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From 458 a.d. to 1909 l\'l\] 





BOOK OF THE WAR OF l8l2" ETC., ETC., ETC. '/ "/ >>j)3 























Copvriffht, 1905, by Harper & Brothers. 

Copyright, 1901, by Harper & Brothrrs. 

W^/ f'iffhts reserved. 


President Abraham Lincoln Frontispiece 

President Andrew Jackson Facing page 96 

The Burning of Jamestown " "120 

President Thomas Jefferson " " 130 

President Andrew Johnson " " 160 

Lincoln Making His Famous Speech at Gettys- 
burg , , . . ** ** 430 






Iberville, Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d', 
founder of Louisiana; born in Montreal, 
Canada, July 16, 1661; was one of eleven 
brothers who figure in some degree in 
French colonial history. Entering the 
French navy at fourteen, he became dis- 
tinguished in the annals of Canada for 
his operations against the English in the 
north and east of that province. In 1698 
he was sent from France to the Gulf of 
Mexico with two frigates (Oct. 22), to 
occupy the mouth of the Mississippi and 
the region neglected after the death of La 
Salle. On finding that stream, he re- 
ceived from the Indians a letter left 
by De Tonty, in 1686, for La Salle. There 
he built Fort Biloxi, garrisoned it, and 
made his brother Bienville the King's lieu- 
tenant. In May, 1699, he returned to 
France, but reappeared at Fort Biloxi in 
January, 1700. On visiting France and 
returning in 1701, he found the colony 
reduced by disease, and transferred the 
settlement to Mobile, and began the coloni- 
zation of Alabama. Disease had im- 
paired his health, and the government 
called him away from his work as the 
founder of Louisiana. He was engaged in 
the naval service in the West Indies, 
where he was fatally stricken by yellow 
fever, dying in Havana, Cuba, July 9, 

Idaho, the thirtieth State admitted to 
the American Union, was first explored by 
the whites of the Lewis and Clark ex- 
pedition. Within its present limit the 
Coeur d'Alene mission was established in 
1842. The region was visited almost ex- 
V. — A 

clusively by hunters and trappers till 
1852, when gold was discovered on its 
present northern boundary. By act of 
Congress of March 3, 1863, the Territory 
of Idaho was created from a portion of 
Oregon Territory, with an area which in- 
cluded the whole of the present State oi 


Montana and nearly ail of that of Wyo- 
ming. In 1864 the Territory lost a part ol 
its area to form the Territory of Montana, 
and in 1868 another large portion was cut 
from it to form the Territory of Wyo- 
ming. On July 3, 1890, the Territory was 
admitted into the Union as a State, hav- 
ing then a gross area of 84,800 square 
miles. Between the dates of its creation 
as a Territory and a State it became wide- 
ly noted as a most promising field for gold 


and silver mining, and for several years 
later, Idaho was classed politically as a 
silver State. Prospecting, however, de- 
veloped a large number of- rich paying 
gold properties, and during the copper 
excitement of 1898-1901 many veins of 
that mineral were found. During the 
calendar year !899 the gold mines of Idaho 
yielded a combined product valued at 
$1,889,000; and the silver mines a pro- 
duct having a commercial value of $2,311,- 
080. The development of the various min- 
ing interests was seriously retarded for 
many years by the lack of transporta- 
tion facilities, but by 1900 railroads 
had been extended to a number of im- 
portant centres, and wagon-roads had been 
constructed connecting direct with the 
chief mining properties. Tlie State also 
had a natural resource of inestimable 
value in its forests, with great variety of 
timber. The chief agricultural productions 
are wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and hay, 
and the combined values of these ci-ops in 
the calendar year 1903 was $13,921,8.55, 
the hay crop alone exceeding in value 
$6,800,000. For 1903 the equalized valu- 
ation of all taxable property was $65,- 
964.785, and the total bonded debt was 
$692,500, largely incurred for the construc- 
tion of wagon-roads. The population in 
1890 was 84,385; in 1900, 161,772. See 
United States, Idaho, vol. ix. 



George L. Shoup.... 

Fred. T Dubo.s 

Hfury HeilfeUi 

Welden B. Heybiirn. 
Fred. T. Dubois 

No. of Congress. 

51st to 

51st " 51th 
.iStli " 57th 

58th " 

59th " 


1890 to 1897 

1897 '• lyU3 

1903 " 

1905 " 




Wm. H. Wallace , 

1863 to 1864 

18G4 " 1866 

David W. B.iUard 

1866 " 1867 

Samuel Bard 

1870 to 1871 

Alexander Connor 


Thomas M. Bowen 


Thomas W. Bennett 

1871 to 1876 

Miison Bravman 

1876 " 1880 

.lohn B.Neil 

1880 " 1883 


Wm. N. Burn 

1884 to 1885 

Edwin A. Steyens 

1885 " 1889 




George I,. Shoup 

N. B. Willev 

1890 to 1893 

Wm. J. McConnell 

1893 " 1897 

Frank Stenaenberg 

1897 " 1901 

Frank W. Hunt 

1901 «< 1903 

John T. .M orrison 

1903 " 1905 

Frank R Gooding 

1905 " 

Ide, George Barton, clergyman; born 
in Coventry, Vt., in 1804; graduated at 
Middlebury College in 1830; ordained in 
the Baptist Church; pastor of the First 
Baptist Church of Philadelphia, Pa., in 
1838-52, and afterwards had a charge in 
Springfield, Mass., for twenty years. He 
published ■ Green Hollow ; Battle Echoes, 
or Lessons from the War; etc. He died 
in Springfield, Mass., April 16, 1872. 

Ide, Henry Clay, jurist; born in Bar- 
net, Vt., Sept. 18, 1844; graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1866. He was a 
member of the Vermont State Senate in 
1882-85; president of the Republican 
State Convention in 1884; and a delegate 
to the National Republican Convention in 
1888. In 1891 he was appointed United 
States commissioner to Samoa; in 1893- 
97 was chief-justice of the islands under 
the appointment of England, Germany, 
and the United States; in 1900 became a 
member of the Philippine Commission; 
and in 1901 Secretary of Finance and 
Justice of the Philippines. See Samoa. 

Ik Marvel. See Mitchell, Donald 

Illiers, Count Henry Louis, military 
officer; born in Luxembourg in 1750; was 
one of the French officers who served in 
the Revolutionary War; took part in the 
battle of the Brandywine, where he saved 
Pulaski. He was the author of De la 
guerre d'Amerique, etc. He died in Paris 
in 1794. 

Illinoia, name proposed by Jefferson 
for a State of part of the Northwest Ter- 

Illinois and Michigan Canal. In 
1822 Congress granted a right of way, 
and in 1827 a grant of land. Work 
was begun in 1836 as a lock canal, and 
Avas opened for navigation in 1848. In 
1865 the canal was improved so as to 
drain Chicago, and in 1871 the canal re- 
verted to the State. The canal was com- 
pleted during 1892-1900, at a cost of 
$45,000,000, and will eventually be made 
into ship-canal. 


Illinois is in the upper Mississippi Val- 
ley, lying between the parallels 42° 30' 
and 36° 59' N., and lon<;itude 87° 35' and 
91° 40' W. Its territory extends on the 
Ohio and ]\lississippi rivers and Lake 
Michigan. Area 50.000 square miles, or 
about 35,500,000 acres, divided into 102 

Physical Characteristics. — The surface is 
comparatively level, nowhere over 1,000 
feet above the ocean -level, gradually 
sloping from the north to the south. The 
lowest level is at the junction of the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers, about 300 feet. 
There are few forests, most of the surface 
being open prairie. The soil is rich and 
well watered. The chief river is the 
Illinois, formed by the junction of the Des 
Plaines, from Wisconsin, and the Kanka- 
kee, from Indiana, and emptying into the 
Mississippi near Alton. Of its 500 miles 
about one-half are navigable. The Kas- 
kaskia, 250 miles, the Rock River, and the 
Big Muddy are also affluents of the Missis- 
sippi. The Big Vermilion, Enibarras, and 
Little Wabash empty into the Wabash, 
which forms a part of the eastern boun- 
dary of the State. 

ing, freestone, and marble are among the 
many other mineral treasures. 

Population. — By the United States 
Census, 1870, 2,539,891; 1880, 3,077,871; 
1890, 3,82G,.351; 1900, 4.821,550. Twenty- 
four cities have (United States Census, 
1900) from 10,000 to 50.000 inhabitants, 
and Chicago had 1,098,575. 

^Manufactures. — Tlie reports of the 
twelfth United States Census, for 1900, 
show a total of 38,300 establishments in 
Illinois, -with 395,110 wage-earners, and 
products valued at $1,259,730,108. In the 
following comparative reports, 23,980 
establishments, with 02,239 wage-earners, 
producing $138,801,800 (being an average 
product of $5,790 per establishment), have 
been omitted for the reason that these 
represent " neighborhood industries and 
hand trades," whereas the comparative 
figures are for establishments under what 
is known as the " factory " system. 

The Director of the United States 
Census, under date of October 18, 1906, 
issued the following comparative sum- 
mary between 1900 and 1905 omitting 
the " neighborhood industries and hand 
trades " : 

Number of establishments 


Salaried officials, clerks, etc., number 


Wage-earners, average number 

Total wages 

Men 16 years and over 


Women 16 years and over 


Children mider 10 j-ears 


Miscellaneous expenses 

Cost of materials used . 

Value of products, including custom-work and 




Per cent, of 





























Geology. — The greater part of tiie State Railroads and Commerce. — Lake Michi- 
belongs to the Carboniferous era. The gan gives an outlet to the other States on 
coal-field is nearly 400 miles long and 200 the Great Lakes, and by way of the St. 
miles wide. The product is almost wholly Lawrence River with the Atlantic Ocean, 
bituminous. In the northern part of the The Ohio and Mississippi ri%-ers, with 
State lead, zinc, copper, and iron are various tributary streams in Illinois, fur- 
found. Limestone, for burning and build- nish an outlet to the Gulf of Mexico. 



The two systems are connected by the Il- 
linois AND Michigan Canal (q. v.). 


Owing to the level surface of the land 
and the two grand focal points of trade, 
Chicago (q. v.) and St. Louis (q. v.), 
most of the grand trunk-lines run through 
the State. In 1906 there were over 11,- 
000 miles of railroad in the State, being 
about twenty miles for every 10,000 in- 
habitants. (See Chicago.) 

Banks. — In 1906 there were nearly 300 
National banks, with a capital of about 
$50,000,000, and deposits of over $2,50,- 
000,000. The private banks, nearly 200 in 
number, had deposits of about $90,000,000. 
The savings-banks had deposits of over 

Education. — In 1900 there were 1,588,- 
000 persons in the State between the ages 
of six and twenty-one, of whom 960,000 
were enrolled in the public schools. There 
are five Normal schools and over thirty 
colleges and universities. (See Chicago.) 

Agriculture. — Practically all the soil of 
Illinois is exceedingly fertile, and 91.5 
per cent, was in farms, of which 85 per- 
cent, were improved. The relative impor- 
tance of the different crops is shown by 
the following figures for 1900: Corn, 10,- 
266,335 acres; oats, 4,570,034; wheat, 
1,826,144; hay, 3,343,910; rye, 78,869; bar- 
ley, 21,375; potatoes, 136,464. The com- 
bined value of these crops in 1904 was 
nearly $15,000,000. The farm animals 
in the same census were: Dairy cows, 
1.007,664; other cattle, 2,096,346; horses. 

1,350,219; swine, 5,915,468; sheep, 629,- 
150; mules, 127,173. 

History. — The site of the present State 
was first explored by Louis Joliet and 
Father Marquette in 1673. They were fol- 
lowed by La Salle, who made his way 
down the Illinois and the Mississippi to 
the Gulf of Mexico by 1682. In 1680 he 
built Fort Crevecceur, near Peoria, but this 
was abandoned in 1683 for Fort St. Louis, 
built up the river near Ottawa. Within 
twenty years missions or settlements were 
made at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Peoria. 
In 1717 these settlements were definitely 
included in the province of Louisiana, but 
the entire white population, even in 1750, 
was only 1,100. By the treaty of 1763 
the " Illinois " passed under the jurisdic- 
tion of the English. During the Revolu- 
tion, George Eogers Clark (q. v.) was 
commissioned by Governor Patrick Henry, 
of Virginia, to conquer the territory. 
Clark captured Kaskaskia in 1778, and 
in 1779 he made the famous winter march 
across Illinois and captured Vincennes. 
By the treaty of 1783 it was ceded to the 
United States, and in 1787 formed a part 
of the Northwest Territory. 

In 1800 Ohio was made a separate terri- 
tory; and in 1805 Michigan Territory, and 
in 1809 Indiana Territory, were set off. 
This left the present States of Illinois, 
Wisconsin, and a part of Minnesota in the 
Illinois Territory. In 1818 Illinois, with 
its present limits, was admitted into the 
Union, with some 35,000 inhabitants. 

On Oct. 14, 1812. Gen. Samuel Hopkins, 
with 2,000 mounted Kentucky riflemen, 
crossed the Wabash on an expedition 
against the Kickapoo and Peoria Indian 
villages, in the Illinois country, the former 
80 miles from his starting-place, the lat- 
ter 120 miles. The army was a free-and- 
easy, undisciplined mob, that chafed un- 
der restraint. Discontent, seen at the 
beginning, soon assumed the forms of 
complaint and murmuring. The army 
was scarcely saved from perishing in the 
burning grass of a prairie, supposed to 
have been set on fire by the Indians. The 
troops would march no farther. Hopkins 
called for 500 volunteers to follow him 
into Illinois. Not one responded. They 
would not submit to his leadership, and 
he followed his army back to Fort Har- 
rison, where they arrived Oct. 25. This 


march of 80 or 90 miles into the Indian 
country had greatly alarmed the Indians, 
and so did some good. Another expedi- 
tion, under Colonel Russell, composed of 
two small companies of United States 
regulars, with a small body of mounted 
militia under Gov. Ninian Edwards (who 
assumed the chief command ) , in all 400 
men, penetrated deeply into the Indian 
country, but, hearing nothing of Hopkins, 
did not venture to attempt much. They 
fell suddenly upon the principal Kicka- 
poo towns, 20 miles from Lake Peoria, 
drove the Indians into a swamp, and made 
them fly in terror across the Illinois 
River. Probably fifty Indians had per- 
ished. The expedition returned after an 
absence of eighteen days. 

General Hopkins discharged the muti- 
neers and organized another expedition of 
1,250 men. Its object was the destruction 
of Prophetstown. The troops were com- 
posed of Kentucky militia, some regulars 
under Capt. Zachary Taylor, and two 
companies of Rangers, scouts, and spies. 
They reached Prophetstown Nov. 19th. 
Then a detachment fell upon and burned 
a Winnebago town of forty houses, 4 
miles below Prophetstown. The latter and 
a large Kickapoo village near it were also 
laid in ashes. The village contained 160 
huts, with all the winter provisions, which 
were destroyed. On the 21st a part of 
the expedition fell into an Indian am- 
bush and lost eighteen men, killed, 
wounded, and missing. The troops, espe- 
cially the Kentuckians, clad in the rem- 
nants of their summer clothing, returned 
without attempting anything more. They 
suffered dreadfully on their return march. 

Among the prominent events of the War 
of 1812-15 in that region was the massacre 
at Chicago (q. v.). After that war the 
population rapidly increased. The cen- 
sus of 1829 showed a population of more 
than 55,000. The Black Hawk War 
(7. V.) occurred in Illinois in 1832. There 
the Mormons established themselves in 
1840, at Nauvoo (see Mot?mons) ; and 
their founder was slain by a mob at 
Carthage in 1844. A new State con- 
stitution was framed in 1847, and in 
July, 1870, the present constitution was 
adopted. The Illinois Central Railroad, 
completed in 1856, has been a source of 
great material prosperity for the State. 

During the Civil War Illinois furnished 
to the national government (to Dec. 1, 
1864) 197,304 troops. 

In 1903 the equalized valuations of 
taxable property aggregated $1,083,672,- 
183, with practically no debt. See 
United States, Illinois, vol. ix. 


Ninian Edwards commissioned. ...April 24, 


Shadrach Bond .assumes office 

Edward Coles " " 

Ninian Edwards " " 

.lohn Reynolds " " 

Willi,\m L. D. Ewing. . .acting 

Joseph Duncan assumes office 

Thomas Carlin " " 

Thomas Ford " " 

Augustus C. French.... " " 

Joel A. Matteson " " 

William H. Bissell " " 

John Wood noting March 18, 

Richard Yates assumes office January, 

Richard J. Oglesby " 

John M. Palmer " 

Richard J. Oglesby " 

.John L. Beveridge. . . .acting March 4, 

.Shelby M. Cullnm assumes office. ... January, 

John M. Hamilton acting Feb. 7. 

Rii^hard J. Oglesby January, 

Jo.seph W. Fifer " 

John P. Altgeld " 

John R. Tanner " 

Richard Yates " 

C. S. Deneen 






Ninian Edwards 

Jesse B. Thomas 

John McLean 

Elias Kent Kane 

David J. Raker 

John M. Robinson 

William L. D. Ewing 

Richard M. Young 

Samuel McRoberts 

Sidney Breese 

James Semple 

Stephen A. Douglas 

Jauies Shields 

Lyman Trumbull 

Orville H. Browning.... 
William A. Richardson... 

Richard Yates 

John A. Logan , 

Richard J. Oglesby 

David Davis 

John A. Logan 

Shelby M. CuUum 

Charles B. Farwell , 

John M. Palmer . 

William E. Mason 

Albert J. Hopkins 

No. of Congress. 

liith to 18th 
15th " 19th 
18th " 20th 
19th " 23d 

21st to 27th 

25th to 27th 

28th to 31st 

29th to 37th 
31st " 33d 
34th " 42d 

37th to 39th 







.50 th 





551 li 


1818 to 

1818 " 

1824 " 

1826 " 


1831 to 


1837 to 

1841 " 

1843 " 

1843 " 

1S47 " 

1849 " 

lSo5 " 


1863 to 

1865 " 

1871 " 

1873 " 

1877 " 

1879 " 

18«3 " 

18 s7 " 

1891 " 

1897 " 

1903 " 






Illinois Indians, a family of the 
Algonquian nation that comprised several 


clans — Peorias, Moing^^enas, Kaskaskias, parties in recent years have made al- 
Tamaroas, and Cahokias. At a very early most identical declarations in their na- 
period they drove a Dakota tribe west of tional platforms. The Republican JNa- 
the Mississippi. There were the Quapaws. tional Convention declared: "For the 
In 1640 they almost exterminated the protection of the quality of our Ameri- 
Winnebagos; and soon afterwards they can citizenship, and of the wages of our 
waged war with the Iroquois and Sioux, working-men against the fatal competi- 
Marquette found some of them near Des tion of low - priced labor, we demand 
Moines in 1672; also the Peorias and that the immigration laws be thoroughly 
Kaskaskias on the Illinois River. The enforced, and so extended as to exclude 
Tamaroas and Cahokias were on the Mis- from entrance to the United States those 
sissippi. The Jesuits found the chief II- who can neither read nor write. In the 
linois town consisting of 8.000 people, in further interest of American Avorkmen we 
nearly 400 large cabins. In 1679 they favor a more effective restriction of the 
were badly defeated by the Iroquois, immigration of cheap labor from foreign 
losing about 1,300, of whom 900 were lands the extension of opportunities of 
prisoners ; and they retaliated by assist- education for working children, the rais- 
ing the French against the Five Nations, ing of the age limit for child labor, the 
The Illinois were converted to Christianity protection of free labor as against con- 
by Father Marquette and other mission- tract convict labor, and an effective sys- 
aries, and in 1700 Chicago, their gi'eat tem of labor insurance." The Democratic 
chief, visited France. When Detroit was National Convention called for the strict 
besieged by the Foxes, in 1712, the II- enforcement of the Chinese exclusion act 
linois went to its relief. Some were with and its application to the same classes of 
the French at Fort Duquesne ; but they all Asiatic races. 

refused to join Pontiac in his conspiracy. Immigration Stotistics. — During the 

They favored the English in the war of period 1789-1820, when no thorough over- 

the Revolution, and joined in the treaty sight was exercised it is estimated that 

at Greenville in 1795. They ceded their the number of immigrants into the United 

lands and a portion of them went to States aggregated 250.000; and during 

Kansas, where they remained until 1867, the period 1820-1900 the aggregate was 

when they were removed to a reservation 19.765,155. Since 1900 the yearly totals 

of 72.000'acres southwest of the Quapaws. have been 1901, 487,918; 1902. 648.743: 

Iloilo, the principal city and capital 1903, 857,046; 1904. 812.870; 1905, 

of the island of Panay, and one of the 1.027.421. Of these 275.000 came from 

three ports of entry in the Philippine Austria - Hungary. 220.000 from Itah^, 

group opened to commerce in 1899. It is 185.000 from Russia. 137.000 from Great 

situated 225 miles south of Manila, at Britain. 40.000 from Germany. For 1906 

the southeastern extremity of Panay. and the estimate is nearly 1,250,000. These 

is built on low, marshy ground. The figures do not take into consideration the 

population in 1900 was over 10,000. movement of population between the 

Ilpendam, Jan Jaxsex vax. merchant; United States, Canada, and Mexico, 

appointed custom-house officer on the Immigralion Act of 1891. — This meas- 

Delaware. and put in command of Fort ure " in amendment of the various acts 

Nassau in 1640 by the Dutch governor relative to immigration and the importa- 

of New York. He tried to keep the Eng- tion of aliens under contract or agree- 

lish colony from trading on the Delaware, ment to perform labor," was introduced 

He died at IMarcus Hook, Pa., in 1685. in the House by Mr. Owen, of Indiana, 

Imlay, Gilbert, author ; born in New and referred to the committee on inimi- 
Jersey in 1750; served throughout the gration and naturalization. It was re- 
Revolutionary War; was the author of ported back, discussed, and amended, and 
A Topographical Description of the West- passed the House Feb. 25, 1891, as fol- 
ern Territory of yorth America; The Emi- lows: 

grants, or the History of an Exiled "Be it enacted, etc., that the follow- 

Family. ine classes of aliens shall be excluded 

Immigration. The leading political from admission into the United States, 



in accordance with the existing acts regu- 
lating immigration, other than those con- 
cerning Chinese laborers: All idiots, in- 
sane persons, paupers or persons likely 
to become a public charge, persons suffer- 
ing from a loathsome or dangerous con- 
tagious disease, persons who have been 
convicted of a felony or other infamous 
crime or misdemeanor involving moral 
turpitude, polygamists, and also any per- 
son whose ticket or passage is paid for 
with money of another or who is assisted 
by others to come, unless it is affirma- 
tively and satisfactorily shown on special 
inquiry that such person does not belong 
to one of the foregoing excluded classes, 
or to the class of contract laborers ex- 
cluded by the act of Feb. 9.Q, 1885. But 
this section shall not be hold to exclude 
persons living in the United States from 
sending for a relative or friend who is 
not of the excluded classes, under such 
regulations as the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury may prescribe ; Provided, that noth- 
ing in this act shall be construed to 
apply to exclude persons convicted of a 
political offence, notwithstanding said po- 
litical offence may be designated as a 
' felony, crime, infamous crime or mis- 
demeanor involving moral turpitude ' by 
the laws of the land whence he came or 
by the court convicting. 

" Sec. 2. That no suit or proceeding for 
violations of said act of Feb. 26, 1885, 
prohibiting the importation and migra- 
tion of foreigners under contract or agree- 
ment to perform labor, shall be settled, 
compromised, or discontinued without the 
consent of the court entered of record 
with reasons therefor. 

" Sec. 3. That it shall be deemed a vio- 
lation of said act of Feb. 26, 1885, to 
assist or encourage the importation or mi- 
gration of any alien by promise of em- 
ployment through advertisements printed 
and published in any foreign country: 
and any alien coming to this country in 
consequence of such an advertisement 
shall be treated as coming under a con- 
tract as contemplated by such act; and 
the penalties by said act imposed shall be 
applicable in such a case; Provided, this 
section shall not apply to States, and im- 
migration bureaus of States, advertising 
the inducements they offer for immigra- 
tion to such States. 

" Sec. 4. That no steamship or trans- 
portation company or owners of vessels 
shall, directly, or through agents, either 
by writing, printing, or oral representa- 
tions, solicit, invite, or encourage the im- 
migration of any alien into the United 
States except by ordinary commercial 
letters, circulars, advertisements, or oral 
representations, stating the sailings of 
their vessels and the terms and facilities 
of transportation therein; and for a vio- 
lation of this provision any such steam- 
ship or transportation company, and any 
such owners of vessels, and the agents by 
them employed, shall be subjected to the 
penalties imposed by the third section of 
said act of Feb. 26, 1885, for violations 
of the provisions of the first section of 
said act. 

" Sec. 5. That section 5 of said act of 
Feb. 26, 1885, shall be, and hereby is, 
amended by adding to the second proviso 
in said section the words ' nor to minis- 
ters of any religious denomination, nor 
persons belonging to any recognized pro- 
fession, nor professors for colleges and 
seminaries,' and by excluding from the 
second proviso of said section the words 
' or any relative or personal friend.' 

" Sec. 6. That any person who shall 
bring into or land in the United States 
by vessel or otherwise, or who shall aid 
to bring into or land in the United 
States by vessel or otherwise, any alien 
not lawfully entitled to enter the United 
States, shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, and shall, on conviction, be 
punished by a fine not exceeding $1,000, 
or by imprisonment for a term not ex- 
ceeding one year, or by both such fine and 

" Sec. 7. That the office of superintend- 
ent of immigration is hereby created and 
established, and the President, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate, is authorized and directed to appoint 
such officer, whose salary shall be $4,000 
per annum, payable monthly. The super- 
intendent of immigration shall be an 
officer in the Treasury Department, under 
the control and supervision of the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, to Avhom he shall 
make annual reports in writing of the 
transactions of his office, together with such 
special reports, in writing, as the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury shall require. The 


Secretary shall provide the superintendent 
with a suitably furnished office in the 
city of Washington, and with such books 
of record and facilities for the discharge 
of the duties of his office as may be 
necessary. He shall have a chief clerk, 
at a salary of $2,000 per annum, and two 
first-class clerks. 

" Sec. 8. That upon the arrival by wa- 
ter at any place within the United States 
of any alien immigrants it shall be the 
duty of the commanding officer and the 
agent of the steam or sailing vessel by 
which they came to report the name, na- 
tionality, last residence, and destination 
of every such alien, before any of them 
are landed, to the proper inspection offi- 
cers, who shall thereupon go or send com- 
petent assistants on board such vessel 
and there inspect all such aliens, or the 
inspection officer may order a temporary 
removal of such aliens for examination 
at a designated time and place, and then 
and there detain them until a thorough 
inspection is made. But such removal 
shall not be considered a landing during 
the pendency of such examination. 

" The medical examination shall be 
made by surgeons of the marine hospital 
service. In cases where the services of a 
marine hospital surgeon cannot be ob- 
tained without causing unreasonable de- 
lay, the inspector may cause an alien to 
be examined by a civil surgeon, and the 
Secretary of the Treasury shall fix the 
compensation for such examinations. 

" The inspection officers and their as- 
sistants shall have power to administer 
oaths, and to take and consider testimony 
touching the right of any such aliens to 
enter the United States, all of which shall 
be entered of record. During such inspec- 
tion after temporary removal the super- 
intendent shall cause such aliens to be 
properly housed, fed, and cared for, and 
also, in his discretion, such as are delayed 
in proceeding to their destination after 

" All decisions made by the inspection 
officers or their assistants touching the 
right of any alien to land, when adverse 
to such right, shall be final unless appeal 
be taken to the superintendent of immi- 
gration, whose action shall be subject to 
review by the Secretary of the Treasury. 
It shall be the duty of the aforesaid offi- 

cers and agents of such vessel to adopt 
due precautions to prevent the landing 
of any alien immigrant at any place or 
time other than that designated by the 
inspection officers, and any such" officer 
or agent or person in charge of such ves- 
sel who shall either knowingly or negli- 
gently land or permit to land any alien 
immigrant at any place or time other 
than that designated by the inspection 
oflicers, shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor and punished by a fine not ex- 
ceeding $1,000, or by imprisonment for 
a term not exceeding one year, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment. 

" That the Secretary of the Treasury 
may prescribe rules for inspection along 
the borders of Canada, British Columbia, 
and Mexico so as not to obstruct, or un- 
necessarily delay, impede, or annoy pas- 
sengers in ordinary travel between said 
countries: Provided, that not exceeding 
one inspector shall be appointed for each 
customs district, and whose salary shall 
not exceed $1,200 per year. 

" All duties imposed and powers con- 
ferred by the second section of the act of 
Aug. 3, 1882, upon State commissioners, 
boards, or officers acting under contract' 
with the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
be performed and exercised, as occasion 
may arise, by the inspection officers of 
the United States. 

" Sec. 9. That for the preservation of the 
peace and in order that arrest may be 
made for crimes under the laws of the 
Slates where the various United States 
immigrant stations are located, the offi- 
cials in charge of such stations, as occa- 
sion may require, shall admit therein the 
proper State and municipal officers charged 
with the enforcement of such laws, and 
for the purposes of this section the juris- 
diction of such officers and of the local 
courts shall extend over such stations. 

" Sec 10. That all aliens who may un- 
lawfully come to the United States shall, 
if practicable, be immediately sent back 
on the vessel by which they were brought 
in. The cost of their maintenance while 
on land, as well as the expense of the re- 
turn of such aliens, shall be borne by the 
owner or owners of the vessel on which 
such aliens came; and if any master, 
agent, consignee, or owner of such vessel 
shall refuse to receive back on board the 


vessel such aliens, or shall neglect to de- the United States gives the House ot 
tain them thereon, or shall refuse or neg- Representatives sole power to impeach the 
lect to return them to the port from President, Vice-President, and all civil 
which they came, or to pay the cost of officers of the United States by a numeri- 
their maintenance while on land, such cal majority only. It also gives the Sen- 
master, agent, consignee, or owner shall ate sole power to try all impeachments, 
be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and The Senate then sits as a court, organiz- 
shall be punished by a fine not less than ing anew, Senators taking a special oath 
$300 for each and every offence; and any or affirmation applicable to the proceed- 
such vessel shall not have clearance from ing. From their decision there is no 
any port of the United States while any appeal. A vote of two-thirds of the Sen- 
such fine is unpaid. ate is necessary to convict. When the 

" Sec. 11. That any alien who shall come President is tried the chief-justice pre- 
into the United States in violation of law sides. The punishment is limited by the 
may be returned, as by law provided, at Constitution (1) to removal from office; 
any time within one year thereafter, at (2) to disqualification from holding and 
the expense of the person or persons, ves- enjoying any office of honor, trust, or 
sel, transportation company or corpora- profit under the United States government, 
tion bringing such alien into the United Important cases: (1) William Blount, 
States, and if that cannot be done, then United States Senator from Tennessee, for 
at the expense of the United States; and conspiring to transfer New Orleans from 
any alien who becomes a public charge Spain to Great Britain, 1797-98; ac- 
within one year after his arrival in quitted for want of evidence. (2) John 
the United States from causes existing Pickering, judge of the district court of 
prior to his landing therein shall be New Hampshire, charged with drunken- 
deemed to have come in violation of law ness, profanity, etc.; convicted March 12, 
and shall be returned as aforesaid. 1803. (3) Judge Samuel Chase, impeach- 

" Sec. 12. That nothing contained in this ed March 30, 1804; acquitted March 1, 

■act shall be construed to affect any pros- 1805. (4) James H. Peck, district judge 

ecution or other proceeding, criminal or of Missouri, impeached Dec. 13, 1830, for 

civil, begun under any existing act or arbitrary conduct, etc.; acquitted. (5) 

acts hereby amended, but such prosecution West H. Humphreys, district judge of 

or other proceeding, criminal or civil, Tennessee, impeached and convicted for 

shall proceed as if this act had not been rebellion, Jan. 26, 1862. (6) Andrew 

rapped. Johnson, President of the United States, 

" Sec. 13. That the circuit and district impeached " of high crimes and misde- 
courts of the United States are hereby meanors," Feb. 22, 1868; acquitted. (7) 
invested with full and concurrent juris- W. W. Belknap, Secretary of War, im- 
diction of all causes, civil and criminal, peached for receiving money of post- 
arising under any of the provisions of traders among the Indians, March 2, 1876; 
this act; and this act shall go into effect resigned at the same time; acquitted for 
on the first day of April, 1891." want of jurisdiction. 

The measure passed the Senate Feb. " Impending Crisis," the title of a 

27, and was approved by the President book written by Hinton R. Helper, of 

March .3, 1801. North Carolina, pointing out the evil ef- 

Immigration, Restriction of. See fects of slavery upon the whites, first 

I ODGE. Henry Cabot. published in 1857. It had a large sale 

Impeachment. The Constitution of ( 140,000 copies) and great influence. 


Imperialism. The Hon. William A. The arraignment of the national ad- 

Peffer, ex-Senator from Kansas, makes ministration by certain citizens on a 

the following important contribution to charge of imperialism, in the execution 

the discussion of this question: of its Philippine policy, brings up for 


discussion some important questions relat- portation, not exceeding ten dollars for eacb 

ing to the powers, duties, and responsibili- P^i'son. 

ties of government, among which are three These two provisions were intended to 

that I propose to consider briefly, namely: apply and did apply to negro slaves, of 

First. Whence comes the right to gov- whom there were in the country at that 

ern? What are its sphere and object? time about 500,000, nearly one - sixth 

Second. Are we, the people of the United of the entire population; and they, as a 

States, a self-governing people? class, together with our Indian neighbors 

Third. Is our Philippine policy anti- and the free people of color, were all ex- 
American? eluded from the ranks of those who par- 
j ticipated in the institution of our new 
government. Their consent to anything 

As to the right to govern — the right done or contemplated in the administra- 

to exercise authority over communities, tion of our public affairs was neither ask- 

states, and nations, the right to enact, ed nor desired. Their consent or dissent 

construe, and execute laws — whence it is did not enter into the problems of govern- 

derived? For what purposes and to what ment. It made no difference what their 

extent may it be properly assumed? wishes were, or to what they were op- 

In the Declaration of Independence it posed. A majority of such persons as en- 
is asserted that: joyed political privileges — they and they 

.,„,.,, ^, ^ ^. 4. ,, ,e -A 4- only — formed the new government and or- 
" We hold these truths to be self-evident, ■'..., -,, , i . ■! 

that all men are created equal ; that they ganized its powers, without regard to the 

are endowed by their Creator with certain disfranchised classes, as much so as if 

Inalienable rights ; that among these are ^hese classes had not been in existence, 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. . , . j-,-.- , ,■, .- 

That to secure these rights, governments are ^nd, m addition to the non-votmg peo- 

instituted among men, deriving their just pie, there were many white men in the 

powers from the consent of the governed," States who, by reason of their poverty, 

^ , . ., , ,, , , . were not permitted to vote, and hence 

But is it true that government, even m u . 5 i . • i i j.- 

,,. ... i'' . -, • , could not take part m popular elections, 

a republic like ours, derives its lust pow- _,. vuii!j.j.i,i fj-i 

^ , . , , J. J i.1. J o It IS, probably, safe to say that, of the 

ers only from the consent of the governed? , , i i.- £ xi x i t-u 

-r .^ . J- . -, . ■ X- • whole population of the country, when the 

Is it not a fact that at no time m our _, ,.f f. . • , a? ^ xi 

... , -.1 1. J 1 J XI. Constitution was put into eiiect, the nuni- 

history have we either had or asked the , xixij x-xi, i<xu 

^ , ,, ,, , .,, . . . ber that had no part m the work of estab- 

consent of all the people withm our juris- ,.,.,, x- i x -xv, 

,. , . X XT. r X 1 • 1 lishmg the national government, either 

diction, to the powers of government which . • x -x ixi i xi, u 

, ' , * . . ^ XI. o T for or against it, although they were sub- 

we have been exeieismg over them? Is ... °, , x-x x j x i x oc 

. , , ,, X XT. X V. lect to its rule, constituted at least 25 

IT not true, on the contrary, that we have ■' 

, . i •,, XI per cent, 

been governing many oi them, not only ^ c.,.,, x r xi. ox x 

• XI X XI • X 1. X • 1- X Still more. In every one of the States, 

without their consent, but m direct oppo- , ,. "^ , t-c j 

, .,, and among those persons, too, qualmea 

'i/~i 1-xx- r jx -J vote, there was opposition, more or 

The Constitution, framed to provide such , , \^ • x- c xJ 

, ^ x XT- • £ less, to the inauguration oi the new re- 

a form of government as the signers of . ' -.-r .-, ,^ ^■ j-j . x-r xi. 

,, T^ T :. 1 J • • J x • XI, gime. North Carolina did not ratity the 

the Declaration had m mmd, contains the % ,., ,. , .,, ,i , r 

„ „ . . . Constitution till more than two years at- 

followmg provision: , ,, ,. ,, , j, j -x i j j 

^ ' ter the convention that framed it had ad- 

" No person held to service or labor in one journed sine die ; and Rhode Island did 
State, under the laws thereof, escaping into ^^^ ^^^^^^ j^^^ ^j^g Union till May of Presi- 
another, shall, in consequence of any law or , , 
regulation therein, be discharged from such dent Washington s second year. _ 
service or labor, but shall be delivered up There is no way of ascertaining exact- 
on claim of the party to whom such service ]y .(.j^g number of voters who were opposed 
or labor may be due." ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^ ^^^^ consent to 

And this: it, and who would have defeated it if they 

" The migration or importation of such could ; but, if these be added to the dis- 

persons as any of the States now existing franchised classes, we have a total of at 

shall thViik proper to admit, shall not be least one-third of the inhabitants of the 

prohibited by the Congress prior to the year gQ^^try not consenting to the exercise of 

one thousand eight hundred and eight, but , •' , . ^ xi. v 4. 

a duty or tax may be imposed on such im- these governmental powers over them. Yet 



these powers were deemed by the majority 
that organized them to be just powers, 
and the said majority felt that they were 
justified in executing them. 

Thomas Jellersou held " the vital prin- 
ciple of republics " to be " absolute acqui- 
escence in the decisions of the major- 
ity." But whence comes the right of a 
majority to rule? And may the majority 
of to-day determine the course of the 
majority of to-morrow? Had two-thirds of 
a population of less than 4,000,000 in 
1789 the rightful authority to lay down 
rules of government for a population of 
75,000,000 in 1900— rules which we can- 
not change, save by revolution, unless we 
do it in accordance with forms prescribed 
by our ancestors more than 100 years 

We all believe with Jefferson that the 
right of a majority to rule in a republic 
is not to be challenged; and that the 
answer to these troublesome questions 
concerning the source of this undisputed 
right to govern can be found only in 
the theory that government is one of the 
essential agencies provided in the begin- 
ning by the Father above for the work of 
subduing the earth and bringing all men 
to Himself. The thought is tersely ex- 
pressed by St. Paul in his letter to the 
Romans : " There is no power but of God." 
" The powers that be are ordained of 
God." The ruler is a " minister of God." 

Man's right to life, liberty, and room 
to work in is inherent, and government 
follows as naturally as the seasons fol- 
low each other. As long as the individual 
man lives separated from his fellows, he 
needs no protection other than he is able 
himself to command; but when popu- 
lation increases and men gather in com- 
munities, governments are instituted 
among them in order to make these in- 
dividual rights secure; and then new 
rights appear, communal rights ; for 
communities, as well as individual per- 
sons, have rights. 

The necessity for government increases 
with the density of population, and the 
scope of its powers is enlarged with the 
extension of its territorial jurisdiction, 
the diversity of employments in which the 
citizenship are engaged, and the degree 
of refinement to which they have attained. 
The trapper, with his axe, knife, gun 

and sack, pursues his calling alone in the 
wilderness; but, with settlement, the 
forest disappears, farms are opened up, 
towns laid out, neighborhoods formed, 
laws become necessary, and government 

It is not necessary, however, that we 
should agree on the origin of govern- 
ment, for we know that, as a matter of 
fact, governments in one form or another 
have existed ever since the beginning of 
recorded history; and we know, further, 
that under the operation of these govern- 
ments 90 per cent, of the habitable sur- 
face of the globe has been reclaimed from 
barbarism. The whole world is to-day 
virtually within the jurisdiction of regu- 
larly organized powers of government, 
international law is recognized and en- 
forced as part of the general code of the 
nations, and the trend of the world's 
civilization is towards free institutions 
and popular forms of government. 


As to whether we are a self-governing 
people, the answer to this question de- 
pends upon whether all classes of the 
population within our jurisdiction share 
in the work of governing, or whether, as 
in the ancient republics, only a portion 
of the people are to be taken for the whole 
for purposes of government. 

In any age of the world, the character 
of government fairly represents the state 
of the world's inhabitants at that partic- 
ular period. That a people are not far 
enough advanced to form a government 
for themselves, and conduct its affairs 
in their own way, is not a reason why thej'^ 
should not have any government at all. 
On its lower level, government may ex- 
tend no further than the Avill of an 
ignorant despot, who holds the tenure 
of life and property in his hands ; but 
as men advance, they rise to higher levels 
and the sphere of government is enlarged. 
In the end it will, of necessity, embrace 
all human interests which are common. 

The members of the Continental Con- 
gress, in declaring the cause which im- 
pelled the separation of the colonies 
from the mother-country, began the con- 
cluding paragraph of the Declaration in 
these words: 



" We, therefore, the representatives of the submitted to the legislatures of the several 

United States of America, in Congress as- states for their action, it was strenuous- 

sembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of , , . ... j • ^ 

the world for the rectitude of our intentions, b' opposed in some of them, and received 

do, in the name, and by authority of the unanimous support in only three — Dela- 

good people of these colonies, solemnly pub- ware, New Jersey, and Georgia. The ma- 

lish and declare," etc. -^^^^^^ -^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^g ^^^^^ j^ C^n- 

„, , .. , , ^ ii 1 nectieut and South Carolina, while in 

The words good people of these colo- tt- • ■ .1 • -^ 1 j. i. 

... . , , , , , ,. J, , Virginia the maiority was only ten votes, 

nies included only such of the people as ^^^ .^ ^^^^ York only three. The vote in 

at that time participated m the work ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ g^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^j^^^^ Pennsyl- 

of local government, excluding those who ^ ^g ^^ ^3. Massachusetts, 187 to 

were opposed to separation. The Tones ^^.g. Maryland, 63 to 11; New Hampshire, 

-and there were a good many of them- ^^ ^^ _^g. ^^^ York, 30 to 27. North 

did not approve anything that the Con- Carolina and Rhode Island were two years 

gress did. They were regarded by the .^^ ^^^,,. ^^^.^ ^.^^^ ^^ ^ j^^^^ 

patriots as public enemies, and were kept .^^ ^j^^ Union 

under constant watch by committees of 

So we see that a majority of about 

inspection and observation in every county, ^wo-thirds (and that may have been in 
They were subject to arrest and imprison- ^^^^ j^^^ ^^^^ ^ majority of the whole 

ment — even to banishment; and in many 
instances their property was confiscated. 
The Congress surely did not speak in the 
name of the Tories, nor by their au- 

people) assumed to speak and act for all. 
The people of the United States have all 
along acted on that plan. We have gone 
even further than that. We have in some 

thority. „ ^ , , , . , cases expressly authorized minorities to 

The Articles of Confederation, under determine the gravest matters. The Con- 
the provisions of which the Congress acted ^^-^^^^-^^ provides that "a majority of 

after March 2, 1781, recognized as its 
constituency only " the free inhabitants 

each (House of Congress) shall consti- 
tute a quorum to do business " ; and " each 

of each of these States." Slaves, though ^^^^^ determine the rules of its pro- 

constituting nearly,_ if not quite, 16 per ^^.^^^ „ tj^^ Senate now consists of 

cent, of the population, were not reckoned 
among the political forces to be respect 
ed. Indians, likewise, were excluded 

ninety members; forty-six is a majority, 
constituting a quorum. Of this forty-six, 

^, V. ..... J .^ XT -J. J oi. i tv^enty-four form a maiority, and al- 

The Constitution of the United States ., i -. • ■, .-, 4.xf- a t +1, 

+1^ though it is less than one-third of the 

opens t us: whole body, may pass any measure that is 

. , ^ not required by the Constitution to re- 

"We, the people of the United States . ^ . ./ j. ii • j 4. 

... do ordain and establish this Constitu- ^eive a majority or a two-thirds vote— 

tion for the United States of America." a treaty, for example. And it is the same 

in the House of Representatives. 

But not more than two-thirds of the And, although a majority of the eleeto- 

population were represented in " We, the ral vote is required to choose a President 

people," and a majority of the two-thirds of the United States, it has frequently 

assumed the responsibilities of govern- happened that the successful candidate 

nient — rightfully, as all loyal Americans was opposed by a majority of the voters 

believe. The machinery of the republic of the country. 

was set in motion in 1789, and the census In the matter of amending the Con- 
taken the next year showed the total stitution, a majority of the voters may 
population to be 3,929,214, of which total favor any particular amendment proposed, 
number 757,208 were colored — mostly per- but it must be ratified by three-fourths 
sons of African descent, who were nearly of the legislatures of the several States 
all slaves, and these, with the other dis- before it becomes law. 
frano-hised classes, as before stated, made We not only have adopted the majority 
up about 33 per cent, of the population principle as a rule of government, but we 
that were not permitted to take part have uniformly insisted upon acquiescence 
in establishing the new government. in minority rule in any and all cases 
Furthermore, when the Constitution was where it has been so provided in ad'^ance. 



We have but to look at our record to 
see that, from the beginning, we have ex- 
cluded a very large proportion of our own 
people from all participation in affairs 
of government, and we have never accused 
ourselves of exercising unjust powers or 
undue authority. This fact strengthens 
the belief that there is a source of power 
which does not lie in the people at all — 
a " higher power," if you please. The 
Declaration of Independence conforms to 
this view, in affirming that men are " en- 
dowed by their Creator with certain in- 
alienable rights," and in appealing to 
the " Supreme Judge of the World," " with 
a firm reliance on the protection of Divine 


In order to determine whether our Phil- 
ippine policy is anti-American, we must 
examine the testimony of American his- 
tory, and see the record that Americans 
have made for themselves in their treat- 
ment of subject people in our own coun- 

Virginia and New England may fairly 
be taken as representative of the colo- 
nies up to the time of the Revolution, 
in so far as the Indian population is con- 

Patents to the London Company and to 
the Plymouth Company were issued in 
1006 by King James I., authorizing them 
to " possess and colonize that portion of 
North America lying between the thirtj'- 
fourth and forty - fifth parallels of north 
latitude." Wliat legal rights or privileges 
James had in America were based Avholly 
on the discoveries made by English navi- 
gators. Rights of the native inhabitants 
were not considered in the granting of 
these patents, nor in the subsequent col- 

The London Company colonized Vir- 
ginia and the Plymouth Company and its 
successors colonized New England. In 
both cases landings were effected and set- 
tlements begun witliout consulting the 
people that inhabited the country. 

As to Virginia, among the early acts 
of the Jamestown colony, under the lead 
of Captain Smith, was the procuring of 
food from the Indians by trading with 
them, and at the same time fortifying flie 
new settlement against Indian depreda- 

tions. Smith strengthened the fort in 
1608, trained the watch regularly and 
exercised the company every Saturday. 
\o organized opposition to the white set- 
tlement appeared during the first few 
years, though the Indians manifested their 
dissatisfaction in the arrest of Smith, 
whom they would have summarily put to 
death but for the intercession of the 
chief's daughter. But in 1622, under 
Opechancanough, they attacked the set- 
tlers, killed several hundred of them, and 
devastated a good many plantations. They 
were finally beaten back by the whites, 
many of them being unmercifully slaugh- 
tered, and the rest driven into the wilder- 
ness. Twenty-two years later, under the 
lead of the same chief, another war broke 
out, lasting two years, causing much loss 
of life and property on both sides, and 
resulting in the utter defeat of the Ind- 
ians and the cession by them of tracts 
of land to the colonists. This policy was 
pursued to the end of the colonial period. 

The Plymouth colony early sent Cap- 
tain Standish, with a few men, to confer 
with the natives and ascertain, if possible, 
the state of their feelings in regard to 
the white settlement; but the Indians 
eluded him and he learned nothing. The 
second year after this reconnoissance Can- 
onicus, king or chief of the Narragansets, 
by way of showing how he felt about it, 
sent to the Plymouth people a bundle of 
arrows tied with the skin of a rattle- 
snake. As an answer to this challenge, 
the skin was stuffed with powder and bul- 
lets and returned. These exchanges of 
compliments opened the way for a peace 
treaty between the settlers and several 
tribes ; but some of the chiefs were sus- 
picious of the whites and formed a con- 
spiracy to kill them off. The scheme com- 
ing to the knowledge of che colonists, it 
was frustrated by Standish and his com- 
pany, who treacherouslj' killed two chiefs. 
A treaty of peace with the Narragansets 
soon followed this occurrence, and it re- 
mained in force until the Wampanoags, 
weary of encroachments on their lands 
by the whites, made war on them under 
the leadership of King Philip, in 1675. 

Among the incidents of that Avar, and 
as showing tlie temper of the colonists, 
may be mentioned the destruction of the 
Narraganset fort and the subsequent capt- 



ure and treatment of Philip. The fort to this subject race in our new territorial 
sheltered about 3,000 Narragansets, most- acquisitions we shall now see. 
ly women and children. It was surprised The region bounded on the north by 
during a snow-storm, the palisades and the Great Lakes, on the east by the Alle- 
wigwams were fired, and the Indians were ghany Mountains, on the south by the 
driven forth by the flames to be either Oliio River, on the west by the Missis- 
burned, suffocated, frozen, butchered, or sippi, out of which have grown the States 
drowned in the surrounding swamp. His- of Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, 
tory says that " 500 wigwams were de- and Indiana, had been claimed under their 
stroyed, 600 warriors killed, 1,000 women charters by Virginia, New York, Connecti- 
and children massacred, and the winter's cut, and Massachusetts, but they ceded 
provisions of the tribe reduced to ashes." their claims to the United States. The 
'■ The government set a price of 30s. per country so ceded was our first territorial 
head for every Indian killed in battle, and acquisition, and became known as the 
many women and children were sold into Northwest Territory. A government was 
slavery in South America and the West jirovided for it under the ordinance of 
Indies." Towards the last, Captain 1787, and President Washington, in 1789, 
Church, tne noted Indian fighter, headed appointed Gen. Arthur St. Clair its gov- 
an expedition to find Philip and destroy ernor. The various tribes of Indians in- 
the remainder of the Wampanoags. habiting that part of the country object- 
Philip was hunted from place to place, and cd to the jurisdiction of the whites, just 
at last found in camp on Aug. 12, 1676. as some of the Filipinos have done in the 
The renegade Indian who betrayed the Philippine Islands, and they made war 
Narraganset camp led Captain Church to on the whites, under Michikiniqua, chief 
the camp of Philip. The attack was made of the Miamis, as the Filipinos have done 
at night, while the Indians were asleep, under Aguinaldo, chief of the Tagals. 
Philip, in attempting to escape, was recog- Under date of Oct. 6, 1789, President 
nized by an Indian ally of the whites and Washington forwarded instructions to 
shot dead as he stumbled and fell into Governor St. Clair, in which he said: 
the mire. His body was dragged forward, " It is highly necessary that I should, 
and Church cut off his head, which as soon as possible, possess full informa- 
was borne on the point of a spear to tion whether the Wabash and Illinois 
Plymouth, where it remained twenty Indians are most inclined for war or 
years exposed on a gibbet. According peace. . . . You will, therefore, inform 
to the colonial laws, as a traitor, his the said Indians of the disposition 
body was drawn and quartered on a of the general government on this sub- 
day that was appointed for public thanks- ject, and of their reasonable desire that 
giving. there should be a cessation of hostilities 
With this policy steadily pursued to as a prelude to a treaty. ... I would 
the end, when the time came for Ameri- have it observed forcibly that a war 
cans themselves to turn upon their op- with the Wabash Indians ought to be 
pressors, there was little left of the avoided by all means consistently with 
Indian question in New England and Vir- the security of the frontier inhabitants, 
ginia, or in any of the States; but, with the security of the troops, and the na- 
the Declaration of Independence, the tional dignity. . . . But if, after manifest- 
formation of the federal Union, and the ing clearly to the Indians the disposition 
establishment of a national government of the general government for the preser- 
for the whole country, our Indian trou- vation of peace and the extension of a just 
bles were confined chiefly to territory be- protection to the said Indians, they should 
longing to the Union, regions acqiiired continue their incursions, the United 
after the Union was formed, and, hence. States will be constrained to punish them 
national territories under the sole juris- with severity." 

diction of the national government, The Indians were most inclined for 

though inhabited by Indians, whose rights war, as the Tagals have been, and a good 

to the soil had never been questioned, deal of hard fighting, extending over five 

What has been our policy with respect years, was done before they were brought 



to terms in a treaty. The battle at 
Miami Village, Sept. 30, 1790, between 
about 1,800 Americans under General 
Harniar, and a somewliat larger body of 
Indians under various chiefs, resulted in 
a victory for the Indians, with a loss of 
120 men killed and 300 wigwams burned. 
Another pitched battle was fought near 
the same place the next year. The Ind- 
ians were again victorious, and the Amer- 
ican loss was more than half the army— 
G31 killed and 203 wounded. On Aug. 20, 
1794, General Wayne, with 900 United 
States soldiers, routed the Indians in a 
battle near Miami Rapids, and a year 
later a treaty of peace was concluded, by 
the terms of which nearly the whole of 
Ohio was ceded by the Indians to the 
United States. 

It will be observed that with five years 
of war we had got no farther west than 
Ohio. And these battles with the Ind- 
ians in the Miami Valley were more 
bloody than any ever fought by American 
armies with white men. 

This long and bloody Indian war did 
not end our troubles in the Northwest. 
The Indians confederated under Tecum- 
seh in 1811, and they were routed at the 
battle of Tippecanoe by General Har- 
rison. This practically terminated Ind- 
ian hostilities in the Northwest Territory, 
but Tecumseh stirred up resistance 
among the Creeks and their allies in our 
new acquisitions south of the Ohio, known 
as the Southwest Territory. The rebel- 
lion there began with the massacre at 
Fort Minis, on Aug. 30, 1813, in the 
Creek Nation, and ended with the battle 
of Tohopeka, on March 27, 1814, where 
the Indians were defeated by troops under 
General Jackson. About 1,000 Creek 
warriors were engaged at Tohopeka, and 
more than half of them (550) were killed. 
Seven fierce battles were fought during 
the continuance of this brief war, with an 
aggregate loss to the Indians of 1,300 
killed and an unknown number of 

The Black Hawk War, in 1832, cost the 
lives of twenty-five Americans and 150 

The Florida War began in 1835 and 
lasted seven years, ending with the final 
defeat of the Indians. 

Since the conclusion of the Florida, or 

Seminole, War our armed conflicts with 
Indians have been mostly in the West, on 
territory which we acquired by purchase 
from France and by cession from Mexico 
in concluding a two years' war with that 

Between 1846 and 18G6 there were 
some fifteen or twenty Indian wars or 
a flairs, in which it is estimated that 
1,500 whites and 7,000 Indians were 

In the actions between regular troops 
and Indians, from 18G6 to 1891, the num- 
ber of whites killed was 1,452; wounded, 
1,101. The number of Indians killed was 
4,363; wounded, 1,135. 

Our Indian wars have been expensive 
as well as bloody. It is estimated by the 
War Department that, excluding the time 
covered by our wars with Great Britain 
(1812-14), and with Mexico (1846-48) 
and with the Confederate States (1861- 
65), three-fourths of the total expense of 
the army is chargeable, directly or in- 
directly, to the Indians; the aggregate 
thus chargeable is put at $807,073,658, 
and this does not include cost of fortifica- 
tions, posts, and stations; nor does it in- 
clude amounts reimbursed to the several 
States ($10,000,000) for their expenses 
in wars with the Indians. The Indian 
war pension account in 1897 stood at 

Except when engaged in other wars, the 
army has been used almost entirely for the 
Indian service, and stationed in the Ind- 
ian country and along the frontier. 

Such in general outline is Americanism 
as it has consistently exhibited itself in 
the policy followed by this country at the 
only junctures which are comparable to 
the Philippine situation at the present 
day. If it amounts to imperialism, then, 
indeed, are we a nation of imperialists 
without division. 

But let us get closer to the subject. The 
case presented by the anti-imperialists 
against the administration is almost ex- 
actly paralleled in the history of Florida. 
Spain's title to the Philippines was as 
good as that by which she claimed Florida, 
for it had the same basis — the right of 
discovery: and her right to cede and con- 
vey her title was as perfect in the one case 
as in the other. In both instances, the 
inhabitants were, by international law. 



transferred with the land on which they 
dwelt.* Filipinos inhabited the Philippine 
Islands when Magellan discovered them in 
1521, and when Villalobos, a few years 
later, " took possession of the group and 
named it in honor of King Philip II., of 
Spain," and they were there in 1898, when 
Spain ceded the archipelago to the United 
States in eonsideratioi of closing a war 
and the payment of $20,000,000 in money. 

The Seminole Indians inhabited Florida 
when that region was discovered by the 
Spanish navigators, and they were there 
in 1819-21, when Spain ceded the country 
to the United States in consideration of 
removing a just cause of war on our part, 
and a stipulation to settle claims against 
Spain to the amount of $5,000,000. 

The treaty for Florida was concluded in 
1819, but was not ratified by Spain till 
the second year thereafter; a territorial 
government was established on March 30, 
1822, the President in the mean time gov- 
erning the Territory twenty years, the 
State being admitted on March 3, 1845. 
During the territorial period the army 
was needed there most of the time to sup- 
press disorders in which the Indians were 
almost always mixed; and in 1835 the 
war with the Seminoles began. Andrew 
Jackson was President during the first 
two years of this war ; it continued all 
through Van Buren's term, and extended 
a year or more into that of Harrison and 
Tyler. To suppress this rebellion of Os- 
ceola and his allies, the army, consisting 
of regulars, militia, and volunteers, was 
employed seven years. 

President McKinley is doing in the 
Philippines just what was done by Presi- 
dent Jackson and his successors in Flor- 
ida, and he is doing it more humanely. 
Were they imperialists? 

♦ American Supreme Court, In the case of 
the American Insurance Company vs. Canter, 
1 Peters, 511, referring to the territory held 
by a conqueror, awaiting the conclusion of 
a treaty, says : 

" If it be ceded by the treaty, the 
acquisition is confirmed, and the ceded ter- 
ritory becomes a part of the nation to which 
it is annexed. ... On such a transfer 
of territory, the relations of the inhabitants 
with their former sovereign are dissolved, and 
new relations are created between them and 
the government which has acquired their 
territory. The same act which transfers 
their country transfers the allegiance of 
those who remain in it." 

As to matters of government, American- 
ism means American rule in American 
territory. Americans govern by major- 
ities — majorities of those who, by pre- 
vious constitutional and statutory pro- 
visions, are authorized to govern, and 
whose administration of public affairs has 
been, as far as practicable, determined 
in advance by properly constituted au- 

Beginning with the Pilgrims' compact, 
we have grown a republic, removing or 
surmounting all obstacles in the way of 
our development, until now we are in the 
forefront of nations. We have liberated 
the negro and given him the ballot. The 
Indians, of whom there are about as 
many in the country as ever, have to their 
credit in the national treasury a trust 
fund amotmting to about $25,000,000; 
they are dissolving their tribal relations; 
the adults, under government supervision, 
are learning to work at farming and other 
useful callings, their children are in gov- 
ernment schools, and all are in process 
of citizenization. Government Indian 
schools now number about 150, with near- 
ly as many contract schools. Indian edu- 
cation is costing the government about 
$2,000,000 a year. 

The trouble in the Philippines has been 
occasioned by Aguinaldo and his associ- 
ates. Americans are there of right, and 
they ask nothing of the natives but to be 
peaceable, to obey the laws, and to go 
ahead with their business; they will not 
only be protected in every right, but will 
be aided by all the powerful influences 
of an advanced and aggressive civilization. 
See Acquisition of Territory; Annexed 
Territory, Status of; Anti-Expansion- 

Imports. See Commerce. 

Impost Duties. The first impost 
duties laid on the English-American colo- 
nies were in 1672, when the British Par- 
liament, regarding colonial commerce as 
a proper source of public revenue and 
taxation, passed a law imposing a duty 
on sugar, tobacco, ginger, cocoanut, in- 
digo, logwood, fustic, wool, and cotton, 
tmder certain conditions. It was enacted 
that the whole business shotild be man- 
aged and the imposts levied by officers 
appointed by the commissioners of cus- 
toms in England, under the authority of 



the lords of the treasury. This was the 
first attempt at taxation of the colonies 
without their consent. 

The first of such duties established by 
the United States was for the purpose 
of restoring the public credit. On April 
18, 1782, the Congress voted " that it be 
recommended to the several States as 
indispensably necessary to the restoration 
of public credit, and to the punctual 
and honorable discharge of the public 
debts, to invest the United States, in 
Congress assembled, with power to levy 
for the use of the United States " certain 
duties named upon certain goods import- 
ed from any foreign port. Under the pro- 
visions of the Articles of Confederation, 
the unanimous consent of the States was 
necessary to confer this power upon the 
Congress. This was the first attempt to lay 
such duties for revenue. The necessity 
was obvious, and all the States except 
Ehode Island and Georgia agreed to an 
ad valorem duty of 5 per cent, upon all 
goods excepting spirituous liquors, wines, 
teas, pepper, sugars, molasses, cocoa, and 
coffee, on which specific duties were laid. 
The Assembly gave, as a reason for its 
refusal, the inequality of such a tax, bear- 
ing harder on the commercial States, and 
the inexpediency and danger of intrust- 
ing its collection to federal officers, un- 
known and not accountable to the State 
governments. A committee of the Con- 
gress, with Alexander Hamilton as chair- 
man, Avas appointed to lay the proposi- 
tion before the several States and to urge 
their acquiescence. They sent it forth 
with an eloquent address, which appealed 
to the patriotism of the people. The 
measure was approved by the leading men 
of the country, and all the States but 
two were willing to give Congress the de- 
sired power. "It is money, not power, 
that ought to be the object," they said. 
" The former will pay our debts, the latter 
may destroy our liberties." See Com- 
merce ; Internal Re\t:nue. 

Impressment. In 1707 the British Par- 
liament, by act, forbade the impressment 
of seamen in American ports and waters 
for privateering service, unless of such 
sailors as had previously deserted from 
ships-of-war. The custom had been a 
source of annoyance and complaint for 
several years, and was continued despite 
V. — B 1 

the action of Parliament. In November, 
1747, Commodore Knowles, while in Bos- 
ton Harbor, finding himself short of men, 
sent a press-gang into the town one morn- 
ing, which seized and carried to the ves- 
sels several of the citizens. This violence 
aroused the populace. Several of the naval 
officers on shore were seized by a mob and 
held as hostages for their kidnapped coun- 
trymen. They also surrounded the town 
house, where the legislature was in ses- 
sion, and demanded the release of the 
impressed men. The governor called out 
the militia, who reluctantly obeyed. Then, 
alarmed, he withdrew to the castle. 
Knowles offered a company of marines to 
sustain his authority, and threatened to 
bombard the town if his officers were not 
released. The populace declared that the 
governor's flight was abdication. Matters 
became so serious that the influential citi- 
zens, who had favored the populace, tried 
to suppress the tumult. The Assembly or- 
dered the release of the officers, and 
Knowles sent back most of the impressed 
men. The authorities attributed the out- 
break to " negroes and persons of vile con- 
dition." This was the first of a series of 
impressments of American citizens by 
British officers which finally led to the 
War of 1812-15. 

Proofs of the sufferings of American 
seamen from the operations of the British 
impress system were continually received, 
and so frequent and flagrant were these 
outrages, towards the close of 1805, that 
Congress took action on the subject. It 
was felt that a crisis was reached when 
the independence of the United States 
must be vindicated, or the national honor 
would be imperilled. There was ample 
cause not only for retaliatory measures 
against Great Britain, but even for war. 
A non-importation act was passed. It was 
resolved to try negotiations once more. 
William Pinkney, of Maryland, was ap- 
pointed (May, 1806) minister extraordi- 
nary to England, to become associated 
with Monroe, the resident minister, in 
negotiating a treaty that should settle all 
disputes between the two governments. 
He sailed for England, and negotiations 
were commenced Aug. 7. As the Ameri- 
can commissioners were instructed to 
make no treaty which did not secure the 
vessels of their countrymen on the high 


seas against press-gangs, that topic re- 
ceived the earliest attention. The Ameri- 
cans contended that the right of impress- 
ment, existing by municipal law, could 
not be exercised out of the jurisdic- 
tion of Great Britain, and, consequently, 
upon the high seas. The British replied 
that no subject of the King could expatri- 
ate himself — " once an Englishman, al- 
ways an Englishman " — and argued that 
to give up that right would make every 
American vessel an asylum for British 
seamen wishing to evade their country's 
service. Finally, the British commission- 
ers stated in writing that it was not in- 
tended by their government to exercise 
this claimed right on board any American 
vessel, unless it was known it contained 
British deserters. In that shape this por- 
tion of a treaty then concluded remained, 
and was unsatisfactory because it was 
based upon contingencies and provisions, 
and not upon positive treaty stipulations. 
The American commissioners then, on 
their own responsibility, proceeded to treat 
upon other points in dispute, and an agree- 
ment was made, based principally upon 
Jay's treaty of 1794. The British made 
some concessions as to the rights of neu- 
trals. The treaty was more favorable to 
the Americans, on the whole, than Jay's, 
and, for the reasons which induced him, 
the American commissioners signed it. It 
was satisfactory to the merchants and 
most of the people; yet the President, con- 
sulting only his Secretary of State, and 
without referring it to the Senate, re- 
jected it. 

A Cause of War. — The British govern- 
ment claimed the right for commanders of 
British ships - of - war to make up any 
deficiency in their crews by pressing into 
their service British-born seamen found 
anywhere not within the immediate juris- 
diction of some foreign state. As many 
British seamen were employed on board 
of American merchant-vessels, the exer- 
cise of this claimed right might (and 
often did) seriously cripple American ves- 
sels at sea. To distinguish between Brit- 
ish and American seamen was not an easy 
matter, and many British captains, eager 
to fill up their crews, frequently impressed 
native-born Americans. These were some- 
times dragged by violence from on board 
their own vessels and condemned to a life 


of slavery as seamen in British ships-of- 
war. When Jonathan Russell, minister 
at the British Court, attempted to ne- 
gotiate with that government (August, 
1812) for a settlement of disputes be- 
tween the Americans and British, and pro- 
posed the withdrawal of the claims of 
the latter to the right of impressment 
and the release of impressed seamen. Lord 
Castlereagh, the British minister for for- 
eign affairs, refused to listen to such a 
proposition. He even expressed surprise 
that, " as a condition preliniinary even 
to a suspension of hostilities, the govern- 
ment of the United States should have 
thought fit to demand that the British gov- 
ernment should desist from its ancient 
and accustomed practice of impressing 
British seamen from the merchant-ships 
of a foreign state, simply on the assur- 
ance that a la^y was hereafter to be passed 
to prohibit the employment of British 
seamen in the public or commercial ser- 
vice of that state." The United States 
liad proposed to pass a law making such 
a prohibition in case the British govern- 
ment should relinquish the practice of 
impressment and release all impressed 
seamen. Castlereagh acknowledged that 
there might have been, at the beginning 
of the year 1811, 1,600 bona fide American 
citizens serving by compulsion in the 
British navy. Several hundreds of them 
had been discharged, and all would be, 
Castlereagh said, upon proof made of their 
American birth ; but the British govern- 
ment, he continued, could not consent " to 
suspend the exercise of a right upon 
which the naval strength of the empire 
mainly depended, unless assured that the 
object might be attained in some other 
way." There were then upward of 6,000 
cases of alleged impressm.ent of American 
seamen recorded in the Department of 
State, and it was estimated that at least 
as many more might have occurred, of 
which no information had been received. 
Castlereagh had admitted on the floor of 
the House of Commons that an official 
inquiry had revealed the fact that there 
were, in 1811, 3,500 men claiming to be 
American citizens. Whatever may have 
been the various causes combined which 
produced the war between the United 
States and Great Britain in 1812-15, 
when it was declared, the capital question, 


and that around which gathered in agree- 
ment a larger portion of the people of 
the republic, was that of impressment. 
The contest was, by this consideration, re- 
solved into a noble struggle of a free 
people against insolence and oppression, 
undertaken on behalf of the poor, the help- 
less, and the stranger. It was this con- 
ception of the essential nature of the 
conflict that gave vigor to every blow of 
the American soldier and seamen, and 
the watch-words " Free Trade and Sail- 
ors' Eights " prevailed on land as well 
as on the sea. See Madison, James. 

Imprisonment for Debt. See Debtors. 

Income-tax. The first income-tax was 
enacted by Congress July 1, 18G2, to take 
effect in 1863. It taxed all incomes over 
$G00 and under $10,000 3 per cent., and 
over $10,000 5 per cent. By the act of 
March 3, 1865, the rate was increased to 
5 and to 10 per cent, on the excess over 
$5,000, the exemption of $600 remaining 
the same. On March 2, 1867, the ex- 
emption was increased to $1,000, and the 
rate fixed at 5 per cent, on all excess 
above $1,000; the tax to be levied only 
until 1870. After a contest in Congress 
the tax was renewed for one year only by 
act of July 14, 1870, at the reduced rate 
of 2% per cent, on the excess of income 
above $2,000. A bill to repeal it passed 
the Senate Jan. 26, 1871, by 26 to 25. The 
House refused to take up the Senate bill 
Feb. 9, 1871, by a vote of 104 to 105, but 
on March 3, 1871, concurred in the report 
of a committee which endorsed the Senate 
bill and repealed the tax. The last tax 
levied under the law was in 1871. In- 
come-taxes assessed and due in 1871 and 
for preceding years, however, continued 
to be collected, 1872-74, as seen, by the 
subjoined table: 


1863 .$ 2.741.857 

1864 20.294,733 

1865 32.050,017 

1866 72.982,160 

1867 66.014.429 

1868 41.455.599 

1869 34.791,857 

1 870 37.775.872 

1871 19,162.652 

1872 14.436.861 

1873 5,062,312 

1874 140,391 

Total $346,908,740 

The Wilson tariff bill of 1894 contained 
provisions for an income-tax, which the 
United States Supreme Court declared un- 
constitutional on May 20, 1895. 

Independence Day, Lessons of. See 
Garrison, William Lloyd. 

Independents. See Congregational 
' Church. 

Indian Corn. When the English 
settlers first went to Virginia, they found 
the Indians cultivating maize, and the 
Europeans called it " Indian corn." It 
jiroved to be a great blessing to the immi- 
grants to our shores, from Maine to 
Florida. Indian corn appears among the 
earliest exports from America. As early 
as 1748 the two Carolinas exported about 
100,000 bushels a year. For several years 
previous to the Revolution, Virginia ex- 
ported 600,000 bushels annually. The 
total amount of this grain exported an- 
nually from all the English-American 
colonies at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion was between 560,000 and 580,000 
bushels. At the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the annual export was 
2,000,000 bushels. But its annual product 
was not included in the census reports 
until 1840, when the aggregate yield was 
nearly 400,000,000 bushels. In the calen- 
dar year 1903 the aggregate production 
was '2,244,176,925 bushels, from 88,091,- 
993 acres, and the total value was $952,- 
868,801. The banner States, in their order 
and with their production, were: Illinois, 
204.087,043 bushels. Iowa, 229,218,220 
bushels; Missouri, 202,839,584 bushels; 
Nebraska, 172,379,532 bushels; Kan- 
sas, 171,687,014 bushels; Indiana, 142,- 
580,886 bushels; and Texas, 140,750,733 
liushels — all other States and Territories 
being below the 100,000,000 mark. See 

Legend of the Grain. — While Capt. 
Miles Standish and others of the Pilgrims 
were seeking a place to land, they found 
some maize in one of the deserted huts 
of the Indians. Afterwards Samoset, the 
friendly Indian, and others, taught the 
Pilgrims how to cultivate the grain, for 
it was unknown in Europe, and this sup- 
ply, serving them for seed, saved the lit- 
tle colony from starvation the following 
year. The grain now first received the 
name of " Indian corn." Mr. Schoolcraft 
tells us that Indian corn entered into the 


mythology of the Indians of the region Such is the legend of the origin of Ind- 

of the Upper Lakes. In legend the Ind- ian corn, or maize. 

ians tell us that a youth, on the verge Indian Industrial Schools. In addi- 

of manhood, went into the forest to fast, tion to a large number of day, boarding, 

where he built himself a lodge and paint- and other schools maintained by the fed- 

ed his face in sombre colors; and then eral government, various religious organ- 

he asked the Master of Life for some pre- 
cious gift that should benefit his race. 
Being weak from fasting, he lay down in 
his lodge and gazed through its opening 
into the blue depths of the heavens, from 
which descended a visible spirit in the 

izations, and each of the five civilized 
tribes in the Indian Territory, there were 
i]i 1900 a total of twenty-four schools for 
Indian youth, in which in addition to the 
ordinary branches special attention was 
paid to industrial education on lines that 

form of a beautiful young man dressed in would render the youth self - supporting 

gjeen, and having green plumes on his 
head. This embodied spirit bade the young 
Indian to rise and wrestle with him as 
the only way to obtain the coveted bless- 
ing. Four days the wrestlings were re- 
peated, the youth feeling each time an in- 
creasing moral and supernatural energy, 
while his bodily strength declined. This 
mysterious energy promised him the final 
victory. On the third day his celestial vis- 
itor said to him : " To-morrow will be 
the seventh day of your fast, and the last 
time I shall wrestle with you. You 
will triumph over me and gain your 
wishes. As soon as you have thrown 
me down, strip off my clothes and bury 
me in the spot of soft, fresh earth. 
When you have done this, leave me, 
but come occasionally to visit the place 
to keep the weeds from growing. Once 
or twice cover me with fresh earth." 
The spirit then departed, but returned 
the next day; and. as he had predict- 
ed, the youth threw him on the ground. 
The young man obeyed his visitor's in- 
structions faithfully, and very soon 
was delighted to see the green plumes 
of the heavenly stranger shooting up 
through the mould. He carefully weed- 
ed the ground aroimd them, and kept 
it fresh and soft, and in due time 
his eyes were charmed at beholding a 
full-grown plant bending with fruit 
that soon became golden just as the 
frost touched it. It gracefully waved 
its long leaves and its yellow tassels 
in the autumn wind. The young man 
called his parents to behold the new 
plant. " It is Men-du-min" said his 
father; "it is the grain of the 
Oreat Spirit." They invited their 
friends to a feast on the excellent 
grain, and there were great rejoicings. 

in the future. These special schools com- 
bined had a total of 262 instructors in in- 
dustrial work, and 3,076 male and 2,288 
female pupils, and the total expenditure 
for the school year 1898-99 was $198,- 
834. The most noted of these schools is 
the United States Indian Industrial 
School, established in Carlisle, Pa. It 
had in the above year twenty-nine in- 
structors and 1,090 pupils, of whom 487 
were girls. In addition to the foregoing 
schools the federal government was hav- 




ing Indian youth educated in the Hamp- undertake the experiment of liaving Ind- 

ton Normal and Industrial Institute in ian youth educated there also, and such 

Virginia, wliich was originally established encouraging results followed that the 

for the education of colored youth only, government has since kept a large 

The success of the institution in its origi- class of Indian boys and girls in the 

nal purpose induced the government to institution. 


Indian Problem, The. The following 
is a consideration of this subject from the 
pen of the Rev. Lyman Abbott: 

Helen Jackson has written the history 
of 100 years of our nation's dealing with 
the Indians, under the title of A Century 
of Dishonor. Her specifications seem to 
make the indictment of her title good. 
Yet I am persuaded that the dishonor 
which justly attaches to the history of 
our dealings ^yith the North American 
Indians is due rather to a lack of pro- 
phetic vision, quite pardonable, in the 
nation's leaders, and an ignorance and 
indifference, not pardonable, in the nation 
at large, rather than to any deliberate 
policy of injustice adopted by the nation. 
Bad as has been our treatment of the 
Indians, it is luminous by the side of 
Russia's treatment of the Jews, Turkey's 
treatment of the Armenians, Spain's treat- 
ment of the Moors, and, if we include the 
war of Cromwell against the Irish, the 
English legislation against Irish industry, 
Irish education, and the Church of Ire- 
land's choice, it compares favorably with 
England's treatment of Ireland. 

When thirteen States — a fringe of civ- 
ilization on the eastern edge of an un- 
k/iown wilderness — constituted the Amer- 
ican Republic, there was no prophet to 
foresee the time when the republic would 
stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and from the Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and would include 70.000,000 people. 
If there were any sncn prophet he was as 
A voice crying in the wilderness ; no one 
heard or heeded. Thp politician is al- 
most invariably an opportunist, perhaps 
necessarily so, since no great prevision is 
granted to the children of men. The in- 
fant republic did not know and took little 
pains to ascertain the extent of the domain 
which stretched to the west, or the num- 
ber or character of the people who roamed 

o\-er it. Each decade was satisfied to pro- 
vide for its necessities and leave the next 
decade to take care of itself. As the 
boundary-line was pushed steadily west- 
ward, new treaties were made, by which 
all territory west of a given boundary 
was reserved for the Indians forever. I 
think it was in 1800 that such a treaty 
was made, securing to them for all future 
time the land west of the Mississippi 
River. All future time is a long while, 
and each new treaty was made only to be 
broken, as increase of population and in- 
coming immigration made new demands on 
the continent for support. Thus gradually 
grcAV up withovit design the so-called reser- 
vation system. Less and less land was 
reserved to the Indians ; more and more 
was taken up by the whites; until at last 
certain relatively small sections were 
deeded to separate Indian tribes. In these, 
according to the treaties made, the several 
tribes were at liberty to remain forever 
hunters and trappers, freed from the obli- 
gations and without the advantages and 
perils of civilization. 

These reservations have been practically 
prison yards, within which the tribes have 
been confined. If any member passed be- 
yond the boundaries of the reservation 
without leave he was liable to arrest. If 
he raised crops or manufactured goods 
he could not carry them for sale to the 
open market ; if he wished to buy he could 
not go to the open market to purchase. 
The land was owned by the tribe in com- 
mon, and the idle and industrious shared 
alike its advantages and disadvantages. 
Industry received no reward ; idleness in- 
volved no penalty. Money due the tribe 
under the treaty was paid with more or 
less regularity, generally in rations, some- 
times in guns and ammunition to fight 
the white man with, or scalping-knives 
to take from his head a trophy of the 
battle. The forms of industry to which 




the men were accustomed — hunting and 
trapping — gradually disappeared; little 
or nothing was done to teach new forms 
of industry or to inspire the men to 
undertake them. From the reservation all 
the currents of civilization were excluded 
by federal law. The railroad, the tele- 
graph, the newspaper, the open market, 
free competition — all halted at its walls. 
By favor of the government, generally 
freely granted, the missionary was al- 
lowed to establish a church, or Christian 
philanthropy to plant a school. But as 
an educated Indian was rather impeded 
than aided in the tribal community by 
education, neither the church nor the 
school could do more than save individuals 
from a population shut up by law to the 
general conditions of barbarism. No 
courts sat in these reservations; no law 
was administered by those judicial meth- 
ods familiar to the Anglo-Saxon; no war- 
rants from local courts outside could be 
executed ; no Indian, if wronged, could 
appeal to any court for redress. Such law 

as existed was administered by an Indian 
agent, a person of ill-defined, and to the 
Indian mind, of illimitable power. He 
was as nearly an absolute despot as can 
be conceived existing on American soil. 
He was sometimes an intelligent and be- 
neficent despot, sometimes an ignorant and 
incompetent one; but in either case a 

Thus there has grown up in America, 
by no deliberate design but by a natural 
though mischievous opportunism which 
has rarely looked more than ten years 
ahead, a system as inconsistent with 
American principles and the American 
spirit as covild easily be devised by the 
ingenuity or conceived by the imagination 
of a man. It has denied to the Indian, 
often imder the generous desire to do more 
for him than mere justice, those rights 
and prerogatives which the Declaration of 
Independence truly declares to belong in- 
alienably to all men. It has made a 
prisoner of him that it might civilize him, 
under the illusion that it is possible to 


civilize a race without subjecting them to the same disadvantages. The same policy 

the perils of civilization. It has en- of political removal and political ap- 

deavored to conduct him from the relative pointment has characterized the whole 

innocence of barbarism to the larger and Indian administration. Sometimes the 

more perilous life of a free and civilized appointments have been made by the com- 

community, and to guard him from the missioner of Indian affairs, sometimes by 

dangers of temptation and the cons^equences the Secretary of the Interior, sometimes 

of his own ignorance en route. The practically by local politicians; but in 

reservation system is absolutely, hopeless- all cases alike, not for expert knowledge 

jy, incurably bad, " evil and wholly evil of Indians, but for political service ren- 

and that continually." It was never dered or to be rendered, or from reasons 

framed by any one. It has grown up of personal friendship. The notion that 

under the commingled influence of careless there is a continuous and consistent 

indifl'erence, popular ignorance, local policy to be pursued towards the Indians, 

prejudice, and unthinking sentimentalism. and that this requires continuity of ser- 

The Indian problem is, in a sentence, vice and expertness of knowledge in the 

how to get rid of it in the easiest and administration, has not entered the head 

quickest way possible, and bring the Ind- of our public men; or, if so, has not been 

ian and every Indian into the same in- allowed to obtain lodgment there. That 

dividual relation to the State and federal so bad a system has secured so many 

governments that other men in this coun- good Indian agents and subordinate offi- 

try are, with the least possible violence cials is a matter for surprise. It is not 

of rupture with the past and the greatest surprising that it has in more than one 

possible regard for the right and the instance sent a drunken offleial to keep 

welfare of those who ai-e the least re- the Indians sober, an ignorant official to 

sponsible for the present conditions — the superintend their education, and a lazy 

Indians themselves. official to inspire them with industry. 

The reservation system, I say, is wholly One illustration of the result of this 

bad. The indictment against it is four- method of administration is to be seen 

fold. m the removal of Dr. Hailraan, the 

In the first place, the Indian Bureau superintendent of Indian education, an 

is, and always has been, a political ma- expert educator, whose retention in his 

chine, whose offices are among the spoils office was urged upon the administration 

which belong to the victors. In the by substantially all those familiar with 

twenty years during which I have had the w^ork which he had done. An even 

some familiarity with Indian affairs, not more striking object-lesson is afforded by 

a single commissioner of Indian affairs the outbreak among the Pillager Indians, 

has been appointed because he was fa- largely due to three successive appraisals 

miliar with the Indians, or an expert of their timber lands, two of which ap- 

in the Indian problem, and only one who praisals have been set aside as inade- 

was an expert in that work of education quate, through the incompetence of the 

which is. of course, one of the chief ele- appraisers, the enormous cost of each ap- 

ments in the Indian problem. They have praisal having been charged to the 

been, I think, all of them, men of excel- Indians. 

lent character — honest, able, ambitious to But even if the Indian Bureau could 
do the best that could be done for the be taken out of politics and kept out of 
Indian. Some of them have made not- politics, the reservation system would 
able contributions towards the solution still be incurably bad. It assumed that 
of the problem. Biit each one of them the federal executive can administer a 
has come into office with little or no paternal government over widely scat- 
familiarity with the problem, has had to tered local communities. For such a 
acquaint himself with it, and has hardly function it is peculiarly unfitted. The 
had more than enough time to do so be- attempt to engraft a Russian bureaucracy 
fore his term of office has expired, and on American democracy is a fore-doomed 
he has been replaced by a successor who failure. The federal government does ex- 
has had to take up the work subject to ercise paternal authority over the Dis- 



trict of Columbia. But on the decent gov- 
ernment of the District the well-being, 
the health, and, perhaps, the lives of the 
members of Congresa depend; the relation 
between the government and the governed 
is thus direct, close, intimate. Local 
communities in the United States exer- 
cise some paternal functions, as in the 
case of the insane, the sick, and the 
paupers. But here, again, those directly 
interested have an opportunity of exer- 
cising an immediate supervision over the 
work and calling the public officials to 
account. But it is in the nature of the 
case impossible that a President, a Sec- 
retary of the Interior, or even a commis- 
sioner of Indian affairs, can personally 
supervise the innumerable details involved 
in the paternal administration of com- 
munities scattered from Minnesota to 
New Mexico, and from Michigan to Cali- 

An aristocratic government, composed 
of men who have inherited political ability 
from a long line of governing ancestry, 
and who have been especially trained for 
that work from boyhood, so that both by 
inheritance and training they are experts, 
may be supposed fitted to take care of peo- 
ple weaker, more ignorant, or less compe- 
tent than themselves, though the history 
of oligarchic governments does not render 
that supposition free from doubt. But 
there is nothing in either philosophy or 
history to justify the surmise that 70,000,- 
000 average men and women, most of 
whom are busy in attending to their own 
affairs, can be expected to take care of a 
people scattered through a widely extended 
territory — a people of social habits and 
social characteristics entirely different 
from their care-takers; nor is it much 
more rational to expect that public ser- 
vants, elected on different issues for a dif- 
ferent purpose, can render this service 
efficiently. Our government is founded on 
the principle of local self-government; 
that is, on the principle that each locality 
is better able to take care of its own 
affairs than any central and paternal au- 
thority is to take care of them. The mo- 
ment we depart frona this principle we 
introduce a method wholly unworkable 
by a democratic nation. It may be wide 
of the present purpose, yet perhaps not as 
an illustration, to sav that if the United 

States assumes political responsibility for 
Cuba and the Philippines, as I personally 
think it is bound to do, it must fulfil 
that responsibility not by governing them 
as conquered territory from Washington, 
but by protecting and guiding, but not 
controlling them, while they attempt the 
experiment of local self-government for 
themselves. We have tried the first method 
with our Indians, and it has been a con- 
tinuous and unbroken failure. We have 
tried the second method with the territory 
west of the Mississippi River, ours by con- 
quest or by purchase, and it has been an 
unexampled success. If the Indian is the 
" ward of the nation," the executive should 
not be his guardian. How that guardian- 
ship should be exercised I shall indicate 

This political and undemocratic pater- 
nalism is thoroughly bad for the Indian, 
whose interests it is supposed to serve. 
It assumes that civilization can be taught 
by a primer in a school, and Christianity 
by a sermon in a church. This is not 
true. Free competition teaches the need 
of industry, free commerce the value of 
honesty ; a savings - bank the value of 
thrift; a railroad the importance of punc- 
tuality, better than either preacher or 
pedagogue can teach them. To those, and 
there are still some, who think we must 
keep the Indian on the reservation until 
he is prepared for liberty, I reply that he 
will never be prepared for liberty on a 
reservation. When a boy can learn to 
ride without getting on a horse's back, oi 
to swim without going into the water, or 
lo skate without going on the ice — then, 
and not before, can man learn to live with- 
out living. The Indian must take his 
chance with the rest of us. His rights 
must be protected by law; his welfare 
looked after by philanthropy; but pro- 
tected by law and befriended by philan- 
thropy, he must plunge into the current 
of modern life and learn to live by living. 
The tepee will never fit him for the house, 
nor the canoe for the steamboat, nor the 
trail for highways and railroads, nor 
trapping and hunting for manufactures 
and husbandry. Imagine — the illustration 
is Edward Everett Hale's, not mine — 
imagine that Ave had pursued towards our 
immigrants the policy we have pursued 
towards the Indians ; had shut the Polos, 



the Hungarians, the Italians, the Germans, 
the Scandinavians, each in a reservation 
allotted to them, and forbidden them to 
go out into the free life of America until 
tliey had Americanized themselves — how 
long would the process have taken? 

But the capital objection to the reser- 
vation system is that it is one impossible 
to maintain; and it is impossible to main- 
tain because it ought not to be main- 
tained. The tide of civilization, surging 
westward, comes some day to a fair and 
wealthy but unused and idle territory. 
There are forests which no woodman's axe 
has ever touched; rivers where water-falls 
turn no mill-wheels; mountains whose 
treasures of gold and silver, iron or cop- 
per or coal no pickaxe has uncovered; 
prairies whose fertile soil is prolific only 
in weeds. " Come," cries the pioneer, 
eager to develop this useless territory, 
" let us go in and make those acres rich 
by our industry." "No!" replies the law; 
'•'you cannot." "Why not?" "It be- 
longs to the Indians." " Where are 
they?" "Hunting, trapping, sleeping, 
idling, and fed on rations." " When are 
they going to use this land ; to convert 
this timber into boards; these rivers into 
mill-streams; when are they going to ex- 
cavate these minerals, and turn these 
weedy prairies into fruitful farms?" 
"Never! This land in the heart of a 
civilized community is forever consecrated 
to barbarism." The pioneer's impatience 
with such a policy is fully justified, 
though his manner of manifesting it is 
not. Barbarism has no rights which civil- 
ization is bound to respect. The ques- 
tion on what basis the right to land rests 
is one of the most difficult which political 
economy has to answer. Many scholars 
who do not accept Henry George's con- 
clusions accept his premise, that the soil 
belongs to the community, and that in- 
dividual ownership rests not on any 
indefeasible right, but on the express or 
implied agreement of the community. 
Certain it is that the 500,000, more or 
less, of Indians who roamed over this con- 
tinent in the seventeenth century, had no 
right by reason of that fact to exclude from 
it the several hundred million industri- 
ous men and women whom eventually it 
will support. As little have a tribe of a 
few hundred Indians a right to keep in 

unproductive idleness a territory which, 
if cultivated, would provide homes for as 
many thousands of industrious workers. 
No treaty can give them that right. It is 
not in the power of the federal government 
to consecrate any portion of its territory 
thus to ignorance and idleness. It has 
tried, again and again, to do so; it has 
always failed; it always ought to fail; it 
always will fail. English parks kept un- 
filled, yet ministering to taste and refine- 
ment, have always been regarded by po- 
litical economists as difficult to justify; 
nothing can be said to justify American 
reservations, kept unfilled only that they 
may minister to idleness and barbarism. 

The editor, in asking me to write this 
article, indicated his desire that I should 
write " on the probable future of the Ind- 
ians in their relation with the govern- 
ment, and the reforms necessary in the 
administration of their affairs." It may 
seem that I have been a long time coming 
to any definite answer to this question ; 
but in order to set forth succinctly a re- 
form it is first necessary to set forth as 
clearly and forcibly as possible the evil 
to be reformed. That evil, I believe, is 
the reservation system. The reform is all 
summed up in the words, abolish it. 
Cease to treat the Indian as a red man 
and treat him as a man. Treat him as 
we have treated the Poles, Hungarians, 
Italians, Scandinavians. Many of them 
are no better able to take care of them- 
selves than the Indians; but we have 
thrown on them the responsibility of 
their own custody, and they have learned 
to live by living. Treat them as we have 
treated the negro. As a race the Afri- 
can is less competent than the Indian : 
but we do not shut the negroes up in 
reservations and put them in charge of 
politically appointed parents called 
agents. The lazy grow hungry; the 
criminal are punished ; the industrious 
get on. And though sporadic cases of in- 
justice are frequent and often tragic, they 
are the gradually disappearing relics of a 
slavery that is past, and the negro is find- 
ing his place in American life gradually, 
both as a race and as an individual. The 
reform necessary in the administration of 
Indian affairs is: Let the Indian admin- 
ister his own affairs a.nd take his chances. 
The future relations of the Indians with 



the government should be precisely the such cases should be dismissed. If the 
same as the relations of any other indi- Indian still needs a guardian, if there 
vidual, the readers of this article or the is danger that his land will be taxed away 
writer of it, for example. This should from him, or that he will be induced to 
be the objective point, and the sooner we sell it for a song, the courts, not the ex- 
can get there the better. But this will ecutive, should be his guardian. Guardian- 
bring hardship and even injustice on ship is a function the courts are accus- 
some individuals! Doubtless. The tomed to exercise. It ought not to be 
world has not yet found any way in which difficult to frame a law such that an 
all hardship and all injustice to individ- Indian could always appeal to a. federal 
uals can be avoided. Turn the Indian judge to have his tax appraisal revised, 
loose on the continent and the race will and always be required to submit to a 
disappear! Certainly. The sooner the federal judge any pi'oposed sale of real 
better. There is no more reason why we estate. 

should endeavor to preserve intact the 3. The Indian and every Indian should 
Indian race than the Hungarians, the be amenable to the law and entitled to its 
Poles, or the Italians. Americans all, protection. I believe that, despite occa- 
from ocean to ocean, should be the aim of sional injustice from local prejudice, it 
all American statesmanship. Let us would be quite safe to leave their inter- 
understand once for all that an inferior ests to be protected by the courts of any 
race must either adapt and conform itself State or Territory in which they live; 
to the higher civilization, wherever the for I believe that the American people, 
two come in conflict, or else die. This is and certainly the American judiciary, can 
the law of God, from which there is no be trusted. The policy of distrust has 
appeal. Let Christian philanthropy do intensified the local prejudice against the 
all it can to help the Indian to conform Indian. But it would be easy, if it be 
to American civilization ; but let not sen- necessary, to provide that any Indian 
timentalism fondly imagine that it can might sue in a United States court, or . 
save any race or any community from this if sued or prosecuted might transfer the 
inexorable law. suit to a United States court. I assume 
This general and radical reform in- there is no constitutional provision against 
volves certain specific cures. For ex- such a law. 
ample: 4. All reservations in which the land 

1. The Indian Bureau ought to be taken is capable of allotment in severalty should 
at once and forever out of politics. The be allotted as rapidly as the work of sur- 
government should find the man most ex- veying and making out the warrants can 
pert in dealing with the Indians— he may bo carried on. The unallotted land should 
be the present commissioner of Indian be sold and the proceeds held by the 
aff'airs — and instruct him to bring the United States in trust for the Indians. 
Indian Bureau to a close at the earliest How to be expended is a difficult question, 
possible moment. Once appointed to Not in food and clothing, which only pau- 
office for that purpose he should stay perize. The first lesson to be taught the 
there till the work is completed. I be- Indian is, if he will not work, neither 
lieve that in one respect an army officer shall he eat. Perhaps in agricultural im- 
would be the best fitted for such a post, plements; perhaps in schools; perhaps in 
because he would be eager to bring the public improvements; perhaps in all three, 
work to a close, while the civilian would When the land is of a kind that cannot 
see 100 reasons why it should be con- be allotted in severalty, as in the case 
tinned from year to year. His subor- of extended grazing lands, for example, 
dinates should be Indian experts and re- it would seem as though a skilful la'\\'yer 
moved only for cause, never for political should be able to devise some way in 
reasons. which the tribe could be incorporated and 

2. There are, it is said, ten or a dozen the land given to the corporation in fee 
reservations in which the land has al- simple; in which case Ihe shares of stock 
ready been allotted in severalty and the possibly for a time should be inalienable, 
reservations broken up. The agents in except by approval '^f the court; or pos- 



sibly the property might even be adminis- 
tered for a time by a receiver appointed 
by and answeiable to the court. 

5. Every Indian should be at once free 
to come and go as he pleases, subject as 
every other man is to the law of the local- 
ity and the processes of the courts where 
he is, and under their protection. The 
Indian with his blanket should have the 
privilege of travelling where he will, as 
imich as the Indian with her shawl. 

G. Finally, as fast and as far as the 
tribal organization is dissolved and the 
reservation is broken up, the Indian 
should have a ballot, on the same terms 
as other citizens; not so much because his 
vote will add to the aggregate wisdom of 
the comnnmity as because the ballot is 
the American's protection from injustice. 

The reform is very simple, if it is very 
radical. It is: Apply to the solution of 
the Indian problem the American method ; 
treat the Indian as other men are treated; 
set him free from his trammels; cease to 
coddle him ; in a word, in lieu of paternal 
protection, which does not protect, and 
free rations, which keep him in beggary, 
give him justice and liberty and let him 
take care of himself. 

Indian Reservations. See Reserva- 
tions, Indian. 

Indian Territory. By act of Congress, 
Jime 30, 1834, "all that part of the United 
States west of the Mississippi River, and 
not within the States of Missouri and 
Louisiana, or the Territory [now the 
State] of Arkansas, shall be considered 
the Indian country" (about 200,000 
square miles). It was reduced in area 
by the successive formation of States and 
Territories imtil it contained an area 
of only 31,000 square miles. The popula- 
tion in ISOOAvas 180,182; in 1900,391,900. 
Estimated population, 1906, 600,000. 
This aggregate population, however, is 
only partially Indian, as many " squaw- 
men," other whites, and negroes are in- 
cluded therein. In 1900 there were seven 
reservations in the Territory, and five civ- 
ilized nations, the Cherokees, Chickasaws, 
Choctaws. Creeks, and Seminoles. Over 
97 per cent, of the entire population was 
in the first four nations. It was estimated 
that the population of the five nations in- 
cluded 84,750 Indians. The reservation 
Indians include Quapaws, Peorias, Kas- 

kaskias, Ottawas, Wyandottes, Miamis, 
Shawnees, Modocs, Senecas, Cayugas, Sacs 
and Foxes, Pottawattomies, Osages, Kaws, 
Kiowas, Comanches, Apaches, Arapahoes, 
Cheyennes, Piankeshaws, and Weas, and 
the affiliated bands of Wichitas, Keechies, 
Wacoes, Tawacanies, Caddoes, loneis, Del- 
awares, and Penetethka Comanches. In 
the latter part of 1873 the Modocs and 
about 400 Kickapoos and Pottawattomies, 
from the borders of Texas and Mexico, 
were removed to the Indian Territory. 

Previous to the Civil War the five civ- 
ilized tribes were well-to-do, even wealthy, 
possessing large farms and many slaves, 
and having an extensive trade with the 
Southern cities. Many of them enlisted 
with the Confederates, and at the close 
of the war the United States government 
declared that by their hostility the grants 
and patents by which the tribes held 
extensive domains had become invalid, 
and a readjustment of the treaty acts 
was ordered. The tribes were permitted 
to sell to the United States a vast tract 
for the purpose of making a place of set- 
tlement for other Indian tribes and other 

In 1889 the government bought the 
Oklahoma strip of 2,000,000 acres a sec- 
ond time from the Creeks, paying a much 
higher price, but obtaining it without any 
restrictive conditions. For ten years com- 
panies of adventurers, called " boomers,'' 
under the lead of Capt. David L. Payne, 
had been hovering on the outskirts of the 
territory, and now and then stealing 
across the bonrder for the purpose of 
making settlements on the forbidden 
lands. As often as they had thus tres- 
passed, however, they were promptly 
driven out again by the United States 
troops. A proclamation was issued by 
the President, April 22, 1889, opening 
1,900,000 acres of land for settlement. 
There was immediately a grand rush into 
the territory by the " boomers," and by 
thousands of home-seekers and specula- 
tors. In a single day the city of Guthrie, 
with a population of 10,000, sprang into 
existence, and all the valuable land was 
taken up. By subsequent proclamations 
other lands were opened, and the bounds 
of the territory were extended until, in 
1891, it embraced 39,030 square miles. 
A large portion of Oklahoma, however. 



remained under the occupancy of Indian of New France, and afterwards of the 
tribes, who were under the control of the Northwest Territory. In 1702 some 
Indian bureau, and received regular sup- French Canadians discovered the Wabash, 
plies of clothing and food from the gov- and established several trading-posts on 
ernnient. Among these tribes were about its banks, among others, Vincennes. Lit- 
500 Sacs and Foxes, 400 Kickapoos, 2,000 tie is known of the early settlers until 
Cheyennes, and 1,200 Arapahoes. the country was ceded to the English, in 

Oklahoma when settled was a richly 1763. The treaty of 1783 included Indi- 
wooded country, except in the west, where ana in the United States. A distressing- 
there were extensive prairies. The climate Indian war broke out in 1788, but by vic- 
is delightful, and the soil fertile and well tories by General Wilkinson (1791) and 
adapted to agriculture. The first territo- General Wayne (1794) a dangerous con- 
rial governor was appointed by the Pres- 
ident in 1890. The name Oklahoma means 
•■ Beautiful Country." The Cherokee Strip 
or Outlet towards Kansas was acquired 
from the Cherokee Nation, and on Sept. 
16, 1893, it was opened to settlers. The 
scenes attending the opening resembled 
those in 1889 and 1891. Ninety thou- 
sand intending settlers registered, and 
20,000, it was estimated, encamped on the 
site selected for the chief town. The 
Strip contains about 6,000,000 acres, part 
of Avhich is good farming land. On May 
23, 1S9G, another great section of terri- 
tory, called the Kickapoo Strip, was 
thrown open to settlers, and again there 
was a wild rush of home-seekers; in July, 
1901, the same scenes were enacted in the 
Kiowa and Comanche country. See 
Oklahoma, in vol. vii. ; and United 

States — Oklahoma and Indian Terri- federaey of the tribes was broken up. 
TORY, in vol. ix. Another was afterwards attempted by 

In 1893 Congress entered into negotia- Tecumseh, but was defeated by the result 
tions with the several nations for the of the battle of Tippecanoe, 
allotment of land in severalty or to In 1800 the " Connecticut Reserve," in 
procure the cession to the United States the northwestern portion of Ohio, having 
of all lands, it being the express de- been sold to a company of speculators, 
termination of Congress to bring about measures were taken to extinguish cer- 
clianges with the view to the admission tain claims on the part of the United 
of the same as a State of the Union. States and the State of Connecticut. 

Each of the five nations constitutes a The speculators found their bargain to 
separate organism, independent of any be pecuniarily unprofitable, and likely to 
central authority save Congress and the prove a serious embarrassment. Fully 
Department of the Interior, having its 1,000 settlers were already on the " Re- 
own executive and legislative officers. serve." Hitherto a confirmation of the 

In the treaty with the five civilized Connecticut title to these lands by the 
tribes it was provided that all tribal United States had been inferentially ac- 
government should pass out of existence knowledged, and Connecticut had given 
on March 4, 1906, and that the lands no quit-claim deeds; therefore, it was to 
would be allotted in severalty. the interest of the speculators to obtain 

Indiana, State of, was first explored from the United States a direct confirma- 
by French missionaries and traders, and tion. On tlie other hand, it was an ob- 
Vincennea was a missionary station as ject for the United States to extinguish 
early as 1700. Indiana constituted a part Connecticut's claim of jurisdiction. Con- 




gress passed an act (April 28, 1800) 
authorizing the issue of letters - patent 
conveying the title of these lands to the 
governor of Connecticut, for the benefit 
of those claiming under her, and similar 
letters-patent were used by Connecticut, 
relinquishing all claim to jurisdiction. 
So the " Reserve " was annexed to the 
Northwest Territory, which was presently 
divided, by act of Congress (May 7), into 
two separate jurisdictions, the western 
one being called the Territory of Indiana, 
after one of the old ante-Revolutionary 
land companies. St. Vincent, or Vin- 
cennes, was made the capital, and Will- 
iam Henry Harrison was appointed gov- 
ernor of the Territory. It then included 
Michigan and Illinois. 

In 1803 a movement was made in Con- 
gress for suspending for a limited term, 
in the case of Indiana Territory, the pro- 
vision of the Ordinance of 1787 (q. v.) 
prohibiting slavery northward of the Ohio 
River. A committee, of which John 
Randolph, of Virginia, was chairman, re- 
ported strongly against the proposition, 
believing that " in the salutary operation 
of this salutary and sagacious restraint 
the inhabitants of Indiana would, at no 
distant da}*, find ample remuneration for 
a temporary privation of labor and immi- 
gration." At the next session (1804) it 
was pioposed to admit, for ten years, the 
introduction of slaves born within the 
United States, their descendants to be 
free, masculine at the age of twenty-five 
years, and feminine at twenty-one years. 
No action was ever taken. 

When war with Great Britain broke 
out, in 1812, a fresh impulse was given to 
Indian depredations, which had never 
fairly ceased, but the hostiles were beaten, 
and were quiet after the close of that con- 
test. On June 29, 1816, a convention 
adopted a State constitution for Indiana, 
and on Dec. 11 it was admitted into 
the Union. Rapid and continued immigra- 
tion ensued. This was greatly increased 
by the opening of the Erie Canal. Dur- 
ing the Civil War Indiana furnished to 
the National army 195,147 soldiers. In 
189!) the assessed vahuition of taxable 
property was $1,342,831,101; total tax 
rate, $2.9G per .$1,000; and total debt, 
$5,004,615. The population in 1890 was 
2,192,404; in 1900, 2,516,462. See Clark, 

George Rogers ; 
ANA, in vol. ix. 

United States — Indi- 


William H. Harrison 1800 to 1812 

John Gibson acting 1800 " 1801 

Thomas I'osey appointed March 3, 1813 


Jonathan Jennings. . . .elected to Congress 1816 

Ralliff Boon iicting Sept. 12 to Dec. n, 1822 

William Hendricks. . . .elected U. S. Senator 1822 

James B, Hay acting. . .Feb. 12 to Dec. 11, 1825 

" " '■ 182.5 

Noah Noble 1831 

David Wallace 1837 

Samuel Bigger 1840 

James Wliitcoiub elected U. S. Senator 1843 

Paris C. Dunning acting 1848 to 1849 

Joseph A. Wright 1849 

Ashbel P. Willard (died Oct. 4, 1860) 1857 

Abram A. Hammond, .acting 1860 to 1861 

Henry S. I.ane elected U. S. Senator 1861 

Oliver P. Morton acting 1861 to 1865 

'■ " " ek-cted U. S. Senator 1865 

Conrad Baker acting 1867 to 1869 


Thomas A. Hendricks 1873 

Jcimes D. Williams (died Nov. 20, 1880) 1877 

Isiiac P. Gray acting 18S0 to 1881 

Albert G. Porter 1881 

Isaac P. Gray 1885 

Alvin P. Hovey (died Nov. 23, 1891) 1«89 

Ira J. Chase acting 1891 to 1893 

Claude Matthews 1893 

James A. Mount 1897 

VVinfleld T. Durbin ,. 1901 

J. Frank Hanly 1909 



James Noble 

Waller Taylor 

William Hendricks... 

Robert Hanna. .. 

John Tij^ton 

Oliver H. Smith 

Albert S. While. ... 
Edvvnrd A. Hanncgan. 

Jesse D. Bright 

James Whitcomb 

Charles Vf. Cathcart. . 

John Petit 

Gniham N. Fitch 

Henry S. I.ane 

Josejih A. Wright 

David Tiirpie 

Thomas A. Hendricks. 

Oliver P. .Morton 

Dan el D. Pratt 

Joseph E. McDonald.. 
Daniel W. Voorhees. . 
Benjnmin Harrison... 

David Turpie , 

Chiirles W. Fairbanks. 

Albert J. Bevcridgc 

James A. Hemenwiiy. 

No. of 




to ■:ii\ 

1816 to 



'■ liiih 

1816 " 


19 th 

" 24 th 

1825 " 



1831 " 



to 25lh 

1832 " 



" 27lh 

1837 •' 



" 28lh 

1839 " 



" 30th 

1843 " 



" 37th 

1845 " 



" 32d 

1849 " 



18.52 " 



to 33d 

1853 •' 


34 th 

'■ 30th 

1857 " 



" 39th 

]861 '' 




1861 " 



to 40th 

1863 to 



" 4.-th 

1867 " 



" 43d 

1869 " 


44 th 

" 46th 

1875 " 


45 th 

" 55th 

1877 " 



" 49th 

1881 " 



" 56th 

1888 " 



" 58th 

1897 " 




1899 " 

.59 th 


1905 " 

Indians, the name commonly applied 
to the people found by Columbus in 
America; by many authorities believed to 
have been the aboriginal inhabitants. The 



following remarks and tables refer to 
Indians within the present area of the 
United States. In manners, customs, and 
general features the difference between the 
Indians of the Gulf States and those of the 
shores of the Northern Lakes is scarcely 
perceptible; it is only by languages that 
they can be grouped into great families. 
East of the Mississippi there were not 
more than eight radically distinct lan- 
guages, four of which are still in existence, 
while the others have disappeared. 


