ship in which he was to sail. 
He made laws for his palatinate, but 
they were not acceptable. Gorges en- 

set, England, about 15G5; was associated joyed his viceregal honors a few yeara. 

with the courtiers of Queen Elizabeth; 
was engaged in the conspiracy of the 
Earl of Essex against the Queen's council 

and died in England in 1647. 

His son Robert had a tract of land be- 
stowed upon him in New England, on 

(1600); and testified against him at his the coast of Massachusetts Bay, extend- 
trial for treason (1601). Having served ing 10 miles along the coast and 30 miles 
in the royal navy with distinction, he inland. He was appointed lieutenant- 
was appointed governor of Plymouth in general of New England, with a council, 
1604. A friend of Raleigh, he became of whom Francis West, who had been 
imbued with that great man's desire to commissioned " Admiral of New Eng- 
plant a colony in America, and when Cap- land," by the council of Plymouth, and 
tain Weymouth returned from the New the goA'ernor of New Plymouth for the 
England coast (1605), and brought cap- time being, were to be members, having 
tive natives with him, Gorges took three the power to restrain interlopers. West, 
of them into his own home, from whom, as admiral, attempted to force tribute 
after instructing them in the English from the fishing-vessels on the coast, 
language, he gained much information Gorges brought to New England with 
about their country. Gorges now became him a clergyman named Morrell, ap- 
thiefly instrumental in forming the pointed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Plymouth Company (q. v.), to settle to act as commissioner of ecclesiastical 
western Virginia, and from that time affairs; also a number of indentured 
be was a very active member, defending servants. After being a year at Plymouth. 

its rights before Parliament, and stimu- 
lating by his own zeal his desponding 

Gorges attempted to plant a colony at 
Wissasnis. He had encountered Weston. 


who came over to look after his colony, 
and took proceedings against him as an 
interloper. See Weston's Colony. 

Gorham, Nathaniel, statesman; born 
in Charlestown, Mass., May 27, 1738; 
■was a delegate to the Continental Congress 
(1782-83 and from 1785 to 1787); and 
was chosen its president in June. 1786. He 
was a member of the convention that 
framed the national Constitution, and ex- 
erted great power in procuring its ratifica- 
tion by Massachusetts. He died in 
Charlestown, June 11, 1796. See Holland 
Land Company. 

Gorman, Arthur Pue, legislator; born 
in Howard county, Md., March 11, 1839; 
was a page in the United States Senate in 
1852-66; collector of internal revenue for 
the Fifth District of Maryland in 1866- 
69; appointed director of the Chesapeake 
& Ohio Canal Company in the latter 
year, becoming president in 1872; was a 
State Senator in 1875-81; member of the 
Maryland House of Delegates in 1S69-75; 
and a United States Senator in 1881-99 
and in 1903-09. In March, 1903, he was 
chosen the Democratic leader in the United 
States Senate. 

Gorrie, Peter Douglas, clergyman; 
born in Glasgow, Scotland, April 21, 1813; 
came to the United States in 1820, and 
was ordained in the Methodist Epis- 
copal Chinch. He was the author of 
The Churches and Sects in the United 
States; Black River Conference Memori- 
al; etc. He died in Potsdam, N. Y., Sept. 
12, 1884. 

Gorringe, Henry Honeyciiurch, naval 
officer; born in Barbadoes, W. I., Aug. 
11, 1841; came to the United States in 
early life; served through the Civil War 
with marked distinction ; was promoted 
lieutenant-commander in December, 1868. 
He became widely known in 1880-81 
through having charge of the transporta- 
tion of the Egyptian obelisk (Cleopatra's 
Needle) presented to the United States 
by the Khedive of Egypt, and erected in 
Central Park, New York City, Jan. 23, 
1881. The total cost of transportation — 
$100,000— was paid by William H. Van- 
derbilt. Gorringe published a History of 
Egyptian Obelisks. He died in New York 
City, July 7, 1885. 

Gorton, Samuel, clergyman; born in 
England about 1600; was a clothier in 

London, and embarked for Boston in 
1636, where he soon became entangled iu 
theological disputes and removed to Plym- 
outh. There he preached such heterodox 
doctrines that he was banished as a heretic 
in the winter of 1637-38. With a few 
followers he went to Rhode Island, where 
he was publicly whipped for calling the 
magistrates " just-asses," and other re- 
bellious acts. In 1641 he was compelled 
to leave the island. He took refuge with 
Roger Williams at Providence, but soon 
made himself so obnoxious there that he 
escaped public scorn by removing (1642) 
to a spot on the west side of Narraganset 
Bay, where he bought land of Mianto- 
nomoh and planted a settlement. The next 
year inferior sachems disputed his title 
to the land; and, calling upon Massa- 
chusetts to assist them, an armed force 
was sent to arrest Gorton and his follow- 
ers, and a portion of them were taken to 
Boston and tried as " damnable heretics." 
For a while they endured confinement and 
hard labor, in irons, and in 1644 they 
were banished from the colony. Gorton 
went to England and obtained from the 
Earl of Warwick an order that the cler- 
gyman and his followers should have 
peace at the settlement they had chosen. 
He called the place Warwick when he re- 
turned to it in 1648. There he preached 
on Sunday and performed civil service 
during the week. He died in Rhode Isl- 
and late in 1677. 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, navigator ; 
born in England; date unknown; became 
a stanch friend of Sir Walter Raleigh. 
Because of Raleigh's failure, he did not 
lose faith. The long routes of the vessels 
by way of the West Indies seemed to him 
unnecessary, and he advocated the feasi- 
bility of a more direct course across the 
Atlantic. He was offered the command of 
an expedition by the Earl of Southampton, 
to make a small settlement in the more 
northerly part of America: and on April 
26, 1602, Gosnold sailed from Falmouth, 
England, in a small vessel, with twenty 
colonists and eight mariners. He took 
the proposed shorter route, and touched 
the continent near Nahant, Mass., it is 
supposed, eighteen days after his depart- 
\ire from England. Finding no good har- 
bor there, he sailed southward, discovered 
and named Cape Cod. and landed there. 



This was the first time the shorter (pres- Gospel, Society fob the Propagation 
ent) route from England to New York of the. Edward Winslow (q. v.), the 
and Boston had been traversed ; and it was third governor of the Plymouth colony, 
the first time an Englishman set foot on became greatly interested in the spiritual 
New England soil. Gosnold passed concerns of the Indians of New England; 
around the cape, and entered Buzzard's and when, in 1649, he went to England 
Bay, where he found an attractive group on account of the colony, he induced lead- 
of Islands, and he named the westernmost ing men there to join in the formation of 
Elizabeth, in honor of his Queen. The a society for the propagation of the Gos- 
whole group bear that name. He and his pel among the natives in America. The 
followers landed on Elizabeth Island, and society soon afterwards began its work 
were charmed with the luxuriance of veg- in America, and gradually extended its 
etation, the abundance of small fruits, labors to other English colonies. In 1701 
and the general aspect of nature. (June 16) it was incorporated under the 

Gosnold determined to plant his colony title of the Society for the Propagation 
there, and on a small rocky island, in the of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Wili- 
bosom of a great pond, he built a fort; iam III. zealously promoted the opera- 
and, had the courage of the colonists held tions of the society, for he perceived that 
out, Gosnold would have had the im- in a community of religion there was se- 
ruortal honor of making the first perma- curity for political obedience. The society 
nent English settlement in America, still exists, and its operations are widely 
Afraid of the Indians, fearing starvation, extended over the East and West Indies, 
wondering what the winter would be, and Southern Africa, Australia, and islands 
disagreeing about the division of profits, of the Southern Ocean, 
they were seized with a depressing home- Gosport Navy-Yard. See Norfolk. 
sickness. So, loading the vessel with Goss, Elbridge Henry, author; born 
sassafras-root (then esteemed in Europe in Boston, Mass., Dec. 22, 1830; received 
for its medicinal qualities), furs gathered a common-school education. His publica- 
from the natives, and other products, tions include Early Bells of Massachu- 
they abandoned the little paradise of setts; Centennial Fourth Address; Life of 
beauty, and in less than four months after Col. Paul Revere; History of Melrose, etc 
their departure from England they had Goss, Warren Lee, author; born in 
returned; and, speaking in glowing terms Brewster, Mass., Aug. 19, 1838; received 
of the land they had discovered, Kaleigh an academic education and studied law; 
advised the planting of settlements in served in the Civil War; was captured 
that region, and British merchants after- and imprisoned in Libby, Belle Isle, 
wards undertook it. Elizabeth Island Andersonville, Charleston, and Florence, 
now bears its original name of Cottyunk. S. C; released in November, 1865. His 
Gosnold soon afterwards organized a com- publications include The Soldier's Story 
pany for colonization in Virginia. A °f Captivity at Andersonville ; The Recol- 
charter was granted him and his associ- lections of a Private; In the Navy, etc. 
ates by James I., dated April 10, 1606, Gottheil, Gustave, rabbi; born in 
the first under which the English were Pinne, Germany, May 28, 1827; educated 
settled in America. He sailed Dec. 19, at the University of Berlin; was assist- 
1606, with three small vessels and 105 ant rabbi at Berlin in 1S55-00; rabbi at 
adventurers, of whom only twelve were Manchester, England, in 1860-72; rabbi 
laborers; and, passing between Capes of the Temple Emanuel in New York City 
Henry and Charles, went up the James after 1873. He died in New York, April 
River in April, 1607, and landed where 15, 1903. His son, Richard Gotthetl, 
they built Jamestown afterwards. The is the Professor of Rabbinical Literature 
place was an unhealthful one, and Gos- and Semitic Languages in Columbia Uni- 
nold remonstrated against founding the versity, and the author of the article on 
settlement there, but in vain. Sickness Jews and Judaism in vol. v., p. 146. 
and other causes destroyed nearly half the Gouge, William M., author; born in 
number before autumn. Among the vie- Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 10, 1796; was 
tims was Gosnold, who died Aug. 22, 1607. connected with the United States Treasury 
rv.— o 97 


Department for thirty years. His publi- bis life to the cause of temperance be- 
cations include History of the American fame irresistible. He left Worcester, and 
Banking System; Fiscal History of Texas, with a carpet-bag in hand travelled on 
etc. He died in Trenton, N. J., July 14, toot through the New England States, 
1863. lecturing wherever he could gain auditors. 

Gough, John Bartholomew, temper- His intense earnestness and powers of ex- 
ance lecturer; born in Sandgate, Kent, pression and imitation enabled him to 
England, Aug. 22, 1817; was educated sway audiences in a manner attained by 
principally by his mother, and when few speakers. For more than seventeen 
twelve years old came to the United years he lectured on temperance, speaking 
States. In 1831 he was employed in a to more than 5,000 audiences. In 1854 
publishing house in New York City, and ne went to England, intending to remain 
there learned the bookbinding trade. In but a short time. His success, however, 
1833 he lost his place and soon drifted was so great that he stayed for two years, 
into the worst habits of dissipation. For In 1857 he again went to England and 
several years he spent his time in drink- lectured for three years. In 1859 he be- 
ing resorts, making his meagre living by gan to speak before lyceums on literary 
singing and by his wonderful powers of and social topics, though his chief subject 
comic delineation. In 1842 he went to was always temperance. He published a 
work in Worcester, Mass., where he was number of works, including Autobiog- 
soon looked upon as a hopeless drunkard, raphy; Orations; Temperance Addresses; 
In October of that year a little kindness Temperance Lectures; and Sunlight and 
extended to him by a Quaker led him to a Shadow, or Gleanings from My Lifework. 
temperance meeting, where he signed a He died in Frankford, Pa., Feb. 18, 1886. 
pledge which he faithfully kept for sev- Gould, Benjamin Apthorp, astrono- 
eral months, when some old companions mer; born in Boston, Mass., Sept. 27, 

1824; graduated at Harvard in 1844, 
and went abroad for further study in 
1845. Returning to the United States in 
1848 he settled in Cambridge, Mass., and 
early in 1849 started the Astronomical 
Journal, in which were published the re- 
sults of many original investigations. In 
1851 he took charge of the longitude oper- 
ations of the United States Coast Survey. 
After the Atlantic cable was laid in 1866, 
he went to Valencia, Ireland, and founded 
a station where he could determine the 
difference in longitude between America 
and Europe. He also, by exact observa- 
tions, connected the two continents. 
These were the first determinations, by 
telegraph, of transatlantic longitude, and 
they resulted in founding a regular series 
of longitudinal measurements from Louisi- 
ana to the Ural Mountains. In 1856-59 
Dr. Gould was director of the Dudley Ob- 
servatory in Albany, N. Y. In this build- 
ing the normal clock was first employed 
to give time throughout the observatory 
by telegraph. He later greatly improved 
this clock, which is now xised in all parts 
of the world. In 1868 he organized and 
directed the national observatory at Cor- 
doba, in the Argentine Republic. He 
there mapped out a large part of the 

JOnN B. OOI'Cll. 

led him astray. He soon however, con- 
quered nis appetite, and o desire to give 



southern heavens. He also organized a 
national meteorological office, which was 
connected with branch stations extending 
from the tropics to Terra del Fuego, and 
from the Andes Mountains to the Atlan- 
tic. He returned from South America in 
1885, and died in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 
26, 1896. His publications include In- 
instigations in the Military and Anthro- 
pological statistics of American Soldiers; 
Investigations of the Orbit of Comet V.; 
Report of the Discovery of the Planet 
Jfeptune; Discussions of Observations 
Made by the United States Astronomical 
Expedition to Chile to Determine the Solar 
Parallax; The Transatlantic Longitude as 
Determined by the Coast Survey; Ura- 
nontetry of the Southern Heavens; Ances- 
try of Zaccheus Gould, etc. 

Gould, Helen Miller, philanthropist; 
born in New York City, June 20, 1868; 
daughter of Jay Gould ; has been actively 
associated with benevolent work. When 

the war with Spain began in 1898 
she gave the United States gov- 
ernment $100,000 to be used at 
the discretion of the authorities. 
She was also actively identified 
with the Woman's National War 
Relief Association and freely con- 
tributed to its work. When the 
sick, wounded, and convalescent 
soldiers from Cuba were taken to 
Camp Wikoff on Long Island, she 
gave her personal services and 
also $25,000 for needed supplies. 
Among her other benefactions are 
$250,000 to the University of New 
York for a new library (secretly 
given in 1895), and later $60,000 
for additional cost; $60,000 to 
Rutgers College, New Brunswick, 
N. J.; $10,000 for the engineering 
school of the University of New 
York; $8,000 to Vassar College; 
$100,000 to the University of New 
York for a Hall of Fame; $250,- 
000 for the erection of a Presby- 
terian church at Roxbury, N. Y., 
and $50,000 for a building for the 
Naval Branch of the Young Men's 
Christian Association in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Gould, Jay, capitalist; born in 
Roxbury, N. Y., May 27, 1836; 
studied in Hobart Academy and 
afterwards was employed as book-keeper in 
a blacksmith shop. Later he learned sur- 
veying and was given employment in 
making surveys for a map of Ulster 
county. After completing the survey 
of several other counties, he became 
interested in the lumbering business with 
Zadock Pratt, whose share he later pur- 
chased. Just before the panic of 1857 he 
sold his lumber business and went to 
Stroudsburg, Pa., where he entered a 
bank. It was at this time that he 
first became interested in railroad en- 
terprises. Removing to New York City 
he became a broker, dealing at first in 
Erie Railroad bonds. In 1868 he was 
elected president of that company and re- 
mained in that office till 1872, when the 
company was reorganized, and he was 
forced as a result of long litigation to re- 
store $7,550,000, a portion of the amount 
which it was alleged he had wrongfully ac- 
quired. While president of the Erie com- 


pany he invested heavily in stocks of 
various railroads and telegraph companies. 
After losing his office in the Erie company 
he applied himself to the Pacific railroads, 
in which he had become interested, the 
elevated railroads of New York, and the 
Western Union Telegraph Company. He 
built many branch roads, took a number 
of roads from receivers, and brought 
about combinations which effected what 
was known as the " Gould System." He 
was actively connected with the Black 
Friday (q. v.) and other financial sen- 
sations. His financial standing having 
been assailed in 1882, he exhibited to a 
committee of financiers stocks and bonds 
to the face value of $53,000,000, and stated 

an important place in English political 
history, but in the general history of the 
development of the idea of a written con- 

The following is its text: 

that he could produce $20,000,000 more if 
desired. He died in New York City, Dec. 
2, 1802. 

Gourges, Dominic de. See Florida. 

Government, Instrument of. A con- 
stitution adopted by Cromwell and his 
council of officers when the Little Parlia- 
ment dissolved itself in December, 1G53, 
surrendering authority to Cromwell as 
Lord Protector. It is therefore to be re- 
garded as the constitutional basis of defini- 
tion of the Protectorate; and under it the 
reformed Parliament met in September, 
1054. This assembly proceeded to settle 
the government on a Parliamentary basis, 
taking the "Instrument" as the ground- 
work of the new constitution, and carry 
ing it clause by clause. The Instrument 
of Government holds therefore not only 

The government of the Commonwealth 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and 
the dominions thereunto belonging. 

I. That the supreme legislative author- 
ity of the Commonwealth of England. 
Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions 
thereunto belonging, shall be and reside in 
one person, and the people assembled in 
Parliament; the style of which person 
shall be the Lord Protector of the Com- 
monwealth of England, Scotland, and Ire- 

II. That the exercise of the chief magis- 
tracy and the administration of the gov- 
ernment over the said countries and 
dominions, and the people thereof, shall be 
in the Lord Protector, assisted with a 
council, the number whereof shall not 
exceed twenty-one, nor be less than thir- 

III. That all writs, processes, commis- 
sions, patents, grants, and other things, 
which now run in the name and style 
of the keepers of the liberty of England, 
by authority of Parliament, shall run in 
the name and style of the Lord Protector, 
from whom, for the future, shall be de- 
rived all magistracy and honours in these 
three nations; and have the power of par- 
dons (except in case of murders and trea- 
son) and benefit of aU forfeitures for 
the public use; and shall govern the said 
countries and dominions in all things by 
the advice of the council, and accord 
ir,g to these presents and the laws. 

IV. That the Lord Protector, the Par- 
liament sitting, shall dispose and order 
the militia and forces, both by sea and 
land, for the peace and good of the throe 
nations, by consent of Parliament; and 
that the Lord Protector, with the advice 
and consent of the major part of the 
council, shall dispose and order the militia 
for the ends aforesaid in the intervals of 

V. That the Lord Protector, by the ad- 
vice aforesaid, shall direct in all things 
concerning the keeping and holding of a 
good correspondency with foreign kings, 
princes, and states; and also, with the 



consent of the major part of the council, Plymouth, 2; Clifton, Dartmouth, Hardness, 

hare the power of war and peace. 1 '. Totnes, 1 ; Barnstable, 1 : Tiverton, 1 ; 

VI. That the laws shall not be altered, " onltoD ; H 1 : D „ or8 ? f t8 } 1,r \ V f ,orc 1 heste T r ' 1: 

, . . , , . Weymouth and Melcomb-Regis, 1 ; Lyme- 

suspended, abrogated, or repealed, nor Reg i s , i . Poo ie, 1 ; Durham, 2 ; City of Dur- 

any new law made, nor any tax, charge, ham. 1 ; Essex, 13 ; Maiden, 1 ; Colchester, 2 ; 

or imposition laid upon the people, but Gloucestershire, 5; Gloucester, 2; Tewkes- 

. r _ , f -o .._„ . „„„„ bury, 1; Cirencester, 1; Herefordshire, 4; 

by common consent in Parliament, save Hereford, 1; Leominster, 1; Hertfordshire, 
only as is expressed in the thirtieth ar- 5 ; St. Alban's, 1 ; Hertford, 1 ; Huntingdon- 
title, shire, 3 ; Huntingdon, 1 ; Kent, 11 ; Canter- 

VII. That there shall be a Parliament 1 bury o n 2 n : H ^ c h hes ^ er ' j£ J5KS5? V ^t™' 

, , , ,„ , . . 1 ; bandwich, 1 ; Queenborough, 1 ; Lan- 

eummoned to meet at Westminster upon casu i re , 4; Preston, 1; Lancaster, 1; Llver- 

the third day of September, 1654, and pool, 1 ; Manchester, 1 ; Leicestershire, 4 ; 

that successively a Parliament shall be Leicester, 2; Lincolnshire, 10; Lincoln, 2; 

j .. i_ ™ „ j.v,;_j „„„_ *„ Boston, 1 ; Grantham, 1 ; Stamford, 1 ; Great 

summoned once m every third year, to Grlmsb ' V) 1; Middlese ' x , 4; Lon don, 6 ; West- 
be accounted from the dissolution of the minster, 2 ; Monmouthshire, 3 ; Norfolk, 10 ; 
present Parliament. Norwich, 2; Lynn-Regis, 2; Great Yarmouth. 

VIII. That neither the Parliament to j*; Northamptonshire 6 ; Peterborough 1; 

, . Northampton, 1 ; Nottinghamshire, 4 ; Not- 
be next summoned, nor any successive tlngham( 2 ; Northumberland, 3; New- 
Parliaments, shall, during the time of castle-upon-Tyne, 1 ; Berwick, 1 ; Oxford- 
five months, to be accounted from the ahlre. 5 ; Oxford City, 1 ; Oxford University, 

j„„ „* *!,„:- i„„+ ™««+; u„ n A;m,*. nn A 1; Woodstock, 1; Rutlandshire, 2; Shrop- 

day of their last meeting, be adjourned, ghlre> 4 . Sh ;. ewsbury! 2 . Bridgnorth, 1 ; 

prorogued, or dissolved, without their own Ludlow, 1 ; Staffordshire, 3 ; Lichfield, 1 ; 

consent. Stafford, 1 ; Newcastle-under-Lyne, 1 ; Som- 

IX. That as well the next as all other ersetshire, 11 ; Bristol, 2 ; Taunton 2 ; Bath. 

_ ,. , ., . 1; Wells, 1; Bridgewater, 1; Southampton- 
successive Parliaments, shall be sum- sblre> 8 . winches ter, 1; Southampton, 1; 
moned and elected in manner hereafter Portsmouth, 1 ; Isle of Wight, 2 ; Andover, 
expressed; that is to say, the persons to 1; Suffolk, 10; Ipswich, 2; Bury St. Ed- 
be <*<**„ within England, Wales, and J^Si&SE^iiJStffiiSTi 
Ihles of Jersey, Guernsey, and the town Sussex, 9 ; Chichester, 1 ; Lewes, 1 ; East 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed, to sit and serve Grinstead, 1 ; Arundel, 1 ; Rye, 1 ; Westmore- 

in Parliament shill be and not exceed land ' 2 : Warwickshire, 4 ; Coventry, 2 ; War- 
in Parliament, snail t»e, ana not exceea, ^^ 1; Wiltshire 10; New s arum> 2; Marl- 

the number of four hundred. Ihe per- borough, 1; Devizes, 1; Worcestershire, 5; 

sons to be chosen within Scotland, to sit Worcester, 2. 

and serve in Parliament, shall be, and not YwteMre.— West Elding, C I; East Riding, 
, ., , . ... , , ., M „ 4 ; North Riding, 4 ; City of York, 2 ; Kings- 
exceed, the number of thirty; and the per- ton . upon . Hull> ! . Beverley, 1 ; Scarborough, 
sons to be chosen to sit in Parliament for 1 ; Richmond, 1 : Leeds, 1 ; Halifax, 1. 
Ireland shall be, and not exceed, the num- Wales.— Anglesey, 2; Brecknockshire, 2 ; 
vp- n f +hirtv Cardiganshire, 2 ; Carmarthenshire, 2 ; Car- 
L J, 7 ; ^ , * narvonshire, 2; Denbighshire, 2; Flintshire, 

X. That the persons to be elected to 2 ; Glamorganshire. 2 ; Cardiff, 1 ; Merioneth- 
Bit in Parliament from time to time, for shire, 1 ; Montgomeryshire, 2 ; Pembrokeshire, 
the several counties of England, Wales, 2; Haverfordwest, 1; Radnorshire, 2. 

the Isles of Jersey and Guernsey, and „.,...... . ,, . . 

., . e -r, . , rp„ j a oil The distribution of the persons to be 
the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and all X11C " " ' , , T , , , ..„ 
places within the same respectively, shall A— «« Scotland and Ireland, and the 
be according to the proportions and -several con nties, cities, an dp ^es ^re- 
numbers hereafter expressed: that is to J, shall be according to such proper- 
r tions and number as shall be agreed upon 
y ' and declared by the Lord Protector and 
Bedfordshire, 5 ; Bedford Town. 1 ; Berk- the major part of the council, before the 
shire, 5 ; Abingdon, 1 ; Reading, 1 ; Bucking- sending forth writs of summons for the 
hamshire, 5 : Buckingham Town, 1 ; Ayles- nex ^ Parliament 

1 ; Isle of Ely, 2 ; Cheshire, 4 ; Chester, 1 ; shall be by writ under the Great beal ot 

Cornwall, 8 ; Launceston, 1 ; Truro, 1 ; England, directed to the sheriffs of the 

cXESlaU ^cJXle."?: D e erbyshTr e e ; l\ -veral and respective counties with such 

Derby Town, 1 ; Devonshire, 11 ; Exeter, 2 ; alteration as may suit with the present 



government, to be made by the Lord 
Protector and his council, which the 
"Chancellor, Keeper, or Commissioners of 
the Great Seal shall seal, issue, and send 
abroad by warrant from the Lord Pro- 
tector. If the Lord Protector shall not 
give warrant for issuing of writs of sum- 
mons for the next Parliament, before the 
first of June, 1G54, or for the Triennial 
Parliaments, before the first day of 
August in every third year, to be ac- 
counted as aforesaid; that then the 
Chancellor, Keeper, or Commissioners of 
the Great Seal for the time being, shall, 
without any warrant or direction, within 
seven days after the said first day of 
•Tune, 1654, seal, issue, and send abroad 
writs of summons (changing therein 
what is to be changed as aforesaid) to 
the several and respective sheriffs of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, for sum- 
moning the Parliament to meet at West- 
minster, the third day of September next: 
and shall likewise, within seven days 
after the said first day of August, in every 
third year, to be accounted from the dis- 
solution of the precedent Parliament, 
seal, issue, and send forth abroad several 
writs of summons (changing therein 
what is to be changed) as aforesaid, for 
summoning the Parliament to meet at 
Westminster the sixth of November in 
that third year. That the said several 
and respective sheriffs, shall, within ten 
days after the receipt of such writ as 
aforesaid, cause the same to be pro- 
claimed and published in every market- 
town within his county upon the market- 
days thereof, between twelve and three 
of the clock; and shall then also publish 
and declare the certain day of the week 
and month, for choosing members to serve 
in Parliament for the body of the said 
county, according to the tenor of the said 
writ, which shall be upon Wednesday five 
weeks after the date of the writ; and 
shall likewise declare the place where the 
election shall be made: for which pur- 
pose he shall appoint the most con- 
venient place for the whole county to 
meet in ; and shall send precepts for elee- 
tions to be made in all and every city, 
town, borough, or place within his 
county, where elections are to be made 
by virtue of these presents, to the Mayor, 
Sheriff, or other head officer of such city. 

town, borough, or place, within three 
days after the receipt of such writ and 
writs; which the said Mayors, Sheriffs, 
and officers respectively are to make pub- 
lication of, and of the certain day for 
such elections to be made in the said 
city, town, or place aforesaid, and to 
cause elections to be made accordingly. 

XII. That at the day and place of elec- 
tions, the Sheriff of each county, and the 
said Mayors, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and other 
head officers within their cities, towns, 
boroughs, and places respectively, shall 
take view of the said elections, and shall 
make return into the chancery within 
twenty days after the said elections, of 
the persons elected by the greater num- 
ber of electors, under their hands and 
seals, between him on the one part, and 
the electors on the other part; wherein 
shall be contained, that the persons 
elected shall not have power to alter the 
government as it is hereby settled in one 
single person and a Parliament. 

XIII. That the Sheriff, who shall wit- 
tingly and willingly make any false re- 
turn, or neglect his duty, shall incur the 
penalty of 2000 marks of lawful English 
money; the one moiety to the Lord Pro- 
tector, and the other moiety to such per- 
son as will sue for the same. 

XIV. That all and every person and 
persons, who have aided, advised, assisted, 
or abetted in any war against the Par- 
liament, since the first day of January 
1641 (unless they have been since in the 
service of Parliament, and given signal 
testimony of their good affection there- 
unto) shall be disabled and incapable to 
be elected, or to give any vote in the elec- 
tion of any members to serve in the next 
Parliament, or in the three succeeding 
Triennial Parliaments. 

XV. That all such, who have advised, 
assisted, or abetted the rebellion of Ire- 
land, shall be disabled and incapable for 
ever to be elected, or give any vote in 
the election of any member to serve in 
Parliament; as also all such who do or 
shall profess the Roman Catholic religion. 

XVI. That all votes and elections given 
or made contrary, or not according to 
these qualifications, shall be null and 
void: and if any person, who is hereby 
made incapable, shall give his vote for 
election of members to serve in Parlia- 



raent, such person shall lose and forfeit sities, cities, boroughs, and places afore- 
one full year's value in his real estate, 6aid, by such persons, and in such man- 
and one full third part of his personal ner, as if several and respective writs of 
estate; one moiety thereof to the Lord summons to Parliament under the Great 
Protector, and the other moiety to him Seal had issued and been awarded accord- 
or them who shall sue for the same. ing to the tenor aforesaid: that if the 

XVII. That the persons who shall be sheriff, or other persons authorized, shall 
elected to serve in Parliament, shall be neglect his or their duty herein, that all 
such (and no other than such) as are and every such sheriff and person author- 
persons of known integrity, fearing God, ized as aforesaid, so neglecting his or their 
and of good conversation, and being of duty, shall, for every such offence, be 
the age of twenty-one years. guilty of high treason, and shall suffer 

XVIII. That all and every person and the pains and penalties thereof. 

persons seized or possessed to his own XXI. That the clerk, called the clerk 
use, of any estate, real or personal, to of the Commonwealth in Chancery for the 
the value of £200, and not within the time being, and all others, who shall after- 
aforesaid exceptions, shall be capable to wards execute that office, to whom the 
elect members to serve in Parliament for returns shall be made, shall for the next 
counties. Parliament, and the two succeeding Trien- 

XIX. That the Chancellor, Keeper, or nial Parliaments, the next day after such 
Commissioners of the Great Seal, shall return, certify the names of thp several 
be sworn before they enter into their of- persons so returned, and of the places for 
flees, truly and faithfully to issue forth, which he and they were chosen respec- 
and send abroad, writs of summons to tively, unto the Council ; who shall peruse 
Parliament, at the times and in the man- the said returns and examine whether the 
ner before expressed; and in case of neg- persons so elected and returned be such as 
lect or failure to issue and send abroad is agreeable to the qualifications, and not 
writs accordingly, he or they shall for disabled to be elected : and that every per- 
every such offence be guilty of high trea- son and persons being so duly elected, and 
son, and suffer the pains and penalties being approved of by the major part of the 
thereof. Council to be persons not disabled, but 

XX. That in case writs be not issued qualified as aforesaid, shall be esteemed 
out, as is before expressed, but that there a member of Parliament, and be admitted 
be a neglect therein, fifteen days after the to sit in Parliament and not otherwise, 
time wherein the same ought to be issued XXII. That the persons so chosen and 
out by the Chancellor, Keeper, or Com- assembled in manner aforesaid, or any 
missioners of the Great Seal; that then sixty of them, shall be. and be deemed 
the Parliament shall, as often as such the Parliament of England, Scotland, and 
failure shall happen, assemble and be held Ireland; and the supreme legislative 
at Westminster, in the usual place, at power to be and reside in the Lord Pro- 
the time prefixed, in manner and by the tector and such Parliament, in manner 
means hereafter expressed; that is to herein expressed. 

say, that the sheriffs of the several and XXIII. That the Lord Protector, with 
respective counties, sheriffdoms, cities, bor- the advice of the major part of the Coun- 
oughs, and places aforesaid, within Eng- cil, shall at any other time than is before 
land, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, the expressed, when the necessities of the 
Chancellors, Masters, and Scholars of the State shall require it, summon Par- 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, liaments in manner before expressed, which 
and the Mayor and Bailiffs of the borough shall not be adjourned, prorogued, or dis- 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and other places solved without their own consent, during 
aforesaid respectively, shall at the sev- the first three months of their sitting, 
eral courts and places to be appointed as And in case of future war with any for- 
aforesaid, within thirty days after the cign State, a Parliament shall be forth- 
said fifteen days, cause such members with summoned for their advice concern- 
to be chosen for their said several and ing the same, 
respective counties, sheriffdoms, univer- XXTV. That all Bills agreed unto by 



the Parliament, shall be presented to the may, at any time before the meeting of 
Lord Protector for his consent; and in the next Parliament, add to the Council 
case he shall not give his consent thereto such persons as they shall think fit, pro- 
within twenty days after they shall be pre- vided the number of the Council be not 
sented to him, or give satisfaction to the made thereby to exceed twenty-one, and 
Parliament within the time limited, that the quorum to be proportioned according- 
then, upon declaration of the Parliament ly by the Lord Protector and the major 
that the Lord Protector hath not con- part of the Council. 

sented nor given satisfaction, such Bills XXVII. That a constant yearly reve- 

shall pass into and become laws, although nue shall be raised, settled, and estab- 

he shall not give his consent thereunto; lished for maintaining of 10,000 horse and 

provided such bills contain nothing in dragoons, and 20,000 foot, in England, 

them contrary to the matters contained Scotland and Ireland, for the defence and 

in these presents. security theieof, and also for a convenient 

XXV. That Henry Lawrence, Esq., number of ships for guarding of the seas; 
&c, or any seven of them, shall be a Coun- besides £200,000 per annum for defraying 
cil for the purposes expressed in this the other necessary charges of admin- 
writing; and upon the death or other re- istration of justice, and other expenses of 
moval of any of them, the Parliament the Government, which revenue shall be 
shall nominate six persons of ability, in- raised by the customs, and such other 
teority, and fearing God, for every one ways and means as shall be agreed upon 
that is dead or removed; out of which the by the Lord Protector and the Council, 
major part of the Council shall elect two, and shall not be taken away or dimin- 
and present them to the Lord Protector, ished, nor the way agreed upon for raising 
of which he shall elect one; and in case the same altered, but by the consent of 
the Parliament shall not nominate within the Lord Protector and the Parliament, 
twenty days after notice given unto them XXVIII. That the said yearly revenue 
thereof, the major part of the Council shall be paid into the public treasury, 
shall nominate three as aforesaid to the and shall be issued out for the uses afore- 
Lord Protector, who out of them shall said. 

supply the vacancy; and until this choice XXIX. That in case there shall not be 

be made, the remaining part of the Coun- cause hereafter to keep up so great a de- 

cil shall' execute as fully in all things, as fence both at land or sea, but that there 

if their number were full. And in case be an abatement made thereof, the money 

of corruption, or other miscarriage in any which will be saved thereby shall remain 

of the Council in their trust, the Parlia- in bank for the public service, and not be 

ment shall appoint seven of their number, employed to any other use but by con- 

and the Council six, who, together with $ent of Parliament, or, in the intervals of 

the Lord Chancellor, Lord Keeper, or Com- Parliament, by the Lord Protector and 

missioners of the Great Seal for the time major part of the Council 

being, shall have power to hear and de- XXX. That the raising of money for 

termine such corruption and miscarriage, defraying the charge of the present ex- 

and to award and inflict punishment, as traordinary forces, both at sea and land, 

the nature of the offence shall deserve, in respect of the present wars, shall be by 

which punishment shall not be pardoned consent of Parliament, and not otherwise: 

or remitted by the Lord Protector; and, save only that the Lord Protector, with 

in the interval of Parliaments, the major the consent of the major part of the Coun- 

part of the Council, with the consent of cil, for preventing the disorders and dan- 

the Lord Protector, may, for corruption or gers which might otherwise fall out both 

other miscarriage as aforesaid, suspend by sea and land, shall have power, until 

any of their number from the exercise of the meeting of the fir3t Parliament, to 

their trust, if they shall find it just, until raise money for the purposes aforesaid ; 

the matter shall be heard and examined as and also to make laws and ordinances for 

aforesaid. * ne peace and welfare of these nations 

XXVT. That the Lord Protector and where it shall be necessary, which shall 

the major part of the Council aforesaid be binding and in force, until order shall 


be taken in Parliament concerning the election be past, the Council shall take 

same. care of the Government, and administer 

XXXI. That the lands, tenements, in all things as fully as the Lord Pro- 
rents, royalties, jurisdictions and heredit- tector, or the Lord Protector and Council 
amenta which remain yet unsold or undis- art enabled to do. 

posed of, by Act or Ordinance of Parlia- XXXIII. That Oliver Cromwell, Cap- 

ment, belonging to the Commonwealth tain - General of the forces of England, 

(except the forests and chases, and the Scotland and Ireland, shall be, and is here- 

honours and manors belonging to the by declared to be, Lord Protector of the 

same; the lands of the rebels in Ireland, Commonwealth of England, Scotland and 

lying in the four counties of Dublin, Cork, Ireland, and the dominions thereto be- 

Kildare, and Carlow; the lands forfeited longing, for his life. 

by the people of Scotland in the late XXXIV. That the Chancellor, Keeper 
wars, and also the lands of Papists and or Commissioners of the Great Seal, the 
delinquents in England who have not yet Treasurer, Admiral. Chief Governors of 
compounded), shall be vested in the Lord Ireland and Scotland, and the Chief Jus- 
Protector, to hold, to him and his sue- tices of both the Benches, shall be chosen 
cessors, Lords Protectors of these nations, by the approbation of Parliament; and, 
ard shall not be alienated but by consent in the intervals of Parliament, by the 
in Parliament. And all debts, fines, is- approbation of the major part of the 
sues, amercements, penalties and profits, Council, to be afterwards approved by 
certain and casual, due to the Keepers the Parliament. 

of the liberties of England by authority XXXV. That the Christian religion, as 

of Parliament, shall be due to the Lord contained in the Scriptures, be held forth 

Protector, and be payable into his public and recommended as the public profession 

receipt, and shall be recovered and pros- of these nations ; and that, as soon as may 

ecuted in his name. be, a provision, less subject to scruple and 

XXXII. That the office of Lord Pro- contention, and more certain than the 
tector over these nations shall be elective present, be made for the encouragement 
and not hereditary; and upon the death and maintenance of able and painful 
of the Lord Protector, another fit person teachers, for the instructing the people, 
shall be forthwith elected to succeed him and for discovery and confutation of er- 
in the Government; which election shall ror, hereby, and whatever is contrary to 
be by the Council, who, immediately upon sound doctrine; and until such provision 
the death of the Lord Protector, shall as- be made, the present maintenance shall 
seinble in the Chamber where they usu- not be taken away or impeached. 

ally sit in Council; and, having given XXXVI. That to the public profession 

notice to all their members of the cause held forth none shall be compelled by 

of their assembling, shall, being thirteen penalties or otherwise; but that endeav- 

at least present, proceed to the election; ours be used to win them by sound doc- 

and, before they depart the said Chamber, trine and the example of a good conversa- 

shall elect a fit person to succeed in the tion. 

Government, and forthwith cause procla- XXXVII. That such as profess faith in 

mation thereof to be made in all the three God by Jesus Christ (though differing 

nations as shall be requisite; and the in judgment from the doctrine, worship 

person that they, or the major part of or discipline publicly held forth) shall 

them, shall elect as aforesaid, shall be, not be restrained from, but shall be pro- 

and shall be taken to be, Lord Protector tected in, the profession of the faith and 

over these nations of England, Scotland exercise of their religion ; so as they abuse 

and Ireland, and the dominions thereto not this liberty to the civil injury of 

belonging. Provided that none of the others and to the actual disturbance of 

children of the late King, nor any of his the public peace on their parts; provided 

line or family, be elected to be Lord Pro- this liberty be not extended to Popery or 

toetor or other Chief Magistrate over Prelacy, nor to such as, under the pro- 

these nations, or any the dominions there- fession of Christ, hold forth and practice 

to belonging. And until the aforesaid licentiousness. 



XXXVIII. That all laws, statutes and ing to the best of their knowledge; and 
ordinances, and clauses in any law, that in the election of every successive 
statute or ordinance to the contrary of Lord Protector they shall proceed therein 
the aforesaid liberty, shall be esteemed as impartially, and do nothing therein for 
null and void. any promise, fear, favour or reward. 

XXXIX. That the Acts and Ordinances Government of the United States, 
of Parliament made for the sale or other See Calhoun, John Caldwell. 
disposition of the lands, rents and here- Grady, Henry Woodfen, journalist; 
ditaments of the late King. Queen, and born in Athens, Ga., in 1851 ; was educated 
Prince, of Archbishops and Bishops, &c,, in the universities of Georgia and Vir- 
Deans and Chapters, the lands of delin- ginia, and entered journalism soon after 
quents and forest-lands, or any of them, the close of the Civil War. From the 
or of any other lands, tenements, rents beginning he made a specialty of seeking 
and hereditaments belonging to the Com- the requirements of the South for its re- 
monwealth, shall nowise be impeached or habilitation in prosperity. His early pub- 
made invalid, but shall remain good and lications, relating to the resuurces and 
firm; and that the securities given by possibilities of the State of Georgia, were 
Act and Ordinance of Parliament for published in the Atlanta Constitution. 
any sum or sums of money, by any of the The clearness and practical vein of these 
said lands, the exercise, or any other pub- letters attracted the attention of the editor 
lie revenue; and also the securities given of the New York Herald, who appointed 
by the public faith of the nation, and the Mr. Grady a correspondent for that paper, 
engagement of the public faith for satis- In 1872 he became interested in the At- 
faction of debts and damages, shall re- lanta Herald, and in 1880 he bought a 
main firm and good, and not be made void 
and invalid upon any pretence whatso- 

XL. That the Articles given to or made 
with the enemy, and afterwards confirmed 
by Parliament, shall be performed and 
made good to the persons concerned there- 
in ; and that such appeals as were de- 
pending in the last Parliament for relief 
concerning bills of sale of delinquent's 
estates, may be heard and determined the 
next Parliament, any thing in this writ- 
ing or otherwise to the contrary notwith- 

XLI. That every successive Lord Pro- 
tector over these nations shall take and 
subscribe a solemn oath, in the presence 
of the Council, and such others as they 
shall call to them, that he will seek the 
peace, quiet and welfare of these nations, 
cause law and justice to be equally ad- 
ministered; and that he will not violate 
or infringe the matters and things con- 
tained in this writing, and in all other 
things will, to his power and to the best 
of his understanding, govern these nations 
according to the laws, statutes and cus- 
toms thereof. quarter interest in the Atlanta Constitu- 

XLTI. That each person of the Council tion for $20,000, which sum was loaned 
shall, before they enter upon their trust, him by Cyrus W. Field, and was repaid 
take and subscribe an oath, that they will with interest within two years. During 
be true and faithful in their trust, accord- these years Mr. Grady was known chiefly 




a« a painstaking journalist, warmly de- courtesy to-night. 1 am not troubled 
voted to the promotion of the interests about those from whom 1 come. \'ou re- 
of the Southern States. In 1886 he ac- member the man whose wife sent him to 
cepted an invitation from the New Eng- a neighbor with a pitcher of milk, and 
land Society of New York to deliver the who, tripping on the top step, fell, with 
formal speech at its annual dinner (Dec. such casual interruptions as the landings 
22). He chose for his subject "The New afforded, into the basement; and, while 
South," and the speech in its composition picking himself up, had the pleasure of 
and delivery gave him a sudden and wide hearing his wife call out: 
fame as an orator. On Dec. 12, 1889, he "John, did you break the pitcher?" 
delivered by invitation an address before "No, I didn't," said John, "but I be 
the Merchants' Association in Boston on dinged if I don't." 

"The Future of the Negro," and this So, while those who call to me from 
speech still farther increased his fame, behind may inspire me with energy, if not 
He was ill at the time of its delivery, be- with courage, I ask an indulgent hearing 
came worse before leaving Boston, and from you. I beg that you will bring 
died in Athens, Ga., on the 23d of that your full faith in American fairness and 
month. The citizens of Atlanta, grateful frankness to judgment upon what I shall 
for what he had done for the city, State, say. There was an old preacher once 
and the South, testified their appreciation vho told some boys of the Bible lesson he 
of his worth by erecting in that city the was going to read in the morning. The 
Grady Memorial Hospital, which was for- boys, finding the place, glued together 
mally opened June 2, 1892. the connection pages. The next morning 

he read on the bottom of one page: 

The New South.— "There was a South :i When Noah was 120 years old he took 
of slavery and secession — that South is unto himself a wife, who was" — then 
dead. There is a South of union and turning the page — " 140 cubits long, 40 
freedom— that South, thank God, is living, cubits wide, built of gopher wood, and 
breathing, growing every hour." These covered with pitch inside and out." He 
words, delivered from the immortal lips was naturally puzzled at this. He read 
of Benjamin H. Hill, at Tammany Hall, it again, verified it, and then he said: 
in 1866, true then, and truer now, I " My friends, this is the first time I ever 
shall make my text to-night. met this in the Bible, but I accept it as 

Mr. President and Gentlemen,— Let me an evidence of the assertion that we are 
express to you my appreciation of the fearfully and wonderfully made." If I 
kindness by which I am permitted to ad- could get you to hold such faith to-night, 
dress you. I make this abrupt acknowl- I could proceed cheerfully to the task I 
edgment advisedly, for I feel that if, when otherwise approach with a sense of con- 
I raised my provincial voice in this ancient secration. 

and august presence, I could find courage Pardon me one word, Mr. President, 
for no more than the opening sentence, spoken for the sole purpose of getting 
it would be well if, in that sentence, I had into the volumes that go out annually 
met in a rough sense my obligation as a freighted with the rich eloquence of your 
guest, and had perished, so to speak, with speakers the fact that the Cavalier, as 
courtesy on the lips and grace in my heart, well as the Puritan, was on the conti- 
Permitted, through your kindness, to nent in its early days, and that he was 
catch my second wind, let me say that I " up and able to be about." I have read 
appreciate the significance of being the your books carefully, and I find no men- 
first Southerner to speak at this board, tion of that fact, which seems to me an 
which bears the substance, if it surpasses important one for preserving a sort of 
the semblance, of original New England historical equilibrium, if for nothing else, 
hospitality, and honors a sentiment that Let me remind you that the Virginia 
in turn honors you, but in which my per- Cavalier first challenged France on this 
sonality is lost and the compliment to my continent; that Cavalier John Smith 
people made plain. gave New England its very name, and 

I bespeak \^e utmost stretch of your was so pleased with the job that he has 



been handing his own name around ever ting crown to a life consecrated from the 
Bince; and that, while Miles Standish cradle to human liberty. Let us, each 
was cutting off men's ears for courting cherishing the traditions and honoring his 
a girl without her parents' consent, and fathers, build with reverent hands to the 
forbade men to kiss their wives on Sun- type of his simple but sublime life, in 
day, the Cavalier was courting everything which all types are honored; and in our 
in sight; and that the Almighty had common glory as Americans there will be 
vouchsafed great increase to the Cavalier plenty ard some to spare for your fore- 
colonies, the huts in the wilderness being fathers and for mine. 

as full as the nests in the woods. In speaking to the toast with which 
But having incorporated the Cavalier you hav* honored me, I accept the term, 
as a fact in your charming little book, I " The New South." as in no sense dis- 
shall let him work out his own salva- paraging to the old. Dear to me, sir, is 
tion, as he has always done with engag- the home of my childhood and the tradi- 
ing gallantry, and we will hold no con- tions of my people. I would not, if I 
troversy as to his merits. Why should could, dim the glory they won in peace 
we? Neither Puritan nor Cavalier long and war, or by word or deed take aught 
survived as such. The virtues and tradi- from the splendor and grace of their civ- 
tions of both happily still live for the ilization, never equalled, and, perhaps, 
inspiration of their sons and the saving never to be equalled in its chivalric 
of the old fashion. Both Puritan and strength and grace. There is a New 
Cavalier were lost in the storm of the South, not through protest against the 
first Revolution, and the American citi- old, but because of new conditions, new 
zen, supplanting both, and stronger than adjustments, and, if you please, new ideas 
either, took possession of the republic and aspirations. It is to this that I ad- 
bought by their common blood and fash- dress myself, and to the consideration of 
ioned to wisdom, and charged himself which I hasten, lest it become the Old 
with teaching men government and estab- South before I get to it. Age does not 
lishing the voice of the people as the endow all things with strength and virtue, 
voice of God. nor are &U new things to be despised. 
My friend, Dr. Talmage, has told you The shoemaker who put over his door, 
that the typical American has yet to "John Smith's Shop, Founded in 1760," 
come. Let me tell you that he has al- was more than matched by his young rival 
ready come. Great types, like valuable across the street, who hun? out his sign, 
plants, are slow to flower and fruit. But " Bill Jones, Established 1886. No Old 
from the union of these colonist Puritans Stock Kept in This Shop." 
and Cavaliers, from the straightening of Dr. Talmage has drawn for you, with a 
their purposes and the crossing of their master hand, the picture of your return- 
blood, slow perfecting through a century, ing armies. He has told you how, in the 
came he who stands as the first typical pomp and circumstance of war, they came 
American, the first who comprehended back to you, marching witli proud and vic- 
within himseh all the strength and gen- torious tread, reading their glory in a 
tleness, all the majesty and grace of this nation's eye. Will you bear with me 
republic— Abraham Lincoln. He was the while I tell you of another army that 
sum of Puritan and Cavalier; for in his sought its home at the close of the late 
ardent nature were fused the virtues of war? An army that marched home in de- 
both, and in the depths of his great soul feat and not in victory; in pathos and not 
the faults of both were lost. He was in splendor, but in glory that equalled 
greater than Puritan, greater than Cava- yours, and to hearts as loving as ever wel- 
lier, in that he was American, and that corned heroes. Let me picture to you the 
in his homely form were first gathered footsore Confederate soldier as, button- 
the vast and thrilling forces of his ideal ing up in his faded gray jacket the parole 
government, charging it with such tre- which was to bear testimony to his chil- 
mendous meaning, and so elevating it dren of his fidelity and faith, he turned 
above human suffering that martyrdom, his face southward from Appomattox in 
though infamously aimed, came as a fit- April, 1865. Think of him as ragged, 



half starved, heavy hearted, enfeebled by " You may leave the South if you want 

want and wounds; having fought to ex- to, but I am going to Sandersville, kiss 

haustion he surrenders his gun, wrings my wife and raise a crop, and if the 

the hands of his comrades in silence, and, Yankees fool with me any more I will 

lifting his tear-stained and pallid face whip 'em again." I want to say of Gen- 

for the last time to the graves that dot eral Sherman — who is considered an able 

the old Virginia hills, pulls his gray cap man in our parts, though some people 

over his brow and begins the slow and think he is kind of careless about fire — 

painful journey. What does he find? that from the ashes he left us in 1864, 

Let me ask you who went to your homes we have raised a brave and beautiful city ; 

eager to find, in the welcome you had that somehow or other we have caught the 

justly earned, full payment for four years' sunshine in the bricks and mortar of our 

sacrifice, what does he find when, having homes, and have builded therein not one 

followed the battle-stained cross against ignoble prejudice or memory, 
overwhelming odds, dreading death not But in all this what have we accom- 

half so much as surrender, he reaches the plished? What is the sum of our work? 

home he left so prosperous and beautiful? We have found out that in the general 

He finds the house in ruins, his farm de- summary the free negro counts more than 

vastated, his slaves free, his stock killed, he did as a slave. We have planted the 

his barn empty, his trade destroyed, his school-house on the hill-top and made it 

money worthless, his social system, feudal free to white and black. We have sowed 

in its magnificence, swept away; his peo- towns and cities in the place of theories, 

pie without law or legal status; his com- and put business above politics. We have 

rades slain, and the burdens of others challenged your spinners in Massachu- 

heavy on his shoulders. Crushed by de- setts and your iron-makers in Pennsyl- 

feat, his very traditions gone, without vania. We have learned that the $4,000,- 

money, credit, employment, material train- 000 annually received from our cotton 

ing, and besides all this, confronted with crop will make us rich, when the supplies 

the gravest problem that ever met human that make it are home-raised. We have 

intelligence — the establishing of a status reduced the commercial rate from 24 to 

for the vast body of liberated slaves. 4 per cent., and are floating 4 per cent. 

What does he do — this hero in gray bonds. We have learned that one North- 

v?ith a heart of gold? Does he sit down ern emigrant is worth fifty foreigners, 

in sullenness and despair? Not for a day. and have smoothed the path to the 

Surely God, who has stripped him of his southward, wiped out the place where 

prosperity, inspired him in his adver- Mason and Dixon's line used to be, and 

sity. As ruin was never before so over- hung out our latch-string to you and 

whelming, never was restoration swifter, yours. 

This soldier stepped from the trenches We have reached the point that marks 

into the furrow; horses that had charged perfect harmony in every household, when 

Federal guns marched before the plough, the husband confesses that the pies which 

and field that ran red with human blood his wife cooks are as good as those his 

in April were green with the harvest of mother used to bake; and we admit that 

June; women reared in luxury cut up the sun shines as brightly and the moon 

their dresses and made breeches for their as softly as it did " before the war." We 

husbands, and, with a patience and hero- have established thrift in the city and 

ism that fit women always as a garment, country. We have fallen in love with 

gave their hands to work. There was lit- work. We have restored comfort to homes 

tie bitterness in all this. Cheerfulness from which culture and elegance never 

8nd frankness prevailed. " Bill Arp " departed. We have let economy take root 

struck the key-note when he said : " Well, and spread among us as rank as the crab- 

I killed as many of them as they did of grass which sprung from Sherman's cav- 

me, and now I am going to work." Or airy camps, until we are ready to lay 

the soldier returning home from defeat odds on the Georgia Yankee, as he manu- 

and roasting some corn on the road-side, fjictures relics of the battle-field in a one- 

who made the remark to his comrades: story shanty and squeezes pure olive oil 



out of his cotton-seed, against any down- 
Easter that ever swapped wooden nutmegs 
for flannel sausages in the valley of Ver- 

Above all, we know that we have 
achieved in these " piping times of peace," 
a fuller independence for the South than 
that which our fathers sought to v/in in 
the forum by their eloquence, or compel 
on the field by their swords. 

It is a rare privilege, sir, to have had 
part, however humble, in this work. Never 
was nobler duty confided to human hands 
than the uplifting and upbuilding of the 
prostrate and bleeding South, misguided, 
perhaps, but beautiful in her suffering, 
and honest, brave, and generous always. 
In the record of her social, industrial, 
and political illustrations we await witli 
confidence the verdict of the world. 

But what of the negro? Have we solved 
the problem he presents, or progressed in 
honor and equity towards the solution? 
Let the record speak to the point. No 
section shows a more prosperous laboring 
population than the negroes of the South ; 
none in fuller sympathy with the employ- 
ing and land-owning class. He shares our 
school fund, has the fullest protection 
of our laws and the friendship of our 
people. Self-interest, as well as honor, de- 
mand that they should have this. Our 
future, our very existence, depends upon 
our working out this problem in full and 
exact justice. We understand when Lin- 
coln signed the Emancipation Procla- 
mation, your victory was assured; for he 
then committed you to the cause of hu- 
man liberty, against which the arms of 
man cannot prevail ; while those of our 
statesmen who trusted to make slavery 
the corner - stone of the Confederacy 
doomed us to defeat as far as they could, 
committing us to a cause that reason 
could not defend or the sword maintain 
in the sight of advancing civilization. 
Had Mr. Toombs said, which he did not 
say, that he would call the roll of his 
slaves at the foot of Bunker Hill, he would 
have been foolish, for he might have known 
that whenever slavery became entangled 
in war it must perish, and that the chat- 
tel in human flesh ended forever in New 
England when your fathers, not to be 
blamed for parting with what did not 
pay, sold their slaves to our fathers, not 


to be praised for knowing a paying thing 
when they saw it. 

The relations of the Southern people 
with the negro are close and cordial. We 
remember with what fidelity for four years 
he guarded our defenceless women and 
children, whose husbands and fathers were 
fighting against his freedom. To his 
credit be it said that whenever he struck 
a blow for his own liberty he fought in 
open battle, and when at last he raised 
his black and humble hands that the 
shackles might be struck off, those hands 
were innocent of wrong against his help- 
less charges, and worthy to be taken in 
loving grasp by every man who honors 
loyalty and devotion. 

Ruffians have maltreated him, rascals 
have misled him, philanthropists estab- 
lished a bank for him, but the South with 
the North protest against injustice to this 
simple and sincere people. To liberty and 
enfranchisement is as far as the law can 
carry the negro. The rest must be left 
to conscience and common - sense. It 
should be left to those among whom his 
lot is cast, with whom he is indissolubly 
connected, and whose prosperity depends 
upon their possessing his intelligent sym- 
pathy and confidence. Faith has been 
kept with him in spite of calumniouB 
assertions to the contrary by those who 
assume to speak for us, or by frank op- 
ponents. Faith will be kept with him 
in future if the South holds her reason 
and integrity. 

But have we kept faith with you? In 
the fullest sense, yes. When Lee sur- 
rendered — I don't say when Johnston sur- 
rendered, because I understand he still al- 
ludes to the time when he met General 
Sherman last as the time when he " de- 
termined to abandon any further prose- 
cution of the strutrTle " — when Lee sur- 
rendered, I say, and Johnston quit, the 
South became, and has been, loval to the 
Union. We fought hard enough to know 
that we were whipped, and in perfect 
frankness accepted as final the arbitra- 
ment of the sword to which we had ap- 
pealed. The South found her jewel in 
the toad's head of defeat. The shackles 
that had held her in narrow limitations 
fell forever when the shackles of the 
negro slave were broken. 

Under the old regime the negroes were 


to the South, the South was a slave 
to the system. The old plantation, with 
its simple police regulation and its feudal 
habit, was the only type possible under 
slavery. Thus was gathered in the hands 
of a splendid and chivalric oligarchy the 
substance that should have been diffused 
among the people, as the rich blood, under 
certain artificial conditions, is gathered 
at the heart, filling that with affluent 
rapture, but leaving the body chill and 

The Old South rested everything on 
slavery and agriculture, unconscious that 
these neither give nor maintain healthy 
growth. The New South presents a per- 
fect democracy, the oligarchs leading in 
the popular movement — a social system 
compact and closely knitted, less splendid 
on the surface but stronger at the core; 
a hundred farms for every plantation, 
fifty homes for every palace, and a di- 
versified industry that meets the complex 
needs of this complex age. 

The New South is enamored of her new 
work. Her soul is stirred with the breath 
of a new life. The light of a grander day 
is falling fair on her face. She is thrill- 
ing with the consciousness of a growing 
power and prosperity. As she stands up- 
right, full-statured and equal among the 
people of the earth, breathing the keen 
air and looking out upon the expanding 
horizon, she understands that her emanci- 
pation came because, in the inscrutable 
wisdom of God, her honest purpose was 
crossed and her brave armies were beaten. 

This is said in no spirit of time-serving 
or apology. The South has nothing for 
which to apologize. She believes that the 
late struggle between the States was war 
and not rebellion, revolution and not con- 
spiracy, and that her convictions were as 
honest as yours. I should be unjust to 
the dauntless spirit of the South and to 
my own convictions if I did not make this 
plain in this presence. The South has 
nothing to take back. In my native town 
of Athens is a monument that crowns its 
central hills — a plain, white shaft. Deep 
cut into its shining side is a name dear 
to me above the names of men, that of a 
brave and simple man who died in brave 
and simple faith. Not for all the glories 
of ' New England-— from Plymouth Rock 
all the way — would I exchange the heri- 


tage he left me in his soldier's death. To 
the feet of that shaft I shall send my 
children's children to reverence him who 
ennobled their name with his heroic blood. 
But, sir, speaking from the shadow of 
that memory, which 1 honor as I do noth- 
ing else on earth, 1 say that the cause in 
which he suffered and for which he gave 
his life was adjudged by higher and fuller 
wisdom than his or mine, and I am glad 
that the omniscient God held the balance 
of battle in His almighty hand, and that 
human slavery was swept forever from 
American soil — the American Union saved 
from the wreck of war. 

This message, Mr. President, comes to 
you from consecrated ground. Every foot 
of the soil about the city in which I live 
is sacred as a battle-ground of the re- 
public. Every hill that invests it is 
hallowed by the blood of your brothers 
who died for your victory, and doubly 
hallowed to us by the blood of those who 
died hopeless, but undaunted, in defeat — 
sacred soil to all of us, rich with memo- 
ries that make us purer and stronger and 
better, silent but stanch witnesses in its 
red desolation of the matchless valor of 
American hearts and the deathless glory 
of American arms — speaking an eloquent 
witness in its white peace and prosperity 
to the indissoluble union of American 
States and the imperishable brotherhood 
of the American people. 

Now, what answer has New England 
to this message? Will she permit the 
prejudice of war to remain in the hearts 
of the conquerors, when it has died in 
the hearts of the conquered? Will she 
transmit this prejudice to the next gener- 
ation, that in their hearts, which never 
felt the generous ardor of conflict, it 
may perpetuate itself? Will she with- 
hold, save in strained courtesy, the hand 
which, straight from the soldier's heart, 
Grant offered to Lee at Appomattox? 
Will she make the vision of a restored 
and happy peop!e, which gathered above 
the couch of your dying captain, filling 
his heart with grace, touching his lips 
with praise and glorifying his path to 
the grave — will she make this vision 
on which the last si<rh of his expiring 
soul breathed a benediction, a cheat and 
a delusion? If she does, the South, never 
abject in asking for comradeship, must 


accept with dignity its refusal; but if 
she does not — if she accepts with frank- 
ness and sincerity this message of good- 
will and friendship, then will the proph- 
ecy of Webster, delivered in this very 
society forty years ago, amid tremendous 
applause, be verified in its fullest and 
final sense, when he said : " Standing 
hand to hand, and clasping hands, we 
should remain united as we have been 
for sixty years, citizens of the same 
country, members of the same govern- 
ment, united, all united now and united 
forever." There have been difficulties, 
contentions, and controversies, but I tell 
you that, in my judgment, 

" Those opposed eyes, 
Which like the meteors of a troubled heaven. 
All of one nature, of one substance bred. 
Did lately meet In th' intestine shock, 
Shall now in mutual well beseeming ranks 
March all one way." 

Graebner, August L., theologian: born 
in Frankentrost, Mich., July 10, 1849; 
graduated at Concordia College, Fort 
Wayne, Ind., and at the Concordia Theo- 
logical Seminary, St. Louis, where he be- 
came Professor of Theology in 1887. He 
is the author of History of the Lutheran 
Church in America; Half a Century of 
Sound Lutheranism in America, etc. 

Graham, David, lawyer; born in Lon- 
don, England, Feb. 8, 1808; came to the 
United States with his father; was ad- 
mitted to the bar and gained renown in 
his profession. He was the author of 
Practice of the Supreme Court of the 
State of New York; New Trials; Courts 
of Laio and Equity in the State of New 
York, etc. He died in Nice, France, May 
27, 1852. 

Graham, George, lawyer; born in 
Dumfries, Va., about 1772; graduated 
at Columbia College in 1790; began the 
practice of law in Dumfries, but later 
settled in Fairfax county, where he re- 
cruited the " Fairfax Light-horse " which 
he led in the War of 1812. He was act- 
ing Secretary of War in 1815-18; and was 
then sent on a perilous mission to Gal- 
veston Island, where General Lallemande, 
the chief of artillery in Napoleon's army, 
had founded a colony with 600 armed set- 
tlers, whom he persuaded to give up their 
undertaking and submit to the United 
States government. He is also said to 


have been instrumental in saving the gov- 
ernment $250,000 by successfully con- 
cluding the " Indian factorage " affairs. 
He died in Washington, D. C, in August, 

Graham, James Duncan, military offi- 
cer; born in Prince William county, Va., 
April 4, 1799; graduated at the United 
States Military Academy in 1817; ap- 
pointed a topographical engineer in 1829; 
made the survey of the northeast boun- 
dary of the United States ; represented the 
United States under the treaty of Wash- 
ington in determining the boundary be- 
tween the United States and the British 
provinces, etc.; promoted colonel of engi- 
neers, June 1, 1863. He died in Boston, 
Mass., Dec. 28, 1865. 

Graham, Joseph, military officer; born 
in Chester county, Pa., Oct. 13, 1759; re- 
moved to North Carolina at an early age. 
In 1778 he joined the Continental army 
and served through the remainder of the 
war with gallantry; in 1780 received 
three bullet wounds and six sabre-thrusts 
while guarding the retreat of Maj. W. R. 
Davie, near Charlotte; later, after his re- 
covery, he defeated 600 Tories near Fay- 
etteville with a force of 136 men. In 1814 
he was commissioned major-general, when 
he led 1,000 men from North Carolina 
against the Creek Indians. He died in 
Lincoln county, N. C, Nov. 12, 1836. 

Graham, William Alexander, Senator ; 
born in Lincoln county, N. C, Sept. 5, 
1804; graduated at the University of 
North Carolina in 1824; admitted to the 
bar; began practice in Hillsboro, N. C; 
United States Senator in 1840-43; gov- 
ernor of North Carolina in 1844-48; and 
Secretary of the Navy in 1850-52. He 
was a Senator in the Confederate Con- 
gress from 1864 until the close of the 
war. He died in Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
Aug. 11, 1875. 

Grahame, James, historian; born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, Dec. 21, 1790; grad- 
uated at Cambridge University; and ad- 
mitted to the Scottish bar in 1812. His 
publications include History of the Rise 
and Progress of the United States of 
North America till the British Revolution 
of 1688; Who is to Blame? or Cursory 
Review of the American Apology for 
American Accession to Negro Slavery, eta 
He died in London, England, July 3, 1842. 


Grand Army of the Republic, The. crease of membership followed, causing 
The order of the Grand Army of the Re- almost a total disruption of the order in 
public was organized in the State of Illi- the West. In May, 1869, a change in the 
nois, early in the year 1866. To Dr. B. F. ritual was made, providing for three 
Stephenson, of Springfield, TIL, belongs grades of membership, but this met with 
the honor of suggesting the formation little favor, and in 1871 all sections pro- 
of this union of veteran soldiers, and of viding for degrees or ranks among mem- 
launching the organization into exist- bers were stricken from the rules. At 
ence. The object of the combination was the same time, a rule was adopted pro- 
to afford assistance to disabled and un- hibiting the use of the organization for 
employed soldiers. Dr. Stephenson had any partisan purpose whatever, a prin- 
been a surgeon in a volunteer regiment ciple which has ever since been strictly 
during the war, and was firmly convinced adhered to. Following is the record of 
that an organization of the returned the national encampments of the Grand 
volunteers, for mutual benefit, was im- Army of the Republic held thus far, with 
peratively needed. A ritual was drafted the names of the commanders-in-chief 
under his supervision, and the first post elected: 

of the new order was formed at Decatur, 1. Indianapolis, Ind., 1866 ; S. A. Hurl- 
Ill. Other posts were soon mustered bu *- ™ ino |. s \ . . „ .,_„„ , . . _ 
,, , , *„,. , ,. 2. Philadelphia, Pa., 1868; John A. Logan, 
throughout Illinois and contiguous minois. 

States, and the first department (State) 3. Cincinnati, O., 1869; John A. Logan, 

convention was held at Springfield, 111., Illinois. 

July 12, 1806. Gen. John M. Palmer was no J^ Washington, 1870; John A. Logan, Illi- 

there elected department commander. 5 ." Boston, Mass., 1871 ; A. E. Burnside, 

Oct. 31, 1866, Dr. Stephenson, as pro- Rhode Island. 

visional commander-in-chief, sent out an r^J^"?' ° - ' 1872 ; A " E ' Burnside - 

order to all the posts then formed, call- 7 ° New^Haven, Conn., 1873; Charles 

ing for the first national convention of Devens, Jr., Massachusetts. 

the Grand Army of the Republic. This 8. Ilarrisburg, Pa., 1874; Charles Devens, 

was held in Indianapolis, Ind., on Nov. Jr - ^? sachus r e " s \ OTK , „ „ „ , ~ 

_-,.„. . . j. 9. Chicago, III., 1875; John F. Hartranft, 

20 following, and representatives were Pennsylvania. 

present from the States of Illinois, Mis- 10. Philadelphia, Pa., 1876 ; John F. Har- 

souri, Kansas, Wisconsin, New York, tranft, Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania, Ohio, Iowa, Kentucky, Indi- ULon? N^w Yor^ U ^ '' "** °' 

ana, and the District of Columbia. Gen. 12. Springfield, Mass., 1878 ; John C. Robin- 

S. A. Hurlbut was elected as com- son, New York. 

mander-in-chief. During the year 1867 „ 13 ' Albany, N. Y., 1879; William Earn- 

., , , .,° __f . shaw, Ohio. 

the order spread rapidly. The various 14 . Dayton, O., 1880 ; Louis Wagner, Penn- 

States completed their work of depart- sylvania. 

ment organization, and posts were formed 15 - Indianapolis, Ind., 1881 ; George S. 

in all the large cities and in many conn- ^USS^f 1882 . Pau l Van Der 

ties. The second national encampment, Voort, Nebraska. 

meeting in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 15, 17. Denver, Col., 1883 ; Robert B. Beatte, 

1868, found the order in a most promis- Pennsylvania. 

