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Full text of "Harper's encyclopædia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 : based upon the plan of Benson John Lossing"

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HARPER'S ENCYCLOPAEDIA 
UNITED STATES HISTOR^. 

From 458 a.d. to 1909 '.J.. /•,.• 



BASED UPON THE PLAN OF 



BENSON JOHN LOSSINQ, LL.D.:- ::i:: 

/ '. I .* ,'*. ■, 

SOMETIME EDITOR OF "THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL RECORD" AND AUTHtiR <3F •' * *. 

" THE PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE revolution" "THE PICTORIAL FIEL»5!.'' '"* 

BOOK OF THE WAR OF l8l2" ETC., ETC., ETC. I"*'I jV'l! 

WITH SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS COVERING EVERY PHASE OF AMERICAN HISTORY ANJ)' 
DEVELOPMENT BY EMINENT AUTHORITIES, INCLUDING ••'" °"',", 

JOHN FISKE. WOODROW WILSON, Ph.D.','LL.i)!;' *'. 

THE AMERICAN HISTORIAM PRESIDENT OF PRINCETOk' bAllvERSITi 

WM. R. HARPER, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D. GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L,!,,iuL.D(. "^ 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PROF. OF HlSIOli > U \ IV. OF TORONTO 

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, Ph.D. MOSES COIT TYLER, LL.D. "" 

PROF. OF HISTORY AT HARVARD PROF. OF HISTORY AT CORNELL" 

JOHN B. MOORE. EDWARD G. BOURNE, Ph.D. •',';,, 

PROh. Oh IMERNAIIONAL LAIV AT COLUMBI A PROF. OF HISTORY Al YALE 

JOHN FRYER, A.M., LL.D. R. J. H. GOTTHEIL, Ph.D. 

PROF. OF LITERATURE AT UNIV. OF CALIFOR.VIA PROF. OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES AT COLUMBIA 

WILLIAM T. HARRIS, Ph.D., LL.D. ALFRED T. MAHAN, D.C.L., LL.D. 

V. S. COM.MISSIONER OF EDUCATION CAPTAIN UNITED STATES NAVY (Retired\ 

ETC., ETC., ETC., ETC. 

WITH A PREFACE ON THE STUDY OF AMERICAN HISTORY BY 

WOODROW WILSON, Ph.D., LL.D. 

PRESIDENT OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 

AUTHOR OF 

"A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE," ETC., ETC. 

WITH ORIGliVAL DOCUMEN'TS, PORTRAITS, MAPS, PLANS, Ss'e. 

COMPLETE IN TEN VOLUMES 
VOL. VI 



HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS 
NEWYORK = - = LONDON 









Copyright, 1905, by HAui-fcR & Brothers. 

Copyright, 1901, by Harper & Brothers. 

ylii rights reserved. 



(K 



I 



LIST OF PLATES 



President William McKinley Fiontispiece 

General George B. McClellan Facing page 8 

President James Madison 

The Battle of Manila Bay 

Lieutenant-General Nelson A. Miles .... 

President James Monroe 

Along the Water-front, Old New York . . 



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70 


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96 


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180 


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240 


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432 



. 35330 



HARPERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA 

OP 

UNITED STATES HISTORY 



M. 



Mabie, Hamilton Wright, essayist; 
born in Cold Spring, N. Y., Dec. 13, 1845; 
was educated at Williams College and at 
Columbia University; and became asso- 
ciate editor of The Outlook, He is a 
trustee of Williams and Barnard Colleges, 
and president of the New York Kinder- 
garten Association. His publications in- 
clude Essays on Work and Culture; Es- 
says on Books and Culture; Essays on 
Nature and Culture; My Study Fire; 
Under the Trees and Elsetchere; Short 
Studies in Literature ; Essays on Literary 
Interpretation ; Norse Stories Retold from 
the Eddas, etc. 

McAfee, Robert Breckinridge, law- 
yer; born in Mercer county, Ky., in Febru- 
ary, 1784. During the War of 1812 he 
served in the Northwestern army, becom- 
ing captain in the regiment of Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; was prominent in the 
politics of Kentucky, of which he was 
lieutenant-governor in 1820-24. He pub- 
lished a History of the War of 1812. He 
died in Mercer county, Ky., March 12, 
1849. 

McAlester, Miles Daniel, military of- 
ficer; born in New York, March 21, 1833; 
graduated at West Point in 1856, and 
entered the engineer corps in May, 1861. 
He was one of the most useful of the en- 
gineer officers of the United States army 
during the Civil War, being successively 
chief engineer in a corps of the Army of 
the Potomac, of the Department of the 
Ohio, at the siege of Vicksburg, and of 
the Military Division of the West. In 

VI. — ^A 



1863-64 he was assistant Professor of En- 
gineering at West Point. He was in many 
battles of the war, and assisted in reduc- 
ing several strongholds in the vicinity of 
Mobile. He died in Buffalo, N. Y., April 
23, 1869. 

MacAlister, James, educator; born in 
Glasgow, Scotland, April 26, 1840; was 
educated at Brown University and at the 
University of New York. In 1874-81 he 
was superintendent of public schools in 
Milwaukee, Wis., and in 1883-91 held the 
same office in Philadelphia, Pa. He then 
became president of the Drexel Institute 
in the latter city. He is a member of the 
American Philosophical Society, and has 
published Drexel Institute; Philadelphia; 
and many addresses, reports, and papers 
on education. 

McAllister, Fort, Capture of. As 
Sherman's army, marching from Atlanta 
to the sea, approached Savannah, they 
found Fort McAllister, at the mouth of 
the Ogeechee River, a bar to free communi- 
cation with the ocean, and on Dec. 13, 
1864, General Hazen was ordered to carry 
it by assault. With a division of the 15th 
Corps Hazen crossed the Ogeechee at 
King's Bridge, and at 1 p.m. that day his 
force was in front of the fort — a strong 
enclosed redoubt, garrisoned by 200 men 
under Major Anderson. Sherman and 
Howard repaired to a signal-station where, 
with glasses, they could see the move- 
ments against the fort. Hazen's bugles 
sounded and the division moved to the as- 
sault. A little before a National steamer 



McALPINE— MacARTHUR 



appeared below the .fort, to communicate 
with the National army, but her com- 
mander was not sure whether Fort Mc- 
Allister was still in the hands of the Con- 
federates. All doubt was soon removed. 
Bazen's charging troops, after a brief but 
desperate struggle, fighting hand-to-hand 
over the parapet, won a complete victory. 
The fort, garrison, and armament were 
soon in possession of the Nationals, who 
in the struggle had lost ninety men, killed 
and wounded. The Confederates lost near- 
ly fifty men. Sherman had seen the entire 
confiict, and when the American flag 
waved over the fort, he and Howard 
hastened thither in a small boat, unmind- 



two years he was the chief engineer and 
acting president of the Erie Eailroad. 
During the building of the new capitol at 
Albany he was one of the consulting en- 
gineers. He died in New Brighton, Staten 
Island, N. Y., Feb. 16, 1890. 

MacArthur, Arthur, military officer; 
born in Massachusetts, June 1, 1845; son 
of Judge Arthur MacArthur; of Scotch 
descent. He entered the Union army as 
first lieutenant and adjutant of the 24th 
Wisconsin Infantry, Aug. 4, 18o2; was 
promoted major, Jan. 25, 1864, and lieu- 
tenant-colonel and brevet colonel in May, 
1865. On Feb. 23, 1866, he was com- 
missioned successively second lieutenant 




PORT McAllister. 



ful of the danger of explosion of torpe- 
does, with which the river bottom was 
strewn. 

McAlpine, William Jar\t:s, civil en- 
gineer; born in New York City in 1812; 
was educated in New York, and in 1827- 
<l-6 was an engineer in the construction of 
^e Erie Canal. Afterwards he was chief 
engineer of the construction of dry-docks 
in the Brooklvn navy - yard. He became 
New York State Engineer in 1857, and 
was made State Railroad Commissioner 
two years later. In 1868 he was elected 
president of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers. In 1870 he won the 
prize which had been offered by the Aus- 
trian government for the best plan for 
improving that part of the Danube River 
known as " The Iron Gates." Mr. Mc- 
Alpine constructed the first water-works 
in the cities of Chicago and Albany. For 



and first lieuteoant in the 17th United 
States Infantry; was promoted captain 
in the 36th Infantry, July 28, 1866, and 
transferred to the 26th Infantry, Sept. 21 
of the same year; was promoted major 
and assistant adjutant - general, July 1, 
1889; lieutenant - colonel. May 26, 1896. 
During the Civil War he made an excep- 
tionally brilliant record, and was several 
times mentioned in orders for conspicuous 
gallantry and daring. Ok one occasion 
he recaptured some Union batteries at the 
very moment the Confederates were about 
to turn them on the Union forces, and 
took ten battle flags and 400 prisoners. He 
signally distinguished himself in the bat- 
tles of Stone River, Missionary Ridge, 
Perryville, Ky. ; Dandridge, and Franklin, 
Tenn., and in the Atlanta campaign. For 
his exceptional gallantry in the battle of 
Missionary Ridge he was awarded one of 



MacARTHUR, ARTHUR 



the congressional medals of honor. After 
the declaration of war against Spain, in 




ARTHUR MicARTHCR. 

1898, he was appointed a brigadier-general 
of volunteers. He was one of the first 
general officers to be sent to the Philip- 
pines, and for his services at the capture 
of the city of Manila was promoted to 
major-general, Aug. 13. At the time of 
the Filipino attaciv on the Americans in 
the suburbs of Manila, Feb. 4, 1899, he 
was in command of the 2d division of the 
8th Army Corps, which included the fa- 
mous 20th Kansas Regiment, under com- 
mand of Col. Frederick Funston (q.v.), 
and the equally famous Utah Battery. 
On Jan. 2, 1900, he was promoted to 
brigadier-general in the regular army; 
on the relief of Gen. Elwell S. Otis 
iq. V.) as commander of the Military 
Division of the Philippines, soon after- 
wards General MacArthur was appointed 
his successor; and on the reorganization 
of the army, in February, 1901, he was 
promoted to major-general U. S. A., and 
confirmed as commander of the Division 
of the Philippines. 

Proclaiming Amnesty. — Under instruc- 
tions from Washington, he promised am- 
nesty to the Filipino insurgents in the 
following terms: 

" Manila, June 21, 1900. 
" By direction of the President of the 
United States the undersigned announces 
amnesty, with complete immunity for the 
past and absolute liberty of action for the 
future, to all persons who are now or at 



any time since Feb. 4, 1899, have been in 
insurrection against the United States In 
either a military or a civil capacity, and 
who shall within a period of ninety days 
from the date hereof formally renounce all 
connection with such insurrection and sub- 
scribe to a declaration acknowledging and 
accepting the sovereignty and authority of 
the United States in and over the Philippine 
Islands. The privilege herewith published 
is extended to all concerned, without any 
reservation whatever, excepting that persons 
who have violated the laws of war during 
the period of active hostilities are not em- 
braced within the scope of this amnesty. 

" All who desire to take advantage of the 
terms herewith set forth are requested to 
present themselves to the commanding officers 
of the American troops at the most convenient 
station, who will receive them with due con- 
sideration according to rank, make provision 
for their immediate wants, prepare the neces- 
sary records and thereafter permit each in- 
dividual to proceed to any part of the archi- 
pelago according to his own wishes, for which 
purpose the United States will furnish such 
transportation as may be available either by 
railway, steamboat, or wagon. Prominent 
persons who may desire to confer with the 
military governor, or with the Board of 
American Commissioners, will be permitted to 
visit Manila, and will, as far as possible, 
be provided with transportation for that 
purpose. 

" In order to mitigate as much as possible 
consequences resulting from the various dis- 
turbances which since 1896 have succeeded 
each other so rapidly, and to provide in some 
measure for destitute soldiers during the 
transitory period which must inevitably suc- 
ceed a general peace, the military authorities 
of the United States will pay 30 pesos to 
each man who presents a rifle in good con- 
dition. Arthur MacArthub, 
" Major-General, United States Volunteers, 
Military Governor." 



Defining Restraints of Martial Law. — 
On Dec. 20, 1900, he issued the following 
proclamation, ordering the strict enforce- 
ment of martial law against the Filipino 
insurgents, and further defining the in- 
tentions of the United States government: 



" In the armed struggle against the sov- 
ereign power of the United States now In 
progress in these islands frequent violations 
of important provisions of the laws of war 
have recently manifested themselves, ren- 
dering it imperative, while rejecting every 
consideration of belligerency of those oppos- 
ing the government in the sense in which the 
term belligerency is generally accepted and 
understood, to remind all concerned of the 
existence of these laws, that exemplary 
punishments attach to (he infringement 
thereof, and that their strict observance is 
required, not only by combatant forces, but 
as well by non-combatants, native or alien, 



MacARTHUK^McARTHUB 



residing within occupied places. In pur- 
suance of tliis purpose reference is made to 
the certain provisions of the laws of war, as 
most essential for consideration under pres- 
ent condition. 

" Notice is accordingly given to the insur- 
gent leaders already committed to, or who 
may be contemplating a system of war, that 
the practice thereof will necessarily ter- 
minate the possibility of those engaging 
therein returning to normal civic relations 
in the Philippines. That is to say, persons 
charged with violation of the laws of war 
must, sooner or later, be tried for felonious 
crimes, with all the attending possibilities 
of conviction ; or, as an only means of escape 
therefrom, must become fugitive- criminals 
beyond the jurisdiction of the United States, 
which, in effect, means life-long expatriation," 

Here the rules of war as applying to 
persons residing in an occupied place who 
are working against the government aie 
cited. 