I. Algonquian tribes : 


Etcliemins or Ca-) 

noe men. 
Abenakis. . 


Warn pan oags 

Pequots . . , 
Mohegans . 


Delawares or Len- 
ni Lenape 


Powhatan Confed- 






Pottawattomies . . . 


Sacs and Foxes . . . 


ways f 

IT, Wyandotte or Huron 

Iroquois tribes : 

Fries (Huron or 
Wyandotte -Iro- 

Andastes (Huron 
or Wyandotte- 

Wyandottes (Hu- 
ron or Wyan- ', 
dotte- Iroquois) ) 

Senecas (Iroquois i 
proper) / 

Cayugas (Iroquois) 
proper) / 

Onondagas (Iro-f_ 
quois proper) . . f 

Oneidas (Iroquois) 
proper) f 

Mohawks (Iro- I 
quois proper). . J 

Tuscaroras (Iro- ) 
quois proper) . . ) 

(Southern shore of Lake 
\ Erie. 

Headwaters of the Ohio. 

(Territory north of Lakes 
( Erie and Ontario. 

Western New York. 

Central New York. 

Eastern New York. 

fS. W. Virginia and North 

Carolina. Joined the Iro- 

( quois of New York, 1713. 


East ofthe State of Maine. 


(New Hampshire and 

( Eastern Massachusetts 
[ and Rhode Island. 

■ Central Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island. 
Western JIassachusetts 
and Connecticut. 

New Jersey, the valley 
of the Delaware and 
, Schuylkill, 
j Eastern shores of Chesa- 
( peake Bay. 

E. Virginia and Maryland. 

E. North Carolina. 
(.South ofthe Ohio, W. Ken- 
( tucky, and Tennessee. 
I S. Michigan, N. Indiana, 
( and N. \V. Ohio. 

S. Illinois and Indiana. 

N. and central Illinois. 

Northern Illinois. 


Northern Wisconsin. 
/Southern shore of Lake 
( Superior. 

(Southern shore of Lake 
\ Superior. 



Chowans (Huron i 

or Wyandotte- [ 

Southern Virginia. 

Iroquois) ) 

Meherrins (Huron j 

or Wyandotte- [ 

11 11 

Iroquois) ) 

Nottaways(Huron ) 

or Wyandotte- 5 

(I II 

Iroquois) ) 


fW. North and South Caro- 
\ lina. 

f Mountainous regions oi 



1 Tennessee. Georgia, 

"l North and South Caro- 
[ lina. 



About Augusta, Ga. 


N. W. Mississippi. 


Mobilian or Musco- 

gees : 


( Western Tennessee and 
\ Northern Mississippi. 

j Eastern Mississippi and 

( Western Alabama. 

Alabama and Georgia. 


About Green Bay, Wis. 




Dakotas (Sioux) 







Minnetaries (Gros Ventres) 



Osages , 


Kaws , 

Pawnees . . . . 

Caddos , 

Shoshones or Snakes 





Navajos and Moquis 






Nez Percys 



(Wisconsin, west to Rocky 
\ Mountains. 
( Wyoming, head- waters ol 
( Platte. 

Wyoming and Nebraska. 

Kansas, v.'est. 




Montana and Dakotas. 


Lower Missouri. 


Kansas, west. 



Kansas and Nebraska. 

Red River and Arkansas. 

Kansas to Oregon. 

Kansas, west. 

Utah and Colorado. 

Texas and New Mexico. 

New Mexico and Arizona. 


Arizona and California. 

Nevada and New Mexico. 


Idaho and Oregon. 

Nevada and Oregon. 

(California, Oregon, and 
\ Nevada. 
Oregon and N. California 

For other details concerning the various 
tribes, see their respective titles ; also Res- 
ervations, Indian. 

Indians, American. Believing the 
earth to be a globe, Columbus expected to 
find India or Eastern Asia by sailing 
westward from Spain. The first land dis- 
covered by him — one of the Bahama 



I&Iands — lie supposed to be a part of 
India, and he called the inhabitants 
Indians. This name was afterwards ap- 
plied to all the nations of the adjacent 
islands and the continent. 

Origin. — There is no positive knowl- 
edge concerning the origin of the 
aborigines of America ; their o\\ti tradi- 
tions widely vary, and conjecture is un- 


satisfj'ing. Recent investigations favor a 
theory that, if they be not indigenous, 
they came from two great Asiatic fami- 
lies: the more northern tribes of our 
continent from the lighter Mongolians, 
who crossed at Bering Strait, and the 
more southerly ones, in California, Cen- 
tral and South America, from the darker 
Malays, who first peopled Polynesia, in 



the southern Pacific Ocean and finally colony said to have been lost in the wilds 
made their way to our continent, grad- of North America 700 years ago. 
ually spreading over it from the Pacific Unity. — There seems to be a physical 
to the Atlantic. Language fails to con- identity of race throughout most of the 
nect any of them with the Asiatic continent. Their skin is generally of a 
families, but their traditions, imple- dark reddish-brown, or cinnamon, color; 
ments, and modes of life point to such they have long, black, and straight hair, 
a relationship. It has been suggested prominent cheek-bones, and broad faces; 

eyes deep- set, full and rounded lips, 
broad and prominent noses, scanty beard ; 
their heads are generally square, arid 
their stature about the same as that of 
other races of the same latitude. Their 
muscular development is not great, and 
their hands and feet are small; their skin 
is thinner, softer, and smoother than that 
of Europeans ; the expression of the men 
is often noble, and many of the women 
are handsome. Haughty in deportment, 
taciturn, stoical, cunning, persevering, re- 
vengeful, brave and ferocious in war; 
cruel towards enemies and faithful 
towards friends; grateful for favors, hos- 
pitable and kind, the Indians of North 
America are undoubtedly capable of great 
and rapid development under the genial 
influence of civilization. Their mental 
temperament is poetic and imaginative 
in a high degree, and it is often expressed 
in great beauty and eloquence of lan- 
guage; but in their present social con- 
dition their animal propensities greatly 
preponderate over the intellectual. The 
tribes south of California have always 
been noted for mental development much 
superior to those of more northern lati- 
that the Mandans and Chinooks, who are tudes. 

almost white, are descendants of a Welsh Pursuits. — War, hunting, and fishing 




ave the chief pursuits of the men of the Those official honors were gained some 
more barbarous tribes; agriculture of the times by inheritance, but more frequently 
semi-civilized. Among the savages found by personal merit. Such was the simple 
in North America by Europeans, the 
women performed almost all the manual 
labor and burden-bearing. They carried 
on their limited agriculture, which con- 
sisted in the production of maize or Ind- 
ian corn, beans, squashes, potatoes, and 
tobacco. They manufactured the im- 
plements of war, and for hunting and fish- 
ing; made mats, and skin and feather 
clothing, canoes, ornaments of the teeth 
and claws of beasts, and of shells and 
porcupine-quills; performed all domestic 
drudgery, and constructed the lodges of 
the bark of trees or the hides of beasts. 
Rude figures of animate and inanimate 
objects carved in wood or stone, or 
moulded in clay, and picture-writing on 
the inner bark of trees or the skins of 
beasts, or cut upon rocks, with rude or- 
namented pottery, were the extent of 
their accomplishments in the arts of de- 
sign and of literature. The picture-writ- 
ing was sometimes used in musical nota- 
tion, and contained the burden of their 

Religion. — They believed in a good and 
Supreme Being, and in an Evil Spirit, and 
recognized the existence of inferior good 
and evil spirits. They believed in a fut- 
ure state of existence, and there were 
no infidels among them. Superstition 
swayed them powerfully, and charlatans, 
called " medicine-men," were their phy- 
sicians, priests, and prophets, who, on all 
occasions, used incantations. Christian 
missioiiaries have labored among them in trolled about 1,000,000 dusky inhabi- 
niany places, from the time the Spaniards tants of the present domain of the United 
and Frenchmen settled in America until States, which extends over nearly twenty- 
now, and have done much to enlighten five degrees of latitude and about sixty 
them. , degrees of longitude. 

Government. — There was not a sem- Geographical Distribution. — There seem 
blance of a national government among the to have been only eight radically distinct 
aborigines when the Europeans came, ex- nations known to the earlier settlers — 
cept that of the Iroquois Confederacy namely, the Algonquian, Huron - Iroquois, 
(q. v.). Their language was varied by Cherokee, Catawba, Uchee, Natchez, Mo- 
more than a hundred dialects, and they bilian or Floridian, and Dakota or Sioux. 
were divided into many distinct families More recently, other distinct nations have 
or tribes, under a kind of patriarchal been discovered— namely, the Athabascas, 
rule. Each family had its armorial sign, Sahaptins. Chinooks, Shoshones. and Atta- 
called a totem, such as an eagle, a bear, kapas. Others will doTibtless be found. 
or a deer, by which it was designated. The Algonquians were a large family oc- 
The civil head of a tribe was called a cupying all Canada. New England, a part 
sachem, and the military leader a .'^hief. of New York and Pennsylvania; all New 
V. — c 33 


government, seldom disobeyed, that con- 


Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; 
eastern North Carolina above Cape Fear, 
a large part of Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and all north and west of those States 
east of the Mississippi. Within the folds 
of this nation were the Huron-Iroquois, 
occupying a greater portion of Canada 
south of the Ottawa River, and the region 
between Lake Ontario and Lakes Erie and 
Huron, nearly all of the State of New 
York, and a part of Pennsylvania and 
Ohio along the southern shores of Lake 
Erie. Detached from the main body were 
the Tuscaroras and a few smaller families 
dwelling in southern Virginia and the up- 
per part of North Carolina. Five families 
of the Huron-Iroquois, dwelling within 
the limits of the State of New York, 
formed the famous Iroquois Confederacy of 
Five Nations. The Cherokees inhabited the 

small family in the pleasant land along 
the Oconee and the head-waters of tho 
Ogeechee and Chattahoochee, in Georgia, 
and touched the Cherokees. They were 
only a remnant of a once powerful tribe, 
when the Europeans came, and they 
claimed to be more ancient than the sur- 
rounding people. The Natchez occupied 
a territory on the eastern side of the 
Mississippi, extending northeastward 
from the site of the city of Natchez along 
the Pearl River to the head-waters of the 
Chickasaw. They claimed to be older 
than the Uchees, and, like others of the 
Gulf region, they worshipped the sun and 
fire, and made sacrifices to the source of 
terrestrial light. The Mobil ians or Flo- 
ridians occupied a domain next in ex- 
tent to that of the Algonquians. It 
stretched along the Atlantic coast from 


fertile and 
p i c t u resque 
region where 
the moun- 
tain - ranges 
that form 
the water- 
shed between 
the Atlantic and Mississippi melt in the 
lowlands that border the Gulf of Mexico. 

The Catawbas were their neighbors on 
the east; and dwelt upon the borders of 
the Yadkin and Catawba rivers, on both 
sides of the boundary-line between North 
and South Carolina. The Uchees were a 

the mouth of the Capo Fear River to the 
extremity of the Florida peninsula, and 
westward along the Gulf of Mexico about 
600 miles to the Mississippi River. They 
also held jurisdiction up that stream as 
far as the mouth of the Ohio. The do- 
main included parts of South Carolina, 
the whole of Florida, Alabama, and Mis- 
sissippi, all of Georgia not occupied by 
the Cherokees and Uchees, and portions 
of Tennessee and Kentucky. The nation 
was divided into three confederacies, each 
powerful and independent, like our sepa- 
rate States. They were known respective- 
Iv as the Muscogee or Creek (the most 




powerful), the Choitaii, and the Chicka- 
saw. The heart of the Creek family was 

large number of tribes west 
of the Great Lakes and Mis- 
sissippi, with whom the 
earlier French explorers 
came in contact. These, 
speaking dialects of the 
same language, apparently, 
were regarded as parts of 
one nation. They inhabited 
the domain stretching 
northward from the Arkan- 
sas River to the western 
tributary of Lake Winnipeg, 
and westward along all that 
line to the eastern slope of 
the Rocky Mountains. They 
have been arranged into 
four classes: 1. The Win- 
nebagoes, situated between 
Lake Michigan and the Mis- 
sissippi, within the domain 
the Algonquians. 2. The Assiniboins, 
Sioux proper, who formed the more 


in Alabama. Under the general title of northerly part of the nation. 3. The 
Dakotas or Sioux have been grouped a Southern Sioux, who were seated in the 



country between tlie Platte and Arkansas 
rivers. The Sahaptins include the Nez 
Perc§s and Walla Wallas, extending from 
the Eocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, 
in Oregon and Washington. Beyond 
these are the more powerful Chinooks, 
now rapidly melting away. They em- 
braced numerous tribes, from the mouth 
of the Columbia River to the Grand 
Dalles. The Shoshones comprise tribes 
inhabiting the territory around the head- 
waters of the Columbia and Missouri 
rivers: the Comanches, extending from 

government. There were 180,000 Indians 
on reservations, or at schools under control 
of the Indian Bureau, leaving about 90,000 
in the five civilized tribes of Indian Terri- 
tory and in New York State, the former 
numbering about 84,500, and the lat- 
ter, 5,232. Besides these, there were 
32,567 taxable and self - sustaining Ind- 
ians who had become citi-jens of the 
United States. The expensive and com- 
plicated machinery for the management of 
Indian affairs has been much in the way 
of the elevation of the race in the scale of 


the head-waters of the Brazos to those 
of the Arkansas; families in Utah and 
Texas, and several tribes in California. 
The Attakapas and Chitemachas, in 
Texas, have languages that enter into no 
known group. 

Condition of Ihc Indians. — According to 
ollicial reports, the Indian population in 
1904 was, approximately, about 270,000, 
nearly all of whom M-i>re partially or abso- 
lutely under the control of the national 

civilization, and has produced much evil by 
creating irritation, jealousy, and universal 
lack of faith in the white race. These 
irritations for a long time kept a large 
portion of the Indians in a state of chronic 
hostility, and whole tribes utterh'^ refused 
all overtures of the government to accept 
its protection and fostering care. In 1880 
it was estimated that the number of po- 
tentially hostile Indians was fully 60,000. 
In 1891 the condition of affairs had been 


much improved. Among many tribes the at any time within three years, bearing 

introduction of agriculture, schools, and interest not to exceed 6 per cent., and 

churches had been attended with the hap- issued in denominations of not less than 

piest results. There were 24,357 pupils ten dollars, which should be legal tender 

enrolled in the reservation, non-resevva- for their face value, the same as the 

tion, and day schools, besides 3,506 in in- United States notes. Under the author- 

etitutes and public schools, and these ity of this latter clause, there were is- 

Sf'liools were supported at an expense of sued of one-year notes, bearing interest 

$3,522,950. There is a tendency in most at 5 per cent., $44,520,000, and of two- 

nf the tribes to engage in settled pursuits year notes, bearing interest at 6 per cent., 

and accept citizenship. See also names $106,480,000. Authority was given on 

of various tribes. the same day for the issue of enough 

Indirect Claims. See Alabama fractional currency to bring the amount 

Claims. of circulation up to $50,000,000. 

Industrial Education. See Tech- Authority having been given by law 

NOLOGY, School? of. to reissue indefinitely any of the United 

Industrial Exhibitions. See Exposi- States notes, no care was taken, in re- 

TIONS. issuing them, to maintain any distinc- 

Inflation Legislation. In order to tion in the character of the notes. The 
fully comprehend the financial situation amount outstanding at one time, how- 
of the United States which led up to ever, never exceeded the aggregate 
the inflation legislation, it is necessary amount authorized to be issued by the 
to go back to the State and national three acts, and its highest amount was 
finances just after the Civil War opened, reached Jan. 30, 1864, when it was 
The demand - note issue of July 17, $449,338,902. The total amount of legal- 
ISO 1, was the first attempt to use the tender paper issued by the government, 
government notes as currency. These were exclusive of fractional currency, having 
redeemable at sight in coin, and were a limited legal-tender quality, may be 
used in the payment of salaries due em- thus summed up: 
ployes in the departments. The. act 

of Feb. 25, 1S62, authorized the issue of United States notes $449,338,90? 

$150,000,000 in legal-tender United States One year 5 per cent, notes.. 44,520,000 

notes, $50,000,000 of which were to take ^wo year 6 per cent, notes.... 166,480,000 

up the issue of demand notes. July 11, tq^^i $660,338,902 

1802, an additional issue of $150,000,000 

in legal-tender notes was authorized by In July, 1865, the government had out- 
Congress, $35,000,000 of this to be in standing $433,000,000 of United States 
sums of less than five dollars. July lY, notes, $43,000,000 of one and two year 
1862, an act authorized the issue of notes notes, and $25,000,000 of fractional notes, 
of the fractional part of one dollar, re- In his report at the opening of Congress 
c(<ivable in payment of all dues, except in that year Secretary McOulloch advo- 
customs, less than five dollars, and ex- eated a contraction of the currency, and 
■changeable for United States notes in to carry out this policy Congress, by an 
sums not less than five dollars. The act approved April 12, 1860, directed 
amount of this issue was not specified. " that of United States notes not more 
On Jan. 17, 1803, a resolution authorized than $10,000,000 may be retired and can- 
the issue of $100,000,000 in United States celled within six months of the pas- 
notes for the immediate payment of sage of this act, and thereafter not more 
the army and navy. The amount of this than $4,000,000 per month." Under this 
issue was subsequently included in the act the notes were retired and cancelled 
act of March 3, 1863, which authorized as provided by law, and reduced to ashes, 
an issue of legal-tender United States as provided by treasury regulations, until 
notes, in all respects similar to those al- threatened stringency in the money mar- 
ready issued, to the amount of $150,000,- ket made Congress eager to ward oflf, if 
000, and also an amount, not to exceed possible, the inevitable result of contrac- 
$400,000,000, of treasury notes, payable tion. 



By an act of Feb. 4, 1868, the authority would give the expected relief. This 
to further retire United States notes was theory, in my belief, is a departure from 
suspended, then leaving outstanding true principles of finance, national in- 
$3.56,000,000. Now the maximum limit of terest, national obligations to creditors, 
United States notes had been fixed, by the congressional promises, party pledges on 
act of June 30, 1864, as $400,000,000, and the part of both political parties, and of 
during the year 1870 some financial ge- personal views and promises made by me 
nius discovered that this was meant to in every annual message sent to Congress, 
indicate the minimum also, and that $44,- and in each inaugural address." After 
000,000 in notes, though they had been quoting passages to verify this last 
burned according to regulations, still re- assertion, the President said : " I am 
mained as a reserve, which the Secretary not a believer in any artificial method 
of the Treasury could issue or retire at of making paper money equal to coin, 
his discretion. By virtue of this newly when the coin is not owned or held ready 
discovered discretionary power. Secretary to redeem the promises to pay, for paper 
Boutwell, in October, 1871, issued $1,- money is nothing more than promises to 
500,000 of this to relieve a stringency on pay, and is valuable exactly in proportion 
Wall Street. By the following year he to the amount of coin that it can be con- 
had issued $4,637,256 of this reserve, but verted into. While coin is not used as 
the outcry against his policy was so a circulating medium, or the currency of 
strong that he retired nearly all of it, the country is not convertible into it at 
and early in 1873 Secretary Richardson par, it becomes an article of commerce as 
retired the rest. In the latter part of the much as any other product. The surplus 
year, however, on the occasion of the will seek a foreign market, as will any 
panic. Secretary Richardson reissued other surplus. The balance of trade has 
$25,000,000 of it to relieve the embar- nothing to do with the question. Duties 
rassed banks. on exports being required in coin creates 

A bill fixing the legal - tender United a limited demand for gold. About enough 
States currency at $400,000,000, and mak- to satisfy that demand remains in the 
ing some important stipulations about country. To increase this supply I see 
bank issues, was passed by both Houses no way open but by the government hoard- 
early in 1874, but was vetoed by the Presi- ing, through the means above given, and 
dent. A part of the veto message is here possibly by requiring the national banks 
given to show the grounds of his ac- to aid. It is claimed by the advocates 
tion: of the measure herewith returned that 

" Practically it is a question whether there is an unequal distribution of the 
the measure under discussion would give banking capital of the country. I was 
an additional dollar to the irredeemable disposed to give great weight to this view 
paper currency of the country or not, and of the question at first, but on reflection 
whether, by requiring three-fourths of the it will be remembered that there still re- 
reserve to be returned by the banks and mains $4,000,000 of authorized bank-note 
prohibiting interest to be received on the circulation, assigned to States having less 
balance, it might not prove a contraction, than their quota, not yet taken. In ad- 
r.ut the fact cannot be concealed that dition to this the States having less than 
theoretically the bill increases the paper their quota of bank circulation have the 
circulation $100,000,000, less only the option of $25,000,000 more to be taken 
amount of reserves restrained from circu- from those States having more than their 
lation by the provision of the second sec- proportion. When this is all taken up, 
tion. The measure has been supported or when specie payments are fully re- 
on the theory that it would give increased stored, or are in rapid process of 
circulation. It is a fair inference, there- restoration, will be the time to consider 
fore, that if in practice the measures the question of more currency." 
should fail to create the abundance of cir- An act fixing the issue of United States 
culation expected of it, the friends of the notes at $383,000,000, the amount then 
measure — particularly those out of Con- outstanding, was approved June 20, 1874. 
gress — would clamor for such inflation as Between 1868 and 1874 the amount of 



fractional notes had also been increased of the Farmers' Alliance, which he had 

from $25,000,000 to $46,000,000. In Janu- severely criticised. On retiring from the 

ary, 1875, the resumption act was passed. Senate he engaged in journalism and lec- 

und under its provisions the retirement of turing till his death, in Las Vegas, N. M., 

United States notes was again begun. Aug. 16, 1900. 

The redemption of the fractional currency Eulogy on Senator Hill. — On Jan. 23, 

with silver was also begun, and went on 1882, he delivered the following eulogy 

so rapidly that by the end of 1877 only on the occasion of the death of Senator 

$16,000,000 of it remained. Congress Benjamin Harvey Hill, of Georgia: 

passed an act. May 31, 1878, forbidding 

the further retirement of United States Mr. President, — Ben. Hill has gone to 

rotes under the resumption act. But the the undiscovered country. Whether his 

increase in the commerce of the country journey thither was but one step across 

had by this time so far readjusted credits an imperceptible frontier, or whether an 

that the value of legal tender and coin interminable ocean, black, unfluctuating, 

had become nearly equal. On Jan. 1, and voiceless, stretches between these 

1879, therefore, resumption took place earthly coasts and those invisible shores 

according to law, without any serious — we do not know. 

derangement of the business of the Whether on that August morning af- 

country. ter death, he saw a more glorious sun rise 

Ingalls, James Monroe, military offi- ^yith imimaginable splendor above a celes- 

cer; born in Sutton, Vt., Jan. 25, 1837; tial horizon, or whether his apathetic and 

was educated at Evansville (Wis.) Semi- unconscious ashes still sleep in cold ob- 

nary; graduated at the United States gtruction and insensible oblivion — we do 

Artillery School in 1872; entered the regu- not know. 

lar army, Jan. 2, 1864; promoted 1st Whether his strong and subtle ener- 

lieutenant, May 3, 1863; captain, July 1, gigs found instant exercise in another 

1880; major, June 1, 1897; lieutenant- forum, whether his dexterous and undis- 

colonel, Oct. 5, 1900; and was retired, ciplined faculties are now contending in 

Jan. 25. 1901. He founded the depart- a higher Senate than ours for supremacy, 

ment of ballistics in the United States or whether his powers were dissipated and 

Artillery School in 1882, and was the prin- dispersed with his parting breath — we do 

cipal instructor there till the outbreak of not know. 

the war with Spain, when the school sus- Whether his passions, ambitions, and 

pended operations. He was the author affections still sway, attract, and impel, 

of Exterior Ballistics; Ballistic Machines; whether he yet remembers us as we re- 

BalUstic Tables; Ballistics for the In- member him — we do not know. 

structioi of Artillery Gunners ; etc. These are the unsolved, the insolvable 

Ing'alls, John James, lawyer; born in problems of mortal life and human des- 

Middleton, Mass., Dec. 29, 1833; grad- tiny, which prompted the troubled patri- 

uated at Williams College in 1855, and arch to ask that momentous question, 

was admitted to the bar in 1857. He went for which the centuries have given no 

to Atchison, Kan., in 1858, and became a answer: "If a man die, shall he live 

member of the ^Vyandotte Convention in again?" 

1859, secretary of the territorial council Every man is the centre of a circle, 
in 1869. and secretary of the State Sen- whose fatal circumference he cannot pass, 
ate in 1861. He was State Senator in Within its narrow confines he is potential. 
1862, and in the same year was defeated beyond it he perishes; and if immortality 
as Eepublican candidate for lieutenant- is a splendid, but delusive dream, if the 
go\ernor. In 1863-65 he was editor of incompleteness of every career, even the 
the Atchison Champion; in 1864 was again longest and most fortunate, be not sup- 
defeated for lieutenant-governor ; in 1873- plemented and perfected after its termi- 
91 was a United States Senator, and in nation here, then he who dreads to die 
1887-01 was president pro ten,, of the should fear to live, for life is a tragedy 
Senate. He was forced to retire to private more desolate and inexplicable than 
life in 1891 bv the ascendancy in Kansas death. 



Of all the dead whose obsequies we commanding presence, his sinewy diction, 

have paused to solemnize in this chamber, his confidence, and imperturbable self- 

I recall no one whose untimely fate seems control. 

so lamentable, and yet so rich in prophecy. But in the maturity of his powers 
as that of Senator Hill. He had reached and his fame, with unmeasured oppor- 
the meridian of his years. He stood upon tunities for achievement apparently ba- 
the high plateau of middle life, in that fore him, with great designs unaccom- 
serene atmosphere where temptation no plished, surrounded by the proud and af- 
longer assails, where the clamorous pas- fectionate solicitude of a great constitu- 
sions and contention, such as infrequently ency, the pallid messenger with the in- 
fall to the lot of men, no longer find ex- verted torch beckoned him to depart, 
ercise. Though not without the ten- There are few scenes in history more 
dency to meditation, reverie, and introspec- tragic than that protracted combat with 
tion which accompanies genius, his tem- death. No man had greater inducements 
perament was palestric. He was competi- to live. But in the long struggle against 
tive and unpeaceful. He was born a po- the inexorable advances of an insidious 
lemic and controversialist, intellectually and mortal malady, he did not falter or 
pugnacious and combative, so that he was repine. He retreated with the aspect of 
impelled to defend any position that might a victor, and though he succumbed, he 
be assailed, or to attack any position that seemed to conquer. His sun went down 
might be intrenched, not because the de- at noon, but it sank amid the prophetic 
fence or assault was essential, but be- splendors of an eternal dawn, 
cause the positions were maintained, and With more than a hero's courage, 
those who held them became, by that with more than a martyr's fortitude, he 
fact alone, his adversaries. This tendency waited the approach of the inevitable 
of his nature made his orbit erratic. He hour, and went to the undiscovered coun- 
was meteoric, rather than planetary, and try. 

flashed with irregular splendor, rather Ingalls, RuFUS, military officer; born 
than shone with steady and penetrating in Denmark, Me., Aug. 23, 1820; grad- 
rays. His advocacy of any cause was fear- uated at West Point in 1843, enter- 
less to the verge of temerity. He appeared ing the rifles, but was transferred to the 
to be indifferent to applause or censure, dragoons in 1845. He served in the war 
for their own sake. He accepted intrep- with Mexico, and was on the staff" of Gen- 
idly any conclusion that he reached, with- eral Harney on the Pacific coast. In 
out inquiring whether it was politic or April, 1861, he went with Colonel Brown 
expedient. to reinforce Fort Pickens; and in July 

To such a spirit partisanship was un- was ordered to the Army of the Potomac, 
avoidable, but with Senator Hill it did where he was upon the staff of General 
not degenerate into bigotry. He was McClellan, with the rank of lieutenant- 
capable of broad generosity, and extended colonel. He was chief quartermaster of 
to his opponents the same unreserved that army from 1862 to 1865; was made 
candor which he demanded for himself, brigadier-general of volunteers in May, 
His oratory was impetuous, and devoid of 1863, and was brevetted major-general, 
artifice. He was not a posturer or U. S. A. and U. S. V., INIarch 13, 1865. 
phrase-monger. He was too intense, too He was in most of the battles of the Army 
earnest, to employ the cheap and paltry of the Potomac from that of South IMoun- 
decorations of discourse. He never re- tain to the surrender of Lee at Apponiat- 
oonnoitred a hostile position, nor ap- tox. He died in New York City, Jan. 16, 
proached it by stealthy parallels. He 1803. 

could not lay siege to an enemy, nor be- Ingersoll, Charles Jared, statesman; 

leaguer him, nor open trenches, and sap born in Philadelphia, Oct. 3. 1782: became 

and mine. His method was the charge a lawyer, and was attached to the legation 

and the onset. He was the Murat of of Rufus King when he was minister to 

senatorial debate. Not many men of this France. After travelling in Europe, he 

generation have been better equipped for returned, and published a poem in 1800, 

parliamentary warfare than he, with his and a tragedy in 1801. In 1810 he pxib- 



lished a political satire, called Inchiquin 
the Jesuit's Letters. In 1813 he was in 
Congress, and from 1815 to 1829 he was 
United States district-attorney. He was 
again in Congress from 1841 to 1847, when 
he was a Democratic leader. President 
Polk nominated him minister to France, 
but the Senate did not confirm the nomina- 
tion. He wrote a history of the second 
war between the United States and Great 
Britain. He died in Philadelphia, Jan. 
14, 1862. 

Ingersoll, Edward, author; born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., April 2, 1817; son of 
Charles Jared Ingersoll ; graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1835. His 
publications include History and Law of 
Habeas Corpus and Grand Juries; and 
Personal Liberty and Martial Law. He 
was also the editor of Hale's Pleas of the 
Croicn; Addison on Contracts; and Saun- 
ders on Uses and Trusts. He died in Ger- 
mantown, Pa., Feb. 19, 1893. 

Ingersoll, Erj^^est, naturalist; born in 
Monroe, Mich., March 13, 1852; was edu- 
cated at Oberlin College and the Harvard 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. He be- 
came connected with the Hayden Survey 
in 1873, and later was made a member of 
the United States Fish Commission. In 
1880 he was a special agent of the census 
to report on the oyster industry. He went 
to California in 1883 to write special arti- 
cles for Harper's Magazine. Later he was 
editor of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company's publications in Montreal. He 
is author of Nests and Eggs of Ameri- 

can Birds; the Oyster Industries of the 
United States; Friends Worth Knowing; 
Knocking Round the Rockies; The 
Crest of the Continent ; Western Canada; 
The Book of the Ocean, etc. He is also 
editor and part author of a series of 
guide-books to the Eastern States and 

Ingersoll, Jared ; born in Milford, 
Conn., in 1722; graduated at Yale in 
1742; was stamp agent in 1765. He was 
obliged to reship the stamps he had 
received and to resign his office. He is 
the author of The Stamp Act. H( 
died in New Haven, Conn., in August 

Ingersoll, Jared, jurist; born in Con- 
necticut in 1749; graduated at Yale in 
1766; studied law in London; returned to 
Philadelphia in 1771; was a delegate to 
the Continental Congress in 1780; a mem- 
ber of the Constitutional convention in 
1787; and was the Federal candidate 
for the Vice - Presidency in 1812, but 
was defeated, receiving 86 electoral 
votes. He died in Philadelphia, Oct. 31, 

Ingersoll, Joseph Reed, legislator; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., June 14, 1786; 
graduated in Princeton in 1804; practised 
law in Philadelphia; served in Congress 
as Whig in 1835-37 and 1842-49; and was 
an ardent supporter of Henry Clay; and 
was United States minister to Great Brit- 
ain in 1852. He published Secession, a 
Folly and a Crime; Life of Samuel Breck, 


Ingersoll, Robert Green, lawyer ; born 
in Dresden. N. Y.. Aug. 11, 1833; began 
the study of law when eighteen years old, 
and three years later was admitted to the 
bar. His gift of oratory soon made him 
a distinguished man, both in the courts 
and in Democratic politics. In 1857 he 
removed from Shawneetown. 111., to Peoria, 
and in 1800 was an unsuccessful candidate 
for Congress. In 1862 he organized the 
11th Illinois Cavalry and went to the 
front as its colonel. He spent most of his 
military career in raiding and scouting. 
On Nov. 28, 1S62. while endeavoring to in- 
tercept a Confederate raiding body with 

600 men, he was attacked by a force of 
10,000, and captured. He was almost im- 
mediately paroled, and placed in command 
of a camp at St. Louis. After a few 
months in this capacity, fearing that he 
would not be returned to active service, 
he resigned his commission. Returning 
home, he became a strong Republican, and 
in 1866 was appointed attorney-general of 
Illinois. In 1876, at the Republican Na- 
tional Convention, he nominated James G. 
Blaine for the Presidency in a speech 
v/hich contained the following memorable 
sentence: "Like an armed warrior, like a 
plumed knight. James G. Blaine marched 



down the halls of the American Congress 
and threw his shining lances full and fair 
against the brazen forehead of every de- 
famer of his country and maligner of its 
honor." He was conspicuously active in 
the Presidential campaigns of 1876 and 
1880, and had it not been for his pro- 


nounced agnostic views he would have 
been honored with high official preferment. 
In 1882 he settled in New York City, and 
engaged in law practice till his death, 
July 21, 1899. He was a man of rare per- 
sonal attractions; an orator of excep- 
tional brilliancy. His generosity was un- 
bounded. Among his lectures, which had 
gained him wide popularity, the most char- 
acteristic were: Some Mistakes of Moses; 
The Family; The Liberty of Man, Woman, 
and Child; The Gods; and Ghosts. His 
publications included: Lectures Complete; 
and Great Speeches. 

Thomas Paine. — The following is Colo- 
nel Ingersoll's noted review of the life 
and works of Thomas Paine (q. v.) : 

Eighty-three years ago Thomas Paine 
ceased to defend himself. The moment 
he became dumb all his enemies found a 
tongue. He was attacked on every hand. 
The Tories of England had been waiting 
for their revenge. The believers in kings, 
in hereditary government, the nobility of 
every land, execrated his memory. Their 
greatest enemy was dead. The believers 
in human slavery, and all who clamored 
for the rights of the States as against 
the sovereignty of a nation, joined in the 

chorus of denunciation. In addition to 
this, the believers in the inspiration of 
the Scriptures, the occupants of ortho- 
dox pulpits, the professors in Christian 
colleges, and the religious historians, v/ere 
his sworn and implacable foes. 

This man had gratified no ambition at 
the expense of his fellow - men ; he had 
desolated no country with the flame and 
sword of war; he had not wrung millions 
from the poor and unfortunate ; he had 
betrayed no trust, and yet he was al- 
most universally despised. He gave his 
life for the benefit of mankind. Day and 
night, for many, many weary years, he 
labored for the good of others, and gave 
himself body and soul to the great cause 
of human liberty. And yet he won the 
hatred of the people for whose benefi't, 
for whose emancipation, for whose civili- 
zation, for whose exaltation he gave his 

Against him every slander that malig- 
nity could coin and hypocrisy pass was 
gladly and joyously taken as genuine, 
and every truth with regard to his career 
was believed to be counterfeit. He was 
attacked by thousands where he was de- 
fended by one, and the one who defended 
him was instantly attacked, silenced, or 

At last his life has been written by 
Moncure D. Conway, and the real history 
of Thomas Paine, of what he attempted 
and accomplished, of what he taught and 
suffered, has been intelligently, truth- 
fully, and candidly given to the world. 
Henceforth the slanderer will be without 

He who reads Mr. Conway's pages will 
find that Thomas Paine was more than a 
patriot ; that he was a philanthropist — 
a lover not only of his country, but of 
all mankind. He will find that his sym- 
pathies were with those who suffered, 
without regard to religion or race, coun- 
try or complexion. He will find that this 
great man did not hesitate to attack the 
governing class of his native land, to 
commit what was called treason against 
the King, that he might do battle for the 
rights of men : that, in spite of the preju- 
dices of birth, he took the side of the 
American colonies; that he gladly at- 
tacked the political abuses and absurdi- 
ties that had been fostered by altars and 



thrones for many centuries; that he was He was the first to suggest a union of 
for the people against nobles and kings; the colonies. Before the Declaration of 
and that he put his life in pawn for the Independence was issued, Paine had writ- 
good of others. ten of and about the Free and Independent 

In the winter of 1774 Thomas Paine i^tates of America. He had also spoken 

come to America. After a time he was of the United States colonies as the " Glo- 

employed as one of the writers on The lious Union," and he was the first to write 

Pennsylvania Magazine. these words: "The United States of 

Let us see what he did, calculated to ex- America." 

cite the hatred of his fellow-men. In May, 1775, Washington said: "If 

The first article he ever wrote in Amer- you ever hear of me joining in any such 

ica, and the first ever published by him any- measure (as separation from Great Brit- 

where, appeared in that magazine on March ain ) you have my leave to set me down 

8, 1775. It was an attack on American for everything wicked." He had also 

slavery — a plea for the rights of the said: "It is not the wish or interest 

negro. In that article will be found sub- of the government (meaning Massachu- 

stantially all the arguments that can be setts), or of any other upon this conti- 

urged against that most infamous of all nent, separately or collectively, to set up 

institutions. Every line is full of human- for independence." And in the same year 

ity, pity, tenderness, and love of justice. Benjamin Franklin assured Chatham that 

Five days after this article appeared the no one in America was in favor of separa- 

American Anti-Slavery Society was form- tion. As a matter of fact, the people of 

ed. Certainly this should not excite our the colonies wanted a redress of their 

hatred. To-day the civilized world agrees grievances — they were not dreaming of 

with the essay written by Thomas Paine separation, of independence, 

in 1775. • In 1775 Paine wrote the pamphlet 

At that time great interests were known as Common Sense. This was pub- 

against him. The owners of slaves be- lished on Jan. 10, 1776. It was the first 

came his enemies, and the pulpits, sup- appeal for independence, the first cry for 

ported by slave - labor, denounced this national life, for absolute separation. No 

abolitionist. pamphlet, no book, ever kindled such a 

The next article published by Thomas sudden conflagration — a purifying flame, 
Paine, in the same magazine, and for the in which the prejudices and fears of mill- 
next month, was an attack on the prac- ions were consumed. To read it now, 
tice of duelling, showing that it was bar- after the lapse of more than 100 years, 
barous, that it did not even tend to set- hastens the blood. It is but the meagre 
tie the right or wrong of a dispute, that truth to say that Thomas Paine did more 
it could not be defended on any just for the cause of separation, to sow the 
grounds, and that its influence was de- seeds of independence, than any other man 
grading and cruel. The civilized world of his time. Certainly we should not 
now agrees with the opinions of Thomas despise him for this. The Declaration of 
Paine upon that barbarous practice. Independence followed, and in that decla- 

In May, 1775. appeared in the same ration will be found not only the thoughts, 

magazine another article written by but some of the expressions, of Thomas 

Thomas Paine, a Protest Against Cruelty Paine. 

to Animals. He began the work that was During the war, and in the very darkest 

so successfully and gloriously carried out hours, Paine wrote what is called The 

by Henry Bergh, one of the noblest, one Crisis, a series of pamphlets giving from 

of the grandest, men that this continent time to time his opinion of events, and his 

has produced. prophecies. These marvellous publica- 

The good people of this world agree tions produced an effect nearly as great 

with Thomas Paine. as the pamphlet Common Sense. These 

In August of the same year he wrote strophes, written by the bivouac fires, had 

a plea for the Rights of Woman, the first in them the soul of battle, 

ever published in the New World. Cer- In all he \vrote. Paine was direct and 

tainly he should not be hated for that. natural. He touched the very heart of 




the subject. He was not awed by names 
or titles, by place or power. He never 
lost his regard for truth, for principle — 
never wavered in his allegiance to reason, 
to wha.; he believed to be right. His argu- 
ments were so lucid, so unanswerable, his 
comparisons and analogies so apt, so un- 
expected, that they excited the passionate 
admiration of friends and the unquench- 
able hatred of enemies. So g>-eat were 
these appeals to patriotism, to the love 
of liberty, the pride of independence, 
the glory of success, that it was said by 

Chancellor Livingston, secretary of for- 
eign affairs; Robert Morris, minister of 
finance, and his assistant, urging the ne- 
cessity of adding a continental legislat- 
ure to Congress, to be elected by the 
several States. Robert Morris invited 
the chancellor and a number of eminent 
men to meet Paine at dingier, where his 
plea for a stronger Union was discussed 
and approved. This was probably the 
earliest of a series of consultations pre- 
liminary to the constitutional convention. 
On April 19, 1783, it being the eighth 

some of the best and greatest of that time anniversary of the battle of Lexington, 

that the American cause owed as much Paine printed a little pamphlet entitled, 

to the pen of Paine as to the sword of Thoughts on Peace and the Probable Ad- 

Washintrton. vantages Thereof. In this pamphlet he 

On Nov. 2, 1779, there was introduced pleads for " a supreme nationality absorb- 

into the Assembly of Pennsylvania an act ing all cherished sovereignties." Mr. Con- 

way calls this pamphlet Paine's Farewell 
Address, and gives the following extract: 

" It was the cause of America that made 
me an author. The force with which it 

for the abolition of slavery. The pre- 
amble was written by Thomas Paine. To 
him belongs the honor and glory of hav- 
ing written the first proclamation of 

emancipation in America^ — Paine tne first, struck my mind, and the dangerous condition 

which the country was in, by courting an 
impossible and an unnatural reconciliation 
with those who were determined to reduce 
her, instead of striking out into the only line 
that could save her — a Declaration of In- 
dependence — made it impossible for me, feel- 
ing as I did, to be silent ; and if, in the 
course of more than seven years, I have 
rendered her any service, I have likewise 
added something "to the reputation of litera- 
ture, by freely and disinterestedly employing 
it in the great cause of mankind. . . . 
But as the scenes of war are closed, and 
every man preparing for home and happier 
times, I therefore take leave of the subject. 
I have most sincerely followed it from be- 
ginning to end, and through all its turns 
and windings ; and whatever country I may 

l/jncoln the last. 

Paine, of all others, succeeded in getting 
aid for the struggling colonies from 
France. "According to Lamartine, the 
King, Louis XVI., loaded Paine with 
favors, and a gift of six millions was con- 
fided into the hands of Franklin and 
Paine. On Aug. 25, 1781, Paine reached 
Boston, bringing 2,500,000 livres in silver, 
and in convoy a ship laden with clothing 
and military stores." 

In November, 1779, Paine was elected 
clerk to the General Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1780, the Assembly received __ ^ 

a letter from General Washington in the hereafter be" in, I shall always feel an honest 

for putting it in my power to be of some use 

in the army would lead to mutiny in the 
ranks. This letter was read by Paine to 
the Assembly. He immediately wrote to 
Blair McClenaghan, a Philadelphia mer- 
chant, explaining the urgency, and enclos 

to mankind.' 

Paine had made some enemies, first, by 
attackincr African slavery, and, second, by 
ing .$500, the amount of salary due him insisting upon the sovereignty of the na- 
as clerk, as his contribution towards a re- tion. 

lief fund. The merchant called a meet- During the Revolution our forefathers, 
ino' the next day, and read Paine's letter, in order to justify making war on Great 
A subscription list was immediately cir- Britain, were compelled to take the 
ciliated, and in a short time about $1,- ground that all men are entitled to life, 
,^00.000 was raised. With this capital liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. In 
the Pennsylvania Bank — afterwards the no other way could they justify their ac- 
Bank of North America — was established tion. After the war, the meaner instincts 
for the relief of the army. began to take possession of the mind, and 

In 1783 Paine wrote a memorial to those who had fought for their own lib- 



erty were perfectly willing to enslave with love and reverence. Every English- 
others. We must also remember that the man who has sought to destroy abuses, 
Revolution was begun and carried on by to lessen or limit the prerogatives of the 
a noble minority — that the majority were crown, to extend the suffrage, to do away 
really in favor of Great Britain and did with " rotten boroughs," to take taxes from 
what they dared to prevent the success knowledge, to increase and protect the 
of the American cause. The minority, freedom of speech and the press, to do 
however, had control of affairs. They were away with bribes under the name of 
active, energetic, enthusiastic, and coura- pensions, and to make England a govern- 
geous, and the majority were overawed, ment of principles rather than of persons, 
shamed, and suppressed. But when peace has been compelled to adopt the creed and 
came, the majority asserted themselves use the arguments of Thomas Paine. In 
and the interests of trade and commerce England every step towards freedom has 
were consulted. Enthusiasm slowly died, been a triumph of Paine over Burke and 
and patriotism was mingled with the self- Pitt. No man ever rendered a greater 
ishness of traffic. service to his native land. 

But, after all, the enemies of Paine were The book called the Rights of Man was 

few, the friends were many. He had the the greatest contribution that literature 

respect and admiration of the greatest had given to liberty. It rests on the bed- 

and the best, and was enjoying the fruits rock. No attention is paid to precedents 

of his labor. except to show that they are wrong. 

The Eevohition was ended, the colonies Paine was not misled- by the proverbs 
were free. They had been united, they that wolves had written for sheep. He 
formed a nation, and the United States had the intelligence to examine for him- 
of America had a place on the map of the self, and the courage to publish his con- 
world, elusions. As soon as the Rights of Man 

Paine was not a politician. He had not was published the government was alarm- 
labored for seven years to get an office, ed. Every effort was made to suppress 
His services were no longer needed in it. The author was indicted; those who 
America. He concluded to educate the published, and those who sold, were ar- 
English people, to inform them of their rested and imprisoned. But the new gos- 
rights, to expose the pretences, follies and pel had -been preached — a great man had 
fallacies, the crimes and cruelties of shed light — a new force had been born, 
nobles, kings, and parliaments. In the and it was beyond the power of nobles 
brain and heart of this man were the and kings to undo what the author-hero 
dream and hope of the universal republic, had done. 

He had confidence in the people. He hated To avoid arrest and probable death, 

tyranny and war, despised the senseless Paine left England. He had sown with 

pomp and vain show of crowned robbers, brave hand the seeds of thought, and he 

laughed at titles, and the " honorable " knew that he had lighted a fire that noth- 

badges worn by the obsequious and servile, ing could extinguish until England should 

by fawners and followers; loved liberty be free. 

with all his heart, and bravely fought The fame of Thomas Paine had reach- 

against those who could give the rewards ed France in many ways — principally 

of place and gold, and for those who through Lafayette. His services in Amer- 

could pay only with thanks. ica were well known. The pamphlet 

Hoping to hasten the day of freedom, he Common Sense had been published in 
wrote the Rights of Man — a book that French, and its effect had been immense, 
laid the foundation for all the real liberty The Rights of Man that had created, and 
that the English now enjoy — a book that was then creating, such a stir in Eng- 
made known to Englishmen the Decla- land was also known to the French. The 
ration of Nature, and convinced millions lovers of liberty everywhere were the 
that all are children of the same mother, friends and admirers of Thomas Paine, 
entitled to share equally in her gifts. In America. England, Scotland. Ireland, 
Every Englishman who has outgrown the and France he was known as the de- 
ideas of 1688 should remember Paine fender of popular rights. He had preach- 



ed a new gospel. He had given a new 
Magna Charta to the people. 

So popular was Paine in France that 
he was elected by three constituencies 
to the national convention. He chose to 
represent Calais. From the moment he 
entered French territory he was received 
with almost royal honors. He at once 
stood with the foremost, and was wel- 
comed by all enlightened patriots. As in 
America, so in France, he knew no idle- 
ness — he was an organizer and worker. 
The first thing he did was to found the 
first republican society, and the next to 
write its Manifesto, in which the ground 
was taken that France did not need a 
king; that the people should govern them- 
selves. In this Manifesto was this argu- 

" What kind of office must that be in a 
government which requires neither experience 
nor ability to execute ; that may be abandon- 
ed to the desperate chance of birth ; that may 
be filled with an idiot, a madman, a tyrant, 
with equal effect as with the good, the 
virtuous, the wise? An office of this nature 
is a mere nonentity ; it is a place of show, 
not of use." 

He said: 

" I am not the personal enemy of kings. 
Quite the contrary. No man wishes more 
heartily than myself to see them all in the 
happy and honorable state of private in- 
dividuals ; but I am the avowed, open and 
intrepid enemy of what is called monarchy ; 
and I am such by principles which nothing 
can either alter or corrupt, by my attach- 
ment to humanity, by the anxiety which I 
feel within myself for the dignity and honor 
of the human race." 

One of the grandest things done by 
Thomas Paine was his effort to save the 
life of Louis XVI. The convention was 
in favor of death. Paine was a foreigner. 
His career had caused some jealousies. 
He knew the danger he was in; that the 
tiger was already crouching for a spring; 
but he was true to his principles. He was 
opposed to the death penalty. He re- 
membered that Louis XVI. had been the 
friend of America, and he very cheerfully 
risked his life, not only for the good of 
France, not only to save the King, but 
to pay a debt of gratitude. He asked 
the convention to exile the King to the 
United States. He asked this as a mem- 
ber of the convention and as a citizen of 
the United States. As an American he 

felt grateful not only to the King, but 
to every Frenchman. He, the adversary 
of all kings, asked the convention to re- 
member that kings were men, and subject 
to human frailties. He took still another 
step, and said : " As France has been the 
first of European nations to abolish 
royalty, let us also be the first to aboiish 
the punishment of death." 

Even after the death of Louis had been 
voted, Paine made another appeal. With 
a courage born of the highest possible 
sense of duty, he said: 

" France has but one ally — the United 
States of America. That is the only nation 
that can furnish France with naval pro- 
visions, for the kingdoms of northern Europe 
are, or soon will be, at war with her. It 
happens that the person now under dis- 
cussion is regarded in America as a deliverer 
of their country. I can assure you that his 
execution will there spread universal sorrow, 
and it is in your power not thus to wound 
the feelings of your ally. Could I speak the 
French language I would descend to your 
bar, and in their name become your petitioner 
to respite the execution of your sentence 
on Louis. . . . Ah, citizens, give not the tyrant 
of England the triumph of seeing the man 
perish on the scaffold who helped my dear 
brothers of America to break his chains." 

This was worthy of the man who said: 
" Where liberty is not, there is my 

Paine was second on the committee to 
prepare the draft of a constitution for 
France to be submitted to the convention. 
He was the real author, not only of the 
draft of the constitution, but of the 
Declaration of Rights. 

In France, as in America, he took the 
lead. His first thoughts seemed to be 
first principles. He was clear because he 
was profound. People without ideas ex- 
perience great difficulty in finding words 
to express them. 

From the moment that Paine cast his 
vote in favor of mercy, in favor of life, 
the shadow of the guillotine was upon 
him. He knew that when he voted for 
the King's life he voted for his own 
death. Paine remembered that the King 
had been the friend of America, and to 
him ingratitude seemed the worst of 
crimes. He worked to destroy the mon- 
arch, not the man ; the King, not the 
friend. He discharged his duty and ac- 
cepted death. This was the heroism of 
goodness, the sublimity of devotion. 


Believing that his life was near its 
close, he made up his mind to give to 
the world his thoughts concerning " re- 
vealed religion." This he had for some 
time intended to do, but other matters 
had claimed his attention. Feeling that 
there was no time to be lost, he wrote 
the first part of the Age of Reason, and 
gave the manuscript to Joel Barlow. Six 
hours after, he was arrested. The second 
part was written in prison while he was 
waiting for death. 

Paine clearly saw that men could not 
be really free, or defend the freedom 
they had, unless they were free to think 
and speak. He knew that the Church was 
the enemy of liberty; that the altar and 
throne were in partnership; that they 
helped each other and divided the spoils. 

He felt that, being a man, he had the 
right to examine the creeds and the Script- 
ures for himself, and that, being an honest 
man, it was his duty and his privilege to 
tell his fellow-men the conclusions at 
which he arrived. 

He found that the creeds of all ortho- 
dox churches were absurd and cruel, and 
that the Bible was no better. Of course 
he found that there were some good 
things in the creeds and in the Bible. 
These he defended, but the infamous, the 
inhuman, he attacked. 

In matters of religion he pursued the 
same course that he had in things politi- 
cal. He depended upon experience, and 
above all on reason. He refused to ex- 
tinguish the light in his own soul. He 
was true to himself, and gave to others 
his honest thoughts. He did not seek 
wealth, or place, or fame. He sought the 

He had felt it to be his duty to attack 
the institution of slavery in America, 
to raise his voice against duelling, to plead 
for the rights of woman, to excite pity 
for the sufferings of domestic animals, the 
speechless friends of man ; to plead the 
cause of separation, of independence, of 
American nationality, to attack the abuses 
and crimes of monarchs, to do what he 
could to give freedom to the world. 

He thought it his duty to take another 
step. Kings asserted that they derived 
their power, their right to govern, from 
God. To this assertion Paine replied with 
the Rights of Man. Priests pretended 

that they were the authorized agents of 
God. Paine replied with the Age of Rea- 

This book is still a power, and will be 
as long as the absurdities and cruelties of 
the creeds and the Bible have defenders. 
The Age of Reason affected the priests just 
as the Rights of Man affected nobles and 
kings. The kings answered the arguments 
of Paine with laws, the priests with lies. 
Kings appealed to force, priests to fraud. 
Mr. Conway has written in regard to the 
Age of Reason the most impressive and 
the most interesting chapter in his book. 
Paine contended for the rights of the in- 
dividual, for the jurisdiction of the soul. 
Above all religions he placed Reason, 
above all kings. Men, and above all 
men. Law. 

The first part of the Age of Reason was 
written in the shadow of a prison, the 
second part in the gloom of death. From 
that shadow, from that gloom, came a 
flood of light. This testament, by which 
the wealth of a marvellous brain, the love 
of a great and heroic heart were given to 
the world, was written in the presence of 
the scaffold, when the writer believed he 
was giving his last message to his fellow- 

The Age of Reason was his crime. 

Franklin, Jefferson, Sumner and Lin- 
coln, the four greatest statesmen that 
America has produced, were believers in 
the creed of Thomas Paine. 

The Ilnivcrsalists and Unitarians have 
found their best weapons, their best ar- 
guments, in the Age of Reason. 

Slowly, but surely, the churches are 
adopting not only the arguments, but the 
opinions, of the great Reformer. Theodore 
Parker attacked the Old Testament and 
Calvinistic theology with the same weap- 
ons and with a bitterness excelled by no 
man who has expressed his thoughts in 
our language. 

Paine was a century in advance of his 
time. If he were living now his sym- 
pathy would be with Savage, Chadwick, 
Professor Briggs and the " advanced theo- 
logians." He, too, would talk about the 
'* higher criticism " and the latest defini- 
tion of " inspiration." These advanced 
thinkers substantially are repeating the 
Age of Reason. They still wear the old 
uniform — clinging to the toggery of the- 



ology — but inside of their religious rags 
tliey agree with Thomas Paine. 

Not one argument that Paine urged 
against the inspiration of the Bible, 
against the truth of miracles, against the 
barbarities and infamies of the Old Testa- 
ment, against the pretensions of priests 
and the claims of kings, has ever been 

His arguments in favor of the existence 
of what he was pleased to call the God 
of Nature were as weak as those of all 
theists have been. But in all the affairs 
of this world, his clearness of vision, lu- 
cidity of expression, cogency of argument, 
aptness of comparison, power of state- 
ment and comprehension of the subject 
in hand, with all its bearings and con- 
sequences, have rarely, if ever, been ex- 

He had no reverence for mistakes be- 
cause they were old. He did not admire 
the castles of feudalism even when they 
were covered with ivy. He not only said 
that the Bible was not inspired, but he 
demonstrated that it could not all be 
true. This was " brutal." He presented 
arguments so strong, so clear, so convin- 
cing, that they could not be answered. 
This was " vulgar." 

He stood for liberty against kings, for 
humanity against creeds and gods. This 
was " cowardly and low." He gave his 
life to free and civilize his fellow-men. 
This was " infamous." 

Paine was arrested and imprisoned in 
December, 1793. He was, to say the least, 
neglected by Gouverneur Morris and 
Washington. He was released through 
the efforts of James Monroe in November, 
1794. He was called back to the conven- 
tion, but too late to be of use. As most 
of the actors had suffered death, the 
tragedy was about over and the curtain 
was falling. Paine remained in Paris 
until the " reign of terror " was ended and 
that of the Corsican tyrant had com- 

Paine came back to America hoping to 
spend the remainder of his life surrounded 
by those for whose happiness and freedom 
he had labored so jiiany years. He expected 
to be rewarded with the love and rever- 
ence of the American people. 

In 1794 James Monroe had written to 
Paine these words: 


" It is unnecessary for me to tell you how 
much all your countrymen — I speak of the 
great mass of the people — are interested in 
your welfare. They have not forgot the 
history of their own Kevolution and the 
difficult scenes through which they passed ; 
nor do they review its several stages without 
reviving in their bosoms a due sensibility 
of the merits of those who served them in 
that great and arduous conflict. The crime 
of ingratitude has not yet stained, and I 
hope never will stain, our national character. 
You are considered by them as not only hav- 
ing rendered important services in our own 
Revolution, but as being on a more ex- 
tensive scale the friend of human rights 
and a distinguished and able advocate of 
public liberty. To the welfare of Thomas 
Paine we are not and cannot be indifferent." 

In the same year Mr. Monroe wrote a 
letter to the committee of general safety, 
asking for the release of Mr. Paine, in 
which, among other things, he said: 

" The services Thomas Paine rendered to 
his country in its struggle for freedom have 
implanted in the hearts of his countrymen 
a sense of gratitude never to be effaced as 
long as they shall deserve the title of a just 
and generous people." 

On reaching America Paine found that 
the sense of gratitude had been effaced. 
He found that the Federalists hated him 
with all their hearts because he believed 
in the rights of the people and was still 
true to the splendid principle advocated 
during the darkest days of the Revolution. 
In almost every pulpit he found a malig- 
nant and implacable foe, and the pews 
were filled with his enemies. The slave- 
holders hated him. He was held responsi- 
ble even for the crimes of the French 
Revolution. He was regarded as a blas- 
phemer, an atheist, an enemy of God and 
man. The ignorant citizens of Borden- 
town, as cowardly as orthodox, longed to 
mob the author of Common Sense and 
The Crisis. They thought he had sold 
himself to the devil because he had de- 
fended God against the slanderous charges 
that he had inspired the writers of the 
Bible — because he had said that a being 
of infinite goodness and purity did not es- 
tablish slavery and polygamy. 

Paine had insisted that men had the 
right to think for themselves. This so 
enraged the average American citizen that 
he longed for revenge. 

In 1802 the people of the United States 
bad exceedingly crude ideas about the 


liberty of thought and expression. 
Neither had they any conception of re- 
ligious freedom. Their highest thought 
on that subject was expressed by the 
word " toleration," and even this tolera- 
tion extended only to the various Chris- 
tian sects. Even the vaunted religious 
liberty of colonial Maryland was only to 
the effect that one kind of Christian 
should not fine, imprison and kill an- 
other kind of Christian, but all kinds of 
Christians had the right, and it was their 
duty, to brand, imprison and kill infidels 
of every kind. 

Paine had been guilty of thinking for 
himself and giving his conclusions to the 
world without having asked the consent 
of a priest — just as he had published his 
political opinions without leave of the 
king. He had published his thoughts on 
religion and had appealed to reason — to 
the light in every mind, to the humanity, 
the pity, the goodness which he believed 
to be in every heart. He denied the right 
of kings to make laws and of priests to 
make creeds. He insisted that the people 
should make laws, and that every human 
being should think for himself. While 
some believed in the freedom of religion, 
he believed in the religion of freedom. 

If Paine had been a hypocrite, if he 
had concealed his opinions, if he had de- 
fended slavery with quotations from the 
" sacred scriptures " — if he had cared 
nothing for the liberties of men in other 
lands — if he had said that the state could 
not live without the Church — if he had 
sought for place instead of truth, he 
would have won wealth and power, and 
his brow would have been crowned with 
the laurel of fame. 

He made what the pious call the " mis- 
take " of being true to himself — of living 
with an unstained soul. He had lived 
and labored for the people. The people 
were untrue to him. They returned evil 
for good, hatred for benefits received, and 
yet this great chivalric soul remembered 
their ignorance and loved them with all 
his heart, and fought their oppressors 
with all his strength. 

We must remember what the churches 
and creeds were in that day, what the 
theologians really taught, and what the 
people believed. To save a few in spite 
of their vices, and to damn the many 

without regard to their virtues, and all 
for the glory of the Damner — this was 
Calvinism. *' He that hath ears to hear, 
let him hear," but he that hath a brain 
to think must not think. He that be- 
iieveth without evidence is good, and he 
that believeth in spite of evidence is a 
saint. Only the wicked doubt, only the 
blasphemer denies. This teas orthodox 

Thomas Paine had the courage, the 
sense, the heart, to denounce these hor- 
rors, these absurdities, these infinite in- 
famies. He did what he could to drive 
these theological vipers, these Calvinistic 
cobras, these fanged and hissing serpents 
of superstition from the heart of man. 

A few civilized men agreed with him 
then, and the world has progressed since 
1809. Intellectual wealth has accumu- 
lated ; vast mental estates have been left 
to the world. Geologists have forced 
secrets from the rocks, astronomers from 
the stars, historians from old records and 
lost languages. In every direction the 
thinker and the investigator have vent- 
ured and explored, and even the pews 
have begun to ask questions of the pui'-' 
pits. Humboldt has lived, and Darwirt ' 
and Haeckel and Huxley, and the armiea* ^ 
led by them, have changed the thoughifc,'. 
of the world. • • . 

The churches of 1809 could not be the,< 
friends of Thomas Paine. No church ay,-; 
serting that belief is necessary to salvaj- 
tion ever was, or ever will be, the chanjC; , 
pion of true liberty. A church founded 
on slavery — that is to say, on blind obedi-^ ^ 
ence, worshipping irresponsible and arbi- 
trary power — must of necessity be the 
enemy of human freedom. ' ■■ « 

The orthodox churches are now anxious 
to save the little that Paine left of their-" 
creed. If one now believes in God, and- 
lends a little financial aid, he is considered^; 
a good and desirable member. He need 
not define God after the manner of the 
catechism. He may talk about a " Power 
that works for righteousness"; or the 
tortoise Truth that beats the rabbit Lie 
in the long run; or the "Unknowable"; 
or the " Unconditioned " ; or the " Cosmic 
Force " ; or the " Ultimate Atom " ; or 
" Protoplasm," or the " What " — provided 
he begins this word with a capital. 

We must also remember that there is a 



difference between independence and lib- 
erty. Millions have fought for independ- 
ence — to throw off some foreign yoke — 
and yet were at heart the enemies of true 
liberty. A man in jail, sighing to be free, 
may be said to be in favor of liberty, but 
not from principle; but a man who, being 
free, risks or gives his life to free the en- 
slaved, is a true soldier of liberty. 

Thomas Paine had passed the legendary 
limit of life. One by one most of his old 
friends and acquaintances had deserted 
him. Maligned on every side, execrated, 
shunned, and abhorred — his virtues de- 
nounced as vices — his services forgotten — 
his character blackened, he preserved the 
poise and balance of his soul. He was 
a victim of the people, but his convictions 
remained unshaken. He was still a soldier 
in the army of freedom, and still tried to 
enlighten and civilize those who were im- 
patiently waiting for his death. Even 
those who loved their enemies hated him, 
their friend — the friend of the whole 
world — with all their hearts. 

On June 8, 1809, death came — death, al- 
most his only friend. 

I r , At his funeral no pomp, no pageantry, 

'1^0 civic procession, no military display. 
In a carriage, a woman and her son who 
fiad lived on the bounty of the dead — on 
horseback, a Quaker, the humanity of 

, yv'hose heart dominated the creed of his 
h^ad — and, following on foot, two negroes, 
fiiled with gratitude — constituted the 

^faneral cortege of Thomas Paine. 

' . "He who had received the gratitude of 
Irfany millions, the thanks of generals and 
statesmen — he who had been the friend 
and companion of the wisest and best — 
he who had taught a people to be free, 
and whose words had inspired armies and 
ej'.lightened nations, was thus given back 
to Nature, the mother of us all. 

*If the people of the great republic knew 
the life of this generous, this chivalric 
man, the real story of his services, his 
sufferings and his triumphs — of what he 
did to compel the robed and crowned, the 
priests and kings, to give back to the 
people liberty, the jewel of the soul; if 
they knew that he was the first to write 
The Religion of Humanity ; if they knew 
that he, above all others, planted and 
watered the seeds of independence, of 
union, of nationality, in the hearts of our 

forefathers — that his words were gladly 
repeated by the best and bravest in many 
lands; if they knew that he attempted, 
by the purest means, to attain the noblest 
and loftiest ends — that he was original, 
sincere, intrepid, and that he could truth- 
fully say: "The world is my country, to 
do good my religion " — if the people only 
knew all this — the truth — they would re- 
peat the words of Andrew Jackson: 
" Thomas Paine needs no monument made 
with hands; he has erected a monument 
in the hearts of all lovers of liberty." 

Ingham, Samuel Delucenna, legisla- 
tor; born in Pennsylvania, Sept. 16, 1779; 
served several years in the Pennsylvania 
legislature; served in Congress in 1813-18 
and 1822-29. President Jackson appoint- 
ed him Secretary of the Treasury, but he 
resigned on account of the Kitchen Cabi- 
net. He died in Trenton, N. J., June 5, 

Ingle, Edwaed, author; born in Balti- 
more, Md., May 17, 1861 ; graduated at 
Johns Hopkins University in 1882. 
Among his publications are Local Institu- 
tions of Virginia; Local Institutions of 
Maryland; Southern Sidelights; The Ne- 
gro in the District of Columbia, etc. 

Ingle, EiCHARD, mariner; born in Lon- 
don, England, about 1610. During the 
civil war in England the royalist governor 
of Maryland seized Ingle's ship. On 'his 
return to England, Ingle applied to Par- 
liament for redress, and received a com- 
mission authorizing him to act against the 
royalists. Ingle returned to America in 
1645, and, taking advantage of local 
troubles, expelled Leonard Calvert, and 
himself took charge of the government 
for six months, at the end of which period 
Calvert regained control. 

Inglis, Charles, clergyman; born in 
Ireland, in 1734. From 1764 to the Revo- 
lution he was assistant rector of Trinity 
Church, New York ; and was rector from 
1777 to 1783. He adhered to the royal 
cause, and departed for Nova Scotia with 
the loyalists who fled from New York 
City in 1783. His letters evinced consid- 
erable harsh feeling towards the Ameri- 
can patriots as " fomenters of rebellion." 
Dr. Inglis was consecrated bishop of Nova 
Scotia in 1788, and in 1809 became a 
member of the governor's council. He 
published an answer to Paine's Common 



Sense, which made him obnoxious to the or imperative initiative is allowed. Any 

patriots, and they confiscated his estate, petition containing a certain numbtr of 

He died in Halifax, N. S., Feb. 24, 1816. signatures (generally from 5,000 to 6,000), 

His son John was made bishop of Nova demanding action upon any matter what- 

Scotia in 1825, and died in 1850; and his ever, must be given attention by the coun- 

grandson. Gen. Sir John Eardley Wilmot cil, which, after passing upon it, must 

Inglis, born in Halifax in 1814, was the submit it to the popular vote. This course 

brave defender of Lucknow. must be taken even if a proposed measure 

Inglis, Mary, pioneer; born in 1729. is unfavorable to the council. Again, in 

She, with her two children, was captured a number of the cantons, the people have 

by the Shawnee Indians, who had made a the right of veto power. In about a 

successful attack upon the small settle- month's time after any measure has been 

ment. The Indians carried their captives adopted by the cantonal council it may 

down the Kanawha River to the Scioto, he brought before the people by a petition, 

She was thus the first white woman in and according to their vote made to stand 

Kentucky. She made her escape in com- or fall. This veto power, however, may 

pany with another white woman, and sue- be said to be included in the referendum, 

ceeded in reaching a settlement on the In all the cantons, except Freiburg, the 

Kanawha. She died in 1813. right of the people to have every important 

Ingraham, Duncan N. See Naturai.- act of legislation referred back to them 

IZATION {Koszta Case). for adoption or rejection is now estab- 

Ingraham, Joseph Holt, author; born lished by law. 
in Portland, Me., 1809; became a pro- In recent years the principle of the ini- 
fessor in Jeflferson College, Miss.; subse- tiative and referendum has met with much 
quently took orders in the Protestant favor in the United States, and in several 
Episcopal Church. He wrote many novels. States there has been an influential move- 
some of which were very popular, but he ment to bring about its adoption, 
is best known through his three books. Injunction, an order of a court, which 
entitled The Prince of the House of David ; commands the party or parties against 
The Pillar of Fire; and The Throne of whom it is issued (1) not to commit a 
David. He died in Holly Springs, Miss., certain act; or (2) to desist from the 
in December, 1866. commission of a certain act; or (3) to 

Ingram, David. See Hortop, Job. restore to its former condition something 

Ingulf, Rudolf, traveller; born in which has been altered or interfered with 

Cologne in 1727; emigrated to Mexico in by the person or persons to whom the 

1751, where he became a merchant. After injunction is directed. 

securing a competence he travelled through Inman, George, military officer ; born 

Central America, Mexico, and California, in Boston, Mass., Dec. 3, 1755; graduated 

He published, in the German language, at Harvard College in 1772. During the 

Travels in Neic Spain; The Geologic For- Revolutionary War he was a royalist, 

mation of California, in which he proved entering the army as a private, but soon 

that California was a rich gold-field; receiving a commission; took part in the 

Cosmographi/ of America, etc. He died in battles of Princeton, Brandywine, Ger- 

Vienna in 1785. mantown. and Monmouth, in the first of 

Initiative and Referendum, a politi- which he was wounded. He was the au- 

cal system which originated in Switzer- thor of Narrative of the Revolutionary 

land, designed to test the feeling of the War, 1776-1779. He died in the West 

people concerning proposed legislation. Indies in 1789. 

In the several cantons of the Swiss Con- Inman, Henry, painter ; born in Utica. 

federation the councils merely formulate N. Y., Oct. 20, 1801 ; was a pupil of John 

the laws, while the people pass them. Wesley Jarvis, the portrait - painter, to 

Similar to the law of all other nations whom he was apprenticed for seven years, 

that of Switzerland concedes the people a He painted landscapes and historical pict- 

certain right of initiative in the way of ures, but portraits were his chief subjects, 

petition; but in many of the cantons this and he introduced lithography into the 

right goes much further and an additional United States. In 1844 he went to Eng- 



land, where, becoming the guest of Words- 
worth, the poet, he painted his portrait. 
He also painted the portraits of other dis- 
tinguished men while in England. He had 
begun painting an historical picture for 
the national Capitol, representing Daniel 
Boone in the wilds of Kentucky, at the 
time of his death, in New York City, Jan. 
17, 1846. 

Inman, Henry, author; born in New 
York, July 30, 1837; educated at the 
Brooklyn public schools and Athenian 
Academy, and is the author of The Old 
Santa Fe Trail; Great Salt Lake Trail; 
Tales of the Trail; The Ranch on the 
Oxhide; Pioneer from Kentucky, etc. He 
died in Topeka, Kan., Nov. 13, 1899. 

Inman, William, naval officer; born in 
Utica, N. Y., in 1 707 ; appointed midship- 
man. United States navy, in 1812; pro- 
moted to lieutenant, April 1, 1818; com- 
mander in 1838; and captain in 1850. 
In 1859-61 he commanded the West 
African squadron, during which time he 
succeeded in recapturing and liberating 
nearly 4,000 slaves; and was promoted 
commodore, and was retired, April 4, 1867. 
He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 23, 1874. 

Inness, Geoege, artist; born in Ne\\- 
burg, N. Y., May 1, 1825; removed to New 
York in 1845; studied art; and was 
chosen a member of the National Acad- 
emy in 1868. He was one of the greatest 
landscape-painters America has produced. 
His pictures include American Sunset; 
Delatcare Water -Gap; View near Med- 
field, Mass.; An Old Roadway, Long Isl- 
and; and Under the Green Wood. He 
died in Scotland Aug. 3, 1894. 

Inness, Harry, jurist; born in Caro- 
line county, Va., in 1752; was an ardent 
patriot during the Revolutionary War; 
superintendent of the mines from which 
the Americans obtained their lead; ap- 
pointed judge of the Supreme Court of 
Virginia in 1783, and United States dis- 
trict judge for Kentucky in 1787. His 
enemies caused charges to be brought 
against him in Congress in 1808, but 
that body refused to take any action look- 
ing to his impeachment. He died in 
Frankfort, Ky., Sept. 20, 1816. 

Insanity. Until 1840 the insane poor 
in the United States were cared for al- 
most exclusively by the township and 
county authorities. It was estimated that 

in 1833 there were 2,500 lunatics in jails 
and other prisons, besides Lvmdreds in 
the county poor-houses and private fam- 
ilies. One of the very earliest asylums 
for the insane was , that opened in 1797 
at Bloomingdale, in the suburbs of New 
York City, by the New York Hospital So- 
ciety. To the labors of Miss Dorothea 
L. Dix (q. V.) is largely due the establish- 
ment of State asylums. Miss Dix de- 
voted herself after 1837 to the investi- 
gation of the subject, and visited every 
State east of the Rocky Mountains, ap- 
pealing to the State legislatures to pro- 
vide for the care of the insane. In April, 
1854, a bill appropriating 10,000,000 acres 
of public lands to the several States for 
the relief of the pauper insane, passed 
by Congress under her appeals, was vetoed 
by President Pierce. Her efforts, however, 
led to the establishment of State insane 
asylums, and it is now recognized as the 
duty of each State to care for its insane. 
New York State alone has fifteen corporate 
institutions of this class. The following 
statistics show the number of insane, etc., 
in the United States. Until 1850 there 
were no reliable statistics: 


Population of 

No. of Insane. 

To each million of 











1 396 


Insolvency. See Bankruptcy Laws. 

Inspection, Committees of. In many 
of the present American States the class 
known as Tories, or adherents of the 
crown, were in a minority at the beginning 
of the Revolutionary War, and in many 
places suffered indignities, such as, if | 
ofl'ensively active, receiving a covering of 
tar and feathers, being carted around as 
a public spectacle, and other abuses which 
personal and political malignity could in- 
flict. To prevent such disgraceful scenes, 
which would lead to retaliation and the 
rule of mob law, the Continental Congress 
S]>ecially conunitted the oversight of Tories 
and suspected persons to regularly ap- 
pointed connnittees of inspection and ob- 
servation for the several counties and dis- 
tricts. The Tories were also exposed to 
the dangers from the law, for the Whigs 



had taken all power into their hands, and 
required allegiance to State governments 
from all the inhabitants. The consequence 
was that many left the States and became 
refugees in Great Britain or in its Ameri- 
can provinces. 

Instrument oi Government. See Gov- 
ernment, Instrument of. 

Insurance. The following is a brief 
summary of the insurance business in the 
United States in its principal forms: The 
first fire insurance in the colonies was 
written in Boston by the Sun Company 
(English) in 1728. Some insurance was 
done in Philadelphia in 1752. The first 
fire insurance policy issued in the United 
States was in Hartford, Conn., in 1794, un- 
der the unofficial title of " Hartford Fire 
Insurance Co." Sixteen years after, in 
1810, the Hartford Fire Insurance Com- 
pany was organized. From 1801-10 there 
were 60 charters issued; 1811-20, 43; 
1821-30, 149; 1831-40, 467; 1841-50, 401; 
1851-60, 896; 1861-70, 1,041. 

From Jan. 1, 1880, to Dec. 31, 1889, 
property of the citizens of the United 
States was insured against fire and ac- 
cident on ocean, lake, and river, and by 
tornado, to the amount of over $120,000,- 
000,000, for premiums of $1,150,675,391, 
and losses were paid of $647,726,051, being 
56 per cent, of the premiums. 

The condition and transactions of fire 
companies doing business in the United 
States on Jan. 1, 1903, were as follows: 

between twelve and forty - five years 
of age. In 1734 it guaranteed a divi- 
dend for each deceased member not less 
than £100. This was the first insurance 
for a definite sum at death, whenever 
that might occur. In 1762 the Equit- 
able Assurance Society of London began 
to rate members according to age. At the 
close of the eighteenth century there were 
eight companies transacting, in a more or 
less complete form, the business of life in- 
surance in Great Britain and Ireland. The 
Presbyterian Annuity and Life Insurance 
Company of Philadelphia, the first life in- 
surance company in the United States, re- 
ceived its charter from Thomas Penn in 
1759. The Penn Company for Insurance 
on Lives was chartered in 1812, and the 
Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance 
Company, Boston, in 1818. 

The assessment system of life insurance 
is based on the plan of collecting assess- 
ments on living members to pay death 
losses as they occur. In this plan the as- 
sessments during early years are less than 
the premiums of regular companies; but 
they increase rapidly, and often become 
impossible to collect in later years. Since 
its appearance (about 1865) as an in- 
surance business, aside from fraternal 
organizations, this system has rapidly ex- 

The first accident insurance company 
established in the United States was the 
Traveler's, of Hartford, Conn., in 1863; 

Number of Companies. 


Assets Exclusive of 
Premium Notes. 

Net Surplus. 

r:ish Premiums Re 
ceived during Year. 

Total Cash Income 
during Year. 

313 Stock 1 

178 Mutual f 






Number of CoDipanies. 

Paid for Losses 
during: Year. 

Paid for Diviilends 
during Year. 

Expenses other tIkli 
Losses and Divi- 
dends during Year- 

313 Stock.. 
178 Mutiiiil. 

J I $113,147,727 I $17,737,444 I $74,499,597 

•il Disburse 
Mits during 


Rislis Written 
during Year 

* $26,000,000,000 

* Apprnximatinn Tho stntiptios of fire insiinnce l)nf=inpss in the Unitpd Ptntes are. W'th tlie excpptinn of the 
e.<;tim;ito of lisk?; writtpii dur ng tlie vear, compilect from T'l'' Tnxurani')' V^-ar Bnnk. piil.lislii'il by The S|ioctator 
roinpany Tlioy do not inrlmle the returns of a few slock companies ami some 600 mutualsand town and tounty 
muluals" whose tran.SLCtions are purely local and individually of small volume. 

In 1903 the aggregate property loss by 
fires was estimated at $135,000,000, and the 
aggregate insurance loss at $75,000,000. 

i^ifc insurance was not known before 
the sixteenth century. The first life in- 
surance company, " The Amicable," was 
established in London, England, in 1706, 
and insured at uniform rates persons 

the first steam-boiler insurance company, 
Hartford. Conn., was chartered in 1866; 
and plate-2flass was first insured in 1870. 
]\Iost of the States have established de- 
partments or bureaus of insurance, for the 
supervision of the companies and the en- 
forcement of the laws requiring their 
solvency to be maintained. The mainten- 







Payments to 
(Losses, Divi 
dends. Surren- 
ders, etc.) 

Total Expen- 

New Policies Issued, 

Policies in Force. 

No. 1 Atnoont. 

No. 1 Amount. 


$2,091,832,851 |406,946,697 | *.iW.!,-.i.l>i:. | $lS»,bS3,1Jl | t.>n,vot,,^TJ 

5,-iOV,-A>i 1 t2.338,734.4fi:i 

i;.rtvil.43.i ijin.S05.3i)'?.. 18! 

* Including industrial policies 





Payments to 

Total Expen- 



ce in Force. 


Admitted Dur- 
ing the Year. 

No. of 











* These figures are from the Illinois Life Insurance Report for 1900, and represent the combined business of the 
assessment companies and fraternal orders. The assessment business having declined since 1896, these aggreg^ites 
are nearly half those of that year. 

The returns of life insurance in the first and third tables are from The Insurance Vear-Book, published by The 
Spectator Company. 






5 £ 






□ • 








s 1, 












































































































24.. 54 















































21. .330 























41.. 53 



































































































































































































32.. 50 












































9 23 






















anee of these departments, and all ex- 
penses of supervision are charged to the 
companies. The New York Letrislature, 
in 190.5, appointed a committee (Ann- 
stronof, chairman; Hiijihes, counsel), 
which made a thorough investijjation of 
the life-insurance companies, eventuating 
in much-needed remedial legislation in 

Insurrections. See Rebellions ; Riots. 

Interest. The table on opposite page 
shows interest laws and statutes of limita- 
tions of the various States in the Union. 

Interior, Department of the. See 
Cabinet, President's. 

Internal Improvements. Millions of 
acres of the public lands of the United 
States have been granted to aid in the 
construction of roads, canals, and rail- 
ways ; and also for educational and other 
purposes. The first acts of Congress for 
the purpose of internal improvements 
were two for the new State of Ohio, which 
became laws on April 30, 1802, and March 
.'5, 1803, respectively. Previous to that 
there had been donations of land in favor 








Interest Laws. 

statutes of 

States and 

Luterest Laws. 

Statutes of 



Per ct. 

Rate Allowed 
by Contract. 




Legal Rate Allowed 
Rate. 1 by Contract. 






Per ct. 



Any rate. 

Any rate. 

Any rate. 













Any rate. 


Any rate. 





Any rate. 










































Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Any rate. 






Any rate. 



Any rate. 

Any rate. 







































New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New Me.xico 

New York 

North Carolina.. 
North Dakota... 
Ohio. . 





Dist. of Columbia. 
























Pennsylvania . .. 
Rhode Island. . . . 
South Carolina.. 
South Dakota... 







Utah . 


Massachusetts . . . 







West Virginia. .. 





* Under seal. 10 years, t If made in State; if outside, 2 years, t No law and no decision regardingjudgments. 
§ Unless adilTerent rate is expressly stipulated. II Under seal, 20 years.. H Store accounts; other accounts, 3 
years, tt Xew York has by a recent law legalized any rate of interest on call loans of $5,000 or upward, on col- 
lateral security, tt Becomes dormant, but may be revived. §§ Six years from last item, (a) Accounts between 
merchants, 2 years. (6) In courts not of record, 5 years, [d) Twenty years in courts of record; in justice's 
court, 10 years, (e) Negotiable notes, 6 years; non-negotiable, 17 years. (/) Ceases to be a lien after that period. 
(h) On foreign judgments, 1 year, (i) Is a lien on real estate for only 10 years, {j) Any rate, but only 6 per cent, 
can be collected at law. (^•) And indefinitely by having execution issue every 5 years. (/) Ten years foreign, 20 
years domestic. 

of various deserving persons. The grants to repay the government. On the same 
to the inhabitants of Ohio were for the day (March, 1827) there was granted to 
purpose of laying out public I'oads lead- Indiana a certain strip of land formerly 
ing to the Ohio Eiver. Other grants were held by the Pottawattomie Indians, the 
made from time to time for improvements proceeds of the sale thereof to be applied 
in the Northvrest until 1824, when (May to building a road from Lake Michigan, 
26) Congress authorized the State of Indi- via Indianapolis, to some convenient 
ana to construct a canal, giving the right point on the Ohio River. March 3, 1827, 
of way, with 90 feet of land on each a grant was made to Ohio of two sec- 
side thereof. Nothing was done under tions of land along the entire line of a 
the act; but in 1827 (March 2) two acts road to be constructed from Sandusky to 
were passed, giving to Indiana and II- Columbus. 

^inois, respectively, certain lands in aid May 23, 1828, a grant of 400,000 acres 

of the construction of canals, the first of the "relinquished lands" in certain 

to connect the navigation of the Wabash counties in Alabama was made in aid of 

River with the waters of Lake Erie, and the improvement of the Tennessee and 

the second to connect the waters of the other rivers in that State. In this grant 

Illinois River with those of Lake Michi- was the first provision for indemnity in 

gan. A quantity of land equal to one- case the grant was not full by reason of 

half of five sections in width, on each prior sales or disposals by the govern- 

side of the canals, was granted, reserv- ment. Similar grants were made from 

ing to the United States each alternate time to time for like purposes. March 2, 

section. It was not an absolute grant 1833, the State of Illinois was authorized 

of land in fee, for. under certain restric- to apply the lands granted by the act of 

tions, the States had a right to sell the March 2, 1827, for canal purposes to the 

awards, and from the proceeds they were construction of a railway instead. This 



was the first act looking to the con- 
struction of a railway through the assist- 
ance of land donations. The railroad sys- 
tem was then in its infancy. The State 
did not avail itself of the privilege, but 
subsequently built a canal. March 2, 
1835, a grant was made to aid the con- 
struction of a railway in Florida. Suffi- 
cient was given for the way — 30 feet of 
land on each side — and the right to take 

right of way through such portions of the 
public lands as remained unsold — not to 
exceed 80 feet in width — to the New 
Orleans and Nashville Railroad Company. 
This road was never completed. Next 
came a grant to East Florida and other 
railroads which were never constructed. 
March 3, 1837, a grant was made to the 
Atchafalaya Railroad and Banking Com- 
pany, in Louisiana, similar to that to 


and use the timber for 100 yards 
on each side for the construction 

and repairs of the road. This was the the New Orleans and Nashville Rail'oad. 

first grant of the right of way for a rail- Aug. 8, 1846, an act granted lands in aid 

road, the previous grant having been for of improvements of the Des Moines River, 

a canal, July 2, 1830, an act granted the in Iowa, and the Fox and Wisconsin 



rivers, in Wisconsin. These rivers, when to that given to Missouri in 1852. July 
improved, were to remain highways for 1, 1862, the Union Pacific Kailroad Com- 
the United States government forever, pany was created for the purpose of 
free from toll. constructing and maintaining a railroad 

The grant to the then Territory of Iowa and telegraph line from the Missouri 
for the improvement of the Des Moines Eiver to the Pacific Ocean. They were 
River led to long discussions as to the granted the right of way through the 
extent of the grant, and to many legal public lands to the extent of 200 feet in 
decisions. Finally, on March 22, 1858, width on each side of the line of the road, 
the consent of Congress was given to ap- together with the necessary ground for 
ply a portion of the grant to the con- stations, buildings, etc. They were also 
struction of a railway. The rivers were granted in aid of the construction of the 
not improved, but the railway was con- road every alternate section of public land 
slructed — the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines, to the amount of five alternate sections a 
and Minnesota Railroad. Sept. 20, 1850, mile on each side of the road, excepting 
a grant was made to the State of Illinois mineral lands and all lands already dis- 
of every alternate section of land, desig- posed of or reserved. Several other roads 
nated by even numbers, for six sections were provided for on the same conditions, 
in width, on each side of a railroad and which became known as the Central 
branches thereof. This road, which was Pacific, Central Branch of the Union Pa- 
built, is kno\\'n as the Illinois Central, cific, Kansas Pacific, and Sioux City and 
Although this was not the first concession Pacific. It was a grant of 10 miles of 
of land to a railway corporation, it land on each side of the road. By an act 
granted specific sections instead of one- approved July 2, 1864, instead of five, 
half of a certain number of sections, and ten sections were granted, making the 
may be considered the initiatory measure area 20 miles on each side of these 
of the system since adopted in making roads. The term mineral land was con- 
grants in favor of railways. On June 10, strued not to mean coal or iron. By the 
1852, a donation was made to the State same act a grant of 20 miles of land 
of Missouri for the construction of certain was made to the Burlington and Missouri 
railroads therein, afterwards known as River Railroad Company for the construc- 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph, and the tion of a road from the Missouri River to 
Misouri Pacific, south branch. This grant some point not farther west than the one 
was similar in character and extent to hundredth meridian west longitude, to 
that of the Illinois Central. In this, as connect with the Union Pacific road, 
in the case of the Illinois Central, there March 3, 1864, a grant of land was made 
was a provision for the reimbursement of to the State of Kansas to assist in con- 
the United States for all the land sold, structing railroads within its borders, af- 
Feb. 9, 1853, an act made a similar grant terwards known as the Atchison, Topeka, 
to Arkansas. June 29, 1854, an act and Santa Fe; Leavenworth, Lawrence, 
granted aid to Minnesota for construct- and Galveston ; and Missouri, Kansas, and 
ing a railroad from the southern line of Texas railroads. In May, 1864, similar 
that then Territory, via St. Paul, to its grants were made to the States of Minne- 
eastern line, in the direction of Lake Su- sota, Wisconsin, and Iowa, and others soon 
perior. For this purpose there were given followed to Arkansas, Missouri, Alabama, 
each alternate section of land, designated Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Kansas, 
by odd numbers, for six sections in width The North Pacific Railroad Company was 
on each side of said road. This act was created July 1, 1864, with grants similar 
repealed in August following. to those of the Union Pacific, excepting 

At various times in 1856 grants of double the extent of land, through the Ter- 
land for similar purposes were made to ritories. July 27, 1866, grants were made 
the States of Iowa, Florida, Alabama, to the Atlantic and Pacific, and the South- 
Louisiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, and crn Pacific, on terms similar to those of 
Mississippi. On March 3, 1856, a grant the Union Pacific. March 3, 1869, land 
was made to Minnesota. All of these grants were made to the Denver Pacific 
grants made in 1856 and 1857 were similar Railway; and bv act of March 3, 187 1, 



similar grants were made to the Southern 
Pacific (branch line) and Texas and Pa- 
cific. Many of the grants made in the 
earlier years of the system were enlarged. 
The aggregate amount of land granted is 
more than 215,000,000 acres, but the 
amount made available is not more than 
187,000,000 acres. By the aid of these 
grants over 15,000 miles of railroad have 
been built. Their benefits have extended 
to all parts of the country, and cannot 
be estimated by values. See Canals; 
Public Domain; Railroads. 

Internal Revenue. The following table 
shows the total collections of internal 
revenue in the United States in the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1903, by States and 

States and Territories. 



California and Nevada. . . . 

Colorado and Wyoming. . . . 

Connecticut and Rhode Isl- 







Kansas, Indian Territory, 
and Oklahoma 


Louisiana and Mississippi. . 

Maryland, Delaware, Dis 
trict of Columbia, and two 
Virginia districts 





Montana, Idaho, and Utah.. 

Nebraska, and North and 
South Dakota 

New Hampshire, Maine, and 

New Jersey 

New Mexico and Arizona. . . 

New York 

North Carolina 


Oregon, Washington, and 
Alaska ■ 


South Carolina 




West Virginia 






























The table on opposite page gives a sum- 

mary of such receipts in the period 1880- 
1903, both inclusive, with principal 

The re-imposition of adhesive stamps in 
1898 was provided for in the War Reve- 
nue Act of that year. The war revenue 
and the receipts of the national treasury 
from other sources having been much 
larger than was anticipated, and having 
produced a surplus largely in excess of 
the actual financial needs of the country. 
Congress adopted a conference report on 
a bill to reduce the war revenue on Feb. 
28, 1901, to go into effect on July 1 
next ensuing. The revenue reduction was 
expected to amount to $42,165,000 per an- 
num, the repeal of various stamp taxes 
and a few changes in the existing law 
concerning specified articles being esti- 
mated to make the following itemized re- 

Commercial brokers, $138,000; certifi- 
cates of deposits, $200,000; promissory 
notes, $3,500,000; bills of lading for ex- 
port, $100,000; telegraphic despatches, 
$800,000; telephone messages, $315,000; 
bonds other than indemnity, $25,000; cer- 
tificates not otherwise specified, $200,000; 
charter party, $100,000; conveyances, 
$1,750,000: insurance, $3,000,000; leases, 
$200,000; mortgages, $500,000; passage 
tickets, $100,000; power of attorney, $100,- 
000; protests, $25,000; warehouse re- 
ceipts, $250,000; express receipts, $800,- 
000 ; proprietary medicines, cosmetics, and 
chewing-gum, $3,950,000; legacies, $500,- 
000; cigars, $3,100,000; tobacco, $7,000,- 
000; small cigars and cigarettes, $500,- 
000; beer, $9,800,000; bank checks, $7,- 
000,000; foreign bills of exchange, $50,- 
000 ; money orders, $602,000 ; manifest for 
Custom House, $60,000. 

International Arbitration. See Arbt- 
TijATioN, International. 

International Law, the name now 
given to what was formerly known as the 
Law of Nations. It is believed to have 
originated in the Middle Ages, and to 
have been first applied for the purpose 
of regulating commercial transactions. 
From this fact it took the name of " com- 
mercial law," and subsequently was ex- 
tended to transactions other than com- 
mercial of an international character. To- 
day the aim of international law is to 
prevent war. The distinctive features of 




Biscal Y8IU8. 




Banks and 




Under Repealed 




43.. '514,810 



' 4,288 






































7 8,. 569 























Of the receipts in 1900 classed as " Miscellaneous,'' $2,884,492 was from legacies : $4..'il5,041 from special taxes 
on bankers, billiarU-rooms, brokers, and e.xhibitious ; and $1,079,405 from exrise ta.x on gross receipts, under the 
War Revenue law of I8'.)8 ; $2,543,785 from oleomargarine ; $331,011 from playing cards ; $193,721 from penalties; 
and $17,064 from filled cheese. 

See Bimetallism; Evarts, William 

International Order of the King's 
Daughters and Sons, a religious order 
consisting of small circles of men, women, 
and children. It is non-sectarian, and 
its members may be found in nearly all 
churches and in nearly every country. It 
was established in New York City in 1886 
by a circle of ten women. Its aim is to 
help the needy and suffering, to consider 
the poor, and to engage in all good works. 
Ihe members wear a small silver badge in 
the shape of a cross, bearing the letters 
I. H. N. on one side, and the date 1880 
on the other. In 1900 it was estimated 
that the society numbered more than 
500,000 members. It ranks among the 
strongest and most useful societies in the 
world. The headquarters are at 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. In 1900 the officers 
were: President, Mrs. F. Bottome; vice- 
president, Miss Kate Bond; general sec- 
retary, Mrs. Mary L. Dickinson; treas- 
urer, Mrs. J. C. Davis; recording secre- 
tary, Mrs. Robert Sturgis ; and correspond- 
ing secretary, Mrs. Isabella Charles Davis. 

Interoceanic Ship Canal. See Nica- 
ragua Caxal; Paxama Canal. 

Intrepid, The. The ketch Intrepid, 
used in the destruction of the Philadel- 
phia {q. v.), had been converted into a 
floating mine for the purpose of destroy- 
ing the piratical cruisers in the harbor 

international law may be summarized in 
brief as follows: First, that every nation 
possesses an exclusive sovereignty and 
jurisdiction in its own territory; second, 
that no State or nation can by its law di- 
rectly affect or bind property out of its 
own territory, or persons not resident 
therein, natural born subjects or others; 
third, that whatever force the laws of 
one country have in another depends sole- 
ly on the municipal laws of the latter. 

There have been numerous congresses 
of international law experts for the pur- 
pose of simplifying and making more def- 
inite the obligations which one country 
owes to another, and in these congresses 
the United States has occupied a con- 
spicuous place. The Association for the 
Reform and Codification of the Law of 
Nations held its first session in Brussels, 
Oct. 10, 1873, and subsequent ones were 
held in Geneva, The Hague, Bremen, 
Antwerp, Frankfort. London, Berne, 
Cologne, Turin, and Milan. An Institute 
of International Law was organized in 
Ghent in 1873, and has since held numer- 
ous sessions in various cities of Europe, 
The most conspicuous action of the nations 
concerning the abolition of international 
hostilities was taken in the Peace Con- 
ference at The Hague, in 1899, to which 
the United States was also a party. See 
Codes; Field, Davtd Dudley. 

International Monetary Conference. 



of Tripoli. In a room below deck 100 company engaged in the perilous enter- 
barrels of gunpowder were' placed, and prise. The Intrepid entered the harbor 
immediately above them a large quantity at nine o'clock in the evening. The night 
of shot, shell, and irregular pieces of was very dark. Many eager eyes were 
iron were deposited. Combustibles were turned towards the spot where her shad- 
placed in other parts of the vessel. On o\vj form was last seen. Suddenly a 
the night of Sept. 3, 1804, the Intrepid fierce and lurid light streamed up from 

the dark waters like 
volcanic fires and il- 
luminated the sur- 
rounding objects with 
its lurid glare — rocks, 
flotilla, castle, town, 
and the broad bosom 
of the harbor. This 
was followed by an 
instant explosion, 

and for a few mo- 
ments flaming masts 
and sails and fiery 
bomb - shells rained 
upon the waters, 
when suddenly all was 
again dark. Anxious- 
ly the companions of 
the intrepid men 
who went into the 
harbor awaited their 
return. They never 
came back. What 
was the cause of the 
premature explosion 
that destroyed vessels 
and men will never be 
known. The belief 
was that the ketch 
was captured by the 
Tripolitans on the 
M-atch, and that Som- 
ors, preferring death 
to miserable captiv- 
ity, had himself ap- 
plied a lighted match 
to the powder. A 
fine monument, erect 
ed to the memory of 
the slain men and the 
event, formerly stood 
was lowed into the harbor by two boats, at the western front of the national 
the whole under the command of Captain Capitol, but is now in front of the Naval 
Somers, attended by Lieutenant Wads- Academy at Annapolis, 
worth, of the Constitution, and Mr. Israel, Inundations. For a long period of 
an ardent young man who got on board time the principal inundations in the 
the Intrepid by stealth. These, with a United States were caused by the over- 
few men to work the torpedo- vessel, and flowing of the banks of the Mississippi 
the crews of the boats, constituted the River. The record of these disasters, al- 





though not containing many individual 
cases, is a distressing one because of the 
vast amount of property destroyed and 
the large number of lives lost. The fol- 
lowing briefly summarizes the most nota- 
ble inundations in the United States: 

1816. — The White Mountain region in 
New Hampshire was flooded by a deluge 
of rain after a drought of two years. 
Several valleys were completely under 
water, and large tracts of forests were 
torn from the ground and washed down 
the mountain sides. 

IS/fO, May J2. — A flood in New Orleans 
spread over 160 squares and submerged 
1,600 buildings. 

187Ji, May 16. — The bursting of a reser- 
voir on Mill River, near Northampton, 
]\Iass., caused the destruction of several 
villages in the valley and the loss of 144 

187ft, July 2). — A waterspout burst in 
Eureka, Nev., and with the attendant 
heavy rains caiised a loss of between twen- 
ty and thirty lives. 

ISlIf, July 26. — An unusual fall of rain 


caused the overflow of the rivers in west- 
ern Pennsylvania and the loss of 220 

1881, June 12. — Disastrous floods be- 
gan in Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, and Mis- 
souri, lasting several days, and causing 
the destruction of much property. 

1882, Feb. 22.— The valleys of" the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers were flooded, and 
the loss of life and property was so great 
that the governor of Mississippi made a 
public appeal for help. 

1883, Fehruary. — Portions of Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, and Kentucky were visited by 
a disastrous flood, which was most severe 
at Cincinnati, lasting several days. 

188li, Fehruary. — The Ohio River over- 
flowed its banks, causing the loss of fif- 
teen lives and rendering 5,000 people 

1886, Jan. 5. — Pennsylvania. New York, 
and several of the New England States 
were visited by floods, and great damage 
was done to property. 

1886, Aug. 20. — A storm in Texas was 
followed by a flood, which was particular- 


ly disastrous in Galveston, where twenty- 
eight lives were lost and property dam- 
aged to the extent of more than $5,000,- 

1889, May SI.— The rising of the Cone- 
maugh River, in Pennsylvania, under in- 
cessant rain, caused the breaking of the 
dam about 18 miles above Johnstown. The 
great mass of water rushed down to the 
city in seven minutes, and at the Pennsyl- 
vania Eailroad bridge, near the city, it 
became dammed up, greatly increasing the 
loss of life and collecting a large mass of 
debris, which afterwards took fire and 
added further to the destruction. Official 
reports after the disaster placed the total 
number of lives lost at ^;142, and the 
value of property destroyed at $9,674,105. 
Nearly $3,000,000 was raised for the re- 
lief of the sufferers, contributions being 
sent from nearly every State and large 
city in the United States, and from sev- 
eral cities in Europe. In the distribution 
of the relief, the sum of $1,500 was given 
to each of 124 women made widows, and 
$50 annually till they should reach the 
age of sixteen was assigned to each of 
965 children made orphans or half- 

1890, March and April. — The levees of 
the Mississippi River gave way in many 
places and the waters flooded large areas 
of land in Mississippi and Louisiana. The 
worst crevasse was caused by the giving 
way of the Morgansea, near Bayou Sara, 
v/hich had been built by the federal and 
State governments at a cost of about 

1900, Sept. 6-9. — A tropical hurricane 
visiting the Southern coast spent its fury 
at and near Galveston, Tex., on Sept. 9. 
The loss of life and property here was the 
largest ever reported in the history of the 
United States from this cause, the loss 
of life being officially estimated at about 
7,000, and the value of property destroyed 
about $30,000,000. The latter included 
the United States military post. The re- 
lief contributions from various sources in 
the United States and Europe amounted 
to over $1,500,000. 

1901, June 22. — A cloudburst occurred 
near the headwaters of the Elkhorn and 
Dry Fork rivers, whose confluence form 
the main Tug River in the Flat Top coal 
region of West Virginia. A disastrous 

flood ensued, causing the loss of many lives 
and the destruction of a large amount of 
property. The consequent distress was 
such that Governor White appealed to the 
citizens of the State for relief for the 

Investigating Committees. The first 
investigating committee appointed by 
Congress was in the case of the defeat of 
Gen. Abthub St. Claik (q. v.). It was 
a special committee, empowered to send 
for persons and papers. Their call upon 
the War Department for all papers relating 
to the affair first raised the question of 
the extent of the authority of the House 
in such matters. The cabinet unanimous- 
ly agreed that the House had no power 
to call on the head of any department for 
any public paper except through the Presi- 
dent, in whose discretion it rested to fur- 
nish such papers as the public good might 
seem to require and admit, and that all 
such calls must be made by a special 
resolution of the House, the power to 
make them being an authority which 
could not be delegated to any committee. 
This decision of the cabinet estab- 
lished the method ever since practised 
of calling upon the President for public 

Iowa was originally a part of the vast 
Territory of Louisiana, ceded to the United 
States in 1803. The first settlement by 
PJuropeans was made by Julian Du Buque, 
who, in 1788, obtained a grant of a large 
tract, including the site of the city of 
Dubuque and the mineral lands around 
it. There he built a fort, and manufact- 
ured lead and traded with Indians until 
his death, in 1810. The Territory was 
placed under the jurisdiction of Michigan 
in 1834, and in 1836 under that of Wis- 
consin. It was erected into a separate 
Territory June 12, 1838, and included all 
the country north of Missouri between the 
Mississippi and the Missouri and the 
British line. This comprised a greater 
part of Minnesota and the whole of the 
present Dakotas, with an area of 94.000 
square miles. The government was estab- 
lished at Iowa City, in 1839. In 1844 a 
State constitution was formed, but an ap- 
plication for admission into the Union 
was denied. The admission was effected 
Dec. 28, 1846, and in 1857 the capital was 
established at Des Moines. This State, 



lying westward of the Mississippi River, 
with a population of nearly 700,000 and a 
loyal governor ( Samuel J. Kirkwood ) , 
was quick to perceive the needs of the na- 
tional government in its struggle with its 
enemies, and was lavish in its aid. When 
the President called for troops (April, 
1861) the governor said, "In this emer- 
gency Iowa must not and does not occupy 

The population in 1890 was 1,911.890, 
in 1900, 2,231,853. See U. S., Iowa, vol. ix. 


Robert Lucas assumes office July, 1838 

John Chambers " " ik41 

James Clark " " ia45 


Ansel Briggs assumes 

Stephen Hempstead. 
Jiimes W. Grimes... '' 




, 18.00 

Ralph P. Lowe 


Samuel J. Kirkwood " 
William M. Stone... " 

Samuel Merrill " 

C. C. Carpenter " 

:: ••• • 




SamuelJ. Kirkwood " 



Joshua G. Newbold.actin<'. . . 

John H. Gear assumes 


Buren R. Sherman.. " 


William Larrabee. .. " 



Frank D. Jackson... " 



Francis M. Drake. .. " 
Leslie M. Shaw " 

il ••• * 


Albert B. Cummins.. " 






^0. of Congress 





Augustus C. Dodge 30lh to Xid 1848 to 1855 

George W. Jones 30th " 3(iih 1848 

James Harlan 34th " 38lh 18.55 

James W. Grimes 3Gtli " 40th 1859 

Samuel J. Kirkwood 8'.)th 18ti5 

James Harlan 40th to 43d 18e;7 

James B. Howell 41st 18(i9 

George G. Wright 4'.;d to 44th 1871 

J ,,j, , ... TT, .1 TT • William B. Alli.sou 43d 1873 

a doubtful position. For the Union as samuel J. Kirkwood 45th to 4(;th 1877 

our fathers formed it, and for the govern- James W. McDill 47th I88i 

, ,, „ J . , 1 ,, James F. Wilson 4Sth to 54th 1883 

ment they framed so wisely and so well, johnH.Gear 53d ■• 56th 1895 

the people of Iowa are ready to pledge Jonathan p. DoUiver 56th" 1900 

every fighting-man in the State and every ' 

dollar of her money and credit." That Iredell, James, jurist ; born in Lewes, 
pledge Avas redeemed by sending over 75,- England, Oct. 5, 1750; emigrated to North 
000 men to the front. The present con- Carolina in 1767; admitted to the bar in 
stitution of Iowa was framed by a con- 1775; was elected judge of the Superior 
vention at Iowa City early in 1857, and Court in 1777; appointed attorney-general 
was ratified Aug. 3. The clause confining in 1779; and judge of the Supreme Court 
the privilege of the elective franchise to in 1790. He died in Edenton, N. C, Oct. 
white citizens was stricken out by act of 20, 1799. 

the legislature, and was ratified by the Iredell, James, lawyer ; born in Eden- 
people in 1868. ton, N. C, Nov. 2, 1788; son of James Ire- 
111 1903 Iowa ranked as the second corn- dell; graduated at Princeton College in 
producing State in the country, with an 1806; served in the War of 1812; aided 
output of 229,218,220 bushels, valued at in the defence of Craney Island; elected 
$87,102,924; the second in hay; and the governor of North Carolina in 1827, and 
second in oats. The equalized valuation served out an unexpired term in the 
of all taxable property was $637,937,386; United States Senate in 1828-31. His 
and the State had no bonded debt. In publications include a Treatise on the Law 
1900 the State had 14,819 manufacturing of Executors and Administrators ; and a 
establishments, with $102,733,103 capital; Difjest of all the Reported Cases in the 
58,553 wage-earners; paying $23,931,680 Courts of North Carolina, 1778 to 1845. 
for wages, $101,170,357 for materials, He died in Edenton, N. C, April IS, 
products valued at $164,617,877. 18o3. 