,.,. T , 000 ,, * . , 18. Minneapolis, Minn., 1884; John S. 

ing condition. In 1868, the first ob- Kountz, Ohio. 

servance of May 30 as a memorial day 19. Portland, Me., 1885 ; S. S. Burdett, 

by the Grand Army was ordered, and on Washington. 

May 11, 1870, May 30 was fixed upon for J* %£££*"* C&U 1886 : Luciua Falr * 

the annual observance by an article 21.' St. Louis, Mo., 1887 ; John P. Rea, 

adopted as part of the rules and regula- Minnesota. 

tions of the order. Unfortunately, dur- 22. Columbus, O., 1888 ; William Warner, 

. ,, , , , , .... V Missouri. 

lug the warmly contested political cam- 23 . Milwaukee, Wis., 1889 ; Russell A. 

paign of 1868, the idea that the Army Alger, Michigan. 

was intended as a political organization 24 - Boston, Mass., 1890 ; Wheelock G. 

gained currency, with the result of in- ^DeTrX^ 1891; John Palmer, 

junng the order greatly. A heavy de- New York. 
»*-- 113 


A. G. Weissert, 
193 ; John G. B. 

20. Washington, 1892 ; 

27. Indianapulis. Ind., 1 
Adams, Massachusetts. 

28. Pittsburg, Pa., 1894 ; Thomas G. Law 
ler, Illinois. 

29. Louisville, Ky., 1895 ; Ivan N. Walker. 

30. St. Paul, Minn., 1896; Thaddeus S, 
Clarkson, Nebraska. 

31. Buffalo, N. Y., 1897 ; John P. S. Gobin, 

32. Cincinnati, O., 1898 ; *James A. Sexton. 

:;:;. Cincinnati, O., 1898 ; W. C. Johnson, 

34. Philadelphia, Pa., 1899 ; Albert D. 
Shaw, New York. 

35. Chicago, 111., 1900; Leo Uassieur, 

36. Denver. Col., 1901; Eli Torrance, Mis- 

37. Washington, D. C, 1 902 ; Thomas J. 
Stewart, Pennsylvania. 

38. San Francisco, Cal., 1903 ; John C. 
Black, Illinois. 

39. Boston, Mass., 1904 ; W. W. Black- 
mar. Massachusetts. 

Grand Gulf, Battle at. On the morn- 
ing of April 29, 1863, Admiral Porter at- 
tacked the Confederate batteries at Grand 

transports, as he had done at Vicksburg 
and Warrenton, while the army (on the 
west side of the river) should move down 
to Rodney, below, where it might cross 
without much opposition. At six o'clock 
in the evening, under cover of a heavy fire 
from the fleet, all the transports passed by 
in irood condition. 

Grand Remonstrance, The. This re- 
markable document was a statement of 
the cause of the British Parliament 
against King Charles I., and was laid be- 
fore the House of Commons by John 
Pym in November, 1641. It was adopted 
after a few days' debate, and was pre- 
sented to the King on Dec. 1. As a reply, 
the King undertook the arrest and im- 
peachment of Pym and four of his most 
active associates on Jan. 3, 1642; with- 
drew from London in the following week. 
On Aug. 9 the King issued a proclama- 
tion " for suppressing the present rebel- 
lion under the command of Robert, Earl 
of Essex," and inaugurated the Civil War 
by raising his standard at Nottingham on 
Aug. 22. 



Gulf, on the Mississippi, and after a con- The remonstrance and its introductory 
lest of over five hours silenced the lower petition are here given in full: 

batteries. Grant, becoming convinced that 

Porter could not take the batteries, ordered Most Gracious Sovereign, — Your Maj- 
him to run by them with gunboats and esty's most humble and faithful subjects 

the Commons in this present Parliament 
* Died Feb r > ls'>'> assembled, do with much thankfulness 



and joy acknowledge the great mercy great danger of this kingdom, and most 
and favour of God, in giving your Maj- grievous affliction of your loyal subjects, 
esty a safe and peaceful return out of have so far prevailed as to corrupt divers 
Scotland into your kingdom of England, of your Bishops and others in prime 
where the pressing dangers and dis- places of the Church, and also to bring 
tempers of the State have caused us with divers of these instruments to be of your 
much earnestness to desire the comfort of Privy Council, and other employments of 
your gracious presence, and likewise the trust and nearness about your Majesty, 
unity and justice of your royal authority, the Prince, and the rest of your royal 


And by this means have had such an 

to give more life and power to the dutiful 
and loyal counsels and endeavours of your 
Parliament, for the prevention of that operation in your counsel and the most 

eminent ruin and destruction wherein 
your kingdoms of England and Scotland 

important affairs and proceedings of your 
government, that a most dangerous 

are threatened. The duty which we owe division and chargeable preparation for 
to your Majesty and our country, cannot war betwixt your kingdoms of England 

the increase of jealousies 
Majesty and your most 

but make us very sensible and apprehen- and Scotland 

give, that the multiplicity, sharpness and betwixt your 

malignity of those evils under which we obedient subjects, the violent distraction 
have now many years suffered, are fo- and interruption of this Parliament, the 
mented and cherished by a corrupt and insurrection of the Papists in your king- 
ill-affected party, who amongst other their dom of Ireland, and bloody massacre of 
mischievous devices for the alteration of your people, have been not only en- 
religion and government, have sought by deavoured and attempted, but in a great 
many false scandals and imputations, measure compassed and effected, 
cunningly insinuated and dispersed For preventing the final accomplishment 
amongst the people, to blemish and dis- whereof, your poor subjects are enforced 
grace our proceedings in this Parliament, to engage their persons and estates to 
and to get themselves a party and fac- the maintaining of a very expensive and 
tion amongst your subjects, for the better dangerous war, notwithstanding they 
strengthening themselves in their wicked have already since the beginning of this 
courses, and hindering those provisions Parliament undergone the charge of £150,- 
and remedies which might, by the wisdom 000 sterling, or thereabouts, for the neces- 
of your Majesty and counsel of your Par- sary support and supply of your Majesty 
liament, be opposed against them. in these present and perilous designs. 
For preventing whereof, and the better And because all our most faithful en- 
information of your Majesty, your Peers deavours and engagements will be in- 
and all other your loyal subjects, we have effectual for the peace, safety and pres- 
been necessitated to make a declaration of ervation of your Majesty and your peo- 
the state of the kingdom, both before and pie, if some present, real and effectual 
since the assembly of this Parliament, course be not taken for suppressing this 

unto this time, which we do humbly pre- 
sent to your Majesty, without the least 
intention to lay any blemish upon your 
royal person, but only to represent how 
your royal authority and trust have been 
abused, to the great prejudice and danger 
of your Majesty, and of all your good sub- 

And because we have reason to believe 
that those malignant parties, whose pro- 
ceedings evidently appear to be mainly 
for the advantage and increase of Popery, 
is composed, set up, and acted by the sub- 
tile practice of the Jesuits and other engi- 
neers and factors for Rome, and to the 

wicked and malignant party: — 

We, your most humble and obedient 
subjects, do with all faithfulness and 
humility beseech your Majesty, — ■ 

1. That you will be graciously pleased 
to concur with the humble desires of your 
people in a parliamentary way, for the 
preserving the peace and safety of the 
kingdom from the malicious designs of 
the Popish party: — 

For depriving the Bishops of their votes 
in Parliament, and abridging their im- 
moderate power usurped over the Clergy, 
and other your good subjects, which they 
have perniciously abused to the hazard 



of religion, and great prejudice and op- 
pression of the laws of the kingdom, and 
just liberty of your people: — 

For the taking away such oppressions in 
religion, Church government and disci- 
pline, as have been brought in and foment- 
ed by them: — ■ 

For uniting all such your loyal subjects 
together as join in the same fundamental 
truths against the Papists, by removing 
some oppressions and unnecessary cere- 
monies by which divers weak consciences 
have been scrupled, and seem to be divided 
from the rest, and for the due execution 
of those good laws which have been made 
for securing the liberty of your sub- 

2. That your Majesty will likewise be 
pleased to remove from your council all 
such as persist to favour and promote 
any of those pressures and corruptions 
wherein your people have been grieved, 
and that for the future your Majesty will 
vouchsafe to employ such persons in your 
great and public affairs, and to take such 
to be near you in places of trust, as your 
Parliament may have cause to confide in; 
that in your princely goodness to your 
people you will reject and refuse all 
mediation and solicitation to the con- 
trary, how powerful and near soever. 

3. That you will be pleased to forbear 
to alienate any of the forfeited and 
escheated lands in Ireland which shall 
accrue to your Crown by reason of this 
rebellion, that out of them the Crown may 
be the better supported, and some satisfac- 
tion made to your subjects of this king- 
dom for the great expenses they are like 
to undergo [in] this war. 

Which humble desires of ours being 
graciously fulfilled by your Majesty, we 
will, by the blessing and favour of God, 
most cheerfully undergo the hazard and 
expenses of this war, and apply ourselves 
to such other courses and counsels as may 
support your real estate with honour and 
plenty at home, with power and reputa- 
tion abroad, and by our loyal affections, 
obedience and service, lay a sure and last- 
ing foundation of the greatness and pros- 
perity of your Majesty, and your royal 
prosperity in future times. 

The Grand Remonstrance. — The Com- 
mons in this present Parliament as- 
sembled, having with much earnestness 

and faithfulness of affection and zeal 
to the public good of this kingdom, and 
His Majesty's honour and service for the 
space of twelve months, wrestled with 
great dangers and fears, the pressing 
miseries and calamities, the various dis- 
tempers and disorders which had not only 
assaulted, but even overwhelmed and ex- 
tinguished the liberty, peace and pros- 
perity of this kingdom, the comfort and 
hopes of all His Majesty's good subjects, 
and exceedingly weakened and under- 
mined the foundation and strength of his 
own royal throne, do yet find an abound- 
ing malignity and opposition in those 
parties and factions who have been the 
cause of those evils, and do still labour 
to cast aspersions upon that which hath 
been done, and to raise many difficulties 
for the hindrance of that which remains 
yet undone, and to foment jealousies be- 
tween the King and Parliament, that so 
they may deprive him and his people of 
the fruit of his own gracious intentions, 
and their humble desires of procuring 
the public peace, safety and happiness of 
this realm. 

For the preventing of those miserable 
effects which such malicious endeavours 
may produce, we have thought good to 
declare the root and the growth of these 
mischievous designs: the maturity and 
ripeness to which they have attained be- 
fore the beginning of the Parliament: the 
effectual means which have been used for 
the extirpation of those dangerous evils, 
and the progress which hath therein been 
made by His Majesty's goodness and the 
wisdom of the Parliament: the ways of 
obstruction and opposition by which that 
progress hath been interrupted: the 
courses to be taken for the removing those 
obstacles, and for the accomplishing of 
our most dutiful and faithful intentions 
and endeavours of restoring and estab- 
lishing the ancient honour, greatness and 
security of this Crown and nation. 

The root of all this mischief we find 
to be a malignant and pernicious design 
of subverting the fundamental laws and 
principles of government, upon which the 
religion and justice of this kingdom are 
firmly established. The actors and pro- 
moters hereof have been: 

1. The Jesuited Papists, who hate the 
laws, as the obstacles of that change and 



subversion of religion which they so much 
long for. 

2. The Bishops, and the corrupt part of 
the Clergy, who cherish formality and 
superstition as the natural effects and 
more probable supports of their own 
ecclesiastical tyranny and usurpation. 

3. Such Councillors and Courtiers as for 
private ends have engaged themselves to 
further the interests of some foreign 
princes or states to the prejudice of His 
Majesty and the State at home. 

The common principles by which they 
moulded and governed all their particular 
counsels and actions were these: 

First, to maintain continual differences 
and discontents between the King and the 
people, upon questions of prerogative and 
liberty, that so they might have the ad- 
vantage of siding with him, and under 
the notions of men addicted to his service, 
gain to themselves and their parties the 
places of greatest trust and power in the 

A second, to suppress the purity and 
power of religion, and such persons as 
were best affected to it, as being contrary 
to their own ends, and the greatest im- 
pediment to that change which they 
thought to introduce. 

A third, to conjoin those parties of the 
kingdom which were most propitious to 
their own ends, and to divide those who 
were most opposite, which consisted in 
many particular observations. 

To cherish the Arminian part in those 
points wherein they agree with the 
Papists, to multiply and enlarge the dif- 
ference between the common Protestants 
and those whom they call Puritans, to 
introduce and countenance such opinions 
and ceremonies as are fittest for accom- 
modation with Popery, to increase and 
maintain ignorance, looseness and profane- 
ness in the people; that of those three 
parties, Papists, Arminians and Liber- 
tines, they might compose a body fit to 
act such counsels and resolutions as were 
most conducible to their own ends. 

A fourth, to disaffcct the King to Par- 
liaments by slander and false imputations, 
and by putting him upon other ways of 
supply, which in show and appearance 
were fuller of advantage than the ordinary 
course of subsidies, though in truth they 
brought more loss than gain both to the 

King and people, and have caused the 
great distractions under which we both 

As in all compounded bodies the oper- 
ations are qualified according to the pre- 
dominant element, so in this mixed party, 
the Jesuited counsels, being most active 
and prevailing, may easily be discovered 
to have had the greatest sway in all their 
determinations, and if they be not pre- 
vented, are likely to devour the rest, or 
to turn them into their own nature. 

In the beginning of His Majesty's reign 
the party began to revive and flourish 
again, having been somewhat damped by 
the breach with Spain in the last year of 
King James, and by His Majesty's mar- 
riage with France; the interests and coun- 
sels of that State being not so contrary to 
the good of religion and the prosperity of 
this kingdom as those of Spain; and the 
Papists of England, having been ever more 
addicted to Spain than France, yet they 
still retained a purpose and resolution to 
weaken the Protestant parties in all parts, 
and even in France, whereby to make way 
for the change of religion which they 
intended at home. 

1. The first effect and evidence of their 
recovery and strength was the dissolution 
of the Parliament at Oxford, after there 
had been given two subsidies to His 
Majesty, and before they received relief 
in any one grievance many other more 
miserable effects followed. 

2. The loss of the Rochel fleet, by the 
help of our shipping, set forth and de- 
livered over to the French in opposition 
to the advice of Parliament, which left 
that town without defence by sea, and 
made way not only to the loss of that im- 
portant place, but likewise to the loss of 
all the strength and security of the Prot- 
estant religion of France. 

3. The diverting of His Majesty's course 
of wars from the West Indies, which was 
the most facile and hopeful way for this 
kingdom to prevail against the Span- 
iard, to an expenseful and successless 
attempt upon Cadiz, which was so order- 
ed as if it had rather been intended to 
make us weary of war than to prosper 
in it. 

4. The precipitate breach with France, 
by taking their ships to a great value 
without making recompense to the Eng- 



lish, whose goods were thereupon imbarred 
and conhscated in that kingdom. 

5. The peace with Spain without consent 
of Parliament, contrary to the promise of 
King James to both Houses, whereby the 
Palatine's cause was deserted and left to 
chargeable and hopeless treaties, which for 
the most part were managed by those who 
might justly be suspected to be no friends 
to that cause. 

6. The charging of the kingdom with 
billeted soldiers in all parts of it, and the 
concomitant design of German horse, that 
the land might either submit with fear or 
be enforced with rigour to such arbitrary 
contributions as should be required of 

7. The dissolving of Parliament in the 
second year of His Majesty's reign, after 
a declaration of their intent to grant five 

8. The exacting of the like proportion 
of five subsidies, after the Parliament dis- 
solved, by commission of loan, and divers 
gentlemen and others imprisoned for not 
yielding to pay that loan, whereby many 
of them contracted such sicknesses as cost 
them their lives. 

9. Great sums of money required and 
raised by privy seals. 

10. An unjust and pernicious attempt 
to extort great payments from the subject 
by way of excise, and a commission issued 
under the seal to that purpose. 

11. The Petition of Right, which was 
granted in full Parliament, blasted, with 
an illegal declaration to make it destruc- 
tive to itself, to the power of Parliament, 
to the liberty of the subject, and to that 
purpose printed with it, and the Petition 
made of no use but to show the bold and 
presumptuous injustice of such ministers 
as durst break the laws and suppress the 
liberties of the kingdom, after they had 
been so solemnly and evidently declared. 

12. Another Parliament dissolved 4 
Car., the privilege of Parliament broken, 
by imprisoning divers members of the 
House, detaining them close prisoners for 
many months together, without the liberty 
of using books, pen, ink or paper ; denying 
them all the comforts of life, all means of 
preservation of health, not permitting 
their wives to come unto them even in the 
time of their sickness. 

13. And for the completing of that 


cruelty, after years spent in such miser- 
able durance, depriving them of the neces- 
sary means of spiritual consolation, not 
suffering them to go abroad to enjoy God's 
ordinances in God's House, or God's min- 
isters to come to them to minister com- 
fort to them in their private chambers. 

14. And to keep them still in this op- 
pressed condition, not admitting them to 
be bailed according to law, yet vexing 
them with informations in inferior courts, 
sentencing and fining some of them for 
matters done in Parliament; and extort- 
ing the payments of those fines from them, 
enforcing others to put in security of 
good behavior before they could be re- 

15. The imprisonment of the rest, which 
refused to be bound, still continued, 
which might have been perpetual if neces- 
sity had not the last year brought another 
Parliament to relieve them, of whom one 
died by the cruelty and harshness of his 
imprisonment, which would admit of no 
relaxation, notwithstanding the imminent 
danger of his life did sufficiently appear 
by the declaration of his physician, and 
his release, or at least his refreshment, 
was sought by many humble petitions, 
and his blood still cries either for 
vengeance or repentance of those Ministers 
of State, who have at once obstructed the 
course both of His Majesty's justice and 

16. Upon the dissolution of both these 
Parliaments, untrue and scandalous dec- 
larations were published to asperse their 
proceedings, and some of their members 
unjustly ; to make them odious, and colour 
the violence which was used against them; 
proclamations set out to the same pur- 
pose; and to the great dejecting of the 
hearts of the people, forbidding them even 
to speak of Parliaments. 

17. After the breach of the Parliament 
in the fourth of His Majesty, injustice, 
oppression and violence broke in upon 
us without any restraint or moderation, 
and yet the first project was the great 
sums exacted thorough the whole kingdom 
for default of knighthood, which seemed 
to have some colour and shadow of a law, 
yet if it be rightly examined by that 
obsolete law which was pretended for it, 
it will be found to be against all the rules 
of justice, both in respect of the persons 



charged, the proportion of the fines de- 
manded, and the absurd and unreasonable 
manner of their proceedings. 

18. Tonnage and Poundage hath been 
received without colour or pretence of 
law; many other heavy impositions con- 
tinued against law, and some so unrea- 
sonable that the sum of the charge ex- 
ceeds the value of the goods. 

19. The Book of Rates lately enhanced 
to a high proportion, and such mer- 
chants that would not submit to their il- 
legal and unreasonable payments, were 
vexed and oppressed above measure ; and 
the ordinary course of justice, the com- 
mon birthright of the subject of England, 
wholly obstructed unto them. 

20. And although all this was taken 
upon pretence of guarding the seas, yet 
a new unheard-of tax of ship-money was 
devised, and upon the same pretence, by 
both of which there was charged upon 
the subject near £700,000 some years, 
and yet the merchants have been left 
so naked to the violence of the Turkish 
pirates, that many great ships of value 
and thousands of His Majesty's subjects 
have been taken by them, and do still re- 
main in miserable slavery. 

21. The enlargements of forests, con- 
trary to Carta de Foresta, and the com- 
position thereupon. 

22. The exactions of coat and conduct 
money and divers other military charges. 

23. The taking away the arms of 
trained bands of divers counties. 

24. The desperate design of engrossing 
all the gunpowder into one hand, keep- 
ing it in the Tower of London, and set- 
ting so high a rate upon it that the poorer 
sort were not able to buy it, nor could 
any have it without license, thereby to 
leave the several parts of the kingdom 
destitute of their necessary defence, and 
by selling so dear that which was sold to 
make an unlawful advantage of it, to 
the great charge and detriment of the 

25. The general destruction of the 
King's timber, especially that in the For- 
est of Deane, sold to Papists, which was 
the best store-house of this kingdom for 
the maintenance of our shipping. 

26. The taking away of men's right, 
under the colour of the King's title to 
land, between high and low water marks. 


27. The monopolies of soap, salt, wine, 
leather, sea-coal, and in a manner of all 
things of most common and necessary 

28. The restraint of the liberties of the 
subjects in their habitation, trades and 
other interests. 

29. Their vexation and oppression by 
purveyors, clerks of the market and salt- 
petre men. 

30. The sale of pretended nuisances, as 
building in and about London. 

31. Conversion of arable into pasture, 
continuance of pasture, under the name 
of depopulation, have driven many mill- 
ions out of the subjects' purses, with- 
out any considerable profit to His Maj- 

32. Large quantities of common and 
several grounds hath been taken from the 
subject by colour of the Statute of Im- 
provement, and by abuse of the Commis- 
sion of Sewers, without their consent, and 
against it. 

33. And not only private interest, but 
also public faith, have been broken in 
seizing of the money and bullion in the 
mint, and the whole kingdom like to be 
robbed at once in that abominable project 
of brass money. 

34. Great numbers of His Majesty's 
subjects for refusing those unlawful 
charges, have been vexed with long and 
expensive suits, some fined and censured, 
others committed to long and hard im- 
prisonments and confinements, to the loss 
of health in many, of life in some, and 
others have had their houses broken up, 
their goods seized, some have been re- 
strained from their lawful callings. 

35. Ships have been interrupted in their 
voyages, surprised at sea in a hostile 
manner by projectors, as by a common 

36. Merchants prohibited to unlade 
their goods in such ports as were for 
their own advantage, and forced to bring 
them to those places which were much 
for the advantage of the monopolisers 
and projectors. 

37. The Court of Star Chamber hath 
abounded in extravagant censures, not 
only for the maintenance and improvement 
of monopolies and other unlawful taxes, 
but for divers other causes where there 
hath been no offence, or very small ; 



whereby His Majesty's subjects have been 47. The Common Law Courts, feeling 

oppressed by grievous fines, imprison- all men more inclined to seek justice there, 

nients, stigmatisings, mutilations, whip- where it may be fitted to their own desire, 

pings, pillories, gags, confinements, ban- are known frequently to forsake the rules 

ishments; after so rigid a manner as hath of the Common Law, and straying beyond 

not only deprived men of the society of their bounds, under pretence of equity, 

their friends, exercise of their professions, to do injustice. 

comfort of books, use of paper or ink, but 48. Titles of honour, judicial places, 

even violated that near union which God sergeantships at law, and other offices 

hath established between men and their have been sold for great sums of money, 

wives, by forced and constrained separa- whereby the common justice of the king- 

tion, whereby they have been bereaved of dom hath been much endangered, not only 

the comfort and conversation one of an- by opening a way of employment in places 

other for many years together, without of great trust, and advantage to men of 

hope of relief, if God had not by His over- weak parts, but also by giving occasion 

ruling providence given some interruption to bribery, extortion, partiality, it seldom 

to the prevailing power, and counsel of happening that places ill-gotten are well 

those who were the authors and promot- used, 

ers of such peremptory and heady courses. 49. Commissions have been granted for 

38. Judges have been put out of their examining the excess of fees, and when 
places for refusing to do against their great exactions have been discovered, com- 
oaths and consciences; others have been positions have been made with delin- 
so awed that they durst not do their quents, not only for the time past, but 
duties, and the better to hold a rod over likewise for immunity and security in 
them, the clause Quam diu se bene ges- offending for the time to come, which 
serit was left out of their patents, and a under colour of remedy hath but con- 
new clause, Durante bene placito, inserted, firmed and increased the grievance to the 

39. Lawyers have been checked for be- subject. 

ing faithful to their clients; solicitors 50. The usual course of pricking Sher- 

and attorneys have been threatened, and iffs not observed, but many times Sheriffs 

some punished, for following lawful suits, made in an extraordinary way, sometimes 

And by this means all the approaches to as a punishment and charge unto them; 

justice were interrupted and forecluded. sometimes such were pricked out as would 

40. New oaths have been forced upon be instruments to execute whatsoever they 
the subject against law. would have to be done. 

41. New judicatories erected without 51. The Bishops and the rest of the 
law. The Council Table have by their Clergy did triumph in the suspensions, ex- 
orders offered to bind the subjects in their communications, deprivations, and degra- 
freeholds, estates, suits and actions. dations of divers painful, learned and 

42. The pretended Court of the Earl pious ministers, in the vexation and griev- 
Marshal was arbitrary and illegal in its ous oppression of great numbers of His 
being and proceedings. Majesty's good subjects. 

43. The Chancery, Exchequer Chamber, 52. The High Commission grew to such 
Court of Wards, and other English Courts, excess of sharpness and severity as was 
have been grievous in exceeding their ju- not much less than the Romish Inquisi- 
risdiction. tion, and yet in many cases by the Arch- 

44. The estate of many families weak- bishop's power was made much more 
encd, and some ruined by excessive fines, heavy, being assisted and strengthened by 
exacted from them for compositions of authority of the Council Table, 
wardships. 53. The Bishops and their Courts were 

45. All leases of above a hundred years as eager in the country; although their 
made to draw on wardship contrary to jurisdiction could not reach so high in 
law. rigour and extremity of punishment, yet 

46. Undue proceedings used in the find- were they no less grievous in respect of 
ing of officers to make the jury find for the generality and multiplicity of vexa- 
the King. tions, which lighting upon the meaner 



sort of tradesmen and artificers did im- 63. II. There must be a conjunction be- 

poverish many thousands. tween Papists and Protestants in doctrine, 

54. And so afflict and trouble others, discipline and ceremonies; only it must 
that great numbers to avoid their miseries not yet be called Popery. 

departed out of the kingdom, some into 64. III. The Puritans, under which 

New England and other parts of America, name they include all those that desire to 

others into Holland. preserve the laws and liberties of the king- 

55. Where they have transported their dom, and to maintain religion in the 
manufactures of cloth, which is not only power of it, must be either rooted out of 
a. loss by diminishing the present stock of the kingdom with force, or driven out 
the kingdom, but a great mischief by im- with fear. 

pairing and endangering the loss of that 65. For the effecting of this it was 

particular trade of clothing, which hath thought necessary to reduce Scotland to 

been a plentiful fountain of wealth and such Popish superstitions and innovations 

honour to this nation. as might make them apt to join with Eng- 

56. Those were fittest for ecclesiastical land in that great change which was in- 
preferment, and soonest obtained it, who tended. 

were most officious in promoting supersti- 66. Whereupon new canons and a new 

ti.on, most virulent in railing against god- liturgy were pressed upon them, and when 

liness and honesty. they refused to admit of them, an army 

57. The most public and solemn sermons was raised to force them to it, towards 
before His Majesty were either to advance which the Clergy and the Papists were 
prerogative above law, and decry the prop- very forward in their contribution. 

erty of the subject, or full of such kind 67. The Scots likewise raised an army 

of invectives. for their defence. 

58. Whereby they might make those 68. And when both armies were come to- 
odious who sought to maintain the re- gether, and ready for a bloodv encounter, 
ligion, laws and liberties of the kingdom, His Majesty's own gracious disposition, 
and such men were sure to be weeded out and the counsel of the English nobility 
of the commission of the peace, and out and dutiful submission of the Scots, did 
of all other employments of power in the so far prevail against the evil counsel of 
government of the country. others, that a pacification was made, and 

59. Many noble personages were coun- His Majesty returned with peace and 
cillors in name, but the power and author- much honour to London. 

ity remained in a few of such as were 69. The unexpected reconciliation was 

most addicted to this party, whose resolu- most acceptable to all the kingdom, ex- 

tions and determinations were brought to cept to the malignant party; whereof the 

the table for countenance and execution, Archbishop and the Earl of Strafford 

and not for debate and deliberation, and being heads, they and their faction begun 

no man could offer to oppose them with- to inveigh against the peace, and to ag- 

out disgrace and hazard to himself. gravate the proceedings of the states, 

60. Nay, all those that did not wholly which so increased His Majesty, that he 
concur and actively contribute to the fur- forthwith prepared again for war. 
therance of their designs, though other- 70. And such was their confidence, that 
wisf persons of never so great honour and having corrupted and distempered the 
abilities, were so far from being employed whole frame and government of the king- 
in any place of trust and power, that they dom, they did now hope to corrupt that 
were neglected, discountenanced, and upon which was the only means to restore all 
all occasions injured and oppressed. to a right frame and temper again. 

61. This faction was grown to that 71. To which end they persuaded His 
height and entireness of power, that now Majesty to call a Parliament, not to seek 
they began to think of finishing their counsel and advice of them, but to draw 
work, which consisted of these three parts, countenance and supply from them, and 

62. I. The government must be set free to engage the whole kingdom in their 
from all restraint of laws concerning our quarrel. 

persons and estates. 72. And in the meantime continued all 



their unjust levies of money, resolving 78. Thereupon they wickedly advised 

either to make the Parliament pliant to the King to break off the Parliament and 

their will, and to establish mischief by a to return to the ways of confusion, in 

law, or else to break it, and with more which their own evil intentions were most 

colour to go on by violence to take what likely to prosper and succeed, 

they could not obtain by consent. The 79. After the Parliament ended the 

ground alleged for the justification of 5th of May, 1G40, this party grew so bold 

this war was this, aa to counsel the King to supply himself 

73. That the undutiful demands of the out of his subjects' estates by his own 
Parliaments in Scotland was a sufficient power, at his own will, without their con- 
reason for His Majesty to take arms sent. 

against them, without hearing the reason 80. The very next day some members 

of those demands, and thereupon a new of both Houses had their studies and cabi- 

army was prepared against them, their nets, yea, their pockets searched: another 

ships were seized in all ports both of of them not long after was committed 

England and Ireland, and at sea, their close prisoner for not delivering some peti- 

petitions rejected, their commissioners re- tions which he received by authority of 

fused audience. that House. 

74. The whole kingdom most miserably 81. And if harsher courses were in- 
distempered with levies of men and tended (as was reported) it is very prob- 
money, and imprisonments of those who able that the sickness of the Earl of Straf- 
denied to submit to those levies. ford, and the tumultuous rising in South- 

75. The Earl of Strafford passed into wark and about Lambeth were the causes 
Ireland, caused the Parliament there to that such violent intentions were not 
declare against the Scots, to give four brought to execution. 

subsidies towards that war, and to en- 82. A false and scandalous Declaration 

gage themselves, their lives and fortunes, against the House of Commons was pub- 

for the prosecution of it, and gave direc- lished in His Majesty's name, which yet 

tions for an army of eight thousand foot wrought little effect with the people, but 

and one thousand horse to be levied there, only to manifest the impudence of those 

which were for the most part Papists. who were authors of it. 

76. The Parliament met upon the 13th 83. A forced loan of money was at- 
of April, 1640. The Earl of Strafford and tempted in the City of London. 
Archbishop of Canterbury, with their 84. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen in 
party, so prevailed with His Majesty, that their several wards, enjoined to bring in 
the House of Commons was pressed to a list of the names of such persons as 
yield a supply for maintenance of the war they judged fit to lend, and of the sums 
with Scotland, before they had provided they should lend. And such Aldermen as 
any relief for the great and pressing refused to do so were committed to prison, 
grievances of the people, which being 85. The Archbishop and the other 
against the fundamental privilege and Bishops and Clergy continued the Convo- 
proceeding of Parliament, was yet in cation, and by a new commission turned 
humble respect to His Majesty, so far ad- it into a provincial Synod, in which, by 
mitted as that they agreed to take the an unheard-of presumption, they made 
matter of supply into consideration, and canons that contain in them many mat- 
two several days it was debated. ters contrary to the King's prerogative, to 

77. Twelve subsidies were demanded for the fundamental laws and statutes of the 
the release of ship-money alone, a third realm, to the right of Parliaments, to the 
day was appointed for conclusion, when property and liberty of the subject, and 
the heads of that party begun to fear the matters tending to sedition and of dan- 
people might close with the King, in gerous consequence, thereby establishing 
falsifying his desires of money; but that their own usurpations, justifying their 
withal they were like to blast their altar-worship, and those other supersti- 
malicious designs against Scotland, find- tious innovations which they formerly in- 
ing them very much indisposed to give troduced without warrant of law. 

any countenance to that war. 86. They imposed a new oath npo« 



divers of His Majesty's subjects, both 
ecclesiastical and lay, for maintenance of 
their own tyranny, and laid a great tax 
on the Clergy, for supply of His Majesty, 
and generally they showed themselves very 
affectionate to the war with Scotland, 
which was by some of them styled Bellum 
Episcopate, and a prayer composed and en- 
joined to be read in all churches, calling 
the Scots rebels, to put the two nations 
in blood and make them irreconcileable. 

87. All those pretended canons and con- 
stitutions were armed with the several 
censures of suspension, excommunication, 
deprivation, by which they would have 
thrust out all the good ministers, and 
most of the well-affected people of the 
kingdom, and left an easy passage to their 
own design of reconciliation with Rome. 

88. The Popish party enjoyed such ex- 
emptions from penal laws as amounted to 
a toleration, besides many other encour- 
agements and Court favours. 

89. They had a Secretary of State, Sir 
Francis Windebanck, a powerful agent for 
speeding all their desires. 

90. A Pope's Nuncio residing here, to 
act and govern them according to such in- 
fluences as he received from Rome, and to 
intercede for them with the most powerful 
concurrence of the foreign Princes of that 

91. By his authority the Papists of all 
sorts, nobility, gentry, and clergy were 
convocated after the manner of a Parlia- 

92. New jurisdictions were erected of 
Romish Archbishops, taxes levied, an- 
other state moulded within this state in- 
dependent in government, contrary in in- 
terest and affection, secretly corrupting 
the ignorant or negligent professors of our 
religion, and , closely uniting and combin- 
ing themselves against such as were 
found in this posture, waiting for an op- 
portunity by force to destroy those whom 
they could not hope to seduce. 

93. For the effecting whereof they were 
strengthened with arms and munitions, 
encouraged by superstitious prayers, en- 
joined by the Nuncio to be weekly made 
for the prosperity of some great design. 

94. And such power had they at Court, 
that secretly a commission was issued out, 
or intended to be issued to some great 
men of that profession, for the levying of 

soldiers, and to command and employ 
them according to private instructions, 
which we doubt were framed for the ad- 
vantage of those who were the contrivers 
of them. 

95. His Majesty's treasure was con- 
sumed, his revenue anticipated. 

96. His servants and officers compelled 
to lend great sums of money. 

97. Multitudes were called to the 
Council Table, who were tired with long 
attendances there for refusing illegal pay- 

98. The prisons were filled with their 
commitments; many of the Sheriffs sum- 
moned into the Star Chamber, and some 
imprisoned for not being quick enough 
in levying the ship-money; the people 
languished under grief and fear, no vis- 
ible hope being left but in desperation. 

99. The nobility began to weary of 
their silence and patience, and sensible 
of the duty and trust which belongs to 
them: and thereupon some of the most 
ancient of them did petition His Majesty 
at such a time, when evil counsels were 
so strong, that they had occasion to ex- 
pect more hazard to themselves, than re- 
dress of those public evils for which they 

100. Whilst the kingdom was in this 
agitation and distemper, the Scots, re- 
strained in their trades, impoverished by 
the loss of many of their ships, bereaved 
of all possibility of satisfying His Maj- 
esty by any naked supplication, entered 
with a powerful army into the kingdom, 
and without any hostile act or spoil in 
the country they passed, more than forc- 
ing a passage over the Tyne at Newburn, 
near Newcastle, possessed themselves of 
Newcastle, and had a fair opportunity to 
press on further upon the King's army. 

101. But duty and reverence to His 
Majesty, and brotherly love to the Eng- 
lish nation, made them stay there, where- 
by the King had leisure to entertain bet- 
ter counsels. 

102. Wherein God so blessed and di- 
rected him that he summoned the Great 
Council of Peers to meet at York upon 
the 24th of September, and there declared 
a Parliament to begin the 3d of Novem- 
ber then following. 

103. The Scots, the first day of the 
Great Council, presented an humble Pe- 



tition to His Majesty, whereupon the 
Treaty was appointed at Ripon. 

104. A present cessation of arms 
agreed upon, and the full conclusion of 
all differences referred to the wisdom and 
care of the Parliament. 

105. At our first meeting, all oppo- 
sitions seemed to vanish, the mischiefs 
were so evident which those evil counsel- 
lors produced, that no man durst stand 
up to defend them: yet the work itself 
afforded difficulty enough. 

106. The multiplied evils and corrup- 
tion of fifteen years, strengthened by cus- 
tom and authority, and the concurrent 
interest of many powerful delinquents, 
were now to be brought to judgment and 

107. The King's household was to be 
provided for: — they had brought him to 
that want, that he could not supply his 
ordinary and necessary expenses without 
the assistance of his people. 

108. Two armies were to be paid, which 
amounted very near to eighty thousand 
pounds a month. 

109. The people were to be tenderly 
charged, having been formerly exhausted 
with many burdensome projects. 

110. The difficulties seemed to be insu- 
perable, which by the Divine Providence 
we have overcome. The contrarieties in- 
compatible, which yet in a great measure 
we have reconciled. 

111. Six subsidies have been granted 
and a Bill of poll-money, which if it be 
duly levied, may equal six subsidies more, 
in all £000,000. 

112. Besides we have contracted a debt 
to the Scots of £220,000, yet God hath so 
blessed the endeavours of this Parliament, 
that the kingdom is a great gainer by all 
these charges. 

113. The ship-money is abolished, which 
cost the kingdom about £200,000 a year. 

114. The coat and conduct-money, and 
olher military charges are taken away, 
which in many countries amounted to 
little less than the ship-money. 

115. The monopolies are all suppressed, 
whereof some few did prejudice the sub- 
ject, above £1,000,000 yearly. 

116. The soap £100.000. 

117. The wine £300,000. 

118. The leather must needs exceed 
both, and salt could be no less than that. 

119. Besides the inferior monopolies, 
which, if they could be exactly computed, 
would make up a great sum. 

120. That which is ir;>re beneficial than 
all this is, that the root of these evils 
is taken away, which was the arbitrary 
power pretended to be in His Majesty of 
taxing the subject, or charging their es- 
tates without consent in Parliament, 
which is now declared to be against law 
by the judgment of both Houses, and like- 
wise by an Act of Parliament. 

121. Another step of great advantage 
is this, the living grievances, the evil 
counsellors and actors of these mischiefs 
have been so quelled. 

122. By the justice done upon the Earl 
of Strafford, the flight of the Lord Finch 
and Secretary Windebanck. 

123. The accusation and imprisonment 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury, of 
Judge Berkeley; and 

124. The impeachment of divers other 
Bishops and Judges, that it is like not 
only to be an ease to the present times, 
but a preservation to the future. 

125. The discontinuance of Parliaments 
is prevented by the Bill for a triennial 
Parliament, and the abrupt dissolution 
of this Parliament by another Bill, by 
which it is provided it shall not be dis- 
solved or adjourned without the consent 
of both Houses. 

126. Which two laws well considered 
may be thought more advantageous than 
al' the former, because they secure a full 
operation of the present remedy, and af- 
ford a perpetual spring of remedies for 
the future. 

127. The Star Chamber. 

128. The High Commission. 

129. The Courts of the President and 
Council in the North were so many forges 
of misery, oppression and violence, and 
are all taken away, whereby men are more 
secured in their persons, liberties and es- 
tates, than they could be by any law or 
example for the regulation of those Courts 
or terror of the Judges. 

130. The immoderate power of the 
Council Table, and the excessive abuse of 
that power is so ordered and restrained, 
that we may well hope that no such 
things as were frequently done by them, 
to the prejudice of the public liberty, will 
appear in future times but only in stories, 



to give lis and our posterity more occasion 
to praise God for His Majesty's goodness, 
and the faithful endeavours of this Par- 

131. The canons and power of canon- 
making are blasted by the votes of both 

132. The exorbitant power of Bishops 
and their courts are much abated, by some 

government of the kingdom, may be more 
certainly provided for. 

140. The regulating of courts of justice, 
and abridging both the delays and charges 
of law-suits. 

141. The settling of some good courses 
for preventing the exportation of gold 
and silver, and the inequality of exchanges 
between us and other nations, for the 

provisions in the Bill against the High advancing of native commodities, increase 
Commission Court, the authors of the of our manufactures, and well balancing 

many innovations in doctrine and cere- 

133. The ministers that have been scan- 
dalous in their lives, have been so terri- 
fied in just complaints and accusations, 
that we may well hope they will be more our coasts, which will be of mighty use 

of trade, whereby the stock of the king- 
dom may be increased, or at least kept 
from impairing, as through neglect hereof 
it hath done for many years last past. 
142. Improving the herring-fishing upon 

modest for the time to come; either in- 
wardly convicted by the sight of their 
own folly, or outwardly restrained by the 
fear of punishment. 

134. The forests are by a good law re- 
duced to their right bounds. 

in the employment of the poor, and a 
plentiful nursery of mariners for enabling 
the kingdom in any great action. 

143. The oppositions, obstructions and 
other difficulties wherewith we have been 
encountered, and which still lie in our way 

135. The encroachments and oppressions with some strength and much obstinacy, 
of the Stannary Courts, the extortions of are these: the malignant party whom we 

have formerly described to be the actors 
and promoters of all our misery, they 

the clerk of the market. 

136. And the compulsion of the subject 

to receive the Order of Knighthood against have taken heart again. 

his will, paying of fines for not receiving 144. They have been able to prefer 

it, and the vexatious proceedings there- some of their own factors and agents to 

upon for levying of those fines, are by degrees of honour, to places of trust and 

other beneficial laws reformed and pre- employment, even during the Parliament. 


145. Thev have endeavoured to work in 

137. Many excellent laws and provisions His Majesty ill impressions and opinions 

are in preparation for removing the in- of our proceedings, as if we had alto- 

ordinate power, vexation and usurpation gether done our own work, and not his; 

of Bishops, for reforming the pride and and had obtained from him many things 

idleness of many of the clergy, for easing very prejudicial to the Crown, both in 

the people of unnecessary ceremonies 
religion, for censuring and removing un- 

respect of prerogative and profit. 

146. To wipe out this slander we think 

worthy and unprofitable ministers, and good only to say thus much: that all 

for maintaining godly and diligent preach- 
ers through the kingdom. 

that we have done is for His Majesty, his 
greatness, honour and support, when we 

138. Other things of main importance yield to give £25,000 a month for the 

for the good of this kingdom are in relief of the Northern Counties; this 

proposition, though little could hith- was given to the King, for he was bound 

erto be done in regard of the many other to protect his subjects. 

more pressing businesses, which yet be- 147. They were His Majesty's evil 

fore the end of this Session we hope counsellors, and their ill instruments 

may receive some progress and perfec- 

139. The establishing and ordering the 
King's revenue, that so the abuse of offi- 

that were actors in those grievances 
which brought in the Scots. 

148. And if His Majesty please to force 
those who were the authors of this war 

eers and superfluity of expenses may be to make satisfaction, as he might justly 
cut off, and the necessary disbursements and easily do, it seems very reasonable 
for His Majesty's honour, the defence and that the people might well be excused 



from taking upon them this burden, being out of the Crown, but to suspend the 

altogether innocent and free from being execution of it for this time and occasion 

any cause of it. only: which was so necessary for the 

149. When we undertook the charge King's own security and the public peace, 
of the army, which cost above £50,000 that without it we could not have under- 
a month, was not this given to the King? taken any of these great charges, but 
Was it not His Majesty's army? Were must have left both the armies to dis- 
not all the commanders under contract order and confusion, and the whole king- 
with His Majesty, at higher rates and dom to blood and rapine. 

greater wages than ordinary? 159. The Star Chamber was much more 

150. And have not we taken upon us fruitful in oppression than in profit, the 
to discharge all the brotherly assistance great fines being for the most part 
of £300,000, which we gave the Scots? given away, and the rest stalled at long 
Was it not toward repair of those dam- times. 

ages and losses which they received from 160. The fines of the High Commis- 

the King's ships and from his ministers? sioner were in themselves unjust, and sel- 

151. These three particulars amount to dom or never came into the King's purse, 
above £1,100,000. These four Bills are particularly and more 

152. Besides, His Majesty hath received specially instanced. 

by impositions upon merchandise at least 161. In the rest there will not be found 

£400,000. so much as a shadow of prejudice to the 

153. So that His Majesty hath had Crown. 

out of the subjects' purse since the Par- 162. They have sought to diminish our 

liament began £1,500,000, and yet these reputation Avith the people, and to bring 

men can be so impudent as to tell His them out of love with Parliaments. 
Majesty that we have done nothing for 163. The aspersions which they have 

him. attempted this way have been such aa 

154. As to the second branch of this these: 

slander, we acknowledge with much 164. That we have spent much time 

thankfulness that His Majesty hath and done little, especially in those griev- 

passed more good Bills to the advantage ances which concern religion. 
of the subjects than have been in many 165. That the Parliament is a burden 

ages. to the kingdom by the abundance of 

155. But withal we cannot forget that protections which hinder justice and 
these venomous councils did manifest trade; and by many subsidies granted 
themselves in some endeavours to hinder much more heavy than any formerly en- 
these good acts. dnred. 

156. And for both Houses of Parlia- 166. To which there is a ready answer; 
ment we may with truth and modesty say if the time spent in this Parliament be 
thus much: that we have ever been care- considered in relation backward to the 
ful not to desire anything that should long growth and deep root of those griev- 
weaken the Crown either in just profit or ances, which we have removed, to the 
useful power. powerful supports of those delinquents, 

157. The triennial Parliament for the which we have pursued, to the great 
matter of it, doth not extend to so much necessities and other charges of the 
as by law we ought to have required commonwealth for which we have pro- 
(there being two statutes still in force vided. 

for a Parliament to be once a year), and 167. Or if it be considered in relation 

for the manner of it, it is in the King's forward to many advantages, which not 

power that it shall never take effect, if only the present but future apes are like 

he by a timely summons shall prevent to reap by the good laws and other pro- 

ary other way of assembling, ceedings in this Parliament, we doubt not 

158. In the Bill for continuance of this but it will be thought by all indifferent 
present Parliament, there seems to be judgments, that our time hath been much 
sortie restraint of the royal power in better employed than in a far greater 
dissolving of Parliaments, not to take it proportion of time in manv former Parlia- 



ment9 put together; and the charges execute their malice to the subversion of 

which have been laid upon the subject, our religion and the dissolution of our 

and the other inconveniences which they government. 

have borne, will seem very light in re- 175. Thus they have been continually 
spect of the benefit they have and may practising to disturb the peace, and plot- 
receive, ting the destruction even of all the King's 

168. And for the matter of protections, dominions; and have employed their 
the Parliament is so sensible of it that emissaries and agents in them, all for 
therein they intended to give them what- the promoting their devilish designs, 
soever ease may stand with honour and which the vigilancy of those who were 
justice, and are in a way of passing a well affected hath still discovered and de- 
Bill to give them satisfaction. feated before they were ripe for execu- 

169. They have sought by many subtle tion in England and Scotland, 
practices to cause jealousies and divisions 176. Only in Ireland, which was farther 
betwixt us and our brethren of Scotland, off, they have had time and opportunity 
by slandering their proceedings and inten- to mould and prepare their work, and had 
tions towards us, and by secret endeavours brought it to that perfection that they 
to instigate and incense them and us one had possessed themselves of that whole 
against another. kingdom, totally subverted the govern- 

170. They have had such a party of ment of it, routed out religion, and de- 
Bishops and Popish lords in the House stroyed all the Protestants whom the con- 
of Peers, as hath caused much opposition science of their duty to God, their King 
and delay in the prosecution of delin- and country, would not have permitted 
quents, hindered the proceedings of di- to join with them, if by God's wonder- 
verse good Bills passed in the Commons' ful providence their main enterprise upon 
House, concerning the reformation of sun- the city and castle of Dublin, had not 
dry great abuses and corruptions both in been detected and prevented upon the. 
Church and State. very eve before it should have been exe- 

171. They have laboured to seduce and euted. 

corrupt some of the Commons' House to 177. Notwithstanding they have in other 

draw them into conspiracies and combina- parts of that kingdom broken out into 

tions against the liberty of the Par- open rebellion, surprising towns and 

liament. castles, committed murders, rapes and 

172. And by their instruments and other villainies, and shaken off all bonds 
agents they have attempted to disaffect of obedience to His Majesty and the laws 
and discontent His Majesty's army, and of the realm. 

to engage it for the maintenance of their 178. Ana in general have kindled such 

wicked and traitorous designs; the keep- a fire, as nothing but God's infinite 

ing up of Bishops in votes and functions, blessing upon the wisdom and en- 

and by force to compel the Parliament to deavours of this State will be able to 

order, limit and dispose their proceedings quench it. 

in such manner as might best concur with 179. And certainly had not God in His 

the intentions of this dangerous and po- great mercy unto this land discovered and 

tent faction. confounded their former designs, we had 

173. And when one mischievous design been the prologue to this tragedy in Ire- 
and attempt of theirs to bring on the land, and had by this been made the la- 
army acrainst the Parliament and the City mentable spectacle of misery and con- 
of London, hath been discovered and pre- fusion. 

vented; 180. And now what hope have we but 

174. They presently undertook another in God, when as the only means of our 
of the same damnable nature, with this subsistence and power of reformation is 
addition to it, to endeavour to make the under Him in the Parliament. 
Scottish army neutral, whilst the Eng- 181. But what can we the Commons, 
lish army, which they had laboured to without the conjunction of the House of 
corrupt and envenom against us by their Lords, and what conjunction can we ex- 
false and slanderous suggestions, should peel there, when the Bishops and recu 



sant lords are so numerous and prevalent liament, to be there allowed of and con- 
that they are able to cross and interrupt firmed, and receive the stamp of authority, 
our best endeavours for reformation, and thereby to find passage and obedience 
by that means give advantage to this throughout the kingdom, 
malignant party to traduce our proceed- 18G. They have maliciously charged us 
ings? that we intend to destroy and discourage 

182. They infuse into the people that learning, whereas it is our chiefest care 
we mean to abolish all Church govern- and desire to advance it, and to provide a 
ment, and leave every man to his own competent maintenance for conscionable 
fancy for the service and worship of God, and preaching ministers throughout the 
absolving him of that obedience which he kingdom, which will be a great encourage- 
owes under God unto His Majesty, whom ment to scholars, and a certain means 
we know to be entrusted with the ecclesi- whereby the want, meanness and ignor- 
astical law as well as with the temporal, ance, to which a great part of the clergy 
to regulate all the members of the Church is now subject, will be prevented. 

of England, by such rules of order and 187. And we intended likewise to re- 
discipline as are established by Parlia- form and purge the fountains of learning, 
ment, which is his great council, in all the two Universities, that the streams 
affairs both in Church and State. flowing from thence may be clear and 

183. We confess our intention is, and pure, and an honour and comfort to the 
our endeavors have been, to reduce within whole land. 

bounds that exorbitant power which the 188. They have strained to blast our 

prelates have assumed unto themselves, proceedings in Parliament, by wresting 

so contrary both to the Word of God and the interpretations of our orders from 

to the laws of the land, to which end we their genuine intention, 

passed the Bill for the removing them 189. They tell the people that our med- 

from their temporal power and employ- dling with the power of episcopacy hath 

ments, that so the better they might with caused sectaries and conventicles, when 

meekness apply themselves to the dis- idolatrous and Popish ceremonies, intro- 

charge of their functions, which Bill them- duced into the Church by the command of 

selves opposed, and were the principal in- the Bishops have not only debarred the 

struments of crossing it. people from thence, but expelled them 

184. And we do here declare that it is from the kingdom. 

far from our purpose or desire to let loose 190. Thus with Elijah, we are called by 

the golden reins of discipline and govern- this malignant party the troublers of the 

ment in the Church, to leave private per- State, and still, while we endeavour to 

sons or particular congregations to take reform their abuses, they make us the 

up what form of Divine Service they authors of those mischiefs we study to 

please, for we hold it requisite that there prevent. 

should be throughout the whole realm a 191. For the perfecting of the work 

conformity to that order which th? laws begun, and removing all future impedi- 

enjoin according to the Word of God. And ments, we conceive these courses will be 

we desire to unburden the consciences of very effectual, seeing the religion of the 

men of needless and superstitious cere- Papists hath such principles as do cer- 

monies, suppress innovations, and take tainly tend to the destruction and extir- 

away the monuments of idolatry. pation of all Protestants, when they shall 

185. And the better to effect the in- have opportunity to effect it. 

tended reformation, we desire there may 192. It is necessary in the first place 

be a general synod of the most grave, to keep them in such condition as that 

pious, learned and judicious divines of they may not be able to do us any hurt, 

this island; assisted with some from for- and for avoiding of such connivance and 

eign parts, professing the same religion favour as hath heretofore been shown unto 

with us, who may consider of all things them. 

necessary for the peace and good govern- 193. That His Majesty be pleased to 

ment of the Church, and represent the re- grant a standing Commission to some 

suits of their consultations unto the Par- choice men named in Parliament, who 



may take notice of their increase, their proceed against them in any legal way of 

counsels and proceedings, and use all due charge or impeachment, 

means by execution of the laws to pre- 202. That all Councillors of State may 

vent all mischievous designs against the be sworn to observe those laws which con- 

peace- and safety of this kingdom. 

cern the subject in his liberty, that they 

194. Thus some good course be taken to may likewise take an oath not to receive 

discover the counterfeit and false con- or give reward or pension from any for- 

formity of Papists to the Church, by eign prince, but such as they shall within 

colour whereof persons very much dis- some reasonable time discover to the 

affected to the true religion have been Lords of His Majesty's Council, 
admitted into place of greatest authority 
and trust in the kingdom. 

203. And although they should wicked- 
ly forswear themselves, yet it may herein 
195. For the better preservation of the do good to make them known to be false 
laws and liberties of the kingdom, that and perjured to those who employ them, 

all illegal grievances and exactions be pre- 
sented and punished at the sessions and 

196. And that Judges and Justices be 
very careful to give this in charge to the 

and thereby bring them into as little 
credit with them as with us. 

204. That His Majesty may have cause 
to be in love with good counsel and good 
men, by shewing him in an humble and 

grand jury, and both the Sheriff and dutiful manner how full of advantage it 
Justices to be sworn to the due execution would be to himself, to see his own estate 

of the Petition of Right and other laws. 
197. That His Majesty be humbly peti- 

settled in a plentiful condition to support 
his honour; to see his people united in 

tioned by both Houses to employ such ways of duty to him, and endeavours of 

counsellors, ambassadors and other minis 
ters, in managing his business at home and 

the public good, etc. 

Granger, Francis, statesman; born in 

abroad as the Parliament may have cause Suffield, Conn., Dec. 1, 1792; graduated at 

to confide in, without which we cannot 
give His Majesty such supplies for sup- 
port of his own estate, nor such assist- 
ance to the Protestant party beyond the 
sea, as is desired. 

198. It may often fall out that the 
Commons may have just cause to take ex- 
ceptions at some men for being council- 

Yale in 1811; Whig candidate for Vice- 
President in 1836; member of Congress, 
1835-37 and 1839-41; Postmaster-General 
in 1841. He died in Canandaigua, N. Y., 
Aug. 28, 1868. 

Granger, Gideon, statesman; born in 
Suffield, Conn., July 19, 1767; graduated 
at Yale College in 1787; became a lawyer; 

lors, and yet not charge those men with Postmaster-General in 1801-14. His pub- 
crimes, for there be grounds of diffidence lications include a Fourth of July oration 

which lie not in proof. 

199. There are others, which 
they may be proved, yet are not legally 

200. To be a known favourer of Papists, 

and Political Essays. He died in Canan- 
though daigua, N. Y., Dec. 31, 1822. 

Granger, Gordon, military officer ; born 
in New York City, in 1821 ; graduated at 
West Point in 1845; served in the war 

or to have been very forward in defending with Mexico. He served under Halleck 
or countenancing some great offenders and Grant in the West, and was made 
questioned in Parliament; or to speak major-general of volunteers, Sept. 17, 1862. 

contemptuously of either Houses of Par- 
liament or Parliamentary proceedings. 

He commanded the 
Kentucky, was put 

district of central 
command of the 

201. Or such as are factors or agents 4th Army Corps after the battle of Chicka- 

for any foreign prince of another religion ; 
such are justly suspected to get council- 
lors' places, or any other of trust concern- 

mauga, was engaged in the struggle on 
Missionary Ridge, November, 1863, and 
was active in the military movements that 

ing public employment for money; for all led to the capture of Mobile in 1864. He 
these and divers others we may have great was mustered out of the volunteer service 
reason to be earnest with His Majesty, j n 1866; was promoted to colonel in the 
not to put his great affairs into such regular army the same year; and died in 
hands, though we may be unwilling to Santa Fe, N. M., Jan. 10, 1876. 
rv.— i 129 


Granger, Moses Moouhead, lawyer; !New York, and in 1889 President Harri- 

born in Zanesville, O., Oct. 22, 1831 ; grad- son apj>ointed him minister to Austria- 

uated at Kenyon College in 1850; prac- Hungary, where he remained till 1893. He 

tised law at Zanesville from 1853 to 1861; was a police commissioner in New York 

served throughout the Civil War in the City through the administration of Mayor 

National army with much distinction, and Strong. In 1898, on the call for volun- 

received the brevet of colonel. He is teers for the war with Spain, Colonel 

the author of Washington Versus Jeffer- 
son, and The Case Tried by Battle in 

Grant offered his services to the Presi- 
dent, and went to the front as colonel of 
the 14th New York regiment. On May 

Grangers. See Husbandby, Pateons 27 he was appointed a brigadier-general 

or. of volunteers; served in the Porto Rico 

Granite State, a popular name for the campaign; and after the war was ap- 

State of New Hampshire, because the pointed commander of the military dis- 

mountainous portions of it are largely trict of San Juan. While holding this 

composed of granite. post he organized an effective police 

Grant, Fredebick Dent, military offi- force for the city similar in plan to that 

cer; born in St. Louis, Mo., May 30, 1850; of New York City. Subsequently he was 

eldest son of Ulysses S. Grant; was with ordered to the Philippine Islands, where 

his father at various times during the he rendered such valuable service in 

Civil War; graduated at the United operations against the insurgents, and also 

States Military Academy in 1871; accom- 
panied General Sherman on his European 
trip in 1872; was appointed aide-de-camp 

as an administrative officer, that on the 
reorganization of the regular army in 
February, 1901, President McKinley ap- 

on the staff of General Sheridan with the pointed him one of the new brigadier- 
rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1873; took generals. In August, 1904, he was given 

of the Department of the 


part in the campaign on the frontier 


Grant, James, military officer; born in 
Ballendalloch, Scotland, in 1720; was 
major of the Montgomery Highlanders in 
1757. He was in the expedition against 
Fort Duquesne in 1758, and in 1760 was 
governor of East Florida. He led an ex- 
pedition against the Cherokees in May, 
1761, was acting brigadier-general in the 
buttle of Long Island in 1776, and was 
made major-general in 1777. He was with 
Howe in New Jersey and Pennsylvania in 
1777. He fought the Americans at Mon- 
mouth in 1778, and in November sailed in 
command of troops sent against the 
French in the West Indies, taking St. 
Lucia in December. In 1791 he was made 
governor of Stirling Castle, and was sev- 
eral years in Parliament. It is said that 
he was such a notorious gourmand in his 
lnler life that he required his cook to 
sleep in the same room with him. He died 
April 13, 1806. 

Grant, Robert, author; born in Boston, 

against the Indians; accompanied his Mass., Jan. 24, 1852; graduated at 
father on his trip around the world; and Harvard College in 1873; later began law 
resigned his commission in the army in practice in his native city. He is the 
1881. In 1887 he was defeated as Repub- author of Yankee Doodle; The Oldest 
lican candidate for secretary of state of School in America, etc. 



Grant, Ulysses Simpson, eighteenth 
President of the United States; named at 
birth Hiram Ulysses, but, through an 
error when he entered the Military 
Academy, he was given the Christian 
names which he afterwards adopted; born 

of the 21st Illinois Infantry. In May, 
1861, he was appointed a brigadier-general 
of volunteers, and placed in command at 
Cairo. He occupied Paducah, broke up 
the Confederate camp at Belmont, and in 
February, 18G2, captured Forts Henry and 


in Point Pleasant, 0., April 27, 1822; 
graduated at West Point in 1843. He 
served in the war with Mexico, first under 
General Taylor, and then under General 
Scott, taking part in every battle between 
Vera Cruz and the city of Mexico. He 
was made captain in 1853, and resigned 
the next year, when he settled in St. 
Louis. He was one of the first to offer 
his services to the national government 
when the Civil War broke out, but, as no 
notice was taken of him, became colonel 

Donelson. He was then promoted to 
major - general ; conducted the battle ot 
Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh. and for a 
while was second in command to Halleck. 
He performed excellent service in the 
West and Southwest, especially in the 
vicinity of the Mississippi River, and at 
and near the Tennessee River, in 1863. 
He was promoted to lieutenant-general 
March 1, 1864, and awarded a gold medal 
by Congress. He issued his first order as 
general-in-chief of the armies of the Unite 



ed States at Nashville, March 17, 18G4. 
In the Errand movements of the armies in 
1SG4, he accompanied that of the Potomac, 
with his headquarters " in the field," and 
he remained with it until he signed the 
articles of capitulation at Appomattox 
Court-house, April 9, 1865. In 1866 he 
was promoted to general of the United 
States army. After the war Grant fixed 
his headquarters at Washington. When 
President Johnson suspended' Stanton from 
the office of Secretary of War, Grant 
was put in his place ad interim. Stan- 
ton was reinstated by the Senate, Jan. 14, 
1868. In 1868, Grant was elected Presi- 

dent of the United States by the Republi- 
can party, and was re-elected in 1872. 
He retired from the office March 4, 1877, 
and soon afterwards made a journey 
around the world, receiving great honors 

Towards the close of his life he was 
financially ruined by an unprincipled 
sharper. Congress created him a general 
on the retired list; and, £A make further 
provision for his family, he began com- 
piling Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, a 
work that was completed shortly before 
his death, on Mount McGregor, N. Y., 
July 23, 1885. His remains lie in the 






magnificent mausoleum in Riverside 
Park, New York City, that cost $500,000, 
raised principally by popular subscrip- 
tion. See Army (Army in the Civil War; 
Disbanding of the Union Armies) ; Lee, 
Robert Edward. 

Let Us Have Peace. — On the receipt 
of the official notification of his first 
nomination for the Presidency, he ad- 
dressed to General Hawley the following 
letter, concluding with one of those brief 
phrases for which this " silent man " was 
noted : 

Washington, D. C, May 29, 1868. 
To Gen. Joseph R. Hawley, President 

National Republican Convention: 

In formally accepting the nomination 
of the " National Union Republican Con- 
vention " of the 21st of May last, it seems 
proper that some statement of views, be- 
yond the mere acceptance of the nomina- 
tion, should be expressed. 

The proceedings of the convention 
were marked with wisdom, moderation, 
and patriotism, and, I believe, expressed 
the feelings of the great mass of those 
who sustained the country through its 
recent trials. I endorse their resolu- 

If elected to the office of President of 
the United States, it will be my endeavor 
to administer all the laws in good faith, 
with economy, and with the view of giv- 
ing peace, quiet, and protection every- 
where. In times like the present, it is 
impossible, or at least eminently im- 

proper, to lay down a policy to be adhered 
to, right or wrong. Through an admin- 
istration of four years, new political is- 
sues, not foreseen, are constantly arising, 
the views of the public on old ones are 
constantly changing, and a purely ad- 
ministrative officer should always be left 
free to execute the will of the people. 1 
always have respected that will, and al- 



ways shall. Peace and universal pros- 
perity, its sequence, with economy of ad- 
ministration, will lighten the burden of 


bring to it a conscientious desire and de- 
termination to fill it to the best of my 
ability to the satisfaction of the people. 
On all leading questions agitating the 
public mind, I will always express my 
views to Congress, and urge them accord- 
ing to my judgment; and, when I think it 
advisable, will exercise the constitutional 
Citizens of the United States,— Your privilege of interposing a veto to defeat 
suffrages having elected me to the measures which I oppose. But all laws 

taxation, while it constantly reduces the 
national debt. Let us have peace. 

With great respect, your obedient ser- 
vant, U. S. Grant. 

The following is General Grant's ad- 
dress at his first inaugural March 4, 1869: 


office of President of the United States, 
I have, in conformity with the Con- 
stitution of our country, taken the oath 
of office prescribed therein. I have taken 
this oath without mental reservation, 
and with the determination to do to 
the best of my ability all that it requires 
of me. The responsibilities of the po- 
sition I feel, but accept them without 
fear. The office has come to me unsought. 
I commence its duties untrammelled. T 

will be faithfully executed whether they 
inert my approval or not. 

I shall, on all subjects, have a policy 
to recommend, but none to enforce 
against the will of the people. Laws are 
to govern all alike, those opposed as 
well as those who favor them. I know no 
method to secure the repeal of bad or ob- 
noxious laws so effective as their stringent 

The country having just emerged from 



a great rebellion, many questions will lock to meet the very contingency that is 

come before it for settlement in the next now upon us. 

four years, which preceding adminis- Ultimately it may be necessary to in- 

trations have never had to deal with. In sure the facilities to reach these riches, 

meeting these, it is desirable that they and it may be necessary also that the 

should be approached calmly, without general government should give its aid 

prejudice, hate, or sectional pride, re- to secure this access. But that should 

membering that the greatest good to the only be when a dollar of obligation to 

greatest number is the object to be at- 

This requires security of person, prop- 
erty, and for religious and political opin- 

pay secures precisely the same sort of 
dollar to use now, and not before. While 
the question of specie payments is in 
abeyance, the prudent business man is 

is, in every part of our common coun- careful about contracting debts payable 

try, without regard to local prejudice, iu the distant future. 
All laws to secure these ends will receive follow the same rule, 
my best efforts for their enforcement. 

The nation should 
A prostrate com- 
merce is to be rebuilt and all industries 

A great debt has been contracted in encouraged. 

securing to us and our posterity the 
Union; the payment of this, principal 
and interest, as well as the return to a 
specie basis, as soon as it can be accom- 

The young men of the country, those 
who from their age must be its rulers 
twenty- five years hence, have a peculiar in- 
terest in maintaining the national honor. 

plished without material detriment to the A moment's reflection as to what will be 
debtor class or to the country at large, our commanding influence among the na- 
must be provided for. To protect the na- tions of the earth in their day, if they 
tional honor, every dollar of government are only true to themselves, should in- 
indebtedness should be paid in gold un- spire them with national pride. All di- 
less otherwise expressly stipulated in the visions, geographical, political, and relig- 
contract. Let it be understood that no ious, can join in this common sentiment, 
repudiator of one farthing of our public How the public debt is to be paid, or specie 
debt will be trusted in public place, and payments resumed, is not so important 
it will go far towards strengthening a as that a plan should be adopted and ac- 
credit which ought to be the best in the quiesced in. 

world, and will ultimately enable us to A united determination to do is worth 
replace the debt with bonds bearing less more than divided counsels upon the 
interest than we now pay. To this should method of doing. Legislation upon this 

subject may not be necessary now, nor 

even advisable, but it will be when the 
and the civil law is more fully restored in all 

parts of the country, and trade resumes 

its wonted channels. 