" The principal object of this proclamation 
Is to instruct all classes throughout the 
archipelago as to the requirements of the 
laws of war in respect of the particulars 
herein referred to, and to advise all con- 
cerned of the purpose to exact, in the future, 
precise compliance therewith. The practice 
of sending supplies to insurgent troops from 
places occupied by the United States, as is 
now the case, must cease. If contumacious or 
faint-hearted persons continue to engage in 
this traflic they must be prepared to answer 
for their actions under the penalties de- 
clared in this- article. 

" The remarks embodied in the foregoing 
rules apply with special force to the city of 
Manila, which is well known as a rendezvous 
from which an extensive correspondence is 
distributed to all parts of the archipelago 
by sympathizers with and by emissaries of 
the insurrection. All persons in Manila or 
elsewhere are again reminded that the entire 
archipelago, for the time being, is neces- 
sarily under the rigid restraints of martial 
law, and that any contribution of advice, in- 
formation, or supplies, and all correspond- 
ence the effect of which is to give aid, sup- 
port, encouragement, or comfort to the armed 
opposition in the field, are flagrant violations 
of American interests, and persons so en- 
gaged are warned to conform to the laws 
which apply to occupied places as herein set 
forth. 

" The newspapers and other periodicals or 
Manila are especially admonished that any 
article published in the midst of such mar- 
tial environment which by any construction 
can be classed as seditious must be regard- 
ed as Intended to injure the army of occu- 
pation and as subjecting all connected with 
the publication to such punitive action as 
may be determined by the undersigned. 

" Men who participate In hostilities with- 
ont being part of a regularly organized 
force, and without sharing continuously in 
ItB operations, but who do so with intermit- 



tent returns to their homes and avocations, 
divest themselves of the character of sol- 
diers, and, if captured, are not entitled to 
the privileges of prisoners of war. It is well 
known that many of the occupied towns 
support and encourage men who habitually 
assume the semblance of peaceful pursuits, 
but who have arms hidden outside of the 
towns, and periodically slip out to take part 
in guerilla war. 

" The fact that such men have not hereto- 
fore been held responsible for their actions 
is simply an evidence of the solicitude of 
the United States to avoid all appearance of 
harshness in pacifying the islands, and not 
of any defect in the law itself. The people 
of the archipelago are now instructed as to 
the precise nature of the law applicable in 
such cases, and are warned to mistrust lead- 
ers who not only require soldiers to expose 
themselves to the ordinary vicissitudes of 
campaign, but insist upon duties that neces- 
sarily expose all who engage therein to the 
possibility of trial for a capital offence." 

McArthur, Duncan, military officer: 
born in Dutchess county, N, Y., June 14, 
1772. His father removed to the Ohio 
frontier of Pennsylvania when Duncan 
was only eight years of age. At eighteen 
he volunteered in defence of the frontier 
against the Indians, and served -in Har- 
mar's campaign (see Harmar, Josiah). 
McArthur became a surveyor, and, pur- 




DUNCAN McARTHPR. 



chasing large tracts, became possessed of 
much landed wealth. He was a member 
of the Ohio legislature in 1805, and in 



McARTHUR— McCABE 



1S08 became major-general of the State 
militia. When war was kindling he was 
chosen colonel of the Ohio vohinteers, 
and was second in command at the sur- 
render of Detroit (q. v.) . In the spring 
of 1813 he was promoted to brigadier-gen- 
eral, and in 1814 succeeded General Har- 
rison in command of the Army of the 
West. 

Late in the summer of 1814, the critical 
situation of General Brown's army on 
the Niagara frontier induced General Mc- 
Arthur to make a terrifying raid in the 
western part of Canada, to divert the at- 
tention of the British. He arrived at De- 
troit Oct. 9, with about 700 mounted men 
which he had raised in Kentucky and 
Ohio. Late in that month he left Detroit 
with 750 men on fleet horses, and, with 
five pieces of cannon, passed up the lake 
and St. Clair River towards Lake Huron, 
to deceive the Canadians. On the morn- 
ing of the 25th he suddenly crossed the 
river, pushed on in hot haste to the 
Moravian towns, and on Nov. 4 entered 
the village of Oxford. He appeared un- 
heralded, and the inhabitants were great- 
ly terrified. There he disarmed and 
paroled the militia, and threatened in- 
stant destruction to the property of any 
one who should give notice to any British 
post of his coming. Two men did so, and 
their houses were laid in ashes. On the 
following day he pushed on to Burfor^, 
where the militia were casting up in- 
trenchments. They fled at his approach, 
and the whole region was excited with 
alarm. The story went before him that 
he had 2,000 men in his train. He aimed 
at Burlington Heights, but at the Mo- 
hawk settlement, on the Grand River, 
near Brantford, he was confronted by a 
large body of Indians, militia, and dra- 
goons. Another British force, with ar- 
tillery, was not far distant, so McArthur 
turned southward, do\vn the Long Poiat 
road, and drove some militia at a post 
on the Grand River. There he killed 
and wounded seven men and took 
131 pr'isoners. His own loss was one 
killed and six wounded. He pushed on, 
destroying flouring-mills at work for the 
British army in Canada, and, finding a 
net of peril gathering around him, he 
turned his face westward and hastened to 
Detroit, pursued, from the Thames, by 



1,100 British regulars. He arrived at 
Sanwich, Nov. 17, and there discharged 
his band. That raid was one of the bold- 
est operations of the war. He skimmed 
over hundreds of miles of British terri- 
tory with the loss of only one man. In 
the fall of 1815 he was elected to the 
Ohio legislature, and in 1816 he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to conclude 
treaties with the Indian tribes. He was 
again an Ohio legislator and speaker of 
the House, and in 1819 was sent to Con- 
gress. He was governor of Ohio from 
1830 to 1832, and while in that office 
he met with a serious accident, from which 
he never recovered. He died near Chilli- 
cothe, O., April 28, 1839. 

McBryde, John McLaren, educator; 
born in Abbeville, S. C, Jan. 1, 1841; 
graduated at the University of Virginia in 
1860. He served in the Confederate army 
till 1863, when he was transferred to the 
Confederate Treasury Department. At 
the close of the war he engaged in farming 
in Virginia. In 1879-82 he was Professor 
of Botany and Agriculture in the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee; and in 1883-87 Pro- 
fessor of Botany and president of the South 
Carolina College. He then became presi- 
dent of the University of South Carolina 
and director of the South Carolina agri- 
cultural experiment station. In 1891 he 
was chosen president of the Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute and director of the Vir- 
ginia agricultural experiment station. 

McCabe, Charles CARD\^'^LL, clergy- 
man; born in Athens, O., Oct. 11, 1836; 
was educated at the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, and became a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Conference in 1860. In 
1862 he was appointed chaplain of the 
122d Ohio Infantry. During the battle of 
Winchester he was taken prisoner, and 
spent four months in Libby prison. Af- 
ter his release he rejoined his regiment, 
but soon resigned to enter the service of 
the United States Christian Commis- 
sion iq. v.), for which he raised large 
sums of money. When peace was con- 
cluded he settled in Portsmouth, O., and 
was appointed financial agent for Wesley- 
an University. In 1884 he became secre- 
tary of the Methodist Episcopal Mission- 
ary Society, and has since become widely 
known because of the very large sums of 
money he has raised for the society. He 



McCABE— McCALLA 



was elected bishop in 1896. He has 
lectured on The Bright Side of Lihhy 
Prison. 

McCabe, James Dabxey, author; born 
in Richmond, Va., Julj' 30, 1842; received 
an academic education. His publications 
include Fanaticism and its Results; Life 
of Gen. Thomas J. Jackson; Memoir of 
Gen. Albert S. Johnston; Life and Cam- 
paigns of Gen. Robert E. Lee; Planting 
the Wilderness; The Great Republic; His- 
tory of the Grange Movement ; Centennial 
History of the United States; Lights 
and Shadoics of Neio York Life, etc. 
He died in Germantown, Pa., Jan. 27, 
1883. 

McCabe, William Gordon, educator; 
born in Richmond, Va., Aug. 4, 1841; 
graduated at the University of Virginia 
in 1861 ; served in the Confederate army 
during the Civil War, becoming a captain 
in the 3d Artillery Corps of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. After the war he 
founded and became head master of the 
University School in Petersburg, Va., 
which he subsequently removed to Rich- 
mond, Va. He is the author of The De- 
fence of Petersburg ; an edition of Ccesar's 
Gallic War; Ballads of Battle and Bra- 
very, etc. 

McCall, Edward R., naval officer; born 
in Charleston, S. C, Aug. 5, 1790; entered 
the na%-y as midshipman in 1808, and in 
the summer of 1813 was lieutenant of the 
brig Enterprise. In the action with the 
Boxer, Sept. 4, 1813, his commander (Lieu- 
tenant Burrows) was mortally wounded, 
when the command devolved upon McCall, 
who succeeded in capturing the British 
vessel. For this service Congress voted 
him a gold medal. He was made master- 
commander in 1825, and captain in 1835. 
He died in Bordentown, N. J., July 31. 
1853. 

McCall, George Archibald, military 
officer; born in Philadelphia, March 16, 
1802; graduated at West Point in 
1822; distinguished himself in the war in 
Florida, and served in the war against 
Mexico, in which he was assistant-adju- 
tant-general with the rank of major, at 
the beginning. Late in 1847 he was pro- 
moted to major of infantry; was made 
inspector-general in 1850; and in April, 
1853, resigned. When the Civil War broke 
out, he organized the Pennsylvania Re 



serve Corps, consisting of 15,000 men, and 
was made brigadier-general in May, 1861. 
This force was converted into three di- 
visions of the Army of the Potomac, under 
his command, and they did gallant service 
in McClellan's campaign against Richmond 
in 1862. Made captive on the day be- 
fore the battle of Malvern Hills, he suf- 
fered such rigorous confinement in Rich- 
mond that he returned home in broken 
health, and resigned in March, 1863. 
He died in West Chester, Pa., Feb. 26, 
1808. 

McCall, Hugh, military officer; born in 
South Carolina in 1767; joined the army 
in May, 1794; was promoted captain in 
August, 1800. When the army was re- 
organized in 1802 he was retained in the 
2d Infantry; was brevetted major in July, 
1812; and served during the second war 
with England. He was the author of a 
History of Georgia. He died in Savannah, 
Ga., July 9, 1824. 

McCalla, Bowmax Hendry, naval offi- 
cer; born in Camden, X. J., June 19, 1844; 
was appointed a midshipman in the na\"y, 
Nov. 30, 1861; was at the Naval Academy 




f^<^ 



BOWMAN HENDRY McCALLA. 



in 180\-64; promoted ensign, Nov. 1, 1866; 
master, Dec. 1 following; lieutenant, 
March 12, 1868; lieutenant-commander, 
March 26, 1869; commander, Nov. 3, 



6 



McC ALLEY— Mc C ANN 



1884; and captain, March 3, 1899. In 
1890, while commander of the Enterprise, 
he was tried by court-martial on five 
charges, found guilty, and sentenced to 
suspension for three years and to retain 
his number on the list of commanders 
during suspension. During the war with 
Spain he was in command of the Marble- 
head, and so distinguished himself, es- 
pecially by his services in Guantanamo 
Bay, that the President cancelled the 
court - martial's sentence of suspension 
at the request of the Secretary of the 
Kavy, and the written petition of all his 
classmates. After his promotion to cap- 
tain he was given command of the pro- 
tected cruiser Neicark, with orders to pre- 
pare her for the run to the Philippines. 
For the speed with which he accomplished 
this duty he was officially complimented 
by the Navy Department. When the Box- 
er troubles in China called for foreign in- 
tervention. Captain McCalla was ordered 
to Taku, and there was placed in com- 
mand of the first American detachment 
ordered on shore duty. On the march 
headed by Admiral Seymour, of the Brit- 
ish navy, planned for the relief of the 
foreign legations in Peking, it was Cap- 
tain McCalla's tactical skill that enabled 
the small force to get back to Tientsin, 
after the failure of the attempt. Con- 
cerning this movement Admiral Seymour 
said: "That my command pulled out in 
safety is due to Captain MeCalla. The 
credit is his, not mine, and I shall recom- 
mend the Queen that he and his men be 
recommended by her to the President of 
the United States," and in his official re- 
port he said : " I must refer specially to 
Commander MeCalla, of the American 
cruiser 'Neicark, whose services were of the 
greatest value to me and all concerned. 
He was slightly wounded in three places, 
and well merits recognition." On Sept. 
22, 1900, the Secretary of the Navy offi- 
cially commended him for his services in 
the operations in China, and on March 
16, 1901, he was further honored by being 
assigned to the command of the new 
battle - ship Kearsarge, one of the most 
enviable posts in the navy. He was pro- 
moted rear-admiral July 11, 1903. 

McCalley, Henry, geologist; born in 
Madison county, Ala., Feb. 11, 1852; 
graduated at the University of Virginia 



in 1875, and became a farmer. In 1877 
he taught school at Demopolis, Ala.; in 
1878-83 was assistant Professor of Chem- 
istry in the University of Alabama; in 
1883-90 was chemist to the Geological 
Survey of Alabama, and also assistant 
State geologist; and since 1890 has been 
chief assistant geologist of Alabama. He 
is a member of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers; and the author of 
many geological papers, maps, reports, 
etc. 

McCann, William Penn, naval offi- 
cer; born in Paris, Ky., May 4, 1830; 
graduated at the United States Naval 
Academy in 1854; entered the navy with 




WILLIAM PENN McCANN. 

the rank of passed midshipman; was pro- 
moted lieutenant, 1855; lieutenant - com- 
mander, 1862; commander, 1866; captain, 
1876; and commodore, 1887. In the Civil 
War he drove off" the Confederate battery 
attacking Franklin's corps at West Point, 
Va., on May 2, 1862; captured the Con- 
federate gunboat Teazer, July 4, follow- 
ing; was in the battle of Mobile Bay; 
and during the war captured several block- 
ade-runners. In 1891 he was commission- 
ed an acting rear-admiral and given com- 
mand of the South Pacific station. On 
June 4, 1891, after a spirited chase, he 
captured at Iquique, Chile, the steamer 
Itdta, which had taken arms and ammu- 
nition aboard at San Diego, Cal., for the 
Chilean revolutionists. He sent the ship 
and its cargo back to San Diego, and 
was commended by the Navy Department. 
He was retired in May, 1892. During 



MoC ARTH Y— Mc CLELL AN, 



the war with Spain he was recalled to 
service and appointed prize ' commission- 
er for the Southern District of New York. 