Ireland. The bold stand taken by the a resolution which made the country 
Americans early in 1775 made the British virtually free. 

ministry afraid of like movements in Ireland, which had been more oppressed 
Ireland, where the Protestant minority by British rule than the American colo- 
had hitherto been employed to keep the nies, had, at the beginning of the contest 
majority, who were Roman Catholics, in between the latter and Great Britain, 
subjection. That majority, amounting to shown peculiar subserviency to its polit- 
seven-eighths of the entire population, ical master. When news of the affairs 
were not only deprived of all political at Lexington and Bunker Hill reached 
privileges, but were subjected to a great that country, the Irish Parliament voted 
many rigorous and cruel restraints, de- that they " heard of the rebellion with 
signed to keep them ignorant, poor, and abhorrence, and were ready to show to 
helpless. Even the Protestants in Ireland the world their attachment to the sacred 
were not allowed an equality with their person of the King." Taking advantage 
fellow-subjects in England. Their Parlia- of this expressed loyalty. Lord North 
ment did not possess the rights enjoyed obtained leave to send 4,000 able-bodied 
by the American colonial assemblies; and men to America as a part of the British 
Ireland, in matters of trade, was treated army. The strongest and best of the Irish 
very much like a foreign country. The army were selected, and eight regiments 
idea of political liberty aroused in the were shipped for America. This left Ire- 
colonies was already sowing the seeds of land almost defenceless. Its Parliament 
revolution in Ireland, and it was judged offered to organize a national militia, 
expedient to conciliate the Irish by just which Lord North refused to accept, and, 
legislation that should relax the harsh instead of a militia, organized and con- 
commercial restrictions. This, however, trolled by the British government, self- 
was done so sparingly that it fell far formed bands of volunteers sprang up 
short of accomplishing permanent good, all over Ireland. North saw his blunder. 
Indeed, it was regarded as a delusive, and had a militia bill enacted. But it 
temporizing policy, and the attitude of was too late; the Irish Parliament pre- 
the Irish people, encouraged by that of ferred the volunteers, supported by the 
the Americans, even became more threat- Irish themselves. Meanwhile the eloquent, 
ening than ever. The Catholic Relief Bill patriotic, and incorruptible Henry Grat- 
of 1778 had made the Irish, for the first tan had become a member of the Irish Par- 
time in their history, one people; "all liament, and he was principally the agent 
sects, all ranks, all races — the nobleman that kindled the fire of patriotic zeal in 
and the merchant, the Catholic and the Ireland that was burning so brightly in 
Protestant, the Churchman and the Dis- America. In 1779, though only thirty- 
senter, he who boasted of his pure native three years of age, he led the Irish Parlia- 
lineage and he who was as proud of the ment in demanding reforms. He moved an 
Saxon or Norman blood that flowed in amendment to the address to the King 
his veins — rushed together to the vindi- that the nation could be saved only by 
cation of the liberties of their common free-trade, and it was adopted by unani- 
country;" and, at the beginning of the mous vote. New taxes were refused. The 
year, beheld them embodied to the num- ordinary supplies usually granted for two 
ber of 80,000 volunteers. The British years were granted for six months, 
government dared not refuse the arms Throughout the little kingdom an inex- 
which they demanded to repel a threat- tinguishable sentiment of nationality was 
ened invasion from France. The fiery aroused. Alarmed by the threatening at- 
Grattan was then leader in the Irish titude, the British Parliament, in 1781, 
Parliament. " I never will be satisfied," conceded to the dependent kingdom its 
he exclaimed in debate, " so long as the claims to commercial equality, 
meanest cottager- in Ireland has a link The volunteer army of Ireland, com- 
of the British chain clanking to h's rags: manded by officers of their own choice, 
he may be naked— he shall not be in amounted to about 50.000 at the close of 
irons." The Irish Parliament acted in the war with America (1782). They 
accordance with this spirit, and adopted were united under one general-in-chiof. 



Feeling strong in the right and in its ma- 
terial and moral vitality at the moment, 
and encouraged by the success of the 
Americans, Ireland demanded reforms for 
herself. The viceroy reported that unless 
it was determined that the knot which 
bound the two countries should be severed 
forever, the points required by the Irish 
Parliament must be conceded. It was a 
critical moment. Eden, who was secre- 
tary for Ireland, proposed the repeal of 
the act of George I. which asserted the 
right of the Parliament of Great Britain 
to make laws to bind the people and the 
kingdom of Ireland — the right claimed for 
I'arliament which drove the Americans to 
war — and the Eockingham ministry adopt- 
ed and carried the important measure. 
Appeals from the courts of Ireland to the 
British House of Peers were abolished ; 
the restraints on independent legislation 
were done away with, and Ireland, still 
owing allegiance to Great Britain, ob- 
tained the independence of its Parliament. 
This was the fruit of the war for inde- 
pendence in America. The people of Ire- 
land owed the vindication of their rights 
to the patriots of the United States ; but 
their gratitude took the direction of their 
complained-of oppressor, and their legis- 
lature voted $500,000 for the levy of 20,000 
seamen to strengthen the royal navy, 
whose ships had not yet been withdrawn 
from American waters, and which, with 
an army, were still menacing the liberties 
of the Americans. 

Ireland, John, clergyman; born in 
Burnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ireland, 
Sept. 11, 18.38. When nine years old he 
came to the United States and received 
a primary education in the Catholic 
schools of St. Paul, Minn. In 1853 he 
went to France and took a preparatory 
course in the Meximieux Seminary, after 
which he received his theological train- 
ing in the seminary of Hyeres. On Dec. 
21, 1861, he was ordained a priest, and 
for a while served in the Civil War as 
chaplain of the 5th Minnesota Regiment. 
Later he was made rector of the St. Paul 
Cathedral. In 1870-71 he represented 
Bishop Grace of St. Paul in the Vatican 
Council in Rome. Subsequently the Pope 
named him Bishop of Maronea and coad- 
jutor to Bishop Grace, and he was con- 
Rfcrated Dec. 21, 1875. He succeeded to 

the see of St. Paul on July 31, 1884, and 
was made archbishop on May 15, 1888. 
From early youth he was a strong advo- 
cate of temperance. In 1869 he estab- 
lished the first total abstinence society in 
Minnesota. He also became active in col- 
onizing the Northwest with Roman Catho- 
lics. In 1887 he went to Rome with Bish- 
op Keane, of Richmond, for the purpose of 
placing before the Pope the need of a 
Roman Catholic University at Washing- 
ton, D. C, which has since been estab- 
lished under the name of the Catholic 


University of America. In 1891 a mem- 
orable controversy arose over the action 
of a Roman Catholic priest in Faribault, 
Minn., in transferring the parochial school 
to the control of the public school board. 
The transfer and the conditions were ap- 
proved by Archbishop Ireland, and the 
experiment became known as the " Fari- 
bault Plan." The conditions in brief were 
that the city should bear all the expenses 
of the school ; that the text-books and 
general management should be the same 
as in the public schools; that the priest 
sl'.ould have the right of nominating 



teachers for the school of his own religious 
denomination, who would be subject to 
the required examination; and that no 
religious exercises, instruction, nor em- 
blems should be permitted in the school. 
This plan was also adopted in Stillwater, 
Minn. Soon, however, bishops in other 
parts of the country, who disapproved of 
the scheme, complained at Rome that 
Archbishop Ireland was disregarding the 
ecclesiastical law as expressed by the 
plenary councils of Baltimore. Archbishop 
Corrigan, of New York, was one of the 
leaders of this opposition. Archbishop 
Ireland was summoned to Rome, and 
after a long examination of the plan it 
was approved by the Congregation of 
the Propaganda in its decree of April 
30, 1892. 

Lafayette and America. — On July 4, 
1900, a statue of Lafayette, the cost of 
which had been raised by the school chil- 
dren of the United States, was unveiled 
in Paris and formally presented to the 
French people. Archbishop Ireland was 
selected to deliver the oration on the occa- 
sion, and on being informed of this Presi- 
dent McKinley addressed him the follow- 
ing letter: 

" Executive Mansion, 
" Washington, June 11. 

" Dear Sir, — Within a few clays I have ap- 
proved a resolution of Congress which voices 
in fitting terms the profound sympathy with 
which our people regard the presentation to 
France by the youth of America of a statue 
of General Lafayette. It has given me much 
pleasure to learn that you have been selected 
to deliver the address on this most interest- 
ing occasion. 

" No more eminent representative of Amer- 
ican eloquence and patriotism could have been 
chosen, and none who could better give ap- 
propriate expi-ession to the sentiments of 
gratitude and affection which bind our peo- 
ple to France. 

" I will be grateful if you will say how 
we honor in our national capital the statue 
of Lafayette erected by the French people, 
and convey my hope that the presentation of 
a similar memorial of that knightly soldier, 
whom both republics are proud to claim, may 
serve as a new Ilnl< of friendship between the 
two countries, and a new incentive to gener- 
ous rivalry in striving for the good of man- 
liind. Vei'y sincerely yours. 

" William McKinley. 
" Most Rev. .Tolin Ireland, Archbishop of Si. 
I*aul, St. Paul, Minn." 

The following is the principal part of 
the oration : 

To-day a nation speaks her gratitude 
to a nation; America proclaims her re- 
membrance of priceless favors .conferred 
upon her by France. We speak to France 
in the name of America, under commis- 
sion from her chief magistrate, William 
McKinley, from her Senate and House 
of Representatives, from her youths who 
throng her schools, and from the tens 
of millions of her people who rejoice in the 
rich inheritance won in years past by the 
allied armies of France and America. 
We are bidden by America to give in the 
hearing of the world testimony of her 
gratitude to France. 

Once weak and poor, in sore need of 
sympathy and succor, to-day the peer of 
the mightiest, self-sufficing, asking for 
naught save the respect and friendship 
to which her merits may entitle her, the 
republic of the United States of America 
holds in loving remembrance the nation 
from which in the days of her dire ne- 
cessity there came to her powerful and 
chivalrous support. Noble men and noble 
nations forgive injuries ; they never for- 
get favors. 

There is a land which is above all other 
lands the land of chivalry, of noble im- 
pulse and generous sacrifice, the land of 
devotion to ideals. At the call of a high- 
born principle her sons, with souls at- 
tuned by nature to the harmonies of the 
true and the beautiful, leap instinctive- 
ly into the arena, resolved at any cost 
to render such principle a reality in the 
life-current of humanity. The pages of 
its history are glistening with the names 
of heroes and martyrs, of knightly sol- 
diers and saintly missionaries. It is of 
I'rance I speak. 

At the close of the last century France 
■was, more than ever, ready to hearken 
io an appeal made in the name of hu- 
man rights. The spirit of liberty was 
I'.overing over the land, never again to 
depart from it, even if for a time baf- 
fled in its aspirations by the excesses of 
friends or the oppression of foes. To 
I-'rance America turned and spoke her 
hopes and fears ; her messengers plead- 
ed her cause in Paris : quick and generous 
^vas the response which France gave to 
the appeal. 

Gilbert du Molier, IMarquis de Lafay- 
ette! Oh, that words of mine could ex- 



press the full burning love which our 
IJevolutionary sires did bear to this il- 
lustrious son of old Auvergne! Oh, that 
I could pronounce his name with the rev- 
erence with which my countrymen across 
the sea wish me to pronounce it before 
the people of France! In America two 
names are the idols of our national wor- 
ship, the burden of fireside tale, the in- 
spiration of the poet's song, the theme 
of the orator's discourse: the name of him 
who was the Father of his Country — 
George Washington ; and the name of him 
who was the true and trusty friend of 
\>'ashington, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis 
de Lafayette. 

Strange were it if America did not 
cherish the name of Lafayette. He loved 
America. " From the moment that I 
heard the name of America," said he, 
" I loved her ; from the moment I learned 
of her struggles for liberty, I was inflamed 
with the desire of shedding my blood for 
her." He understood, above most men of 
his time, the full significance of America's 
contest. " Never," said he, " had so noble 
a purpose offered itself to the judgment of 
men; it was the last struggle for liberty, 
and its defeat would have left freedom 
without a home and without hopes." His 
devotion to America was as unselfish as 
it was intense. " I offer myself," he 
wrote, " to serve the United States with 
all possible zeal without pension or allow- 

Wealth and rank, the favors of court 
and king, high distinction in the service 
of his own country, the endearments of 
wife and child — all that ambition could 
covet or opportunity promise, the youth 
of nineteen simuners piit resolutely aside 
to cast his lot with a far-off people bat- 
tling against fearful odds — and that at a 
moment when their fortunes were at their 
lowest ebb, and hope had wellnigh aban- 
doned their standard. When the agent of 
America in France sadly confessed that 
he was even unable to furnish a ship to 
carry him and other volunteers, Lafayette 
said: "I will buy a ship and take your 
men with me." 

By his magnanimity of soul, and by his 
grace of manner, not less than by his mili- 
tary prowess, he won all hearts and be- 
came the idol of the American army. He 
proved himself to the inmost fibre of his 

soul an American, as proud of America 
as the proudest of her patriots, the 
champion before all contestants of her 
honor and her fair name. More cheerfully 
even than his American companions in 
arms he bore the terrible hardships of the 
war; again and again he pledged his per- 
sonal fortune to buy food and clothing for 
his men, who knew him by the familiar 
appellation of " The Marquis, the soldiers' 
friend." In camp and in battle his in- 
fluence was boundless; a word of cheer 
from his lips roused the drooping spirits 
of his soldiers ; a word of command sent 
them headlong against the enemy. A 
visitor to the American camp, the Marquis 
de Chastellux, could not help remarking 
that Lafayette was never spoken of with- 
out manifest tokens of attachment and 

But much as Lafayette deserves and re- 
ceives our love and honor in return for 
his personal services in the cause of Amer- 
ica, his chief title to the gratitude of our 
people is that his heroic figure ever looms 
up before their entranced fancy as the 
symbol of the magnanimity which France 
as a nation displayed towards our country 
in her laborious struggle for life and lib- 
erty. The value of the aid given to us 
by France in our war for independence is 
inestimable. The joy which the memory 
of it awakens in our souls is that which 
comes to us through the consciousness of 
our national life itself. France stood 
first sponsor for our nationhood. We 
entered into the great family of nations 
leaning on her arm, radiant with the re- 
flection of her histrionic splendor, and 
strong in the protection of her titanic 
stature. When Franklin stood in the 
palace of Versailles, the acknowledged en- 
voy of America, and Gerard de Rayneval, 
as the minister of France, saluted the 
Congress of America at Philadelphia, the 
young republic thrilled with new life and 
leaped at once into a full sense of security 
and a true consciousness of her dignity. 

Let historians relate as they will that 
the King and minister of France saw in 
the revolt of the American colonies, and 
in the assistance that might be given 
them, an opportunity for France to 
avenge the humiliation of the tveaty of 
1763. It is not for us to demand that 
statesmen become for our sake oblivious 



of the interests of their own country. 
What America knows, what she will never 
fail to know, is that King and ministers 
of France gave us the aid through which 
we won our independence, that they gave 
it to us in warmest friendliness and with 
most chivalrous generosity, and that in 
giving to ds such aid they were applauded 
by the /loble-hearted people of France, who 
loved America, and encouraged the alli- 
ance of their country with her, because 
of the great principles which were linked 
with the triumph or the defeat of the new 
republic of the West. 

The war of America was waged for a 
mighty principle of deepest import to the 
welfare of humanity. It rose thereby im- 
mensely above other wars in solemn grand- 
eur of meaning. The principle at stake 
was that of civil and political liberty, the 
triumph of which in America would be 
the presage of its triumph in the world. 
It was this principle that shed singular 
glory upon the battle-fields of America. 
America rose in rebellion against arbi- 
trary and absolute government ; she un- 
sheathed the sword in the name of the 
rights of man and of the citizen. 

There is but one who in His own right 
has power to rule over men — Almighty 
God — and from Him is derived whatever 
authority is exercised in human society. 
That authority is not, however, directly 
given to the one or the few; it is com- 
municated by him to the people to be 
exercised in the form which they choose. 
by those whom they designate. And the 
men in whom this authority is invested 
by delegations of the people are to use it 
not for the benefit of the one or the few, 
but for the good of the people. All this 
is the plain teaching of reason and re- 
ligion, and yet not seldom were such sim- 
ple truths forgotten, not seldom in prac- 
tice was power held as if it belonged to 
dynasties and classes, and exercised as if 
" the human race lived for the few." The 
rebellion of a people on so large a scale 
as was the uprising of the American colo- 
nies could not but challenge universal at- 
tention, and the triumph of such a rebel- 
lion could not but stir other peoples to a 
sense of their rights and to a stern resolve 
to maintain them. 

It will not, assuredly, be said that the 
republican form of government is vital to 

a well-ordered State, nor that without it 
the rights of the people cannot be safe- 
guarded, nor that it is the best and proper 
policy for every people. The form of a 
government is a question that must rest 
with the people of each nation, to be de- 
termined solely by them according to their 
special needs and their dispositions of 
character. It is, nevertheless, true that 
the republican form of government is of 
itself peculiarly expressive of the limita- 
tions and responsibilities of power, and 
consequently the founding of a republic 
such as that of the United States was a 
momentous event for liberty throughout 
the entire world. In every commonwealth 
the people's sense of their rights and 
power was quickened, and there sprang 
up in the consciences of the rulers of na- 
tions a new conception of their responsi- 
bilities towards the people. Whatever to- 
day in any country the particular form of 
government, democracy is there in some 
degree; and it is there because of its 
plenary triumph in America, whence went 
forth the charmed spell that reached, were 
it but in weakened waves, the uttermost 
bounds of civilized humanity. 

The creation of the republic of the 
United States was the inauguration of a 
new era in the life of the human race — 
the era of the rights of manhood and of 
citizenship and of the rights of the peo- 
ple. Such is the true meaning of the 
American Revolution, the full signifi- 
cance of the work done in America by 
Lafayette and France. 

This is the age of the people. Every 
decade will mark an advance in the tri- 
umphant march of democracy. Political 
movements do not go backward : the peo- 
ple do not abandon, except under duress, 
and then only for a time, rights of which 
they were once possessed, or the power 
which they have once wielded to maintain 
and enlarge those rights. To seek for ar- 
guments against democracy in its appar- 
ent perils is a waste of time. The part 
of true statesmanship is to study the 
])erils such as they may be and take meas 
ures to avert them. The progress of de- 
mocracy cannot be stayed. He who would 
rule must rule through the people, through 
the individual men who constitute the 
people. To obtain results in the civil and 
political world he must go to the Individ- 


Zone of 

ual, enlighten his mind, form his con- of the United States in 18D8 and 1899 
science and thus enlist his sympathies and was the output of Great Britain in 1880, 
win his intelligent co-operation. He who which reached 18,026,049 long tons. The 
does this will succeed; he who uses other output of the United States in 1899 aggre- 
methods will fail. The task for those who gated in value $34,999,077. The chief 
would rule men is made more difficult, ore-producing States were: Michigan, 9,- 
The time is long gone by when men can 140,157 long tons; Minnesota, 8,161,289 
be swayed by sword or proclamation. But long tons; Alabama, 2,662,943 long tons; 
manhood in men has meanwhile gro\vii, and Pennsylvania, 1,009,327 long tons, 
and they who love manhood in men should Virginia and West Virginia combined 
rejoice. ranked next with 986,476 long tons. The 

Why should we be asked to regret the production in the calendar year 1902 was 
coming of democracy? What is it in its the largest in the history of the country, 
ultimate analysis but the practical asser- 35,554,135 long tons, valued at $65,412,- 
tion of the dignity of man, indelibly im- 
pressed upon him when he was fashioned 
to the image of the Creator? What is it 
but trust in the power of truth and right- 
eousness, and in the readiness of the hu- 
man soul to respond to such influences? 
The growth of mind and will in the in- 
dividual is what all must hail who be- 
lieve in human progress, or in the 
strength of Christian civilization. And 
as mind and will grow in men, so grow in 
him the consciousness of his rights and 
power, and the resolve to uphold rights, 
to put power into act, and to resist all 
irrational or unnecessary restraint upon 
either rights or power — and thus is be- 
gotten democracy. The new age has 
dawned for all humanity ; but, where men 
have the more quickly and the more thor- 
oughly understood their dignity, there its 
golden rays have risen higher above the 
horizon and shed more richly their light 
upon human thought and action. 

Iron, Martin, labor leader; born in 
Scotland, Oct. 7, 1832; emigrated to the 
United States in 1846; and later settled 
in Lexington, Mo. ; joined the Knights of 
Labor and organized and led the famous 
Missouri Pacific Railroad strike of 1886. 
He died in Bunceville, Tex., Nov. 17, 1900. 

Iron and Steel. The remarkable ad- 
vance in material prosperity of the 
United States within a few years is 
sho\\Ti in most striking detail in the pro- 
duction and manufactures of iron and 
steel. The calendar year 1899 was a 950; and in 1903 it was 35,019,308 long 
record-breaker in the production of iron- tons. 

ore throughout the world. In the United The amount of pig-iron manufactured 
States the total output was 24.683,173 in the United States in 1903 was 18,009,- 
long tons, an increase of 5.249,457 long 252 long tons. In the fifteen years 1889- 
tcns over the aggregate of the preceding 1903 the total production of ore in the 
year. The nearest approach to the total United States was 305,521,317 long tons, 








an average annual output of 20,368,088 
long tons. In the production of 1903 the 
red hematite constituted the most promi- 
nent general class of iron-ore, yielding 
30,328,654 long tons, or 86.6 per cent, of 
the total. Brown hematite yielded 3,080,- 
399 long tons ; magnetite, 575,422 long 
tons; and carbonate, 34,833 long tons. 
Minnesota produced the largest amount 
of red hematite, Alabama the largest of 
brown hematite. New Jersey the largest 
of magnetite, and Ohio the largest of 

In 1890 the United States for the first 
time gained the lead among the pig-iron 
producing countries of the world, but lost 
it to Great Britain in 1894. The follow- 
ing year, however, the United States 
again outranked Great Britain, and has 
since kept ahead of that country. In 
1901 the five great pig-iron producers of 
the world stood in tlie following order of 
importance: United States. 15.878.000 
long tons; Great Britain, 7.929,000; Ger- 
many, 7,867.000; Russia. 2,821,000; and 
France, 2.389,000. It is also a matter of 
record that in 1901 the United States pro- 
duced over 33 per cent, of the total ore 
output of the world, or 28.887.000 long 
ions out of an estimated total of 87.000,- 
000 long tons. It is further interesting to 
note that the capitalization of the groups 

of operating companies aggregated $1,455,- 

The total output of the steel -producing 
countries for 1901 was approximately 
27,240.000 long tons, divided as follows: 
United States, 13,474,000 tons; Germany. 
6,394,000; Great 'Britain, 4,904,000; 
France, 1,425,000; Belgium, 653.000. The 
output in the United States included 
8.713,302 long tons of Bessemer steel and 
4,656,309 long tons of open-hearth steel. 

For 1905 the production was: United 
States, 22.992,380 tons of pig-iron, 19,912.- 
751 steel; Germany, 10,987.623 iron, 10,- 
000,000 steel (estimated) ; Great Britain. 
9.592,737 iron; 5,889.450 steel; France 
(1904), 2,999,787 iron. 2.080,354 steel; 
Russia. 2,901,000 iron, 2.400,000 steel. 
The total production of all other countries 
for 1895 is estimated at 4,600,000 tons 
iron, 3.500,000 steel. 

In the iron and 
foreign countries, in 
preceding 1900. the 
United States was exactly reversed. In 
1880 five times as much was imported as 
exported. At the close of this period 
the country exported six times the value 
of its imports. These exports, in the 
fiscal year 1899-1900, aggregated $121.- 
858.341, thus ranking next to bread- 
stulTs. coUon, and provisions, the three 

steel trade with 
the twenty years 

of the 


higher in value. There were in the iron other articles entering the daily require- 

and steel exports twenty-one classes ments of man. 

valued at from $1,000,000 to $9,000,000 If any further evidence was required 
each. In the calendar year 1904 the ex- to indicate the supremacy of the United 
port trade in iron and steel manufactures States in the allied iron and steel in- 
aggregated $111,948,586. The marvellous dustries, the gigantic United States Steel 
development of the iron and steel trade Corporation, organized in February, 1901, 
above indicated contributed to make the by a pooling of the interests of more than 


United States, in the opening of the a dozen great operating companies, known 
twentieth century, the world's greatest on the " street " as the " billion-dollar 
producer of iron, steel, coal, copper, cot- steel combine," would probably be suffi- 
ton, breadstuffs, provisions, and many cient to satisfy any doubt. Each of the 



corporations in the new concern was 000,000 in bonds, and with a cash account 

widely known for the large capital it of $200,000,000. 

commanded and the vast amount of work Ironclad Oath. See Oaths. 

it had already accomplished, and the pos- Ironsides, Old. See Constitution, 

sibilities open to consummation by a Iroquois Confederacy, The, was 

combination of these great concerns be- originally composed of five related fami- 

came a matter entirely beyond the range lies or nations of Indians, in the present 

of human calculation. The leading figures State of New York, These were called, 


in this consolidation of extraordinary 
interests were Andrew Carnegie, the 
rittsburg iron and steel king, and J. 
Pierpont Morgan, the New York banker, 
who financiered the combination. The 
combination began operations with a total 
capital of .$l,ir)4,000,000, divided into 
$850,000,000 in cnpilal stock, imd $304,- 

respectively, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Tradition 
says the confederacy was founded by Hia- 
watha, the incarnation of wisdom, at about 
the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
Ife came from his celestial home and dwelt 
with the Onondagas. where he taught the 
related tril)es the knowledge of good liv- 


ing. Fierce warriors approached from the 
north, slaying everything human in their 
path. Hiawatha advised a council. It 
was held on the bank 
of Onondaga Lake. 
of each nation were 
there. Under his di- 
rection a league was 
formed, and each can- 
ton was assigned its 
appropriate place in 
it. They gave it a 
name signifying 
" they form a cabin," 
and they fancifully 
called the league 
" The Long Hovise." 
The eastern door was 
kept by the Mohawks, 
and the western by 
the Senecas, and the 
council-fire was with 
the Onondagas, at 
their metropolis, a 
few miles south of 
the site of the city of 
Syracuse. By common 
consent, a chief of 
the Onondagas, called 
Atatarho, was niacin' 
the first president of 
the league. The Mo- 
hawks, on the east, 
were called "the 
door." The confeder- 
acy embraced within 
its territory the pres- 
ent State of New 
York north and west 
of the Kaatzbergs and 

south of the Adirondack group of moun- 
tains. The several nations were subdi- 
vided into tribes, each having a heraldic 
insignia, or totem. Through the totemic 
system they maintained a tribal union, 
and exhibited a remarkable example of an 
almost pure democracy in government. 

Each canton or nation was a distinct 
republic, independent of all others in re- 
lation to its domestic affairs, but each 
was bound to the others of the league by 
ties of honor and general interest. Each 
liad an equal voice in the general council 
or congress, and possessed a sort of veto 
power, which was a guarantee against 

despotism. After the Europeans came, the 
sachem, or civil head of a tribe, affixed 
his totem — such as the rude outlines of a 


wolf, a bear, a tortoise, or an eagle — to 
every public paper he was required to 
sign. It was like a monarch affixing his 

* Atatarho, the first president of the 
Iroquois Confederacy, is represented by the 
Indians as living, at the time he was chosen, 
in grim seclusion in a swamp, where his 
dishes and drinlving-vessels, lilie those of half- 
barbarian Caucasians, were made of the 
skulls of his enemies slain in battle. When a 
delegation went to him to offer him the 
symbol of supreme power, they found him 
sitting smoking his pipe, but unapproachable, 
because he was entirely clothed with hissing 
snakes. Here is the old story of Medusa s 
snaky tresses unveiled in the forests of the 
new-found world 


NO. 1. 

seal. Each of the original Five Nations 
was divided into three tribes, those of the 
Mohawks being designated as the Tortoise 
or Turtle, the Bear, and the Wolf. These 
totems consisted of representations of 
those animals. These were sometimes ex- 
ceedingly rude, but were sufficient to de- 
note the tribe of the signer; as. No. 1, 
appended to the 
signature of Little 
Hendrick, a Mo- 
hawk chief, repre- 
sents his totem — a 
turtle; No. 2, ap- 
pended to the signa- 
ture of Kanadagea, a chief of the Bear 
tribe, represents a bear lying on his 
back; and No. 3 is the signature of 
Great Hendrick, of the Wolf tribe, the 
rude representation of that animal ap- 
pearing at the end of his signature. 

As each confederated union was di- 
vided into tribes, there were thirty or 
forty sachems in the 
league. These had in- 
ferior officers under 
them, and the civil 
power was widely 
distributed. Office 
NO- 2- was the reward of 

merit alone; mal- 
feasance in it brought dismissal and pub- 
lic scorn. All public services were com- 
pensated only by public esteem. The 
powers and duties of the president of 
the league were similar to those con- 
ferred and imposed upon the chief mag- 
istrate of our republic. He had au- 
thority to assemble a congress of rep- 
resentatives; had a cabinet of six ad- 
visers, and in the council he was a 
moderator. There was no coercive 
power, excepting public opinion, 
lodged anywhere. The military dom- 
inated the civil power in the league. 
The chiefs derived their authority 
from the people, and they sometimes, 
like the Romans, deposed civil offi- 
cers. The army was composed wholly 
of volunteers, and conscription was im- 
possible. Every able-bodied man was 
bound to do military duty, and he who 
shirked it incurred everlasting disgrace. 
The ranks were always full. The re- 
cruiting-stations were the war-dances. 
Whatever was done in civil councils 

was subjected to review by the soldiery, 
who had the right to call councils when 
they pleased, and approve or disapprove 
public measures. The matrons formed 
a third and powerful party in the legis- 
lature of the league. They had a right 
to sit in the councils, and there exercise 
the A'eto power on the subject of a dec- 
laration of war, and to propose and 
demand a cessation of hostilities. They 
were pre-eminently peace-makers. It was 
no reflection ujion the courage of warriors 
if, at the call of the matrons, they with- 
diew from the war-path. These women 
wielded great influence in the councils, but 
they modestly delegated the duties of 
speech-making to some masculine orator. 
With these Indians, woman was man's co- 
worker in legislation — a thing unheard of 
among civilized people. So much did the 
Iroquois reverence the " inalienable rights 
of man," that they never made slaves of 
their fellow-men, not even of captives 
taken in war. By unity they w^ere made 
powerful; and to prevent degeneracy, 
members of a tribe were not allowed to 
intermarry with each other. 

Like the Romans, they caused their 
commonwealth to expand by annexation 
a,nd conquest. Had they remained undis- 
covered by the Europeans a century longer 
the Confederacy might have embraced the 
whole continent, for the Five Nations had 
already extended their conquests from 
the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and were the terror of the other tribes 
east and west. For a long time the 
French in Canada, who taught them the 
use of fire-arms, maintained a. doubtful 
struggle against them. Champlain found 

NO. 3. 

them at war against the Canada Indian? 
from Lake Huron to the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence. He fought them on liake Cham- 
plain in 1009; and from that time until 
the middle of that century their ■wars 
against the Canada Indians and their 
French allies were fierce and dis- 




tressing. They made friends of the 
Dutch, from whom they obtained fire- 
arms; and they were alternately at 
war and peace with the French for 
about sixtj^ years. The latter invaded the 
cantons of the league, especially after the 
Five Nations became allied with the Eng- 
lish, who, as masters of New York, used 
their dusky neighbors to carry out their 
designs. The Iroquois, meanwhile, car- 
ried their conquests almost to Nova Sco- 
tia on the east, and far towards the 
Mississippi on the west, and subdued the 
Susquehannas in Pennsylvania. In 1649 
they subdued and dispersed tlie Wyandottes 
in the Huron country. Some of the fugi- 
tives took refuge among the Chippewas ; 
others fled to Quebec, and a few were in- 
corporated in the Iroquois ConfederacJ^ 
The Wyandottes were not positively sub- 
dued, and claimed and exercised sover- 
eignty over the Ohio country down to the 
close of the eighteenth century. Then the 
Five Nations made successful wars on 
their eastern and western neighbors, and 
in 1655 they penetrated to the land of the 
Catawbas and Cherokees. They conquered 
the Miamis and Ottawas in 1057. and in 
1701 made incursions as far as the Roan- 

oke and Cape Fear rivers, to the land of 
their kindred, the Tuscaroras. So deter- 
mined were they to subdue the Southern 
tribes that when, in 1744, they ceded a 
part of their lands to Virginia, they re- 
served a perpetual privilege of a war-path 
through the territory. 

A French invasion in 1693, and again in 
1696, was disastrous to the league, which 
lost one-half of its warriors. Then they 
swept victoriously southward early in the 
eighteenth century, and took in their kin- 
dred, the Tuscaroras, in North Carolina, 
when the Confederacy became known as 
the Six Nations. In 1713 the French gave 
up all claim to the Iroquois, and after 
that the Confederacy was generally neu- 
tral in the wars between France and Eng- 
land that extended to the American colo- 
nies. Under the influence of William 
Johnson, the English Indian agent, they 
went against the French in 1755, and some 
of them joined Pontiac in his conspiracy 
in 1763. When the Revolution broke out, 
in 1775, the Iroquois, influenced by the 
Johnson family, adhered to the crown, 
excepting the Oneidas. Led by Brant and 
savage Tories, they desolated the Mohawk, 
Cherrv. and Wvoming vallevs. The coun- 


try of the Western Iroquois, in turn, was 
desolated by General Sullivan in 1779, and 
Brant retaliated fearfully on the frontier 
settlements. At the close of the war the 
hostile Iroquois, dreading the vengeance 
of the exasperated Americans, took refuge 
in Canada, excepting the Oneidas and Tus- 

By treaties, all the lands of the Six 
Nations in New York passed into the pos- 
session of the white people, excepting some 
reservations on which their descendants 
still reside. In the plenitude of their 

ished them in human form as fiercely ss 
Henry VIII., or the rulers and the Gospel 
ministers at Salem in later times. Their 
'■ medicine men " and " prophets " were 
as expert deceivers as the priests, oracles, 
and jugglers of civilized men. They tor- 
tured their enemies in retaliation for kin- 
dred slain with almost as refined cruelty 
as did the ministers of the Holy Inquisi- 
tion the enemies of their opinions; and 
they lighted fires around their more emi- 
nent prisoners of war, in token of their 
power, as bright and hot as those kindled 

ATTACK ON AN IROQUOIS FORT (Froiii an olcl print). 

power the Confederacy numbered about 
15,000; they now number about 13,000, 
distributed at various points in Canada 
and the United States. In 1899 there 
were 2,767 Senecas, 549 Onondagas, 161 
Cayugas, 270 Oneidas, and .388 Tuscaroras 
in New York State; 1,945 Oneidas in Wis- 
consin; and 323 Senecas in Indian Terri- 
tory. Like the other Indians of the con- 
tinent, the Iroquois were superstitious and 
cruel. They believed in witches as firmly 
as did Cotton Mather and his Puritan 
brethren in New England, and they jmn- 

by enlightened Englishmen around -loan 
of Arc as a sorceress, or Bishops Latimer 
and Ridley as believers in what they 
thought to be an absurdity. 

Irrigation, artificial watering of land 
in arid regions for the purpose of utiliza- 
tion. This subject has claimed much at- 
tention in the United States since 1890 
on the part of the general and State gov- 
ernments, of large corporations, and of 
private individuals. Associations de- 
signed to promote investigations into the 
water and forest resources of the country 



have been formed in various localities. 
These bodies have raised large sums of 
money with which they have co-operated 
with various bureaus, chiefly the Geologi- 
cal Survey. The surprise is that there 
has not been much greater interest mani- 


fested in this subject, since one-third of and extending westward to the foot of the 
the United States territory is officially Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Cas- 
included in what is known as the great cade ^Mountains in Oregon and Washing- 
" arid region," which needs only the ton. It comprises an immense territory, 
magic touch of 
water to change it 
into fertile fields. 

This vast area 
falls topographical- 
ly into the follow- 
ing divisions: 

1. The Great 
Plains, stretching 
from the 100th 
meridian west to 
the Rocky Moun- 
tains, a distance of 
250 miles, and hav- 
ing an extent of 
about 700 miles 
from Manitoba on 
the north to Texas 
on the south. g, 

2. A region be- | 
ginning at the east- fc,, 
ern foothills of the 
l.\pcky Mountain^ reBioATio.v bt pipe system. 



In 1900 these 
divisions taken as 
a whole contained 
a population of 
9,000,000 people, 
and over 50;000,- 
000 acres of land 
under some form 
of cultivation. 
Abcut 9,000,000 
acres of this land 
have been made 
available through 
irrigation, by 
means of artesian 
wells in a few 
cases, but for the 
most part by the 
construction of 
canals and ditches. 
At a number of 
irrigation con- 

which includes the park system of the gresses held in the West the national 
Eockies, culminating in Wyoming, Colo- government was strongly urged to under- 
i-ado. New Mexico, and northeast Arizona, take an active part in the reclamation of 
The section contains many mountain sys- the large arid areas susceptible of a high 
tems, the Great Basin of Salt Lake, the state of agricultural development imder 
great cafion system and plateau of the such liberal conditions as the national 




i|iijp ^ 

Coloiado, the meadow-lands of 
"Nevada, the noitln\est Columbia 
Basin, and the National Park. 

3. A region including about one- 
fourth of the territory of Cali- 
fornia, and divided into two parts 
■ — the foothills of the Sierras and 
the broad, level valley lying be- 
tween the Sierras and the Coast 



government alone could afToid. The cen- 
fsns of lUOO, tmiong ireneral inif^ation sta- 
tistics of the United States, reported the 
following: Number of irrigators, 108,218; 
acres irrigated, 7,53!), 545; area in crops, 
5.944,412 acres, and in pasture and un- 
matured crops, 1,595,133 acres; value of 
irrigated crops, $80,860,491; and cost of 
irrigation systems, $67,770,942. In 1902 
a bill was approved by the President, 
June 17, providing for the appropria- 
tion, as a special fund to be used in 
the construction of irrigation works, of 
all moneys received from the sale of public 
lands in Arizona, California, Colorado, 
Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Ne- 
vada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Okla- 
homa, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, 
Washington, and Wyoming, beginning 
with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901. 
Under this law the fund amounted in 
1901 to $3,144,821, and in 1902 to $4,585,- 
516. This total, $7,730,337, was appor- 
tioned among the States and Territories 
in 1903 as follows: Arizona, $81,773; 
California, $503,270; Colorado, $628,995; 
Idaho, $507,448; Kansas, $49,135; Mon- 
tana, $772,377; Nebraska, $235,194; Ne- 
vada, $23,414; New Mexico, $147,237; 
North Dakota, $1,227,496; Oklahoma, 
$1,008,795; Oregon, $910,061; South Da- 
kota, $307,562; Utah, $146,824; Washing- 
ton, $794,088; Wyoming, $385,762. On 
June 30, 1904, the auditor of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior reported that the ac- 
cumulations of the reclamation fund then 
amounted to approximately $25,000,000. 

Irvine, James, military ofhcer; born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 4, 1735; took part 
in Colonel Bouquet's expedition as cap- 
tain in a Pennsylvania regiment. During 
the Revolutionary War he was captain 
and later lieutenant-colonel of the 1st 
Pennsylvania; and was commissioned 
colonel of the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment, 
Oct. 25. 1776. He was taken prisoner 
during the action at Chestnut Hill, Dee. 
5, 1777, carried to New York, and remain- 
ed there till he was exchanged in 1781. 
After the close of the war he was a mem- 
ber of the General As-embly of Pennsyl- 
vania m 1785-86, and of the State Senate 
in 1795-99. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
April 28, 1819. 

Irvine, William, military officer; born 
in Fermanagh, Ireland, Nov. 3, 1741; 

was surgeon of a ship-of-war; came to 
the United States after the peace of 
1763, and practised medicine at Carlisle, 
Pa. He was an active patriot, and raised 
and commanded the 6th Pennsylvania 
Regiment in 1776; was captured in the 
battle at Three Rivers, Canada; ex- 
changed in May, 1778; served under 
Wayne, and in 1781 was stationed at Fort 
Pitt, charged with the defence of the 
Northwestern frontier. He was a mem- 
ber of Congress in 1786-88, and took a 
civil and military part in the task of 
quelling the Whiskey Insurrection. He was 
again a member of Congress in 1793-95. 
He died in Philadelphia, July 29, 1804. 

Irving, Sir Henry, actor; born in 
Keinton, near Glastonbury, England, Feb. 
6, 1838. His real name was John Henry 
Brodribb, but he preferred the name of 
" Irving," and in 1887 was permitted by 
royal license to continue the use of it. 
He was educated in a private school in 
London, and began his dramatic career 
in 1856, when he took the minor part of 
Orleans in Richelieu. In 1866 he estab- 
lished his reputation as an actor of merit 
at the St. James Theatre, in London, as 
Doricourt in The Belle's Stratagem. In 
1870 he appeared as Digby Grant in the 
Two Roses, which v/as played for 300 
nights; and in 1871, after playing the 
part of Mathias in The Bells at the 
Lyceum Theatre, he came to be regarded 
as the greatest actor in England. He as- 
sumed the management of the Lyceum 
Theatre in 1878, and raised that house to 
an international reputation. In May, 
1881, he opened a memorable engagement 
with Edwin Booth, producing Othello, in 
which the two actors alternated the parts 
of Othello and lago. He has made sev- 
eral successful tours of the United States 
in company with Ellen Terry, on one of 
which (1884) he delivered an address on 
The Art of Acting before the students of 
Harvard University. In a lecture on 
Amusements, before the Church of Eng- 
land Temperance Society, he made a 
strong defence of the morality of the 
stage. He published Impressions of 
America (1884). In 1895 he received the 
honor of knighthood. 

Irving, Wasiiincton, author; born in 
New York City, April 3, 1783. His father 
was a Scotchman, his mother an English- 



woman. He engaged in literature while 
yet a youth, and was in Europe for his 
health in 1804-06. In 1807 he published, 

1808, his Knickerbocker's History of Neto 
York. After editing a magazine during 
the War of 1812-15, he went to Europe, 
where he resided seventeen years; when, 
after the failure of a mercantile house 
in New York with which he was connected, 
he was left to rely on his literary labors 
for support. He spent his time partly 
in England, France, Germany, and Spain, 
and published his Life of Columbus in 
1828, which was followed by the Con- 
quest of Granada and the Alhambra. 
From 1829 to 1831 he was secretary of 
the American legation in London, and re- 
ceived from George IV. the fifty-guinea 
gold medal awarded for eminence in his- 
torical composition. He returned to New 
York in 1832, and prepared and published 
several works; and from 1839 to 1841 
contributed to the Knickerbocker Maga- 
zine. From 1842 to 1846 he was minister 
to Spain, and on his return to New York 


in connection with his brother Peter and lie published a revised edition of all his 
James K. Paulding, Salmagundi, and in works in 15 volumes, which had a 



\ery large sale. His last work was a 
Life of Washington, in 5 volumes, com- 
pleted a few months before his death. 
Mr. Irving never married. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him 
by Harvard College, Oxford University, 
in England, and Columbia College, in New 
York. His remains rest near the sum- 
mit of a gentle slope in the cemetery at- 
tached to the ancient Dutch church at 
the entrance to " Sleepy Hollow," near 

built in 10G9, and is the oldest church 
edifice in the State of New York. Over 
the Sleepy Hollow brook, near it, is the 
bridge where Brom Bones, the supposed 
" headless horseman," hurled the pump- 
kin at the frightened Ichabod, and drove 
him from the neighborhood and Ka- 
trina van Tassell forever. Mr. Irving 
died in Irvington, N. Y., Nov. 28, 

Irwin, Jared, legislator; born in 

Tarrytown, N. Y. They lie by the side 
of those of his mother. In a row lie the 
remains of his father, mother, brothers, 
and sisters. The old church, which he 
made famous by the story of Ichabod 
Crane (a leader in the psalm-singing there 
on Sundays) in his Legend of Sleepy Hol- 
low, remains the same as when it was 
v.— F 8 

Mecklenburg county, N. C, in 1750; re- 
moved to Georgia, and served throughout 
the Revolutionary War ; was a member of 
the State constitutional conventions of 
1789, 1795, and 1798; and was elected 
governor of the State in 1796 and 1806. 
iie died in Union, Ga., March 1. 1818. 

Isabella, Queen of Castile and Leon : 
born in Madrigal, Old Castile. April 2.3, 
1451; lived in retirement with her mother, 
a daughter of John II., of Portugal, until 
her twelfth year. At the age of eleven 
years she was betrothed to Carlos, brother 
of Ferdinand (whom she afterwards mar 


ried), then forty-six years old. His death 
prevented the union. Other candidates 
for her hand were proposed, but, being a 


young woman of spirit, she rejected them. 
Her half-brother Henry, on the throne, 
contracted a marriage for her, for state 
purposes, with the profligate Don Pedro 
Giron, grand-master of the Order of Cala- 
trava. "I will plunge a dagger in Don 
Pedro's heart," said the maiden, " before I 
will submit to the dishonor." The grand- 
master died as suddenly as Carlos, while 
on his way to the nuptials, probably from 
the effects of poison. Henry now made 
an arrangement by which Isabella was 
recognized as heir to Castile and Leon, 
with the right to choose her own husband, 
subject to the King's approval. She chose 
Ferdinand, Prince of Aragon, who signed 
the marriage contract at Cervera, Jan. 7, 
1469, guaranteeing to his betrothed all 
the essential rights of sovereignty in Cas- 
tile and Leon. King Henry, offended be- 
cause his sister would not marry the 
King of Portugal, sent a force to seize 
her person. She escaped to Valladolid, 
whither Ferdinand hastened in disguise, 
and they were married, Oct. 19, 1409, 
in the cathedral there. Civil war ensued. 
The King died late in 1474, and Isabella 
was declared Queen of Castile and Leon ; 
but her authority was not fully recog- 
nized until after a war with the King 


of Portugal, who was affianced to Juana, 
the rival of Isabella for the throne. After 
that her career was brilliant. She ap- 
peared in arms at the head of her troops 
in her wars with the ]\Ioors. 

From a conviction that it was for the 
safety of the Roman Catholic religion, 
she reluctantly, it is said, gave her con- 
sent to the establishment of the Inquisi- 
tion; and for this act, and her fiery zeal 
for the Church, amounting at times to 
fanatical cruelty, she is known in history 
as Isabella, " the Catholic." Ferdinand 
was now King of Aragon, and their king- 
doms were united and formed a strong 
empire, and the consolidated Christian 
power of the Spanish peninsula was ef- 
fected. The two monarchs w^ere one in 
love, respect, and interest. They ruled as 
separate sovereigns, each having an inde- 
pendent council, and sometimes holding 
their courts at points distant from each 
other at the same time; but they were a 
unit in the general administration of the 
consolidated kingdoms, all acts of sover- 
eignty being executed in the name of 
both, all documents signed by both, and 
their profiles stamped together on the na- 
tional coins, while the royal seal dis- 
played the united arms of Castile and 


Aragon. The religious zeal of Isabella 
was inflamed when Columbus, in his ap- 
plication for aid, declared that one great 



object of his ambition was to carry the 
Gospel to the heathen of undiscovered 
lands. But public affairs at first so en- 
grossed the attention of the monarchs 
that the suit of the navigator did not pre- 
vail for a long time. Finally he was sum- 
moned before the monarchs, and pleaded 
his cause in person. The Queen's zeal was 
so increased that she resolved to give him 
aid. " Our treasury," said Ferdinand, 
'■ has been too much drained by the war 
to warrant us in the undertaking." The 
Queen said, " I will undertake the enter- 
prise for my own crown of Castile; and, 
if necessary, will pledge my jewels for the 
money." Then she fitted out the expedi- 
tion that sailed from Palos in the autumn 
of 1492. Afterwards she opposed the en- 
slaving of the natives of the western con- 
tinent; and when Columbus sent a cargo 
of captives to Spain, she ordered them to 
be carried back to their own country. 
With Cardinal Ximenes she eff'ected a 
radical reform in the Church, as she had 
in the State; and criminals, high or low, 
the clergy and common oflfenders, felt the 

sword of justice fall with equal severity. 
Masculine in intellect, feminine in her 
moral qualities, pious and loving, Isa- 
bella's virtues — as virtues were estimated 
then and there — made a favorite theme 
for the praise of Spanish writers. In 
person she was beautiful — well formed, 
with clear complexion, light blue eyes, 
and auburn hair. She had one son and 
four daughters. Her youngest daughter, 
Catharine, became the wife of Henry VIII., 
of England. See Columbus, Christo- 

Island Number Ten. This island lies 
in a sharp bend of the Mississippi River, 
about 40 miles below Columbus, and with- 
in the limits of Kentucky. At the begin- 
ning of the Civil War it was considered 
the key to the navigation of the lower 
Mississippi. To this island some of the 
troops and munitions of war were trans- 
ferred when General Polk evacuated 
Columbus, and all the troops there were 
in charge of Beauregard. On March 8, 
1S62, he sent forth a proclamation in 
which he called for bells with which to 



make cannon, and tliere was a liberal re- 
sponse. " In some cities," wrote a Con- 
federate soldier, " every church gave up 
its bells. Court-houses, public institu- 
tions, and plantations sent them. And 
the people furnished large quantities of 
old brass — andirons, candlesticks, gas- 
fixtures, and even door-knobs." These 
were all sent to New Orleans to be used 
in cannon foundries. There they were 
found by General Butler, sent to Boston, 
and sold at auction. Beauregard had 
thoroughly fortified the island, and, after 
the capture of New Madrid, it became 
an object of great interest to both par- 
ties, for it was besieged by the Nationals. 
i'oY this purpose Commodore Foote left 
Cairo, March 14, 1862, with a powerful 
fleet of gun and mortar-boats. There 
were seven of the former iron-clad and 
one not armored, and ten of the latter. 
On the night of the 15th Foote was at 
Island Number Ten, and the next morn- 
ing (Sunday) he began the siege with a 
bombardment by the rifled cannon of his 
flag-ship, the Boston. This was followed 
by the mortar-boats, moored at proper 
points along the river shore, from which 
tons of iron were hurled upon the island 
and the batteries on the Kentucky bank 
opposite. All day long the artillery duel 
was kept up without much injury to 
either party. Meanwhile a battery of 
Illlinois artillery had been landed on the 
Missouri shore, in a position to assail 
the Confederate flotilla near the island. 
The next day a tremendous attack on the 
Confederate works was made by a float- 
ing battery of ten guns, formed of three 

gunboats lashed together, side by side, 
followed by three others separately. The 
day's work was barren of any decisive re- 
sult. The island shores were lined with 


batteries. So the siege went on, with 
varying fortunes, until the first week in 
April, when Beauregard telegraphed to 
Richmond that the " Federal guns " had 
" thrown 3,000 shells and burned 50 tons 
of gunpowder " without damaging his 
batteries or killing one of his men. 

The public began to be impatient; but 
victory was near. General Pope was 
chafing with impatience at New Madrid. 
He wished to cross the river to the 
peninsula and attack the island in the 
rear, a movement that would insure its 
capture. The opposite shore was lined 
with Confederate batteries, and it would 
be madness to attempt a crossing until 
these were silenced. Gen. Schuyler Ham- 





ilton proposed the construction of a dangerous voyage. Perceiving the peril- 
canal across the neck of a swampy penin- ous fate that awaited them after the 
siila of sufficient capacity to allow the completion of the canal, thf Confederates 
passage of gunboats and transports, so as sank steamboats in the channel of the 
to effectually flank Island Number Ten and river to prevent the gunboats descend- 
insure its capture. It was undertaken ing it, and they unsuccessfully attempted 
under the supervision of Colonel Bissell, to escape from the island. After the 
and was successfully performed. In the Carondelet had passed the batteries, 
mean time daring feats against the shore Beauregard was satisfied that the siege 
batteries had been performed; and dur- must speedily end in disaster to his com- 
ing a terrible thunder-storm on the night mand; so, after turning over the com- 
of April 3, Captain Walke ran by the mand on the island to General McCall, 
Confederate batteries with the gunboat and lea\'ing the troops on the Kentucky 
Carondelet, assailed by all of them, her and Tennessee shores in charge of Gen- 
position being revealed by the flashes of eral McCown, he, with a considerable 
lightning. It w^as the first vessel that number of his best soldiers, departed for 
ran by Confederate batteries on the Mis- Corinth to check a formidable movement 
sissippi River. She had not fired a gun of National troops through middle Ten- 
during her passage, but the discharge of nessee towards Northern Alabama, 
three assured anxious Commodore Foote The vigorous operations of Pope after 
of the safety of the Carondelet after the he passed through the wonderful canal 



tiastened the crisis. McCall and his 
troops, in their efforts to escape from 
the island, were intercepted by Pope's 
forces under Generals Stanley, Hamilton, 
and Paine; and on April 8, 18G2, Island 


Number Ten, with the troops, batteries, 
and supports on the main, was surren- 
dered. Over 7,000 men became prisoners 
of war; and the spoils of victory were 123 
cannon and mortars, 7,000 small-arms, 
many hundred horses and mules, four 
steamboats afloat, and a very large 
amount of animunibion. The fall of Isl- 
and Niimber Ten was a calamity to the 

Confederates which they never retrieved. 
It caused widespread alarm in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, for it appeared probable 
that Memphis, one of the strongholds of 
the Confederates, where they had immense 
work-shops and armories, 
would soon share the fate 
of Columbus, and that Na- 
tional gunboats would 
speedily patrol the great 
river from Cairo to New 
Orleans. Martial law was 
jjroclaimed at Memphis, 
and only by the wisdom 
and firmness of the mayor 
were the troops and panic- 
stricken citizens prevented 
from laying the town in 
ashes. Preparations for 
flight were made at Vicks- 
burg, and intense alarm 
prevailed at New Orleans 
among the disloyal population. It seem- 
ed as if the plan devised by Fremont, 
and now partially executed, was about to 
be successfully carried out. Curtis had 
already broken the military power of the 
Confederates west of the Mississippi, and 
a heavy National force, pressing on tow- 
ards Alabama and Mississippi, had just 
achieved a triumph on the banks of the 



Tennessee, a score of miles from Corinth. IturlDide, Augustin de, Emperor of 
See Fremont, John Charles. Mexico; born in Valladolid, Mexico, Sept. 

Isles, Andre des, military officer; born 27, 1783. Leading in a scheme for over- 
in Dieppe, France, in 1530 ; sent to Amer- throwing the Spanish power in Mexico in 
ica in 1560 by Coligni for the purpose of 1821, he took possession of the capital 
erecting a society for the settlement of with troops in September in the name of 
French Huguenots. He landed on the the nation, and established a regency. 
Florida coast near Cape San Juan, and He was declared Emperor, INIay 18, 1822, 
erected a wooden fort, which he left in but rivals and public distrust caused him 
charge of twenty men. Coligni sent 600 to abdicate, and he went to Europe in 
Huguenots and three ships, under com- 1823. An insurrection in his favor in 
mand of Captain Ribaut, with Des Isles Mexico induced him to return in 1824, 
as lieutenant. In 1563 Des Isles returned when he was seized and shot, in Padilla, 
with 300 additional emigrants, but owing July 19, 1824. After his execution Mexico 
to eternal strife between the leaders, granted his family a pension of $8,000 
Ribaut and Des Isles, on the one hand, per year. Angel, the eldest son of 
and Laudonniere, on the other, the colony the Emperor, married Miss Alice Green, 
was greatly reduced, and in this condition of Georgetown, D. C, and their son 
was attacked by the Spaniard Menendez, Augustin was adopted by the Emperor 
who massacred all the French. Maximilian as his heir. In April, 1890, 

Italy. The relations of the United Augustin Iturbide, who had entered the 
States with Italy, as with other Conti- Mexican army, published an attack on 
nental countries, have usually been har- the IMexican government, for which he 
nionious. In 1891, however, an incident was court-martialled. 

occurred which temporarily strained the luka Springs, Battle near. After 
mutual good feelings. Several murders the evacuation of Corinth (q. v.), Gen- 
had been committed in New Orleans, which eral Rosecrans was placed in command 
had been attributed by many to the influ- of the forces under Pope, who had gone 
ence of a secret Italian society— the Mafia, to Virginia, to occupy northern Missis- 
A number of Italians had been arrested, sippi and Alabama, in the vicinity of Co- 
but the normal procedure seemed to nu- rinth, and eastward to Tuscumbia. His 
merous inhabitants of New Orleans en- forces were known as the Army of the 
tirely inadequate. On March 14, 1891, Mississippi, with headquarters at Corinth, 
eleven Italian prisoners were lynched in There were no more stirring events in 
the city prison by an assemblage largely the region of General Grant's command 
composed, so it was stated, of the " lead- (under whom was Rosecrans) than 
ing citizens " of New Orleans. This event guerilla operations, from June until Sep- 
created intense excitement. The Italians tember. At the beginning of September 
in this country and Italy were greatly the Confederates under Price and Van 
aroused. The comments^ of Americans Dorn moved towards the Tennessee River, 
varied from downright condemnation of and, when Bragg moved into Tennessee, 
the proceedings to partial praise. The Price attempted to cut off communica- 
Italian government recalled its minister, tions between Grant and Buell. General 
Baron Fava. Eventually, April 12, 1892, Armstrong (Confederate), with over 
'the United States government appropri- 5,000 cavalry, struck the Nationals, Aug. 
ated $25,000 for the families of the vie- 30, 1862, at Bolivar, with the intention 
tims. and diplomatic relations were re- of severing the railway there. He was 
sumed. repulsed by less than 1,000 men, under 

Itata, Chilean cruiser. She put in at Colonel Leggett. He was repulsed at 
San Diego. Cal., April 25, 1891, for arms Jackson the next day, and again, on Sept. 
and ammunition, and was seized by the 1, at Britton's Lane, after a battle of four 
United States government for violation of hours with Indiana troops, under Colonel 
neutrality laws. She escaped, and was Dennis. At the latter place Armstrong 
pursued by the United States ship left 179 men. dead and wounded, on the 
riuirlrsfon.^ On J\ine 4. 1891. the Itafa field. Informed of this raid, at Tuscum- 
survcndered to the Charleston at Iquique. bia, Rosecrans hastened to luka, a little 



village celebrated for its fine mineral 
springs, about 15 miles east of Corinth, 
where a large amount of stores had been 
gathered. There, with Stanley's division, 
he encamped at Clear Creek, 7 miles east 
of Corinth, and, at the same time, Price 
moved northward from Tupelo with about 

listening for the sound of Ord's guns, and 
skirmishing briskly by the way, had 
reached a point within 2 miles of luka, on 
densely wooded heights. There he formed 
a line of battle. He sent forward his skir- 
mishers, who were driven back, and a 
severe battle immediately followed. The 

J^-t f cfei: JLL^ =^-- -^^ -^^ni^x^^ — "-^ 

lUKA SPRINGS, 1862. 

12,000 Confederate troops. Price struck 
luka, Sept. 10, and captured the National 
property there. 

Grant at once put two columns in mo- 
tion to crush Price — one, under Rosecrans, 
to attack his flank and rear, and another, 
under General Ord, to confront him. These 
movements began on the morning of Sept. 
18. Ord, with 5,000 men, advanced to 
Burnsville, followed by General Ross with 
more, while Rosecrans moved with the 
separated divisions of Stanley and C. S. 
Hamilton, about 9,000 strong, during a 
drenching rain, to San Jacinto, 20 miles 
southward of luka. On the next morning, 
Sept. 19, they pushed on towards luka, 
Mizner's cavalry driving a Confederate 
guard. Early in the afternoon Hamilton, 


11th Ohio Battery was, after a severp 
struggle, placed in position on the crest of 
the hill. With this battery, a few regi- 
ments of Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, and 
Indiana troops fought more than three 
times their number of Confederates, led 
by Price in person. Finally, when Colonel 
Eddy, of an Indiana regiment, was mor- 
tally wounded, the remainder of his regi- 
ment was hurled back in disorder, leaving 
the almost disabled battery to be seized 
by the Confederates. For the possession 
of these guns desperate charges and coun- 
tercharges were made, until at length the 
Confederate soldiers dragged the guns off 
the field. All of the horses and seventy-two 
of the artillerymen had been killed. The 
battle raged warmly elsewhere, when the 


Confederates were driven to the shelter of 
the hollows near the village. Darkness end- 
ed the battle of luka. The National loss was 
nearly 800, killed, wound- 
ed, and missing ; that of the 
Confederates was nearly 
1,400. Ord, meanwhile, 
whom Grant had sent co 
assist Rosecrans, had been 
watching the movements 
of Confederates who were 
making feints on Corinth. 
Expecting to renew the 
battle at luka in the 
morning, Stanley pressed 
forward for the purpose, 
but found that Price had 
fled southward under cov- 
er of the darkness, leaving 
behind the captured guns 
of the 11th Ohio Battery. 
Price was pursued all day, 
but escaped. 

Ives, Halsey Cooley, artist; born in 
Montour Falls, K Y., Oct. 27, 1846; 
studied art; was chief of the art depart- 
ment of the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion; and Professor of Drawing and De- 

Izard, George, military officer ; born in 
South Carolina in 1777; son of Ralph 
Izard. Having finished his education and 

'^^^'^)lu "<"i,'^;"- 


sign, and Director of the Museum and 
School of Fine Arts in Washington Uni- 


made a tour in Europe, he entered the 
United States army, in 1794, as lieuten- 
ant of artillery. He was appointed aide 
to General Hamilton in 17D9; resigned in 
1803; commissioned colonel of artillery in 
the spring of 1812; and promoted 
to brigadier - general in March, 
1813. He was in command on 
Lake Champlain and on the Niag- 
ara frontier, in 1814, with the 
rank of major-general. From 1825 
until his death he was governor 
of Arkansas Territory. Early in 
September, 1814, he moved tow- 
ards Sackett's Harbor, under the 
direction of the Secretary of War. 
with about 4,000 troops, where he 
received a despatch from General 
Brown at Fort Erie, Sept. 10, 
urging him to move on to his sup- 
port, as he had not more than 
2,000 effective men. The first 
division of Izard's troops arrived 
at Lewiston on Oct. 5. He moved 
up to Black Rock, crossed the Ni- 
agara River, Oct. 10-11, and en- 
camped 2 miles north of Fort 
Erie. Ranking General Brown, he 
took the chief command of the 
combined forces, then numbering, 
with volunteers and militia, about 8,000 
men. He prepared to march against 
Drummond, who, after the sortie at Fort 


Erie, had moved down to Queenston. Izard 
moved towards Chippewa, and vainly en- 
deavored to draw Drummond out. He had 
some skirmishing in an attempt to destroy 
a quantity of grain belonging to the Brit- 
ish, in which he lost twelve men killed and 
fifty-four wounded; the British lost many 
more. Drummond fell back to Fort 
George and Burlington Heights. Perceiv- 
ing further operations in that region to 
be useless, and perhaps perilous, Izard 
crossed the river and abandoned Canada. 
Knowing Fort Erie to be of little service, 
ha caused it to be mined and blown up, 
Nov. 5. He died in Little Rock, Ark., 
Nov. 22, 1828. 

Izard, Ralph, statesman; born near 
Charleston, S. C, in 1742; was educated 
at Cambridge, England, and in 1767 mar- 

ried a daughter of Peter De Lancey,of New 
York. They spent some time in Europe, 
and Mr. Izard was appointed by Congress 
commissioner to the Court of the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, and resided in Paris, 
where he took sides with Arthur Lee 
against Silas Deane and Franklin (see 
Deane, Silas). He returned home in 
1780; procured for General Greene the 
command of the Southern army, and 
pledged his large estates for the purchase 
of ships-of-war in Euroj^e. He was in 
Congress in 1781-83, and in the United 
States Senate in 1789-95. Two years 
afterwards he was prostrated by paral- 
ysis. His intellect was spared, and he 
lived in comparative comfort about eight 
years, without pain, when a second shock 
ended his life, May 30, 1804. 


Jackson, city and capital of tlie State opposition, and began tearing up the rail- 

of Mississippi; on tlie Pearl River and way between that town and the capital, 

several important railroads; is a large Sherman was also marching on Jackson, 

cotton-shipping centre and has extensive while McClernand was at a point near 

manufactories; population in 1890, 5,920; Raymond. The night was tempestuous. 

in 1900, 7,816. In the morning, Sherman and McPherson 

In 1863, while the troops of General pushed forward, and 5 miles from Jack- 


Grant were skirmishing at Raymond, he son they encountered and drove in the 

learned that Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was Confederate pickets. Two and a half 

hourly expected at Jackson. To make miles from the city they were confronted 

sure of that place, and to leave no enemy by a heavy Confederate force, chiefly 

in his rear. Grant pushed on towards Georgia and South Carolina troops, under 

Jackson. McPherson entered Clinton ear- General Walker. General Crocker's di- 

iy in the afternoon of May 13, without vision led the van of the Nationals, and 



a battle began at eleven o'clock, while a back. Grant sent Sherman reinforce- 

sbower of rain was falling. The Confed- ments, giving that leader an army 50,000 

erate infantry were in a hollow, with strong. With these he crossed the Big 

their artillery on the crest of a hill be- Black River, during a great drought. In 

yond them. Crocker pressed the Confed- dust and great heat the thirsty men 

erates out of the hollow and up the slopes and animals went on to Jackson, John- 

to their artillery. Still onward the Na- ston retiring before them and taking 

^^>.«i.— ^ ^^.- -- 


tionals pressed in the face of a severe fire, 
when the Confederates broke and fled tow- 
ards the city, closely pursued for a mile 
and a half to their earthworks. Under a 
heavy storm of grape and canister shot 
poured upon their works, the Nationals 
reformed for the purpose of making an 
assault; but there was no occasion, for 
the garrison had evacuated the fort. They 
left behind them seventeen cannon, and 
tents enough to shelter a whole division. 
The commissary and quartermaster's 
stores were in flames. The city was taken 
possession of by the Nationals, and the 
stars and stripes were unfurled over the 
State House by the 50th Indiana Regiment. 
Entering Jackson that night, Grant 
learned that Johnston had arrived, taken 
charge of the department, and had or- 
dered Gen, J. C. Pemberton to march im- 
mediately out of Vicksburg and attack 
the National rear. 

After the fall of Vicksburg, Johnston 
hovered menacingly in Grant's rear. 
Sherman had pushed out to press him 

position behind his breastworks there. 
Sherman invested Jackson, July 10, each 
flank resting on the Pearl River. He 
planted 100 cannon on a hill, and open- 
ed on the city, July 12; but his trains 
being behind, his scanty ammunition was 
soon exhausted. In the assault. General 
Lauman pushed his troops too near the 
Confederate works, and in the course of 
a few minutes 500 of his men were killed 
or wounded by sharp - shooters and the 
grape and canister from twelve cannon. 
Two hundred of his men were made prison- 
ers. Under cover of a fog, Johnston made 
a sortie, July 13, but with no beneficial 
result, and on the night of July 16-17 
he withdrew with his 25,000 men, hur- 
ried across the Pearl River, burned the 
bridges behind him, and retreated to Mor- 
ton, Sherman did not pursue far, his 
object being to drive Johnston away and 
make Vicksburg secure. For this purpose 
he broke up the railways for many miles, 
and destroyed everything in Jackson that 
might be useful to the Confederates. 


Jackson, Andrew, seventh President of from the North of Ireland, in 1765, and 
the United States: born in the Waxhaw were of the Scotch-Irish, At fourteen 
Settlement, Mecklenburg eo., N. C, March years of age, Andrew joined the Revolu- 
15, 1767. His parents had emigrated tionary forces in South Carolina. In 



that service he had two brothers killed, with a blue gauze veil, with a silver star 
He was with Sumter in the battle of on her brow. These personated the several 
Hanging Rock (q. v.), and in 1781 was States and Territories of the Union. Each 
made a prisoner. He was admitted to carried a basket filled with flowers, and 
the practice of the law in western North behind each was a lance stuck in the 
Carolina in 1786; removed to Nashville ground, and bearing a shield on which 
in 1788: was United States attorney for v»'as inscribed the name and legend of the 
that district in 1790; member of the con- State or Territory which she represented, 
vention that framed the State constitu- These were linked by festoons of ever- 
tion of Tennessee in 1796; member of the greens that extended from the arch to the 
United States Senate in 1797; and judge door of the cathedral. At the appointed 
of the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 time, Jackson, accompanied by the oSicers 
to 1804. From 1798 until 1814 he was of his stafl", passed into the square, and, 
major-general of the Tennessee militia, and amid the roar of artillery, was conducted 
conducted the principal campaign against to the raised floor of the arch. As he 
the Creek Indians, which resulted in the stepped upon it, the two little girls leaned 
complete subjugation of that nation in the gently forward and placed the laurel 
spring of 1814. On May 31, 1814, he was crowns upon his head. At the same mo- 
appointed a major-general in the regular nient, a charming Creole maiden (Miss 
army and given command of the Depart- Kerr), as the representative of Louisiana, 
ment of the South. His victory at New stepped forward, and, with modesty in 
Orleans, Jan. 8, 1815, gave him great re- voice and manner, addressed a few con- 
nown. gratulatory words to the general, eloquent 

On Jan. 21, with the main body of his with expressions of the most profound 
army, he entered the city. He was met in gratitude. To these words Jackson made 
the suburbs by almost the entire popula- a brief reply, and then passed on towards 
tion, who greeted the victors as their the church, the pathway strewn with flow- 
saviors. Two days afterwards there was ers by the gentle representatives of the 
an imposing spectacle in the city. At States. At the cathedral entrance he was 
Jackson's request, the apos- 
tolic prefect of Louisiana ap- 
pointed Jan. 23 a day for the 
public offering of thanks to 
God for the victory just won. 
It was a beautiful winter 
morning on the verge of the 
tropics. The religious cere- 
monies were to be held in 
the old Spanish cathedral, 
which was decorated with 
evergreens for the occasion. 
In the centre of the public 
square in front of the cathe- 
dral, a temporary triumphal 
arch was erected, supported 
by six Corinthian columns, 
and festooned by flowers and 
evergreens. Beneath this arch 
stood two beautiful little 
girls, each upon a pedestal, 

and holding in her hand a civic crown received by the apostolic prefect (Abbe du 
of laurel. Near them stood two dam- Bourg) in his pontifical robes, supported 
sels, one personifying Liberty, the other by a college of priests in their sacerdotal 
Justice. From the arch to the church, garments. The abbe addressed the general 
arranged in two rows, stood beautiful with eloquent and patriotic discourse, af- 
girls dressed in white, each covered ter which the latter was seated conspicu- 




ously near the great altar, while the Tc 
Deum Laudamus was chanted by the choir 
and the people. When the pageant was 
over, the general retired to his quarters 
to resume the stern duties of a soldier; 
and that night the city of Xew Orleans 
blazed with a general illumination. On 
the spot where the arch was erected, in 
the centre of the public square in front 
of the cathedral, has been erected a bronze 
equestrian statue of Jackson, by Clark 

Jackson, like a true soldier, did not 
relax his vigilance after the victory that 
saved Louisiana from British conquest. 
He maintained martial law in New Or- 
leans rigorously, even after rumors of a 

Jackson's headqcartiirs, xkw oklkaxs. 

proclamation of peace reached that city. 
When an official announcement of peace 
was received from Washington he was 
involved in a contention with the civil 
authorities, who had opposed martial law 
as unnecessary. In the legislature of 
Louisiana was a powerful faction opposed 
to him personally, and when the officers 
and troops were thanked by that body 
(Feb. 2, 181.5), the name of Jackson was 
omitted. The people were very indignant. 
A seditious publication soon appeared, 
which increased their indignation, and as 
this was a public matter, calculated to 
produce disaflfection in the army, Jackson 
caused the arrest of the author and his 

trial by martial law. Judge Dominic A. 
Hall, of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, issued a writ of habeas corpus in 
favor of the offender. Jackson considered 
this a violation of martial law, and or- 
dered the arrest of the judge and his ex- 
pulsion beyond the limits of the city. The 
judge, in turn, when the military law was 
revoked (March 13, 1815) in consequence 
oi the proclamation of peace, required 
Jackson to appear before him and show 
cause why he should not be punished for 
contempt of court. He cheerfully obeyed 
the summons, and entered the' crowded 
court-room in the old Spanish-built court- 
house in citizen's dress. He had almost 
reached the bar before he was recognized, 
when he was greeted with huzzas by a 
thousand voices. The judge was alarmed, 
and hesitated. Jackson stepped upon a 
bench, procured silence, and then, turning 
to the trembling judge, said, " There is 
no danger here — there shall be none. The 
same hand that protected this city from 
outrage against the invaders of the coun- 
try will shield and protect this court, or 
perish in the effort. Proceed with your 
sentence." The agitated judge pronounced 
him guilty of contempt of court, and fined 
him $1,000. This act was greeted by a 
storm of hisses. The general immediately 
drew a check for the amount, handed it to 
the marshal, and then made his way for 
the coiirt-house door. The people were in- 
tensely excited. They lifted the hero upoiv 
their shoulders, bore him to the street, and 
there an immense crowd sent up a shout 
that blanched the cheek of Judge Hall. 
He was placed in a carriage, from which 
the people took the horses and dragged it 
themselves to his lodgings, Avhere he ad- 
dressed them, urging them to show their 
appreciation of the blessings of liberty and 
a free government by a willing submission 
to the authorities of their country. Mean- 
time, $1,000 had been collected by volun- 
tary subscriptions and placed to his credit 
in a bank. The general politely refused to 
accept it, and begged his friends to dis- 
tribute it among the relatives of those 
who had fallen in the late battles. Nearly 
thirty years afterwards (1843), Congress 
refunded the sum with interest, amounting 
in all to $2,700. 

In 1817 he successfully prosecuted the 
war against the Seminoles. In 1819 he 




resigned his military commission, and was 
governor of newly acquired Florida in 
1821-22. He was again United States 
Senator in 1823-24; a"nd in 1828, and also 
in 1832, he was elected President of the 
United States (see Cabinet, Presi- 
dent's). His warfare on the United 
States Bank during his Presidency re- 
sulted in its final destruction. 

President Jackson possessed great firm- 
ness and decision of character; was 

honest and true; not always correct in 
judgment; often rash in expressions and 
actions ; misled sometimes by his hot anger 
into acts injurious to his reputation; of 
unflinching personal courage; possessed 
of a tender, sympathizing nature, although 
sometimes appearing fiercely leonine ; and 
a patriot of purest stamp. He retired 
from public life forever in the spring of 
1837. His administration of eight years 
was marked by great energy, and never 



were the affairs of the republic in its 
domestic and foreign relations more pros- 
perous than at the close of his term of 
office. He died in " The Hermitage," near 
ISiashville, Tenn., June 8, 1845. In 1852 


an equestrian statue of Jackson, in bronze, 
by Clark Mills, was erected at Washing- 
ton, at the expense of the nation. 

Nullification.— On Sept. 19, 1832, Presi- 
dent Jackson issued the following procla- 
mation against nullification: 

Whereas, a convention assembled in the 
State of South Carolina have passed an 
ordinance, by which they declare " that 
the several acts and parts of acts of the 
Congress of the United States, purport- 
ing to be laws for the imposing of duties 
and imposts on the importation of for- 
eign commodities, and now having actual 
operation and effect within the United 
States, and more especially " two acts 
for the same purposes passed on May 29, 
1828, and on July 14, 1832, "are un- 
authorized by the Constitution of the 
l.nited States, and violate the true mean- 
ing and intent thereof, and are null and 
void, and no law," nor binding on the 
citizens of that State or its officers; and 
by said ordinance it is further declared 
to be unlawful for any of the constituted 


authorities of the State or of the United 
States to enforce the payment of the 
duties imposed by the said acts within 
the same State, and that it is the duty 
of the legislature to pass such laws as 
may be neces- 
sary to give 
full effect to 
the said ordi- 

And whereas, 
by the said 
ordinance, it is 
further ordain- 
ed that in no 
case of law or 
equity decided 
in the courts 
of said State, 
wherein shall 
be drawn in 
question the 
validity of the 
said ordinance 
or of the actc 
of the legislat- 
ure that may 
be passed to 
give it effect, or 
of the said laws 
of the United States, no appeal shall be 
allowed to the Supreme Court of the 
United States, nor shall any copy of the 
record be permitted or allowed for that 
purpose, and that any person attempting 
to take such appeal shall be punished as 
for a contempt of court ; 

And, finally, the said ordinance declares 
that the people of South Carolina will 
maintain the said ordinance at every 
hazard; and that they will consider the 
passage of any act by Congress abolish- 
ing or closing the ports of the said State, 
or otherwise obstructing the free ingress 
or egress of vessels to and from the said 
ports, or any other act of the federal gov- 
ernment to coerce the State, shut up her 
ports, destroy or harass her commerce, 
or to enforce the said acts otherwise 
than through the civil tribunals of the 
country, as inconsistent with the longer 
continuance of South Carolina in the 
Union; and that the people of the said 
Svate will thenceforth hold themselves 
absolved from all further obligation to 
maintain or preserve their political con- 



nection with the people of the other 
States, and will forthwith proceed to 
organize a separate government, and do 
all other acts and things which sovereign 
and independent States may of right do. 
And, whereas, the said ordinance pre- 
scribes to the people of South Carolina a 
course of conduct in direct violation of 
their duty as citizens of the United 

must inevitably result from an observ- 
ance of the dictates of the convention. 

Strict duty will require of me nothing 
more than the exercise of these powers 
with which I am now, or may hereafter 
be, invested, for preserving the peace of 
the Union, and for the execution of the 
laws. But the imposing aspect which 
opposition has assumed in this case, by 

States, contrary to the laws of their clothing itself with State authority, and 
country, subversive of its Constitution, the deep interest which the people of the 
and having for its object the destruction United States must feel in preventing a 
of the Union : that Union which, coeval resort to stronger measures, while there 
with our political existence, led our is a hope that anything will be yielded 
fathers, without any other ties to unite to reasoning and remonstrance, perhaps 
them than those of patriotism and a com- demand, and will certainly justify, a full 
mon cause, through a sanguinary struggle exposition to South Carolina and the na- 
tion of the views I entertain of this im- 
portant question, as well as a distinct 
enunciation of the course which my sense 
of duty will require me to pursue. 

The ordinance is founded, not on the 
indefeasible right of resisting acts which 
are plainly unconstitutional, and too op- 

to a glorious independence; that sacred 
Union, hitherto inviolate, which, perfect- 
ed by our happy Constitution, has 
brought us, by the favor of heaven, to 
a state of prosperity at home, and high 
consideration abroad, rarely, if ever, 
equalled in the history of nations. To 

preserve this bond of our political exist- pressive to be endured, but on the strange 
ence from de- 
struction, to 
maintain invio- 
late this state 
of national 
honor and pros- 
perity, and to 
justify the con- 
fidence my fel- 
low - citizens 
have reposed in 
me, I, Andrew 
Jackson, Presi- 
dent of the 
United States, 
have thought 
proper to issue 
this my procla- 
mation, stating 
my views of the 
and laws ap- 
plicable to the 
measures adopt- 
ed by the con- 
vention of South Carolina, and to the rea- position that any one State may not only 
sons they have put forth to sustain them, declare an act of Congress void, but pro- 
declaring the course which duty will re- hibit its execution; that they may do this 
quire me to pursue, and. appealing to the consistently with the Constitution; that 
understanding and patriotism of the peo- the true construction of that instrument 
pie, warn them of the consequences which permits a State to retain its place in the 
v. — a 97 



Union, and yet be bound by no other of decision in theory, and the practical illus- 
its laws than those it may choose to con- tration shows that the courts are closea 
sider as constitutional. It is true, they against an application to review it, botli 
add, that to justify this abrogation of a judges and jurors being sworn to decide 
law, it must be palpably contrary to the in its favor. But reasoning on this sub- 
Constitution; but it is evident that, to jeet is superfluous, when our social corn- 
give the right of resisting laws of that pact, in express terms, declares that the 
description, coupled with the uncontrolled laws of the United States, its Constitu- 
right to decide what laws deserve that tion, and treaties made under it, are the 
character, is to give the power of resisting supreme law of the land; and for greater 
all laws. For as, by the theory, there is caution adds " that the judges in every 
no appeal, the reasons alleged by the State shall be bound thereby, anything 
State, good or bad, must prevail. If it in the Constitution or laws of any State 

to the contrary not- 
withstanding." And 
it may be assert- 
ed, without fear of 
refutation, that no 
federal government 
could exist without 
a similar provision. 
Look for a moment 
to the consequences. 
If South Carolina 
considers the reve- 
nue laws unconsti- 
tutional, and has a 
right to prevent 
their execution in 
the port of Charles- 
ton, there would be 
a clear constitu- 
tional objection to 
their collection in 
every other port, 
and no revenue 
could be collected 
anywhere, for all 
imposts must bQ 
equal. It is no an- 
swer to repeat that 
an unconstitutional 
law is no law, so 
should be said that public opinion is a long as the question of its legality is to be 
sufficient check against the abuse of this decided In' the State itself; for every law 
power, it may be asked why it is not operating injuriously upon any local in- 


deemed a sufficient guard against the pas- 
sage of an unconstitutional act by Con- 
gress? There is, however, a restraint in 
this last case, which makes the assumed 
power of a State more indefensible, and 
which does not exist in the other. There 
are two appeals from an unconstitutional 
act passed by Congress — one to the ju- 
diciary, the other to the people and the non-intercourse law in the Eastern States, 
States. There is no appeal from the State the carriage tax in Virginia, were all 


tcrest will be perhaps thouglit, and cer- 
tainly represented, ns unconstitutional, 
and, as has been shown, there is no ap- 

If this doctrine had been established at 
an earlier day the Union would have 
been dissolved in its infancy. Tho excise 
law in Pennsvlvania, the embarsro and 



deemed unconstitutional, and were more of victory and honor, if the States who 
unequal in their operation than any of supposed it a ruinous and unconstitutional 
the laws now complained of; but fortu- measure had thought they possessed the 
r.ately none of those States discovered right of nullifying the act by which it 
that they had the right now claimed by was declared, and denying supplies for 
South Carolina. The war into which we its prosecution. Hardly and unequally 
were forced to support the dignity of the as those measures bore upon several mem- 
nation and the rights of our citizens might bers of the Union, to the legislatures of 
have ended in defeat and disgrace instead none did this efficient and peaceful remedy, 



as it is called, suggest itself. The dis- proposed to form a feature in our govern- 
covery of this important feature in our ment. 

Constitution was reserved to the present In our colonial state, although depend- 
day. To the statesmen of South Caro- ing on another power, we very early con- 
lina belongs the invention, and upon sidered ourselves as connected by common 
the citizens of the State will unfortu- interest with each other. Leagues were 
nately fall the evils of reducing it to formed for common defence, and before 
practice. the Declaration of Independence we were 

If the doctrine of a State veto upon the known in our aggregate character as the 
laws of the Union carries with it internal l^nited Colonies of America. That deci- 
evidence of its impracticable absurdity, sive and important step was taken jointly. 

We declared ourselves a nation by a joint, 
not by several acts, and when the terms 
of our confederation were reduced to form, 
it was in that of a solemn league of sev- 
eral States, by which they agreed that 
they would collectively form one nation 
for the purpose of conducting some cer- 
tain domestic concerns and all foreign re- 
lations. In the instrument forming that 
Union is found an article which de- 
clares " that every State shall abide by 
the determinations of Congress on all 
questions which, by that confederation, 
should be submitted to them." 

Under the confederation, then, no State 
could legally annul a decision 
of the Congress or refuse to 
submit to its execution; but 
no provision was made to en- 
force these decisions. Con- 
gress made requisitions, but 
they were not complied with. 
The government could not op- 
erate on individuals. They 
had no judiciary, no means of 
collecting revenue. 

But the defects of the con- 
federation need not be detailed. 
Under its operation we could scarcely 
be called a nation. We had neither 
prosperity at home nor consideration 
abroad. This state of things could 
not be endured, and our present happy 
Constitution was formed, but foi-med 
in vain, if this fatal doctrine prevails. 
It was formed for important objects 
that are announced in the preamble 
made in the name and by the authority 
of the people of the United States, 
whose delegates framed and whose con- 
ventions approved it. The most im- 
portant among these objects, that 
our constitutional history will also afford which is placed first in rank, on 
abundant proof that it would have been which all the others rest, is " to form 
repudiated with indignation had it been a more perfect Union." Now, is it pos- 




sible that even if there were no express 
provision giving supremacy to the Con- 
stitution and laws of the United States 
over those of the States, can it be con- 
ceived that an instrument made for the 
purpose of " forming a more perfect 
Union " than that of the confederation, 
could be so constructed by the assembled 
wisdom of our country as to substitute 
for that confederation a form of govern- 
ment dependent for its existence on the 
local interest, the party spirit of a State, 
or of a prevailing faction in a State? 
Every man of plain, unsophisticated un- 
derstanding, who hears the question, will 
give siich an answer as will preserve the 
Union. Metaphysical subtlety, in pursuit 
of an impracticable theory, could alone 
have devised one that is calculated to de- 
stroy it. 

I consider, then, the power to annul a 
law of the United States assumed by one 
State, incompatible with the existence of 
the Union, contradicted expressly by the 
letter of the Constitution, unauthorized 
by its spirit, inconsistent with every prin- 
ciple on which it was founded, and de- 
structive of the great object for which 
it was formed. 

After this general view of the leading 
principle, we must examine the particular 
application of it which is made in the 

The preamble rests its justification on 
these grounds: It assumes as a fact that 
the obnoxious laws, although they purport 
to be laws for raising revenue, were in 
reality intended for the protection of man- 
ufactures, which purpose it asserts to be 
unconstitutional ; that the operation of 
these laws is unequal; that the amount 
raised by them is greater than is required 
by the wants of the government ; and, 
finally, that the proceeds are to be applied 
to objects unauthorized by the Constitu- 
tion. These are the only causes alleged 
to justify an open opposition to the laws 
of the country, and a threat of seceding 
from the Union if any attempt should be 
made to enforce them. The first virtually 
acknowledges that the law in question was 
passed under a power expressly given by 
the Constitution to lay and collect im- 
posts; but its constitutionality is drawn 
in question from the motives of those 
who passed it. However apparent this 


purpose may be in the present case, noth- 
ing can be more dangerous than to admit 
the position that an unconstitutional pur- 
pose, entertained by the members who as- 
sent to a law enacted under a constitu- 
tional power, shall make that law void; 
foi how is that purpose to be ascertained? 
Who is to make the scrutiny? How often 
may bad purposes be falsely imputed? In 
how many cases are they concealed by 
false professions? In how many is no 
declaration of motive made? Admit this 
doctrine, and you give to the States an 
uncontrolled right to decide, and every 
law may be annulled imder this pretext. 
If, therefore, the absurd and dangerous 
doctrine should be admitted that a State 
may annul an unconstitutional law, or 
one that it deems such, it will not apply 
to the present case. 

The next objection is that the laws 
in question operate unequally. This objec- 
tion may be made with truth to every law 
that has been or can be passed. The wis- 
dom of man never yet contrived a system 
of taxation that would operate with per- 
fect equality. If the unequal operation of 
a law makes it unconstitutional, and if all 
laws of that description may be abrogated 
by any State for that cause, then indeed is 
the federal Constitution unworthy of the 
slightest elTort for its preservation. We 
have hitherto relied on it as the perpetual 
bond of our Union. We have received it 
as the work of the assembled wisdom of 
the nation. We have trusted to it as to 
the sheet-anchor of our safety in the 
stormy times of conflict with a foreign 
or domestic foe. We have looked to it 
with sacred awe as the palladium of our 
liberties, and with all the solemnities of 
religion have pledged to each other our 
lives and fortunes here and our hopes of 
happiness hereafter, in its defence and 
support. W^ere we mistaken, my country- 
men, in attaching this importance to the 
Constitution of our country? Was our 
devotion paid to the wretched, inefficient, 
clumsy contrivance which this new doc- 
trine would make it? Did we pledge our- 
selves to the support of an airy nothing — 
a bubble that must be blo\ATi away by the 
first breath of disaffection? Was this 
self-destroying, visionary theory the work 
of the profound statesmen, the exalted 
patriotism to whom the task of constitu- 


tional reform was intrusted? Did the who abuse it, and thus procure redress 
name of Washington sanction — did the Congress may, undoubtedly, abuse this 
States deliberately ratify such an anomaly discretionary power, but the same may be 
in the history of fundamental legislation? said of others with which they are vested. 
No. We were not .mistaken. The letter of Yet the discretion must exist somewhere, 
this great instrument is free from this The Constitution has given it to the rep- 
radical fault; its language directly con- resentative of all the people, checked by 
tradicts the imiJutation ; its spirit, its evi- the representatives of the States and by 
dent intent, contradicts it. No, we do not the executive power. The South Carolina 
err. Our Constitution does not contain the construction gives it to the legislature or 
absurdity of giving power to make laws, the convention of a single State, where 
and another power to resist them. The neither the people of the dilTerent States, 
sages, whose memory will always be rev- nor the States in their separate capacity, 
eneed, have given us a practical and, as nor the chief magistrate, elected by the 
they hoped, a permanent constitutional com- people, have any representation. Which 
pact. The Father of this country did not is the most discreet disposition of the 
affix his revered name to so palpable an power? I do not ask you, fellow-citizens, 
absurdity. Nor did the States, when they which is the constitutional disposition; 
severally ratified it, do so under the im- that instrument speaks a language not 
pression that a veto on the laws of the to be misunderstood. But if you were 
United States was reserved to them, or assembled in general convention, which 
that they could exercise it by implica- would you think the safest depository of 
tion. Search the debates in all their con- this discretionary power in the last re- 
ventions; examine the speeches of the most sort? Would you add a clause giving it 
zealous opposers of federal authority; look to each of the States, or would you sane- 
at the amendments that were proposed, tion the wise provisions already made 
They are all silent; not a syllable uttered, by your Constitution? If this should be 
not a vote given, not a motion made to the result of your deliberation when pro- 
correct the explicit supremacy given to viding for the future, are you, can you 
the laws of the Union over those of the be ready to risk all that we hold dear 
States, or to show that implication, as is to establish, for a temporary and a local 
now contended, could defeat it. No, we purpose, that which you must acknowledge 
have not erred. The Constitution is still to be destructive, and even absurd, as a 
the object of our reAerence, the bond of general provision? Carry out the conse- 
our Union, our defence in danger, the quenees of this right vested in the different 
source of our prosperity in peace; it shall States, and you must perceive that the 
descend as we have received it, uncor- crisis your conduct presents at this day 
rupted by sophistical construction, to our would recur whenever any law of the 
posterity; and the sacrifices of local in- United States displeased any of the States, 
terest, of State prejudices, of personal and that we should soon cease to be a na- 
animosities, that were made to bring it tion. 

into existence, will again be patriotically The ordinance, with the same knowledge 

offered for its support. of the future that characterized a former 

The two remaining objections made by objection, tells you that the proceeds of 

the ordinance to these laws are that the the tax will be imconstitutionally applied, 

sums intended to be raised by them are If this could be ascertained with certainty, 

greater than are required, and that the the objection would, with more propriety, 

proceeds will be unconstitutionally em- be reserved for the law so applying the 

ployed. proceeds, but surely cannot be urged 

The Constitution has given expressly against the laws levying the duty. 
to Congress the right of raising revenue. These are the allegations contained in 

and of determining the sum the public the ordinance. Examine them seriously, 

exigencies will require. The States have my fellow-citizens — judge for yourselves, 

no control over the exercise of this right I appeal to you to determine whether 

other than that which results from the they are so clear, so convincing, as to 

power of changing the representatives leave no doubt of their correctness; and 



even if you should come to this conclu- these questions according to its sound 

sion, how far they justify the reckless, discretion. Congress is composed of the 

destructive course which you are directed representatives of all the States, and of 

to pursue. Review these objections, and all the people of all the States; but we, 

the conclusions drawn from them, once part of the people of one State, to whom 

more. What are they? Every law, then, the Constitution has given no power on 

for raising revenue, according to the the subject, from whom it has expressly 

South Carolina ordinance, may be right- taken it away; we, who have solemnly 

fully annulled, unless it be so framed agreed that this Constitution shall be 

as no law ever will or can be framed, our law; we, most of whom have sworn 

Congress has a right to pass laws for to support it, we now abrogate this law, 

raising revenue, and each State has a right and swear, and force others to swear, that 

to oppose their execution — two rights di- it shall not be obeyed. And we do this 

rectly opposed to each other; and yet, is not because Congress has no right to pass 

this absurdity supposed to be contained such laws — this we do not allege — but 

in an instrument drawn for the express because they have passed them with im- 

purpose of avoiding collisions between the proper views. They are unconstitutional 

States and the general government by an from the motives of those who passed 

assembly of the most enlightened states- them, which we can never with certainty 

men and purest patriots ever embodied know; from their unequal operation, al- 

for a similar purpose? though it is impossible, from the nature 

In vain have these sages declared that of things, that they should be equal; 
Congress shall have power to lay and col- and from the disposition which we pre- 
lect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; sume may be made of their proceeds, al- 
in vain have they provided that they though that disposition has not been 
shall have power to pass laws which declared. This is the plain meaning of 
shall be necessary and proper to carry the ordinance in relation to laws which 
those powers into execution; that those it abrogates for alleged unconstitutional- 
laws and the Constitution shall be the ity. But it does not stop there. It re- 
" supreme law of the land, and that the peals, in express terms, an important part 
judges in every State shall be bound of the Constitution itself, and of laws 
tliereby, anything in the constitution or passed to give it effect, which have never 
laws of any State to the contrary not- been alleged to be unconstitutional. The 
withstanding." In vain have the people Constitution declares that the judicial 
of the several States solemnly sanctioned powers of the United States extend to 
these provisions, made them their para- cases arising under tlie laws of the Unit- 
mount law, and individually sworn to ed States, and that such laws, the Con- 
support them whenever they were called stitution and the treaties, shall be para- 
on to execute any office. Vain provisions! mount to the State constitution and 
ineffectual restrictions! vile profanation laws. The judiciary act prescribes the 
of oaths! miserable mockery of legisla- mode by which the case may be brought 
tion! if a bare majority of the voters in before a court of the United States, by 
any one State may, on a real or sup- appeal, when a State tribunal shall decide 
posed knowledge of the intent with which against this provision of the Constitu- 
a law has been passed, declare themselves tion. The ordinance declares there shall 
free from its operation — say here it gives be no appeal; makes the State law 
too little, there too much, and operates paramount to the Constitution and laws 
luicqually; here it suffers articles to be of the United States; forces judges and 
free that ought to be taxed ; there it taxe^ jurors to swear that they will disregard 
those that ought to be free; in this case their provisions; and even makes it penal 
the proceeds are intended to be applied in a suitor to attempt relief by appeal, 
to purposes which we do not approve; It further declares that it shall not be 
in that the amount raised is more than lawful for the authorities of the United 
is wanted. States, or of that State, to enforce the 

Congress, it is true, is invested by the payment of duties imposed by the revenue 

Constitution with the right of deciding laws within its limits. 



Here is a law of the United States, not 
even pretended to be unconstitutional, re- 
pealed by the authority of a small ma- 
jority of the voters of a single State. 
Here is a provision of the Constitution 
which is solemnly abrogated by the same 

On such expositions and reasonings the 
ordinance grounds not only an assertion 
of the right to annul the laws of which it 
complains, but to enforce it by a threat 
of seceding from the Union if any at- 
tempt is made to execute them. 

This right to secede is deduced from thr 
nature of the Constitution, which, the^ 
say, is a compact between sovereign 
States, who have preserved their whole 
sovereignty, and therefore are subject to 
no superior; that, because they made the 
compact, they cannot break it, when, in 
their opinion, it has been departed from 
by the other States. Fallacious as this 
course of reasoning is, it enlists State 
pride, and finds advocates in the honest 
prejudices of those who have not studied 
the nature of our government sufficiently 
to see the radical error on which it rests. 

The people of the United States form- 
ed the Constitution, acting through the 
State legislatures in making the compact, 
to meet and discuss its provisions, and 
acting in separate conventions when they 
ratified these provisions, but the terms 
used in its construction show it to be a 
government in which the people of the 
States collectively are represented. We 
are one people in the choice of the Presi- 
dent and Vice-President. Here the States 
have no other agency than to direct the 
mode in which the votes shall be given. 
The candidates having the majority of all 
the votes are chosen. The electors of a 
majority of States may have given their 
votes for one candidate, and yet another 
may be chosen. The people then, and not 
the States, are represented in the execu- 
tive branch. 

In the House of Representatives there 
is this difference, that the people of one 
State do not, as in the case of President 
and Vice-President, all vote for the same 
officers. The people of all the States do 
not vote for all the members, each State 
electing only its o\vn representatives. 
But this creates no material distinction. 
When chosen, they are all representa- 

tives of the United States, not repre- 
sentatives of the particular State from 
which they come. They are paid by the 
United States, not by the State, nor are 
they accountable to it for any act done 
in the performance of their legislative 
functions; and however they may in prac- 
tice, as it is their duty to do, consult and 
prefer the interests of their particular 
constituents when they come in conflict 
with any other partial or local interest, 
yet it is their first and highest duty, as 
representatives of the United States, to 
romote the general good. 

The Constitution of the United States, 
then, forms a government, not a league, 
and whether it be formed by compact be- 
tween the States or in any other manner, 
its character is the same. It is a govern- 
ment in which all the people are repre- 
sented, which operates directly on the 
people individually, not upon the States — 
they retained all the power they did not 
grant. But each State having expressly 
parted with so many powers as to con- 
stitute, jointly with the other States, a 
single nation, cannot from that period 
possess any right to secede, because such 
secession does not break a league, but 
destroys the unity of a nation, and any 
injury to that unity is not only a breach 
which would result from the contraven- 
tion of a compact, but it is an offence 
against the whole Union. To say that any 
State may at pleasure secede from the 
Union is to say that the United States are 
not a nation, because it would be a sole- 
cism to contend that any part of a nation 
might dissolve its connection Avith the 
other parts, to their injury or ruin, with- 
out committing any offence. Secession, 
like any other revolutionary act. may be 
morally justified by the extremity of op- 
pression, but to call it a constitutional 
right is confounding the meaning of terms, 
and can only be done through gross error, 
or to deceive those who are willing to as- 
sert a right, but would pause before they 
made a revolution, or incur the penalties 
consequent on a failure. 

Because the Union was formed by com- 
pact, it is said the parties to that com- 
pact may, when they feel themselves 
aggrieved, depart from it; but it is 
precisely because it is a compact that they 
cannot. A compact is an agreement or 



binding obligation. It may by its terms 
have a sanction or penalty for its breach, 
or it may not. If it contains no sanction, 
it may be broken with no other conse- 
quence than moral guilt; if it have a 
sanction, then the breach insures the 
designated or implied penalty. A league 
between independent nations generally has 
no sanction other than a moral one, or if 
it should contain a penalty, as there is 
no common superior, it cannot be en- 
forced. A government, on the contrary, 
always has a sanction, express or implied, 
and in our case it is both necessarily im- 
plied and expressly given. An attempt, 
by force of arms, to destroy a government 
is an offence by whatever means the con- 
stitutional compact may have been formed, 
and such government has the right, by 
the law of self-defence, to pass acts for 
punishing the offender, unless that right 
is modified, restrained, or resumed by the 
constitutional act. In our system, al- 
though it is modified in the case of trea- 
son, yet authority is expressly given to 
pass all laws necessary to carry its powers 
into effect, and under this grant provi- 
sion has been made for punishing acts 
which obstruct the due administration of 
the laws. 

It would seem superfluous to add any- 
thing to show the nature of that union 
which connects us; but as erroneous opin- 
ions on this subject are the foundation of 
doctrines the most destructive to our 
peace, I must give some further develop- 
ment to my views on this subject. No 
one, fellow-citizens, has a higher reverence 
for the reserved rights of the States than 
the magistrate who now addresses you. 
No one would make greater personal sac- 
rifices or official exertions to defend them 
from violation, but equal care must be 
taken to prevent on their part an improper 
interference with our resumption of the 
rights they have vested in the nation. 
The line has not been so distinctly drawn 
as to avoid doubts in some cases of the 
exercise of power. Men of the best in- 
tentions and soundest views may differ 
in their construction of some parts of the 
Constitution, but there are others on 
which dispassionate reflections can leave 
no doubt. Of this nature appears to be 
the assumed right of secession. It treats, 
as we haA'e seen, on the alleged undivided 


sovereignty of the States, and on their 
having formed, in this sovereign capacity, 
a compact which is called the Constitu- 
tion, from which, because they made it, 
they have the right to secede. Both of 
these positions are erroneous, and some 
of the arguments to prove them so have 
been anticipated. 

The States severally have not retained 
their entire sovereignty. It has been 
shown that in becoming parts of a nation, 
not members of a league, they surrendered 
many of their essential parts of sovereign- 
ty. The right to make treaties, declare 
war, levy taxes, exercise exclusive judicial 
and legislative powers, were all of them 
functions of sovereign power. The States, 
then, for all these purposes were no longer 
sovereign. The allegiance of their citi- 
zens was transferred in the first instance 
to the government of the United States. 
They became American citizens, and owed 
obedience to the Constitution of the 
United States, and to laws inade in con- 
formity with the powers it vested in Con- 
gress. This last position has not been 
and cannot be denied. How, then, can 
that State be said to be sovereign and 
independent whose citizens own obedience 
to laws not made by it, and whose 
magistrates are sworn to disregard those 
laws when they come in conflict with 
those passed by another? What shows 
conclusively that the States cannot be 
said to have reserved an undivided sov- 
ereignty is that they expressly ceded 
the right to punish treason, not treason 
against their separate powers, but treason 
against the United States. Treason is an 
offence against sovereignty, and sovereign- 
ty must reside with the powers to punish 
it. But the reserved rights of the State 
are not less sacred because they have, 
for their common interest, made the gen- 
eral government the depository of these 

The unity of our political character (as 
has been shown for another purpose) com- 
menced with its very existence. Under 
the royal government we had no separate 
character ; our opposition to its oppres- 
sion began as united colonies. We were 
the United States under the confederation, 
and the name was perpetuated, and the 
Union rendered more perfect, by the federal 
Constitution. In none of these stages did 


we consider ourselves in any other light 
than as forming one nation. Treaties 
and alliances were made in the name of 
all. Troops were made for the joint de- 
fence. How, then, with all these proofs 
that, under all changes of our position, we 
had, for designated purposes and defined 
powers, created national governments — 
how is it that the most perfect of these 
several modes of union should now be 
considered as a mere league that may be 
dissolved at pleasure? It is from an 
abuse of terms. Compact is used as sy- 
nonymous with league, although the true 
term is not employed, because it would 
at once show the fallacy of the reason- 
ing. It would not do to say that our 
Constitution was only a league, but it is 
fabored to prove it a compact (which in 
one sense it is ) , and then to argue that 
as a league is a compact, every compact 
between nations must, of course, be a 
league, and that from such an engage- 
ment every sovereign power has a right 
to recede. But it has been shown that, in 
this sense, the States are not sovereign, 
and that even if they were, and the na- 
tional Constitution had been formed by 
compact, there would be no right in any 
one State to exonerate itself from its ob- 

So o]bvious are the reasons which forbid 
this secession, that it is necessary only 
to allude to them. The Union was formed 
for the benefit of all. It was produced 
by natural sacrifices of interest and 
opinions. Can these sacrifices be recalled? 
Can the States, who magnanimously sur- 
rendered their title to the territories of 
the West, recall the grant? Will the in- 
habitants of the inland States agree to 
pay the duties that may be imposed with- 
out their assent by those on the Atlantic 
or the Gulf, for their own benefit? Shall 
there be a free port in one State and 
onerous duties in another? No one be- 
lieves that any right exists in a single 
State to involve all the others in these 
and countless other evils contrary to 
the engagements solemnly made. Every 
one must see that the other States, in 
self - defence, must oppose it at all haz- 

These are the alternatives that are pre- 
sented by the convention: a repeal of all 
the acts for raising revenue, leaving the 


government without the means of sup- 
port, or an acquiescence in the dissolution 
of our Union by the secession of one of 
its members. When the first was pro- 
posed, it was known that it could not 
be listened to for a moment. It was 
known, if force was applied to oppose the 
execution of the laws, that it must be re- 
pelled by force; that Congress could not, 
without involving itself in disgrace and 
the country in ruin, accede to the propo- 
sition ; and yet if this is not done in 
a given day, or if any attempt is made to 
execute the laws, the State is, by the or- 
dinance, declared to be out of the Union. 
The majority of a convention assembled 
for the purpose have dictated these terms, 
or rather this rejecting of all terms, in 
the name of the people of South Caro- 
lina. It is true that the governor of 
the State speaks of the submission of their 
grievances to the convention of all the 
States, which, he says, they " sincerely and 
anxiously seek and desire." Yet this ob- 
vious and constitutional mode of obtain- 
ing the sense of the other States on the 
construction of the federal compact, and 
amending it, if necessary, has never been 
attempted by those who have urged the 
State on to this destructive measure. Tlie 
State might have proposed the call for a 
general convention to the other States, 
and Congress, if a sufficient number of 
them concurred, must have called it. But 
the first magistrate of South Carolina, 
Avhen he expressed hope that, " on a re- 
view by Congres's and the functionaries 
of the general government of the merits 
of the controversy," such a convention 
will be accorded to them, must have known 
that neither Congress nor any function- 
ary of the general government has au- 
thority to call such a convention, unless 
it be demanded by two-thirds of the 
States. This suggestion, then, is another 
instance of the reckless inattention to 
the provisions of the Constitution with 
which this crisis has been madly hurried 
on, or of the attempt to persuade the 
people that a constitutional remedy had 
Ibeen sought and refused. If the legislat- 
ure of South Carolina " anxiously de- 
sire " a general convention to consider 
their complaints, why have they not made 
application for it in the way the Consti- 
tution points out? The assertion that 


tliey " earnestly seek it " is completely 
negatived by the omission. 

This, then, is the position in which we 
stand. A small majority of the citizens 
of one State in the Union have elected 
delegates to a State convention; that con- 
vention has ordained that all the revenue 
laws of the United States must be re- 
pealed, or that they are no longer a mem- 
ber of the Union. The governor of that 
State has recommended to the legislature 
the raising of an army to carry the seces- 
sion into eii'ect, and that he may be em- 
powered to give clearances to vessels in 
the name of the State. No act of violent 
opposition to the laws has yet been com- 
mitted, but such a state of things is 
hourly apprehended, and it is the intent 
of this instrument to proclaim, not only 
that the duty imposed on me by the Con- 
stitution " to take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed," shall be performed 
to the extent of the powers already in- 
\ ested in me by law, or of such others as 
the wisdom of Congress shall devise and 
intrust to me for that purpose, but to 
warn the citizens of South Carolina who 
have been deluded into an opposition to 
the laws, of the danger they will incur by 
obedience to the illegal and disorganizing 
ordinance of the convention ; to exhort 
those who have refused to support it to 
persevere in their determination to iip- 
hold the Constitution and laws of their 
country, and to point out to all the peril- 
ous situation into which the good people 
of that State ha^'e been led, and that the 
course they have been urged to pursue is 
one of ruin and disgrace to the very State 
whose rights they affect to support. 

Fellow-citizens of my native State, let 
me not only admonish you, as the first 
magistrate of our common country, not 
to incur the penalty of its laws, but use 
the influence that a father would over his 
children whom he saw rushing to certain 
ruin. In that paternal language, with 
that paternal feeling, let me tell you, my 
countrymen, that you are deluded by men 
who are either deceived themselves or wish 
to deceive you. Mark under what pre- 
tences you have been led on to the brink 
of insurrection and treason on which you 
stand ! First, a diminution of the value 
of your staple commodity, lowered by over- 
production in other quarters, and the con- 

sequent diminution in the value of your 
lands, were the sole effect of the tariff 

The effect of those laws was confess- 
edly injurious, but the evil was greatly 
exaggerated by the unfounded theory you 
were taught to believe, that its burdens 
were in proportion to your exports, not to 
your consumption of imported articles. 
Your pride was roused by the assertion 
that a submission to those laws was a 
state of vassalage, and that resistance to 
them was equal, in patriotic merit, to the 
opposition our fathers offered to the op- 
pressive laws of Great Britain. You 
were told that this opposition might be 
peaceably, might be constitutionally 
made; that you might enjoy all the ad- 
vantages of the Union, and bear none of 
its burdens. Eloquent appeals to your 
passions, to your State pride, to your 
native courage, to your sense of real in- 
jury, were used to prepare you for the 
period when the mask which concealed the 
hideous features of disunion should be 
taken off. It fell, and you were made to 
look with complacency on objects which, 
not long since, you would have regarded 
with horror. Look back to the arts 
which have brought you to this state ; 
look forward to the consequences to 
which it must inevitably lead! Look 
back to what was first told you as an in- 
ducement to enter into this dangerous 
course! The great political truth was re- 
peated to you, that you had the revolu- 
tionary right of resisting all laws that 
were palpably unconstitutional and in- 
tolerably oppressive; it was added that 
the right to nullify a law rested on the 
same principle, but that it was a peace- 
able remedy. This character which was 
given to it made you receive, with too 
nuich confidence, the assertions that were 
made of the unconstitutionality of the 
law and its oppressive effects. Mark, my 
fellow-citizens, that, by the admission of 
your leaders, the unconstitutionality 
must be palpable, or it will not justify 
either resistance or nullification! What 
is the meaning of the word palpable in 
the sense in which it is here used? That 
which is apparent to every one; that 
which no man of ordinary intellect will 
fail to perceive. Is the unconstitution- 
ality of these laws of that description? 