It will be my endeavor to execute all 

laws in good faith, to collect all revenues 

be added a faithful collection of the rev 
enue, a strict accountability to the treas 
ury for every dollar collected 
greatest practicable retrenchment in ex 
penditure in every department of govern 

When we compare the paying capac 
ity of the country now with the ten States assessed, and to have them properly ac- 
in poverty from the effects of war, but counted for and economically disbursed, 
soon to emerge, I trust, into greater pros- I will, to the best of my ability, appoint 
perity than ever before, with its paying to office those only who will carry out this 
capacity twenty-five years ago, and cal- design. 

culate what it probably will be twenty- 
five years hence, who can doubt the feasi- 
bility of paying every dollar then with 

In regard to foreign policy, I would 
deal with nations as equitable law requires 
individuals to deal with each other, and 

more ease than we now pay for useless I would protect the law-abiding citizen, 

luxuries? Why, it looks as though Provi- whether of native or foreign birth, wher- 

dence had bestowed upon us a strong box ever his rights are jeopardized or the flag 

in the precious metals locked up in the of our country floats. I would respect 

sterile mountains of the far West, of the rights of all nations, demanding equal 

which we are now forging the key to un- respect for our own. If others depart 



from this rule in their dealings with us, seems to me oftener in the selections made 

we may be compelled to follow their prece- of the assistants appointed to aid in 

dent. carrying out the various duties of admin- 

The proper treatment of the original istering the government, in nearly every 

occupants of this land, the Indians, is one case selected without a personal acquaint- 

deserving of careful study. I will favor ance with the appointee, but upon recom- 

any course towards them which tends to mendations of the representatives chosen 

their civilization and ultimate citizenship, directly by the people. It is impossible, 

The question of suffrage is one which where so many trusts are to be allotted, 
is likely to agitate the public so long as that the right parties should be chosen in 
a portion of the citizens of the nation are every instance. History shows that no 
excluded from its privileges in any State, administration, from the time of Wash- 
It seems to me very desirable that this ington to the present, has been free from 
question should be settled now, and I en- these mistakes. But I leave comparisons 
tertain the hope and express the desire to history, claiming that I have acted in 
that it may be by the ratification of the every instance from a conscientious desire 
fifteenth article of amendment to the Con- to do what was right, constitutional with- 
stitution. in the law, and for the very best interests 

In conclusion, I ask patient forbear- of the whole people. Failures have been 

ance one towards another throughout the errors of judgment, not of intent, 

land, and a determined effort on the part My civil career commenced, too, at a 

of every citizen to do his share towards most critical and difficult time. Less than 

cementing a happy Union ; and I ask the four years before the country had emerged 

prayers of the nation to Almighty God in from a conflict such as no other nation 

behalf of this consummation. had ever survived. Nearly one-half of the 

Last Message to Congress. — The follow- States had revolted against the govern- 
ing is the opening of his last message to ment; and, of those remaining faithful to 
Congress (Dec. 5, 1876), the part in which the Union, a large percentage of the popu- 
he reviews the events of his double term lation sympathized with the rebellion and 
of office: made an "enemy in the rear," almost as 

dangerous as the more honorable enemy 

To the Senate and House of Kepresenta- in the front. The latter committed errors 
tives, — In submitting my eighth and last of judgment, but they maintained them 
annual message to Congress, it seems openly and courageously; the former re- 
proper that I should refer to, and in some ceived the protection of the government 
degree recapitulate, the events and official they would see destroyed, and reaped all 
acts of the past eight years. the pecuniary advantage to be gained out 

It was my fortune, or misfortune, to of the then existing state of affairs, 

be called to the office of chief executive Immediately on the cessation of hos- 

without any previous political training, tilities, the then noble President, who had 

From the age of seventeen I had never carried the country so far through its 

even witnessed the excitement attending perils, fell a martyr to his patriotism at 

a Presidential campaign but twice antece- the hands of an assassin, 

dent to my own candidacy, and at but one The intervening time to my first in- 

of them was I eligible as a voter. auguration was filled up with wranglings 

Under such circumstances it is but between Congress and the new executive 
reasonable to suppose that errors of judg- as to the best mode of " reconstruction," 
ment must have occurred. Even had they or, to speak plainly, as to whether the con- 
not, differences of opinion between the trol of the government should be thrown 
executive, bound by an oath to the strict immediately into the hands of those who 
performance of his duties, and writers and had so recently and persistently tried to 
debaters, must have arisen. It is not destroy it, or whether the victors should 
necessarily evidence of blunder on the part continue to have an equal voice with 
of the executive because there are these them in this control. Reconstruct ion, ;'s 
differences of views. Mistakes have been finally agreed upon, means this and only 
made, as all can see and I admit, but it this, except that the late slave was en- 



franchised, giving an increase as was sup- 
posed, to the Union-loving and Union-sup- 
porting votes. If free, in the full sense of 
the word, they would not disappoint this 
expectation. Hence, at the beginning of 
my first administration the work of re- 
construction — much embarrassed by the 
long delay — virtually commenced. It was 
the work of the legislative branch of the 
government. My province was wholly in 
approving their acts, which I did most 
heartily, urging the legislatures of States 
that had not yet done so to ratify the 
fifteenth ffmendment to the Constitution. 
The country was laboring under an enor- 
mous debt, contracted in the suppression 
of rebellion, and taxation was so oppres- 
sive as to discourage production. Another 
danger also threatened us — a foreign war. 
The last difficulty had to be adjusted, and 
was adjusted without a war, and in a 
manner highly honorable to all parties 
concerned. Taxes have been reduced 
within the last seven years nearly $300,- 
000,000, and the national debt has been 
reduced in the same time over $435,000,- 
000. By refunding the 6 per cent, bonded 
debt for bonds bearing 5 and 4% per cent, 
interest, respectively, the annual interest 
has been reduced from over $130,000,000 
in 1869 to but little over $100,000,000 in 
1S76. The balance of trade has been 
changed from over $130,000,000 against 
the United States in 1869 to more than 
$120,000,000 in our favor in 1S76. 

Opening the Centennial Exhibition. — 
On May 10, 1876, he formally opened the 
Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia 
with the following speech: 

My Countrymen, — It has been thought 
appropriate, upon this centennial occa- 
sion, to bring together in Philadelphia, 
for popular inspection, specimens of our 
attainments in the industrial and fine 
arts, and in literature, science, and phi- 
losophy, as well as in the great business 
of agriculture and of commerce. 

That we may the more thoroughly ap- 
preciate the excellences and deficiencies 
of our achievements, and also give em- 
phatic expression to our earnest desire to 
cultivate the friendship of our fellow- 
members of this great family of nations, 
the enlightened agricultural, commercial, 
and manufacturing people of the world 

have been invited to send hither corre- 
sponding specimens of their skill to ex- 
hibit on equal terms in friendly competi- 
tion with our own. To this invitation 
they have generously responded; for so 
doing we tender them our hearty thanks. 

The beauty and utility of the con- 
tributions will this day be submitted to 
your inspection by the managers of this 
exhibition. We are glad to know that 
a view of specimens of the skill of all 
nations will afford you unalloyed pleasure, 
as well as yield to you a valuable practi- 
cal knowledge of so many of the remark- 
able results of the wonderful skill exist- 
ing in enlightened communities. 

One hundred years ago our country 
was new and but partially settled. Our 
necessities have compelled us to chiefly ex- 
pend our means and time in felling for- 
ests, subduing prairies, building dwellings, 
factories, ships, docks, warehouses, roads, 
canals, machinery, etc., etc. Most of our 
schools, churches, libraries, and asylums 
have been established within a hundred 
years. Burdened by these great primal 
works of necessity, which could not be de- 
layed, we yet have done what this exhibi- 
tion will show, in the direction of rival- 
ling older and more advanced nations in 
law, medicine, and theology; in science, 
literature, philosophy and the fine arts. 
While proud of what we have done, we 
regret that we have not done more. Our 
achievements have been great enough, 
however, to make it easy for our people 
to acknowledge superior merit wherever 

And now, fellow - citizens, I hope a 
careful examination of what is about to 
be exhibited to you will not only inspire 
you with a profound respect for the skill 
and taste of our friends from other na- 
tions, but also satisfy you with the attain- 
ments made by our own people during the 
past 100 years. I invoke your generous 
co-operation with the worthy commission- 
ers to secure a brilliant success to this 
international exhibition, and to make the 
stay of our foreign visitors — to whom we 
extend a hearty welcome — both profitable 
and pleasant to them. 

I declare the international exhibition 
now open. 

Vindication of Fits-John Porter. — Gen- 
eral Grant's magnanimity was never more 



touchingly illustrated than in his efforts to be placed in a position where he could 

to secure justice for Gen. Fitz-John be made responsible for his indifference, 

Portee (q. v.). The story of his actions and that the punishment was not a se- 

iu this matter is most fittingly told in vere one for such an offence. I am now 

his own language. On Dec. 22, 1881, he convinced that he rendered faithful, 

addressed the following appeal in behalf efficient, and intelligent service, and the 

of General Porter to the President: fact that he was retained in command of a 

corps for months after his offences were 

New York, Dec. 22, 1881. sa id to have been committed is in his 

The President, Washington, D. C: favor. What I would ask in General Por- 

Dear Sir, — At the request of Gen. ter's behalf, from you, is, if you can pos- 

Fitz - John Porter, I have recently re- sibly give the time, that you give the 

viewed his trial and the testimony fur- subject the same study and thought that 

nished before the Schofield Court of In- I have given it, and then act as your 

quiry held in 1879, giving to the subject judgment shall dictate. But, feeling that 

three full days of careful reading and you will not have the time for such an 

consideration, and much thought in the investigation (for it would take several 

intervening time. The reading of this days' time), I would ask that the whole 

record has thoroughly convinced me that matter be laid before the Attorney-Gen- 

for these nineteen years I have been do- eral for his examination and opinion, 

ing a gallant and efficient soldier a very Hoping that you will be able to do this 

great injustice in thought and sometimes much for an officer who has suffered for 

in speech. I feel it incumbent upon me nineteen years a punishment that never 

now to do whatever lies in my power to should be inflicted upon any but the most 

remove from him and from his family guilty, I am, 

the stain upon his good name. I feel Very truly yours, U. S. Grant. 
this the more incumbent upon me than On Feb. 4, 1882, in order to still fur- 
I should if I had been a corps commander ther impress his convictions of General 
only, or occupying any other command in Porter's innocence upon influential rueni- 
the army than the one which I did; but bers of Congress, he addressed the follow- 
as general I had it, possibly, in my power ing detailed letter to J. Donald Cameron, 
to have obtained for him the hearing United States Senator from Pennsylvania: 
which he had only got at a later day, 

and as President I certainly had the New York > Feh - ! h 1882. 

power to have ordered that hearing. In Hon. J. D. Cameron, U. S. Senate, Wa^h- 
justification for my injustice to General ington, D. C: 

Porter, I can only state that shortly after Dear Sir, — It has been my intention 

the war closed his defence was brought to until within the last few days to visit 

my attention, but I read in connection Washington this winter to spend some 

with it a sketch of the field where his time, and there to have a conversation 

offences were said to have been commit- with you and with General Logan on the 

ted, which I now see, since perfect maps subject of the Fitz-John Porter case; 

have been made by the engineers' depart- but having now pretty nearly decided not 

ment of the whole field, were totally in- to go to Washington, I have determined 

correct as showing the position of the two to write, and write to you so that you 

armies. I have read it in connection may state my position to your friends, 

with the statements made on the other and particularly to General Logan, and, 

side against General Porter, and, I am if you choose, show this letter to any 

afraid, possibly with some little prejudice such people. 

in the case, although General Porter was When I commenced the examination 

a man whom I personally knew and liked of the Fitz-John Porter case as it now 

before; but I pot the impression, with stands, it was with the conviction that 

many others, that there was a half-hearted his sentence was a just one, and that his 

support of General Pope in his campaigns, punishment had been light for so hideous 

and that General Porter, while possibly an offence; but I tried to throw off all 

not more guilty than others, happened prejudice in the case, and to examine it 



on its merits. I came out of that exami- 
nation with the firm conviction that an 
entirely innocent man had been most un- 
justly punished. I cast no censure upon 
the court which tried him, because the 
evidence which now proves his entire inno- 
cence of disobedience of orders it was im- 
possible to have before that court. 

When I completed the investigation 
and came to the conclusion that I did — 
of his innocence — my first thought was 
to write to General Logan, because I re- 
gard him as my friend, and I am sure I 
am his, and he has made, probably, the 
ablest speech of his life in opposition to 
the bill for General Porter's restoration 
to the army. I thought, therefore, it was 
due to him that I should inform him of 
the conclusion that I had come to after 
the investigation. But as the President 
was just about visiting this city when my 
letter to him was written, and it was de- 
sired to present it to him here, I re- 
quested, in lieu of a letter to General 
Logan, to have a copy of my letter to 
the President sent to him. This was done. 

You are aware that when General 
Logan made his speech against General 
Porter, it was in opposition to a bill 
pending in Congress. He, like myself, 
was thoroughly convinced of the guilt of 
General Porter, and was therefore opposed 
to the bill. His investigations therefore 
were necessarily to find arguments to sus- 
tain his side of a pending question. I 
of course had no knowledge of the papers 
he would refer to, or would examine, 
to find such arguments; but I knew that 
he could have the testimony which was 
taken before the court-martial which con- 
victed ; probably also the arguments of 
the officer who acted as prosecutor when 
the case was before the Schofield court, 
and arguments that have been made by 
lawyers, J. D. Cox and others possibly, 
all of which were in opposition to General 
Porter as much as that of paid attorneys 
in cases before the civil courts. 

But my investigation of all the facts 
that I could bring before me of the oc- 
currence from the 27th of August, 1862, 
and for some little time prior, to the 
1st of September, the same year, show 
conclusively that the court and some of 
the witnesses entirely misapprehended the 
position of the enemy on that day. 

General Porter was convicted of dis- 
obedience of the order of General Pope's, 
dated at 4.30 p.m., on the 29th of August, 
to attack the enemy on his right flank, and 
in his rear, if possible. Despatches of Gen- 
eral Pope of that day show that he knew 
General Lee was coming to the support of 
Jackson, whom he thought commanded 
the only force in his front at that time; 
but that he could not arrive until the 
evening of the following day, or the morn- 
ing of the day after. It was sworn to be- 
fore the court that this order of 4.30 p.m. 
reached General Porter at about five or 
half-past five in the afternoon, but it 
must be recollected that this testimony 
was given from memory, and unquestion- 
ably without any idea at the time of the 
occurrence that they were ever to be called 
upon to give any testimony in the case. 

Investigation shows a despatch from 
General Porter, dated six o'clock of that 
afternoon, which makes no mention of 
having received the order to attack, and 
it is such a despatch as could not be 
written without mentioning the receipt 
of that order, if it had been received. 
There is other testimony that makes it 
entirely satisfactory to my mind that the 
order was not received until about sun- 
down, or between sundown and dark. It 
was given, as stated before, to attack the 
enemy's right, and, if possible, to get into 
his rear. This was on the supposition 
that Jackson was there alone, as General 
Pope had stated he would be until the 
evening of the next day, or the morning 
of the day following. I believe that the 
court was convinced that on the evening 
of the 29th of August Jackson, with his 
force, was there alone; but now it is 
proved by testimony better than sworn 
evidence of any persons on the Union side 
that by 11 o'clock a.m., of the 29th, 
Ivongstreet was up and to the right of 
Jackson with a force much greater than 
General Porter's entire force. The attack 
upon Jackson's right and rear was, there- 
fore, impossible, without first wiping out 
the force of Longstreet. The order did 
not contemplate, either, a night attack, 
and, to have obeyed it, even if Longstreet 
had not been there, General Porter would 
have been obliged to make a night attack. 
But, even as it was, I find that General 
Porter, notwithstanding the late hour, did 



all he could to obey that order. He had gallant and devoted commanders. Then, 
previously given a command to General too, in re-examining the case, my atten- 
Morell, who commanded the most ad- tion was called again to General Pope's 
vanced division, or one most fronting the early order in taking command of the 
enemy, to throw out a skirmish line to Army of Virginia. I send you a copy of 
engage the enemy, or to keep him occu- this order. You will see that it was cal- 
pied, and on the receipt of this order, al- culated to make the army to whom it was 
though at this late hour, he immediately addressed feel that it was a reflection 
sent orders to General Morel I to increase upon their former services and former 
it from a skirmish line to a large force, commanders, from that of a company to 
and that he would be with him as soon as the commander of the whole, and that 
he could get there. even as amiable people as General Logan 
He did actually go to the front, al- and myself are would have been very apt 
though it was dark, to superintend this to have made some very uncomplimentary 
movement, and as far as possible to pre- remarks if they had been addressed by an 
vent the enemy detaching anything from Eastern officer sent West to command over 
his front, thus showing a desire to obey us in our field of duty. I commenced 
the order strictly and to the best of his reading up this case with the conviction 
ability. I find the Schofield board acquit that General Porter had been guilty, as 
him entirely, but throw some censure found by the court, but came out of the 
upon him for having expressed a lack of investigation with a thorough conviction 
confidence in his commanding officer. Such that I, and the public generally, had done 
conduct might be censured, although if him a fearful injustice, and entirely satis- 
every man in the army had been punished fied that any intelligent man, or lawyer, 
who had expressed lack of confidence in who will throw aside prejudice and ex- 
his superior officer many of our best sol- amine the case as I have done, will come 
diers would have been punished. But, in to the same conclusion, 
fact, if this was not stated in the sum- As stated in my letter to the Presi- 
ming up of the case by the board, I should dent, I feel it incumbent upon me, in view 
not have found that he had expressed any of the positions that I have held hereto- 
such lack of confidence. On the contrary, fore, and my failure then to do what I 
to my mind now, he was zealous in giving now wish I had done, to do all in my 
a support to General Pope, and more so, power to place General Porter right before 
possibly, for the reason that he knew the public and in future history, and to 
among his former army associates there repair my own intentional injustice, 
was a good deal of apprehension, to say I address this letter to you, knowing 
the least, of his fitness for his new place, that you will have a desire to do just what 
It must be recollected that General Pope your judgment dictates as being right in 
was selected from a Western army and the matter, and that you will state to 
brought East to command an army where whomsoever it may seem to you proper 
there were a great many generals who and necessary my present convictions upon 
had had experience in a previous war, and this case. 

who had, like himself, a military educa- Very truly yours, U. S. Grant. 
tion, and there may (improperly) have Perhaps no person unconnected with the 
been a feeling that it was a reflection army contributed in so great a degree to 
upon them to go out of their own command General Grant's success in the Civil War 
to find a suitable commander; and it is as the Hon. Elihu 1'.. Washburne, to whom 
also very probable that expression was 1he following extremely interesting letter 
freely given to that feeling. But it would was addressed. It is certainly of great 
be well to reflect what would have been historical value, and reveals in a very La- 
the sentiment in the West, if an officer teresting way some of the strongest and 
from the Eastern army had been sent out most admirable traits of General Grant *s 
to supersede all of them and to command character. Mr. Washburne (1816-87) 
them, and whether or not there might was the member of Congress from Galena, 
have not been some harsh criticisms, even 111., where Grant was employed at the be- 
by men who proved to be among our most ginning of the war. The two men first 



met at that time ; they immediately became contracts, and a change of quartermaster 
friends, and during the great struggle having taken place in the mean time the 
Washburne was the constant supporter and new quartermaster would not receive them 
sturdy defender of the Silent Commander, without my order, except at rates he could 
who would never defend himself from the then get the same articles for from other 
shameful charges that were frequently parties. This I refused to give. The 
made against his private character, and contractors then called on me, and tried to 
also as a soldier. When Grant became convince me that the obligation was bind- 
President he appointed Mr. Washburne his ing, but finding me immovable in the mat- 
Secretary of State, but after occupying ter, asked if General Allen's approval to 
that high office for a few weeks, he was the contract would not be sufficient. My 
sent as the American representative to reply was, in substance, that General Allen 
France. He filled that position with pre- was chief quartermaster of the depart- 
eminent ability and signal distinction, ment, and I could not control him. They 
publishing after his return to the United immediately left me, and, thinking over 
States a valuable and interesting work, in the matter, it occurred to me that they 
2 octavo volumes, entitled Recollections would go immediately to St. Louis and 
of a Minister to France, 1869-1877: present their contract for approval without 

mentioning the objection I made to it. 

La Grange, Tenn., Nov. 7, 1862. j then telegraphed to General Allen the 

Not having much of special note to write facts, and put him on his guard against 

you since your visit to Jackson, and know- these men. For some reason, however, my 

ing that you were fully engaged, I have despatch did not reach St. Louis for two 

not troubled you with a letter. I write days. General Allen then replied to it, 

now a little on selfish grounds. stating that those parties had been to him 

I see from the papers that Mr. the day before, and knowing no objection 

is to be called near the President in some to the contract he had approved it. 

capacity. I believe him to be one of my The parties then returned to Cairo evi- 

bitterest enemies. The grounds of his dently thinking they had gained a great 

enmity I suppose to be the course I triumph. But there being no money to 

pursued while at Cairo towards certain pay at that time and because of the bad 

contractors and speculators who wished repute the quartermaster's department 

to make fortunes off of the soldiers and was in, they were afraid to take vouchers 

government, and in which he took much without my approval. They again called 

interest, whether a partner or not. He call- on me to secure this. My reply to them 

ed on me in regard to the rights of a post was that they had obtained their contract 

sutler for Cairo (an appointment not without my consent, had got it approved 

known to the law) whom he had got ap- against my sense of duty to the govern- 

pointed. Finding that I would regard him ment, and they might go on and deliver 

in the light of any other merchant who their forage and get their pay in the same 

might set up there, that I would neither way. I would never approve a voucher 

secure him a monopoly of the trade nor for them under that contract if they never 

his pay at the pay-table for such as he got a cent. I hoped they would not. This 

might trust out, the sutler never made his forced them to abandon the contract and 

appearance. If he did he never made him- to sell the forage already delivered for 

self known to me. what it was worth. 

In the case of some contracts that were Mr. took much interest in this 

given out for the supply of forage, they matter and wrote me one or more let- 
were given, if not to the very highest ters on the subject, rather offensive in 
bidder, to far from the lowest, and full their manner. These letters I have pre- 
30 per cent, higher than the articles could served, but they are locked up in Mr. 
have been bought for at that time. Learn- Safford's safe in Cairo. I afterwards 
ing these facts, I immediately annulled learned from undoubted authority that 
the contracts. there was a combination of wealthy and 

Quite a number of car-loads of grain influential citizens formed, at the begin- 

and hay were brought to Cairo on these ning of this war, for the purpose of 



monopolizing the army contracts. One of American Revolutionary War; and died 
their boasts was that they had sufficient in Paris, Jan. 11, 1788. 
influence to remove any general who did On Aug. 3, 1781, the French fleet, under 
not please them. his command, appeared on the American 

The modus operandi for getting con- coast. He had sailed from France, tow- 
tracts at a high rate, I suppose, was for ards the end of March, with twenty-six 
a member of this association to put in 
bids commencing at as low rates as the 
articles could be furnished for, and after 
they were opened all would retire up to 
the highest one who was below any out- 
side person and let him take it. In many 
instances probably they could buy off this 
one for a low figure by assuring him that 
he could not possibly get the contract, for 
if he did not retire it would be held by 
the party below. 

Grants for State Colleges. On July 
8, 1901, the United States Treasury De- 
partment drew warrants aggregating 
$1,200,000, or $25,000 each, for the State 
and Territorial agricultural colleges, being 
the maximum amount provided for by 
Congress in the act of Aug. 30, 1890, for 
the endowment and maintenance of col- ships-of-the-line, followed by an immense 
leges for the benefit of agriculture and convoy of about 250 merchantmen. That 
mechanic arts. This act provided a min- convoy he put safely into the harbor of 
imum sum of $15,000 for that year, with Port Royal, having carefully avoided a 
an annual increase of $1,000 for ten years close engagement with a part of Rodney's 
up to $25,000. The maximum was reach- fleet, under Admiral Hood. He engaged 
ed in 1901, and hereafter each of the with British vessels at long range (April 
States and Territories will receive an- 29), and so injured them that they were 
nually this sum for its agricultural col- obliged to go to Antigua for repairs, and, 
leges. This money is the proceeds of the meanwhile, he accomplished the conquest 

sale of public lands. 

Grape Island, Affair at. In Boston 
Harbor was Grape Island, to which, on 
Sunday morning. May 21, 1775, some Brit- 
ish troops repaired to secure hay; for so 
closely were they besieged in Boston, that 
only on the islands in and near the har- 
bor could they procure grass or straw 

of Tobago in June. He then proceeded 
with the fleet of merchantmen to Santo 
Domingo, and soon afterwards sailed with 
an immense return convoy, bound for 
France. After seeing it well on its way, 
he steered for the Chesapeake, and, de- 
spite the activity of British fleets wa tell- 
ing for him, he was safe within the capes 

or fresh meat. Three alarm-guns were of Virginia, and at anchor, with twenty- 
fired; the drums beat to arms; the bells four ships-of-the-line, at the beginning of 
of neighboring towns were rung; and very September. He found an officer of Lafay- 
soon about 2,000 of the men of that region ette's staff at Cape Henry, sent to request 
were flocking to the water's edge. They him to blockade the York and James riv- 
sc.on obtained a lighter and a sloop, when ers, so as to cut off Cornwallis's retreat, 
many jumped on board, pushed off, and This was done by four ships-of-the-line 
landed on the island. The British fled, and several frigates; and 3,000 French 
and the Americans burned the hay they troops were sent to join Lafayette. 
had gathered. Admiral Rodney supposed part of the 
Grasse-Tilly, Francois Joseph Paul, French fleet had left the West Indies for 
Count de, naval officer; born in Valette, America, but did not suppose the whole 
France, in 1723; entered the navy when fleet would take that direction. He 
eleven years old; was conspicuous in the thought it only necessary to reinforce Ad- 



miral Graves, so he sent Admiral Hood 
with fourteen ships-of-the-line for the pur- 
pose. He reached the Chesapeake (Aug. 
25, 1781) before the French. Not finding 
Graves there, he proceeded to New York, 
where news had just arrived that the 
French squadron at Newport had gone to 
sea, plainly with intent to join the new 
French fleet. In the hope of cutting off 
one or the other of the French fleets be- 
fore the junction could be effected, Graves 
sailed with the united British fleets, nine- 
teen ships-of-the-line, and was astonished, 
when he arrived at the capes of Virginia, 
to find the French anchored within. De 
Grasse, also surprised at this sudden ap- 
pearance of a heavy British fleet, ordered 
his ships to slip their cables and put to 
sea. For five days the contending ves- 
sels manoeuvred in sight of each other. 
De Grasse avoided a close contact, his ob- 
ject being to cover the arrival of the 
squadron from Newport. So a distant 
cannonade was kept up. De Barras en- 
tered the Chesapeake. Graves finding his 
vessels badly shattered, returned to New 
York to refit, leaving the French in un- 
disturbed possession of the bay, and the 
French transports were then sent to An- 
napolis to convey to the James River the 
allied armies. 

On April 12, 1782, a fierce naval en- 
gagement occurred in the West Indies be- 


tween Count de Grasse and Admiral Sir 
George Rodney. The count's flag-ship was 
the Ville de Paris, the same as when he 
assisted in the capture of Oornwallis at 

Yorktown. She was a magnificent vessel, 
which the city of Paris had presented to 
the King (Louis XV.). The count fought 
his antagonist with such desperation that 
when he was compelled to strike his colors 
only two men besides himself were left 
standing on the upper deck. By this de- 
feat and capture there fell into the hands 
of the English thirty-six chests of money 
and the whole train of artillery intended 

/ls fjo^J^ ot~**y* 


for an attack on Jamaica. The French 
lost in the engagement, in killed and 
wounded, about 3,000 men; the British 
lost 1,100. For more than a century the 
French had not, in any naval engagement, 
been so completely beaten. 

The family of De Grasse were ruined 
by the fury of the French Revolution, 
and four of his daughters (Amelia, 
Adelaide, Melanie, and Silvia) came to 
the United States in extreme poverty. 
Congress, in February, 1795, gave them 
each $1,000, in consideration "of the ex- 
traordinary services rendered the United 
States in the year 1781 by the late Count 
de Grasse, at the urgent request of the 
commander-in-chief of the American forces, 
beyond the term limited for his co-opera- 
tion with the troops of the United States." 

Grassi, John, clergyman; born in 
Verona, Italy, Oct. 1, 1778; settled in 
Maryland as the superior of Jesuit mis- 
sions in 1810; returned to Italy in 1817. 
He was the author of Various Notices of 
the Present State of the Republic of the 
United, States of America. He died in 
Italy, Dec. 12, 1849. 

Graves (Lord), Thomas, was born in 
1725. Having served under Anson, Hawke, 
and others, he was placed in command of 
the Antelope, on the North American sta- 
tion, in 1761, and made governor of New- 
foundland. In 1779 he became rear- 
admiral of the blue, and the next year 
came to America with reinforcements for 
Admiral Arbuthnot. On the return of 



the latter to England in 1781, Graves be- Bell. In 1893 Professor Gray invented 
came chief naval commander on the Amer- the telautograph, which so far improved 
ican station. He was defeated (Sept. 5) the telephone and the telegraph as to 
by De Grasse. In 1795 he was second in transmit the actual handwriting of mes- 
command under Lord Howe, and was sages. He established the Gray Electric 
raised to an' Irish peerage and admiral of Company at Highland Park, 111., and 
the white on June'l, the same year. He organized the Congress of Electricians, in 
died Jan. 31 1802. connection with the World's Columbian 
Graveyard Insurance, the popular des- Exposition in 1893, and was its chairman, 
ignation of a form of life insurance that His works include Experimental Be- 
at one time was extensively carried on in searches in Electro-Harmonic Telegraphy 
several of the Northern States, especially and Telephony; and Elementary Talks on 
Pennsylvania. It was an outgrowth of Science. He died in Newtonville, Mass., 
what is known as industrial insurance, Jan. 21, 1901. 

in which policies were issued for small Gray, George, patriot; born in Phila- 
amounts from childhood up to extreme old delphia, Pa., Oct. 26, 1725; became a mem- 
age, the premiums being paid in small and ber of the board of war in 1777, and 
frequent instalments. For a time no later was chairman of that body till the 
medical examination nor personal identi- conclusion of peace. He wrote the cele- 
fication was required from agents, and brated Treason Resolutions. He died near 
because of this they added largely to Philadelphia in 1800. 
their income by presenting applications Gray, George, lawyer; born in New 
to their respective companies in the names Castle, Del., May 4, 1840; graduated 
of people, long dead, taken from head- at Princeton College in 1859; studied law 
stones in cemeteries. at the Harvard Law School, and was ad- 
Gray, Asa, botanist; born in Paris, mitted to the bar in 18G3. In 1879-85 
N. Y., Nov. 18, 1810; studied botany he was attorney-general of Delaware; in 
under Dr. John Torrey, Professor of Nat- 1885-99 United States Senator. In the 
ural History at Harvard College in 1S42- Presidential campaign of 189G he was 
73; became widely known by his text- affiliated with the National (gold-stand- 
books on botany, which are in general use ard) Democratic party. In 1898 he was 
throughout the United States. He was first appointed a member of the Anglo- 
the author of Elements of Botany; Struct- American Commission (q. v.), and soon 
ural and Systematic Botany; Manual of afterwards one of the commissioners to 
the Botany of the Northern United States; negotiate peace between the United States 
Gray's Botanical Text-Book, and many and Spain. On Oct. 17, 1900, he was ap- 
others. He died in Cambridge, Mass., pointed one of the American members of 
Jan. 30 1888. The Hague Arbitration Commission; and 
Gray) Elisha, electrician; born in in 1902, a member of the Coal-Strike Com- 
Barnesville, O., Aug. 2, 1835; in early life mission; and judge of the U. S. Circuit 
was a blacksmith, carpenter, and boat- Court since 1899. He is popular as an 
builder. Later he went to Oberlin Col- arbitrator in labor troubles, 
lege, where he followed special studies in Gray, Henry Peters, artist; born in 
physical science, supporting himself by New York City, June 23, 1819; established 
working at his trade. In 18G7 he in- a studio in New York in 1869. His 
vented a self-adjusting telegraph relay, works include Wages of War; The Birth 
and soon afterwards designed the tele- of our Flag; etc. He died in New York 
graphic switch and annunciator for hotels, City, Nov. 2, 1877. 

the private telegraph line printer, the tele- Gray, Horace, jurist; born in Boston, 

graphic repeater, etc. In 1872 ho organ- Mass., March 24, 1828; graduated at Har- 

ized the Western Electric Manufacturing vard in 1845; justice of the United States 

Company, but in 1874 withdrew from it. Supreme Court in 1882. He died in Na- 

In 1876 he claimed to have invented the hant, Mass., Sept. 15, 1902. 

speaking telephone, but after a momma- Gray, Roman', explorer; born in Tiver- 

ble litigation that honor was awarded by ton. R. I., in 1755; Mas captain of the 

the courts to Prof. Alexander Graham Washington, which was sent in 1787 to 



the northwest coast to trade with the Ind- 
ians by a number of Boston merchants. 
In 1790 he returned by way of the Pa- 
cific Ocean on board the Columbia, which 
vessel had accompanied the Washington, 
and was thus the first to sail around the 
world under the American flag. Later he 
made a second trip to the Northwest, and 
on May 11, 1791, discovered the mouth 
of the great river, which he named Colum- 
bia. He died in Charleston, S. C, in 1806. 

Graydon, Alexander, author; born in 
Bristol, Pa., April 10, 1752; studied law; 
entered the Continental army in 1775; 
was captured in the engagement on Har- 
lem Heights and imprisoned in New York, 
and later in Flatbush; was paroled and in 
1778 exchanged. He was the author of 
Memoirs of a Life, chiefly passed in Penn- 
sylvania, within the Last Sixty Years, 
with Occasional Remarks upon the Gen- 
eral Occurrences, Character, and Spirit 
of that Eventful Period. He died in 
Philadelphia, Pa., May 2, 1818. 

Graydon, William, lawyer; born near 
Bristol, Pa., Sept. 4, 1759; brother of 

1809; began law practice at Beaufort; 
member of Congress in 1833-37; was op- 
posed to the Civil War. He was the au- 
thor of The Hireling and Slave; The Coun- 
try (a poem) ; The Life of James Lewis 
Petigru, etc. He died in Newberry, Oct. 
4, 18G3. 

Great Bridge, Battle at the. On the 
invasion of the Elizabeth River by Lord 
Dunmore (November, 1775), Colonel 
Woodford called the militia to arms. 
Dunmore fortified a passage of the Eliza- 
beth Biver, on the borders of the Dismal 
Swamp, where he suspected the militia 
would attempt to cross. It was known as 
the Great Bridge. There he cast up in- 
trenchments, at the Norfolk end of the 
bridge, and amply supplied them with 
cannon. These were garrisoned by Brit- 
ish regulars, Virginia Tories, negroes, and 
vagrants, in number about 600. Wood- 
ford constructed a small fortification at 
the opposite end of the bridge. On Satur- 
day morning, Dec. 9, Captains Leslie and 
Fordyce, sent by Dunmore, attacked the 
"Virginians. After considerable manceu- 


Alexander Graydon; studied law; removed vring and skirmishing, a sharp battle en- 
to Pittsburg, where he began practice. In sued, lasting about twenty-five minutes, 
1794-95 he was a prominent leader in the when the assailants were repulsed ano. 

" Mill-dam troubles." He published a 
Digest of the Laws of the United States; 

fled, leaving two spiked field-pieces behind 
them. The loss of the assailants was 

Forms of Conveyancing and of Practice fifty-five killed and wounded. Not a Vir- 

in the Various Courts and Public Offices, ginian was killed, and only one man was 

etc. He died in Harrisburg, Pa., Oct. 13, slightly wounded in the battle. 
1840. Great Britain. Although this name 

Grayson, William John, lawyer; born was applied by the French at a very early 

in Beaufort, S. C, Nov. 10, 1788; grad- period to distinguish it from " Little Brit 

uated at the College of Charleston in ain," the name of the western peninsular 
iv. — K 145 


projection of France, called by the Ro- 
mans Amorica, it was seldom used on that 
island until the accession of James I. to 
the crown of England (1603), when the 
whole of the island, comprising England, 
Scotland, and Wales, was united under 
one sovereign. By the legislative union 

between England and Scotland in 1707- 
Great Britain became the legal title of the 
kingdom. The official style of the empire 
is now United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

Great Britain, Arraignment of. Set 
Hancock, John. 


Great Charter (Magna Charta). The 
corner-stone of personal liberty and civil 
rights. The basis of the British consti- 
tution and the formal beginning of mod- 
era constitutional government. See Mag- 
na Charta. 

John, the only John who ever sat on the 
throne of England, and reputed to be one 
of the most detestable wretches that ever 
lived, will have his name associated to the 
end of time with one of the most memor- 
able epochs of history. 

In 1207, a few years after John came to 
the throne, he quarrelled with the pope 
over the appointment of an archbishop of 
Canterbury, which at last culminated in 
the whole country being placed under an 
interdict, the most terrible form of whole- 
sale excommunication the Roman Catholic 
Church could impose, and in those times 
it was dreaded ; it is indubitable, however, 
that personally John deserved all the pun- 
ishment he received, and no historian has 
a word of pity for him. 

About three years before this time the 
French provinces had been lost, and the 
barons, who held estates both in England 
and Normandy, had been obliged to choose 
the one or the other, so that the barons 
who wrested from John the great charter 
were English barons, and some of them 
were smarting over the loss of their conti- 
nental possessions. 

As the barons found that every promise 
that had been made at his coronation had 
been broken, and that nothing but force 
had any effect, they determined to bring 
the matter to a climax, and took up arms 
against the King. 

The clergy, though John was the vassal 
of the pope, and specially under his pro- 
tection, ranged themselves mostly on the 
side of the barons, and the freemen, many 
of whom had had their goods seized ille- 

gally, and some had suffered in person, 
were also on the same side. Stephen 
Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
supported the barons and the people, and 
when it was seen that nothing but force 
would do, the barons set out, and gather- 
ing men as they went, came up with the 
King at the historic Runnymede, near 
Windsor, and he, seeing their forces, was 
constrained on June 15, 1215, to sign the 
great charter, the text of which is as fol- 
lows : 


John, by the grace of God, King of Eng- 
land, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy 
and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou; to all 
archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, 
barons, sheriffs, officers, and to all bailiffs 
and other his faithful subjects, greeting. 

Know ye, that we, in the presence of 
God, and for the health of our soul, and 
the souls of our ancestors and heirs, and 
to the honour of God and the exaltation 
of Holy Church, and amendment of our 
kingdom; by advice of our venerable fa- 
thers, Stephen archbishop of Canterbury, 
primate of all England, and cardinal of 
the Holy Roman Church; Henry arch- 
bishop of Dublin, William bishop of Lon- 
don, Peter of Winchester, Jocelin of Bath 
and Glastonbury, Hugh of Lincoln, Walter 
of Worcester, William of Coventry, Bene- 
dict of Rochester, bishops; and Master 
Pandulph the pope's sub-deacon and famil- 
iar, Brother Aymerick master of the 
Knights Templars in England, and the no- 
ble persons, William the marshal, earl of 
Pembroke, William earl of Salisbury, 
William earl of Warren, William earl 
of Arundel, Alan de Galloway, constable 
of Scotland, Warin Fitzgerald, Peter Fitz- 
Herbcrt, and Hubert de Burgh, seneschal 
of Poictou, Hugo de Nevil, Matthew Fitz- 
Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset 



Thilip of Albiney, Robert de Ropele, John 
Marshall, John Fitz-Hugh, and others our 
liegemen, have in the first place granted 
to God, and by this our present Charter 
confirmed for us and our heirs forever. 

I. That the Church of England shall be 
free, and shall have her whole rights, and 
her liberties inviolable; and I will this to 
be observed in such a way that it may ap- 
pear thence, that the freedom of elections, 
which is reckoned most necessary to the 
English Church, which we granted, and by 
our charter confirmed, and obtained the 
confirmation of it from Pope Innocent III 
before the discord between us and our 
barons, was of our own free will. Which 
charter we shall observe; and we will it 
to be observed faithfully by our heirs for- 

II. We have also granted to all the 
freemen of our kingdom, for us and our 
heirs forever, all the underwritten liber- 
ties, to be held and enjoyed by them and 
their heirs, of us and our heirs. If any 
of our earls or barons, or others who hold 
of us in chief by military service, shall die, 
and at his death his heir shall be of full 
age, and shall owe a relief, he shall have 
his inheritance for the ancient relief, viz., 
the heir or heirs of an earl, a whole earl's 
estate for one hundred pounds; the heir 
or heirs of a baron, a whole barony, for 
one hundred pounds; the heir or heirs 
of a knight, a whole knight's fee, for one 
hundred shillings at most; and he who 
owes less, shall pay less, according to the 
ancient custom of fees. 

III. But if the heir of any such be a 
minor, and shall be in ward, when he 
comes of age he shall have his inheritance 
without relief and without fine. 

IV. The guardian of an heir who is a 
minor, shall not take of the lands of the 
heir any but reasonable issues, and rea- 
sonable customs, and reasonable services, 
and that without destruction and waste of 
the men or goods; and if we commit the 
custody of any such lands to a sheriff, or 
to any other person who is bound to an- 
swer to us for the issues of them, and he 
shall make destruction or waste on the 
ward lands, we will take restitution from 
him, and the lands shall be committed to 
two legal and discreet men of that fee, 
who shall answer for the issues to us, or 
to him to whom we shall assign them; and 

if we grant or sell to any one the custody 
of any such lands, and he shall make de- 
struction or waste, he shall lose the cus- 
tody; which shall be committed to two le- 
gal and discreet men of that fee, who shalj 
answer to us, in like manner as afore- 

V. Besides, the guardian, so long as he 
hath the custody of the lands, shall keep 
in order the houses, parks, warrens, ponds, 
mills, and other things belonging to them, 
out of their issues ; and shall deliver to the 
heir, when he is full age, his whole lands, 
provided with ploughs and other imple- 
ments of husbandry, according to what the 
season requires, and the issues of the lands 
can reasonably bear. 

VI. Heirs shall be married without dis- 
paragement, and so that, before the mar- 
riage is contracted, notice shall be given 
to the relations of the heir by consanguin- 

VII. A widow, after the death of her 
husband, shall immediately, and without 
difficulty, have her marriage goods and her 
inheritance; nor shall she give anything 
for her dower, or her marriage goods, or 
her inheritance, which her husband and 
she held at the day of his death. And 
she may remain in the mansion house of 
her husband forty days after his death; 
within which time her dower shall be as- 
signed, if it has not been assigned before, 
or unless the house shall be a castle, and 
if she leaves the castle, there shall forth- 
with be provided for her a suitable house, 
in which she may properly dwell, until 
her dower be to her assigned, as said 
above ; and in the mean time she shall have 
her reasonable estover from the common 
income. And there shall be assigned to her 
for her dower the third part of all the 
lands, which were her husband's in his 
lifetime, unless a smaller amount was set- 
tled at the church door. 

VIII. No widow shall be distrained to 
marry herself so long as she has a mind 
to live without a husband. But yet she 
shall give security that she will not marry 
without our assent, if she holds of us; or 
without the consent of the lord of whom 
she holds, if she holds of another. 

IX. Neither we nor our bailiffs shall 
seize any land or rent for any debt, so 
long as the chattels of the debtor are 
sufficient to pay the debt, and the debtor 



is prepared to give satisfaction. Nor shall the archbishops, bishops, earls, and greater 

the sureties of the debtor be distrained, barons, singly, by our letters; and besides, 

so long as the principal debtor be sufficient we will cause to be summoned generally by 

for the payment of the debt. And if the our sheriffs and bailiffs, all those who hold 

principal debtor fail in the payment of the of us in chief, for a certain day, that is to 

debt, not having wherewithal to discharge say, forty days before their meeting at 

it, or will not discharge it when he is able, least, and to a certain place; and in all 

then tne sureties shall answer the debt, the letters of summons, we will declare 

and if they will they shall have the lands the cause of the summons; and the sum- 

and rents of the debtor, until they shall mons being thus made, the business shall 

be satisfied for the debt which they paid go on at the day appointed, according to 

for him; unless the principal debtor can the advice of those who shall be present, 

show himself acquitted thereof against the although all who had been summoned have 

said sureties. not come. 

X. If any one have borrowed anything XV. We will not authorize any one, for 
of the Jews,* more or less, and dies before the future, to take an aid of his freemen, 
the debt is satisfied, there shall be no in- except to ransom his body, to make his 
terest paid for that debt, so long as the eldest son a knight, and once to marry his 
heir is a minor, of whomsoever he may eldest daughter; and for these only a rea- 
hold: and if the debt falls into our hands, sonable aid. 

we will take only the chattel mentioned in XVI. No one shall be distrained to do 

the deed. more service for a knight's fee, nor for any 

XI. If any one shall die indebted to other free tenement, than what is due from 
Jews, his wife shall have her dower, and thence. 

pay nothing of that debt; and if the de- XVII. Common pleas shall not follow 

ceased left children under age, they shall our court, but shall be held in some certain 

have necessaries provided for them accord- place. 

ing to the tenement of the deceased, and XVIII. Assizes upon the writs of Novel 

out of the residue the debt shall be paid; Disseisin, Mort d'Ancestre and Darrein 

saving however the service of the lords. In presentment,* shall not be taken but in 

like manner the debts due to other persons their proper counties, and in this manner, 

than Jews shall be paid. — We, or our chief justiciary when we are 

XII. No scutage or aid shall be im- out of the kingdom, shall send two jus- 
posed in our kingdom, unless by the com- ticiaries into each county four times a 
mon council of our kingdom, except to year, who, with four knights chosen out 
ransom our person, and to make our eldest of every shire by the people, shall 1 old the 
son a knight, and once to marry our eld- said assizes at a stated time and place, 
est daughter; and for these there shall within the county. 

only be paid a reasonable aid. XIX. And if any matters cannot be de- 

XIII. In like manner it shall be concern- termined on the day appointed for holding 
ing the aids of the City of London ; the the assizes in each county, let as many 
City of London shall have all its ancient knights and freeholders of those who were 
liberties and free customs, as well by land present remain behind, as may be neces- 
as by water. Furthermore we will and sary to decide them, according as there is 
grant that all other cities and boroughs, more or less business. 

and towns and ports shall have all their XX. A freeman shall not be amerced for 

liberties and free customs. a small offence, but only according to the 

XIV. And for holding the common coun- degree of the offence: and for a great 
cil of the kingdom concerning the assess- crime, according to the heinousness of it, 
ment of aids, otherwise than in the three saving to him his contenement; and after 
aforesaid cases, and for the assessment of the same manner a merchant, saving to 
scutages, we will cause to be summoned him his merchandise; and a villein shall 

be amerced after the same manner, saving 

•Christians in those days were forbidden to him h j g wa i na „ 0i jf ] ie falls under our 
by the canon law to lend on usury ; the 

whole or the money-lending was therefore in * Last presentation to a benefice. — Fthcldnn 

the hands of the Jews. Amos. 



mercy; and none of the aforesaid amercia- 
ments shall be assessed but by the oath of 
honest men in the neighbourhood. 

XXI. Earls and barons shall not be 
amerced but by their peers, and according 
to the degree of the offence. 

XXII. No ecclesiastical person shall be 
amerced for his lay-tenement, but accord- 
ing to the proportion of the others afore- 
said, and not according to the value of his s 
ecclesiastical benefice. 

XXIII. Neither a town nor any tenant 
shall be distrained to make bridges or 
banks, unless that anciently and of right 
they are bound to do it. No river for the 
future shall be imbanked but what was 
imbanked in the time of King Henry I., 
our grandfather. 

XXIV. No sheriff, constable, coroner, or 
other our bailiffs, shall hold pleas of the 

XXV. All counties, hundreds, wapen- 
takes, and tithings shall stand at the old 
rents, without any increase, except in our 
demesne manors. 

XXVI. If any one holding of us a lay- 
fee, dies, and the sheriff or our bailiff show 
our letters patent of summons for debt 
which the deceased did owe to us, it shall 
be lawful for the sheriff or our bailiff to 
attach and register the chattels of the de- 
ceased found upon his lay-fee, to the value 
of the debt, by the view of lawful men, so 
as nothing be removed until our whole debt 
be paid; and the rest shall be left to the 
executors to fulfil the will of the deceased; 
and if there be nothing due from him to 
us, all the chattels shall remain to the de- 
ceased, saving to his wife and children 
their reasonable shares. 

XXVII. If any freeman dies intestate, 
his chattels shall be distributed by the 
hands of his nearest relations and friends 
by view of the church, saving to every 
one his debts, which the deceased owed. 

XXVIII. No constable or bailiff of ours 
shall take the corn or other chattels of any 
man, without instantly paying money for 
them, unless he can obtain respite by the 
good-will of the seller. 

XXIX. No constable shall distrain any 
knight to give money for castle-guard, if 
he is willing to perform it in his own per- 
son, or by another able man if he cannot 
perform it himself through a reasonable 
eause. And if we have carried or sent 

him into the army, he shall be excused 
from castle-guard for the time he shall be 
in the army at our command. 

XXX. No sheriff or bailiff of ours or 
any other person shall take the horses 
or carts of any freeman to perform car- 
riages, without the assent of the said 

XXXI. Neither we, nor our bailiffs, 
shall take another man's timber for our 
castles or other uses, without the consent 
of the owner of the timber. 

XXXII. We will not retain the lands of 
those who have been convicted of felony 
above one year and one day, and then 
they shall be given up to the lord of the 

XXXIII. All kydells* for the future 
shall be removed out of the Thames, the 
Medway, and throughout all England, ex- 
cept upon the sea- coast. 

XXXIV. The writ which is called Prae- 
cipe, for the future, shall not be made out 
to any one concerning any tenement by 
which any freeman may lose his court. 

XXXV. There shall be one measure of 
wine and one of ale through our whole 
realm; and one measure of corn, viz., the 
London quarter; also one breadth of dyed 
cloth and of russets, and of halberjects,** 
viz., two ells within the lists. It shall be 
the same with weights as with measures. 

XXXVI. Nothing shall be given or 
taken for the future for the writ of in- 
quisition of life or limb, but it shall be 
granted freely, and not denied. 

XXXVII. If any one hold of us by fee- 
farm, or socage, or burgage, and holds 
lands of another by military service, we 
shall not have the custody of the heir, or 
of his land, which is held of the fee of 
another, through that fee-farm, or socage, 
or burgage; nor will we have the ward- 
ship of the fee-farm, socage, or burgage, 
unless the fee-farm is bound to perform 
knight's service to us. We will not have 
the custody of an heir, nor of any land 
which he holds of another by military ser- 
vice, by reason of any petit-sergeantry he 
holds of us, as by the service of paying a 
knife, an arrow, or such like. 

XXXVIII. No bailiff from henceforth 
shall put any man to his law upon his 

* A dam made across a river for diverting 
water to a mill or taking fish. 
** A coarse kind of cloth. 



own saying, without credible witnesses to 
prove it. 

XXXIX. No freeman shall be taken, or 
imprisoned, or disseized, or outlawed, or 
banished, or any ways destroyed, nor will 
we pass upon him, nor will we send upon 
him, unless by the lawful judgment of his 
peers, or by the law of the land. 

XL. We will sell to no man, we will not 
deny to any man, either justice or right. 

XLI. All merchants shall have safe and 
secure conduct, to go out of, and to come 
into England, and to stay there, and to 
pass as well by land as by water, for buy- 
ing and selling by the ancient and allowed 
customs, without any evil tolls; except in 
time of war, or when they are of any na- 
tion at war with us. And if there be found 
any such in our land in the beginning of 
the war, they shall be attached, without 
damage to their bodies or goods, until it 
be known unto us or our chief justiciary 
how our merchants be treated in the coun- 
try at war with us; and if ours be safe 
there, the others shall be safe in our do- 

XLII. It shall be lawful for the time to 
come for any one to go out of our king- 
dom, and return, safely and securely, by 
land or by water, saving his allegiance to 
us; unless in time of war, by some short 
6pace, for the common benefit of the realm, 
except prisoners and outlaws, according to 
the law of the land, and people in war 
with us, and merchants who shall be in 
such condition as is above mentioned. 

XLIII. If any man hold of any escheat, 
as of the honour of Wallingford, Notting- 
ham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or of other es- 
cheats which are in our hands, and are 
baronies, and shall die, his heir shall give 
no other relief, and perform no other ser- 
vice to us, than he should have done to 
the baron if it had been in the hands of 
the baron; and we will hold it in the same 
manner that the baron held it. 

XLIV. Men who dwell without the for- 
est shall not come, for the future, before 
our justiciary of the forest on a common 
summons, unless they be parties in a plea, 
or sureties for some person who is attach- 
ed for something concerning the forest. 

XLV. We will not make any justici- 
aries, constables, sheriffs, or bailiffs, but 
from those who understand the law of the 
realm, and are Well-disposed to observe it. 

XLVI. All barons who have founded ab- 
beys, which they hold by charters of the 
kings of England, or by ancient tenure, 
shall have the custody of them when they 
become vacant, as they ought to have. 

XLVI1. All forests which have been 
made in our time, shall be immediately 
disforested; and the same shall be done 
with water banks which have been made 
in our time. 

XLVI1I. All evil customs connected 
with forests and warrens, foresters and 
warreners, sheriffs and their officers, wa- 
ter-banks and their keepers, shall at once 
be inquired into in eaeh county by twelve 
sworn knights of the county who shall 
be chosen by creditable men of the same 
county; and within forty days after the 
inquiry is made, they shall be utterly 
abolished by them, never to be restored; 
provided notice be given to us before it is 
done, or to our justiciary, if we are not in 

XLIX. We will at once give up all host- 
ages and writings that have been given to 
us by our English subjects, as securities 
for their keeping the peace, and faithfully 
performing their services to us. 

L. We will remove absolutely from their 
bailiwicks the relations of Gerard de 
Athyes, that henceforth they shall have 
no bailiwick in England; we will also re- 
move Engelard de Cygony, Andrew, Peter, 
and Gyon from the Chancery; Gyon de 
Cygony, Geoffrey de Martyn, and his 
brothers; Philip Mark, and his brothers; 
his nephew, Geoffrey, and all their fol- 

LT. As soon as peace is restored we will 
send out of the kingdom all foreign sol- 
diers, crossbow-men, and stipendiaries, 
who are come with horses and arms, to the 
injury of onr people. 

LII. If any one has been dispossessed or 
deprived by us, without the legal judg- 
ment of his peers, of his lands, castles, lib- 
erties, or right, we will forthwith restore 
them to him : and if any dispute arise 
upon this head, let the matter be decided 
by the five-and-twenty barons hereafter 
mentioned, for the preservation of the 
peace. As for all those things for which 
any person has, without the legal judg- 
ment of his peers, boon dispossessed or de- 
prived, either by King Henry our father, 
or our brother King Richard, and which 



we have in our hands, or are possessed by pute shall arise about it, the matter shall 

others, and we are bound to warrant and be determined in the marches by the ver- 

make good, we shall have a respite till the diet of their peers; for tenements in Eng- 

term usually allowed the crusaders; ex- land, according to the law of England; 

cepting those things about which there is for tenements in Wales, according to the 

a plea depending, or whereof an inquest law of Wales; for tenements in the 

hath been made, by our order, before we marches, according to the law of the 

undertook the crusade, but when we return marches. The Welsh shall do the same 

from our pilgrimage, or if perchance we to us and our subjects, 

stay at home and do not make the pilgrim- LVII. As for all those things of which 

age, we will immediately cause full justice any Welshman hath been disseized or de- 

to be administered therein. prived, without the legal judgment of his 

LIU. The same respite we shall have, peers, by King Henry our father, or King 

and in the same manner, about administer- Richard our brother, and which we have 

ing justice, disafforesting or continuing in our hands, or others hold with our 

the forests, which Henry our father and warranty, we shall have respite, till the 

our brother Richard have afforested; and time usually allowed the crusaders, ex- 

for the wardship of the lands which are cept those concerning which a suit is de- 

in another's fee in the same manner as we pending, or an inquisition has been taken 

have hitherto enjoyed those wardships, by 
reason of a fee held of us by knight's ser- 
vice; and for the abbeys founded in any 
other fee than our own, in which the lord 

by our order before undertaking the cru- 
sade. But when we return from our pil- 
grimage, or if we remain at home without 
performing the pilgrimage, we shall forth- 

of the fee says he has right; and when we with do them full justice therein, accord- 

return from our pilgrimage, or if we stay 
at home and do not make the pilgrimage, 
we will immediately do full justice to all 
the complainants in this behalf. 

LIV. No man shall be taken or im- 
prisoned upon the accusation of a woman, 
for the death of any other than her hus- 

ing to the laws of Wales, and the parts. 

LVIII. We will, without delay, dismiss 
the son of Llewellin, and all the Welsh 
hostages, and release them from the en- 
gagements they have entered into with us 
for the preservation of the peace. 

LIX. We will treat with Alexander, 
band. King of Scots, concerning the restoring 

LV. All unjust and illegal fines made his sisters and hostages, and his right and 
by us, and all amerciaments that have been liberties, in the same form and manner 
imposed unjustly, or contrary to the law as we shall do to the rest of our barons 
of the land, shall be remitted, or left to of England; unless by the charters which 
the decision of the five-and-twenty barons we have from his father, William, late 
of whom mention is made below for the King of Scots, it ought to be otherwise; 
security of the peace, or the majority of and this shall be left to the determination 
them, together with the aforesaid Stephen of the peers in our court, 
archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be LX. All the aforesaid customs and lib- 
present, and others whom he may think erties, which we have granted to be holden 
fit to bring with him ; and if he cannot be in our kingdom, as much as it belongs to 
present, the business shall proceed notwith- us, towards our people of our kingdom, 
standing without him ; but so, that if one both clergy and laity shall observe, as far 
or more of the aforesaid five-and-twenty as they are concerned, towards their de- 
barons be plaintiffs in the same cause, they pendents. 

must be removed from this particular LXI. And whereas for the honour of God 
trial, and others be chosen instead of them and the amendment of our kingdom, and 
out of the said five-and-twenty, and sworn for the better quieting the strife that has 

arisen between us and our barons, we have 
granted all these things aforesaid; willing 

by the rest to decide the matter. 

LVT. If we have disseized or dispossess- 
ed the Welsh of their lands, or other to render them firm and lasting, we do 
things, without the legal judgment of their give and grant our subjects the under- 

peers. in England or in Wales, they shall 
be at once restored to them; and if a dis- 


written security, namely, that the barons 
may choose five-and-twenty barons of the 


kingdom whom they think convenient, who 
shall take care, with all their might, to 
hold and observe, and cause to be observed, 
the peace and liberties we have granted 
them, and by this our present charter con- 
firmed : so that if we, our justiciary, our 
bailiffs, or any of our officers, shall in any 
circumstance fail in the performance of 
them towards any person, or shall break 
through any of these articles of peace and 
security, and the offence be notified to four 
barons chosen out of the five-and-twenty 
above mentioned, the said four barons 
shall repair to us, or our justiciary, if we 
are out of the kingdom, and laying open 
the grievance shall petition to have it re- 
dressed without delay; and if it not be re- 
dressed by us, or if we should chance to be 
out of the kingdom, if it should not be re- 
dressed by our justiciary within forty 
days, reckoning from the time it has been 
notified to us, or our justiciary (if we 
should be out of the kingdom), the four 
barons aforesaid shall lay the cause before 
the rest of the five-and-twenty barons ; and 
the said five-and-twenty barons, together 
with the community of the whole kingdom, 
shall distrain and distress us in all possi- 
ble ways, by seizing our castles, lands, 
possessions, and in any other manner they 
can, till the grievance is redressed accord- 
ing to their pleasure; saving harmless our 
own person, and the persons of our queen 
and children; and when it is redressed 
they shall obey us as before. And any per- 
son whatsoever in the kingdom may swear 
that he will obey the orders of the five-and- 
twenty barons aforesaid, in the execution 
of the premises, and will distress us joint- 
ly with them, to the utmost of his power, 
and we will give public and free liberty to 
any one that shall please to swear to this, 
and never will hinder any person from 
taking the same oath. 

LXII. As to all those of our people who 
of their own accord will not swear to the 
five-and-twenty barons, to join them in dis- 
tressing and harassing us, we will issue 
orders to compel them to swear as afore- 
said. And if any one of the five-and- 
twenty barons die, or remove out of the 
land, or in any way shall be hindered from 
executing the things aforesaid, the rest of 
the five-and-twenty barons shall elect an- 
other in his place, at their own free will, 
who shall be sworn in the same manner as 

the rest. But in ail these things which 
are appointed to be done by these five-and- 
twenty barons, if it happens that the whole 
number have been present, and have differ- 
ed in their opinions about anything, or if 
some of those summoned would not or could 
not be present, that which the majority of 
those present shall have resolved will be 
held to be as firm and valid, as if all the 
five-and-twenty had agreed. And the afore- 
said five-and-twenty shall 6wear that 
they will faithfully observe, and, to the 
utmost of their power, cause to be observ- 
ed, all the things mentioned above. And 
we will procure nothing from any one by 
ourselves, or by another, by which any of 
these concessions and liberties may be re- 
voked or lessened. And if any such thing 
be obtained, let it be void and null; and 
we will neither use it by ourselves nor by 
another. And all the ill-will, indigna- 
tions, and rancors, that have risen be- 
tween us and our people, clergy and laity, 
from the first breaking out of the discord, 
we do fully remit and forgive; in addi- 
tion all transgressions occasioned by the 
said discord from Easter, in the sixteenth 
year of our reign, till the restoration 
of peace and tranquillity, we do fully re- 
mit to all, both clergy and laity, and as 
far as lies in our power, forgive. More- 
over, we have caused to be made to them 
letters patent testimonial of my lord 
Stephen archbishop of Canterbury, my 
lord Henry archbishop of Dublin, and 
the bishops aforesaid, as also of Master 
Pandulph, for the security and concessions 

LXIIT. Wherefore w r e will and firmly 
enjoin that the Church of England bo free. 
and that all men in our kingdom have and 
hold all the aforesaid liberties, rights, 
and concessions truly and peaceably, freely 
and quietly, fully and wholly to themselves 
and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all 
things and places, forever, as is aforesaid. 
It is also sworn, as well on our pail as on 
the part of the barons, that all the things 
aforesaid shall be observed bona /i*l<- and 
without evil subtlety. Given under our 
hand, in the presence of the witnesses 
above named and many others, in (lie 
meadow called Runnymede. between Wind- 
sor and Staines, the fifteenth day of 
June, in the seventeenth year of our 



Coke pointy out the evils from which the 
charter is a protection, in their proper 

1st. Loss of Liberty. 

2d. Loss of Property. 

3d. Loss of Citizen Rights. 

Creasy remarks that a careful examina- 
tion of the great charter will show that the 
following constitutional principles may be 
found in it, either in express terms or by 
logical inference: 

" The government of the country by a 
hereditary sovereign ruling with limited 
powers, and bound to summon and consult 
a parliament of the whole realm, compris- 

ing hereditary peers and elected represent- 
atives of the commons. 

" That without the sanction of Parlia- 
ment no tax of any kind can be imposed, 
and no law can be made, repealed, or altered. 

" That no man be arbitrarily fined or im- 
prisoned; that no man's properties or lib- 
erties be impaired; and that no man be in 
any way punished except after a lawful 

" Trial by jury. 

" That justice shall not be sold or de- 

Great Eastern, The. This vessel, in 
her day, was remarkable as being the 




Targest steamship ever built. She was 
692 feet in length, and 83 feet in breadth. 
23 feet in draught, and of 24,000 tons 
measurement. At 30 feet draught she 
displaced 27,000 tons — an enormous total 
for an unarmored merchant vessel. As 
early as 1853, this vessel was projected 
for the East India trade around the Cape 
of Good Hope. There were then no ac- 
cessible coal-mines in South Africa, and 
the Eastern Steam Navigation Company- 
wanted a vessel that could carry its own 
fuel to India and return, besides, a large 
number of passengers and a great cargo. 
The vessel was designed by I. K. Brunei, 
and was built at the ship-yards of Messrs. 
Scott, Russell & Co., Millwall, near Lon- 
don. The operation of launching her last- 
ed from Nov. 3, 1857, to Jan. 31, 1858. A 
new company had to be formed to fit her 
for sea, as the capital first subscribed for 
her had all been spent. She was lifted up 
to convey 4,000 persons from London to 
Australia, 800 first-class, 2,000 second- 
class, and 1,200 third-class. She had, be- 
sides, capacity for 5,000 tons of mer- 
chandise and 15,000 tons of coal. Curi- 
ously enough, after all these vast prepa- 
rations, the ship, during all of her varied 
career, was never used in the East India 
trade at all. From the first she was un- 
fortunate. In a test trip from Deptford 
to Portland Roads, in 1860, an explosion 
of one of the boilers occurred, when ten 
firemen were killed and many persons 
were wounded. The steamer started on 
lier first trip from Liverpool to New York, 

June 17, 1S60, making the trip in eleven 
days. She made her return trip in 
August in ten days. She made a number 
of trips to and from New York during the 
three years following, but, owing to the 
lack of freight at profitable rates, she 
was a source of loss to her owners. In 
1864 she was chartered to convey the 
Atlantic submarine cable; carried the 
first cable in 1865, which broke in mid- 
ocean, and also that of 1866, which was 
laid successfully. During this time, also, 
the British government occasionally em- 
ployed her as a transport ship. In 1867 
she was again fitted up for a passenger 
vessel to ply between New York and 
Europe; sailed for New York March 26, 
1867, with accommodations for 2,000 first- 
class passengers, and returned with 191, 
and was immediately seized by the sea- 
men as security for their unpaid wages. 
After this matter was adjusted, the ves- 
sel was leased by a cable construction 
company. She laid the French Atlantic 
telegraph cable in 1869; went to the 
Persian Gulf and laid the cable from 
Bombay to Suez in 1870; in 1873 laid the 
fourth Atlantic telegraph cable; in 1874 
laid the fifth, and was further used to 
some extent in cable construction. When 
there seemed to be no more use for her in 
that line, she was made to serve as a 
" show." After the vessel had been tried 
by the government as a coal barge, and 
proved too unwieldy to do good service, 
she was condemned to be broken up and 
sold as junk. 


Great Lakes and the Navy, The. interest to those who are watching the 
The following careful study of the close progress of our merchant marine; and as 
connection between our navy, the Great this progress is intimately associated with 
Lakes and connecting waterways is by the growth of the navy, it becomes an im- 
Lieut. J. H. Gibbons, U. S. N.: portant question how far this industrial 

movement on the Great Lakes may be 

made a factor in our naval policy. 

The coast lines of the Great Lakes 
border upon nine States containing more 

The report of the commissioner of navi- 
gation for 1897 contains the following 
statement : " The Great Lakes region, 

for the first time in our history, has built than one-third of our population. The 

more tonnage than all the rest of the coun- six large cities on this coast line will 

try: One hundred and twenty vessels of easily aggregate a population of 3.000,000, 

116,937 tons, compared with 137 vessels and to this must be added hundreds of 

of 115,296 tons for the rest of the United prosperous towns. Until within a few 

States." This statement is fraught with years agricultural products and lumber 



were the principal freights in the lake other sources of supply, Sweden, for ex- 
carrying traffic, but the discoveries of ample; but they are not easily accessible, 
iron-ore in the Lake Superior region and cheapness of transportation is essen- 
brought about an unparalleled commercial tial. The condition of affairs promises, 
and maritime growth. This latter industry therefore, to be very much the same, so 
must necessarily prove far-reaching in its far as materials go, as it was at that 
effects; for we are living in the age of period when England passed from the use 
steel, and whatever tends to place us of wood to that of metal in building ships, 
abreast of our rivals in the production of Let us now look at the condition of 
steel tends at the same time to increase the steel industry in the United States. 

our prosperity, and to make us great 
among the nations of the earth. 

Turning to the particular branch of the 
steel industry that is of the most impor- 
tance to the navy — viz., ship-building, a 

In 1892 there were put out 16,036,043 
tons of iron ore, of which the Lake Su- 
perior region contributed 9,564,388 tons. 
The ore from the Great Lakes surpasses 
in richness the ores from any other part 

brief historical retrospect will show that, of the country. New discoveries are be- 

after years of exclusion, everything 
points to our again entering the contest 
for commercial supremacy on the ocean. 

mg constantly reported, and the deposits 
are so easily accessible as to make it pos- 
sible to supply any demand. Since 1888 

In the transitory period from wood to there has been an enormous development 
metal in ship construction, a period in this new industry in the Lake Superior 
roughly estimated as extending from 1840 region, until the amount of capital in- 
to 1880, the American flag practically dis- vested in mining and transportation is 
appeared from the high seas, while Eng- estimated at $234,000,000. The rapid 
land, who had held for over 200 years the growth of this industry justifies the pre- 
first place as a ship-building and ship-own- diction that with access to the ocean by 
ing power, still maintained her position, a practicable deep water-way we can not 
Finding her home supply of ship timber only balance our domestic iron and steel 
exhausted, she began to import it, and as trade, but also compete in the foreign mar- 
this was necessarily incompatible with the ket. 

maintenance of her supremacy, the next plants on the seaboard 
step was to take advantage of her increas- 
ing production of metals. The evolution 
of the iron ship and its successor, the 
steel ship, was the result. The period 
since 1863 has witnessed the production 
of the English steam fleet, until now Brit- 
ish steamers carry the freight and passen- 
gers of the greater part of the world. The 

British ship-yards, too, can now undertake creasing the field for capital and industry, 
the construction of at least twenty battle- while at the same time the iron and steel 
ships and more than twice this number of the establishments on the Great Lakes 

At present many iron and steel 
mport foreign 
iron ores, as the low value of iron ore 
in proportion to its weight shuts out 
transportation by rail from the West. 
But with a deep-water canal reaching from 
the Great Lakes to the ocean, the ores 
required by the manufacturers on the 
Atlantic seaboard could be supplied more 
cheaply than the foreign ores, thus in- 

of cruisers at the same time, a potential 
strength that adds immensely to the 
maintenance of her present sea power. 

But England will in time be confronted 
with a new difficulty. The ores in that 
country are not suitable for steel making, 
and for some years past large quantities 
of ore have been imported from mines 

could be shipped through by water with- 
out breaking bulk and seek the markets 
of the world. 