McCarthy, Justin, author; born in 
Cork. Ireland, Nov. 22, 1830; visited the 
United States in 1868, and lectured for 
nearly three years. He is the author of 
Frohibitori/ Legislation in the United 
States : A Histori/ of Our Own Times; The 
Story of Mr. Gladstone's Life, etc. 

McCauley, Charles Adam Hoke, or- 
nithologist : born in Middletown, Md., July 
13, 1847; graduated at West Point and 
appointed a second lieutenant of the 3d 
Artillery in 1870; transferred to the 2d 
Cavalry in 1878; and promoted first lieu- 
tenant in 1879. After his graduation at 
West Point he made a special study of or- 
nithology, and in 1876 was appointed or- 
nithologist in the Red River exploring 
expedition. His publications include Or- 
nithology of the Red River of Texas; The 
San Juan Reconnaissance in Colorado and 
IS'ew Mexico; Reports on the White River 
Indian Agency, Colorado, and the Uinta 
Indian Agency; Pagasa Springs, Colo- 
rado: Its Geology and Botany, etc. 

McClellan, Carswell, civil engineer; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 3, 1835; 
graduated at Williams College in 1855; 
joined the 32d New York Regiment, and 
became topographical assistant on the 
staff of Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys in 
1862. In August, 1864, he was taken pris- 
oner, and on being paroled in the follow- 
ing November he resigned his commission. 
He published Personal Memoirs and Mili- 
tary History of Ulysses S. Grant, vs. the 
Record of the Army of the Potomac. 

McClellan, George Brinton, military 
officer; born in Philadelphia, Dec. 3, 1826; 
graduated at West Point in 1846; was 
lieutenant of sappers, miners, and pon- 
toniers in the war against Mexico, and 
was commended for gallantry at various 
points from Vera Cruz to the city of 
Mexico. After the war he was instructor 
of bayonet exercise at West Point, and 
hifl Manual, translated from the French, 
became the text-book of the service. In 
1852 he was engaged with Capt. Randolph 
B. Marcy (afterwards his father-in-law) 
and Gen. C. F. Smith in explorations and 
flurveys of Red River, the harbors of 
Texas, and the western part of a proposed 
route for a Pacific railway; also moun- 



tain ranges and the most direct route to 
Puget's Sound. He was next sent on a 
secret mission to Santo Domingo; and in 
1855 he was sent with Majors Delafield 
and Mordecai to Europe to study the or- 
ganization of European armies and ob- 
serve the war in the Crim.a. Cap- 
tain McClellan left the army in 1857 and 
engaged in civil engineering and as super- 
intendent of railroads. He was residing 
in Ohio when the Civil War broke out, 
and was commissioned major-general of 
Ohio volunteers by the governor. He took 
command of all the troops in the Depart- 
ment of the Ohio; and after a brief and. 
successful campaign in western Virginia, 
was appointed to the command of the 
National troops on the Potomac (after- 
wards the Army of the Potomac) and com- 
missioned a major-general of the regular 
army. On the retirement of General Scott 
in November, 1861, he was made general- 
in-chief. His campaign against Richmond 
in 1862 with the Army of the Potomac 
was not ouccessful. He afterwards drove 
General Lee out of Maryland, but his de- 
lay in pursuing the Confederates caused 
him to be superseded in command by Gen- 
eral Burnside. General McClellan was 
the unsuccessful Democratic candidate 
for President of the United States against 
Mr. Lincoln in 1864 (see below). He re- 
signed his commission in the army on the 
day of the election, Nov. 8, and took 
up his residence in New York. After a 
visit to Europe, he became (1868) a 
citizen of New Jersey, and engaged in the 
business of an engineer. The will of Ed- 
ward A. Stevens, of Hoboken, made him 
superintendent of the Stevens floating bat- 
tery; and he was appointed superintend- 
ent of docks and piers in the city of New 
York, which office he resigned in 1872. In 
1877 he was elected governor of New Jer- 
sey. He died in Orange, N. J., Oct. 29, 1885. 
Presidential Candidate. — On Aug. 29, 
1864, the Democratic National Convention 
assembled in Chicago, 111., and nominated 
General McClellan for the Presidency on 
the following declaration of principles: 



Resolved, that in the future, as in the 
past, we will adhere with unswerving 
fidelity to the Union under the Constitu- 
tion, as the only solid foundation of our 
strength, security, and happiness as a 




MAJOR-GENERAL GEORGE B. McCLELLAN 



McCLELLAN, GEORGE BRINTON 



people, and as a fiamework of government 
equally conducive to the welfare and pros- 
perity of all the States, both Northern 
and Southern. 

Resolved, that this convention does 
explicitly declare, as the sense of the 
American people, that after four years of 
failure to restore the Union by the ex- 
periment of war, during which, under the 
pretence of military necessity, or war 
power higher than the Constitution, the 
Constitution itself has been disregarded in 
every part, and public liberty and private 
right alike trodden down, and the material 
prosperity of the country essentially im- 
paired, justice, humanity, liberty, and the 
public welfare demand that immediate ef- 
forts be made for a cessation of hostilities, 
with a view to an ultimate convention of 
the States or other peaceable means, to 
the end that at the earliest practicable 
moment peace may be restored on the basis 
of the federal Union of the States. 

Resolved, that the direct interference 
of the military authorities of the United 
States in the recent elections held in Ken- 
tucky, Maryland, Missouri, and Delaware, 
was a shameful violation of the Constitu- 
tion, and a repetition of such acts in the 
approaching election will be held as rev- 
olutionary, and resisted with all the 
means and power under our control. 

Resolved, that the aim and object of 
the Democratic party are to preserve the 
federal Union and the rights of the States 
unimpaired ; and they hereby declare that 
they consider the administrative usurpa- 
tion of extraordinary and dangerous pow- 
ers not granted by the Constitution; the 
subversion of the civil by the military 
laws in States not in insurrection; the 
arbitrary military arrest, imprisonment, 
trial, and sentence of American citizens in 
States where civil law exists in full force ; 
the suppression of freedom of speech and 
of the press; the denial of the right of 
asylum ; the open and avowed disregard of 
State rights ; the employment of unusual 
test oaths, and the interference with and 
denial of the right of the people to bear 
arms in their defence.,as calculated to pre- 
vent a restoration of the Union and the 
perpetuation of a government deriving its 
just powers from the consent of the gov- 
erned. 

Resolved, that the shameful disre- 



gard by the administration of its duty in 
respect to our fellow-citizens who are now 
and have long been prisoners of war in a 
suffering condition, deserves the severest 
reprobation on the score alike of public 
policy and common humanity. 

Resolved, that the sjanpatliy of the 
Democratic party is heartily and earnest- 
ly extended to the soldiers of our army 
and the seamen of our navy, who are and 
have been in the field under the flag of 
their country; and, in the event of its at- 
taining power, they will receive all the 
care, protection, and regard that the brave 
soldiers and sailors of the republic have 
so nobly earned. 

His letter of acceptance was as fol- 
lows: 

" Orange, N. J., Sept. 8. 
" To Hon. Horatio Seymour and others, com- 
mittee, etc.: 

" Gentlemen, — I have the honor to acknowl- 
edge the receipt of your letter informing me 
of my nomination by the Democratic National 
Convention, recently held at Chicago, as their 
candidate at the next election for President 
of the United States. 

" It is unnecessary for me to say to you 
that this nomination comes to me unsought. 
I am happy to know that, when the 
nomination was made, the record of my 
public life was kept in view. The effect 
of long and varied service in the army, dur- 
ing war and peace, has been to strengthen 
and make indelible in my mind and heart the 
love and reverence for the Union, Constitu- 
tion, laws, and flag of our country im- 
pressed upon me in early youth. These feel- 
ings have thus far guided the course of my 
life, and must continue to do so until its 
end. The existence of more than one govern- 
ment over the region which once owned our 
flag is incompatible with the peace, the 
power, and the happiness of the people. The 
preservation of our Union was the sole 
avowed object for which the war was com- 
menced. It should have been conducted for 
that object only, and in accordance with 
those principles which I took occasion to 
declare when in active service. Thus con- 
ducted the work of reconciliation would have 
been easy, and we might have reaped the 
benefits of our many victories on land and 
sea. 

" The Union was originally formed by the 
exercise of a spirit of conciliation and com- 
promise. To restore and preserve it, the 
same spirit must prevail in our councils and 
in the hearts of the people. The re-estab- 
lishment of the Union, in all its Integrity, is 
and must continue to be the indispensable 
condition in any settlement. So soon as it 
is clear, or even probable, that our present 
adversaries are ready for peace upon the 
basis of the Union, we should exhaust all 
the resources of statesmanship practised by 



McCLELLAN— McCLERNAND 

civilized nations, and taught by tlie traditions 1886, became a journalist in New York 

of tlie American people, consistent witli the qj^ treasurer of the New York and 

honor and interests of the country, to secure ,, , , ^ ., . ,Qon i ;++„.i +« +1,^ 

such peace, re-establish the Union, and Brooklyn Bridge in 1889; admitted to the 

guarantee for the future the constitutional bar in 1892; president of the New York 

rights of every State. The Union is the one board of aldermen in 1893-94; elected 

condition of peace. We ask no more. ^^ Congress as a Democrat in 1895, 1897, 

••Let me add what I doubt not was, al- » ' ' 

though unexpressed, the sentiment of the and 1899, and mayor of Jsew iork in 1903. 

convention, as it is of the people they repre- McClellan, Henry Brainerd, educator; 

sent, that when any one State is willing to ^^^.^ jj^ Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 17, 1840; 

return to the ^7°^,,^* J^^«"'^ b<| recei^ved .^^^^^^^^^ ^^ Williams College in 1858; 

at once with a full guarantee of all its con- >? . ^ ^ -, , • ,n/.-> 

stitutional rights. If a frank, earnest, and joined the Confederate army m 18b2;, 

persistent effort to obtain these objects was made assistant adjutant-general of 

should fail, the responsibility for ulterior (^gyalrv in the Army of Northern Virginia 

consequences will fall upon those who remain . - i- s e t «• + n« 

in arms against the Union, but the Union ^ ^8Q3; was also chief of staff to Gens, 

must be preserved at all hazards. I could Wade Hampton and James E. B. Stuart, 

not look in the face my gallant comrades of He became principal of the Sayre Fe- 

the army and navy who have survived so j Institute in Lexington, Ky., in 

manv bloodv battles, and tell them that their 1 t -^ , !ry ■ 

labors, and the sacrifices of so many of our 18/0. He published Life and Campaigns 

slain and wounded brethren, had been in vain, of Maj.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, Com- 

that we had abandoned that Union for which zander of the Cavaln/ of the Army of 

we have so often perilled our lives. A vast -\- ^i t'" ■ " + ' 

majority of our people, whether in the army ^ortliern \ irginia, etc. 

and navy or at home, would, as I would, McClelland, Robert, statesman; born 

hail witli unbounded joy the permanent res- in Greencastle, Pa., Aug. 1, 1807; gradu- 

toration of peace on the basis of the Union ^^^^ ^^ Dickinson College in 1829; ad- 

under the Constitution, without the effusion -, , i , ,, , ■ i o m i .l 

of another drop of blood, but no peace can nutted to the bar m 1831; removed to 

be permanent without Union. Michigan in 1833; elected to the State 

•■ As to the other subjects presented in the legislature in 1838 ; to Congress as a 

resolutions of the convention I need only d^j^^^j.^^. ^j, 1843 ^^^ governor in 1852. 

sav that I should seek in the Constitution ot . > b 

the United States, and the laws framed in He resigned the last office to become Secre- 

accordance therewith, the rule of my duty tary of the Department of the Interior 

and the limitation of executive power ; en- y^^igj. p^-esident Pierce. He died in De- 

deavor to restore economy in public expend:- . 

tures, re-establish the supremacy of the law, troit, Mich., Aug. ^1, 1880. 

and by the operation of a more vigorous McClernand, John Alexander, mili- 

nationality resume our commanding position tary officer; born in Breckenridge countv, 

among the nations of the earth. The con- -j-,^^ ivt„„ on loio tt- j: ^^ "j 

dition of our finances, the depreciation of ^^J^"' ,^^^^ ^^' 1^12. His family removed 

the paper money, and the burdens thereby to Illinois while he was a small child, 

imposed on labor and capital, show the neces- He was admitted to the bar in 1832 ; 

sity of a return to a sound financial system, ggj-ved in the Black Hawk War; engaged 

while the rights of citizens and the rights • , ■, , . ,. ■, ■ 1, 

of States, and the binding authority of law i" ."ade and journalism ; and was m the 

over the President, army, and people, are Illinois legislature at different times be- 

subjects of no less vital importance in war tween 1836 and 1842. He Avas in Congress 

'^••Venlving'that the views here expressed ^" ^^^''^-^^ ^"^^ 1859-61, when, the war 

are tho.se of the convention, and the people breaking out, he resigned and, with others, 

you represent, I accept the nomination. I raised a brigade of volunteers. He dis- 

realize the weight of the responsibility to tinguished himself at Belmont (q. v.), 

be borne should the people ratify your choice. f i 1 • t t a ^j 

Conscious of my own weakness, I can only ^"^ ^as made brigadier-general. After 

seek fervently the guidance of the Ruler of the battle of Fort Donelson (q. v.) he 

the Universe, and, relying on His all-power- was promoted major-general; commanded 

ful aid, do my best to restore Union and ^ division at the battle of Shiloh ; suc- 

T)eaoe to a suffering people, and to establish , i /-, , r-,, • ■, ^ 

and guard their liberties and rights. eeedod General Sherman m command of 

" Very respectfully, the army engaged in the Vicksburg ex- 

" Op:o. I{. McClki.lan." pedition in January, 1863; distinguished 

McClellan, Georoe Brinton, lawyer; liimself in the battles that followed; coni- 

born in Dresden, Saxony, Nov. 23, 1865; nianded the 13th Army Corps till July, 

f-on of Gen. George B. McClellan: 1863; and resigned his commission Nov. 

graduated at Princeton University in 30, 1804. Subsequently he engaged in law 

10 



McCLOSKEY— McCOOK 



practice in Springfield, 111., till his death, South; Lincoln and Men of War-Times ; 
Sept. 20, 1900. Our Presidents and How Wc Make Them, 

McCloskey, John, cardinal ; born in etc. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., March 20, 1810; grad- McClure, James Gore King, educator; 
uated at St. Mary's College, in Maryland, born in Albany, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1848: 
in 1827; prepared for the priesthood, graduated at Yale University in 1870, and 
and was ordained in 1834. He was at Princeton Theological Seminary in 
chosen the first president of St. John's 1873; and in the following year was or- 
College, at Fordhani, and at the age of dained a Presbyterian minister. In 1874- 
thirty-four was consecrated coadjutor to 79 he held a pastorate in New Scotland, 
Bishop Hughes, whom he succeeded at the N. Y. ; in 1881-97 in Lake Forest, 111.; 
latter's death in 1864. On March 15, 1875, and in 1897 was elected president of the 
Archbishop McCloskey was elevated to the Lake Forest University. He is author of 
cardinalate, being the first American priest History of New Scotland, N. Y.; Presby- 
terian Church; Possibilities ; and The Man 
Who Wanted Help. 