Let those among your leaders, who once tection so many different States — giving 

approved and advocated the principle of to all their inhabitants the proud title ot 

protective duties, answer the question, American citizens, protecting their com- 

and let them choose whether they will be merce, securing their literature and their 

considered as incapable then of perceiv- arts; facilitating their intercommunica- 

ing that which must have been apparent tion; defending their frontiers; and mak- 

to every man of common understanding, ing their name respected in the remotest 

or as imposing upon your confidence, and parts of the earth. Consider the extent 

endeavoring to mislead you now. In of its territory; its increasing and happy 

either case they are unsafe guides in the population; its advance in arts which ren- 

perilous path they urge you to tread, der life agreeable; and the sciences which 

I'onder well on this circumstance, and elevate the mind! See education spread- 

you will know how to appreciate the ex- ing the lights of religion, morality, and 

aggerated language they address to you. general information into every cottage in 

They are not champions of liberty emu- this wide extent of our Territories and 

lating the fame of our Revolutionary States! Behold it as the asylum where 

fathers ; nor are you an oppressed peo- the wretched and the oppressed find a 

pie contending, as they repeat to you, refuge and support! Look on this pict- 

against worse than colonial vassalage. ure of happiness and honor, and say, we. 

You are free members of a flourishing too, are citizens of America! Carolina is 
and happy Union. There is no settled de- one of these proud States; her arms have 
sign to oppress you. You have, indeed, defended, her best blood has cemented, this 
felt the unequal operation of laws which happy L^nion ! And then add, if you 
may have been unwisely, not unconstitu- can, without horror and remorse, this hap- 
tionally, passed; but that inequality must py Union we will dissolve; this picture of 
necessarily be removed. At the very mo- peace and prosperity we will deface; this 
ment when you were madly urged on to free intercourse we will interrupt; these 
the unfortunate course you have begun, fertile fields we will deluge with blood ; 
a change in public opinion had com- the protection of that glorious flag we 
menced. The nearly approaching pay- renounce; the very name of Americans 
m.ent of the public debt, and the conse- we discard. And for what, mistaken men ; 
quent necessity of a diminution of duties, for w^hat do you throw away these ines- 
had already produced a considerable re- timable blessings? For what would you 
duction, and that, too, on some articles exchange your share in the advantages 
of general consumption in your State, and honor of the U^nion? For the dream 
The importance of this change was under- of separate independence — a dream inter- 
rated, and you were authoritatively told rupted by bloody conflicts with your neigh- 
that no further alleviation of your bur- bors, and a vile dependence on a foreign 
dens Avas to be expected at the very time power. If your leaders could succeed in 
when the condition of the country im- establishing a separation, what would be 
periously demanded fuch a modification your situation? Are you united at home ; 
of the duties as should reduce them to a are you free from the apprehension of civil 
just and equitable scale. But, as if ap- discord, with all its fearful consequences? 
prehensive of the efl'ect of this change in Do your neighboring republics, every day 
allaying your discontents, you were pre- suffering some new revolution, or contend- 
cipitated into the fearful state in which ing with some new insurrection — do they 
you now find yourselves. excite your envy? But the dictates of a 

I have urged you to look back to the high duty oblige me solemnly to announce 

means that were used to hurry you on tliat you cannot succeed. The laws of the 

to the position j^ou have now assumed, and LTnited States must be executed. I have 

forward to the consequences it will pro- no discretionary power on the subject; 

duce. Something more is necessary. Con- my duty is emphatically pronounced in 

template the condition of that country the Constitution. Those who told you 

of which you still form an important part, that you might peaceably prevent their 

Consider its government uniting in one execution deceived you ; they could net 

bond of common interest and general pro- have been deceived themselves. They know 



that a forcible opposition could alone pre- 
vent the execution of the laws, and they 
know that such opposition must be re- 
pelled. Their object is disunion; but be 
not deceived by names: disunion, by armed 
force, is treason. Are you really ready to 
incur its guilt? If you are, on the heads 
of the instigators of the act be the dread- 
ful consequences; on their heads be the 
dishonor, but on yours may fall the pun- 
ishment. On your unhappy State will 
inevitably fall all the evils of the con- 
flict you force upon the government of 
your country. It cannot accede to the 
mad project of disunion, of which you 
would be the first victims; its first magis- 
trate cannot, if he would, avoid the per- 
formance of his duty. The consequence 
must be fearful for you, distressing to 
your fellow-citizens here, and to the 
friends of good government throughout 
the world. Its enemies have beheld our 
prosperity with a vexation they could not 
conceal ; it was a standing refutation of 
their slavish doctrines, and they will point 
to our discord with the triumph of malig- 
nant joy. It is yet in your power to dis- 
appoint them. There is yet time to show 
that the descendants of the Pinckneys, 
the Sumters, the Rutledges, and of the 
thousand other names which adorn the 
pages of your Revolutionary history, will 
not abandon that Union, to support which 
so many of them fought, and bled, and 

I adjure you, as you honor their mem- 
ory, as you love the cause of freedom, to 
which they dedicated their lives, as you 
prize the peace of your country, the lives 
of its best citizens, and your own fair 
fame, to retrace your steps. Snatch from 
the archives of your State the disorgan- 
izing edict of its convention ; bid its 
members to reassemble, and promulgate 
the decided expressions of your will to 
remain in the path which alone can con- 
duct you to safety, prosperity, and honor. 
Tell them that, compared to disunion, all 
other evils are light, because that brings 
with it an accumulation of all. Declare 
that you will never take the field irnless 
the star-spangled banner of your country 
shall float over you ; that yoii will not 
be stigmatized when dead, and dishonored 
and scorned while you live, as the au- 
thors of the first attack on the Constitu- 


tion of your country. Its destroyers you 
cannot be. You may disturb its peace; 
you may interrupt the course of its pros- 
perity; you may cloud its reputation for 
stability, but its tranquillity will be re- 
stored, its prosperity will return, and 
the stain upon its national character will 
be transferred and remain an eternal blot 
on the memory of those who caused the 

Fellow-citizens of the United States, 
the threat of unhallowed disunion — the 
names of those once respected, by whom 
it is uttered — the array of military force 
to support it — denote the approach of a 
crisis in our affairs on which the con- 
tinuance of our unexampled prosperity, 
our political existence, and, perhaps, that 
of all free governments, may depend. 
The conjuncture demanded a free, a full, 
and explicit enunciation, not only of my 
intentions, but of my principles of action; 
and, as the claim was asserted of a right 
by a State to annul the laws of the Union, 
and even to secede from it at pleasure, a 
frank exposition of my opinions in rela- 
tion to the origin and form of our gov- 
ernment, and the construction I give to 
the instrument by which it was created, 
seemed to be proper. Having the fullest 
confidence in the justness of the legal 
and constitutional opinion of my duties, 
which has been expressed, I rely, with 
equal confidence, on your undivided sup- 
port in my determination to execute the 
laws, to preserve the Union by all con- 
stitutional means, to arrest, if possible, 
by moderate but firm measures, the neces- 
sity of a recourse to force; and, if it be 
the will of Heaven, that the recurrence 
of its primeval curse on man for the 
shedding of a brother's blood should fall 
upon our land, that it be not called down 
by an offensive act on the part of the 
United States. 

Fellow - citizens, the momentous case 
is before you. On your undivided sup- 
port of your government depends the de- 
cision of the great question it involves, 
whether your sacred Union will be pre- 
served, and the blessings it secures to us 
as one people shall be perpetuated. No 
one can doubt that the unanimity with 
which that decision will be expressed wili 
be such as to inspire neAV confidence in 
republican institutions, and that the pru- 


dence, the wisdom, and the courage which camped around Lawrence, Kan., where he 

it will bring to their defence will trans- took measures to prevent a legal polling 

mit them unimpaired and invigorated to of votes at an election for members of 

our children. the territorial legislature, late in March. 

May the Great Ruler of nations grant His followers threatened to hang a judge 

that the signal blessings with which He who attempted to secure an honest vote, 

has favored ours may not, by the madness and by threats compelled another to re- 

of party or personal ambition, be disre- ceive every vote offered by a Missourian. 

garded and lost; and may His wise Provi- When the Civil War broke out, Jackson 

dence bring those who have produced this made strenuous efforts to place Missouri 

crisis to see their folly before they feel on the side of secession, but was foiled 

the misery of civil strife, and inspire a re- chiefly through the efforts of Gen. Na- 

turning veneration for that Union which, thaniel Lyon. He was deposed by the 

if we may dare to penetrate His designs, Missouri State convention, in July, 1861, 

He has chosen as the only means of attain- when he entered the Confederate military 

ing the high destinies to which we may service as a brigadier-general. He died 

reasonably aspire. in Little Rock. Ark., Dec. 6, 18G2. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the Jackson, Francis, social reformer; 

seal of the United States to be hereunto born in Newton, Mass., March 7, 1789; 

affixed, having signed the same with my president of the Anti-Slavery Society in 

hand. Boston for many years. He published a 

Done at the city of Washington, this IJistory of Newton, and died there Nov. 

10th day of December, in the year of our 14, 1861. 

Lord one thousand eight hundred and Jackson, Fraxcis James, British min- 

thirty-two, and of the independence of the ister to the United States, who succeeded 

United States the fifty-seventh. David M. Erskine in 1809. An experi- 

Jackson, Charles Thomas, geologist; enced diplomatist, he had lately figured 

born in Plymoiith, Mass., June 21, 1805; discreditably in the affair of the seizure 

graduated at Harvard in 1829, and after- of the Danish fleet by British men-of-war 

wards studied in Paris. He Avas appoint- at Copenhagen. He had become known as 

ed State geologist of Maine and surveyor " Copenhagen Jackson," whose conduct did 

of public lands in 1836, and of Rhode Isl- not commend him to the good-will of the 

and in 1839; and subsequently was engaged people of the United States. The impres- 

on the geological survey of New Hamp- sion was that he had come with explana- 

shire; explored the southern shore of Lake tions of the cause of the rejection of 

Superior in 1844; and was appointed to Erskine's arrangement. The Secretary of 

survey the mineral lands of Michigan in State, finding he had nothing to offer, ad- 

1847. He is author of a large number of dressed Jackson in a letter in which a tone 

reports on the geology of Maine, New of discontent was conspicuous, declaring 

Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the surprise and regret of the President 

etc. He claimed to be the discoverer of that he had no explanations to offer as to 

etherization, and received the Montyon the non-ratification of the Erskine ar- 

prize from the French Academy of rangement, or authority to substitute any 

Sciences. He died in Somerville, Mass., new arrangement for it. The object of the 

Aug. 28, 1880. letter, probably, was to draw out from 

Jackson, Claiborne Fox, statesman ; Jackson an explicit admission, as a basis 

born in Fleming county, Ky., April 4, for an appeal to the nation, that he had 

1807; became conspicuovis as a leader no authority to treat except upon the 

in the efforts of pro-slavery men to make ground of Canning's three conditions — 

Kansas a slave-labor State. In 1822 he namely, 1. The repealing as to Great 

went to Missouri; was a captain in the Britain, but the keeping in force as to 

Black Hawk War; served several years in France, and all countries adopting her 

the State legislature; and was elected gov- decrees, so long as these decrees were con- 

ornor of Missouri by the Democrats in tinned, all American non-importation and 

1860. In 1855 he led a band of lawless non-intercourse acts; 2. The renunciation 

men from Missouri, who, fully armed, en- by the United States, during the present 



war, of any pretensions to carry on any 
trade with the colonies of belligerents not 
allowed in time of peace; and 3. The allow- 
ing British ships-of-war to enforce, by 
caj ture, the American non-intercourse acts 
wi\.h France and her allies. Jackson de- 
clared that the rejection of that part of 
the arrangement of Erskine relating to 
the affair of the Chesapeake and Leopard 
was owing partly to the offensive terms 
employed in the American note to Erskine 
concerning it. This note had offended the 
old monarch, with whom Admiral Berkeley 
was a favorite. In it Secretary Smith 
said, April 17, 1809: " I have it in express 
charge from the President to state that, 
while he forbears to insist on a further 
punishment of the offending officer, he is 
not the less sensible of the justice and 
utility of such an example, nor the less 
persuaded that it would best comport with 
what is due from his Britannic Majesty 
to his own honor." Jackson's manner was 
offensive. He had an unbounded admira- 
tion for the government he represented, 
and a pj'ofound contempt for the Ameri- 
cans as an inferior people. He treated the 
officers of the United States government 
with the same haughty bearing that he did 
those of weak and bleeding Denmark, and, 
after one or two personal interviews. Sec- 
retary Smith refused to have any further 
intercourse with him except in writing. 
The insolent diplomat was offended, and 
wrote an impudent letter to the Secretary. 
He was informed that no more communi- 
cations would be received from him, when 
Jackson, disappointed and angry, left 
Washington with every member of the 
diplomatic family, and retired to New 
York. The United States government re- 
quested his recall, and early in 1810 he 
was summoned to England. No other 
minister was sent to the United States for 
about a year. 

Jackson, Helen Maria Fiske, author; 
born in Amherst, Mass., Oct. 18, 1831; 
daughter of Prof. Nathan W. Fiske; was 
educated in the Ipswich Female Semi- 
nary; married Capt. Edward B. Hunt in 
18.52. She first became known as an au- 
thor under the letters " H. H." in 1875, 
when she married William S. Jackson. 
In 1879 she became deeply interested in 
the condition of the American Indians and 
their treatment by the United States 


government. In 1883, while a special 
commissioner to inquire into the circum- 
stances of the Mission Indians of Cali- 
fornia, she studied the history of the early 
Spanish missions, and a short time prior 
to her death she wrote the President a 
letter pathetically asking for the " right- 
ing of the wrongs of the Indian race." 
Her works include Verses; Bits of Travel; 
Nelly's Silver-Mine; The Story of Boone; 
A Century of Dishonor; Mammy Little- 
hack and her Family ; Ramona; Glimpses 
of Three Coasts; Hetty's Strange History, 
and others. She died in San Francisco, 
Cal., Aug. 12, 1885. 

Jackson, Henry Bootes, military offi- 
cer; born in Athens, Ga., June 24, 1820; 
graduated at Yale College in 1839, and 
admitted to the bar in 1840, when he 
settled in Savannah. He was appointed 
United States district attorney for 
Georgia in 1843. During the Mexican 
War he was colonel of the 1st Georgia 
Volunteers. At the close of the war he 
became part proprietor of The Georgian, 
in Savannah. In 1853 he was sent to the 
Court of Austria as the United States 
charge d'affaires. In 1854-58 he was 
minister to Austria. Returning to the 
United States he was commissioned a 
special United States district attorney for 
Georgia, to aid in trying notorious slave- 
trading cases. When the Civil War broke 
out he entered the Confederate army with 
the rank of brigadier-general. During the 
battle of Nashville, in December, 1864, he 
was taken prisoner, and was held till the 
close of the war. Returning to Savannah 
he resumed law practice. In 1875-88 he 
was a trustee of the Peabody Educational 
Fund. In 1885 he was appointed minister 
to Mexico, but served only a few months, 
owing to his opposition to the govern- 
ment in seizing the American ship Re- 
hecca. He published Tallulah, and other 
Poems. He died in Savannah, Ga., May 
23, 1898. 

Jackson, Howell Edmunds, jurist; 
born in Paris, Tenn.. April 8, 1832; grad- 
uated at the West Tennessee College in 
1848; admitted to the bar in 1856; elected 
United States Senator from Tennessee in 
1881, but resigned in 1880, when he was 
appointed United States district judge by 
President Cleveland ; appointed justice of 
the United States Supreme Court in 1893. 


He died in West Meade, Tenn., Aug. 8, 

Jackson, James, military officer; born 
in Devonshire, England, Sept. 21, 1757; 
removed to Savannah, Ga., in 1772; stud- 
ied law; entered the military service; 
and was brigade-major of the Georgia 
militia in 1778. He took part in the 
defence of Savannah; and, when the Brit- 
ish seized it at the close of 1778, he fled 
to South Carolina, where he joined Gen- 
eral Moultrie. His appearance was so 
wretched while in his flight, that he was 
arrested, tried, and condemned as a spy, 
and was about to be executed, when a 
reputable citizen of Georgia, who knew 
him, saved him. Jackson fought a duel 


in March, 1780, with Lieutenant-Governor 
Wells, killing his antagonist, and being 
severely wounded himself. He joined Col. 
Elijah Clarke, and became aide to Sum- 
ter. With Pickens he shared in the vic- 
tory at the Cowpens. He afterwards did 
good service as commander of a legionary 
corps, and was presented with a dwelling 
in Savannah by the Georgia legislature. 
In 1786 he was made brigadier-general, 
and in 1788 was elected governor of 
Georgia, but the latter office he declined. 
From 1789 to 1791 he was a member of 
Congress, and from 1793 to 1795, and 
from 1801 to 1806, United States Senator. 
From 1798 to 1801 he was governor of 
the State. He died in Washington, D. C, 
March 12, 1806. 

Jackson, Jonathan, patriot; born in 
Boston, Mass., June 4, 1743; graduated at 


Harvard College in 1761 ; held a seat in 
the Provincial Congress in 1775; was 
United States marshal in 1789-91. He 
wrote Thoughts upon the Political Situa- 
tion of the United States. He died in 
Boston, Mass., March 5, 1810. 

Jackson, Sheldon, clergyman; born 
in Minaville, N. Y., May 18, 1834; gradu- 
ated at Union College in 1855, and at 
Princeton Theological Seminary in 1858, 
and was ordained a minister in the 
Presbyterian Church on May 5 of the lat- 
ter year. The same year he went as a 
missionary to the Choctaw Indians. In 
1859-69 he was engaged in missionary 
work in western Wisconsin and southern 
Minnesota; in 1869-70 was superintend- 
ent of the Presbyterian missions in 
western Iowa, Nebraska, and the Rocky 
Mountain Territories; and in 1877 became 
superintendent of the Presbyterian mis- 
sions in Alaska. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed United States general agent of 
education for the Territory of Alaska. 
In 1887 he organized at Sitka the Alaskan 
Society of Natural History and Ethnol- 
ogy; in 1884 induced Congress to grant 
a district organization to Alaska; in 1891 
introduced reindeer into that region; and 
in 1898 was authorized to secure a colony 
of Laplanders for Alaska. He was sev- 
eral times a commissioner to the general 
assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
and moderator in 1897. He gave $50,000 
to establish a Christian college in Utah 
in 1896. He is a member of the National 
Geographical Society, and many other 
similar organizations. His publications 
include Alaska and Missions on the 
North Pacific Coast; Education in 
Alaska, and elaborate reports on Alaska 
in the annual reports of the United States 
Commissioner of Education. 

Jackson, Thouas Jonathan, military 
officer; born in Clarksburg, Va., Jan. 21, 
1824; graduated at West Point in 1840, 
entering the 2d Artillery; served in 
the war with Mexico ; was brevetted 
captain and major; and resigned in 1852 
with health impaired, becoming profess- 
or in the Military Institute at Lexing- 
ton, Va. He entered the Confederate ser- 
vice, as colonel, in April, 1861, and com- 
manded the " Army of Observation " at 
Harper's Ferry. His first engagement was 
at Falling Waters. Jackson commanded 


THOMAS J. ("stonewall") JACKSON. 

a brigade in the battle of Bull Run, where orphan, at an early age; At the breaking 
he received the name of " Stonewall." A out of the Revolutionary War he entered 
furious clvirge, made by a New York regi- the military service. He finally became 

aide to General Lincoln, and was made a 
prisoner at Charleston in 1780. He was 
secretary to Col. John Laurens, special 
minister to France, and was in Washing- 
ton's military family as aide, with the 
rank of major. Jackson was assistant 
Secretary of War under Washington, and 
was secretary to the convention that 
framed the national Constitution in 1787. 
From 1789 to 1792 he was aide and private 
secretary to President Washington ; from 
1796 to 1801 was surveyor of the port of 
Philadelphia, and was secretary to the 
General Society of the Cincinnati. He 
died in Philadelphia, Dec. 17, 1828. 

Jackson and St. Philip, Forts, two 
fortifications on the Mississippi River, 
57 miles southeast of New Orleans, which 
command the lower approach to that 
city. Both were strongly fortified by the 
ment, under Col. Henry W. Slocum, had Confederates in the early part of the 
shattered the Confederate line, and the Civil War, and were passed by the fleet 
troops had fled to a plateau whereon Gen- under Farragut, April 24, 1862. 
eral Jackson had just arrived 
with reserves. " They are 
beating us back ! " exclaimed 
Gen. Bernard E. Bee. "Well, 
sir," replied Jackson, " we will 
give them the bayonet." Bee 
was encouraged. " Form ! 

form!" he cried to the fugi- 
tives; "there stands Jackson 
like a stone wall." The effect 
of these words was wonderful. 
The flight was checked, order 
was brought out of confusion, 
and ever afterwards the calm 
general was called " Stone- 
wall." He attained the rank 
of lieutenant-general, and was 
accidentally shot by his own 
men, while reconnoitring dur- 
ing the battle of Chancel- 
lorsville; and, from his 
wounds, and a sudden at- < .• 
tack of pneumonia, he 

military officer; born in 
Cumberland, England, 
March 9. 1759; was taken 
to Charleston, S. C, an 
V — H 

died in Guinea Station. vAx'H\-^lvi) r'A, i' '' > ■'[' 
Va.. May 10, 1863. " ^l^^W^ '^-■ 

Jackson, William, V^H.^M-i'^' jf^'-M'' 



II, T 





Although Farragut had passed these 
forts, and the Confederate flotilla had 
been destroyed, the fortifications were still 
lirmly held. The mortar-fleet under Por- 
ter was below them. General Butler, who 
had accompanied the gunboats on their 
perilous passage on the Saxon, had re- 
turned to his transports, and in small 
boats his troops, under the general pilot- 
age of Gen. Godfrey Weitzel, passed 
through bayous to the rear of Fort St. 
Philip. When he was prepared to assail 
it, the garrison was surrendered without 

cer; born in Oldham county, Ky., in 1825; 
went to California in 1846, where he aided 
Gen. John C. Fremont in conquering that 
section. In 1862 he recruited a regiment 
of 1,244 cavalry at Eminence, Ky. ; in 
1863 became lieutenant-governor of Ken- 
tucky. He was strongly opposed to Presi- 
dent Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, 
holding that it not only deprived those 
loyal citizens who owned slaves of their 
property, but it was unjust to the friends 
of the Union. 

Jacobi, Mary Putnam, physician; born 



resistance (April 28), for they had heard 
of the destruction of the Confederate flo- 
tilla. The commander of Fort Jackson, 
fearing that all was lost, accepted gener- 
ous terms of surrender from Commodore 
Porter. 'The prisoners taken in the forts 
and at the quarantine numbered about 
1 ,000. The entire loss of the Nationals 
from the beginning of the contest until 
New Orleans was taken was forty killed 
and 177 wounded. See New Orleans. 
Jacob, Piic'iiARD Taylor, military offi- 


in London, England, Aug. 31, 1842; 
daughter of George P. Putnam, of New 
York. She studied in the Philadelphia 
Medical College for Women, and grad- 
uated at the New York College of Phar- 
macy. She was the first woman ma- 
triculated at the Ecole de Medecine, in 
Paris, France, where she graduated in 
1871. For twelve years she was the dis- 
pensary physician at the Mount Sinai 
Hospital, and for ten years was professor 
in the Woman's Medical College, both in 


New York. Her essay, The Question of 
Rest for Women during Menstruation, 
won the Boylston prize. She is the au- 
thor of The Value of Life; Cold Pack and 
Massage in Ancemia; Hysteria; Brain 
Tumor, and other Essays; Studies in Pri- 
inary Education ; Common-Sense Applied 
to Woman Suffrage; and numerous articles 
in medical periodicals. 

Jacobs, Benjamin Franklin, philan- 
tiiropist; born in Paterson, N. J., Sept. 
18, 1834; received a liberal education; 
and engaged in business in Chicago in 
1854. At an early age he became deep- 
ly interested in Sunday-school work. In 
1856 he was superintendent of the First 
Baptist Mission Sunday-school of Chi- 
cago, and in 1864 director of the First 
Baptist Sunday Choir. During the Civil 
War he was secretary of the northwestern 
branch of the United States Christian 
Commission. He founded the Waif's 
Mission in Chicago, and with others or- 
ganized the Immanuel Baptist Church 
there in 1881, becoming superintendent of 
its Sunday-school. He originated the 
International Sunday-school Lessons which 
are used now by all evangelical denom- 
inations. In 1872 he became a member 
of the international lesson committee. 
For seA'eral years he has been chairman 
of the executive committee of the Inter- 
national Sunday-school Association. 

Jacobs, Henry Eyster, theologian ; 
born in Gettysburg, Pa., Nov. 10, 1844; 
graduated at Pennsylvania College in 1862, 
and at the Lutheran Theological Seminary. 
Gettysburg, in 1865; became Professor of 
Systematic Theology at the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary in 1888. He is the 
author of History of the Lutheran Church 
in America; The German Emigration to 
America, 1709-.'i0, etc. 

Jamaica, Conquest of. When Crom- 
well had made peace with the Dutch 
(1654) he declared war against Spain, 
and sent a fleet under Admiral Penn and 
an army imder General Venables to attack 
the Spanish West Indies. Edward Winslow 
went with the fleet as one of Cromwell's 
commissioners to superintend the con- 
quered covuitries. By volunteers from 
Barbadoes and the Leeward Islands the 
army was increased to 10,000. Santo Do- 
mingo was first attacked. The English 
>vere repulsed, and then proceeded to Ja- 

maica, which they easily took possession 
of, for it was inhabited by only a few of 
the enervated descendants of old Spanish 
colonists and some negro slaves. Winslow 
died at sea soon after the repulse at Santo 
Domingo, and Sedgwick, of Massachu- 
setts, was put in his place. He framed an 
instrument of government for Jamaica, 
liaving a supreme executive council, of 
which he was the head. Cromwell, anx- 
ious to retain and people the island with 
subjects of Great Britain, ordered the en- 
listment in Ireland of 1,000 girls and 
young men, and sent them over. " Idle, 
masterless robbers and vagabonds, male 
and female," were arrested and sent to 
Jamaica; and to have a due admixture of 
good morals and religion in the new col- 
ony, Cromwell sent agents to New Eng- 
land for emigrants. Many at New Haven, 
not prospering at home, were disposed to 
go, but, the magistrates opposing, few 
went. The island was of great commercial 
importance when the outbreak between the 
English- American colonies and the mother 
country occurred. In December its legis- 
lature interposed. They affirmed the rights 
of the colonies, enumerated their griev- 
ances, and, enforcing their claims to re- 
dress, implored the King to become the 
mediator for peace, and to recognize the 
title of the Americans to the benefits of 
the English constitution. They disclaimed 
any intention of joining the American con- 
federated colonies, for they were too weak, 
leing only a small colony of white inhab- 
itants, with more than 200.000 slaves. 
Their petition was received by the King, 
but no heed was given to it. 

James I., King of England, etc.; 
born in Edinburgh Castle, June 19, 1566; 
son of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry 
Lord Darnley. Of him Charles Dickens 
writes: "He was ugly, awkward, and 
shuffling, both in mind and person. His 
tongue was much too large for his mouth, 
his legs were much too weak for his body, 
and his dull google-eyes stared and rolled 
like an idiot's. He was cunning, covet- 
ous, wasteful, idle, drunken, greedy, dirty, 
cowardly, a great swearer, and the most 
conceited man on earth. His figure — what 
was commonly called rickety from his 
birth — presented the most ridiculous ap- 
pearance that can be imagined, dressed 
in thick - padded clothes, as a safeguard 


against being stabbed (of which he lived land, after experiencing many vicissitudes, 
in constant fear), of a grass-green color March 24, 1603. 

from head to foot, with a hunting horn 
dangling at his side instead of a sword, 
and his hat and feather sticking over one 
eye or hanging on the back of his head, 
as he happened to toss it on. He used to 

loll on the necks of his favorite courtiers, 

He was regarded as a " Presbyterian 
king," and the Puritans expected not only 
the blessings of toleration and protection 
for themselves, but even hope for suprem- 
acy among the religionists of the realm. 
Soon after his accession, James called a 
conference of divines at Hampton Court. 
He was chief actor at that conference, in 
the rSle of " brute and mountebank." 
Some of the Puritan divines ranked 
among the brightest scholars in the land. 
They were greatly annoyed by the coarse 
browbeating of the bishop of London and 
the coarser jests of the King. The ven- 
erable Archbishop Whitgift was present, 
and bent the supple knee of the courtier 
in the presence of royalty. When the 
vulgar King said to the Puritan ministers, 
"You want to strip Christ again; away 
with your snivelling," and much more to 
that effect, Whitgift, the primate, ex- 
claimed, " Your Majesty speaks by the 
special assistance of God's spirit." And 
the bishop of London fell upon his knees 
and said, "I protest my heart melts 
within me for joy that Almighty God, of 
His singular mercy, has given us such a 
King as, since Christ's time, has not been." 
This was the beginning of those royal and 

and slobber their faces, and kiss and pinch prelatical revilings and persecutions of the 

Puritans by the Stuarts and the hier- 
archy which drove the Puritans, in large 
numbers, to seek asylum in the wilds of 
North America. 

The King's gross, ill manners and bad 

their cheeks; and the greatest favorite he 
ever had used to sign himself, in his let- 
ters to his royal master, ' his Majest/s 
dog and slave.' He was the worst rider 
CA-er seen, and thought himself the best. 

He was one of the most impertinent talkers personal appearance made an unfavor- 

(of the broadest Scotch) ever heard, and 
boasted of being unanswerable in all man- 
ner of argument. He wrote some of the 
most turgid and most wearisome treaties 
ever read — among others, a book upon 
witchcraft, in which he was a devout be- 
liever — and thought himself a prodigy of 
authorship. He thought, and said, that a 
king had a right to make and unmake 
what laws he pleased, and ought to be ac- 
countable to nobody on earth. This is the 
plain, true character of the personage 
whom the greatest men about the Court 
praised and flattered to that degree that I 
doubt if there be anythino- more shameful 
in the annals of human nature!" James 
was the sixth King of Scotland of that 
name, and came to the throne of Eng- 

able impression on the English people. 
He had trouble with Parliament and 
with the religionists of his realm from 
the beginning of his reign. Glad to 
get rid of troublesome subjects, he read- 
ily granted charters for settlements in 
America; and in 1612 two "heretics" 
were burned in England, the last exe- 
cution of that kind that occurred in 
that country. His son Henry, Prince of 
Wales, died the same year, and his daugh- 
ter Elizabeth was married to the Elector 
Palatine in 1613. His treatment of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, whom he caused to be 
beheaded (October. 1618). was disgrace- 
ful to human nature: his foreign policy, 
also, was disgraceful to the English name. 
Fickle, treacherous, conceited, and arbi- 



trary, his whole life was an example to be 
avoided by the good. Dickens's portrayal 
of his personal character is a fair picture 
of his reign so far as the King was con- 
cerned. It was during that reign that a 
new translation of the Bible was author- 
ized (1604) — the English version yet in 
use. The Duke of Buckingham was 
James's special favorite for a long time; 
and he and the Queen were suspected of 
causing the King's last illness, by poison. 
James II., King of England; born in 
St. James's Palace, London, Oct. 14, 1G33; 
son of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria. 
During the civil war, in which his father 
lost his head, James and his brother 
Gloucester and sister Elizabeth were un- 
der the guardianship of the Duke of 
Northumberland, and lived in the palace. 
When the overthrow of monarchy ap- 
peared inevitable, in 1648, he fled to 
the Netherlands, with his mother 
and family, and he was in Paris 
when Charles I. was beheaded. He 
entered the French service (1651), 
and then the Spanish (1655), and 
was treated with much consideration 
by the Spaniards. His brother as- 
cended the British throne in 1660 as 
Charles 11., and the same year James 
married Anne Hyde, daughter of the 
Earl of Clarendon. She died in 
1671, and two years afterwards, 
James married Maria Beatrice Elea- 
nor, a princess of the House of Este. 
of INIodena, twenty-five years yoimger 
than himself. While in exile James 
had become a Roman Catholic, but 
did not acknowledge it until 1671. 
He had become a commander in the 
British navy, but the test - act of 
1673 caused him to leave all public 
emploj'ments. Being sent to Scot- 
land as head of the administration 
there, he treated the Covenanters 
with great cruelty. WHien Charles 
died, James became King (Feb. 6, 
1685). The prime object of his ad- 
ministration was to overthrow the 
constitution of England and give the 
control of the nation to Roman 
Catholics. His rule was vigorous — often- 
times tyrannous — and in less than three 
years almost the whole of his subjects 
detested him. The foreign policy of 
the government was made subservient to 

that of France. Finally, the announce- 
ment that the Queen had given birth 
to a son brought on a political crisis. 
The people had been restrained from revo- 
lution by the belief that the government 
would soon fall into the hands of his eld- 
est daughter, who had married the Prot- 
estant Prince William of Orange. Now 
that event seemed remote, and William 
was invited by leading men of the realm 
to invade England. He did so in Novem- 
ber, 1688, when the King was abandoned 
by every one but the Roman Catholics — 
even by his daughter Anne, who was after- 
wards Queen of England. James fled to 
France, where he was received by Louis 
XIV. with open arms. He made efforts to 
regain his kingdom, but failed, and died 
in St. Germain, France, Sept. 6, 1701. 


James, Bexjamin, lawyer; born in 
Stafford county, Va., April 22. 1768; be- 
came a lawyer and practised in Charles- 
ton, S. C.,"^ till 1796. Removed to his 
native place and followed his profession 


till 1808, when he settled permanently in 
Laurens district, S. C. He published 
Digest of the Statute and Common Law 
of Carolina. He died in Laurens district, 
S. C, Nov. 15, 1825. 

James, Edmund Janes, educator; born 
in Jacksonville, 111., May 21, 1855; was 
educated at the Illinois State Normal 
School and at the Northwestern and Har- 
vard universities. In 1878-79 he was 
principal of the High School at Evanston, 
111.; in 1879-82 principal of the Model 
High School at Normal, 111.; and in 1883- 
95 Professor of Public Finance and Ad- 
ministration in the Wharton School of 
Finance and Economy of the University of 
Pennsylvania. He was also Professor of 
Political and Social Science in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1884-95, and 
editor of Political Economy and Public 
Economy and Public Law Series, publish- 
ed by the University of Pennsylvania, in 
1886-95. He became president of the 
American Academy of Political and Social 
Science in 1889, and from 1890 to 1895 
edited its Annals. In the latter year he 
was made associate editor. In 1895 he 
was chosen Professor of Public Adminis- 
tration and director of the Extension 
Division in the L^niversity of Chicago. In 
1891-95 he was president of the American 
Society for the Extension of University 
Teaching. He is the author of Our Legal- 
Tender Decisions ; The Education of Busi- 
ness Men; The Relation of the Modern 
Municipality to the Gas Supply; and also 
numerous papers and addresses on polit- 
ical and educational topics. 

James, Edwin, geologist; born in Wey- 
bridge, Vt., Aug. 27, 1797; graduated at 
Middlebury College in 1816; and after- 
wards studied medicine, botany, and geol- 
ogy in Boston. He is the author of a 
Report of the Expedition to the Rocky 
Mountains, 1818-19; Narrative of John 
Tanner, etc. He died in Burlington, la., 
Oct, 28, 1861. 

James, Henry, author ; born in New 
York City, April 15, 1843; was educated in 
France, Switzerland, and in the Harvard 
Law School. His literary career opened 
in 186)>. A year or two later he began 
writing serial stories, but produced no ex- 
tended novel till 1875. He has since been 
a prolific writer, not only of novels but 
also of contributions to the periodical 


press on engrossing questions of the day. 
Since 1869 he has lived chiefly in England. 
His publications include Trans- Atlantic 
Sketches (1875); A Passionate Pilgrim; 
The American; The Europeans; An Inter- 
national Episode; The Siege of London; 
The Bostonians; Poor Richard; Watch 
and Ward; Life of Eaiothorne ; A Little 
Tour in France; A London Life; The 
Tragic Muse; The Lesson of the Master; 
Embarrassments ; Tales of Three Cities; 
Essays in London and Elsewhere ; The 
Wheel of Time; What Maisie Kneio, etc., Henry Ammon, lawyer; born in 
Baltimore, Md., April 24, 1854; graduated 
at Yale College in 1874, and at its law 
school in 1878; began practice in New 
York City in 1880. He is the author of 
Communism in America., Lewis George, historian; born 
in Providence, R. L, Feb. 19, 1844; grad- 
uated at Providence High School ; instruc- 
tor in history in the Adelphia Academy, 
Brooklyn, in 1894-95. He is the author 
of Samuel Gorton, a Forgotten Founder 
of our Liberties, etc. 

James, Thomas, clergyman ; born in 
England in 1592; graduated at Cambridge 
in 1614; emigrated to the United States 
in 1632, where he became the first pastor 
of the church in Charlestown, Mass. In 
consequence of dissension he removed to 
New Haven and subsequently to Virginia, 
but was obliged to leave Virginia as he 
refused to conform to the English Church. 
He returned to New England in 1643, but 
went back to England, where he became 
pastor of a church in Needham till 1662, 
when he was removed for non- conformity 
after the accession of Charles II. He died 
in England in 1678. 

James, Thomas, navigator; born in 
England about 1590. In 1631 he was 
sent out by an association at Bristol to 
search for a northwest passage. With 
twenty-one men, in the ship Henrietta 
Maria (named in honor of the Queen), 
he sailed May 3. On June 29 he spoke 
the ship of Capt. Luke Fox. who had been 
sent on the same errand by the King, and 
furnished with a letter to the Em{)eror 
of Japan, if he should find that country. 
Neither James nor Fox discovered the cov- 
eted " passage," but the former made valu- 
able discoveries in Hudson Bay. James 
was a man of science, and in his Journal 


he recorded his observations on rarities he History at the University of Chicago. He 

had discovered, " both philosophical! and is the author of William Usselinx, Found- 

mathematical!." James and his crew suf- er of the Dutch and Swedish West India 

fered terribly, for they passed a winter in Companies ; History of Historical Writing 

those high latitudes, and returned in in America; Dictionary of United States 

1632. In the following year he published History, etc. He is also the editor of Es- 

The Strange and Dangerons Voyage of says on Constitutional History of the 

Capt. Thomas James for the Discovery %f 
a Northicest Passage to the South Sea. 
James, Thomas Lemuel, journalist; 
born in Utica, N. Y., March 29, 1831; 
proprietor of the Madison County Jour- 
nal, published at Hamilton, N. Y., 1851- 
61 ; toolc an active interest in polities, 
serving the State and nation in various 
capacities; was appointed postmaster of 
New York City in 1873; Postmaster-Gen- 
eral, March 6, 1881; and resigned in 1882, 

United States; and The Correspondence of 
John C. Calhoun. 

Jamestown. On May 13, 1607, more 
than 100 Englishmen landed on a sliglitly 
elevated peninsula on the left bank of 
the " River of Powhatan," Virginia, 40 
or 50 miles from its mouth; chose the 
spot for the capital of a new colony; 
cleared the trees from the ground; and 
began the building of a village, which, in 
compliment to their King (James I.), 

when he organized and became president they named Jamestown. They also gave 

of the Lincoln National Bank, New York his name to the river. The spot is more 

City. of an island than a peninsula, for the 

James, William, psychologist; born in marshy isthmus that connects it with the 

New York City, Jan. 11, 1842; was edu- 
cated in private schools and at the Law- 
rence Scientific School. In 1872 he became 
Professor of Philosophy at Harvard Uni- 
versity. He is the author of Principles 

mainland is often covered with water. The 
Rev. Robert Hunt, the pastor of the col- 
ony, preached a sermon and invoked the 
blessings of God upon their undertaking. 
Then, in the warm sunsliine, and among 

of Psychology; Psychology: Briefer the shadowy woods and the delicious per- 

Course; The Will to Believe, and other fume of flowers, the sound of the metal 

Essays in Popular 

Philosophy. He 

was appointed Gif- 

ford lecturer on 

natural religion 

in the University 

of Edinburgh for 


Jameson, John 
Franklin, educa- 
tor; born in Bos- 
ton, Sept. 19, 
1859; graduated 
at Amherst in 
1879. In 1895, 
when the American 
Historical Review 
was founded, he 
became its man- 
aging editor. In 
the same year, 

when the Historical Manuscript Commis- 
sion was instituted, he was made its 
chairman, and served as such till 1899. 
He was Professor of History at Brown 
University in 1888-1900. In the latter 
year he accepted a call to the chair of 


- axe was first heard in Virginia. Th<- 
first tree was felled for a dwelling on the 
spot first settled, permanently, by English- 
men in America. The Indians were at 
first hostile, and the settlement built a 
stockade. Their first church edifice there 



was very simple. " When I first went 
to Virginia," says Captain Smith, " I 
well remember we did hang an awning 
(which was an old sail) to three or four 

(From Capt. John Smith's Historie ot Virginia.) 

trees to shadow us from the sun ; our 
walls were rails of wood, our seats un- 
liewed trees, till we cut planks; our pul- 
pit a bar of wood nailed to two neighbor- 
ing trees; in foul weather we shifted 
into an old, rotten tent, for we had few 
better. . . . This was our church till 
we built a homely thing, like a barn, set 
upon crotchets, covered with rafts, sedge, 
and earth; so were also the walls. The 
best of our houses were of the like curios- 
ity, but, for the most part, of far worse 
workmanship, that could neither well de- 
fend wind nor rain. Yet we had daily 
common prayer morning and evening, 
every Sunday two sermons, and every 
ihree months comnumion till our minister 
died." The church — " the homely thing, 

like a barn " — was burned while Captain 
Smith was a prisoner among the Indians, 
and he found the settlers building a house 
for the president of the council. When, 
not long after, he was installed in 
that office, he ordered the " building 
of the palace to be stayed, as a thing 
needless," and the church to be re- 
built at once. 

Commissioners under the new 
charter arrived at Jamestown in 
the spring of 1610. Of the 490 
persons left there by Smith the 
previous autumn, only sixty remain- 
ed alive. They had refused to fol- 
low the admonitions of Smith to 
provide food for the winter, but 
relied upon the neighboring Indians 
to supply them. When Smith de- 
parted, the Indians showed hostility 
and withheld corn and game. They 
matured a plan for the destruction 
of the settlers at Jamestown, when 
Pocahontas {q. v.), like an angel of 
mercy, hastened to the settlement un- 
der cover of darkness, warned them 
of their danger, put them on their 
guard, and saved them. Terrible had 
been the sufferings of the colonists 
through the winter. More than 400 
had perished by famine and sickness 
in the space of six months. It was 
long after referred to by the sur- 
vivors as " the starving time." The 
settlers were in the depths of despair 
when the commissioners arrived. Sir 
Thomas Gates, who was acting gov- 
ernor, saw no other way to save the 
lives of the starving men than to abandon 
the settlement, sail to Newfoundland, and 
distribute them among the fishermen 
there. They were embarked in four pin- 
naces, but, at dawn, they met Lord Dela- 
ware, with ships, supplies, and emigrants, 
at the mouth of the river. All turned 
back and, landed at deserted Jamestown, 
they stood in silent prayer and thanks- 
giving on the shore, and then followed 
Rev. Mr. Buckle (who had succeeded ]\Ir. 
Hunt) to the church, where he preached 
a sermon in the evening twilight. The 
congregation sang anthems of praise, and 
were listened to by crouching savages in 
the adjacent woods. In that little chapel 
at Jamestown Pocahontas was baptized 
and married a few years later. The fire 




that consumed the first church also de- 
stroyed a large portion of the town 
and surrounding palisades. There seems 
to have been another destructive fire 
there afterwards, for Smith, speaking 
of the arrival of Governor Argall, in 
1617, says: "In Jamestown he found 
but five or six houses, the church down, 
the palisades broken, the bridge [across 
the marsh] in pieces, the well of fresh 
water spoiled, and the storehouse used 

colony was 4,000 strong and shipped tG 
England 40,000 pounds of toba<;co. This 
was raised with the aid of many bound 
apjjrentices — boys and girls picked up in 
the streets of London and sent out — and 
of many " disorderly persons " sent by 
order of the King." 

Suddenly a great calamity overtook the 
colony. Powhatan was dead, and his suc- 
cessor, Opechancanough (q. V.) , always 
hostile, planned a blow for the extermina- 


for a church." In the same year Smith's 
Genevan Historic recalls a statement by 
John Rolfe : " About the last of August 
came a Dutch man-of-war and sold us 
20 Negars." A more desirable acces- 
sion came in 1621 through the ship- 
ment by the company of " respectable 
young women for wives of those colonists 
who would pay the cost of transporta- 
tion" — at first 120 lbs. of tobacco, af- 
terwards 150 lbs. In July. 1620, the 


tion of the white people. It fell with 
terrible force late in March, 1622, and 
eighty plantations were reduced to eight. 
The settlers at Jamestown escaped the 
calamity throvigh the good offices of 
Chanco, a friendly Indian, who gave them 
timely warning of the plot, and they were 
prepared for defence. Jamesto\\Ti became 
a refuge from the storm for the western 
settlements. Sickness and famine en- 
sued, and the colony was greatly reduced 


N <*- 



in number, for many left through fear, having reached Bacon that the royalist 

It soon recovered, and increased in tioops were coming upon him. The torch 

strength. A new and substantial church v.'as applied just at twilight, and the Vir- 

was built, with a heavy brick tower, prob- gmia capital was laid in ashes. Nothing 

ably between 1620 and 1625. During Ba- remained the next morning but the brick 


con's Uobellion, in 1676, Jamestown — "the tower of the church and a few solitary 
only village in all Virginia" — was entered chimneys. 

by that leader, after driving away the Janney, Sami'El jMacPherson, author; 
governor, and, in a council of war it was born in Loudon county, Ya., Jan. 11, 1801; 
determined to burn the town, a rumor became a Quaker preacher; was appointed 



a superintendent of Indian affairs in 1869. 
His publications include An Historical 
Sketch of the Christian Church during the 
Middle Ages; Life of William Penn; His- 
tory of the Religious Society of Friends 
from Its Rise to the Year 1828, etc. He 
died in Loudon county, Va., April 30, 

Janvier, Thomas Allibone, author; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 16, 1849. 
He is the author of The Aztec Treasure- 
House; In Old New York; Stories of Old 
New Spain, etc. 

Japan and the United States. Japan, 
like China, had always been a sort of seal- 
ed kingdom to the commerce of the world. 
The foundation of the States of California 
and Oregon, on the Pacific coast, suggest- 
ed the .great importance of commercial 
intercourse with Japan, because of the 
intimate relations which must soon exist 
between that coast and the East Indies. 
This consideration caused an expedition 
to be fitted out by the United States gov- 
ernment in the summer of 1852 to carry 
a letter from the President (Mr. Fill- 
more) to the Emperor of Japan soliciting 
the negotiation of a treaty of friendship 
and commerce between the two nations, 
by which the ports of the latter should be 
thrown open to American vessels for pur- 
poses of trade. For this expedition seven 
ships-of-war were employed. They were 
placed under the command of Commodore 
M. C. Perry, a brother of the victor on 
Lake Erie. The diplomatic portion of the 
mission was also intrusted to Commodore 
Perry. He did not sail until November, 
1852". The letter which he bore to the Em- 
peror was drafted by Mr. Webster before 
his decease, but countersigned by Edward 
Everett, his successor in office. Perry 
carried out many useful implements and 
inventions as presents to "the Japanese 
government, including a small railway 
and equipments, telegraph, etc. He was 
instructed to approach the Emperor in the 
most friendly manner; to use no violence 
unless attacked ; but if attacked, to let 
the Japanese feel the full weight of his 
power. Perry delivered his letter of cre- 
dence, and waited some months for an 
answer, without being permitted to land 
on the shores of the empire. Meanwhile 
he visited and surveyed the Loo Choo Isl- 

In February, 1854, he returned to the 
Uay of Jeddo, and finally effected a land- 
ing and commenced negotiations, which 
were happily successful. The treaty then 
made stipulated that ports should be 
thrown open to American commerce, to a 
limited extent, in different Japanese isl- 
ands; that steamers from California to 
China should be furnished with supplies 
of coal ; and that American sailors ship- 
wrecked on the Japanese coasts should re- 
ceive hospitable treatment. So Japan was 
first opened to friendly relations with the 
Americans. Before this treaty the Dutch 
had monopolized the trade of Japan. Sub- 
sequently a peculiar construction of the 
treaty on the part of the Japanese au- 
thorities, in relation to the permanent 
residence of Americans there, threatened 
a disturbance of the amicable relations 
which had been established. The matter 
was adjusted, and in 1860 the first em- 
bassy from Japan visited the United 
States. It was an imposing array of Jap- 
anese officials. There was great opposi- 
tion in the empire to this intercourse with 
" the barbarians." Civil war ensued. A 
rapid change now marked public opinion 
in Japan in regard to foreigners; and 
from that time the intimate relations, so- 
cial and commercial, between the United 
States and Japan have constantly in- 
creased, with results wonderfully bene- 
ficial to both countries. Early in 1872 the 
government of Japan sent another embas- 
sy to the United States, this one charged 
to inquire about the renewal of former 
treaties. It consisted of twenty-one per- 
sons, composed of the heads of the several 
departments of the Japanese government 
and their secretaries. Among them was 
an imperial prince — Mori — who came to 
represent Japan at Washington as charge 
d'affaires, and also twelve students. The 
mission arrived at Washington at the be- 
ginning of March, and Mori had the honor . 
of being the first minister ever sent by 
his government to reside in a foreign 

Jarboe, John W., inventor; born in 
1830. He served through the Civil War 
in the 71st New York Regiment, and was 
later influential in securing the display 
of the American flag over the public 
school-houses of the country. He was the 
inventor of a process of making house- 



hold utensils from papier-raaclie and sev- 
eral articles employed in the manufacture 
of sugar. He died in New York City, 
June 30, 1901. 

Jarnac, Gaston Louis de, military offi- 
cer; born in Angoiileme, France, in 1758; 
served in the French army during the 
Revolutionary War; emigrated to the 
United States in 1795; returned to France 
in 1805, but, being obliged to leave the 
country on account of his criticisms of 
Napoleon, he again came to the United 
States, where he took service under Jean 
Lafitte, the Louisiana buccaneer. Jarnac 
was killed by the Indians in Texas, in 

Jarves, James Jackson, author; born 
in Boston, Mass., Aug. 20, 1820; estab- 
lished the first newspaper printed in the 
Hawaiian Islands, in 1840. In 1850 he 
was appointed b\' King Kamehameha III. 
commissioner to the United States, Great 
Britain, and France, for the purpose of 
negotiating treaties, and in 1879 United 
States vice-consul in Florence, Italy. 
Among his works are History of Haioaii; 
Parisian Sights and French Principles 
seen through American Spectacles; Italian 
Sights, etc. He died in Terasp, Switzer- 
land, June 28, 1888. 

Jasper, William, military hero; born 
in South Carolina, about 1750; became a 

sergeant in the 2d South Carolina Regi- 
ment; and greatly distinguished himself 
in the attack on Fort Sullivan, June 28, 
1776, by the British fleet. During the 
hottest of the attack the South Carolina 
flag that waved over the fort fell to the 
ground outside the fort, its staff having 
been cut in two by a cannon-ball. Ser- 
geant Jasper, seeing the flag fall, leaped 
down from one of the embrasures, seized 
the ensign, climbed back, fixed the colors 
to a sponge-staff, mounted the parapet, 
stuck the improvised flag-staff in the 
sand of one of the bastions, and returned 
to his place in the fort. A few days after- . 
wards Governor Rutledge took his own 
sword from his side and presented it to 
Jasper. He also offered him a lieuten- 
ant's commission, which the young man 
modestly declined, because he could 
neither read nor write, saying, "I am not 
fit to keep officers' company; I am but a 
sergeant." He was given a sort of roving 
commission by Colonel Moultrie, and, 
with five or six men, he often brought in 
prisoners before his commander was 
aware of his absence. An earnest Whig 
lady of Charleston, Mrs. Susannah El- 
liot, presented Jasper's regiment with 
a stand of colors wrought with her own 
hands. They were shot down at the as- 
sault on Savannah (1779), and in trying 




to replace them on the parapet of a re- 
doubt, Jasper was mortally wounded, but 
brought them off. He died Oct. 9, 1779. 
Jay, John, diplomatist; born in New 
York City. June 23, 1817; graduated at 
Columbia College in 183G; admitted to the 
bar in 1839; appointed minister to Austria 
in 18G9; chairman of the committee to 
investigate the New York custom-house 
in 1877; and member of the State civil 
service in 1883. Mr. Jay was a prominent 
abolitionist and author of a number of 
pamphlets, among them are The Dignity of 
the Abolition Cause; The American Church 
and the American Slave-Trade; The Great 
Conspiracy and England's Neutrality; 
Caste and Slavery in the American 
Church; America Free, or America Slave, 
etc. He died in New York City, May 5, 

Jay, John, statesman ; born in New 
York City, Dec. 12, 1745; was of Hugue- 
not descent. Graduated at King's College 
(now Columbia University) in 1764, he 
was admitted to the bar in 1768, and 
formed a partnership with Robert R. Liv- 
ingston. In 1774 he was a delegate in the 
first Continental Congress, and the same 
year he married a daughter of William 
Livingston, of New Jersey. In that Con- 
gress, though the youngest member but 
one, he took a conspicuous part, being the 
author of the Address to the People of 
Great Britain. His facile pen was often 
employed in framing documents in the 
Congress of 1775. Early in 1776 he left 
Congress and engaged in the public affairs 
of his own State, being a leading member 
of the Provincial Congress in 1776. He 
wrote the able address of the convention 
at Fishkill in December, 1776; reported a 
bill of rights to the New York constitu- 
tional conA-ention in March, 1777; and 
was the chief author of the first consti- 
tution of the State of New York. After 
assisting in putting in motion the ma- 
chinery of his State government, and be- 
ing made a judge he entered Congress 
again late in 177S and became presi- 
dent of that body. In September, 1779, 
he was sent to Spain to negotiate a loan. 
^Ir. Jay was one of the commissioners for 
negotiating a treaty of peace with Great 
Lritain. He returned to New York in 
1784, and was secretary for foreign 
affairs from that year until the organ- 

ization of the government under the 
national Constitution. Mr. Jay was as- 
sociated with Hamilton and Madison in 
writing the series of articles in support 
of the Constitution known collectively as 
The Federalist. Washington appointed 
Jay the first chief-justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

On April 7, 1794, a motion was made 
in the House of Representatives that all 
commercial intercourse with Great Brit- 
ain and her subjects be suspended, so far 
as respected all articles of the growth or 
manufacture of Great Britain or Ireland, 
until the surrender of the Western posts 
and due compensation for all losses and 
damages growing out of British aggres- 
sions on our neutral rights should be 
made. This motion, if adopted, would 
lead directly to war. Its adoption seemed 
piobable, and Washington, to avert the 
calamitous consequences, proposed to send 
a special minister to England to negotiate 
an amicable settlement of the existing 
disputes. There were grave charges of 
violations of the treaty of 1783 made by 
the two parties against each other. Wash- 
ington desired to send Hamilton on the 
mission. Violent opposition to this was 
made by his political enemies, whose ha- 
tred and jealousy were intense. Fearing 
Hamilton might not have the confirmation 
of the Senate, Washington nominated Mr. 
Jay (April 16), which nomination was 
confirmed April 19. The special minister 
arrived in England in June, where he was 
received with great courtesy by the Brit- 
ish government. He negotiated a treaty 
which was not wholly satisfactory to his 
countrymen, closing his labors on Nov. 19; 
and from 1795 to 1801 he was governor 
of New York, under whose administration 
slavery was abolished. This was his last 
public office. He died in Bedford, N. Y., 
May 17, 1829. See Ames, Fisher. 

Jay's Treaty. — After Mr. Jay's formal 
reception in London, Lord Grenville, then 
at the head of foreign affairs, expressed 
great anxiety to bring the negotiations 
to a successful issue. There was a wide 
difference of views concerning matters 
in dispute. The Americans complained 
that, contrary to the provisions of the 
ixef'^ of peace (1783), a large number 
of negroes had been carried off by the 
evacuatinff armies; and for this loss com- 



pensation was demanded for the owners, dered on June 1, 1796, the present resi- 
They complained, also, of the detention dents to have the option of removing or 
of the Western posts, which was the main of becoming American citizens. There 
cause of the hostility of the Northwestern vv'as to be a mutual reciprocity of inland 
tribes. They also alleged numerous viola- trade and intercourse between the North 

American territories of the two na- 
tions, including the navigation of the 
Mississippi; but it did not extend to 
the Hudson Bay Company, nor to the 
admission of American vessels into 
the harbors of the British North 
American colonies, nor to the naviga- 
tion of the rivers of those colonies 
below the highest port of entry. These 
were the principal features of the 
first ten articles of the treaty, which 
were to be perpetual. Eighteen oth- 
ers, of the nature of a treaty of com- 
merce, were limited to two years. 
They provided for the admission of 
American vessels into British ports 
in Evirope and the East Indies on 
teVms of equality with British ves- 
sels; but no terms were made con- 
cerning the East India coasting trade, 
or the trade between Europe and the 
British West Indies. There were re- 
strictions upon the American trade to 
the British West Indies; and British 
vessels were to be admitted to Ameri- 
joHN JAY. can ports on terms of the most fa- 

vored nations. Privateers were to 
tions of their neutral rights, especially give bonds to respond to any dam- 
on the high seas, such as the impressment ages they might commit against neu- 
of seamen and the exclusion of American trals, and other regulations of that ser- 
shipping from the trade of the British vice were made. The list of contraband 
West Indies. There were other complaints articles was clearly defined. No vessel 
on the part of the Americans ; but the attempting to enter a blockaded port was 
matters more immediately provocative to be captured unless she had first been 
of war were the disputed questions of notified and turned away. Neither nation 
neutral rights and the detention of the was to allow enlistments within its ter- 
Western posts. Deeming it wise to adjust ritory by any third nation at war with 
these two important difficulties. Jay the other; nor were the citizens or sub- 
thought it best to yield, temporarily, other jects of either to be allowed to accept 
considerations, or leave them for future commissions from such third nation, or 
adjustment, and he was induced to sign to enlist in its service, on penalty of 
a treaty, Nov. 19, 1794, defective in some being treated as pirates. Ships-of-war 
respects and objectionable in others. It of the contracting parties were to be 
provided for the collection of British debts nuitually admitted in a friendly man- 
in the United States contracted before the ner into the ports of each other, such 
Revolution, but it did not secure indem- vessels to be free from any claim of 
nity to those who lost slaves. It secured search, but were to depart as speedily 
indemnity for imlawful captures on the as might be. Other and stringent regu- 
high seas, and the evacuation of the lations were made concerning privateers, 
military posts on the frontiers yet held In case of rupture or war, the citizens 
by thg British. These were to be surren- or subjects of either nation resident in 




the territories of the other were to be der of American rights. In order to pre- 
allowed to remain and to continue their vent misrepresentations, and to elicit the 
trade so long as they behaved peaceably, expressions of the people, Washington 
They might be ordered off, in case of caused the whole treaty to be published, 
suspicion, on twelve months' notice, or A* mad, seditious cry went over the land 
without any notice, if detected in viola- from the opposition. In several cities 
tions of the laws. No reprisals were to mobs threatened personal violence to the 
be ordered by either party till satisfaction supporters of the treaty. Hamilton was 
had first been demanded. Fugitives from stoned at a public meeting in New York, 
justice charged with murder or forgery while speaking in the open air. The Brit- 
were to be mutually given up. ish minister at Philadelphia was insulted; 
Early Opposition. — The treaty was con- and in Charleston the British flag was 
eluded at London on Nov. 19, 1794. It trailed in the dust of the streets. Jay 
reached the President in March, 1795, was denounced as a traitor; and in Vir- 
after the adjournment of Congress. The ginia disunion was recommended as a cure 
Senate was convened, in special session, for political evils. The Democratic socie- 
to consider it, early in June, 1795. After ties and orators put forth claims for 
a debate for a fortnight, in secret session, sympathy for France. " She has a govern- 
a vote of 20 to 10 — precisely a constitu- ment congenial to our own. Citizens, your 
tional majority — advised (June 24) the security depends on France. Let us unite 
ratification of the treaty, excepting the with her and stand or fall together!" 
article which related to the renunciation shouted opposition orators throughout the 
by the Americans of the privilege of trans- country. The Democrats adorned their 
portation of sugar, molasses, coffee, co- hats with the French cockade. Jay was 
coa, and cotton in the West India trade, burned in effigy in many places, and long- 
Cotton was then just promising to be ings for the guillotine were freely express- 
of vast importance in the carrying-trade, ed in public assemblies. 
and such an article was wholly inadmissi- When the President had proclaimed the 
ble. The President had determined, before treaty as the law of the land, he, accord- 
the meeting of the Senate, to ratify the ing to promise, sent a copy of it, March 
treaty; and when it was laid before the 2, 1796, to the House. Its appearance was 
cabinet all agreed with him excepting the beginning of a violent debate in that 
the Secretary of State (Edmund Ran- body, which turned upon the question 
dolph, of Virginia), who raised the point whether the House possessed discretionary 
that by the ratification, before an ob- power to carry the treaty into execution 
noxious British Order in Council concern- or not at its pleasure. The debate arose 
ing neutrals should be repealed, the Brit- on a motion of Edward Livingston, of 
ish claim to the right, of search and im- New York, calling upon the President for 
pressment would be conceded by the his instructions to Jay and other papers 
Americans. Hamilton, who had been relating to the treaty. After about thirty 
consulted, advised the ratification, but speeches, in a debate of three weeks, which 
to withhold the exchange of ratifications grew warmer and warmer the longer it 
imtil that order should be repealed. The lasted, the resolution was adopted, March 
Senate had removed the seal of secrecy 24, by a vote of 62 to 37. The President 
from their proceedings, but had forbidden consulted his cabinet, and they unanimous- 
any publication of the treaty itself. State- ly decided that the House had no right 
ments concerning the provisions of the to make such a call, as they were not a 
treaty soon appeared. The Democratic part of the treaty-making power. They 
societies and newspapers had resolved to also decided that it was not expedient 
oppose and attack the treaty whatever for the President to furnish the papers, 
might be its provisions. They had opposed for the call should be considered as an 
the mission to negotiate it. After it was unfounded claim of power on the part 
received Randolph revealed enough of its of the House to interfere with the privi- 
character lo give a foundation for many leges of the President and Senate. The 
attacks upon it in the newspapers. It President, therefore, declined to comply 
was denounced as a pusillanimous surren- with the request of the House, giving 



his reasons in a special message. Reso- 
lutions asserting the majesty of the House 
were introduced ( April 6 ) , and were sup- 
ported by Madison. These resolutions were 
adopted bj' a vote of 57 to 35, and the 
subject of the " British treaty " was a 
staple topic of debate for some time after- 
wards. Finally, April 30, the House pass- 
ed a resolution — 51 to 48 — that it was 
expedient to pass laws for carrying the 
treaty into effect. 

The discussions of the treaty were soon 
transferred from public meetings and the 
newspapers to the arena of State legisla- 
tures. Governor Shelby, in his speech to 
the Kentucky legislature, attacked the 
treaty. The House seemed to agree with 
him (Nov. 4, 1794), but the Senate evaded 
any decided committal. The house of 
delegates of Virginia adopted, by a vote 
of 100 to 50, a resolution appi'oving the 
conduct of their Senators in voting (Nov. 
20) against the treaty. A counter-resolu- 
tion declaring their undiminished confi- 
dence in the President was lost — 59 to 
79 ; but another resolution disclaiming 
any imputation of the President's motives 
was passed — 78 to 62. The legislature of 
Marvland resolved that they felt a deep 
concern at efforts to detach from the 
President the " well-earned confidence of 
his fellow-citizens," and declared their 
" unabated reliance in his judgment, integ- 
rity, and patriotism." The Senate of Penn- 
sylvania made a similar declaration. The 
legislature of New Hampshire "expressed, 
Dec. 5, 1795, their "abhorrence of those 
disturbers of the peace " who had endeav- 
ored to render abortive measures so well 
calculated to advance the happiness of the 
country. The North Carolina legislature, 
by a decided majority, adopted a series of 
resolutions, Dec. 8, reprobating the treaty 
and thanking their Senators for having 
opposed it. In the legislature of . South 
Carolina resolutions were introduced de- 
claring the treaty " highly injurious to 
the general interests of the United 
States " ; when the friends of the treaty, 
finding themselves in a minority, declared 
the legislature had no business to interfere 
with the duties of the President and Sen- 
ate of the United States, and refused 
to vote, the resolutions were adopted unan- 
imously. The House did not venture to 
send up these resolutions to the Senate. 


A resolution declaring the treaty uncon- 
stitutional was defeated. The legislature 
of Delaware passed, Jan. 14, 1796, a reso- 
lution of approval. Gov. Samuel Adams, 
of Massachusetts, spoke of the treaty 
as " pregnant with evil," suggested a con- 
flict of authority between the President 
and Senate and the House of Representa- 
tives, and transmitted to the general 
court the resolutions of Virginia on the 
subject of amendments to the Constitu- 
tion. The Massachusetts Senate declared 
their concurrence in the belief of the 
governor that the national government 
was in " honest hands," and the house sug- 
gested " a respectful submission on the 
part of the people to the constituted au- 
thorities as the surest means of enjoying 
and perpetuating the invaluable blessings 
of our free and representative govern- 
ment." The general court of Rhode Island 
expressed their confidence in the genera^ 
government. So, also, did the legislature 
of New York. 

Jay, John, diplomatist; born in New 
York City, June 23, 1817; son of William 
Jay; became manager of the New York 
Young Men's Anti-slavery Society in 1834; 
was graduated at Columbia College in 
1836; admitted to the bar in 1839; acted 
as counsel without pay for many fugitive 
slaves; minister to Austria in 1869-75; 
chairman of the committee to investigate 
the system of the New York Custom- 
House in 1877; and president of the New 
York State Civil Service Commission in 
1883-88. He died in New York City, May 
5, 1894. 

Jay, William, jurist ; born in New 
York City, June 16, 1789; son of John 
Jay; graduated at Yale in 1807; appoint- 
ed judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 
1818; reappointed under the new consti- 
tution in 1822; served till 1843, when he 
was superseded on account of his anti- 
slavery views. He was the author of Life 
of Johti Jay; The Action of the Federal 
Government in Behalf of Slai^erij ; War 
and Peace, in which he suggested that 
international disputes should be settled 
by arbitration; The Mexican War; etc. 
He died in Bedford, N. Y.. Oct. 14, 1858. 

Jayhawkers and Red Legs, names ap- 
plied to Free-State men who, during the 
Kansas conflict in 1854-59, began a series 
of reprisals for outrages committed by 


pro-slavery men, but ultimately practical- Adelphi Theatre, London, and, although 

ly became bandits. he has since played in many of the most 

Jayne, Horace, biologist; born in Phila- popular comedies of the day, and in vari- 

delphia, March 5, 1859; graduated at ous parts of the world, he will be remem- 

the University of Pennsylvania in 1879, bered longest for his presentations of that 

and at its medical school in 1882; studied character. Mr. Jefferson has also distin- 

biology at Leipzig and Jena in 1883-84; guished himself as an orator and a paint- 

and, returning to the United States, was er, and in 1899 he made an exhibition 

first appointed lecturer in biology in the of sixteen of his landscape - paintings 

University of Pennsylvania, and subse- in oil in the national capital. He pub- 

quently Professor of Vertebrate Morphol- lished an autobiography in 1890. He 

ogy there. For a number of years he was died, April 23, 1905, at West Palm Beach, 

dean of the faculty. In 1900 he was di- Florida. 

rector of the Wistar Institute of the Uni- As the representative of the dramatic 

versify of Pennsylvania. He is the author profession, Mr. Jefferson was invited by 

of Mammalian Anatomy; Revision of the the faculty of Yale University to deliver 

Dermestidce of North America; Abnormi- a lecture on Dramatic Art, which was 

ties Observed in North American Coleop- given on April 27, 1892, in tlie course of 

tera, etc. which he says: 

Jeannette, Voyage of the. See De 

Long. If I am asked to reason from my knowl- 

Jeffers, William Nicholson, naval edge and engraft it on the history of 
officer ; born in Gloucester county, N. J., the past, I would unhesitatingly declare 
Oct. 6, 1824; joined the navy in 1840; that the stage is in a much better con- 
served in the war with Mexico, and also dition now than it ever was before. The 
through the Civil War; was promoted social and moral status of the whole 
commodore in February, 1878. His pub- world has undoubtedly improved, and gone 
lications include Short Methods in Navi- hand in hand with scientific and material 
gation; Theory and Practice of Naval progress; and permit me to assure you 
Gunnery; Inspection and Proof of Can- that the stage in this respect has not been 
non; Marine Surveying ; Ordnance In- idle, but that, to my knowledge, it has 
structions for United States Navy, etc. in the march of improvement kept pace 
He died in Washington, D. C, July 23, foot by foot with every social advance. 
1883. Even the coarse dramas of the olden 

Jefferson, the name proposed to be time were in keeping with the conditions 

given to what is now the State of Colo- of the social and literary society tJiat sur- 

rado, in 1858, when an attempt was made rounded it. Those plays that appealed 

to establish a provisional government, to the lowest tastes were not only welcome 

The scheme failed in consequence of con- but demanded bj^ the court of Charles, 

flicting claims on the part of the surround- Old Pepys, who lived during this time, 

ing Territories. When, however. Congress says in his diary: "I went last night 

created the new Territory in 1861, the to see A Midsummer Night's Dream; it 

name Colorado was given to it. was a great waste of time, and I hope I 

Jefferson, Joseph, actor ; born in Phila- shall never again be condemned to see 

delphia. Pa., Feb. 20, 1829; is descended such a poor play. Ah, give me a com- 

from several generations of actors ; made edy of Ethelridge, and let us have no more 

his first appearance on the stage when of this dull, vague Shakespeare." It was 

three years old; played in the old Span- not, therefore, that there were no good 

ish theatre in Matamoras, Mexico, two plays, but that the vicious public wanted 

days after that city was taken by the bad ones, and while rakes and unprin- 

Americans; and in 1857 established his cipled gallants and vile women were the 

reputation as a comedian by his perform- heroes and heroines of the stage, the 

ance as Asa Trenchard in Our American plays of Shakespeare had been written for 

Cousin, in New York City. In 1865 he a hundred years. Such lovely creatures 

appeared for the first time in his inimi- as Rosalind, Desdemoiia. Beatrice, Ophelia, 

table role of Rip Van Winkle, in the Imogene, Portia, and Juliet, together with 
v.— I 129 


their noble mates, Orlando, Benedict, Ham- And so the people insisted that the actors 

let, Eomeo, and a host of pure and mar- should give them an exhibition of the 

vellous creations, were moulding on the licentious times rather than the splendid 

shelves, because the managers had suffered lessons of Shakespeare. As the social 

bankruptcy for daring to produce them, world improved in its tastes the drama 

Shakespeare says that the actors are " the followed it — nay, in some instances has 

abstract and brief chronicles of the times." led it. 


Jefferson, Thomas, third President of 
the United States; born in Shadwell, Va., 
April 2, 1743; was educated at the Col- 
lege of William and Mary; studied law 
under George Wythe; and was admitted 
to the bar in 1767. From 1769 to 1775 
he was an active member of the Virginia 
House of Burgesses. In that body he 
introduced a bill empowering masters to 
manumit their slaves. On Jan. 1, 1771, 


he married Martha Skelton, a rich and 
beautiful young widow of twenty-three. 
He was a member of the committee of 
correspondence of Virginia, which he as- 
sisted in forming, and was engaged in 
active public life until his retirement 
from the Presidency of the United States. 
In 1774 he wrote his famous Summary 


View of the Rights of British America, 
which, it is believed, procured for him 
a place in the list of American traitors 
denounced by the British Parliament. He 
had taken an active part against the 
Boston port bill. Mr. Jefferson took his 
seat in the Continental Congress in June, 
1775, when he was thirty-two years of 
age. In that body he served on the most 
important committees, and in drawing up 
state papers. On the committee to draft 
the Declaration of Independence, to Mr. 
Jefferson was assigned the duty of writ- 
ing that important paper, which he ad- 
vocated and signed. True to the proclivi- 
ties of his nature in favor of human 
liberty, he introduced a clause censuring 
slavery, which was stricken out. In Oc- 
tober, 1776, he retired from Congress to 
take part in his o\vn State affairs, and 
for two years and a half was employed 
in revising the laws of Virginia and pro- 
curing some wise enactments, such as 
abolishing the laws of primogeniture, giv- 
ing freedom to convicts, etc. During the 
entire Revolutionary War Jefferson was 
very active in his own State, serving as 
its governor from June, 1779, to 1781. 
At the time of his retirement from the 
chair, Cornwallis, invading Virginia, des- 
olated Jefferson's estate at Elk Hill, and 
he and his family narrowly escaped capt- 
ure. Mr. Jefferson was again in Con- 
gress in 1783, and, as chairman of a 
committee, reported to that body the 
definite treaty of peace with Great Brit- 
ain. Assisting the suggestions of Gouver- 
neur Morris, he proposed and carried a 
bill establishing the decimal system of 
currency. In 1785 he succeeded Dr. 
Franklin as minister at the French Court, 
where he remained until 1789, when he 
returned and took a seat in Washing- 
ton's cabinet as Secretary of State. 
In France he had published his Notes 


on Virginia, and he had there become ed men of his own country and of Europe. 
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of In person he was tall and slender, with 
the French revolutionists previous to sandy hair, llorid complexion in his youth, 
the bloody era of 1793. Not finding at and brilliant gray eyes, a little inclining 
home the same enthusiastic admiration to brown. He was buried in a family 
of the French people in 
their struggle against " the 
conspiracy of the kings," 
he became morbidly sus- 
picious of a monarchical 
party in the United States 
that might overthrow the 
government. He formed 
and led an active party 
called " Republican " or 
" Democratic," and there 
was much acrimonious 
feeling soon engendered 
between that and the 
Federal party, of which 
Alexander Hamilton was 
the active leader. Mr. Jef- 
ferson was an able leader 
of the Democratic party, 
and secured so large a fol- 
lowing that in 1800 he was 
elected President, and 
served eight years, retir- 
ing in March, 1809, when 
he withdrew from public 
life and retired to his seat 
at Monticello, near Char- 
lottesville, Va. Among the 
important events of his 
administration were the 
purchase of Louisiana, an 
exploration of the conti- 
nent from the Mississippi 
Eiver to the Pacific Ocean, 

and difficulties with France and Great cemetery near his house at Monticello 
Britain on account of their violation of and over his grave is a granite monument, 
the rights of neutrals. Mr. Jefferson was bearing the inscription, written by him- 
the founder of the University of Virginia self, and found among his papers after his 
(1819) at Charlottesville, Va., and was death, "Here lies buried Thomas Jeffer- 
its rector until his death, which occurred son, author of the Declaration of Inde- 
on the same day, and almost at the same pendence, of the Statute of Virginia for 
hour, as that on which John Adams died, religious freedom, and father of the Uni- 
who was his associate in drafting the versity of Virginia." Mr. Jefferson ^-e- 
Declaration of Independence, and sign- garded slavery as a moral and political 
ing it, just fifty years befoi-e (July 4, evil, and did much to alleviate its hard- 
1826). ships. His correspondence with men of 

Jeff'erson was a keen politician, though all classes was voluminous, for he was a 
no speaker ; a man of great learning and fluent writer and had a very wide ac- 
fine scholarly as well as scientific attain- quaintance. Few men have exerted as 
ments, and in conversation extremely at- much influence in establishing the free 
tractive. His house was the resort of learn- institutions of the United States as 




rhomas Jefferson. He adopted for the 
motto of his private seal that of Oliver 
Cromwell — " Rebellion to tyrants is 
obedience to God." See Lewis, Meri- 

When, in the early summer of 1781, 
Cornwallis was overrunning a portion of 
Virginia, he sent Tarleton with his cav- 
alry to capture the Virginia Assembly 
siting at Charlottesville, and also Gov- 
ernor Jefferson, who lived 2 miles from 
that place. On the way Tarleton destroyed 
twelve wagon-loads of clothing intended 
for Greene's army in North Carolina. 
Within 10 miles of Charlottesville Tarle- 
ton detached Captain McLeod, with a 
party of horsemen, to capture Governor 
Jefferson at Monticello, while he pressed 
forward. On his way he captured some 
members of the legislature, but when he 
arrived at Charlottesville the remainder, 
forewarned, had fled and escaped. Mc- 
Leod's expedition to Monticello was quite 
as unsuccessful. Jefferson was entertain- 
ing several members of the legislature, in- 
cluding the presiding officers of both 
houses, when the British cavalry were 
seen coming up the winding road towards 
the mansion. Jefferson immediately sent 
his family away, while he and the others 
escaped on horseback. Jefferson had not 
been gone ten minutes when McLeod rode 
up and found the house deserted. 

The leaders of the two great parties 

Laws with powerful effect against him. 
The Federalists were defeated. Jefferson 
and Burr had each seventy-three votes in 
the electoral college, and, according to 
the provisions of the Constitution, the 
election was carried into the House of 
Representatives. There exciting scenes 
occurred. Two or three members, too 


Motto: "Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God.'" 

sick to appear otherwise, were brought to 
the House on beds. For seven days the 
balloting went on. After it was ascer- 
tained that a Democrat was elected, the 
Federalists all voted for Burr, as being 
less objectionable than Jefferson; but the 
friends of the latter were stronger than 
all opposition, and he was elected. The 
whole Federal party were mortified 
and humiliated by the triumph of Jef- 
ferson, their arch - enemy. He was in- 
augurated March 4, 1801. See Cabinet, 
President's; Louisiana; Mazzei, Philip. 
Inaugural Address. — The following is 
the principal part of the inaugural ad- 
dress, delivered on March 4, 1801: 


nominated their respective candidates for 
the Presidency in 1800, the Federalists 
choosing to be voted for John Adams and 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney; the Demo- 
crats, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. 
There was a breach in the Federal party, 
owing to extended dislike of Adams, and 
the Democrats used the Alien and Sedition 


Friends and Fellow - citizens, — Called 
upon to undertake the duties of the first 
executive officer of our country, I avail 
myself of the presence of that portion of 
my fellow-citizens which is here assembled, 
to express my grateful thanks for the 
favor with which they have been pleased 
to look towards me. to declare a sincere 
consciousness that the task is above my 
talents, and that I approacli it with those 
anxious and awful presentiments which 
the greatness of the charge and the weak- 
ness of my powers so justly inspire. A 
rising nation, spread over a wide and 


fruitful land, traversing all the seas with 
the rich productions of their industry, 
engaged in commerce with nations who 
feel power and forget right, advancing 
rapidly to destinies beyond the reach of 
mortal eye; when I contemplate these 
transcendent objects, and see the honor, 
the happiness, and the hopes of this be- 
loved country committed to the issue and 
the auspices of this day, I shrink from 
the contemplation, and humble myself be- 
fore the magnitude of the undertaking. 
Utterly, indeed, should I despair, did 
not the presence of many whom I see 

which we have passed, the animation of 
discussions and of exertions has sometimes 
worn an aspect which might impose on 
strangers unused to think freely, and to 
speak and to w'rite what they think; but 
this being now decided by the voice of the 
nation, announced according to the rules 
of the Constitution, all will of course ar- 
range themselves under the will of the law, 
and unite in common efforts for the com- 
mon good. All, too, will bear in mind 
this sacred principle, that though the will 
of the majority is in all cases to prevail, 
that will, to be rightful, must be reason- 


here remind me that, in the other high 
authorities provided by our Constitu- 
tion, I shall find resources of wisdom, 
of virtue, and of zeal, on which to 
rely under all difficulties. To you, then, 
gentlemen, who are charged with the sov- 
ereign functions of legislation, and to 
those associated with you, I look with en- 
couragement for that guidance and sup- 
port which may enable us to steer with 
safety the vessel in which we are all em- 
barked, amid the conflicting elements of 
a troubled world. 

During the contest of opinion through 


able; that the minority possess their 
equal rights, which equal laws must pro- 
tect, and to violate wiiich would be op- 
pression. Let us then,- fellow-citizens, 
unite with one heart and one mind, let us 
restore to social intercourse that harmony 
and affection without which liberty and 
even life itself are but dreary things. And 
let us reflect that, having banished from 
our land that religious intolerance under 
which mankind so long bled and suffered, 
we have yet gained little, if we counte- 
nance a political intolerance as despotic, 
as wicked, and as capable of bitter and 


bloody persecutions. During the throes that this government, the world's best 
and convulsions of the ancient world, dur- hope, may, by possibility, want energy to 
ing the agonizing spasms of infuriated preserve itself ? I trust not. I believe this, 
man, seeking through blood and slaughter on the contrary, the strongest government 
his long-lost liberty, it was not wonderful on earth. I believe it is the only one 
that the agitation of the billows should where every man, at the call of the law, 
reach even this distant and peaceful shore; would fly to the standard of the law, and 
that this should be more felt and feared would meet invasions of the public order 
by some, and less by others, and should as his own personal concern. Sometimes 
divide opinions as to measures of safety; it is said that man cannot be trusted with 
but every difference of opinion is not a the government of himself. Can he then 
difference of principle. We have called be trusted with the government of others? 
by different names brethren of the same Or have we found angels, in the form of 
principle. We are all republicans; we kings, to govern him? Let history answer 
are all federalists. If there be any this question. 

among us who wish to dissolve this Let ns, then, with courage and confl- 
Union, or to change its republican form, dence, pursue our own federal and repub- 
let them stand undisturbed as monu- lican principles; our attachment to union 
ments of the safety with which error and representative government. Kindly 
of opinion may be tolerated, where reason separated by nature and a wide ocean 
is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, from the exterminating havoc of one quar- 
that some honest men fear that a republi- ter of the globe; too high-minded to en- 
can government cannot be strong; that dure the degradation of the others; pos- 
this government is not strong enough. But sessing a chosen country, with room 
would the honest patriot, in the full tide enough for our descendants to the thou- 
of successful experiment, abandon a gov- sandth generation; entertaining a due 
ernment which has so far kept lis free and sense of our equal right to the use of 
firm, on the theoretic and visionary fear our own faculties, to the acquisition of 

our own industry, 
to honor and con- 
fidence from our fel- 
low-citizens, result- 
ing not from birth, 
but from our actions 
and their sense of 
them; enlightened 
by a benign religion, 
professed indeed and 
practised in various 
forms, yet all of 
them inculcating 
honesty, truth, tern 
perance, gratitude, 
and the love of 
man ; acknowledging 
and adoring an over- 
ruling Providence, 
which, by all its dis- 
pensations, proves 
that it delights in 
the happiness of 
man here, and his 
greater happiness 
hereafter ; with all 
these blessings, what 
more is necessary to 





make us a happy and prosperous people? the general government in its whole con- 
Still one thing more, fellow-citizens — a stitutional vigor, as the sheet-anchor of 
wise and frugal government, which shall our peace at home and safety abroad; a 
restrain men from injuring one another, jealous care of the right of election by 
^liall leave them otherwise free to regu- the people, a mild and safe corrective of 

abuses which are lopped by the sword of 
revolution where peaceable remedies are 
unprovided; absolute acquiescence in the 
decisions of the majority, the vital princi- 
ple of republics, from Avhich there is no 
appeal but to force, the vital principle 
and immediate parent of despotism; a 
well-disciplined militia, our best reliance 
in peace, and for the first moments of 
war, till regulars may relieve them ; the 
supremacy of the civil over the military 
authority; economy in the public expense, 
that labor may be lightly burdened; the 
honest payment of our debts, and sacred 
preservation of the public faith; encour- 
agement of agriculture, and of commerce 
as its handmaid; the diffusion of informa- 
tion, and arraignment of all abuses at the 
bar of the public reason ; freedom of re- 
ligion, freedom of the press, and freedom 
of person, under the protection of the 
habeas corpus; and trial by juries impar- 
tially selected. These principles form the 
bright constellation which has gone before 
us, and guided our steps through an age 
of revolution and reformation. The wis- 
late their own pursuits of industry and dom of our sages, and blood of our heroes, 
improvement, and shall not take from the have been devoted to their attainment; 


mouth of labor the bread it has earned. 
This is the sum of good government; and 
this is necessary to close the circle of our 

About to enter, fellow-citizens, upon the 
exercise of duties which comprehend every- 
thing dear and valuable to you, it is 

they should be the creed of our political 
faith, the text of civic instruction, the 
touchstone by which to try the services of 
those we trust; and should we wander 
from them in moments of error or of 
alarm, let us hasten to retrace our steps, 
and to regain the road which leads alone 

proper you should understand what I deem to peace, liberty, and safety. . . , 
the essential principles of our government, The Jeffersonian Policy. — Soon after 

and, consequently, those which ought to his inauguration, Jefferson indicated his 

shape its administration. I will compress policy in a letter to Nathaniel Macon, 

them within the narrowest compass they in Congress, as follows: "1. Levees are 

will bear, stating the general principle, done away with. 2. The first communi- 

but not all its limitations. Equal and ex- cation to the next Congress will be, like 

act justice to all men, of whatever state all subsequent ones, by message, to which 

or persuasion, religious or political ; peace, no answer will be expected. 3. Diplo- 

commerce, and honest friendship with all matic establishments in Europe will be 

nations, entangling alliances with none; reduced to three ministers. 4. The com- 

the support of the State governments in pensation of collectors depends on you 

all their rights, as the most competent [Congress], and not on me. 5. The army 

administrations for our domestic concerns, is undergoing a chaste reformation. 6. 

and the surest bulwarks against anti-re- The navy will be reduced to the legal 

publican tendencies; the preservation of establishment by the last of this month 




[May, 1801]. 7. Agencies in every de- he had to abandon the undertaking. Jef- 
partment will be revived. 8. We shall ferson, then governor of Virginia, gave 
push you to the uttermost in economiz- instructions for the occupation of a sta- 
ing. 9. A very early recommendation tion on the Mississippi River between the 

mouth of the Ohio 
and the parallel of 
36° 30'; and in 
the spring of 1780 
Clarke chose a 
strong position 5 
miles below the 
mouth of the Ohio, 
whereon he built 
Fort Jefferson. 
Here the Ameri- 
cans planted their 
first sentinel to 
watch over the 
freedom of the 
navigation of 
the " Father of 

Jefferson and 
Taylor, Forts. At 
has been given to the Postmaster-General the Garden Key, one of the Tortugas 
to employ no traitor, foreigner, or Revo- Islands, off the extremity of the Florida 
lutionary Tory in any of his offices." Peninsula, was Fort Jefferson; and at 
Three days after his inauguration he Key West was Fort Taylor. Neither of 
wrote to Monroe: "I have firmly refused these forts was quite finished at the be- 
to follow the counsels of those who have ginning of 1861. The Confederates early 
desired the giving of offices to some of the contemplated their seizure, but the 
Federalist leaders in order to reconcile laborers employed on them by the United 
them. I have given, 
and will give, only 
to Republicans un- 
der existing cir- 
cumstances." The 
doctrine, " To the 
victor belong the 
spoils," which has 
been accepted as 
orthodox in the 
politics of our re- 
public ever since, 
was then first pro- 

Jefferson, Fort, 
a fortification built 
by Col. George 
Rogers Clark 
{q. V.) , on the west 
side of the Missis- 
sippi. He had designed to extend his in- States government were chiefly slaves, 
vasion to Detroit, but troops to reinforce and their masters wished to reap the 
him had been added to the force of an- fruit of their labor as long as possible, 
other bold leader (see Shelby, Evan), and It was believed these forts might be 




seized at any time by the Floridians. Cap- make laws to that end; and when, in 1689, 
tain Brannan, with a company of artil- the Stuarts were driven from the throne 
lery, occupied barracks about half a mile of England, these people were pardoned, 
from Fort Taylor. Some of the military and the Virginians received them with 
and civil officers there were Confederates, open arms as brethren. Sir George died 
and they determined to oppose Captain in London, April 18, 1689. 
Brannan if he should attempt to take Jenckes, Joseph, colonial governor; 
possession of that fort. Finally Captain born on the site of the city of Pawtucket, 
Brannan succeeded by a stratagem in R. I., in 1656; held a seat in the General 
gaining possession. The steamer Wyan- Assembly of Rhode Island in 1679-93; 
dotte lay near the fort, and her guns com- was appointed to arrange the boundary 
manded the bridge that connected it disputes with Connecticut and Massachu- 
with the island. One Sunday morning, setts, and afterwards those which had 
while the inhabitants were at church, arisen between Massachusetts and New 
Captain Brannan marched his men by a Hampshire and Maine. He was also 
back road, crossed the bridge, and entered made commissioner to answer a letter 
the fort. Supplies had already been for- of the King regarding the " condition 
warded by water. Both forts were of affairs in Rhode Island," and to re- 
strengthened and were lost to the Con- ply to a number of questions proposed 
federates. by the lords of the privy council. He 
Jeffreys, Sir George, jurist; born in was governor of Rhode Island in 1727- 
Acton, Denbighshire, in 1648; was called 32. He died June 15, 1740. 
to the bar in 1668; became chief -justice Jenckes, Thomas Allen, legislator 
of England in 1683; and was elevated to born in Cumberland, R. I., Nov. 2, 1818 
the post of lord chancellor in 1685. He graduated at Brown University in 1838 
was of a blood-thirsty and cruel dispo- admitted to the bar in 1840; served in 
sition, delighting in the severe punishment Congress in 1862-71. He was the author 
of the enemies of the King. After the re- of the United States bankruptcy law, which 
bellion of the Duke of Monmouth (1685) was passed in 1867; and was also one of 
was crushed he held courts in the insur- the earliest and most prominent advocates 
gent districts which are known in history of civil service reform. His bill in ad- 
as the " Bloody Assizes." The partisans vocacy of the same was passed in 1868. 
of Monmouth in arms were fully 6,000 in He died in Cumberland, R. I., Nov. 4, 
number, many of them persons of great re- 1875. 

spectability. They were brought before Jenkins, Charles Jones, jurist; born 

the court of the chief-justice by scores, in Beaufort district, S. C, Jan. 6, 1805; 

He seemed to delight in convicting and settled in Jefferson county, Ga., in 1816; 

punishing them. He caused 320 to be graduated at Union College in 1824; held 

hanged or beheaded, and more than 800 a seat in the Georgia legislature in 1836- 

to be sold as slaves in the West Indies and 50. He was a Union delegate to the Geor- 

Virginia. Many of the latter were given to gia convention in 1850, and as chairman 

court favorites that they might sell them of that body drafted the resolutions known 

on speculation or extort money for their as " The Platform of 1850," in which it 

pardon from those who had any to give. In was resolved " that the State of Georgia, 

this nefarious business Lord Effingham, even to the disruption of every tie which 

governor of Virginia, engaged ; and many binds her to the Union, resist any act 

men of culture, as well as good mechanics, of Congress abolishing slavery." He was 

were sent to Virginia to be sold as slaves, a judge of the Supreme Court of Geor- 

and so added excellent social materials for gia in 1859 - 65, and governor in 1865- 

society in that colony. " Take care," 68. Mr. Jenkins received two votes for 

wrote King Charles to Effingham, " that President of the United States in the 

they continue to serve for ten years at electoral college of 1872. He died in 

least, and that they be not permitted in Summerville, Ga., June 13, 1883. 
any manner to redeem themselves by Jenkins, James G., jurist; born in 

money or otherwise until that term be Saratoga Springs, N. Y., July 18, 1834; 

fully expired." The Assembly refused to was liberallv educated in New York State; 



and was admitted to the bar in New York 1869-71; and has since done much work 

City in 1855. Two years later he removed in bridge-building. He was in charge of 

to Milwaukee, Wis., where he practised the construction of the Randolph bridge 

till 1888, when he was appointed United over the Missouri River, at Kansas, Mo., 

States judge for the district of Wiscon- and was employed on the Mississippi 

sin. In 1893 he was promoted to the levees. He has been chief engineer of 

bench of the United States Circuit Court railroads in the South and Southwest, 

of the 7th Judicial Circuit. In December, and was also chief engineer of the Ar- 

1893, he issued an injunction forbidding ansas Pass harbor and jetty works in 

all employes of the Northern Pacific Rail- Texas. In 1898-99 he was major of the 

road (which at that time was in the Volunteer Engineer Corps, and chief 

hands of receivers appointed by the court) engineer officer of the 1st Division of the 

from joining or conspiring with others in 2d Army Corps. In 1887 he became a 

striking against reduced wages. The Cir- member of the American Society of Civil 

cuit Court of Appeals sustained this in- Engineers. 

junction in a modified form. Upon this Jenkinson, Charles, English politi- 

action the labor leaders endeavored to cian; was private secretary to Lord Bute 

have Judge Jenkins impeached, but with- when he was the English premier, and, 

out result. when he resigned, Jenkinson became the 

Jenkins, John, military officer; born principal secretary of the treasury. He 

in New London, Conn., Nov. 27, 1751; was an Oxford scholar, and, becoming per- 

served throughout the Revolutionary War sonally acquainted with George III., when 

as a lieutenant; and during the Wyoming he was Prince of Wales, became devoted 

massacre commanded Forty Fort. He died to his service. He had great tact in 

in Wyoming, Pa., March 19, 1827. dealing with delicate personal matters, 

Jenkins, John Stilwell, author ; born and so was fitted to please all ; or, rather, 

in Albany, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1818; edu- not to oflfend any. He was chiefly instru- 

cated at Hamilton College, and began the mental in pushing forward the English 

practice of law in Weedsport, N. Y. His ministry in their schemes for taxing the 

publications include Generals of the Last English - American colonists, and was 

War with Great Britain; a condensation really the author of Townshend's obnox- 

of Hammond's History of Neio York; Life ious bills and Grenville's Stamp Act. He 

of Silas Wright; History of the Mexican held a place with Lord North at the 

War; Lives of the Governors of Neio Treasury board, in 1768, and was the 

York; Lives of Jackson, Polk, and Gal- chief instigator of that minister's bills 

houn, etc. He died in Weedsport, N. Y., for asserting the absolute authority of 

Sept. 20, 1852. the Parliament over the American colo- 

Jenkins, Thornton Alexander, naval nies. 
officer; born in Orange county, Va., Dec. Jenkinson's Ferry, Battle at. In 
11, 1811; appointed midshipman in 1828; 1864, General Steele, at Little Rock, Ark., 
commissioned lieutenant in 1839; pro- tried to co-operate with the Red River 
moted captain in 1862; and rear-admiral expedition, but was unable to do so effect- 
in 1870. In 1834 to 1860 he was employed ually, for he was confronted by a heavy 
on the coast survey, and in the light- body of Confederates. He started south- 
house board. He was fleet captain, and ward, March 23, with 8,000 troops, 
commanded the Hartford when Farragut cavalry and infantry. He was to be 
passed Forts Jackson and St. Philip be- joined by General Thayer at Arkadelphia, 
low New Orleans, April 24, 1862; com- with 5,000 men, but this was not then 
manded the Richmond when Farragut accomplished. Steele pushed on for the 
captured Mobile in 1864. He died in purpose of flanking Camden and draw- 
Washington, D. C, Aug. 9, 1893. ing out Price from his fortifications there. 

Jenkins, William Dunbar, civil engi- Early in April Steele was joined by 
neer; born in Adams county, Miss., Sept. Thayer, and on the evening of the 15th 
19, 1849; was educated at military they entered Camden as victors. Serious- 
schools in France and Belgium; studied ly menaced by gathering Confederates, 
civil engineering in Lexington, Va., in Steele, who, hy the retreat of Banks, had 



been released from duty elsewhere, moved Jenney, William Le Baron, architect; 
towards Little Rock. He crossed the born in Fairhaven, Mass., Sept. 25, 1832; 
Washita on the night of April 26. At was educated at Phillips Academy, An- 
Jenkinson's Ferry, on the Sabine River, dover, Mass.; graduated at the Ecole 
he was attacked by an overwhelming Centrale des Arts et Metiers, Paris, in 
force, led by Gen. Kirby Smith in person. 1856. He also studied art and archi- 
Steele's troops, though nearly famished, tecture in Paris studios in 1858-59. On 
fought desperately during a most sangui- his return he was commissioned a cap- 
nary battle that ensued. Three times the tain in the United States army; was as- 
Confederates charged heavily, and were signed to engineer duty ; and served on 
repulsed. The battle was fought by in- the stafl" of Gen. U. S. Grant from the 
fantry alone, and the Nationals finally battle of Cairo to Corinth, and then on 
drove their adversaries and gained a com- that of Gen. W. T. Sherman until 1866, 
plete victory. Then they crossed the receiving the brevet of major in 1864; 
river and moved on towards Little Rock, he settled in Chicago as an architect in 
In the struggle at Jenkinson's Ferry the 1868; was landscape engineer for the West 
Confederates lost over 3,000 men, includ- Chicago parks in 1870-71; invented the 
ing more than 300 officers. The Nationals skeleton construction (now generally used 
lost 700 killed and wounded. Steele's in tall buildings) in 1883; and was the 
broken army reached Little Rock on architect for the Union League Club and 
May 2. the Siegel & Cooper Building, in New 

Jenks, Jeremiah Whipple, educator; York City; The Fair, and the Horti- 

born in St. Clair, Mich., Sept. 2, 1856; cultural Building at the World's Colum- 

graduated at the University of Michi- bian Exposition, in Chicago, and other 

gan in 1878; and was admitted to the notable structures. 

bar of that State. Later he taught Ger- Jersey Prison-ship, one of the prisons 

luan, Latin, and Greek at Mount Morris used by the British at New York during 

(111.) College, In 1886-89 he was Pro- a part of the Revolutionary War. Noth- 

fessor of Political Science and English ing could exceed the horrors of these 

Literature at Knox College, Galesburg, crowded prisons. ^ The sugar-houses of 

TIL; in 1889-91 was Professor of Political New York being large, were used for the 

Economy and Social Science in the Indiana purpose, and therein scores suffered and 

University; and in 1891 became Professor died. But the most terrible scenes oc- 

of Political Science in Cornell University, curred on board several old hulks, which 
He is the author of Henry C. Carey als 
Nationalokonom; Road Legislation for the 
American State, and contributions on 
monopolies, political methods, etc., to 
reviews, magazines, and encyclopsedias 
in the United States, Germany, and Eng- 

Jenks, Joseph, inventor; born near 
London; came to America in 1645, and 

is supposed to have been the first brass- the jkrset prison-ship. 
founder on this continent. On May 6, 

1648, he secured a patent from the Massa- were anchored in the waters around New 
chusetts legislature for a water-mill and York, and used for prisoners. Of them 
for a saw-mill. In 1652 he made the dies, the Jersey was the most notorious for the 
it is said, for the silver coinage — the sufferings it contained, and the brutality 
" pine-tree " money of that province. In of its officers. From these vessels, anchor- 
1654 he made a fire-engine for Boston, and ed near the present na^y-yard at Brook- 
in 1655 he received a patent for an im- lyn, almost 11,000 victims were carried 
proved method of manufacturing scythes, ashore during the war, and buried in 
In 1667 he had an appropriation for the shallow graves in the sand. Their re- 
encouragement of wire-drawing. He died mains were gathered in 1808 and put 
in Lynn, Mass., in 1683. in a vault situated near the termination 



of PVoiit Street and Hudson Avenue, to promote the power and dominion ot 
Brooklyn. Prance in America. Within three yeara 

Jerseys, The. Collective name for the after the restoration of Canada to the 
colonies of East and West New Jersey. French there were fifteen Jesuit priests 

Jervis, John Bloomfield, engineer; in the province (1636). The first most 
born in Huntington, N. Y., Dec. 14, 1795; noted of these missionaries were Brebeuf 
assisted in the construction of the Erie and Daniel, who were bold, aggressive, 
and the Delaware and Hudson canals. He and self-sacrificing to the last degree, 
was connected with railroads from their Then came the more gentle Lallemande, 
first introduction, and made many im- who, with others, traversed the dark 
provements in locomotives; and was chief wilderness with a party of Hurons who 
engineer of the Croton aqueduct in 1836. lived far to the westward, on the borders 
He is the author of A Description of the of one of the Great Lakes. They sufi'ered 
Croton Aqueduct ; A Report of the Hud- incredible hardships and privations — eat- 
son River Railroad; Railway, Property; ing the coarsest food, sleeping on the bare 
Labor and Capital, etc. He died in Eome. earth, and assisting their red companions 
N. Y., Jan. 12, 1885. in dragging their canoes at rough port- 

Jessup, Henry Harris, clergyman; ages. On a bay of Lake Huron they 
born in Montrose, Pa., April 19, 1832; erected the first house of the society 
graduated at Yale University in 1851, among the North American Indians. That 
and at Union Theological Seminary little chapel, which they called the cradle 
in 1855; and after ordination went to a of the Church, was dedicated to St. Jo- 
missionary to Tripoli, where he served in seph, the husband of the Blessed Virgin. 
1856-60. In the latter year he went to They told to the wild children of the 
Beirut. In 1879 he was moderator of the forest the story of the love of Christ and 
General Assembly. He is the author of his crucifixion, and awed them with the 
Mohammedan Missionary Problem; The terrors of perdition. For fifteen years 
Women of the Arabs; The Greek Church Brebeuf carried on his missionary labors 
and Protestant Missions; Syrian Eome among the Hurons, scourging his flesh 
Life; Ka7nil, Moslem Convert, etc. twice a day with thongs; wearing an iron 

Jesuit Missions. In 1539 the Society girdle armed at all points with sharp pro- 
of Jesus, or Jesuit's, was established by jections, and over this a bristly hair- 
Ignatius Loyola. Its members were, by shirt, which continually . " mortified the 
its rules, never to become prelates. Their flesh"; fasted frequently and long: kept 
vows were to be poor, chaste, and obe- his pious vigils late into the night, and 
dient, and in constant readiness to go on by penitential acts resisted every tempta- 
missions against heresy and heathenism, tion of the flesh. 

Their grand maxim was the widest diff'u- As missionary stations multiplied in 
sion of influence, and the closest internal the western wilderness, the central spot 
unity. Their missions soon spread to was called St. Mary. It was upon the 
every part of the habitable globe then outlet of Lake Superior into Lake Huron, 
known. They planted the cross in Europe, There, in one year, 3,000 Indians received 
Asia, Africa, and America, and on the a welcome at the hands of the priest, 
islands of the sea; and when Chaniplain This mission awakened great sympathy 
had opened the way for the establishment in France. Everywhere prayers were ut- 
of French dominion in America, to the tered for its protection and prosperity. 
Jesuits was assigned the task of bearing The King sent magnificently embroidered 
the Christian religion to the dusky in- garments for the Indian converts. The 
habitants in North America. More per- Pope expressed his approbation, and to 
severing and more eff"ective than the vo- confirm and strengthen these missions a 
taries of commerce and trade, the Jesuits college in New France was projected. The 
became the pioneers of discovery and set- pious young Marquis de Gaenache, with 
tlement in North America. Their para- the assent of his parents, entered the So- 
mount object was the conversion of the ciety of Jesus, and with a portion of their 
heathen and an extension of the Church; ample fortune he endowed a seminary for 
their secondary, yet powerful, object was education at Quebec. Its foundation was 



laid in 1635, just before the death of and adventures of missionary life. On 
Champlain. That college was founded his way from Quebec to the Hurons he 
two years before the first high seminary was captured by a roving band of Mo- 
of learning was established in the Protes- hawks, and he who was one of the first to 
tant colonies in America by John Har- 
vard (see Harvard Uni\'ersity). At 
Ihe same time the Duchess d'Acquillon, 
aided by her uncle, Cardinal Richelieu, 
endowed a public hospital at Quebec, 
open to the afflicted, whether white or 
red men, Christians or pagans. It was 
placed in charge of three young nuns, 
the youngest twenty-two, and the oldest 
twenty-nine years of age, who came 
from Paris for the purpose. In 1640, 
Hochelaga ( Montreal ) was taken pos- 
session of as a missionary station, with 
solemn religious ceremonies, and the 
Queen of Angels was petitioned to take 
the island of Montreal under her protec- 
tion. Within thirteen years the remote 
wilderness was visited by forty-two 
Jesuit missionaries, besides eighteen other 
devoted men. These assembled two or 
three times a year at St. Mary's; the re- 
mainder of the time they Avere scattered 
through the forests in their sacred work. 

A plan was conceived in 1G38 of estab- 
lishing missions among the Algon- 
quians, not only on the north, but .on 
the south of the Gi'eat Lakes, and at 
Green Bay. The field of labor opened 
to the view of the missionaries a vast 
expanse of wilderness, peopled by many 
tribes, and they prayed earnestly for re- 
cruits. Very soon Indians from very re- 
mote points appeared at the mission 
stations. The hostilities of the Five 
Nations had kept the French from 
navigating Lakes Ontario and Erie; 
finally, in 1640, Brebeuf was sent to 
the Neutral Nation {q. v.), on the 
Niagara RiA'er. The further penetra- 
tion of the country south of the Lakes 
was then denied, but a glimpse of the 
marvellous field soon to be entered upon 
was obtained. In September and October, 
1641, Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues the first to bear it to the villages of the 
penetrated to the Falls of St. Mary, in the Five Nations. At the villages on the way 
strait that forms the outlet of Lake from the St. Lawrence to the Mohawk 
Superior, where they heard of the Sioux, domain Father Jogues was compelled to 
They yearned to penetrate the country of submit to the horrors of running the 
this famous people. This favor was denied gantlet, yet he never repined, but re- 
the missionaries. Father Raymbault re- joiced in his tribulations, and was made 
turned to Quebec and died, but Father happy by the conversion, here and there. 
Jogues was destined to endure many trials of one of the savages, whom, on one occa- 



carry the cross 'uto Michigan was now 


sion, he baptized with drops of dew. As 
he roamed through the forests of the Mo- 
hawk Valley he carved the name of Jesus 
and the figure of a cross on the trees, and 
with a chant took possession of the coun- 
try in the name of Christ. He was ran- 
somed by the Dutch at Albany, sailed for 
J^rance, but soon returned to Canada. 