This brings us to the subject of deep- 
water canals. For several years, while 
the national government has been busy 
with the projected Nicaraguan canal, the 
people of the West, through private en- 

the northern part of Spain. These deavor and public discussion, have been 
mines are being rapidly exhausted. Four- agitating the question of deep water-ways, 
fifths of the output goes to England, and from the Great Lakes to the seaboard, 
it has been estimated that at the present The International Deep Water-ways Con- 
rate ten years will exhaust the mines of vention met at Cleveland, O., Sept. 24, 
the Biscay region. Of course there are 1S95, and among the delegates were many 



business men, noted capitalists, and civil 
engineers from the Lake States, and also 
from the Dominion of Canada. Through 
the efforts of this association the matter 
was brought before Congress by Senator 
William Vilas, of Wisconsin, who, on 
Feb. 8, 1895, introduced a joint resolution 
authorizing a preliminary* inquiry con- 
cerning deep water-ways between the ocean 
and the Great Lakes. This resolution 
was incorporated in the sundry civil ap- 
propriation bill, and became a law on 
March 2, 1895. On Nov. 4 the President, 
in conformity with its provisions, appoint- 
ed three commissioners, James B. Angell, 
of Michigan; John E. Russel, of Massa- 
chusetts; and Lyman E. Cooley, of Illi- 
nois. Soon after this, the Dominion of 
Canada appointed a similar commission, 
and a joint meeting was held in January, 
1896. The United States commission 
spent a year in thoroughly investigating 
the canal question, and submitted their 
report to the President Jan. 8, 1897. In 
this letter transmitting the report to Con- 
gress, President Cleveland says: 

" The advantages of a direct and un- 
broken water transportation of the prod- 
ucts of our Western States and Territories 
from a convenient point of shipment to 
our seaboard ports are plainly palpable. 
The report of the commissioners contains, 
in my opinion, a demonstration of the 
feasibility of securing such transportation, 
and gives ground for the anticipation that 
better and more uninterrupted commerce, 
through the plan suggested, between the 
Great West and foreign ports, with the 
increase of national prosperity which 
must follow in its train, will not long 
escape American enterprise and activity."' 

Meanwhile American " enterprise and 
activity" have been giving the world an 
object-lesson in canal building. The Chi- 
cago drainage canal, designed primarily 
to furnish an adequate system of drainage 
for the city of Chicago, but containing all 
the features of a ship canal, is a munici- 
pal undertaking that is particularly valu- 
able in Bhowing the immense improvement 
in excavating machines and the resultant 
low cost of canal building. The main 
drainage channel extends from the west 
fork of the south branch of the Chicago 
River southwest to Lockport, a distance 
of about 29 miles. The width at the top 


is from 162 feet to 300 feet, and at the 
bottom from 160 feet to 200 feet. The 
depth of water varies from 23 feet to 26 
feet. According to present estimates, it 
will cost $27,303,216. A statement has 
been made that the work of excavation 
will be carried out for less than half the 
cost of similar work on the Manchester 
ship canal, the dimensions of which are, 
length, 30y 3 miles; width at top, 172 feet; 
width at bottom, 120 feet; depth, 26 feet. 

President Cleveland's prediction, there- 
fore, that the feasibility of deep-water 
transportation from the Great Lakes to 
the ocean will not long escape American 
enterprise, bids fair to be realized. If the 
city of Chicago can demonstrate practi- 
cally that deep-water canal building has 
been brought within the bounds of reason- 
able cost, the general government must, 
in response to urgent appeals from a large 
section of the country interested, soon 
pass beyond the stage of preliminary in- 
vestigation to that of definite action. 
Thus far the question of cost has not been 
thoroughly dealt with, but valuable data 
have been collected. Among the more im- 
portant conclusions reached by the United 
States Deep Water-ways Commission are 
the following: 

1. That it is entirely feasible to con- 
struct such canals and develop such chan- 
nels as will give 28 feet of water from the 
Great Lakes to the seaboard. 

2. That, starting from the heads of 
Lakes Michigan and Superior, the most 
eligible route is through the several Great 
Lakes and their intermediate channels 
and the proposed Niagara ship canal 

(Tonawanda to Olcott) to Lake Ontario. 
From Lake Ontario the Canadian seaboard 
can be reached by the way of the St. Law- 
rence River, while the American seaboard 
can be reached by way of the St. Lawrence 
River, Lake Champlain and the Hudson 
Biver. or by way of the Oswego-Oncida- 
Mohawk Valley route and the Hudson 

3. That while our policy of canal build- 
ing should contemplate the ultimate de- 
velopment of the largest useful capacity, 
and all work should be planned on that 
basis, at the same time it is practicable 
to develop the work in separate sections, 
each step having its economic justifica- 
tion. The Niagara ship canal should 



first be undertaken, and incidentally the placement, and has a main battery of four 

broadening and deepening of the inter- G-pounder guns. In the building up of the 

mediate channels of the lakes. new navy, some of the ship-builders on 

Such then is a brief resume of this im- the Great Lakes, whose energy and enter- 
portant industrial movement and its col- prise had gone so far as to build whale 
lateral engineering undertakings. From backs that were towed through the canals 
a military point of view, a series of canals in sections and put together at Montreal, 
entirely within the limits of the United began to inquire whether these methods 
States could be more readily defended, would not be extended to war vessels. In 
But the advantages of following, as far 1890 F. W. Wheeler & Co., of West 
as possible, the natural waterways will at Bay City, Mich., were the lowest bid- 
first probably outweigh the question of ders for the construction of an armored 
defence. If the lake coast - line of over cruiser, one protected cruiser, and a prac- 
3,000 miles is brought into deep-water tice ship. In 1895, the Detroit Dry-Dock 
connection with the Atlantic seaboard, its Company proposed the construction of 
permanent defence will be a question for parts of vessels of war. Both of these 
the army. On the other hand, if perma- bids were rejected by the Navy Depart- 
nent arbitration is to be depended upon ment as being in violation of the Rush- 
as a warrant for following natural com- Bagot agreement. The clause of the 
mercial routes without any thought of agreement which was adjudged to pro- 
ultimate defence, the international char- hibit such construction is as follows.- 
acter of parts of the work and the riparian "All other armored vessels (besides 
interests involved will make the readjust- those authorized to be retained) on these 
ment of the existing treaty relations a lakes shall be forthwith dismantled, and 
question for our statesmen. no other vessels of xoar shall he there 

Coming now to the direct interests of built or armed." On account of this de- 
the navy in this politico-economic ques- cision, the activity in shipbuilding for 
tion, it will be found that under existing government purposes has been confined, 
conditions there is little hope of any on the Great Lakes, to revenue cutters 
immediate addition from this new source and light ships. The Mississippi Valley, 
to our war-vessel The Rush- unhampered by these restrictions, has 
Bagot convention of 1817, entered into built one torpedo-boat, the Ericsson. 
by the United States and Great Britain, Although vessels of war cannot be built 
provides that the naval forces to be main- on the Great Lakes, the building there of 
tained on the Great Lakes shall be con- merchant vessels that by means of the 
fined on each side to one vessel on Lake projected canals will be able to reach the 
Ontario, one vessel on Lake Champlain, seaboard will have an indirect bearing 
and two vessels on the Upper Lakes. These on the future of the navy. Captain Ma- 
vessels are limited to 100 tons burden and han and other writers have pointed out 
an armament of one 18-pounder cannon that we have practically reversed the 
each. This treaty has not taken the shape natural order of things in building ves- 
of a formal international treaty, but has sels of war before building up the mer- 
been practically accepted as binding by chant marine. For more than twenty 
both countries for a period of three- years the government has been a steady 
quarters of a century. Its stipulations customer of the ship-builders on the At- 
bave twice during its history been not- lantic and Pacific coasts. As a result 
ably disregarded, once by each country, ship-building plants have been improved, 
but only on occasions of serious public workmen have been trained, and contrib- 
emergency. In view of the great prog- utory industries have been developed. But 
ress made in ship-building and marine it is claimed by these builders that the 
engineering, it is not strange that there patronage of the government is a tempo- 
has been an evasion of the spirit of these rary help only and that the demands of 
antique stipulations, if not a direct viola- our coastwise trade are insufficient to 
tion of the letter of the law. The United promote ship-building on a large scale. 
States steamer Michigan, now in service The main demand for ships must be cre- 
on the Upper Lakes, is of 685 tons dis- ated bv an extensive foreign trade carried 



on in American bottoms. It has been officers that we really possess a strong 

demonstrated that the economic changes naval reserve in our seafaring population, 

which will be brought about by a deep- Careful investigation will prove that this 

water route from the Great Lakes to the is not a fact. In the merchant marine 

seaboard will enable us to compete with and deep-sea fisheries from 50 per cent, to 

England in the ocean-carrying trade. 70 per cent, of the men are foreigners, 

Since the Civil War, all our energies have and the number of men available, even if 

been directed towards purely domestic de- they all enlisted, which of course would 

velopment, and capital has sought invest- be impossible, would not serve to put the 

ments in the extension of railways, the navy on a war footing. The Naval War 

settlement of new territory, and the in- College has been investigating the vari- 

dustrial regeneration of the South. The ous phases that war on our coast might 

events of more recent years force us to assume, and has found that we shall need 

look beyond the limits of our own shores, a great number of officers, in addition to 

and our diplomacy has made the Monroe 
Doctrine something more than a rhetorical 
declaration. If we boldly aspire to com- 
mercial and political supremacy in the 

those of the regular navy. Where are 
these additional officers to come from? 
The sources from which they were ob- 
tained in 1861 no longer exist, for our 

western hemisphere, and to the creation deep-sea merchant shipping has practical- 
of a foreign carrying trade, we must ad- ly disappeared. Captain Taylor, of the 
mit the absolute necessity for a steadily War College, has given the following brief 

summary of the present condition of af- 

"... The same conditions do not 
exist now as did during the Rebellion. 

increasing navy. 

The canal-builders and the ship-build- 
ers of the Great Lakes have shown that, 
if they are accorded the proper encourage- 
ment by the national government, the That war, especially on the part of the 
country may rest satisfied with its re- 
sources for establishing a foreign com- 

n&vy, was offensive and attacked an 
enemy upon its own coast, and required 
merce carried in domestic bottoms and a large number of deep-sea ships and deep- 
to provide naval war material to protect sea officers. 

it. Behind these industrial leaders stand, " The wars for which we must plan, at 
as has been said before, more than one- least for the next few years, are de- 
third of the entire population of the fensive for our part, and to be waged 
United States. Nothing can be more against enemies probably superior to us 
gratifying to the navy than the growth on the sea. This throws upon us as a 
of a sentiment favorable to it in a region principal role the defence of our coast and 
that a few years ago was most apathetic, the supplementing of our small sea-going 
To-day the citizens of the Middle West navy by a formidable flotilla of small 
show a lively interest in naval affairs, craft, which when thoroughly organized 
and are taking a prominent part in naval and drilled, shall dominate our channels, 
militia work. Chicago, Saginaw, De- sounds, and bays, and make their eomfort- 
troit, Toledo, Cleveland, and Rochester able or permanent occupation by hostile 
have large, flourishing naval militia organ- fleets an impossibility." 
izations. The Detroit organization re- Our small sea-going navy is now mani- 
cently took the old Yantic from Montreal festly undermanned. As additions are 
to Detroit without either State or national made to its material, the deficiency in 
aid. In Rochester the boat reconnois- personnel is partly made up by stop-gap 
sance work on Lake Ontario performed legislation — always an unsatisfactory 
by the local organization has received process. As a business proposition, there 
well-merited praise from the War Col- has been among our legislators a desire 
lege. These are only two instances, but to build up an adequate navy, but as 
they show the existence of a patriotic a purely naval undertaking there has 
spirit that ought to be fostered and di- always been opposition to providing the 
rooted to the proper ends. Here is a new necessary personnel. England is now 
field for recruiting the naval personnel, going through an interesting experience. 
There is a vague idea among many naval of which we may well take heed. For 



several years the naval policy of that into closer relations with the other mari- 
country has tended towards maintaining time States kindred interests that have 
in time of peace a personnel that is prac- already produced such excellent ship- 
tically on a war footing. The objection builders, and such skilled seamen, 
to this policy has been that it involves an To those who doubt the possibility of 
immense expenditure in pay, provisions, recruiting inland men for general service 
and pensions, besides the maintenance of in the navy, and who question the ulti- 
ships to give the necessary instruction at mate efficiency of the men thus recruited, 
sea. The alternative has been to develop it is only necessary to point out that 
the efficiency of the naval reserve. But in a single summer the bureau of navi- 
here the supporters of such a plan have gation established recruiting stations on 
met with the same difficulties that beset the Great Lakes, during the busiest part 
us — i. e., the merchant marine, which of the navigation season, and from more 
ought to be the source of supply of the than 500 applications enlisted 300 men, 
naval reserve, is becoming honeycombed seamen and mechanics. These men, ac- 
with foreigners. Reliable calculations cording to the reports from the officers of 
show that the number of foreigners in ships to which they were assigned, were 
British ships increased 22 3-10 per cent, in all of very high standard, 
eight years. Poor wages and the natural They were self-respecting Americans, 
discomforts of sea life caused men of This in itself is a great gain. After re- 
British birth to seek employment as cruiting the general service to three-quar- 
skilled workers ashore. ters of its full war strength, which can be 

But the United States has one advan- done as occasion demands, by the enlist- 
tage over England. The latter, in inspect- ment of seamen and mechanics, and by 
ing the source of supply for the naval re- fostering the apprentice system, a naval 
serve, has turned to her widely scattered reserve will have to be depended upon to 
colonies, and reasonably expects that in supply the remaining fourth, and to make 
time of war they will contribute their up the wastage of war. This is the Eng- 
share of men. The peculiar system of lish estimate, and it is apparently sound, 
federal government of the United States Until the national government takes up 
permits it to rely, in a measure, upon the naval reserve question the business 
thfe States to organize and maintain and professional men who, combining a 
volunteers for national defence, although patriotic spirit with aquatic tastes, enlist 
until recently the system was applied al- in the naval militia, will be very valuable 
most exclusively to recruiting the land aids in examining into and keeping in- 
forces. In 1888 an unsuccessful attempt formed concerning the seafaring personnel 
was made in Congress to create a naval of their States. The energy and execu- 
reserve of officers and men from the tive ability of the men that have taken 
merchant marine. Several States border- hold of this movement in the West (many 
ing upon the sea-coast then made the mat- of them graduates of the Naval Acad- 
ter a local issue, and what were called emy) can be depended upon in case of 
" naval battalions to be attached to the sudden need to enroll a very desirable set 
volunteer militia" was the result. With of men, and thus relieve the regular navy 
the Great Lakes brought into deep-water of preliminary work which its scarcity of 
communication with the Mississippi and regular officers would otherwise make a 
the Atlantic seaboard, a cordon of coast- very difficult undertaking, 
line States will be formed whose similar- One word more about our seafaring 
ity of interests will greatly increase the population. Recent investigation by the 
source from which the country can draw War College has developed the fact that 
for that second line of defence required during the Civil War a large number of 
in time of war to " dominate our chan- men — fishermen and local watermen — 
nels, sounds, and bays." Barred by the along the North Atlantic coast did not en- 
Rocky Mountains, the Pacific coast stands list for service in the regular navy. The 
apart from any immediate benefits from long term of enlistment required, coupled 
interior waterway improvements, but the with the fact that the sea had no novelty 
building of an isthmian canal will bring for them, may have blunted their patriot- 



ism. An inquiry among their successors their quota of men that have the handi 

confirms the opinion that they would ness of the seaman, the skill of the gun 

much prefer to be utilized for local de- ner, and the ingenuity of the artisan. 

fence. Torpedo-boat flotillas, mosquito The scene changes to the high seas, but 

fleets, coast signal stations, and submarine in the ranks of the militia coast-defenders 

mining squads would therefore be able will b<> found the same spirit that ani- 

to obtain among this class very valuable mated the volunteers at Put-in-Bay and 

recruits, while the cruising navy, especial- Saekett's Harbor. 

ly with its term of enlistment extended, Great Seal of the Confederacy, The, 
as has frequently been recommended, from was made in England, and completed 
three to four years, would not succeed in July, 1SG4, at a cost of $000. It reach- 
attracting them. ed Richmond in April, 186.5, but was never 
The foregoing propositions and the con- used. It is now in the office of the State 
elusions to be drawn from them may be secretary of South Carolina, 
briefly summarized as follows : Great Seal of the United States. See 

1. The Great Lakes region has de- Seal of the United States of America. 
veloped the iron and steel industry to a Great Water. See Mississippi River. 
degree that enables it to surpass all the Greek Eire, a combustible composition 
rest of the United States in the important (unknown, thought to have been princi- 
industry of ship-building. pally naphtha) invented by Callinicus, an 

2. The improvements in canal building engineer of Heliopolis, in Syria, in the 
make it only a question of time when this seventh century, and used by the Greek 
region will have a deep-water outlet to emperors. A so-called Greek fire, prob- 
the sea. ably a solution of phosphorus in bi- 

3. The result of this deep water-way sulphide of carbon, was employed at the 
will be the rehabilitation of our mer- siege of Charleston, S. C, in 1803. The 
chant marine and the creation of an ex- use of all such substances in war is 
tensive foreign trade carried in American now prohibited, under a decision of the 
bottoms. International Peace Conference at The 

4. The expansion of our merchant Hague in 1889. 

marine will be followed necessarily by the Greeley, Horace, journalist; born in 

expansion of the navy. Amherst, N. H., Feb. 3, 1811. Fond of 

5. The Great Lakes region is debarred reading almost from babyhood, he felt a 
by existing treaty relations from contrib- strong desire as he grew to youth to be- 
uting material for naval warfare, but, come a printer, and in 1S2G was appren- 
containing as it does more than one-third Heed to the art in Poultney. Yt.. where 
of our entire population, the navy should, he became an expert workman. His pa- 
as a peace precaution, give immediate en- rents had moved to Erie, Pa., and during 
couragement to the naval-militia move- his minority he visited them twice, walk- 
ment in that part of the United States, ing nearly the whole way. In August, 
thus developing a source of supply for the 1831, he was in New York in search of 
large increase in our personnel that war work, with $10 in his pocket. He worked 
will render necessary. See Ship-building, as a journeyman until 1S33, when he began 

The names of Perry and Chauncey re- business on his own account, with a part- 
mind us that Lake Erie and Lake Ontario ner, printing the Morning Post, the first 
were once the scene of important naval penny daily paper (owned by Dr. H. D. 
battles. In the hurried preparations of Shepard) ever published. His partner 
those days, when officers and men were (Storey) was drowned in July, and Jonas 
brought from the seaboard over rough Winchester took his place. The new firm 
trails to improvise and man flotillas on issued the New Yorker, devoted mainly to 
the lakes, the frontiersman stood ready current literature, in 1S34. of which ^Ir. 
with his ride to aid the sailor. To-day, Greeley was editor. The paper reached a 
When the bri^ has tjiven place to the circulation of 0.000, and continued seven 
battle-ship, and the 32-pounder to the 13- years. In 1840 he edited and published 
inch gun, the descendants of these fron- the Log Cahin, a campaign paper that ob- 
tiersmen may be depended upon to furnish tained a circulation of 80,000 copies; and 



on April 10, 1841, he issued the first num- War, in 2 volumes, The American Conflict. 

ber of the Daily Tribune, a small sheet Mr. Greeley died in a full belief in the 

that sold for one cent. In the fall of that doctrine of universal salvation, which he 

year the Weekly Tribune was issued. Mr. had held for many years. 

Greeley formed a partnership with Thomas 
McElrath, who took charge of the busi- 
ness department, and from that time until 

In the summer of 1864 a number of 
leading conspirators against the life of 
the republic were at the Clifton House, 

his death he was identified with the New at Niagara Falls, in Canada, where they 

plotted schemes for exciting hostile feel- 
ings between the United States and Great 
Britain; for burning Northern cities; 
rescuing the Confederate prisoners on and 
near the borders of Canada; spreading 
contagious diseases in the national mili- 
tary camps; and, ultimately, much 
greater mischief. These agents were vis- 
ited by members of the Peace Party 
(q. v.). At the suggestion, it is said, 
of a conspicuous leader of that faction, 
a scheme was set on foot to make the 
loyal people, who yearned for an honor- 
able peace, dissatisfied with the adminis- 
tration. The Confederates at the Clifton 
House employed a Northern politician to 
address a letter to Mr. Greeley, informing 
him that a delegation of Confederates 
were authorized to go to Washington in 
the interest of peace if full protection 
could be guaranteed them. The kindly 
heart of Mr. Greeley sympathized with 

necessary here to speak, for it is generally this movement, for he did not suspect a 

trick. He drew up a " Plan of Adjust- 
ment," which he sent, with the letter of 


York Tribune. Of Mr. Greeley's career 
in connection with that paper it is not 

known. His course on political and so- 
cial questions was erratic. He believed it 

better, before the Civil War broke out, to the Confederates, to President Lincoln, 

let the States secede if the majority of and urged the latter to respond to it. The 

the people said so. When Jefferson Davis more sagacious President had no confi- 

was to be released on bail he volunteered dence in the professions of these con- 

his signature to his bail-bond; and yet spirators; yet, unwilling to seem heed- 

during the whole war he was thoroughly less of any proposition for peace, he de- 

loyal. In 1869 he was defeated as the puted Mr. Greeley to bring to him any 

Republican candidate for comptroller of person or persons " professing to have any 

the State of New York; and in 1872 he proposition of Jefferson Davis, in writing, 

accepted a nomination for President of the for peace, embracing the restoration of 

United States from the Liberal Repub- the Union and abandonment of slavery," 

lican Party (q. v.), and the nomination with an assurance of safe conduct for him 

was endorsed by the Democratic conven- or them each way. Considerable corre- 

tion (see Wilson, Henry). It is evident spondence ensued. Mr. Greeley went to 

now that for a year or more Mr. Greeley Niagara Falls. Then the Confederates 

was overworked; and when the election pretended there was a misunderstanding, 

that year was over, and he was defeated, The matter became vexatious, and the 

his brain, doubly taxed by anxiety at the President sent positive instructions to 

bedside of a dying wife, was prostrated Greeley prescribing explicitly what propo- 

with disease. He died in Pleasantville, sitions he would receive — namely, for a 

N. Y., Nov. 29, 1872. Mr. Greeley was the restoration of peace, the integrity of the 

author of several books, his most consid- whole Union, and the abandonment of 

erable work being a history of the Civil slavery, and which might come by and 

IV.— L 161 


with the authority that could control the 
armies then at war with the United 
States. This declaration was the grand 
object of the Confederates at Niagara, and 
they used it to " fire the Southern heart " 
and to sow the seeds of discontent among 
the loyal people of the land. 

Accepting Presidential Nominations. — 
The Liberal Republican Convention, held 
in Cincinnati, gave him the nomination 
for the Presidency on May 1, 1872, and on 
the 3d the committee on notifications in- 
formed him of the convention's choice. 
On the day following the nomination Mr. 
Greeley retired from all connection with 
the editorial department of the Tribune, 
and on May 20 he accepted the nomination 
in the following letter to the committee: 

New York, May 20, 1872. 

Gentlemen, — I have chosen not to ac- 
knowledge your letter of the 3d inst. until 
I could learn how the work of your con- 
vention was received in all parts of our 
great country, and judge whether that 
work was approved and ratified by the 
mass of our fellow-citizens. Their re- 
sponse has from day to day reached me 
through telegrams, letters, and the com- 
ments of journalists independent of offi- 
cial patronage and indifferent to the 
smiles or frowns of power. The number 
and character of these unconstrained, un- 
purchased, unsolicited utterances satisfy 
me that the movement which found ex- 
pression at Cincinnati has received the 
stamp of public approval, and been hailed 
by a majority of our countryman as the 
harbinger of a better day for the repub- 

I do not misinterpret this approval as 
especially complimentary to myself, nor 
even to the chivalrous and justly esteemed 
gentleman with whosr name I thank your 
convention for associating mine. T re- 
ceive and welcome it as a spontaneous 
and deserved tribute to that admirable 
platform of pr'/nciples wherein your con- 
vention so tp/sely, so lucidly, so forcibly 
set forth the convictions which impelled, 
and the purposes which guided its course; 
a platfrvm which, casting behind it the 
wreck and rubbish of worn-out conten- 
tions and by-gone feuds, embodies in fit 
md few words the needs and aspirations 
of to-day. Though thousands stand ready 

to condemn your every act, hardly a sylla- 
ble of criticism or cavil has been aimed at 
your platform, of which the substance 
may be fairly epitomized as follows: 

1. All the political rights and fran- 
chises which have been acquired through 
our late bloody convulsion must and shall 
be guaranteed, maintained, enjoyed, re- 
spected evermore. 

2. All the political rights and fran- 
chises which have been lost through that 
convulsion should and must be promptly 
restored and re-established, so that there 
shall be henceforth no proscribed class 
and no disfranchised caste within the 
limits of our Union, whose long-estranged 
people shall unite and fraternize upon the 
broad basis of universal amnesty with im- 
partial suffrage. 

3. That, subject to our solemn con- 
stitutional obligation to maintain the 
equal rights of all citizens, our policy 
should aim at local self-government and 
not at centralization; that the civil 
authority should be supreme over the 
military; that the writ of habeas corpus 
should be jealously upheld as the safe- 
guard of personal freedom; that the in- 
dividual citizen should enjoy the largest 
liberty consistent with public order, and 
that there shall be no federal subversion 
of the internal polity of the several States 
and municipalities, but that each shall be 
left free to enforce the rights and pro- 
mote the well-being of its inhabitants by 
such means as the judgment of its own 
people shall prescribe. 

4. There shall be a real and not mere- 
ly a simulated reform in the civil service 
of the republic; to which end it is indis- 
pensable that the chief dispenser of its 
vast official patronage shall be shielded 
from the main temptation to use his 
power selfishly, by a rule inexorably for- 
bidding and precluding his re-election. 

5. That the raising of revenues, wheth- 
er by tariff or otherwise, shall be recog- 
nized and treated as the people's immedi- 
ate business, to be shaped and directed by 
them through their representatives in Con- 
gress, whose action thereon the President 
must neither overrule by his veto, at- 
tempt to dictate, nor presume to punish, 
by bestowing office only on those who 
agree with him or withdrawing it from 
those who do not. 



G. That the public lands must be sa- 
credly reserved for occupation and acquisi- 
tion by cultivators, and not recklessly 
squandered on the projectors of railroads, 
for which our people have no present need, 
and the premature construction of which 
is annually plunging us into deeper and 
deeper abysses of foreign indebtedness. 

7. That the achievement of these 
grand purposes of universal beneficence 
is expected and sought at the hands of 
all who approve them, irrespective of past 

8. That the public faith must at all 
hazards be maintained and the national 
credit preserved. 

9. That the patriotic devotedness and 
inestimable services of our fellow-citizens, 
who, as soldiers or sailors, upheld the 
flag and maintained the unity of the re- 
public, shall ever be gratefully remembered 
and honorably requited. 

These propositions, so ably and forci- 
bly presented in the platform by your 
convention, have already fixed the atten- 
tion and commanded the assent of a large 
majority of our countrymen, who joyfully 
adopt them as I do, as the basis of a true, 
beneficent national reconstruction — of a 
new departure from jealousies, strifes, and 
hates, which have no longer adequate mo- 
tive or even plausible pretext, into an at- 
mosphere of peace, fraternity, and mutual 
good-will. In vain do the drill-sergeants 
of decaying organizations flourish men- 
acingly their truncheons and angrily in- 
sist that the files shall be closed and 
straightened; in vain do the whippers-in 
of parties once vital, because rooted in the 
vital needs of the hour, protest against 
straying and bolting, denounce men no- 
wise their inferiors as traitors and rene- 
gades, and threaten them with infamy 
and ruin. I am confident that the Ameri- 
can people have already made your cause 
their own. fully resolved that their brave 
hearts and strong arms shall bear it on 
to triumph. In this faith and with the 
distinct understanding that, if elected, I 
shall be the President not of a party but 
of the whole people, I accept your nomina- 
tion, in the confident trust that the masses 
of our countrymen North and South are 
eager to clasp hands across the bloody 
chasm which has too long divided them, 
forgetting that they have been enemies 

in the joyful consciousness that they are 
and must henceforth remain brethren. 
Yours gratefully, 

Horace Greeley. 
The National Democratic Convention 
met in Baltimore on July 9, and also 
gave its nomination to Mr. Greeley. To 
the address of the committee on notifica- 
tions Mr. Greeley responded as follows: 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the 
Committee of the Convention, — I should 
require time and consideration to reply 
fitly to the very important and, I need 
not say, gratifying communication that 
you have presented to me. It may be 
that I should present in writing some re- 
ply to this. However, as I addressed the 
Liberal convention, of Cincinnati, in a let- 
ter somewhat widely considered, it is, 
perhaps, unnecessary that I should make 
any formal reply to the communication 
made, other than to say I accept your 
nomination, and accept gratefully with it 
the spirit in which it has been presented. 
My position is one which many would 
consider a proud one, which, at the same 
time, is embarrassing, because it subjects 
me to temporary — I trust only temporary 
— misconstruction on the part of some old 
and lifelong friends. I feel assured that 
time only is necessary to vindicate, not 
only the disinterestedness, but the patriot- 
ism, of the course which I determined to 
pursue, which I had determined long be- 
fore I had received so much sympathy and 
support as has, so unexpectedly to me, 
been bestowed upon me. I feel certain 
that time, and, in the good Providence of 
God, an opportunity, will be afforded me 
to show that, while you, in making this 
nomination, are not less Democratic, but 
rather more Democratic, than you would 
have been in taking an opposite course, 
I am no less thoroughly and earnestly 
Republican than ever I was. But these 
matters require grave consideration be- 
fore I should make anything that seems 
a formal response. I am not much ac- 
customed to receiving nominations for the 
Presidency, and cannot make responses so 
fluently as some other might do. I can 
only say that I hope some, or all, if you 
can make it convenient, will come to my 
humble farm-hon<=<\ not far distant in the 
country, where I shall be glad to meet all 



of you, and where we can converse more itself deliberately, by a vote nearly unani* 

freely and deliberately than we can here, mous, upon the fullest and clearest enun- 

and where I shall be glad to make you ciation of principles which are at once 

welcome — well, to the best the farm incontestably .Republican and emphati- 

affords. I hope that many of you— all cally Democratic, gives trustworthy as- 

of you — will be able to accept this invi- surance that a new and more auspicious 

tation, and I now simply thank you and era is dawning upon our long - distracted 

say farewell. Take the train. country. 

On July 18, he addressed a fuller ex- Some of the best years and best efforts 

pression of his views on the political situ- of my life were devoted to a struggle 

tion to the committee in the following let- none the less earnest or arduous because 

t er . respect for constitutional obligations con- 
strained me to act, for the most part, on 

Gentlemen, — Upon mature delibera- the defensive, in resistance to the diffusion 
tion, it seems fit that I should give to your rather than in direct efforts for the ex- 
letter of the 10th inst. some further and tension of human bondage. Throughout 
fuller response than the hasty, unpremedi- most of those years my vision was un- 
tated words in which I acknowledged and cheered, my exertions were rarely ani- 
accepted your nomination at our meeting mated by even so much as a hope that I 
on the 12th. should live to see my country peopled by 

That your convention saw fit to ac- freemen alone. The affirmance by your 
cord its highest honor to one who had convention of the Cincinnati platform is 
been prominently and pointedly opposed a most conclusive proof that not merely 
to your party in the earnest and some- is slavery abolished, but that its spirit 
times angry controversies of the last forty is extinct ; that, despite the protests of 
years is essentially noteworthy. That a respectable but isolated few, there re- 
many of you originally preferred that the mains among us no party and no formid- 
Liberal Republicans should present an- able interests which regret the overthrow 
other candidate for President, and would or desire the re-establishment of human 
more readily have united with us in the bondage, whether in letter or in spirit, 
support of Adams or Trumbull, Davis or J am thereby justified in my hope and 
Brown, is well known. I owe my adoption trust that the first century of American 
at Baltimore wholly to the fact that I independence will not close before the 
had already been nominated at Cincinnati, grand elemental truths on which its 
and that a concentration of forces upon rightfulness was based by Jefferson and 
any new ticket had been proved impracti- the Continental Congress of 1776 will no 
cable. Gratified as I am at your concur- longer be regarded as ' glittering generali- 
rence in the nominations, certain as I am ties,' but will have become the universally 
that you would not have thus concurred accepted and honored foundations of our 
had you not deemed me upright and political fabric. 

capable, I find nothing in the circum- I demand the prompt application of 

stance calculated to inflame vanity or those principles to our existing conditions. 

nourish self-conceit. Having done what I could for the com- 

But that your convention saw fit, in plete emancipation of blacks, T now insist 
adopting the Cincinnati ticket, to reaffirm on the full enfranchisement of all my 
the Cincinnati platform, is to me a white countrymen. Let none say that the 
source of profoundest satisfaction. That ban has just been removed from all but 
body waB constrained to take this im- a few hundred elderly gentlemen, to whom 
portant step by no party necessity, real eligibility to office can be of little Con- 
or supposed. It might have accepted the sequence. My view contemplates not the 
candidates of the Liberal Republicans hundreds proscribed, but the millions 
upon grounds entirely its own, or it who are denied the right to be ruled and 
might have presented them (as the first represented by the men of their unfet- 
Whig national convention did Harrison tered choice. Proscription were absurd 
and Tyler) without adopting any plat- if these did not wish to elect the very 
form whatever. That it chose to plant men whom they were forbidden to choose. 



I have a profound regard for the peo- 
ple of that New England wherein I was 
born, in whose common schools I was 
taught. I rank no other people above them 
in intelligence, capacity, and moral worth. 
But, while they do many things well, and 
some admirably, there is one thing which 
I am sure they cannot wisely or safely 
undertake, and that is the selection, for 
States remote from and unlike their own, 
of the persons by whom those States shall 
be represented in Congress. If they do 
all this to good purpose, then republican 
institutions were unfit, and aristocracy 
the only true political system. 

Yet what have we recently witnessed? 
Zebulon B. Vance, the unquestionable 
choice of a large majority of the present 
legislature of North Carolina — a major- 
ity backed by a majority of the people 
who voted at its election — refused the 
seat in the federal Senate to which he was 
fairly chosen, and the legislature thus 
constrained to choose another in his stead 
or leave the State unrepresented for 
years. The votes of New England thus 
deprived North Carolina of the Senator 
of her choice, and compelled her to send 
another in his stead — another who, in our 
late contest, was, like Vance, a Confeder- 
ate, and a fighting Confederate, but one 
who had not served in Congress before 
the war as Vance had, though the latter 
remained faithful to the Union till after 
the close of his term. I protest against 
the disfranchisement of a State — pre- 
sumptively, of a number of States — on 
grounds so narrow and technical as this. 
The fact that the same Senate which re- 
fused Vance his seat proceeded to remove 
his disabilities after that seat had been 
filled by another only serves to place in 
stronger light the indignity to North 
Carolina, and the arbitrary, capricious 
tyranny which dictated it. 

I thank you, gentlemen, that my name 
is to be conspicuously associated with 
yours in the determined effort to render 
amnesty complete and universal in spirit 
as well as in letter. Even defeat in such 
a cause would leave no sting, while tri- 
umph would rank with those victories 
which no blood reddens and which in- 
voke no tears but those of gratitude and 


Gentlemen, your platform, which is 

also mine, assures me that Democracy is 
not henceforth to stand for one thing and 
Republicanism for another, but that those 
terms are to mean in politics, as they al- 
ways have meant in the dictionary, sub- 
stantially one and the same thing — 
namely, equal rights regardless of creed, ' 
or clime, or color. I hail this as a 
genuine new departure from out-worn 
feuds and meaningless contentions, in the 
direction of progress and reform. Whether 
I shall be found worthy to bear the stand- 
ard of the great liberal movement which 
the American people have inaugurated is 
to be determined not by words but by 
deeds. With me if I steadily advance, over 
me if I falter, its grand army moves on to 
achieve for our country her glorious, 
beneficent destiny. 

I remain, gentlemen, yours, 

Horace Greeley. 
Greely, Adolphus Washington, ex- 
plorer; born in Newburyport, Mass., 
March 27, 1S44; was liberally educated; 
and at the breaking out of the Civil War 
joined the volunteer army and served 
faithfully until the close of the strife, 
when he was commissioned a lieutenant 
in the regular army and assigned to the 
signal service. In 1881 he commanded an 
expedition sent into the arctic regions 
by the government to establish a series of 
circumpolar stations for scientific obser- 
vations, in accordance with a plan of the 
International Geographical Congress held 
at Hamburg in 1879. He landed with his 
party of twenty-five at Discovery Harbor, 
in lat. 81° 44' N., on Aug. 12, 1881. 
They made their permanent camp at Cape 
Sabine in October, 1883, where they suf- 
fered intensely for want of supplies which 
had failed to reach them. There all but 
six of the twenty-five died of starvation. 
The six, of whom Lieutenant Greely was 
one, were rescued by a relief party under 
Capt. Winfield S. Schley (q. v.) on 
June 22, 1884. Had the rescuers been 
forty-eight hours later, not one of the 
party would have been found alive. The 
living, and the dead bodies, were brought 
home. Two officers of the party, Lieuten- 
ant Lockwood and Sergeant Brainerd, had 
penetrated to lat. 83° 24' N., and hoisted 
the American flag. It was the highest 
northerly point that had then been at- 
tained. On the death of Gen, William 



24, 1704, issued the 
first number of the 
Boston News - Letter. 
He died in Boston, 
Dec. 28, 1732. 

Green, Beriaii, re- 
former; born in New 
York in 1794: gradu- 
ated at Middlebury 
College in 1819; settled 
in Ohio in 1S21, and 
became president of the 
Oneida Institute in 
1824; was a leader in 
the organization of the 
American Anti-Slavery 
Society, and for some 
time its president. He 
was the author of 
History of the Quakers. 
He died in Whitestow n, 
X. Y.. May i, 1874. 

Green, Duff, jour- 
nalist; born in Ken- 
tucky, Aug. 15, 1791. 
In 1829-33 he conduct- 
ed the United States 
Telegram. It was de- 
clared that he exerted 
a large influence over 
President Jackson, and 
the opponents of the 
President included 
Green in what they 
termed the " kitchen 
B. Hazen (q. v.), Greely was appointed cabinet." Green published Facts and Bug- 
his successor. gestions. He died in Dalton, Ga., June 

Green, Andrew Haswell, lawyer; 10, 1875. 
born in Worcester, Mass., Oct. 6, 1820; Green, Samuel, second printer in the 
studied law and began practice in New United States; born in England in 1615; 
York City. He was at different times succeeded Day (see Day, or Date, Ste- 
eity comptroller, president of the Board of phen) in 1648. He printed the Cam- 
Education, comptroller of Central Park, bridge Platform in 1649, the entire Bible 
president of the Park Commission, a and Psalter, translated into the Indian 
trustee of the New York Public Library language by John Eliot the Apostle, in 
and of the Museum of Natural History, 1663, and many other books. He died in 
originator of the Metropolitan Museum of Cambridge. Mass., Jan. 1, 1792. 
Art, etc. He was popularly known as the Green, Samuel Abbott, physician; born 
"Father" of the park system of New in Groton, Mass., March 16, 1830: grad- 
York, and as the " Father " of the Greater uated at Harvard College in 1851, and 
New York. He was murdered in New at Harvard Medical School in 1854; 
York, Nov. 13, 1903. served in the Civil War as assistant sur- 

Green, BARTHOLOMEW, publisher; born goon and surgeon; and received the bre- 
in Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 12, 1666; son vet of lieutenant-colonel in 1864. He is 
vi Samuel Crcen: succeeded his father the author of History of Medicine in Mas- 
as printer, in Boston, and on April sachusetts; Gfroton During the Indian 




Wars; and of several volumes in the Oro- cumstance gave birth also to the name of 
ton Historical Series. Greenbacker, applied to those who op- 
Green, Seth, pisciculturist; born in posed the resumption of specie payments, 
Rochester, N. Y., March 19, 1817; was according to the act of Congress of Jan. 
educated in the public schools of his 7, 1875, which designated Jan. 1, 1879, as 
native city. He early showed a passion the day on which the government and 
for fishing and hunting, and in 1837 dis- national banks would make such resump- 
covered how to propagate fish artificially, tion. The opponents of the measure fa- 
in 1838 he went to Canada and studied vored the continual issue of a paper cur- 
the habits of salmon, which he observed rency that should be given the quality of 
ate their spawn as soon as it was cast, a full legal tender. For several years the 
He established methods to prevent this Greenbackers formed a considerable body 
and increased the yield of fish to 95 per of citizens and maintained a national 
cent. In 1864 he settled in Caledonia, political organization. See Fiat Money; 
N. Y., where he propagated fish bv im- Currency, National; Finances, United 
pregnating dry spawn by an artificial States; Greenback Party; Specie Pay- 
method. In 1S67 the fish commissioners ments. 

of New England invited him to experi- Greenback Party, a political organiza- 
ment in the hatching of shad. Going to tion founded at a convention at Indian- 
Holyoke, he made improvements which in apolis, Ind., on Nov. 25, 1874. At that 
an incredibly short time hatched 15,000,- time three propositions which have been 
000, and in 1868 40,000,000. In the latter the foundation of all greenback platforms 
year he was made superintendent of the were endorsed. These read as follows: 1. 
New York State fisheries. In 1871 he That the currency of all national and 
sent the first shad ever transported State banks and corporations should be 
to California. As a result of this trial withdrawn; 2. That the only currency 
more than 1,000,000 shad were sent to should be a paper one, issued by the gov- 
the Pacific coast in 1885. During his eminent, "based on the faith and re- 
life he hatched by artificial methods the sources of the nation," exchangeable on 
spawn of about twenty kinds of fish, demand for bonds bearing interest at 3.65 
He was the author of Trout Culture per cent. ; and 3. That coin should only be 
and Fish Hatching and Fish Catching, paid for interest on the present national 
He died in Rochester, N. Y., Aug. 20, debt, and for that portion of the principal 
1888. for which coin had been specifically prom- 
Green, Thomas, military officer; born ised. For a time the progress of the 
in Virginia in 1816; settled in Texas early Greenback party was hindered by the 
in life; served in the war with Mexico; adoption of these three propositions in 
and when the Civil War began joined the Democratic State conventions, but in 
the Confederate army, and took part in 1876 the party was again revived. A na- 
the engagements of Valverde, Bisland, and tional convention was held in Indian- 
Galveston. and the capture of the United apolis, May 17, 1876, and Peter Cooper, 
States revenue-cutter Harriet Lane. In of New York, was nominated for Presi- 
1863 he defeated the National army dent, with Samuel F. Cory, of Ohio, for 
in the action of Bayou la Fourche; Vice-President. The election returns show- 
was promoted major - general in recogni- ed a popular vote of 81,737 for these can- 
tion of his gallantry; and was fatally didates. On Feb. 22, 1878, the Labor-re- 
wounded at Pleasant Hill, La., by a form and Greenback parties were united in 
shot from a United States war - ship, a national convention held in Toledo, O., 
April 12, 1864, and died two days after- and a few new resolutions in favor of leg- 
wards, islative reduction of working-men's hours 
Greenbacks, the name popularly given of labor and against the contract system 
to issues of paper currency by the national of using inmates of prisons were added 
government in the Civil War and recon- to the Greenback platform. This fusion 
struction periods, because the lettering of the two parties met with much ap- 
and devices on the back of the notes probation, as was evidenced in the State 
were printed with green ink. This cir- and congressional elections of 1878, when 



more than 1,000,000 votes were polled and 
fourteen congressmen were elected. The 
nexL national convention of the party was 
held in Chicago, June 9-10, 1880, when 
James B. Weaver, of Iowa, was nominated 
for President, and B. J. Chambers, of 
Texas, for Vice-President. The whoie 
number of votes then cast was 307,306. In 
1884 the Greenback party united with an 
Anti-Monopolist party in nominating 
Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, for 
President, and in the election he received 
133.825 votes. In succeeding Presidential 
campaigns the Greenback party had no 
candidates in the field, the bulk of its 
former adherents probably uniting with 
the People's Party ( q. v.). 

Greene, Albert Gorton, lawyer; born 
in Providence, P. I., Feb. 10, 1802; grad- 
uated at Brown University in 1820; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1823, and began 
practice in Providence; president of the 
Rhode Island Historical Society in 1854- 
68. He was the author of the poems The 
Militia Muster; Old Grimes; Adelheid; 
The Baron's Last Banquet; and Canon- 
chet. He died in Cleveland, O., Jan. 4, 

Greene, Christopher, military officer; 
born in Warwick, R. I., May 12, 1737; 
was major in the " army of observation " 
authorized by the legislature of Rhode 
Island. He accompanied Arnold through 
the wilderness to Quebec in the fall of 
1775, and was made prisoner in the at- 
tack on that city at the close of Decem- 
ber. In October, 1776, he was put in com- 
mand of a regiment, and was placed in 
charge of Fort Mercer, on the Delaware, 
which he gallantly defended the next year. 
He took part in Sullivan's campaign in 
Rhode Island in 1778, and in the spring 
of 1781 his quarters on the Croton River, 
Westchester CO., N. Y., were surrounded 
by a party of loyalists, and he was slain 
May 13, 1781. For his defence of Fort 
Mercer, Congress voted him a sword in 
1786, and it was presented to his eldest 

Greene, Francis Vinton, military 
officer ; born in Providence, R. I., June 27, 
1850; son of Gen. George Sears Greene; 
graduated at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in 1870, and commissioned 
a second lieutenant of the 4th Artillery. 
He served at Fort Foote, Md.; Fort Mon- 


roe, Va. 1 , and at various posts in North 
Carolina till June 10, 1872, when he was 
transferred to the engineer corps, and 
served as assistant astronomer on the 
northern boundary of the United States 
till 1876. He was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant, Jan. 13, 1874. He was military, 
attache to the United States legation at 
St. Petersburg in 1877-79, and during 
the Russo-Turkish War was with the 
Russian army, being present at the bat- 
tles of Shipka Pass, Plevna, the passage 
of the Balkans, Taskosen, Sofia, and Phil- 
opopolis. For bravery in several of these 
battles he received the Orders of St. Anne 
and St. Vladimir, and a campaign medal 
from the Emperor of Russia. In 1879- 
85 he was assistant to the engineer com- 
missioner of the District of Columbia. 
In 1883 he was promoted to captain. In 
1885 he became Professor of Practical Mili- 
tary Engineering at West Point; and Dec. 
31, 1886, resigned from the army. When 
the war with Spain broke out in 1898 he 
was commissioned colonel of the 71st New 
York Regiment, but before this regiment 
embarked for Cuba he was sent to Manila 
with the rank of brigadier-general of 
volunteers, and had command of the 
United States forces in the battle of Ma- 
late, June 30, 1898, and in other actions 
around Manila in August. On Aug. 13, 
1898, he was promoted to major-general. 
Returning from the Philippines in Oc- 
tober he was placed in command of the 2d 
Division of the 7th Army Corps, and was 
on duty at Jacksonville (Fla.), Savannah 
(Ga.), and Havana. He resigned his com- 
mission Feb. 28, 1899; police commis- 
sioner of New York in 1903-04. He is 
the author of The Russian Army and Its 
Campaigns in Turkey; Army Life in Rus- 
sia; The Mississippi Campaign of the Civil 
War; Life of ~Nathanael Greene, Major- 
General in the Army of the Revolution ; etc. 
Greene, Ceorge Sears, military officer; 
born in Warwick, R. I., May *6, 1801; 
graduated at West Point in 1823. He re- 
signed in 1836; became a civil engineer; 
and was employed in the construction of 
the High Bridge and Croton reservoir in 
New York City. In January, 1862, he was 
appointed colonel of the 60th New York 
Regiment, and commanded in Auger's di- 
vision in Banks's corps. Having been ap 
pointed brigadier-general, he took com- 


mand of Auger's division on the latter's 
promotion, and fought gallantly under 
Mansfield at Antietam. He was in the 
battles of Chancel lor sville and Gettys- 
burg. He was wounded at Wauhatchie in 
18G3; and was in eastern North Carolina 
early in 1865; was brevetted major-gen- 
eral of volunteers, March 13, 1865; and 
was mustered out of the service, April 
30, 1866. As the oldest graduate of West 
Point, Congress authorized his reappoint- 
ment to the regular army as a first lieu- 
tenant of artillery, Aug. 2, 1894, and he 
was retired on the 11th. He died in Mor- 
ristown, N. J., Jan. 28, 1899. 

Greene, George Washington, author; 
born in East Greenwich, R. I., April 8, 
1811; was educated at Brown College; 
became Professor of History at Cornell 
University in 1872. His publications in- 
clude Historical View of the American 
Revolution; Nathanael Greene; An Ex- 
amination of the Ninth Volume of Ban- 
croft's History; The German Element in 
the War of American Independence ; Short 
History of Rhode Island, etc. He died in 
East Greenwich, R. I., Feb. 2, 1883. 

Greene, Nathanael, military officer; 
born in Warwick, R. I., May 27, 1742; 
was the son of a member of the Society of 
Friends or Quakers. His education was 
confined to the English of the common 
school, and his youth was spent on the 
farm, in a mill, or in a blacksmith's shop. 
At the age of twenty years he studied law 
and afterwards military tactics. He was 
fond of books from his childhood. In 
1770 he was elected a member of the 
Rhode Island legislature, wherein he held 
a seat until appointed to the command of 
the Southern army in 1780. His military 
proclivities caused him to be " disowned " 
by Friends, and he became a member of a 
military company. Three regiments of 
militia were organized in Rhode Island 
after the affair at Lexington, as an " army 
of observation," and these Greene, as pro- 
vincial brigadier-general, led to Cam- 
bridge, where he was created a brigadier- 
general in the Continental army, June 22, 

1775. Washington saw and appreciated 
his soldierly qualities, and in August, 

1776, he was made a major-general. He 
commanded the left wing of the army at 
Trenton; w?s active in New Jersey; by a 
rapid movement saved the army from de- 

struction at the Brandywine; was in the 
battle of Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777, and 
in March, 1778, accepted the office of 
quartermaster-general, but with a guar- 
antee that he should not lose his right of 
command in action. This office he resign- 
ed in August, 1780. In the battle of 
Springfield, in June, 1780, he was con- 
spicuous. During Washington's visit to 
Hartford (September, 1780) he was in 
command of the army, and was president 
of the court of inquiry in the case of 
Major Andre" soon afterwards (see Andre, 
John). Greene succeeded Gates in com- 
mand of the Southern army, Oct. 14, 1780, 
which he found a mere skeleton, while a 
powerful enemy was in front of it. He 
took command of it at Charlotte, N. C, 
Dec. 4. By skill and energy he brought 
order and strength out of confusion, and 
soon taught Cornwall is that a better 


general than Gates confronted him. He 
made a famous retreat through Carolina 
into Virginia, and, turning back, fought 
the British army at Guildford Court- 
house, N. C, March 15, 1781. Greene 
then pushed into South Carolina, and 
was defeated by Lord Rawdon in the 
battle of Hobkirk's Hill, April 25. Soon 
afterwards he besieged the fort of Ninety- 
six, and on Sept. 8 gained a victory at 
Eutaw Springs, S. C, for which Congress 
gave him thanks, a British standard, and 
a gold medal. Expelling the British from 
the Southern country, Greene returned to 
Rhode Island at the close of the war. 



Congress presented him with two pieces the hero was settled early in March, 1901, 

of artillery. The State of Georgia gave when Col. Asa Bird Gardiner, acting in 

him a fine plantation a few miles from behalf of the Rhode Island Society of 

Savannah, where he settled in the fall of the Cincinnati, made an exploration of the 


1785, and died June 19, 178G. South cemeteries in Savannah, Ga., and, in the 
Carolina also gave him a valuable tract Jones vault of the long-abandoned colo- 
of land. A monument dedicated jointly nial cemetery, found the plate that had 
to Greene and Pulaski stands in the city been on General Greene's coffin and three 
of Savannah, and the State of Rhode metal buttons," with the American eagle on 
Island has erected an equestrian statue of them, doubtless from the uniform in 
him at the national capital, executed by which it is known that General Greene 
H. K. Browne. The doubt thaf had long was buried. 

existed as to the actual burial-place of While Greene and his army remained 

on the Santee Hills 
until late in the 
fall, his partisan 
corps, led by Mari- 
on, Sumter, Lee, 
and others, were 
driving the British 
forces from post to 
post, in the low 
country, and smit- 
ing Tory bands in 
every direction. 
The British finally 
evacuated all their 
interior stations 
and retired to 
Charleston, pur- 
sued almost to the 
edge of the city 
by the partisan 
troops. The main 
army occupied a 
position hot worn 

TO ...:... 





that city and Jacksonboro, where the 
South Carolina legislature had resumed 
its sessions. Greene had failed to win 
victories in battle, but had fully ac- 
complished the object of his campaign — 
namely, t , liberate the Carolinas and 
Georgia British rule. In the course 
of nine months he had recovered the three 
Southern States, and at the close of 1781 
he had all the British troops below Vir- 

ginia hemmed within the cities of Charles- 
ton and Savannah. 

After the disaster at the Cowpens. 
Cornwallis placed his force in light 
marching order and started in pursuit of 
Morgan, hoping to intercept him before 
he could cross the Catawba River. The 
earl ordered all his stores and superflu- 
ous baggage to be burned, and his whole 
army was converted into light infantry 


corps. The only wagons saved were those Academy in 1859. When the Civil War 
with hospital stores, salt, and ammuni- broke out he was assigned to the iron- 
tion, and four empty ones for sick and clad Monitor, and during her action with 
wounded. Sensible of his danger, Morgan, the Merrimac he directed every shot that 
leaving seventy of his wounded under a was fired, until he took command in place 
flag of truce, crossed the Broad River of Lieutenant Worden, who had been 
immediately after the battle at the Cow- wounded. He served on the Monitor till 
pens (q. v.), and pushed for the Catawba, she sank near Cape Hatteras. He web 
Cornwallis followed the next morning, promoted commander in 1872. He died 
Two hours before the van of the pursuers in Portsmouth Navy-yard, N. H., Dec. 11, 
appeared, Morgan had passed the Catawba 1884. 

at Trading Ford, and before the British Greene, Zechariah, chaplain; born in 
could begin the passage, heavy rains pro- Stafford, Conn., Jan. 11, 1760; was a sol- 
duced a sudden rise in the waters, and dier in the army of the Revolution; be- 
time was given to Morgan to send off his came a minister of the Gospel and a set- 
prisoners, and to refresh his weary tied pastor on Long Island, and was a 
troops. When Greene heard of the affair chaplain in the army in the War of 1812- 
at the Cowpens, he put his troops in mo- 15. He died in Hempstead, L. I., June 20, 
tion to join Morgan. Pressing forward 1858. 

with only a small guard, he joined Mor- Greener, Richard Theodore, lawyer* 
gan two days after he had passed the born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 30, 1844; 
Catawba (Jan. 29, 1781), and assumed, was the first negro graduate at Harvard 
in person, the command of the division. College, where he finished with a brilliant 
And now one of the most remarkable record in 1870; became a lawyer in 1877; 
military movements on record occurred. United States consul at Vladivostok, Si- 
It was the retreat of the American army, beria, in 1898. His addresses include 
under Greene, from the Catawba through Charles Sumner, the Idealist, Statesman, 
North Carolina into Virginia. When the and Scholar; Eulogy on the Life and 
waters of the Catawba subsided, Corn- Services of William Lloyd Garrison; The 
wallis crossed and resumed his pursuit. Intellectual Position of the Aegro; etc. 
He reached the right bank of the Yadkin Greenhow, Robert, author; born in 
(Feb. 3), just as the Americans were Richmond, Va., in 1800; graduated at 
safely landed on the opposite shore. Again William and Mary College in 1816; re- 
he was arrested by the sudden swelling moved to California in 1850. He publish- 
of the river. Onward the flying patriots ed History of Tripoli, and a Report on the 
sped, and after a few hours Cornwallis Discovery of the Xorthicest Coast of 
was again in full pursuit. At Guilford North America, which was later enlarged 
Court-house Greene was joined (Feb. 7) and republished under the title of His- 
by his main army from Cheraw, and all tory of Oregon and California. He died 
continued their flight towards Virginia, in San Francisco, Cal., in 1854. 
for they were not strong enough to give Greenland. See Vinland, Voyages to. 
battle. After many hardships and nar- Greenleaf, Jonathan, clergyman; born 
row escapes, the Americans reached the in Newburyport, Mass., Sept. 4, 1785. 
Dan (Feb. 15, 1781), and crossed its ris- His publications include Sketches of the 
ing waters into the friendly bosom of Ecclesiastical History of Maine; History 
Halifax county, Va. When Cornwallis of Neio York Churches, etc. He died in 
arrived, a few hours afterwards, the Brooklyn, N. Y., April 24, 1865. 
stream was so high and turbulent that he Greenleaf, Moses, author: born in 
could not cross. There, mortified and dis- Newburyport, Mass., in 1778. He was the 
appointed, the earl abandoned the chase, author of Statistical View of the District 
and, moving sullenly southward through of Maine, and Survey of the State of 
North Carolina, established his camp at Maine. He died in Williamsburg, Me., 
Hillsboro. March 20, 1834. 

Greene, Samuel Dana, naval officer; Green Mountain Boys. Some of the 
born in Cumberland, Md., Feb. 11, 1839; settlers who had received grants of land 
graduated at the United States Naval from Governor Wentworth, of New Hamp- 



sbire, had crossed the Green Mountains issuing any more patents for lands east- 

and occupied lands on the shores of ward of Lake Charnplain. The order was 

Lake Charnplain. Emigration flowed over not ex post facto, and the New York 

the mountains rapidly after tbe close of the patentees proceeded to take possession of 

French and Indian War (q. v.), and the their purchased lands. The settlers 

present State of Vermont was largely cov- aroused for resistance, led by a brave and 

ered by Wentworth's grants. The authori- determined commander from Connecticut, 

ties of New York now proceeded to assert Ethan Allen (q. v.). The men under 

their claims to this territory under the his command called themselves the " Green 

charter given to the Duke of York. Act- Mountain Boys " ; and for some years the 

ing-Governor Colden issued a proclama- New Hampshire Grants formed a theatre 

tion to that effect, Dec. 

1763, to which where all the elements of civil war, ex- 

Wentworth replied by a counter-proclama- 
tion. Then the matter, on Colden's appli- 
cation, was laid before the King in coun- 

cepting actual carnage, were in active 
exercise. In 1774 Governor Tryon, of New 
York, issued a proclamation, ordering 

oil. A royal order was issued, March 13, Ethan Allen, Seth Warner, and other lead- 
1764, which declared the Connecticut ers of the Green Mountain Boys, to sur- 
Biver to be the eastern boundary of New render themselves within thirty days, or 
York. The settlers did not suppose this be subjected to the penalty of death. These 
decision would affect the titles to their leaders retorted by offering a reward for 
lands, and they had no care about politi- the arrest of the attorney-general of New 
cal jurisdiction. Land speculators caused York. The war for independence soon 
the New York authorities to assert fur- broke out and suspended the controversy, 
ther claims that were unjust and impoli- In that war the Green Mountain Boys took 
tic. On the decision of able legr' author- a conspicuous part. 

ity, they asserted the right of pr^erty in Green Mountain State. A popular 
the soil, and orders were issued for the name of Vermont, the principal mountain 
survey and sale of farms on the " Grants " range being the Green Mountains. 
in the possession of actual settlers, who Greenough, Horatio, sculptor; born in 
had bought, paid for, and improved them. Boston, Mass., Sept. 6, 1805; gradu- 
The settlers, disposed to be quiet, loyal ated at Harvard in 1825; evinced a taste 
subjects of New York, were converted into and talent for the cultivation of art in 
rebellious foes, determined and defiant. 

A new and powerful opposition to the 
claims of New York was created, composed 
of the sinews and muskets and determined 
wills of the people of the " Grants," backed 
by New Hampshire, and, indeed, by all 
New England. New York had left them 
no alternative but the degrading one of 
leaving or repurchasing their posses- 
sions. The governor and council of New 
York summoned the people of the 
" Grants " to appear before them at Al- 
bany, with their deeds and other evidences 
of possession, within three months, failing 
in which it was declared that the claims 
of all delinquents would be rejected. No 
attention was paid to the summons. 
Meanwhile speculators had been purchas- 
ing from Ne.v York large tracts of these 
estates, and were preparing to take pos- 
session. The settlers sent an agent to 

England to lay their case before the King, his early youth ; and soon after his 
He came back in 1767 with an order for graduation he went to Italy, where he 
the governor of New York to abstain from remained about a year. On his return to 



Boston in 1826 he modelled several busts, found the wreck of the Polaris at Little- 
and then returned to Italy, making Flor- ton Island, North Greenland; was pro- 
ence his residence. Ever active, ever moted rear-admiral in April, 1892; retired 
learning, and exceedingly industrious, he in February, 1895. 

executed many pieces of sculpture of great Gregg, David, clergyman ; born in 
merit. Among them was a group — The Pittsburg, Pa., March 25, 1846; grad- 
Chanting Cherubs — the first of the kind uated at Washington and Jefferson Col- 
ever undertaken by an American sculptor, lege in 1865; and settled in Brooklyn, 
He made a colossal statue of Washington, N. Y., in 1889. He is the author ol 
half nude, in a sitting posture, for the Makers of the American Republic, etc. 
Capitol at Washington, but it was so large Gregg, David McMurtkie, military 
that it could not be taken into the rotunda, officer ; born in Huntingdon, Pa., April 
its destined resting-place, and it occupies 10, 1833; graduated at West Point in 
a position before the eastern front of the 1855, entering the dragoon service. He 
great building. He also executed a colos- was in expeditions against the Indians in 
sal group for the government — The Washington Territory and the State of 
Rescue — which occupied the artist about Oregon (1858-GO), and was promoted to 
eight years. Besides numerous statues captain of cavalry in May, 1861. He was 
and groups, Mr. Greenough made busts of colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry 
many of our statesmen. His Life and through the campaign in Virginia in 
Essays were published in 1853 by his 1862, and in November of that year was 
friend Henry T. Tuckerman. Mr. Green- promoted to brigadier-general of volun- 
ough was greatly beloved by those who teers. He commanded a division of 
were favored with his personal acquaint- cavalry in the Army of the Potomac from 
ance as a noble, generous, and kind- December, 1862, until February, 1865, 
hearted man. He died in Summerville, when he resigned. In August, 1864, he 
Mass., Dec. 18, 1852. was brevetted major-general of volunteers. 

Greenville, Treaty at. After the He was appointed United States consul 
successful campaigns of Gen. Anthony at Prague, Bohemia, in 1874. 
Wayne against the Northwestern Indian Gregory, Francis Hoyt, naval officer; 
tribes in 1793-94, his army lay in winter born in Norwalk, Conn., Oct. 9, 1789; en- 
quarters in Greenville, Darke co., O., and tered the United States navy as mid- 
there, on Aug. 3, 1795, he concluded a shipman in 1809; was made lieutenant in 
treaty with several of the tribes — namely, 1814, and captain in 1828. He served 
Wyandottes, Delawares, Shawnees, Otta- under Chauncey on Lake Ontario; was 
was, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Miamis, made a prisoner and confined in England 
Eel River Indians, Weas, Piankshaws, eighteen months. In the war with Mex- 
Kickapoos, and Kaskaskias. There were ico he commanded the frigate Raritan. 
1,130 Indian participants in making the His last sea service was in command of 
treaty. The principal chiefs present were the African squadron. During the Civil 
Tarhe, Buckhongehelas, Black Hoof, Blue War he superintended the construction of 
Jacket, and Little Turtle. The basis of ivon-clads. On July 16, 1862, Captain 
the treaty was that hostilities should per- Gregory was made a rear-admiral on the 
manently cease and all prisoners be re- retired list. During the War of 1812, 
stored. The boundary-line between the supplies for the British were constantly 
United States and the lands of the several ascending the St. Lawrence. Chauncey 
tribes was fixed. ordered Lieutenant Gregory to capture 

Greenwood, Grace. See Lippincott, some of them. With a small force he lay 
Sara Jane. in ambush among the Thousand Islands 

Greer, James Augustin, naval officer; in the middle of June, 1814. They were 
born in Cincinnati, 0., Feb. 28, 1833; discovered, and a British gunboat was 
joined the navy in January, 1848; com- sent to attack them. They did not wait 
manded the iron-clad Benton, April 16, for the assault, but boldly dashed upon 
lsc,:;. during the passage of the batteries and captured their antagonist. She car- 
at Vicksburg and in subsequent actions, ried an 18-pounder carronade, and was 
In 1873 as commander of the Tigress he manned by eighteen men. These were 




the Turks, and on his return was ap- 
pointed to a command in Ireland, 
and made sheriff of Cork. In 157 1 
he had a seat in Parliament and was 
knighted by Queen Elizabeth. The 
colonization schemes of his kinsman 
commanded his ardent approval, and 
on April 9, 1585, he sailed from 
Plymouth, England, in command of 
some ships fitted out by Raleigh, 
bearing 180 colonists and a full com- 
plement of seamen, for the coast of 
Virginia. Ralph Lane, a soldier of 
experience, accompanied him as gov- 
ernor of the colony. Thomas Har- 
riott, a distinguished mathematician 
and astronomer, was with them as 
historian and naturalist (see Har- 
riott, Thomas) ; also Thomas Cav- 
endish, the eminent English naviga- 
tor, who sailed around the earth. 
Grenville was more intent upon 
plunder and finding gold than plant- 
ing a colony; the choice of him for 
commander was unfortunate. Sail- 
ing over the usual long southern 
taken prisoners to Sackett's Harbor. This route, they did not reach the coast of 
and other exploits, though appreciated at Florida until June, and as they went up 
the time, were not then substantially re- the coast they encountered a storm off a 
warded, except by promotions ; but, thirty point of land that nearly wrecked them, 
years afterwards, Congress gave Gregory and they called it Cape Fear, 
and his companion officers in the capture 
of the gunboat ( Sailing-Masters Vaughan 
and Dixon) $3,000. He died in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Oct. 4, 1866. 

Grenville, George, statesman; born in 
England, Oct. 14, 1712. A graduate of 
Cambridge University, a fine mathema- 
tician, and a student of law., he gave 
promise of much usefulness. Entering 
Parliament in 1741, he represented Buck- 
inghamshire for twenty-nine years, until 
his death, Nov. 13, 1770. In 1762 he was 
made secretary of state; chancellor of 
the exchequer and first lord of the 
treasury in 1763; and in 1764- he pro- 
posed the famous Stamp Act (q. v.). He 
was the best business man in the House 
of Commons, but his statesmanship was 
narrow. Thomas Grenville, who was 
one of the agents employed in negotiating 
the treaty of peace in 1783, was his son. 
Grenville, Sir Richard, born in Eng- 
land in 1540; was a cousin of Sir Walter 
Raleigh. When a mere youth he served 
in the imperial army of Germany against 




They finally landed on Roanoke Island, 
with Manteo, whom they had brought back 
from England, and who had been created 
Lord of Roanoke. Grenville sent him to 
the mainland to announce the arrival of 
the English, and Lane and his principal 
companions soon followed the dusky peer. 
For eight days they explored the country 
and were hospitably entertained every- 
where. At an Indian village a silver cup 
was stolen from one of the Englishmen, 
and was not immediately restored on de- 
mand. Grenville ordered the whole town 
to be destroyed, with all the standing 
maize, or Indian corn, around it. This 
wanton act kindled a flame of hatred in 
the bosoms of the natives that could not 
be quenched. Not observing this, the com- 
mander left the colony and returned to 
England with his ships. These all be- 
came piratical cruisers on the seas, and 
entered the harbor of Plymouth on Sept. 
18, laden with plunder from Spanish 

Governor Lane also treated the natives 
cruelly, and they became greatly exas- 
perated in spite of the soothing influence 
of Harriott, their benefactor. In mortal 
fear of the Indians, their provisions ex- 
hausted, and no ship arriving from Eng- 
land, they hailed with joy the appearance 
of Sir Francis Drake, who, returning from 
the West Indies, touched at Roanoke 
Island (see Drake, Sir Francis). They 
gladly entered his ship and returned to 
England. About three weeks afterwards 
Grenville arrived there with three ships, 
laden with provisions. Leaving fifteen 
men on the deserted spot to keep posses- 
sion of the country, Grenville again sailed 
for England. He afterwards, as vice-ad- 
miral, performed notable exploits against 
the Spaniards, but finally, in a battle with 
a large Spanish fleet off the Azores, in 
1591, he was wounded, made prisoner, and 
soon afterwards died. 

Gresham, Walter Quintpn, jurist; 
born near Lanesville, Harrison co., Ind., 
March 17, 1832. He attended the State 
University of Indiana; and in 1854 was ad- 
mitted to the bar and began the practice of 
law. He had served in the legislature when 
the Civil War broke out. As colonel of the 
52d Indiana Volunteers he served credit- 
ably in the Western army. After the war 
he was defeated as Republican candidate 

for Congressman, and from 1869 to 1882 
held the post of United States district 
judge in Indiana. In President Arthur's 
administration Gresham was Postmaster- 
General from 1882 to 1884, and Secretary 
of the Treasury from September to Decem- 
ber, 1884. He then became United State* 
circuit judge, and held that post until 
1893. Meanwhile he was in 1S88 a promi- 
nent candidate for the Republican nomina- 
tion to the Presidency, and in 1892 he de- 
clined the Populist invitation to stand for 
the same office. His views on public ques- 
tions had somewhat changed, so that his 
appointment by President Cleveland to 


the office of Secretary of State was not 
entirely a surprise. He held this office at 
the time of his death, in Washington, May 
28, 1895. 

Grey, Charles, Earl, military officer; 
born in England Oct. 23, 1729; was aide- 
de-camp to Wolfe, at Quebec, in 1759; 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in 
1761; and, as colonel, accompanied Gen- 
eral Howe to Boston in 1775, who gave 
him the rank of major-general. He led 
the party that surprised General Wayne 
in the night. He was an active com- 
mander in the battle of Germantown 
(q. v.) and as a marauder on the New 
England coast in the fall of 1778. He 
surprised and cut in pieces Baylor's 
dragoons at Tappan. For these and other 
services in America he was made a lieu- 
tenant-general in 1783. He became a gen- 



eral in 1795; was elevated to the peerage 
in 1801 ; and was the father of the cele- 
brated English statesman of the same 
name. He died Nov. 14, 1807. 