McClure, Sir Robert John le Me- 
SURIER, arctic explorer; born in Wexford, 
Ireland, Jan. 28, 1807. In 1850-54 he ex- 
plored the polar seas north of America in 
the ship Investigator, and was the first to 
discover the long-sought northwest ocean 
passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
waters. For this discovery he was knight- 
ed and presented with $20,000. He died 
in London, England, Oct. 14, 1873. 

McConnell, Samuel D., clergyman; 
born in Westmoreland county, Pa., in 
1846; graduated at Washington and Jef- 
ferson College in 1868; was ordained in 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1873. 
After serving churches in several cities he 
became rector of Holy Trinity Church, 
ever so honored. He exercised the office Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1896. His publica- 
with great dignity, and died in New York tions include History of the American 
City, Oct. 10, 1885. Episcopal Church; The Next Step in 

McClure, Alexander Kelly, journal- Christianity, etc. 
ist; born in Sherman's Valley, Pa., Jan. McCook, Alexander McDowell, mili- 
9, 1828; was educated at home; and in tary officer; born in Columbiana county, 
1842 was apprenticed to the tanner's 0., April 22, 1831; a son of Maj. Dan- 
trade. In 1846-50 he edited the Mifflin iel McCook (q. v.) ; graduated at West 
Sentinel, and in 1850-56 the Chambers- Point in 1852; served against the Indians 
burg Repository. In the latter year he in New Mexico in 1857; was assistant in- 
was admitted to the bar. In 1857-59 he structor of tactics at West Point in 1858- 
was a member of the Pennsylvania legislat- 61; and was colonel of the 1st Ohio Regi- 
ure; in 1862-64 he again edited the Cham- ment at the battle of Bull Run. In Sep- 
bersburg Repository ; and in 1868-73 prac- tember, 1861, he was commissioned briga- 
tised law in Philadelphia. In 1872 he was dier-general of volunteers, and in July, 
a State Senator and in 1873 an unsuc- 1862, having distinguished himself at Shi- 
cessful independent candidate for mayor loh and Corinth, he was promoted major- 
of Philadelphia, being defeated by a small general. He fought in the battle of Perry- 
plurality only. In 1875 he became editor- ville in command of the 1st Corps of the 
in-chief of the Philadelphia Times, and Army of the Ohio, and commanded the 
in March, 1901, retired therefrom. His right wing in the battle at Stone Riveb 
publications include Three Thousand Miles (q. v.) . He was afterwards in command 
Through the Rocky Mountains; The of the 20th Army Corps, and fought in the 

11 




CARDINAL MfCLOSKEY. 



McCOOK 




ALEXANDER MCDOWELL McCOOK. 

battle of Chickamauga {q. v.). In 1890 
he was promoted to brigadier-general; and 
in 1894 to major-general; and was retired 
April 22, 1895. He died in Daj-ton, Ohio, 
June 12, 1903. 

McCook, Anson George, military offi- 
cer; born in Steubenville, O., Oct. 10, 
1835: another son of Major McCook; was 
educated in the common schools of New 
Lisbon, O. ; spent several years in Cali- 
fornia; and was admitted to the bar in 
1861. When the Civil War broke out he 
entered the Union army as a captain in 
the 2d Ohio Infantry ; was in the first bat- 
tle of Bull Run ; and on the reorganization 
of his regiment for three years' service 
became colonel, and served with the Army 
of the Cumberland, and later in the At- 
lanta campaign, becoming a brigadier- 
general. After the war he was United 
States assessor of internal revenues at 
Steubenville, O., till 1873; then removed 
to New York City. He was a Eepublican 
Representative in Congress in 1877-83; 
secretary of the United States Senate in 
1887-93; and chamberlain of the city of 
Nf-w York in 1893-97. 

McCook, Daxikl, military ofTicer; born 
in Canonsburg, Pa., June 20, 1798; was 
educated at Jefferson College, and subse- 
quently settled in Carrollton, 0. He was 
sixty-three years old at the beginning of 
the Civil War, but offered his services 
to the government, and entered the army 
as a major. He was mortally wounded 
while trying to intercept Gen. John Mor- 



gan, in his raid, and died near Buffing- 
ton's Island, O., July 21, 1863. Ten of 
his sons served in the Union army. 

McCook, Daniel, military officer; born 
in Carrollton, O., July 22, 1834; another 
son of Major McCook; graduated at the 
Alabama University in 1858; studied law, 
and after being admitted to the bar in 
Steubenville, O., settled in Leavenworth, 
Kan. At the beginning of the Civil War 
he entered the Union army as captain 
of a local company. Later he was chief 
of staff of the 1st division of the Army 
of the Ohio in the campaign of Shiloh. 
He became colonel of the 52d Ohio Infan- 
try in 1862, and was assigned to com- 
mand a brigade under General Sherman. 
In July, 1864, he was selected by General 
Sherman to lead the assault against the 
Confederates at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 
and, while doing so, was mortally wound- 
ed, dying July 21, 1864. Five days be- 
fore his death he was promoted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. 

McCook, Edward Moody, military offi- 
cer; born at Steubenville, O., June 15, 
1833; a nephew of Major McCook. He 
was an active politician in Kansas, and 
was a member of its legislature in 1860. 




12 



ii^a^^^"^ 



He was an efficient cavalry officer during 
tlie Civil War, rising to the rank of brig- 
adier-general in April, 1864. He was in 



McCooK— Mccormick 



the principal battles in Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and northern Georgia, and in the 
Atlanta campaign commanded a division 
and was distinguished for skill and 
bravery in quick movements. 

During the siege of Atlanta he was or- 
dered to move out to Fayetteville and, 
sweeping round, join Stoneman — leading 
another cavalry raid — at Love joy's Sta- 
tion on the night of July 28. He and 
Stoneman moved simultaneously. McCook 
went down the west side of the Chatta- 
hoochee; crossed it on a pontoon bridge 
at Rivertown; tore up the track between 
Atlanta and West Point, near Palmetto 
Station; and pushed on to Fayetteville, 
where he captured 500 of Hood's wagons 
and 250 men, and killed or carried away 
about 1,000 mulea. Pressing on, he struck 
and destroyed the Macon Railway at Love- 
joy's at the appointed time; but Stone- 
man did not join him. Being hard press- 
ed by Wheeler's cavalry, McCook turned 
to the southward and struck the West 
Point road again at Newman's Station. 
There he was met by a force of Missis- 
sippi infantry moving on Atlanta, and, at 
the same time, his rear was closely press- 
ed by Confederate cavalry. He fought at 
great odds, but escaped with a loss of 
his prisoners and 500 of his own men. 
In 1865 he was brevetted major-general 
of volunteers; in 186G-69 was American 
minister to the Hawaiian Islands; and 
in 1870 was appointed governor of Col- 
orado Territory. 

McCook, Henry Christopher, clergy- 
man and entomologist; born in New Lis- 
bon, O., July 3, 1837; nephew of Major 
McCook; graduated at Jefferson College 
in 1859. At the beginning of the Civil 
War he entered the Union army as 
a first lieutenant in the 41st Illinois 
Regiment, of which he afterwards became 
chaplain. In 1869 he was called to the 
pastorate of the Tabernacle Presbyterian 
Church in Philadelphia. On the declara- 
tion of war against Spain (1898) he was 
appointed chaplain of the 2d Pennsylvania 
Regiment. Dr. McCook is widely known 
as an entomologist. His publications in- 
clude Agricultural Ants of Texas; Honey 
and Occident Ants; American Spiders and 
Their Spinning-icorh ; Tenants of an Old 
Farm; Old Farm Fairies; Women Friends 
of Jesus; The Gospel in Nature; Object 



and Outline Teachings; Ecclesiastical Em- 
blems; The Latimers, a Scotch-Irish His- 
toric Romance of the Western Insurrec- 
tion, etc. 

McCook, Robert Latimer, military offi- 
cer; born in New Lisbon, O., Dec. 28, 
1827; another son of Major McCook; stud- 
ied law and practised in Cincinnati. In 
1861 he was commissioned colonel of the 
9th Ohio Regiment, which he had organ- 
ized. He first served in the West Virginia 
campaign under McClellan; later was 
transferred with his brigade to the Army 
of the Ohio, fought in the battle of Mill 
Spring, Ky., Jan. 19, 1862, where he 
was severely wounded; and in March, 
1862, was promoted brigadier-general of 
volunteers. Having rejoined his brigade 
before his wound had healed, he was 
murdered by guerillas while lying in an 
ambulance near Salem, Ala., Aug. 6, 1862. 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall, inventor; 
born in Walnut Grove, Va., Feb. 15, 1809. 
As early as his fifteenth year he had con- 
structed a " cradle," used in harvesting 
grain in the field. His father, in 1816, 
had invented an improved reaper, and in 
1831 Cyrus invented another, for which 
he first obtained a patent in 1834. In 
1845, 1847, and 1858 he patented valuable 
improvements. He moved to Cincinnati 
in 1845, and to Chicago in 1847. The 
gold medal of the American Institute was 
awarded to him for his invention in 1845, 
and he received the Commercial Medal 
at the World's Fair in London in 1851. 
In 1855 he was awarded the grand gold 
medal of the Paris Exposition ; also the 
highest prizes of subsequent international 
and other exhibitions. In the Paris Ex- 
jjosition of 1867 he received the grand gold 
medal of honor, and the order of the 
Legion of Honor from the Emperor of 
the French. In 1859 Mr. McCormick 
founded and endowed the Theological Semi- 
nary of the Northwest, at Chicago, and 
afterwards endowed a professorship in 
Washington and Lee University, Va. He 
died in Chicago, 111., May 13, 1884. 

McCormick, Leander J., benefactor; 
lorn in Walnut Grove, Va., Feb. 8, 1819; 
brother of Cyrus Hall McCormick. He 
was connected with the first reaper manu- 
facturing industry with his father and 
brother. In 1871 he gave the McCormick 
Observatory and a 24-incli refracting 



13 



McCO^lMICK— McCRARY 



telescope to the University of Virginia. 
He died in Chicago, Feb. 20, 1900. 

McCormick, Eichard Cunningham, 
journalist: born in New York, May 23, 
1S32; received a classical education; was 
a war correspondent in the Crimea in 
1S54-55, and in the Civil War in 1862-63; 
governor of Arizona in 1806-60; delegate 
in Congress in 1809-75; delegate to the 
National Kepublican Conventions of 1872, 
1876, and ISSO; commissioner to the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition in 1876; assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury in 1877-78; 
and commissioner-general of the United 
States to the Paris Exposition in 1878. 
He was elected to Congress from the Eirst 
Xew York District in 189-4. His publica- 
tions include Visit to the Camp Before 
i^ciastopol; Arizona: Its Resources; etc. 
He died in Jamaica, N. Y., June 2, 1901. 

McCormick, Robert Sanderson, diplo- 
matist; born in Rockbridge county, Va., 
July 26, 1849; acquired a collegiate edu- 
cation; was secretary of legation in Lon- 
don in 1889-92; minister to Austria-Hun- 
gary in 1901-02; became first ambassador 
there in 1902; and the same year was 
transferred to St. Petersburg. 

McCorvey, Thomas Chalmers, educa- 
tor : born in Monroe county, Ala., Aug. 
18, 1852; graduated at the University of 
Alabama in 1873; became Professor of 
History and Philosophy in that institu- 
tion in 1888. He is the author of The 
Government of the People of the State of 
Alahama, etc. 

McCosh, James, educator; born in 
Carskcoch, Scotland, April 1, 1811; was 
educated at the universities of Glasgow 
and Edinburgh ; ordained in the Church 
of Scotland in 1835; later was made 
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in 
Queen's College, Belfast. He came to the 
United States in 1868, to assume the 
presidency of Princeton College, and 
served that institution with marked suc- 
cess till 1888, when he resigned. His 
voluminous publications include The 
Methods of the Divine Government, 
Phynicnl and Moral; Typical Forms and 
Special Ends in Creation; The Intuitions 
of the Mind Inductively Investifjatcd; 
The Hupernatural in Relation to the 
Tiatural; The Lawn of Discursive 
Thoufjht: Bcinf/ a Treatise on Formal 
Jiogic; Christianity and Positivism; The 



Emotions; The Religious Aspect of Evolw 
tion ; The Prevailing Types of Philosophy : 
Can They Logically Reach Reality; The 
Tests of Various Kinds of Truths; Our 




JAMES MoCOSH. 