Another missionary (Bressani), who 
suffered horribly, was also ransomed by 
the Dutch. In the summer of 1646 the 
Jesuits established a mission among the 
Indians of Maine, and so French out- 
posts were established on the Kennebec 
and the upper Lakes fourteen years after 
these missionary labors were begun. 
There was then a lull in hostilities be- 
tween the French and the Five Nations, 
and Father Jogues went to the Mohawks 
as ambassador for Canada. His report 
caused an effort to establish a mission 

cast his body into the Mohawk River. 
In 1648, warriors from the Mohawk Valley 
feil upon the Hurons, and the Jesuit mis- 
sions among them were destroyed, and 
priests and converts were murdered after 
horrible tortures. Finally, in 1654, when 
peace between the French and the Five 
Nations had been restored. Father Le 
Moyne was sent as ambassador to the 
Onondagas, when he was cheered by the 
sight of many Hurons holding on to their 
faith. Le Moyne was allowed to establish 
a mission in the Mohawk Valley. Very 
soon the Onondagas received Father Da- 
blon and his companions kindly, and 
chiefs and followers gathered around the 
Jesuits with songs of welcome. A chapel 
was built in a day. " For marbles and 
precious metals," Dablon wrote, " we em- 
ployed only bark; but the path to 
heaven is as open through a roof of bark 


among them, and he alone understand- as through arched ceilings of silver and 
ing their language, was sent, but lost his gold." Fifty French people settled near 
life among the Mohawks, who hung his the missionary station, and very soon 
liead upon the palisades of a village, and there were Christian laborers among the 



Cayugas and Oneidas. A change came. Aug. 28, 1657, but was recalled to Mon- 
War was again kindled, and Jesuits and treal. Rene Menard was with Le Mercier 
settlers were obliged to flee from the at Onondaga from 1656 to 1658, and after- 
bosom of the Five Nations. After that, wards among the Cayugas. Julien Gar- 
the self-sacri/icing Jesuits penetrated the nier, sent to the Mohawks in May, 1668, 
western wilderness to the Mississippi passed to Onondaga, and thence to the 
River, carrying the cross as the emblem Senecas, and was engaged in this mission 
of their religion, and the lilies of France until 1683. Claude Dablon, at Onondaga 
as tokens of political dominion. In these a few years after 1655, and was after- 
labors they were assisted by the votaries wards among the tribes of the Upper 
of commerce. Seeds of civilization were Lakes. Jacques Freniin, at Onondaga 
planted here and there, until harvests from 1656 to 1658; was sent to the Mo- 
were beginning to blossom all along the hawks in July, 1667; left there for the 
Lakes and the Mississippi to the Gulf of Senecas in October, 1668, where he re- 
Mexico. The discoveries of these priests niained a few years. Pierre Rafeix, at 
and traders gave to France a claim to Onondaga from 1656 to 1658; chaplain in 
that magnificent domain of millions of Coureelle's expedition in 1665; sent to 
square miles, extending from Acadia the Cayugas in 1671, thence to Seneca, 
along the St. Lawrence and the Lakes, where he was in 1679. Jacques Bruyas, 
and the establishment of French domin- sent to the Mohawks, July, 1667, and to 
ion in Louisiana, on the borders of the the Oneidas in September, where he spent 
Gulf of Mexico. It has been truthfully four years, and thence returned to the 
said, "The history of these [Jesuit] Mohawks in 1672; was at Onondaga in 
labors is connected with the origin of 1679, 1700, and 1701. Etienne de Car- 
every celebrated town in the annals of heil, sent to Cayuga in 1668, and was ab- 
French America; not a cape was turned or sent in 1671-72; returned, and remained 
a river entered but a Jesuit led the way." until 1684. Pierre Milet was sent with 
There were twenty-four different Jesuit De Carheil to the Cayugas in 1668, and 
missionaries among the Six Nations be- left in 1684; was at Niagara in 1688, 
tween 1657 and 1769. Their names and and was taken prisoner at Cataraqua in 
places of service were as follows: Paul 1689. Jean Pierron was sent to the Mo- 
Ragneneau, at Onondaga, from July, 1657, hawks in July, 1667; went among the 
to March, 1658. Isaac Jogues, prisoner Cayugas in October, 1668, and was with 
among the Mohawks from August, 1642, the Senecas after 1672, where he was in 
to August, 1643; a missionary to the same 1679. Jean de Lamberville was at Onon- 
nation in 1646, and killed in October of daga in 1671-72; was sent to Niagara in 
the same year. Francis Joseph Le Mer- 1687. Francis Boniface was sent to the 
cier, at Onondaga, from May 17, 1656, to Mohawks in 1668, and was there after 
March 20, 1658. Francis Duperon, at 1673. Francis Vaillant de Gueslis sue- 
Onondaga, from 1657 to 1658. Simon Le ceeded Boniface among the Mohawks about 
Moyne, at Onondaga, July, 1654; with 1674: accompanied the expedition against 
the Mohawks from Sept. 16, 1655, until the Senecas in 1687 ; was sent to New York 
Nov. 9 of the same year; then again in in December, 1687. and to the Senecas in 
1656, until Nov. 5; again there (third 1703. Pierre de Mareuil was at Onon- 
time) from Aug. 26, 1657, until May, daga in June, 1709, where he surrendered 
1658; at Onondaga, from July, 1661. until himself to the English in consequence of 
September, 1662; ordered to the Senecas war breaking out between the latter and 
in July. 1663, but remained at Montreal, the French, and was courteously treated 
He died in Canada in 1665. Francis Jo- at Albany. Jacques d'Heu was among 
seph Bressani, a prisoner among the Mo- the Onondagas in 1708. and the Senecas 
hawks from April 30 to Aug. 19, 1644. in 1709.' Anthony Gordon founded St. Re- 
Pierre Joseph Mary Chaumont, at Onon- gis in 1769, with a colony from St. Louis, 
daga from September, 1655. until March There were two " Sulpieians " as mission- 
20, 1658. Joseph Anthony Poncet was a aries in northern New York, Francis 
prisoner among the Iroquois from Aug. Piquet, who founded Oswegatchie (Ogdens- 
20 to Oct. 3, 1652; started for Onondaga burg) in 1748, and his successor at Oswe- 



gatchie, Pierre Paul Francis de la Garde. 
For Jesuit missions in California, see 

Jesup, MoKRis Ketchum, philanthro- 
pist; born in Westport, Conn., June 21, 

for his services in the battle of Lundy'a 
Lane, or Niagara, in which he was severe- 
ly wounded. After the war, he was pro- 
moted to adjutant-general and quarter- 
master-general of the armyin 1818, with the 

1830; removed to New York City; was a rank of brigadier-general, and was brevet- 
clerk in a manufacturing house till 1852, ted major-general in 1828. In 1836 he was in 
and thence till 1884 was engaged in command of the army in the Creek nation, 
banking business. He was elected presi- and at the close of the year he commanded 
dent of the Five Points House of Industry the army in Florida. He was wounded 
in 1872, and the same year became a by the Seminoles in January, 1838. He 
founder and president of the Young Men's died in Washington, D. C, June 10, 1860. 
Christian Association of New York City. Jewell, Marshall, diplomatist; born 
In 1881 he was elected president of the in Winchester, N. H., Oct. 20, 1825; learn- 
New York City Mission and Tract Society, ed the tanner's trade; and established a 
for which he built the DeWitt Memorial leather business. He was elected governor 

Church, in memory of his father-in-law, 
and also president of the Museum of 
Natural History, to which he presented 
a collection of native woods valued at 
$100,000. He was elected president of 
the New York Chamber of Commerce in 
1899. Besides the above institutions, he 
has been an officer in the leading benevo- 
lent and educational institutions in New 
York City and elsewhere. Mr. Jesup has 
been exceedingly liberal in his benefac- 

of Connecticut in 1869, re-elected in 1871 
and 1872; appointed minister to Russia 
in 1873; and became Postmaster-General 
in 1874. He died in Hartford, Conn., Feb. 
10, 1883. 

Jewett, Sarah Orne, author; born in 
South Berwick, Me., Sept. 3, 1849; was 
educated at the Berwick Academy. She 
has travelled extensively in the United 
States, Canada, and Europe; and is 
widely known as a short-story writer. 

tions, and has extended his aid to a large Her works include Decphaven; Play 
variety of interests. In 1897 he assumed Days; Old Friends and New; A White 
the expense, estimated at from $50,000 Heron; A Marsh Island; Betty Leicester; 
to $75,000, of a series of expeditions to Country By-icays; The Mate of the Day- 
secure anthropological material for the light, and Friends Ashore; A Country 
Museum of Natural History, with special Doctor; The Story of the Xormatis; The 
reference to the origin of the ancient King of Folly Island, and other People; 

population of this continent and its re- 
lation to the ancient inhabitants of the 
Old World. This project involves the 
thorough exploration of the coast of the 
north Pacific Ocean. In 1891 he gave to 
Yale Divinity School $51,000, and the 
Women's Hospital, in New York City, 
$100,000; in 1899 he erected Jesup Hall 
for Williams College, at a cost of $35,000; 
and in 1900 he presented to Yale Univer- 
sity the collection of Arabic manuscripts 
made by Count Landberg, a distinguished 
Swedish collector and traveller, for which 

Strangers and Wayfarers ; A Native of Win- 
by, and Other Talcs; The Life of Nancy; 
The Country of the Pointed Firs, etc. 

Jews. The Jewish citizenship of the 
United States is one of the most substan- 
tial of all foreign constituents of our com- 
plex population. The Jews are an exceed- 
ingly law-abiding people, and in their 
charities are unsurpassed by any race 
among us. Their homes, asylums, hospi- 
tals, and educational establishments are 
among the best endowed and most pro- 
gressive institutions in the country, and 

he paid $20,000. He also erected, for the the benevolent acts of prosperous Hebrew 

Union Theological Seminary, a building 
known as Jesup Hall. 

Jesup, Thomas Sidney, military offi- 
cer; born in Virginia, in 1788; entered 
the army in 1808, and was Hull's adju- 
tant-general in 1813. For his good con- 

men towards objects and institutions other 
than those of their own people have re- 
ceived a high and a deserved recognition. 

At the fifteenth annual meeting of the 
Association of Jewish Immigrants, in 
Philadelphia, in 1899. President Levy's re- 

duct at the battle of Chippewa, he was port treated especially of the general in- 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel; also colonel crease in immigration. Of the 312,000 im- 



migrants to this country, representing an " In 1818 Mordecai M. Noah estimated 
increase of 3G per cent, over the figures the Jewish population at 3,000. In 182(1 
of the preceding year, the Jewish con- Isaac C. Harby placed the figures at G,000, 
tingent was 37,000, an increase of 32.1 and in 1840 these were further increased 
per cent. A large proportion of the Jew- by the estimate published in the American 
ish immigrants came from Russia, where. Almanac to 15,000. In 1848 M. A. Berk 
however, the persecutions to which the made their number 50,000. In 1880 Will- 
Jews were subjected were being less rigor- iam B. Hackenburg put the figures at 
ously enforced than formerly. The fer- 230,257; in 1888 Isaac Markens put them 
nient infused into the European social at 400,000, and in 1897 David Sulzbero-er 
body by the Dreyfus affair appeared to estimated the total at 937,800." 
have had a clarifying effect, even the Pro- The following figures are then given: 

curator of the Russian Holy Synod hav- 
ing in a recent interview disavowed anti- 
Semitic sentiments. The actual storm 
centre of Slavic anti-Semitism had moved 
o\'er the border from Russia to Austria 
and Rumania, and in Bohemia the condi- 
tion of affairs was described as gravely 
foreboding. In Vienna the fever of anti- 
Semitism had passed its critical stage. 
This had been, in part, due to the disclos- 
ure of colossal frauds in the administra- 
tion of the city finances by numerous 
leaders of the anti-Semite majority. In 
Germany and France the conditions were 
still more favorable. 

Turning to the subject of Jewish colo- 
nization. President Levy said that the 
movement to colonize Jews in Palestine 
had been stemmed by the interference of 
the Turkish government. Jewish colonies 
had been established in Cyprus, and the 
De Hirsch colonies in Argentine wei'e 
showing unmistakable signs of progress. 
Of the New Jersey colonies, the one at 



New York. 




















To July, 1899... 





Immigration for 1881-84 74,310 

New York, 1885-99 417,010 

Philadelphia, 1885-99 36,390 

Baltimore, 1885-99 20,140 

Total 547,850 

" If we add this immigration to the 
estimate of Mr. Hackenburg made in 
Woodbine, under the fostering care of the 1880," says Mr. Adler, "we can secure a 
American De Hirsch Fund trustees, was total of 778,107, without making any al- 
growing in importance, and left no doubt as lowance for the natural increase in twenty 
to its ultimately successful establishment, years, nor for the immigration through 
The other colonies at Alliance, Norma, Car- Canada and other ports of the United 
mel, and Rosenhayn had passed the prob- States than New York, Philadelphia, and 
lematic stage and gave promise of success. Baltimore." 

In the American-Jewish Year-Boole for P'arly in 1904 Professor Haman, of 
1899-1900 (Hebrew year, 5660), Cyrus Basel, Switzerland, calculated that there 
Adler, the editor, considering the number were about 19.000.000 Jews in the world, 
of Jews in the United States, said: "As of whom nearly 11.000,000 were in Europe 
the census of the United States has, in and 8,000,000 outside of Europe, including 
accordance with the spirit of American 1,000,000 in the United States. Accord- 
institutions, taken no heed of the religious ing to his estimates Russia had 5,500,000; 
convictions of American citizens, whether Austria-IIuncrary. 1,860,000: Germany, 

native-born or naturalized, all statements 
concerning the number of Jews living in 
this country are based upon estimate, 
though several of the estimates have been 
most conscientiously made. 

V. — K 


568.000 ; Rumania, 300,000 : Great Britain, 
22,000; Turkey, 120,000; Holland. 97,000; 
France, 77,000: Italy, 50.000: Bulgaria, 
31,000; Switzcrl.and. 12,000; Greece, 6.000; 
Servia, 5,000; Denmark, 4,000; Sweden, 


3,500; Belgium, 3,000; Spain, 2,500; and 
Portugal, 300. 

The Arnerican Jewish Year-Boole for 
1903-04 stated the Jewish population of 
the United States at 1,127,268, which 
would make the United States rank third 
among the nations of the world in respect 
to Jewish citizens. The Year-Book esti- 
mated that fully 500,000 Jews were resi- 
dents of New York State, the greater 
part being on Manhattan Island. The 
following States were credited with hav- 
ing 10,000 or more Jews among their 
people: California, 28,000; Illinois, 75,000; 
Indiana, 25,000; Kentucky, 12,000; Loui- 
siana, 12,000; Maryland, 26,500; Massa- 

chusetts, 60,000; Minnesota, 10,000; Mis- 
souri. 50,000; New Jersey, 23,000; New 
York, 500,000; Ohio, 50,000; Pennsylvania, 
05,000; Tennessee, 10,000; Texas, 15,000; 
Virginia, 15,000; Wisconsin, 15,000. The 
immigration figures for 1903 show that 
in 1902-03, 58,079 Jews entered the port 
of New York, of whom 30,536 were Rus- 
sians, 18,113 Austrians, 8,314 Rumanians, 
527 Germans, 271 Turks, 233 English, 35 
Dutch, 28 French, 12 Swedes, 5 Scotch, 
and 5 South Americans. From Aug. 27, 
1902, to Aug. 25, 1903, 24 synagogues were 
dedicated in fourteen of the United States, 
16 hospitals and many other institutions 
were opened. 


Jews and Judaism. Professor Richard dependent upon the political conditions of 

these countries. More than seventy years 
ot the century had passed before this 
struggle had been fought out. 

The cause of Jewish emancipation in 

England sufTered no such sudden changes 

as it did on the continent. It proceeded 

For the Jew the Middle Ages did not by regular stages through the abrogation 

end with the Reformation and the Renais- of the Act of Test in 1828, the admission 

sance; but only disappeared in the trans- of Jews as citizens of London in 1830, as 

formation brought about gradually by the sheriffs in 1835, as magistrates in 1845, 

French Revolution. During this period and in 1858 as members of Parliament by 

J. H. Gottheil, the scholarly writer on 
Jewish questions, and son of the well- 
known Rabbi Gottheil, of New York, 
writes as follows regarding Hebraism in 

the Jew has passed through more up- 
heavals than many nations have during 
three or four times the number of years. 
The modern European and American world 

the removal of the words " upon the faith 
of a Christian " in the oath taken by the 

There are between 10,000.000 and 11,- 

has had a hard fight to find its way into 000,000 Jews to-day in the world ; of these, 

its present changed condition; but much about 9,000.000 live in Europe; 1,000.000 

harder by far was the task laid upon the in the United States and Canada; 350.000 

Jew; and, whether he has succeeded or in Africa: 350,000 in Asia; and 16,000 

not, he has made an honest fight. The in Australasia. 

tale of the Jew of the nineteenth century In England and America no organiza- 

is a record of his endeavor to do justice tion of the Jews has been effected, as the 

to the two demands which were made upon stat* does not there take cognizance of the 

him: the one from the outside world — -to religioiis belief of the people. In both 

fit himself to take his place worthily and these countries attempts have been made 

do his work side by side with the other by the Jews themselves to organize imder 

citizens of the state in which he lived; the one head upon a purely religious basis, 

otlier from within his own ranks to har- but without nuich success. The congrega- 

monize his religious belief with his new 
point of view and to adapt his religious 
exercises to modern social conditions. The 
struggle of the Jews in the various Euro- 
pean countries for civil rights and for 
equality before the law was long drawn 

tional system has been carried to its ut- 
most limits in the United States, where 
each congregation is a law unto itself and 
absolutely rejects any interference on the 
part of any larger body. From time to 
time a desire has been manifested to super- 

out, and was marked by varying fortunes sede this purelv congregational system by 



some form of union. The late Dr. Isaac of the French language and of French cult- 

M. Wise, of Cincinnati, had at various ure in the East. This one-sidedness of 

times attempted to bring the Jews of the its work is best seen in the fact that by its 

United States "together with an authorita- side similar organizations have been cre- 

tive synod at their head. Out of this and ated in other countries, " The Board of 

other attempts have come the Central Con- Delegates of American Israelites " in the 

ference of American Rabbis and The Union United States, " The Anglo-Jewish Associa- 

of American Congregations ( founded in tion " in England, the " Israelitische Al- 

1873), which now comprises about ninety- liance " in Austria, and the " Deutsche Ge- 

one congregations. These organizations, meindebund " in Germany. At one point 

however, do not by any means represent it was hoped that the B'nai B'rith, estab- 

either all of the Jewish ministers or all lished in this country in 1843, by Isidor 

of the Jewish congregations, and the 
Union itself is merely a deliberative body 
having no power to do anything in the in- 
ternal affairs of one of its constituent 
synagogues. Since the union of American 
Jewish congregations comprises only such 

Busch, Julius Bien, and others, would 
form such a union of Jews, where the 
theological differences would be eliminated. 
But though this order, which has 315 
lodges in the United States and Canada, 
has established itself in such countries 

as stand upon a Reform platform, a union as Germany, Rumania, Austria, Algeria, 

of Orthodox congregations was formed in Bulgaria, and Egypt, and despite the good 

New York two or three years ago, and it work it has so far done, the mere fact 

is hoped that this organization will do that it is a secret organization prevents it 

much towards binding together the very from standing forth as the representative 

many congregations of those who adhere of international Jewry. Where, then, and in 

strictly to traditional Judaism. what manner is such a body to be found? 

But"^ the organization of Jews as a It is a mistake to suppose that the Jews 

church has not been found sufficient. It as a people are rich. The proletariat 

was early felt that some more secular 
bond must be found which should unite 
the Jews of various porsuasiojis for com- 
mon and concerted action. The first at- 
tempt in this direction was nobly made 
by Narcisse Leven, Eugene Emanuel, 
Charles Netter, and a few others, in found- 
ing (1880) the "Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verselle " in Paris, whose object it was to 
aid in removing Jewish disabilities wher- 
ever they might exist, and to raise the 

among them is proportionately much 
larger than it is among other people; and 
thus it came about that the Jewish quar- 
ters in all the large cities were already 
well filled when they were (almost at a 
moment's notice) called upon to receive 
double or triple the number they already 
held. The actual number of the Jewish 
poor was thereby greatly increased; for 
many a family that had been wealthy or 
in easv circumstances in Russia, Galicia, 

spiritual" condition of their coreligionists or Rumania, had been reduced to want 
in northern Africa, eastern Europe, and and been compelled to take its place 
western Asia by the founding of schools, among those who needed the help of their 
From these small beginnings the Alliance brethren. This help was freely and cheer- 
has grown to be an important factor in fully given all the world over. Great 
the conservation of Jewish interests, sacrifices were made by the richer Jews 
Faithful to its programme, it has estab- to meet the pressing needs of the hour, 
lished a large number of elementary and and, with no help from the outside world, 
technical schools, and has intervened ac- excepting the London Mansion House 
tively in Algeria, Morocco, the Turkish Fund in 1882, the thousands and tens of 
Empire, and Persia whenever Jews or Jew- thousands of immigrants were cared for. 
ish interests were in any way threatened. The Jewish charitable organizations, the 
Its attempt, however, to represent the development of which has been during the 
whole Jewish people has not been success- bitter half of the nineteenth century the 
ful; for the reason that it has been allied brightest spot in Jewish communal life, 
too closely with French national interests; rose to the demands of the occasion, and 
and side by side with the " Alliance Fran- the more than princely munificence of 
caise " it has been an active propagandist Baron and Baroness Maurice de Hirsch, 



in regard to the Russian Jews, may justly of Jews there must be stopped, and the 

be looked upon with pride. crowding into certain distinct fields of 

New Ghettos, however, were formed in work must be brought to an end. A deter- 
nearly all the cities to which these immi- mined effort has already been made to 
grants came; and this name for the habi- force the new immigrants into less crowded 
tat of the poorer Jews became again famil- parts of the land to which they come. In 
iar, aided by the popularity which some this country this is being done by the 
modern novelists had given to it. In the United Hebrew Charities, and notably by 
Middle Ages and down to our own time the B'nai B'rith. A distinct clannish feel- 
the Jews had been forced by the state ing has, however, to be overcome, and a 
to live apart in such Ghettos; sometimes fear of venturing into an unknown coun- 
for their own protection, sometimes to try where the immigrant will be surround- 
preserve the outside world from contact ed by people who do not understand his 
with them. The modern Ghetto is a volun- peculiar social and religious customs, 
tary gathering of the Jews for the purpose That the Jew has taken by preference 
of mutual help and from a feeling of re- to certain branches of trade and work is 
ciprocal obligations. To the outside ob- due to the fact that anti-Jewish legisla- 
server it presents an unsightly appear- tion has for centuries closed many walks 
ance; it is the abode of poor people, and of life to him, and the guild organization 
its population is usually strange in dress, excluded him rigorously from many 
manners, and speech. The sweating sys- spheres of activity. Then, too, his richly 
tem (which in one form or another is to developed home life has induced a certain 
be found in all these Ghettos) has been a distaste for occupations which take the 
dreadful incentive towards grinding the wage-earner out of his home and away 
face of the poor; and the results of too from his family. That, however, these 
great a hoarding are often quite apparent; inherited instincts can easily be overcome 
so that the general morality of the Jews is clearly seen whenever the occasion 
in these Ghettos has suffered in conse- offers. Even in Amsterdam, where three- 
quence. A people ignorant of the Ian- fourths of the diamond inditstry is in the 
guage of their new home are a prey to the hands of Jews, there are to be found Jew- 
evil - intended, who make use of their ish cobblers, cigar-makers, plumbers, car- 
ignorance for their own commercial and pet - weavers, mattress - makers, watch- 
political advancement. This has been makers, etc. In the East End of London 
notably seen in the city of New York, there are, it is true, 10,000 Jews who 
where a lax city government has permitted are engaged in the clothes - making 
the vampires of society to fasten their trades, but the rest of 40,000 Jewish 
fangs upon the Ghetto and to produce con- wage - earners of this quarter are scat- 
ditions which call for the active interfer- tered over all possible branches of 
ence of all those forces which seek to work — masonry, metal-working, textile 
stamp out crime and vice. But, on the industries, furniture-making, cap-making, 
other hand, to one who is acquainted with and the like. The same is true of New 
the inner life of the Ghetto the virtues York, where, although the number of Jews 
which have hitherto characterized the employed in the tailoring indvistries is 
Jews — industry and sobriety — are still to disproportionately large, the following 
be found there; much more frequently list of Hebrew unions shows how far 
than in those parts where the richer afield the Jewish workman has gone: 
classes congregate, and whose wealth Cap-Makers, Cap-Blockers, Shirt-Makers, 
enables them to withdraw their doings Mattress-Makers, Purse-Makers, Liberty 
from the public gaze. Its members are as Musical Union, Jewish Chorus Union, 
industrious as bees in a hive ; and though Jewellers' Union, Tin-Smithers' Union, 
axtremely litigations, drunkenness is un- Bill-Posters, Waiters' Alliance, Architect- 
known and actual crime is comparatively ural Ironworkers, Hebrew Typographical 
rare. L'^nion, Tobacco Cutters, Paper - Makers, 

In order to correct the abuses of the Bookbinders. The same is relatively true 

(ghetto, two things are absolutely neces- of all other countries where Jews live in 

sary — the increase of the actual number large numbers. 



It is a popular misconception that the 
Jew has an innate distaste for agricult- 
tir«. His continued commercial life, forced 
upon him for many centuries, has, it 
is true, disaccustomed the Jew to the 
life of a tiller of the soil. But the Jewish 
state was largely an agricultural one; the 
legislation of the Bible and the later Law 
Books was clearly intended for an agri- 
cultural people; and Jews have never 
shown an unwillingness to return again 
to the soil. In Southern Russia there are 
to-day 225 Jewish colonies with a popula- 
tion of 100,000. In Palestine there are 
now more than twenty colonies with a 
population of more than 5,000, and similar 
agricultural colonies have been established 
at various times in the United States, 
Canada, and the Argentine Republic. In 
many cases, it is true, these colonies have 
not yet become self-supporting, but this 
has been due in a large measure to mal- 
administration and to the popular con- 
ditions under which the colonies were 

It cannot be denied that a goodly part 
of the Jewish proletariat belongs to the 
Socialist party. The whole Biblical sys- 
tem is in itself not Avithout a Socialist 
tinge; and the two great founders of the 
iiiodern system, Lasalle and Marx, were 
Jews. But the Jew is by nature peace- 
loving; and under more favorable circum- 
stances, and with the opportunity of a 
greater development of his faculties, 
Socialism in his midst has no very active 
life ; the Jew very soon becoming an ar- 
dent partisan of the existing state of 

The facility with which the Jews attach 
themselves to changed circumstances 
stands out characteristically through their 
whole history. It might, indeed, be said 
with some show of truth that this pli- 
ability is the weak side in the Jewish 
character. The readiness of the Jew to be 
almost anything and not simply his own 
self has been one of the factors producing 
a certain ill Avill against him. Disraeli 
was the most jingo of all imperialists in 
England ; Lasker, the most ardent advo- 
cate of the newly constituted German Em- 
pire. This pliability is the result of the 
v.'andering life he has led and the various 
cixnlizations of which he has been a part. 
He has to find his way into Hellenism in 

Alexandria, into Moorish culture in Spain, 
into Slavism in E,ussia and Poland. When 
the first wave of the modern spirit com- 
menced to break from France eastward 
over the whole of Eiirope, it reached the 
Jew also. While in France the new spirit 
was largely political in Germany it was 
more spiritual. In its political form as 
well as in its spiritual form it reacted 
not only upon the political condition of 
the Jew, but especially upon his mental 
attitude. The new spirit was intensely 
modern, intensely cosmopolitan, intensely 
Occidental, and intensely inductive. The 
Jew had preserved to a great degree his 
deductive, Oriental, particularistic, and 
ancient mode of thought and aspect of 
life. The two forces were bound to meet. 
As a great oak is met by the storm, so was 
Israel set upon by the fury of this terrible 
onslaught. It is of interest to see in what 
manner he emerged from this storm — 
whether he has been able to bend to its 
fury, to lose perhaps some of his leaves 
and even some of his branches, but to 
change only in such a way as to be able 
10 stand upright again when the storm 
is past. 

It was in the United States that the 
Reform movement developed its full ca- 
pacity and bore its most perfect fruit. 
In a new land, which was untrammelled 
by traditions of the past, and where the 
congregational system became the basis of 
Jewish communal life, the ideas which the 
Gei-man Reformers had sown had a most 
fruitful ground in which to grow. It can- 
not be said that the Reform movement 
here was actually started by the Ger- 
mans, for already, in 1825, one of the 
congregations in Charleston, S. C, made 
up almost entirely of Sefardic Jews, 
had developed " The Reformed Society of 
Israelites"; and the formation of the 
society seems to ha^e been due, not only 
to the demand for an a?sthetic service, but 
to an attempt to formulate a creed which 
should omit all reference to the coming of 
the Messiah, the return to Palestine, and 
the bodily resurrection. This attempt at 
formulating a Theistic Church, however, 
v/as unsuccessful ; and it was not until the 
advent from Germany in the 50's and 60's 
of rabbis who had been influenced hv the 
moA'ement in Germanv that reform com- 
menced to make itself felt -here. Merz- 



bacher in New York, Isaac M. Wise in Al- 
bany and Cincinnati, S. Hirsch in Phila- 
delphia, David PJinhorn in Baltimore, are 
only a few of the names of those who 
fought in the thick of the fight. About the 
year 1843 the first real Reform congrega- 
tions were established, the Temple Emanu- 
el in New York and Har Sinai in Balti- 
more. It cannot be my purpose here 
to trace the history of the movement in 
this country; suffice it to say that the un- 
trammelled freedom which existed here 
very soon played havoc with most of the 
institutions of the Jewish religion. Each 
congregation and each minister, being a 
law to itself, shortened the service, excised 
prayers, and did away with observances 
a8 it thought best. Not that the leaders 
did not try, from time to time, to regulate 
the measure of reform to be introduced, 
and to evolve a platform upon which the 
movement should stand. Rabbinical con- 
ferences were held for that purpose in 
Cleveland (1856), Philadelphia (1869), 
Cincinnati (1871), and Pittsburg (1885). 
While in the earlier conferences the at- 
tempt was made to find some authoritative 
statement upon which all parties could 
agree, in the subsequent ones the attempt 
was given up. They became more and 
more meeting-places simply for the ad- 
vanced Reform wing of the Jewish Church. 
The position of this wing of the Reformed 
synagogue may best be seen in the declara- 
tion of principles which was published by 
the Pittsburg conference. It declared 
that Judaism presents the highest con- 
ception of the God idea; that the Bible 
contains the record cf the consecration of 
the Jewish people; that it is a potent in- 
strument of religious and moral instruc- 
tion; that it reveals, however, the primi- 
tive ideas of its own age; that its moral 
laws only are binding; and that all cere- 
monies therein ordained which are not 
ndapted to the views and habits of modern 
civilization are to be rejected; that all 
Mosaic and rabbinical laws regulating 
diet, priestly functions, and dress, are for- 
eign to our present mental state ; that the 
Jews are no longer a nation, and therefore 
do not expect a return to Palestine ; that 
Judaism is a progressive religion, always 
striving to be in accord with the postulates 
of reason ; that the belief in bodily resur- 
rection. W *he existence of a hell and a 


paradise, are to be rejected ; and that it is 
the duty of Jews to participate in the 
great task of modern times to solve on the 
basis of justice and righteousness the 
problems presented by the transitions and 
evils of the present organization of soci- 
ety. Such a platform as this could not 
fail to arouse intense opposition on the 
part of the Orthodox Jews, and to lose for 
the conference even some of its more con- 
servative adherents. As in Charleston, in 
1825, a platform of Theism was here postu- 
lated, which was bereft of all distinctively 
Jewish characteristics, and which practi- 
cally meant a breaking away from historic 
Judaism. This position of the advanced 
Reformers is also manifested in the stand 
which they have taken in regard to the 
necessity of the Abrahamic covenant. At 
a meeting of the Central Conference of 
American (Reformed) Rabbis, held at 
Baltimore in 1881, a resolution was passed 
to the effect that no initiatory rite or cere- 
mony was necessary in the ease of one de- 
siring to enter the Covenant of Israel, and 
that such a one had merely to declare his 
or her intention to worship the one sole 
and eternal God, to be conscientiously gov- 
erned in life by God's laws, and to adhere 
to the sacred cause and mission of Israel 
as marked out in Holy Writ. 

The service in Reform synagogues in the 
United States has kept pace with this de- 
velopment of doctrine, or rather with this 
sloughing-off of so much that is distinctive- 
ly Jewish. The observance of the second-day 
festivals has been entirely abolished, as 
well as the separation of the sexes and the 
covering of the head in prayer. The ritual 
has been gradually shortened, the ancient 
language of prayer (Hebrew) has been 
pushed further and further into the back- 
ground, so that in some congregations the 
service is altogether English ; and in a 
few congregations an additional service 
on Sunday, intended for those who cannot 
attend upon the regular Sabbath-day, has 
been introduced. Only one congregation, 
Sinai in Chicago, has followed the old Ber- 
lin Reform sjmagogue and has entirely 
abolished the service on Friday night and 
Saturday morning. But whatever criti- 
cism one might like to offer on the Reform 
movement in the United States, it deserves 
great praise for the serious attempt it 
has made to understand its own position 



uiid to square its observance with that 
position. It has also been most active in 
its modern institutional development. It 
lias certainly beautified and spiritualized 
the synagogue service: it has founded a 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 
and a seminary (Hebrew Union College in 


Cincinnati). It has published a Union 
Praj'er-book and a Union Hymn-book, and 
has given great care to the development of 
the Confirmation and the bettering of the 
Sunday-school. It has tried to make the 
synagogue a centre for the religious and 
spiritual development of its members; 


and it cannot be denied that the very 
large mass of educated Jews in this coun- 
try, in so far as they have any affiliation 
with the synagogue, belong to the Re- 
form wing. But at the same time 
it must not be forgotten that there is 
a very large body of Orthodox and 
conservative Jews, whose number has 
been greatly increased during the last 
twenty years through the influx of Rus- 
sian, Galician, and Rumanian Jews. 

Reform Judaism without some centrif- 
ugal force is bound to continue on the 
road it has once taken. The logical out- 
come of the principles formulated at the 
Pittsburg conference is a gradual develop- 
ment into an ethical Theism without any 
distinctive Jewish coloring. The leader of 
advanced Reform Judaism in this country 
has recently said that Judaism must be 
recast along the lines of a universal ethi- 
cal religion ; that then all distinctive Jew- 
ish elements of the synagogue symbolism 
will pass away, and that such a denation- 
alized Jewish temple will seek a closer al- 
liance with Unitarianism and Theism, and 
with them, perhaps in a few decades, will 
form a new church and a new religion for 
united humanity. That such a tendency 
is inherent in Reform Judaism is seen also 
in the formation of the Society of Ethical 
Culture in New York. The leader of this 
movement is the son of a former promi- 
nent rabbi of the leading Reform congre- 
gation in this country. In seeking to 
bring out the underlying ethical prin- 
ciples of Judaism, he has gone entirely 
outside the pale of the ancient faith ; and 
the movement would not concern us here 
were it not that nearly all the members 
(at least of the parent society in New 
York) are Jews, whose evident desire it 
is not to be recognized as such, at least 
so far as religious ceremonies and social 
affiliations are concerned. The society 
does not even bear the name Jewish, but 
with a certain leaning towards liberal 
Christianity tries to find a basis for the 
morality and ethics of the old synagogue 
outside the sphere of supernatural re- 
ligion. While the Ethical Culture Society 
has been quite a power in certain lines of 
charitable and educational work, it may 
reasonably be questioned whether it has 
any future as a form of church organiza- 
tion. The inborn longing of man for some 


hold upon things which are supernatural 
will lead many of its members to seek 
satisfaction elsewhere. That they will 
seek it in the Jewish synagogue is hardly 
probable, seeing how the racial and other 
ties have been broken or at least greatly 
loosened. They or their children will 
glide rather into some form of the domi- 
nant church, possibly, in the swinging of 
the pendulum, into some orthodox form 
of that church. I cannot help quoting the 
words of an intelligent outside observer 
of the Jewish question, the Right Hon. 
James Bryce, M. P. : " If Judaism be- 
comes merely Theism, there will be little 
to distinguish its professors from the per- 
sons, now pretty numerous, who, while 
Christian in name, sit loose to Christian 
doctrine. The children of Jewish theists 
will be almost as apt as the children of 
other theists to be caught up by the move- 
ment wiiich carries the sons and daughters 
of evangelical Anglicans and of Noncon- 
formists towards, or all the way to, the 
Church of Rome." 

Where, then, is this centrifugal force to 
be found, which will hold together the 
various elements in Israel, no matter what 
their theological opinions may be? Before 
attempting to answer this question, a word 
mast be said in regard to the anti-Semitic 
movement, the recrudescence of which has 
so profoundly affected the Jewish people 
during the last twenty years of the nine- 
teenth century. A word only, because the 
facts are of too recent date to need a de- 
tailed statement here. The great master- 
mind, Zunz, writing in Germany in 1832, 
believed that persecution for religious be- 
lief could not withstand the onslaughts of 
the new era. Theodore Reinach, some 
fifty years later, asserted that anti-Semi- 
tism was impossible in France. How 
sadly has a dementi been given to the 
hopes thus expressed, especially in these 
two coimtries! 

I pass over the outbreaks against the 
Jews during the early years of the nine- 
teenth century, even the Damascus blood- 
accusation in 1840, and the forcible bap- 
tism of little Edgar Mortara in 1S58 ; they 
were believed to belong to the old order of 
things, with which the new, at least in 
that direction, bad nothing in common. 
Starting in Germany, perhaps as a po- 
litical move on the part of Bismarck, it 
52 ^- 


spread into Russia, Galicia, Austria, Ru- 
mania, and France. In most of these coun- 
tries it not only found expression in the 
exclusion of the Jews from all social inter- 
course with tlicir fellows, but in Russia 
produced the riots of 1881 and 1882; in 
Austria and Bohemia the turbulent scene 
in the Reichstag, and even the pillaging of 
Jewish houses and Jewish synagogues; in 
Rumania it received the active support 
of the government and reduced the Jews 
there to practical penury; while in France 
it showed itself in accusations against the 
Jews which for barbarity could match any 
that were brought against them in the 
Middle Ages. The charges against the 
Jews are varied in their character. In 
Germany they have been blamed for ex- 
ploiting the agricultural class and for 
serving the interests of the Liberal party, 
forgetting that Leo and Stahl, the found- 
ers of the Orthodox party in Prussia, 
were themselves Jews, and that Disraeli 
iu England 'U'as born of the same race. 
The most foolish accusations on almost 
CA'ery conceivable subject have been lodged 
against them by such men as Ahlwart, 
Stocker, Lueger, and Drumont; and in 
late years the old and foolish charge that 
the Jews use the blood of Christian chil- 
dren in the making of Passover bread has 
been revived, in order to infuriate the 
populace ; despite the fact that popes, 
ecclesiastics, and hosts of Christian pro- 
fessors have declared the accusation to be 
purely imaginary and malignant. The 
false charge that a Jewish officer in France 

Among the few bright spots on the 
^vorld's chart are those countries inhabited 
by the Anglo-Saxon race. Anti-Semitism 
is unknown in England (though the at- 
tempt has been made to fix the blame for 
the Boer war on the Jews) ; and the in- 
stitutions of the United States have up 
til] now prevented the entrance here of 
the disease, though in the mild form of 
social anti-Semitism which debars Jewish 
children from private schools and Jewish 
people from clubs and summer hotels, it 
has insinuated itself into some of the 
Eastern cities, notably into New York. 

Jogues, Isaac, missionary; born at 
Orleans, France, Jan. 10, 1607; became a 
Jesuit at Rouen in 1624; was ordained in 
1636; and, at his own request, was imme- 
diately sent to Canada. He was a most 
earnest missionary among the Indians on 
both sides of the Lakes. Caught, tortured, 
and made a slave by the Mohawks, he re- 
mained with them until 1643, when he es- 
caped to Albany, and was taken to Man- 
hattan. Returning to Europe, he was 
shipwrecked on the English coast. He 
returned to Canada in 1646, where he con- 
cluded a treaty between the French and 
the Mohawks. Visiting Lake George, he 
named it St. Sacrament, and, descending 
the Hudson River to Albany, he went 
among the Mohawks as a missionary, who 
seized and put him to death as a sorcerer, 
at Caughnawaga, N. Y., Oct. 18, 1646. 

John Adams, The. The naval opera- 
tions on the sea in 1814, though not so 
important as in the two preceding years 


kad betrayed secrets of his goveruTnent was in some respects, fully sustained the char- 
sufficient to unloosen the most savage at- acter of the American navy. The John 
lacks upon the Jews which the modern Adams frigate had been cut down to a 
world has seen. corvette of twenty-eight guns in 1813, and 



was the first that figured after the open- 
ing of 1814. She started on a cruise from 
Washington in January, and on the niglit 
of the 18th passed the British blockading 
squadron in Lynn Haven Bay, put to sea, 
and ran to the northeast to cross the track 
of the West India merchantmen. She 
made a few prizes, and on March 25 she 
captured the Indiaman Woodbridge. While 
taking possession of her the commander 
of the Adams (Capt. Charles Morris) ob- 
served twenty-five merchant vessels, with 
two ships-of-war, bearing down upon her 
with a fair wind. Morris abandoned his 
prize, and gave the Adams wings for flight 
from danger. In April she entered the 
harbor of Savannah for supplies, and on 
May 5 sailed for the Manila Reef to watch 
for the Jamaica convoy, but the fleet pass- 
ed her in the night. She gave chase in the 
morning, but was kept at bay by two ves- 
sels of war. She crossed the Atlantic, and 
on July 3 was off the Irish coast, where 
she was chased by British vessels, but al- 
ways escaped. For nearly two months the 
weather was foggy, cold, and damp, be- 
cause the ocean was dotted with icebergs. 
Her crew sickened, and Captain Morris de- 
termined to go into port. He entered 
Penobscot Bay, and was nearly disabled 
by striking a rock, Aug. 17, 1814, and 
made his way up the Penobscot River to 
Hampden. British vessels followed, and 
to prevent her falling into the hands of 
his enemy, Morris burned her. 

John Doe and Richard Roe, names 
used in legal fictions, especially as stand- 
ing pledges for the prosecution of suits. 
In early times real and substantial persons 
were required to pledge themselves to 
answer to the crown for an amercement, 
or fine, set upon the plaintiff, for raising 
a false accusation, if he brought action 
without cause, or failed in it; and in 1285, 
13 Edward I., sheriffs and bailiffs were, 
before deliverance of a distress, to receive 
pledges for pursuing a suit, and for the 
return of the property, if awarded. But 

this becoming a matter of form, the ficti- 
tious names of Doe and Roe were used 
until the form was abolished by the com- 
mon-law procedure act, 1852. 

In the United States these names are 
used in place of the unknown real names 
of parties against whom legal proceedings 
have been undertaken ; and the form Jane 
Doe is similarly applied in cases of women. 

Joh.nes, Edward Rodolph, lawyer; born 
in Whitesboro, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1852; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1873 and at 
Columbia Law School in 1876. He was the 
Venezuelan representative in the boundary 
dispute of that country and also counsel 
in the Nicaragua and Costa Rica boun- 
dary case. His publications include The 
Monroe Doctrine as Applied to Venezuelan 
Boundary Question ; English and American 
Bankruptcy and Insolvency Laws, History 
of Southampton, R. I., etc. 

Johns Hopkins University, a non- 
sectarian institution in Baltimore, Md. ; 
organized in 1876 with funds provided by 
Johns Hopkins {q. v.) ; coeducational in 
its medical department. At the close of 
1900 the university had 131 professors and 
instructors; 645 students in all depart- 
ments; 04,000 volumes in the library; 
1,204 graduates; and an endowment of 
$3,000,000. Under the presidency of 
Daniel C. Oilman the institution achieved 
a large measure of success and influence, 
a distinctive feature being the original re- 
search conducted by the students. Presi- 
dent Oilman resigned his charge in 1901, 
and was succeeded by Ira Remsen, LL.D., 
who had been Professor of Chemistry in 
the university since its opening. 

Johnson, Alexander Bryan, banker; 
born in Oosport, England, May 29. 1786: 
came to the United States in 1801 and 
settled in Utica, N. Y. ; was in the banking 
business over forty-five years. His pub- 
lications include The Nature of Value, 
Capital, etc. ; Guide to Right Understand- 
ing of our American Union, etc. He died 
in' Utica, N. Y., Sept. 9, 1867. 


Johnson, Andrew, seventeenth Presi- 
dent of the United States ; born in Ra- 
leigh, N. C, Dec. 29, 1808. He learned 

to read. After working as a journeyman 
in South Carolina, he went to Orecnville. 
Tcnn., taking with him his mother, who 

the trade of a tailor, and taught himself was dependent on him. There he worked 



at his trade, married, and was taught by Congress as an illegal body, deserving of 

his wife to write; became alderman and no respect. The tour, made wholly for 

mayor; a member of the legislature political effect, extended to St. Louis. 

(1832-33 and 183'J) ; presidential elector His conduct at Cleveland and St. Louis 

(1840) ; State Senator in 1841; and mem- was so offensive that the common coun- 

ber of Congress from 1843 to 1853. From cils of Cincinnati and Pittsburg refused 

1853 to 1857 he was governor of Tennes- to accord him a public reception. The at- 

see, and from 1857 to 1863 United States tempt to establish a new party with 

Senator. In 18G2 he was appointed mill- President Johnson as a leader was a fail- 

tary governor of Tennessee, and in 1864 ure. 

was elected Vice-President of the United When the cabinet of President John- 
States. On the death of President Lin- son resigned, the friends of Mr. Stanton, 
coin he succeeded to the office, in accord- Secretary of War, uiged him to retain 
ancb with the provisions of the Constitu- the office, for it was believed the chief 
tion, On the morning of the death of Mr. magistrate was contemplating some revo- 
Lincoin, April 15, 1865, the cabinet offi- lutionary movement. The tenure of office 
cers, excepting Mr. Seward, who was suf- act seemed to guarantee Mr. Stanton 
fering from a murderous assault, ad- against removal, ^^he Fortieth Congress 
dressea a note to the Vice-President, offi- met immediately after the adjournment 
cially notifying him of the decease of the of the Thirty-ninth, and adjourned March 
President, and that the emergency of the 31, 1867, to rneet on the first Wednesday 
government demanded that he should im- in July following, for the express pur- 
mediately enter upon the duties of the pose of preventing the President from 
Presidency. Mr. Johnson appointed ten doing serious mischief. After removing 
o'clock that morning, when he would be obstructions cast in the way of reor- 
ready to take the oath of office. That ganization by the President, Congress 
oath was administered by Chief-Justice adjourned, July 20, to meet Nov. 21, 
Chase, in the presence of the cabinet offi- hoping the President would no longer 
cers and several members of Congress, disturb the public peace by his conduct. 
Then the President delivered a brief They were mistaken. As soon as Con- 
speech to the gentlemen present. There, gress adjourned, in violation of the ten- 
in the midst of universal and unparalleled ure of office act he proceeded to remove 
excitement, the authority of the nation Mr. Stanton from office. He first asked 
was quietly transferred to other hands a him, Aug. 5, to resign. " Grave public 
few hours after the death of President considerations," he said, " constrain me 
Lincoln. Mr. Johnson requested Mr. Lin- to request your resignation as Secretary 
coin's cabinet to remain, and the govern- of War." Stanton replied, " Grave public 
ment went on without a shock to its considerations constrain me to continue 
steady movement. See Cabinet, Presi- in the office of Secretary of War until the 
dent's. next meeting of Congress." He shared 
On Aug. 14, 1866, a convention was held in the general suspicion that Johnson 
in Philadelphia, composed largely of Con- was contemplating a revolutionary move- 
federate leaders and their sympathizers ment in favor of the Confederates. A 
in the North, for the purpose of organ- week later the President directed Gen- 
izing a new political party, with Presi- oral Grant to assume the position and 
dent Johnson as its standard - bearer, duties of Secretary of War. As a duti- 
Whereupon Johnson and a part of his ful soldier, he obeyed his commander-in- 
cabinet made a circuitous journey to Chi- chief. Stanton, knowing the firmness 
cago, ostensibly for the purpose of being and incorruptible patriotism of Grant, 
present at the dedication of a monument withdrew imder protest. This change 
to Senator Douglas. He harangued the was followed by such arbitrary acts on 
people on the way in language so un- the part of the President that the country 
becoming the dignity of a chief magis- Avas thoroughly alarmed. Even the Presi- 
trate of the republic that the nation felt dent's private friends were amazed anu 
a relief from mortification after his re- mortified by his conduct. He gave un- 
turn )i- September. He had denounced satisfactory reasons for dismissing Stan- 



ton. On Jan. 13, 1868, the Senate rein- 
stated Stanton, when Grant quietly with- 
drew. The enraged President reproached 
the latter for yielding to the Senate, 
charged him with having broken his 
promises, and tried to injure his reputa- 
tion as a citizen and a soldier. A ques- 
tion of veracity between them arose, when 
the general-in-chief felt compelled to say, 
in a letter to the President : " When my 
honor as a soldier and my integrity as a 
man have been so violently assailed, par- 
don me for saying that I can but regard 
this whole matter, from beginning to end, 
as an attempt to involve me in the resist- 
ance of law for which you have hesitated 
to assume the responsibility in orders, 
and thus to destroy my character before 
the country." The President's condvict 
concerning Stanton led immediately to 
his impeachment. 

On Feb. 22, 1868, the House of Repre- 
sentatives, by a vote of 126 to 47, "Re- 
solved, that Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, be impeached of 
high crimes and misdemeanors." A com- 
mittee presented nine articles of impeach- 
ment ( see below ) . Managers were ap- 
pointed, and on March 3 they presented 
two other charges. The Senate organized 
as a high court of impeachment, with 
Chief -Justice Chase presiding, on the 5th; 
the President was summoned to the bar 
on the 7th, and appeared by counsel on 
the 13th; and the trial was begun on the 
30th. The examination of -witnesses 
ended April 22; the arguments of counsel 
were concluded May 6; and twenty days 
were consumed in debates in the Senate. 
The votes of fifty-four Senators present 
were taken on the verdict on May 26, 
when thirty-five were for conviction, and 
nineteen for acquittal. As two-thirds of 
the votes were necessary for conviction, 
the President was acquitted by one vote. 

Soon after the expiration of his term 
as President, he was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the United States Senate; in 
1872 he was defeated for Congressman- 
at-Large; and in January, 187.5, he was 
elected a United States Senator. He died 
near Carter's Station, Tcnn., July 31, 

Impeachment Proceedinqn. — Articles 
exhibited by the House of Representa- 
tives of the United States, in the name 

of themselves and all the people of tha 
United States, against Andrew Johnson, 
President of the United States, in main- 
tenance and support of their impeachment 
against him for high erimes and misde- 


That said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, on the 21st day of 
February, in the year of our Lord 1868, 
at Washington, in the District of Colum- 
bia, unmindful of the high duties of his 
office, of his oath of office, and of the re- 
quirement of the Constitution that he 
should take care that the laws be faith- 
fully executed, did unlawfully, and in 
violation of the Constitution and laws of 
the United States, issue an order in writ- 
ing for the removal of Edwin M. Stan- 
ton from the office of Secretary for the 
Department of War, said Edwin M. Stan- 
ton having been theretofore duly appoint- 
ed and commissioned, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate of the 
United States, as such Secretary, and said 
Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
States, on the 12th day of August, in the 
year of our Lord 1SG7, and during the 
recess of said Senate, having suspended 
by his order Edwin M. Stanton from said 
office; and within twenty days after the 
first day of the next meeting of said 
Senate — that is to say, on the 12th day of 
December, in the year last aforesaid — 
having reported to said Senate such sus- 
pension, with the evidence tind reasons 
for his action in the case, and the name 
of the person designated to perform the 
duties of such office temporarily until 
the next meeting of the Senate, and said 
Senate thcreafterward, on the 13th day 
of January, in the year of our Lord 
1868, having duly considered the evi- 
dence and reasons reported by said 
Andrew Johnson for said suspension and 
having refused to concur in said suspen- 
sion, whereby, and by force of the pro- 
visions of an act entitled " An act regu- 
lating the tenure of certain civil offices." 
passed March 2, 1867, said Edwin M. 
Stanton did forthwith resume the func- 
tions of his office, whereof the said An- 
drew Johnson had then and there due 
notice, and said Edwin M. Stanton, by 
reason of the premises, on said 21st day 
of February, being lawfully entitled to 



bold said office as Secretary for the De- 
partment of War, which said order for 
the removal of said Edwin M. Stanton is, 
in substance, as follows — that is to say: 

" Executive Mansion, 
" Washington, D. C, Feb. 21, 1868. 
" Sir, — By virtue of the power aud au- 
thority vested iu me as President by the 
C'oiiStitutiou and laws of the United States, 
you are hereby removed from office as Secre- 
tary for the Department of AYar, and your 
function as such will terminate upon re- 
ceipt of this communication. 

" You will transfer to Brevet Maj.-Gen. 
Lorenzo Thomas, adjutant-general of the 
army, who has this day been authorized and 
empowered to act as Secretary of War, ad 
interim, all records, books, papers, and other 
public property now In your custody and 

" Respectfully yours, 

" Andrew Johnson. 
" Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Washington, D. C." 

WTiich order was unlawfully issued, 
with intent then and there to violate the 
act entitled " An act regulating the tenure 
of certain civil offices," passed March 2, 
1SG7; and, with the further intent, con- 
trary to the pi'ovisions of said act, in 
violation thereof, and contrary to the pro- 
visions of the Constitution of the United 
States, and without the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate of the United States, 
the said Senate then and there being in 
session, to remove said Edwin M. Stanton 
from the office of Secretary of the Depart- 
ment of War, the said Edwin M. Stanton 
being then and there Secretary of War, 
and being then and there in due and law- 
ful execution and discharge of the duties 
of said office, whereby said Andrew John- 
son, President of the United States, did 
then and there commit and was guilty 
of a high misdemeanor in office. 


That on the said 21st day of February, 
in the year of our Lord 1868, at Wash- 
ington, in the District of Columbia, said 
Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
States, unmindful of the high duties of 
his office, of his oath of office, and in vio- 
lation of the Constitution of the United 
States, and contrary to the provisions of 
an act entitled " An act regulating the 
tenure of certain civil offices," passed 
March 2, 18G7, without the advice and 
consent of the Senate of the United States, 
said Senate then and there being in 

session, and without authority of law, 
did, with intent to violate the Constitu- 
tion of the United States and the act 
aforesaid, issue and deliver to one Lorenzo 
Thomas a letter of authority, in substance 
as follows, that is to say: 

" Executive Mansion, 
" AVashington, D. C, Feb. 21, 18GS. 
" Sir, — Hon. Edwin M. Stanton having 
this day been removed from office as Secre- 
tary for the Department of War, you are 
hereby authorized and empowered to act as 
Secretary of War, ad interim, and will im- 
mediately enter upon the discharge of the 
duties pertaining to that office. 

" Mr. Stanton has been instructed to trans- 
fer to you all the records, books, papers, and 
other public property now in his custody 
and charge. 

" Respectfully yours, 

" Andrew Johnson. 
•* To Brevet MaJ.-Gen. Lorenzo Thomas, 
Adjutant-General United States Army, 
Washington, D. C." 

then and there being no vacancy in said 
office of Secretary for the Department of 
War; whereby said Andrew Johnson, 
President of the United States, did then 
and there commit and was guilty of a 
high misdemeanor in office. 


That said Andrew Johnson, President of 
the United States, on the 21st day of Feb- 
ruary, in the year of our Lord 1868, at 
Washington, in the District of Columbia, 
did commit and was guilty of a high 
misdemeanor in office, in this, that, Avith- 
out authority of law, while the Senate of 
the United States was then and there in 
session, he did appoint one Lorenzo 
Tliomas to be Secretary for the Depart- 
ment of War, ad interim, without the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate, and with 
intent to violate the Constitution of the 
United States, no vacancy having hap- 
pened in said office of Secretary for the 
Department of War during the recess of 
the Senate, and no vacancy existing in 
said office at the time, and which said ap- 
pointment, so made by said Andrew John- 
son, of said Lorenzo Thomas, is in sub- 
stance as follows, that is to say: 

(Same as in Article IL) 


That said Andrew Johnson. President 
of the United States, unmindful of the 



high duties of his office, and of his oath 
of office, in violation of the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, on the 21st 
day of February, in the year of our Lord 
1868, at Washington, in the District of 
Columbia, did unlawfully conspire with 
one Lorenzo Thomas, and with other per- 
sons, to the House of Representatives un- 
known, with intent by intimidation and 
threats unlawfully to hinder and prevent 
Edwin M. Stanton, then and there the 
Secretary for the Department of War, 
duly appointed under the laws of the Unit- 
ed States, from holding said office of Sec- 
retary for the Department of War, con- 
trary to and in violation of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, and of the pro- 
visions of an act entitled " An act to de- 
fine and pimish certain conspiracies," ap- 
proved July 31, 1861, whereby said An- 
drew Johnson, President of the United 
States, did then and there commit and 
was guilty of a high crime in office. 


That said Andrew Johnson, President of 
the United States, unmindful of the high 
duties of his office, and of his oath of office, 
on the 21st day of February, in the year 
of our Lord 1868, and on divers other days 
and times in said year, before the 2d day 
of March, a.d. 1868, at Washington, in 
the District of Columbia, did unlawfully 
conspire with one Lorenzo Thomas, and 
with other persons to the House of Rep- 
resentatives unknown, to prevent and hin- 
der the execution of an act entitled " An 
act regulating the tenure of certain civil 
offices," passed March 2, 1867, and in pur- 
suance of said conspiracy did unlawfully 
attempt to prevent Edwin M. Stanton, 
then and there being Secretary for the De- 
partment of War, duly appointed and com- 
missioned under the laws of the United 
States, from holding said office, whereby 
the said Andrew Johnson, President of the 
United States, did then and there commit 
and was guilty of a high misdemeanor in 


That said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, unmindful of the 
high duties of his office and of his oath of 
office, on the 21st day of February, in the 
year of our Lord 1868, at Washington, in 

the District of Columbia, did unlawfully 
conspire with one Lorenzo Thomas by 
force to seize, take, and possess the prop- 
erty of the United States in the Depart- 
ment of War, then and there in the cus- 
tody and charge of Edwin M. Stanton, 
Secretary for said Department, contrary 
to the provisions of an act entitled " An 
act to define and punish certain conspir- 
acies," approved July 31, 1861, and with 
intent to violate and disregard an act en- 
titled " An act regulating the tenure of 
certain civil offices," passed March 2, 1867, 
whereby said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, did then and there 
commit a high crime in office. 


That said Andrew Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States, unmindful of 
the high duties of his office and of his 
oath of office, on the 21st day of February, 
in the year of our Lord 1868, at Washing- 
ton, in the District of Columbia, did 
unlawfully conspire with one Lorenzo 
Thomas with intent unlawfully to seize, 
take, and possess the property of the 
United States in the Department of War, 
in the custody and charge of Edwin M. 
Stanton, Secretary of said department, 
with intent to violate and disregard the 
act entitled " An act regulating the tenure 
of certain civil offices," passed March 2, 
1867, whereby said Andrew Johnson, Pres- 
ident of the United States, did then and 
there commit a high misdemeanor in 


That said Andrew Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States, unmindful of 
the high duties of his office and of his 
oath of office, with intent unlawfully to 
control the disbursement of the moneys 
appropriated for the military service and 
for the Department of War, on the 21st day 
of February, in the year of our Lord 1868, 
at Washington, in the District of Colum- 
bia, did unlawfully and contrary to the 
provisions of an act entitled "An act reg- 
ulating the tenure of certain civil offices," 
passed March 2, 1867, and in violation of 
Ihe Constitution of the United States, and 
without the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate of the United States, and while the 
Senate was then and there in session, 



there being no vacancy in the office of Sec- 
retary for the Department of War, with 
intent to violate and disregard the act 
aforesaid, then and there issue and deliver 
to one Lorenzo Thomas a letter of author- 
ity in writing, in substance as follows, 
that is to say: 

(Same as in Article II.) 

Whereby said Andrew Johnson, Presi- 
dent of the United States, did then and 
there commit and was guilty of a high 
misdemeanor in office. 


That said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, on the 22d day of 
February, in the year of our Lord 1868, 
at Washington, in the District of Colum- 
bia, in disregard of the Constitution and 
the laws of the United States, duly en- 
acted, as commander-in-chief of the army 
of the United States, did bring before 
himself then and there William H. Emory, 
a major-general by brevet in the army of 
the United States, actually in command of 
the Department of Washington and the 
military forces thereof, and did then and 
there, as such commander-in-chief, declare 
to and instruct said Emory that part of a 
law of the United States, passed March 2, 
1867, entitled " An act making appropria- 
tions for the support of the army for the 
year ending June 30, 1868, and for other 
purposes," especially the second section 
thereof, which provides, among other 
things, that " all orders and instructions, 
relating to military operations, issued by 
the President or Secretary of War, shall 
be issued through the general of the army, 
and. in case of his inability, through the 
next in rank,"'fvas unconstitutional, and in 
contravention of the commission of said 
Emory, and which said provisions of law 
had been theretofore duly and legally pro- 
mulgated by general order for the govern- 
ment and direction of the army of the 
United States, as the said Andrew John- 
son then and there well knew, with intent 
thereby to induce said Emory, in his offi- 
cial capacity as commander of the Depart- 
ment of Washington, to violate the pro- 
visions of said act, and to take and re- 
ceive, act upon, and obey such orders as 
he, the said Andrew Johnson, might make 
and give, and which should not be issued 
through the general of the armv of the 


United States, according to the provisions 
of said act, and with the further intent 
thereby to enable him, the said Andrew 
Johnson, to prevent the execution of an 
act entitled " An act regulating the tenure 
of certain civil offices," passed March 2, 
1867, and to unlawfully prevent Edwin 
M. Stanton, then being Secretary for the 
Department of War, from holding said 
office and discharging the duties thereof, 
whereby said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, did then and there 
commit and was guilty of a high misde- 
meanor in office. 


That said Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, unmindful of the 
high duties of his office and the dignity and 
proprieties thereof, and of the harmony 
and courtesies which ought to exist and 
be maintained between the executive and 
legislative branches of the government of 
the United States, designing and intend- 
ing to set aside the rightful authority and 
powers of Congress, did attempt to bring 
into disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, 
and reproach the Congress of the United 
States and the several branches thereof, 
to impair and destroy the regard and re- 
spect of all the good people of the United 
States for the Congress and legislative 
power thereof (which all officers of the 
government ovight inviolably to preserve 
and maintain), and to excite the odium 
and resentment of all the good people of 
the United States against Congress and 
the laws by it duly and constitutionally 
enacted ; and, in pursuance of said de- 
sign and intent, openly and publicly, and 
before divers assemblages of the citizens 
of the United States convened in divers 
parts thereof to meet and receive said 
Andrew Johnson, as the chief magistrate 
of the United States, did, on the 18th day 
of August, in the year of our Lord 1866, 
and on divers other days and times, as 
well before as afterwards, make and de- 
liver, with a loud voice, certain intemper- 
ate, inflammatory, and scandalous ha- 
rangues, and did therein utter loud threats 
and bitter menaces as well against Con- 
gress as the laws of the United States 
duly enacted thereby, amid the cries, 
jeers, and laughter of the multitudes then 
assembled and within hearing, which aie 


set forth in the several specifications lating the tenure of certain civil offices," 

liereinafter written, in substance and passed March 2, 1867, by vnilawfully devis- 

effect, that is to say: ing and contriving, and attempting to 

[Here are set out three specifications, devise and contrive, means by which he 

quoting parts of speeches alleged to have should prevent Edwin M. Stanton from 

been made by the President, Aug. 15, forthwith resuming the functions of the 

Sept. 3, and Sept. 8, 1866.] office of Secretary for the Department of 

Which said utterances, declarations. War, notwithstanding the refusal of the 
threats, and harangues, highly censurable Senate to concur in the suspension there- 
in any, are peculiarly indecent and un- tofore made by Andrew Johnson of said 
becoming to the chief magistrate of the Edwin M. Stanton from said office of 
United States, by means whereof said An- Secretary for the Department of War, and 
drew Johnson has brought the high office also by further unlawfully devising and 
of the President of the United States into contriving, and attempting to devise and 
contempt, ridicule, and disgrace, to the contrive, means then and there to pre- 
great scandal of all good citizens, whereby vent the execution of an act entitled " An 
said Andrew Johnson, President of the act making appropriations for the sup- 
United States, did commit and was then port of the army for the fiscal year end- 
and there guilty of a high misdemeanor in ing June 30, 1868, and for other pur- 
office, poses," approved March 2, 1867, and also 
ARTICLE XI ^^ prevent the execution of an act en- 
titled " An act to provide for the more 

That said Andrew Johnson, President efficient government of the rebel States," 
of the United States, unmindful of the passed March 2, 1867 ; weherby the said 
high duties of his office and of his oath Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
of office, and in disregard of the Consti- States, did then, to wit: on the 21st day 
tution and laws of the United States, of February, 1868, at the city of Washing- 
did heretofore, to wit: on the 18th day of ton, commit and was guilty of a high mis- 
August, 1866, at the city of Washington, demeanor in office. 

in the District of Columbia, by public And the House of Eepresentatives by 

speech, declare and affirm in substance that protestation, saving to themselves the 

the Thirty-ninth Congress of the United liberty of exhibiting at any time here- 

States was not a Congress of the United after any further articles or other accu- 

States authorized by the Constitution to sation, or impeachment against the said 

exercise legislative power under the same, Andrew Johnson, President of the United 

but, on the contrary, was a Congress of States, and also of replying to his an- 

only part of the States, thereby denying swers which he shall make imto the arti- 

and intending to deny that the legisla- cles herein preferred against him, and of 

tion of said Congress Avas valid or obli- offering proof to the same and every 

gatory upon him, the said Andrew Johnson, part thereof, and to all and every other 

except in so far as he saw fit to approve article, accusation, or impeachment which 

the same, and also thereby denying shall be exhibited by them, as the case 

and intending to deny the power of said shall require, do demand that the said 

Thirty-ninth Congress to propose amend- Andrew Johnson may be put to answer 

nients to the Constitution of the United the high crimes and misdemeanors in of- 

States; and, in pursuance of said decla- fice herein charged against him, and that 

ration, the said Andrew Johnson, Presi- such proceedings, examinations, trials, 

dent of the United States, afterwards, and judgments may be thereupon had and 

to wit: on the 21st day of February, given as may be agreeable to law and 

1868, at the city of Washington, in justice. 

the District of Columbia, did unlawful- Senate of the United States, sitting as 

ly and in disregard of the requirements a court of impeachment for the trial of 

of the Constitution, that he should take Andrew Johnson, President of the United 

care that the laws be faithfully exe- States. 

cuted, attempt to prevent the execu- The answer of the said Andrew John- 

tion of an act entitled " An act regu- son. President of the United States, to 



the articles of impeachment exhibited touching the department aforesaid, and 

against hira by the House of Representa- for whose conduct in such capacity, sub- 

tives of the United States. ordinate to the President, the President 

is, by the Constitution and laws of the 

ANS^VER TO ARTICLE I. United states, made responsible. And 

For answer to the first article he says: this respondent, further answering, says 
that Edwin M. Stanton was appointed he succeeded to the office of President of 
Secretary for the Department of War on the United States upon, and by reason 
the loth day of January, a.d. 18G2, of, the death of Abraham Lincoln, then 
by Abraham Lincoln, then President of President of the United States, on the 
the United States, during the first term 15th day of April, 1865, and the said 
of his Presidency, and was commission- Stanton was then holding the said office 
ed, according to the Constitution and of Secretary for the Department of War, 
laws of the United States, to hold the said under and by reason of the appointment 
office during the pleasure of the President; and commission aforesaid; and, not hav- 
that the office of Secretary for the De- ing been removed from the said office by 
partment of War was created by an act this respondent, the said Stanton con- 
of the First Congress, in its first session, tinned to hold the same under the ap- 
passed on the 7th day of August, a.d. pointment and commission aforesaid, at 
1789, and in and by that act it was the pleasure of the President, until the 
provided and enacted that the said Sec- time hereinafter particularly mentioned; 
retary for the Department of War shall and at no time received any appointment 
perform and execute such duties as shall or commission save as above detailed, 
from time to time be enjoined on and in- And this respondent, further answering, 
trusted to him by the President of the says that on and prior to the 5th day 
United States, agreeably to the Constitu- of August, a.d. 1867, this respondent, 
tion, relative to the subjects within the the President of the United States, re- 
scope of the said department; and fur- sponsible for the conduct of the Secre- 
thermore, that the said Secretary shall tary for the Department of War, and 
conduct the business of the said depart- having the constitutional right to resort 
ment in such a manner as the President to and rely upon the person holding that 
of the LTnited States shall, from time to office for advice concerning the great and 
time, order and instruct. difficult public duties enjoined on the 

And this respondent, further answer- President by the Constitution and laws 
ing, says that, by force of the act afore- of the United States, became satisfied 
said, and by reason of his appointment that he could not allow the said Stanton 
aforesaid, the said Stanton became the to continue to hold the office of Secretary 
principal officer in one of the executive for the Department of War, without 
departments of the government within hazard of the public interest; that the 
the true intent and meaning of the sec- relations between the said Stanton and 
ond section of the second article of the the President no longer permitted the 
Constitution of the United States, and President to resort to him for advice, or 
according to the true intent and meaning to be, in the judgment of the President, 
of that provision of the Constitution of safely responsible for his conduct of the 
the United States; and in accordance affairs of the Department of War, as by 
with the settled and uniform practice of law required, in accordance with the 
each and every President of the United orders and instructions of the President; 
States, the said Stanton then became, and thereupon, by force of the Constitu- 
and, so long as he should continue to tion and laws of the United States, which 
hold the said office of Secretary for the devolve on the President the power and 
Department of War, must continue to be, the duty to control the conduct of the 
one of the advisers of the President of business of that executive department of 
the United States, as well as the person the government, and by reason of the con- 
intrusted to act for and represent the stitutional duty of the President to take 
President in matters enjoined upon him care that the laws be faithfully exe- 
or intrusted to him by the President, cuted, this respondent did necessarily 
v.— L 161 


consider, and did determine, that the said 
Stanton ought no longer to hold the said 
office of Secretary for the Department of 
War. And this respondent, by virtue of 
the power and authority vested in him 
as President of the United States, by the 
Constitution and laws of the United 
States, to give effect to such his decision 
and determination, did, on the 5th day 
of August, A.D. 1867, address to the said 
Stanton a note, of which the following is 
a true copy: 

" SiRj — Public considerations of a liigh 
character constrain me to say that your 
resignation as Secretary of War will be 

To which note the said Stanton made 
the following reply: 

" War Department, 
" Washington, Aug. 5, 1867. 
" Sir, — Your note of this day has been 
received, stating that ' public considerations 
of a high character constrain you ' to say 
' that my resignation as Secretary of War 
will be accepted.' 

" In reply I have the honor to say, that 
public considerations of a high character, 
which alone have induced me to continue at 
the head of this Department, constrain me 
not to resign the office of Secretary of War 
before the next meeting of Congress. 
" Very respectfully yours, 

" Edwin M. Stanton." 

This respondent, as President of the 
United States, was thereon of opinion that, 
having regard to the necessary official re- 
lations and duties of the Secretary for the 
Department of War to the President of the 
United States, according to the Constitu- 
tion and laws of the United States, and 
having regard to the responsibility of the 
President for the conduct of the said Sec- 
retary, and having regard to the para- 
mount executive authority of the office 
which the respondent holds under the Con- 
stitution and laws of the United States, 
it was impossible, consistently with the 
public interests, to allow the said Stanton 
to continue to hold the said office of Secre- 
tary for the Department of War ; and it 
then became the official duty of the re- 
spondent, as President of the United 
States, to consider and decide what act 
or acts should and might lawftilly be done 
by him, as President of the United States, 
to cause the said Stanton to sui'render 
the said office. 

This respondent was informed and verily 


believed that it was practically settled 
by the First Congress of the United States, 
and had been so considered and, uniform- 
ly and in great numbers of instances, act- 
ed on by each Congress and President of 
the United States, in succession, from 
President Washington to and including 
President Lincoln, and from the First 
Congress to the Thirty - ninth Congress, 
that the Constitution of the United States 
conferred on the President, as part of the 
executive power, and as one of the neces- 
sary means and instruments of perform- 
ing the executive duty expressly imposed 
on him by the Constitution, of taking care 
that the laws be faithfully executed, the 
power at any and all times of removing 
from office all executive officers, for cause, 
to be judged by the President alone. This 
lespondent had, in pursuance of the Con- 
stitution, required the opinion of each 
principal officer of the executive depart- 
ments, upon this question of constitutional 
executive power and duty, and had been 
advised by each of them, including the 
said Stanton, Secretary for the Depart- 
ment of War, that under the Constitution 
of the United States this power was 
lodged by the Constitution in the Presi- 
dent of the United States, and that, con- 
sequently, it could be lawfully exercised 
by him, and the Congress could not de- 
piive him thereof; and this respondent, 
in his capacity of President of the United 
States, and because in that capacity he 
was both enabled and bound to use his 
best judgment upon this question, did, in 
good faith, and with an earnest desire to 
arrive at the truth, come to the conclusion 
and opinion, and did make the same known 
to the honorable the Senate of the United 
States, by a message dated on the 2d day 
of March, 18G7 (a true copy whereof is 
hereunto annexed and marked A), that 
the power last mentioned was conferred 
and the duty of exercising it, in fit cases, 
was imposed on the President by the Con- 
stitution of the United States, and that 
the President could not be deprived of 
this power or relieved of this duty, nor 
could the same be vested by law in the 
President and the Senate jointly, either 
in part or whole; and this has ever since 
remained, and Avas the opinion of this re- 
spondent at the time when he was forced, 
as aforesaid, to consider and decide what 


act or acts should and might lawfully be 
done by this respondent, as President of 
the United States, to cause the said Stan- 
ton to surrender the said office. 

This respondent was also then aware 
that by the first section of " An act regu- 
lating the tenure of certain civil offices " 
passed March 2, 1807, by a constitutional 
majority of both Houses of Congress, it 
was enacted as follows: 

That every person holding any civil of- 
fice to which he has been appointed by and 
with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
and every person who shall hereafter be 
appointed to any such office, and shall 
become duly qualified to act therein, is 
and shall be entitled to hold such office 
until a successor shall have been in like 
manner appointed and duly qualified, ex- 
cept as herein otherwise provided; Pro- 
vided, that the Secretaries of State, of the 
Treasury, of War, of the Navy, and of 
the Interior, the Postmaster-General, and 
the Attorney-General, shall hold their 
offices respectively for and during the term 
of the President by whom they may have 
been appointed, and one month thereafter, 
subject to removal by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate. 

This respondent was also aware that 
this act was understood and intended to 
be an expression of the opinion of the 
Congress by which that act was passed, 
that the power to remove executive officers 
for cause might, by law, be taken from the 
President and vested in him and the Sen- 
ate jointly; and although this respondent 
had arrived at and still retained the 
opinion above expressed and verilybelieved, 
as he still believes, that the said first 
section of the last-mentioned act was and 
is wholly inoperative and void by reason 
of its conflict with the Constitution of 
the United States, yet, inasmuch as the 
same had been enacted by the constitu- 
tional majority in each of the two Houses 
of that Congress, this respondent consid- 
ered it to be proper to examine and decide 
whether the particular case of the said 
Stanton, on which it was this respondent's 
duty to act. was Avithin or without the 
terms of that first section of the act; or. 
if within it, wh'jther the President ha^ 
not the power, according to the terms of 
the act, to remove the said Stanton from 
the office of Secretary for the Department 

of War, and having, in his capacity of 
President of the United States, so ex- 
amined and considered, did form the 
opinion that the case of said Stanton and 
his tenure of office were not affected by 
the section of the last-named act. 

And this respondent, further answer- 
ing, says that, although a case thus ex- 
isted which, in his judgment as President 
of the United States, called for the exer- 
cise of the executive power to remove the 
said Stanton from the office of Secretary 
for the Department of War, and although 
this respondent was of opinion, as is 
above shown, that under the Constitution 
of the United States the power to remove 
the said Stanton from the said office was 
vested in the President of the United 
States; and although this respondent was 
also of the same opinion, as is above 
shown, that the case of the said Stanton 
was not aflTected by the first section of the 
last-named act; and although each of the 
said opinions had been formed by this re- 
spondent upon an actual case, requiring 
him, in his capacity of President of the 
United States, to come to some judgment 
and determination thereon, yet this re- 
spondent, as President of the United 
States, desired and determined to avoid, 
if possible, any question of the construc- 
tion and effect of the said first section of 
the last-named act, and also the broader 
question of the executive power conferred 
on the President of the United States by 
the Constitution of the United States to 
remove one of the principal officers of one 
of the executive departments for cause 
seeming to him sufficient ; and this re- 
spondent also desired and determined that 
if, from causes over which he could exert 
no control, it should become absolutely 
necessary to raise and have in some way 
determined either or both of the said last- 
named questions, it was in accordance 
with the Constitution of the United 
States, and was required of the President 
thereby, that questions of so much gravity 
and importance, upon which the legisla- 
tive and executive departments of the 
government had disagreed, which involved 
powers considered by all branches of the 
government, during its entire history 
Ao\\n to the year 1867, to have been con- 
fided by the Constitution of the United 
States to the President and to be neces- 



sary for the complete and proper execu- States, I am suspended from office as Secre- 

tion of his constitutional duties, should ^^^^ ^^ "^^r, and will cease to exercise any 

be in some proper way submitted to that ^^ a^'L'SZg ^^^i^^^o^nc? t^trSr 

judicial department of the government in- to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who has this day 

trusted by the Constitution with the been authorized and empowered to act as 

power, and subjected by it to the duty, Secretary of War, ad interim, all records, 

, ,„ f J ^ • • £ 11 xi books, papers, and other public property now 

not only of determining finally the con- jq ^jy custody and charge. Under a sense 

struction and efi"ect of all acts of Con- of public duty, I am compelled to deny your 

gress, but of comparing them with the right, under the Constitution and laws of 

Constitution of the United States, and ^^Li;l°'*^^ f^f ^1' r.'I^°o^*''^-.f ''V'^^''*I 
... • , ^ 1 consent of the Senate, and without legal 
pronouncing them inoperative when found cause, to suspend me from office as Secre- 
in conflict with that fundamental law tary of War, or the exercise of any or all 
which the people have enacted for the functions pertaining to the same, or without 
iriiii,- i. Ajj. such advice and consent to compel me to 
government of all their servants. And to transfer to any person the recoMs, books, 
these ends, first, that, through the action papers, and public property in my custody 
of the Senate of the United States, the as Secretary. But, inasmuch as the general 
absolute duty of the President to substi- commanding the armies of the United States 
"' . J. -,r oii bas been appointed, ad tntertm, and has 
tute some fit person m place of Mr. Stan- notified me that he has accepted the ap- 
ton as one of his advisers, and as a pointment, I have no alternative but to sub- 
principal subordinate officer whose official ^^^' ^^^^^ protest, to superior force. 
„„ J i 1- -ui j: J 1, J " To the President." 
conduct he was responsible for, and had 

lawful right to control, might, if possible, And this respondent, further answering, 
be accomplished Avithout the necessity of gays, that it is provided, in and by the 
raising any one of the questions afore- second section of "An act to regulate 
said; and, second, if this duty could not the tenure of certain civil offices," that 
be so performed, then that these questions, the President may suspend an officer from 
or such of them as might necessarily the performance of the duties of the office 
arise, should be judicially determined in held by him, for certain causes therein 
manner aforesaid, and for no other end designated, until the next meeting of the 
or purpose, this respondent, as President Senate, and until the case shall be acted 
of the United States, on the 12th day of on by the Senate; that this respondent, as 
August, 1867, seven days after the recep- President of the United States, was ad- 
tion of the letter of the said Stanton, of y^^ed, and he verily believed and still be- 
the 5th of August, hereinbefore stated, ]jeves, that the executive power of removal 
did issue to the said Stanton the order from office, confided to him by the Consti- 
following, namely: tution aforesaid, includes the power of 

" Executive Mansion suspension from office at the pleasure of the 

"Washington, Avg. 12. 1867. President, and this respondent, by the or- 

" Sir,— By virtue of the power and author- der aforesaid, did suspend the said Stan- 
ity vested in me, as President, by the Consti- j. ^ a- a j.-i ii j. a- 

tution and laws of the United States, you *"" ^^'^^ o^^'^^'' ""^ ""^il the next meeting 
are hereby suspended from office as Secre- of the Senate, or until the Senate should 
tary of War, and will cease to exercise any have acted upon the case, but bv force of 
and all functions pertaining to the same. ^he power and authority vested in him 

"You will at once transfer to Gen. , , ' „ ,., ,. , / . ,, tt -j. j 

Ulysses S. Grant, who has this day been ^Y the Constitution and laws of the United 
authorized and empowered to act as Secre- States, indefinitely, and at the pleasure 
tary of War, ad interim, all records, books, of the President, and the order, in form 
.Zr" custody IT ch^a?S '""''''' '^'^^ '° aforesaid, was made known to the Senate 
" Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War." of the United States on the 12th day of 

_, , . . December, a.d. 1867, as will be moi-e 

To which said order the said Stanton f^^^iy hereinafter stated, 
made the following reply: ^-^^^ ^,^;g respondent, further answer- 

" War Department, i".^' ^'^ys that, in and by the act of Feb. 

"Washington City. Ann. 12, 1867. 13, 1795, it was, among other things, pro- 

" Sir.— Your note of this date has been yided and enacted that, in case of vacancy 
received, informing me that by virtue of ■ .i „ai„„ „f o„«,.„+.,,.„ f^^ +i,« r»«,^o^f 
the powers vested In you as President, bv '" ^^^ ^^""^ of Secretary for the Depart- 
the Constitution and laws of the United ment of War, it shall be lawful for the 




President, in case he shall think it neces- a copy whereof is hereunto annexed and 
sary, to authorize any person to perform marked B, wherein he made kno^\'n the 
the duties of that office until a successor orders aforesaid, and the reasons which 
be appointed or such vacancy filled, but had induced the same, so far as this re- 
not exceeding the term of six months; spondent then considered it material and 
and this respondent, being advised and necessary that the same should be set 
believing that such law was in full force forth, and reiterated his views concern- 
and not repealed, by an order dated Aug. ing the constitutional power of removal 
12, 1867, did authorize and empower vested in the President, and also ex- 
Uij'sses S. Grant, general of the armies pressed his views concerning the con- 
of the United States, to act as Secretary struction of the said first section of the 
for the Department of War, ad interim, in last-mentioned act, as respected the power 
the form in which similar authority had of the President to remove the said Stan- 
theretofore been given, not until the next ton from the said office of Secretary for 
meeting of the Senate, and until the Sen- the Department of War, well hoping that 
ate should act on the case, but at the this respondent could thus perform what 
pleasure of the President, subject only to he then believed, and still believes, to be 
the limitation of six months, in the said his imperative duty in reference to the 
last-mentioned act contained; and a copy said Stanton, without derogating from the 
of the last-named order was made known powers which this respondent believed 
to the Senate of the United States, on the were confided to the President, by the 
12th day of December, a.d. 1867, as will Constitution and laws, and without the 
be hereinafter more fully stated ; and, in necessity of raising, judicially, any ques- 
pursuance of the design and intention tion concerning the same, 
aforesaid, if it should become necessary. And this respondent, further answering, 
to submit the said questions to a judicial says that, this hope not having been real- 
determination, this respondent, at or near ized, the President was compelled either 
the date of the last-mentioned order, did to allow the said Stanton to resume the 
make known such his purpose to obtain a said office and remain therein contrary 
judicial decision of the said questions, or to the settled convictions of the Presi- 
such of them as might be necessary. dent, formed as aforesaid, respecting the 
And this respondent, further answering, powers confided to him. and the duties re- 
says that, in further pursuance of his in- quired of him by the Constitution of the 
tentions and design, if possible, to per- United States, and contrary to the opinion 
form what he judged to be his imperative formed as aforesaid, that the first sec- 
duty, to prevent the said Stanton from tion of the last - mentioned act did not 
longer holding the office of Secretary for affect the case of the said Stanton, and 
the Department of War, and at the same contrary to the fixed belief of the Presi- 
time avoiding, if possible, any question re- dent that he could no longer advise with 
specting the extent of the power of re- or trust or be responsible for the said 
moval from executive office confided to Stanton, in the said office of Secretary for 
the President, by the Constitution of the the Department of War, or else he was 
United States, and any question respect- compelled to take such steps as might, 
ing the construction and effect of the first in the judgment of the President, be law- 
section of the said " act regulating the ful and necessary to raise, for a judicial 
tenure of certain civil offices," while he decison. the questions affecting the lawful 
should not. by any act of his, abandon right of the said Stanton to resume the 
and relinquish, either a power which he said office, or the power of the said Stanton 
believed the Constitution had conferred to persist in refusing to quit the said 
on the President of the United States, to office, if he should persist in actually re- 
enable him to perform the duties of his fusing to quit the same: and to this end, 
office, or a power designedly left to him and to this end only, this respondent did. 
by the first section of the act of Congress on the 21st day of February. 1868, issue 
last aforesaid, this respondent did. on the the order for the removal of the said Stan- 
12th day of December. 1867, transmit to ton. in the said first article mentioned 
the Senate of the United States a message, and set forth, and the order authorizing 



the said Lorenzo Thomas to act as Secre- 
tary of War, ad interim, in the said second 
article set forth. 

And this respondent, proceeding to an- 
swer specifically each substantial allega- 
tion in the said first article, says: He 
denies that the said Stanton, on the 21st 
day of February, 1868, was lawfully in 
possession of the said office of Secretary 
for the Department of War. He denies 
that the said Stanton, on the day last 
mentioned, was lawfully entitled to hold 
the said office against the will of the 
President of the United States. He 
denies that the said order for the re- 
moval of the said Stanton was unlaw- 
fully issued. He denies that said order 
was issued with intent to violate the act 
entitled, " An act to regulate the tenure 
of certain civil offices." He denies that 
the said order was a violation of the last- 
mentioned act. He denies that the said 
order was a violation of the Constitution 
of the United States, or of any law there- 
of, or of his oath of office. He denies that 
the said order was issued with an intent 
to violate the Constitution of the United 
States, or any law thereof, or this re- 
spondent's oath of office; and he respect- 
fully, but earnestly, insists that not only 
was it issued by him in the performance 
of what he believed to be an imperative 
official duty, but in the performance of 
what this honorable court will consider 
was, in point of fact, an imperative offi- 
cial duty. And he denies that any and 
all substantive matters, in the said first 
article contained, in manner and form 
as the same are therein stated and set 
forth, do, by law, constitute a high mis- 
demeanor in office, within the true intent 
and meaning of the Constitution of the 
United States. 


And for answer to the second article, 
this respondent says that he admits he 
did issue and deliver to said Lorenzo 
Thomas the said writing set forth in 
said second article, bearing date at Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, Feb. 21, 
1868, addressed to Brevet Maj.-Gen. 
Lorenzo Thomas, adjutant-general Unit- 
ed States army, Washington, District of 
Columbia; and he further admits that 
the same was so issued without the ad- 

vice and consent of the Senate of the 
United States, then in session ; but he 
denies that he thereby violated the Con- 
stitution of the United States, or any 
law thereof, or that he did thereby in- 
tend to violate the Constitution of the 
United States, or the provisions of any 
act of Congress; and this respondent re- 
fers to his answer to said first article 
for a full statement of the purposes and 
intentions with which said order was 
issued, and adopts the same as part of 
his answer to this article-/ and he further 
denies that there was then and there no 
vacancy in the said office of Secretary 
for the Department of War, or that 
he did then and there commit, or was 
guilty of, a high misdemeanor in office ; 
and this respondent maintains and will 

1. That at the date and delivery of said 
writing there was a vacancy existing in 
the said office of Secretary for the Depart- 
ment of War. 

2. That, notwithstanding the Senate of 
the United States was then in session, it 
was lawful and according to long and well- 
established usage to empower and author- 
ize the said Thomas to act as Secretary 
of War, ad interim. 

3. That, if the said act regulating the 
tenure of civil offices be held to be a valid 
law, no provision of the same was violated 
by the issuing of said order, or by the 
designation of said Thomas to act as Sec- 
retary of War, ad interim. 


And for answer to said third article, 
this respondent says that he abides by his 
answer to said first and second articles, 
in so far as the same are responsive to 
the allegations contained in the said third 
article, and, without here again repeating 
the same answer, prays the same be taken 
as an answer to this third article as fully 
as if here again set out at length ; and as 
to the new allegation contained in said 
third article, that this respondent did ap- 
point the said Thomas to be Secretary for 
the Department of War, ad interim, this 
respondent denies that he gave any other 
authority to said Thomas than such as 
appears in said written authority, set out 
in said article, by which he authorized 
and empowered said Thomas to act as 



tary for the Department of War exist- 
ing at the date of said written au- 


And for answer to said fourth article 

Secretary for the Department of War, ad the question could be brought before that 

interim; and he denies that the same tribunal. 

amounts to an appointment, and insists This respondent did not conspire or 

that it is only a designation of an officer agree with the said Thomas or any other 

of that department to act temporarily as person or persons, to use intimidation or 

Secretary for the Department of War, ad threats to hinder or prevent the said Stan- 

intcrim, imtil an appointment should be ton from holding the said office of Secre- 

madc. But, whether the said written au- tary for the Department of War, nor did 

thority amounts to an appointment, or this respondent at any time command or 

to a temporary authority or designation, advise the said Thomas or any other per- 

this respondent denies that in any sense son or persons to resort to or use either 

lie did thereby intend to violate the Con- threats or intimidation for that purpose, 

stitution of tlie United States, or that he The only means in the contemplation of 

thereby intended to give the said order purpose of respondent to be used are set 

the character or effect of an appointment forth fully in the said orders of Feb. 

in the constitutional or legal sense of 21, the first addressed to Mr. Stanton, 

that term. He further denies that there and the second to the said Thomas. By 

was no vacancy in said office of Secre- the first order the respondent notified 

Mr. Stanton that he was removed from 
the said office^ and that his functions as 
Secretary for the Department of War 
were to terminate upon the receipt of that 
order, and he also thereby notified the 
said Stanton that the said Thomas had 
this respondent denies that on the said been authorized to act as Secretary for 
21st day of February, 18G8, at Washington the Department of War ad interim, and 
aforesaid, or at any other time or place, ordered the said Stanton to transfer to 
he did unlawfully conspire with the said him all the records, books, papers, and 
Lorenzo Thomas, or with the said Thomas other public property in his custody and 
and any other person or persons, with in- charge; and by the second order this re- 
tent by intimidations and threats unlaw- spondent notified the said Thomas of the 
fully to hinder and prevent the said Stan- removal from office of the said Stanton, 
ton from holding said office of Secretary and authorized him to act as Secretary 
for the Department of War, in violation for the department, ad interim, and di- 
of the Constitution of the United States rected him to immediately enter upon the 
or of the provisions of the said act of discharge of the duties pertaining to that 
Congress in said article mentioned, or that office, and to receive the transfer of all 
he did then and there commit or was guilty the records, books, papers, and other pub- 
of a high crime in office. On the con- lie property from Mr. Stanton, then in 
trary thereof, protesting that the said his custody and charge. 
Stanton was not then and there lawfully Eespondent gave no instructions to the 
the Secretary for the Department of War, said Thomas to use intimidation or 
this respondent states that his sole pur- threats to enforce obedience to these 
puse in authorizing the said Thomas to act orders. He gave him no authority to 
as Secretary for the Department of War, call in the aid of the military, or any 
ad interim was. as is fully stated in his other force to enable him to obtain pos- 
answer to the said first article, to bring session of the office, or of the books, 
the question of the right of the said Stan- papers, records, or property thereof. The 
ton to hold said office, notwithstanding only agency resorted to or intended to be 
his said suspension, and notwithstanding resorted to was by means of the said ex- 
the said order of removal, and" notwith- ecutive orders requiring obedience. But 
standing the said authority of the said the Secretary for the Department of War 
Thomas to act as Secretary of War. ad refused to obey these orders, and still 
interim, to the test of a final decision by holds undisturbed possession and custody 
the Supreme Court of the United State^ of that department, and of the records, 
Jn the earliest practicable mode by which books, papers, and other public property 



therein. Respondent further states that, 
in execution of the orders so by this re- 
spondent given to the said Thomas, he, 
the said Thomas, proceeded in a peace- 
ful manner to demand of the said Stan- 
ton a surrender to him of the public 
property in the said department, and to 
vacate the possession of the same, and to 
allow him, the said Thomas, peaceably to 
exercise the duties devolved upon him 
by authority of the President. That, as 
this respondent has been informed and 
believes, the said Stanton peremptorily 
refused obedience to the orders so issued. 
Upon each refusal no force or threat of 
force was used by the said Thomas, on 
authority of the President, or otherwise, 
to enforce obedience, either then or at any 
subsequent time. 

This respondent doth here except to 
the sufficiency of the allegations contained 
in said fourth article, and states for 
ground of exception that it was not 
stated that there was any agreement be- 
tween this respondent and the said 
Thomas, or any other person or persons, 
to use intimidation and threats, nor is 
there any allegation as to the nature of 
said intimidation and threats, or that 
tliere was any agreement to carry them 
into execution, or that any step was taken 
or agreed to be taken to carry them into 
execution, and that the allegation in said 
article that the intent of said conspiracy 
was to use intimidation and threats is 
wholly insufficient, inasmuch as it is not 
alleged that the said intent formed the 
basis or became a part of any agreement 
between the said alleged conspirators, 
and, furthermore, that there is no allega- 
tion of any conspiracy or agreement to 
wse intimidation or threats. 


And for answer to said fifth article, 
this respondent denies that on said 21st 
day of February, 1868, or at any other 
time or times, in the same year, before 
the said 2d day of March, 1868, or at any 
prior or subsequent time, at Washington 
aforesaid, or at any other place, this re- 
sjjondent did unlawfully conspire with the 
said Thomas, or with any other person or 
persons, to prevent or hinder the execution 
of the said act entitled " An act regulat- 
ing the tenure of certain civil offices," or 


that, in pursuance of said alleged con- 
spiracy, he did unlawfully attempt to pre- 
vent the said Edwin M. Stanton from 
holding said office of Secretary for the 
Department of War, or that he was there- 
by guilty of a high misdemeanor in office. 
Respondent, protesting that said Stanton 
was not then and there Secretary for the 
Department of War, begs leave to refer to 
his answer given to the fourth article and 
to his answer given to the first article as 
to his intent and purpose in issuing the 
orders for the removal of Mr. Stanton, 
and the authority given to the said Thomas, 
and prays equal benefit therefrom as if 
the same were here again repeated and 
fully set forth. 

And this respondent excepts to the suf- 
ficiency of the said fifth article, and 
states his ground for such exception, that 
it is not alleged to what means or by what 
agreement the said alleged conspiracy was 
formed or agreed to be carried out, or in 
what way the same was attempted to be 
carried out, or what were the acts done in 
pursuance thereof. 


And for answer to the said sixth article, 
this respondent denies that on the said 
21st day of February, 1868, at Washing- 
ton aforesaid, or at any other time or 
place, he did unlawfully conspire with 
the said Thomas by force to seize, take, 
or possess, the property of the United 
States in the Department of War, con- 
trary to the provisions of the said acts 
referred to in the said article, or either 
of them, or with intent to violate either 
of them. Respondent, protesting that 
said Stanton was not then and there Sec- 
retary for the Department of War, not 
only denies the said conspiracy as charged, 
but also denies unlawful intent in refer- 
ence to the custody and charge of the 
property of the United States in the said 
Department of War, and again refers to 
his former answers for a full statement 
of his intent and purpose in the premises. 


And for answer to the said seventh ar- 
ticle, respondent denies that on the said 
21st day of February, 1868. at Washing- 
ton aforesaid, or at any other time and 
place, he did unlawfully conspire with the 


said Thomas with intent unlawfully to 22d day of February, 1868, the following 

seize, take, or possess the property of the note was addressed to the said Emory by 

United States in the Department of War, the private secretary of the respondent: 

with intent to violate or disregard the 

said act in the said seventh article re- ., ^ " Executive Mansion, 

< , . 4^1 X u jj i^u J xu "Washington, D. C, Feb. 22, 1868. 

ferred to, or that he did then and there « general,— The President directs me to 

commit a high misdemeanor in office. Re- say that he will be pleased to have you call 

spondent, protesting that the said Stan-- "Po° ^'^^ as early as practicable. 

ton was not then and there Secretary for " ^^'^^^ w''^ f"'^ ^'•"'y y°"Jf. 

., T^ , i. ir T-,7 • f X William G. Mooke, U. S. A." 

the Department of War, again refers to 

his former answers, in so far as they are General Emory called at the Executive 
applicable, to show the intent with which Mansion according to this request. Th« 
he proceeded in the premises, and prays object of respondent was to be advised by 
equal benefit therefrom as if the same General Emory, as commander of the De- 
were here again fully repeated. Respon- partment of Washington, what changes 
dent further takes exception to the suf- had been made in the military affairs of 
ficiency of the allegations of this article as the department. Respondent had been in- 
to the conspiracy alleged, upon the same formed that various changes had been 
ground as stated in the exceptions set made which in nowise had been brought 
forth in his answer to said article fourth, to his notice or reported to him from the 

Department of War, or from any other 

quarter, and desired to ascertain the facts. 

And for answer to said eighth article, After the said Emory had explained in 

this respondent denies that on the 21st detail the changes which had taken place, 

day of February, 1808, at Washington said Emory called the attention of re- 


aforesaid, or at any other time or place 
he did issue and deliver to the said 
Thomas the said letter of authority set 
forth in the said eighth article, with the 
intent unlawfully to control the disburse- 
ments of the money appropriated for the 
military service and for the Department 
of War. This respondent, protesting that 
there was a vacancy in the office of Secre- 
tary for the Department of War, admits of all concerned : 
that he did issue the said letter of author- 
ity, and he denies that the same was with 
any unlawful intent whatever, either to 
violate the Constitution of the United 
States or any act of Congress. On the 
contrary, this respondent again affirms 
that his sole intent was to vindicate his 
authority as President of the United 
States, and by peaceful means to bring 
the question of the right of the said Stan- 
ton to continue to hold the office of Secre- 
tary of War to a final decision before the 
Supreme Court of the United States, as 
has been hereinbefore set forth : and he 
prays the same benefit from his answer 
in the premises as if the same were here 
again repeated at length. 

spondent to a general order which he re- 
ferred to and which this respondent then 
sent for, when it was produced. It is as 

" (General Orders, No. 17.) 
" War Department, Adjutant-General's 
" Washington, March 14, 1867. 
" The following acts of Congress are pub- 
lished for the information and government 

" 11-PuBLic-No. 85. 
" An act making appropriations for sup- 
port of the army for the year ending June 
30, 1868, and for other purposes. 


And for answer to the said ninth arti- 

" Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, that 
the headquarters of the general of the 
army of the United States shall be at the 
city of Washington, and all orders and in- 
structions relating to military operations, 
issued by the President or Secretary of War, 
shall be issued throuorh the general of the 
army, and, in case of his inability, through 
the next in ranlc. The general of the army 
shall not be removed, suspended, or relieved 
from command or assigned to duty else- 
where than at said headquarters, except at 
his own request, without the previous ap- 
proval of the Senate : and any orders or 
instructions relating to military operations 
issued contrary to the requirements of this 
section shall be null and void ; and any 
officer, who shall issue orders or instructions 
contrary to the provisions of this section. 

shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor in 
cle, the respondent states that on the said office: and anv officer of the army who shall 



transmit, convey, or obey any orders or In- obey any law or any order issued in con- 

!*f!!fni°''^f ?H- '^^"^^- ^°°t''^^"y to the pro- formity with any law, or intend to offer 
visions of this section, knowing that such • ■■ t. j. A ■ a -c x 

orders were so issued, shall be liable to im- ^P^ inducement to the said Emory to 

prisonment for not less than two or more violate any law. What this respondent 

than twenty years, upon conviction thereof then said to General Emory was simply 

in any court of competent jurisdiction. ^ ^j^^ expression of an opinion which he 

"Approved March 2, 1867.' * ' then fully believed to be sound, and which 

he yet believes to be so, and that is that, 

"By order of the Secretary of War by the express provisions of the Consti- 

"E. D. TowNSEND, Assistant Adjutant- ,,. .-.i jj. t^-jx- 

General tution,, this respondent, as President, is 

"Official : made the commander - in - chief of the 

" , Assistant Adjutant-General." armies of the United States, and as such 

General Emory not only called the at- he is to be respected, and that his or- 

tention of respondent to this order, but <lers, whether issued through the War De- 

to the fact that it was in conformity partment or through the general-in-chief, 

with a section contained in an appropri- or by other channels of communication, 

ation act passed by Congress. Respondent, are entitled to respect and obedience, and 

after reading the order, observed, "This that such constitutional power cannot bef 

is not in accordance with the Constitu- taken from him by virtue of any act of 

tion of the United States, which makes Congress. Respondent doth therefore 

me Commander-in-Chief of the Army and deny that by the expression of such 

Navy, nor with the language of the com- opinion he did commit or was guilty of a 

mission which you hold." General Em- high misdemeanor in office; and this re- 

ory then stated that this order had met spondent doth further say that the said 

respondent's approval. Respondent then article nine lays no foundations whatever 

said in reply, in substance, "Am I to for the conclusion stated in the said 

understand that the President of the article, that the respondent, by reason of 

United States cannot give an order but the allegations therein contained, was 

through the general-in-chief?" General guilty of a high misdemeanor in office. 
Emory again reiterated the statement In reference to the statement made by 

that it had met respondent's approval. General Emory, that this respondent had 

and that it was the opinion of some of approved of said act of Congress contain- 

the leading lawyers of the country that ing the section referred to, the respondent 

this order was constitutional. With admits that his forma) approval was given 

some further conversation, respondent to said act, but accompanied the same 

then required the names of the lawyers by the following message, addressed and 

who had given the opinion, and he men- sent with the act to the House of Rep- 

tioned the names of two. Respondent resentatives, in which House the said act 

then said that the object of the law was originated, and from which it came to 

very evident, referring to the clause in respondent: 

the appropriation act upon which the or- "To the House of Representatives, — 
der purported to be based. This, accord- The act entitled 'An act making ap- 
ing to respondent's recollection, was the propriations for the support of the army 
substance of the conversation held with for the year ending June 30, 1868, and 
General Emory. for other purposes,' contains provisions 

Respondent denies that any allegations to which I must call attention. These 
in the said article of any instructions or provisions are contained in the second sec- 
declarations given to the said Emory, tion, which, in certain cases, virtually de- 
then or at any other time, contrary to or prives the President of his constitutional 
in addition to what is hereinbefore set functions as commander - in - chief of the 
forth, are true. Respondent denies that, army, and in the sixth section, which de- 
in said conversation with said Emory, he nied to ten States in the Union their con- 
had any other intent than to express the stitutional right to protect themselves, in 
opinions then given to the said Emory, any emergency, by means of their own 
nor did he then nor at any other time militia. These provisions are out of 
request or order the said Emory to dis- place in an appropriation act, but I anj 



compelled to defeat these necessary ap- lieves substantially a correct report) is 
propriations if I withhold my signature hereto annexed as part of this answer, 
from the act. Pressed by these consider- and marked Exhibit C. 
ations, I feel constrained to return the That, thereupon, and in reply to the 
bill with my signature, but to accompany address of said committee by their chair- 
it with my earnest protest against the man, this respondent addressed the 'said 
sections which I have indicated. committee so waiting upon him in one 

"Washington, D. C, March 2, 18G7." of the rooms of the Executive Mansion; 

Respondent, therefore, did no more than and this respondent believes that this, 

to express to said Emory the same his address to said committee, is the 

opinion which he had so expressed to the occasion referred to in the first specifica- 

Ilouse of Representatives. tion of the tenth article; but this re- 
spondent does not admit that the pas- 

ANSWER TO ARTICLE X. . „ xi • ^ t t-u -t t x / 

sage therein set forth, as if extracts from 
And in answer to the tenth article and a speech or address of this respondent 
specifications thereof, the respondent upon said occasion, correctly or justly pre- 
says that, on the 14th and 15th days of sent his speech or address upon said 
August, in the year 186G, a political con- occasion; but, on the contrary, this re- 
vcntion of delegates from all, or most, of spondent demands and insists that if 
the States and Territories of the Union this honorable court shall deem the 
was held in the city of Philadelphia, said article and the said first specifica- 
under the name and style of the National tion thereof to contain allegation of 
Union Convention, for the purpose of matter cognizable by this honorable 
maintaining and advancing certain polit- court as a high misdemeanor in office, 
ical views and opinions before the peo- within the intent and meaning of the 
pie of the United States, and for their Constitution of the United States, and 
support and adoption in the exercise of shall receive or allow proof in support of 
the constitutional suffrage in the elec- the same, that proof shall be required to 
tion of representatives and delegates in be made of the actual speech and address 
Congress, which were soon to occur in of this respondent on said occasion, 
many of the States and Territories of which this respondent denies that said 
the Union; which said convention, in article and specification contain or cor-/^ 
the course of its proceedings, and in rectly or justly represent, 
furtherance of the objects of the same. And this respondent, further answer- 
adopted a " declaration of principles " ing the tenth article and specifications 
and " an address to the people of the thereof, says that at Cleveland, in the 
United States," and appointed a com- State of Ohio, and on the 3d day of Sep- 
mittee of two of its members from each teinber, in the year 1866, he was attended 
State, and of one from each Territory, by a large assembly of his fellow-citizens, 
and one from the District of Columbia, to and, in deference and obedience to their 
wait upon the President of the United call and demand, he addressed them upon 
States and present to him a copy of the matters of public and political consid- 
proceedings of the convention; that, on eration; and this respondent believes that 
the 18th day of the said month of August, said occasion and address are referred to 
this committee waited upon the Presi- in the second specification of the tenth 
dent of the United States, at the Exec- article; but this respondent docs not ad- 
utive Mansion, and was received by him mit that the passages therein set forth 
in one of the rooms thereof, and by their as if extracts from a speech of this re- 
vhairman, Hon. Reverdy Johnson, then spondent on said occasion, correctly or 
and now a Senator of the United States, justly present his speech or address upon 
acting and speaking in their behalf, pre- said occasion; but, on the contrary, this 
sented a copy of the proceedings of the respondent demands and insists that, if 
convention, and addressed the President this honorable court shall deem the said 
of the United States in a speech, of which article and the said second specification 
a copy (according to a published report thereof to contain allegation of matter 
of the same, and as the respondent be- cognizable by this honorable court as a 



high misdemeanor in office, within the 
intent and meaning of the Constitution 
of the United States, and shall recei^ : 
01- allow proof in support of the same, 
that proof shall be required to be made 
of the actual speech and address of this 
respondent on said occasion, which this 
respondent denies that said article and 
specification contain or correctly or justly 

And this respondent, further answering 
the tenth article and the specifications 
thereof, says that at St. Louis, in the 
State of Missouri, and on the 8th day of 
September, in the year 18G6, he was at- 
tended by a numerous assemblage of his 
fellow-citizens, and in deference and obedi- 
ence to their call and demand he addressed 
them upon matters of public and political 
consideration ; and this respondent be- 
lieves that said occasion and address are 
referred to in the third specification of 
the tenth article; but this respondent does 
not admit that the passages therein set 
forth, as if extracts from a speech of this 
respondent on said occasion, correctly or 
justly present his speech or address upon 
said occasion; but, on the contrary, this 
respondent demands and insists that if 
this honorable court shall deem the said 
article and the said third specification 
thereof to contain allegation of matter 
cognizable by this honorable court as a 
high misdemeanor in office, within the in- 
tent and meaning of the Constitution of 
the United States, and shall receive or 
allow proof in support of the same, that 
proof shall be required to be made of the 
actual speech and address of this respon- 
dent on said occasion, which this respon- 
dent denies that the said article and speci- 
fication contain or correctly or justly rep- 

And this respondent, further answering 
the tenth article, protesting that he has 
not been unmindful of the high duties of 
his office, or of the harmony or courtesies 
which ought to exist and be maintained 
between the executive and legislative 
branches of the government of the United 
States, denies that he has ever intended or 
designed to set aside the rightful authority 
or powers of Congress, or attempted to 
bring into disgrace, rdicule, hatred, con- 
tempt, or reproach, the Congress of the 
United States, ir either branch thereof, 


or to impair or destroy the regard or re- 
spect of all or any of the good people of 
the United States for the Congress or the 
rightful legislative power thereof, or to 
excite the odium or resentment of all or 
any of the good people of the United 
States, against Congress, and the laws by 
it duly and constitutionally enacted. This 
respondent further says that at all times 
he has, in his official acts as President, rec- 
ognized the authority of the several Con- 
gresses of the United States, as constituted 
and organized during his administration of 
the office of President of the United States^ 

And this respondent, further answering, 
says that he has, from time to time, un- 
der his constitutional right and duty as 
President of the United States, communi- 
cated to Congress his views and opinions 
in regard to such acts or resolutions there- 
of, as, being submitted to him as Presi- 
dent of the United States, in pursuance 
of the Constitution, seemed to this re- 
spondent to require such communications: 
and he has, from time to time, in the ex- 
ercise of that freedom of speech which be- 
longs to him as a citizen of the United 
States, and, in his political relations as 
President of the United States, to the 
people of the United States, is upon fit 
occasions a duty of the highest obligation, 
expressed to his fellow-citizens his views 
and opinions respecting the measures and 
proceedings of Congress; and that in such 
addresses to his fellow-citizens, and in 
such his communications to Congress, he 
has expressed his views, opinions, and 
judgment of and concerning the actual 
constitution of the two Houses of Congress 
without representation therein of certain 
States of the Union, and of the eff"ect that 
in wisdom and justice, in the opinion and 
judgment of this respondent. Congress in 
its legislation and proceedings shall give 
to this political circumstance ; and what- 
soever he has thus communicated to Con- 
gress or addressed to his fellow-citizens or 
any assemblage thereof, this respondent 
says was and is within and according tq^ 
his right and privilege as an American''' 
citizen, and his right and duty as Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

And this respondent not waiving or at 
all disparaging his right of freedom of 
opinion and of freedom of speech, as 
hereinbefore or hereinafter more particu- 


larly set forth, but claiming and insist- 
ing upon the same, further answering the 
said tenth article, says that the views and 
opinions expressed by this respondent in 
his said addresses to the assemblages of 
his fellow-citizens, as in said article or in 
this answer thereto mentioned, are not 
and were not intended to be other or dif- 
/ferent from those expressed by him in his 
communications to Congress — that the 
eleven States lately in insurrection never 
had ceased to be States of the Union, and 
that they were then entitled to representa- 
tion in Congress by local Representatives 
and Senators as fully as the other States 
of the Union, and that, consequently, the 
Congress, as then constituted, was not, in 
fact, a Congress of all the States, but a 
Congress of only a part of the States. 
This respondent always protesting against 
the unauthorized exclusion therefrom of 
the said eleven States, nevertheless gave 
his assent to all laws passed by said Con- 
gress, which did not, in his opinion and 
judgment, violate the Constitution, exer- 
cising his constitutional authority of re- 
turning bills to said Congress with his ob- 
jections when they appeared to him to be 
unconstitutional or inexpedient. 