Greytown, the only seaport of Nicara- 
gua; at the mouth of the San Juan River. 
It is locally known as San Juan del Norte. 
The town has considerable trade, which, 
however, was for many years held in check 
by the choking up of the harbor. It is 
the Atlantic terminus of the projected 
Nicaragua Canal, and, as such, was 
neutralized by the Clayton-Btxlwer 
Treaty (q. v.). Considerable work has 
been done towards improving the harbor 
under the direction of the United States 
government. On June 13, 1854, the former 
town was bombarded and destroyed by the 
United States naval ship Cyane under 
command of George N. Hollins (q. v.). 

Gridley, Charles Vernon, naval offi- 
cer; born in Logansport, Ind., in 1845. 
He was appointed an acting midshipman 
in the United States navy in 1860; was 
promoted to midshipman July 16, 1862; 
lieutenant, Feb. 21, 1867; lieutenant-com- 
mander, March 12, 1868; commander, 
March 10, 18S2; and captain, March 4, 
1897; and was assigned to the Asiatic 
squadron. Upon his arrival at Hong- 
Kong, China, he was given command of 
the protected cruiser Olympia, the flag- 


ship. Just before the battle of Manila 
Bay, on May 1, 1898, Captain Gridley 
took his place in the conning tower of the 
Olympia, with Commodore Dewey on the 

IV. — M 1 

bridge. When the American fleet drew 
near to the Spanish vessels, Commodore 
Dewey gave the laconic order : " You 
may fire when you are ready, Mr. Grid- 
ley," and almost immediately the battle 
was opened. Captain Gridley managed 
his ship superbly throughout the fight, 
and fired the broadside which destroyed 
the Spanish flag-ship. During the battle 
he was very ill, but insisted on command- 
ing his ship. Soon afterwards his sick- 
ness grew worse, and he died in Kobe, 
Japan, June 4, 1898, while on his way 

Gridley, Richard, military officer; 
born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 3, 1711; chief 
engineer in the siege of Louisburg, in 
1745. He entered the service, as colonel 
of infantry, in 1755; was in the expedi- 
tion to Crown Point, under General Wins- 
low; planned the fortifications at Lake 
George; served under Amherst, and was 
with Wolfe at Quebec. He retired as a 
British officer on half-pay for life. Was 
appointed chief engineer of the army that 
gathered at Cambridge; planned the works 
on Bunker Hill and Dorchester Heights; 
and was in the battle there, in which he 
was wounded. In 1775 he was commis- 
sioned a major-general. He was com- 
mander of the Continental artillery until 
superseded by Knox. He died in Stough- 
ton, Mass., June 20, 1796. 

Grier, Robert Casper, jurist; born in 
Cumberland county, Pa., March 5, 1794; 
graduated at Dickinson in 1812; justice 
of the United States Supreme Court, 
1846-70. He died in Philadelphia, Sept. 
26, 1870. 

Grierson, Benjamin Henry, military 
officer; born in Pittsburg, Pa., July 8, 
1826; went on the staff of General Pren- 
tiss when the Civil War broke out, and 
became an active cavalry officer. Some of 
Grant's cavalry, which he had left in Ten- 
nessee, were making extensive and de- 
structive raids while he was operating 
against Vicksburg. On April 17 Colonel 
Grierson, then commanding the 6th Illi- 
nois Cavalry, left La Grange, Tenn., with 
his own and two other regiments, and, de- 
scending the Mississippi, swept rapidly 
through the rich western portion of that 
State. These horsemen were scattered in 
several detachments, striking Confederate 
forces here and there, breaking up rail- 


ways and bridges, severing telegraph of volunteers in May, 18G5, and for his 
wires, wasting public property, and as services in the war was brevetted major- 
much as possible diminishing the means general, United States army, in March. 

of transportation of the Confederates in 
their efforts to help their army at Vicks- 
burg. Finally, on May 2, having pene- 

cy • 


trated Louisiana, this great raid ceased, 
when Grierson, with his wearied troops 
and worn-out horses, entered Baton Rouge, 

1867. He had been commissioned lieuten- 
ant-colonel of United States cavalry in 
July, 1866. From 1868 till 1873 he was 
in command of the Indian Territory dis- 
trict, and was actively employed in cam- 
paigns against hostile Indians; and in 
1873-81 was similarly engaged in western 
Texas and New Mexico. In 1886 he be- 
came commander of the District of New 
Mexico, and in 1890 he was retired with 
the rank of brigadier-general in the reg- 
ular army. 

Griffin, Appleton Phentiss Clakk, au- 
thor; born in Wilton, N. H. ; became 
assistant librarian of the Library of Con- 
gress in 1897. His publications include 
Discovery of the Mississippi ; Index of 
Articles upon American Local History in 
Collections, etc. 

Griffin, Charles, military officer; born 
in Licking county, O., in 1826; gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1S47, and entered 
the artillery. He was made captain of 
artillery in April, 1861, and with his bat- 
tery fought bravely in the battle of Bull 
Run. He was promoted brigadier-general 
of volunteers in July, 1862; served under 
General Potter in the campaign against 
Richmond, and was active in the Army 
of the Potomac until the surrender of Lee 
at Appomattox Court - house, where, as 
commander of the 5th Corps, he received 

where some of General Banks's troops were the arms and colors of the Army of North 
stationed. In the space of sixteen days era Virginia. In March, 1865, lie was 

he had ridden 600 miles, in a succession of 

forced marches, often in drenching rain, 
and sometimes without rest for forty- 
eight hours, through a hostile country, 
over ways most difficult to travel, fighting 
men and destroying property. His troops 
had killed and wounded about 100 Con- 
federates, captured and paroled full 500, 
destroyed 3,000 stand of arms, and in- 
flicted a loss on their foes of property 
valued at $6,000,000. Grierson's loss was 
twenty-seven men and a number of horses. 

brevetted major-general, United States 
army, and received other brevets for 
" meritorious services during the Rebel- 
lion." In the winter of 1865-66 he was 
placed in command of the Department of 
Texas, with headquarters in Galveston. 
On Sept. 5, 1867, when that city was 
scourged with yellow fever, he was given 
a temporary command in New Orleans, 
but he refused to leave his post, and died 
of the fever on the 15th. 

Griffin, Cyhus, jurist; born in Vir- 

During the twenty-eight hours preceding ginia in 1749; was educated in England; 
the arrival of the raiders at Baton Rouge was connected by marriage there with a 
they had travelled 76 miles, engaged in noble family: and when the Revolution 
four skirmishes, and forded the Comite broke out he espoused the cause of the pa- 
River. Grierson dedared that he found triots. From 1778 to 1781, and in 1787-88, 
the Confederacy to be only a shell. This he was a member of the Continental Con- 
was in 1863. He was made major-general gress, and in the latter year its president. 



He was commissioner to the Creek nation Grimke, John Faucheraud, jurist; 

in 1789, and from that year until his born in South Carolina, Dee. 16, 1752; 

death in Yorktown, Va., Dee. 14, 1810, he studied law in London, England; was one 

was judge of the United States District of the thirty Americans who petitioned 

Court in Virginia. the King to stay the acts of Parliament 

Griffin, Simon Goddell, military offi- infringing on American rights. He pub- 

eer; born in Nelson, N. H., Aug. 9, 1824; lished Revised Edition of the Laws of 

began law practice in Concord in 1860; South Carolina to 1789; Public Lata of 

served with marked distinction through South Carolina; Duty of Justices of the 

the Civil War; was commissioned briga- Peace; etc. He died in Long Branch, 

dier-general of volunteers in 1864; and 1ST. J., Aug. 9, 1819. 

on June 16 of that year led an assault at Grimshaw, William, author; born in 

Petersburg, capturing 1,000 Confederates Greencastle, Ireland, in 1782; came to the 

and their works. Subsequently he was United States in 1815; settled in Phila- 

brevetted major-general of volunteers. He delphia. He was author of the American 

died in Keene, N. H., Jan. 14, 1902. Chesterfield; a school history of the 

Griffin, The, the vessel of La Salle, on United States, etc., and editor of a re- 
Lake Erie; built early in 1667, at the vised edition of Ramsey's Life of Wash- 
ington. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., in 
Griswold, Fort, a defensive work on 
seven small cannon and some muskets, the east bank of the Thames River in 
and floated a flag bearing the device of an Connecticut. On Sept. 6, 1781, while de- 
eagle. In August, the same year, she fended by Col. William Ledyard and 150 
sailed for the western end of Lake Erie, 
This was the beginnin 
the Great Lakes. 

mouth of Cayuga Creek, not far below the 
site of Buffalo, and near the foot of Squaw 
Island. She was armed with a battery of 

men, it was captured by the British, who, 
of the commerce on undei Benedict Arnold, acted treacher- 
ously after the surrender, Colonel Ledyard 
Griggs, John William, lawyer; born being killed when delivering his sword. 

in Newton, N. J., July 10, 1849; grad- 
uated at Lafayette College in 1868; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1871; and began prac- 

No quarter was given, and only twenty- 
six men escaped. 

Groesbeck, William Slocomb, lawyer; 

tice in Paterson, N. J. In 1876-77 he was born in New York City, July 24, 1815; 

a member of the New Jersey House of Rep- received an academic education ; admitted 

resentatives, and in 1882-88 of the State to the bar, and practised in Cincinnati, 

Senate, of which he was president in 1886. O. ; member of Congress in 1857-59; 

He was elected governor of New Jersey in State Senator in 1862; and one of the 

November, 1895, and served till January, 
1898, when he was appointed Attorney- 
General of the United States. In March, 
1901, he resigned this office to resume 
private practice. 

counsel for President Johnson in the im- 
peachment trial of 1868. He died in Cin- 
cinnati, O., July 7, 1897. 

Grover, Cuvier, military officer; born 
in Bethel, Me., July 24, 1829; graduated 
Grijalva, Juan de, adventurer; born in at West Point in 1850; was made briga- 

Cuellar, Spain, near the close of the fif- 
teenth century. His uncle, Diego Velas- 

dier-general of volunteers in April, 1861 ; 
and commanded a brigade in Heintzel- 

quez (q. v.), the first governor of Cuba, man's corps in the Army of the Potomac, 
sent him, in command of four vessels, to He was in the Shenandoah campaign in 
complete the discoveries of Cordova. He 1864; and from January till June, 1865, 
sailed from Santiago, Cuba, in the spring was in command of the District of Savan- 
of 1518. He cruised along the peninsula nah. General Grover was brevetted briga- 
of Yucatan as far as the region of the dier-general and major-general in the 
Panuco, where he held friendly communi- regular army, March 13, 1865; was pro- 
cation with the Aztecs, the subjects of moted to colonel of the 1st Cavalry in 1875, 
Montezuma. Grijalva afterwards settled which command he held till his death in 
in Nicaragua, where he was killed by the Atlantic City, N. J., June 6, 1885. 
natives, Jan. 21, 1527. He was the dis- Groveton, Battle of. After the bat- 
coverer of Mexico. tie at Cedar Mountain (q. v.), Pope 



took position with his army along the line 
of the Rapidan, where he was reinforced 
by troops from North Carolina, under 
Burnside and Stevens. The Confederates 
now concentrated their forces for a dash 
on Washington in heavy columns. Hal- 
leck, perceiving possible danger to the 
capital, issued a positive order to McClel- 
lan, Aug. 3, 18G2, for the immediate trans- 
fer of the Army of the Potomac from 
the James River to the vicinity of Wash- 
ington. The commander of that army in- 
structed Halleck that the " true defence 
of Washington " was " on the banks of 
the James." The order was at once re- 
peated, but it was twenty days after it 

ery hour. Troops were coming with tardy 
pace from the Peninsula, and on tne 25th, 
when those of Franklin, Heintzelman, and 
Porter had arrived, Pope's army, some- 
what scattered, numbered about 60,000 
men. Jackson crossed the Rappahannock, 
marched swiftly over Bull Run Mountain, 
through Thoroughfare Gap, to Gainesville 
(Aug. 26), where he was joined by Stuart, 
with two cavalry brigades. At twilight 
Stuart was at Bristow Station, in Pope's 
rear, and between the latter and Wash- 
ington. He and Banks had no suspicion 
of this movement. Jackson knew the 
perils of his position, and the necessity 
for quick action. He sent Stuart forward 


was first given before the transfer was 
accomplished. Meanwhile, General Lee 
having massed a heavy force on Pope's 
front, the latter had retired behind the 
forks of the Rappahannock. Lee pushed 
forward to that river with heavy columns, 
and on Aug. 20-21 a severe artillery duel 
was fought above Fredericksburg, for 
7 or 8 miles along that stream. Find- 
ing they could not force a passage 
of the river, the Confederates took a cir- 
cuitous route towards the mountains to 
flank the Nationals, when Pope made 
movements to thwart them. 

But danger to the capital increased ev- 

to Manassas Junction before daylight 
(Aug. 27), to break up Pope's communi- 
cations with the capital. The alarm in- 
stantly spread among the Nationals. 
Jackson, with his whole force, pressed 
to the Junction, and Pope attempted to 
capture him before he should form a junc- 
tion with Longstreet, at the head of Lee's 
column, then approaching. Pope ordered 
McDowell, with Sigel and the troops of 
Reynolds, to hasten to Gainesville to inter- 
cept Longstroot. Reno was ordered to 
move on a dilVerent road, and support 
McDowell, while Pope moved along the 
railway towards Manassas Junction with 



Hooker's division. He directed General 
Porter to remain at Warrenton Station 
until Banks should arrive there to hold 
it, and then hasten to Gainesville. 
McDowell reached Gainesville without 
interruption; but near Bristow Station, 
Hooker encountered General Ewell, and in 
the struggle that ensued each lost about 
300 men. 

The latter hastened towards Manassas, 
but Hooker's ammunition failing, he was 
unable to pursue. Pope now ordered a 
rapid movement upon the Confederates 
at the Junction, while General Kearny 
was directed to make his way to Bristow 
Station, where Jackson might mass his 
troops and attempt to turn the National 
right. This movement was made early 
on the morning of Aug. 28, 1862. Porter 
was ordered to move towards Bristow Sta- 
tion at one o'clock, but did not march 
before daylight, at which time Jackson 
had taken another direction. He de- 
stroyed an immense amount of captured 
stores, and hastened to join Longstreet, 
then approaching through Thoroughfare 
Gap. Some of Pope's troops failed to exe- 
cute orders. The latter arrived at the 
Junction just after Jackson had left, 
and pushed all of his available forces 
upon Centreville in pursuit. Kearny drew 
Jackson's rear-guard out of Centreville 
late in the afternoon (Aug. 28), and the 
forces of the Confederates were turned 
towards Thoroughfare Gap, from which 
was coming their help. Towards evening 
the troops under Ewell and Taliaferro en- 
camped near the battle-ground of Bull 
Run nearly a year before. King's division 
of McDowell's corps was in close pursuit, 
and when they had reached a point desired 
by the watching Confederates, the latter 
fell fiercely upon them. A sanguinary 
battle ensued. The brunt of it was borne 
by Gibbons's brigade, supported by that of 
General Doubleday. The struggle con- 
tinued until dark. The losses were heavy, 
and in that battle General Ewell lost a 

Pope, at Centreville, now attempted to 
crush Jackson before Longstreet could 
join him. McDowell and King were di- 
rected to maintain their position, while 
Kearny should follow Jackson closely at 
one o'clock in the morning (Aug. 29), and 
Porter (whom he believed to be at the 

Junction) to move upon Centreville at 
dawn. Before these movements could 
be executed, Longstreet and Jackson had 
formed a partial junction. Near the en- 
trance to Thoroughfare Gap, through 
which Longstreet had marched, there was 


a sharp engagement, which ended at twi- 
light. Longstreet was held in check for 
a while by Bicketts's division, and the 
cavalry of Buford and Bayard, which had 
fought the battle. Early the next morn- 
ing (Aug. 29), Ricketts fled to Gaines- 
ville, closely pursued. Pope's army was 
now scattered and somewhat confused. 
Lee's whole army, now combined, pressed 
forward. Pope ordered Sigel, supported 
by Reynolds, to advance from Groveton 
and attack Jackson on wooded heights 
near. He ordered Heintzelman, with the 
divisions of Hooker and Kearny, towards 
Gainesville, to be followed by Reno, while 
Porter, with his own corps and King's 
division, was to move upon the road to 
Gainesville from Manassas, for the turn- 
ing of Jackson's flank on the Warrenton 
pike, and to fall heavily on his rear. 
Lee was then approaching along that pike, 
and Jackson determined to hold his ad- 
vantageous position, at all hazards, until 
the main army should arrive. 

At five o'clock in the morning, Sigel, 
with the divisions of Schuvz, Schenck, and 



Milroy, advanced to attack Jackson. A 
battle began at seven o'clock, and con- 
tinued with great fury until ten, Sigel 
constantly advancing, while it was evi- 
dent that Jackson had been reinforced. 
Jt was so. Longstreet, with the vanguard 
of Lee's whole army, which had been 
streaming through Thoroughfare Gap all 
the morning unopposed, had now reached 
the field of action. Sigel maintained his 
ground until noon, when Kearny's division 
arrived, and took position on Sigel's right. 
Reynolds and Reno also came up, followed 
soon afterwards by Hooker. Then the 
Nationals outnumbered the Confederates, 
and for some hours the battle assumed 
the aspect of a series of skirmishes. Pope 
ordered Porter into action, and other 
troops were directed to support him; but 
Porter, as he alleged, did not receive the 
order until dusk, and the brunt of the 
battle fell upon his intended supports. 
It was desperately and gallantly fought 
on both sides. Jackson was hourly re- 
inforced by fresh divisions of Lee's army. 
Soon after dusk this sharp and important 
battle at Gvoveton ended, without victory 
on either side, and each having lost about 
7,000 men. Pope's entire army (except- 
ing Banks's forces at Bristow Station) 
and a part of McClellan's were in this 
action. Pope's effective men had been re- 
duced in numbers by various causes, and 
it was estimated that his army fit for 
service did not exceed 40,000 men. 

Grow, Galusha Aaron, statesman; 
born in Eastford, Conn., Aug. 31, 1824; 
graduated at Amherst College in 1844; 
admitted to the bar of Pennsylvania in 
1847 ; elected a member of Congress in 
1851 ; served as speaker from 1861 to 
1803, when his term of office expired. He 
continued to take an active part in politics 
for many years, and was . re-elected to 
Congress as member - at - large from the 
State of Pennsylvania in 1894. 

Grundy, Felix, statesman; born in 
Berkeley county, Ya., Sept. 11, 1777; re- 
moved to Tennessee in 1S08; member of 
Congress, 1811-14; United States Senator, 
1829-38; Attorney-General of the United 
States, 1838-39; United Stales Senator, 
1839-40. He died in Nashville, Tenn., 
Dec. 19, 1840. 

Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Treaty op, Fi b 
2, 1848, between the United States and 

Mexico, by which the latter ceded to the 
United States all the country north of the 
Rio Grande to the point where that river 
strikes the southern boundary of New 
Mexico, and westward to one league south 
of San Diego, Cal. 

Guam, the chief island in the Ladrone 
group, in the Pacific. During the war with 
Spain it was seized by the United States 
naval authorities, June 21, 1898; and by 
the treaty of peace was ceded to the 
United States. On Feb. 1, 1899, formal 
American possession was taken, Capt. 
Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., becoming the 
first governor. The United States govern- 
ment has established a naval and coaling 
station in the harbor of San Luis d'Apra. 
There is to be a breakwater, a coaling 
wharf and repair shops, and shore bat- 
teries for protection. On Nov. 13, 1900, 
a typhoon of unprecedented violence swept 
over Guam, causing the wreck of the 
United States auxiliary cruiser Yosemite. 
Although the vessel had two anchors down 
the terrific wind drove her a mile across 
the harbor of San Luis d'Apra, where she 

struck a reef and was then driven to 
sea, and sank Nov. 15. A launch con- 
taining live nun had been sent to find 
shelter, but it capsized and the occupants 



were drowned. The remainder of the 
crew, numbering 173, were rescued on the 
afternoon of Nov. 15 by the United 
States collier Justin. There was also a 
loss of more than thirty natives upon the 
island. The principal city of Guam is 
Agana (q. v.). 

Guanica, a seaport in the southwestern 
corner of the province of Ponce, about 
15 miles from the city of Ponce, Porto 
Rico. In the early part of the war be- 
tween the United States and Spain 
(1898), when it became known that a 
military expedition under Gen. Nelson 
A. Miles (q. v.) was to be sent to Porto 
Rico, it was reported with apparent offi- 
cial sanction that the objective point was 
San Juan, which Admiral Sampson would 
cover with the guns of his fleet while a 
landing was being made by the troops. 
This, however, was a ruse to mislead the 
Spanish spies in New York and Washing- 
ton, and while the Spaniards in San Juan 
were completing preparations to resist 
invasion, General Miles quietly debarked 
his army at Guanica on July 25, opposed 
only by a small force of Spaniards in a 
block-house. On the following day the 
Americans advanced to Yauco, and capt- 
ured the railroad leading into Ponce. 
By July 29 all of the Americans, number- 
ing 16,973 officers and men, had landed 
and concentrated in the neighborhood of 
Ponce for a forward movement against 
San Juan (q. v.). 

Guantanamo Bay, a harbor lying 38 
miles east of Santiago, Cuba; one of the 
best on the southern coast, The town and 
fort of the same name are located about 
5 miles back of the bay. Just outside of 
this bay United States war-ships made an 
attempt in thp early days of the war of 
1898 to cut 'he very important cables 
which ran from Santiago to Guantanamo 
and thence to Spain. Had this attempt 
succeeded Cuba would have been entirely 
isolated from the mother-country. On 
May 18, the St. Louis and the tug Wampa- 
tuck approached the mouth of the harbor, 
lint the heavy fire from the Spanish bat- 
teries and the gunboat in the bay forced 
the Wampatuck to retire after grappling 
one of the cables within 800 yards of the 
shore. On the hills before mentioned the 
Spaniards had constructed earthworks 
and rifle-pits commanding the entrance of 

the bay. On June 10, 1898, the United 
States cruiser Marblehead was sent to 
shell the bluffs. Captain McCalla found 
this task easy, two dozen shells sufficing 
to drive the enemy away. On the follow- 
ing day the transport Panther landed 600 
marines at Caimanera (q. v.). In 1903 
an agreement was signed between the 
United States and Cuba for the cession of 
territory on Guantanamo bay for the 
establishment of a United States naval 
station. See Las Guastmas. 

Guayamo, a town about 40 miles east 
of Ponce, in the district of Guayamo, 
Porto Rico. Early in August, 1898, Gen- 
eral Brooke, of the United States army, 
decided to capture the town and make it 
a base of operations, as it was the only 
town of importance on the main road 
leading to the military road between 
Ponce and San Juan. On the morning of 
Aug. 5 General Hains, with the 4th Ohio 
and the 3d Illinois regiments, under the 
orders of General Brooke, moved against 
the place. There was no sign of the 
enemy until the advance entered a cut 
leading up a steep hill about a mile from 
the town, when a hail of Spanish bullets 
whistled over their heads. Owing to their 
small force, the advance were compelled 
to retire. As soon as this firing was 
heard the main body of American troops 
hurried forward and up the hill-sides. At 
a short turn in the road the Spaniards 
had built a barricade, but a flanking move- 
ment forced them to retire. For about a 
half-hour the Americans pushed forward, 
meeting with little resistance. The enemy 
then rallied, made a stand, and wounded 
three Americans. Soon, however, the 
Spaniards were driven from their posi- 
tion. At 11 a.m. General Hains entered 
the town, and shortly afterwards a flag of 
truce was raised and Guayamo surren- 
dered. The inhabitants greeted the Amer- 
icans with manifestations of joy and 
friendliness. At about the same time the 
Spaniards in the hills began to bombard 
the town. This action lasted about a half- 
hour, when the Americans sent six dyna- 
mite shells into the midst of the enemy 
and nothing more was heard from them. 
The entire action lasted about five hours 
and was notable for its slight casualties. 
The town of Guayamo has a population of 



Guerber, Helene Adeline, author. Her arms and munitions of war captured by 

publications include Story of the Thirteen them. This act was repealed Feb. 15, 

Colonies; Story of the Great Republic ; etc. 1864, and provision made for uniting all 

Guerillas. The name guerilla was the ranger bands under the discipline of 

first given to bands of irregular soldiery, the regular army, 

or armed peasants, in Spain, who har- Guernsey, Alfred Hudson, journalist; 

assed Napoleon's armies during the Pen- 
insular War, in 1808-14. The name is 
from the Spanish and means " a little 
war." One of the bands, led by the no- 
torious General Mina, joined Wellington, 
and after having undergone a course of 
discipline, did good service as regular 
troops. From Spain the name guerilla 
was brought to Central America, and 
thence to the United States. Guerilla 
bands of Mexico and Texas were a source 

born in Brandon, Vt., May 12, 1818; con- 
nected with Harper's Magazine from 1850 
to 1869 as contributor and editor; associ- 
ate editor of the American Cyclopaedia. 
With Henry M. Alden he wrote Harper's 
Pictorial History of the Great Rebellion. 
He died in New York, Jan. 17, 1902. 

Gueslis, Francis Vaillant de. See 
Jesuit Missions. 

Guild, Reuren Aldridge, author; born 
in West Dedham, Mass., May 4, 1822; 

of great annoyance during the Mexican graduated at Brown University in 1847, 

War. In the Civil War guerillas, or 
" partisan rangers," as they were called, 
were commanded by officers duly commis- 
sioned by the Confederate President for 
such service. By an act of the Confeder- 
ate Conjrress, passed April 21, 1862, it was 
provided that these " partisan rangers " 
should receive the full pay of regular 
soldiers and be paid the full value of all 

ntals; 9. Second |"> Itlo 
position of British. 


of Brit; t. j B. Front 

I) FiJ;ht l.,"l »,",', 'lli- 


and served there as librarian for forty- 
six years. His publications include Life 
and Journals of Chaplain Smith ; Life of 
Roper Williams; Early History of Brown 
University; Documentary History of 
Brown University ; etc. He died in 1899. 
Guilford, Battle of. Resting his troops 
a while in Virginia, after his race with 
Cornwallis, Gen. Nathanael Greene (q. 
v.) recrossed the Dan 
into North Carolina: 
and as he moved cau- 
tiously forward to foil 
the efforts of Cornwallis 
to embody the Tories of 
that State, he found him- 
self, March 1, 1781, at 
the head of about 5,000 
troops in good spirits. 
Feeling strong enough to 
cope with Cornwallis, he 
sought an engagement 
with him ; and on the 
15th they met near Guil- 
ford Court - house, where 
they fiercely contended 
for the mastery. The bat- 
tle - field was about 5 
miles from the (present) 
village of Greensboro, in 
Guilford county, N. C. 
Greene had encamped 
within 8 miles of the 
earl, on the evening of 
the 14th, and on the 
morning of the 15th he 
moved against his enemy. 
The latter was prepared 

-North Cnro- 
Virginia Con- 

lis; 3. Third 


to receive him. Greene had disposed his with the right division in the face of a 

army in three positions — the first at the terrible storm of grape-shot and musketry, 

edge of woods on a great hill; the second Nearly the whole of the two armies were 

in the forest, 300 yards in the rear; and now in conflict. The battle lasted almost 


the third a little more than one-fourth 
of a mile in the rear of the second. The 
first line was composed of North Caro- 
lina militia, mostly raw recruits, nearly 
1,100 in number, commanded by Generals 
Butler and Eaton. These had two can- 
non, with Washington's cavalry on the 
right wing, and Lee's legion, with Camp- 
bell's militia, on the left wing. The 
whole were commanded by Greene in 

The British appeared in front of the 
Americans at a little past noon in full 
force, the right commanded by General 
Leslie, and the left by Colonel Webster. 
Under cover of a severe cannonade the 
British advanced, delivering a volley of 
musketry as they approached, and then, 
with a shout, rushed forward with fixed 
bayonets. The American militia fled after 
the firing of one or two volleys, when 
the victors pressed on and attacked the 
second line, composed of Virginia militia 
under Generals Stevens and Lawson. After 
a stout resistance they, too, fell back upon 
the third line. Up to this time the battle 
had been carried on, on the part of the 
British, by their right, under Leslie. Now 
Webster, with the left, pressed forward 

two hours, when Greene, ignorant of the 
heavy losses sustained by the British, 
ordered a retreat, leaving his cannon be- 
hind and Cornwallis master of the field. 
It was one of the most sanguinary battles 
of the war. The Americans lost about 
400 killed and wounded, besides 1,000 who 
deserted to their homes. The British loss 
was about 600. Among the fatally wounded 
was Colonel Webster. That battle ended 
British domination in North Carolina. 
The army of Cornwallis was too much 
shattered for him to maintain the advan- 
tage he had gained. After issuing a procla- 
mation boasting of his victory, calling 
upon the Tories to rally to his standard, 
and offering pardon to the " rebels " who 
should submit, he moved with his whole 
army towards Wilmington, near the sea- 
board. The news of the battle produced a 
profound sensation in England. " Another 
such victory," said Charles J. Fox, in the 
House of Commons, " will ruin the British 
army;" and he moved, June 12, 1781, to 
recommend the ministers to conclude a 
peace with the Americans at once. Will- 
iam Pitt (son of the great Chatham) 
spoke of the war against the Americans 
with great severity. 



Guillotine, Song of the. During the 
prevailing madness occasioned by the 
French Revolution of 1793, Thehvall, a 
celebrated English Jacobin, wrote and put 
forth the following song, adapted to the 
air of " God Save the King," calling it 
" God Save the Guillotine ": 

" God save the guillotine ' 
Till England's king and queen 

Her power shall prove; 
Till each anointed knob 
Affords a clipping job, 
Let no rude halter rob 

The guillotine. 

" France, let thy trumpet sound — 
Tell all the world around 

How Capet fell ; 
And when great George's poll 
Shall in the basket roll, 
Let mercy then control 

The guillotine. 

" When all the sceptred crew 
Have paid their homage due 

The guillotine, 
Let Freedom's flag advance 
Till all the world, like France, 
O'er tyrants' graves shall dance, 

And peace begin." 

Joel Barlow, an American, who had be- 
come a radical French Democrat, was in- 
vited to a Jacobin festival at Hamburg, 
on July 4, 1793, where he furnished Thel- 
wall's song, at dinner, and it was sung, 
with great applause. It was supposed to 
have been written by Barlow, who, on his 
return, was coldly received in New Eng- 
land, not only on that account, but be- 
cause he had assisted Paine in publishing 
his Age of Reason: The Song of the Guil- 
lotine was republished in Boston. See 
Barlow, Joel. 

Guiteau, Charles J., assassin; born 
about 1840, of French-Canadian parents; 
became an inconspicuous lawyer in Chi- 
cago. When James A. Garfield was elect- 
ed President (1880), Guiteau went to 
Washington to seek the office of Ameri- 
can consul at Marseilles, but was unsuc- 
cessful. This failure, along with the polit- 
ical antagonism between Garfield and Ros- 
coe Conkling, greatly incensed him. and on 
July 2. 1881, in the waiting-room of the 
Baltimore and Potomac Railroad depot, 
in Washington, he fired two shois at the 
President, one of which took effect. The 
President lingered until Sept. 19, when 
he died at Elberon, N. J. Immediately 

after the shooting, Guiteau was arrested, 
and letters found in his pockets made it 
evident that he had premeditated the 
murder of the President. On Aug. 7 he 
attempted to murder William McGill, one 
of his jail guards, and on Sept. 13, Sergt. 
John Mason, another guard, fired at him. 
On Oct. 7 he was indicted for murder, 
and on Nov. 14 was placed on trial be- 
fore Judge Cox, in the Supreme Court 
of the District of Columbia. The prose- 
cution was conducted by United States 
District Attorney Georee B. Corklr.ll, 


while the counsel for the defence was 
George M. Scoville. The trial continued 
through the remainder of the year and 
to the latter part of January, 1SS2. Dur- 
ing the last month, ex-Judge John K. 
Porter became associated with the prose- 
cution, and on Jan. 23 began the final ad- 
dress to the jury. On Jan. 25 the jury 
was charged by Judge Cox, and within 
an hour a verdict of guilty of murder in 
the first degree was agreed upon. During 
most of the trial Guiteau was violent and 
abusive, and was frequently threatened by 
Judge Cox with removal from the court- 
room. In accordance with the verdict, 
and its consequent sentence. Guiteau was 
hanged in the district jail, June 30, 1882. 
Gunboats. By the act of Congress ap- 
proved April 21, 1806, provision was made 
for the construction of fifty gunboats. 
President Jefferson had imbibed very 
strong prejudice in favor of such vessels. 
A flotilla of them, obtained from Naples, 




had been used effectively in the war with 
Tripoli in 1804; and they were favorites 
in the service, because they afforded com- 
mands for enterprising young officers. A 
few had been built in the United States 
in 1805, their chief contemplated use being 
the defence and protection of harbors and 
rivers. Then was inaugurated the " gun- 
boat policy " of the government, so much 
discussed for three or four years after- 
wards. Towards the close of the year 
(1806) the President announced that the 
fifty gunboats were so far advanced that 
they might be put into commission the 
following year. In December, 1807, the 
President was authorized to procure 188 

additional gunboats, by purchase or con- 
struction, making in all 257. These gun- 
boats were variously rigged as seen in 
the engraving. Some carried a single 
swivel amidship, and others one in the 
bow, and sometimes one in the stern. Jef- 
ferson, who had urged the construction 
of these little vessels of war, appears to 
have conceived the idea that sach a flotilla 
should merely be kept in readiness, prop- 
erly distributed along the coast, but not 
actually manned until necessity should 
call for their being put into commission. 
For this proposition he was ridiculed not 
only by naval officers, but among the peo- 
ple at large, and he was denounced by the 

•■ootk's gunboat flotilla in 1862. 



opposition as " a dreaming philosopher," lery, and were placed under the command 
and the whole gunboat system as "waste- of Flag-Officer A. H. Foote (q. v.), of 
ful imbecility called by the name of the navy. 

economy." Grant withdrew his forces from the 

Quite different were the gunboats that bayous above Vicksburg, and sent them 

performed most efficient service on the down the west side of the Mississippi, to 

cross and gain the rear of 
Vicksburg, on the line of 
the Black River. Porter 
prepared, at the same 
time, to run by the bat- 
teries at Vicksburg with 
all his gunboat and mor- 
tar fleet, with transports 
and barges. The object 
was to cover and assist 
Grant's movement below. 
The armored vessels were 
laden with supplies; so, 
also, were the transports. 
It was arranged for the 
gunboats to go down in 
single file, a few hundred 
yards apart, attack the 
batteries as they passed, 
and allow the transports 
Western rivers during the Civil War. to pass under cover of the smoke. This 
They were largely covered with plates of was done on the evening of April 16, 
iron, moved by steam, and armed with 1863. These vessels were terribly pound- 
very heavy guns. Foote commanded the ed by the batteries on the heights, but re- 
first flotilla of gunboats on the Mississippi turned the fire with spirit. One of the 
River. Some of them were wooden vessels was set on fire, which burned to the 
structures only, while others were of iron water's edge and sank. The gantlet was 
or covered with heavy plates of iron. The successfully run, and only one man lost 
Manassas had no appearance of a boat, his life in the operation. Grant imme- 
but looked like a huge water - mon- 
ster. The Louisiana showed another 
form of boat. Indeed, it was a float- 
ing battery movable by steam. This 
was a Confederate structure. The 
"New Era was another form. It was 
two boats covered by one common 
deck, and all heavily armored. 

When the Confederate line across 
Kentucky had been broken, the na- 
tional government determined to con- 
centrate the forces of Halleck and 
Buell for a great forward movement RSB^^^MBPBI^R^BB!* 

to push the Confederates towards tiie Louisiana. 

the Gulf of Mexico, according to 

Fremont's plan (see Fremont, John diately ordered six more transports to do 
Charles). Twelve gunboats (some of likewise, and it was done. 
them iron -plated) had been construct- Gunnison, John W., military engineer; 
ed at St. Louis and Cairo, and at, the born in New Hampshire in 1812; grad- 
close of January, 1862, those wore armed uatod at the United States Military Acad- 
with 126 heavy guns and some light artil- emy; commissioned second lieutenant ^f 


' ' 


jects. His publications include biog- 
raphies of Carl Ritter, James H. Coffin, 
and Louis Agassiz; A Treatise on Physi- 
cal Geography ; Creation, or the Biblical 
Cosmogony in the Light of Modern 
Sciences; and also numerous lectures. 
He died in Princeton, N. J., Feb. 8, 1884. 
Gwin, William McKendree, politician; 
born in Sumner county, Tenn., Oct. 9, 
1805; acquired a classical education; and 
for a time studied law, and later entered 
topographical engineers, July 7, 1838; en- the medical department at Transylvania 
gaged with Capt. Howard Stansbury in University, where he took his degree in 
drawing maps of the Great Salt Lake 1828. He went to Clinton, Miss., and 
region in 1849-51. He was author of practised there till 1833, when he was 
a History of the Mormons of Utah: Their appointed United States marshal for the 
Domestic Polity and Theology. He was Mississippi district. In 1840 he was 
murdered, with seven others, by a band of elected to Congress by the Democratic 
Mormons and Indians near Sevier Lake, party. He refused a renomination, and 



Ut., Oct. 26, 1853. 

was later appointed to superintend the 

Gunpowder. See Du Pont, Eleuthere construction of the new custom-house at 


Adam, Count, author ; 

New Orleans. In 1849 he removed to Cali- 
fornia, and in September served in the 

born in Poland, Sept. 10, 1805; came to convention at Monterey called to draw up 
the United States in 1849. His publica- 
tions include America and Europe; Sla- 
very in History; My Diary (notes on the term secured a survey of the Pacific coast, 

constitution. In December he became a 
United States Senator, and during his 

Civil War), etc. He died in Washing 
ton, D. C, May 4, 1866. 
Guthrie, James, statesman; born in 

a mint in San Francisco, a navy - yard 
(Mare Island), and got a bill passed for 
the establishment of a line of steamers 

Nelson county, Ky., Dec. 5, 1792; member between San Francisco, Japan, and 
of State legislature, 1827-40; Secretary of China. He was re-elected, but when the 

Treasury, 1853-57; United States Sen- 
ator, 1865-68. He died in Louisville, Ky., 
March 13, 1869. 

Civil War began was accused of disloy- 
alty, arrested, and imprisoned till 1863, 
when he was released. He interested the 

Guyot, Arnold Henry, geologist; born Emperor of France in a plan to colonize 
in Bondevilliers, Neuchatel, Switzerland, Sonora, Mexico, with Confederates. It is 

Sept. 28, 1807; was educated at the Col- 
lege of Neuchatel. In 1838 he made ex- 

alleged that the French minister of for- 
eign affairs encouraged him to draft a 

animations of the Swiss glaciers, at the scheme for the colony, which, after meet- 
request of Prof. Louis Agassiz ( q. v.). ing the approbation of the Emperor, was 
In 1839-48 he was Professor of History given into the hands of Emperor Maxi- 
and Physical Georraphy at Neuchatel. In milian. After the latter had been in 
1848 he came to th 3 United States. In 1854 Mexico two years, Dr. Gwin also went 
he became Professor of Geography and there, but received no promises of support 
Geology at Princeton. He established the from Maximilian in his colonization plans, 
museum in Princeton, which has become Eeturning to France in 1865 he again 
widely known. In 1866-75 he was en- laid the matter before Napoleon, at whose 
gaged in the preparation of a series of solicitation he returned to Mexico with 
geographies and a series of wall-maps, orders to Marshal Bazaine to provide 
For this work the Vienna Exposition of whatever force was necessary to make his 
1873 awarded him a medal. In 1873-77 plans successful. Dr. Gwin, however, re- 
he edited Johnson's New Universal Cyclo- ceived no encouragement and returned to 
pwdia (with Frederick A. P. Barnard), California. He engaged actively in pol- 
and was the author of many articles in itics, and in 1876 supported Samuel J. 
it on physical geography and like sub- Tilden for President. He was for many 



years known as "Duke Gwin, of Sono- May 15. 1777, was mortally wounded, 

ra." He died in New York City,. Sept. 3, dying on the 27th. 

1885. Gwyn, William M. See Gwin, Will- 

Gwinnett, Button, a signer of the iam M. 
Declaration of Independence; born in Eng- Gwyn's Island (Va.). After the de- 
land about 1732; was a merchant at Bris- struction of Norfolk (q. v.) by Lord Dun- 
tol, and emigrated to Charleston. S. C, more, the Tory governor of Virginia, the 
in 1770. He settled on St. Catharine's Americans, under Stevens, held the town 
Island, off the coast of Georgia, in 1772. until late in February, 1776, when they 
Cautious and doubtful, he took no part abandoned the place. Dunmore Bailed 
in political affairs until after the Revo- down the Elizabeth River and landed at 
lutionary War was begun, when he be- Gwyn's Island, which he fortified. Gen. 
came active in the patriot cause. He was Andrew Lewis (q. v.) erected two bat- 
chosen a Representative in Congress in teries, with which he attacked Dunmore on 
177G, where he voted for and signed the July 8, 1776. The next day the British 
Declaration of Independence. In 1777 he fled to their ships, and, after plundering 
was president of the provincial council a number of plantations on the Potomac, 
of Georgia, and by hostility to General divided their fleet, sending some of the 
Mcintosh excited the resentment of the ships to the Bermudas, some to the West 
latter, who challenged Gwinnett to fight Indies, and the remainder, with Dunmore. 
a duel. He accepted the challenge, and on to New York City. 



Haanel, Eugene, educator; born in old common-law) is next in importance 

Breslau, Germany, May 24, 1841 ; came to magna clMrta. Parliament may 

to the United States in 1859; taught in suspend the habeas corpus act for a 

Adrian, Hillsdale, and Albion colleges in specified time in great emergency. Then 

Michigan; was professor in Victoria Col- the nation parts with a portion of liberty 

lege, Coburg, Ontario, in 1873-88; then to secure its permanent welfare, and 

became Professor of Physical Science in suspected persons may then be arrested 

Syracuse University. He resigned the last without cause assigned. — Blackstone. 

charge in June, 1901, on being appointed Act suspended for a short time. 1689, 

superintendent of mines in Canada. Pro- 1696, 1708 

fessor Haanel is a charter member of the Suspended for Scots' Rebellion 1715-16 

Royal Society of Canada. * uspen ^ f or e twe '! e , m h °f s Willi 

jL , , , J ., , . Suspended tor Scots Rebellion 1744-45 

Habberton, John, author; born in suspended for American War 1777-79 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 24, 1842; was edu- Again by Mr. Pitt, owing to French 

cated in the public schools of Illinois, and Revolution 1794 

■tozn i. a tvt ^ i j i j jv. Suspended in Ireland in the great re- 
in 1859 went to New lork and learned the bellion 1798 

printer's trade. In the Civil War he Suspended in England.Aug. 28, 1799, and 

served in the Union army from 1862 to April 14, 1801 

1865, rising from private to lieutenant. Again, on account of Irish insurrection. 1803 

... ,, t x t xi ■ * Again, on alleged secret meetings 

After the war he entered the service of F e b. 21 1817 

Harper & Brothers, where he remained till Bill to restore habeas corpus intro- 

1872. In 1874-77 he was literary editor duced Jan. 28, 1818 

of the Christian Union; in 1876-93 was Suspended in Ireland (insurrection).^. ^ 

on the editorial staff of the New York Restored there March l] 1849 

Herald; and in 1893-94 on the editorial Suspended again Feb. 17, 1866; Feb. 

staff of Godey's Magazine His writings g, ^May 31, 1867; and^Feb. 28, ^ 

include Helens Babies; Other Peoples Because of the affair of John Anderson, 

Children; The Barton Experiment ; The an act of 1862 enacted that no writ of habeas 

Jericho Road; Who Was Paul Grayson? corpus should issue out of England to any 

m, a ■ 4. m i. -c T7„77 t> + n colony, etc., having a court with authority 

The Scripture Club of Valley Rest ; Coun- t0 gl ; a ' nt su ' ch wrl £ 

try Luck; Grown-up Babies; Life of 

Washington; My Mother - in - law; The In United States history the Constitu- 
Worst Boy in Town; All He Knew; Honey tion provides that " the privilege of 
and Gall; The Lue\y Lover; etc. Deacon habeas corpus shall not be suspended, un- 
Crankett, his only drama, has been per- less when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, 
formed with much success. the public safety may require it " ; but 
Habeas Corpus, in English history, does not specify what department of the 
the subjects' writ of right, passed " for government may suspend it. A series of 
the better securing the liberty of the sub- contests on this subject began with the 
ject," 31 Charles II., c. 2, May 27, 1679. Civil War and continued throughout, both 
If any person be imprisoned by the order as to the legality of suspension and the 
of any court, or of the King, he may have jurisdiction. The writ of habeas corpus was 
a writ of habeas corpus to bring him be- first suspended by President Lincoln be- 
fore the King's bench or common pleas, tween Washington and Philadelphia, April 
which shall determine whether his com- 27, 1861, in instructions to General Scott 
mittal be just. This act (founded on the (it had been suspended by State authority 



in Rhode Island for a brief time during ing the absence of Sir James Wright from 

Dorr's rebellion). See Dork, Thomas Wil- 1769 to 1772. He was the first person 

son. to plant cotton in Georgia. He died in 

President suspends the writ in Key New Brunswick, N. J., Aug. 28, 1775. 

West, Tortugas, and Santa Rosa.... Habersham, John, military officer; 

May 10, 1861 born in Savannah, Ga., in 1754; appointed 

SS£SS D T&" l^ues ■•;■ wl?? £ ^ ™jor of the 1st Georgia Regiment of Con- 

habeas corpus May 27, to Gen. Geo. tinentals; served throughout the Revolu- 

Cadwallader on appeal by John tionary War in the army, and after peace 

Merryman, of Baltimore, then con- declared was appointed Indian agent ; 

fined in Fort McIIenry May 2o, 1861 , . , . ,, rt l .. . . „, ° ' 

[On the general's refusal to obey was elected to the Continental Congress 

the writ Taney attempts to arrest from Georgia in 1785. He died in Sa- 

him, but fails.] vannah, Ga., Nov. 19, 1799. 

Theophilus Parsons supports President's Habersham Tosfpw ut.^mm- hnm 

power to suspend June 5, 1861 . ^aoersnam, JOSEPH, statesman, born 

Attorney-General Bates asserts the in Savannah, Ga., July 28, 1751. His 

President's power to declare martial father, James, who was born in England 

cVr «T d SUSpend the Writ ° f Jul 6 ™ 8 1861 in 1712 ' and died at New Brunswick > 
OnThundred"knd'"BeVenty-four"perlons N - J > in 1775 > accompanied Whitefield to 

committed to Fort Lafayette, July to Georgia in 1738, and was secretary of the 

Oct., 1861 province in 1754; president of the eoun- 
Suspension of the writ made^neraL ^^ ^ and acting governor in i 7G 9-72. Jo- 
Congress by act upholds this power! seph was a member of the first patriotic 
March 3, 1863 committee in Georgia in 1774, and ever 

Vallandlgham arrested .May -1 1863 afterwards took an active part in the de- 

President suspends by proclamation. - , ,, ... ,. . . . TX 

Sept. 15, 1863 fence of the liberties of his country. He 
All persons held under suspension of the helped to seize gunpowder in the arsenal 

writ discharged May, 1864 

Suspends in Kentucky July 5, 1864 

President Johnson restores the writ of 

habeas corpus except in the late in- 
surrectionary States, District of 

Columbia, New Mexico, and Arizona, 

by proclamation Dec. 11, 1865 

In all States and Territories except 

Texas April 2, 1866 

Throughout the United States.. Aug. 20, iS66 " Iflfct 

Thirty-eight thousand arrests were 
made according to the provost-mar- 
shal's record, Washington, during the " ! xV * 

Civil War " " : i lll» mm ^ . ' V m 

Habersham, Alexander Wylly, naval HHH 

officer; born in New York City, March 24, 
1826; joined the navy in 1841; promoted 
lieutenant in 1855; resigned in May, 
18G0; went to Japan as a tea merchant; 
and was the first to introduce that plant 
from Japan into the United States. At ijj 

the beginning of the Civil War he returned 
home and was a prisoner at Fort Mc- J08Epn HABBR3H4M . 

Henry for six months. He was the author 

of a narrative of the United States North in 1775, and was a member of the council 
Pacific Exploring Expedition. He died of safety. He was one of a company who 
in Baltimore, Md., March 26, 1883. captured a government ship (July, 1775), 

Habersham, James, statesman; born with munitions of war, including 15,000 
in Beverly, England, in 1712; emigrated lbs. of gunpowder. He led some volun- 
to Georgia in 1738; was appointed coun- teers who made the royal governor, 
cillor and secretary of the province in Wright, a prisoner (Jan. 18, 1776), and 
1754; president of the Assembly in 1767 j confined him to his house under a guard, 
and was acting governor of Georgia dur- When Savannah was taken by the Brit- 



ish, early in 1778, he took his family to 1, 1675. The inhabitants were in the 
Virginia; but in the siege of Savannah meeting-house, it being fast-day. The men 
(1779) by Lincoln and D'Estaing, he held seized their arms to defend themselves, 
the office of colonel, which he retained till their wives, and their little ones from the 
the close of the war. He was Postmaster- savages. Just as the latter seemed about 
General in 1795-1801, and president of the to strike a destructive blow, and the men, 
Savannah branch of the United States unskilled in military affairs, felt them- 
Bank from 1802 till its charter expired, selves almost powerless, a man with a 
He died in Savannah, Nov. 17, 1815. long, flowing white beard and military air 

Hadley, Arthur Twining, educator; suddenly appeared, drew his sword, and, 
born in New Haven, Conn., April 23, putting himself at the head of the armed 
1856; graduated at Yale University in men, filled them with courage and led them 
1876, and then studied in the Univer- to victory. The Indians fell back and fled, 

when the mysterious leader as suddenly 
disappeared, none knowing whence he came 
or whither he went. It was Col. Will- 
iam Goffe (q. v.), the "regicide," who 
was then concealed in the house of Mr. 
Russell, at Hadley. 

Hague, Parthenia Antoinette Var- 
daman, author; born in Harris county, 
Ga., Nov. 29, 1838; is the author of A 
Blockaded Family, or Life in Southern 
Alabama during the Civil War. 

Hague, William, clergyman; born in 
Pelham, N. Y., Jan. 4, 1808; graduated 
at Hamilton College in 1826, and at the 
Newton Theological Institution in 1829. 
He wrote The Bapiist Church; Review of 
Fuller and, Wayland on Slavery; etc. He 
died in Boston, Mass., Aug. 1, 1887. 

Hague Court of Arbitration. See 

Hahn, Michael, jurist; born in Bava- 
ria, Germany, Nov. 24, 1830; graduated 
sity of Berlin. Returning to the United at the University of Louisiana in 1854. 
States he was a tutor at Yale in 1879-83, He was opposed to secession and did all 
and university lecturer on railroad ad- in his power to keep Louisiana in the 
ministration in 1883-86. In the latter Union. When New Orleans was captured 
year he was made Professor of Political in April, 1862, he immediately took the 
Science in the graduate department, where oath of allegiance to the United States; 
he remained till 1890, when he was elected was elected governor of the State in 1864; 
president of the university by a unani- and United States Senator in 1865, but 
mous vote. The onlj public office he has was unable to obtain his seat. He served 
ever held was of commissioner of labor in the legislature for several years and in 
of Connecticut in 1885-87. He is the 1879 was elected district judge, which 
author of Economics, an Account of the office he held until his resignation on being 
Relations Between Private Property and elected to the national House of Repr<f- 
Fullic Welfare; Railroad Transportation, sentatives in 1885. He died in Washing* 
Its History and Laws; and Report on the ton, D. C, March 15, 1886. 


System of Weekly Payments. He is a mem- 
ber of the American Economic Association. 

Hail, Columbia," a stirring, patri- 
otic song written in the spnnsr of 1798„ 

Hadley, Attack on. At Hadley, on when war between the United States and 

the Connecticut River, the Indians, in the France seemed inevitable. Mr. Fox, a 

absence of the little garrison, attempted yonn? singer and actor in the Phila- 

the destruction of life and property, Sept. delphia Theatre, was to have a benefit. 

iv.— n 193 


There was so little novelty in the play- 
house that he anticipated a failure. On 
the morning before the appointed day he 
called upon Joseph Hopkinson (q. v.), a 
lawyer and man of letters, who indulged 
in writing verses, and said: " Not a single 
box has been taken, and I fear there will 
be a thin house. If you will write me 

for it touched the public heart with elec- 
trical effect at that moment. Eight time9 
the singer was called out to repeat the 
song. When it was sung the ninth time 
the whole audience arose and joined in 
the chorus. On the following night, 
April 30, President Adams and his wife, 
and some of the heads of departments, 

some patriotic verses to the air of the 
President's March I feel sure of a full 
house. Several people about the theatre 
have attempted it, but they have come to 
the conclusion it can't be done. I think 
you may succeed." Hopkinson retired to 
his study, wrote the first verse and 
chorus, and submitted them to Mrs. Hop- 
Kinson, who sang them with a harpsichord 
accompaniment. The tune and words 
harmonized. The song was soon finished, 
and the young actor received it the same 
evening. Next morning the theatre plac- 
ards contained an announcement that Mr. 
Fox would sing a new patriotic song. The 
house was crowded ; the song was sung, 
and the audience were wild with delight. 

with their families, were present, and tin 
singer was called out time after time. It 
was repeated night after night in the 
theatres of Philadelphia and other places, 
and it became the universal song of the 
boys in the streets. On one occasion a 
throng of people gathered before the 
author's residence, and suddenly the song. 
Hail, Columbia! from 500 voices broke the 
stillness of the night. 

Haines, Ai.anson Austin, clergyman; 
born in Hamburg, N. J., March 18, 1830; 
graduated at Princeton in 1857; appoint- 
ed chaplain of the 15th New Jersey Regi- 
ment in 18G2; and was present in thirty- 
six battles. In 1873-70 he was engineer of 
the United States Palestine Exploration 



Society, and made maps, sketches, and same year. It contains many curious 

copies of rock inscriptions in the Holy documents, and is illustrated by maps. 

Land, Egypt, and Turkey. His pub- Anthony a Wood, writing late in the 

lications include History of the 15th Regi- seventeenth century, referring to this 

merit New Jersey Volunteers. He died in great work, spoke of it as an " honor to 

Hamburg, N. J., Dec. 11, 1891. the realm of England, because possessing 

Haines's Bluff. At this point on the many ports and islands in America that 

Yazoo River there were stirring military are bare and barren, and only bear a name 

events preparatory to the siege of Vicks- for the present, but may prove rich 

burg. General Sherman, with the 15th places in future time." Hakluyt was ap- 

Corps, had been operating in the Yazoo pointed prebendary of Westminster in 

region, and when Grant determined to 1605, having been previously prebendary 

change his base of supplies to Grand Gulf, of Bristol. Afterwards he was rector of 

below Vicksburg, Sherman was ordered Wetheringset, Suffolk, and at his death, 

to make a feint against Haines's Bluff, Oct. 23, 1616, was buried in Westminster 

which the Nationals had been unable to Abbey. Henry Hudson, who discovered 

pass. On the morning of April 29, 1863, Spitzbergen in 1608, gave the name of 

he proceeded from Milliken's Bend, with Hakluyt's Head to a point on that island; 

Blair's division, in ten steamboats, and and Bylot gave his name to an island in 

armored and other gunboats, and went up Baffin Bay. A society founded in 1846, 

the Yazoo. On the morning of May 6 the for the republication of early voyages and 

armored gunboats assailed the fortifica- travels, took his name, 

tions at Haines's Bluff, and in the evening Haldeman, Samuel Stehman, natu- 

Blair's troops were landed, as if with the ralist; born in Locust Grove, Pa., Aug. 

intention of making an attack. The bom- 12, 1812; was educated in a classical 

bardment was kept up until dark, when school in Harrisburg and in Dickinson 

the troops were quietly re-embarked. The College. In 1836 he was assistant to 

assault and menace were repeated the next Henry D. Rogers, State geologist of New 

day, when Sherman received an order Jersey, and in the following year he joined 

from Grant to hasten Avith his troops the Pennsylvania survey, in which he was 

down the west side of the Mississippi and engaged till 1842. He was Professor of 

join him at Grand Gulf. See Vicksburg. Natural Sciences in the University of 

Hakluyt, Richard, author; born in Pennsylvania in 1851-55, and then took 
England about 1553. Educated at Ox- the similar chair in Delaware College. 
ford University, he was engaged there as From 1869 till his death, Sept. 10, 1880, 
a lecturer on cosmography, and was the he was Professor of Comparative Philology 
first who taught the use of globes. In in the University of Pennsylvania. Pro- 
1583 he published an account of voyages fessor Haldeman had a wonderfully del- 
of discovery to America; and four years icate ear. In 1848 he described in the 
afterwards, while with the English am- American Journal of Science a new 
bassador at Paris, Sir Edward Stafford, origin of sound which he had discovered 
probably as his chaplain, he published in in lepidopterous insects. He also deter- 
French a narrative of the voyages of mined more than forty varieties of vocal 
Laudonniere and others: and in 1587 he repertoire in the human voice. His pub- 
published them in lnglish, under the title lications include Fresh -Water Univalve 
of Four Voyages unto Florida. On his Molluska of the United States; a prize 
return to England in 1589, Hakluyt was essay on Analytical Orthography; Zoologi- 
appointed by Raleigh one of the company cal Contributions ; Elements of Latin Pro- 
of adventurers for colonizing Virginia, nunciation; an edition of Taylor's Sta- 
His greatest work, The Principal Nam- tistics of Coal; Tours of a Chess Knight; 
gations, Voyages, Trafficks, and Discov- Affixes in their Origin and Application; 
cries of the English Nation, made by Sea Rhymes of the Poets; Pennsylvania Dutch; 
or over Land, to the most remote and Outlines of Etymology; Word Building, 
farthest distant Quarters of the Earth, etc. 

at any time within the Compass of these Haldimand, Sir Frederick, military 

Fifteen Hundred Years, was published the officer; born in Neuchatel, Switzerland, ia 



October, 1728; served for some time in One is Ten; Margaret Percival in Amer- 
the Prussian army, and, in 1754, entered ica; In His Name; Mr. Tangiers' Vaca- 
the British military service. He came to lions; Mrs. Merriam's Scholars; His Level 
.America in 1757, and as lieutenant-colonel Best; Ups and Doicns; Fortunes of 
distinguished himself at Ticonderoga Rachel; Four and Five; Crusoe in 
(1758) and Oswego (1759). He accom- New York; Christmas Eve and Christmas 
panied Amherst to Montreal in 1760. In Day ; Our Christmas in a Palace ; Sketches 
1767 he was employed in Florida, and be- in Christian History; Kansas and Nc~ 
came major-general in 1772. Returning braska; What Career? Boys' Heroes; 
to England in 1775 to give the ministry Sybaris, and O'her Homes; For Fifty 
information respecting the colonies, he Years; A New England Boyhood; Chau- 
was commissioned a major-general (Jan. tauquan History of the United States, 
1, 1776), and in 1777 a lieutenant-general etc. See Lend-a-Hand Clubs. 
and lieutenant-governor of Quebec, where Hale, Eugene, lawyer; born in Turner, 
he succeeded Carleton as governor in 1778. Me., June 9, 1836; admitted to the bar in 
He ruled arbitrarily until 1784, when he 1857; was county attorney for Hancock 
returned to England. He died in Yver- county nine years; elected to the State 
dun, Switzerland, June 5, 1791. legislature in 1867 and to Congress in 

Hale, Charles Reuben, clergyman; 1869, where he served ten years. In 1881 
born in Lewiston, Pa., in 1837; graduated he was elected to the United States Senate, 
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1858; and re-elected in 1887, 1893, and 1899. 
was made a bishop of the Protestant Hale, George Silsbee, lawyer; born in 
Episcopal Church in 1892. He published Keene, N. H., Sept. 24, 1825; graduated 
the Universal Episcopate; The American at Harvard College in 1844; admitted to 
Church and Methodism, etc. He died in the bar in 1850, and began practice in 
Cairo, 111., Dec. 25, 1900. Boston. His publications include Memoirs 

Hale, Edward Everett, clergyman; of Joel Parker and Theron Metcalf. He 
born in Boston, April 3, 1822; gradu- also edited the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
ated at Harvard College in 1839; studied eighteenth volumes of the United States 
theology and was minister of the Church Digest. He died in Schooner Head, Me., 
of the Unity, Worcester, Mass., in 1846- J u ]y 28, 1897. 

Hale, Irving, military officer; born in 
North Bloomfield, N. Y., Aug. 28, 1861; 
graduated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1884, having made the best 
record ever achieved in that institution. 
When the war with Spain broke out he 
went to the Philippines as colonel of the 
1st Colorado Volunteer Regiment, which 
he led in the capture of Manila. In 
recognition of his services in the Philip- 
pines he was promoted brigadier-general 
of volunteers. 

Hale, John, clergyman; born in 
Charlestown, Mass., June 9, 1636; grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1657; ordained pastor 
of Beverly in 1667. He approved the 
prosecution of alleged witches during the 
Salem witchcraft excitement in 1692, and 
in 1697 published an inquiry into the 
nature of witchcraft. He died May 15, 

Hale, John Parker, politician; born 
in Rochester. N. H.. March 31, 1806; 
1, 1904. He is the author of The graduated at Bowdoin College in 1827; 
Man Witliout a Country ; Ten Times studied in his native town, and was there 


56, and of the South Church (Unitarian), 
Boston, in 1856-99. On December 15, 
1903, he was elected chaplain of the 
United States Senate to date from Jan. 


admitted to the bar in 1830. He was 
appointed United States district attorney 
in 1834 and reappointed in 1838, but was 
removed, June 17, 1841, by President Tyler 
on party grounds. In 1842 he was elected 
to Congress; and in 1847-53 was a United 
States Senator. He was counsel, in 1851, 
in the trials which resulted from the 
forcible rescue of the fugitive slave Shad- 
rach from the custody of the United States 
marshal in Boston. He was nominated 
by the Free-soil party for President of the 
United States, with George W. Julian for 
Vice-President, in 1852, and received 157,- 
680 votes. In 1855 he was returned to 
the United States Senate for the four 
years of the unexpired term of Mr. Ather- 
ton, deceased, and in 1859 was re-elected 
for a full term. He was United States 
minister to Spain in 1865-69. He died 
in Dover, N. H., Nov. 19, 1873. 

Hale, Nathan, patriot; born in Coven- 
try, Conn., June 6, 1755; graduated 
at Yale College in 1773; and taught school 
till the fight in Lexington prompted him 

enter the British lines and procure needed 
information. At the house of Robert Mur- 
ray, on the Incleberg (now Murray Hill, 
in the city of New York), where Washing- 
ton had his headquarters for a brief time 
while retreating towards Harlem Heights. 
Hale received instructions on duty from 
the commander-in-chief. He entered the 
British camp on Long Island as a plain 
young farmer, and made sketches and 
notes unsuspected. A Tory kinsman knew 
and betrayed him. He was taken to 
Howe's headquarters at the Beekman man- 
sion, and confined in the green-house all 
night. He frankly avowed his name, rank, 
and character as a spy (which his papers 
revealed), and, without even the form of 
a trial, was handed over to the provost- 
marshal (Cunningham) the next morning 
(Sept. 22, 1776) to be hanged. That in- 
famous officer denied Hale the services of 
a clergyman and the use of a Bible; but 
the more humane officer who superintended 
the execution furnished him with mate- 
rials to write letters to his mother, his 


to join Col. Charles Webb's regiment. He betrothed, and sisters. These the brutal 
took part in the siege of Boston : was pro- Cunningham destroyed before the face of 
moted to captain in January, 1776; and his victim, while tears and sobs marked 
was sent to New York. In response to a the sympathy of the spectators. With un- 
call from Washington he volunteered to faltering voice, Hale said, at the last mo- 




rnent, " I only regret that I have but one 
life to lose for my country." Statues of 
the patriot have been erected in the capi- 
tol in Hartford and in City Hall Park, 
New York City. 

Hale, Salma, historian; born in Al- 
stead, N. H., March 7, 1787; was elected 
to Congress in 1816; appointed cierk of 
the Supreme Court in 1817; and admitted 
to the bar in 1834. He is the author of 
a History of the United States; The Ad- 
ministration of John Quincy Adam$; 
Annals of the Town of Keene, etc. He 
died in Somerville, Mass., Nov. 19, 1866". 

Hale, Sarah Josepha. (Buell), 
author; born in Newport, N. H., Oct. 24, 
1788; was educated by her mother; mar- 
ried David Hale in 1813; was left a 
widow in 1822, and engaged in literature 
as a means of support. In 1828-37 she 
conducted the Ladies' Magazine in Bos- 
ton. In the latter year this paper was 
united with Godey's Lady's Book in Phil- 
adelphia, of which Mrs. Hale became edi- 
tor. She was an early and influential ad- 

vocate of higher education for women. 
In 1860 she suggested that Thanksgiving 
Day be instituted by the national gov- 
ernment as a national holiday, and in 
18G4 President Lincoln established this 
holiday. She continued in active edi- 
torial work till 1S77. Her writings in- 
clude the poems, The Light of Home; 
Mamfs Lamb; It Snows, etc. Among her 
Other works are Woman's Record, or 
Sketches of All Distinguished Women 
from the Creation to the Present Day; 
~Sorthu>ood; Sketches of American Charac- 
ter; Traits of American Life; Flora's In- 
terpreter; The Ladies' Wreath; The Way 
to Live Well and to be Well While We 
Live; Grosvenor, a Tragedy; The White 
Veil; Alice Ray; Harry Gray, the Widow's 
Son; Three Hours, or the Vigil of Love; 
Dictionary of Poetical Quotations ; The 
■fudge, a Drama of American Life; The 
Bible Reading-Book; Matiners, or Happy 
Homes and Good Society, etc. She died 
in Philadelphia, April 30, 1879. 

The following is an extract from Mrs. 


Hale's Remarks in her Woman's Record 
for the period 1800-68: 

In truth, when we look over the 
world, with the exception of two nations, 
it still bears that shadow of gloom which 
fell when the ground first drank human 
blood; and Man the Murderer, Woman 
the Mourner, is still the great distinction 
between the sexes! 

Thank God there is hope. The 
Anglo-Saxon race in Europe numbers 
about 30,000,000, living on a little isl- 
and in the stormy northern ocean. But 
there, for over 100 years, the sounds of 
battle have not been heard; the Salic law 
never shamed the honor of their royal 
race; the holy Bible has been for three 
centuries their household book, and a free 
press now disseminates truth among the 
people. Those 30,000,000 hold the mas- 
tery of mind over Europe and Asia; if 
we trace out the causes of this superiority 
they would centre in that moral influence 
which true religion confers on the woman. 

Therefore, the Queen of Great Britain 
is the greatest and most honored sover- 
eign now enthroned; feminine genius is 
the grace and glory of British literature; 
feminine piety the purest light of the 
Anglican Church; and this era is made 
brilliant by the distinguished women of 
the British island. There is still a more 
wonderful example of this uplifting power 
of the educated mind of woman. It is 
only ninety years since the Anglo-Saxons 
in the New World became a nation, then 
numbering about 3,000,000 souls. Now 
this people form the great American re- 
public, with a population of 30,000,000; 
and the destiny of the world will soon be 
in their keeping. The Bible has been their 
" Book of books " since the first Puritan 
exile set his foot on Plymouth Rock. Re- 
ligion is free; and the soul, which woman 
always influences win re God is worshipped 
in spirit and truth, is untrammelled by 
code, or creed, or caste. No blood has 
been shed on the soil of this nation, save 
in the sacred cause of freedom and self- 
defence; therefore, the blasting evils of 
war have seldom been felt; nor has the 
woman ever been subjected to the hard 
labor imposed by God upon the man — that 
of " subduing the earth." The advantages 
of primary education have been accorded 

to girls equally with boys, and, though 
the latter have, in their endowed colleges, 
enjoyed the special benefit of dirett legis- 
lation, yet public sentiment has always 
been favorable to feminine education, and 
private liberality has supplied, in a good 
degree, the means of instruction to the 
daughters of the republic. The result is 
before the world — a miracle of national 
advancement. American mothers train 
their sons to be men! 

The old Saxon stock is yet superior to 
the new in that brilliancy of feminine 
genius the artificial state of social life in 
England now fosters and elicits, surpass- 
ing every nation in its list of learned 
ladies; yet in all that contributes to pop- 
ular education and pure religious senti- 
ment among the masses, the women of 
America are in advance of all others on 
the globe. To prove this, we need only 
examine the list of American missionary 
women, the teachers and authoresses of 
works instructive and educational, con- 
tained in this Record. 

Hale, William Bayard, clergyman; 
born in Richmond, Ind., April 6, 1869; 
graduated at Boston University; ordain- 
ed in the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in 1894. His publications include The 
Making of the American Constitution; 
The Genesis of Nationality, etc. 

Half-breeds, the name applied by the 
" Stalwarts " under Conkling to those Re- 
publicans who opposed the third nomina- 
tion of Grant, the course of President 
Hayes in reconciling the South, and who 
favored the policy of Blaine. 