Moral Nature; Philosophy of Reality, etc. 
He died in Princeton, N. J., Nov. 6, 1894. 

MacCracken, Henry Mitchell, edu- 
cator; born in Oxford, 0., Sept. 28, 1840; 
graduated at the Miami University in 
1857; studied at Princeton Theological 
Seminary and in the universities of Tubin- 
gen and Berlin. In 1863-68 he was pastor 
of the Westminster Church in Columbus. 
0., and in 1868-80 of the First Presby- 
terian Church in Toledo, O. He was 
elected chancellor of the Western Uni- 
versity in Pittsburg in 1880; vice-chan- 
cellor and Professor of Philosophy in the 
University of New York in 1884, and 
chancellor of the latter institution in 
1891. He is author of Tercentenary of 
Preshyterianism ; Kant and Lotze; A 
Metropolitan University ; Leaders of the 
Church Universal, etc. 

McCracken, William Denison, au- 
thor; born in Munich, Germany, Feb. 12, 
1864, of American parents; graduated ai; 
Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., in 1885. 
He is the author of The Rise of the Svnss 
Repuhlic; Siviss Solutions of American 
Problems; Little Idyls of the Big World, 
etc. 

McCrary, Geoi'.ge Washington, states- 
man; born in Evansville, Ind., Aug. 29, 



14 



McCREA— MoCULLOCH 



1835; received an academic education; 
was admitted to the bar in Keokuk, la., in 
1850; was a Republican Representative in 
Congress in 1868-77. He brought before 
Congress the first bill suggesting the crea- 
tion of an electoral commission; was ap- 
pointed Secretary of War, March 12, 1877, 
but resigned in December, 1879, to become 
a judge of the United States circuit 
court. He served in this office till March, 
1884, when he resigned and settled in 
Kansas City, Mo., where he resumed pri- 
vate practice. Among his publications is 
America7i Lato of Elections. He died in 
St. Joseph, Mo., June 23, 1890. 

McCrea, Jane, historical character; 
born in Bedminster (now Lamington), 
N. J., in 1753. She was the victim of a 
tragedy that caused deep and wide-spread 
indignation in the colonies, while Bur- 
goyne was making his way to the Hudson 
River. Jane, a handsome young girl, was 
visiting friends at Fort Edward when the 
invaders approached. She was betrothed 
to a young Tory living near there, who 
was then in Burgoyne's army. When that 
army was near Fort Edward some prowl- 
ing Indians seized Jane in the house of 
her friend, and, seating her on a horse, 
attempted to carry her a prisoner to Bur- 
goyne's camp at Sandy Hill. A detach- 
ment of Americans was sent to rescue her. 
One of a volley of bullets fired at her 
captors pierced the maiden and she fell to 
the ground dead, on July 27, 1777. The 
Indians, seeing her dead, scalped her and 
carried her glossy locks into camp as a 
trophy. Her lover, David Jones, shocked 
by the event, left the army, went to 
Canada at the close of the war, and there 
lived, a moody bachelor, until he was an 
old man. He had purchased the scalp of 
his beloved from the Indians, and cherished 
it as a precious treasure. Miss McCrea's 
remains were buried at Fort Edward, and 
many years afterwards were transferred to 
a cemetery between Fort Edward and 
Sandy Hill. The incident was woven into 
a wild tale of horror, which, believed, 
caused hundreds, perhaps thousands, of 
young men, burning with indignation 
against the British for employing savages 
to fight their brethren, to join the army 
of Gates. 

McCreary, James Bennett, lawyer; 
born in Madison county, Ky., July 8, 

15 



1838; was graduated at Centre College in 
1857, and at the law department of Co- 
lumbia University in 1859, and began 
practice in Richmond; served in the Con- 




HUGH Mcculloch. 



federate army in the Civil War; member 
of the State legislature in 1869-73; 
governor of Kentucky in 1875-79; mem- 
ber of Congress in 1885-97; and a Demo- 
cratic United States Senator in 1903-09. 

McCulloch, Benjamin, military offi- 
cer; born in Rutherford county, Tenn., 
Nov. 11, 1811; emigrated to Texas before 
the war for its independence, and fought 
as a private at San Jacinto. He was a 
captain of rangers in the war against 
Mexico, serving well under both Taylor 
and Scott. He was a commissioner to ad- 
just the difficulties with the Mormons in 
May, 1857. Joining the Confederate army, 
he was made a brigadier-general, and led 
a corps at the battle of Pea Ridge, where 
he was killed, March 7, 1862. 

McCulloch, Hugh, financier; born in 
Kennebunk, Me., Dec. 7, 1808; was edu- 
cated at Bowdoin College; and removed 
to Fort Wayne, Ind., in 1833, where he 
practised law till 1835, when he became 
manager of a branch of the State Bank of 



McCUMBER— MACDONOtTGH 



Indiana. He remained in this post till New Jersey Railroad, the Georgian branch 
1S56, and then accepted the presidency of of the Canadian Pacific; branches of the 
the newly organized State Bank of Indi- Baltimore & Ohio and of the Illinois Cen- 
ana. In 1SG3 he was appointed comp- tral railroads, and the Baltimore Belt 
troller of the currency, and two years Railroad, which is joined to the Balti- 
later became Secretary of the Treasury, more & Ohio by a tunnel under the city 
In less than six months after his ap- of Baltimore. In 1900-04 he built the 
pointment as Secretary of the Treasury, a transit subway railroad, New York, 
large amount of the money due 500,000 MacDonald, William, educator; born 
soldiers and sailors was paid, and besides in Providence, R. I., July 31, 1863; grad- 
the payment of other obligations a con- uated at Harvard College in 1892; became 
siderable reduction was made in the professor of history and political science 
national debt. His conversion of more at Bowdoin College in 1893. He is the 
than $1,000,000,000 of short-time obliga- editor of Select Documents Illustrative of 
tions into a funded loan in less than two the History of the United States, etc. 
years placed the whole public debt on a Macdonough, Thomas, naval officer; 
satisfactory basis. He was Secretary of born in New Castle county, Del., Dec. 23, 
the Treasury till 1869, and again in 1884- 1783; was of Scotch-Irish descent, and his 
85. He died near Washington, D. C, father was an officer of distinction in the 
May 24, 1895. Secretary McCulloch was Continental army. Macdonough was ap- 
author of Me)i and Measures of Half a pointed a midshipman in the navy in 1800, 
Century. a lieutenant in 1807, and commander in 
McCumber, Porter James, lawyer; July, 1813. He had served with distinc- 
born in Crete, 111., Feb. 3, 1856; was tion in the Mediterranean squadron with 
graduated at the law department of the Bainbridge and Decatur. In 1814 he corn- 
University of Michigan in 1880, and be- manded a squadron on Lake Champlain, 
gan practice in Wahpeton, N. D. ; was a and on Sept. 11 he gained a signal 
member of the Territorial legislature in victory over the British off Plattsburg. 
1885 and 1887; State attorney; and a Re- For this service he was promoted to cap- 
publican United States Senator in 1899- ftain and received thanks and a gold 



1905. 

McDonald, Flora heroine; born 
Milton, South Vist, Hebrides, in 1720; 
rescued Charles Edward Stuart, the 
" Pretender," from his pursuers in 
1746; married Allan McDonald in 
1750; came to America in 1773, and 
settled among other Scotch families 
at Cross Creek (now Fayetteville) , 
N. C. Her husband was a captain of 
the Loyal Highlanders in North Caro- 
lina, and was among the defeated at 
Moore's Creek Bridge. After experien- 
cing various trials because of their po- 
litical position, Flora and her family 
returned to Scotland before the close 
of the war, in which two of their sons 
were loyalist officers. The events of her 
early life, in connection with the " 3'rc- 
tender," were woven into a charming 
romance by Sir Walter Scott. 

McDonald, Joiix B., railroad- 
builder; born in Ireland, Nov. 7, 1844; 
acquired a public - school education. 
Among his principal railroad contracts 
are the High Bridge branch of the 



medal from Congress, and Vermont 
gave him an estate on Cumberland Head, 




THOMAS MACDONOUUH. 



16 



MacDOUGALL 

which overlooked the scene of his great to publish their names to the world. In 

exploit. From the close of the war Mac- response to the call, full 1,400 people 

donough's health declined. He was given gathered around the liberty pole in " The 

command of the Mediterranean squadron. Fields," where they were harangued by 




MACDOXOUGH'S MEDAL. 



but his health grew rapidly worse, and he John Lamb, and the people, by unanimous 
died at sea on a vessel sent by the govern- vote, condemned the action of the Assem- 
ment to bring him home, Nov. 16, 1825. bly in passing obnoxious bills. The senti- 

MacDougall, Alexander, military offi- nients of the meeting were embodied in a 
cer; born in Scotland in 1731; came to communication to the Assembly, which was 
America about 1755, and settled near borne by a committee of seven leading 
New York. He learned the trade of a Sons of Liberty — Isaac Sears, Caspar Wis- 
printer, and took an early and active part tar, Alexander MacDougall, Jacob Van 
with the Sons of Liberty of New York. Zandt, Samuel Broome, Erasmus Will- 
When a scheme for cheating the people iams, and James Varick. Toryism was 
of New York into a compliance with the then rife in the New York Assembly. 
provisions of the mutiny act was before Twenty of that body, on motion of James 
the Assembly, the leaders of the Sons of De Lancey, voted that the handbill was 
Liberty raised a cry of alarm. Early on " an infamous and scandalous libel." Only 
Sunday morning, Dec. 16, 1769, a handbill one member — Philip Schuyler — voted No. 
v.'as found widely distributed over the The Assembly then set about ferreting 
city, addressed, in large letters, " To the out the author of it, and a reward of 
Betrayed Inhabitants of the City and Col- .*5500 was offered. The frightened printer 
ony of New York," and signed " A Son of of the handbill, when arraigned before 
Liberty." It denounced the money scheme the House, gave the name of MacDougall 
as a deception, covering wickedness, and as the author. He was taken before the 
that it was intended to divide and distract House, where he refused to make any 
the colonies. It exhorted the New York acknowledgment or give bail. He was 
Assembly to imitate the patriotic course indicted and cast into prison, where he 
of those of other colonies; and it closed remained a month, and then pleaded not 
v.'ith a summons of the inhabitants to guilty and gave bail. When brought be- 
" The Fields " the next day, to express fore the House again, several months after- 
their views and to instruct their Assembly- wards, he was defended by George Clin- 
men to oppose the measure; and in case ton. His answer to the question whether 
they should refuse to do so, to send notice he was the author of the handbill was 
thereof to all the other assemblies, and declared to be a contempt, and he was 

VI.— B 17 



macdoitgall— McDowell 



again imprisoned. In February, 1771, he 
was released and was never troubled with 
the matter again. MacDougall was the 
first to suffer imprisonment for " liberty 
since the commencement of the glorious 
struggle,"* and he was regarded as a mar- 
tjT. At public meetings his health was 
drunk, and men and women of distinction 
in the city thronged the prison and fur- 
nished him with luxuries. Popular songs 
were composed and sung imder his prison 
windows, and emblematic swords were 
worn in his honor. 

MacDougall was active in the appoint- 
ment of delegates to the first Congress in 
1774, and was colonel of the 1st New York 
Regiment. On Aug. 9, 1776, he was made 
a brigadier-general, and in the retreat 
from Long Island he superintended the 
embarkation of the troops. In the battle 
of White Plains {q. v.) he was conspic- 
uous. In the spring of 1777 he was in 

command at Peekskill, and in October of scended, in a direct line, from Somerle'd, 
that year he was made a major-general in the Prince of the western coast of Argyle- 
the Continental army. MacDougall was shire, and famous " Lord of the Isles." 




SIR DUNCAN MacDougall. 



in the battle of Germantown, and in 
March, 1778, he took command in the 
Hudson Highlands, when, with Kosciusz- 
ko, he finished the fortifications there. 



Sir Duncan died Dec. 10, 1862. 

McDowell, Irvin, military officer; born 
in Columbus, 0., Oct. 15, 1818. Educated 
partly at a military school in France, he 



In 1781 he was a member of Congress, and graduated at West Point in 1838, and was 

was made ^Minister of Marine (Secretary assistant instructor of tactics there in 

of the ]S^a^'y), but did not fill the office 1841. He was adjutant of the post until 

long. He was again in Congress in 1784- 1845. In 1846 he accompanied General 

85, and in the winter of 1783 he was at the Wool to Mexico as aide-de-camp, winning 

head of the committee of army officers the brevet of captain at Buena Vista. In 

v\ho bore the complaint of grievances to 1856 he became assistant adjutant-general, 

Congress from Newburg. He was elected and brigadier-general United States army 

a State Senator in 1783, and held the office in May, 1861. General McDowell had. 

till his- death in New York City, June 8, command of the first army gathered at 

1786. Washington, and commanded at the battle 

MacDougall, Sir Duncan, military of Bull Run. After McClellan took com- 

ofiicer; 1)orn in Scotland, in 1789; son of mand of the Army of the Potomac, Mc- 

Sir Patrick MacDougall. He entered the Dowell led a division under him. In 

army in 1804, and served in several regi- March, 1862, he took command of a corps, 

ments, and on the staff in Portugal, Spain, and was appointed major-general of volun- 

France, America, Cape of Good Hope, and teers. In April his corps was detached 

West Indies. He had the distinction of from the Army of the Potomac, and he 

having received into his arms two emi- was placed in command of the Department 

nent British generals when they foil in of the Rappahannock. He co-operated 

battle — namely, General Ross, killed near with the forces of Banks in the Shenan- 

Baltimore, and General Pakenham, slain doah Valley, and was of great assistance 

near New Orleans. He commanded the to General Pope in the operations of the 

79th Highlanders for several years. His Army of Virginia. He was relieved, at 

son and heir. Col. Patrick Leonard Mac- his own request, Sept. 5, 1862, and subse- 

Dougall. was commandant of the Royal quently commanded the Department of the 

Stall College in 1870. The family is de- I'acific. He received the brevet of major- 

18 



McDowell 



general United States army in March, 
1865. In September, 1866, he was muster- 
ed out of the volunteer service, and after- 
wards commanded the Departments of the 




IRVIN MCDOWELL. 