And, further, this respondent has also 
expressed the opinion, both in his com- 
munications to Congress, and in his ad- 
dresses to the people, that the policy 
adopted by Congress in reference to the 
States lately in insurrection did not tend 
to peace, harmony, and union, but, on the 
contrary, did tend to disunion and the 
permanent disruption of the States, and 
that, in following its said policy, laws had 
been passed by Congress in violation of 
the fundamental principles of the govern- 
ment, and which tended to consolidation 
and despotism ; and, such being his de- 
liberate opinions, he would have felt him- 
self unmindful of the high duties of his 
office if he had failed to express them in 
his communications to Congress or in his 
addresses to the people when called upon 
by them to express his opinions on mat- 
ters of public and political consideration. 

And this respondent, further answering 
the tenth article, says that he has always 
claimed and insisted, and now claims and 
insists, that both in his personal and pri- 
vate capacity of a citizen of the United 
States, and in the political relations o£ 


the President of the United States, to the 
j)eople of the United States, whose ser- 
vant, under the duties and responsibilities 
of the Constitution of the United States, 
the President of the United States is and 
should always remain, this respondent had 
and has the full right, and in his office 
of President of the United States is held 
to the high duty, of forming, and on fit 
occasions expressing, opinions of and con- 
cerning the legislation of Congress, pro- 
posed or completed, in respect of its 
wisdom, expediency, justice, worthiness, 
objects, purposes, and public and political 
motives and tendencies; and within and 
as a part of such right and duty to form, 
and on tit occasions to express, opinions 
of and concerning the public character 
and conduct, views, purposes, objects, mo- 
tives, and tendencies of all men engaged 
in the public service, as well in Congress 
as otherwise, and under no other rules or 
limits upon this right of freedom of opin- 
ion and of freedom of speech, or of re- 
sponsibility and amenability for the act- 
ual exercise of such freedom of opinion 
and freedom of speech than attend upon 
such rights and their exercise on the 
part of all other citizens of the United 
States and on the part of all their public 

And this respondent, further answering 
said tenth article, says that the several 
occasions on which, as is alleged in the 
several specifications of said article, this 
respondent addressed his fellow-citizens 
on subjects of public and political consid- 
erations were not, nor was any one of 
them, sought or planned by this respon- 
dent ; but, on the contrary, each of said 
occasions arose upon the exercise of a 
lawful and accustomed right of the peo- 
ple of the United States to call upon their 
public servants, and express to them their 
opinions, wishes, and feelings upon mat- 
ters of public and political consideration, 
and to invite from such, their public ser- 
vants, an expression of their opinions, 
views, and feelings on matters of public 
and political consideration; and this re- 
spondent claims and insists before this 
honorable court, and before all the people 
of the United States, that of or concern- 
ing this his right of freedom of opinion, 
and of freedom of speech, and this his ex- 
ercise of such right on all matters of 


public and political consideration, and in 
respect of all public servants, or persons 
whatsoever engaged in or connected there- 
with, this respondent, as a citizen, or as 
President of the United States, is not 
subject to question, inquisition, impeach- 
ment, or inculpation, in any form or man- 
ner whatsoever. 

And this respondent says that neither 
the said tenth article, nor any specification 
thereof, nor any allegation therein con- 
tained, touches or relates to any official 
act or doing of this respondent in the 
office of President of the United States, 
or in the discharge of any of its constitu- 
tional or legal duties or responsibilities; 
but said article and the specifications and 
allegations thereof, wholly and in every 
part thereof, question only the discretion 
oi propriety of freedom of opinion or free- 
dom of speech, as exercised by this re- 
spondent as a citizen of the United States 
in his personal right and capacity, and 
without allegation or imputation against 
this respondent of the violation of any 
law of the United States, touching or re- 
lating to freedom of speech or its exer- 
cise by the citizens of the United States, 
or by this respondent as one of the said 
citizens or otherwise; and he denies that, 
by reason of any matter in said article 
or its specifications alleged, he has said 
or done anything indecent or unbecoming 
in the chief magistrate of the United 
States, or that he has brought the high 
office of the President of the United States 
into contempt, ridicule, or disgrace, or 
that he has committed or has been guilty 
of a high misdemeanor in office. 


And in answer to the eleventh article 
this respondent denies that on the ISth 
day of August, in the year 1866, at the 
city of Washington, in the District of 
Columbia, he did, by public speech or 
otherwise, declare or affirm, in substance 
or at all, that the Thirty-ninth Congress 
of the United States was not a Congress 
of the United States authorized by the 
Constitution to exercise legislative power 
under the same, or that he did then and 
there declare or affirm that the said 
Thirty-ninth Congress was a Congress 
of only part of the States in any sense 
or meaning other than that ten States 

of the Union were denied representation 
therein; or that he made any or either 
of the declarations or affirmations in this 
behalf, in the said article alleged, as de- 
nying or intending to deny that the legis- 
lation of said Thirty-ninth Congress was 
valid or obligatory upon this respondent, 
except so far as this respondent saw fit 
to approve the same; and as to the alle- 
gation in said article, that he did thereby 
intend or mean to be understood that the 
said Congress had not power to propose 
amendments to the Constitution, this re- 
spondent says that in said address he 
said nothing in reference to the subject 
of amendments of the Constitution, nor 
was the question of the competency of 
the said Congress to propose such amend- 
ments, without the participation of said 
excluded States, at the time of said ad- 
dress, in any way mentioned or con- 
sidered or referred to by this respon- 
dent, nor in what he did say had he any 
intent regarding the same, and he denies 
the allegation so made to the contrary 
thereof. But this respondent, in further 
answer to, and in respect of the said alle- 
gations of the said eleventh article here- 
inbefore traversed and denied, claims and 
insists upon his personal and official right 
of freedom of opinion and freedom of 
speech, and his duty in his political re- 
lations as President of the United States, 
to the people of the United States, in 
the exercise of such freedom of opinion 
and freedom of speech, in the same man- 
ner, form, and eflfect as he has in his 
behalf stated the same in his answer to 
the said tenth article, and with the same 
effect as if he here repeated the same; 
and he further claims and insists, as in 
said answer to said tenth article he has 
claimed and insisted, that he is not sub- 
ject to question, inquisition, impeachment, 
or inculpation, in any form or manner, 
of or concerning such rights of freedom 
of opinion or freedom of speech, or his 
said alleged exercise thereof. 

And this respondent further denies that, 
on the 21st day of February, in the year 
1868. or at any other time, at the city 
of Washington, in the District of Co- 
lumbia, in pursuance of any such decla- 
ration as is in that behalf in said eleventh 
article alleged, or otherwise, he did un- 
lawfully, and in disregard of the require- 



luent of the Constitution that he should 
lake care that the laws should be faith- 
fully executed, attempt to prevent the exe- 
cution of an act entitled " An act regu- 
lating the tenure of certain civil offices," 
passed March 2, 1867, by unlawfully de- 
vising or contriving, or attempting to 
devise or contrive, means by which he 
should prevent Edwin M. Stanton from 
forthwith resuming the functions of Sec- 
retary for the Department of War ; or 
by unlawfully devising or contriving, or 
attempting to devise or contrive, means 
to prevent the execution of an act en- 
titled, " An act making appropriations 
for the support of the army for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 18G8, and for other 
purposes," approved March 2, 1867, or to 
prevent the execution of an act entitled, 
" An act to provide for the more efficient 
government of the rebel States," passed 
March 2, 1867. 

And this respondent, further answer- 
ing the said eleventh article, says that he 
has, in answer to the first article, set 
forth in detail the acts, steps, and pro- 
ceedings done and taken by this respon- 
dent to and towards or in the matter of 
the suspension or removal of the said Ed- 
win M. Stanton in or from the office of 
Secretary for the Department of War, 
with the times, modes, circumstances, in- 
tents, views, purposes, and opinions of 
official obligation and duty under and with 
which such acts, steps, and proceedings 
were done and taken ; and he makes an- 
swer to this eleventh article, of the mat- 
ters in his answer to the first article, 
pertaining to the suspension or removal 
of said Edwin M. Stanton, to the same 
intent and effect as if they were here re- 
peated and set forth. 

And this respondent further answering 
the said eleventh article denies that by 
means or reason of anything in said 
article alleged this respondent, as Presi- 
dent of the United States, did on the 
21st day of February, 1868, or at any 
other day or time, commit or that he 
was guilty of a high misdemeanor in office. 

And this respondent, further answering 
the said eleventh article, says that the 
same and the matters therein contained 
do not charge or allege the commission 
of any act whatever by this respondent, 
in his office of President of the United 


States, nor the omission by this respon- 
dent of any act of official obligation or 
duty in his oflice of President of the 
United States; nor does the said article 
nor the matters therein contained name, 
designate, describe, or define any act or 
mode or form of attempt, device, con- 
trivance, or means, or of attempt at 
device, contrivance, or means, whereby 
this respondent can know or understand 
what act or mode or form of attempt, de- 
vice, contrivance, or means, or of at- 
tempt at device, contrivance, or means, 
are imputed to or charged against this 
respondent in his office of President of 
the United States, or intended so to be, 
or whereby this respondent can more fully 
or definitely make answer unto the said 
article than he hereby does. 

And this respondent, in submitting to 
this honorable court this his answer to 
the articles of impeachment exhibited 
against him, respectfully reserves leave 
to amend and add to the same from time 
to time, as may become necessary or 
proper, and when and as such necessity 
and propriety shall appear. 

Andrew Johnson. 

Henry Stanbery, 

B. R. Curtis, 

Thomas A. R. Nelson, 

William M. Evarts, 

W. S. Groesbeck, 
Of Counsel. 

Johnson, Bradley Tyler, lawyer; 
born in Frederick, Md., Sept. 29, 1829; 
graduated at Princeton in 1849; studied 
law at the Harvard Law School in 1850- 
51, and began practice in Frederick. In 
1851 he was State attorney of Frederick 
county. In 1860 he was a delegate 
to the National Democratic Conventions 
in Charleston and Baltimore; voted for 
the States' Rights platform; and, with 
most of the Maryland delegates, with- 
drew from the convention, and gave his 
support to the Breckinridge and Lane 
ticket. During the Civil War he served 
in the Confederate army, rising from the 
rank of captain to that of brigadier-gen- 
eral. After the war he practised law in 
Richmond, Va., till 1879, and then in 
Baltimore till 1890. He wa? a member 
of the State Senate in 187.5-7t) His pub- 
lications include Chase's Decxr-.ions ; The 
Foundation of Maryland; Life of General 


Washington ; Memoirs of Joseph E. John- published in 1G54 under the title of Won- 
ston; Confederate History of Mary- der-working Providence of Zion's Saviour 

land; etc. in Neio England. He died in Woburn, 

Jolmson, BusHKOD Rust, military ofS- Mass., April 23, 1672. 

cer; born in Belmont county, 0., Sept. Johnson, Fort, a former protective 

6, 1817; graduated at West Point in work on the Cape Fear River, near Wil- 

1840; he served in the Florida and Mexi- mington, N. C. On June 14, 1775, the 

can wars ; and was Professor of Mathe- royal governor, Joseph Martin, took refuge 

matics in military academies in Kentucky in the fort, as the indignant people had 

and Tennessee. He joined the Confed- begun to rise in rebellion against royal 

erate army in 1861; was made a briga- rule. From that stronghold he sent forth 

dier-general early in 1862 ; was captured a menacing proclamation, and soon after- 

at Fort Donelson, but soon afterwards wards preparations for a servile insur- 

escaped; was wounded in the battle of rection were discovered. The nlmor went 

Shiloh; and was made major-general in abroad that Martin had incited the slaves. 

1864. He was in command of a division The exasperated people determined to drive 

in Lee's army at the time of the sur- him from the fort and demolish it. A 

render at Appomattox Court-house, and body of 500 men, led by John Ashe and 

after the war was chancellor of the Uni- Cornelius Harnett, marched to the fort, 

versity of Xashville. He died in Brigh- Martin had fled on board a British vessel 

ton. 111., Sept. 11, 1880. of war in the river. The munitions of 

Johnson, Cave, jurist; born in Robert- war had all been removed on board of a 

son county, Tenn., Jan. 11, 1793; elected transport, and the garrison also had fled, 

circuit judge in 1820; served in Congress, The people burned the barracks and demol- 

1829-37; and appointed Postmaster-Gen- ished the walls. 

eral in 1845. He died in Clarksville, Tenn., Johnson, Franklin, educator; born 

Nov. 23, 1866. in Frankfort, 0., Nov. 2, 1836; grad- 

Johnson, Clifton, author; born in uated at Colgate Theological Seminary 

Hadley, Mass., Jan. 25, 1865; received a in 1861. He held pastorates in Michigan 

common-school education. He is the au- and New Jersey in 1862-73, and in Cam- 

thor of The Neio England Country; What bridge, Mass., in 1874-88. In 1890 he 

They Say in Neto England; Studies of Nciv became president of the Ottawa Univer- 

England Life and Nature, etc. sity, Kansas, and remained there two 

Johnson, Eastman, artist; born in years, when he was called to the chair 

Lovell, Me., July 29, 1824; was educated of History and Homiletics in the Uni- 

in the public schools of Augusta, Me.; versity of Chicago. 

studied in the Royal Academy of Diissel- Johnson, Guy, military officer; born in 
dorf for two years, and was elected an Ireland in 1740; married a daughter of 
academician of the National Academy of Sir William Johnson {q. v.), and in 
Design in 1860. He has painted many 1774 succeeded him as Indian agent. He 
notable pictures, including The Kentucky served- against the French from 1757 to 
Home; Husking Bee; The Stage Coach; 1760. At the outbreak of the Revolution 
Pension Agent; Prisoner of State, etc. he fled to Canada, and thence went with 
His portraits include Tico Men, ex-Presi- the British troops who took possession of 
dents Arthur, Cleveland, and Harrison, New York City in September, 1776; he re- 
Commodore Vanderbilt, W. H. Vander- mained there some time, and became man- 
bilt, Daniel ^^'ebster, John Quincy Adams, ager of a theatre. He joined Brant, and 
John D. Rockefeller, Mrs. Dolly Madison, participated in some of the bloody out- 
Mrs. August Belmont, Mrs. Hamilton rages in the Mohawk Valley. In 1779 he 
Fish, and many others. fought with the Indians against Sullivan. 

Johnson, Edward, author; born in He died in London, March 5, 1788. 

Heme Hill, England, in 1599; emigrated Johnson, Hale, lawyer; born in 

to the United States in 1630; elected Montgomery county, Ind., Aug. 21, 1847; 

speaker of the Massachusetts House of admitted to the bar of Illinois in 1875; 

Representatives in 1655. He is the author has been actively identified with the 

of a history of New England which was Prohibition party for twenty years, and 



has been its candidate for governor of the 
State of Illinois and for Vice-President in 

Johnson, Helen Kendrick, author; 
born in Hamilton, N. Y., Jan. 4, 1843; 
daughter of Asahel C. Kendrick, the 
Greek scholar and author; was educated 
at the Oread Institute, Worcester, Mass. 
She has edited Our J'amiliar 8oiigs, and 
Those Who Made Them; The American 
Woman's Journal, etc. Her original woiks 
are The Roddy Books: Raleigh Westgate; 
and Woman and the Republic. She has 
contributed many articles to periodicals, 
and is specially known as an opponent of 
woman suffrage. 

Johnson, Henry Phelps, historian; 
born in 1842; became Professor of History 
in the College of the City of New York. 
He is the author of Loyalist History of the 
Revolution; The Campaign of 1776 Around 
New York; The Yorktown Campaign; 
Yale and the Honor Roll in the American 
Revohition, etc. 

Johnson, Herschel Vespasian, legis- 
lator; born in Burke county, Ga., Sept. 
18, 1812; graduated at the University of 
Georgia in 1834; appointed for an unex- 
pired term to the United States Senate in 
1848; elected judge of the Superior Court 
of Georgia in 1849; governor in 1853 and 
185.5. In the Civil War he was a member 
of the Confederate Senate; was elected 
to the United States Senate during the 
reconstruction period, but was not al- 
lowed to take his seat, and was appointed 
judge of the circuit court in 1873. In 
1860 Mr. Johnson was the candidate for 
the Vice - Presidency on the ticket with 
Stephen A. Douglas. He died in Jefferson 
county, Ga., Aug. 16, 1880. 

Johnson, John, educator; born in 
Bristol, Me., Aug. 23, 1806; graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1832; Professor of 
Natural Sciences at Wesleyan University 
in 1837-73, when he was made professor 
emeritus. He was the author of A His- 
tory of the Towns of Bristol and Bremen 
in the State of Maine, etc. He died in 
^ Clifton, S. I., Dec. 2, 1879. 
ft Johnson, John, Indian agent; born in 

- Ballyshannon, Ireland, in March, 1775; 
came to the United States in 1786 and 
settled in Cumberland county, Pa. He par- 
ticipated in the campaign against the 
Indians in Ohio in 1792-93; was agent of 
V. — M 1 7 

Indian affairs for thirty-one years; served 
in the War of 1812, becoming quarter- 
master. In 1841-42 he was commissioner 
to arrange with the Indians of Ohio for 
their emigration from that district. He 
was the author of an Account of the Ind- 
ian Tribes of Ohio. He died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, April 19, 1801. 

Johnson, Sir John, military officer; 
born in Mount Johnson, N. Y., Nov. 5, 
1742; son of Sir William Johnson; was 
a stanch loyalist, and in 1776 the Whigs 
tried to get possession of his person. He 
fled to Canada with about 700 followers, 
where he was commissioned a colonel, and 
raised a corps chiefly among the loyalists 
of New York, known as the Royal Greens. 
He was among the most active and bitter 
foes of the patriots. While investing Fort 
Stanwix in 1777, he defeated General 
Herkimer at Oriskany, but was defeated 
himself by General Van Rensselaer in 
1780. After the war Sir John went to 
England, but returned to Canada, where 
he resided as superintendent of Indian 
affairs until his death, in Montreal, Jan. 
4, 1830. He married a daughter of John 
Watts, a New York loyalist. 

Johnson, John Butler, educator; born 
in Marlboro, 0., June 11, 1850; grad- 
uated at the University of Michigan in 
1878, and became a civil engineer in the 
United States Lake and Mississippi River 
surveys. In 1883-98 he was Professor of 
Civil Engineering in Washington Univer- 
sity, St. Louis. Later he was made dean 
of the College of Mechanics and Engineer- 
ing in the University of Wisconsin. He 
was director of a testing laboratory in St. 
Louis, where all the United States timber 
tests were made. He also had charge of 
the index department of the journal pub- 
lished by the Association of Engineering 
Societies, and compiled two volumes of 
Iy\dex Notes to Engineering Literature. 
He is author of Theory and Practice of 
Surveying ; Modern Framed Structures; 
Engineering Contracts and Specifications; 
itaterials of Construction, etc. 

Johnson, Josiah Stoddard, author ; 
born in New Orleans, Feb. 10, 1833; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1853 and at the 
University Law School in 1854. He joined 
the Confederate army in 1863, and served 
till the close of the war. Later he en- 
gaged in the practice of law and in jour- 



nalism. He is the author of Memorial 
History of Louisville; First Explorations 
of Kentucky; Confederate History of Ken- 
tucky, etc. 

Johnson, Sir Nathaniel, colonial gov- 
ernor of South Carolina in 1703-9. Dur- 
ing his administration he defeated the 
French who had attacked the colony in 
1706. He died in Charleston in 1713. 

Johnson, Oliver, journalist; born in 
Peacham, Vt., Dec. 27, 1809; was man- 
aging editor of The Independent in 1865- 
70; and later was editor of the Christian 
Union. He was the author of William 
Lloyd Garrison and His Times, or Sketches 
of the Anti-Slavery Movement in Amer- 
ica. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 10, 

Johnson, Reverdy, statesman ; born in 
Annapolis, Md., May 21, 1796; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1815. After serving 
two terms in his State Senate, he was 
United States Senator from 1845 to 1849, 
when he became United States Attorney- 
General under President Taylor. Mr. 
Johnson was a delegate to the Peace Con- 
vention; United States Senator from 1863 dent Grant in 1869; supported Horace 
to 1868; and minister to Great Britain in Greeley in the Presidential campaign of 
1868-69, negotiating a treaty for the set- 1872. He died in Annapolis, Md., Feb. 10, 
tlement of the Alabama Claims {q. v.) 1876. 

Johnson, Richard Mentor, Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States ; born in 
Bryant's Station, Ky., Oct. 17, 1781; 
graduated at Transylvania University; 
- . became a lawyer and State legislator, and 

raised a regiment of cavalry in 1812. 
^ With them he served under Harrison, and 

was in the battle of the Thames in 1813, 
where he was dangerously wounded. From 
1807 to 1819 and 1829 to 1837 he was a 
member of Congress. He was United 
States Senator from 1819 to 1829, and 
Vice-President of the United States from 
1837 to 1841. He died in Frankfort, Ky., 
Nov. 19, 1850. 

Johnson, Richard W., military officer; 
born in Livingston county, Ky., Feb. 7, 
1827; graduated at West Point in 1849. 
He was a captain of cavalry in the 
Civil War until August, 1861, when he 
was made lieutenant-colonel of a Ken- 
tucky cavalry regiment. In October he 
was commissioned a brigadier-general of 
volunteers, and served under Buell. In 
question, which was rejected by the United the summer of 1862 he commanded a divi- 
States Senate. He was recalled by Presi- sion of the Army of the Tennessee, and 




afterwards had the same command in the 
Army of the Cumberland. In the battles 
at Stone River and near Chickamauga, 
and in the Atlanta campaign, he was a 
most useful officer. He was severely 
wounded at New Hope Church, and com- 
manded a division of cavalry in the battle 
of Nashville, in December, 1864. He was 
brevetted major-general, U. S. V. and U. S. 
A., for gallant services during the war ; 
was retired in 1867; and was Professor 
of Military Science in the Missouri State 
University in 1868-G9, and in the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota in 1869-71. He died in 
St. Paul, Minn., April 21, 1897. 

Johnson, Robert, colonial governor; 
born in England in 1682; was appointed 
governor of South Carolina in 1717; and 
royal governor in 1731. He died in 
Charleston, S. C, May 3, 1755. 

Johnson, Robert Underwood, editor; 
born in Washington, D. C, Jan. 12, 
1853; graduated at Earlham College, Indi- 
ana, in 1871. He became connected with 
the editorial staff of the Century in 1873 ; 
edited the Century War Series (with 
Clarence Clough Buel), and subsequently 
extended the work by 4 volumes, covering 
the battles and leaders of the Civil War. 
It was he who induced General Grant to 
write his Memoirs, the first part of which 
was published in the Century War Se7-ies. 
He originated the movement which re- 
sulted in the establishment of the Yosem- 
ite National Park ; and was secretary of 
the American Copyright League. His 
works include The Winter Hour; Songs 
of Liberty, etc. 

Johnson, Rossiter, author and editor; 
born in Rochester, N. Y., Jan. 27, 1840; 
graduated at the University of Roch- 
ester in 1863. In 1864-68 he was an as- 
sociate editor of the Rochester Democrat ; 
in 1869-72 was editor of the Concord 
(N. H.) Statesman : and in 1873-77 was 
an associate editor of the American Cyclo- 
poedia. In 1870-80 he assisted Sydney 
Howard Gay in preparing the last two 
volumes of the Bryant and Gay History 
of the United States. Since 1883 he has 
been the sole editor of Appleton^s Annual 
Cyclopadia. He edited The .Authorized 
History of the World's Cohimhian E.rposi- 
tion (4 vols.. 1898) ; and The World's 
Great Boohs (1898-1901). He is also an 
associate editor of the Standard Diction- 

ary. His original books are A History 
of the War Bettoeen the United States 
and Great Britain, lS]:i-15; A History 
of the French War, Ending in the Con- 
quest of Canada; A History of the War 
of Secession (1888; enlarged and illus- 
trated, under the title Camp-fire and Bat- 
tle-field, 1894); The Hero of Manila, etc. 
He has been president of the Quill Club, 
the Society of the Genesee, the New 
York Association of Phi Beta Kappa, and 
of the People's University Extension So- 
ciety. He received the degree of Ph.D. 
in 1888, and that of LL.D. in 1893. 

Johnson, Samuel, jurist; born in Dun- 
dee, Scotland, Dec. 15, 1733; was taken to 
North Carolina by his father when he was 
three years of age, and was in civil office 
there under the crown until he espoused 
the cause of the patriots. In 1773 he 
was one of the North Carolina committee 
of correspondence and an active mem- 
ber of the Provincial Congress. He was 
chairman of the provincial council in 
1775, and during 1781-82 was in the Con- 
tinental Congress. In 1788 he was govern- 
or of the State, and presided over the 
convention that adopted the national Con- 
stitution. From 1789 to 1793 he was 
United States Senator, and from 1800 
to 1803 was judge of the Supreme Court. 
He died near Edenton, N. C, Aug. 18, 

Johnson, Thomas, jurist; born in St. 
Leonards, Calvert co., Md., Nov. 4, 1732; 
was an eminent lawyer, and was chosen a 
delegate to the second Continental Con- 
gress in 1775. He had the honor of nomi-, 
nating George Washington for the post of 
commander-in-chief of the Continental 
armies. He was chosen governor of the 
new State of Maryland in 1777, and was 
associate-justice of the Supreme Court of 
the United States from 1791 to 1793, 
when he resigned. He was offered the post 
of chief-justice of the District of Colum- 
bia in 1801, but declined it. He died at 
Rose Hill, near Frederickton, Oct. 26. 1819. 

Johnson, Thomas Cary, clergyman ; 
born in Fishbok Hill. Va.. July 19,' 1859; 
graduated at Hampden-Sidney College in 
1881 and at Union Theological Seminary, 
Va.. in 1887; was ordained in the Pres- 
byterian Church : became Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History and Polity at Union 
Theological Seminary, Va., in 1892. He 



is the author of A History of the Southern 
Presbyterian Church; A Brief Sketch of the 
United Synod of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States of America, etc. 

Johnson, William, jurist; born in 
Charleston, S. C, Dec. 27, 1771; grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1790; admitted to 
the bar in 1793; elected to the State legis- 
lature in 1794; appointed an associate 
justice of the United States Supreme 
Court in 1804; served until his death, 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 11, 1834. He 
is the author of the Life and Corre- 
spondence of Maj.-Oen. Nathanael Greene. 

Johnson, William, lawyer; born in 
Middletown, Conn., about 1770; graduated 
at Yale College in 1788; reporter of the 
Supreme Court of New York in 1806-23, 
and of the New York Court of Chancery 
in 1814-23. He was the author of Neio 
York Supreme Court Reports, 1799-1803; 
Xew York Chancery Reports 18H-22; and 
Digest of Cases in the Supreme Court of 
Neiii York. He died in New York City in 
July, 1848. 

Johnson, Sir William, military offi- 
cer; born in Smithtown, County Meath, 
Ireland, in 1715; was educated for a mer- 
chant, but an unfortunate love affair 
changed the tenor of his life. He came to 


America in 1738 to take charge of landed 
property of his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter 
Warren, in the region of the Mohawk 
Valley, and seated himself the e, about 24 
miles west of Schenectady, ( igaging in 

the Indian trade. Dealing honestly with 
the Indians and learning their language, 
he became a great favorite with them. 
He conformed to their manners, and, in 
time, took Mary, a sister of Brant, the 
famous Mohawk chief, to his home as his 
wife. When the French and Indian War 
broke out Johnson was made sole super- 
intendent of Indian affairs, and his great 
influence kept the Six Nations steadily 
from any favoring of the French. He 
kept the frontier from injury until the 
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). 

In 1750 he was a member of the pro- 
vincial council. He withdrew from his 
post of superintendent of Indian affairs 
in 1753, and was a member of the con- 
vention at Albany in 1754. He also at- 
tended grand councils of the Indians, and 
was adopted into the Mohawk tribe and 
made a sachem. At the council of gov- 
ernors, convened by Eraddock at Alex- 
andria in 1755, Johnson was appointed 
sole superintendent of the Six Nations, 
created a major-general, and afterwards 
led an expedition intended for the capture 
of Crown Point. The following year he 
was knighted, and the King gave him the 
appointment of superintendent of Indian 
affairs in the North; he was also made a 
colonial agent. He continued in the 
militaiy service during the remainder of 
the war, and was rewarded by his King 
with the gift of 100,000 acres of land 
north of the Mohawk River, which was 
known as " Kingsland," or the " Eoyal 
Grant." Sir William first introduced 
sheep and blooded horses into the Mohawk 
Valley. He married a German girl, by 
whom he had a son and two daughters ; 
also eight children by Mary (or Mollie) 
Brant, who lived with him until his death. 
Sir William lived in baronial style and 
exercised great hospitality. He died in 
Johnstown, N. Y., July 11, 1774. 

Johnson, William Samuel, jurist; 
born in Stratford, Conn., Oct. 7, 1727; 
graduated at Yale College in 1744; 
became a la^vyer ; and was distinguished 
for his eloquence. He was a delegate to 
the Stamp Act Coxgress (7. v.), and for 
five years (from 1766 to 1771) was agent 
for Connecticut in England. He cor- 
responded with the eminent Dr. Johnson 
several years. He was a judge of the 
Supreme Court of Connecticut and a com- 



missioner for adjusting the con- 
troversy between the proprie- 
tors of Pennsylvania and the 
Susquehanna Company. Judge 
Johnson was in Congress (1784 
to 1787), and was also a mem- 
ber of the convention that 
framed the national Constitu- 
tion, in which he was the first 
to propose the organization of 
the Senate as a distinct branch 
of the national legislature. He 
was United States Senator from 
1789 to 1791, and, with his col- 
league, Oliver Ellsworth, drew 
up the bill for establishing the 
judiciary system of the United 
States. He was president of 
Columbia College from 1787 to 
1800. He died in Stratford, 
Nov. 14, 1819. 

Johnson - Clarendon Con- 
vention, the treaty negotiated 
by Reverdy Johnson, while 
minister to England, dated Jan. 
14, 1869. This treaty proposed 
a mixed commission for the 
consideration of all claims, 
including the Alabama claims. 
The treaty, which was the foun- 
dation of the subsequent successful one, 
was rejected by the United States Senate, 
as the provision made in it for national 
losses was not satisfactory. See JoiiNsox, 

Johnston, Albert Sidney, military 
officer; born in Washington, Mason co., 
Ky., Feb. 3, 1803; graduated at West 
Point in 1826; served in the Black Hawk 
War, and resigned in 1834. He entered 
the Texan army as a private in 1836 and 
v.^as soon made a brigadier-general, and 
in 1838 became commander-in-chief of the 
army and Secretary of War. He retired 
to private life in Texas. He served in 
the war with Mexico, and became pay- 
master in the United States army in 1849. 
In 1860-01 he commanded the Pacific De- 
partment, and. sympathizing with the 
Confederates, was superseded by General 
Sumner and entered the Confederate ser- 
vice, in command of the Division of the 
West. At his death, in the battle of 
Shiloh. April 6, 1862, General Beauregard 
succeeded him. 

Johnston, Alexander, historian ; born 



in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 2, 1849; 
graduated at Rutgers College, studied law. 
and became a few years later Professor 
of Jurisprudence and Political Economy 
in Princeton University. His contribu- 
tions to American history were valuable. 
They include a Ilisionj of American Poli- 
iics, histories of Connecticut and the 
United States, the political articles in 
T.alor's Ci/clopcedin of PolUical Science, 
and the political sketch under the article 
'■' United States " in the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica. He died in Princeton, N. J., 
July 20, 1889. 

Johnston, Joseph Eggleston, mili- 
tary officer; born in Longwood. Va.. Feb. 
3, 1809; graduated at West Point in 
1829, and entered the artillery. He 
served in the wars with the Florida Ind- 
ians, and with Mexico, in which he was 
twice wounded. He became lieutenant- 
colonel of cavalry in IS.").), and quarter- 
master-general, with the rank of briga- 
dier-creneral, in June. 1800. He joined 
the Confederates in the spring of 1861, 
and Avas commissioned a major-general in 


the Army of Virginia. He was in com- severe struggle. The Confederates ral- 
mand at the battle of Bull Run, and lied, and, returning with an overwhelm- 
fought gallantly on the Virginia penin- ing force, retook the hill. Palmer, find- 
sula, until wounded at the battle of Fair ing his adversaries gathering in force 
Oaks, or Seven Pines (1862), when he larger than his own, and learning that 
was succeeded by Lee. He afterwards the object of his expedition had been ac- 
opposed Grant and Sherman in the Mis- complished, in the calling back of Hardee 
sissippi Valley. He was in command dur- by Johnston, fell back and took post 
ing the Atlanta campaign in 1864 until (March 10) at Ringgold. In this short 
July, when he was superseded by General campaign the Nationals lost 350 killed 
Hood. and wounded; the Confederates about 

When Johnston heard of Sherman's raid, 200. 
and perceived that Polk could not resist With the surrender of Lee, the Civil 
him, he sent two divisions of Hardee's War was virtually ended. Although he 
corps, under Generals Stewart and Ander- was general-in-chief, his capitulation in- 
son, to assist Polk. Grant, in command eiuded only the Army of Northern Vir- 
at Chattanooga (February, 1864), sent ginia. That of Johnston, in North Caro- 
General Palmer with a force to counter- Una, and smaller bodies, were yet in the 
act this movement. Palmer moved with field. When Sherman, who confronted 
his corps directly upon Dalton (Feb. 22), Johnston, heard of the victory at Five 

Forks and the evacuation 
of Petersburg and Rich- 
mond, he moved on John- 
ston (April 10, 18 65), with 
his whole army. The lat- 
ter was at Smithfield, on 
the Neuse River, with ful- 
ly 30,000 men. Jefferson 
Davis and the Confeder- 
ate cabinet were then at 
Danville, on the southern 
border of Virginia, and had 
just proposed to Johnston 
a plan whereby they might 
secure their own personal 
safety and the treasures 
they had brought with 
them from Richmond. It 
was to disperse his army, 
excepting two or three bat- 
teries of artillery, the cav- 
alry, and as many infan- 
try as he could mount, 
with which he should form 
a giiard for the " govern- 
ment," and strike for the 
Mississippi and beyond, 
with Mexico as their final 
objective. Johnston spurn- 
where Johnston was encamped. The Con- ed the proposition, and, deprecating the bad 
federates were constantly pushed back and example of Lee in continuing what he 
there was almost continual heavy skirmish- knew to be a hopeless war, had the moral 
ing. In the centre of Rocky Face Valley, courage to do his duty according to the 
on a rocky eminence, the Confederates dictates of his conscience and his nice 
made a stand, but were soon driven from sense of honor. He refused to fight 
the crest by General Turchin, after a any more, or to basely desert his 




army far away from their home, as forty-eight hours. This notification was 
the " government " proposed, and stated accompanied by a demand for the sur- 
frankly to the people of North and render of Johnston's army, on the terms 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, in- granted to Lee. The capitulation was 
eluded within his military department, agreed upon at the house of James Ben- 
that " war could not be longer contin- nett, near Durham's Station, April 26. 
ucd by them, except as robbers," and About 25,000 troops were surrendered, 
that he should take measures to stop The capitulation included all the troops 
it and save the army and people from in Johnston's military department. Gen- 
further evil, and " avoid the crime of eral Taylor surrendered at Citronelle, 
waging a hopeless war." Sherman was Ala., to General Canby, on the same 
pushing Johnston with great vigor, when terms, and the Confederate navy on the 
the former received a note from the lat- 1'ombigbee River was surrendered by 
ter (April 14, 1865), asking if a tern- Commander Farrand to Rear - Admiral 
porary suspension of 
active hostilities might be 
arranged to allow the 
" civil authorities to enter 
into the needful arrange- 
ments to terminate the 
existing war." Sherman 
promptly replied that he 
would do so, and was will- 
ing to hold a conference. 
He said that, as a basis 
of action, he would under- 
take to abide by the terms 
made by Grant and Lee at 
Appomattox Court-house. 
Sherman and Johnston 
met at Durham's Station, 
half-way between Raleigh 
and Hillsboro, at ten 
o'clock, April 17. John- 
ston said he regarded the 
Confederate cause as lost, 

and admitted that Grant's terms were Thatcher. After the war he mgaged in 
magnanimous; but he insisted upon con- the fire insurance business; was a Demo- 
ditions involving political guarantees, cratic member of Congress in 1876-78; 
which Sherman had no authority to grant, and United States commissioner of rail- 
At a second conference the next day, roads in 188.5-89. He died in Washington, 
Sherman consented to a memorandum of D. C, March 21, 1891. 

agreement as a basis for the considera- Johnston, Richard Malcolm, author; 
tion of the government, which, if carried born in Powelton, Ga., March 8, 1822; 
out, would have instantly restored to all graduated at Mercer University, Geor- 
persons engaged in the rebellion every gia, in 1841, and a year later was 
right and privilege, social and political, admitted to the bar. In 1857-61 he 
which they had enjoyed before the war, was Professor of Literature in the Uni- 
without any liability of punishment. It versify of Georgia. He was an officer in 
was adroitly draAvn up by Breckinridge, the Confederate army throughout the 
and was signed by the respective com- Civil War. In 1867 he moved to Balti- 
manding generals. The national govern- more, and engaged in authorship. His 
ment instantly rejected it. and General works include Qeorpia Sketches; Dukes- 
Grant was sent to Raleigh to declare that horoufjh Tales; Historical Sketch of 
rejection, which he did April 24, and English Literature (with W. H. 
proclaimed that the truce would end in Bro^vne) ; Old Mark Langston; Ttco Grai) 




Tourists; Mr. Absalom Billingslea, and 
Other Georgia Folk; Ogeechee Gross Fir- 
i7i,gs; Widoio Guthrie; The Primes and 
Their Neighbors; Studies: Literary and 
Social; Old Times in Middle Georgia; 
Pearse Amerson's Will, etc. He died in 
Baltimore, Md., Sept. 23, 1898. 

Johnston, William, revolutionist ; born 
in Canada, in 1780; was an American spy 
on the Canada frontier during the War 
of 1812-15. He was living at Clayton, 
N. Y., on the bank of the St. Lawrence, 
when the " patriot " war in Canada broke 
out in 1837. Being a bold and adventur- 
ous man, and cordially hating the British, 
Johnston was easily persuaded by the 
American sympathizers in the movement 
to join in the strife. The leaders regarded 
him as a valuable assistant, for he was 
thoroughly acquainted with the whole re- 
gion of the Thousand Islands, in the St. 
Lawrence, from Kingston to Ogdensburg. 
He was employed to capture the steam- 
boat Robert Peel, that carried passengers 
and the mail between Prescott and To- 
ronto, and also to seize the Great Britain, 
another steamer, for the use of the " pa- 
triots." With a desperate band, Johnston 
rushed on board of the Peel at Wells's 


Island, not far below Clayton, on the 
night of May 29, 1838. They were armed 
with muskets and bayonets and painted 
like Indians, and appeared with a shout, 


"Remember the Carolina!" — a vessel 
which some persons from Canada had cut 
loose at Schlosser (on Niagara River), set 
on fire, and sent blazing over Niagara 


I'alls. The passengers and baggage of the 
Peel were put on shore and the vessel was 
burned, because her captors could not 
manage her. Governor Marcy, of New 
York, declared Johnston an outlaw, and 
offered a reward of $500 for his person. 
The governor of Canada (Earl of Dur- 
ham) offered $5,000 for the conviction of 
any person concerned in the " infamous 
outrage." Johnston, in a proclamation 
issued from " Fort Watson," declared him- 
self the leader of the band ; that his com- 
panions were nearly all Englishmen ; and 
that his headquarters were on an island 
within the jurisdiction of the United 
States. Fort Watson was a myth. It 
was wherever Johnston was seated among 
the Thousand Islands, where for a long 
time he was concealed, going from one 
island to another to avoid arrest. His 
daughter, a handsome maiden of eighteen 
years, who was an expert rower, went to 
his retreat at night with food. At length 
he was arrested, tried at Syracuse on a 
charge of violating the neutrality laws, 
and acquitted. Again arrested and put in 
jail, he managed to escape, when a reward 
of $200 was offered for him. He gave him- 
self up at Albany, was tried, convicted, 
and sentenced to one year's imprisonment 
in the jail there and to pay a fine of $250. 
His faithful daughter, who had acquired 
the title of " The Heroine of the Thousand 


Islands," hastened to Albany and shared 
the prison with her father. He procured 
a key that would unlock his prison-door. 
His daughter departed and waited for him 
at Rome. He left the jail, walked 40 
miles the first night, and soon joined her. 
They went home, and Johnston was not 
molested afterwards. The " patriots " 
urged him to engage in the struggle again. 
He had had enough of it. They sent him 
the commission of a commodore, dated at 
" Windsor, U. C, Sept. 5, 1839," and 
signed " H. S. Hand, Commander-in-Chief 
of the Northwestern Army, on Patriot 
Service in Upper Canada." On that com- 
mission was the device seen in the engrav- 
ing — the American eagle carrying off the 
British lion. The maple-leaf is an emblem 
of Canada. He refused to serve, and re- 
mained quietly at home. President Pierce 
appointed him light-house keeper on Rock 
Island, in the St. Lawrence, in sight of 
the place where the Peel was burned. 

Johnston, William Preston, educator ; 
born in Louisville, Ky., Jan. 5, 1831 ; son 
of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston. He grad- 
uated at Yale University in 18.52, and 
at the Louisville Law School in the fol- 
lowing year, and began practice in Louis- 
ville. When the Civil War broke out, he 
ei'tered the Confederate army as major of 
the 1st Kentucky Regiment. In 1862 he 
was appointed by President Davis his 
aide-de-camp with the rank of colonel. 
When Lee surrendered Colonel Johnston 
remained Avith the President, and was 
captured with him. After his release he 
lived a year in Canada and then resumed 
law practice in Louisville. In 1867, when 
General Lee was made president of Wash- 
ington and Lee University, Colonel John- 
ston was appointed Professor of English 
History and Literature there, where he 
remained till 1877. During 1880-83 he 
was president of the Louisiana State Uni- 
versity and the Agricultural and ISIechani- 
oal College at Baton Rouge. In 1883, when 
Tiilane University, in New Orleans, was 
founded, he was elected its president, and 
served as such till his death, in Lexing- 
ton. Va.. July 16. 1899. His publications 
include Life of Albert Sidney Johnston: 
The Prototype of Hamlet; The Johnstons 
of Salisbury : also the poems. My Garden 
Walk; Pictures of the Patriarchs; and 
Seekers After God. 

Johnstone, George, diplomatist; bom 
in Dumfries, Scotland; entered the British 
navy; became post-captain 1762, and gov- 
ernor of West Florida in 1763; and was 
one of the commissioners sent to the Unit- 
ed States to treat with Congress in 1778. 
He had been an advocate of the Americans 
in the House of Commons, and brought 
letters of introduction to Robert Morris, 
Joseph Reed, and other leading patriots. 
Finding the commissioners could do noth- 
ing, officially, with Congress, Johnstone 
attempted to gain by bribery what could 
not be acquired by diplomacy. To Morris 
and others he wrote letters, urging the ex- 
pediency of making arrangements with the 
government, and suggesting, in some of his 
letters, that those persons who should be 
instrumental in bringing it about would 
not fail of high honors and rewards from 
the government. An American lady in 
Philadelphia, whose husband was in the 
British service, and who was a relative of 
Ferguson, the secretary of the commission, 
was induced by Johnstone to approach 
Joseph Reed with a proposition. Mrs. Fer- 
guson was a daughter of Dr. Graeme, of 
Pennsylvania, a bright woman, in whose 
prudence and patriotism the Whigs had 
such confidence that the interchange of 
visits among them and the Tories never 
led to a suspicion that she would betray 
the cause of her country. Johnstone made 
her believe he was a warm friend of the 
Americans, and he entreated her to go to 
General Reed and say to him that if he 
could, conscientiously, exert his influence 
in bringing about a reconciliation, he 
might command $50,000 and the highest 
post in the government. " That," said 
Mrs. Ferguso/i, " General Reed would con- 
sider the offi?r of a bribe." Johnstone dis- 
claimed any such intention, and Mrs. Fer- 
guson carried the message to Reed as soon 
as the British left Philadelphia. Reed in- 
dignantly replied, " I am not worth pur- 
chasing, but, such as I am, the King of Eng- 
land is not rich enough to do it." These 
facts being made known to Congress, reso- 
lutions were passed, Aug. 11, 1778, accus- 
ing the commissioner of an attempt at 
bribery and corruption, and declining to 
hold any further communication with him. 
He died Jan. 8, 1787. 

Johnstown Flood. See Inundations. 

John the Painter. While Silas 



Deane (q. v.), commissioner of the Conti- 
nental Congress, was in Paris (1777), a 
stranger, advanced in years, called upon 
him one day, and requested a strictly pri- 
vate interview. It was granted, when the 
stranger told Deane that he was a native 
of Scotland, but was an American citizen, 
and had lived at Amboy, N. J., where he 
had a comfortable house. The British 
troops stationed there, suspecting him of 
being a Whig, had greatly abused him, 
and finally burned his house to ashes. 
He told Deane he had resolved on revenge; 
that he had determined to kill King 
George, and had come to Europe for the 
purpose. He had been to England, had 
laid his plans, and was ready to execute 
them. He thought it right to acquaint 
Deane, the United States minister, with 
his scheme. He said he passed by the 
name of " John the Painter." Mr. Deane 
Disposed the assassination of the King as 
cowardly and unjust. He was innocent 
of wrong in the matter. If he must have 
revenge, he should take it in a manly, 
generous way; he should go into the 
American army, and meet his enemy as a 
soldier, and not as a vulgar assassin; 
and if he could so meet King George, at 
the head of his army, he could kill him 
with propriety. It would be lawful to 
so kill his generals. The man was finally 
persuaded by Deane to abandon his regi- 
cidal plan, and left. He soon returned, 
thanked Deane for persuading him not to 
lay violent hands on " the Lord's 
Anointed," and said he was determined to 
seek revenge by burning the naval stores 
at Portsmouth, England. Deane said that 
would tend to weaken the enemy in carry- 
ing on the war, and was legitimate busi- 
ness. He was astonished at the wisdom 
of the man's plans. He warned him, how- 
ever, that if he should be caught his life 
would pay the penalty of his crime. " I 
am an old man," was the reply, " and it 
matters little whether I die now or five 
years hence." He borrowed a guinea from 
Deane, and crossed the channel. 

At Portsmouth he took lodgings at the 
house of a very poor woman on the out- 
skirts of the town. While he was ab- 
sent, she had the curiosity to examine a 
bimdle which he had brought with him. 
It contained some clothing and a tin box, 
with some sort of a machine inside. John 

wanted a top to it, and had one made by 
a tinman. The same evening the naval 
storehouses were fired by this " infernal 
machine," and $500,000 worth of property 
was destroyed. Strict search was made 
for the incendiary in the morning at every 
house in the town. The old woman told 
them of John the Painter and his mys- 
terious tin box. The tinman reported 
making a top for it. John was fixed upon 
as the incendiary. Not doubting he had 
been sent by the enemy for the purpose, 
and that relays of horses had been fur- 
nished for his escape, horsemen were sent 
out on every road, with orders to pur- 
sue any person they should find riding 
very fast. John, meanwhile, was trudg- 
ing on foot towards London. Men came 
up to him and asked him if he had seen 
any person riding post-haste. " Why do 
you inquire?" asked John. He was prop- 
erly answered, when John told the pur- 
suers they were mistaken, for he — " John 
the Painter "—was the incendiary, and 
gave them his reasons for the act. They 
took him back to Portsmouth, where he 
was recognized by the old woman and the 
tinman. He candidly told them that he 
should certainly have killed the King had 
not Mr. Deane dissuaded him, and that 
he was revenged, and was ready to die. 
He was tried, condemned, and hung. A 
false and unfair accovmt of his trial was 
published, and no mention was made of 
Mr. Deane's having saved the life of the 
King. The Gentleman's Magazine for 
1777 contains the English account of the 
afi'air, Avith a portrait. The above is 
compiled from manuscript notes made 
from the lips of Deane by Elias Boudi- 

Joint High Commission. The gov- 
ernment of the United States, in behalf 
of its citizens, claimed from Great Britain 
damages inflicted on the American ship- 
ping interests by the depredations of 
the Alabama (q. v.) and other Anglo- 
Confederate cruisers. To effect a peace- 
ful solution of the difficulty, Eea^rdt 
Johnson {q. v.), of Maryland, was sent 
to England, in 1868, to negotiate a treaty 
for that purpose. His mission was not 
satisfactory. The treaty which he nego- 
tiated was almost imiversally condemned 
by his countrymen, and was rejected by 
the Senate. His successor, John Lo- 



THROP Motley {q. v.), appointed minister federate cruisers; (6) claims of British 
at the British Court, was charged with subjects against the United States for 
the same mission, but failed in that par- losses and injuries arising out of acts 
ticular, and was recalled in 1870. The committed during the Civil War. A 
matter was finally settled by arbitration, treaty was agreed to, and was signed 
Much correspondence succeeded the efforts May 8, 1871, which provided for the 
to settle by treaty. Finally, in January, settlement, by arbitration, by a mixed 
1S71. the British minister at Washing- commission-, of all claims on both sides 
ton, Sir Edward Thornton, in a letter to for injuries by either government to the 
Secretary Fish, proposed, under instvue- citizens of the other, during the Civil 
tions from his government, a Joint High War, and for the permanent settlement of 
Commission, to be appointed by the two all questions in dispute between the two 
governments, respectively, to settle dis- nations (see Washington, Treaty of). 
putes of every kind between the United Arbitrators were appointed, who, at 
States and Great Britain, and so estab- Geneva, Switzerland, formed w^hat was 
lish a permanent friendship between the known as the Tribunal of Arbitration, 
two nations. Mr. Fish proposed that the and reached a decision in which both par- 
commission should embrace in its in- ties acquiesced. See Arbitration, Tri- 
quiries the matter of the " Alabama binal of. 

Claims," so that nothing should remain Joliet, Louis, discoverer ; born in Que- 
to disturb amicable relations. The sug- bee, Canada, Sept. 21, 1645; was edu- 
gcstion was approved, and each govern- cated at the Jesuit college in his native 
ment appointed commissioners. The city, and afterwards engaged in the fur- 
President appointed, for the United trade in the Western wilderness. In 1673 
States, Hamilton Fish, Secretary of Intendant Talon, at Quebec, with the 
State; Samuel Nelson, associate-justice sanction of Governor Frontenac, selected 
of the United States Supreme Court; Joliet to find and ascertain the direc- 
Robert C. Schenck, minister to England ; tion of the course of the Mississippi and 
Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, late United its mouth. Starting from Mackinaw, in 
States Attorney-General; and George H. IMay, 1673, with Father Marquette and 
Williams, United States Senator from five other Frenchmen, they reached the 
Oregon. Queen Victoria appointed Mississippi June 17. They studied the 
George Frederick Samuel, Earl de Gray country on their route, made maps, and 
and Earl of Ripon ; Sir Stratford Henry gained much information. After inter- 
Northcote; Sir Edward Thornton, her course with Indians on the lower Missis- 
minister at Washington; Sir Alexander sippi, near the mouth of the Arkansas, 
McDonald, of the pri^y council of Can- who had trafficked -with Europeans, they 
ada, and attorney - general of that prov- were satisfied that the Mississippi 
ince ; and Montague Bernard, Profess- emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, and 
or of International Law in Oxford Uni- made their way back to Green Bay, where 
versity. The commissioners first met in Joliet started alone for Quebec to report 
\V'ashington, Feb. 27, 1871. Lord Tenter- to his superiors. His canoe was upset 
den, secretary of the British commission, in Lachine Rapids, above Montreal, and 
and J. C. Bancroft Davis, assistant Secre- his journals and charts were lost, but 
tary of State of the United States, were he wrote out his narrative from memory, 
chosen clerks of the Joint High Commis- which agreed, in essentials, with that of 
sion. The commissioners of the United Marquette, Joliet afterwards went on an 
States were instructed to consider: (1) expedition to Hudson Bay, in the service 
the fisheries; (2) the navigation of the of his King, and was rewarded by his 
St, Lawrence River; (3) reciprocal trade sovereign with the appointment of hydrog- 
between the LTnited States and the Do- rapher to his Majesty, and was favored 
minion of Canada; (4) the Northwest with the seigniory of the island of Anti- 
water boundary and the island of San costi in 1680, La Salle's pretensions de- 
Juan; (5) the claims of the United nicd him the privilege of making explo- 
States against Great Britain for com- rations in the West. He dJ°'' in Canada 
pensation for injuries committed by Con- in May, 1700. 



Jonathan, Brother, the name popular- 
ly applied to the United States, as John 
Bull is to Great Britain; originated 
in Washington's humorous allusion to 
Jonathan Trumbull (q. v.) , governor of 
Connecticut, the only colonial governor 
who favored independence. 

Joncaire, or Jonquiere, Jacques 
Pierre de Taffanel, Marquis de la, 
naval officer; born in La Jonquiere, 
France, in 1686; entered the navy in 
1G98, and in 1703 was adjutant in the 
French army. He was a brave and skil- 
ful officer, and was in many battles. He 
became captain in the navy in 1736, and 
accompanied D'Anville in his expedition 
against Louisburg in 1745. In 1747 he 
was appointed governor of Canada, but, 
being captured by the British, he did not 
arrive until 1749. He died in Quebec, 
May 17, 1752. 

Jones, Charles Colcock, clergyman; 
born in Liberty county, Ga., Dec. 20, 1804 ; 
received his theological training at An- 
dover and Princeton Theological Semi- 
naries; was ordained in the Presbyterian 
Church, and became active in the work 
of educating the negro race. His publi- 
cations include Religious Instruction for 
Negroes in the Southern States; Sugges- 
tions on the Instruction of Negroes in 
the South; and a History of the Church 
of God. He died in Liberty county, Ga., 
March 16, 1863. 

Jones, Charles Colcock, lawyer; born 
in Savannah, Ga., Oct. 28, 1831 ; grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1852; admitted to 
the bar of Georgia in 1856; during the 
Civil War he served as colonel of artillery. 
Among his historical works are Monumen- 
tal Remains of Georgia; Historical Sketch 
of the Chatham Artillery; Life of Gen. 
Henry Lee; Commodore Josiah Tatnall; 
Jean Pierre Purry; Richard Henry Wilde; 
Siege of Savannah in 1119 ; De Soto and 
His March through Georgia, etc. 

Jones, Horatio Gates, lawyer; born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 9, 1822; gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1841 ; was admitted to the bar in 1847 ; 
became connected with many historical 
societies. His publications include History 
of Roxborough and Manayunk; Report of 
the Committee of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania on the Bradford Bicen- 
tenary; Andrew Bradford, Founder of the 


Newspaper Press in the Middle States of 
America, etc. 

Jones, Jacob, naval officer; born near 
Smyrna, Del., in March, 1768; gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania, 


and entered the navy as a midshipman in 
1799. He was an officer of the Phila- 
delphia when she was captured at Trip- 
oli. In 1810 he was made commander, 
and when the War of 1812-15 broke out 
he was in charge of the sloop-of-war 
Wasp, in which he gained a victory. He 
commanded the Macedonian, in Decatur's 
squadron, as post-captain. After the war 
he commanded the Mediterranean squad- 
ron; was a commissioner of the navy 
board ; and governor of the naval asylum 
at Philadelphia. Congress voted him 
thanks and a gold medal and several 
States presented him with swords. He 
died in Philadelphia. Aug. 3, 1850. 

Jones, James Athearn, author; born 
in Tisbury, Mass., June 4, 1790; received 
a common - school education, and engaged 
in journalism in Philadelphia in 1826; 
later was editor in Baltimore, Md., and 
in Buffalo, N. Y. His publications in- 
clude Traditions of the North American 
Indians, or Tales of an Indian Camp; 
Letter to an English Gentleman on Eng- 



lish Libels of America; and Haverhill, commander the first salute ever given to 
or Memoirs of an Officer in the Army of the Ameiican flag by a foreign man-of-war. 
Wolfe. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., in In April he scaled the walls of White- 
August, 1853. haven, in England, on the borders of the 

Jones, John Mather, journalist; born Irish Sea, and spiked thirty-eight can- 
in Bangor, North Wales, June 9, 1826; non. 

came to the United States in 1849; was In 1779, while cruising up and down 
the founder of the Welsh town of New the east coast of Scotland, between the 
Cambria, ]\ro., and also of Avonia, in Kan- Solway and the Clyde, he tried to capture 
sas. In 1805-74 he was the owner and the Earl of Selkirk, in order to secure a 
publisher of The Mirror, the first Welsh notable prisoner for exchange. He had 
newspaper established in the United been an early friend of Jones's father. 
States. He was the author of a History His seat was at the mouth of the Dee. 
of the Rebellion (in Welsh). He died 
in Utica. N. Y., Dec. 21, 1874. 

Jones, John Paul, naval officer; born 
in Kirkbean, Scotland, July 6, 1747. Be- 
fore he was eighteen years old he com- 
manded a vessel that traded with the 
West Indies. Jones came to Virginia in 
1773, inheriting the estate of his brother, 
who died there. Offering his services 
to Congress, he was made first lieutenant 
in the navj'^ in December, 1775, when, 
out of gratitude to General Jones, of 
North Carolina, he assumed his name. 
Before that he was John Paul. He was 
a bold and skilful sea - rover, gathering 
up many prizes. Made captain in the 
fall of 1776, he raised the first flag ever 
displayed on a Unite<l States ship-of-war 
the Alfred. He destroyed the Port Royal 
(N. S. ) fisheries, capturing all the vessels 

and freight. In the summer of 1777 he Jones anchored his vessel, the Ran- 
sailed in the Ranger to Europe, and in f/er, in the Solway at noon, and with 
February, 1778, received from a French a few men, in a single boat, he went to a. 





wooded promontory on which the earl's 
tine estate lay, where he learned that his 
lordship was not at home. Disappointed, 
he ordered his men back to the boat, when 
his lieutenant, a large and fiery man, pro- 
posed to go to the mansion and plunder 
it of the family plate. Jones would not 
listen to the proposition, for the memory 
of old associations made his heart tender 
towards Lady Selkirk, who had been very 
kind to him. Again he ordered his men 
back, but they and the lieutenant, eager 
for prize-money, in defiance of his ex- 
postulations, went to the hovise and de- 
manded the plate. The frightened Lady 
Selkirk surrendered it with her own 
hands. When the prizes of the Ranger 

tember, while Jones's squadron lay a few 
leagues north of the mouth of the Hum- 
ber, he discovered the Baltic fleet of forty 
merchantmen (convoyed by the Serapis, 
a 44 - gun ship, and the Countess of 
Scarborough, of twenty - two guns ) , 
stretching out from Flamborough Head. 
Jones signalled for a chase, and all but 
the Alliance, Captain Landais, obeyed. 
While the opposing war-ships were ma- 
noeuvring for advantage, night fell upon 
the scene. At seven o'clock in the even- 
ing of Sept. 23, 1779, one of the niost des- 
perate of recorded sea-fights began. The 
Bon Homme Richard and Serapis, Captain 
Pearson, came so close to each other that 
their spars and rigging became entangled, 


were sold Jones bought this plate, and 
sent it back to Lady Selkirk with a letter 
in which he expressed his regret because 
of the annoyance she had suffered. 

During the spring and summer of 1779, 
American cruisers were very active, both 
in American and European waters. At 
the middle of August Jones was sent out 
from the French port of L'Orient, with 
five vessels, to the coast of Scotland. His 
flag-ship was the Bon Homme Richard. As 
he was about to strike some armed Brit- 
ish vessels in the harbor of Leitli a storm 
arose, which drove him into the North 
Sea. When it ceased, he cruised along 
the Scottish coast, capturing many prizes 
and producing great alarm. Late in Sep- 

and Jones attempted to board his antago- 
nist. A short contest with pike, pistol, 
and cutlass ensued, and Jones was re- 
pulsed. The vessels separated, and were 
soon placed broadside to broadside, so 
close that the muzzles of their gims 
touched each other. Both vessels were 
dreadfully shattered ; • and, at one time, 
the Serapis was on fire in a dozen places. 
Just as the moon rose, at half-past nine 
o'clock, the Richard, too, caught fire. A 
terrific hand - to - hand fight now ensued. 
Jones's ship, terribly damaged, could not 
fioat much longer. The flames were 
creeping up the rigging of the Serapis, 
and by their light Jones saw that his 
double-headed shot had cut the mainmast 




of the Serapis almost in two. He hurled to Jones he said, in a surly tone, " It is 
another, and the tall mast fell. Pearson painful to deliver up my sword to a man 
saw his great peril, hauled down his flac, who has fought with a rope around his 
and surrendered. As he handed hie sword neck!'' (Jones had been declared a 



pirate by the British government.) The 
battle ceased, after raging three hours. 
The vessels were disengaged, and the Rich- 
ard soon went to the bottom of the North 
Sea. For this victory Congress gave 
Jones the thanks of the nation, a gold 
medal and a commission as commander of 


the America, which ship was soon pre- 
sented to France. The King of France 
made Jones a knight of the Order of 
Merit, and presented him with a gold 
sword. Jones entered the service of Rus- 
sia as rear-admiral in 1787, and, in conse- 
quence of a victory over the Turks, was 


made vice - admiral and knighted. He 
resigned from the Russian service, 
and was appointed consul of the United 
States at Algiers in 1792, but he died 
before the commission reached him. 
He died in Paris, July 18, 1792. His 
body was brought back to the United 
States by a squadron of war-ships in July, 
1905, for interment at Annapolis. 

Jones, John Percival, United States 
Senator; born in Hay, Wales, in 1830; 
came to the United States while a child; 
removed to California in 1849; served 
several terms in the State legislature. 
Mr. Jones removed to Nevada in 1867, 
and was elected to the United States 
Senate for the term beginning March 4, 
1873, and several times re-elected. Origi- 
nally a Republican, he was one of the 
founders of the " Silver " Republican 
party, which acted with the Democratic 
party in the campaigns of 1896 and 1900. 

Jones, John Winston; born in 
Chesterfield, Va., Nov. 22, 1791; grad- 
?iated at William and Mary College in 
1803; elected to Congress in 1835; served 
until March, 1845; during his last term 
he was speaker of the House. He died 
Jan. 29, 1848. 

Jones, Joseph, jurist; born in Vir- 
ginia in 1727; elected a member of the 
House of Burgesses; to the Continental 
Congress in 1778; also to the convention 
of 1778; in 1778 he was appointed judge 
of the general court of Virginia ; resigned 
in 1779, but accepted a reappointment 
the same year. He died at his home in 
Virginia, Oct. 28, 1805. 

Jones, Leonard Augustus, author; 
born in Templeton, Mass., Jan. 13, 1832; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1855, and 
at its Law School in 1858; began practice 
in Boston. His publications include A 
Treatise on the Law of Mortgages of 
Real Property; A Treatise on the Law 
of Railroads and Other Corporate Securi- 
ties; Pledges, including Collateral Securi- 
ties; An Index to Legal Periodical Liter- 
ature, etc. 

Jones, Marcus Eugene, scientist; born 
in JeflFerson, 0., April 25, 1852; grad- 
uated at Iowa College, in 1875; instructor 
there in 1876-77; Professor of Natural 
Science in Colorado College in 1879-80; 
the same in Salt Lake City in 1880-81. 
He was appointed a special expert in thf 


United States Treasury Department in 
1889, and was geologist for the Rio 
Grande Valley Railroad in 1890-93. Sub- 
sequently lie established himself as an 
expert in botany, geology, and mining. 
He is author of Excursion Botanique ; Salt 
Lake City; Ferns of the West; Some 
Phases of Mining in Utah; Botany of the 
Great Plateau; and Geology of Utah. 
Jones, Samuel Porter, clergyman; 

born in Chambers county, Ala., Oct. 16, 
1847; was admitted to the Georgia bar in 
1SG9; but after beginning practice under 
bright prospects his health failed; and in 
1872 he was ordained to the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
For eight years he served in various pas- 
torates in the North Georgia Conference, 
and for twelve years was agent of the 
North Georgia Orphanage. Popularly 

V. — N 



known as " Sam Jones," he has engaged Atlanta {q. v.) , on the night of Aug. 25, 

extensively in evangelistic work and in 
lecturing, in all parts of the United 
States. His publications include Sermons 
and Sayings by Sam Jones; Music Hall 
Sermons; Quit Your Meanness; St. Louis 
Series; Sam Jones's Oivn Book; and 

Jones, ThomAvS, lawyer; born in Fort 
Neck, L. I., April 30, 1731; graduated 
at Yale in 1750; admitted to the bar of 
New York in 1755, and practised in New 
York; was recorder of New York City 
in 1769-73, when he was appointed judge 
of the Supreme Court. He was arrested 
a number of times as a loyalist, and was 
exchanged for General Silliman in 1780; 
went to England in 1781; was included 
in the New York State act of attainder 
in 1782. His estate on Long Island, 
Tryon Hall, descended to his daughter, 
who had married Richard Floyd, upon 
condition that the name Jones be added 
to that of Floyd. The estate is, still in the 
Floyd-Jones family. Judge Jones wrote 
a History of Neto York During the Revolu- 
tionary War, a valuable contribution to 
history, as it is the only one from the 
view-point of a loyalist who participated 
in the events of that time. He died in 
England, July 25, 1792. 

Jones, Thomas Ap Catesby, naval of- 
ficer; born in Virginia, in 1789; entered 
the navy in 1805. From 1808 to 1812 he 
was engaged in the Gulf of Mexico in the 
suppression of piracy, smuggling, and the 
slave-trade. He fought the British flotilla 
on Lake Borgne late in 1814, when he was 
wounded and made captive. He command- 
ed the Pacific squadron in 1842. He died 
in Georgetown, D. C, May 30, 1858. 

Jones, William; born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., in 1760; served throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War, at first in the army and later 
in the navy; elected to Congress in 1801; 
appointed Secretary of the Navy in 1813. 
He died in Bethlehem, Pa., Sept. 5, 1831. 

Jones, William Alfred; born in New 
York City, June 26, 1817; graduated at 
Columbia College in 1836; appointed li- 
brarian of Columbia College in 1851. He 
is the author of The Library of Columbia 
College; The First Century of Columbia 
College, etc. 

Jonesboro, Battle at. Sherman began 
his flanking when he raised the siege of 

1864. General Slocum, with the 20th 
Corps, proceeded to the protection of the 
sick, wounded, and stores near the Chatta- 
hoochee, and Howard and the rest of the 
army moved for the West Point Railway. 
General Stanley's corps was on the ex- 
treme left, and the armies of Ho^tard, 
Thomas, and Schofield pressed forward so 
secretly that Hood was not informed of 
the movement until the Nationals were de- 
stroying that road. This was done, Aug. 
28, for 12 miles, and the next day they 
struck the Macon road. Schofield reached 
the road at Rough-and-Ready Station, 10 
miles from Atlanta. Thomas struck it at 
Couch's ; and Howard, crossing the Flint 
River half a mile from Jonesboro, ap- 
proached it at that point. There he was 
met by one-half of Hood's army, under 
Hardee. With the remainder Hood was 
holding the defences of Atlanta, but he 
was too weak to attempt to strike Scho- 
field. There was a severe fight at the 
passage of the Flint River, on the morn- 
ing of Aug. 31, between the forces of How- 
ard and Hardee. Howard's army was dis- 
posed with Blair's corps in the centre, and 
rude breastworks were cast up. The con- 
test was renewed very soon, when Hardee 
attempted to crush Howard before he 
could receive reinforcements. He failed. 
The Nationals thus attacked were veterans. 
For two hours there was a desperate strife 
for victory, which was won by Howard. 
Hardee recoiled, and in his hasty retreat 
left 400 of his dead on the field and 300 
of his badly wounded at Jonesboro. His 
loss was estimated at 2,500 men. How- 
ard's loss was abovit 500. Meanwhile 
Sherman had sent relief to Howard. Kil- 
patrick and Garrard were very active, and 
General Davis's corps soon touched How- 
ard's left. At four o'clock in the after- 
noon Davis charged and carried the Con- 
federate works covering Jonesboro on the 
north, and captured General Govan and a 
greater part of his brigade. In the morn- 
ing Hardee had fled, pursued by the Na- 
tionals to Lovejoy's. 

Jordan, David Starr, educator; born 
in Gainesville, N. Y., Jan. 19. 1851; 
graduated at Cornell University in 1872; 
and at the Indiana Medical College in 
1875. He was Professor of Biology in But- 
ler University, Indiana, in 1875-79; held 



the same chair in Indiana University in 
1879-85; and was president there in 1885- 
91. In the latter year he was elected presi- 
dent of the Leland Stanford,. Jr., Uni- 
versity. Since 1877 he has held several 
appointments under the United States 
government in connection with the fisheries 
and the fur-seal industry. He is author of 
A Manual of Vertebrate Animals of North- 
ern United States; Science Sketches; Fish- 
eries of North and Middle America; Fac- 
tors of Organic Evolution; Matka and 
Kotik; Care and Cidture of Men; The In- 
numerahle Company; and many papers on 

Jordan, John Woolf, antiquarian; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 14, 1840; 
graduated at Nazareth Hall in 1856; be- 
came editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine 
of History and Biography. He is the au- 
thor of Friedensthal and Its Stockaded 
Mill; A Moravian Chronicle, 111^9-61; 
Bethlehem During the Revolution; The 
Military Hospitals at Bethlehem and Li- 
titz During the Revolution ; Occupation of 
New York by the British, 1775-83, etc. 

Jordan, Thomas, military officer ; born 
in Luray, Va., Sept. 30, 1819; graduated 
at West Point in 1840; took part in the 
Seminole War, and in the war with 
Mexico; he entered the Confederate army 
in 1861 as lieutenant - colonel, but was 
made adjutant - general ; served on the 
staff of General Beauregard, and on that 
of General Bragg. In 1869 he joined the 
Cuban insurgents, but resigned the next 
year and returned to the United States. 

Josselyn, John, author; born in Eng- 
land early in the seventeenth century; 
travelled in America in 1638-39 and 1663- 
71. He is the author of New England's 
Rarities Discovered; An Account of Two 
Voyages to New England, etc. 

Jouett, James Edward, naval officer; 
born in Lexington, Ky.. Feb. 27, 1828. He 
Pilfered the navy as midshipman in 1841 ; 
fought in the war with Mexico, and 
graduated at the United States Naval 
Academy in 1847. He went with the ex- 
pedition to Paraguay and served in the 
Berriby war. Later he was promoted 
passed midshipman and in 1855 became 
master and lieutenant. In 1861 he de- 
stroyed the Confederate war vessel Royal 
Yacht, in Galveston Harbor, while in 
command of the frigate Santee. For this 


exploit he was given command of the 
Montgomery. On July 16, 1862, he was 
promoted to lieutenant-commander. In 
1864 when the entrance to Mobile Bay was 
forced he took a conspicuous part. In 
1866 he was promoted commander; in 
1874, captain; in 1883, commodore; in 
1886, rear-admiral; and in 1890 was re- 
tired. He had charge of the operations on 
the Isthmus of Panama in 1885 and suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a free transit across 
the isthmus and in restoring peace between 
the rebels and the government of Colom- 
bia, for which he was thanked by the Pres- 
ident of that country. Congress voted him 
full pay for life. 

Journal of Congress, the official name 
of the authorized record of the proceed- 
ings of the Congress of the United States; 
has regularly been kept and published 
from the first meeting of the Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, September, 1774. 

Joutel, Henry, explorer ; born in Rouen, 
France, in the seventeenth century; took 
part in La Salle's expedition ; built Fort 
St. Louis, and was made its commander; 
escaped assassination at the time La Salle 
was killed; and later returned to France 
by way of the Great Lakes and the St. 
Lawrence River. He wrote a History of 
the La Salle Expedition, which was pub- 
lished in Paris in 1713. 

Juarez, Benito Pablo, statesman; born 
in San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, Mexico, 
March 21, 1806; was descended from the 
ancient Indian race. Well educated, he 
gained distinction as a la\\'yer. He was a 
legislator, and was governor of his na- 
tive state from 1848 to 1852. Banished 
by Santa Ana in 1853, he lived in New 
Orleans until 1855, when he returned, and 
became minister of justice. Experiencing 
the vicissitudes of public life in that 
country, he was elected President of 
Mexico in June, 1861. Then came the 
French usurpation and the short-lived 
empire of Maximilian {q. v.). He de- 
feated the imperial forces in 1867 and 
caused the Emperor to be shot. In Oc- 
tober Juarez was re-elected President, and 
for five years Mexico was distracted by 
revolutions. Peace was restored in 1872. 
but Juarez, then President, worn down 
with perplexities, died of apoplexy in the 
city of ^Nlexico. July 18 of that year. 

Judaism. See Jews. 


Jndd, Albert Francis, jurist; born in 
the Hawaiian Islands, Jan. 7, 1838; grad- 
uated at Yale University in 1862; elect- 
ed to the Hawaiian legislature in 1868; 
appointed attorney - general of the Ha- 
waiian Islands in 1873; a justice of the 
Supreme Court of the islands in 1874; 
chief-justice in 1881. He died in Hono- 
lulu, May 20, 1900. 

Judd, David Wright, journalist; born 
in Lockport, N. Y., Sept. 1, 1838; gradu- 
ated at Williams College in 1860; later 
became proprietor and editor of Hearth 
and Home. He served in the National 
army during a part of the Civil War. 

ate was busy in organizing a judiciary. A 
bill drafted by Oliver Ellsworth, of Con- 
necticut, Avhich embodied a plan of a judi- 
ciary, was, after several amendments, adopt- 
ed by both Houses and became a law. 
It provided for a Supreme Court, having 
one chief - justice and five associate jus- 
tices, who were to hold two sessions annu- 
ally at the seat of the national capital. 
Circuit and district courts were also es- 
tablished, which had jurisdiction over 
certain specified cases. Each State was 
made a district, as were also the Terri- 
tories of Kentucky and Maine. The dis- 
tricts, excepting Kentucky and Maine, 
v/ere grouped together into three circuits. 
An appeal from these lower courts to the 
Supieme Court of the United States was 
allowed, as to points of law, 
in all civil cases where the 

He published Txco years' 
Campaigning in Virginia and 
Maryland, and edited The 
Life and Writings of Frank 
Forester, and The Education- 
al Cyclopcfdia. He died in 
New York City, Feb. 6, 1888. supreme court in session, Washington. 

Judd, Sylvester, author; 
born in Westhampton, Mass., April 23, 

1789; was a member of the State legislat- matter in dispute amounted to $2,000. 
ure in 1817, and owner of the Hampshire A marshal for each was to be appointed 
Gazette in 1822-34. He is the author of by the President, having the general pow- 
Histortj of Hadley, and Thomas Judd and ers of a sheriff; and a district attorney. 
His Descendants. He died in Northamp- to act for the United States in all cases 
ton. Mass., April 18, 1800. in which the national government might 

Judiciary, First National. Wliile be interested, was also appointed. John 
the House of Representatives of the first Jay was made the first chief-justice of 
Congress was employed (1789) in provid- the United States. 

ing raeanp for a sufficient reveiiue, the Sen- Judiciary of the United States. Su- 



preme Court. Under the confederation lished and organized by Congress, consists 

thei'e was no national judicial department, of one chief-justice and four associate 

The Supreme Court was organized in 1789, judges; salary, $6,000 per annum. Su- 

with one chief-justice and five associate preme Court of the District of Columbia, 

judges. There are now eight associate established and organized by Congress, 

justices. It holds one term annually at consists of one chief-justice and four as- 

the seat of government, commencing on sociate judges; salary of chief-justice, 

the second Monday in October. The United .$0,.500; associate judges, $6,000. Terri- 

Rtates are divided for judicial purposes lorial courts, established and organized 

into nine circuits, and these circuits are by Congress. Arizona, one chief-justice 

subdivided into two or more districts, and three associate judges; Indian Terri- 

The 1st circuit consists of the States tory, one judge; New Mexico, one judge 

of Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and four associate judges ; Oklahoma, one 

and Rhode Island; 2d, Connecticut, New chief -justice and two associate judges; 

York, and Vermont; 3d, Delaware, New salary, $4,000 per annum. When any 

Jersey, and Pennsylvania; 4th, Maryland, judge o.f any court of the United States 

North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, resigns his office, after having held his 

and West Virginia ; 5th, Alabama, Flor- commission as such at least ten years, 

ida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and and having i-eached seventy years of age 

Texas ; 6th, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, during Ids service, he shall receive during 

and Tennessee; 7th, Illinois, Indiana, and life the same salary as at the time of 

Wisconsin; Sth, Arkansas, Colorado. Iowa, his resignation. This right is given to 

Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebi'aska, no other class of civil officers under the 

North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyo- government of the United States. The 

ming; 9th, California, Idaho, Nevada, Ore- Attorney-General appears in the Supreme 

gon, Montana, and Washington. Each Court of the United States in behalf of 

judge of the Supreme Court is allotted a the government. There is also a United 

circuit, and is required to attend that States district attorney appointed for each 

circuit at least one term every two years, district in which circuit and district courts 

Salary of chief - justice, $1.3.000; each are held, to look after the interest of the 

justice, $12,500 a year. Circuit courts, government in all cases that concern it. 

established and organized by Congi-ess. Women were admitted to practise in the 

Each of the circuits has allotted to it one Supreme Court of the United States by 

of the judges of the Supreme Court, and act of Congress, approved Feb. 15, 1879. 

has a local judge appointed, termed cir- In addition to the above, there are 

cuit judge. There are twenty-seven circuit special courts created from time to time 

judges, all excepting two circuits hav- for specific purposes, as the court on 

ing three judges each ; salary, $7,000 a Spanish War claims. 

year. Circuit court of appeals, establish- In 1900 Congress established a district 

ed and organized by Congress, 1891, for court for Alaska, with judges residing 

the relief of the Supreme Court. The jus- in Juneau, St. Michael's, and Eagle City, 

tice of the Supreme Court presiding over and also provided a civil code for the 

the circuit, the circuit judge, and a jiidge Territory. In cases where constitutional 

appointed for this special court constitute questions are involved, appeals and writs 

it; salary, $7,000 a year. District courts, of error from this court may be taken 

established and organized by Congress. Of to the United States Supreme Court; 

these districts there are eighty-five, each where other questions are involved they 

presided over by a judge, termed district may be taken to the United States Cir- 

judge; salary, $6,000 a year. Court of cuit Court of the 9th District, 

claims, established and organized by Con- For a full list of the judges of the Su- 

gress, 1855, to hear and determine claims preme Court, Circuit Courts, District 

against the United States. It consists of Courts, Court of Claims, etc., see Federal 

one chief-justice and four associate judges. Go^*ER^'AIENT. 

The solicitor-general appears before this Judson, AnoxiRAjr, missionary; born 

court; salary of judges, $6,000 per an- in ^Maiden, IMass.. Aug. 9. 1788; grad- 

nura. Court of private land claims, estab- uated at Brown University in 1807, 



and Andover Theological Seminary in 
1810. He was ordained on Feb. 6, 1812, 
and with his wife, Anne Hasseltine, sailed 
for Calcutta on the 19th. In Rangoon, 
Burma, he toiled nearly forty years, 
gathering around him thousands of con- 
verts and many assistants, Americans and 
Burmese. He translated the Bible into 
the Burmese language, and had nearly 
completed a dictionary of that language 
at the time of his death. His wife dying 
in 1826, he married (April, 1834) the 
widow of a missionary (Mrs. Sarah H. 
Boardman), who died in September, 1845. 
While on a visit to the United States in 
1846, he married Miss Emily Chubbuck 
("Fanny Forester," the poet), who ac- 
companied him back to Burma. His first 
wife, Anne Hasseltine, was the first Amer- 
ican woman missionary in the East Indies. 
He died at sea, April 12, 18.50. 

Judson, Edward, clergyman; born in 
Maulmain, Burma, Dec. 27, 1844; son of 
Adoniram Judson. He was brought to 
the United States in 1850; studied in 
Hamilton and Madison (now Colgate) 
universities; graduated at Brown Uni- 
versity in 1865. In 1867-74 he was Pro- 
fessor of Latin and Modern Languages in 
Madison University; in 1874-75 travelled 
in foreign countries; and, returning to the 
United States, was ])astor of the North 
Baptist Church in Orange, N. J., till 1881, 
when he resigned to take up mission work 
in New York. He became pastor of the 
Berean Baptist Church, and afterwards 
built the Judson Memorial on Washington 
Square. In 1897 he was appointed in- 
structor in pastoral theology at Colgate 
Theological Seminary, and in 1903 was 
called to the University of Chicago. He 
has published a Life of Adoniram Judson. 

Judson, Harry Pratt, educator; born 
in Jamestown, N. Y., Dec. 20, 1849; 
graduated at Williams College in 1870; 
called to the chair of History at the Uni- 
(rersity of Minnesota in 1885; and was 
made head Professor of Political Science, 
and dean of the faculties of Arts, Litera- 
ture, and Science at the University of 
Chicago in 1892. He is the author of 
Eifitory of the Troy Citizens' Corps; 
Casar's Army; Europe in the 'Nineteenth 
Century; The Growth of the Amerienn 
Nation; The Eic/her Education as a Train- 
ing for Business; The Latin in English; 

The Mississippi Valley (in the United 
States of Ameriea, by Shaler) ; and The 
Young American, etc. 

Julian, George Washington, legis- 
lator; born near Centreville, Ind., May 
5, 1817. He was self-educated; and was 
admitted to the bar in 1840. After prac- 
tising for five years, he was elected to 
the legislature, and in 1849-51 repre- 
sented the Free-soil party in Congress, 
and in 1852 was the candidate for the 
Vice-Presidency on the Free-soil ticket. 
He also received five votes for Vice-Presi- 
dent in the electoral college of 1872. He 
was a strong ojjponent of slavery, and 
a stanch supporter of the homestead 
policy. He was again a member of Con- 
gress in 1861-71. During the last period 
be was a member of the committees on 
conduct of the war, on reconstruction, 
and on the preparation of articles of im- 
peachment against President Johnson. 
In 1872 he joined the Liberal Republican 
party. In 1885-89 he was surveyor-gen- 
eral of New Mexico. His publications 
include Speeches on Political Questions ; 
Political Recollections ; Later Speeches; 
and Life of Joshua, E. Giddings. He died 
in Irvington, Ind., July 7, 1899. 

Julian, Isaac Hoover; born in Centre- 
ville, Ind., June 19, 1823; editor and pro- 
prietor of The True Repuhlican at Rich- 
mond, Ind., and subsequently of the Peo- 
ple's Era at San Marco, Texas; he is the 
avithor of the early history of the White 
Water Valley. 

Julien, Alexis Anastay, geologist; 
born in New York, Feb. 13, 1840; grad- 
uated at Union College in 1859, and 
the following year went as chemist to 
the guano island of Sombrero, where he 
studied geology and natural history. 
While there he also collected birds and 
shells and made meteorological observa- 
tions for the Smithsonian Institution. Re- 
tixrning to New York in 1864, he soon 
after became assistant in charge of the 
quantitative laboratory in the newly 
founded Columbia School of Mines. In 
1885-97 he had charge of the department 
of biology in the same institution, and irt 
the latter year became instructor in geol- 
ogy. In 1875-78 he was connected with 
the North Carolina Geological Survey. 
He is a fellow of the American Geologi- 
cal Society, the Geological Society of 



America, the American Society of Nat- California missions. He founded the fol- 

uralists, and other organizations, and lowing missions: San Diego, Cal., July 16, 

a past vice-president of the New York 1769; San Carlos, at Monterey, June 3, 

Academy of Sciences. 1770; San Antonio, July 14, 1771; San 

Julio, E. B. D. Fabrino, artist; born Gabriel, near Los Angeles, Sept. 8, 1771; 

on the island of St. Helena in 1843; edu- San Luis Obispo, Sept. 1, 1772; San Fran- 

cated in Paris; came to the United States cisco, June 27, 1776; San Juan Capis- 

about 1861, and after living in the North trano, Nov. 1, 1776; Santa Clara, Jan. 

a number of years settled in New Or- 18, 1777; San Buenaventura, March 31, 

leans, where he engaged in portrait-paint- 1782. He died in Monterey, Cal., Aug. 

ing. He is principally known through 28, 1784. 

his painting. The Last Meeting of Lee Junius, Letters of. During the 

and Jackson. He died in Georgia, Sept. quarrel between Great Britain and her 

15, 1879. colonies (1765-75), a series of letters ad- 
Jumel, Eliza Bowen, society leader; dressed to King George III., his ministers, 

born at sea in 1769. She married Col. and other distinguished public men in 

Peter Croix in 1786, and, after his death, England, were published in the Public 

Stephen Jumel, a wealthy merchant in Advertiser, and were generally signed 

New York City, in 1801. Upon Jumel's " Junius " or " Philo-Junius." In the first 

death she married Aaron Burr in 1830, authorized collection of these letters there 

whom she sued for a divorce, which was were forty-four by " Junius " and fifteen 

not granted. She died in New York, July by " Philo-Junius." They treated of 

16, 1865. public men and public measures of 
Juneau, Laurent Solomon, pioneer; that day in a style that produced a pro- 
born near Montreal. Canada, Aug. 9, 1793; found impression and interest in the 
was the first white settler in Milwaukee, public mind, and excited the hottest in- 
where he traded in furs. He was the dignation of those who felt the lash. The 
first postmaster and mayor of Milwaukee, style was condensed but lucid; full of 
He died in Shawano, Wis., Nov. 14, 1856. studied epigrammatic sarcasm, brilliant 
His remains were removed to Milwaukee, metaphor, and fierce personal attack. 
Wis., in 1887, and a statue of heroic size The government and those interested in 
erected in honor of his memory. the matter tried in vain to ascertain the 

Jungman, Jonx George, clergyman; name of the author. It was evident 
born in Hockheimer, Germany, April 19, that he was a man of wealth and refine- 
1720; became a lay evangelist to the Ind- ment, and possessing access to minute in- 
ians in 1742; ordained a deacon in the formation respecting ministerial measures 
Moravian Church in 1770. Jungman was and intrigues. The most eminent legal 
one of the earliest pioneers in the terri- advisers of the crown tried in vain to 
lory of the Ohio. In 1781 Jungman was get a clew to the secret of his identity; 
taken prisoner by the Hurons and con- and the mystery which has ever since 
fined in the fort at Detroit. At the close enveloped the name of the author of the 
of the war of the Revolution Jungman letters of " Junius "' has kept up an in- 
continued his missions among the Ind- terest in them, which, because of the re- 
ians in ]\Iichigan, but, broken in health, nioteness of their topics, could not other- 
he was obliged to give up his labors in wise have been kept alive. Some after- 
1785. He died in Bethlehem, Pa., July wards claimed their authorship, but with- 

17, 1808. out a particle of proof in favor of the 
Junipero, Miguel Jose Serra, mission- claim. The names of more than fifty per- 

ary; born in the ishmd of Majorca, Nov. sons have been mentioned as the sus- 
24, 1713; entered the order of St. Francis pected authors. An array of facts, cir- 
in 1729; was sent to Mexico in 1750, where cumstances. and fair inferences has satis- 
he was assigned to labor among the Ind- fied the most careful inquirers that Sir 
ians of Sierra Gorda. When the Jesuits Philip Francis was "Junius." The let- 
were expelled from Lower California in ters were chiefly written between 1769 
1707, the Franciscans, under Junipero, and 1772. 

were appointed to take charge of all the Juries. Trial by jury was introduced 



into England during the Saxon heptarchy, cases by jury, but not of civil cases. This 

six Welsh and six Anglo-Saxon freemen caused dissatisfaction, people claiming 

being appointed to try causes between that the omission was intended to abolish 

Englishmen and Welshmen of property, trial by jury in civil cases, hence the 

and made responsible with their whole Seventh Amendment was adopted at an 

estates, real and personal, for false ver- early day, securing the rights of trial by 

diets. By most authorities the institu- jury in suits at common-law where the 

tion is ascribed to Alfred about 886. In value in controversy exceeds $20. Grand 

Magna Charta, juries are insisted on as juries (of not less than twelve or more 

a bulwark of the people's liberty. An act than twenty-three persons) decide whether 

for trial by jury in civil cases in Scot- sufficient evidence is adduced to put the 

land was passed in 1815. The constitu- accused on trial. In the United States, 

tion of 1791 established trial by jury in owing to many striking instances of the 

France. An imperial decree abolished miscarriage of justice, there has been in 

trial by jury throughout the Austrian recent years an influential sentiment in 

Empire Jan. 15, 1852. Trial by jury be- favor of having verdicts of juries rendered 

gan in Russia Aug. 8, 1866; in Spain, on the majority vote of the jurors. 

188J). In Scotland, Guernsey, Jersey, and Justice, Department of. See Cabinet, 

France juries decide by a majority; in President's. 

France, since 1831, a majority of two- Justices of the Supreme Court. A 

thirds is required. Under the original complete list of all the justices will be 

Constitution of the United States pro- found in the article on the Supreme 

vision is made for the trial of criminal Court. 



Kalb, JouANN, Baron de, military offi- 
cer; born in Hiittendorf, Bavaria, June 29, 
1721 ; entered the French military service 
in 1743, and in 1747 rose to the rank of 
brigadier-general under Marshal Broglie, 
and obtained the order of military merit 
in 1761. The next year he visited the 
English-American colonies as a secret 
agent of the French government, to ascer- 
tain their political temper. He was a 
brigadier-general in the French army when 
{November, 1776) he was engaged by 
Franklin and Deane to serve in the Con- 
tinental army. He accompanied Lafayette 
to America in 1777, and was appointed 
major-general, Sept. 15, 1777, by the Con- 
tinental Congress. He served under the 
immediate command of Washington until 
after the evacuation of Philadelphia, June, 
1778; then in New Jersey and Maryland 
until April, 1780, when he was sent to as- 
sist Lincoln, besieged in Charleston. He 
arrived too late. De Kalb became chief 
commander in the South after the fall of 


Cliarleston, but was soon succeeded oy 
General Gates, when he became that offi- 
cer's second in command. In the disas- 

trous battle at Sander's Creek, near Cam- 
den, S. C, he was mortally wounded, and 
died three days afterwards, Aug. 19, 1780. 


His body was pierced with eleven wounds. 
It was buried at Camden. A marble mon- 
ument was erected to his memory in front 
of the Presbyterian Church " at Camden, 
the corner-stone of which was laid by 
Lafayette in 1825. 

Kanakas. See Hawaii. 

Kanawha, the name which was pro- 
posed for the State consisting of the 
western portion of Virginia, which had 
refused to ratify the State ordinance of 
secession. See West Virginia. 

Kanawha, Battle of the Great. See 
DuNiioRE, John ]Murray. 

Kane, Elisiia Kent, explorer; born in 
I'hiladelphia. Feb. 20, 1820; was educated 
at the universities of Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, taking his medical degree in 
1843. Ill-health led to his entering the 
navy, and he sailed as physician to the 
embassy to China in 1843. He travelled 
extensively in Asia and Europe, traversed 
Greece on foot, explored western Africa 
to some extent, was in the war with Mex- 




ico, and in May, 1850, sailed as surgeon 
and naturalist under Lieut. Edwin J. De 
Haven, in search of Sir John Franklin. 
Sir John, an English navigator, had 
sailed on a voyage of discovery and ex- 
ploration with two vessels, in May, 1845. 
Years passed by, and no tidings of him or 
his companions came. 
Expeditions were sent 
from England in 
search of him. Pub- 
lic interest in the fate 
of Sir John was ex- 
cited in Europe and 
the United States, and 
in May, 1850, Henry 
Grinnell, a merchant 
of New York, fitted 
out two ships, the Ad- 
vance and Rescue, and 
placed them in charge 
of Lieutenant De Ha- 
ven, to assist in the 
effort. These vessels 
returned, after re- 
markable adventures 
in the polar seas, in 
the autumn of 1851, 
without success. In 
connection with the 

United States government, Mr. Grinnell 
fitted out another expedition for the same 
purpose in 1853. Two vessels, under the 
command of Dr. Kane, sailed from New 
York in May. Kane and his party made 
valuable discoveries, among others, of an 
" open polar sea," long suspected and 
sought for by scientific men and navi- 
gators. But they failed to find Sir John 
Franklin. The companies of these two 
vessels suft'ered much, and were finally 
compelled to abandon the ships and make 
their way in open boats to a Danish set- 
tlement in Greenland. Their long absence 
created fears for their safety, and a relief 
expedition was sent in search of them. 
They returned home in the vessels of the 
latter in the autumn of 1855. Gold med- 
als were awarded Dr. Kane by Congress, 
the legislature of New York, and the Royal 
Geographical Society of London; but his 
own life and those of most of his compan- 
ions were sacrificed. His health failed, and 
he went first to London and then to Ha- 
vana, Cuba, where he died, Feb. 16, 1857. 



Kansas, State of, was part of the Lou- repealed the Missouri Compromise act. 
isiana purchase in 1803. The Territories This produced great agitation through- 
of Kansas and Nebraska were established out the country, and great commotion 
in 1854 by act of Congress, which really among the settlers in Kansas. On Jan. 



29, 1861, Kansas was admitted into 
the Union as a State. During the war 
Kansas furnished to the National army 
more than 20,000 soldiers. It is very rap- 
idly increasing in population and wealth. 
Its population in 1890 was 1,427,090; in SL^^^uX.n.; 
1900, 1,470,495. Much of the Stale is a George T. Amijony 
fine grazing country, well supplied with 
rivers and watered by numerous creeks. 


Charles Robinson. 
Thomas Carney. .. 
S. J. Crawford... 

John f. St. John. 
George W. t;l;ok. 

John A. llartin 

Lyman U. Humphreys. 

L. D. Jewelling 

E. N. Morrill 

.Inbii \V. I.eeilv 

William E. Stanley 

Willis .T BaiU'v 

Edward W. Ho'ch 


to 18G2 

" 1804 

" 18C,8 

" 1872 

" 1875 

" 1878 

" 1883 

" 1885 

" 1887 

" 1893 

" 1895 

" 1897 

" 1899 

" 1903 

" 1905 

" 1909 




On its eastern border the navigable Mis- 
souri River presents a waterfront of al- 
most 150 miles. It has a coal - bear- 
ing region which occupies the whole of 
the eastern part of the State, and em- 
braces about 17,000 square miles. The 
climate of Kansas is beautiful and healthy, 
and probably no other Western State 
of the Union has so many bright, sun- 
ny days. The raising of cattle is a 
prominent industry. Kansas is a very 
attractive State for enterprising set- 
tlers, and promises to be one of the 
finest portions of the Union. In 1903 
the aggregate assessed valuation cl tax- 
able property was $388,724,480, the 
State tax rate was 6.40 per $1,000; and 
the bonded debt (July 1) was $632,000, 
all held in State funds. See United 
States, Kansas, vol. ix. 


James H. Lane 

Samuel C. Toineroy 

Kdmuud G. lioss 

Ale.\ander Caldwell 

Kol)ert Crozicr 

James M. Harvey 

John J. Ingalls 

I'reston B. Plumb 

William A. I'efler 

Bishop \V. Perkins 

John Martin 

Liicien Baker 

William A. Harris 

Jospph Ralph Burton 

Chester I. 

No. o." Congress. 

37th to 
37th " 
39th " 
43d to 
43d " 
45th " 
52d " 
54th to 





Alfred W. Benson 59th 


1895 to 
1897 •> 
1901 " 
1903 " 
1905 " 



The Kansas-Xebrasla Act. — The com- 
promise of 1850 (see Omnibus Bill) did 
not stop the agitation of the slavery ques- 
tion. The following resolution was intro- 
duced in Congress in 1852: "That the 
series of acts passed during the first ses- 
sion of the Thirty-first Congress, known as 
compromises, are regarded as a final ad- 
justment and a permanent settlement of 
the questions therein embraced, and should 
be maintained and executed as such." In 
January, 1854, Senator Stephen A. Doug- 
las, of Illinois, presented a bill in the 
Senate for the erection of two vast Terri- 
tories in mid-continent, to be called, re- 
spectively, Kansas and Nebraska. 

The following are some of the principal 
provisions of this act: 


Andrew H. Reoder, Pa. . 

Wilson Shannon, O 

.lohn W. Gpnrv. Pa 

Robert T Walker, Miss. 

J W. Denver 

Samuel Medary 

George M. Bebee . 


The executive power is vested in a gov- 
ernor appointed by the President and 

A secretary of the Territory, appointed 
for five years. 

The legislative power to be vested in the 

1854 to 1855 
18.55 " 18.56 
1856 " 18.57 

18.57 " 1858 

18.58 to 1861 governor and a legislative Assembly, con- 
^^''^ sisting of a council and a House of Rep- 



resentatives; the council to consist of 
thirteen members, and the House of 
twenty-six. The latter may be increased, 
but may not exceed thirty-nine. 

The first election of members of the 

one years of age and upward, actual resi- 
dents of the Territory and citizens of the 
United States, or having declared on oath 
their intention to become citizens, were 
entitled to vote at the first election; the 

i,'M ij 

OIK .j 1 fll^'ili fg a 

» > 'Up 


legislature was to be held at such time 
and place, and was to be conducted in 
such manner, as the governor should pre- 
scribe, lie was also to appoint the in- 
spectors of election, and to direct the man- 
ner of making the returns. 

All free white male inhabitants, twenty- 

qualifications of voters at subsequent 
elections to be prescribed by the legisla- 
tive Assembly. 

Bills passed by the legislature were to 
be submitted to the governor, but might 
be passed against the veto by two-thirds 



The judicial power was to be vested in 
a supreme court, district courts, probate 
courts, and in justices of the peace. The 
supreme court to consist of three judges, 
one in each judicial district, and one of 
them to be chief- justice. They were to be 
appointed by the President and Senate. 

The first election of delegates to Con- 
jiress, and the time and places of election, 
were subject to the appointment and direc- 
tion of the governor. 

The act also provided that the acts of 
Congress for the reclamation of fugitive 
slaves should extend to the Territories. 
Not the least important was the follow- 

" That the Constitution and all the laws 
of the United States which are not locally 
inapplicable, shall have the same force 
and effect within the said Territory as 
elsewhere within the United States, ex- 
cept the eighth section of the act pre- 

1S20, either protecting, establishing pro- 
hibiting, or abolishing slavery." 

After long and bitter discussions in 
both Houses of Congress, the bill was 
])assed, and became a law by receiving 
the signature of the President, May 31, 
1354. From that day the question of 
slavery was a subject of discussion and 
sectional irritation, until it was abolished 
in 1863. 

Civil War in Kansas. — The Kansas- 
Nebraska act left all the Territories of 
the United States open to the establish- 


paratory to the admission of jMissouri ment in them of the social institutions of 

into the Union, approved ]\Iarch 6, 1820, every State in the Union, that of slavery 

which, being inconsistent with the prin- among others. It was a virtual repeal 

ciple of non-intervention by Congress of the Missouri Compromise (q.v.). 

with slavery in the States and Terri- The question immediately arose. Shall the 

turies, as recognized by the legislation of domain of the repviblic be the theatre of 

1850, commonly called the compromise all free or all slave labor, with the corrc- 

measures, is hereby declared inoperative spending civilization of each condition as 

and void; it being the true intent and a consequence? This question was suc- 

meaning of this act, not to legislate ceeded by positive action by the friends of 

slavery into any Territory or State, nor each labor system. Those in favor of the 

to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the slave system, viewing the willingness of 

people thereof perfectly free to form and those in the free-labor States to accede to 

regulate their doinestic institutions in the wishes of the Southern politicians so 

their own way. subject only to the Con- ns to secure -Southern trade, felt confident 

stitution of the United States; Provided, that their supremacy was secure. That 

that nothing herein contained shall be party sounded the trumpet for battle, and 

construed to revive or put in force any the Territory of Kansas was the chosen 

law or regulation which may have existed battle-field. The fugitive slave law had 

prior to the act of the 6th of March, created an intense and wide-spread fed' 



ing of hostility to slavery in the free-labor 
States, and when the advocates of slavery 
began to assert their exclusive right to 
the government of Kansas, and thus cast 
down the gauntlet before their opponents, 
the latter gladly took it up. They re- 
solved to carry on the contest with the 
peaceful weapons of the ballot-box. Sud- 
denly, emigration began to flow in a 
steady, copious, and ever-increasing 
stream from the free-labor States, espe- 
cially from New England, into the new 
Territory. It soon became evident that the 
settlers from those States in Kansas 
would soon outnTimber and outvote those 
from the slave-labor States. 

The dominant power in politics was 
pro-slavery in its proclivities. Alarmed 
by this emigration, it proceeded to organ- 
ize physical force in Missouri to counter- 
act the moral force of its opponents if 
necessary. Combinations were formed 
under various names — " Social Band," 
" Friends' Society," " Blue Lodge," " The 
Sons of the South," etc. A powerful or- 
ganization imder the title of the " Emi- 
grant Aid Society " had been formed in 
Boston under the sanction of the legislat- 
ure of Massachusetts immediately after 
the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill 

(May, 1854) ; and the Southern societies 
just mentioned were organized to oppose 
this " Emigrant Aid Society." At a meet- 
ing at Westport, Mo., early in July, 1854, 
it was resolved that Missourians who 
formed the associations represented there 
should be ready at all times to assist, 
when called upon by pro-slavery citizens 
of Kansas, in removing from the Territory 
by force every person who should attempt 
to settle under the auspices of the Emi- 
grant Aid Society. Both parties planted 
the seeds of their respective systems in 
Kansas. They founded towns: those from 
the free-labor States founded Lawrence, 
Topeka, Boston, Grasshopper Falls, Paw- 
nee, and one or two others. Those from 
the slave-labor States founded Kickapoo, 
Doniphan, Atchison, and others on or near 
the Missouri River. Immediately after 
the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, 
hundreds of Missourians went to Kansas 
and selected a tract of land, and put a 
mark upon it for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a sort of pre-emption title to it, 
and at a public meeting resolved, " That 
we will afford protection to no abolition- 
ist as a settler of this Territory; that we 
recognize the institution of slavery as al- 
ready existing in this Territory, and ad- 

'-'i^ T*^'^ 




vise slave-holders to introduce their prop- 
erty as soon as possible." 

The national government appointed A. 
H. Reeder governor of the new Territory. 
He arrived in October, 1854, and took 
measures for the election of a territorial 
legislature. With the close of this elec- 
tion (March, 1855), the struggle for su- 
premacy in Kansas between the friends 
and opponents of the slave system began 
in dead earnest. The pro-slavery men 
had an overwhelming majority in the 
legislature, for Missourians had gone over 
the border by hundreds and voted. When, 
in November, 1854, a delegate to Congress 
for Kansas was elected, of nearly 2,900 
votes cast, over 1,700 were pvit in by 
Missourians who had no right there. At 
the election of the legislature, there were 
only 1,410 legal votes in the Territory of 
Kansas: but there were 6,218 votes polled, 
mostly illegal ones by Missourians. Fully 
1,000 men came from Missouri, armed with 
deadly weapons, two cannon, tents, and 
other paraphernalia of war, led by Clai- 
borne F. Jackson, and encamped around 
the little town of Lawrence, and in like 
manner such intruders controlled every 
poll in the Territory. Then a reign of 
terror was begun in Kansas. All classes 
of men carried deadly weapons. The il- 
legally chosen legislature met at a point 
on the border of Missouri, and proceeded 
to enact barbarous laws for upholding 
slavery in the Territory. These Governor 
Reeder vetoed, and they were instantly 
passed over his veto. He was so ob- 
noxious to the pro-slavery party that, at 
the request of the latter. President Pierce 
removed him. and sent Wilson Shannon, 
of Ohio, to fill his place. 

The actiial settlers in Kansas, who were 
chiefly anti-slavery men. held a convention, 
Sept. 5, 1855, when they resolved not to 
recognize the laws of the illegal legislat- 
ure as binding upon them. They refused 
to vote for a delegate to Congress at an 
election appointed by the legislature, and 
they called a delegate convention at 
Topeka on Oct. 19. At that convention 
Governor Reeder was elected delegate to 
Congress by the legal votes of the Ter- 
ritory. On the 23d another convention 
of legal voters assembled at Topeka and 
framed a State constitution. It was ap- 
proved by the legal vote of the Territory. 

It made Kansas a free-labor State, and 
under this constitution they asked for 
admission into the Union, as such. The 
strife between freedom and slavery was 
then transferred to the national capital. 
Reeder made a contest for a seat in Con- 
gress with the delegate chosen by the 
illegal votes. Meanwhile, elections had 
been held (Jan. 17, 1856) in Kansas under 
the legally adopted new State constitu- 
tion, and matters seemed very dark for 
the pro-slavery party in Kansas, when 
President Pierce, in a message to Con- 
gress (Jan. 24, 185G), represented the ac- 
tion of the legal voters in the Territory 
in framing a State constitution as re- 
bellion. All through the ensuing spring 
violence and bloodshed prevailed in the 
unhappy Territory. 