Half-way Covenant. In 1657 a coun- 
cil was held in Boston, and in 1662 a 
synod of all the clergy in Massachusetts 
was convened to reconsider the decision of 
the council that all Baptist persons of 
upright and decorous lives ought to be 
considered for practical purposes as mem- 
bers of the Church, and therefore entitled 
to the exercise of political rights, even 
though unqualified for participation in the 
Lord's Supper. In 1660 the advocates of the 
" Half-way Covenant " seceded from the 
old Church, forming a new society, and 
built a meeting-house, which was succeeded 
in 1729 by the present Old South Church. 

Haliburton, Thomas Chandler, au- 
thor; born in Windsor, Nova Scotia, in 
1797; studied law and was admitted tc 



the bar in 1820. Later lie became a Halkett, Sir Petee, military officer; 
member of the House of Assembly. He born in Pitfirrane, Scotland; elected 
was chief-justice of the court of com- to Parliament in 1734; commanded a regi- 
mon pleas in 1829, and was appointed ment, and with his son was killed in the 
judge of the supreme court in 1840. battle near Pittsburg, Pa. (where Brad- 
He held this office till 1842, when he dock was defeated) , July 9, 1755. 
removed to England. In 1859 he repre- Hall, Asaph, astronomer; born in 
sented Launceston in Parliament as a Goshen, Conn., Oct. 15, 1829; received a 
Conservative, and remained there till common-school education ; worked on a 
18G5. His publications include The farm; and later became a carpenter. In 
Clock-Maker, or the Sayings and Doings 1853 he took up the study of geometry 
of Samuel Slick, of Slickville, which con- and algebra; subsequently pursued special 
sists of a collection of newspaper sketches courses in the University of Michigan, 
satirizing New Englanders. His other and afterwards entered the observatory 
writings include The Attache, or Sam of Harvard College, where he served as 
Slick in England; An Historical and assistant in 1857-G2. In August of the 
Statistical Account of ~Nova Scotia; Bub- latter year he was made aide in the 
ties of Canada; The Old Judge, or Life United States Naval Observatory in 
in a Colony; Letter-Bag of the Great Washington, and in the following year 
Western; Rule and Misrule of the Eng- was appointed Professor of Mathematics 
lish in America; Yankee Stories; Traits with the relative rank of captain. In 
of American Humor, etc. He also edited 1895 he became Professor of Astronomy 
a number of books, among them one on at, Harvard University. He has led many 
the Settlement of Neio England. He died astronomical expeditions for the govern- 
in Isleworth, England, Aug. 27, 1865. ment, among them being that to Bering 

Halifax, Earl of. See Montague, Sea, in 18G9, to observe the solar eclipse, 

Charles. and that to Vladisvostok, Siberia, in 

Halifax Fisheries Award. One of the 1874, to study the transit of Venus. His 

articles of the treaty of Washington pro- most important discovery, which won 

vided for a commission to adjudicate the him great distinction, was that of the 

value of the fishery privileges conceded to two moons of Mars, which he located in 

the United States by that treaty. This August, 1877, and which he named 

commission met in Halifax, Nova Scotia, " Deimos " and " Phobos " (Terror and 

June 5, 1877. Great Britain was repre- Fear). The Royal Astronomical Society 

sented by Sir Alexander F. Gait; the of London awarded him its gold medal 

United States by E. H. Kellogg. The in 1879. In 1875 he became a member 

third commissioner, Maurice Del fosse, was of the National Academy of Sciences, of 

named by Austria, as provided for in the which he was president in 1901. He has 

treaty. The commission awarded Great contributed to many astronomical journal.-.. 

Britain $5,500,000 for the use of the fish- Hall, Benjamin Homer, author; born 

ing privileges for twelve years. The in Troy, N. Y., Nov. 14, 1830; was ad- 

money was appropriated by Congress in mitted to the bar in 1850, and began prac- 

187S with the proviso " articles 18 ind tice in his native city. His publications 

21 of the treaty between the United include History of Eastern Vermont, etc.; 

States and Great Britain, concluded on and Bibliography of the United States: 

May 8, 1871, ought to be terminated at Vermont; and he was the editor of A 

the earliest period consistent with the Tribute by the Citizens of Troy to the 

provisions of article 33 of the same Memory of Abraham Lincoln. He died in 

treaty." The President of the United Troy, N. Y., April 6, 1893. 

States, in pursuance of instructions from Hall, Bolton, lawyer; born in Ireland 

Congress, gave the required notice, and in 1854; graduated at Princeton Col- 

the fishery articles therefore came to an lege in 1875. He has been a strong plead- 

end July 1, 1885. In 1888 the new treaty er for the restoration of the land to the 

was negotiated in reference to the fishery people, and has put into practice his 

question, but was rejected by the United theory by inducing many unemployed per- 

States Senate, Aug. 21, 1888. sons to engage in the cultivation of vacant 



lots. He is known as a lecturer on uni- 
versity extension and other reforms. 

Hall, Charles Francis, explorer; born 
in Rochester, N. H., in 1821; in early 
life was first a blacksmith, and then a 
journalist in Cincinnati. In 1859 he ap- 
peared in New York, and at a meeting of 
the American Geographical Society he 
oflered to go in search of the remains of 
Sir John Franklin. Funds for the pur- 
pose were raised, and in May, 1860, he 
sailed from New London, Conn., in a 
whaling vessel, commanded by Capt. Sid- 
ney O. Buddington. The vessel became 
locked in the ice. He made the acquaint- 
ance of the Eskimos, learned their 
language, acquired their friendship, and 
lived with them two years, making his 
way back to the United States in Sep- 
tember, 1862, without having discovered 
any traces of Sir John Franklin and his 
party. He was accompanied by an Es- 
kimo and his wife. His Arctic Re- 
searches and Life among the Eskimos 
was published in 1864. In July of that 
year he set out on another polar expe- 
dition, with Buddington, expecting to be 
absent two or three years, but did not re- 
turn until late in 1869. Satisfied that 
none of Franklin's men were alive, Hall 
labored to induce Congress to fit out a 
ship to search for the supposed open polar 
sea, and it made an appropriation for 
the purpose. A ship called the Polaris 
was fitted out, and sent (from New York, 
June 29, 1871) under the general com- 
mand of Hall, Buddington going as sail- 
ing-master, accompanied by scientific as- 
sociates. In August they reached the 
northern settlement in Greenland. Push- 
ing on northward, the vessel reached lat. 
86° 16', the most northerly point reached 
up to that time. They wintered in a cove 
(which they called Polaris), in lat. 81° 
38'. In October Hall and three others 
started on a sledge expedition northward, 
and reached a point a few miles short of 
that touched by the Polaris. They soon 
returned, when Hall was taken sick and 
died Nov. 8, 1871. In August, 1872, Cap- 
tain Buddington attempted to return with 
the Polaris, but for weeks was in the ice- 
pack. She was in great peril, and prepa- 
rations were made to abandon her. The 
boats, provisions, and nineteen of the 
crew were put on the ice, but before the 

rest of them could get out the vessel broke 
loose and drifted away. Those on the ice 
drifted southward for 195 days, floating 
helplessly about 2,000 miles. An Es- 
kimo, the friend of Captain Hall, kept 
the company from starving by his skill 
in seal-fishing. The party was picked up 
in April, 1873, by a Nova Scotia whaling 
steamer, and the Polaris made a port on 
an island, where her crew wintered, made 
boats of her boards, and set sail south- 
ward. They were picked up, June 23, 
by a Scotch whaler and taken to Dundee. 
Captain Buddington was born in Grotori, 
Conn., Sept. 16, 1823; and died there, 
June 13, 1888. 

Hall, David, printer; born in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, in 1714; emigrated to 
America in 1747; became a partner of 
Benjamin Franklin, but the partnership 
was dissolved in 1766, when the firm of 
Hall & Sellers was established. This firm 
had the printing of the Pennsylvania 
colonial currency and also the Continental 
money issued by authority of Congress. 
He died in Philadelphia, Dec. 24, 1772. 

Hall, Domtnick Augustine, jurist; 
born in South Carolina in 1765; was dis- 
trict judge of Orleans Territory from 1809 
till it became the State of Louisiana in 
1812, when he was appointed United 
States judjre of the State. While the city 
of New Orleans was under martial law 
early in 1815, General Jackson caused 
Judge Hall's arrest for interfering with 
the operations of that law. On his re- 
lease, in March, he summoned Jackson to 
answer for contempt of court, and fined 
him $1,000. He died in New Orleans, Deo 
19, 1820. 

Hall, Edwin, clergyman; born in Gran- 
ville N. Y., Jan. 11, 1S02; graduated 
at Middlebury College in 1826; pastor of 
a Congregational church at Norwalk. 
Conn., in 1832-54; then elected Professor 
of Theology in Auburn Seminary. He is 
the author of The Puritans and Their 
Principles ; Historical Records of Norwalk, 
etc. He died in Auburn, N. Y., Sept. 8, 

Hall, Gordon, first American mission- 
ary to India; born in Tolland county, 
Mass., April 8, 1784; was ordained at 
Salem in 1812, and sailed for Calcutta, 
where he arrived in February, 1813. and 
spent thirteen years there in missionary 



labors. He died of cholera in India, 
March 20, 1826. 

Hall, Granville Stanley, educator; 
born in Ashfield, Mass., May 5, 1845; 
graduated at Williams College in 1867. 
He served as professor of psychology in 
Antioch College, Ohio, in 1872-76. Later 
he studied in Bonn, Leipsic, Heidelberg, 
and Berlin. Returning, he lectured on 
psychology in Harvard University and 

nois Monthly Magazine, and the West- 
ern Monthly Magazine. Among his pub- 
lished works are Life of Thomas Posey; 
Life of Gen. W. H. Harrison; Notes on 
the Western States; History of the Indian 
Tribes; The Wilderness and the War- 
Path, etc. He died July 5, 1868. 

Hall, James, geologist; born in Hing- 
ham, Mass., Sept. 12, 1811; was gradu- 
ated at the Rensselaer School (now Poly- 

Williams College in 1880-81. In 1881 he technic Institute) in Troy, in 1832; was 
became Professor of Psychology in Johns retained there as assistant Professor of 
Hopkins University, and remained there Chemistry and Natural Science, and be- 
till 1888, when he accepted the presidency, 
with the chair of psychology, of Clark 
University. He is author of Aspects of 
German Culture; Hints Toioard a Select 
and Descriptive Bibliography of Education 

came full professor in 1854. He held this 
chair till 1876, when he became professor 
emeritus. In 1836, when the geological sur- 
vey of New York was organized, and four 
divisions made of the State, he was ap- 

(with John M. Mansfield), etc. In 1900 pointed assistant geologist in the second 

he was editor of The American Journal of division. In the following year he was 

Psychology and The Pedagogical Semi- appointed State geologist. In 1838-41 ho 

tiary. explored the western portion of the State 

Hall, Hiland, jurist; born in Benning- and embodied the results in the second, 

ton, Vt., July 20, 1795; admitted to the third, fourth, and fifth Annual Reports 

bar in 1819; was a member of the first on the work. His final report on the sur- 

National Republican Convention in 1856. vey of the fourth geological district was 

He was governor of Vermont in 1858-59; issued in 1843 as Geology of New York, 


and published a History of Vermont. He 
died in Springfield, Mass., Dec. 18, 1885. 

Hall, James, military officer; born in 
Carlisle, Pa., Aug. 22, 1744; gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1774; became pastor 
of the Presbyterian church at Bethany, 
N. C, in 1778. He belonged to the church 


Part IV. During that year he took charge 
of the paleontological work of the State 
survey, the results of which are published 
in 13 volumes entitled the Natural History 
of New York. This is considered the great- 
est work of its kind in the world. It is es- 
timated that the work cost the State more 

militant, and during the Revolutionary than $1,000,000. It is valuable not only 

War was an ardent patriot. He raised a because of the paleontological information 

troop of cavalry, and was at once com- which it contains, but also for its details 

mander and chaplain. He is the author of the researches westward to the Rocky 

of a Report of a Missionary Tour Through Mountains. These researches form the 

the Mississippi and the Southioesiem basis of all the knowledge of geology of 

Country. He died in Bethany, N. C, the Mississippi Valley. In 1855 he was 

July 25, 1826. also State geologist for Iowa., and in 1857 

Hall, James, military officer; born in for Wisconsin. In 1866-93 he was director 

Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 19, 1793; enlisted of the New York State Museum. Dr. Hall 

as a private in 1812; commanded a de- gave much time to the investigation of 

tachment from his company at the battle crystalline stratified rocks, and he was 

of Chippewa in 1814 and at the siege of the discoverer of the persistence and sig- 

Fort Erie; received a commission in the nificance of mineralogies! character as an 

army in 1815; and served in Decatur's indicator to classification. In speaking of 

expedition to Algiers on the United States this a scholar has said: "It is not too 

brig Enterprise. He left the army in much to say that the method was estab- 

1818; was admitted to the bar the same 
year; removed to Shawneetown, 111., in 
1820, and to Cincinnati in 1833. He 

lished by the New York survey, and that 
it finds its best in the classic fourth dis- 
trict; here it was that American strati- 

edited at various times the Illinois graphic geology was founded." Further- 
Gazette, the Illinois Intelligencer, the Illi- more. Dr. Hall originated the rational 



theory of mountains, which is held to be 
one of the most valuable contributions 
made to isostasy. His publications in- 
clude, besides those mentioned: Graptolites 
of the Quebec Group; the paleontological 
portions of Fremont's Exploring Expedi- 
tion, Appendix A; Expedition to the 
Great Salt Lake; United States and Mexi- 
can Boundary Survey ; United States Geo- 
logical Exploration of the Fortieth Paral- 
lel (vol. iv., 1877); Geological Survey of 
Ioica, and chapters on geology, paleontol- 
ogy and physical geography in the Report 
on the Geological Survey of the State of 
Wisconsin. He died in Echo Hill, N. H., 
Aug. 7, 1898. 

Hall, Lyman, signer of the Declaration 
of Independence; born in Connecticut in 
1725; graduated at Yale College in 
1747, and, becoming a physician, estab- 
lished himself at Sunbury, Ga., where he 
was very successful. He was a member of 
the Georgia convention in 1774-75, and 
was influential in causing Georgia to join 
the other colonies. He was a delegate 
to Congress in March, 177,5, from the 
parish of St. John, and in July was elect- 
ed a delegate by the provincial convention 
of Georgia. He remained in Congress un- 
til 1780, when the invasion of the State 
caused him to hasten home. He was gov- 
ernor of Georgia in 1783, and died in 
Burke county, Ga., Oct. 19, 1790. 

Hall, Nathan Kelsey, statesman; 
born in Marcellus, N. Y., March 10, 1810; 
admitted to the bar in 1832; appointed 
judge of the court of common pleas in 
1841; elected to the Assembly in 1845; 
to Congress in 1847. President Fillmore 
appointed him Postmaster - General in 
1850 and United States district judge in 
1852. He died in Buffalo, N. Y, March 
2, 1874. 

Hall, Newman, clergyman; born in 
Maidstone, Kent, England, May 22, 1816; 
graduated at the University of London 
in 1841. He was pastor of the Albion Con- 
gregational Church in Hull in 1842-54. In 
the latter year he became pastor of Surrey 
Chapel, London. While the American 
Civil War was being waged, he was a 
strong friend of the Union, and at the 
conclusion of the war he made a lecturing 
tour of the United States for the purpose 
of promoting international good-will. This 
Tisit was afterwards commemorated by 

the construction, as a part of the new 
church on Westminster Road, of the Lin- 
coln Tower, the cost of which was met by 
subscriptions from American and English 
citizens. His publications, which have 
met with much favor in the United 
States, include: The Christian Philoso- 
pher; Italy, the Land of the Forum and 
the Vatican; Lectures in America; Ser- 
mons and History of Surrey Chapel; From 
Liverpool to St. Louis; Pilgrims' Songs; 
Prayer, its Reasonableness and Efficacy; 
The Lord's Prayer; Songs of Earth and 
Heaven; and a lecture on the assassina- 
tion of President Lincoln, in London, in 
1865. He died in London, Feb. 18, 1902. 

Hall, Robert Henky, military officer; 
born in Detroit, Mich., Nov. 15, 1837; 
graduated at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in I860; was promoted to 
second and first lieutenant of the 10th In- 
fantry in 1861; captain in 1863; major of 
the 22d Infantry in 1883; lieutenant- 
colonel of the 6th Infantry in 1888; and 
colonel of the 4th Infantry, May 18, 1893. 
In the volunteer service he was appoint- 
ed a brigadier-general May 27, 1898; was 
honorably discharged under that commis- 
sion and reappointed to the same rank 
April 15, 1899; and on the reorganization 
of the regular army in February, 1901, he 
was appointed one of the new brigadier- 
generals. During the Civil War he served 
on the frontier; in the Rappahannock 
campaign ; in the operations about Chatta- 
nooga; and in the action at Weldon, Va., 
where he was wounded. In 1865-71 he 
was again on frontier duty, and in 1871-78 
was on duty at the United States Military 
Academy. For some time prior to his last 
promotion he was on duty in the Philip- 
pine Islands. 

Hall, Samuel, printer; born in Med- 
ford, Mass., Nov. 2, 1740; was a partner 
of the widow of James Franklin in 1761— 
68, in which year he published the Essex 
Gazette in Salem, Mass. He removed to 
Cambridge in 1775 and published the New 
England Chronicle, and subsequently the 
Massachusetts Gazette. He died in Bos- 
ton, Mass., Oct. 30, 1807. 

Hall of Fame, a building erected in 
1900 on the grounds of the New York- 
University, New York City, with funds 
provided by Helen M. Gould ( q. v.) , and 
officially known as " The Hall of Fame 




for Great Americans." It is built in the Ceorge Washington, 97; Abraham Lin- 
form of a semicircle, 506 feet long, 15 coin, 96; Daniel Webster, 96; Benjamin 
feet wide, and 170 feet high. Within the Franklin, 04; Ulysses S. Grant, 92; John 
colonnade will be 150 panels, each 2 by 8 Marshall, 91; Thomas Jefferson, 00; 
feet in dimensions, to contain the names. Ralph Waldo Emerson, 87; Henry W. 
The rules adopted allow the names of such Longfellow, 85 ; Robert Fulton, 85 ; Wash- 
persons only who were born within the ington Irving, 83; Jonathan Edwards, 81; 
United States, who have been dead ten or Samuel F. B. Morse, 80; David G. Farra- 

gut, 70; Henry Clay, 74; Nathaniel Haw- 

more years, and who were included with 

in one of ten classes — viz., authors and thorne, 

editors, business men, educators, invent 

ors, missionaries and explorers, philan 

3; George Peabody, 72; Robert 
E. Lee. CO: Peter Cooper. (JO: Eli Whit- 
ney, (17: John J. Audubon, 07: Hor- 
ace Mann, 66; Henry Ward Bcecher. 


Joseph Story. 


John Adams, (il ; William E. 
anninar, 58; Gilbert Stuart, 52: Asa 

thropists and reformers, preachers and 
theologians, scientists, engineers and archi- 66; 
tects, lawyers and judges, musicians, 04; 
painters and sculptors, physicians and 
surgeons, rulers and statesmen, soldiers Gray, 51. 

and sailors, and distinguished men and In 1005 the following were added: John 
women outside the above classes. Fifty Quincy Adams. 60; dames Russell Low- 
names were first to be inscribed, with five ell, 50: William Teeumseh Sherman, 58; 
additional names every five years until the .Fames Madison, 56; John Grccnleaf Whit- 
year 2000, when the 150 inscriptions will tier. 53. Two loggia were added, one for 
be completed. In Oct., 1000, a jury of 100 great Americans of foreign birth, to 
persons was appointed to vote on the first which were elected, in 1005, Alexander 
fifty names. The number of names sub- Hamilton, 88; Louis Agassiz, 83; and 
mitted reached 252, of which only 29 re- John Paul Jones, 55; and one for great 
ceived 51 or more votes: American women, to which were elected, 



in 1905, Mary Lyon, 59; Emma Willard, fessor at West Point, and from 1841 to 
50; and Maria Mitchell, 48. 1844 was employed on the fortifications 

Halleck, Fitz-Greene, poet; born in in New York Harbor. In 1845 he visited 
Guilford, Conn., July 8, 1790; became a the military establishments of Europe, 
clerk in the banking-house of Jacob Bar- In the winter of 1845-46 he delivered at 
ker at the age of eighteen years; and was the Lowell Institute, Boston, a series of 
long a confidential clerk with John Jacob lectures on the science of war, afterwards 
Astor, who made him one of the first published in book form with the title of 
trustees of the Astor Library. From Elements of Military Art and Science. 
early boyhood he wrote verses. With He served in California and on the Pacific 
Joseph Rodman Drake, he wrote the hu- coast during the war with Mexico, in 
morous series known as The Croker Pa- which he distinguished himself. He was 
pers for the Evening Post in 1819. His on the staff of Commodore Shubrick at 
longest poem, Fanny, a satire upon the the capture of Mazatlan, and was made 
literature and politics of the times, was lieutenant-governor. From Aug. 13, 1847, 
published in 1821. The next year he went to Dec. 20, 1849, he was secretary of the 
to Europe, and in 1827 his Alnwick Castle, province and Territory of California, and 
Marco Bozzaris, and other poems were had a large share in preparing the State 
published in a volume. Halleck was a constitution. He left the army in 1854, 
genuine poet, but he wrote comparatively and began the practice of law in San 
little. His pieces of importance are only Francisco. In August, 1861, he was ap- 
thirty-two in number, and altogether com- pointed a major-general of the regular 

army, and succeeded Fr§mont in com- 
mand of the Western Department in No- 
vember. In 1862 he took command of the 
army before Corinth, and in July of that 
year he was appointed general-in-chief, 
and held that post until superseded by 
Grant, when he became chief of staff of 
the army, remaining such till April, 1865, 
when he was placed in command of the 
Military Division of the James, with his 
headquarters at Richmond. In August he 
was transferred to the Division of the 
Pacific, and in March, 1869, to that of 
the South, with headquarters at Louis- 
ville, where he died Jan. 9, 1872. Gen- 
eral Halleck published several works 
upon military and scientific topics. 

Hallowell, Richard Price, author; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 16, 1835; 
removed to Massachusetts in 1859; waa 
identified with the abolition movement; 
aided the formation of negro regiments 
prise only about 4,000 lines. Yet he wrote during the Civil War. He is the author 
with great facility. His Fanny, in the of The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts, 
measure of Byron's Don Juan, was com- and The Pioneer Quakers. 
pleted and printed within three weeks Halpine, Charles Graham, author 
after it was begun. Late in life he joined and soldier; born in Oldcastle, Ireland, 
the Roman Catholic Church. He died in Nov. 20, 1829; graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, in 1846; emigrated to the 
United States in 1850; was connected at 
cer; born in Westernville, Oneida co., various times with the Boston Post, New 
N. Y., Jan. 16, 1815; graduated at West York Herald, New York Times, New York 
Point in 1839, entering the engineer corps. Leader, and New York Tribune. He en- 
Until June, 1840, he was assistant pro- listed in the 69th New York Infantry at 



Guilford, Nov. 19, 1867. 

Halleck, Henry Wager, military 


the beginning of the Civil War, and 
reached the rank of brigadier-general. 
After the war he established the Citizen. 
He was best known under his nom de 
plume Miles O'Reilly. He was the 
author of the well-known lyric beginning: 

" Tear down the flaunting lie ! 
Half-mast the starry flag !" 

He died in New York City, Aug. 3, 

Halsall, William Formby, artist; 
born in Kirkdale, England, March 20, 
1844; removed to Boston, where he began 
to study fresco-painting in 1860, but 
in the following year joined the navy, 
and served until 1863. Later he de- 
voted himself to marine painting in Bos- 
ton. His works include Chasing a Block- 
ade-Runner in a Fog; First Fight of 
Ironclads, Monitor and Merrimac, which 
was purchased by the government and 
hum? in the United States Senate Cham- 

ber; The Mayflower, now in Memorial 
Hall, Plymouth, Mass., etc. 

Halstead, Murat, journalist; born in 
Paddy's Run, O., Sept. 2, 1829; graduated 
at Farmer's College in 1851; became a 
journalist and was on the Cincinnati 
Commercial from 1853 until its consoli- 
dation with the Gazette in 1883, when he 
became president of the company. In 1890 
he became editor of the Brooklyn Stand- 
ard-Union. He is the author of The Con- 
vention of 1860; Life of William Mc- 
Kinley ; Story of the Philippines, etc. 

Hamer, Thomas Lewis, military offi- 
cer; born in Pennsylvania about 1800; 
was admitted to the bar of Ohio in 1821 ; 
elected to the Ohio legislature; to Con- 
press in 1833. It was he who nominated 
Ulysses S. Grant for a cadetship at West 
Point. During the Mexican War he reach- 
ed the rank of brigadier-general of volun- 
teers; was wounded at the battle of Mon- 
terev, and died there Dec. 2, 1846. 


Hamilton, Alexander, statesman; 83), and soon took the lead in his 
born in Nevis, W. I., Jan. 11, 1757. His profession. He was a member of the 
father was a Scotchman; his mother, of New York legislature in 1787, and of 
Huguenot descent. He came to the Eng- the convention at Philadelphia, that 
lislf-American colonies in 1772, and at- year, that framed the national Con- 
tended a school kept by Francis Barber slitution. With the aid of the able pens 
at Elizabeth, N. J., and entered King's of Madison and Jay, Hamilton put forth 
(Columbia) College in 1773. He made a a series of remarkable essays in favor of 
speech to a popular assemblage in New the Constitution, which, in book form, bear 
York City in 1774, when only seventeen the name of The Federalist. Hamilton 
years of age, remarkable in every particu- wrote the larger half of that work. He 
lar, and he aided the patriotic cause by was called to the cabinet of Washington 
his writings. In March, 1776, he was as Secretary of the Treasury, and was 
made captain of artillery, and served at the founder of the financial system of 
White Plains, Trenton, and Princeton; the republic. Having finished the great 
and in March, 1777, became aide-de-camp work of assisting to put in motion the 
to Washington, and his secretary and machinery of the government of the 
trusted confidant. He was of great assist- United States, and seeing it in successful 
ance to Washington in his correspondence, working order, he resigned, Jan. 31, 1795, 
and in planning campaigns. In Decern- and resumed the practice of law; but his 
ber, 1780, he married a daughter of Gen. pen was much employed in support of 
Philip Schuyler, and in 1781 he retired the policy of the national government, 
from Washington's staff. In July he was When, in 1798, war with France seemed 
appointed to the command of New York probable, and President Adams appointed 
troops, with the rank of colonel, and capt- Washington commander-in-chief of the 
ured by assault a redoubt at Yorktown, armies of the republic, Hamilton was 
Oct. 14, 1781. After the surrender of made his second in command, with the 
Cornwallis he left the army; studied rank of major-general. On the death of 
law; was a member of Congress (1782- Washington (December, 1799), Hamilton 



succeeded him as commander-in-chief, but 1 following, with full authority to con- 
the provisional army was soon disbanded, elude, finally, upon a general confedera- 
On Sept. 3, 1780, Hamilton wrote to tion. He traced the cause of the want of 
Duane, a member of Congress from New power in Congress, and censured that 
York, and expressed his views on the body for its timidity in refusing to as- 
subiect of State supremacy and a na- sume authority to preserve the infant ra- 
tional government. He proposed to call public from harm. "Undefined powers, 
for a convention of all the States on Nov. he said, " are discretionary powers, 



limited only by the object for which they admiration of the English constitution as 
were given.'* He said that " some of the the best model ; nor did he conceal his 
lines of the army, but for the influence theoretical preference for monarchy, while 
of Washington, would obey their States he admitted that, in the existing state of 
in opposition to Congress. . . . Con- public sentiment, it was necessary to ad- 
dress should have complete sovereignty in here to republican forms, but with all the 
all that relates to war, peace, trade, strength possible. He desired a general 
finance, foreign affairs, armies, fleets, government strong enough to counter- 
fortifications, coining money, establishing balance the strength of the State govern- 
banks, imposing a land-tax, poll-tax, ments and reduce them to subordinate im- 
duties on trade, and the unoccupied portance. 

lands." He proposed that the general The first report to the national Con- 
government should have power to pro- gress by the Secretary of the Treasury was 
vide certain perpetual revenues, produc- waited for with great anxiety not only 
tive and easy of collection. He claimed by the public creditors, but by every 
the plan of confederation then before thoughtful patriot. It was presented 
Congress to be defective, and urged to the House of Representatives Jan. 
alteration. " It is neither fit for war," 15, 1790. It embodied a financial scheme, 
he said, " nor for peace. The idea of an which was generally adopted, and re- 
uncontrollable sovereignty in each State mained the line of financial policy of 
will defeat the powers given to Congress, the new government for more than twenty 
and make our union feeble and precari- years. On his recommendation, the na- 
ous." He recommended the appointment tional government assumed not only the 
of joint officers of state — for foreign af- foreign and domestic debts of the old gov- 
fairs, for war, for the navy, and for the ernment, incurred in carrying on the 
treasury — to supersede the " committees " Revolutionary War, as its own, but also 
and "boards" hitherto employed: but he the debts contracted by the several States 
neither favored a chief magistrate with during that period for the general welfare, 
supreme executive power, nor two The foreign debt, with accrued interest, 
branches in the national legislature. The amounting to almost $12,000,000, was due 
whole tone of Hamilton's letter was hope- chiefly to France and private lenders in 
ful of the future, though written in his Holland. The domestic debt, including 
tent, in the midst of a suffering army. outstanding Continental money and in- 
Hamilton was afraid of democracy. He terest, amounted to over $42,000,000, near- 
wished to secure for the United States ly one-third of which was accumulated ac- 
a strong government; and in the conven- crued interest. The State debts assumed 
tion at Philadelphia in 1787 he presented amounted in the aggregate to $21,000,000, 
a plan, the chief features of which were distributed as follows: New Hampshire, 
an assembly, to be elected by the people $300,000; Massachusetts, $4,000,000; 
for three years; a senate, to be chosen Rhode Island, $200,000; Connecticut, 
by electors voted for by the people, to hold $1,000,000; New York, $1,200,000; New 
office during good behavior; and a gov- Jersey, $800,000; Pennsylvania. $2,200,- 
ernor, also chosen to rule during good be- 000; Delaware. $200,000; Maryland, $800,- 
havior by a similar but more complicated 000; Virginia, $3,000,000: North Carolina, 
process. The governor was to have an ab- $2,400,000: South Carolina. $4,000,000; 
solute negative upon all laws, and the ap- Georgia, $300,000. Long and earnest de- 
pointment of all officers, subject, however, bates on this report occurred in and out 
to the approval of the Senate. The gen- of Congress. There was but one opinion 
eral government was to have the appoint- about the foreign debt, and the President 
ment of the governors of the States, and was authorized to borrow $12,000,000 to 
a negative upon all State laws. The Sen- pay it with. As to the domestic debt, 
ate was to be invested with the power of there was a wide difference of opinion, 
declaring war and ratifying treaties. In The. Continental bills, government eer- 
a speech preliminary to his presentation of tificatcs, and other evidences of debt were 
this plan, Hamilton expressed doubts as mostly held by speculators, who had pur- 
to republican government at all, and his chased them at greatly reduced rates; and 


many prominent men thought it would be 
proper and expedient to apply a scale of 
depreciation to them, as in the case of 
the paper money towards the close of the 
war, in liquidating them. 

Hamilton declared such a course would 
be dishonest and impolitic, and that the 
public promises should be met in full, in 
whatever hands the evidences were found. 
It was the only way, he argued justly, to 
sustain public credit. He proposed the 
funding of the public debt in a fair and 
economical way by which the creditors 
should receive their promised 6 per cent, 
until the government should be able to 
pay the principal. He assumed that in 
five years, if the government should pur- 
sue an honorable course, loans might be 
made for 5, and even 4, per cent., with 
which the claims might be met. The 
propositions of Hamilton, though warmly 
opposed, were obviously so just that they 
were agreed to in March (1790), and a 
new loan was authorized, payable in cer- 
tificates of the domestic debt at their par 
value in Continental bills of credit (new 
issue), at the rate of 100 to 1. Congress 
also authorized an additional loan to the 
amount of $21,000,000, payable in certifi- 
cates of the State debts. A system of 
revenue from imports and internal excise, 
proposed by Hamilton, was also adopted. 

The persistent and sometimes violent 
attacks upon the financial policy of the 
government, sometimes assuming the as- 
pect of personality towards Hamilton, 
that appeared in Freneau's National Ga- 
zette in 1792, at length provoked the 
Secretary of the Treasury to publish a 
newspaper article, over the signature of 
" An American," in which attention was 
called to Freneau's paper as the organ of 
the Secretary of State, Mr. Jefferson, and 
edited by a clerk employed in his office. 
This connection was represented as in- 
delicate, and inconsistent with Jefferson's 
professions of republican purity. He 
commented on the inconsistency and in- 
delicacy of Mr. Jefferson in retaining a 
place in the cabinet when he was opposed 
to the government he was serving, vilify- 
ing its important measures, adopted by 
both branches of the Congress, and sanc- 
tioned by the chief magistrate; and con- 
tinually casting obstacles in the way of 
establishing the public credit and provid- 

ing for the support of the government. 
The paper concluded with a contrast, as 
to the effect upon the public welfare, be- 
tween the policy adopted by the govern- 
ment and that advocated by the party of 
which Jefferson aspired to be leader. 
Freneau denied, under oath, that Jefferson 
had anything to do with his paper, and 
declared he had never written a line for 
it. To this " An American " replied that 
" actions were louder than words or 
oaths," and charged Jefferson with being 
" the prompter of the attacks on govern- 
ment measures and the aspersions on hon- 
orable men." The papers by " An Ameri- 
can " were at once ascribed to Hamilton, 
and drew out answers from Jefferson's 
friends. To these Hamilton replied. The 
quarrel waxed hot. Washington (then at 
Mount Vernon), as soon as he heard of 
the newspaper war, tried to bring about 
a truce between the angry Secretaries. In 
a letter to Jefferson, Aug. 23, 1792, he 
said : " How unfortunate and how much 
to be regretted it is that, while we are en- 
compassed on all sides with avowed ene- 
mies and insidious friends, internal dis- 
sensions should be harrowing and tearing 
out our vitals." He portrayed the pub- 
lic injury that such a quarrel would in- 
flict. He wrote to Hamilton to the same 
effect. Their answers were characteristic 
of the two men, Jefferson's concluding 
with an intimation that he should retire 
from office at the close of Washington's 
term. Hamilton and Jefferson were never 
reconciled ; personally there was a truce, 
but politically they were bitter enemies. 

In the winter of 1804 Hamilton was in 
Albany, attending to law business. While 
there a caucus or consultation was held 
by the leading Federalists. It was a secret 
meeting to consult and compare opinions 
on the question whether the Federalists, 
as a party, ought to support Aaron Burr 
for the office of governor of the State of 
New York. In a bedroom adjoining the 
closed dining-room in which the caucus 
was held one or two of Burr's political 
friends were concealed, and heard every 
word uttered in the meeting. The charac- 
ters of men were fully discussed, and 
Hamilton, in a speech, spoke of Burr 
as an unsuitable candidate, because no 
reliance could be placed in him. The 
spies reported the proceedings to their 



principal, and on Feb. 17 a correspond- 
ent of the Morning Chronicle wrote 
that at a Federal meeting the night 
before the " principal part of Hamilton's 
speech went to show that no reliance ought 
to be placed in Mr. Burr." In the election 
which ensued Burr was defeated, and, 
though Hamilton had taken no part in the 
canvass, his influence was such that 
Burr attributed his defeat to him. Burr, 
defeated and politically ruined, evidently 
determined on revenge — a revenge that 
nothing but the life of Hamilton would 
satiate. Dr. Charles Cooper, of Albany, 
had dined with Hamilton at the table of 

a pretext for a challenge to mortal com- 
bat; and, seizing upon the word "despica- 
ble," sent a note to Hamilton, demanding 
" a prompt and unqualified acknowledg- 
ment or denial of having said anything 
which warranted such an expression." 
Several notes passed between Hamilton 
and Burr, through the hands of friends, in 
one of which Hamilton frankly said that 
" the conversation which Dr. Cooper alluded 
to turned wholly on political topics, and did 
not attribute to Colonel Burr any instance 
of dishonorable conduct, nor relate to his 
private character; and in relation to any 
other language or conversation of General 

Judge Taylor, where Hamilton spoke freely Hamilton which Colonel Burr will specify, 
of Burr's political conduct and principles 
only, to which he declared himself hostile. 
Dr. Cooper, in his zeal, just before the 
election, in published letters, said: " Ham- 


ilton and Kent both consider Burr, politi- 
cally, as a dangerous man, and unfit for 
the office of governor." He also wrote that 
Hamilton and Kent both thought that thirty years. 
Burr ought not to be "trusted with the .J Report on the Coinage. — On Jan. 28, 1791, 

a prompt and frank avowal or denial will 
be given." This was all an honorable man 
could ask. But Burr seemed to thirst 
for Hamilton's life, and he pressed him to 
fight a duel in a 
manner which, in 
the public opinion 
which then pre- 
vailed concerning 
the " code of hon- 
or," Hamilton 
could not decline. 
They fought at 
Weehawken, July 
11, 1804, on the 
west side of the 
Hudson River, and 
Hamilton, who 
w o u 1 d not dis- 
charge his pistol 
at Burr, for he did 
not wish to hurt 
him, was mortally 
wounded, and died 
the next day. The 
public excitement, 
without regard to 
party, was intense. 
Burr fled from New 
York and became 
for a while a fugitive from justice. He 
was politically dead, and bore the bur- 
den of scorn and remorse for more than 

reins of government," and added, " I could 
detail a still more despicable opinion which 
Hamilton had expressed of Burr." The lat- 
ter made these private expressions of Ham- 
ilton concerning his political character 

Secretary Hamilton sent the following re- 
port to the House of Representatives: 

The Secretary of the Treasury having at- 
tentively considered the subject referred to 




him by the order of the House of Repre- 
sentatives of the 15th of April last, rel- 
atively to the establishment of a mint, 

has caused no general sensation of in- 
convenience, should alterations be at- 
tempted, the precise effect of which can- 

most respectfully submits the result of his not with certainty be calculated' 

inquiries and reflections. 

A plan for an establishment of this 
nature involves a great variety of con- 
siderations — intricate, nice, and impor- 

The answer to this question is not per- 
plexing. The immense disorder which 
actually reigns in so delicate and im- 
portant a concern, and the still greater 

tant. The general state of debtor and disorder which is every moment possible, 

creditor; all the relations and conse- call loudly for a reform. The dollar 

quences of price; the essential interests originally contemplated in the money 

of trade and industry; the value of all transactions of this country, by successive 

property; the whole income, both of the diminutions of its weight and fineness, 

State and of the individuals — are liable to has sustained a depreciation of 5 per 

be sensibly influenced, beneficially or oth- 
erwise, by the judicious or injudicious 
regulation of this interesting object. 

cent.; and yet the new dollar has a cur- 
rency in all payments in place of the old, 
with scarcely any attention to the differ- 

It is one, likewise, not more necessary ence between them. The operation of this 
than difficult to be rightly adjusted; one in depreciating the value of property, de- 

which has frequently occupied the reflec- 
tions and researches of politicians, with- 

pending upon past contracts, and (as far 
as inattention to the alteration in the 

out having harmonized their opinions on coin may be supposed to leave prices sta- 

some of the most important of the prin- 
ciples which enter into its discussion. Ac- 

tionary) of all other property is appar- 
ent. Nor can it require argument to 

cordingly, different systems continue to prove that a nation ought not to suffer 
be advocated, and the systems of different the value of the property of its citizens 

nations, after much investigation, con- 
tinue to differ from each other. 

But, if a right adjustment of the mat- 
ter be truly of such nicety and difficulty 

to fluctuate with the fluctuations of a 
foreign mint and to change with the 
changes in the regulations of a foreign 
sovereign. This, nevertheless, is the con- 

a question naturally arises, whether it dition of one which, having no coins of 
may not be most advisable to leave things, its own, adopts with implicit confidence 
in this respect, in the state in which they those of other countries, 
are. Why, might it be asked, since they 
have so long proceeded in a train which 

The unequal values allowed in different 
parts' of the Union to coins of the same 



intrinsic worth, the defective specie? of The pound, though of various value, is 
them which embarrass the circulation of the unit in the money account of all the 
some of the States, and the dissimilarity States. But it is not equally easy to 

in their several moneys of account, are 
inconveniences which, if not to be ascribed 
to the want of a national coinage, will 
at least be most effectually remedied by 
the establishment of one, — a measure that 
will at the same time give additional se- 
curity against impositions by counterfeit 
as well as by base currencies. 

It was with great reason, therefore, 

pronounce what is to be considered as 
the unit in the coins. There being no 
formal regulation on the point (the reso- 
lutions of Congress of the 6th of July, 
1785, and 8th of August, 1786, having 
never yet been carried into operation), it 
can only be inferred from usage or prac- 
tice. The manner of adjusting foreign 
exchanges would seem to indicate the 

that the attention of Congress, under the dollar as best entitled to that character, 

late Confederation, was repeatedly drawn In these the old piaster of Spain or old 

to the establishment of a mint; and it is Seville piece of eight reals, of the value 

with equal reason that the subject has of four shillings and sixpence sterling, is 

been resumed, now that the favorable evidently contemplated. The computed 

change which has taken place in the situ- par between Great Britain and Pennsyl- 

ation of public affairs admits of its being 
carried into execution. 

But, though the difficulty of devising a 
proper establishment ought not to deter 
from undertaking so necessary a work, 

vania will serve as an example. Accord- 
ing to that, one hundred pounds sterling 
is equal to one hundred and sixty-six 
pounds and two-thirds of a pound, Penn- 
sylvania currency; which corresponds 

yet it cannot but inspire diffidence in one with the proportion between 4s. Qd. ster- 

whose duty it is made to propose a plan ling and 7s. 6d., the current value of the 

for the purpose, and may perhaps be per- dollar in that State by invariable usage, 

nutted to be relied upon as some excuse And, as far as the information of the 

for any errors which may be chargeable Secretary goes, the same comparison holds 

upon it,or for any deviations from sounder in the other States. 

principles which may have been suggested But this circumstance in favor of the 

by others or even in part acted upon by dollar loses much of its weight from two 

the former government of the United considerations. That species of coin has 

States. never had any settled or standard value. 

In order to form a right judgment of according to weight or fineness, but has 

what ought to be done, the following par- been permitted to circulate by tale, with- 

ticulars require to be discussed: — out regard to either, very much as a mere 

1st. What ought to be the nature of the money of convenience, while gold has had 

money unit of the United States? a fixed price by weight, and with an eye 

2d. What the proportion between gold to its fineness. This greater stability of 

and silver, if coins of both metals are to 
be established? 

3d. What the proportion and composi- 
tion of alloy in each kind? 

4th. Whether the expense of coinage 
shall be defrayed by the government or 
out of the material itself? 

ftth. What shall be the number, denom- 
inations, sizes, and devices of the coins? 

6th Whether foreign coins shall be per- 
mitted to be current or not; if the former, 
at what rate, and for what period? 

A prerequisite to determining with 
propriety what ought to be the money 

value of the gold coins is an argument of 
force for regarding the money unit as hav- 
ing been hitherto virtually attached to 
gold rather than to silver. 

Twenty-four grains and six-eighths of 
a grain of fine gold have corresponded 
with the nominal value of the dollar in 
the several States, without regard to the 
successive diminutions of its intrinsic 

But if the dollar should, notwithstand- 
ing, be supposed to have the best title to 
being considered as the present unit in 
the coins, it would remain to determine 

unit of the United States is to endeavor to what kind of dollar ought to be under- 
torm as accurate an idea as the nature of stood; or, in other words, what precise 
the case will admit of what it actually is. quantity of fine silver. 



The old piaster of Spain, which appears ing landed property; but far the greater 

to have regulated our foreign exchanges, number of contracts still in operation 

weighed 17 dwt. 12 grains, and contained concerning that kind of property and all 

386 grains and 15 mites of fine silver, those of a merely personal nature now in 

But this piece has been long since out of force must be referred to a dollar of a 

circulation. The dollars now in common different kind. The actual dollar, at the 

currency are of recent date, and much in- time of contracting, is the only one which 

ferior to that both in weight and fineness, can be supposed to have been intended; 

The average weight of them upon dif- and it has been seen that, as long ago as 

ferent trials in large masses has been the year 1761, there had been a material 

found to be 17 dwt. 8 grains. Their fine- degradation of the standard. And even in 

ness is less precisely ascertained, the re- regard to the more ancient contracts, no 

suits of various assays, made by different person has ever had any idea of a scruple 

persons, under the direction of the late about receiving the dollar of the day as a 

superintendent of the finances and of the full equivalent for the nominal sum which 

Secretary, being as various as the assays the dollar originally imported, 
themselves. The difference between their A recurrence, therefore, to the ancient 

extremes is not less than 24 grains in a dollar would be in the greatest number of 

dollar of the same weight and age, which cases an innovation in fact, and in all an 

is too much for any probable difference in innovation in respect to opinion. The 

the pieces. It is rather to be presumed actual dollar in common circulation has 

that a degree of inaccuracy had been oc- evidently a much better claim to be re- 

casioned by the want of proper apparatus garded as the actual money unit, 
and, in general, of practice. The experi- The mean intrinsic value of the different 

ment which appears to have the best pre- kinds of known dollars has been intimated 

tensions to exactness would make the new as affording the proper criterion. But, 

dollar to contain 370 grains and 933 when it is recollected that the more an- 

thousandth parts of a grain of pure sil- cient and more valuable ones are not now 

ver. to be met with at all in circulation, and 

According to an authority on which the that the mass of those generally current 

Secretary places reliance, the standard of is composed of the newest and most in- 

Spain for its silver coin, in the year ferior kinds, it will be perceived that even 

1761, was 261 parts fine and 27 parts al- an equation of that nature would be a 

loy, at which proportion a dollar of 17 considerable innovation upon the real 

dwt. 8 grains would consist of 377 grains present state of things, which it will cer- 

of fine silver and 39 grains of alloy, tainly be prudent to approach, as far as 

But there is no question that this stand- may be consistent with the permanent or- 

ard has been since altered considerably der designed to be introduced. 
for the worse, — to what precise point An additional reason for considering 

is not as well ascertained as could be the prevailing dollar as the standard of 

wished; but, from a computation of the the present money unit rather than the 

value of dollars in the markets both of ancient one is that it will not only be 

Amsterdam and London (a criterion which conformable to the true existing propor- 

cannot materially mislead) the new dol- tion between the two metals in this coun- 

lar appears to contain about 368 grains try, but will be more conformable to that 

of fine silver, and that which immediately which obtains in the commercial world 

preceded it about 374 grains. generally. 

Tn this state of things there is some The difference established by custom in 

difficulty in defining the dollar which is the United States between coined gold and 

to be understood as constituting the pres- coined silver has been stated upon another 

ent money unit, on the supposition of its occasion to be nearly as 1 to 15.6. This. 

being most applicable to that species of if truly the case, would imply that gold 

coin. The old Seville piece of 386 grains was extremely overvalued in the United 

and 15 mites fine comports best with the States; for the highest actual proportion 

computations of foreign exchanges, and in any part of Europe very little, if at all, 

with the more ancient contracts respect- exceeds 1 to 15, and the average propor- 



tion throughout Europe is probably not parts of a grain of pure gold, equal to ten 
more than about 1 to 14 4 /b- But that dollars, and the other of half that quan- 
statement has proceeded upon the idea of tity of pure gold, equal to five dollars, 
the ancient dollar. One pennyweight of And it is not explained whether either of 
gold of twenty-two carats fine at 6s. 8d. the two species of coins, of gold, or silver, 
and the old Seville piece of 380 grains and shall have any greater legality in pay- 
15 mites of pure silver at 7s. Gd. furnish ments than the other. Yet it would seem 
the exact ratio of 1 to 15.G2G2. But this that a preference in this particular is 
does not coincide with the real difference necessary to execute the idea of attaching 
between the metals in our market or, the unit exclusively to one kind. If each 
which is with us the same thing, in our of them be as valid as the other in pay- 
currency. To determine this, the quan- ments to any amount, it is not obvious in 
tity of fine silver in the general mass of what effectual sense either of them can be 
the dollars now in circulation must af- deemed the money unit rather than the 
ford the rule. Taking the rate of the late other. 

dollar of 374 grains, the proportion would If the general declaration, that the dol- 

be as 1 to 15.11. Taking the rate of the lar shall be the money unit of the United 

newest dollar, the proportion would then States, could be understood to give it a 

be as 1 to 14.87. The mean of the two superior legality in payments, the institu- 

would give the proportion of 1 to 15 very tion of coins of gold and the declaration 

nearly: less than the legal proportions in that each of them shall be equal to a cer- 

the coins of Great Britain, which is as tain number of dollars, would appear to 

1 to 15.2; but somewhat more than the destroy that inference. And the circum- 

actual or market proportion, which is not stance of making the dollar the unit in the 

quite 1 to 15. money of account seems to be rather mat- 

The preceding view of the subject does ter of form than of substance, 
not indeed afford a precise or certain Contrary to the ideas which have here- 
definition of the present unit in the coins, tofore prevailed in the suggestions con- 
but it furnishes data which will serve as cerning a coinage for the United States, 
guides in the progress of the investiga- though not without much hesitation, aris- 
tion. It ascertains, at least, that the sum ing from a deference for those ideas, the 
in the money of account of each State, Secretary is, upon the whole, strongly in- 
corresponding with the nominal value of clined to the opinion that a preference 
the dollar in such State, corresponds also ought to be given to neither of the metals 
with 24 grains and 6 / 8 of a grain of fine for the money unit. Perhaps, if either 
gold, and with something between 368 were to be preferred, it ought to be gold 
and 374 grains of fine silver. rather than silver. 

The next inquiry towards a right deter- The reasons are these: — 

mination of what ought to be the future The inducement to such a preference is 

money unit of the United States turns to render the unit as little variable as 

upon these questions: Whether it ought possible, because on this depends the 

to be peculiarly attached to either of the steady value of all contracts and, in a 

metals in preference to the other or not; certain sense, of all other property. And 

and. if to either, to which of them? it is truly observed that, if the unit be- 

The suggestions and proceedings, hith- long indiscriminately to both the metals, 

erto, have had for object the annexing it is subject to all the fluctuations that 

of it emphatically to the silver dollar, happen in the relative value which they 

A resolution of Congress of the 6th of bear to each other. But the same reason 

July, 178"), declares that the money unit would lead to annexing it to that par- 

of the United States shall bo a dollar; ticular one which is itself the least liable 

and another resolution of the 8th of to variation, if there be in this respect 

August, 1786, fixes that dollar at 375 any discernible difference between the 

grains and 64 hundredths of a grain of two. 

fine silver. The same resolution, however, Gold may perhaps, in certain senses, be 

determines that there shall also be two said to have greater stability than silver, 

gold coins, one of 246 grains and 268 as, being of superior value, less liberties 



have been taken with it in the regula- 
tions of different countries. Its stand- 
ard has remained more uniform, and it 
has in other respects undergone fewer 
changes, as, being not so much an article 
of merchandise, owing to the use made of 
silver in the trade with the East Indies 
and China, it is less liable to be influ- 
enced by circumstances of commercial de- 
mand. And if, reasoning by analogy, it 
could be affirmed that there is a physical 
probability of greater proportional in- 
crease in the quantity of silver than in 
that of gold, it would afford an addi- 
tional reason for calculating on greater 
steadiness in the value of the latter. 

As long as gold, either from its in- 
trinsic superiority as a metal, from its 
greater rarity, or from the prejudices of 
mankind, retains so considerable a pre- 
eminence in value over silver as it has 
hitherto had, a natural consequence of 
this seems to be that its condition will 
be more stationary. The revolutions, 
therefore, which may take place in the 
comparative value of gold and silver will 
be changes in the state of the latter 
lather than in that of the former. 

If there should be an appearance of too 
much abstraction in any of these ideas, 
it may be remarked that the first and 
most simple impressions do not naturally 
incline to giving a preference to the in- 
ferior or less valuable of the two metals. 

It is sometimes observed that silver 
ought to be encouraged rather than gold, 
as being more conducive to the extension 
of bank circulation, from the greater dif- 
ficulty and inconvenience which its 
greater bulk compared with its value oc- 
casions in the transportation of it. But 
bank circulation is desirable rather as 
«;t auxiliary to than as a substitute for 
that of the precious metals, and ought to 
be left to its natural course. Artificial 
expedients to extend it by opposing ob- 
stacles to the other are, at least, not 
recommended by any very obvious advan- 
tages. And, in general, it is the safest 
rule to regulate every particular institu- 
tion or object according to the principles 
which in relation to itself appear the 
most sound. In addition to this, it may 
be observed that the inconvenience of 
transporting either of the metals is suffi- 
ciently great to induce a preference of 

bank paper whenever it can be made to 
answer the purpose equally well. 

But, upon the whole, it seems to be 
most advisable, as has been observed, not 
to attach the unit exclusively to either of 
the metals, because this cannot be done 
effectually without destroying the office 
and character of one of them as money 
and reducing it to the situation of a 
mere merchandise, which accordingly, at 
different times, has been proposed from 
different and very respectable quarters, 
but which would, probably, be a greater 
evil than occasional variations in the 
unit from the fluctuations in the relative 
value of the metals, especially if care 
be taken to regulate the proportion be- 
tween them with an eye to their average 
commercial value. 

To annul the use of either of the metals 
as money is to abridge the quantity of 
circulating medium, and is liable to all the 
objections which arise from a comparison 
of the benefits of a full with the evils of 
a scanty circulation. 

It is not a satisfactory answer to say 
that none but the favored metal would in 
this case find its way into the country, 
as in that all balances must be paid. The 
practicability of this would, in some meas- 
ure, depend on the abundance or scarcity 
of it in the country paying. Where there 
was but little, it either would not be pro- 
curable at all or it would cost a premium 
to obtain it, which in every case of a com- 
petition with others in a branch of trade 
would constitute a deduction from the 
profits of the party receiving. Perhaps, 
too, the embarrassments which such a 
circumstance might sometimes create in 
the pecuniary liquidation of balances 
might lead to additional efforts to find 
a substitute in commodities, and might so 
far impede the introduction of the metals. 
Neither could the exclusion of either of 
them be deemed in other respects favor- 
able to commerce. It is often in the 
course of trade as desirable to possess the 
kind of money as the kind of commodities 
best adapted to a foreign market. 

It seems, however, most probable that 
the chief, if not the sole, effects of such a 
regulation would be to diminish the util- 
ity of one of the metals. It could hardly 
prove an obstacle to the introduction of 
that which was excluded in the natural 



course of trade, because it would always 
command a ready sale for the purpose of 
exportation to foreign markets. But such 
an effect, if the only one, is not to be re- 
garded as a trivial inconvenience. 

If, then, the unit ought not to be at- 
tached exclusively to either of the metals, 
the proportion which ought to subsist be- 
tween them in the coins becomes a prelim- 
inary inquiry in order to its proper ad- 
justment. This proportion appears to be 
in several views of no inconsiderable mo- 

One consequence of overvaluing either 
metal in respect to the other is the ban- 
ishment of that which is undervalued. If 
two countries are supposed, in one of 
which the proportion of gold to silver is 
as 1 to 16, in the other as 1 to 15, gold 
being worth more, silver less, in one than 
in the other, it is manifest that, in their 
reciprocal payments, each will select that 
species which it values least to pay to the 
other, where it is valued most. Besides 
this the dealers in money will, from the 
same cause, often find a profitable traffic 
in an exchange of the metals between the 
two countries. And hence it would come 
to pass, if other things were equal, that 
the greatest part of the gold would be 
collected in one, and the greatest part of 
the silver in the other. The course of 
trade might, in some degree, counteract 
the tendency of the difference in the legal 
proportions, by the market value; but this 
is so far and so often influenced by the 
legal rates that it does not prevent their 
producing the effect which is inferred. 
Facts, too, verify the inference. In Spain 
and England, where gold is rated higher 
than in other parts of Europe, there is a 
scarcity of silver; while it is found to 
abound in France and Holland, where it 
is rated higher in proportion to gold than 
in the neighboring nations. And it is con- 
tinually flowing from Europe to China 
and the East Indies, owing to the compar- 
ative cheapness of it in the former, and 
dearness of it in the latter. 

This consequence is deemed by some not 
very material, and there are even persons 
who from a fanciful predilection to gold 
are willing to invite it even by a higher 
price. But general utility will best be 
promoted by a due proportion of both 
metals. If gold be most convenient in 

large payments, silver is best adapted to 
the more minute and ordinary circulation. 

But it is to be suspected that there is 
another consequence more serious than the 
one which has been mentioned. This is 
the diminution of the total quantity of 
specie which a country would naturally 

It is evident that as often as a country 
which overrates either of the metals re- 
ceives a payment in that metal, it gets 
a less actual quantity than it ought to 
do or than it would do if the rate were 
a just one. 

It is also equally evident that there 
will be a continual effort to make pay- 
ment to it in that specie to which it 
has annexed an exaggerated estimation 
wherever it is current at a less proportion- 
al value. And it would seem to be a very 
natural effect of these two causes, not 
only that the mass of the precious metals 
in the country in question would consist 
chiefly of that kind to which it had given 
an extraordinary value, but that it would 
be absolutely less than if they had been 
duly proportioned to each other. 

A conclusion of this sort, however, is 
to be drawn with great caution. In such 
matters there are always some local and 
many other particular circumstances 
which qualify and vary the operation of 
general principles, even where they are 
just; and there are endless combinations, 
very difficult to be analyzed, which often 
render principles that have the most plaus- 
ible pretensions unsound and delusive. 

There ought, for instance, according to 
those which have been stated, to have 
been formerly a greater quantity of gold 
in proportion to silver in the United States 
than there has been, because the actual 
value of gold in this country compared 
with silver was perhaps higher than in 
any other. But our situation with re- 
gard to the West Indian Islands, into 
some of which there is a large influx of 
silver directly from the mines of South 
America, occasions an extraordinary sup- 
ply of that metal, and consequently a 
greater proportion of it in our circulation 
than might have been expected from its 
relative value. 

What influence the proportion under 
consideration may have upon the state of 
prices and how far this may counteract 



its tendency to increase or lessen the 
quantity of the metals, are points not easy 
to be developed; and yet they are very 
necessary to an accurate judgment of the 
true operation of the thing. 

But, however impossible it may be to 
pronounce with certainty that the pos- 
session of a less quantity of specie is a 
consequence of overvaluing either of the 
metals, there is enough of probability in 
the considerations which seem to indicate 
it to form an argument of weight against 
such overvaluation. 

A third ill consequence resulting from 
it is a greater and more frequent dis- 
turbance of the state of the money unit 
by a greater and more frequent diversity 
between the legal and market proportions 
of the metals. This has not hitherto been 
experienced in the United States, but it 
has been experienced elsewhere ; and from 
its not having been felt by us hitherto 
it does not follow that this will not be 
the case hereafter, when our commerce 
shall have attained a maturity which will 
place it under the influence of more fixed 

In establishing a proportion between 
the metals, there seems to be an option 
of one or two things: — 

To approach as nearly as can be ascer- 
tained the mean or average proportion 
in what may be called the commercial 
world; or 

To retain that which now exists in the 
United States. 

As far as these happen to coincide, they 
will render the course to be pursued more 
plain and more certain. 

To ascertain the first with precision 
would require better materials than are 
possessed or than could be obtained with- 
out an inconvenient delay. 

Sir Isaac Newton, in a representation 
to the treasury of Great Britain, in the 
year 1717, after stating the particular 
proportions in the different countries of 
Europe, concludes thus : " By the course 
of trade and exchange between nation and 
nation in all Europe fine gold is to fine 
silver as 14 4 /5 or 15 to 1." 

But however accurate and decisive this 
authority may be deemed in relation to 
the period to which it applies, it cannot 
be taken at the distance of more than 
seventy years as a rule for determining 

the existing proportion. Alterations have 
been since made in the regulations of 
their coins by several nations, which, as 
well as the course of trade, have an in- 
fluence upon the market values. Never- 
theless, there is reason to believe that the 
state of the matter as represented by Sir 
Isaac Newton is not very remote from its 
actual state. 

In Holland, the greatest money ' market 
of Europe, gold was to silver, in Decem- 
ber, 1789, as 1 to 14.88; and in that of 
London it has been for some time past 
but little different, approaching, perhaps, 
something nearer 1 to 15. 

It has been seen that the existing pro- 
portion between the two metals in this 
country is about as 1 to 15. 

It is fortunate, in this respect, that 
the innovations of the Spanish mint have 
imperceptibly introduced a proportion so 
analogous as this is to that which pre- 
vails among the principal commercial na- 
tions, as it greatly facilitates a proper 
regulation of the matter. 

This proportion of 1 to 15 is recom- 
mended by the particular situation of our 
trade, as being very nearly that which ob- 
tains in the market of Great Britain, to 
which nation our specie is principally ex- 
ported. A lower rate for either of the 
metals, in our market than in hers, might 
not only afford a motive the more, in cer- 
tain cases, to remit in specie rather than 
in commodities; but it might, in some 
others, cause us to pay a greater quantity 
of it for a given sum than we should 
otherwise do. If the effect should rather 
be to occasion a premium to be given for 
the metal which was underrated, this 
would obviate those disadvantages; but it 
would involve another — a customary dif- 
ference between the market and legal pro- 
portions which would amount to a species 
of disorder in the national coinage. 

Looking forward to the payments of in- 
terest hereafter to be made to Holland 
the same proportion does not appear in- 
eligible. The present legal proportion in 
the coins of Holland is stated to be 1 to 
14 9 / U1 . That of the market varies some- 
what at different times, but seldom very 
widely from this point. 

There can hardly be a better rule, in 
any country, for the legal than the mar- 
ket proportion, if this can be supposed to 



have been produeed by the free and steady is a recommendation of it, because a dif- 

course of commercial principles. The ference could answer no purpose of 

presumption, in such case, is that each pecuniary or commercial utility, and uni- 

metal finds its true level, according to its formity is favorable to order, 

intrinsic utility in the general system of This ratio as it regards gold coincides 

money operations. with the proportion, real or professed, in 

But it must be admitted that this argu- the coins of Portugal, England, France, 
ment in favor of continuing the existing and Spain. In those of the two former it 
proportion is not applicable to the state is real: in those of the two latter there 
of the coins with us. There have been is a deduction for what is called remedy 
too many artificial and heterogeneous of weight and alloy, which is in the 
ingredients, too much want of order in nature of an allowance to the master of 
the pecuniary transactions of this the mint for errors and imperfections in 
country, to authorize the attributing the the process, rendering the coin either 
effects which have appeared to the regular lighter or baser than it ought to be. The 
operations of commerce. A proof of this same thing is known in the theory of 
is to be drawn from the alterations which the English mint, where V 8 OI a carat 
have happened in the proportion between is allowed. But the difference seems 
the metals merely by the successive degra- to be that there it is merely an oc- 
dations of the dollar in consequence of casional indemnity within a certain 
the mutability of a foreign mint. The limit for real and unavoidable errors and 
value of gold to silver appears to have imperfections, whereas, in the practice of 
declined wholly from this cause from 15 8 /io the mints of France and Spain, it appears 
to about 15 to 1. Yet, as this last pro- to amount to a stated and regular devia- 
portion, however produced, coincides so tion from the nominal standard. Accord- 
nearly with what may be deemed the com- ingly, the real standards of France and 
mercial average, it may be supposed to Spain are something worse than 22 carats, 
furnish as good a rule as can be pur- or 11 parts in 12 fine, 
sued. The principal gold coins in Germany, 

The only question seems to be whether Holland, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, and 

the value of gold ought not to be a little Italy, are finer than those of England 

lowered to bring it to a more exact level and Portugal, in different degrees, from 1 

with the two markets which have been carat and y 4 to 1 carat and %, which 

mentioned. But, as the ratio of 1 to 15 is last is within % of a carat of pure gold, 

so nearly conformable to the state of those There are similar diversities in the 

markets and best agrees with that of our standards of the silver coins of the dif- 

own, it will probably be found the most ferent countries of Europe. That of 

eligible. If the market of Spain con- Great Britain is 222 parts fine to 18 

tinues to give a higher value to gold (as alloy: those of the other European na- 

it has done in time past) than that tions vary from that of Great Britain as 

which is recommended, there may be widely as from about 17 of the same parts 

some advantage in a middle station. better to 75 worse. 

A further preliminary to the adjust- The principal reasons assigned for the 

ment of the future money unit is to de- use of alloy are the saving of expense in 

tcrmine what shall be the proportion and the refining of the metals (which in their 

composition of alloy in each species of natural state are usually mixed with a 

the coins. portion of the coarser kinds) and the 

The first, by the resolution of the 8th rendering of them harder as a security 

of August, 1786, before referred to, is against too great waste by friction or 

regulated at one-twelfth, or, in other wearing. The first reason drawn from 

words, at 1 part alloy to 11 parts fine, the original composition of the metals is 

whether gold or silver, which appears to strengthened at present by the practice of 

be a convenient rule, unless there should alloying their coins, which has obtained 

be some collateral consideration which among so many nations. The reality of 

may dictate a departure from it. Its the effect to which the last reason is ap- 

correspondency in regard to both metals plicable has been denied, and experience 



has been appealed to as proving that the similar in this particular. In England 
more alloyed coins wear faster than the coinage is said to be entirely free, the 
purer. The true state of this matter may mint price of the metals in bullion being 
be worthy of future investigation, though the same with the value of them in coin, 
first appearances are in favor of alloy. In In France there is a duty which has been, 
the mean time the saving of trouble and if it is not now, 8 per cent. In Hol- 
expense are sufficient inducements to fol- land there is a difference between the 
lowing those examples which suppose its mint price and the value in the coins, 
expediency. And the same considerations which has been computed at .96 or some- 
lead to taking as our models those nations thing less than 1 per cent, upon gold, 
with whom we have most intercourse and at 1.48 or something less than iy 2 per 
whose coins are most prevalent in our cent, upon silver. The resolution of the 
circulation. These are Spain, Portugal, 8th of August, 1786, proceeds upon the 
England, and France. The relation which idea of a deduction of y 2 per cent, from 
the proposed proportion bears to their gold and of 2 per cent, from silver 
gold coins has been explained. In respect as an indemnification for the expense oi 
to their silver coins, it will not be very coining. This is inferred from a report 
remote from the mean of their several of the late Board of Treasury, upon which 
standards. that resolution appears to have been 

The component ingredients of the alloy founded. 
in each metal will also require to be Upon the supposition that the expense 
regulated. In silver, copper is the only of coinage ought to be defrayed out of the 
kind in use, and it is doubtless the only metals, there are two ways in which it 
proper one. In gold there is a mixture may be effected— one by a reduction of 
of silver and copper, in the English coins the quantity of fine gold and silver in 
consisting of equal parts, in the coins of the coins, the other by establishing a 
some other countries varying from 7 3 to difference between the value of those 
Vs silver. metals in the coins and the mint price of 

The reason of this union of silver with them in bullion, 
copper is this: the silver counteracts the The first method appears to the Secre- 
tendency of the copper to injure the color tary inadmissible. He is unable to dis- 
or beauty of the coin by giving it too much tinguish an operation of this sort from 
redness, or rather a coppery hue, which that of raising the denomination of the 
a small quantity will produce; and the coin— a measure which has been disap- 
copper prevents the too great whiteness proved by the wisest men of the nations 
which silver alone would confer. It is in which it has been practised and con- 
apprehended that there are considerations demned by the rest of the world. To de- 
which may render it prudent to establish clare that a less weight of gold or silver 
by law that the proportion of silver to shall pass for the same sum which before 
copper in the gold coins of the United represented a greater weight or to ordain 
States, shall not be more than y 2 nor that the same weight shall pass for a 
less than 1 / 3 vesting direction in some greater sum are things substantially of 
proper place to regulate the matter one nature. The consequence of either of 
within those limits, as experience in them, if the change can be realized, is 
the execution may recommend. to degrade the money unit, obliging 

A third point remains to be discussed creditors to receive less than their just 
as a prerequisite to the determination of dues and depreciating property of every 
the money unit, which is whether the ex- kind. For it is manifest that everything 
pense of coining shall be defrayed by the would in this case be represented by a 
public or out of the material itself, or, less quantity of gold and silver than be- 
as it is sometimes stated, whether coin- fore. 

age shall be free or shall be subject to a It is sometimes observed, on this head, 
duty or imposition. This forms, perhaps, that, though any article of property 
one of the nicest questions in the doctrine might, in fact, be represented by a less 
of money. actual quantity of pure metal, it would, 

The practice of different nations is dis- nevertheless, be represented by something 



of the same intrinsic value. Every fab- 
ric, it is remarked, is worth intrinsically 
the price of the raw material and the ex- 
pense of fabrication — a truth not less 
applicable to a piece of coin than to a yard 
or cloth. 