East, the South, and the Pacific till 
his retirement, Oct. 15, 1882. He died in 
San Francisco, May 4, 1885. 

McDowell, William Fraseb, educator; 
born in Millersburg, O., Feb. 4, 1858; 
graduated at the Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 



sity in 1879, and at the Theological De- 
partment of the Boston University in 
1882. He was pastor of Methodist Epis- 
copal churches in Lodi, 0., in 1882- 
83; Oberlin in 1883-85; and Tiffin in 
1885-90. In the latter year he was elect- 
ed chancellor of the University of Denver. 
He is a member of the Colorado State 
board of charities and corrections. 

McDowell, Battle at. General Banks 
with 5,000 men was at Harrison- 
burg, in the upper Shenandoah Valley, 
at the close of April, 1802, and "Stone- 
wall " Jackson, joined by troops under 
Generals Ewell and Edward S. Johnson, 
had a force of about 15,000 men not far 
off. Jackson was closely watching Banks, 
when he was startled by news that Gen- 
eral Milroy was approaching from Fre- 
mont's department, to join Banks or fall 
upon Staunton. Leaving Ewell to watch 
the latter, he turned rapidly towards 
Staunton, and sent Johnson with five 
brigades to strike Milroy. The latter, out- 
numbered, fell back to McDowell, 36 miles 
west of Staunton, whither General Schenck 
hastened with a part of his brigade, to 
assist him. Jackson also hurried to the 



m^^ 






"stonewall" JACKSON'S LETTER TO EWELL. 

19 



McENERY— McGIFFIN 

assistance of Johnson, and on May 8 a er mathematics, surveying, etc., and read- 
severe engagement occurred, lasting about ing law. In 1873-75 he was engaged in 
five hours. Schenck, finding the position surveying and in law practice; in 1874- 
untenable, withdrew during the night to 76 invented and manufactured a variety 
Fi-anklin, and the next day Jackson of agricultural implements; in 1875-77 
wrote to Ewell: "Yesterday God gave us studied archeology and geology; and in 
the victory at McDowell." 1877-81 made the most extensive topo- 

McEnery, Samuel Douglas, lawyer; graphical and geological survey of north- 
born in Monroe, La., May 28, 1837; ac- eastern Iowa ever produced. Later he 
quired a collegiate education; served in became connected with the United States 
the Confederate army during the Civil Geological Survey, for which he surveyed 
War; and afterwards engaged in the prac- the southeastern part of the United States, 
tice of law; was elected lieutenant-govern- mapping out 300,000 square miles. In 
or of Louisiana in 1879; and was govern- 1886 he investigated the Charleston earth- 
or in 1881-88; associate justice of the quake, and in 1894-95 explored Tiburon 
Supreme Court of Louisiana in 1888-92; Island, the abode of a savage tribe which 
and a Democratic United States Senator had never before been investigated. He 
in 1897-1909. is author of Pleistocene History of North- 

McEingal, the title of a political and eastern Iowa; Geology of Chesapealce Bay; 
historical satire, in four cantos, written The Lafayette Formation; The Siouan 
by John Trumbull during the American Indians; Primitive Trephining; and many 
Revolution. McFingal is a representative scientific papers. He was chief of the de- 
of the Tory or loyalist party in that partment of ethnology and anthropology at 
struggle, a burly New England squire, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in 1904. 
constantly engaged with Honorius, a McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, theolo- 
champion of the Whigs, or rebels, as the gian ; born at Sanquoit, N. Y., March 
British called the patriots. In it all the 4, 1861; graduated at the Western Re- 
leading Tories of the day are severely serve College in 1882 and at the Union 
lampooned. The first canto was pub- Theological Seminary in 1885; studied 
lished in 1775; the whole work in 1782. in Europe in 1885-88; and was instructor 

McGee, Anita Newcomb, physician; in Church History at the Lane Theologi- 

born in Washington in 1864; daughter of eal Seminary, Cincinnati, in 1888-90; and 

SiMOX Xewcomb {q. v.). She took spe- professor in 1890-93. In the latter year 

cial courses at Newnham College, Cam- he was called to the similar chair in 

bridge, England, and at the University of the Union Theological Seminary, New 

Geneva, and graduated at the medical York. At the session of the General As- 

department of Columbian University in sembly of the Presbyterian Church in 

1892. Later she practised in Washing- 1898, charges of heresy were brought 

ton. In the early part of the war with against him, based on passages in his 

Spain she was appointed director of the Eistory of Christianity in the Apostolic 

Hospital Corps of the Daughters of the Age. He declined to retract, and withdrew 

American Revolution, and had charge of from the Presbyterian Church in March, 

the selection of the trained women nurses 1900. Among his notable publications 

for both the army and navy. On Aug. are Dialogue Betioeen a ChristioAi and a 

29, 1898, she was commissioned an acting Jew ; A Eistory of Christianity in the 

assistant surgeon in the United States Apostolic Age; and a translation of Euse- 

army, becoming the only woman officer in hius's Church Eistory (with notes and 

the army, and after the close of the war prolegomena). 

shf^ was placed in charge of the nurses McGiffin, Philo Norton, naval officer; 

under the jurisdiction of the surgeon- born in Pennsylvania in 1863; gradu- 

general. She was married to W. J. McGee ated at the United States Naval Acad- 

{q. V.) in 1888. omy in 1882, and was first assigned to 

McGee, W. J. (no Christian names), duty on the China station. He manifested 

cthnolof.'iHt; born in Dubuque county, la., great interest in that country, and when 

April 17, 1853; was self-educated while IVance declared war against China he 

at work on a farm, studying Latin, high- resigned from the nary and entered the 

20 



McGIFFIN— MACGILLIVRAY 



service of China, after receiving the con- 
sent of the United States government. 
During the war he captured the only gun- 
boat that was lost to the French, in the 
battle of Yangtse. When peace was con- 
cluded he went to England to superintend 
the construction of several gunboats for 
China, one of which, the Chen-Yuen, be- 
came the flag-ship of the Chinese fleet 
in the war between China and Japan in 
1894-95. At the battle of Yalu River, 
which was the first great combat between 
modern war vessels, Captain McGiffin 



McGee, Thomas d Arcy, legislator-, 
born in Carlingford, Ireland, April 13, 
1825; came to the United States in 1842; 
appointed on the staft" of the Pilot in Bos- 
ton, but soon returned to Ireland, where 
he made himself conspicuous by his ad- 
vocacy of the policy proposed by the 
" Young Ireland " party. Suspected by 
the British government of treason, he es- 
caped to the United States, settling in 
New York, where he founded The American 
Celt and The Nation. He removed to Cana- 
da in 1856, founded The Neio Era, and 



early became the commander of the entire was elected to the Canadian Parliament 



Chinese fleet by the death of his superior 
officer. In his eagerness to work his ves- 
sel to a point of vantage he exposed him- 
self to personal danger and was badly 
wounded. He was shot once in the 
back of the head and once in 



in 1857. His political views had changed, 
and he parted company with his old asso- 
ciates. He was active in promoting the 
union of the British colonies in North 
America, and was elected a member of the 
first Parliament of the Dominion. On 



the thigh. His body was literally filled April 7, 1868, he was assassinated on the 

with splinters. Both ear - drums were public street. 

Macgillivray, Alexander, Indian 
chief; born in the Creek Nation in 1740; 
was the son of a Scottish trader of that 
name, who married a Creek maiden, 



broken ; all the hair was burned from his 
body, and his clothes were blown off. His 
eyesight was affected so that he was never 
able to see afterwards except in a shadowy 
outline; his body was black and blue daughter of the principal chief. When he 



from bruises. It is estimated that Mc- 
Giffin's ship was hit 400 times — 120 times 
by large shot or shell. The rain of pro- 
jectiles visited every exposed point of the 
vessel. Early in the fight a shell exploded 
in the fighting-top, instantly killing every 
cne of its inmates. Indeed, all such con- 
trivances proved to be death-traps. Five 
shells burst in shields of the bow 6-inch 
gun, completely gutting the place. Thovigh 
the carnage was frightful, the Chinese 
sailors, with their commander to encour- 
age them, stuck to their posts. With 
forty wounds in his body, holding an eye- 
lid up with one hand, this man of iron 
nerve led the fighting on his ship until the 
Japanese vessels gave up the contest, and 
he alone of all the Chinese commanders 
kept his ship in its proper position 



was ten years of age his father sent him 
to Charleston, under the care of his kins- 
man, Farquhar Gillivray, by whom he was 
placed under the tuition of an eminent 
English school-master. He was also taught 
the Latin language in the Free School of 
Charleston. At the age of seventeen he 
was sent to Savannah and placed in the 
counting-house of General Elbert, where 
he devoted much of his time to reading 
history instead of attending to his em- 
ployer's business. His father sent for 
him to return home; and, finally, the 
Creeks chose him for their principal sa- 
chem, or king. The King of Spain gave 
him the commission of a brigadier-general 
in his service. He married a Creek girl, 
and they had several children. Macgillivray 
desired that his children should learn and 



throughout the fight, thus protecting the speak the English language, and always 



flag-ship and saving the fleet from total 
destruction. It is the custom of Chinese 
officers when they lose a flght to commit 
suicide. McGiffin would not follow the 
custom, and fell into disfavor. He re- 
turned to the United States, became in- 
sane from his wounds, and killed himself 
in a hospital in New York City, Feb. 11, 
1897. 



talked with them in English, while their 
mother, jealous of her native tongue, never 
would talk to them in English, but always 
in Indian. He espoused the British cause 
in the Revolutionary War; resisted many 
overtures for peace from the United States 
government; and was best kno^vTl for his 
general treachery. He died in Pensacola, 
Fla., Feb. 17, 1793. 



21 



McGILVARY— MoHENRY 



McGilvary, Evander Bradley, edu- 
cator; born in Bangkok, Siani, July 19, 
1864: received his early education in 
North Carolina; and graduated at 
Davidson College in 1884. He was a 
fellow of Princeton Theological Seminary 
in 1889-90; an instructor and assistant 
professor in the University of California 
in 1894-99 ; and was then called to the 
chair of ]Moral Philosophy at Cornell Uni- 
versity. Dr. McGilvary has translated 
into the Siamese language the gospels of 
Matthew, Luke, John, and the Acts of the 
Apostles. He is a contributor to the 
Philosophical Eevieio, and to Mind. 

McGlynn, Edward, clergyman; born in 
New York City, Sept. 27, 1837; was edu- 
cated at the College of the Propaganda in 
Rome. In 1860 he was ordained priest 
and returned to New York City, where he 
became an assistant to Father Farrell 
in St. Joseph's Church. In 1866 he was 
appointed pastor of St. Stephen's Church 
in New York, and while in this pastorate 
founded St. Stephen's Home for Orphan 
and Destitute Children on a very meagre 
scale, but so rapidly did the enterprise 
grow that in a few years it occupied three 
lots on Twenty-eighth Street, two large 
bouses, 20 acres of land at New Dorp, 
S. I., and an acre of land and house at 
Belmont, Fordham. He became a strong 
advocate of the single - tax theories of 
Henry George (q. v.), whom he heartily 
supported as candidate for mayor of New 
York City in 1887. These views were re- 
buked in a letter written him by Arch- 
bishop Corrigan, and shortly afterwards 
he was suspended from his pastorate and 
summoned to Rome to appear before the 
tribunal of the Propaganda. He, however, 
refused to go, and, in consequence, was 
excommunicated. In 1892 he was restored 
to the exercise of his priestly functions. 
In 1894 Archbishop Corrigan appointed 
him pastor of St. Mary's Church at New- 
burg, N. Y., where he died, Jan. 7, 1900. 

McGovern, John, author; born in Troy, 
N. Y., Feb. 18, 18.50; was connected with 
the Chicago Tribune for sixteen years. He 
is the author of Empire of Information ; 
Famous Women of the World; American 
Htatesmen; Flistories of Wheat, Money, 
Paint, and Market Places, etc. 

MacGregor, .Ioiin, political economist; 
born in Drynie, Ross-shire, Scotland, in 



1797; went to Canada early in life and be- 
came connected with a commercial house 
on Prince Edward Island. Subsequently 
he returned to Scotland and represented 
Glasgow in Parliament. His publications 
include Commercial and Financial Legis- 
lation of Europe and America; American 
Discovery from the Times of Columbus ; 
History of the British Empire from the Ac- 
cession of James I., etc. He died in 
Boulogne, France, April 23, 1857. 

Machen, Willis Benson, legislator; 
born in Caldwell county, Ky., April 5, 1810; 
elected to the State Senate in 1853, and 
to the State Assembly in 1856 and 1860; 
sympathized with the South, and repre- 
sented Kentuclcy in the Confederate Con- 
gress in 1861-64. He was appointed Unit- 
ed States Senator from Kentucky to fill 
an unexpired term from December, 1872, to 
March, 1873. He received one electoral 
vote in 1872 for Vice-President. He died 
in Louisville, Ky., Sept. 28, 1893. 