Seeing the determination of the actual 
settlers to maintain their rights, armed 
men flocked into the Territory from the 
slave-labor States and attempted to coerce 
the inhabitants into submission to the 
laws of the illegally chosen legislature. 
Finally Congress sent thither a com- 
mittee of investigation. The majority re- 
ported, July 1, 1856, that every election 
had been controlled by citizens from Mis- 
souri; that the action of the legal voters 
of Kansas was valid, and that the State 
constitution was the choice of the major- 
ity of the people. The canvass for a new 
President was now in operation, and so 
absorbed public attention that Kansas had 
rest for a while. James Buchanan was 
elected by the Democratic party. At the 
beginning of his administration the Dred 
Scott case greatly intensified the strife 
between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery 
men, especially in Kansas. Mr. Buchanan 
favored the views of the pro-slavery men, 
and his strong support gaA'e them, in Kan- 
sas, renewed courage. Then the opposing 
parties were working with energy for the 
admission of Kansas as a State, with op- 
posing ends in view. The pro-slavery 
party, in convention at Lecompton early 
in September, 1857, framed a constitu- 
tion in which was a clause providing that 
the " rights of property in slaves now in 
the Territory shall in no manner be inter- 
fered with," and forbade any amendments 
of the instrument until 1864. It was sub- 
mitted to the votes of the people on Dec. 
21, but bv the terms of the election law 



passed by the illegal legislature no one up their arms to the sheriff. The in- 

might vote against that constitution, vaders immediately entered the town, 

The vote was taken^ " For the constitu- blew up and burned the hotel, destroyed 

tion mth slavery," or " For the constitu- two printing-offices, and plundered stores 

tion without slavery"; so in either and houses. The free-labor party were 

case a constitution that protected and furnished with arms from the free-labor 

perpetuated slavery would be voted for. States. Collisions occurred, and on May 

Meanwhile, at an election for a territorial 2(j a fight took place at Ossawatomie, in 

iegislature, the friends of free labor sue- which the anti-slavery men were led by 

ceeded in electing a delegate to Con- John Brown {q. v.), where five men 

gress. were killed. There was another skirmish 

The legally elected legislature ordered at Black Jack (June 2), which resulted 
the Lecompton constitution to be sub- in the capture of Captain Pots and thirty 
mitted to the people for adoption or re- of his men. Emigrants from the free- 
jection. It was rejected by over 10,000 labor States, on their way through Mis- 
majority. Notwithstanding this strong souri, were turned back by armed parties, 
popular condemnation of the Lecompton On Aug. 14, anti - slavery men captured 
constitution. President Buchanan sent it a fort near Lecompton, occupied by Colo- 
in to Congress (Feb. 2, 1858), wherein nel Titus with a party of pro - slavery 
was a large Democratic majority, with a men, and made prisoners the commander 
message in which he recommended its ac- and twenty of his men. On Aug. 25 
ceptance and ratification. In that mes- the acting-governor (Woodin) declared 
sage, referring to the opinion of Chief- the Territory in a state of rebellion. He 
Justice Taney, the President said: "It and David E. Atchison, late United 
has been solemnly adjudged, by the high- States Senator from Missouri, gathered a 
est judicial tribunal known to our laws, considerable force, and, on Aug. 29, a 
that slavery exists in Kansas by virtue of detachment sent by the latter attacked 
the Constitution of the United States; Ossawatomie, which was defended by a 
Kansas is, therefore, at this moment, as small band under John Bro^vn. The lat- 
much a slave State as Georgia or South ter was defeated, with the loss of two 
Carolina." The constitution was ac- killed, five wounded, and seven made 
eepted by the Senate by a vote of 32 prisoners. The assailants lost five killed, 
against 25, but in the House a substitute and thirty buildings were burned. At 
was adopted, which provided for the re- the annual election at Leavenworth, a 
submission of the Lecompton constitution, party from Missouri killed and wounded 
It was done, and that instrument was several of the anti-slavery men, burned 
again rejected by 10.000 majority, Aug. their houses, and forced about 150 to em- 
2, 1858. A convention at Wyandotte bark for St. Louis. John W. Geary, who 
adopted a new constitution, which was had been appointed governor, arrived in 
framed by the opponents of slavery. This Kansas early in September, and ordered 
was accepted, Oct. 4, 1859, by a vote of all armed men to lay down their weap- 
10,421 against 5,530, under which, Jan. ens; but Missouri men, in number about 
21, 1861, Kansas was admitted into the 2,000, and forming three regiments of 
Union as a free-labor State. artillery, marched to attack Lawrence. 

During the political excitement in Kan- Geary, with United States troops, prevail- 
sas there was actual civil war, and some ed upon them to desist, and near the close 
blood was shed. Early in April, 1856, of the year (1856) he was enabled to re- 
armed men from Southern States, under port that peace and order prevailed in 
Colonel Buford, arrived in Kansas. The Kansas. 

United States marshal there took Bu- The Auihor on His Bill. — The follow- 
ford's men into the pay of the govern- ing is the substance of the speech of 
ment. and armed them with goveriiment Senator Stephen A. Douglas on the Kan- 
muskets. Lawrence was again besieged sas-Nebraska bill, delivered in the Sen- 
(May 5), and on the 21st the inhabi- ate on March 3, 1854: 

tants, under a promise of safety to per- 

ions and property, were induced to give The principle which we propose to 



carry into effect by the bill is this: 
That Congress shall neither legislate 
slavery into any Territories or State, 
nor out of the same; but the people shall 
be left free to regulate their domes- 
tic concerns in their own way, subject 
only to the Constitution of the United 

In order to carry this principle into 
practical operation, it becomes necessary 
to remove whatever legal obstructions 
might be found in the way of its free ex- 
ercise. It is only for the purpose of carry- 
ing out this great fundamental principle 
of self-government that the bill renders 
the eighth section of the Missouri act in- 
operative and void. 

Now, let me ask, will these Senators 
who have arraigned me, or any one of 
them, have the assurance to rise in his 
place and declare that this great principle 
was never thought of or advocated as ap- 
plicable to territorial bills, in 1850; that 
from that session until the present, no- 
body ever thought of incorporating this 
principle in all new territorial organiza- 
tions ; that the committee on Territories 
did not recommend it in their report; and 
that it required the amendment of the 
Senator from Kentucky to bring us up to 
that point? Will any one of my accusers 
dare to make the issue, and let it be tried 
by the record? I will begin with the com- 
promises of 1850. Any Senator who will 
take the trouble to examine our journals, 
will find that on March 25 of that year I 
reported from the committee on Territories 
two bills including the following measures: 
the admission of California, a territorial 
government for New Mexico, and the ad- 
justment of the Texas boundary. These 
bills proposed to leave the people of Utah 
and New ^Mexico free to decide the slavery 
question for themselves, in the precise lan- 
guage of the Nebraska bill now imder dis- 
cussion. A few weeks afterwards the com- 
mittee of thirteen took these two bills and 
put a wafer between them, and reported 
them back to the Senate as one bill with 
some slight amendments. One of these 
amendments was that the territorial legis- 
latures should not legislate upon the sub- 
ject of African slavery. I objected to 
that provision on the ground that it siib- 
verted the great principle of self-gov- 
ernment iipon which the bill had been 

originally framed by the territorial com- 
mittee. On the first trial, the Senate re- 
fused to strike it out, but subsequently did 
so, after full debate, in order to establish 
that principle as the rule of action in ter- 
ritorial organizations. . . . But my ac- 
cusers attempt to raise up a false issue, 
and thereby divert public attention from 
the real one, by the cry that the Missouii 
Compromise is to be repealed or violated 
by the passage of this bill. Well, if the 
eighth section of the Missouri act, which 
attempted to fix the destinies of future 
generations in those Territories for all time 
to come, in utter disregard of the rights 
and wishes of the people when they shall 
be received into the Union as States, be 
inconsistent with the great principler of 
self-government and the Constitution of 
the United States, it ought to be abrogated. 
The legislation of 1850 abrogated the Mis- 
souri compromise, so far as the country 
embraced within the limits of Utah and 
New INIexico was covered by the slavery re- 
striction. It is true that those acts did 
not in terms and by name repeal the act 
of 1820, as originally adopted, or as ex- 
tended by the resolutions annexing Texas 
in 1845, any more than the report of the 
committee on Territories proposed to re- 
peal the same acts this session. But the 
acts of 1850 did authorize the people of 
those Territories to exercise " all right- 
ful powers of legislation consistent with 
the Constitution," not excepting the ques- 
tion of slavery; and did provide that, 
when those Territories should be admitted 
into the Union, they should be received 
with or without slavery as the people 
thereof might determine at the date of 
their admission. These provisions were in 
direct conflict with a clause in the former 
enactment, declaring that slavery should 
be forever prohibited in any portion of said 
Territories, and hence rendered such clause 
inoperative and void to the extent of such 
conflict. This was an inevitable conse- 
quence, resulting from the provisions in 
those acts, which gave the people the right 
to decide the slavery question for them- 
selves, in conformity with the Constitu- 
tion. It was not necessary to go further 
and declare that certain previous enact- 
m.ents, which were incompatible with the 
exercise of the powers conferred in 
the bills, are hereby repealed. The 



very act of granting those powers 
and rights has the legal effect of re- 
moving all obstructions to the exercise 
of them by the people, as prescribed 
in those territorial bills. Following 
that example, the committee on Terri- 
tories did not consider it necessary to 
declare the eighth section of the Missouri 
act repealed. We were content to or- 
ganize Nebraska in the precise language 
of the Utah and New Mexico bills. Our 
object was to leave the people entirely free 
to form and regulate their domestic insti- 
tutions and internal concerns in their own 
way, under the Constitution ; and we 
deemed it wise to accomplish that object 
in the exact terms in which the same thing 
had been done in Utah and New Mexico 
by the acts of 1850. This was the princi- 
ple upon which the committee voted; and 
our bill was supposed, and is now believed, 
to have been in accordance with it. When 
doubts were raised whether the bill did 
fully carry out the principle laid down in 
the report, amendments were made from 
time to time, in order to avoid all mis- 
construction, and make the true intent of 
the act more explicit. The last of these 
amendments was adopted yesterday, on 
the motion of the distinguished Senator 
from North Carolina (Mr. Badger), in 
regard to the revival of any laws or regu- 
lations which may have existed prior to 
1820. This amendment was not intended 
to change the legal effect of the bill. Its 
object was to repel the slander which had 
been propagated by the enemies of the 
measure in the North — that the Southern 
supporters of the bill desired to legislate 
slavery into these Territories. The South 
denies the right of Congress either to 
legislate slavery into any Territory or 
State, or out of any Territory or State. 
Non-intervention by Congress with slavery 
in the States or Territories is the doctrine 
of the bill, and all the amendments which 
have been agreed to have been made with 
the view of removing all doubt and cavil 
as to the true meaning and object of the 
measure. . . . 

Well, sir, what is this Missouri Compro- 
mise, of which we have heard so much of 
late? It has been read so often that it is 
not necessar,y to occupy the time of the 
Senate in reading it again. It was an 
act of Congress, passed on the 6th of 


March, 1820, to authorize the people of 
Missouri to form a constitution and a 
State government, preparatory to the ad- 
mission of such State into the Union. The 
first section provided that slavery should 
be " forever prohibited " in all the terri- 
tory which had been acquired from France 
north of 36° 30', and not included within 
the limits of the State of Missouri. There 
is nothing in the terms of the law that 
purports to be a compact, or indicates 
that it was anything more than an ordi- 
nary act of legislation. To prove that it 
was more than it purports to be on its 
face, gentlemen must produce other evi- 
dence, and prove that there was such an 
understanding as to create a moral obli- 
gation in the nature of a compact. Have 
they shown it? 

NoAV, if this was a compact, let us 
see how it was entered into. The bill 
originated in the House of Representa- 
tives, and passed that body without a 
Southern vote in its favor. It is proper 
to remark, however, that it did not at 
that time contain the eighth section, pro- 
hibiting slavery in the Territories; but, 
in lieu of it, contained a provision pro- 
hibiting slavery in the proposed State of 
Missouri. In the Senate, the clause pro- 
hibiting slavery in the State was stricken 
out, and the eighth section added to the 
end of the bill, by the terms of which 
slavery was to be forever prohibited in 
the territory not embraced in the State 
of Missouri north oi 36° 30'. The vote 
on adding this section stood, in the Sen- 
ate, 34 in the affirmative, and 10 in the 
negative. Of the Northern Senators, 20 
voted for it, and 2 against it. On the 
question of ordering the bill to a third 
reading, as amended, which was the test 
vote on its passage, the vote stood 24 
yeas and 20 nays. Of the Northern Sen- 
ators, 4 only voted in the affirmative, and 
18 in the negative. Thus it will be seen 
that if it was intended to be a compact, 
the North never agreed to it. The North- 
ern Senators voted to insert the prohi- 
bition of slavery in the Territories; and 
then, in the proportion of more than four 
to one. voted against the passage of the 
bill. The North, therefore, never signed 
the compact, never consented to it, never 
agreed to be bound by it. This fact be- 
comes very important in vindicating the 


character of the North for repudiating tories, Missouri was to be admitted into 
this alleged compromise a few months the Union, in conformity with the act 
afterwards. The act was approved and of 1820, that compact was repudiated by 
became a law on the 6th of March, 1820. the North, and rescinded by the joint 
In the summer of that year, the people action of the two parties within twelve 
of Missouri formed a constitution and months from its date. Missouri was 
State government preparatory to admis- never admitted under the act of the 
sion into the Union, in conformity with 6th of March, 1820. She was refused 
the act. At the next session of Congress, admission under that act. She was voted 
the Senate passed a joint resolution de- out of the Union by Northern votes, not- 
claring Missouri to be one of the States withstanding the stipulation that she 
of the Union, on an equal footing with should be received; and, in consequence 
the original States. This resolution was of these facts, a new compromise was 
sent to the House of Representatives, rendered necessary, by the terms of which 
where it was rejected by Northern votes, Missouri was to be admitted into the 
and thus Missouri was voted out of the Union conditionally — admitted on a con- 
Union, instead of being received into the dition not embraced in the act of 1820, 
Union imder the act of the 6th of March, and in addition to a full compliance 
1820, now known as the Missouri COm- with all the provisions of said act. If, 
promise. Now, sir, what becomes of our then, the act of 1820, by the eighth sec- 
plighted faith, if the act of the 6th of tion of which slavery was prohibited in 
March, 1820, was a solemn compact, as Missouri, was a compact, it is clear to 
we are now told? They have all rung the comprehension of every fair-minded 
the changes upon it, that it was a sacred man that the refusal of the North to 
and irrevocable compact, binding in admit Missouri, in compliance with its 
honor, in conscience, and morals, which stipulations, and without further condi- 
could not be violated or repudiated with- tions, imposes upon us a high moral obli- 
out perfidy and dishonor! , . . Sir, gation to remove the prohibition of 
if this was a compact, what must be slavery in the Territories, since it has 
thought of those who violated it almost been shown to have been procured upon 
inmiediately after it was formed? I say a condition never performed. . . . 
it is a calumny upon the North to say The Declaration of Independence had 
tliat it was a compact. I should feel a its origin in the violation of that great 
flush of shame upon my cheek, as a fundamental principle which secured to 
Northern man, if I were to say that it the colonies the right to regulate their 
was a compact, and that the section of own domestic affairs in their own way; 
the country to which I belong received and the Revolution resulted in the tri- 
the consideration and then repudiated umph of that principle and the recogni- 
the obligation in eleven months after it tion of the right asserted by it. Abo- 
was entered into. I deny that it was a litionism proposes to destroy the right 
compact, in any sense of the term. But and extinguish the principle for which 
if it was, the record proves that faith our forefathers waged a seven years' 
was not observed; that the contract was bloody war, and upon which our whole 
never carried into effect; that after the system of free government is founded. 
North had procured the passage of the They not only deny the application of this 
act prohibiting slavery in the Territories, principle to the Territories, but insist 
with a majority in the House large upon fastening the prohibition upon the 
enough to prevent its repeal, Missouri abolitionists; the doctrine of the oppo- 
was refused admission into the Union as nents of the Nebraska and Kansas bill, 
a slave-holding State, in conformity with and the advocates of the Missouri restric- 
the act of March 6, 1820. If the propo- tion demands congressional interference 
sit ion be correct, as contended for by the with slavery not only in the Territories, 
opponents of this bill — that there was a but in all the new States to be formed 
solemn compact between the North and therefrom. It is the same doctrine, when 
the South that, in the consideration of applied to the Territories and new States 
the prohibition of slavery in the Terri- of this Union, which the British govern 



ment attempted to enforce by the sword 
upon the American colonies. It is this 
fundamental principle of self-government 
which constitutes the distinguishing feat- 
ure of the Nebraska bill. The opponents 
of the principle are consistent in oppos- 
ing the bill. I do not blame them for 
their opposition. I only ask them to meet 
the issue fairly and openly by acknowl- 
edging that they are opposed to the prin- 

until the swelling tide of emigration 
should burst through and accomplish by 
violence what it is the part of wisdom and 
statesmanship to direct and regulate by 
law. How long could you have postponed 
action with safety? How long could you 
maintain that Indian barrier and restrain 
the onward march of civilization, Chris- 
tianity, and free government by a bar- 
barian wall? Do you suppose that you 

ciple which it is the object of the bill to could keep that vast country a howling 

carry into operation. It seems that there 
is no power on earth, no intellectual 
power, no mechanical power, that can 
bring them to a fair discussion of the 
true issue. If they hope to delude the 
people and escape detection for any con- 
siderable length of time under the catch- 
words, " Missouri Compromise " and 
" faith of compacts," they wnll find that 
the people of this country have more pene- 
tration and intelligence than they have 
given them credit for. 

Mr. President, there is an important 
fact connected with this slavery regula- 
tion which should never be lost sight of. 

wilderness in all times to come, roamed 
over by hostile savages, cutting off all 
safe communication between our Atlantic 
and Pacific possessions? I tell you that 
the time for action has come and cannot 
be postponed. It is a case in which the 
" let-alone " policy would precipitate a 
crisis which must inevitably result in vio- 
lence, anarchy, and strife. 

You cannot fix bounds to the onward 
inarch of this great and growing country. 
You cannot fetter the limbs of the young 
giant. He will burst all your chains. He 
will expand, and grow, and increase, and 
extend civilization, Christianitv. and lib- 

It has always arisen from one and the eral principles. Then, sir, if you cannot 

same cause. Whenever that cause has 
been removed, the agitation has ceased ; 
and whenever the cause has been renewed, 
the agitation has sprung into existence. 
That cause is, and ever has been, the at- 

check the growth of the country in that 
direction, is it not the part of wisdom to 
look the danger in the face, and provide 
for an event which you cannot avoid ? I tell 
you, sir, you must provide for lines of 

tempt on the part of Congress to interfere continuous settlement from the Mississippi 

with the question of slavery in the Terri- Valley to the Pacific Ocean. And in mak- 

tories and new States formed therefrom, ing this provision, you must decide upon 

Is it not wise, then, to confine our action what principles the Territories shall be 

within the sphere of our legitimate duties organized ; in other words, whether the 

and leave this vexed question to take care 
of itself in each State and Territory, ac- 
cording to the wishes of the people thereof, 
in conformity to the forms and in sub- 
jection to the pi'ovisions of the Constitu- 

The opponents of the bill tell us that 
agitation is no part of their policy; that 
their great desire is peace and harmony; 
and they complain bitterly that I should 

people shall be allowed to regulate their 
domestic institutions in their own way, 
according to the provisions of this bill, or 
whether the opposite doctrine of congres- 
sional interference is to prevail. Post- 
pone it, if you will ; but whenever you do 
act, this question must be met and de- 
cided. . . . 

There is another reason why I desire tt 
see this principle recognized as a rule ol 

have disturbed the repose of the country action in all time to come. It will have 

by the introduction of this measure. Let 
me ask these professed friends of peace, 
and avowed enemies of agitation, how the 
issue could have been avoided? They tell 
me that I should have let the question 
alone; that is, that I should have left 

the effect to destroy all sectional parties 
and sectional agitations. If, in the lan- 
guage of the report of the committee, you 
withdraw the slavery question from the 
halls of Congress and the political arena, 
and commit it to the arbitrament of those 

Nebraska unorganized, the people unpro- who are immediately interested in and 
tected, and the Indian barrier in existence alone responsible for its consequences, 



there is nothing left out of which sectional The Crime Against Kansas. — On May 
parties can be organized. It never was 19-20, 185G, Charles Sumner delivered the 
done, and never can be done, on the bank, following speech in the United States Sen- 
tariff, distribution, or any party issue ate on what he declared to be a crime 
which has existed or may exist, after this against Kansas: 
slavery question is drawn from politics. 

On every other political question these Mr. President, you are now called to 
have always supporters and opponents in redress a great transgression. Seldom in 
every portion of the Union — in each State, the history of nations has such a question 
county, village, and neighborhood — resid- been presented. Tariffs, army bills, navy 
ing together in harmonj^ and good-fellow- bills, land bills, are important, and justly 
ship, and combating each other's opinions occupy your care; but these all belong 
and correcting each other's errors in a to the course of ordinary legislation. As 
spirit of kindness and friendship. These means and instruments only, they are nec- 
differences of opinion between neighbors essarily subordinate to the conservation 
and friends, and the discussions that grow of government itself. Grant them or deny 
out of them, and the sympathy which each them, in greater or less degree, and you 
feels with the advocates of his own opin- will inflict no shock. The machinery of 
ions in every portion of this widespread government will continue to move. The 
republic, add an overwhelming and irre- state will not cease to exist. Far other- 
sistible moral weight to the strength of wise is it with the eminent question now 
the confederacy. Affection for the Union before you, involving, as it does, liberty 
can never be alienated or diminished by in a broad territory, and also involving 
any other party issues than those which the peace of the whole country, with our 
are joined upon sectional or geographical good name in history forevermore. 
lines. When the people of the North shall Take down your map, sir, and you will 
be rallied under one banner, and the whole find that the Territory of Kansas, more 
South marshalled under another banner, than any other region, occupies the mid- 
and each section excited to frenzy and die spot of North America, equally dis- 
madness by hostility to the institutions tant from the Atlantic on the east, and 
of the other, then the patriot may well the Pacific on the west; from the frozen 
tremble for the perpetuity of the Union, waters of Hudson Bay on the north, and 
Withdraw the slavery question from the the tepid Gulf Stream on the south, eon- 
political arena, and remove it to the States stituting the precise territorial centre of 
and Territories, each to decide for itself, the whole vast continent. To such ad- 
and such a catastrophe can never happen, vantages of situation, on the very high- 
Then you will never be able to tell, by any waj-- between two oceans, are added a 
Senator's vote for or against any meas- soil of unsurpassed richness, and a fas- 
ure, from Avhat State or section of the cinating, undulating beauty of surface. 
Union he comes. with a health-giving climate, calculated to 
Why, then, can we not withdraw this nurture a powerful and generous people, 
vexed question from politics? Why can worthy to be a central pivot of American 
we not adopt the principle of this bill institutions. A few short months only 
OS a rule of action in all new territorial have passed since this spacious and medi- 
organizations? Why can we not deprive terranean country was open only to the 
these agitators of their vocation and ren- savage who ran wild in its woods and 
der it impossible for Senators to come prairies, and now it has already drawn 
here upon bargains on the slavery ques- to its bosom a population of freemen 
tion? I believe that the peace, the har- larger than Athens crowded within her 
mony, and perpetuity of the Union require historic gates, when her sons, under 
us to go back to the doctrines of the Miltiades. won liberty for mankind on the 
Eevolution, to the principles of the Com- field of Marathon; more than Sparta con- 
promise of 1850. and leave the people, tained when she ruled Greece, and sent 
under the Constitution, to do as they may forth her devoted children, quickened by a 
see proper in respect to their own in- mother's benediction, to return with their 
ternal affairs. shields, or on them : more than Rome 



gathered on her seven hills, when, under of popular institutions, more sacred than 

her kings, she commenced that sovereign any heathen altar, have been desecrated; 

sway, which afterwards embraced the where the ballot-box, more precious than 

whole earth; more than London held when, any work, in ivory or marble, from the 

on the fields of Crecy and Agincourt, the cunning hand of art, has been plundered; 

English banner was carried victoriously and where the cry, " I am an American 

over the chivalrous hosts of France. citizen," has been interposed in vain 

Against this Territory, thus fortunate against outrage of every kind, even upon 

in position and population, a crime has life itself. Are you against sacrilege? 

been committed, which is without example I present it for your execration. Are 

in the records of the past. Not in plun- you against robbery? I hold it up to 

dered provinces or in the cruelties of self- your scorn. Are you for the protection of 

ish governors will you find its parallel; American citizens? I show you how their 

and yet there is an ancient instance, dearest rights have been cloven down, 

which may show at least the path of jus- while a tyrannical usurpation has sought 

tice. In the terrible impeachment by to install itself on their very necks ! 

which the great Roman orator has blasted But the wickedness which I now begin 

through all time the name of Verres, to expose is immeasurably aggravated by 

amid charges of robbery and sacrilege, the motive which prompted it. Not in 

the enormity which most aroused the any common lust for power did this un- 

indignant voice of his accuser, and which common tragedy have its origin. It is 

still stands forth with strongest distinct- the rape of a virgin Territory, compelling 

ness, arresting the sympathetic indigna- it to the hateful embrace of slavery; and 

tion of all who read the story, is that it may be clearly traced to a depraved 

away in Sicily he had scourged a citi- longing for a new slave State, the hide- 

zen of Rome — that the cry, " I am a ous offspring of such a crime, in the hope 

Roman citizen," had been interposed in of adding to the power of slavery in the 

vain against the lash of the tyrant gov- national government. Yes, sir; when the 

ernor. Other charges were that he had whole world alike. Christian and Tui-k, 

carried away productions of art, and that is rising up to condemn this Avrong, and 

he had violated the sacred shrines. It to make it a hissing to the nations, here 

was in the presence of the Roman senate in our republic, force — ay, sir, force — 

that this arraignment proceeded; in a has been openly employed in compelling 

temple of the Forum; amidst crowds — Kansas to this pollution, and all for the 

such as no orator had ever before drawn sake of political power. There is the 

together — thronging the porticoes and simple fact, which you will in vain at- 

colonnades, even clinging to the house- tempt to deny, but which in itself pre- 

tops and neighboring slopes — and under sents an essential wickedness that makes 

the anxious gaze of witnesses summoned other public crimes seem like public 

from the scene of crime. But an audi- virtues. 

ence grander far — of higher dignity — of But this enormity, vast beyond corn- 
more various people, and of wider intelli- parison, swells to dimensions of wicked- 
gence — the countless multitude of sue- ness which the imagination toils in vain 
ceeding generations, in every land, where to grasp, when it is understood that for 
eloquence has been studied, or where the this purpose are hazarded the horrors 
Roman name has been recognized, has of intestine feud not only in this distant 
listened to the accusation, and throbbed Territory, but every^vhere throughout the 
with condemnation of the criminal. Sir, country. Already the muster has begun, 
speaking in an age of light, and a land The strife is no longer local, but na- 
of constitutional liberty, where the safe- tional. Even now, while I speak, portents 
guards of elections are justly placed hang on all the arches of the horizon 
among the highest triumphs of civiliza- threatening to darken the broad land, 
tion, I fearlessly assert that the wrongs which already yawns with the mutterings 
of much-abused Sicily, thns memorable of civil war. The fury of the propagan- 
in history, were small by the side of the dists of slavery, and the calm determina- 
wrongs of Kansas, where the very shrines tion of their opponents, are now diffused 



from the distant territory over widespread 
communities, and the whole country, in all 
its extent — marshalling hostile divisions, 
and foreshadowing a strife which, unless 
happily averted by the triumph of free- 
dom, will become war — fratricidal, parri- 
cidal war — with an accumulated wicked- 
ness bej'ond the wickedness of any war 
in human annals; justly provoking the 
avenging judgment of Providence and the 
avenging pen of history, and constituting 
a strife, in the language of the ancient 
writer, more than foreign, more than 
social, more than civil; but something 
compounded of all these strifes, and in 
itself more than war; sed j}otius commune 
quoddam ex omnibus, et plus quam helium. 
Such is the crime which you are to 
judge. But the criminal also must be 
dragged into day, that you may see and 
measure the power by which all this wrong 
is sustained. From no common source 
could it proceed. In its perpetration was 
needed a spirit of vaulting ambition which 
would hesitate at nothing; a hardihood 
of purpose which was insensible to the 
judgment of mankind; a madness for 
slavery which would disregard the Consti- 
tution, the laws, and all the great exam- 
ples of our history; also a consciousness 
of power such as comes from the habit 
of power; a combination of energies found 
only in a hundred ai-ms directed by a hun- 
dred eyes; a control of public opinion 
through venal pens and a prostituted 
press ; an ability to subsidize crowds in 
every vocation of life — the politician with 
his local importance, the laA^'j'er with his 
subtle tongue, and even the authority of 
the judge on the bench ; and a familiar 
use of men in places high and low, so that 
none, from the President to the lowest 
border postmaster, should decline to be its 
tool ; all these things and more were need- 
ed, and they were found in the slave-power 
of our republic. There, sir, stands the 
criminal, all unmasked before you — heart- 
less, grasping, and tyrannical — with an 
audacity beyond that of Verres, a subtlety 
beyond that of ^fachiavelli. a meanness be- 
yond thnt of Bacon, and an ability beyond 
that of Hastings. Justice to Kansas can 
be secured only by the prostration of this 
influence: for this is the power behind — 
greater than any President — which succors 
and sustains the crime. Nay, the proceed- 

ings I now arraign derive their fearful 
consequences only from this connection. 

In now opening this great matter, I 
am not insensible to the austere demands 
of the occasion ; but the dependence of the 
crime against Kansas upon the slave- 
power is so peculiar and important that I 
trust to be pardoned while I impress it 
with an illustration, which to some may 
seem trivial. It is related in Northern 
mythology that the god of Force, visiting 
an enchanted region, was challenged by 
his royal entertainer to what seemed an 
humble feat of strength — merely, sir, to 
lift a cat from the ground. The god 
smiled at the challenge, and calmly plac- 
ing his hand under the belly of the animal, 
with superb ilman strength strove while 
the back of the feline monster arched far 
upward, even beyond reach, and one paw 
actually forsook the e^rth, until at last 
the discomfited divinity desisted; but he 
was little surprised at his defeat when 
he learned that this creature, which 
seemed to be a cat, and nothing more, 
was not merely a cat, but that it belonged 
to and was a part of the great terrestrial 
serpent, which, in its innumerable folds, en- 
circled the whole globe. Even so the 
creature, whose paws are now fastened 
upon Kansas, whatever it may seem to be, 
constitutes in reality a part of the slave- 
power, which, in its loathsome folds, is 
now coiled about the whole land. Thus 
do I expose the extent of the present con- 
test, where we encounter not merely local 
resistance, but also the unconquered sus- 
taining arm behind. But out of the vast- 
ness of the crime attempted, with all its 
woe and shame, I derive a well-foimded as- 
surance of a commensurate vastness of 
effort against it by the aroused masses of 
the country, determined not only to vindi- 
cate right against wrong, but to redeem 
the republic from the thraldom of thai 
oligarchy which prompts, directs, and 
concentrates the distant wrong. . . . 

But, before entering upon the argu- 
ment, I must say something of a general 
character, particularly in response to 
what has fallen from Senators who have 
raised themselves to eminence on this floor 
in championship of human wrongs. I 
mean the Senator from South Carolina 
(Mr. Butler) and the Senator from 
Illinois (Mr. Douglas), who, though un- 



like as Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, over the republic, and yet, with a ludicrous 
yet, like this couple, sally forth together ignorance of his own position — unable to 
in the same adventure. I regret much to see himself as others see him — or with an 
miss the elder Senator from his seat; but effrontery which even his white head 
the cause, against which he has run atilt ought not to protect from rebuke, he ap- 
with such activity of animosity, demands plies to those here who resist his section- 
that the opportunity of exposing him alisra the very epithet which designates 
should not be lost; and it is for the cause himself. The men who strive to bring 
that I speak. The Senator from South back the government to its original policy, 
Carolina has read many books of chivalry, when freedom and not slavery was sec- 
and believes himself a chivalrous knight, tional, he arraigns as sectional. This will 
with sentiments of honor and courage, not do. It involves too great a perversion 
Of course, he has chosen a mistress to of terms. I tell that Senator that it is to 
whom he has made his vows, and who, himself, and to the " organization " of 
though ugly to others, is always lovely which he is the " committed advocate," 
to him; though polluted in the sight of the that this epithet belongs. I now fasten it 
world, is chaste in his sight — I mean the upon them. For myself, I care little for 
harlot. Slavery. For her, his tongue is names; but since the question has been 
always profuse in words. Let her be im- raised here, I affirm that the Republican 
peached in character, or any proposition party of the Union is in no just sense 
made to shut her out from the extension sectional, but, more than any other party, 
of her wantonness, and no extravagance national; and that it now goes forth to 
of manner or hardihood of assertion is dislodge from the high places of the gov- 
then too great for this Senator. The ernment the tyrannical sectionalism of 
frenzy of Don Quixote, in behalf of his which the Senator from South Carolina 
wench, Dulcinea del Toboso, is all sur- is one of the maddest zealots. . . . 
passed. The asserted rights of slavery, As the Senator from South Carolina is 
which shock equality of all kinds, are the Don Quixote, the Senator from Illinois 
cloaked by a fantastic claim of equality. (Mr. Douglas) is the squire of slavery. 
If the slave States cannot enjoy what, in its very Sancho Panza, ready to do all its 
mockery of the great fathers of the re- humiliating offices. This Senator, in his 
public, he misnames equality under the labored address, vindicating his labored 
Constitution — in other words, the full report — piling one mass of elaborate error 
power in the national Territories to com- upon another mass — ^constrained himself, 
pel fellow-men to unpaid toil, to separate as you will remember, to unfamiliar de- 
husband and wife, and to sell little chil- ceiicies of speech. Of that address I have 
dren at the auction block — then, sir, the nothing to say at this moment, though be- 
chivalric Senator will conduct the State of fore I sit down I shall show something of 
South Carolina out of the Union! Heroic its fallacies. But I go back now to an 
knight! Exalted Senator! A second Moses earlier occasion, when, true to his native 
come for a second exodus! impulses, he threw into this discussion. 
But not content with this poor menace, " for a charm of powerful trouble," per- 
which we have been twice told was " meas- sonalities most discreditable to this body, 
ured," the Senator, in the unrestrained I will not stop to repel the imputations 
chivalry of his nature, has undertaken to which he cast upon myself: but I mention 
apply opprobrious words to those ■who them to remind you of the " sweltered 
differ from him on this floor. He calls venom sleeping not," which, with other 
them " sectional and fanatical "; and oppo- poisoned ingredients, he cast into the 
sition to the usurpation in Kansas he de- caldron of this debate. Of other things I 
nounces as " an uncalculating fanaticism." speak. Standing on this floor, the Sen- 
To be sure, these charges lack all grace of ntor issued his rescript, requiring sub- 
originality, and all sentiment of truth; mission to the usurped power of Kansas; 
but the adventurous Senator does not hesi- and this was accompanied by a manner — 
tate. He is the uncompromising, unblush- all his own — such as befits the tyrannical 
ing representative on this floor of a fla- threat. Very well. Let the Senator try. 
grant sectionalism, which now domineers I tell him now that he cannot force any 



such submission. The Senator, with the miliar with the life of Franklin; and yet 

slave-power at his back, is strong; but he he referred to this household character, 

is not strong enough for this purpose. He while acting agent of our fathers in Eng« 

is bold. He shrinks from nothing. Like land, as above suspicion; and this was 

Danton, he may cry, " L'audacel Vaudace! done thsvt he might give a point to a false 

toujours Vaudace.'" but even his audacity contrast with the agent of Kansas — not 

cannot compass this work. The Senator knowing that, however they may differ in 

copies the British officer who, with boast- genius and fame, in this experience they 

ful swagger, said that with the hilt of are alike: that Franklin, when intrusted 

his sword he would cram the "stamps" with the petitions of Massachusetts Bay, 

down the throats of the American people, was assaulted by a foul-mouthed speaker, 

and he will meet with a similar failure, where he could not be heard in defence, 

He may convulse this country with a and denounced as a " thief," even as the 

civil feud. Like the ancient madman, he agent of Kansas has been assaulted on 

may set lire to this temple of constitu- this floor, and denounced as a " forger." 

tional liberty, grander than the Ephesian And let not the vanity of the Senator be 

dome; bvit he cannot enforce obedience to inspired by the parallel with the British 

that tyrannical usurpation. statesman of that day; for it is only in 

The Senator dreams that he can subdue hostility to freedom that any parallel can 

the North. He disclaims the open threat, be recognized. 

but his conduct still implies it. How lit- But it is against the people of Kansas 

tie that Senator knows himself or the that the sensibilities of the Senator are 

strength of the cause which he persecutes! particularly aroused. Coming, as he an- 

He is but a mortal man ; against him is nounees, " from a State " — ay, sir, from 

an immortal principle. With finite power South Carolina' — he turns with lordly dis- 

he wrestles with the infinite, and he must gust from this newly formed community, 

fall. Against him are stronger battalions which he will not recognize even as a 

than any marshalled by mortal arm — the " body politic." Pray, sir, by what title 

inborn, ineradicable, invincible sentiments does he indulge in this egotism? Has he 

of the human heart ; against him is nature read the history of " the State " which he 

in all her subtle forces; against him is represents? He cannot surely have for- 

God. Let him try to subdue these. gotten its shameful imbecility from sla- 

With regret, I come again upon the very, confessed thi'oughout the Revolution, 
Senator from South Carolina (Mr. But- followed by its more shameful assump- 
ler), who, omnipresent in this debate, over- tions for slavery since. He cannot have 
flowed with rage at the simple suggestion forgotten its wretched persistence in the 
that Kansas had applied for admission as slave-trade as the very apple of its eye, 
a State ; and, with incoherent phrases, dis- and the condition of its participation in 
charged the loose expectoration of his the Union. He cannot have forgotten its 
speech, now upon her representative, and constitution, which is republican only in 
then upon her people. There was no ex- name, confirming power only in the hands 
travagance of the ancient parliamentary of the few, and founding the qualifications 
debate which he did not repeat; nor was of its legislators on a "settled free- 
there any possible deviation from truth hold estate and ten negroes." And yet 
which he did not make, with so much of the Senator, to whom that " State " has 
passion, I am glad to add, as to save him in part committed the guardianship of its 
from the suspicion of intentional aberra- good name, instead of moving, with back- 
tion. But the Senator touches nothing ward treading steps, to cover its naked- 
which he does not disguise with error, ness, rushes forward in the very ecstasy 
sometimes of principle, sometimes of fact, of madness, to expose it by provoking a 
He shows an incapacity of accuracy, comparison with Kansas. South Carolina 
whether in stating the Constitution, or in is old; Kansas is young. South Carolina 
stating the law, whether in the details of counts by eentiiries where Kansas counts 
statistics or the diversions of scholarship, by years. But a beneficent example may 
He cannot open his mouth, but out there be born in a day: and I venture to say 
flies a blunder. Surely he ought to be fa- that, against the two centuries of the olde? 



* State," may be already set the two years Frederick the Great and the United States, 

of trial, evolving corresponding virtue, in He died in Berlin, Germany, Oct. 27, 

the younger community. In the one is 1884. 

the long wail of slavery; in the other, Kaskaskia. The Illinois country under 
the hymns of freedom. And if we glance the rule of the French contained six dis- 
at special achievements, it will be difficult tinct settlements, one of which was Kas- 
to find anything in the history of South kaskia, situated upon the Kaskaskia 
Carolina which presents so much of heroic River, 5 miles above its mouth, and with- 
spirit in an heroic cause as appears in in 2 miles of the Mississppi River. Kas- 
tliat repulse of the Missouri invaders by kaskia, under the French regime, was, 
the beleaguered town of Lawrence, where comparatively speaking, a large town, con- 
even the women gave their effective efforts taining from 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants, 
to freedom. . . . When the French were expelled from this 

Already in Lawrence alone there are region by the British and Americans, the 

newspapers and schools, including a high population rapidly decreased. On July 

school, and throughout this infant Terri- 5, 1778, the town was captured by the 

tory there is more mature scholarship Americans under George Rogers Clarke 

far, in proportion to its inhabitants, than (g. v.), who was acting under authoriza- 

in all South Carolina. Ah, sir, I tell the tion of Patrick Henry, at that time gov- 

Senator that Kansas, welcomed as a free ernor of Virginia. 

State, will be a "ministering angel" to Kasson, John Adam, diplomatist; 

the republic when South Carolina, in the born in Charlotte, Vt., Jan. 11, 1822; 

cloak of darkness which she hugs, " lies graduated at the University of Vermont 

howling." ... in 1842; and was admitted to the bar in 

To overthrow this usurpation is now Massachusetts. Removing to St. Louis, 
the special, importunate duty of Congress, Mo., he practised till 1857, when he set- 
admitting of no hesitation or postpone- tied in Des Moines, la. In 1861-62 he 
ment. To this end it must lift itself from was first assistant Postmaster-General ; in 
the cabals of candidates, the machinations 1863-67 was a member of Congress, and 
of party, and the low level of vulgar in 1863 and 1867 the United States 
strife. It must turn from that slave commissioner to the international postal 
oligarchy and refuse to be its tool. Let the Congress. He again served in Congress 
power be stretched forth towards this in 1873-77, and in the latter year was ap- 
distant Territory, not to bind, but to un- pointed United States minister to Aus- 
bind ; not for the oppression of the weak, tria, where he remained till 1881, when he 
but for the subversion of the tyrannical; was again elected to Congress. In 1884- 
not for the prop and maintenance of a re- 85 he was minister to Germany, and in 
vol ting visurpation, but for the confirma- 1893 envoy to the Samoan international 
tion of liberty. . . . conference. President McKinley ap- 

Kansas-Nebraska Bill. See Kansas, pointed him United States special com- 

Kapp, Friedrich, author; born in missioner plenipotentiary to negotiate rec- 

Hamm, Prussia, April 13, 1824; educated iprocity treaties in 1897, imder the Ding- 

at the University of Heidelberg, and be- ley tariff act; and in 1898 he became a 

came a lawyer; came to the United States member of the Anglo-American Joint 

in 1850, and practised in New York till High Commission. He resigned the office 

1870, when he returned to Germany. His of reciprocity commissioner in March, 

publications include The Slave Question 1901, owing to the failure of the Fifty- 

in the United States; Life of the Ameri- sixth Congress to act on several commer- 

can General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steu- cial treaties he had negotiated. 

ben; History of Slavery in the United Katipiman League, a revolutionary 

States of America; The Tradiufi in Sol- organization in the Pliilippine Islands. 

diers of the German Princes irith Amer- The aim of the society was to expel the 

ica; A History of the German Migration Spaniards and the monastic orders from 

into America; On Immigration and the the islands. The most inhuman atrocities 

Commission of Emigration; Life of the were committed by both the Spanish troops 

American General Joh^nn de Kalb; and and the Katipunan insurgents. The re- 



volt was brought to an end by a compact this meeting he issued a proclamation 

made Dec. 14, 1897, between Aguinaldo in which he declared that the so-called 

and thirty-four other leaders, who agreed provisional government under Mataafa 

to quit the Philippine Islands, not to re- was without legal status, according to 

turn until authorized by the Spanish gov- the terms of the Berlin treaty. He, 

ernment; the Spanish government agree- therefore, ordered Mataafa and his fol- 

ing to pay $1,700,000 in instalments, lowers to lay down their arms and return 

provided the rebellion was not renewed to their homes. The German consul, 

within a certain time. A first instalment however, would not agree to this procla- 

of $400,000 was paid, but the promised mation, and issued a counter one, which 

reform was not carried out and the was translated into the Samoan language, 

families of the former leaders were per- and circulated among the supporters of 

secuted by the Spanish authorities. Mataafa. This proclamation was as fol- 

Kaufman, Theodore, artist; born in lows: 
Nelsen, Hanover, Dee. 18, 1814; studied 

painting in Munich and Hamburg; came "Notice to all Savwans: 

to the United States in 1855, and served ,u''f/;^^^\r°.''^^T}^TJ^ the admiral of 

J . ,1 y-,. .1 TTT • ^1 -KT i- 1 the United States, dated March 11, was made 

during the Civil War m the National known that the three consuls of the signa- 

army. Later he settled in Boston. His tory powers of the Berlin treaty, as well as 

works include General Sherman near the ^^^ ^^^'^^ commanders of men-of-war, had 

-n7„j 7 ^ /^ -. r -I, J A n -^ r> 1 been unanimous to no more recognize the 

Watchfire; On to Liberty; A Pacific Rail- provisional government, composed of Mataafa 

way Train attacked by Indians; Slaves and the thirteen chiefs. 

seeking Shelter under the Flag of the " I. therefore, make known to you that this 

Union; Admiral Farragut entering Ear- Proclamation is quite false I, the German 

, /. y m 7 ■, T^ consul-general, continue to recognize the 

bor through Torpedoes; and Farragut provisional government of Samoa until I 

in the Rigging. receive contrary instructions from my govern- 

Kautz, Albert, naval officer; born in ment. 

r- J. r\ T on. loon J. J "Rose, German Consul-General. 

Georgetown, 0., Jan. 29, 1839; entered « Apia, MarcTi 13, 1S99." 
the navy as acting midshipman in 1854; 

graduated at the Naval Academy in This notice resulted in hostilities which 

1859; promoted to passed midshipman, lasted for several days. About 175 sailors 

master, and lieutenant, in 1861; and was were landed from the American and Brit- 

a prisoner of war in North Carolina, and ish war-ships. Before order was restored, 

at Richmond, Va., in June-October, 1861. several American and British officers and 

In 1862 he was flag-lieutenant to Farra- sailors were killed, and others wounded, 

gut, on the Hartford, and, after the sur- The loss of the natives was supposed to 

render of New Orleans, he entered the have been very heavy (see Samoa). 

city, removed the " Lone Star " flag from Admiral Kautz was retired in January, 

the city hall, and raised the stars and 1901. 

stripes over the custom-house. He was Kautz, August Valentine, military 
also on the Hartford when that ship took officer; born in Ispringen, Germany, Jan. 
part in the engagement with the batteries 5, 1828; brother of Admiral Kautz. His 
of Vicksburg. He was promoted to lieu- parents came to the United States the 
tonant-commander in 1865; commander year of his birth, and in 1832 settled in 
in 1872; captain in 1885; commodore in Ohio. He graduated at the United States 
1897: and rear-admiral in 1898; and in Military Academy in 1852; commis- 
the latter year was placed in command of sioned second lieutenant in the 4th In- 
the Pacific station. In 1899 Admiral fantry in 1853; promoted first lieuten- 
Kautz figured prominently in settling the ant in 1855; captain in the 6th Cavalry 
troubles at Samoa. In March of that in 1861; colonel 8th Infantry in 1874; 
year, after he arrived at the scene of the brigadier-general in 1891; and was re- 
trouble, on board the Philadelphia, he tired Jan. 5, 1892. In the volunteer ser- 
spent two days in making inquiries, and vice he was commissioned colonel of the 
then called a meeting of all the consuls 2d Ohio Cavalry, Sept. 2, 1862; promoted 
and the senior officers of the English and to brigadier - general, May 7, 1864; and 
German war-ships in the harbor. After brevetted major - general, Oct. 28, follow- 



ing. During the CiA'il War he distinguish- from the Chinese authorities the recogni- 
ed himself at Monticello, Ky. ; at Peters- tion of the right of Americans to trade 
burg, Va. ; in the action on the Darby- there, and the same protection and facili- 
to\vn road in Virginia ; in the pursuit and ties to our merchants as were about being 
capture of John Morgan, the Confederate granted by treaty to Great Britain. He 
raider; and in the final Richmond cam- died in Perth Amboy, Nov. 29, 1868. 
paign. After the war he served in Ari- Kearny, Philip, military officer; born 
zona, California, and Nebraska. General in New York City, June 2, 1815; studied 
Kautz published The Company Clerk; law, but, preferring the military pro- 
Customs of Service for Non-commissioned fession, entered the army at twenty- 
Officers and Soldiers; and Customs of two years of age as lieutenant of 
Service for Officers. He died in Seattle, dragoons. Soon afterwards the govern- 
Wash., Sept. 4, 1895. ment sent him to Europe to study and 

Kean, John, legislator; born in Ursino, report upon French cavalry tactics. 
N. J., Dec. 4, 1852; was educated at Yale While there he fought in the French 
College; graduated at the Law School of 
Columbia College in 1875; admitted to 
the New Jersey bar in 1877, but never 
practised; was a member of Congress in 
188,3-85 and 1887-89; and a Eepublican 
United States Senator in 1889-1905. 

Keaue, John Joseph, clergyman; born 
in Ballyshannon, Ireland, Sept. 12, 1839; 
came to the United States in 1846; was 
educated in St. Charles's College and St. 
Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; ordained a 
priest of the Boman Catholic Church in 
186G, and assigned to St. Patrick's 
Church, Washington. He remained there 
till Aug. 25, 1878, when he was conse- 
crated Bishop of Bichmond, Va. He was 
rector of the Catholic University of Amer- 
ica, Washington, D. C, in 1886-97, when 
he resigned and went to Eome. In 1900 
he was appointed Archbishop of Dubuque. 

Kearns, Thomas, legislator; born near 
Woodstock, Ontario, Canada, April 11, 
1862; removed to Utah, where he worked 
in a mine, later becoming owner of two 
mines. He was a delegate to the Republi- 
e'an National Convention in 1896 and 1900; 
and a Republican United States Senator 
in 1901-05. 


army in Africa as a volunteer, and re- 
turned in 1840 with the cross of the Le- 
gion of Honor. Aide to General Scott 
(1841-44), he was made captain in the 
LTnited States army, and served on the 
staff of Scott in the war with Mexico, re- 
ceiving great applause. Near the city of 
Kearny, Lawrence, naval officer; born Mexico he lost his left arm in battle. 
in Perth Amboy, N. J., Nov. 30, 1789; After serving a campaign on the Pacific 
entered the navy in 1807 ; performed im- coast against the Indians, he went to Eu- 
portant services on the coast of South rope, and served on the staff of the French 
Carolina and adjoining States during the General Maurier in the Italian War 
War of 1812-15; and after the war, in (1859). He received from the French gov- 
command of the schooner Enterprise, as- crnment a second decoration of the Legion 
sisted with efficiency in ridding the West of Honor. He hastened home when the 
Indies and Gulf of Mexico of pirates. Civil War broke out ; was made brigadier- 
He also, in the Warren, drove the Greek general of volunteers just after the bat- 
pirates from the Levant in 1827, and tie of Bull Run, and commanded a brigade 
broke up their nests. In command of the of New Jersey troops in Franklin's di- 
East India squadron in 1851, he secured vision. Army of the Potomac. He com- 



manded a division in Heintzelraan's corps; Washington, from Aug. 25 till his death, 

behaved gallantly during the Peninsula near Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, 1862. He 

campaign ; was made major-general of had placed his division in preparation for 

volunteers in July, 1862; was the first battle, and after dark was reconnoitring 

to reinforce Pope; and was engaged in within the enemy's lines when he was dis- 

the battles between the Rappahannock and covered and shot dead. 


Kearny, Stephen Watts, military escort of fifteen men, to bear the intelli- 
officer; born in Newark, N. J., Aug. 30, gence overland to Washington, as soon as 
1794; uncle of Gen. Philip Kearny. When possible. Just as he had crossed the 
the War of 1812-15 broke out young desert and was approaching the American 
Kearny left his studies at Columbia Col- frontier, he was met by General Kearny, 
lege, entered the army as lieutenant of with a small force of dragoons, marching 
infantry, and distinguished himself in the westward, under instructions from his 
battle of Queenston Heights. In April, government to conquer California and or- 
1813, he was made captain, and rose to ganize a civil government in the terri- 
brigadier - general in June, 1846. He was tory, a work Avhieh had already been sue- 
in command of the Army of the West cessfully accomplished, 
at the beginning of the war with Mexico, Upon learning what had occurred, 
and with that army marched to California, Kearny insisted upon Carson's returning 
conquering Xew Mexico on the way. He with him, as his guide, to California, 
established a provisional government at having forwarded the despatches to 
Santa Fe, pressed on to California, and Washington by another messenger of his 
was twice wounded in battle. For a few own selection. Upon the general's arrival 
n)onths in 1847 he was governor of Cali- at Los Angeles, the capital of California, 
fornia ; joined the army in Mexico ; in and the seat of the new government, the 
March, 1848, was governor, military and contest soon arose between himself and 
civil, of Vera Crviz, and in May of the Commodore Stockton. The process by 
same year was made governor of the city which Colonel Fremont became involved 
of Mexico. In August, 1848. he was in this controA'ersy is obvious. He held 
brevetted major-general, and died in St. a commission in the army as lieutenant 
Louis, Mo., on Oct. 31, following. of topographical engineers, and, as such. 

The Kearny-Stockt07i Controversy. — was, primarily, subject to the orders of 
The differences between General Kearny his superior general officer of the army, 
and Commodore Stockton, after the occu- He had since yielded to the exigencies of 
pation of California, originated primarily the occasion, and, from motive and for 
in the indefiniteness of the instructions reasons which cannot be impeached, 
which were issued from the seat of govern- waived any privileges he might have 
ment. Those addressed to the naval com- claimed, as the real conqueror of North 
manders on the Pacific, in their judgment, California, and, in point of rank, the su- 
justified the organization of a military perior representative of the army on the 
force and a civil government in California, Pacific coast, and. with his men, volun- 
and under those instructions Commodore teered to serve under Commodore Stock- 
Stockton authorized Colonel Fremont to ton in the further prosecution of the war 
organize the California battalion and take in South California, the subjugation of 
its command with the title of major. By which could not be so successfully effected 
virtue of those, he likewise took the neces- without the aid of a fieet. By accepting 
sary steps for the organization of a civil the governorship of California, a vacancy 
government for California and invested had been created in the command of the 
Fremont with the title and responsibilities California battalion, and other changes 
of governor. }iad become necessary. The first intima- 

As soon as these results were com- tion which Colonel Fremont received of 

summated. Kit Carson was sent, with an General Kearny's intention to test the 



validity of Commodore Stockton's acts, this morning to make such a reply as the 

through him, was conveyed in the follow- brief time allowed for reflection will en- 

ing note: able me. 

. xTtT " I found Commodore Stockton in pos- 

" Headquarters, Army of the West, . , , , ^ • ..i, ^ 

,j „ T A o session oi the country, exercising the tunc- 

OlUDAD DE -LiOS ixNGELES, ^. „ .,., " ,, I'-i 

,, , ^^ yo/'v tions OI ruilitarv commandant and civil 
"Jan. 16, I84I. -. -, , i , i 

governor, as early as July of last year; 

« By direction of Brigadier - General ^^^^ ^-^^^.^^^ thereafter I received from him 

Kearny, I send you a copy of a com- ^j^^ commission of military commandant, 

munication to him from the Secretary of ^j^^ ^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ j immediately entered 

War, dated June 18, 1846, m which is ^ ^^^ j^^^,^ continued to exercise to 

the following: 'These troops, and such the present moment. 

as may be organized in California, wil .j f^,^^^ ^j^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^.^j^^j ^^ ^^^^ 

be under your command.' The general ^j^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^.^^ ^^ ^^^^. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^_ 

directs that no change will be made in ^^^^^^.^ Stockton still exercising the func- 

the organization of your battalion of ^^^^^ ^^ ^.^,jj ,^^^ military governor, with 

volunteers, or officers appointed m it, ^^^ ^^^^ apparent deference to his rank 

without his sanction or approval being on the part of all officers (including your- 

first obtained. Wm. F. Emort, ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ maintained and required when 

" Lieutenant and Acting Assistant ^^ assumed them in July last. 

" Adjutant-General." « j learned also, in conversation with 

This note at once raised the question J""' that on the march from San Diego, 

whether he was to obey General Kearny, recently, to this place, you entered upon 

and thereby, so far as his example could and discharged duties implying an ac- 

go, invalidate the acts of Commodore knowledgment on your part of supremacy 

Stockton, in which he had co-operated, or to Commodore Stockton. 
obey Commodore Stockton, and, so far " I feel, therefore, with great deference 

as his decision would go, sustain the to your professional and personal charac- 

validity of those proceedings which he be- ter, constrained to say that, until you and 

lieved to be both legal and patriotic. If Commodore Stockton adjust between your- 

he took the former course, he incurred selves the question of rank, where I re- 

the liability to be arraigned, and, in his spectfully think the difficulty belongs, I 

judgment, justly disgraced for disobeying shall have to report and receive orders, as 

an officer whose rank and authority he heretofore, from the commodore. 
had deliberately recognized; and he fur- "With considerations of high regard, I 

ther incurred the charge of base ingrati- ^m, sir, your obedient servant, 
tude towards an officer whose courtesy • ^* -^ «'='^'^"^'' ^ ' 

and confidence he had shared, whose con- " Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. A., and Mili- 
duct he had approved, and who unex- tary Commandant of the Territory 

pectedly found himself in a situation to of California, 

need the support of his friends. Fremont " Brig.-Gen. S. W. Kearny, U. S. A." 
was incapable of deserting either a friend 

or what he deemed a post of duty; he T^e same day that General Kearny ad-, 

accordingly addressed to General Kearny (^vessed the note above quoted to Colonel 

the following reply, on the following day: Fremont, a yet more serious correspond- 
ence commenced between him and Conimo- 

" CiUDAD DE Los Angeles, dore Stockton. It is here given at length, 

" Jan. 17, ISIfl. with the introductory remarks of Commo- 

" Sir, — I have the honor to be in receipt dore Stockton's biographer, who evidently 

of your favor of last night, in which I wrote under the eye and approval of the 

am directed to suspend the execution of commodore: 

orders which, in my capacity of military " FrC-mont throughout Ihe California 

commandant of this territory, I had re- war was strictly and technically in the 

ccived from Commodore Stockton, gov- naval service, under Commodore Stockton, 

ernor and commander - in - chief in Call- He had taken service under him with ar 

fornia. I avail myself of an early hour express agreement that he would continue 



subject to his orders as long as he con- 
tinued in command in California. This 
engagement both he and Captain Gillespie 
had entered into from patriotic motives, 
and to render the most efficient service to 
the country. He visited California origi- 
nally upon topographical, and not on mili- 
tary, duty. His volunteering under Stock- 
ton on special service was a patriotic im- 
pulse, in complying with which the gov- 
ernment were in honor bound to sustain 
him. He therefore very properly refused 
to violate his agreement with Stockton, 
and' unite with Kearny against him. 

" Having failed to compel Fremont to 
acknowledge his authority, the general ad- 
dressed himself to the commodore and de- 
manded that he should abdicate the com- 

" The commodore, considering the sub- 
jugation of California complete, and that 
no further hostilities were likely to take 
place, was of opinion that he might now 
relinquish his governorship and com- 
mand-in-chief and return to his ship. 
But, having informed the government that, 
upon that event he intended to appoint 
Colonel Fremont governor, he now pro- 
ceeded to carry that design into execu- 

" General Kearny, learning this to be 
the purpose of the cominodore, and de- 
sirous of exercising the functions of gov- 
ernor himself, addressed to him the fol- 
lowing letter:" 

general kearny to commodore 


" Headquarters, Army of the West, 
" Ciudad de Los Angeles, 

"Jan. 16, 18^7. 
" Sir, — I am informed that you are en- 
laged in organizing a civil government, 
Ind appointing officers for it in this terri- 
tory. As this duty has been specially as- 
signed to myself, by orders of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, conveyed in let- 
ters to me from the Secretary of War, of 
June 3, 8, and 18, 1846, the original of 
which I gave to you on the 12th, and 
which you returned to me on the 13th, 
and copies of which I furnished you with 
on the 26th December, I have to ask if 
you have any authority from the Presi- 
dent, from the Secretary of the Navy, or 
from any other channel of the President 

to form such government and make such 

" If you have such authority, and will 
show it to me or furnish me with a cer- 
tified copy of it, I will cheerfully acqui- 
esce in what you are doing. If you have 
not such authority, I then demand that 
you cease all further proceedings relating 
to the formation of a civil government of 
this Territory, as I cannot recognize in 
you any right in assuming to perform 
duties confided to me by the President. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient ser- 
vant, S. W. Kearny, 
" Brigadier-General U. S. A. 
" Commodore R. F. Stockton, Acting 
" Governor of California." 


" Headquarters, Ciudad de Los Angeles, 
"Jan. 16, 1847. 

" Sir, — In answer to your note, received 
this afternoon, I need say but little more 
than that which I communicated to you 
in a conversation at San Diego — that 
California was conquered and a civil gov- 
ernment put into successful operation; 
that a copy of the laws made by me for 
the government of the Territory, and the 
names of the officers selected to see them 
faithfully executed, were transmitted to 
the President of the United States before 
you arrived in the Territory. 

" I will only add that I cannot do any- 
thing nor desist from doing anything on 
your demand, which I will submit to the 
President and ask for your recall. In the 
mean time you will consider yourself sus- 
pended from the command of the United 
States forces in this place. 

" Faithfully, your obedient servant, 
" E. F. Stockton, 

" Commander-in-Chief. 

" To Brevet Brig.-Gen. S. W. Kearny." 


" Headquarters, Army of the West, 
" Ciudad de Los Angeles, 

"Jan. 17, 18.'t7. 
" Sir, — In my communication to you of 
yesterday's date I stated that I had 
learned that you were engaged in organiz- 
ing a civil government for California. 1 
referred you to the President's instruc 



tions to me (the original of which you cumstances. I, therefore, immediately on 
have seen) and copies of which I furnished my arrival, waited upon the governor and 
you, to perform that duty, and added that commander-in-chief, Commodore Stockton, 
if you had any authority from the Presi- and, a few minutes afterwards, called 
dent, or any of his organs, for what you upon General Kearny. I soon found them 
were doing, I would cheerfully acquiesce, occupying a hostile attitude, and each 
and if you had not such authority I de- denying the right of the other to assume 
manded that you would cease further pro- the direction of affairs in this country, 
ceedings in the matter. " The ground assumed by General 

" Your reply of the same date refers me Kearny was that he held in his hand 
to a conversation held at San Diego, and plenary instructions from the President 
adds that you cannot do anything or de- directing him to conquer California, and 
sist from doing anything or alter anything organize a civil government, and that con- 
on your (my) demand. As, in conse- scquently he would not recognize the acts 
qiience of the defeat of the enemy on the of Commodore Stockton. 
8th and 9th inst., by the troops under " The latter maintained that his own 
my command, and the capitulation en- instructions were to the same effect as 
tered into on the 13th inst. by Lieutenant- Kearny's; that this officer's commission 
Colonel Fremont with the leaders of the v/as obsolete, and never would have been 
Californians, in which the people under given could the government have antiei- 
arms and in the field agree to disperse and pated that the entire country, seaboard 
remain quiet and peaceable, the country and interior, would have been conquered 
may now, for the first time, be considered and held by himself. The country had 
as conquered, and taken possession of by been conquered and a civil government in- 
us; and as I am prepared to carry out the stituted since September last, the consti- 
President's instructions to me, which you tution of the Territory and appointments 
oppose, I must, for the purpose of prevent- under the constitution had been sent to 
ing a collision between us and possibly a the government for its approval, and 
civil war in consequence of it, remain decisive action undoubtedly long since had 
silent for the present, leaving with you the upon them. General Kearny was in- 
great responsibility of doing that for structed to conquer the country, and upon 
which you have no authority, and pre- its threshold his command had been near- 
venting me from complying with the Pres- ly cut to pieces, and, but for relief from 
ident's orders. him (Commodore Stockton), would have 

" Very respectfully, your obedient ser- been destroyed. More men were lost than 

vant, S. W. Kearny, in General Taylor's battle of the 8th. In 

" Brigadier-General U. S. A. regard to the remaining part of his in- 

" Commodore R. F. Stockton, Acting structions, how could he organize a 

" Governor of California." government without first proceeding to 

disorganize the present one? His work 

The motives which actuated Colonel Frg- had been anticipated; his commission was 
mont in electing to pursue the course absolutely null and void and of no effect, 
which he did upon the arrival of General " But if General Kearny believed that 
Kearny, are scarcely open to misconstrue- his instructions gave him paramount au-" 
tion. There happens, however, to be the thority in the country, he made a fatal 
best of evidence in regard to them in a error on his arrival. He was received 
letter addressed to Colonel Benton at the with kindness and distinction by the 
time of the collision, which reveals in all commodore, and oflered by him the com- 
the confidence of personal friendship the mand of his land forces. General Kearny 
iimermost secrets of his heart. In that rejected the offer and declined interfering 
letter, he says: with Commodore Stockton. This officer 

"... When I entered Los Angeles I was then preparing for a march to Ciu- 
ftas ignorant of the relations subsisting dad de Los Angeles, his force being princi- 
between these gentlemen, having received pally sailors and marines, who were all 
from neither any order or information on foot (fortunately for them), and who 
which might serve as a guide in the cir- were to be provided with supplies on their 



oiarch through an enemy's country, where 
all the people are cavalry. His force was 
paraded, and ready to start, 700 in num- 
ber, supported by six pieces of artillery. 
The command, under General Stockton, 
bad been conferred upon his first lieuten- 
ant, Mr. Rowan. At this juncture Gen- 
eral Kearny expressed to Commodore 
Stockton his expectation that the com- 
mand would have been given to him. The 
commodore informed the general that 
liieutenant Rowan was in his usual line 
of duty, as on board ship, relieving him 
of the detail of the drudgery of the camp, 
while he himself remained the com- 
mander-in-chief ; that if General Kearny 
was willing to accept Mr. Rowan's place, 
under these circumstances, he could have 
it. The general assented. Commodore 
Stockton called up his officers and ex- 
plained the case. Mr. Rowan gave up 
his post generously and without hesita- 
tion ; and Commodore Stockton desired 
them clearly to understand that he re- 
mained commander-in-chief; under this 
arrangement the whole force entered 
Angeles ; and on the day of my arrival 
ut that place General Kearny told me 
that he did then, at that moment, recog- 
nize Commodore Stockton as governor of 
the Territory. 

" You are aware that I had con- 
tracted relations with Commodore Stock- 
ton, and I thought it neither right nor 
politically honorable to withdraw my sup- 
port. No reason of interest shall ever 
compel me to act towards any man in 
such a way that I should afterwards be 
asrhamed to meet him." 

Early in the spring, new instructions, 
bearing date Nov. 5, reached Commodore 
Stockton, which put an end to the latter's 
supremacy in the quarter. In his des- 
patch the Secretary of the Na\'y says: 

" The President has deemed it best for 
the public interests to invest the military 
officer commanding with the direction of 
the operations on land, and with the ad- 
ministrative functions of the government 
over the people and Territory occupied 
by us. You will relinquish to Colonel 
Mason, or to General Kearny, if the latter 
shall arrive before you have done so. the 
entire control over these matters, and turn 
over to him all papers necessary to the 
performance of his duties." 

Instructions of a corresponding import 
were of course received from the War De- 
partment, by General Kearny, and with 
tliem, or not long afterwards, a despatch 
from Mr. Marcy, of which the following 
is an extract: 


" War Department, June 11, 1847. 

"... When the despatch from this de- 
partment was sent out in November last, 
there was reason to believe that Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Fremont would desire to re- 
turn to the United States, and you were 
then directed to conform to his wishes in 
that respect. It is not now proposed to 
change that direction. But since that 
time it has become known here that he 
bore a conspicuous part in the conquest 
of Ca lifornia, that his services have been 
very valuable in that country, and doubt- 
less will continue to be so should he re- 
main there. 

" Impressed, as all engaged in the pub- 
lic service must be, with the great im- 
portance of harmony and cordial co-opera- 
tion in carrying on military operations in 
a country so distant from the seat of 
authority, the President is persuaded that 
when his definite instructions were re- 
ceived, all questions of difficulty were set- 
tled, and all feelings which had been 
elicited by the agitation of them had sub- 

" Should Lieutenant-Colonel Fremont, 
who has the option to return or remain, 
adopt the latter alternative, the President 
does not doubt you will employ him in 
such a manner as will render his services 
most available to public interest, having 
reference to his extensive acquaintance 
with the inhabitants of California, and 
his knowledge of their language, qualifi- 
cations independent of others, which it is 
supposed may be very useful in the pres- 
ent and prospective state of our affairs in 
that f'ountry. ... 

" Very respectfully, your ob't servant, 
' ""W. L. Marcy, 
" Secretary of War." 

The " definite instructions " to which 
reference is here made were never com- 
municated to Colonel Fremont, and theit 
suppression was very justly esteemed bji 
him a grievance for several reasons, and 



among others, because they show that by 
tlie President's directions it was at 
Colobel Fremont's option whether he 
would remain in California or not, an 
option, however, which was denied him by 
General Kearny. 

Early in March, and after taking the 
supreme command in California, General 
Kearny addressed Colonel Fremont the 
following letter: 

general kearny to colonel fremont. 

" Headquarters, 10th Military Dept.,' 

" Monterey, U. Cal., March 1, 1847- 
" Sir, — By Department orders. No. 2, 
of this date (which will be handed to 
you by Captain Turner, 1st Dragoons, 
A.A.A.G., for my command), you will see 
that certain duties are there required of 
you as commander of the battalion of 
California volunteers. 

" In addition to the duties above re- 
ferred to, I have now to direct that you 
will bring with you, and with as little de- 
lay as possible, all the archives and pub- 
lic documents and papers which may be 
subject to your control, and which apper- 
tain to the government of California, that 
1 may receive them from your hands at 
this place, the capital of the Territory. 

" I have directions from the general-in- 
chief not to detain you in this country, 
against your Avishes, a moment longer 
than the necessities of the service may 
require ; and you will be at liberty to 
leave here after you have complied with 
these instructions, and those in the order 
referred to. 

" Very respectfully, your ob't servant, 
" S. W. Kearny. 
'' Lieut.-Col. J. C. Fremont, Regiment of 
Mounted Riflemen, Commanding Bat- 
talion of California Volunteers, Ciu- 
dad de Los Angeles." 

About a month later, he received the 
following order from General Kearny: 

" Headquarters, 10th Military Dept., 
" Monterey, Cal., March 28. 

" Sir, — This will be handed to you by 
Colcmel Mason, 1st Dragoons, who goes to 
the southern district, clothed by me with 
.'nil authority to give such orders and in- 
structions upon all matters, both civil and 

military, in that section of the country 
as he may deem proper and necessary. 
Any instructions he may give you will be 
considered as coming from myself." 

A few weeks later Colonel Fremont re- 
ceived orders from General Kearny to re- 
port himself at Monterey with such of the 
members of his topographical corps as 
were still under pay, prepared to set out 
at once for Washington. Colonel Fremont 
then applied for permission to join his 
regiment, under General Taylor's com- 
mand, supposed to be on its way to Vera 
Cruz. This request was refused without 
explanation or apology, and on June 
14 Colonel Fremont addressed General 
Kearny as follows: 


New Helvetia, U. Cal., 

" June 14, J847- 

"Sir, — In a communication which I re- 
ceived from yourself ;'in March of the pres- 
ent year I am informed that you had been 
directed by the commander-in-chief not to 
detain me in this country against my 
wishes longer than the absolute necessities 
of the service might require. 

" Private letters in which I have entire 
confidence further inform me that the 
President has been pleased to direct that 
I should be permitted the choice of join- 
ing my regiment in Mexico, or returning 
directly to the United States. An applica- 
tion wiiich I had the honor to make to you 
at the Ciudad de Los Angeles for permis- 
sion to proceed immediately to Mexico 
having been rejected, and the duties of 
the exploring expedition which had been 
confided to my direction having been ter- 
minated by yourself, I respectfully re- 
quest that I may now be relieved of all 
connection with the topographical party 
which you have taken under your charge, 
and be permitted to return to the United 
States. Travelling with a small party 
by a direct route, my knowledge of the 
country and freedom from professional 
business will enable me to reach the States 
some forty or fifty days earlier than your- 
self, which the present condition of affairs 
and a long absence from my family make 
an object of great importance to me. 

" It may not be imjiropcr to say to you 
that my journey will be made with private 
means, and will not, therefore, occasion 



any expenditure to the government. I 
have the honor to be, with much respect, 
your obedient servant, 

" J. C. Fremont, 

" Lieutenant-Colonel, Mounted Riflemen. 
" Brig.-Gen. S. W. Kearny, Commanding, 


To this request Colonel Fremont re- 
ceived the following reply: 

general kearny to colonel fremont. 

" Camp near New Helvetia, 
" California, June 14, IS-'p- 

" Sir, — The request contained in your 
communication to me of this date, to be 
relieved from all connection with the 
topographical party (nineteen men), and 
be permitted to return to the United 
States with a small party made up by 
your private means, cannot be granted. 

" I shall leave here on Wednesday, the 
Kith instant, and I require of you to be 
with your topographical party in my camp 
(which will probably be about 15 miles 
from here) on the evening of that day, 
and to continue with me to Missouri. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, S. W. Kearny, 

" Brigadier-General. 
" Lieutenant-Colonel Fremont, Regiment 
" Mounted Riflemen, New Helvetia." 

General Kearny broke up his camp near 
Sutter's fort on the day after issuing this 
order, and set out for the United States, 
attended by Colonel Fremont, who was 
treated, however, with deliberate dis- 
respect throughout the journey. The 
party reached Fort Leavenworth about 
Aug. 22. On that day General Kearny 
sent for him, and directed Lieutenant 
Wharton to read to him a copy of the first 
paragraph of an order he had just issued 
of that date, as follows : 

" Fort Leavenworth, Aug. 22, 18Jf7. 

" Lieutenant - Colonel Fremont, of the 
Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, will turn 
over to the officers of the different de- 
partments at this post, the horses, mules, 
and other public property in the use of 
the topographical party now under his 
charge, for which receipts will be given. 
He will arrange the accounts of these 
men (nineteen in number), so that they 
can be paid at the earliest date. Lieu- 


tenant-Colonel Fremont having performed 
the above duty, will consider himself 
under arrest, and will then repair to 
Washington City, and report himself to 
the adjutant-general of the army." . . . 

For Colonel Fremont's subsequent ac- 
tions, see Fremont, John Charles. 

Kearny's Expedition and Conquest 
of New Mexico. See Kearny, Stephen 

Kearsarge, The. Wrecked on Ronca- 
dor Reef, in Caribbean Sea, Feb. 2, 1894. 
See Alabama, The. 

Keeler, James Edward, astronomer; 
born in La Salle, 111., Sept. 10, 1857; 
graduated at Johns Hopkins University in 
1881; accompanied Prof. Langley on the 
Mount Whitney expedition ; studied two 
years with Quincke, in Heidelberg, and 
with Von Helmholz, in Berlin. He was ap- 
pointed assistant astronomer of the Lick 
Observatory in 1886, and when the ob- 
servatory was transferred to the State 
(June, 1888), he was made full astrono- 
mer. He was director of the Allegheny 
Observatory in 1889-98, and on June 1, 
1898, was made director of the Lick Obser- 
vatory. Professor Kfeler was a mem- 
ber of many American and foreign scien- 
tific societies, among them the Royal 
Astronomical Society of Great Britain, 
and in 1898 was awarded the Rumford 
medal of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences. He wrote extensively for 
The Astrophysical Journal and other tech- 
nical periodicals. He died on Mount Ham- 
ilton, Cal., Aug. 13, 1900. 

Keely, John Worrell, mechanic; born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 3, 1837; was 
a carpenter till 1872. Prior to that date 
he had become interested in music, claim- 
ing that the' tuning-fork had suggested 
to him a new motive power. After years 
of experiment he exhibited a machine 
which appeared to have great power, its 
motion, according to him, being produced 
neither by steam, electricity, nor compress- 
ed air, but by the vibrations of a violin 
bow. This machine was called the " Keely 
motor." and in 1874 a stock company was 
established which contributed thousands 
of dollars to enable him to perfect his 
alleged discovery. From 1872 to 1891 he 
built and rejected 129 different models; 
in 1881 a wealthy woman of Philadelphia 
built a new laboratory for him, and also 


furnished a weekly salary that he might of Asa Trenchard and Edward A. Sothern 
continue his experiments. At various ex- that of Lord Dundreary, then a minor 
iiibitions he produced wonderful effects, character, which Mr. Sothern afterwards 
but never revealed how these were ac- made the principal one in a new version 
coniplished. After his death the whole of the play. In 1860 she brought out 
scheme was examined, and it was claimed The Seven Sisters, which ran for 169 
by many to be a fraud — that the machine nights. It was while her company was 
was operated by a compressed-air motor playing Our A merican Cousin, at Ford's 
in the cellar. He died in Philadelphia, Theatre, Washington, on April 14, 1865, 
Pa., Nov. 18, 1898. that President Lincoln was fatally shot. 

Keen, Gregory Bernard, librarian; She remained on the stage till within two 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 3, 1844; years of her death, in Montclair, N. J., 
graduated at the University of Pennsyl- Nov. 4, 1873. 

vania in 1861, and at the Divinity School Kegs, Battle of the. See Hopkinson, 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Phila- Francis. 

delphia, in 1866; became a Roman Catho- Keifer, Joseph Warren, laA\yer; born 
lie in 1868; was librarian of the Uni- in Clark county, 0., Jan. 30, 1836; edu- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1887-97; and eated at Antioch College; was admitted to 
became librarian of the Historical Society the bar and began practice in Springfield, 
of Pennsylvania in 1898. He is the editor O. In the Civil War he served in the 
of the Pennsylvania Magazine of History Union army, rising from the rank of 
and Biography, and the author of a num- major to colonel and brevet brigadier-gen- 
ber of articles on The Descendants of eral and major-general. At the close of 
Joran Kyn, the Founder of Upland, and the war he declined the appointment of 
the chapters on Netv Sioeden and lieio Al- lieutenant-colonel of the 26th United 
bion in the Narrative and Critical His- States Infantry. In 1868-69 he was a 
tory of America. State Senator; in 1877-83 a Republican 

Keenan, Peter, military officer; born Representative in Congress; and in 1881- 
in York, N. Y., Nov. 9, 1834; was adopt- 83 speaker of the House. During the war 
ed by a wealthy Philadelphia family; be- with Spain President McKinley appointed 
came a captain in the 8th Pennsylvania him a major-general cf volunteers. Since 
Cavalry in 1861. After the rout of the 1873 he has been president of a national 
11th Corps on the right wing at the bat- bank. In April, 1901, he published Sla- 
tie of Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863, with very and Four Years of War. 
less than 500 men. he charged the Con- Keith, George, clergyman ; born in 
federates, taking them by complete sur- Aberdeen, Scotland, about 1645; belong- 
prise, so that their advance was sufficient- ed to the Society of Friends ; came to East 
ly checked until the National guns were Jersey; was surveyor-general in 1682; 
got into position. This charge saved the and in 1689 taught school in Philadelphia. 
National army from complete rout. He He wrote and spoke much in favor of the 
was killed during the action. Quakers, and visited New England in their 

Keene, Laura, actress; born in Chelsea, interest; but about 1691 he established a 
London, England, in 1820; real name, sect who called themselves "Christian 
Mary Moss; made her first appearance Quakers." Keith was irritable, quarrel- 
on the stage in London, in 1845; was mar- some, and imperious. He finally left the 
ried to Henry W. Taylor in 1847, and to Quakers altogether: took orders in the 
John Lutz in 1857. She won her greatest Church of England; and died rector of 
successes in light comedy. She first ap- Edbnrton, Sussex. England, in 1715. 
peared in the United States at Wallack's Keith, Sir William ; born near Peter- 
Theatre, New York, in 1852, where she head, England, in 1680; appointed gov- 
subsequently took the management of the ernor of Pennsylvania and Delaware in 
Varieties Theatre, and later opened a 1717 by George I. at the request of the 
theatre under her name, which she man- principal inhabitants. He was the only 
aged till 1863. At this house, in 1858, she pre - Revolutionary governor who sym- 
first brought out Our American Cousin, patliized with the colonists in their strug- 
in which Joseph Jefferson took the part gles with the proprietaries or British gov- 



ernnient. He was superseded in his office 
in 172G, and was elected a member of the 
colonial legislature. He returned to Eng- 
land in 1728, and projected a series of 
colonial histories, of which that on Vir- 
ginia was the only one published. He died 
in London, Nov. 18, 1749. 

Kell, John McIntosii, naval officer; 
born in Darien, Ga., Jan. 26, 1823; en- 
tered the United States Naval Academy in 
1841 ; served under Commodores Sloat and 
Perry in California and Japan; joined the 
Confederate navy as executive officer of 
the Sumter; transferred to the Alabama 
in 18f)2; was in the fight with the Kear- 
sarge, but rescued by the English yacht 
Deerhound when the Alabama sank; pro- 
moted captain C. S. N. He wrote Cruise 
and Combats of the Alabama in Battles 
and Leaders of the Civil War. He died 
in Sunnyside, Ga., Oct. 5, 1900. 

Keller, Helen Adams, deaf, dumb, and 
blind; born in Tuscumbia, Ala., June 27, 
1880. She was sent to the Wright- 
Huniason School in New York City when 
seven years of age, where she made rapid 
progress under her teacher, Miss Sullivan. 
In 1897 she was sent to the Arthur Gil- 
man School, and in 1899 she entered Rad- 
cliffc College, where she studied Greek, 
Latin, and the higher mathematics. This 
is probably the most wonderful instance 
in the history of education where seeming- 
ly insuperable difficulties have been suc- 
cessfully surmounted. 

Kelley, Benjamin Franklin, military 
officer ; born in New Hampton, N. H., April 
10, 1807; removed to western Virginia in 
182(J. He entered the national army as 
colonel of the 1st Virginia Regiment; took 
part in the battle of Philippi, where he 
was severely wounded ; promoted brig- 
adier-general in 1861, major-general in 
1865. After the Civil War he was col- 
lector of internal revenue and examiner 
of pensions. He died in Oakland, Md., 
July 16, 1891. 

Kelley, Hall Jackson, colonist ; born 
in Northwood, N. H., Feb. 28, 1790; grad- 
uated at Middlebury College in 1813; be- 
came interested in colonizing Oregon, and 
influenced the Massachusetts legislature 
to incorporate the " American Society for 
Encouraging the Settlement of the Oregon 
Territory." Later he conducted a number 
of settlers thither, but they were driven 

away by the Hudson Bay Company. He 
was the author of a Geographical Memoir 
of Oregon, and .4 History of the Settle- 
ment of Oregon and of the Interior of 
Upper California, and of Persecutions and 
Afflictions of Forty Years' Continuance 
Endured by the Author. He died in 
Palmer, Mass., Jan. 17, 1874. 

Kelley, Henry B., jurist; born in 
Huntsville, Ala., in 1823; served through- 
nut the Mexican War as lieutenant of the 
14th U. S. v.; resigned in 1848; re- 
entered the army in 18.5.5; resigned in 
1861 to enter the Confederate army. He 
was a judge in the Louisiana Court of 
Appeals from 1884 till his death at New 
Orleans, June 16, 1894. 

Kelley, James Douglas Jerrold, naval 
officer ; born in New York City, Dec. 2.5, 
1847; graduated at the United States 
Naval Academy in 1868; promoted ensign 
in 1869; master in 1870; lieutenant in 
1872; lieutenant-commander in 1893; and 
commander in 1899. For a prize essay 
wn'itten in 1881 he received a gold medal 
from the United States Naval Institute. 
During the war with Spain (1898) he was 
chairman of the board on auxiliary ves- 
sels ; and in 1900-1 was on duty in Chi- 
nese waters. He is widely known by his 
numerous writings on naval subjects. His 
publications include The Question of 
Ships; Our Islavy; A Desperate Chance; 
American Yachts; The Ship's Company ; 
The Story of Coast Defence; American 
Men-o'-War; The Navy of the United 
States, 1875-99, etc. 

Kelley, William Darrah, legislator; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., April 12, 1814; 
admitted to the bar in 1841 ; was a Free- 
trade Democrat till 1848, when he entered 
the Republican party, becoming a firm 
abolitionist and protectionist. He was 
elected to Congress in 1860, and held a 
seat in that body for many years. He 
was the author of Slavery in the Terri- 
tories (an address) ; Address at the Col- 
ored Department of the House of Refuge ; 
Reasons for Abandoning the Theory of 
Free-Trade and Adopting the Principle of 
Protection to American Industry ; Letters 
on Industrial and Financial Questions ; 
The Neio South, etc. He died in Washing- 
ton. D. C, Jan. 9. 1890. 

Kelleysville, Battle of. See Kelly's 



Kellogg, Clara Louise, opera-singer : 
born in Sumterville, S. C, July 12, 1842; 
removed to New York in 185G, and there 
received her musical education. She made 
her first appearance in New York as 
Gilda, in Rir/olctto, in 1861, and in Lon- 
don in Her Majesty's Theatre in 1867. 
She made tours through the United States 
from 1868 till her reappearance in Lon- 
don in May, 1872. Returning to the 
United States, she sang in Italian opera 
for a season; organized an English opera 
company; then an Italian opera company 
(1876) ; married her manager, Carl Stra- 
kosch, in 1887, and retired to jn-ivate 

Kellogg, Edgar Romeyn, military offi- 
cer; born in New York City, March 25, 
1842; entered the army in April, 1861, as 
a sergeant in the 24th Ohio Infantry; was 
promoted to second lieutenant in October 
following; then resigned and enlisted as 
a private in the 16th United States In- 
fantry. He was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant, Aug. 1, 1862; attained the rank 
of brigadier-general, Dec. 5, 1899, and was 
retired for disabilities Dec. 16, 1899. In 
the Civil War he greatly distinguished 
himself in the battle of Murfreesboro and 
in the Atlanta campaign, and in the war 
with Spain (1898) he commanded the 10th 
United States Infantry in the battle of 
San Juan Hill, near Santiago de Cuba, 
on July 1. 

Kellogg, Elijah, clergyman; born in 
Portland, Maine, May 20, f813; graduated 
at Bowdoin in 1840. He wrote many 
popular books for young people, and was 
the author of the well-known Address of 
Bpartacus to the Gladiators. He died in 
Harpsburg, Maine, March 17, 1901. 

Kellogg, Martin, educator; born in 
Vernon, Conn., March 15, 1828; graduated 
at Yale College in 1850; went to Cali- 
fornia as a Congregational clergyman; 
was Professor of Latin in the old Cali- 
fornia College in 1859-69; and in 1869, 
when the University of California was 
founded, became Professor of Ancient Lan- 
guages there. He held the chair till 1893, 
and was then president till 1899. He died 
in San Francisco, Cal., Aug. 26, 1903. 

Kellogg, William Pitt, governor of 
Louisiana; born in Orwell, Vt., Dec. 8, 
1831; admitted to the bar of Illinois in 
1850; appointed chief-justice of Nebraska 

Territory in 1861 ; colonel of the 7tli Illi- 
nois United States Volunteers in 1861; 
collector in 1865; United States Senator 
from Louisiana in 1868; governor of 
Louisiana, 1873-77; re-elected United 
States Senator in 1877; member of Con- 
gress, 1883-85. 

Kelly, James Edward, sculptor; born 
in New York City, July 30, 1855; began 
studying art under Charles Parsons, of 
the art department of Harper & Brothers, 
in 1873, and subsequently at the Academy 
of Design; and in 1878 began his career 
as an illustrator in sculpture of person- 
ages and events prominent in American 
history by modelling the well - known 
statuette of Sheridan's Ride, for which 
the general posed. In the following year 
he made a portrait bust of Thomas A. 
Edison with the first phonograph; and in 
1882 produced the Paul Eevere statue. 
During 1883-85 he was engaged on the 
five panels for the Monmouth Battle 
Monument, representing the Council of 
War at Hopewell; Ramsey Defending His 
Guns; Washington Rallying His Troops; 
Molly Pitcher; and Wayne's Charge. In 
1886 he completed Grant at Donelson, for 
which the general furnished sittings and 
details. For the Saratoga Monument he 
produced the panels, Arnold Wounded in 
the Trenches; and Schuyler Transferring 
His Plans to Gates. For the National 
Cemetery at Gettysburg he was the sculp- 
tor of General Deven and the 6th New 
York Cavalry and the Buford Monument. 
In 1891 he produced the colossal figure, 
The Call to Arms, for the Soldiers' Monu- 
ment at Troy, N. Y. In 1895 he fur- 
nished the Long Island panel, for the Sons 
of the Revolution; in 1897 the memorial 
of the battle of Harlem Heights on the 
grounds of Columbia University, also for 
the Sons of the Revolution ; and in 1901 
was engaged on a monument to commem- 
orate the defence of New Haven, for the 
Sons of the American Revolution. Besides 
these works he has produced heads of the 
principal commnndcrs of the Civil War 
from life, including Generals Grant, Sheri- 
dan, Sherman. Hancock, Stanley, Pleason- 
ton, etc.; a portrait bust of Admiral Wor- 
sen ; busts and statuettes from life of 
Admiral Dewey, Rear-Admiral Sampson, 
and Lieutenant Hobson : and heads from 
life of the captains of Dewey's and Sarap- 



son's fleets, and of the principal army offi- each. When an attempt was made to send 
cers of the Spanish-American War, and this international force to Peking to res- 
an equestrian statue of Gen. Fitz-John cue the members of the foreign legations 
Porter. there, the Tsung-li-Yamen (or Chinese for- 

Kelly's Ford, a locality on the Rappa- eign office) refused permission, but subse- 
hannock River in Virginia, which was the quently a portion of the allied troops, in- 
scene of several engagements between the 
National and Confederate forces during 
the Civil War. The first, on Aug. 20, 

1862, was with the cavalry of the Army 
of Virginia; the second, on March 17, 

1863, in which the 1st and 5th United 
States, the 3d, 4th, and 16th Pennsyl- 
vania, the 1st Rhode Island, the 6th 
Ohio, and the 4th New York cavalry 
regiments, and the 6th New York battery 
were engaged; the third, on Aug. 1-3, 
1863, being a part of the engagements at 
Rappahannock and Brandy stations ; and 
the fourth, Nov. 7, 1863, in which the 
1st United States Sharp-shooters, the 40tli 
New York, 1st and 20th Indiana, 3d and 
5th Michigan, and the 110th Pennsylvania 
regiments, supported by the remainder of 
the 3d Corps of the Army of the Potomac, 
were engaged. On Jan. 27, 1864, the 
cavalry division of the Army of the Ohio 
had an engagement at Fair Gardens, Tenn., 
otherwise known as French Broad or 
Kelly's Ford. 

Kempff, Louis, naval officer; born 
near Belleville, 111., Oct. 11, 1841; grad- 
uated at the United States Naval Acad- 
emy in 1861 ; and was assigned to 
the Vandalia on blockading duty off 


eluding sixty-three American marines, 
were sent by train to the capital, reach- 
ing it on June 1. The troubles grew rap- 
idly worse, and on June 17 the foreign ad- 
mirals at Taku, with the exception of Ad- 
miral Kempff, sent a demand for the 
evacuation of the Taku forts by 2 p.m. 
In answer to this demand the Chinese 

Charleston. While there he captured the opened fire upon the foreign war - ships 

schooner Henry Middleton, of Charleston, which had congregated in the harbor, 

and took it to New York. On Nov. 7 he The British, French, Russian, and Japa- 

participated in the battle at Port Royal, nese ships replied, and after seven hours 

S. C. He was made lieutenant in 1862. the forts surrendered. At first there was 

During the remainder of the Civil War he general regret among naval officers and 

served on the Wahash and other vessels others that Admiral Kempff had not 

of the Atlantic and Gulf squadrons; took 
part in the bombardment of Sewell's 
Point, Va., in May, 1862; and in the re- 
occupation of Norfolk, Va. In 1866 he 
was promoted lieutenant-commander; in 
1876, commander; in 1891, captain; and 
in 1899, rear-admiral. In 1900, when the 
Boxer troubles broke out in China, he 
was assigned to the command of the 
American naval forces in Chinese waters. 
He arrived at Taku on the Ncicark, May 
28, and on the following day sent ashore 

taken part in the bombardment of the 
forts. Later, however, he gave as his rea- 
sons that a state of war against China 
did not exist ; that such an attack would 
be legally an act of war ; and that formal 
aggression by the foreign governments 
would be regarded by the Chinese as con- 
stituting a state of war, would unite all 
the Chinese against the powers, and in- 
crease the difficulty of settling the 
trouble. These reasons were found to be 
in strict harmony with the policy of 

108 marines. The other foreign war-ships the United States government. Admiral 
in the harbor also landed about 100 men Kempff's action was approved by his gov- 



ernment, and was subsequently com- 
mended by many European statesmen. 

Kendall, Amos, statesman; born in 
Dunstable, Mass., Aug. 16, 1789; gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1811; removed to 
Kentucky, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1814. For some time he was tutor in 
Henry Clay's family; subsequently editor 
of several papers, of which the Argus 
of Western America, published in Frank- 
fort, Ky., was the most influential ; was 
Postmaster - General in 1835-40, during 
which time he freed that department of 
debt, besides introducing numerous re- 
forms. He published the Life of Andrew 
Jackson, Private, Military, and Civil. He 
died in Washington, D. C, Nov. 11, 1869. 
See Kitchen Cabinet. 

Kendall, George Wilkins, journalist; 
born in Amherst (now Mount Vernon), 
N. H., Aug. 22, 1809; removed to New Or- 
leans in 18.35, and with Francis A. Lums- 
den, foimded the Picayune, the first cheap 
daily newspaper in that city. Later this 
paper became the best known in the South. 
His publications include 'Narrative of the 

Texan Santa Fe Expedition; and The War 
between the United States and Mexico. 
He died in Oak Spring, Tex., Oct. 22, 1867. 
Kenesaw Mountains, Action near. 
General Johnston, pursued by General 
Sherman, after evacuating Allatoona Pass, 
took a stand. At his back were the Big 
and Little Kenesaw mountains, within 
3 miles of Marietta. With these ly- 
ing close together, Lost and Pine moun- 
tains formed a triangle. Confederate bat- 
teries covered their summits, and on the 
top of each Confederate signal-stations 
were placed. Thousands of men were 
busy in the forest casting up intrench- 
ments from base to base of these rugged 
hills in preparation for a great struggle. 
Sherman advanced to Big Shanty, and 
there made preparations to break through 
the Confederate works between Kenesaw 
and Pine mountains. Hooker was on the 
right and front of his line, Howard was 
on the left and front, and Palmer be- 
tween it and the railway. Under a heavy 
cannonade, the advance began, June 14, 
1864. The Nationals pushed over the 




rough country, fighting at almost every on his return lectured on that subject in 

step. That night the Confederates aban- the United States and England. In May, 

doned Pine Mountain, and took position 1808, he went to Cuba with the American 

in the intrenchments between Kenesaw National Red Cross Society. His works 

and Lost mountains. Upon the latter include Tent Life in Liberia; Siberia and 

eminence the Nationals advanced in a the Exile System; Campaigning in Cuba, 

heavy rain-storm, and on the 17th the Con- etc. 

federates abandoned Lost Mountain and Kennebec River Expedition. General 
the long line of intrenchments connect- Washington sent Gen. Benedict Arnold to 
ing it with Kenesaw. Sherman continu- the Kennebec to co-operate with Mont- 
ally pressed them heavily, skirmishing in gomery in the Canadian expedition of 
dense forests, furrowed with ravines and 1775. Arnold, with 1,200 men, reached 
tangled with vines. Quebec and assaulted the town on Dec. 31. 

From the top of Kenesaw Johnston Montgomery (q. v.) was killed, and 400 

could see the movements of the Nationals, Americans were captured. After a siege 

and from batteries on its summit could of three months, Arnold was driven away 

hurl plunging shot. The antagonists by Burgoyne. 

struggled on ; and finally General Hood Kennedy, John Pendleton, statesman 
sallied out of the Confederate intrench- and author ; born in Baltimore, Md., Oct. 
ments with a strong force to break through 25, 1795; graduated at the University of 
Sherman's line between Thomas and Scho- Maryland in 1812; admitted to the bar in 
field. He was received with a terrible 1816; elected to the House of Delegates, 
return blow, which made him recoil in Maryland, in 1820; to the House of Repre- 
great confusion, leaving, in his retreat, sentatives in 1838; was a member of the 
his killed, wounded, and many prisoners, twenty-fifth, twenty-seventh, and twenty- 
This struggle is known in history as the eighth Congresses ; elected speaker of the 
battle of the Kulp House. This repulse Maryland House of Delegates in 1846; ap- 
inspirited the Nationals. On June 27 pointed Secretary of the Navy under Pres- 
they made a furious assault on the Con- ident Fillmore in 1852. Among his works 
federate lines at two points south of are a Revieio of Mr. Cambreling's Free- 
Kenesaw, to break thein, separate their Trade Report; A Memorial on Domestic 
forces, and destroy their army. The Na- Industry ; A Report on the Commerce and 
tionals -were repulsed, with an aggregate Navigation of the United States, by the 
loss of about 3,000 men. Among the killed Committee of Commerce, of which Mr. 
were Generals C. G. Harker and D. Mc- Kennedy was chairman; and also a Re- 
Cook, and many valuable officers of lower port on the Warehouse System by the same 
grade were wounded. The loss of the committee; Life of William Wirt; Dis- 
Confederates, behind their breastworks, courses on the Life of William Wirt, and 
was slight. Sherman now disposed his George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore. 
troops so as to seriously threaten John- Mr. Kennedy as an author is, however, best 
ston's rear. Turner's Ferry across the known by his novels, S>callow Barn; A 
Chattahoochee was menaced, and the in- Sojourn in the Old Dominion ; Horse-shoe 
tended effect was instantaneous. On the Robinson: A Tale of the Tory Ascendency ; 
night of July 2 Johnston abandoned Kene- Rob of the Bowl, a Legend of St. Inigoes, 
saw and all his intrenchments, and when, a story of colonial Maryland life. He died 
at dawn (July 3), the Nationals stood on in Newport, R. I., Aug. 28, 1870. 
the crest of that mountain, they saw the Kennedy, William, author; born nedr 
Confederates flying through and beyond Paisley, Scotland. Dec. 26, 1799; was made 
Marietta towards the Chattahoochee, in consul at Galveston, Tex., where he lived 
the direction of Atlanta. for many years, returning to England in 

Kennan, George, author; born in Nor- 1847. He was the author of The Rise, 

walk, 0., Feb. 16, 1845. In 1866-08 he Progress, and Prospects of the Republic 

directed the construction of the middle of Texas: and of a condensation of the 

division of the Russo- American telegraph same, entitled Texas, Its Geography, Nat- 

line. In 1885-86 he went to Siberia to ural History, and Topography, etc. He 

examine the Russian exile system; and died near London, England, in 1847. 



Kent, Jacob Ford, military officer; 
born in Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 1835; en- 
tered the army as second lieutenant of 
the 3d Infantry, in May, 1861. For gal- 
lantry at Marye's Heights he was pro- 
moted first lieutenant, and brevetted cap- 
tain and major ; was promoted captain 
of the 3d Infantry in 1864; and for 
gallantry in the battle of Spottsylvania, 
and for distinguished services in the 
field during the war, was brevetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel and colonel. At the close 
of the war he was commissioned colonel 
of the 24th United States Infantry. On 
July 8, 1898, he was appointed a major- 
general of volunteers. During the cam- 
paign in Cuba he commanded the first 
division of the 5th Corps. On Oct. 4, 
1898, he was promoted brigadier - gen- 
eral, U. S. A., and on Oct. 15 was retired 
at his o\vn request. 

Kent, James, jurist; born in Phillips- 
town, N. Y., July 31, 1763; studied law 

with Egbert Benson; and began its prac- 
tice in 1787, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He 
was a member of the New York legislat- 
ure from 1790 to 1793, and became Pro- 
fessor of Law in Columbia College in 
1793. Deeply versed in the doctrine of 
civil law, he was made a master in chan- 
cery in 1796; city recorder in 1797; judge 
of the Supreme Court in 1798; chief- 
justice in 1804; and M'as chancellor from 
1814 to 1823. After taking a leading part 
in the State constitutional convention in 
1821, ho again became lavT professor in 

Columbia College, and the lectures he 
there delivered form the basis of his able 
Commentaries on the United States Con- 
siitution, published in 4 volumes. He was 
one of the clearest legal writers of his 
day. In 1828 he was elected president 
of the New York Historical Society. He 
passed his later years in revising and en- 
larging his Commentaries, and in giving 
opinions on legal subjects. He died in 
New York City, Dec. 12, 1847. 

Kent Island Colony. In May, 1631, 
King Charles I. granted a license to Will- 
iam Claiborne " to traffic in those parts of 
America for which there was already no 
patent granted for sole trade."- With the 
intention of monopolizing the Indian trade 
of Chesapeake Bay, Claiborne and his asso- 
ciates planted a small colony on Kent 
Island, situated in the centre of the prov- 
ince of Maryland, soon afterwards granted 
to Lord Baltimore. This grant and settle- 
ment gave much trouble to the proprietor 
of Maryland and the settlers there under 
his patent. See Claiborne, William. 

Kenton, Simon; born in Fauquier coun- 
ty, Va., April 3, 1755. Supposing he had 
killed in an affray a rival in a love affair 
when he was sixteen years old, he fled to 
the wilderness west of the Alleghanj' 
Mountains, where he was the friend and 
companion of Daniel Boone in many dar- 
ing feats. He was in expeditions against 
the Indians, was captured by them, and 
taken to Detroit. Escaping from a Brit- 




ish prison there in 1779, he distinguished ing stations. A great majority of the 
himself in resisting tlie invasion of Ken- people were loyal to the Union, but the 
tucky by the British and Indians in that governor was not, and the unfortunate 
year. Finally, after an expedition against position of neutrality which the latter, 
tne Indians on the Miami, he settled with the Confederates, caused Kentucky 
(1784) near Maysville. He accompanied to assume brought upon her the miseries 
Wayne in his expedition in 1794. In 1805 
he was seated near the Mud River, in 
Ohio, and was made brigadier-general of 
militia. In 1813 he served under Governor 
Shelby at the battle of the Thames. Beg- 
gared by lawsuits because of defective 
titles to lands, he lived in penury many 
years. In 1824 he appeared at Frankfort, 
Ky., in tattered clothes, and successfully 
appealed to the legislature to release the 
claim of the State to lands which were his. 
Congress afterwards allowed him a pen- 
sion. He died in Logan county, O., April 
29, 1836. 

Kentucky, State of. In 1776 Ken- 
tucky was made a county of Virginia, and 
in 1777 the first court was held at Har- 
rodeburg. Conventions held at Danville in 
1784-85 recommended a peaceable and con- 
stitutional separation from Virginia. In 

1786 an act was passed by the Virginia of civil war. Steps were taken for the 
legislature complying with the desires of secession of the State, and for the or- 
Kentucky, and on June 1, 1792, it was ganization of a Confederate State govern- 
admitted into the Union as a State. Its ment, but failed. The State was scarred 
population at that time was about 75,000. by battles, invasions, and raids, and mar- 
For several years much uneasiness was tial law was proclaimed by President Lin- 
felt among the people of Kentucky on ac- coin, July 5, 1864. The civil authority 
count of Indian depredations and the free was restored Oct. 18, 1865. A convention 
navigation of the Mississippi River. These for revision of the State constitution, or- 
were settled satisfactorily by the purchase dered at the 1889 election by a majority 
of Louisiana in 1803. During the War of of 31,931, met at Frankfort, Sept. 8 of 
1812 Kentucky took an active part, send- the same year. The new constitution was 
ing fully 7,000 men to the field; and after completed on April 11, submitted to the 
that war the State was undisturbed by people at the August election, and was 
any stirring events until the breaking out adopted by an overwhelming vote. It 
of the Civil War. A second constitution was published as the fundamental law 
took effect in 1800, a third in 1850. At of the State on Sept. 28, 1891. Popula- 
the beginning of the Civil War Kentucky tion in 1890, 1,858,635; in 1900, 2,147,174. 
assumed a position of neutrality, but it See United States — Kentucky, in 
was really one of hostility to the Union, vol. ix. 
The governor refused to comply with the 


President's requisition for troops ; but 
Lieut. William Nelson, of the navy, a 
native of the State, and then on ordnance 
duty at Washington, began to recruit for 
the National armj^; and towards the close 


Tsaac Shelby 

.Tames Oarrard 

riiristopher Grtennp. 

of July, 1861, he established Camp Dick x^^Ic^S^' '■'■'.'■■■■ 

Robinson, in Garrard county, for the or- fieorpe Miulipnn 

ganization of Kentucky volunteers. These john'^AdTir"^'"!.'.':". 

Hocked to this camp and to other recruit- Joseph Desha 



1792 to 1796 

1796 " 1804 

1804 " 1808 

1808 " 1812 

1812 " 1816 


1816 to 1820 

1820 " 1824 

1824 " 1828 


GOVER}iORS— Continued. 


Thomas Metcalfe 

John BrealhiU 

J. T. lloreheuil 

James Clark 

C. A. Wicklille 

Kobert 1'. I.etcher 

William Owsley 

Ji)hii J. CriUeudeu... 

.(olin I,. Helm 

I,azarus W. I'owpll. .. 
Cliarles S. Morehead. 

Beriah Mngoffln 

J. F. liobinsou 

Thomas E. Bi'amletle 

John li. Helm 

Jolin \V. Stevenson.. 

Preston H. Leslie 

.James B. McCreary. . 
l,iike P. Blackbuiu . . 

J. I'roctor Knott 

Simon B. Buckner 

J. Y. Brown 

William O. Bradley. ., 
Williams. Taylor.... 

William Goebel 

J. C. W. Beckham 


1828 to 

1832 " 

1834 " 

1836 " 

1837 '• 
1840 " 
1844 '< 
1848 " 

1850 " 

1851 " 
1855 " 
1859 " 
1801 " 
1SG3 " 


18G8 to 

1871 " 

1875 " 

1879 " 

1883 " 

1887 " 

1891 " 

1896 " 

190O to 





■No. ol CoiiKress 


2d to 9th 
2d " 4th 

1792 to 1805 

John Edwiinls ... 

1792 " 1795 

Humphrey .Marshall 

4th ■' 7th 

1795 " 1801 

John Breckinridge 

7th " 9th 

1801 " 1805 


9 th 

9th to 11th 

1805 " 1806 

1800 " 1807 

John B. Thurston 

1800 " 1809 

John Pope 

lOlh " 13th 

1807 " 1813 

Henry Clay. ... 


1810 " 1811 

George M Bibb 

12th to 13th 

13th to 14th 

1811 " 1814 


William T. Barry 

1815 to 1816 

Jessie Bledsoe 

l:!th " 14th 

1813 " 1815 

14th " 19th 

181.T " 1825 

ll;irtin 0. Hardin 

1816 " 1817 

John J. Crittenden 


1817 " 1819 

Richard M. Johnson 

16th to 21st 

1819 ■' 1829 

William Logan 


1819 " 1820 

21st to 21th 

22d " 2Tth 


1829 to 1835 

1831 " 1842 

John J. Crittenden 

24th " 30th 

1835 " 1848 

James T. Morehead 



Thomas Metralfe 


1848 to 1849 

Joseph R. Underwood... 

30th to 32d 

1817 " 1852 

Henry Clay 

31st " 32d 

1849 " 1852 

David Meriwether 



Archibald Dixon 

32d to 33d 

1852 to 1855 

John B. Thompson 



John J. Crittenden.. .. 

34th to 37th 

18.55 to 1801 

l.azarus W. Powell 

36th " 39lh 

1859 " 1865 

John C. Breckinridge.... 



37th to 42d 

39th " 40th 


18G1 to l^TT 

Thomas C. McCreery 

1S58 " 1.S71 

AVillis B. Machcu 


1872 " 1873 

John W. Stevenson 

42d to 4.'>th 

1871 " H77 

Thomas C. McCreery 

4:id " 4Gth 

1873 " 1879 

James B Beck 

45th " 51st 

1877 " 1R90 

John S. Williams 

40th " 49lh 

1879 " 1885 

Joseph C. S. Blackburn. 

49th " 55th 

1S85 " 1807 

51st " 52d 
53d " 5fith 

] 890 " 1893 

\\'illiam I,irid!30v 

1893 " 1901 

William J. Debo'e 

55th " 57th 

1897 " 1903 

Josci.h C. S. Blackburn.. 

r,7th " 

1901 •' 

James M. McCreary 

CHth " 

190'! " 

IJarly Settlements. — In 1767 John Km- 
ley, an Indian lr;i(l<r, pxplnrrd the cdiii)- 

try beyond the mountains westward of 
North Carolina. In 1709 he returned to 
North Carolina and gave glowing accounts 
of the fertile country he had left. He 
persuaded Daniel Boone and four others 
to go with him to explore it. Boone had 
become a great htmter and expert in 
woodcraft. They reached the headwaters 
of the Kentucky, and, from lofty hills, 
beheld a vision of a magnificent valley, 
covered with forests, stretching towards 
the Ohio, and abounding in game of the 
woods and waters of every kind. They 
fought Indians — some of the tribes who 
roamed over Kentucky as a common 
hunting-ground. Boone was made a pris- 
oner, but escaped. He determined to 
settle in the beautiful country between 
the upper Kentucky and Tennessee 
rivers, and, after remaining a while the 
sole white man in that region, he returned 
for his wife and children in 1771. Two 
years later he started with his own and 
five other families for the paradise in 
the wilderness. Driven back upon settle- 
ments on the Clinch, he was detained a 
year and a half longer. He penetrated to 
the Kentucky, and, on June 14, 1775, com- 
pleted a log fort on the site of the present 
Boonesboro. He soon brought his family 
there, and planted the first permanent 
settlement in Kentucky. INIrs. Boone and 
her daughters were the first white women 
who ever stood on the banks of the Ken- 
tucky Eiver. 