This position, well founded in itself, is 
here misapplied. It supposes that the 
coins now in circulation are to be consid- 
ered as bullion, or, in other words, as raw 
material. But the fact is that the adop- 
tion of them as money has caused them 
to become the fabric: it has invested them 
with the character and office of coins, and 
has given them a sanction and efficacy 
equivalent to that of the stamp of the 
sovereign. The prices of all our commodi- 
ties at home and abroad, and of all foreign 
commodities in our markets, have found 
their level in conformity to this principle. 
The foreign coins may be divested of the 
privilege they have hitherto been permit- 
ted to enjoy, and may of course be left to 
find their value in the market as a raw 
material. But the quantity of gold and 
silver in the national coins corresponding 
with a given sum cannot be made less 
than heretofore without disturbing the 
balance of intrinsic value, and making 
every acre of land as well as every bushel 
of wheat of less actual worth than in time 
past. If the United States were isolated 
and cut off from all intercourse with the 
rest of mankind, this reasoning would not 
be equally conclusive. But it appears de- 
cisive when considered with a view to the 
relations which commerce has created be- 
tween us and other countries. 

It is, however, not improbable that the 
effect meditated would be defeated by a 
rise of prices proportioned to the diminu- 
tion of the intrinsic value of the coins. 
This might be looked for in every en- 
lightened commercial country, but, per- 
haps, in none with greater certainty than 
this, because in none are men less liable 
to be the dupes of sounds, in none has 
authority so little resource for substitut- 
ing names for things. 

A general revolution in prices, though 
only nominally and in appearance, could 
not fail to distract the ideas of the com- 
munity, and would be apt to breed dis- 
content as well among all those who live 
on the income of their money as among 
the poorer classes of the people, to whom 

the necessaries of life would seem to have 
become dearer. In the confusion of such 
a state of things ideas of value would not 
improbably adhere to the old coins, which, 
from that circumstance, instead of feel- 
ing the effect of the loss of their privi- 
lege as money, would, perhaps, bear a 
price in the market relatively to the new 
ones in exact proportion to weight. The 
frequency of the demand for the metals 
to pay foreign balances would contribute 
to this effect. 

Among the evils attendant on such an 
operation are these: creditors both of the 
public and of individuals would lose a 
part of their property, public and private 
credit would receive a wound, the effective 
revenues of the government would be 
diminished. There is scarcely any point 
in the economy of national affairs of 
greater moment than the uniform preser- 
vation of the intrinsic value of the money 
unit. On this the security and steady 
value of property essentially depend. 

The second method, therefore, of defray- 
ing the expense of the coinage out of the 
metals is greatly to be preferred to the 
other. This is to let the same sum of 
money continue to represent in the new 
coins exactly the same quantity of gold 
and silver as it does in those now current : 
to allow at the mint such a price only for 
those metals as will admit of profit just 
sufficient to satisfy the expense of coin- 
age; to abolish the legal currency of the 
foreign coins, both in public and private 
payments; and of course to leave the supe- 
rior utility of the national coins for do- 
mestic purposes, to operate the difference 
of market value, which is necessary to in- 
duce the bringing of bullion to the mint. 
In this case all property and labor will 
still be represented by the same quantity 
of gold and silver as formerly: and the 
only change which will be- wrought will 
consist in annexing the office of money 
exclusively to the national coins, conse- 
quently withdrawing it from those of for- 
eign countries, and suffering them to be- 
come, as they ought to be, mere articles 
of merchandise. 

The arguments in favor of a regulation 
of this kind are: 

First. That the want of it is a cause 
of extra expense. There being, then, no 
motive of individual interest to distin- 



guish between the national coins and bull- 
ion, they are, it is alleged, indiscriminately 
melted down for domestic manufactures, 
and exported for the purposes of foreign 
trade; and it is added that, when the 
coins become light by wearing, the same 
quantity of fine gold or silver bears a 
higher price in bullion than in the coins, 
in which state of things the melting down 
of the coins to be sold as bullion is at- 
tended with profit; and from both causes 
the expense of the mint, or, in other words, 
the expense of maintaining the specie cap- 
ital of the nation, is materially augmented. 

Secondly. That the existence of such a 
regulation promotes a favorable course of 
exchange and benefits trade not only by 
that circumstance, but by obliging for- 
eigners in certain cases to pay dearer for 
domestic commodities and to sell their 
own cheaper. 

As far as relates to the tendency of a 
free coinage to produce an increase of ex- 
pense in the different ways that have been 
stated, the argument must be allowed to 
have foundation both in reason and in ex- 
perience. It describes what has been ex- 
emplified in Great Britain. 

The effect of giving an artificial value 
to bullion is not at first sight obvious; 
but it actually happened at the period 
immediately preceding the late reforma- 
tion in the gold coin of the country just 
named. A pound troy in gold bullion of 
standard fineness was then from 19s. Qd. 
to 25s. sterling dearer than an equal 
weight of guineas as delivered at the mint. 
The phenomenon is thus accounted for: 
The old guineas were more than 2 per 
cent, lighter than their standard weight. 
This weight, therefore, in bullion, was 
truly worth 2 per cent, more than those 
guineas. It consequently had in respect 
to them a correspondent rise in the mar- 

And, as guineas were then current by 
tale, the new ones, as they issued from 
the mint, were confounded in circulation 
with the old ones, and by the association 
were depreciated below the intrinsic value 
in comparison with bullion. It became, 
of course, a profitable traffic to sell bullion 
for coin, to select the light pieces and re- 
issue them in currency, and to melt down 
the heavy ones and sell them again as 
bullion. This practice, besides other in- 

conveniences, cost the government large 
sums in the renewal of the coins. 

But the remainder of the argument 
stands upon ground far more questionable. 
It depends upon very numerous and very 
complex combinations, in which there is 
infinite latitude for fallacy and error. 

The most plausible part of it is that 
which relates to the course of exchange. 
Experience in France has shown that the 
market price of bullion has been influ- 
enced by the mint difference between that 
and coin, sometimes to the full extent of 
the difference; and it would seem to be a 
clear inference that, whenever that differ- 
ence materially exceeded the charges of 
remitting bullion from the country where 
it existed to another in which coinage is 
free, exchange would be in favor of the 

If, for instance, the balance of trade 
between France and England were at any 
time equal, their merchants would nat- 
urally have reciprocal payments to make 
to an equal amount, which, as usual, 
would be liquidated by means of bills of 
exchange. If in this situation the differ- 
ence between coin and bullion should be 
in the market as at the mint of France 
8 per cent., if also the charges of trans- 
porting money from France to England 
should not be above 2 per cent., and if 
exchange should be at par, it is evident 
that a profit of 6 per cent, might be 
made by sending bullion from France to 
England and drawing bills for the amount. 
One hundred louis d'ors in coin would 
purchase the weight of one hundred and 
eight in bullion, one hundred of which 
remitted to England would suffice to pay 
a debt of an equal amount ; and, two being 
paid for the charges of insurance and 
transportation, there would remain six 
for the benefit of the person who should 
manage the negotiation. But, as so large 
a profit could not fail to produce com- 
petition, the bills in consequence of this 
would decrease in price till the profit was 
reduced to the minimum of an adequate 
recompense for the trouble and risk. And, 
as the amount of one hundred louis d'ors 
in England might be afforded for ninety- 
six in France with a profit of more than 
ly 2 per cent., bills upon England might 
fall in France to 4 per cent, below par, 
1 per cent, being a sufficient profit to the 



exchanger or broker for the management 
of the business. 

But it is admitted that this advantage 
is lost when the balance of trade is 
against the nation which imposes the duty 
in question, because by increasing the de- 
mand for bullion it brings this to a par 
with the coins; and it is to be suspected 
that, where commercial principles have 
their free scope and are well understood, 
the market difference between the metals 
in coin and bullion will seldom approx- 
imate to that of the mint, if the latter 
be considerable. It must be not a little 
difficult to keep the money of the world, 
which can be employed to an equal pur- 
pose in the commerce of the world, in a 
state of degradation in comparison with 
the money of a particular country. 

This alone would seem sufficient to 
prevent it. Whenever the price of coin to 
bullion in the market materially exceeded 
the par of the metals, it would become 
an object to send the bullion abroad, if 
not to pay a fsreign balance, to be invested 
in some other way in foreign countries 
where it bore a superior value — an oper- 
ation by which immense fortunes might 
be amassed, if it were not that the ex- 
portation of the bullion would of itself 
restore the intrinsic par. But, as it would 
naturally have this effect, the advantage 
supposed would contain in itself the prin- 
ciple of its own destruction. As long, 
however, as the exportation of bullion 
could be made with profit, which is as 
long as exchange could remain below par, 
there would be a drain of the gold and 
silver of the country. 

If anything can maintain for a length of 
time a material difference between the 
value of the metals in coin and in bullion, 
it must be a constant and considerable 
balance of trade in favor of the country in 
which it is maintained. In one situated 
like the United States, it would in all 
probability be a hopeless attempt. The 
frequent demand for gold and silver to 
pay balances to foreigners would tend 
powerfully to preserve the equilibrium of 
intrinsic value. 

The prospect is that it would occa- 
sion foreign coins to circulate by com- 
mon consent nearly at par with the na- 

To say that as far as the effect of lower- 

ing exchange is produced, though it be only 
occasional and momentary, there is a 
benefit the more thrown into the scale 
of public prosperity, is not satisfactory. 
It has been seen that it may be productive 
of one evil, the investment of a part of 
the national capital in foreign countries, 
which can hardly be beneficial but in a 
situation like that of the United Nether- 
lands, where an immense capital and a 
decrease of internal demand render it 
necessary to find employment for money 
in the wants of other nations; and per- 
haps on a close examination other evils 
may be descried. 

One allied to that which has been men- 
tioned is this — taking France for the sake 
of more concise illustration as the scene: 
Whenever it happens that French louis 
d'ors are sent abroad from whatever 
cause, if there be a considerable differ- 
ence between coin and bullion in the mar- 
ket of France, it will constitute an ad- 
vantageous traffic to send back these louis 
d'ors and bring away bullion in lieu of 
them, upon all which exchanges France 
must sustain an actual loss of a part of 
its gold and silver. 

Again, such a difference between coin 
and bullion may tend to counteract a 
favorable balance of trade. Whenever a 
foreign merchant is the carrier of his own 
commodities to France for sale, he has a 
strong inducement to bring back specie 
instead of French commodities, because a 
return in the latter may afford no profit, 
may even be attended with loss. In the 
former it will afford a certain profit. 
The same principle must be supposed to 
operate in the general course of remit- 
tances from France to other countries. 
The principal question with a merchant 
naturally is, In what manner can I realize 
a given sum with most advantage where I 
wish to place it? And, in cases in which 
other commodities are not likely to pro- 
duce equal profit with bullion, it may be 
expected that this will be preferred, to 
which the greater certainty attending the 
operation must be an additional incite- 
ment. There can hardly be imagined a 
circumstance less friendly to trade than 
the existence of an extra inducement aris- 
ing from the possibility of a profitable 
speculation upon the articles themselves 
to export from a country its gold and 


silver rather than the products of its land 
and labor. 

The other advantages supposed, of 
obliging foreigners to pay dearer for 
domestic commodities and to sell their 
own cheaper, are applied to a situation 
which includes a favorable balance of 
trade. It is understood in this sense — 
the prices of domestic commodities (such 
at least as are peculiar to the country) re- 
main attached to the denominations of the 
coins. When a favorable balance of trade 
realizes in the market the mint difference 
between coin and bullion, foreigners who 
must pay in the latter are obliged to give 
more of it for such commodities than they 
otherwise would do. Again, the bullion, 
which is now obtained at a cheaper rate 
in the home market, will procure the same 
quantity of goods in the foreign market 
as before, which is said to render foreign 
commodities cheaper. In this reasoning 
much fallacy is to be suspected. If it be 
true that foreigners pay more for domestic 
commodities, it must be equally true that 
they get more for their own when they 
bring them themselves to the market. If 
peculiar or other domestic commodities 
adhere to the denominations of the coins, 
no reason occurs why foreign commodities 
of a like character should not do the same 
thing; and in this case the foreigner, 
though he receive only the same value in 
coin for his merchandise as formerly, can 
convert it into a greater quantity of bull- 
ion. Whence the nation is liable to lose 
more of its gold and silver than if their 
intrinsic value in relation to the coins 
were preserved. And whether the gain or 
the loss will, on the whole, preponderate, 
would appear to depend on the compara- 
tive proportion of active commerce of the 
one country with the other. 

It is evident, also, that the nation must 
pay as much gold and silver as before for 
the commodities which it procures abroad; 
and whether it obtains this gold and sil- 
ver cheaper or not turns upon the solu- 
tion of the question just intimated, re- 
specting the relative proportion of active 
commerce between the two countries. 

Besides these considerations, it is ad- 
mitted in the reasoning that the advan- 
tages supposed, which depend on a favor- 
able balance of trade, have a tendency 
to affect that balance disadvantageously. 

Foreigners, it is allowed, will in this case 
seek some other vent for their commodi- 
ties and some other market where they 
can supply their wants at an easier rate. 
A tendency of this kind, if real, would be 
a sufficient objection to the regulation. 
Nothing which contributes to change a 
beneficial current of trade can well com- 
pensate by particular advantages for so 
injurious an effect. It is far more easy 
to transfer trade from a less to a more 
favorable channel than, when once trans- 
ferred, to bring it back to its old one. 
Every source of artificial interruption to 
an advantageous current is, therefore, cau- 
tiously to be avoided. 

It merits attention that the able min- 
ister who lately and so long presided over 
the finances of France does not attribute 
to the duty on coinage in that country 
any particular advantages in relation to 
exchange and trade. Though he rather 
appears an advocate for it, it is on the 
sole ground of the revenue it affords, 
which he represents as in the nature of 
a very moderate duty on the general mass 
of exportation. 

And it is not improbable that to the 
singular felicity of situation of that king- 
dom is to be attributed its not having 
been sensible of the evils which seem in- 
cident to the regulation. There is, per- 
haps, no part of Europe which has so lit- 
tle need of other countries as France. 
Comprehending a variety of soils and cli- 
mates, an immense population, its agri- 
culture in a state of mature improve- 
ment, it possesses within its own bosom 
most, if not all, the productions of the 
earth which any of its most favored neigh- 
bors can boast. The variety, abundance, 
and excellence of its wines constitute a 
peculiar advantage in its favor. Arts 
and manufactures are there also in a very 
advanced state, some of them of consid- 
erable importance and in higher perfection 
than elsewhere. Its contiguity to Spain, 
the intimate nature of its connection with 
that country — a country with few fabrics 
of its own, consequently numerous wants, 
and the principal receptacle of the treas- 
ures of the New World — these circum- 
stances concur in securing to France so 
uniform and so considerable a balance 
of trade as in a great measure to counter- 
act the natural tendency of any errors 



which may exist in the system of her mint, 
and to render inferences from the oper- 
ation of that system there, in refer- 
ence to this country, more liable to 
mislead than to instruct. Nor ought it 
to pass unnoticed that with all these ad- 
vantages the government of France has 
found it necessary on some occasions to 
employ very violent methods to compel 
the bringing of bullion to the mint — a 
circumstance which affords a strong pre- 
sumption of the inexpediency of the reg- 
ulation and of the impracticability of 
executing it in the United States. 

This point has been the longer dwelt 
upon, not only because there is a diversity 
of opinion among speculative men concern- 
ing it, and a diversity in the practice of 
the most considerable commercial nations, 
but because the acts of our own govern- 
ment under the Confederation have not 
only admitted the expediency of defraying 
the expense of coinage out of the metals 
themselves, but upon this idea have both 
made a deduction from the weight of the 
coins and established a difference between 
their regulated value and the mint price 
of bullion, greater than would result 
from that deduction. This double opera- 
tion in favor of a principle so question- 
able in itself has made a more particular 
investigation of it a duty. 

The intention, however, of the preceding 
remarks is rather to show that the expec- 
tation of commercial advantages ought 
not to decide in favor of a duty on coin- 
age, and that, if it should be adopted, it 
ought not to be in the form of a deduction 
from the intrinsic value of the coins, 
than absolutely to exclude the idea of any 
difference whatever between the value of 
the metals in coin and in bullion. It is 
not clearly discerned that a small differ- 
ence between the mint price of bullion 
and the regulated value of the coins would 
be pernicious or that it might not even 
be advisable, in the first instance, by way 
of experiment merely as a preventive to 
the melting down and exportation of the 
coins. This will now be somewhat more 
particularly considered. 

The arguments for a coinage entirely 
free are that it preserves the intrinsic 
value of the metals, that it makes the ex- 
pense of fabrication a general instead of 
partial tax, and that it tends to promote 

the abundance of gold and silver, which, 
it is alleged, will Mow to that place where 
they find the best price, and from that 
place where they are in any degree un- 

The first consideration has not much 
weight as an objection to a plan which, 
without diminishing the quantity of 
metals in the coins, merely allows a less 
price for them in bullion at the national 
factory or mint. No rule of intrinsic 
value is violated by considering the raw 
material as worth less than the fabric 
in proportion to the expense of fabrica- 
tion. And by divesting foreign coins of 
the privilege of circulating as money they 
become the raw material. 

The second consideration has perhaps 
greater weight. But it may not amount 
to an objection, if it be the best method 
of preventing disorders in the coins, which 
it is, in a particular manner, the in- 
terest of those on whom the tax would 
fall to prevent. The practice of taking 
gold by weight, which has of late years 
obtained in Great Britain, has been found 
in some degree a remedy; but this is in- 
convenient, and may on that account 
fall into disuse. Another circumstance 
lias had a remedial operation. This is thp 
delay of the mint. It appears to be the 
practice there not to make payment 
for the bullion which is brought to be 
exchanged for coin till it either has in 
fact, or is pretended to have, undergone 
the process of recoining. 

The necessity of fulfilling prior engage- 
ments is a cause or pretext for postponing 
the delivery of the coin in lieu of the 
bullion. And this delay creates a differ- 
ence in the market price of the two things. 
Accordingly, for some years past, an ouilfle 
of standard gold, which is worth in coin 
£3 17s. I0y 2 d. sterling, has been in the 
market of London, in bullion, only £3 17s. 
C)d., which is within a small fraction of 
y 2 per cent. less. Whether this be 
management in the mint to accommo- 
date the bank in the purchase of bullion 
or to effect indirectly something equiva- 
lent to a formal difference of price, or 
whether it be the natural course of the 
business is open to conjecture. 

It at the same time indicates that, 
if the mint were to make prompt pay- 
ment at about y 2 per cent, less than 


it does at present, the state of bullion 
in respect to coin would be precisely the 
same as it now is. And it would be then 
certain that the government would save 
expense in the coinage of gold, since it 
is not probable that the time actually 
lost in the course of the year in convert- 
ing bullion into coin can be an equivalent 
to % per cent, on the advance, and 
there will generally be at the command 
of the treasury a considerable sum of 
money waiting for some periodical dis- 
bursement, which without hazard might 
be applied to that advance. 

In what sense a free coinage can be 
said to promote the abundance of gold 
and silver may be inferred from the in- 
stances which have been given of the 
tendency of a contrary system to pro- 
mote their exportation. It is, however, 
not probable that a very small difference 
of value between coin and bullion can have 
any effect which ought to enter into cal- 
culation. There can be no inducement 
of positive profit to export the bullion 
as long as the difference of price is 
exceeded by the expense of transportation. 
And the prospect of smaller loss upon 
the metals than upon commodities when 
the difference is very minute will be fre- 
quently overbalanced by the possibility 
of doing better with the latter from a 
rise of markets. It is, at any rate, 
certain that it can be of no consequence, 
in this view, whether the superiority of 
coin to bullion in the market be pro- 
duced as in England by the delay of the 
mint or by a formal discrimination in the 
regulated values. 

Under an impression that a small dif- 
ference between the value of the coin 
and the mint price of bullion is the least 
exceptionable expedient for restraining 
the melting down or exportation of the 
former, and not perceiving that, if it be 
a very moderate one, it can be hurtful in 
other respects, the Secretary is inclined 
to an experiment of y 2 per cent, on 
each of the metals. The fact which 
has been mentioned with regard to the 
price of gold bullion in the English 
market seems to demonstrate that such 
a difference may safely be made. In this 
case there must be immediate payment 
for the gold and silver offered to the mint. 
How far y 2 per cent, will go tow- 


ards defraying the expense of the coin- 
age cannot be determined beforehand with 
accuracy. It is presumed that on an eco- 
nomical plan it will suffice in relation 
to gold. But it is not expected that 
the same rate on silver will be suffi- 
cient to defray the expense attending 
that metal. Some additional provision 
may therefore be found necessary if this 
limit be adopted. 

It does not seem to be advisable to make 
any greater difference in regard to sil- 
ver than to gold, because it is desirable 
that the proportion between the two met- 
als in the market should correspond with 
that in the coins, which would not be 
the case if the mint price of one was com- 
paratively lower than that of the other, 
and because, also, silver being proposed 
to be rated in respect to gold somewhat 
below its general commercial value, if 
there should be a disparity to its disad- 
vantage in the mint prices of the two 
metals, it would obstruct too much the 
bringing of it to be coined, and would 
add an inducement to export it. Nor 
does it appear to the Secretary safe to 
make a greater difference between the 
value of coin and bullion than has been 
mentioned. It will be better to have to 
increase it hereafter, if this shall be found 
expedient, than to have to recede from too 
considerable a difference in consequence 
of evils which shall have been experi- 

It is sometimes mentioned as an expedi- 
ent which, consistently with a free coin- 
age, may serve to prevent the evils de- 
sired to be avoided, to incorporate in the 
coins a greater proportion of alloy than 
is usual, regulating their value, neverthe- 
less, according to the quantity of pure 
metal they contain. This, it is supposed, 
by adding to the difficulty of refining 
them, would cause bullion to be preferred, 
both for manufacture and exportation. 

But strong objections lie against this 
scheme — an augmentation of expense, an 
actual depreciation of the coin, a danger 
of still greater depreciation in the public 
opinion, the facilitating of counterfeits — 
while it is questionable whether it would 
have the effect expected from it. 

The alloy being esteemed of no value, 
an increase of it is evidently an increase 
of expense. This, in relation to the gold 


coins particularly, is a matter of moment. 
It has been noted that the alloy in them 
consists partly of silver. If, to avoid ex- 
pense, the addition should be of copper 
only, this would spoil the appearance of 
the coin and give it a base countenance. 
Its beauty would indeed be injured, though 
in a less degree, even if the usual propor- 
tions of silver and copper should be main- 
tained in the increased quantity of alloy. 

And, however inconsiderable an addi- 
tional expenditure of copper in the coin- 
age of a year may be deemed, in a series 
of years it would become of consequence. 
In regulations which contemplate the 
lapse and operation of ages a very small 
item of expense acquires importance. 

The actual depreciation of the coin by 
an increase of alloy results from the very 
circumstance which is the motive to it — 
the greater difficulty of refining. In Eng- 
land it is customary for those concerned 
ill manufactures of gold to make a deduc- 
tion in the price of fourpence sterling per 
ounce of fine gold for every carat which 
the mass containing it is below the legal 
standard. Taking this as a rule, an in- 
feriority of a single carat, or one twenty- 
fourth part, in the gold coins of the 
United States, compared with the English 
standard, would cause the same quantity 
of pure gold in them to be worth nearly 
V 10 per cent, less than in the coins 
of Great Britain. This circumstance 
would be likely in process of time to be 
felt in the market of the United States. 

A still greater depreciation in the 
public opinion would be apprehended 
from the apparent debasement of the coin. 
The effects of imagination and prejudice 
cannot safely be disregarded in anything 
that relates to money. If the beauty of 
the coin be impaired, it may be found 
difficult to satisfy the generality of the 
community that what appears worse is 
not really less valuable, and it is not al- 
together certain that an impression of its 
being so may not occasion an unnatural 
augmentation of prices. 

Greater danger of imposition by coun- 
terfeits is also to be apprehended from the 
injury which will be done to the appear- 
ance of the coin. It is a just observation 
that " the perfection of the coins is a 
great safeguard against counterfeits." 
And it is evident that the color as well 

as the excellence of the workmanship is 
an ingredient in that perfection. The in- 
termixture of too much alloy, particular- 
ly of copper, in the gold coins at least, 
must materially lessen the facility of dis- 
tinguishing by the eye the purer from the 
baser kind, the genuine from the counter- 

The inefficacy of the arrangement to 
the purpose intended to be answered by it 
is rendered probable by different con- 
siderations. If the standard of plate in 
the United States should be regulated ac- 
cording to that of the national coins, it 
is to be expected that the goldsmith would 
prefer these to the foreign coins, because 
he would find them prepared to his hand 
in the state which he desires, whereas he 
would have to expend an additional 
quantity of alloy to bring the foreign 
coins to that state. If the standard of 
plate by law or usage should be superior 
to that of the national coins, there would 
be a possibility of the foreign coins bear- 
ing a higher price in the market ; and this 
would not only obstruct their being 
brought to the mint, but might occasion 
the exportation of the national coin in 
preference. It is not understood that the 
practice of making an abatement of price 
for the inferiority of standard is appli- 
cable to the English mint; and, if it be 
not, this would also contribute to frus- 
trating the expected effect from the in- 
crease of alloy. For, in this case, a given 
quantity of pure metal in our standard 
would be worth as much there as in bull- 
ion of the English or any other standard. 

Considering, therefore, the uncertainty 
of the success of the expedient and the in- 
conveniences which seem incident to it, 
it would appear preferable to submit to 
those of a free coinage. It is observable 
that additional expense, which is one of 
the principal of these, is also applicable 
to the proposed remedy. 

It is now proper to resume and finish 
the answer to the first question, in order 
to do which the three succeeding ones have 
necessarily been anticipated. The con- 
clusion to be drawn from the observations 
which have been made on the subject is 
this: That the unit in the coins of the 
United States ought, to correspond with 
24 grains and % of a grain of pure gold, 
and with 371 grains and y 4 of a grain of 


pure silver, each answering to a dollar One silver piece, which shall be in 

in the money of account. The former is weight and value a tenth part of the silver 

exactly agreeable to the present value of unit or dollar. 

gold, and the latter is within a small 

fraction of the mean of the two last 

emissions of dollars — the only ones which 

are now found in common circulation, and 

of which the newest is in the greatest 

abundance; the alloy in each case to be of the two gold coins should be numerous, 

one-twelfth of the total weight, which as, in large payments, the larger the 

will make the unit 27 grains of standard pieces the shorter the process of counting, 

One copper piece, which shall be of the 
value of a hundredth part of a dollar. 

One other copper piece, which shall be 
half the value of the former. 

It is not proposed that the lighter piece 

gold and 405 grains of standard silver. 

Each of these, it has been remarked, 

will answer to a dollar in the money of 

the less risk of mistake, and, consequently, 
the greater the safety and the con- 
venience; and in small payments it is not 

account. It 

conceived that nothing perceived that any inconvenience can ac- 

better can be done in relation to this than crue from an entire dependence on the 

to pursue the track marked out by the silver and copper coins. The chief in- 

resolution of the 8th of August, 1786. ducement to the establishment of the small 

This has been approved abroad as well as gold piece is to have a sensible object in 

at home, and it is certain that nothing that metal, as well as in silver, to express 

can be more simple and convenient than the unit. Fifty thousand at a time in 

the decimal subdivisions. There is every 
reason to expect that the method will 
speedily grow into general use when it 
shall be seconded by corresponding coins. 
On this plan the unit in the money of 
account will continue to be, as established 

circulation may suffice for this purpose. 
The tenth part of a dollar is but a small 
piece, and, with the aid of the copper 
coins, will probably suffice for all the more 
minute uses of circulation. It is less 
than the least of the silver coins now in 

by that resolution, a dollar, and its mul- general currency in England. 

tiples, dimes, cents, and mills, or tenths, 
hundredths, and thousandths. 

With regard to the number of different 

The larger copper piece will nearly an- 
swer to the halfpenny sterling, and the 
smaller, of course, to the farthing. Pieces 

pieces which shall compose the coins of of very small value are a great accommo- 

the United States, two things are to be 
consulted — convenience of circulation and 

dation and the means of a beneficial econ- 
omy to the poor, by enabling them to 

cheapness of the coinage. The first ought purchase in small portions and at a more 

reasonable rate the necessaries of which 
they stand in need. If there are only 
cents, the lowest price for any portion 
of a vendible commodity, however incon- 
siderable in quantity, will be a cent; if 
there are half cents, it will be a half-cent; 
and in a great number of cases exactly 
the same things will be sold for a half- 

not to be sacrificed to the last; but, as far 
as they can be reconciled to each other, 
it is desirable to do it. Numerous and 
small (if not too minute) subdivisions 
assist circulation; but the multiplication 
of the smaller kinds increases expense, 
the same process being necessary to a 
small as to a large piece. 

As it is easy to add, it will be most cent, which, if there were none, would 
advisable to begin with a small number cost a cent. But a half-cent is low enough 
till experience shall decide whether any for the minimum o' price. Excessive 
other kinds are necessary. The following, minuteness would defaftt its object. To 
it is conceived, will be sufficient in the enable the poorer classes to procure neces- 
commencement: — ■ saries cheap is to enable them with more 
One gold piece, equal in weight and comfort to themselves to labor for less. 
value to ten units or dollars. the advantages of whieh need no corn- 
One gold piece, equal to a tenth part of rrcnt. 
the former, and which shall be a unit or The denominations of the silver coins 
dollar. contained in the resolution of the 8th 
One silver piece, which shall also be a of August, 1786, are conceived to be sig- 
unit or dollar. nificant and proper. The dollar is recom- 



mended by its correspondency with the one, as far as the quantity of matter (the 
present coin of that name for which it is alloy being less) permits, agree with the 
designed to be a substitute, which will form and size of the present. The diame- 
facilitate its ready adoption as such in ter may be the same. 

the minds of the citizens. The dime, or The tenths may be in a mean between 
tenth, the cent, or hundredth, the mill, or the Spanish 1-8 and 1-16 of a dollar, 
thousandth, are proper because they ex- The copper coins may be formed merely 
press the proportions which they are in- with a view to good appearance, as any 
tended to designate. It is only to be re- difference in the wearing that can result 
gretted that the meaning of these terms from difference of form can be of little 
will not be familiar to those who are not consequence in reference to that metal, 
acquainted with the language from which It is conceived that the weight of the 
they are borrowed. It were to be wished cent may be eleven pennyweights, which 
that the length and, in some degree, the will about correspond with the value of 
clumsiness of some of the corresponding the copper and the expense of coinage, 
terms in English did not discourage from This will be to conform to the rule of in- 
preferring them. It is useful to have trinsic value, as far as regard to the con- 
names which signify the things to which venient size of the coins will permit; and 
they belong, and, in respect to objects of the deduction of the expense of coinage in 
general use, in a manner intelligible to this case will be the more proper, as the 
all. Perhaps it might be an improvement copper coins which have been current 
to let the dollar have the appellation hitherto have passed till lately for much 
either of dollar or unit (which latter will more than their intrinsic value. Taking 
be the more significant), and to substi- the weight, as has been suggested, the 
tute " tenth " for dime. In time the unit size of the cent may be nearly that of the 
may succeed to the dollar. The word piece herewith transmitted, which weighs 
cent being in use in various transactions 10 dwt. 11 grs. 10 m. Two-thirds of the 
and instruments will without much diffi- diameter of the cent will suffice for the 
culty be understood as the hundredth, and diameter of the half-cent, 
the half-cent, of course, as the two-hun- It may, perhaps, be thought expedient, 
dredth part. according to general practice, to make the 

The eagle is not a very expressive or copper coinage an object of profit; but, 
apt appellation for the larger gold piece, where this is done to any considerable ex- 
but nothing better occurs. The smaller tent, it is hardly possible to have effectual 
of the two gold coins may be called the security against counterfeits. This con- 
dollar, or unit, in common with the silver sideration, concurring with the soundness 
piece with which it coincides. of the principle of preserving the intrinsic 

The volume or size of each piece is a value of the money of a country, seems to 
matter of more consequence than its de- outweigh the consideration of profit 
nomination. It is evident that, the more The foregoing suggestions respecting the 
superficies or surface, the more the piece sizes of the several coins are made on the 
will be liable to be injured by friction, or, supposition that the. legislature may think 
in other words, the faster it will wear, fit to regulate this matter. Perhaps, how- 
For this reason it is desirable to render ever, it may be judged not unadvisable to 
the thickness as great, in proportion to leave it to executive discretion, 
the breadth, as may consist with neatness With regard to the proposed size of the 
and good appearance. Hence the form of cent it is to be confessed that it is rather 
the double guinea, or double louis d'or, is greater than might be wished, if it could, 
preferable to that of the half Johannes, for with propriety and safety, be made less; 
the large gold piece. The small one can- and, should the value of copper continue to 
not well be of any other size than the decline as it has done for some time past. 
Portuguese piece of eight, of the same it is very questionable whether it will long 
metal. remain alone a fit metal for money. This 

As it is of consequence to fortify the has led to a consideration of the expe- 
idea of the identity of the dollar, it may diency of uniting a small proportion of 
be best t© let the form and size of the new silver with copper, in order to be able to 



lessen the bulk of the inferior coins. For of the discontinuance of their currency 
this there are precedents in several parts will materially extend the substitute in 
of Europe. In France the composition tlie course of that year, and its extension 
which is called billon has consisted of one will be so far increased during the third 
part silver and four parts copper, accord- year by the facility of procuring the re- 
ing to which proportion a cent might con- maining species to be recoined, which will 
tain seventeen grains, defraying out of the arise from the diminution of their cur- 
material the expense of coinage. The con- rent values, as probably to enable the 
veniency of size is a recommendation of dispensing wholly with the circulation 
such a species of coin, but the Secretary is of foreign coins after that period. The 
deterred from proposing it by the appre- progress which the currency of bank-bills 
hension of counterfeits. The effect of so will be likely to have made during the 
small a quantity of silver in comparatively same time will also afford a substitute of 
so large a quantity of copper could easily another kind. 

be imitated by a mixture of other metals This arrangement, besides avoiding a 

of little value, and the temptation to doing sudden stagnation of circulation, will 

it would not be inconsiderable. cause a considerable proportion of what- 

The devices of the coins are far from ever loss may be incident to the establish- 
being matters of indifference, as they may ment in the first instance to fall as it 
be made the vehicles of useful impressions, ought to do upon the government, and 
They ought, therefore, to be emblematical, will probably tend to distribute the re- 
but without losing sight of simplicity, mainder of it more equally among the 
The fewer sharp points and angles there community. 

are, the less will be the loss by wearing. It may, nevertheless, be advisable in ad- 

The Secretary thinks it best on this head dition to the precautions here suggested 

to confine himself to these concise and gen- to repose a discretionary authority in the 

eral remarks. President of the United States to continue 

The last point to be discussed respects the currency of the Spanish dollar, at a 

the currency of foreign coins. value corresponding with the quantity of 

The abolition of this in proper season is fine silver contained in it, beyond the 

a necessary part of the system contem- period above mentioned for the cessation 

plated for the national coinage. But this of the circulation of the foreign coins. It 

it will be expedient to defer till some con- is possible that an exception in favor of 

siderable progress has been made in pre- this particular species of coin may be 

paring substitutes for them. A gradation found expedient; and it may tend to ob- 

may therefore be found most convenient. viate inconveniences, if there be a power 

The foreign coins may be suffered to cir- to make the exception, in a capacity to 
culate precisely upon their present footing be exerted when the period shall arrive, 
for one year after the mint shall have com- The Secretary for the Department of 
menced its operations. The privilege may State, in his report to the House of Rep- 
then be continued for another year to the rcsentatives on the subject of establishing 
gold coins of Portugal, England, and a uniformity in the weights, measures, 
France, and to the silver coins of Spain, and coins of the United States, has pro- 
And these may still be permitted to be posed that the weight of the dollar should 
current for one year more at the rates correspond with the unit of weight. This 
allowed to be given for them at the mint, was done on the supposition that it would 
after the expiration of which the circula- require but a very small addition to the 
tion of all foreign coins to cease. quantity of metal which the dollar, inde- 

The moneys which will be paid into the pendently of the object he had in view, 

treasury during the first year, being re- ought to contain, in which he was guided 

coined before they are issued anew, will by the resolution of the 8th of August, 

afford a partial substitute before any 17S6, fixing the dollar at 375 grains and 

interruption is given to the pre-existing 6-1 hundredths of a grain, 
supplies of circulation. The revenues of Taking this as the proper standard of 

the succeeding year and the coins which the dollar, a small alteration, for the 

will be brought to the mint in consequence sake of incorporating so systematic an 



idea, would appear desirable. But, if the volunteers and military governor of Texas; 

principles which have been reasoned from in 18G5 he became provisional governor; 

in this report are just, the execution of and in 18G6 justice in the Supreme Court 

that idea becomes more difficult. It would of the State. He died in Austin, Tex., 

certainly not be advisable to make on April 10, 1875. 

that account so considerable a change in Hamilton, Charles Smith, military 

the money unit as would be produced by officer, a grandson of Alexander Hamilton ; 

the addition of five grains of silver to the born in New York, Nov. 16, 1822; grad- 

proper weight of the dollar, without a uated at West Point in 1843; served 

proportional augmentation of its relative throughout the war with Mexico; resigned 

value; and to make such an augmentation from the army in 1853; appointed colonel 

would be to abandon the advantage of of the 3d Wisconsin Regiment May 11, 

preserving the identity of the dollar, or, 1861 ; participated in the siege of York- 

to speak more accurately, of having the town, and subsequently in the battles of 

proposed one received and considered as Corinth and Iuka ; was transferred to the 

a mere substitute for the present. Army of the Tennessee; and resigned in 

The end may, however, be obtained April, 1863. He died in Milwaukee, W T is., 

without either of those inconveniences by April 17, 1891. 

increasing the proportion of alloy in the Hamilton, Frank Hastings, surgeon; 
silver coins. But this would destroy the uni- born in Wilmington, Vt., Sept. 10, 1813; 
formity in that respect between the gold graduated at Union College in 1830, 
and silver coins. It remains, therefore, and in medicine at the University of 
to elect which of the two systematic Pennsylvania in 1835. In 1839 he be- 
ideas shall be pursued or relinquished; came Professor of Surgery in the Western 
and it may be remarked that it will be College of Phvsicians and Surgeons, and 
more easy to convert the present silver j n the following year in the medical col- 
coins into the proposed ones if these last i e g e at Geneva. In 1846 he was ap- 
have the same or nearly the same pro- pointed Professor of Surgery in the medi- 
portion of alloy than if they have less. oa i co llege in Buffalo, of which he later 
Hamilton, Andrew, governor; born in became dean. When the Long Island 
Scotland; sent to East Jersey by its pro- Hospital College was established in 185!), 
prietaries in 1686; became acting governor no became Professor of the Principles and 
in 1687; returned to England in 1689; Practice of Surgery there and also sur- 
appointed governor of East Jersey in geon-in-chief. In 1861 he was made Pro- 
1692; deposed in 1697, and reappointed fessor of Military Surgery, and at the out- 
in 1699. William Penn made him deputy break of the Civil War went to the front 
governor of Pennsylvania in 1701. Ham- with the 31st New York Volunteers, 
ilton obtained the first patent from the During the first battle of Bull Kun he 
crown for a postal service in 1694. He was director of the general field hospital 
died in Burlington, N. J., April 20. 1703. j n Centreville. In 1862 he was appointed 
Hamilton, Andrew, lawyer; born in a medical director in the army, and in 
Scotland, about 1676; acquired much dis- 1863 a medical inspector, with' the rank 
tinction by his defence of the liberty of f lieutenant-colonel. He, however, soon 
the press on the trial of Zenger in New resigned, and went to the Bellevue Hos- 
York. He filled many public stations in pital Medical College as military surgeon. 
Pennsylvania, including that of speaker of When President Garfield was shot Dr. 
the Assemhly, which he resigned in 1739 Hamilton was one of the first surgeons 
in consequence of physical infirmity. He called in attendance, and continued on 
died in Philadelphia Aug. 4, 1741. See that duty until the President's death. 
Zenger, John Peter. Dr. Hamilton performed many note- 
Hamilton, ANDREW Jackson, jurist; worthy operations, and invented or im- 
born in Madison county, Ala., Jan. 28, proved a number of instruments used in 
1815; removed to Texas in 1846: elected surgical practice. His publications in- 
to Congress in 1859 ; opposed the secession elude: Treatise on Strabismus; Trca- 
of Texas. On Nov. 14, 1862, he was an- fine on Fractures ay)d Dislocations; Prac- 
pointed brigadier-general of United States tical Treatise on Military Surgery; and 



The Principles and Practice of Surgery, a private. He became aide to General 
He also edited Amussat's Use of Water Butler at Annapolis, and soon entered the 
in Svrgery, and The Surgical Memoirs military family of General Scott at Wash- 
oe the War of the Rebellion. He died in ington. He was made brigadier-general 
New York City, Aug. 11, 1886. 

Hamilton, Henry, military officer; 
born in England ; was lieutenant-govern- 
or of Detroit during the Revolutionary 

in November, 1801, and accompanied Gen- 
eral Halleck to Missouri, where he com- 
manded the district of St. Louis. In Feb- 
ruary, 1862, he commanded a division of 
War. He was one of the most active Pope's army; and by the planning and 

promoters of Indian raids upon the fron- 
tier settlements of the Americans in the 
Northwest. To Detroit he summoned 
several Indian nations to a council late 

construction of a canal, greatly assisted 
in the capture of New Madrid and Island 
Number Ten (q. v.). In 1862 he was 
made major-general of volunteers; re- 

in 1777; and from that point he sent signed in February, 1863; and was hydro- 

abroad along the frontiers bands of sav- 
ages to murder and plunder the Ameri- 
can settlers. Their cruelties he applauded 
as evidence of their attachment to the 

graphic engineer for the New York de- 
partment of docks in 1871-75. He died in 
New York, March 18, 1003. 

Hamilton, Thomas, author; born in 

royal cause. He gave standing rewards England in 1789 ; joined the British army ; 

for scalps, but offered none for prisoners, was commissioned captain of the 29th 

His war-parties, composed of white men Regiment; served in the War of 1812, and 

and Indians, spared neither men, women, later engaged in literary work. His pub- 

nor children. He planned a confederation lications include Men and Manners in 

of the tribes to desolate Virginia. In America (which met with little favor in 

1778 he wrote to Lord George Germain the United States owing to its deprecia- 

(q. v.), whose favorite he was, "Next tion of American character), etc. He 

year there will be the greatest number died in Pisa, Italy, Dec. 7, 1842. 

of savages on the frontier that has ever Hamlin, Augustus Choate, surgeon; 

been known, as the Six Nations have sent born in Columbia, Me., Aug. 28, 1829; 

belts around to encourage those allies graduated at the Harvard Medical School 

who have made a general alliance." But in 1855. At the beginning of the Civil 

early in that year he was made a prisoner War he recruited a company at his own 

of war at Vincennes, and was sent to Vir- expense; followed his profession in the 

ginia. He had formed a conspiracy for war; and became medical inspector of 

the Southern and Northern Indians to the army with the rank of lieutenant- 

desolate the whole frontier from New 
York to Georgia. He died in Antigua, 
Sept. 29, 1796. 

Hamilton, Paul, statesman; born in 
St. Paul's parish, S. C, Oct. 16, 1762; 
elected comptroller of South Carolina in 
1799; governor in 1804. President Madi- 

colonel in 1863. His publications include 
Martyria, or Andersonville Prison; The 
Battle of Ghancellorsville ; History of Mt. 
Mica, Me., etc. 

Hamlin, Charles, lawyer; born in 
Hampden, Me., Sept. 13, 1837; son of 
Hannibal Hamlin; graduated at Bow- 

son appointed him Secretary of the Navy doin College in 1857 ; admitted to the bar 
in 1809. He died in Beaufort, S. C, June in the following year; enlisted in the Na- 

30, 1816. 

Hamilton, Schuyler, military officer 
born in New York City, July 25, 1822 
graduated at West Point in 1841 ; etc. 
served in the war with Mexico: and was Hamlin 
acting aide to General Scott. He was 
severely wounded in a hand-to-hand en- 
gagement with Mexicans. He was bro 
vetted captain, and remained on Scott's vent as a missionary to Turkey, and there 

tional army in 1862; brevetted brigadier- 
general of volunteers in March, 1865. 
He published the Insolvent Laws of Maine, 

Cyrus, educator; born in 
Waterford, Me., Jan. 5, 1811; gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin College in 1834, and at 
Bangor Theological Seminary in 1837; 

staff until 1854. He left the army in 
1855, but on the fall of Sumter (1861) 
he joined the 7th New York Regiment as 

served under the American board of 
commissioners for foreign missions in 
1837-60. He established Robert College 



at Constantinople, and was its president to 1883. He died in Bangor, Me., July 4, 
in 1860-77, when he returned to the 1891. 

United States, and became Professor of Hammond, Jabez D., lawyer; born in 
Theology at Bangor Theological Seminary. New Bedford, Mass., Aug. 2, 1778; was 
In 18S0-85 he was president of Middle- admitted to the bar in 1805; and prac- 
bury College. He later became an agent tised, with several interruptions, till 1830. 
of the American board of foreign mis- His publications include The Political Mis- 
sions. His works include Among the tory of New York to December of lS-'fO; 
Turks, and My Life and Times. He died Life and Opinions of Julius Mclbourn ; 
in Portland, Me., Aug. 8, 1900. Life of Silas Wright, etc. He died in 

Hamlin, Hannibal, Vice-President of Cherry Valley, N. Y., Aug. 18, 1855. 
the United States; born in Paris, Me., Hammond, James Henbt, statesman; 
Aug. 27, 1809; taught school, and entered born in Newberry, S. C, Nov. 15, 1807; 
official life early. For many years he graduated at South Carolina College in 
was a Democrat, as member of the Maine 1825; elected to Congress in 1835; gov- 
legislature; Congressman from 1843 to ernor of the State in 1842, and United 
1847; and United States Senator from States Senator in 1857. He was a sup- 
1849 to 1857. Having joined the Republi- porter of Calhoun, and an ardent advo- 
can party, he was governor of Maine for cate of nullification. When South Caro- 
lina seceded he resigned his seat in the 
United States Senate, and retired to his 
plantation in Beech Island, where he 
died, Nov. 13, 18G4. 

Hammond, Marcus Claudius Mvr- 
cellus, military officer; born in Newberry 
district, S. C, Dee. 12, 1814; graduated 
at the United States Military Academy 
in 1836; promoted first lieutenant in 
November, 1839; served during a part 
of the war with Mexico as additional pay- 
master; resigned in April, 1847, owing to 
failing health. He published A Critical 
History of the Mexican War. He died in 
Beech Island, S. C, Jan. 23, 1876. 

Hammond, Samuel, military officer; 
born in Richmond county, Va., Sept. 21, 
1757; participated in Dunmorc's expedi- 
tion; served throughout the Revolutionary 
War; settled in Savannah; was elected to 
Congress in 1803; appointed commandant 
of upper Louisiana in 1805, and held the 
office until 1824, when he resigned. He 
died in Augusta, Ga., Sept. 11, 1842. 

Hammond, William Alexander, sur- 
geon; born in Annapolis, Md., Aug. 28, 
1828: graduated at the University of 
a short time in 1857, and was again the City of New York in 1848; was in 
Senator from 1857 to 1861. In 1860 he the medical service of the regular army 
was elected Vice-President on the ticket in 1849-60, when he was appointed Pro- 
with Abraham Lincoln, and served from feasor of Anatomy and Physiology at the 
1861 to 1865. President Johnson ap- University of Maryland. When the Civil 
pointed him collector of the port of Bos- War opened he re-entered the army, and 
ton. From 1869 to 1881 he was again in April, 1862, was commissioned surgeon- 
ili the United States Senate, and his long general. In August, 1864, he was tried 
political career closed with his occupa- before a court-martial on a charge of 
tion of the ministry to Spain from 1881 official irregularities, and was dismissed 




from the army. This ban rested on him 
till 1878, when Congress passed a spe- 
cial bill directing the President to re- 
view the proceedings of the court-martial. 
As a result of this examination, he was 
honorably restored to his former rank in 
the army, and then placed on the retired 
list. Later, he became Professor of the 
Nervous System and Diseases of the Mind 
in the New York and Baltimore medical 
colleges. His professional writings in- 
clude Military Hygiene; Physiological Es- 
says; Sleep and Its Derangements; 
Lectures on Venereal Diseases; Insanity 
in Its Medico-Legal Relations; Physics 
and Physiology of Spiritualism; Neuro- 
logical Contributions, etc. He also pub- 
lished the novels Robert Severne; Lai; 
Dr. Grattan; Mr. Oldmixon; A Strong- 
Minded Woman; On the Susquehanna; A 
Son of Perdition, etc. He died in Wash- 
ington, D. C., Jan. 5, 1900. 

Hamond, Sir Andrew Snape, naval 
officer; born in Blackheath, England, Dec. 
17, 1738; joined the British navy in 1753. 
When the Revolutionary War broke out 
he came to America with Howe, and 
served on the Roebuck, which was present 
at the capture of New York, and which 
later destroyed the frigate Delaware and 
other ships in the Delaware River. In 
November, 1777, Hammond participated in 
the successful assault on Mud Island; was 
acting captain of the squadron which re- 
duced Charleston, S. C, in 1780. He re- 
turned to England in 1783, and in Decem- 
ber of that year was created a baron. He 
died in Norfolk, England, Oct. 12, 1838. 

Hampden, Action at. When the 
British had taken possession of Castine, 
Me., a land and naval force was sent up 
the Penobscot River to capture or destroy 
the corvette John Adams, which had fled 
up the river to the town of Hampden. 
The commander of the John Adams, Capt. 
C. Morris, was warned of his danger, and 
he notified Gen. John Blake, commander of 
the 10th division of Massachusetts militia. 
The British force consisted of two sloops- 
of-war, a tender, a large transport, and 
nine launches, commanded by Commodore 
Barrie, and 700 soldiers, led by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel St. John. The expedition 
sailed on Sept. 1, 1814, and the next 
morning General Gosselin took possession 
of Belfast, on the western shore of Penob- 

scot Bay, at the head of 600 troops. The 
expedition landed some troops at Frank- 
fort, which marched up the western side 
of the river. The flotilla, with the re- 
mainder, sailed on, and arrived near 
Hampden at five o'clock in the evening, 
when the troops and about eighty 
mariners were landed and bivouacked. 
They found the militia assembling to re- 
sist them. Meanwhile Captain Morris 
had taken out of the John Adams nine 
short 18-pounders, and mounted them on 
a high bank, in charge of Lieutenant 
Wadsworth. With the remainder of his 
guns, he took position on the wharf with 
about 200 seamen and marines, prepared 
to defend his crippled ship to the last 
extremity. She had been much damaged 
by striking a rock when she entered 
Penobscot Bay, and had run up to Hamp- 
den to avoid capture. The British de- 
tachment landed at Frankfort, and moved 
forward cautiously, in a dense fog, to 
join the other invaders, with a vanguard 
of riflemen. Blake had sent a body of mi- 
litia to confront the invaders. These were 
suddenly attacked, when they broke and 
fled in every direction, leaving Blake and 
his officers alone. This panic imperilled 
the force that was to defend the John 
Adams, when Morris, seeing no other 
means for the salvation of his troops but 
in flight, ordered his guns to be spiked 
and the vessel set on fire. This was done, 
and the men under Morris fled northward. 
With Blake and his officers and a bare 
remnant of his command, Morris retreated 
to Bangor, and thence made his way over- 
land to Portland. The British took posses- 
sion of Hampden, and a part of their force, 
500 strong, pushed on to Bangor with their 
vessels. They met a flag of truce with a 
message from the magistrates of Bangor 
asking terms of capitulation. Nothing 
was granted excepting respect for private 
property. They entered the town, when 
Commodore Barrie gave notice that per- 
sons and property should be protected if 
supplies were cheerfully furnished. This 
promise was speedily broken. The sailors 
were given license to plunder as much as 
they pleased. Many stores were robbed 
of everything valuable. The leader of the 
land troops tried to protect private prop- 
erty. The British remained in Bangor 
thirty-one hours, quartered on the inhabi- 


tants, who were compelled to sign a parole New Orleans when the war broke out in 
as prisoners of war. General Blake was 1812, and was put in command of the 
compelled to sign the same, and 190 citi- Army of the North, with headquarters on 
zcns were thus bound. Having despoiled the borders of Lake Champlain. In that 

post he gained no 
honors, and his career 
there was chiefly mark- 
ed by disobedience to 
the orders of his su- 
periors. In April, 1814, 
he resigned his com- 
mission, and left the 
army. He was an ex- 
tensive land and slave 
owner in South Caro- 
lina and Louisiana 
He died in Columbia, 
S. C, Feb. 4, 1835. 
See Chateaugay, Bat- 
tle of; Champlain, Lake. 

Hampton, Wade, military oflicer; born 
in Charleston, S. C, March 28, 1818; 
grandson of the preceding; graduated 
at the South Carolina College; served 
in both branches of the State legis- 


the inhabitants of property valued at over 
$20,000, and burned several vessels, the 
marauders departed, to engage in similar 
work at Hampden (Sept. 5). Barrie al- 
lowed the sailors to commit the most wan- 
ton acts of destruction. They desolated 
the village meeting - house, tore up the lature. In 1860 he was considered one o f 

Bible and psalm-books in it, and demol- 
ished the pulpit and pews. As at Havre- 

the richest planters in the South, and 
owned the largest number of slaves. When 

de-Grace, they wantonly butchered cattle the Civil War opened he raised and par- 
and hogs, and compelled the selectmen to tially equipped the Hampton Legion, of 
sign a bond to guarantee the delivery of which he became commandant. He was 
vessels then at Hampden at Castine. The 
speedy return of peace cancelled the bond. 
The total loss of property at Hampden by 
the hands of the marauders, exclusive of a 
very valuable cargo on board the schooner 
Commodore Decatur, was estimated at 
$44,000. When a committee at Hampden 
waited upon Barrie and asked for the com- 
mon safeguards of humanity, he replied: 
" I have none for you ; my business is to 
burn, sink, and destroy" — the cruel order 
issued by Admiral Cochrane. 

Hampton, Wade, military officer: born 
in South Carolina in 17.14; was distin- 
guished as a partisan officer under Sumter 
and Marion in the Revolution; and was # 

twice a member of Congress — from 170;) to WADg hamkton. 

1797, and from 1803 to 1805. In October, 

1808, he was commissioned a colonel in the wounded in the first battle of Bull Run, 
United States army; in ISO!) brigadier- and at Gettysburg was wounded three 
general, and March 2, 1813, major-general, times. On May 11, 1804, he was pro- 
[mperious and overbearing in his nature moted to major-general, and in August of 
and deportment, he was constantly quar- the same year became commander-in-chief 
relling with his subordinates. He was of all the Confederate cavalry in northern 
superseded by Wilkinson in command at Virginia. One of his most exciting raids 



was that upon General Grant's commis- 
sariat, when he captured about 2,500 head 
of cattle. Shortly before General Lee's 
surrender he was promoted to lieutenant- 
general. After the war he became con- 
spicuous as an advocate of the policy of 
conciliation between the North and South. 
In 1876 and 1878 he was elected governor 
of South Carolina, and in 1878 and 1884 
United States Senator, and in 1893 was 
appointed United States commissioner of 
railroads. He died on April 11, 1902. 

Hampton, a village near the end of the 
peninsula between the York and James 
rivers, Virginia. An armed sloop was 
driven ashore there by a gale in October, 
1775. The villagers took out her guns and 
munitions of war, and then burned her, 
making her men prisoners. Dunmore at 
once blockaded the port. The people 
called to their aid some Virginia regulars 
and militia. Dunmore sent some tenders 
close into Hampton Roads to destroy the 
village. The military marched out to op- 
pose them; and when they came within 
gunshot distance George Nicholas, who 
commanded the Virginians, fired his mus- 
ket at one of the tenders. This was the 

first gun fired at the British in Virginia. 
It was followed by a volley. Boats sunk 
in the channel retarded the British ships, 
and, after a sharp skirmish the next day, 
Oct. 27, the blockaders were driven away. 
One of the tenders was taken, with its 
armament and seamen, and several of the 
British were slain. The Virginians did 
not lose a man. This was the first battle 
of the Revolution in Virginia. 

In 1813 the British, exasperated by 
their repulse at Craney Island, proceeded 
to attack the village of Hampton. It was 
defended at the time by about 450 
Virginia soldiers, commanded by Maj. 
Stapleton Crutchfield. They were chiefly 
militia infantry, with a few artillery- 
men and cavalry. They had a heavy bat- 
tery to defend the water-front of the camp 
and village, composed of four 6, two 12, 
and one 18 pounder cannon, in charge 
of Sergt. William Burke. Early on the 
morning of June 25, about 2,500 British 
land-troops, under Gen. Sir Sidney Beck- 
v/ith (including rough French prisoners, 
called Chasseurs Britanniques) , landed 
under cover of the guns of the Mohawk, 
behind a wood, about 2 miles from Hamp- 

- _ , j w -,y 



ton. Most of the inhabitants fled; the 
few who could not were willing to trust 
to the honor and clemency of the British, 
if they should capture the place. As they 
moved upon the village, Crutchfield and 
his men — infantry, artillery, and cavalry 
— fought the invaders gallantly; but at 
length overwhelming numbers, failure of 
gunpowder, volleys of grape-shot, and 
flights of Congreve rockets, compelled the 


Americans, who were partially outflanked, 
to break and flee in the direction of 
Yorktown. Thus ended a sharp battle, 
in which the British lost, in killed, 
wounded, and missing, about fifty men, 
and the Americans about thirty. Of 
eleven missing Americans, ten had fled 
to their homes. The victorious British 
now entered the village, and Cockburn, 
who had come on shore, and was in chief 
command, gave the place up to pillage 
and rapine. The atrocities committed 
upon the defenceless inhabitants, par- 
ticularly the women, were deeply deplored 
and condemned by the British authorities 
and writers. Cockburn, who was the 
chief instigator of them, covered his name 
with dishonor by the act. The British 
officers who tried to palliate the offence 
by charging the crimes upon the French- 
men, were denounced by the most respect- 
able British writers. A commission, ap- 
pointed to investigate the matter, said, in 
their report, " The sex hitherto guarded 
by the soldiers' honor escaped not the 
assaults of superior force." 

On the night of Aug. 7, 1861, this vil- 

lage, then containing about 500 houses, 
was set on fire by order of the Confederate 
General Magruder, and all but the court- 
house and seven or eight other buildings 
were consumed. National troops had 
occupied Hampton after the battle of 
Big Bethel (q. v.), but had just been 
withdrawn. Among other buildings de- 
stroyed at that time was the ancient St. 
John's Church, in the suburbs of the vil- 
lage. It was the third oldest house of 
worship in Virginia. The earliest in- 
scription found in its graveyard was 1701. 
Before the Revolution the royal arms, 
handsomely carved, were upon the steeple. 
It is said that, soon after the Declara- 
tion of Independence, the steeple was 
shattered by lightning, and the insignia 
of royalty hurled to the ground. The 
church was in a state of good preserva- 
tion, and was used as a place of worship: 
according to the ritual of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in America, until 1861. 

Hampton Normal and Agricultural 
Institute, an institution organized by 
Gen. Samuel C. Armstrong (q. v.) for 
the education of colored youth, in Hamp- 
ton, Va. It was opened in 1S68, is non- 
sectarian and co-educational ; and now, 
under an arrangement with the national 
government, gives instruction to Indian 
youth as well as colored. The develop- 
ment of the institute is due, in a large 
measure, to the students themselves. 
Nearly all the buildings have been erect- 
ed by the students, who also worked out 
the timber, baked the bricks, and per- 
formed other technical work. At the 
end of 1900 the institute reported eighty 
professors and instructors, 1,017 students, 
1,061 graduates, 11,000 volumes in the 
library, and $889,500 in productive 
funds. The president was the Rev. II. B. 
Frissell, D.D. 

Hampton Roads, a noted channel con- 
necting the estuary of the James River 
with Chesapeake Bay, south of Fort Mon- 
roe. It was the scene of the fight between 
the Monitor and Mep.rimac (q. v.) in 
1862, and the rendezvous of the inter- 
national war-vessels that took part in the 
Columbus celebration at New York in 

Hampton Roads Conference. In Jan- 
nary, 1865, Francis P. Blair twice visited 
Richmond, Va., to confer with Jefferson 



Davis. He believed that a suspension of 
hostilities, and an ultimate settlement by 
restoration of the Union, might be brought 
about, by the common desire, North and" 
South, to enforce the Monroe doctrine 
against the French in Mexico. Out of Mr. 
Blair's visits grew a conference, held on 
a vessel in Hampton Roads, Feb. 3, 1865, 
between Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Seward on 
one side, and Messrs. A. H. Stephens, 
It. M. T. Hunter, and John A. Campbell 

on the other. It was informal, and no 
basis for negotiation was reached. 

Hanaford, Phebe Anne, author; born 
in Nantucket, Mass., May 6, 1829; was 
ordained to the ministry of the Universal- 
ist Church in 1868, being the first woman 
to assume the clerical office in that Church. 
Her publications include Abraham Lin- 
coln; Field, Gunboat, Hospital, and 
Prison; Women of the Century; Life of 
George Peabody, etc. 


Hancock, John, statesman; born in declined. After Washington's arrival, 
Quincy, Mass., Jan. 12, 1737; gradu- Hancock sent him an invitation to come 
ated at Harvard in 1754; and, becoming and dine with him and his family in- 
a merchant with his uncle, inherited that formally that day at the close of the 
gentleman's large fortune and extensive public reception ceremonies. It was ac- 
business. He was one of the most active cepted by Washington, with a full per- 
of the Massachusetts " Sons of Liberty " suasion that the governor would call 
(q. v.), and, with Samuel Adams, was upon him before the dinner-hour. But 
outlawed by Gage in June, 1775. Han- Hancock had conceived the notion that 
cock was a member of the Provincial As- the governor of a State, within his own 
sembly in 1766, and was chosen president domain, was officially superior to the 
of the Provincial Congress in October, President of the United States when he 
1774. He was a delegate to the 
first Continental Congress, and con- 
tinued in that body until 1778. As 
president of Congress, he first placed 
his bold signature to the Declara- 
tion of Independence. In February, 
1778, he was appointed first major- 
general of the Massachusetts mili- 
tia, and took part in Sullivan's 
campaign in Rhode Island in August 
following. He was a member of the 
Massachusetts State convention in 
1780, and governor of the State 
from 1780 to 1785, and from 1787 
till his death in Quincy, Oct. 8, 1793. 
He was president of the State con- 
vention that adopted the national 
Constitution. Hancock's residence 
was in a fine stone mansion on 
Beacon street, fronting the Common. 
It was built by his uncle, Thomas 

In the autumn of 1789 President 
Washington made a tour through 
portions of the New England States. 

He arrived at Boston on Saturday, Oct. came into it. He had laid his plans for 
24. Hancock, who was then governor, asserting his superiority by having Wash- 
had invited the President to lodge at ington visit him first, and to this end sent 
his house in Boston, which the latter him the invitation to lodge and dine with 




him. At near the time for dinner, as the venerable appearance of this crowded 
President did not appear, the governor audience; the dignity which I behold 
evidently felt some misgivings, for he sent in the countenances of so many in 
his secretary to the President with an this great assembly; the solemnity of the 

occasion upon which we have 
^s^ ggasss met together, joined to a con- 

sideration of the part I am to 
take in the important business 
of this day, fill me with an awe 
hitherto unknown; and height- 
en the sense which I have ever 
had of my unworthiness to fill 
this sacred desk; but allured 
by the call of some of my re- 
spected fellow - citizens, with 
whose request it is always my 
greatest pleasure to comply, I 
almost forgot my want of 
ability to perform what they 
required. In this situation I 
find my only support in assur- 
ing myself that a generous peo- 
ple will not severely censure 
what they know was well in- 
tended, though its want of merit 
excuse that he was too ill to call upon should prevent their being able to ap- 
his excellency in person. The latter di- plaud it. And I pray that my sincere at- 
vined the nature of the " indisposition," tachment to the interest of my country, 
and dined at his own lodgings at the and hearty detestation of every design 


Widow Ingersoll's with a single guest. 
That evening the governor, feeling uneasy, 
sent his lieutenant and two of his council 
to express his regret that his illness had 
not allowed him to call upon the Presi- 
dent. " J informed them expressly," says 

formed against her liberties, may be sub- 
mitted as some apology for my appearance 
in this place. 