McHenry, James, statesman; born in 
Ireland, Nov. 16, 1753; emigrated to the 
United States in 1771; served during the 
Revolutionary War as surgeon. On May 
15, 1778, he was made Washington's pri- 
vate secretary, which office he held for two 
years, when he was transferred to the statf 
of Lafayette. He was a member of the 
Maryland Senate in 1781-86, and of Con- 
gress in 1783-86. Washington appointed 
him Secretary of War in January, 1796, 
and he served until 1801. He died in 
Baltimore, Md., May 3, 1816. 

McHenry, Fort, a protective work on 
Locust Point, Baltimore, about one-half its 
present dimensions. In anticipation of 
a visit from the British marauding squad- 
rons in 1814, the people of Baltimore sunk 
some vessels in the narrow channel be- 
tween the fort and Lazzaretto Point, which 
prevented the passage of an enemy's ships. 
Fort McHenry was garrisoned by about 
1,000 men, volunteers and regulars, com- 
manded by Maj. George Armistead 
( q. V. ) . To the right of it, guarding the 
shores of the Patapsco, and to prevent 
troops landing in the rear, were two 
redoubts — Fort Covington and Babcock's 
Battery. In the rear of these, upon high 
ground, was an unfinished circular re- 
doubt for seven guns, and on Lazzaretto 
Point, opposite Fort McHenry, was a small 
battery. This and Fort Covington were 



22 



McHENRY, FORT 



in charge of officers of Barney's flotilla. 
Such were Fort McHenry and its sup- 
porters on the morning of Sept. 12, when 
the British fleet, under Admiral Cochrane, 
consisting of sixteen heavy vessels, five of 
them bomb-ships, had made full prepara- 
tions for the bombardment of the fort. 

At sunrise, Sept. 13, the bomb - vessels 
opened a heavy tire on the fort and 
its dependencies at a distance of 2 
miles, and kept up a well-directed bom- 
bardment until 3 P.M. Armistead im- 
mediately opened the batteries of Fort Mc- 
Henry upon the assailants ; but after a 
while he found that his missiles fell short 
of his antagonist and were harmless. The 
garrison was composed of two companies 
of sea fencibles, under Captains Bunbury 
and Addison; two companies of volun- 
teers from the city of Baltimore, under 
the command of Captains Berry and Pen- 
nington; a company of United States ar- 
tillery, imder Captain Evans; a company 
of volunteer artillerists, led by Judge 
Joseph H. Nicholson; a detachment of 
Barney's flotilla, under Lieutenant Bed- 
man, and detachments of regulars, GOO 
strong, furnished by General Winder, and 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Stewart and Major Lane. The garrison 



fusion in the fort caused by this event, 
and hoping to profit by it, ordered three of 
his bomb-vessels to move up nearer the 
fort, in order to increase the effectiveness 
of their guns. Armistead was delighted, 
and immediately ordered a general can- 
nonade and bombardment from every part 
of the fort; and so severe was his punish- 
ment of the venturesome intruders that 
within half an hour they fell back to their 
old anchorage. A rocket vessel (Erebus) 
was so badly damaged that the British 
were compelled to send a division of small 
boats to tow her out of reach of Armi- 
stead's guns. The garrison gave three 
cheers, and the firing ceased. 

After the British vessels had resumed 
their former stations, they opened a more 
furious bombardment than before, and 
kept it up until after midnight, when it 
was discovered that a considerable force 
(1,200 picked men in barges) had been 
sent up the Patapsco in the gloom to at- 
tack Fort McHenry in the rear. They 
were repulsed, and the bombardment from 
the vessels ceased. At 7 a.m., on the 14th, 
the hostile shipping and land forces menac- 
ing the city withdrew, and Baltimore was 
saved. In this attack on the fort the 
British did not lose a man; and the 




RUINS OF BATTERY AT FORT McHEXRY. 



was exposed to a tremendous shower of 
shells for several hours, without the power 
to inflict injury in turn, or even to check 
the fury of the assault; yet they endured 
the trial with cool courage and great forti- 
tude. At length a bomb-shell dismounted 
a 24-pounder in the fort, killing a lieu- 
tenant and wounding several of the men. 
Admiral Cochrane, observingr the con- 



Americans had only four men killed and 
twenty-four wounded, chiefly by the ex- 
ploding of the shell that dismounted the 
2-4 - pounder. During the bombardment 
Francis S. Key (q. v.) was held in 
custody in a vessel of the fleet, and 
was inspired by the event to compose The 
Star - Spangled Banner. Armistead and 
his brave band received the grateful bene- 



23 



McILWAINE— McINTOSH 




SALLYPORT OF FORT McHEN'RT. 



dictions of the people of Baltimore and Oglethorpe in 1736 and settled at New In- 
of the whole country, Governor-General verness, in what is now Mcintosh county, 
Prevost, of Canada, was so certain of an Georgia. Some of his sons and grand- 
easy victory at Baltimore that he ordered sons bore commissions in the army of the 
rejoicings on account of the capture of Eevolution. Lachlan received assistance 
Washington to be postponed until after in the study of mathematics from Ogle- 
the capture of Baltimore should be re- thorpe. At maturity he entered the count- 
ported. Locust Point is to be trans- 
formed into a park of the city of Bal- 
timore, but the fort is to remain in- 
tact. 

Mcllwaine, Richard, clergyman; born 
in Petersburg, Va., May 20, 1834; grad- 
uated at Hampden - Sidney College in 
1853, and afterwards studied at the Union 
Theological Seminary of Virginia, and at 
the Free Church College of Edinburgh, 
Scotland. Returning to the United States, 
he was ordained a Presbyterian minister 
in December, 1858. Subsequently he held 
pastorates at Amelia, Farmville, and 
Lynchburg, Va. He served in the Con- 
federate army as lieutenant and chaplain 
of the 44th Virginia Regiment. In 1872- 
83 he was secretary of the boards of 
home and foreign missions of the South- 
ern Presbyterian Church, and in the latter 
year became president of Hampden-Sid- 
ney College. 

Mcintosh, Laciilax, military officer; 
born near Inverness, Scotland, March 17, ing-room of Henry Laurens, in Charleston, 
1725. His father, at the head of 100 of as clerk. Making himself familiar with 
the clan Mcintosh, came to Georgia with military tactics, he was ready to enter 

24 




LACHLAN McINTOSH. 



MACKAY— McKENNA 



the field when the Eevolutionaiy War be- Declaration of Independence, and was one 
gan, and he served faithfully in that strug- of the committee that drew up the Articles 
gle, rising to the rank of brigadier-gen- of Confederation. From 1777 till 1779 he 
eral. Button Gwinnett (q. v.) perse- held the office of president of the State of 
cuted Mcintosh beyond endurance, and he Delaware; also executed the duties of 
called the persecutor a scoundrel. A duel chief-justice of Pennsylvania. He was 
ensued, and in it Gwinnett was killed. 
Mcintosh was at the siege of Savannah 
in 1779, and was made a prisoner at 
Charleston in 1780. In 1784 he was in 
Congress, and the next year was a com- 



He 



governor of Pennsylvania, 1799-1808 
died in Philadelphia, June 24, 1817. 

McKean, William Wister, naval offi- 
cer; born in Huntingdon county, Pa., Sept. 
19, 1800; was a son of Judge Joseph Bor- 
missioner to treat with the Southern den McKean and nephew of Gov. Thomas 
Indians. He died in Savannah, Feb. 20, McKean. He entered the navy as midship- 



1806. 
Mackay, 



Charles, author; born in 



man in 1814; became a lieutenant in 1825, 
a commander in 1841, captain in 1855, 



Perth, Scotland, in 1814; educated in Lon- and commodore in July, 1862, when he 
don and Brussels; was connected with the was retired. In command of a schooner, 
London Morning Chromcle in 1834-44; under Commodore Porter, he assisted that 
editor of the Glasgow Argus in 1844-47. officer (1823-24) in suppressing piracy 
Subsequently he visited the United States, in the West Indies. In 1860 he was en- 
where he lectured on So7igs — National, gaged in the special service of conveying 
Historical, and Popular. Returning to the Japanese embassy home. He was gov- 
England, he established the London He- ernor of the Naval Asylum, Philadelphia, 
vieio. In 18G3 he again came to the in 1858-61, and was for a short time after 
United States and for three years was his return from Japan in command of the 
war correspondent for the London Times. Western Gulf blockading squadron. He 
He published Life and Liberty in Anier- died near Binghamton, N. Y., April 22, 
ica; Gaelic Etymology of the English Lan- 1865. 

guage ; etc. He died in December, 1889. McKelway, St. Clair, journalist; born 

Mackay, John William, capitalist; in Columbia, Mo., March 15, 1845; edu- 
Tjorn in Dublin, Ireland, Nov. 28, 1831; cated at Trenton, N. J.; admitted to the 
worked in mines in California and Ne- bar in 1866, but never practised. He 
vada; was one of the discoverers of the became editor of the Brooklyn Daily 
Bonanza mines of the Comstock lode; a Eagle in 1883, and afterwards a regent of 
founder and the president of the Nevada the University of the State of New York. 
Bank of San Francisco; and with James He is an honorary member of the Long 
Gordon Bennett established the Commer- Island Historical Society and of the So- 
ciety of Medical Jurisprudence, and a di- 
rector of the American Social Science 
Association. Mr. INIcKelway is widely 
known as a speaker and writer on educa- 



cial Cable Company, which laid two 
cables across the Atlantic Ocean. He died 
in London, England, July 20, 1902. 

McKean, Thomas, signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence; born in New tional and historical subjects 



London, Chester co., Pa., March 19, 1734; 
was admitted to the bar in 1757, and 
chosen clerk of the Assembly. He was a 
member of that body for the county of 
New Castle, from 1762 to 1779, and mem- 
ber of the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. 
He and Ljmch and Otis framed the address 
to the British Parliament. He held sev- 
eral local offices, and in 1774-83 was a 
member of the Continental Congress. Mc- 
Kean was the only man who was a mem- 
ber of that body continually during the 
whole period of the war. He was active 
in procuring a unanimous vote for the 



McKenna, Joseph, jurist; born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 10, 1843; was a 
student in St. Joseph's College; removed 
to Benicia, Cal., in 1855; and was ad- 
mitted to the bar there in 1865. He was 
twice district attorney for Solano countj-, 
and in 1875 - 76 a member of the State 
legislature. In 1885 he was elected to 
Congress, where he served till 1893, when 
he was appointed a United States circuit 
judge. From March, 1897, till January, 
1898, he was United States Attorney-Gen- 
eral, and then became an associate jus- 
tice of the United States Supreme Court. 



25 



McKENNEY— MACKENZIE 



McKenney, Thomas Lorraine, author; 
born in Hopewell, Md., March 21, 1785; 
was educated in Chesterto^^^l, Md. ; and 
was made superintendent of the bureau 
of Indian affairs in 1824. His publica- 
tions include Sketches of a Tour to the 
Lakes, etc.; A History of the Indian 
Tribes; Essays on the Spirit of Jackso- 
nianism as Exemplified in its Deadly Hos- 
tility to the Bank of the United States, 
etc.; Memoirs, Official and Personal, with 
Sketches of Travels among the Northern 
and Southern Indians, etc. He died in 
New York City, Feb. 19, 1859. 

Mackenzie, Alexander Si-idell, naval 
officer; born in New York City, April 6, 
1803; joined the navy in 1815; was 
promoted commander in 1841. While in 
charge of the brig Somers, the crew of 
which was composed chiefly of naval ap- 
prentices, he discovered a mutinous plot 
on board, and immediately called a coun- 
cil of officers, which after a careful ex- 
amination advised that the three persons 
principally involved in the affair be ex- 
ecuted. On Dec. 1, 1842, the decision was 
put into effect. Soon after the Somers 
reached New York a court of inquiry be- 
gan an investigation, which fully approved 
Mackenzie's action, and later he was 
acquitted by a court-martial before which 
he was tried. He was, however, severely 
criticised by many, as the young men 
whom he had executed were of good social 
standing, one of them being a son of John 
C. Spencer, then Secretary of War. The 
decision of the court-martial did not quiet 
this criticism, which greatly embittered 
the remainder of Mackenzie's life. His 
publications include Popular Essays on 
Naval Subjects; The American in Eng- 
land; Life of John Paul Jones; Life of 
Commodore Oliver H. Perry ; Life of Com- 
modore Stephen Decatur, etc. He died in 
Tarrytown, N. Y., Sept. 13, 1848. 

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander, explorer; 
born in Inverness, Scotland, about 1755; 
was early engaged in the fur-trade in 
Canada. He set out to explore the vast 
wilderness northward in June, 1789, hav- 
ing spent a year previously in England 
studying astronomy and navigation. At 
the western part of the Great Slave Lake 
he entered a river in an unexplored wil- 
derness, and gave his name to it. Its 
course was followed until July 12, when 



26 



his voyage was terminated by ice and he 
returned to his place of departure. Fort 
Chippewayan. He had reached lat. 69° 1' 
N. In October, 1792, he crossed the con- 
tinent to the Pacific Ocean, which he 
reached in July, 1793, in lat. 51° 21' N. 
He returned, went to England, and pub- 
lished (1801) Voyages from Montreal, on 
the River St. Lawrence, through the Con- 
tinent of North America, to the Frozen 
and Pacific Oceans, in the Years 1189 and 
1793, with excellent maps. He was 
knighted in 1802, and died in Dalhousie, 
Scotland, March 12, 1820. 