The precarious tenure by which places 
that were settled in Kentucky by Boone 
and others were held, while the land was 
subjected to bloody incursions by Ind- 
ians, was changed after George Rogers 
Clarke's o]jerations in Ohio had made 
the tribes there no longer invaders of the 
soil south of that river. The number of 
" stations " began to multiply. A block- 
house was built (April, 1779) on the site 
of the city of Lexington. By a law of 
Virginia (May, 1779), all persons who 
liad settled west of the mountains before 
June, 1778, were entitled to claim 400 
ncres of land, without any payment: and 
they had a right of pre-emption to an ad- 
joining 1,000 acres for a very small sum 
of money, wliile the whole region between 
the rireene and Tennessee rivers was re- 
served for military bounties. Settlements 
quite rapidly increased under this liberal 




\ ir^Mnia land systeni, and fourteen years free-labor and slave-labor border States to 
after its passajre Kentucky had a popu- decide upon just compromises, and de- 
lation that entitled it to admission into clared their willingness to support the 
the Union as a State. national government, unless the incom- 
In Civil War Days. — The people were ing President should attempt to " coerce 
strongly attached to the Union, but its a State or States." The legislature, 


governor (Beriah Magoffin) and leading which assembled about the same time, 

politicians of his party in the State sym- was asked by the governor to declare, by 

pathized with the Confederates. The ac- resolution, the " unconditional disappro- 

tion of Kentucky was awaited with great bation " of the people of the State of the 

anxiety throughout the Union. The gov- employment of force against " seceding 

ernor at first opposed secession, for the States." On Jan. 22 the legislature ac- 

people were decidedly hostile to revolu- cordingly resolved that the Kentuck- 

tionary movements in the Gulf region; ians. united with their brethren of the 

yet they as decidedly opposed what was South, would resist any invasion of the 

called the " coercion of a sovereign soil of that section at all hazards and 

State." At a State convention of Union to the last extremity. This action was 

and Douglas men, held on Jan. 8, 1861, taken because the legislatures of several 

it was resolved that the rights of Ken- free - labor States had offered troops for 

tucky should be maintained in the Union, the use of the national government in 

They were in favor of a convention of the enforcing the laws in " seceding States." 



They decided against calling a conven- 
tion, and appointed delegates to the 
Peace Congress. 

On April 18 a great Union meeting was 
held in Louisville, over which James 
Guthrie and other leading politicians of 
the State held controlling influence. At 
that meeting it was resolved that Ken- 
tucky reserved to herself " the right to 
choose her own position; and that, while 
her natural sympathies are with those 
who have a common interest in the pro- 
tection of slavery, she still acknowledges 
her loyalty and fealty to the government 
of the United States, which she will 
cheerfully render until that government 
becomes aggressive, tyrannical, and re- 
gardless of our rights in slave property." 
They declared that the States were the 
peers of the national government, and 
gave the world to understand that the 
latter should not be allowed to use " san- 
guinary or coercive measures to bring 
back the seceded States." They alluded to 
the Kentucky State Guard as the " bul- 
wark of the safety of the commonwealth, 
. . . pledged equally to fidelity to the 
United States and to Kentucky." 

Early in the summer the governor de- 

clared that arrangements had been made 
that neither National or Confederate 
troops should set foot on the soil of that 
State. The neutrality of Kentucky was 
respected many months. Pillow had 
urged the seizure of the bluff at Colum- 
bus, in western Kentucky, as an aid to 
him in his attempt to capture Cairo and 
Bird's Point, but the solemn assurance 
of the Confederate government that Ken- 
tucky neutrality should be respected re- 
strained him; but on Sept. 4, General 
(Bishop) Polk, with a considerable force, 
seized the strong position at Columbus, 
under the pretext that National force? 
were preparing to occupy that place. The 
Confederate Secretary of War publicly 
telegraphed to Polk to withdraw his 
troops; President Davis privately tele- 
graphed to him to hold on, saying, " The 
end justifies the means." So Columbus 
was held and fortified by the Confederates 
General Grant, then in command of th( 
district at Cairo, took military possession 
of Paducah, in northern Kentucky, with 
National troops, and the neutrality ol 
Kentucky was no longer respected." The 
seizure of Columbus opened the way foi 
the infliction upon the people of that 







State of the horrors of war. All Ken- federates of Kentucky met in convention 

tucky, for 100 miles south of the Ohio at Eussellville, Oct. 29, 1861. They drew 

River, was made a military department, up a manifesto in which the grievances of 

«vith Gen. Robert Anderson, the hero of Kentucky were recited, and the action of 

Port Sumter, for its commander. the loyal legislature was denounced. They 

Gen. Albert Sidney. Johnston, was in passed an ordinance of secession, declared 

command of the Confederate Western De- the State independent, organized a pro- 

partment, which included southern and visional government, chose George W. 

western Kentucky, then held by the Con- Johnston provisional governor, appointed 

federates, and the State of Tennessee, delegates to the Confederate Congress at 

with his headquarters at Nashville. Un- Richmond, and called Bowling Green the 

der the shadow of his power the Con- State capital. Fifty-one counties were 




represented in that convention by about 
2.00 men, without the sanction of the 

Late in 1861, the Confederates occupied 
a line of military posts across southern 
Kentucky, from Cumberland Gap to Co- 
lumbus, on the Mississippi River, a dis- 
tance of nearly 400 miles. Don Carlos 
Buell, major-general, had been appointed 
commander of the Department of the Ohio, 
with his headquarters at Louisville. Thei'e 
he gathered a large force, with which he 
ivas enabled to strengthen various ad- 
vanced posts and throw forward along the 
line of the Nashville and Louisville Rail- 
way a large force destined to break the 
Confederate line. He had under his com- 
mand 114,000 men, arranged in four col- 
umns, commanded respectively by Brig.- 
Gens. A. McDowell McCook, O. M. 
Mitchel, G. H. Thomas, and T. L. Crit- 
tenden, acting as major-generals, and 
aided by twenty brigade commanders. 

These troops were from States north- 
ward of the Ohio, and loyalists of Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. They occupied an 
irregular line across Kentucky, paral- 
lel with that of the Confederates. Gen- 
eral McCook led 50,000 men down the rail- 
road, and pushed the Confederate line to 
Bowling Green, after a sharp skirmish at 
Mumfordsville, on the south side of the 
Green River. In eastern Kentucky Col. 
James A. Garfield struck (Jan. 7, "1862) 
the Confederates, \mder Humphrey Mar- 
shall, near Prestonburg, on the Big Sandy 
River, and dispersed them. This ended 
Marshall's military career, and Garfield's 
services there won for him the commis- 
sion of a brigadier-general. On the 19th, 
General Thomas defeated Gen. George B. 
Crittenden near Mill Spring, when Gen- 
eral ZoUicoffer was slain and his troops 
driven into northwestern Tennessee. This 
latter blow efl'ectually severed the Con- 
federate lines in Kentucky, and opeued 




tne way by wiiich the Confederates were co-States forming, as to itself, the other 

soon driven out of the State and also out 
of Tennessee. The Confederate line was 
paralyzed eastward of Bowling Green, and 
their chief fortifications and the bulk of 
their troops were between Nashville 
and Bowling Green and the Mississippi. 
On that line was strong Fort Donel- 
son, on the Cumberland River. Believ- 
ing Beauregard to be a more dashing offi- 
cer than Johnston, the Confederates ap- 
pointed him commander of the Western 
Department, late in January, 1862, and 
he was succeeded in the command at Ma- 
nassas by Gen. G. W. Smith, formerly of 
New York City. 

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, 
The. The Federal party in the United 
States determined to crush out by law the 
anti-Federalists who were bitterly attack- 
ing the administration. In 1798 they suc- 
ceeded in passing the Naturalization act 
of June 18, the Alien acts of June 2.5. and 
July 6, and the Sedition act of July 14. 
Virginia, New York, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Kentucky petitioned Con- 
gress to repeal these laws. Of these, Ken- 
tucky felt the most aggrieved, and on 
Nov. 8, 1798, John Breckinridge intro- 
duced the Kentucky resolutions, which 
were substantially drafted by Jefferson. 
These were adopted by the Lower House 
on Nov. 10, by the Upper House on Nov. 
13, and approved by the governor on 
Nov. 16. Copies were immediately print- 
ed and sent to the officials of all the other 
States and to Congress. The following 
is the text of these resolutions: 

I. Eesolved, that the several States com- 
posing the United States of America are 
not united on the principle of unlimited 
submission to their general government ; 
but that by compact under the style and 
title of a Constitution for the United 
States, and of amendments thereto, they 
constituted a general government for 
special purposes, delegated to that govern- 
ment certain definite powers, reserving 
each State to itself, the residuary mass 
of right to their own self-government; and 
that whensoever the general government 
assumes undelegated powers, its acts are 
unauthoritative, void, and are of no force. 
That to this compact each State acceded 
as a State, and is an integral party, its 

party. That the government created by 
this compact was not made the exclusive 
or final judge of the extent of the powers 
delegated to itself ; since that would have 
made its discretion, and not the Constitu- 
tion, the measure of its powers; but that 
as in all other cases of compact among 
parties having no common judge, each 
party has an equal right to judge for it- 
self, as well of infractions as of the mode 
and measure of redress. 

II. Resolved, that the Constitution of 
the United States having delegated to Con- 
gress a power to punish treason, counter- 
feiting the securities and current coin of 
the United States, piracies and felonies 
committed on the high seas, and offences 
against the laws of nations, and no other 
crimes whatever, and it being true as a 
general principle, and one of the amend- 
ments to the Constitvition having also de- 
declared " that the powers not delegated 
to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are re- 
served to the States respectively, or to the 
people," therefore also the same act of 
Congress passed on July 14, 1798, and en- 
titled " An act in addition to the act en- 
titled an act for the punishment of cer- 
tain crimes against the United States," as 
also the act passed on June 27, 1798, en- 
titled " An act to punish frauds com- 
mitted on the Bank of the United States " 
(and all other of their acts which assume 
to create, define, or punish crimes other 
than those enumerated in the Constitu- 
tion), are altogether void and of no force, 
and that the power to create, define, and 
punish such other crimes is reserved, and 
of right appertains solely and exclusively 
to the respective States^ each within its 
own Territory. 

III. Resolved, that it is true as a gen- 
eral principle, and is also expressly de- 
clared by one of the amendments to the 
Constitution, that " the powers not dele- 
gated to the United States by the Consti- 
tution, nor prohibited by it to the States, 
are reserved to the States respectively or 
to the people"; and that no power over 
the freedom of religion, freedom of speech, 
or freedom of the press being delegated to 
the United States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, all law- 
ful powers respecting the same did of right 

v.— Q 



remain, and were reserved to the States, the act of the Congress of the United 

or to the people ; that thus was manifested States passed on June 22, 1798, en- 

their determination to retain to them- titled " An act concerning aliens," which 

selves the right of judging how far the assumes power over alien friends not 

licentiousness of speech and of the press delegated by the Constitution, is not 

may be abridged without lessening their law, but is altogether void and of no 

freedom, and how far those abuses, which force. 

cannot be separated from their use, V. Resolved, that in addition to the 
should be tolerated, rather than the use be general principle, as well as the express 
destroyed; and thus also they guarded declaration, that powers not delegated are 
against all abridgment by the United reserved, another and more special pro- 
States of the freedom of religious opinions vision inserted in the Constitution from 
and exercises, and retained to themselves abundant caution has declared " that the 
the right of protecting the same, as this migration or importation of such per- 
State, by a law passed on the general de- sons as any of the States now existing 
mand of its citizens, had already protected shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
them from all human restraint or inter- prohibited by the Congress prior to the 
ference; and that in addition to this gen- year 1808." That this commonwealth does 
eral principle and express declaration, an- admit the migration of alien friends 
other and more special provision has been described as the subject of said act con- 
made by one of the amendments to the cerning aliens ; that a provision against 
Constitution, which expressly declares prohibiting their migration is a pro- 
that " Congress shall make no law re- vision against all acts equivalent there- 
specting an establishment of religion, or to, or it would be nugatory; that to 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or remove them when migrated is equiva- 
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the lent to a prohibition of their migra- 
press," thereby guarding in the same sen- tion, and is therefore contrary to the 
tence, and under the same words, the free- said provision of the Constitution, and 
dom of religion, of speech, and of the press, void. 

insomuch, that whatever violates either, VI. Resolved, that the imprisonment of 
throws down the sanctuary which covers a person under the protection of the laws 
the others, and that libels, falsehoods, and of this commonwealth on his failure to 
defamation, equally with heresy and false obey the simple order of the President to 
religion, are withheld from the cogni- depart out of the United States, as is im- 
zance of federal tribunals. That there- dertaken by the said act entitled " An act 
fore the act of the Congress of the concerning aliens," is contrary to the Con- 
United States, passed on July 14, 1798, stitution, one amendment to which has 
entitled " An act in addition to the act provided that " no person shall be deprived 
for the punishment of certain crimes of liberty without due process of law," and 
against the United States," which does that another having provided " that in all 
abridge the freedom of the press, is criminal prosecutions the accused shall 
not law, but is altogether void and of enjoy the right to a public trial by an 
no effect. impartial jury, to be informed of the nat- 
IV. Resolved, that alien friends are un- ure and cause of the accusaJ;ion, to be 
der the jurisdiction and protection of the confronted with the witnesses against him, 
laws of the State wherein they are; that to have compulsory process for obtaining 
no power over them has been delegated to witnesses in his favor, and to have the 
the United States, nor prohibited to the assistance of counsel for his defence," 
individual States distinct from their the same act undertaking to authorize the 
power over citizens; and it being true as President to remove a person out of the 
a general principle, and one of the amend- United States who is under the protection 
ments to the Constitution having also de- of the law, on his own suspicion, with- 
clared that " the powers not delegated to out accusation, without jury, without pub- 
the United States by the Constitution nor lie trial, without confrontation of the 
prohibited by it to the States are reserved witnesses against him, without having 
to the States respectively or to the people," witnesses in his favor, without defence, 



without counsel, is contrary to these pro- a repeal of the aforesaid unconstitutional 

visions also of the Constitution, is there- and obnoxious acts. 

fore not law but utterly void and of no IX. Resolved, lastly, that the governor 

force. That transferring the power of of this commonwealth be, and is hereby 

judging any person who is under the pro- authorized and requested to communicate 

tection of the laws, from the courts to the the preceding resolutions to the legislat- 

President of the United States, as is un- ures of the several States, to assure them 

dertaken by the same act concerning aliens, that this commonwealth considers Union 

is against the article of the Constitution for specified national purposes, and par- 

which provides that " the judicial power ticularly for those specified in their late 

of the United States shall be vested in federal compact, to be friendly to the 

courts, the judges of which shall hold peace, happiness, and prosperity of all the 

their offices during good behavior," and States; that faithful to that compact, ac- 

that the said act is void for that reason cording to the plain intent and meaning 

also; and it is further to be noted that in which it was understood and acceded 

this transfer of judiciary powers is to that to by the several parties, it is sincerely 

magistrate of the general government who anxious for its preservation ; that it does 

already possesses all the executive, and also believe, that to take from the States 

a qualified negative in all the legislative all the powers of self - government, and 

power. transfer them to a general and consoli- 

VII. Resolved, that the construction ap- dated government, without regard to the 
plied by the general government (as is special delegations and reservations sol- 
evinced by sundry of their proceedings) to emnly agreed to in that compact, is not 
those parts of the Constitution of the for the peace, happiness, or prosperity ol 
United States which delegate to Congress these States. And that therefore this com- 
a power to lay and collect taxes, duties, monwealth is determined, as it doubts not 
imposts, and excises; to pay the debts its co-States are, tamely to submit to un- 
and provide for the common defence and delegated and consequently unlimited pow- 
general welfare of the United States, and ers in no man or body of men on earth ; 
to make all laws which shall be necessary that if the acts before specified should 
and proper for carrying into execution the stand, these conclusions would flow from 
powers vested by the Constitution in the them; that the general government may 
government of the United States, or any place any act they think proper on the 
department thereof, goes to the destruc- list of crimes and punish it themselves, 
tion of all the limits prescribed to their whether enumerated or not enumerated by 
power by the Constitution. That words the Constitution as cognizable by them; 
meant by that instrument to be subsid- that they may transfer its cognizance to 
iary only to the execution of the limit- the President or any other person, who 
ed powers, ought not to be so construed may himself by the accuser, counsel, judge, 
as themselves to give unlimited powers, and jury, whose suspicions may be the 
nor a part so to be taken, as to destroy evidence, his order the sentence, his offi- 
the whole residue of the instrument, cer the executioner, and his breast the 
That the proceedings of the general gov- sole record of the transaction ; that a 
ernment, under color of these articles, will very numerous and valuable description 
be a fit and necessary sxibject for re- of the inhabitants of these States, being 
visal and correction at a time of greater by this precedent reduced as outlaws to 
tranquillity, while those specified in the the absolute dominion of on* man, and 
preceding resolutions call for immediate the barrier of the Constitution thus swept 
redress. away from us all, no rampart now re- 

VIII. Resolved, that the preceding reso- mains against the passions and the power 
lutions be transmitted to the Senators and of a majority of Congress, to protect from 
Representatives in Congress from this a like exportation or other more grievous 
commonwealth, who are hereby enjoined punishment the minority of the same 
to present the same to their respective body, the legislatures, judges, governors. 
Houses, and to use the best endeavors to and counsellors of the States, nor their 
procure at the next session of Congress, other peaceable inhabitants who may ven- 



ture to reclaim the constitutional rights ments on the acts concerning aliens, and 
and liberties of the -States and people, or for the punishment of certain crimes 
who for other causes, good or bad, may hereinbefore specified, plainly declaring 
be obnoxious to the views or marked by whether these acts are or are not au- 
the suspicions of the President, or be thorized by the federal compact. And it 
thought dangerous to his or their elec- doubts not that their sense will be so an- 
tions or other interests, public or person- nounced as to prove their attachment un- 
al; that the friendless alien has indeed altered to limited government, whether 
been selected as the safest subject of a general or particular, and that the rights 
first experiment; but the citizen will soon and liberties of their co-States will be ex- 
follow, or rather has already followed, posed to no dangers by remaining em- 
for already has a sedition act marked him barked on a common bottom with their 
as its prey; that these and successive acts own; that they will concur with this 
of the same character, unless arrested on commonwealth in considering the said 
the threshold, may tend to drive these acts so palpably against the Constitution 
States into revolution and blood, and will as to amount to an undisguised declara- 
furnish new calumnies against Republican tion, that the compact is not meant to 
governments, and new pretexts for those be the measure of the powers of the gen- 
who wish it to be believed that men can- eral government, but that it will pro- 
not be governed but by a rod of iron ; that ceed in the exercise over these States of 
it would be a dangerous delusion were a all powers whatsoever; that they will view 
confidence in the men of our choice to this as seizing the rights of the States 
silence our fears for the safety of our and consolidating them in the hands of 
rights ; that confidence is everywhere the the general government with a power as- 
parent of despotism; free government is sumed to bind the States (not merely in 
founded in jealousy and not in confi- cases made federal), but in all cases what- 
dence ; it is jealousy and not confidence soever, by laws made, not with their con- 
which prescribes limited constitutions to sent, but by others against their consent: 
bind down those whom we are obliged to that this would be to surrender the form 
trust with power; that our Constitution of government we have chosen, and to live 
has accordingly fixed the limits to which under one deriving its powers from its 
and no further our confidence may go; own will, and not from our authority; 
and let the honest advocate of confidence and that the co-States recurring to their 
read the Alien and Sedition acts, and say natural right in cases not made federal 
if the Constitution has not been wise in will concur in declaring these acts void 
fixing limits to the government it created, and of no force, and will each unite 
and whether we should be wise in destroy- with this commonwealth in requesting 
ing those limits. Let him say what the their repeal at the next session of Con- 
government is if it be not a tyranny, gress. 

which the men of our choice have conferred Virginia affirmed substantially the same 

on the President, and the President of our threatening doctrine, Dec. 21, 179S, more 

choice has assented to and accepted over temperately and cautiouslj' set forth in 

the friendly strangers, to whom the mild resolutions drawn by Madison, as follows-: 

spirit of our country and its laws had 

pledged hospitality and protection ; that Resolved, that the General Assembly 
the men of our choice have more respected of Virginia doth unequivocally express a 
the bare suspicions of the President than firm resolution to maintain and defend 
the solid rights of innocence, the claims the Constitution of the United States, and 
of justification, the sacred force of truth, the constitution of this State, against ev- 
and the forms and subsistence of law and ery aggression, either foreign or domestic, 
justice. In questions of power, then, let and that they will support the govern- 
no more be heard of confidence in man, ment of the United States in all measures 
but bind him down from mischief by the warranted by the former, 
chains of the Constitution. That this That this Assembly most solemnly de- 
ooinmonwcalth does therefore call on its dares a warm attachment to the union of 
co-States for an expression of their senti- the States, to maintain which it pledges 



all its powers ; and that for this end it is 
their duty to watch over and oppose every 
infraction of those principles which con- 
stitute the only basis of that union, be- 
cause a faithful observance of them can 
alone secure its existence and the public 

That this Assembly doth explicitly and 
peremptorily declare that it views the pow- 
ers of the federal government, as result- 
ing from the compact to which the States 
are parties, as limited by the plain sense 
and intention of the instrument constitut- 
ing that compact ; as no further valid than 
they are authorized by the grants enu- 
merated in that compact, and that in case 
of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous 
exercise of other powers not granted by 
the said compact, the States who are par- 
ties thereto have the right, and are in 
duty bound, to interpose for arresting the 
progress of the evil, and for maintaining 
within their respective limits the au- 
thorities, rights, and liberties appertain- 
ing to them. 

That the General Assembly doth also 
express its deep regret that a spirit has, 
in sundry instances, been manifested by 
the federal government to enlarge its 
powers by forced constructions of the con- 
stitutional charter which defines them ; 
and that indications have appeared of a 
design to expound certain general phrases 
(which having been copies from the very 
limited grant of powers in the former arti- 
cles of confederation were the less liable 
to be misconstrued), so as to destroy the 
meaning and effect of the particular enu- 
meration, which necessarily explains and 
limits the general phrases; so as to 
consolidate the States by degrees into 
one sovereignty, the obvious tendency and 
inevitable consequence of which would be 
to transform the present republican sys- 
tem of the United States into an abso- 
lute or, at best, a mixed monarchy. 

That the General Assembly doth partic- 
ularly protest against the palpable and 
alarming infractions of the Constitution, 
in the two late cases of the " Alien and Se- 
dition acts," passed at the last session of 
Congress, the first of which exercises a 
power nowhere delegated to the federal 
government, and which, by uniting legis- 
lative and judicial powers to those of 
executive, subverts the general principles 

of free government, as well as the particu- 
lar organization and positive provisions of 
the federal Constitution; and the other 
of which acts exercises, in like manner, a 
power not delegated by the Constitution, 
but on the contrary expressly and positive- 
ly forbidden by one of the amendments 
thereto; a power which more than any 
other ought to produce universal alarm, 
because it is levelled against the right of 
freely examining public characters and 
measures, and of free communication 
among the people thereon, which has never 
been justly deemed the only effectual 
guardian of every other right. 

That this State having, by its conven- 
tion which ratified the federal Constitu- 
tion, expressly declared " that, among 
other essential rights, the liberty of con- 
science and of the press cannot be can- 
celled, abridged, restrained, or modified by 
any authority of the United States," and, 
from its extreme anxiety to guard these 
rights from every possible attack of 
sophistry or ambition, having with other 
States recommended an amendment for 
that purpose, which amendment was in 
due time annexed to the Constitution, it 
would mark a reproachful inconsistency 
and criminal degeneracy, if an indifference 
were now shown to the most palpable vio- 
lation of one of the rights thus declared 
and secured, and to the establishment of 
a. precedent which may be fatal to the 

That the good people of this common- 
wealth having ever felt and continuing 
to feel the most sincere affection to their 
brethren of the other States, the truest 
anxiety for establishing and perpetuating 
the union of all, and the most scrupulous 
fidelity to that Constitution which is the 
pledge of mutual friendship, and the in- 
strument of mutual happiness, the Gen- 
eral Assembly doth solemnly appeal to the 
like dispositions of the other States, in 
confidence that they will concur with this 
commonwealth in declaring, as it does 
hereby declare, that the acts aforesaid 
are unconstitutional, and that the neces- 
sary and proper measures will be taken 
bj^ each for co - operating with this 
State in maintaining unimpaired the 
authorities, rights, and liberties reserved 
to the States respectively, or to the 



That the governor be desired to trans- 
mit a copy of the foregoing resolutions to 
the executive autnority of each of the 
other States, with a request that the same 
may be communicated to the legislature 

And that a copy be furnished to each of 
the Senators and Representatives repre- 
senting this State in the Congress of the 
United States. 

The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 were 
followed by another series in 1799, in 
which the right of a sovereign State to 
nullify obnoxious laws of the federal gov- 
ernment was distinctly claimed. 

The Resolutions of 1799 asserted " that 
the principle and construction contended 
for by sundry of the State legislatures, 
that the general government is the exclu- 
sive judge of the nature of the powers 
delegated to it, stopped not shor^ of des- 
potism — since the discretion of those who 
administer the government and not the 
Constitution would be the measure of 
their powers ; that the several States who 
formed that instrument, being sovereign 
and independent, have the unquestionable 
right to judge of the infraction ; and, 
that a nullification of those sovereign- 
ties of all unauthorized acts done under 
color of that instrument is the rightful 

Keokuk, chief of the Sac and Fox Ind- 
ians ; born on Rock River, 111., about 1780; 
was a strong friend of the whites, and by 
his influence among his people averted a 
number of attacks which they had planned 
against the Americans. In 18.32. when 
his band was intent upon uniting with 
Black Hawk {q. v.) in an attack on the 
Americans, he held his warriors aloof and 
even held in check Black Hawk himself. 
Later, he visited Washington, New York, 
etc. He died in Kansas in June, 1848. 

Kern, John Worth, lawyer : born in 
Howard county, Tnd.. Dec. 20, 1849: grad- 
uated at the University of Michigan, 
1869; president of the Indianapolis Col- 
lege of Law; State Senator, 1892-96: un- 
successful candidate on the Democratic 
ticket for Governor. 1900 and 1904; candi- 
date on the Democratic ticket for the 
Vice-Presidency. 1908. 

Kernan, Fuancis, lawyer; born in 
Wayne, N. Y., Jan. 14. 1810 ; was grad- 
uated at Georgetown College, Washington, 

D. C, in 1836; admitted to the bar in 
1840; reporter of the New York Court of 
Appeals in 1854-57; elected to the legisla- 
ture in 1861, and to Congress in 1862; 
and was a Democratic United States Sen- 
ator in 1875-81. He died in Utica, N. Y., 
Sept. 15, 1892. 

Kernstown, Battle at. When the 
Army of the Potomac was transferred to 
tlie Virginia peninsula, earl}^ in 1862. it 
was necessary to hold the Confederates in 
check in the Shenandoah Valley. Banks 
was then (February, 1862) in command of 
the 5th Corps. He pushed Jackson back 
to Winchester, where he was posted with 
8,000 men. when Johnston evacuated Man- 
assas, in March. Jackson retired up the 
valley, pursued by Shields, to the great 
consternation of the Confederates. Shields 
found liis antagonist too strong to attack, 
and fell back to Winchester, closely pur- 
sued by cavalry under Colonel Ashby. 
Banks repaired to Manassas after its evac- 
uation, leaving Shields to guard the Shen- 
andoah Valley. Near Winchester he had 
nearly 7,000 men (part of them cavalry) 
and tAventy-four guns well posted half a 
mile north of the village of Kernstown and 
two and a half miles south of Winchester. 
On March 22 Ashby's cavalry drove in 
Shields's pickets. Under cover of night 
Shields pushed on some troops, under 
Colonel Kimball, to Kernstown. A sharp 
and sevei'e battle ensued, in which Shields 
was badly wounded. The Confederates 
were repulsed at all points, and fled up 
the valley, closely pursued by Banks, who 
remained in that region to watch the Con- 
federates, while McClellan should move on 

Kerr, Michael Crawford, statesman; 
born in Titusville, Pa., March 15. 1827; 
graduated at the Louisville LTniversity in 
1851; removed to Indiana in 1852, where 
he practised law. After filling various 
State ofllces he was elected to Congress 
in 1864 and served until 1872, when he 
was defeated for re-election by a small 
majority. He was returned to Congress 
in 1874, and elected speaker of the Ho\ise, 
Dec. 6, 1875. He died in Rockbridge. Va.. 
Aug. 19. 1876. 

Kerr, Orpheus C. See Newell, Rob- 
ert Henry. 

Kerr, William Jasper, educator ; born 
in Richmond, Utah, Nov. 17, 1863; took 



the normal course at the University of 
Utah in 1882-84, and studied at Cornell 
University in 1890-91, • and during the 
summers of 1891-93. He was instructor 
in geology, physiology, and physics in 
Brigham Young College in 1887-88, and 
instructor in mathematics till 1892, when 
he became Professor of Mathematics and 
Astronomy in the University of Utah, 
where he remained till 1894, when he was 
elected president of Brigham Young Col- 

Kettel, Samuel, editor; born in New- 
buryport, Mass., Aug. 5, 1800; became 
editor of the Boston Courier in 1848. His 
publications include Specimens of Ameri- 
can Poetry, icith Critical and Biographical 
Notices; Personal Narrative of the First 
Voyage of Columbus, etc. He died in 
Maiden, Mass., Dec. 3, 1855. 

Kettle Creek, Battle of. Nearly 
800 North and South Carolina Tories, led 
by Colonel Boyd, started to join the Brit- 
ish at Augusta, in February, 1779, deso- 
lating the upper country of the latter 
State on the way. When within two days' 
march of Augusta they were attacked 
(Feb. 14), at Kettle Creek, by Col. An- 
drew Pickens, with the militia of Ninety- 
six, and, after a sharp fight, were de- 
feated. Boyd and seventy of his men 
were killed, and seventy-five were made 
prisoners. Pickens lost thirty - eight 

Key, David McKjendree, jurist; born 
in Green county, Tenn., Jan. 27, 1824; 
passed his youth on a farm; gradu- 
ated at Hiwassee College, and admitted to 
the bar in 1850; and settled in Chat- 
tanooga to practise in 1853. He was a 
Democratic Presidential elector in 1856 
and 1860; served throughout the Civil 
War in the Confederate army; was a 
member of the State constitutional con- 
vention in 1870; chancellor of the third 
chancery district of Tennessee from 1870 
to 1875 ; and was elected United States 
Senator in 1875, to fill a vacancy. He 
was appointed Postmaster-General in 
President Hayes's cabinet, in 1877; re- 
signed on becoming judge of the eastern 
and middle districts of Tennessee, in 
1880; and resigned the last appointment 
in 1895. He died in Chattanooga, Tenn., 
Feb. 3, 1900. 

Key, Francis Scott, author; born in 

Frederick county, Md., Aug. 9, 1780; was 
a lawyer and poet, and, removing to 
Washington, D. C, became district attor- 
ney. A collection of his poems was pub- 


lished after his death, in Baltimore, Jan. 
11, 1843. 

The Star-Spangled Banner. — On the re- 
turn of the British to their vessels after 
the capture of Washington, they carried 
with them Dr. Beanes, an influential and 
well-known physician of Upper Marlboro. 
His friends begged for his release, but 
Admiral Cockburn refused to give him up, 
and sent him on board the flag-ship of 
Admiral Cochrane. Key, then a resident 
of Georgetown, well known for his affa- 
bility of manner, was requested to go to 


Cochrane as a solicitor for the release of 
the doctor. He consented, and the Presi- 
dent granted him permission. In com- 
pany with John S. Skinner, a well-known 
citizen of Baltimore, he went in the car- 
tel-ship Minden, under a flag of truce. 
They found the British ships at the mouth 
of the Potomac, preparing to attack Balti- 
more. Cochrane agreed to release Beanes, 





but refused to allow him or his friends to 1848; admitted to the bar in 18G2; con- 
return then. They were placed on board nected with the New York State banking 
the Surprise, where they were courteously department in 1865-73; and later resumed 
treated. When the fleet went up Patapsco law practice. His publications include 
Bay, they were sent back to the Minden, New York Court of Appeals Reports; His- 
with a guard of marines to prevent their tory of Savings-Banks in the United 
landing and conveying information to States; and New York Code of Public In- 
their countrymen. The Minden was an- striiction. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
chored within sight of Fort McHenry, and Oct. 17, 1897. 

from her decks the three friends observed Keyes, Erasmus Darwin, military 

the tierce bombardment of the fort which officer; born in Brimfield, Mass., May 29, 

soon ensued. It ceased before the dawn 1810; graduated at West Point in 1832, 

(Sept. 14, 1814). The anxious Americans entered the artillery, and was made 

did not know whether the fort had sur- assistant adjutant, with rank of captain, 

rendered or not. They awaited the appear- in 1838. Becoming full captain in 1841, 

ance of daylight with painful suspense, he was appointed instructor of artillery 

In the dim light of the opening morning and cavalry at West Point in 1844. He 

they saw through their glasses the star- did service against the Indians on the 

spangled banner yet waving in triumph Pacific coast, and when the Civil War 

over the fort, and soon learned the fate broke out was appointed (May, 1861), 

of the land expedition against Baltimore colonel of infantry and brigadier-general 

and preparations of the discomfited British of volunteers. At the battle of Bull 

for speedy departure. When the fleet was Pun, in July, he commanded the first bri- 

ready to sail, Key and his friends were re- gade in Taylor's division. Early in 1862 

leased, and returned to the city. It was he was appointed commander of the 4th 

during the excitement of the bombardment. Corps of the Army of the Potomac, and 

and when pacing the deck of the Minden won the rank of major-general of volun- 

between midnight and dawn, that Key teers and the brevet of brigadier-general, 

composed the popular song. The Star- U. S. A., by his conduct in the peninsular 

Spangled Banner, the first stanza of which campaign. He resigned May 6, 1864, and 

expressed the feelings of thousands of eye- engaged in gold - mining. General Keyes 

witnesses of the scene, and is reproduced published Fifty Years' Observation of 

on the preceding page from the original Alen and Events. He died in Nice, France, 

manuscript. The rude substance of the Oct. 11, 1895. 

song was written on the back of a Keystone State, the popular title for 

Ijetter which Key happened to have in the State of Pennsylvania, supposed to 

his pocket. On the night after his re- have been given because of its central po- 

turn to Baltimore he wrote it out in sition among the original thirteen States 

full and read it to his uncle. Judge at the time of the formation of the na- 

Nicholson, one of the defenders of the tional Constitution. In an arch formed 

fort, and asked his opinion of it. The by the thirteen States Pennsylvania 

pleased judge took it to the print- would, from its geographical position, 

ing-ofllice of Capt. Benjamin Edes, and form the keystone. The early certifi- 

caused it to be printed in hand - bill cates of membership of the Tammany 

form. Samuel Sands set up the song in Society have an arch composed of the 

type, printed it, and distributed it among States, of which Pennsylvania is the key- 

the citizens. It was first sung by Charles stone. 

Durang, at a restaurant next door to Kickapoos, an Algonquian tribe found 

the Holliday Street Theatre, Baltimore, by the French missionaries, towards the 

to an assemblage of patriotic defenders close of the seventeenth century, on the 

of Baltimore, and after that nightly at Wisconsin River. They were great rovers; 

the theatre and everywhere in public and were closely allied to the Miamis; and in 

private. 1712 joined the Foxes in an attack upon 

Keyes, Emerson Willard, lawv^er; Detroit, and in wars long afterwards, 

born in Jamestown, N. Y., June 30. 1828: They were reduced in 1747 to about eighty 

graduated at the State Normal School in warriors, and when the English conquered 



Canada in 1763 there were about 100 tion of Livingston, who was then in Eng- 

Kickapoos on the Wabash. They joined land, Captain Kidd was appointed her 

Pontiac in liis conspiracy, but soon made commander and admitted as a shareholder, 

peace; and in 1779 they joined George His commission bore the royal seal and 

Rogers Clarke in his expedition against signature. On April 3, 1696, he sailed 

the British in the Northwest. Showing from Plymouth, and arrived at New York 

hostility to the Americans, their settle- about July 4. With his ship well pro- 

ment on the Wabash was desolated in visioned, and with a crew of 154 men and 

1791; but they were not absolutely sub- boys, he sailed for Madagascar, the chief 

dued until the treaty at Greenville in rendezvous of the pirates who infested 

1795, after Wayne's decisive victory, when the India seas. 

they ceded a part of their land for a small In the course of a year or more rumors 
annuity. In the early part of the nine- reached England that Kidd had turned 
teenth century the Kickapoos made other pirate. At length the clamor became so 
cessions of territory; and in 1811 they loud that the royal shareholder in the en- 
joined Teeumseh and fought the Amer- terprise and his associates perceived the 
icans at Tippecanoe. In the War of 1812 necessity of taking action, and an order 
they were the friends of the English; and was issued to all English colonial govern- 
afterwards a larger portion of them ors to cause the arrest of Kidd wherever 
crossed the Mississippi and seated them- he might be found. In the spring of 1699 
selves upon a tract of land on the Osage he appeared in the West Indies in a vessel 
Eiver. Some cultivated the soil, while loaded with treasure. Leaving her in a 
others went southward as far as Texas, in bay on the coast of Haiti in charge of his 
roving bands, plundering on all sides. For first officer and a part of the ship's corn- 
some time Texas suffered by these inroads; pany, he sailed northward with forty men 
but in 1854 some of them, peaceably in- in a sloop, entered Long Island Sound, 
clined, settled in Kansas, when, becom- and at Oyster Bay took on board James 
ing dissatisfied, many of them went off to Emott, a New York lawyer, and, landing 
Mexico, where they opposed the depreda- him on Rhode Island, sent him to the Earl 
tions of the Apaches. In 1899 there were of Bellomont, then at Boston as governor 
237 Kickapoos at the Pottawattomie and of Massachusetts, to inquire how he 
Great Nehama agency in Kansas, and 246 (Kidd) would be received by his partner 
Mexican Kickapoos at the Sac and Fox in the enterprise. During Emott's absence 
agency in Oklahoma. Kidd had buried some of his treasure, 
Kidd, William, navigator; born in which he brought with the sloop, on Gar- 
Scotland, presumably in Greenock, about diner's Island. Bellomont's answer was 
1650; entered the merchant-marine ser- such that Kidd went to Boston, July 1, 
vice in his youth, and distinguished him- 1699, where he was arrested, sent to Eng- 
self as a privateersman against the French land, tried on a charge of piracy and mur- 
in the West . Indies. He was active der, found guilty, and executed, May 24, 
against the pirates that infested the wa- 1701, protesting his innocence. It is ad- 
ters near New York, out of which port mitted that his trial was grossly unfair; 
he sailed; and for his services the Assem- and it is believed that Kidd was made a 
bly of the province gave him $750 in 1691. scape-goat to bear away the sins of men in 
In 1695 a company for the suppression high places. Earl Bellomont sent to Haiti 
of piracy by privateering was organized in for Kidd's ship, but it had been stripped 
England. Among the shareholders in the by the men in charge; but he recovered 
enterprise were King William III., the the treasure buried on Gardiner's Island; 
Earl of Bellomont, Robert Livingston, of also that which Kidd had with him on 
New York, and other men of wealth and the sloop, amoimting in the aggregate 
influence. One-tenth of all the booty to about $70,000. Ever since Kidd's 
gained by privateering was to be set aside death there have been numerous at- 
for the King, and the rest was to be tempts to discover places along the At- 
divided among the shareholders. A new lantic and Gulf coasts where the pirate 
ship, of 287 tons, was bought, and named was believed to have secreted other 
the Adventure Galley; and at the sugges- treasure. 



Kidder, Frederick, author; born in 
New Ipswich, N. H., April 16, 1804; en- 
gaged in business at different times in 
Boston, New York, and the South; and 
became widely known as an antiquarian 
authority. His publications include The 
History of New Ipswich, N. H., from Its 
First Grant in 1736 to 1852 (with Augus- 
tus A. Gould) ; The Expeditions of Capt. 
John Lovewell; Military Operations in 
Eastern Maine and Nova Scotia during 
the Revolution; History of the First New 
Hampshire Regiment in the War of the 
Revolution; and History of the Boston 
Massacre, March 5, 1770. He died in 
Melrose, Mass., Dec. 19, 1885. 

Kieft, VViLHELM, Dutch governor; born 
in Holland, about 1600. Little is known 
of him before his appearance at Manhat- 
tan on March 28, 1638. He seems to have 
been an unpopular dweller at Rochelle, 
France, where his effigy had been hung 
upon a gallows. De Vries, an active mar- 
iner, who knew him well, ranked him 
among the " great rascals " of his age. He 
was energetic, spiteful, and rapacious — the 
reverse of Van Twiller, his immediate pred- 
ecessor. Kieft began his administration 
by concentrating all executive power in his 
own hands; and he and his council pos- 
sessed such dignity, in their own estima- 
tion, that it became a high crime to ap- 
peal from their decision. He found public 
affairs in the capital of New Nether- 
land in a wretched condition, and put 
forth a strong hand to bring order out of 
confusion. Abuses abounded, and his 
measures of reform almost stripped the 
citizens of their privileges. Dilapidated 
Fort Amsterdam was repaired and new 
warehouses for the company were erected. 
He caused orchards to be planted, gardens 
to be cultivated, police ordinances to be 
framed and enforced, religion and morality 
to be fostered, and regular religious ser- 
vices to be publicly conducted. A spa- 
cious stone church was built within 
the fort, and the Connecticut architect 
hung in its wooden tower Spanish 
bells which had been captured at Porto 

A more liberal policy in respect to the 
ownership of land caused the immigration 
to increase, and Cavaliers from Virginia 
and Puritans from New England were 
seen listening to Dominie Bogardus in his 

fine pulpit in the new church. All that 
Kieft required of new settlers was an oath 
of fidelity and allegiance to the States- 
General of Holland. The demands for new 
homesteads caused Kieft to purchase 
lower Westchester and a large portion of 
Long Island. The encroaching Puritans 
on the east, and the Swedes on the Dela- 
ware, gave Kieft much concern, especially 
the latter, for Minuit, a former Dutch 
governor, was at their head. Kieft pro- 
tested against their " inti'vision." Minuit 
laughed at him, and disregarded his 
threats. Very soon the energetic char- 
acter of the governor, manifested in well- 
doing, was as conspicuous in ill-doing. He 
allowed his fellow-traders with the Ind- 
ians to stupefy them with rum and cheat 
them; and he demanded tribute of furs, 
corn, and wampum from the tribes around 
Manhattan. They paid the tribute, but 
cursed the tyrant. Kieft saw their power 
and was afraid. Some swine were stolen 
from colonists on Staten Island, when 
Kieft, seeking an excuse for striking ter- 
ror to the hearts of those he had wronged, 
accused the Raritans of the crime, and 
sent armed men to chastise them. The 
River Indians grasped their hatchets and 
refused to pay tribute any longer. The 
hatred of all the savages was aroused. 
The people of New Amsterdam were 
alarmed, and quarrels between them and 
the governor were frequent and stormy. 
He wanted to make war on the Indians. 
The people refused to bear a musket or 
favor the crime. Unwilling to bear the 
responsibility, Kieft called an assembly 
of " masters and heads of families," in 
New Amsterdam, to consult upon public 
measures. Twelve discreet men were 
chosen (1641) to act for them; and 
this was the first representative as- 
sembly in New Netherland. War was 
deferred, and the twelve devised a plan 
for a municipal government for New Am- 

Kieft was alarmed, for he did not wish 
his own power abridged, and he made 
promises (but to be broken) of conces- 
sions of popular freedom on their giv- 
ing him consent to chastise the Indians 
in Westchester. It was reluctantly given, 
when the perfidious governor dissolved 
them, and forbade any popular assembly 
thereafter. In 164.3 he caused a cruel 



massacre of fugitive Indians at Hoboken 
(q. v.). A fierce war was kindled. The 
friendly Long Island tribes joined their 
injured brethren, and the Dutch colony 
was threatened with destruction. Help 
came from a Puritan, and the Indians 
were subdued. Kieft, despised by the 
colonists on whom he had brought ruin, 
humbly asked them to form a representa- 
tive covmcil again. The people gladly 
did so, for they had lost all confidence 
in the governor. This concession was a 
pitiful trick of Kieft to foil the wrath of 
the colonists. He neglected the advice of 
the popular assembly, and sought by 
every means to fill his own coffers with 
gain against a day of reckoning which 
he perceived was near. The representa- 
tives of the people, finding his rule unen- 
durable, asked for the recall of Kieft be- 
fore the colony should be ruined. Their 
prayer was heeded, and the people cele- 
brated his departure by the firing of 
great guns. Some pugnacious burghers 
threatened the governor with personal 
chastisement when he should " take off 
the coat with which he was bedecked by 
the lords, his masters." The prophecy 
of De Vries (1643) — "The murders in 
which you [Kieft] have shed so much 
innocent blood will yet be avenged upon 
your own head " — was fulfilled. Kieft 
sailed for Holland Aug. 16, 1647, in the 
ship Princess, with more than $100,000 
of ill-gotten wealth. The vessel, by mis- 
take, entered the Bristol channel, struck 
a rock, and was wrecked on the coast of 
Wales, and Kieft was drowned. 

Kilbourne, John, author; born in 
Berlin, Conn., Aug. 7, 1787; graduated 
at Vermont University in 1810. His pub- 
lications include Gazetteer of Vermont; 
Gazetteer of Ohio; a volume of Piiilic 
Documents concerning the Ohio Canals; 
a map of Ohio ; and a School Geogra- 
phy. He died in Columbus, O., March 12, 

Kilpatrick, Hugh Judson, military 
officer; born near Deckertown, N. J., 
Jan. 14, 183G; graduated at West 
Point in 1861 ; and first entered the ar- 
tillery. He was wounded in the battle 
of Big Bethel (June, 1861), and in Sep- 
tember was made lieutenant-colonel of 
cavalry. His efficient services on all oc- 
casions won for him the rank of britra- 

dier-general and major-general of volun^ 
teers, and the command of a division oi 
cavalry in the Army of the Potomac. He 
was very active in the campaign against 
Atlanta in 1864, in Sherman's march to 


the sea, and in his march through the 
Carolinas to the surrender of Johnston. 
For the latter campaign he was brevet ted 
major-general U. S. A. In 1865-68 
he was United States minister to Chile; 
in 1881 he was reappointed; and held the 
post till his death in Valparaiso, Dec. 4, 

On Sunday morning, Feb. 28, 1864, Kil- 
patrick, with 5,000 cavalry, picked from 
his o\vn and the divisions of Jlerritt 
and Gregg, crossed the Rapidan, swept 
around to the right flank of Lee's army 
by way of Spottsylvania Court - house, 
and, pushing rapidly towards Richmond, 
struck the Virginia Central Railroad at 
Beaver Dam station, where he had his 
first serious encounter with the Confed- 
erates, under the i\laryland leader, Brad- 
ley T. Johnson, whom he defeated. Then 
he struck across the South Anna, cut the 
Fredericksburg and Richmond Railway, 
and on March 1 halted within 3 miles of 
Richmond. His grand object was to 
liberate the Union captives from Libby 
prison (see Confederate Prisons). He 
was now within the outer line of its 
defences, at which the Confederates had 
thrown down their arms and fled into 


the city. At Spottsylvania Court - house 
about 500 of his best men, led by Col. 
Ulric Dahlgren, a dashing young officer, 
diverged from the main column for the 
purpose of striking the James River Canal 
above Richmond, destroying as much of 
it as possible, and, crossing the James 
River, attacked the Confederate capital on 
the south simultaneously with the attack 
of Kilpatrick on the north. The object 
of this move was to liberate the Union 
prisoners at Belle Isle, on the James 
River, in front of Richmond. Kilpat- 
rick, disappointed in not hearing Dahl- 
gren's guns, and hard pressed by the Con- 
federates as he attempted to penetrate 
the second line of defences, withdrew 
after a sharp fight, and halted 6 miles 
from Richmond. He was pursued by the 
Confederates, with whom he skirmished, 
and returned to his place of departure. 
Meanwhile Dahlgren, misled by a negro 
guide, failed to cross the James River, 
but struck the outer line of fortifications 
on the northern side of Richmond at 
dark, I\Iarch 2. In a conflict that ensued 
the Nationals were repulsed, and they 
retreated towards Chickahominy, hotly 
pursued. Dahlgren and about 100 of his 
men became separated from the rest. On 
the evening of the 3d the young leader, 
in a conflict some distance from Rich- 
mond, was shot dead, and his men were 
made prisoners. 

General Sherman, when he heard of 
Wheeler's raid, sent Kilpatrick, with 
5.000 cavalry, during the night of Aug. 
18, 1864, to strike the railway at West 
Point, Ga., and break it to Fairborn, 
and then to tear up the Macon road 
thoroughly. When he reached the Macon 
road, near Jonesboro, he was confronted 
by Ross's Confederate cavalry. These he 
routed, and drove through Jonesboro, 
and just as he began tearing up the road 
some cavalry came up from the south, 
and compelled him to desist and fly. He 
swept around, and again struck the road 
at Lovejoy's, where he was attacked by 
a larger force. Through these he dashed, 
capturing and destroying a four-gun bat- 
tery, and sweeping around, reached head- 
quarters on the 22d, with seventy pris- 

Kimball, Sumner Increase, executive 
officer; born in Lebanon, Me., Sept. 2, 

1834; graduated at Bowdoin College in 
1855; was admitted to the bar in 1858; 
and began practice in North Berwick, Me. 
In September, 1859, he was elected to the 
State legislature; in January, 1861, be- 
came clerk in the office of the second audi- 
tor of the treasury at Washington ; and 
in 1870 became chief clerk. He took 
charge of the Revenue Marine Service in 
1871, and in 1878 was appointed general 
superintendent of the United States Life- 
Saving Service. He represented the Unit- 
ed States in the international marine 
conference in 1889. He is the author of 
Organization and Methods of the United 
States Life-Saving Service. 

Kindergarten, a system of education 
originated by Friedrich Wilhelm August 
Froebel. The first school was opened at 
Blankenburg, Germany, but it was not 
until 1849 that the system was carried to 
any effective extent in that country, and 
not until 1851 that it was introduced into 
England. The system rests upon the idea 
that education in its earliest phases 
should depend upon the perceptive facul- 
ties. Whatever there may be in a child 
of instinct, desire, impulse, hope, or pur- 
pose should at first be strengthened. 
Children from the ages of four to six are 
admitted to the kindergarten and are 
taught by means of toys, games, and sing- 
ing. Only five kindergarten schools ex- 
isted in the United States prior to 1870. 
When the National Educational Associa- 
tion met in Boston, Mass., in 1872, a com- 
mittee was appointed to examine the sys- 
tem. This committee recommended its 
general adoption. When first introduced 
into this country it was entirely a pri- 
vate undertaking; but later, when its suc- 
cess was proven, it began to be included 
in the curriculum of public school educa- 
tion. At the beginning of the twentieth 
century nearly every public school sys- 
tem, whether in city or town, had a kin- 
dergarten department in operation. In 
recent years the growth of such schools 
has been so rapid that a special course of 
training for teachers in kindergarten work 
has been found necessary, and there are 
several institutions that make a specialtj 
of this teacher-training. In 1900 the 
United States bureau of education esti- 
mated the number of pupils in kinder- 
gartens at 203,600. 



King, Charles, author; born in Al- 
bany, N. Y., Oct. 12, 1844; graduated 
at the United States Military Academy in 
1866, and commissioned a second lieuten- 
ant in the 1st Artillery; promoted to first 
lieutenant in 1870; transferred to the 5th 
Cavalry in 1871 ; promoted captain in 
1879; and in the same year resigned his 
commission. He was inspector-general of 
the Wisconsin National Guard in 1882-89 ; 
commissioned colonel of the 4th Regiment 
in 1890; and made adjutant-general in 
1895. Early in 1898 he was appointed a 
brigadier-general of volunteers for the war 
with Spain; served in the Philippines; 
and resigned Aug. 2, 1899. For many 
years he has been known best as " Captain 
King, the author." His publications, 
which have obtained wide celebrity, in- 
clude Famous and Decisive Battles; Be- 
tween the Lines; Under Fire; The Gen- 
eral's Double; A Trooper Galahad; Found 
in the Philippines, etc. 

King, Clarence, geologist; born in 
Newport, R. I., Jan. 6, 1842; gradu- 
ated at the Sheffield School of Yale Col- 
lege in 1862, and joined the California 
geological survey in 1863. He made the 
paleontological discoveries which deter- 
mined the approximate age of gold-bearing 
rocks. In 1867-72 he led the expedition 
for the geological survey of the 40th par- 
allel. In the latter year he exposed the 
Arizona " diamond fields " deception. He 
suggested and organized the United States 
geological survey, and in 1878-81 was its 
director. From 1881 he was engaged in 
special investigations. He wrote Syste- 
matic Geology; Mountaineering in Sierra 
Nevada, etc. He died in Phoenix, Ariz., 
Dec. 24, 1901. 

■ King, Hamilton, diplomatist; born in 
St. Johns, Newfoundland, June 4, 1852; 
graduated at Olivet College, Mich., in 
1878 ; appointed United States minister 
resident and consul-general to Siam in 
January, 1898. He is the author of Out- 
lines of United States History, etc. 

King, Horatio, lawj'er ; born in Paris, 
Mc, June, 21, 1811; received a common 
school education ; studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar; became a clerk in the 
Post-office Department in Washington in 
1839; was made first assistant Post- 
master-General in 1854, and was Post- 
master-General from Feb. 12 to March 7, 

1861, during which time he introduced 
the official-penalty envelope. Later he 
engaged in the practice of his profession 
in Washington. He published Turning on 
the Light (a review of the administration 
of President Buchanan), etc. He died in 
Washington, D. C, May 20, 1897. 

King, Horatio Collins, lawyer; born 
in Portland, Me., Dec. 22, 1837; grad- 
uated at Dickinson College in 1858; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1861 ; served in the 
National army in 1862-65; practised law 
till 1870; then engaged in journalism. 
He published King's Guide to Regimental 
Courts-Martial, and edited Proceedings of 
the Army of the Potomac. 

King, James Wilson, naval engineer; 
born in Maryland in 1818; entered the 
navy in 1844 as third assistant engineer; 
served through the Mexican War ; was pro- 
moted to chief engineer in 1852; was ap- 
pointed chief engineer of the navy-yard in 
New York in 1858; and chief engineer of 
the Atlantic blockading squadron in 1861. 
In 1869-73 he was cliief of the bureau 
of steam engineering. He was retired in 
1880. During his service he made many 
improvements in the construction and 
equipment of war vessels. His publi- 
cations include European Ships of War; 
The War Ships and Navies of the World. 

King, Jonas, missionary; born in Haw- 
ley, Mass., July 29, 1792; graduated at 
Williams College in 1816, and at Andover 
Seminary in 1819. For some months he 
was engaged in missionary work in South 
Carolina; and he went to Palestine in 
the same work in 1824, where he remained 
about three years. In the fall of 1827 he 
was employed as missionary in the North- 
ern and Middle States, and in July, 1828, 
he entered upon the Greek mission. In 1829 
he married a Greek lady, and remained in 
that country until his death, in Athens, 
May 22, 1869. Before 1867 he had trans- 
lated and printed, in modern Greek, five 
volumes of the American Tract Society's 
publications. He also published four vol- 
umes of his own works in that language. 
Mr. King was a most efficient missionary. 

King, Preston, lawyer; born in Og- 
densburg, N. Y., Oct. 14, 1806; was gradu- 
ated at Union College and later admitted 
to the bar. He was a member of Congress 
in 1843-47 and in 1849-51; and a Re- 
publican United States Senator in 1857- 



G3; and later resumed practice in New served in the legislature of his State. He 
York City, where he died Nov. 12, 18G5. was a member of Congress (1811-16), and 
King-, RuFUS, statesman; born in Scar- for two years (1816-18) was secretary of 
boro, Me., March 14, 1755; graduated at legation at Naples. On his return he be- 
Harvard in 1777; studied law with Theo- came a cotton-planter in Alabama, and 
philus Parsons in Newburyport, and in was United States Senator from 1819 to 
1778 became aide-de-camp on General 1844, and from 1847 to 1853, being minis- 
Glover's staff, in the expedition against ter to France during 1844-46. Mr. King 
the British on Rhode Island. In 1785 he was elected Vice-President of the United 
was an earnest advocate of the absolute States in 1852, but died (in Cahawba, 
freedom of the slaves, to be secured by Ala., April 18, 1853) a few weeks after 
the operation of an act of Congress, mak- taking the oath of office at Havana, a 
ing such freedom a fundamental principle privilege accorded by a special act of 
of the Constitution. Mr. King and Gen- Congress. 

eral Schuyler were chosen the first repre- 
sentatives of New York in the national 
Senate of 1789, under the new Constitu- 
tion. Mr. King was a leading Federalist. 
From 1798 to 1804 he was American 

King George's War. 

King Philip's War. 
SETTS; Philip, Kixg. 

King William's War. 

See George II., 
See Massachu- 
See William 

king's bridge in 1860 

minister to Great Britain; and in 1818 III. 
he was sent to the United States Senate King's Bridge, spanning Spuyten Duy- 
for the third time. He was an able leader vil Creek, New Y^ork City, was first 
of^ the opposition to the admission of erected in the year 1691, and called " the 
Missouri under the terms of the com- King's bridge." An unsuccessful attempt 
promise as a slave-labor State. 
In 1825 he accepted the ap- 
pointment of minister to Eng- 
land, but returned in feeble 
health the next year, and died 
in Jamaica, L. I., April 29, 

King, Thomas Starr, 
clergyman ; born in New Y^ork 
City, Dec. 17, 1824; was a 
minister in the Universalist 
Church till 1848, and after- 
wards in the Unitarian Church. 
At the outbreak of the Civil 

War he worked earnestly for the Union was made by Washington to cut off a 
cause and for the United States Sanitary force of the British at this place on the 
Commission. He was a popular lecturer night of July 2, 1781. See New Y''ork 
and the author of The White Hills; Patri- City. 

otism and Other Papers; etc. He died in King's College. See Columbia Uni- 
San Francisco, Cal., March 4, 1864. versity. 

King, William Henry, jurist ; born in King's Daughters, a religious organ- 
Fillmore City, Utah, June 3, 1863; re- ization founded in New York City, Jan. 
ceived a collegiate education; began law 18, 1886. It is inter - denominational, 
practice in 1887 ; was president of the and purposes to do whatever is possi- 
Utah Senate; appointed associate justice ble through women for the cause of hu- 
of the Utah Supreme Court in 1894; and nianity. Any woman or girl who will 
was a Democratic meml>er of Congress in give small but regular contributions to 
1896-98. declining renomination. Christian work is eligible to membership. 

King, William Rufus. statesman ; born It has a large membership in the United 
in Sampson county, N. C, April 7, 1786: States and Europe. 

graduated at the University of North King's Daughters and Sons, Inter- 
Carolina in 1803; practised law, and national order of the. See Interna- 



TioNAL Order of the King's Daughters 
AND Sons. 

King's Ferry, The. Between Stony 
Point and Verplanck's Point, on the Hud- 
son River, just below the lower entrance 
to the Highlands, was an important 
crossing-place, known as the King's Ferry. 
It was%v this ferry that the great route 
from the Eastern to the Middle States 
crossed the Hudson. It was defended by 
two fort s — 
Stony Point on 
the west side, 
and Fort La- 
fayette, at Ver- 
planck's Point, 
on the east. 
Sir Henry 
Clinton r e- 
solved to seize 
OLD SIGN this ferry and 

its defences. On 
the return of the expedition of Matthews 
and Collier from Virginia, Sir Henry 
ascended the Hudson with the same 
squadron and 6,000 soldiers. He landed 
his troops on both sides of the river, May 
31, 1779, a few miles below the forts'. 
The works on Stony Point were unfin- 

the fort at Verplanck's Point, which, in 
vested on the land side, was compelled to 
surrender, June 1, after a spirited resist- 

King's Mountain, Battle on. Maj. 
Patrick Ferguson was sent by Lord Corn- 
wallis to embody the Tory militia among 
the mountains west of the Broad River. 
Many profligate men joined his standard, 
and he crossed the river at the Cherokee 
Ford, Oct. 1, 1780, and encamped among 
the hills of King's Mountain, near the 
line between North and South Carolina, 
with 1,500 men. Several corps of Whig 
militia, under Colonels Shelby, Sevier, 
Campbell, and others, united to oppose 
Ferguson, and on Oct. 7 they fell upon 
his camp among a cluster of high, wood- 
ed, gravelly hills of King's Mountain. A 
severe engagement ensued, and the Brit- 
ish forces" were totally defeated. Fergu- 
son was slain, and 300 of his men were 
killed or wounded. The spoils of victory 
were 800 prisoners and 1,500 stand of 
arms. The loss of the Americans was 
twenty men. The event was to Cornwallis 
what the defeat of the British near Ben- 
nington was to Burgoyne. Among the 
prisoners were some of the most cruel 


ished, and, on the approach of the British. Tories of the western ^^^^^"^^^ 
were abandoned. Ca.mon wore placed on executed the severe «;^^.^ V^' h- m h S 
its outer works, and brought to bear on Ton of them, after a truU by duim-head 



court-martial," were hung on tlie limb of 
a great tulip-tree. On the spot where 
Ferguson fell, a small monument was 
erected to commemorate the event, and 
to the memory of some of the patriots 
killed in the battle. 

The defeat of the British changed the 
aspects of the war in the South. It 
awed the Tories and encouraged the 
Whigs. The mustering of forces beyond 
the mountains to oppose his movements 
took Cornwallis by surprise. It quick- 
ened the North Carolina legislature into 
more vigorous action, and it caused a gen- 
eral uprising of the patriots of the South, 
and suddenly convinced their oppressor 
that his march through North Carolina to 
the conquest of Virginia was not to be a 
mere recreation. Met by North Caro- 


linians at Charlotte, he was compelled to 
fall back to the Catawba, and his experi- 
ence in that winter campaign was marked 
by great perplexities and disasters. 

King's Province. In 1683 a new royal 
commission was named for the settlement 
of boundary disputes between Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, and Plymouth. Its mem- 
bers beir,g principally selected from Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut, Rhode Island ob- 
jected to them as not disinterested; and 
when they proceeded to hold a session 
within the disputed territory, the Rhode 
Island Assembly met near by and forbade 
them to "hold court" within the juris- 
diction of the province. The commission 
adjourned to Boston, and reported to the 
King (1686) that the Narraganset coun- 
try (the southwestern continental half of 
the present State of Rhode Island) be- 
V, — R "2 

longed to Connecticut; this domain was 
called the King's Province for a while, 
but was under the jurisdiction of Joseph 
Dudley, the temporary royal governor of 
Massachusetts. He proceeded to organ- 
ize there an independent government, and 
changed the names of the towns. 

Kingston, the present county seat of 
Ulster county, N. Y., was settled by the 
Dutch and Huguenots. It is memorable in 
the United States as the place where the 
first constitution of New York was framed, 
in 1777, and the first legislature was con- 
vened under it; also as having been de- 
stroyed by a British marauding expedi- 
tion up the Hudson in the autumn of the 
same year. 

Kingston, Burning of. Sir Henry 
Clinton's success in capturing Forts Clin- 
ton and Montgomery emboldened him to 
send a marauding expedition up the Hud- 
son to make a diversion in favor of Bur- 
geyne, hoping thereby to draw many 
troops from the army of Gates to defend 
the exposed country below. Early on the 
morning after the capture of the forts, 
Oct. 16, 1777, the boom and chain were 
severed, and a flying squadron of light- 
armed vessels under Sir James Wallace, 
bearing the whole of Sir Henry's land 
force, went up the river to devastate its 
shores. Sir Henry wrote a despatch to 
Burgoyne on a piece of tissue-paper, say- 
ing, " We are here, and nothing between 
us and Gates," enclosing it in a small, 
hollow bullet. The messenger was arrest- 
ed in Orange county as a spy. The mes- 
sage was found and the spy was hanged. 
The marauding force, meanwhile, spread 
havoc and consternation along the shores. 
The legislature of the newly organized 
State of New York were then in session 
at Kingston. The marauders went thither 
and burned the village, Oct. 7, the legis- 
lature having escaped with their papers. 
Then they crossed over to the village of 
Rhinebeck Flats, and went to Living- 
ston's Manor and applied the torch. 
There they heard of Burgoyne's defeat. 

Kingston (N. C). General Evans, 
with 6,000 Confederate troops, was de- 
feated by General Foster, with 10,000 
National troops, Dec. 14, 1862. The Con- 
federates, under Bragg, were overtaken by 
Cox, of Schofield's army, and obliged to 
retire to Goldsboro, March 8-10, 1865. 


Kinlock, Francis, patriot; born in the War of 1812-15, during which he was 
Charleston, S. C, March 7, 1755; was engaged in the military service. He went 
educated in England. When the Revolu- to Chicago in 1845, where he died, Feb. 
tionary War broke out he returned to 24, 1851, the last survivor of tjie " Boston 
America and became a captain in the Con- Tea-Party." 

tinental army; held a seat in the con- Kinston, the county seat of Lenoir, 
vention of 1787, voting for the adoption N. C, and an important shipping port for 
of the national Constitution. He was cotton and tobacco. On Dec. 14, 1862, 
the author of a Eulogy on George Wash- there was an engagement here in which 
ington, Esq., etc. He died in Charleston, Wessell's brigade of Peck's division and 
S. C, Feb. 8, 1826. the 1st, 2d, and 3d brigades of the 1st 

Kinney, Jonathan Kendkick, lawyer; division of the Department of North Caro- 
born in Eoyalton, Vt., Oct. 26, 1843; re- lina took part; and on March 14, 1865, 
ceived a common school education; served the city was occupied by the National 
in the Civil War; became a lawyer in forces under General Schofield. 
1875. He is the author of A Digest of Kip, William Ingraham, clergyman; 
the Decisions of the Supreme Court of the born in New York City, Oct. 3, 1811; 
United States. graduated at Yale College in 1831, and 

Kinnison, David, patriot ; born in Old later at the General Theological Seminary ; 
Kingston, near Portsmouth, Me., Nov. was ordained in the Protestant Episcopal 
17, 1736. With a few neighbors at Leb- Church in 1835; elected bishop of Califor- 
anon. Conn, (where he was a farmer), nia in 1857. He was the author of Early 
he went to Boston and assisted in destroy- Jesuit Missions in America; The Olden 

Time in Neic York, etc. He died in 
San Francisco, Cal., April 7, 1893. 

Kirchhoff, Charles William, en- 
gineer ; born in San Francisco, Cal., 
March 28, 1854; graduated at the 
Royal School of Mines, Claus- 
thal, Germany, in 1874. Returning 
to the United States he was chemist 
of the Delaware Lead Refinery in 
Philadelphia in 1874-79; managing 
editor of the Engineering and Mining 
Journal in 1883-86; and for several 
years was connected with The Iron 
Age, of which he became editor-in- 
chief in 1899. Since 1883 he has 
been special agent of the United 
States Geological Survey for the col- 
lection of statistics of the production 
of lead, copper, and zinc. He was 
president of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers in 1898-99. 

Kirch wey, George W., educator; 
born in Detroit, Mich., July 3, 1855; 
graduated at Yale College in 1879; 
studied law in New Haven and 
Albany; was admitted to the bar in 
Albany in 1881; and practised there 
ing the tea destined for that port. Dur- for ten years. In 1889-91 he was dean 
ing the Revolutionary War he was in ac- of the Albany Law School, and in 1891 
tive service, and in the latter part of it he became Professor of Law in Columbia 
was a prisoner among the Indians more University. He has edited a number of 
than a year and a half. He lived in dif- legal text-books; contributed frequently 
ferent places until the breaking out of to legal periodicals; and was one of the 




revisers of Johnson's Universal CyclopoB- He labored with that nation as a mis- 

dia in 1892-95. sionary of religion and patriotism during 

Kirkland, Caroline Matilda Stans- the war, when the other tribes of that 

BURY, author; born in New York City, confederacy, through the influence of 

Jan. 12, 1801; settled in Clinton, N. Y., Brant and the Johnsons, had taken the 

and there married Mr. Kirkland in 1827. opposite side. He accompanied Sullivan 

Her publications include Western Clear- in his expedition against, the Senecas in 

ings; The Evening Book, or Sketches of 1779. Mr. Kirkland was the founder of 

Westc7-n Life; Memoirs of Washington; Hamilton College. Having been granted 

The Destiny of Our Country, etc. She by the government a tract of land 2 miles 

died in New Y'^ork City, April 6, 1864. square in the present town of Kirkland, 

Kirkland, James Hampton, edu- 
cator; born in Spartanburg, S. C, Sept. 
9, 1859; graduated at Wofford College 
in 1877; held the chair of Greek and 

Oneida co., N. Y., he removed there in 
1789. He died in Clinton, N. Y., Feb. 28, 
Kirkwood, Samuel Jordan, lawyer; 

German in Wofford College in 1881- born in Harford county, Md., Dec. 20, 
83; and then went abroad to travel and 1813; removed to Ohio in 1835, and was 
study. Returning to the United States admitted to the bar of that State in 1843. 
in 1886, he became Professor of Latin in He removed to Iowa in 1855; was elected 
Vandcrbilt University, where he remained governor in 1859 and 1861; United States 
till 1893, when he was elected chancellor. Senator in 1866; governor again in 1875; 
He is the editor of Satires and Epistles and United States Senator again in 1876, 
of Horaee, and author of numerous mono- serving until 1881, when he was appointed 
graphs and of contributions to philological Secretary of the Interior; retired to 
reviews, etc. private life in 1882. He died in Iowa 

Kirkland, Samuel, missionary; born City, la., Sept. 1, 1894. 
in Norwich, Conn., Dec. 1, 1741; grad- Kitchen Cabinet, an appellation in 
uated at Princeton in 1765. At the common use during the administration 
school of Rev. E. Wheelock, he learned of President Jackson, of which Francis 
the Mohawk language, and, by sojourns P. Blair and Amos Kendall were the re- 
among the Senecas, their language also, eipients. Blair was the editor of The 
After the affair at Lexington, the pro- Globe, the organ of the administration, 
vincial congress of Massachusetts re- and Kendall was one of its principal con- 
quested him to use his influence to secure tributors. These two men were frequent- 
ly consulted by the President as confi- 
dential advisers. To avoid observation 
when they called on him, they entered 
the President's dwelling by a back door. 
On this account the opposition party, 
who believed the advice of these two men 
caused Jackson to fill nearly all the of- 
fices with Democrats, after turning out 
the incumbents, called them in derision 
the " kitchen cabinet." 

Kittanning, Destruction of. In con- 
sequence of repeated injuries from the 
white people of Pennsylvania, the Dela- 
ware Indians had become bitterly hostile 
in 1756. They committed many depre- 
dations, and early in September Col. John 
Armstrong marched against the Indian 
town of Kittanning. on the Alleghany 
River, about 45 miles northeast from 
either the friendship or neutrality of the I'ittsburg. He approached the village 
Six Nations. He was instrumental in at- stealthily, and fell upon the Indians furi- 
taching the Oneidas to the patriot cause, ously with about 300 men at 3 AM-, 




Sept. 8, 1756. The Indians refusing the 
quarter which was offered them, Colonel 
Armstrong ordered their wigwams to be 
set on fire. Their leader, Captain Jacobs, 
and his w'ife and son were killed. About 
forty Indians were destroyed, and eleven 
English prisoners were released. 

discharjjed from that 

was honorably 

Klondike, a region in the Korthwest. 
Territory of Canada, bordering on the Klon- 
dike and Yukon rivers. The first white peo- 
ple who A'isited the region went there in 
the interest of the Hudson Bay Company. 


Kittredge, Alfred B., lawyer; born in 
Cheshire county, N. H., March 28, 1861; 
was graduated at Yale College in 1882, 
and from its law school in 1885; and be- 
gan practice in Sioux Falls, S. D. He 
was a member of the State Senate in 
1889-93; and a Republican United States 
Senator in 1901-09. 

Klamath Indians, a tribe of North 
American Indians. In 1899 there were 
673 on a reservation at the Hoopa Valley 
agency in California, and 585 at the 
Klamath agency in Oregon. 

Kline, Jacob, military officer; born in 
Pennsylvania, Nov. 5, 1840; was commis- 
sioned first lieutenant in 1861; captain in 
1864; major in 1887; lieutenant-colonel 
in 1892; and colonel April 30, 1897. 
During the Civil War he was bre- 
vetted captain, April 7, 1862, for gallantry 
at Shiloh, and major, Sept. 1, 1864, for 
gallantry in the Atlanta campaign. On 
May 27, 1898, he was appointed a 
brigadier - general of rolunteers for the 
war with Spain, and on March 15, 1899, 

In 1873 the existence of gold in paying 
quantities was reported, in a region then 
supposed to be wholly within British Co- 
lumbia. Miners penetrated farther towards 
the Yukon in 1882, and were successful in 
placer mining along the Stewart and other 
rivers. The first rush for the region be- 
gan in 1887, when the Forty-Mile Creek 
was discovered and coarse gold found 
there. In the next year mining was start- 
ed on the Forty-Mile Creek, and by 1897 
nearly all of the available gold had been 
taken out. The first reports of the wealth 
of the Klondike region proper were made 
by Indians. The first white man to enter 
the region was George W. Carmack, who 
staked the first claim on Bonanza Creek, 
in August, 1896. Here $14,200 were se- 
cured in eight days by three men. On 
July 14, 1897, a steamer from the Klon- 
dike arrived at San Francisco. On board 
were forty miners, who had more than 
$500,000 in gold dust, and there was $250.- 
000 more for the Commercial Company 
After an assay it was found that the Klon- 



dike gold was not as pure as that of Call- crbocker estates from his uncle, Herman 
fornia, there being combined with it a Knickerbocker ; served in the American 
greater amount of iron, lead, etc. On army in the Revolutionary War; after 
July 17 of the same year a second steamer the war represented Rensselaer county in 
arrived at San Francisco, bringing sixty- the New York legislature. He died at 
eight miners, with $1,2.50,000 worth of Schaghticoke in 1827. Washington Ir- 
gold. Immediately the " Klondike fever " ving's use of the name in his Knicker- 
became general, and so large was the num- backer's History of New York has result- 
ber of gold-seekers that the capacity of all ed in its being used to describe the typical 
the steamers running to St. Michael, Dutch New York gentleman. Where New 
Juneau, and Dyea was overtaxed. For a York City is personated in caricatures, the 
time it was feared that many of these gold- figure is that of " Father Knickerbocker." 
seekers would perish before the opening Knights of Labor, the name assumed 
of the passes in the following spring on by a labor league having a membership 
account of the lack of provisions. On in all parts of the United States and 
June 1.3, 1898, by an act of the Canadian Canada, with an executive head styled 
Parliament, the boundaries of Ungava, " General Master Workman." Subser- 
Keewatin, Franklin, Mackenzie, and Yukon vient to the central authority are numer- 
were changed, and the Yukon region was ous local organizations. The order claims 
constituted a separate territory, with an the right and exercises the power of regu- 
area of 198,300 square miles, 2,000 of lating the conditions of labor between em- 
which is water surface. In February, ployers and the employed, having officers 
1898, the United States Coast and Geo- called "walking delegates," who enter in- 
detic Survey issued a new map of the dustrial establishments and order men and 
Yukon River region. The map includes women to quit work, unless the conditions 
the territory between long. 38° and 166° between them and their employers are 
W., and lat. 60° to 67° N. The Yukon satisfactory to the order. In 1903 the 
River is traced considerably beyond the order claimed a membership of 40,000. 
Klondike region, and the portion within Knights of Pythias, a fraternal organ- 
Alaska is very fully treated. The coun- ization founded in Washington, D. C, in 
try between Forty-Mile Post and Stewart 1804, having for its objects the exercise of 
River is also given with minute exactness, friendship, charity, and benevolence. From 
The results of military and scientific ex- an original membership of seventy-four it 
plorations undertaken by the United had grown to one of 562,327 in 1903, and 
States government in Alaska indicate that so gained fourth place among the fraternal 
that Territory contains a larger amount organizations of the country. The en- 
of gold, besides other economic " min- dowment rank (life insurance) had a 
erals," than the area popularly termed membership of over 60,000, representing 
the "Klondike region." See Alaska. an endowment of $103,711,000. 

Knapp, Samuel Lorenzo, author ; born Knights of the Golden Circle, the 
in Newburyport, Mass., Jan. 19, 1783; name of an organization founded for the 
graduated at Dartmouth College in 1804; overthrow of the government of the Unit- 
became a lawyer; and was a commander ed States. It was a secret society, and 
on the coast defences in the War of 1812. was first organized for action in the 
His publications include Travels in North slave-labor States. The members were 
America by All Bey; Memoirs of Gen- pledged to assist in the accomplishment 
eral Lafayette ; American Biography ; His- of the designs of those who were intent 
tory of the United States (a revision of upon the establishment of an empire 
John Hinton's edition) ; Memoir of the within the limits of the Golden Circle. 
Life of Daniel Webster ; Life of Aaron It was the soul of the filibustering move- 
Burr,- Life of Andreio Jackson, etc. He ments in Central America and Cuba from 
also edited The Library of American His- 1850 to 1857; and, when these failed, the 
*ori/. He died in Hopkinton, Mass., July knights concentrated their energies for 
8, 1838. the accomplishment of their prime object 

Knickerbocker, John: born in Schaght- — the destruction of the Union and the 

icoke, N. Y., in 1749; inherited the Knick- perpetuation of slavery. The subordinate 



organizations were called " castles." 
When the secession movement began, these 
knights became specially active in Texas. 
When the disloyal peace faction made its 
appearance in the North, an alliance be- 
tween the leading members of it and the 
Knights of the Golden Circle was formed, 
and the " order " became very numerous 
and formidable in some of the free-labor 
States, especially in the West. The late 
Benson J. Lossing, in New Orleans, in 
April, 1861, heard a New York journalist 
tell a group of Confederates that he be- 
longed to a secret order in that city, 
50,000 strong, who would sooner fight 
for the South than for the North. An 
army chaplain was told by a Confederate 
officer, just before the draft riot in New 
York, " You will be surprised at the num- 
ber of friends Ave have in your very midst; 
friends who, when the time comes, will 
destroy your railroads, your telegraph 
wires, your government stores and prop- 
erty, and thus facilitate the glorious in- 
vasion [Lee's] now breaking you in 
pieces." At about that time the knights 
in the West held a meeting at Springfield, 
111. (June 10, 1863), when it was resolved 
to make the draft a pretext for revolu- 
tion, and measures were accordingly 
adopted. It was arranged that New York 
should take the initiative. The plan was 
for each State to assume its " indepen- 
dent sovereignty." Morgan's raid in Indi- 
ana and Ohio was a part of the plan of 
that revolution. It was supposed that 
the Knights of the Golden Circle and the 
members of the peace faction would rise 
and join him by thousands; but in this 
he was mistaken. 

Knowlton, Frank Hall, botanist; 
born in Brandon, Vt., Sept. 2, 1860; 
graduated at Middlebury College, Ver- 
mont, and appointed an aid in the United 
States National Museum in 1884; became 
assistant curator of botany in 1887; and 
assistant paleontologist of the United 
States Geological Survey in 1889. In 
1887-96 he was Professor of Botany in 
Columbia University. He wrote the bo- 
tanical definitions for the Century Dic- 
tionary and later had charge of the de- 
partment of botany in the Standard Dic- 
tionary, writing about 25,000 definitions 
for the last work. He is the author of 
Fossil Wood and Liynite of the Potomac 

Formation; Fossil Flora of Alaska; Cata- 
logue of the Cretaceous and Tertiary 
Plants of North America, etc. ; and is the 
editor of The Plant World. 

Knowlton, Miner, military officer; 
born in Connecticut, in 1804; graduated 
at the United States Military Academy in 
1829; promoted captain in 1846; and 
served in the Mexican War. His pub- 
lications include Notes on Gunpowder, 
Cannon, and Projectiles, and he com- 
piled Instructions and Regulations for 
the Militia and Volunteers of the United 
States. He was also one of the compilers 
of Instructions for Field Artillery, which 
was adopted by the War Department in 
1845. He died in Burlington, N. J., Dec. 
25, 1870. 

Knowlton, Thomas, military officer; 
born in West Boxford, Mass., Nov. 30.. 
1740; was a soldier of the French and 
Indian War, and assisted in the reduc- 
tion of Havana in 1762. He was in the 
Ashford militia at Lexington, April 19, 
1775, and was selected as one of the fa- 
tigue party to fortify Bunker Hill. In 
action there he fought bravely. A regi- 
ment of light infantry, which formed the 
van of the American army at New York, 
was commanded by him, and he was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel of a regiment 
of rangers selected from the Connecticut 
troops. He fell in the battle of Harlem 
Plains, Sept. 16, 1776, and his character 
was eulogized by Washington in general 

Know-nothing Party, a secret politi- 
cal party organized in 1853 for the pur- 
pose mainly of opposing foreign citizen- 
ship. As early as 1835 an attempt was 
made to originate some such movement in 
New York City, where a foreign popular 
tion had already gained much strength. 
Tliis movement, however, ended in failure 
before the election for mayor in 1837. 
Tlie feeling, however, was again revived in 
1843, after the Democrats, who had been 
successful in the election, gave the largest 
share of offices to foreign-born citizens. 
In the following year the same native 
feeling was extended through New Jersey 
and to Philadelphia, where several riots 
occurred between native and Irish citi- 
zens. This agitation resulted in natives 
holding the majority of offices for several 
years. In 1852, however, when the sec- 



tional contest as to the extension of slave temas Ward attracted the attention oi 
territory became so strong, and when the Washington. In November (1775) he was 
Democratic party was receiving reinforce- placed in command of the artillery, and 
ments from immigrants, the old opposi- was employed successfully in bringing can- 
tion to foreigners again appeared; but non from captured forts on Lake Cham- 
this time in the form of a secret, oath- plain and on the Canadian frontier to 
bound fraternity, whose objects were not Cambridge, for the use of the besieging 
even made known to its own members till army. Knox was made a brigadier-gen- 
they had reached the higher degrees, eral in December, 1776, and was the chief 
Whenever any questions were asked the commander of the artillery of the main 
members by outsiders they would say, " I army throughout the whole war, being 
don't know," and from this circumstance conspicuous in all the principal actions, 
the popular name of " Know - nothings " He was one of the court of inquiry in 
was given them. In the elections of 1854 Major Andre's case; was in command at 
they appeared as a well-disciplined partj^ West Point after hostilities had ceased, 
carrying Massachusetts and Delaware, and arranged for the surrender of New 
and in the following year they polled York. At Knox's suggestion, the Society 
122,282 votes in New York State and of the Cincinnati was established. He 
made great strides in the South. In the was Secretary of War before and after 
Presidential campaign of 1856 the Know- Washington became President of the 
nothing party was called the "American United States (1781-95), and when he 
party " and presented Millard Fillmore left office he settled at Thomaston, where 
as its candidate. As the great question he administered the most generous hos- 
of slavery then began to gain greater pitality til! his death, Oct. 25, 1806. 
strength and to absorb a larger amount Knox, John Jay, financier; born in 
of public attention a lesser importance Knoxboro, N. Y., March 19, 1828; grad- 
was given to nativism. The party reap- uated at Hamilton College in 1849, and 
peared in 1860, under the name of the engaged in banking. In 1866 he became 
Constitutional Union party, and, failing connected with the Treasury Department 
to carry the South, soon disappeared from in Washington; and in 1867 was appoint- 
the political field. See Wise, H. A. ed deputy comptroller of the currency; 

Knox, Henry, military officer; horn in and in 1872 became comptroller. He pre- 
Boston, July 25, 1750; was of Scotch- pared a bill on coinage which was passed 

by Congress, and is known as the " Coin- 
age act of 1873." He retired from public 
life in 1884, when he became president of 
a bank in New York City. He was the 
author of United States Notes, or a His- 
tory of the Various Issues of Paper Money 
by the Government of the United States. 
He died in New York City, Feb. 9, 1892. 
Knox, Philander Chase, lawyer; born 
in Brownsville, Pa., May 4, 1853; grad- 
uated at Mount Union College, Alli- 
ance, 0., in 1872; settled in Pittsburg, 
Pa., to study law, and was there admit- 
ted to the bar in 1875. Soon afterwards 
he was appointed assistant attorney of the 
United States for the western district of 
Pennsylvania; in 1877 he formed a part- 
Irish stock. He became a thriving book- nership with Judge J. H. Reed; and for 
seller in Boston, and married Lucy, several years was Andrew Carnegie's chief 
daughter of Secretary Flucker. He be- legal adviser. He became acquainted with 
longed to an artillery company when the President McKinley during his college 
Revolution began, and his skill as an en- days, and they afterwards remained close 
gineer artillerist on the staff of Gen. Ar- personal friends. On April 5, 1901, the 




President appointed Mr. Knox Attorney- tie of Brandywine in 1777, and in Mon^ 
General of the United States to succeed mouth in 1778; and commanded an ex- 
John W. Griggs, resigned. He resigned, pedition to Springfield, N. J., in June, 
June 30, 1904, having been elected to the 1780. In the absence of Sir Henry Clin- 
United States Senate from Pennsylvania, ton he was in command of the city of 
In 1897 he was elected president of the New York. He died in Cassel, Dec. 7, 
Pennsylvania Bar Association. 1800. 

Knox, William, author; born in Ire- Kobbe, William A., military officer; 
land in 1732; was provost-marshal in born in New York City, May 10, 1840; 
Georgia in 1756-61, when he returned to entered the volunteer army as a private 
England; and was under-secretary of in the 7th New York Regiment in 1862, 
state for American aflFairs in 1770-83. and at the close of the Civil War was 
His publications relating to the United mustered out of this service with the 
States include A Letter to a Member of rank of captain in the 178th New York 
Parliament ; The Claims of the Colonies Infantry. On March 17, 1866, he was ap- 
to an Exemption from Internal Taxes; pointed a second lieutenant in the 19th 
The Present State of the Nation; and The United States Infantry; Feb. 5, 1872, 
Contror-ersy hetu'een Great Britain and was transferred to the 3d Artillery; 
Her Colonies Reviewed. He died in Ealing, April 6, 1885, was promoted to captain; 
England, Aug. 25, 1810. and March 8, 1898, to major. After join- 

Knoxville, Siege of. General Burn- ing the 3d Artillery he graduated at 
side, with the Army of the Ohio, occupied the Artillery School (1873). Soon after 
Knoxville, Sept. 3, 1863. The Confederate war was declared against Spain he was 
General Buckner, upon his advance, evacu- appointed colonel of the 35th United 
ated east Tennessee and joined Bragg at States Volunteer Infantry, and in October, 
Chattanooga. Early in November, Gen- 1899, was promoted to brigadier-general 
eral Longstreet, Avith 16.000 men, advanced of volunteers for service in the Malolos 
against Knoxville. On the 14th he crossed campaign in the Philippines. In Janu- 
the Tennessee. Burnside repulsed him on ary, 1900, he was given command of an 
the 16th at Campbell's Station, gaining expedition to the southern extremity of 
time to concentrate his army in Knoxville. Luzon. On the 18th of that month he 
Longstreet advaitced, laid siege to the left Manila with his command in the trans- 
town, and assaulted it twice (Nov. 18 and ports Hancock and Garonne and the local 
29), but was repulsed. Meantime Grant steamers Venus, /Eolus, Salvadora, and 
had defeated Bragg at Chattanooga, and Castellano, which vessels were convoyed 
Sherman, with 25,000 men, was on the by the gunboats Nashville, Helena, and 
way to relieve Knoxville. Longstreet, Maraveles. On Jan. 20 all of these ves- 
corapelled to raise the siege, retired up sels, in single file, proceeded slowly up 
the Holston Eiver, but did not entire- Sorsogon Bay. When the expedition 
ly abandon east Tennessee until the reached Sorsogon that town had already 
next spring, when he again joined Lee in displayed flags of truce. During the next 
Virginia. few days the towns of Donsol. Bulan, Virac, 

Knyphausen, Baron Wiliielm von, and Legaspi on Catanduanes Island were 
military officer ; born in Liitzberg, Ger- occupied. The only resistance was at Le- 
many, Nov. 4, 1716; began his military ca- gaspi where five Americans were wounded, 
reer in the Prussian service in 1734, and and forty-five dead and fifteen wounded 
became a general in the army of Frederick insurgents were found. In this action the 
the Great in 1775. He arrived in America shells from the Nashville set on fire and 
in June, 1776, and was first engaged in bat- destroyed 8.000 bales of hemp. This dis- 
tle here in that of Long Island in Au- trict of the Philippine Islands is noted 
gust following, in which he commanded a as a large hemp-producing country. In 
body of Hessian mercenaries. Knyjjhaus- March, following. General Kobb? was ap- 
en was in the battle of White Plains; pointed military governor of the province 
assisted in the capture of Fort Washing- of Albay. Luzon, and of Catanduanes Isl- 
ton, which was named by its ca])tors Fort and, and also temporary governor of 
Knyphausen; was conspicuous in the bat- the islands of Samas and Leyte; and soon 



afterwards he opened the hemp ports to from the Shenandoah was fired on by 

commerce. On the reorganization of the tl)e natives. This visit was also fruitless 

regular army in February, 1901, he was of results, and Commander Fabiger sailed 

appointed one of the new brigadier-gen- away. On April 10, 1870, Admiral Rod- 

erals. gers sailed from New York in the Colo- 

Kohl, John George, traveller; born in rado to take command of the Asiatic 

Bremen, Germany, April 28, 1808 ; trav- squadron, which consisted of the flag-ship 

elled in the United States in 1854-58. His Colorado, forty-five guns; the steamship 

publications relating to the United States Monocacy, six guns, and the steamer 

include History of the Discovery of the Palos, two guns. Among the incidental 

United States Coast ; History and Investi- results of the expedition was the careful 

gat ion of the Gulf Stream; Travels in the survey of an extensive part of the coast 

United States; History of the Two Oldest of Korea. The King of Korea was in- 

Charts in the Neiv World; History of the formed of the approach of the expedition. 

Discovery of the Northeastern Coast of and sent three officials with a letter to 

America, and a number of lectures on the the Americans. The burden of this 

History of the Discovery of America. He epistle was that the Koreans wanted to 

was also the author of a Lecture on the be let alone, and that the crew of the 

Plan of a Chartographical Depot for the General Sherman had been killed for com- 

History and Geography of the American mitting piracy and murder. Up to that 

Continent. He died in Bremen, Germany, time the Korean authorities had practi- 

Oct. 28, 1878. 

Korea, War avith. The trouble be- 
tween the United States and Korea began 
in 1866. A vessel named the General 
Sherman, bearing American papers, in 
that year made her last trip from Chee- 
Foo to Ping- Yang City in Korea, near 
which the ship was captured and de- 
stroyed, and her passengers and crew 
massacred. Official notice of this out- 
rage was given to the United States by 
Admiral Bell, United States navy, then in 
command of the Asiatic squadron, whose 
force, however, was insufficient to secure 
redress from the hostile Koreans. Two 

cally denied all official knowledge of the 
fate of the General Sherman and her 
crew. Other Korean delegations visited 
the squadron, all expressing themselves 
as thoroughly satisfied with the peaceable 
character of the expedition, and willing 
that a survey of their coast and rivers 
should be made. The ships proceeded up 
the Fleuve de Sel (Salt River), and on 
passing some of the forts were fired on 
by the Korean forces, which numbered 
about 2,000. The fire was returned, and 
in about ten minutes the forts were si- 
lenced and the enemy driven from them. 
The fire from the forts was severe, but 

years previous (1864) the Koreans had owing to the ignorance of the native gun- 
become involved with a Christian nation ners, only one man in the squadron was 
because of their having put to death wounded, and the only damage was a 
several French missionaries. The French leak in the Monocacy, which was soon re- 
had sent out an armed expedition, but paired. In this encounter the Palos and 

it was poorly prepared and badly con- 
ducted, and was compelled to retire. circumstances greatly emboldened 
the Koreans, so that in 1867, when Com- 
mander Shufeldt, with the United States 
steamer Wachusett, visited Korea to 
save, if any remained, the passengers 
or crew of the General Sherman, he was 
able to accomplish nothing and had to 
return. It was learned later that two 
survivors of the crew of the General Sher- 

the Monocacy were engaged, together 
with several steam-launches of the sur- 
veying party. These craft rejoined Ad- 
miral Rodgers, with the Benicia and the 
Colorado, and an expedition was formed 
to return and destroy the forts. This 
force consisted of 945 men, with the Palos 
and the Monocacy. June 11 the Ameri- 
cans destroyed the forts near the mouth 
of the river, burned the neighboring 
houses, and continued to advance until 

man were in prison in Korea, and in they reached the forts which had opened 
1868 Commander Fabiger, in the United fire on the expedition June 1. The 
States steamship Shenandoah, sailed for Americans stormed these forts, and in the 
Korea. In the course of this trip a boat first onset took them, with a loss of three 



killed and seven wounded. Lieutenant 
McKee was killed as he entered the in- 
trenchments. The Korean commander-in- 
chief was killed in the combat, and the 
second officer in command was taken pris- 
oner, besides many other natives. Ad- 
miral Rodgers a few days later released 
the prisoners, whom the Korean authori- 
ties did not appear willing to receive. A 
formal protest against the war-like ac- 
tions of the Koreans was made by Mr. 
Low, the American minister. Documents 
found by the Americans showed that the 
Korean government had planned the sur- 
prise of the United States ships, and that 
the native rulers were astonished at the 
failure of their forts to annihilate the 
vessels at the first fire. 

Kosciuszko, Tadeusz (Thaddeus), pa- 
triot; born in Lithuania, Poland, Feb. 12, 
1746; was of noble descent, and was edu- 
cated at the military academy at War- 
saw; also in France, at the expense of 
the Polish government. He entered the 
Polish army as captain, but a passion for 
the daughter of the marshal of Lithuania 
caused him to leave his country and offer 
his services to the Americans. He ar- 
rived in 1776, with a note of introduction 
and recommendation to Washington by 
Dr. Franklin. "What do you seek here?" 
inquired the chief. " I come to fight as 
a volunteer for American independence," 
answered Kosciuszko. " What can you 
do?" asked Washington. "Try me," was 
the quick reply. He entered Washing- 
ton's military family, Oct. 18, 1776, as 
colonel of engineers. He planned the 
fortified camp of General Gates at Bemis's 
Heights, in 1777, and was the principal 
engineer in constructing the works at 
West Point, on the Hudson. Attached 
to Greene's army in the South, he was 
the engineer in the siege of Ninety-six 
(q. v.), in June, 1781. For his services 
in the Continental army he received the 
thanks of Congress, the Order of the Cin- 
cinnati, and the brevet of brigadier-gen- 
eral. Returning to Poland, he fought 
against the Russians, under Poniatowski, 
in 1792; but the Polish patriots were de- 
feated, and Kosciuszko retired to Leipsic. 
Another rising of the Poles occurred in 
1794, when Kosciuszko was placed at the 
head of the insurgents as dictator ; and, 
with 5,000 peasants, armed mostly with 

scythes, he routed nearly twice that num- 
ber of Russians at Raclawice, April 4. 
Committing the conduct of a provisional 
government to a national council, he 
marched against his enemies. In War- 
saw he was besieged by a combined army 
of Russians and Prussians. These, after 


several bloody conflicts, were compelled 
by the Polish chief to raise the siege. 
Austria had joined the assailants of the 
Poles, and, with an army of 150,000 men, 
fell upon and crushed them (Oct. 10) at 
Macieowice. Kosciuszko fought gallantly, 
and fell covered with wounds, uttering 
the sadly prophetic words, afterwards ful- 
filled, "Finis Polonice!" He was made 
captive, and was imprisoned at St. Peters- 
burg until the accession of the Emperor 
Paul, who set him at liberty, and oflfered 
Kosciuszko his own sword. It was re- 
fused, the Polish patriot saying, " I have 
no need of a sword, since 1 have no coun- 
try to defend." In 1797 he visited the 
United States, where he was warmly wel- 
comed, and received, in addition to a pen- 
sion, a grant of land by Congress. He 
resided near Fontainebleau, in France; 
and when Bonaparte became Emperor, in 
1806, he tried to enlist Kosciuszko in his 
schemes in relation to Poland. Kosciusz- 
ko refused to lend his services, except 
on condition of a guarantee of Polish 
freedom. He went to live in Solothurn, 
Switzerland, in 1816, where he was killed 


by a fall from his horse over a proeipice, church at Cracow. An elegant monument 

Oct. 15, 1817. The remains of this true of white marble was erected to his mem- 

xiobleman of Poland lie beside those of ory at West Point by the cadet 

Sobieski and Poniatowski in the cathedral of 1828, at a cost of $5,000. 



Kossuth, Lajos (Louis), patriot; born 
in Monok, Hungarj% April 27, 1802; was 
in the Hungarian Diet in 1832-30; impris- 
oned for political reasons by the Austrian 
government in 1837-40; re-elected to the 
Diet in 1847 ; and became minister of 
finance in the independent Hungarian min- 
istry which Emperor Ferdinand was forced 
to grant in 1848. Later in that year the 
Hungarians rose in insurrection against 
Austria; on April 14, 1849, the Diet de- 
clared Hungary independent, and appoint- 
ed Kossuth governor; on Aug. 11 follow- 
ing Kossuth resigned his functions to 
General Gorge! ; and, on the surrender of 
the latter two days afterwards, Kossuth 
fled to Turkey, where he remained in exile 
till 1851. In 1851-52 he visited the United 
States and received a hearty welcome in 


all the principal cities. Subsequently he 
resided in London and in Turin, where he 
died, March 20, 1894. Under the title of 
Schriften aus der Emigration he published 
his memoirs in 1881-82. 

In the United States. — After his flight 
to Turkey the Austrian government de- 
manded his extradition. The United States 
and England interfered, and he was al- 
lowed his freedom, with his family and 

friends. The United States government 
sent the war-steamer Mississippi to bring 
him to the United States, and early in the 
autumn of 1851 he embarked for this coun- 
try. While in exile in Turkey and in 
prison, he employed his time in studying 
living languages, and he was enabled to 
address the people of the West in the Eng- 
lish, German, French, and Italian lan- 
guages. He arrived at New York, Dec. 5, 
1851, accompanied by his wife. There he 
addressed public meetings and deputations 
in various Northern cities, and in all his 
speeches he showed a most intimate knowl- 
edge of American history and institutions. 
His theme was a plea for sympathy and 
substantial aid for his country, Hungary. 
He wished to obtain the acknowledgment 
of the claims of Hungary to independence, 
and the interference of the United States 
and Great Britain, jointly, in behalf of 
the principle of non-intervention, which 
would allow the nations of Europe fair 
play in their renewed struggle for liberty. 
He constantly asserted that grand princi- 
ple that one nation has no right to inter- 
fere with the domestic concerns of an- 
other, and that all nations are bound to 
use their efforts to prevent such interfer- 
ence. The government of the United 
States, to which he appealed, assuming its 
traditional attitude of neutrality in all 
quarrels in Europe, declined to lend aid, 
excepting the moral power of expressed 
sympathy. Kossuth called for private 
contributions in aid of the struggle 
of his people for independence, and 
received more assurances of sympathy 
than dollars, for there seemed to be a 
reaction in Europe, and the chance for 
Hungarian independence appeared more 
remote than ever. He arrived in Washing- 
ton at the close of December, and was re- 
ceived by two United States Senators and 
the jnarshal of the district. The Secre- 
tary of State (Daniel Webster) waited 
upon him; so also did many members of 
CcTigress. On the 31st he was presented 



to President Fillmore by Mr. Webster, 
who received him cordially. On Jan. 5, 
1852, he was introduced to the Senate. 
He entered the Senate chamber accom- 
panied by Senators Cass and Seward. 
General Shields introduced him. The 
Senate adjourned, and the members all 
paid their personal respects to the dis- 
tinguished exile. He then visited the 
House of Representatives, where he was 
warmly received by the speaker and most 
of the members. Then he was introduced 
to each member personally, and presented 
to an immense crowd of ladies and gentle- 
men who had assembled. A congressional 
banquet was given him at the National 
Hotel, at which W. R. King, president of 
the Senate, presided, Kossuth and Speaker 
Boyd being on his right hand, and Secre- 
tary Webster on his left. On that occa- 
sion Kossuth delivered one of his most 
effective speeches. Mr. Webster con- 
cluded his remarks with the following 
sentiment : " Hungarian independence, 
Hungarian control of her own destinies, 
and Hungary as a distinct nationality 
among the nations of Europe." After 
Kossuth's departure there were debates in 
Congress on propositions for the United 
States to lend material aid to the people 
of Hungary, struggling for national in- 
dependence; but the final determination 
was that the United States shovild not 
change its uniform policy of neutrality 
in favor of Hungary. The cordial recep- 
tion of Kossuth everywhere, and the rnag- 
netic power of his eloquence over every 
audience, were gratifying and wonderful. 
A contemporary wrote : " The circum- 
stances attending the reception of Kos- 
suth constituted one of the most extraor- 
dinary spectacles the New World had ever 
yet beheld." He returned to Europe in 

Speech in Faneuil Hall. — The following 
is the first of three speeches made in Fan- 
euil Hall, Boston, in April and May, this 
occasion being a public meeting. He had 
been welcomed to the State by Gov. 
George S. Boutwell,to the Senate by Presi- 
dent Henry W^ilson, and to the House of 
Representatives by Speaker Nathaniel P. 
Banks. A legislative banquet followed 
the delivery of the speech here given: 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — Do me the jus- 

tice to believe that I rise not with any 
pretension to eloquence within the Cradle 
of American Liberty. If I were standing 
upon the ruins of Prytaneum, and had to 
speak whence Demosthenes spoke, my 
tongue would refuse to obey, my words 
would die away upon my lips, and I would 
listen to the winds fraught with the dread- 
ful realization of his unheeded prophecies. 
Spirit of American eloquence, frown not 
at my boldness that I dare abuse Shake- 
speare's language in Faneuil Hall ! It is 
a strange fate, and not my choice. My 
tongue is fraught with a down-trodden na- 
tion's wrongs. The justice of my cause is 
my eloquence; but misfortune may ap- 
proach the altar whence the flame arose 
which roused your fathers from degrada- 
tion to independence. I claim my people's 
share in the benefit of the laws of nature 
and of nature's God. I will nothing add 
to the historical reputation of these walls ; 
but I dare hope not to sully them by ap- 
pealing to those maxims of truth the pro- 
mulgation of which made often tremble 
these walls from the thundering cheers of 
freemen, roused by the clarion sound of 
inspired oratory. 

" Cradle of American Liberty " ; it is a 
great name; but there is something in it 
which saddens my heart. You should not 
say " American liberty." You should say 
" Liberty in America." Liberty should not 
be either American or European — it should 
be just ■' liberty." God is God. He is 
neither America's God nor Europe's God. 
He is God. So shall liberty be. " Ameri- 
can liberty " has much the sound as if you 
would say " American privilege." And 
there is the rub. Look to history, and, 
when your heart saddens at the fact that 
liberty never yet was lasting in any corner 
of the world and in any age, you will find 
the key of it in the gloomy truth that all 
who yet were free regarded liberty as their 
privilege instead of regarding it as a prin- 
ciple. The nature of every privilege is ex- 
clusiveness; that of a principle is cora- 
mtmicative. Liberty is a principle ; its 
community is its security; exclusiveness 
is its doom. 

What is aristocracy? It is exclusive 
liberty; it is privilege; and aristocracy is 
doomed, because it is contrary to the des- 
tiny and welfare of man. \riRtocracy 
should vanish, not in the nations, but also 



from among the nations. So long as tery of this rare circumstance, a man must 
that is not done, liberty will nowhere be see the people of New England and espe- 

lasting on earth. It is equally fatal to 
individuals as to nations to believe them- 
selves beyond the reach of vicissitudes. 
To this proud reliance, and the isolation 
resulting therefrom, more victims have 
fallen than to oppression by immediate ad- 
versities. You have prodigiously grown 

cially the people of Massachusetts. 

In what I have seen of New England 
there are two things the evidence of which 
strikes the observer at every step — pros- 
perity and intelligence. I have seen 
thousands assembled, following the noble 
impulses of generous hearts; almost the 

by your freedom of seventy-five years; but entire population of every city, of every 
what is seventy-five years to take for a town, of every village where I passed, 
charter of immortality? No, no, my hum- gathered around me, throwing the flowers 
ble tongue tells the records of eternal of consolation in my thorny way. I can 
truth. A privilege never can be lasting, say I have seen the people here, and I 
Liberty restricted to one nation never can have looked at it with a keen eye, sharp- 
be sure. You may say, " We are the ened in the school of a toilsome life, 
prophets of God," but you shall not say. Well, I have seen not a single man bear- 
" God is only our God." The Jews have ing mark of that poverty upon himself 
said so, and the pride of Jerusalem lies in which in old Europe strikes the eye sadly 
the dust. Our Saviour taught all human- at every step. I have seen no ragged 

ity to say, " Our Father in heaven " ; and 
his Jerusalem is lasting to the end of days. 
" There is a community in mankind's 
destiny." That was the greeting which I 
read on the arch of welcome on the Capi- 
tol Hill of Massachusetts. I pray to God 

poor. I have seen not a single house 
bearing the appearance of desolated pov- 
erty. The cheerfulness of a comfortable 
condition, the result of industry, spreads 
over the land. One sees at a glance that 
the people work assiduously — not with 

the republic of America would weigh the the depressing thought just to get from 

eternal truth of those words, and act ac- 
cordingly. Liberty in America would then 
be sure to the end of time. But if you 
say " American liberty," and take that 
grammar for your policy. I dare say the 
time will yet come when humanity will 
have to mourn over a new proof of the 
ancient truth, that without community 
national freedom is never sure. You 
should change " American liberty " into 
" Liberty." then liberty would be forever 
sure in America, and that which found a 
cradle in Faneuil Hall never would find a 
coffin through all coming days. I like 
not the word " cradle " connected with the 
word " liberty." It has a scent of mortal- 

day to day, by hard toil, through the 
cares of a miserable life, but they work 
with the cheerful consciousness of sub- 
stantial happiness. And the second thing 
which I could not fail to remark is the 
stamp of intelligence impressed upon the 
very eyes and outward appearance of the 
people at large. I and my companions 
have seen that people in the factories, in 
the workshops, in their houses, and in the 
streets, and could not fail a thousand 
times to think, " How intelligent that 
people looks." It is to such a people that 
the orators of Faneuil Hall had to speak, 
and therein is the mystery of their suc- 
cess. They were not wiser than the pub- 

ity. But these are vain words, I know, lie spirit of their audience, but they were 

Though in the life of nations the spirits the eloquent interpreters of the people's 

of future be marching in present events, enlightened instinct. 

visible to every reflecting mind, still those No man can force the harp of his own 

who foretell them are charged with arro- individuality into the people's heart: but 

gantly claiming the title of prophets, and every man may play upon the cords of 

prophecies are never believed. However, his people's heart, who draws his in- 

thc cradle of American liberty is not only 
famous from the reputation of having been 
always the lists of the most powerful elo- 
quence; it is still more conspicuous for 
having seen that eloquence attended