I have always, from my earliest youth, 
rejoiced in the felicity of my fellow-men; 
and have ever considered it as the indis- 

Washington in his diary, "' that I should pensable duty of every member of society 

not see the governor except at my lodg- 
ings." That message led Hancock to visit 
the President next day, and repeat in per- 
son the insufficient excuse for his own folly. 
Arraignment of Great Britain. — As 
before stated, Hancock and Samuel Adams 
were both elected members of the Pro- 
vincial Congress at Concord early in 1774. 
On March 5 of that year Hancock deliv- 
ered the following oration in Boston, 

to promote, as far as in him lies, the pros- 
perity of every individual, but more espe- 
cially of the community to which he be- 
longs, and also as a faithful subject of 
the state, to use his utmost endeavors to 
detect, and, having detected, strenuously 
to oppose every traitorous plot which its 
enemies may devise for its destruction. 
Security to the persons and properties of 
the governed is so obviously the design 

which was the principal cause of his being and end of civil government, that to at- 

outlawed, together with Samuel Adams, by tempt a logical proof of it would be like 

General Gage, early in the following year, burning tapers at noonday, to assist the 

The British expedition to Concord in April, sun in enlightening the world; and it can- 

1775, which led to the battle of Lexington, not be either virtuous or honorable to 

was undertaken to secure the arrest of attempt to support a government of which 

both Hancock and Samuel Adams: this is not the great and principal basis; 

and it is to the last degree vicious and in- 

Men, Brethren, Fathers, and Fellow- famous to attempt to support a govern- 

Countrymen, — The attentive gravity, the ment which manifestly tends to render 



the persons and properties of the governed to subjugate with a cruelty and haughti- 
insecure. Some boast of being friends to ness which too often buries the honor- 
government; I am a friend to righteous able character of a soldier in the dis- 
government founded upon the principles graceful name of an unfeeling ruffian, 
of reason and justice; but I glory in pub- The troops, upon their first arrival, took 
licly avowing my eternal enmity to tyran- possession of our Senate-house, and 
ny. Is the present system, which the Brit- pointed their cannon against the judg- 
ish administration have adopted for the ment hall, and even continued them there 
government of the colonies, a righteous while the supreme court of judicature 
government, or is it tyranny? Here suf- for this province was actually sitting 
fer me to ask (and would to Heaven there upon the lives and fortunes of the King's 
could be no answer) what tenderness, what subjects. Our streets nightly resounded 
regard, respect, or consideration has Great with the noises of riot and debauchery; 
Britain shown, in their late transactions, our peaceful citizens were hourly ex- 
for the security of the persons or proper- posed to shameful insults, and often felt 
ties of the inhabitants of the colonies; the effects of their violence and outrage. 
or rather, what have they omitted to de- But this was not all; as though they 
stroy that security? They have declared thought it not enough to violate our civil 
that they have ever had, and of right right they endeavored to deprive us of 
ought to have, full power to make laws the enjoyment of our religious privileges; 
of sufficient validity to bind the colonies to vitiate our morals and thereby render 
in all cases whatever; they have exercised us deserving of destruction. Hence the 
this pretended right by imposing a tax rude din of arms which broke in upon 
upon us without our consent; and lest we your solemn devotions in your temples, 
should show some reluctance at parting on that day hallowed by heaven, and set 
with our property, her fleets and armies apart by God himself for his peculiar 
are sent to enforce their mad pretensions, worship. Hence, impious oaths and 
The town of Boston, ever faithful to the blasphemies so often tortured your un- 
British crown, has been invested by a accustomed ear. Hence, all the arts 
British fleet; the troops of George III. which idleness and luxury could invent 
have crossed the wide Atlantic, not to were used to betray your youth of one 
engage an enemy, but to assist a band of sex into extravagance and effeminacy, and 
traitors in trampling on the rights and the other to infamy and ruin; and did 
liberties of his most loyal subjects in they not succeed but too well? Did not 
America — those rights and liberties which, a reverence for religion sensibly decay? 
as a father, he ought ever to regard, and Did not our infants almost learn to lisp 
as a king, he is bound, in honor, to defend out curses before they knew their horrid 
from violations, even at the risk of his import? Did not our youth forget they 
own life. were Americans, and, regardless of the 

Let not the history of the illustrious admonitions of the wise and aged, ser- 
House of Brunswick inform posterity vilely copy from their tyrants those vices 
that a king descended from that glorious which finally must overthrow the empire 
monarch, George II., once sent his of Great Britain? And must I be corn- 
British subjects to conquer and enslave pelled to acknowledge that even the 
his subjects in America, but be perpetual noblest, fairest part of all the lower 
infamy entailed upon that villain who creation did not entirely escape the 
dared to advise his master to such exec- cursed snare? When virtue has once 
rable measures; for it was easy to fore- erected her throne within the female 
see the consequences which so naturally breast, it is upon so solid a basis that 
followed upon sending troops into Amer- nothing is able to expel the heavenly in- 
ica, to enforce obedience to acts of the habitant. But have there not been some, 
British Parliament, which neither God few indeed, I hope, whose youth and in- 
ner man ever empowered them to make, experience have rendered them a prey to 
It was reasonable to expect that troops, wretches, whom, upon the least reflection, 
who knew the errand they were sent upon, they would have despised and hated as 
would treat the people whom they were foes to God and their country? I fear 



there have been some unhappy instances; and the affrighted stars that hurried 
or why have I seen an honest father through the sky, can witness that we fear 
clothed with shame, or why a virtuous not death. Our hearts which, at the 
mother drowned in tears? recollection, glow with rage that four re- 
But I forbear, and come reluctantly to volving years have scarcely taught us to 
the transaction of that dismal night, when restrain, can witness that we fear not 
in such quick succession we felt the ex- death; and happy it is for those who 
tremes of grief, astonishment and rage; dared to insult us that their naked bones 
when Heaven, in anger, for a dreadful mo- are not piled up an everlasting monument 
ment suffered hell to take the reins; when of Massachusetts bravery. But they re- 
Satan with his chosen band opened the tired, they fled, and in that flight they 
sluices of New England's blood, and sacri- found their only safety. We then ex- 
legiously polluted our land with the dead pected that the hand of public justice 
bodies of her guiltless sons. Let this sad would soon inflict that punishment upon 
tale of death never be told without a tear; the murderers which, by the laws of God 
let not the heaving bosom cease to burn and man, they had incurred. But let the 
with a manly indignation at the barbarous unbiased pen of a Robertson, or perhaps 
story, through the long tracts of future of some equally famed American, conduct 
time; let every parent tell the shameful this trial before the great tribunal of 
story to his listening children till tears of succeeding generations. And though the 
pity glisten in their eyes, and boiling pas- murderers may escape the just resent- 
sions shake their tender frames; and ment of an enraged people; though drowsy 
while the anniversary of that ill-fated justice, intoxicated by the poisonous 
night is kept a jubilee in the grim court draught prepared for her cup, still nods 
of pandemonium, let all America join in upon her rotten seat, yet be assured, such 
one common prayer to Heaven, that the complicated crimes will meet their due re- 
inhuman, unprovoked murders of March ward. Tell me, ye bloody butchers! ye 
5, 1770, planned by Hillsborough and a villains high and low! ye wretches who 
knot of treacherous knaves in Boston, and contrived, as well as you who executed the 
executed by the cruel hand of Preston and inhuman deed ! Do you not feel the goads 
his sanguinary coadjutors, may ever and stings of conscious guilt pierce 
stand in history without a parallel. But through your savage bosom? Though 
what, my countrymen, withheld the ready some of you may think yourselves exalted 
arm of vengeance from executing instant to a height that bids defiance to human 
justice on the vile assassins? Perhaps justice, and others shroud yourselves be- 
you feared promiscuous carnage might en- neath the mask of hypocrisy, and build 
sue, and that the innocent might share your hopes of safety on the low arts of 
the fate of those who had performed the cunning, chicanery and falsehood; yet do 
infernal deed. But were not all guilty? you not sometimes feel the gnawing of 
Were you not too tender of the lives of that worm which never dies? Do not the 
those who come to fix a yoke on your injured shades of Maverick, Gray, Cald- 
necks? But I must not too severely well, Attucks and Carr attend you in your 
blame a fault, which great souls only can solitary walks, arrest you even in the 
commit. May that magnificence of spirit midst of your debaucheries, and fill even 
which scorns the low pursuits of malice, your dreams with terror? But if the un- 
may that generous compassion which appeased manes of the dead should not 
often preserves from ruin even a guilty disturb their murderers, yet surely even 
villain, forever actuate the noble bosoms your obdurate hearts must shrink, and 
of Americans! But let not the miscreant your guilty blood must chill within your 
host vainly imagine that we feared their rigid veins, when you behold the miserable 
arms. No; them we despised; we dread Monk, the wretched victim of your sav- 
nothing but slavery. Death is the creat- age cruelty. Observe his tottering knees, 
ure of a poltroon's brains; 'tis immor- which scarce sustain his wasted body; 
tality to sacrifice ourselves for the salva- look in his haggard eyes; mark well the 
tion of our country. We fear not death, deathlike paleness on his fallen cheek, and 
That gloomy night, the pale-faced moon, tell me, does not the sight plant daggers 



in your souls? Unhappy Monk; cut off naked souls must stand before that Being 
in the gay morn of manhood from all the from whom nothing can be hid. I would 
joys which sweeten life, doomed to drag not dwell too long upon the horrid effects 
on a pitiful existence, without even a hope which have already followed from quar- 
to taste the pleasures of returning health ! tering regular troops in this town; let 
Yet, Monk, thou livest a warning to thy our misfortunes teach posterity to guard 
country, which sympathizes with thee in against such evils for the future. Stand- 
thy sufferings ; thou livest an affecting, an ing armies are sometimes (I would by 
alarming instance of the unbounded vio- no means say generally, much less uni- 
lence which lust of power, assisted by a versally) composed of persons who have 
standing army, can lead a traitor to com- rendered themselves unfit to live in civ- 
mit. ii society; who have no other motives of 

For us he bled, and now languishes, conduct than those which a desire of the 
The wounds by which he is tortured to a present gratification of their passions sug- 
lingering death were aimed at our coun- gests; who have no property in any coun- 
try! Surely the meek-eyed Charity can try; men who have given up their own 
never behold such sufferings with indiffer- liberties, and envy those who enjoy lib- 
ence. Nor can her lenient hand forbear to erty; who are equally indifferent to the 
put oil and wine into these wounds, and glory of a George or a Louis ; who for the 
to assuage at least what it cannot heal. addition of one penny a day to their wages 

Patriotism is ever united with humanity would desert from the Christian cross to 

and compassion. This noble affection which fight under the crescent of the Turkish 

impels us to sacrifice everything dear, even sultan. From such men as these what has 

life itself, to our country, involves in it not a state to fear? With such as these, 

a common sympathy and tenderness for usurping Csesar passed the Rubicon; with 

every citizen, and must ever have a par- such as these he humbled mighty Rome, 

ticular feeling for one who suffers in a and forced the mistress of the world to 

public cause. Thoroughly persuaded of own a master in a traitor. These are the 

this, I need not add a word to engage your men whom sceptred robbers now employ 

compassion and bounty towards a fellow- to frustrate the designs of God, and render 

citizen who, with long-protracted anguish, vain the bounties which His gracious hand 

falls a victim to the relentless rage of our pours indiscriminately upon His creatures, 

common enemies. By these the miserable slaves in Turkey, 

Ye dark designing knaves, ye murderers, Persia, and many other extensive coun- 

parricides! how dare you tread upon the tries, are rendered truly wretched, though 

earth, which has drank in the blood of their air is salubrious, and their soil luxu- 

slaughtered innocents, shed by your wicked riously fertile. By these France and Spain, 

hands? How dare you breathe that air though blessed by nature with all that ad- 

which wafted to the ear of Heaven the ministers to the convenience of life, have 

groans of those who fell a sacrifice to your been reduced to that contemptible state in 

accursed ambition? But if the laboring which they now appear; and by these 

earth doth not expand her jaws; if the air Britain — but if I were possessed of the 

you breathe is not commissioned to be the gift of prophecy, I dare not, except by 

minister of death, yet hear it and tremble! divine command, unfold the leaves on 

The eye of Heaven penetrates the darkest which the destiny of that once powerful 

chambers of the soul, traces the leading kingdom is inscribed. 

clew through all the labyrinths which your But, since standing armies are so hurt- 
industrious folly had devised; and you, ful to a state, perhaps my countrymen 
however you may have screened yourselves may demand some substitute, some other 
from human eyes, must be arraigned, must means of rendering us secure against the 
lift your hands, red with the blood of those incursions of a foreign enemy. But can 
whose death you have procured, at the you be one moment at a loss? Will not 
tremendous bar of God. a well-disciplined militia afford you 

But I gladly quit the gloomy theme of ample security against foreign foes? We 

death, and leave you to improve the want not courage; it is discipline alone 

thought of that important day, when our in which we are exceeded by the most 
iv.— o 241 


formidable troops that ever trod the earth, as infamous. Indeed, it would be affron- 

Surely our hearts nutter no more at the tive to the tutelar deity of this country 

sound of war than did those of the im- even to despair of saving it from all the 

mortal bands of Persia, the Macedonian snares which human policy can lay. 

phalanx, the invincible Roman legions, True it is that the British ministry 

the Turkish janissaries, the gens-des- have annexed a salary to the office of the 

armes of France, or the well-known grena- governor of this province, to be paid out 

diers of Britain. A well-disciplined of a revenue, raised in America without 

militia is a safe, an honorable guard to a our consent. They have attempted to 

community like this, whose inhabitants render our courts of justice the instru- 

are by nature brave, and are laudably ments of extending the authority of acts 

tenacious of that freedom in which they of the British Parliament over this colony, 

were born. From a well-regulated militia by making the judges dependent on the 

we have nothing to fear; their interest British administration for their support, 

is the same with that of the state. When But this people will never be enslaved 

a country is invaded, the militia are with their eyes open. The moment they 

ready to appear in their defence; they knew that the governor was not such a 

march into the field with that fortitude governor as the charter of the province 

which a consciousness of the justice of points out, he lost his power of hurting 

their cause inspires; they do not jeopard them. They were alarmed; they suspect- 

their lives for a master who considers cd him, have guarded against him, and 

them only as the instruments of his am- he has found that a wise and a brave peo- 

bition, and whom they regard only as the pie, when they know their danger, are 

dispenser of the scanty pittance of bread fruitful in expedients to escape it. 

and water. No, they fight for their The courts of judicature also so far 

houses, their lands, for their wives, their lost their dignity, by being supposed to 

children, for all who claim the tenderest be under an undue influence, that our 

names, and are held dearest in their representatives thought it absolutely 

hearts, they fight pro aris ct focis, for necessary to resolve that they were bound 

their liberty, and for themselves, and for to declare that they would not receive 

their God. And let it not offend if I say that any other salary besides that which the 

no militia ever appeared in more flourish- general court should grant them; and, 

ing condition than that of this province if they did not make this declaration, 

now doth; and, pardon me if I say — of that it would be the duty of the House 

this town in particular — I mean not to to impeach them. 

boast; I would not excite envy, but manly Great expectations were also formed 

emulation. We have all one common from the artful scheme of allowing the 

cause; let it therefore be our only con- East India Company to export tea to 

test who shall most contribute to the America, upon their own account. This, 

security of the liberties of America. And certainly, had it succeeded, would have ef- 

may the same kind Providence which has fected the purpose of the contrivers and 

watched over this country from her in- gratified the most sanguine wishes of 

fant state, still enable us to defeat our our adversaries. We soon should have 

enemies. I cannot here forbear noticing found our trade in the hands of foreign- 

the signal manner in which the designs ers, and taxes imposed on everything 

of those who wish not well to us have which we consumed; nor would it have 

been discovered. The dark deeds of a been strange if, in a few years, a com- 

treacherous cabal have been brought to pany in London should have purchased 

public view. You now know the serpents an exclusive right of trading to America, 

who, while cherished in your bosoms, were But their plot was soon discovered. The 

darting their envenomed stings into the people soon were aware of the poison 

vitals of the constitution. But the rep- which, with so much craft and subtlety, 

resentatives of the people have fixed a had been concealed; loss and disgrace 

mark on these ungrateful monsters, which, ensued ; and, perhaps, this long-concerted 

though it may not make them so secure as masterpiece of policy may issue in the 

Cain of old, yet renders them at least total disuse of tea in this country, which 



will eventually be the saving of the lives 
and the estates of thousands — yet while 
we rejoice that the adversary has not 
hitherto prevailed against us, let us by 
no means put off the harness. Restless 
malice, and disappointed ambition, will 
still suggest new measures to our in- 
veterate enemies. Therefore, let us also 
be ready to take the field whenever 
danger calls; let us be united and 
strengthen the hands of each other by 
promoting a general union among us. 
Much has been done by the committees 
of correspondence for this and the other 
towns of this province, towards uniting 
the inhabitants; let them still go on and 
prosper. Much has been done by the com- 
mittees of correspondence for the Houses 
of Assembly, in this and our sister colo- 
nies, for uniting the inhabitants of the 
whole continent, for the security of their 
common interest. May success ever at- 
tend their generous endeavors. But per- 
mit me here to suggest a general con- 
gress of deputies, from the several Houses 
of Assembly on the continent, as the 
most effectual method of establishing such 
a union as the present posture of our af- 
fairs require. At such a congress a firm 
foundation may be laid for the security 
of our rights and liberties, a system may 
be formed for our common safety, by a 
strict adherence to which we shall be 
able to frustrate any attempts to over- 
throw our constitution, restore peace and 
harmony to America, and secure honor 
and wealth to Great Britain, even against 
the inclinations of her ministers, whose 
duty it is to study her welfare; and we 
shall also free ourselves from those un- 
mannerly pillagers who impudently tell 
us that they are licensed by an act of 
the British Parliament to thrust their 
dirty hands into the pockets of every 
American. But, I trust, the happy time 
will come when, with the besom of de- 
struction, those noxious vermin will be 
swept forever from the streets of Boston. 

Surely you never will tamely suffer 
this country to be a den of thieves. Re- 
member, my friends, from whom you 
sprang. Let not a meanness of spirit, 
unknown to those whom you boast of as 
your fathers, excite a thought to the dis- 
honor of your mothers. I conjure you by 
all that is dear, by all that is honorable, 

by all that is sacred, not only that ye 
pray, but that ye act; that, if necessary, 
ye fight, and even die, for the prosperity 
of our Jerusalem. 

Break in sunder, with noble disdain, 
the bonds with which the Philistines have 
bound you. Suffer not yourselves to be 
betrayed by the soft arts of luxury and 
effeminacy into the pit digged for your 
destruction. Despise the glare of wealth. 
That people who pay greater respect to 
a wealthy villain than to an honest, up- 
right man in poverty, almost deserve to 
be enslaved; they plainly show that 
wealth, however it may be acquired, is, 
in their esteem, to be preferred to virtue. 

But I thank God that America abounds 
in men who are superior to all tempta- 
tion, whom nothing can divert from a 
steady pursuit of the interest of their 
country, who are at once its ornament 
and safeguard. And sure I am I should 
not incur your displeasure if I paid a 
respect so justly due to their much- 
honored characters in this place; but, 
when I name an Adams, such a numerous 
host of fellow-patriots rush up to my 
mind that I fear it would take up too 
much of your time should I attempt to 
call over the illustrious roll; but your 
grateful hearts will point you to the men: 
and their revered names, in all succeed- 
ing times, shall grace the annals of Amer- 
ica. From them, let us, my friends, take 
example; from them, let us catch the 
divine enthusiasm, and feel, each for 
himself, the godlike pleasure of diffus- 
ing happiness on all around us; of de- 
livering the oppressed from the iron grasp 
of tyranny; of changing the hoarse com- 
plaints and bitter moans of wretched 
slaves into those cheerful songs which 
freedom and contentment must inspire. 
There is a heart-felt satisfaction in re- 
flecting on our exertions for ttoe public 
weal which all the sufferings an enraged 
tyrant can inflict will never take away; 
which the ingratitude and reproaches of 
those whom we have saved from ruin can- 
not rob us of. The virtuous asserter of 
the rights of mankind merits a reward 
which even a want of success in his en- 
deavors to save his country, the heaviest 
misfortune which can befall a genuine 
patriot, cannot entirely prevent him from 



I have the most animating confidence ^He was distinguished in the hattles of 
that the present noble struggle for liberty South Mountain and Antietam. Made 
will terminate gloriously for America, major-general of volunteers in Nov., 18C2, 
And let us play the man for our God, he led a division at Fredericksburg in 
and for the cities of our God; while we December; also at Chancellorsville. Placed 
are using the means in our power, let in command of the 2d Army Corps in 1863, 
us humbly commit our righteous cause to he led it at Gettysburg, where he was 
the great Lord of the universe, who lov- seriously wounded, and distinguished him- 
eth righteousness and hateth iniquity, self throughout the campaign of the Army 
And, having secured the approbation of of the Potomac in 1864-65. In Aug., 1865, 
our hearts by a faithful and unwearied he was made a brigadier-general in the 
discharge of our duty to our country, let U. 8. army, and in 1866 was brevetted 
ns joyfully leave our concerns in the major-general. He was in command of 
hands of Him who raiseth up and putteth different military departments after the 
down the empires and kingdoms of the war; and was the unsuccessful Demo- 
world as He pleases; and, with cheerful cratic candidate for the Presidency of 
submission to His sovereign will, devoutly the United States in 1880, when he re- 
say: ceived 4,444,952 votes, against 4,454.416 
" Although the fig-tree shall not bios- for James A. Garfield. Of him General 
som, neither shall fruit be in the vines; Grant said: "Hancock stands the most 
the labor of the olive shall fail, and the conspicuous figure of all the general officers 
field shall yield no meat; the flock shall who did not exercise a separate command, 
be cut off from the fold, and there shall He commanded a corps longer than any 
be no herd in the stalls; yet we will re- other one, and his name was never men- 
joice in the Lord, we will joy in the God tioned as having committed in battle a 
of our salvation." blunder for which he was responsible." 
Hancock, Winfield Scott, military To an adverse critic bluff General Sherman 
officer ; born in Montgomery Square, Mont- said: "If you will sit down and write 
gomery co., Pa., Feb. 14, 1824; gradu- the best thing that can be put into lan- 
ated at West Point in 1844; served in the guage about General Hancock as an offi- 
war with Mexico; and left that country cer and a gentleman, I will sign it with- 
out hesitation." General Hancock died on 
Governor's Island, New York, Feb. 9, 

Hancock, Fort, one of the most im- 
portant protective works on the Atlantic 
coast, established on Sandy Hook, N. J., 
about 20 miles from New York City, and 
named in honor of Gen. Winfield Scott 
Hancock. The locality was first used by 
the government as a proving-ground for 
heavy ordnance. The main ship - channel 
lies directly across the end of the Hook, 
and through this is the entrance to the 
lower bay of New York. This considera- 
tion suggested the advisability of making 
the Hook a strong fortified post, and the 
work was carried on so thoroughly that 
when war was declared against Spain 
(1898) Generals Miles and Merritt pro- 
nounced Fort Hancock impregnable. At 
that time four batteries were sent there, 
and the works, which can scarcely be dis- 
cerned from sea, were further equipped 
with two 16-inch disappearing guns, one 
paign on the Virginia peninsula in 1862. 8-inch pneumatic dynamite gun, two 12- 



quartermaster of his regiment. In Sep- 
tember, 1861, he was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, and served in the cam- 


inch and four 10-inch rifles, and two mor- 
tar batteries of sixteen guns each. 

Hand, Edward, military oflicer; born in 
Clyduff, King's co., Ireland, Dec. 31, 1744; 
came to America in the 8th Royal Irish 
Regiment, in 1774, as surgeon's mat* 

twelve killed and forty-one wounded. At 
the same time Marion was smiting the 
British and Tories with sudden and fierce 
blows among the swamps of the lower 
country, on the borders of the Pedee; 
Pickens was annoying Cruger near the 

signed his post on his arrival, and settled Saluda, and Clarke was calling for the 
in Pennsylvania for the practice of the 

medical profession. He joined a regiment u u- 

as lieutenant-colonel at the outbreak of 
the Revolution, and served in the siege of 
Boston. Made colonel in 1776, he led his 
regiment in the battle on Long Island, and 
also at Trenton. In April, 1777, he was 
appointed brigadier - general ; and in Oc- 
tober, 1778, succeeded Stark in command 
at Albany. In Sullivan's campaign against 
the Indians, in 1779, he was an active par- 
ticipant. Near the close of 1780, Hand 
succeeded Scammel as adjutant-general. 
He was a member of Congress in 1784-85, 
and assisted in the formation of the con- 
stitution of Pennsylvania in 1790. He 
died in Rockford, Lancaster co., Pa., Sept. 
3, 1802. 

Handy, Alexander Hamilton, jurist; 
born in Princess Anne, Md., Dec. 25, 1809 ; 
was admitted to the bar and settled in 
Mississippi in 1836. His publications in- 
clude Secession Considered as a Right; 
and Parallel between the Reign of James 
the Second, of England, and that of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. He died in Canton, Miss., 
Sept. 12, 1883. 

Hanging Rock, Action at. After his 
unsuccessful attack on Rocky Mount, Colo- 
nel Sun ter crossed the Catawba, and fell 
upon a British post at Hanging Rock, 12 
miles east of the river, Aug. 6, 1780, com- 
manded by Major Carden. A large num- 
ber of British and Tories were there. 

Among the former were the infantry of patriots along the Savannah and other 
Tarleton's Legion. Sumter soon dispersed Georgia streams to drive Brown from 
them, when his men scattered through the Augusta. Hanging Rock is a huge con- 
camp, seeking plunder and drinking the glomerate bowlder near the Lancaster 
liquors found there. Intoxication fol- and Camden highway, a few miles east 
lowed. The British rallied, and attacked of the Catawba River, in South Caro- 
the disordered patriots, and a severe skir- lina. It is a shelving rock, 20 or 30 feet 
mish ensued. The British were reinforced, in diameter, lying on the verge of a 
and Sumter was compelled to retreat; but high bank of a small stream, nearly 100 
the British had been so severely handled feet above it. Under its concavity fifty 
that they did not attempt to pursue. With men might find shelter from rain. 
a few prisoners and some booty, Sumter Hanna, Marcus Alonzo, United States 
retreated towards the Waxhaw, bearing Senator; born in Lisbon, O., Sept. 24, 
away many of his wounded men. The bat- 1837; removed to Cleveland in 1852, where 
tie lasted about four hours. Sumter lost he was educated in the common schools 




and the Western Keserve College. In ates were repulsed. The Nationals lost 
1896 he became chairman of the National about 500 men. 

Republican Committee. He directed the Hansbrough, Henry Clay; born in 
Republican campaigns of 1896 and 1900, Prairie du Eocher, 111., Jan. 30, 1848; con- 
nected with the newspaper press, 1867-89; 
member of Congress 1889-91; United 
States Senator from North Dakota in 
1891; re-elected in 1897 and in 1903. 

Hanson, Alexander Contee, editor; 
born in Maryland, Feb. 27, 1786. While 
editor of the Federal Republican, in Balti- 
more, he denounced the administration, 
and a mob destroyed his printing-office, 
June 22, 1812. The journal was re-estab- 
lished, and a second mob attacked the 
building, July 28. Hanson and his party, 
including Gen. Henry Lee, Gen. James M. 
Lingan, and others, surrendered on condi- 
tion that the property was to be protected. 
The mob attacked the jail, killed General 
Lingan, wounded General Lee, and left 
Hanson and others for dead. In 1813 
Hanson was elected to Congress, and in 
1817 to the United States Senate. He 
died April 23, 1819. 

Hanson, John, legislator; born in 
Charles county, Md., in 1715; member of 
the State legislature in 1757-81, and 
of the Continental Congress in 1781-83. 
of which he was elected president. He 
died in Oxen Hills, Md., Nov. 22, 1783. 

Haraden, Jonathan, naval officer; 
born in Gloucester, Mass., in 1745. At 
the beginning of the Revolutionary War 
he entered the navy; later was made cap- 
tain and placed in command of the Picker- 
ing. He captured a British prr ateer in 
a night attack in the Bay of Biscay, and 
defeated another one, of 140 men and 
forty - two guns. Subsequently he took 
three armed vessels one after another. It is 
rlanks of the Confederate army. The most said that during the war he captured al- 
dashing of the cavalry officers of that most 1,000 cannon. He was himself capt- 
time were Colonels Kilpatrick and Custer, ured with all his ships by Rodney, the 
At about the same hour when Buford's English commander in the West Indies, in 
division occupied Gettysburg, June 29, 1781. He died in Salem, Mass., Nov. 26, 1803. 
1863, Kilpatrick, passing through Han- Hard-cider Campaign. Political par- 
over, a few miles from Gettysburg, was ties are always seeking catch - words to 
suddenly surprised by Stuart's cavalry, use in a campaign with effect among the 
then on their march for Carlisle. Stuart least thoughtful of the people. Gen. 
led in person, and made a desperate charge William Henry Harrison lived in the 
on the flank and rear of Farnsworth's bri- growing West, and his dwelling had once 
gade, at the eastern end of the village. A been a log - house, at North Bend, where 
severe battle ensued in the town and on he exercised great hospitality. In the 
its borders, when Custer joined in the campaign of 1840 a log - cabin was 
fight with his troops, and the Confeder- chosen as a symbol of the plain and un- 



securing the nomination and election of 
President McKinley. In 1897 he was elect- 
ed United States Senator, and was re- 
elected for the term ending 1905. Until 
his election as chairman of the Republi- 
can National Committee Mr. Hanna was 
not actively interested in politics. He 
died in Washington, D. C, Feb. 15, 1904. 
Hanover, Battle at. General Meade's 
cavalry, during Lee's invasion of Mary- 
land, before the battle of Gettysburg 
(q. v.), was continually hovering on the 


pretentious Harrison, and a barrel of 1841; became an associate judge of the 
cider as that of his hospitality. During district court of Philadelphia; and was 
the campaign, all over the country, in presiding judge of the court of common 
hamlets, villages, and cities, log-cabins pleas in 1875-95. He published American 
were erected and fully supplied with bar- Leading Cases in Law (with Horace B. 
rels of cider. These houses were the Wallis), etc.; and was editor of Smith's 
usual gathering-places of the partisans of Leading Cases in Late; White and Tudor's 
Harrison, young and old, and to every Leading Cases in Equity; Hare on Con- 
one hard cider was freely given. The tracts; and the New England Exchequer 
meetings were often mere drunken carou- Reports. 

sals that were injurious to all, and espe- Harford, Henry, a natural son of 

cially to youth. Many a drunkard after- Frederick Calvert, the fifth Lord Bal- 

wards pointed sadly to the hard-cider timore, who was a man of some literary 

campaign in 1840, as the time of his de- accomplishments, but of dissolute habits, 

parture from sobriety and respectability, and who died without lawful issue. He 

Hardee, William Joseph, military bequeathed the province of Maryland to 
officer; born in Savannah, Ga., Oct. 10, this illegitimate son, who was then 
1815; graduated at West Point in (1771) a boy at school. Lord Baltimore's 
1838, entering the dragoons; and in brother-in-law, Robert Eden, had suc- 
1860 was lieutenant of the 1st Cavalry, ceeded Sharpe as governor of Maryland, 
In 1856 he published United States Rifle and he continued to administer the gov- 
and Light Infantry Tactics, being main- eminent of the province in behalf of the 
ly a compilation from French sources, boy, until the fires of the Revolution con- 
Resigning in January, 1861, he joined the sumed royalty in all the provinces. 
Confederates, and in June was appointed Harker, Charles G., military officer; 
brigadier-general in their army. For bra- born in Swedesboro, N. J., Dec. 2, 1837 ; 
very in the battle of Shiloh (q. v.) graduated at West Point in 1858, and 
he was promoted to major - general, and in the fall of 1861 was colonel of Ohio 
in October, 1862, lieutenant - general, volunteers. He was made brigadier-gen- 
He was very active in military oper- eral in September, 1863. He did good 
ations in Arkansas, Mississippi, Ten- service in Tennessee and Georgia, espe- 
nessee, and Georgia; and after the de- cially in the battle of Shiloh, the siege of 
feat of the Confederates at Missionary Corinth, the battles of Murfreesboro. 
Ridge, late in 1863, he succeeded Bragg Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. He 
in the chief command, until relieved by commanded a brigade under General How- 
General Johnston. He commanded at aid in the Georgia campaign, and distin- 
Savannah and Charleston at the time of guished himself at Resaca. He was killed 
their capture, early in 1865; fought at near Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. 
Averasboro and Bentonville, N. C. : and Harlan, James, statesman; born in 
surrendered with Johnston's army, April Clarke county, 111., Aug. 25, 1820; re- 
27, 1865. He died in Wytheville, Va., moved to Iowa in 1853; United States 
Nov. 6, 1873. Senator, 1855-65; Secretary of the In- 

Hardin, John, military officer; born in terior, 1865-6C; United States Senator. 

Fauquier county, Va., Oct. 1, 1753; par- 1866-73. He died in Mount Pleasant, 

ticipated in Dunmore's expedition, and Iowa. Oct. 5, 1899. 

served throughout the Revolution as lieu- Harlan, John Marshall, jurist; born in 
tenant. He removed to Kentucky in 1786, Boyle county, Ky., June 1, 1833; gradu- 
and took part in various expeditions ated at Centre College in 1850; colonel of 
against the Indians. While bearing a the 10th Ky. U. S. V., 1861-63; attorney- 
flag of truce near Shawneetown, 0., he general of Kentucky, 1863-67, when he 
was killed by the Indians, in April, 1792. resumed practice. In 1871 and 1875 he was 

Hards. See Hunkers. defeated as the Republican candidate for 

Hare, John Innes Clark, jurist; born governor. On Nov. 29, 1877, he became 

in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 17, 1817; an associate justice of the United States 

graduated at the University of Pennsyl- Supreme Court. In 1893 President Harri- 

vania in 1834; admitted to the bar in son appointed him one of the American 



arbitrators of the Bering Sea tribunal, agent for the territory northwest of the 

which met in Paris. Ohio, and in 1787 Congress made him a 

Harlem Plains, Action at. On the brevet brigadier - general. On Sept. 29, 

morning of Sept. 16, 1776, the British ad- 1789, he was appointed commander-in- 

vanced guard, under Colonel Leslie, occu- chief of the army of the United States, 

pied the rocky heights now at the north- and had charge of an expedition against 

ern end of the Central Park. His force the Miami Indians in the fall of 1790, 

was composed of British infantry and but was defeated. Harmar resigned his 

Highlanders, with several pieces of artil- commission in January, 1792, and was 

lery. Descending to Harlem Plains, they made adjutant-general of Pennsylvania in 

were met by some Virginians un- 1793, in which post he 
der Major Leitch, and Connecti- was active in furnishing 
cut Rangers under Colonel Knowlton. A Pennsylvania troops for Wayne's cam- 
desperate conflict ensued. Washington paign in 1793-94. He died in Phila- 
soon reinforced the Americans with some delphia, Aug. 20, 1813. 
Maryland and New England troops, with At the time of his expedition against 
whom Generals Putnam, Greene, and the Indians, the British, in violation of 
others took part to encourage the men. the treaty of 1783, still held Detroit and 
The British were pushed back to the other Western military posts. British 
rocky heights, where they were reinforced agents instigated the Indians of the 
by Germans, when the Americans fell Northwest to make war on the frontier 
back towards Harlem Heights. In this settlers, in order to secure for British 
spirited engagement the Americans lost commerce the monopoly of the fur-trade, 
about sixty men, including Major Leitch This had been kept up ever since 1783, 
and Colonel Knowlton, who were killed. and the posts were held with a hope 
Harmar, Josiah, military officer; born that the league of States would fall to 
in Philadelphia in 1753; was educated pieces, and an opportunity would be af- 
chiefly in the school of Robert Proud, the forded to bring back the new republic to 
Quaker and historian; entered the army colonial dependence. Sir John Johnson, 
as captain of a Pennsylvania regiment in former Indian agent, was again on the 
1776; was its lieutenant-colonel in 1777; frontier, and Lord Dorchester (Sir Guy 
and served faithfully through the war in Carleton) was again governor of Canada, 
the North and the South. Made brevet which gave strength to the opinion that 
colonel in the United States army in Sep- the discontents of the Indians were fos- 
tember, 1783, he was sent to France in tered for a political purpose. The North- 
1784 with the ratification of the defini- western tribes, encouraged by the British 
tive treaty of peace. He was made Indian agents, insisted upon re-establishing the 




to cross the Maumee 
^-^ at the usual ford, and 

then surround the 
Indians, who were 
led by the celebrated 
chief, Little Turtle. 
Before this could be 
effected the Indian 
encampment was 

aroused, and a part 
of them fled. Some of 
the militia and the 
cavalry who had 
passed the ford start- 
ed in pursuit, in dis- 
obedience of orders, 
leaving the regulars. 
who had also passed 
the ford, unsupport- 
ed, when the latter 
were attacked by Lit- 
tle Turtle and the 
main body of the Ind- 

Ohio River as the Indian boundary. At- ians, and driven back with great slaugh- 

tempts to make a peaceable arrangement ter. Meanwhile the militia and cavalry 

were unsuccessful. The Indians would pursuers were skirmishing with the Ind- 

listen to no terms; and in September, ians a short distance up the St. Joseph's. 

1790, General Harmar led more than They were compelled to fall back in confu- 

1,000 volunteers from Fort Washington sion towards the ford, and followed the rem- 

(now Cincinnati) into the Indian country nant of the regulars in their retreat. The 

around the head-waters of the Maumee Indians did not pursue. The whole expe- 

(or Miami), to chastise the hostile Ind- dition then returned to Fort Washington. 

ians. He did not suc- 
ceed. He found the 

Indians near the head 

of the Maumee, at 

tfr°. junction of the 

St. Joseph's and St. 

Mary's rivers, late in 

October, 1790. Four 

hundred men were 

detached to attack 

them, of whom sixty 

were regulars, under 

Major Wyll/s. These 

reached the Maumee 

after sunrise on Oct. 

23. Militia under 

Major Hall proceeded 

to pass around the 

Indian village at the 

head of the Maumee, 

and assist, in their 

rear, an attack of the 

main body on their 

front. The latter were the maumes ford, place of harmar's defeat. 




Harmony Society. A communistic so- Henry Clinton, in which exception was in- 
ciety settled at Economy, near Pittsburg, eluded Robert Howe. He was the chief 
George Rapp, the head of the society, constructor of the constitution of North 
was born in Wiirtemburg, Germany, Oc- Carolina, framed in 1776, under which 
tober, 1757; died at Economy in 1847. Harnett became one of the council; and 
Rapp and a few of his adherents sailed *"- 1778 he was elected to Congress. While 
for America in 1803, and founded the the British held possession of the country 
town of Harmony in Pennsylvania. In adjacent to Cape Fear River in 1781, Har- 
1814 they established the town of New ne tt was made prisoner, and died in con- 
Harmony in Indiana, selling their old finement, April 20, 1781. His dwelling 
Wne for $100,000. In 1824 they sold the Wfls a fine old mansion, about a mile and 
town of New Harmony and 20,000 acres a half from the centre of the city of Wil- 
of land to Robert Owen for $150,000, and niington, N. C, on the northeast branch 
made a new settlement in Pennsylvania of the Cape Fear River, 
which they named Economy. Originally Harney, William Selby, military offi- 
each famiiy retained its property, but in cer; born in Louisiana in 1798; entered 
1807 they established a community of the army while quite young; was in the 
goods and adopted celibacy. As the soci- Black Hawk War; and was made lieuten- 
ety did not seek new members, it rapidly ant - colonel of dragoons in 1836. Ten 
approached extinction, and in 1903 their years later he was colonel. He served in 
membership was so reduced that they gave the Florida, or Seminole, War (q. v.), 
up commercial life and sold their property a »<l ir » the war with Mexico. In 1848 he 
for $2,500,000. was brevetted brigadier - general for his 

Harnett, Cornelius, statesman; pre- services in the battle of Cerro Gordo 
sumably born in North Carolina, although ( q. v. ) . He was promoted to brigadier- 
some authorities say in England, April general in 1858, and placed in command 
20, 1723; became owner of a large estate of the Department of Oregon; and in 
near Wilmington, being a man of consid- July, 1859, took possession of the island 
erable wealth. He was influential in of San Juan, near Vancouver, which Eng- 
his State, and was among the first to land claimed to be a part of British Co- 
lumbia, and which the United States soon 
afterwards evacuated. Harney then com- 
manded the Department of the West; and 
in April, 1861, while on his way to Wash- 
ington, he was arrested by the Confeder- 
ates at Harper's Ferry, Va., and taken to 
Richmond. He was soon released, and, on 
returning to St. Louis, issued proclama- 
tions warning the people of Missouri of 
the dangers of secession. In consequence 
of an unauthorized truce with Price, the 
Confederate leader, Harney was relieved 
of his command. He retired in August. 
1863; was brevetted major-general, United 
States army, in March, 1865; and was a 
member of the Indian Commission in 
1867. He died in Orlando, Fla., May 9, 

Harper, Ida Husted, author; born in 
lie assemblages as the Revolutionary War Fairfield, Ind. ; received a collegiate edu- 
approached ; was president of the provin- cation ; conducted the women's department 
cial congress in 1775 ; and on the abdica- in the Terre Haute Saturday Evening Mail 
tion of the royal governor (Martin) be- and in the Fireman's Magazine for 
came acting governor of the State. He twelve years; managing editor of the 
was excepted in an offer of pardon to the Terre Haute Daily News, and later was 
inhabitants of North Carolina by Sir on the editorial staff of the Indianapolis 



denounce the Stamp Act and kindred meas- 
ures. He was a leading man in all pub- 


News, McClure's syndicate; and the New 
York Sun. She was one of the speakers 
at the International Congress of Women 
in London in 1899; chairman of the Inter- 
national Press Committee for five years; 
and author of Life and Work of Susan B. 
Anthony and History of Woman Suffrage 
to the Close of the Nineteenth Century 
(with Susan B. Anthony). 

Harper, Robert Goodloe, Senator; 
born in Fredericksburg, Va., in 1765; re- 
moved to North Carolina, and towards the 
close of the Revolutionary War served as 
a trooper under General Greene; grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1785; admitted 
to the bar in 1786; and served in Con- 
gress from 1795 to 1801. During the War 
of 1812 he was in active service, attaining 
the rank of major-general. Afterwards he 
was elected to the United States Senate 
from Maryland, to which place he had re- 
moved upon his marriage with the daugh- 
ter of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, but 
resigned in 1816, when he was the Federal 
candidate for Vice-President. He publish- 
ed an Address on the British Treaty in 

1796, and a pamphlet on the Dispute be- 
tioeen the United States and France in 

1797. He died in Baltimore, Md., Jan. 
15, 1825. 

Harper, William Rainey, educator; 
born in New Concord, O., July 26, 1856; 
graduated at Muskingum College in 
1870; principal of the Masonic College, 
Macon, Tenn., in 1875-76; tutor in the 
preparatory department of Denison Uni- 
versity, Ohio, in 1876-79, and principal 
there in 1879-80. In the latter year he 
became professor of Hebrew in the Baptist 
Union Theological Seminary at Chicago, 
where he continued till 1886, when he 
was called to the chair of Semitic lan- 
guages in Yale University. In 1891 he 
became president of the University of 
Chicago, also taking the chair there of 
Semitic languages and literature. In 
1903 the university had 347 professors and 
instructors; 4.463 students in all depart- 
ments; 80 fellowships; 200 scholarships; 
367.440 volumes in the library; 2,200 
graduates since organization; $9,204,195 
in productive funds; $2,437,663 in bene- 
factions (previous year) ; and $982,610 in 
ordinary income. For various purposes 
John D. Rockefeller had given the uni- 
yersity up to the end of 1903 an aggregate 

of $13,000,000, and citizens of Chicago a 
total of about $7,000,000. He wrote He- 
brew Syntax; Hebrew Vocabularies; An 
Introductory Neiv Testament, Greek 
Method, etc., and was associate editor of 
The Biblical World; The American Jour- 
nal of Theology ; and The American Jour- 
nal of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
ture. He died in Chicago, 111., Jan. 10. 

Harper's Farm. See Sailor's Creek. 

Harper's Ferry, a town in Jefferson 
county, W. Va. ; 49 miles northwest of 
Washington; at the junction of the Shen- 
andoah and Potomac rivers; the scene of 
several stirring events during the Civil 
War period. Within twenty-four hours 
after the passage of the ordinance of seces- 
sion by the Virginia convention, April 17, 
1861, the authorities of that State set 
forces in motion to seize the United States 
armory and arsenal in the town, in which 
the national government had 10,000 mus- 
kets made every year, and in which from 
80,000 to 90,000 stand of arms were gen- 
erally stored. When the secession move- 
ment began, at the close of 1860, measures 
were taken for the security of this post. 
A small body of United States dragoons, 
under the command of Lieut. Roger Jones, 
was sent there as a precautionary meas- 
ure. After the attack on Fort Sumter, 
rumors reached Harper's Ferry that the 
government property there would be speed- 
ily seized by the Virginians. The rumors 
were true. On the morning of April 18 
the military commanders at Winchester 
and Charlestown received orders from 
Richmond to seize the armory and arsenal 
that night. They were further ordered to 
march into Maryland, where, it was ex- 
pected, they would be joined by the min- 
ute-men of that State in an immediate 
attack on Washington. About 3,000 men 
were ordered out, but only about 250 were 
at the designated rendezvous, 4 miles from 
the Ferry, at the appointed hour — eight 
o'clock in the evening— but others were on 
the march. The cavalry, only about twenty 
strong, were commanded by Captain Ash- 
by. When the detachment was within a 
mile of the Ferry, there was suddenly a 
flash and explosion in that direction. This 
was quickly repeated, and the mountain 
heights were soon illuminated by flames. 
Ashby dashed towards the town,and soon re- 



turned with a report that the armory and charged with the duty of holding Harper's 

arsenal were on fire, and that the National Ferry. General McClellan was throwing 

troops had crossed the Potomac,, and taken Ohio troops into western Virginia, and 

the mountain road in the direction of Car- Gen. Robert Patterson, in command of the 



lisle Barracks, in Pennsylvania. Lieuten- 
ant Jones had been secretly warned, twen- 
ty-four hours before, of the plan for seiz- 
ing the post that night. There were indi- 
cations all around him of impending trou- 
bles. Trains of powder were so prepared 
that, at a moment's warning, the powder 
in the magazine might be exploded, and 
the government buildings be set on fire. 
Word came to Jones, at near ten o'clock 
at night, that 2,000 Virginians were within 
twenty minutes' march of him. The trains 
were fired, and the whole public property 
that was combustible was soon in ashes. 
Then Jones and his little garrison fled 
across the Potomac, and reached Hagers- 
town in the morning, and thence pushed 
on to Chambersburg and Carlisle Bar- 
racks. Jones was highly commended by 
his government. The Confederate forces 
immediately took possession of ruined 
Harper's Ferry as a strategic point. Within 
a month fully 8,000 Virginians. Kentucki- 
ans, Alabamians, and South Carolinians 
were there, menacing Washington. 

Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was then 

Department of Pennsylvania, was rapidly 
gathering a force at Chambersburg, Pa., 
under Gen. W. H. Keim. A part of the 
Confederates at the Ferry were on Mary- 
land Heights, on the left bank of the Poto- 
mac, and against these Patterson marched 
from Chambersburg with about 15,000 men 
in June, 1861. Just at this moment com- 
menced Wallace's dash on Roniney, which 
frightened Johnston, and he abandoned 
Harper's Ferry, and moved up the valley 
to Winchester. Before leaving he de- 
stroyed the great bridge of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railway at the Ferry with fire 
and gunpowder. It was 1,000 feet long. 
Then he spiked the heavy guns that could 
not be taken away, and encamped a few 
miles up the valley. Patterson, who was 
at Hagerstown, Md., pushed on, and on 
June 16 and 17 about 9,000 of his troops 
crossed the Potomac by fording it at Will- 
iamsport. These were led by Brig.-Gen. 
George Cadwalader. at the head of five 
companies of cavalry. At that moment 
Patterson received orders by telegraph 
from General Scott, at Washington, to send 



to him all the regulars, horse and foot, 
under his (Patterson's) command, and a 
Rhode Island regiment. Patterson was 
embarrassed, and requested the general to 
leave the regulars with him, for he ex- 
pected to hold the position and to keep 
open a free communication with the great 
West by the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
way. Scott refused, saying, " We are 
pressed here; send the troops without de- 
lay." The order was obeyed, and Patter- 
son was left without a single piece of 
available artillery, with only one troop of 
raw cavalry, and a total force of not more 
than 10,000 men, mostly undisciplined, to 
confront Johnston with fully 15,000 
drilled troops. Patterson prudently re- 
crossed the Potomac, and remained on the 
Maryland side until the beginning of July. 
While Lee was in Maryland, in Septem- 
ber, 1862, Harper's Ferry, where a large 

amount of stores had been gathered, was 
held by National troops, under Col. D. H. 
Miles. When that post was threatened, 
Halleck instructed McClellan to succor 
the garrison, and on the day of the struggle 
at Turner's Gap (see South Mountain) 
he ordered Miles to hold out to the last 
extremity. Meanwhile Jackson, by quick 
movements, had crossed the Potomac at 
Williamsport, and at noon on Sept. 13 he 
was in the rear of Harper's Ferry. The Con- 
federates were then in possession of Loudon 
Heights and also of Maryland Heights, 
which commanded Harper's Ferry. That 
post was completely invested by the Con- 
federates on the 14th. Miles was told by 
McClellan to " hold on," and also informed 
how he might safely escape. But he appear- 
ed to pay no attention to instructions, and 
to make no effort at defence; and when, 
early on the 15th, no less than nine bat- 




A, A. Jackson's march from Frederick to Sharpsbnrer. 

B, B. Lonestreet's march from Frederick to Sharpsburff. 

C, C. McLaws and Anderson's march from Frederick to Sharpsbnrg. 

D, D. Walker's march from Monncacy to Sharpsburg. 

E, E. Confederate position at Antietam. 

H, H. Franklin's march from Pleasant Valley to Antietam. 

Franklin followed the same route as McLaws from Frederick to Pleasant Valley; the remainder of the Union 
Array that of Longstreet from Frederick to Boonesboro, and thence to the Antietam. The arrows show the direc- 
tion of the march. Where two or more letters come together, it indicates that the several bodies followed the 
same route. 





teries opened upon the garrison, he dis- 
played a white nag. Before it was seen 
by the Confederates, one of their shots had 
killed him. The post was surrendered, 
with all its troops, ordnance, ammuni- 
tion, and stores. There were 11,583 men — 
half of them New-Yorkers — surrendered, 
and the spoils were seventy-three cannon, 
13,000 small-arms, 200 wagons and a large 
quantity of tents and camp equipage. It 
was shown that Miles had disobeyed orders 
to take measures for the defence of the 
post, and he was strongly suspected of 
sympathy with the Confederate cause. 
See also Brown, John (Ossawatomie). 

Harriman, Walter, legislator; born 
in Warner, N. H., April 8, 1817; was sev- 
eral times elected to the State legislature. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War he en- 
tered the army as colonel of the 11th New 
Hampshire Regiment; served throughout 
the war, reaching the rank of brevet 
brigadier - general. He was elected secre- 
tary of state of New Hampshire in 1S65, 
and governor in 18G7. He was the author 
of a History of Warner, N. H. He died 
in Concord, N. H., July 25, 1884. 

Harrington, Timothy, clergyman ; 
born in Waltham, Mass., in 1715; became 
a Congregational pastor in 1741. It is of 


him that the amusing story is told that, 
having always been in the habit of praying 
for " our gracious sovereign King George " 
before the Revolutionary War, after the 
war broke out he at one time, through 
habit, uttered the accustomed prayer, but 
hastily added, " O Lord, I mean George 
Washington!" He died in Lancaster, 
Mass., Dec. 18, 1795. 

Harriott, Thomas, astronomer, his- 
torian, and friend of Sir Walter Raleigh; 
born in Oxford, England, in 1560. In 
1585 he accompanied Raleigh's expedition 
to Virginia, under Grenville, as historian, 
and most of the knowledge of that expe- 
dition is derived from Harriott's account. 
He was left there by Grenville, and re- 
mained a year, making observations; and 
from the pencil of With, an artist, he 
obtained many useful drawings. Harriott 
labored hard to restrain the cupidity of 
his companions, who were more intent 
upon finding gold than tilling the soil. 
While Governor Lane declared that Vir- 
ginia had " the goodliest soil under the 
cope of heaven," and " if Virginia had 
but horses and kine, and were inhabited 
by English, no realm in Christendom 
were comparable to it," he utterly neg- 
lected the great opportunity. Harriott 


saw that the way to accomplish that ob- 
ject was to treat the Indians kindly, as 
friends and neighbors; and he tried to 
quench the fires of revenge which the 
cruelty of the English had kindled. The 
natives were curious and credulous. They 
regarded the English with awe. Their fire- 
arms, burning-glasses, clocks, watches, and 
books seemed to the savage mind like the 
work of the gods. As the colonists were 
never sick, and had no women with them, 
the natives thought that they were not 
born of women, and were, therefore, im- 
mortal. Taking advantage of this feeling 
Harriott displayed the Bible everywhere, 
and told them of its precious truths, and 
it was often pressed to their bosoms affec- 
tionately. When King Wingina fell ill, 
he sent for Harriott, and, dismissing his 
juggling priest and " medicine-man," 
placed himself under the Englishman's 
care. He invoked the prayers of the 
English, and, under the careful nursing 
of the historian, the king speedily recov- 
ered. Many of his subjects resorted to 
Harriott when they fell sick. Had his 
example been followed, Virginia might 
soon have been " inhabited by English," 
and filled with " horses and kine." On 
his return to England, Harriott published 
a Brief and True Report of the New 
Found Land of Virginia. From the Earl 
of Northumberland he received a pension, 
and spent much of his time in the Tower 
with Raleigh and his wife. Harriott was 
the inventor of the present improved 
method of algebraic calculation by intro- 
ducing the signs > and <. He died in 
London, July 2, 1621. 

Harris, Caleb Fiske, bibliophile; born 
in Warwick, R. I., March 9, 1818; formed 
a library of 5,000 volumes of American 
poetry and plays, which was subsequently 
bequeathed to Erown University by his 
cousin, Henry B. Anthony. He died in 
Mooschead Lake, Me., Oct/2, 1881. 

Harris, George, Lord, military officer; 
born March 18, 1746; became captain in 
1771, and came to America in 1775. He 
was in the skirmish at Lexington and was 
wounded in the battle of Bunker Hill. In 
the battles of Long Island, Harlem Plains, 
and White Plains, and in every battle in 
which General Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, 
and Earl Cornwallis, in the North, par- 
ticipated, until late in 1778, he was an 


actor. Then he went on an expedition to 
the West Indies; served under Byron off 
Grenada in 1770; also, afterwards, in 
India, and in 1708 was made governor of 
Madras, and placed at the head of the 
army against Tippoo Sultan, capturing 
Seringapatam, for which service he re- 
ceived public thanks and promotion. In 
1812 he was raised to the peerage. He died 
in Belmont, Kent, England, May 19, 1829. 

Harris, Isiiam Green, legislator; born 
at Tullahoma, Tenn., Feb. 10, 1818; was 
elected to Congress in 1848; governor of 
Tennessee in 1S57, 1859, and 1861; served 
in the Confederate army throughout the 
Civil War in various capacities, usually 
as volunteer aide on the staff. At the con- 
clusion of the war he emigrated to Mexico 
and subsequently to England, but return- 
ed to Tennessee in 1867. He was elected 
United States Senator in 1877, 1883, 1889, 
and 1895. He died in Washington, D. C, 
July 8, 1897. 

Harris, Joel Chandler, author; born 
in Eatonton, Ga., Dec. 8, 1848. Among his 
works are Uncle Remus; History of 
Georgia; Sto7-ies of Georgia, etc. 

Harris, Thaddeus Mason, clergyman; 
born in CharJestown, Mass., July 17, 1768; 
became pastor of the First Unitarian 
Church in Dorchester, Mass., in 1793. He 
was the author of Journal of a Tour of the 
Territory Northwest of the Alleghany 
Mountains; History of the First Church at 
Dorchester; Memoir of James Oglethorpe, 
etc. He died in Dorchester, April 3, 1842. 

Harris, William Thaddeus, author; 
born in Milton, Mass., Jan. 25, 1826; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1846. 
He was the author of Epitaphs from the 
Old Burying-Ground at Cambridge, and 
editor of History of New England and of 
the third volume of the Historical and 
Genealogical Register. He died in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Oct. 19, 1854. 

Harris, William Torrey, educator; 
born in North Killingly, Conn., Sept. 10, 
1835; studied in Yale University, but did 
not graduate. During 1857-67 he was 
principal and assistant superintendent in 
the St. Louis public schools; in the latter 
year was appointed superintendent, but 
in 1880 was forced by ill health to re- 
sign. In 1880 he was a delegate from the 
United States bureau of education to 
the international congress of educators 


in Brussels. On Sept. 13, 1889, he be- him to support the Stamp Act by offering 
came United States commissioner of edu- him a seat in the council excited his in- 
cation. Dr. Harris founded in St. Louis dignation, though he had opposed Henry's 
the Journal of Speculative Philosophy in resolutions on the subject. He was a 
1867, and in 1901 was still conducting it. member of various associations and corn- 
He was chief editor of Appleton's series mittees, and was a delegate to the first 
of School Readers, and editor of Apple- Colonial Congress, in 1774. In that body 
ton's Educational series. His other pub- he was efficient as chairman of the board 
lications include: Introduction to the of war. He advocated independence in 
Study of Philosophy ; Hegel's Logic; Crit- 1776, and signed the great Declaration. 
ical Expositions; and Psychologic Foun- He resigned his seat in 1777; again en- 
dations of Education. See Education, tered the House of Burgesses, and was 
Elementary. chosen its speaker. This post he held 
Harrison, Benjamin, signer of the until 1782, when he was elected governor 
Declaration of Independence; born in of the State, and was twice re-elected. 
Berkeley, Va., in 1740; was a member of Governor Harrison did not like the na- 
the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1764, tional Constitution, and voted against it 
and soon became a leader among the in convention. He died in Berkeley, in 
patriots of the day. An attempt to bribe April, 1791. 


Harrison, Benjamin, twenty-third and 5,556,918 popular votes for Mr. Cleve- 

President of the United States, from land. 

1889 to 1893; Republican; born in North In 1898 he became chief counsel for 

Bend, O., Aug. 20, 1833; grandson of Will- Venezuela (q. v.) in the boundary dis- 

iam Henry Harrison, the ninth President pute between that country and Great 

of the United States, and great-grandson Britain, and in 1899 an American mem- 

of Benjamin Harrison, a signer of the ber of The Hague Arbitration Commission. 

Declaration of Independence, and for He died in Indianapolis, Ind., March 13, 

three successive terms governor of Vir- 1901. See Annexed Territory, Status of. 

ginia. He graduated at Miami Uni- Inaugural Address. — On March 4, 1889, 

versity, O., in 1852, and soon after began President Harrison delivered the following 

the study of law in Cincinnati. In 1854 inaugural address: 

he settled in Indianapolis and entered 

upon practice. On Jan. 23, 1865, he was Fellow-citizens, — There is no constitu- 
brevetted a brigadier-general of volun- tional or legal requirement that the Pres- 
teers, in the Union army; and when, soon ident shall take the oath of office in the 
afterwards, the war was brought to a presence of the people, but there is so 
termination, he returned to Indianapolis, manifest an appropriateness in the public 
In 1880 he was chosen United States Sen- induction to office of the chief executive 
ator from Indiana, and took his seat in officer of the nation that from the begin- 
that body on March 4. At the Republi- ning of the government the people, to 
can National Convention in 1888, he re- whose service the official oath consecrates 
ceived the nomination for the Presidency the officer, have been called to witness 
on the eighth ballot. At the election in the solemn ceremonial. The oath taken in 
November he was chosen President, re- the presence of the people becomes a mu- 
ceiving 233 electoral votes to Grover tual covenant. The officer covenants to 
Cleveland's 168. The popular vote was serve the whole body of the people by a 
5,440,216 for Harrison, and 5,538,233 for faithful execution of the laws, so that 
Cleveland (see Cabinet, President's), they may be the unfailing defence and 
In 1892 both he and Mr. Cleveland were security of those who respect and observe 
renominated, and he was defeated by the them, and that neither wealth, station, 
latter, receiving 145 electoral and 5,176,- nor the power of combinations shall be able 
108 popular votes against 277 electoral to evade their just penalties or to wrest 



them from a beneficent public purpose to 
serve the ends of cruelty or selfishness. 

My promise is spoken; yours unspoken, 
but not the less real and solemn. The 
people of every State have here their rep- 
resentatives. Surely I do not misinter- 
pret the spirit of the occasion when I as- 
sume that the whole body of the people 
covenant with me and with each other 
to-day to support and defend the Consti- 
tution and the Union of the States, to 
yield willing obedience to all the laws, 
and each to every other citizen his equal 
civil and political rights. Entering thus 
solemnly into covenant with each other, 
we may reverently invoke and confiding- 
ly expect the favor and help of Almighty 
God — that He will give to me wisdom, 
strength, and fidelity, and to our people 
a spirit of fraternity and a love of right- 
eousness and peace. 

This occasion derives peculiar interest 
from the fact that the Presidential term 
which begins this day is the twenty-sixth 
under our Constitution. The first inau- 
guration of President Washington took 
place in New York, where Congress was 
then sitting, on the 30th day of April, 
1789, having been deferred by reason of 
delays attending the organization of the 
Congress and the canvass of the electoral 
vote. Our people have already worthily 
observed the centennials of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, of the battle of 
Yorktown, and of the adoption of the 
Constitution, and will shortly celebrate 
in New York the institution of the second 
great department of our constitutional 
scheme of government. When the centen- 
nial of the institution of the judicial de- 
partment, by the organization of the Su- 
preme Court, shall have been suitably 
observed, as I trust it will be, our nation 
will have fully entered its second century. 

I will not attempt to note the marvel- 
lous and in great part happy contrasts 
between our country as it steps over the 
threshold into its second century of or- 
ganized existence under the Constitution, 
and that weak but wisely ordered young 
nation that looked undauntedly down the 
first century, when all its years stretched 
out before it. 

Our people will not fail at this time 
to recall the incidents which accompanied 
the institution of government under the 

Constitution, or to find inspiration and 
guidance in the teachings and example of 
Washington and his great associates, and 
hope and courage in the contrast which 
thirty-eight populous and prosperous 
States offer to the thirteen States, weak 
in everything except courage and the love 
of liberty, that then fringed our Atlantic 

The Territory of Dakota has now a pop- 
ulation greater than any of the original 
States (except Virginia), and greater 
than the aggregate of five of the smaller 
States in 1790. The centre of population 
when our national capital was located was 
east of Baltimore, and it was argued by 
many well-informed persons that it would 
move eastward rather than westward; yet 
in 1880 ife was found to be near Cincin- 
nati, and the new census about to be taken 
will show another stride to the westward. 
That which was the body has come to be 
only the rich fringe of the nation's robe. 
But our growth has not been limited to 
territory, population, and aggregate 
wealth, marvellous as it has been in each 
of those directions. The masses of our 
people are better fed, clothed, and housed 
than their fathers were. The facilities 
for popular education have been vastly en- 
larged and more generally diffused. 

The virtues of courage and patriotism 
have given recent proof of their continued 
presence and increasing power in the 
hearts and over the lives of our people. 
The influences of religion have been mul- 
tiplied and strengthened. The sweet offi- 
ces of charity have greatly increased. The 
virtue of temperance is held in higher 
estimation. We have not attained an ideal 
condition. Not all of our people are hap- 
py and prosperous; not all of them are 
virtuous and law-abiding. But on the 
whole the opportunities offered to the in- 
dividual to secure the comforts of life are 
better than are found elsewhere, and large- 
lybetter than they were here 100 years ago. 

The surrender of a large measure of 
sovereignty to the general government, 
effected by the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion, was not accomplished until the sug- 
gestions of reason were strongly reinforced 
by the more imperative voice of experi- 
ence. The divergent interests of peace 
speedily demanded a " more perfect 
union." The merchant, the ship - master, 

IV.— B 



and the manufacturer discovered and dis- the depths of the earth as well as in the 
closed to our statesmen and to the people sky; men were made free, and material 
that commercial emancipation must be things became our better servants, 
added to the political freedom which had The sectional element has happily been 
been so bravely won. The commercial eliminated from tariff discussion. We 
policy of the mother-country had not re- have no longer States that are necessarily 
laxed any of its hard and oppressive feat- only planting States. None are excluded 
ures. To hold in check the development from achieving that diversification of pur- 
of our commercial marine, to prevent or suits among the people which brings 
retard the establishment and growth of wealth and contentment. The cotton 
manufactures in the States, and so to se- plantation will not be less valuable when 
cure the American market for their shops the product is spun in the country town 
and the carrying trade for their ships, by operatives whose necessities call for 
was the policy of European statesmen, and diversified crops and create a home de- 
was pursued with the most selfish vigor. mand for garden and agricultural prod- 
Petitions poured in upon Congress urg- ucts. Every new mine, furnace, and fac- 
ing the imposition of discriminating du- tory is an extension of the productive 
ties that should encourage the production capacity of the State more real and valu- 
of needed things at home. The patriotism able than added territory, 
of the peop'e, which no longer found a Shall the prejudices and paralysis of 
field of exercise in war, was energetically slavery continue to hang upon the skirts 
directed to the duty of equipping the of progress? How long will those who 
young republic for the defence of its in- rejoice that slavery no longer exists 
dependence by making its people self- cherish or tolerate the incapacities it put 
dependent. Societies for the promotion upon their communities? I look hopefully 
of home manufactures and for encour- to the continuance of our protective sys- 
aging the use of domestics in the dress tem and to the consequent development of 
of the people were organized in many of manufacturing and mining enterprises 
the States. The revival at the end of in the States hitherto wholly given to 
the century of the same patriotic interest agriculture as a potent influence in the 
in the preservation and development of perfect unification of our people. The men 
domestic industries and the defence of who have invested their capital in these 
our working people against injurious for- enterprises, the farmers who have felt the 
eign competition is an incident worthy of benefit of their neighborhood, and the men 
attention. It is not a departure but a who work in shop or field will not fail to 
return that we have witnessed. The protec- find and to defend a community of interest, 
tive policy had then its opponents. The Is it not quite possible that the farmers 
argument was made, as now, that its bene- and promoters of the great mining and 
fits inured to particular classes or sections, manufacturing enterprises which have re- 
If the question became in any sense cently been established in the South may 
or at any time sectional, it was only be- yet find that the free ballot of the work- 
cause slavery existed in some of the ingman, without distinction of race, is 
States. But for this there was no reason needed for their defence as well as for his 
why the cotton-producing States should own? I do not doubt that if those men in 
not have led or walked abreast with the the South who now accept the tariff views 
New England States in the production of of Clay and the constitutional expositions 
cotton fabr ; cs There was this reason only of Webster wotild courageously avow and 
why the States that divide with Penn- defend their real convictions they would 
sylvania the mineral treasures of the not find it difficult, by friend'y instruction 
great southeastern and central mountain and co-operation, to make the Vack man 
ranees shou'd have been so tardy in bring- their efficient and safe ally, not only in 
ing to the sme'ting- furnace and to the establishing correct principles in our na- 
mill the coal and iron from their near tional administration, but in preserving 
opposing hill-sides. Mill-fires were light- for their local communities the benefits of 
ed at the funeral pile of slavery. The social order and economical and honest 
emancipation proclamation was heard in government. At least until the good 



offices of kindness and education have been 
fairly tried the contrary conclusion can- 
not be plausibly urged. 

community either practise or connive at 
the systematic violation of laws that seem 
to them to cross their convenience, what 

I have altogether rejected the suggestion can they expect when the lesson that con- 

of a special executive policy for any sec- venience or a supposed class interest is a 

tion of our country. It is the duty of the sufficient cause for lawlessness has been 

executive to administer and enforce in well learned by the ignorant classes? A 

the methods and by the instrumentalities community where law is the rule of con- 

pointed out and provided by the Consti- 
tution all the laws enacted by Congress. 

duct and where courts, not mobs, execute 
its penalties is the only attractive field 

These laws are general and their adminis- for business investments and honest labor. 

tration should be uniform and equal. 
As a citizen may not elect what laws he 
will obey, neither may the executive elect 
which he will enforce. The duty to obey 

Our naturalization laws should be so 
amended as to make the inquiry into the 
character and good disposition of persons 
applying for citizenship more careful and 

and to execute embraces the Constitution searching. Our existing laws have been 

in its entirety and the whole code of laws in their administration an unimpressive 

enacted under it. The evil example of and often an unintelligible form. We ac- 

permitting individuals, corporations, or cept the man as a citizen without any 

communities to nullify the laws because 
they cross some selfish or local interest or 
prejudices is full of danger, not only to 
the nation at large, but much more to 
those who use this pernicious expedient to 

knowledge of his fitness, and he assumes 
the duties of citizenship without any 
knowledge as to what they are. The priv- 
ileges of American citizenship are so great 
and its duties so grave that we may well 

escape their just obligations or to obtain insist upon a good knowledge of every 
an unjust advantage over others. They person applying for citizenship and a good 

will presently themselves be compelled to 
appeal to the law for protection, and those 
who would use the law as a defence must 
not deny that use of it to others. 

knowledge by him of our institutions. 
We should not cease to be hospitable to 
immigration, but we should cease to be 
careless as to the character of it. There 

If our great corporations would more are men of all races, even the best, whose 
scrupulously observe their legal limita- coming is necessarily a burden upon our 
tions and duties, they would have less public revenues or a threat to social order. 

cause to complain of the unlawful limi- 
tations of their rights or of violent in- 
terference with their operations. The com- 

These should be identified and excluded. 

We have happily maintained a policy 
of avoiding all interference with Euro- 

munity that by concert, open or secret, pean affairs. We have been only inter- 
among its citizens denies to a portion of ested spectators of their contentions in 
its members their plain rights under the diplomacy and in war, ready to use our 
law has severed the only safe bond of friendly offices to promote peace, but never 
social order and prosperity. The evil obtruding our advice and never attempt- 
works from a bad centre both ways. It ing unfairly to coin the distresses of other 
demoralizes those who practise it and de- powers into commercial advantage to our- 
stroys the faith of those who suffer by it selves. We have a just right to expect 
in the efficiency of the law as a safe pro- that our European policy will be the 
tector. The man in whose breast that American policy of European courts. 

faith has been darkened is naturally the 
subject of dangerous and uncanny sug- 
gestions. Those who use unlawful 

It is so manifestly incompatible with 
those precautions for our peace and safety 
which all the great powers habitually ob- 

methods, if moved by no higher motive serve and enforce in matters affecting 

than the selfishness that prompted them, them that a shorter water-way between our 

may well stop and inquire what is to be Eastern and Western seaboards should be 

the end of this. dominated by any European government 

An unlawful expedient cannot become a that we may confidently expect that such 

permanent condition of government. If a purpose will not be entertained by any 

the educated and influential classes in a friendly power. 



We shall in the future, as in the past, 
use every endeavor to maintain and en- 
large our friendly relations with all the 
great powers, but they will not expect us 
to look kindly upon any project that 
would leave us subject to the dangers 
of a hostile observation or environment. 
We have not sought to dominate or to 
absorb any of our weaker neighbors, but 
rather to aid and encourage them to es- 
tablish free and stable governments, rest- 
ing upon the consent of their own people. 
We have a clear right to expect, there- 
fore, that no European government will 
seek to establish colonial dependencies 
upon the territory of these independent 
American states. That which a sense of 
justice restrains us from seeking they may 
be reasonably expected willingly to fore- 

It must not be assumed, however, that 
our interests are so exclusively Ameri- 
can that our entire inattention to any 
events that may transpire elsewhere can 
be taken for granted. Our citizens domi- 
ciled for purposes of trade in all coun- 
tries and in many of the islands of the 
sea demand and will have our adequate 
care in their personal and commercial 

The necessities of our navy require con- 
venient coaling-stations and dock and har- 
bor privileges. These and other trading 
privileges we will feel free to obtain only 
by means that do not in any degree par- 
take of coercion, however feeble the gov- 
ernment from which we ask such conces- 
sions. But having fairly obtained them by 
methods and for purposes entirely con- 
sistent with the most friendly disposi- 
tion towards all other powers, our con- 
sent will be necessary to any modification 
or impairment of the concession. 

We shall neither fail to respect the 
flag of any friendly nation or the just 
rights of its citizens, nor to exact the 
like treatment for our own. Calmness, 
justice, and consideration should charac- 
terize our diplomacy. The offices of an 
intelligent diplomacy or of friendly ar- 
bitration in proper cases should be ade- 
quate to the peaceful adjustment of all 
international difficulties. By such methods 
we will make our contribution to tne 
world's peace, which no nation values 
more highly, and avoid the opprobrium 

which must fall upon the nation that 
ruthlessly breaks it. 

The duty devolved by law upon the 
President to nominate and, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, to 
appoint all public officers whose appoint- 
ment is not otherwise provided for in the 
Constitution or by act of Congress has 
become very burdensome, and its wise and 
efficient discharge full of difficulty. The 
civil list is so large that a personal knowl- 
edge of any large number of the applicants 
is impossible. The President must rely 
upon the representations of others, and 
these are often made inconsiderately and 
without any just sense of responsibility. 
I have a right, I think, to insist that those 
who volunteer or are invited to give ad- 
vice as to appointments shall exercise con- 
sideration and fidelity. A high sense of 
duty and an ambition to improve the 
service should characterize all public offi- 

There are many ways in which the con- 
venience and comfort of these who have 
business with our public officers may be 
promoted by a thoughtful and obliging 
officer, and I shall expect those whom I 
may appoint to justify their selection 
by a conspicuous efficiency in the discharge 
of their duties. Honorable party service 
will certainly not be esteemed by me a 
disqualification for public office, but it 
will in no case be allowed to serve as a 
shield of official negligence, incompetency, 
or delinquency. It is entirely creditable 
to seek public office by proper methods 
and with proper motives, and all appli- 
cants will be treated with consideration; 
but I shall need, and the heads of depart- 
ments will need, time for inquiry and de- 
liberation. Persistent importunity will 
not, therefore, be the best support of 
an application for office. Heads of de- 
partments, bureaus, a