Mackenzie, William Lyon, journal- 
ist; born in Dundee, Scotland, March 12, 
1795; kept a circulating library near 
Dundee when he was seventeen years of 
age, and was afterwards clerk to Lord 
Lonsdale, in England. He went to 
Canada in 1820, where he was engaged 
successfully in the book and drug trade 
in Toronto. He entered political life in 
1823 ; edited the Colonial Advocate 
(1824-33) and was a natural agitator. 
He criticised the government party, and 
efforts to suppress his paper failed. 
Rioters destroyed his office in 1826, and 
the people, whose cause he advocated, 
elected him to the Canadian Parliament. 
Five times he was expelled from that body 
for alleged libels in his newspaper, and 
was as often re-elected, until finally the 
Assembly got rid of him by refusing to 
issue a writ for a new election. He went 
to England in 1832, with a petition of 
grievances to the home government. In 
1836 Toronto was incorporated a city, and 
Mackenzie was chosen its first mayor. He 
engaged, as a leader, in the Canadian Re- 
bellion (see Canada), when he was out- 
lawed by his government, his property was 
confiscated, and he fled to the United 
States. Arrested at Rochester by the 
United States authorities on a charge of 
a violation of the neutrality laws, he was 
sentenced to eighteen months' imprison- 
ment in the county jail of Monroe. At 
the end of that time he went to New York, 
where he was the actuary of the Mechan- 
ics' Institute, and with his family re- 
sided in the basement of their school build- 
ing. He was editorially connected with 
the New York Tribune for some time, and 
published Mackenzie's Gazette. In 1850 
Ids government pardoned him, restored his 



McKIBBIN— MACKINAW 



confiscated property, and he returned to of the American Safe Deposit Company 

Canada, where he was elected to Parlia- in New York City, residences and suuiiner 

ment, and remained a member of the As- cottages, music-halls and casinos, and a 

sembly until 1858. He established a news- number of club-houses and churches, 
paper in Toronto, and conducted it until Mackinaw, or Miciiilimackinac. In 

his death, Aug. 28, ISGl. Mackenzie was the bosom of the clear, cold, and damp 

a thoroughly sincere and honest man, and waters of the strait between Lakes Huron 

had the courage of his convictions. His and Michigan — a strait 40 miles in length 

admirers purchased for him a residence — stands a limestone rock about 7 miles 

near Toronto and a small annuity. in circumference, rising in its centre to 

McKibbin, Chambers, military offi- an altitude of nearly 300 feet, and covered 

cer; born in Chambersburg, Pa., Nov. 2, with a rough and generous soil, out of 

1841; entered the regular army, Sept. 22, which springs heavy timber. The Indians, 

1862; was commissioned a second lieu- impressed by its form, called it Mich-il-i- 

tenant in the 14th Infantry two days mackfi-nac — " The Great Turtle." On the 

afterwards; and promoted first lieutenant, opposite shore of the peninsula of Michi- 

June, 1864; captain of the 35th Infantry, gan, French Jesuits erected a stronghold 

July, 1866; major of the 25th Infantry, and called it Fort Michilimackinac, which 

April, 1892; lieutenant-colonel of the 21st name has been abbreviated to Mackinaw. 

Infantry, May, 1896; and colonel of the This fort fell into the hands of the British, 

12th Infantry, April 1, 1899. He greatly in their conquest of Canada in 1760, but 

distinguished himself in 1864 in the battle the Indians there remained hostile to their 

of North Anna Eiver, Va. In July, 1898, new masters. " You have conquered the 

he was appointed a brigadier-general of French," they said, " but you have not 

volunteers for the war with Spain. He conquered us." The most important vil- 

took an active part in the Santiago cam- lage of the Chippewas, one of the most 

paign, and for his services there received powerful tribes of Pontiac's confederacy, 

special mention in the official reports of was upon the back of Michilimackinac. 

General Shaffer. After the surrender of Early in the summer of 1763 the front of 

the Spaniards at Santiago he was ap- the island was filled with Indians, who, 

pointed military governor of that city. professing warm friendship for the Eng- 

McKim, Charles Follen, architect; lish, invited the garrison at Fort Macki- 

born in Chester county, Pa., Aug. 24, 1847 ; naw to witness a great game of ball— an 
studied at the 
Harvard Scien- 
tific School in 
1.866 - 67, and 
then took the 
three years' 
course in archi- 
tecture at the 
Ecole des 
Beaux - Arts, 
Paris. Return- 
ing to the Unit- 
ed States, he 
became a part- 
ner of William 
R. Mead and 
Stanford White 

in New Y^ork. This firm soon made a not- exciting amusement. They did so. At 
able advance in architectural construction, length a ball, making a lofty curve in the 
and have planned a number of the most at- air, fell near the pickets. It was a pre- 
tractive buildings in the country, includ- concerted signal. The warriors rushed tow- 
ing the new Public Library in Boston, ards the fort as if in quest of the bail, 
Madison Square Garden, and the building when their hands suddenly pulled gleam- 

27 




MACKINAW FROM ROUND ISLAND. 



MACKINAW— Mckinley 



in" hatchets from beneath their blankets directed to summon to his assistance the 
and besfan a massacre of the garrison; but, neighboring Indians, and to ask the aid 
hearino- that a strong British force was ap- of the employes of the Northwestern Fur 
proachiug, the Indians abandoned the fort Company. On the morning of July 16 
and fled. Roberts embarked with a strong, motley 

This fort came into the possession of the force of whites and Indians, in boats, 
United States in 1796, when the North- bateaux, and canoes, with two 6-pounders, 

and convoyed by the 
brig Caledonia, be- 
longing to the North- 
western Fur Com- 
pany, loaded with 
provisions and stores. 
Hancks, suspicious of 
mischief, sent Cap- 
tain Daurman to St. 
Joseph, to observe the 
temper and disposi- 
tion of the British 
there. On his way 
he met the hostile 
flotilla, and was made 
a prisoner. News of 
the declaration of war 
had not reached the 
far-oft' post of Mack- 
inaw. The overwhelm- 
ing force under Rob- 
erts landed, and took 
possession of the fort 
and island. The sum- 
mons to surrender 
western posts were given up by the British was the first intimation that Hancks had 
in compliance with the treaty of peace in of the declaration of war. The Indians 
178.3. The fortification called Fort Holmes, were ready to massacre the whole gar- 
on the high southwest bluff of the island, rison if any resistance were made. The 
was garrisoned in 1812 by a small force jjost was surrendered without firing a 
of Americans, under the command of gun. 

Lieut. Porter Hancks, of the United States In the spring of 1814 the Americans 
artillery. planned a land and naval expedition for 

It was supported by the higher ground its recapture. A small squadron was 
in the rear, on which was a stockade, de- placed at the disposal of Commander St. 
fended by two block-houses, each mount- Clair, and a land force was placed under 
ing a brass 6 - pounder. It was isolated the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Cro- 
from the haunts of men more than half ghan. They left Detroit at the beginning 
the year by barriers of ice and snow, and of July and started for Mackinaw. The 
exposed to attacks by the British and Ind- force of the Americans was too small to 
ians at Fort St. Joseph, on an island 40 effect a capture, and the enterprise was 
miles northeast from Mackinaw, then com- abandoned. Some vessels cruised in those 
manded by Capt. Charles Roberts. When waters for a time. The expedition re- 
Sir Isaac Brock, governor of Upper tuincd to Detroit in August, and no fur- 
Canada, received at Fort George, on the ther military movements were undertaken 
Niagara River, from British spies, notice in the Northwest, excepting a raid by 
of the declaration of war, he despatched an Gkn. Duncan McArthub {q. v.). 
express to Roberts, ordering him to at- McKinley, JoiiN, jurist; born in Cul- 
tack Mackinaw immediately. He was pcpcr county, Va., May 1, 1780; admitted 

28 




FORT MACKIXAW. 



MoKINLEY 

to the bar of Kentucky in 1801 ; removed Buren appointed him justice of the United 

to Huntsville, Ala.; was United States States Supreme Court in 1837, which office 

Senator in 1826-31; Representative in he held until his death, in Louisville, Ky., 

Congress in 1833-35. President Van July 19, 1852. 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



McKinley, William, twenty-fifth Pres- 
ident of the United States, March 4, 1897, 
to Sept. 14, 1901; Republican; born in 
Niles, 0., Jan. 29, 1843, and was educated 
at the Poland Academy. When sixteen 
years old he went to the Allegheny Col- 
lege at Meadville, Pa., and leaving there 
when eighteen years old, he taught a dis- 
trict school in Ohio for a time. He an- 
swered the first call for troops, and in 
June, 1861, enlisted in the 23d Ohio In- 
fantry. Each of his promotions in the 
army was for " bravery on the field," and 
he was successively sergeant, second and 
first lieutenant, captain, and at the close 
■of the war he was given a brevet as major. 



He then began the study of law in the 
office of Judge C. E. Glidden, in Poland; 
attended the law school at Albany for a 
year and a half; and was admitted to 
the bar in Canton, O., 1867. He took 
naturally to politics, and was, in 1869, 
elected prosecuting attorney. During the 
next few years he became noted as a plat- 
form speaker. In 1870 he was elected to 
Congress as a Republican, and served 
seven terms. His fourth election was con- 
tested and his Democratic opponent 
seated. In 1890 his name became wide- 
ly known in connection with a high-tarifl' 
bill. The same year he was defeated for 
Congress, but in 1891 was elected gov- 







BIRTHPLACE OF WILLIAM MoKIXLET 

29 



MoKINLEY, WILLIAM 




FIRST INAUGURATION OP WILLIAM McKINLEY. 



ernor of Ohio, and in 1893 was re-elected 
by a majority of 80,000. He was now 
known as a leading exponent of protec- 
tion, and in 1888 and 1892 his name was 
presented as a candidate for the Presi- 
dency to the Republican National Con- 
vention. In 1896 he became the party 
candidate for that office. 

The campaign which resulted in his 
election was a memorable one. For sev- 
eral previous campaigns the leading issue 
had been the tariff. It was generally 
thought that it would be so in 1896, but 
when the Republican convention met in 
St. Louis on June 16, 1896, it was found 
that the money question was paramount. 
When the committee on resolutions re- 
ported in favor of maintaining the gold 
standard of currency until international 
bimetallism could be secured. Senator 
Teller, a delegate from Colorado, led a 
bolt of the Silver delegates, and twenty- 



two of them, representing five West- 
ern States, left the convention. After 
their withdrawal William McKinley, of 
Ohio, and Garret A. Hobart, of New Jer- 
sey, were selected to head the national 
ticket. 

The Democratic convention was held in 
Chicago, July 7-11. In spite of the pro- 
tests of Eastern Democrats, a platform 
was adopted declaring for the free and 
unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio 
of 16 to 1. William J. Bryan {q. v.), 
of Nebraska, who made a thrilling address 
to the delegates, closing with the words: 
" We shall answer to their demand for a 
gold standard by saying to them, you shall 
not press down upon the brow of labor 
this crown of thorns, you shall not cru- 
cify mankind upon a cross of gold," was 
selected as candidate for President, and 
Arthur B. Sewall, of Maine, for Vice- 
President. 



30 



MoKINLEY, WILLIAM 

The People's party or Populist conven- simple request, a response of confidence 

tion was held in St. Louis, July 22-25. and faith in the President which seemed 

Bryan was endorsed for President, but natural to Americans, but which created 

Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, was nomi- amazement abroad. During the war the 

nated for Vice-President, the Populists public acts of the President resulted in 

believing that Sewall would withdraw in the burying forever of all sectional feeling 

his favor, in view of their endorsement of throughout the country. The complica- 

Bryan. Sewall did not withdraw, and tions that followed victory, the problems 

the anger this caused did much to offset met and overcome in the extension of our 

the fusion on the head of the ticket. A territory in the Philippines, the. West 

so-called Silver convention met in St. Indies, and Samoa could not be foreseen, 

Louis at the same time and endorsed but the President met them one by one, 

Bryan and Sewall. acting always within the law, and under 

When the Democratic delegates from the authority of Congress whenever possi- 

the East returned, many of them openly ble, and solved them to the satisfaction 

repudiated the Silver platform and an- of the people of the United States, and 

nounced their intention of voting for Mc- with the respect of other nations. 

Kinley. Gradually, however, there began Long before the meeting of the Kepub- 

a movement for the formation of a new lican convention in 1900, McKinley's re^ 

party, and on Sept. 2, there met in In- nomination was assured, and his re-elec- 

dianapolis a convention of " Gold Demo- tion was as certain as almost any future 

crats." This convention nominated Gen. event in politics. 

J. M. Palmer, of Illinois, for President, In the campaign of 1900 there wer? 

and Gen. S. B. Buckner, of Kentucky, for eight Presidential tickets in the field, 

Vice-President. The convention declared viz.: Republican, William McKinley and 

for the single gold standard. Theodore Roosevelt; Democratic-Populist, 

With affairs in this condition the elec- William J. Bryan and Adlai E. Steven- 

tion resolved itself into a struggle between son; Prohibition, John G. Woolley and 

the East and the West. Throughout the Henry B. Metealf; Middle-of-the-road, 

East party lines were forgotten, and New or Anti-fusion People's party, Wharton 

York City, formerly a Democratic strong- Barker and Ignatius Donnelly; Social 

hold, became a hot-bed of Republicanism, Democratic, Eugene V. Debs and Job Har- 

the sound-money parade in that city dur- riman; Social Labor, Joseph F. Malloney 

ing September being a sight not easily and Valentine Remmel ; United Christian 

forgotten. Two leading features of the party, J. F. R. Leonard and John G. 

campaign were the speech-making tour Woolley; and the Union Reform. Seth H. 

of Candidate Bryan and the speeches Ellis and Samuel T, Nicholas. The total 

made by Candidate McKinley to thousands popular vote was 13,969,770, of which the 

of people who went to Canton to visit Republican candidates received 7,206,677 

him. Bryan made over 475 addresses in and the Democratic - Populist 6.379,397. 

twenty-nine States, while McKinley ad- The Republican candidates received 849,455 

dressed over 150,000 excursionists. popular votes over the Democratic-Popu- 

McKinley received 271 electoral votes list, and 446,718 over all candidates. Of 

out of 447, and his popular plurality was the electoral vote the Republican candi- 

nearly 850,000. The victory was regarded dates received 292 and the Democratic- 

rather as a triumph over the theory of Populist 155, giving the former a majority 

free-silver coinage than as a partisan sue- of 137. On his second inauguration Presi- 

cess. dent McKinley reappointed his entire cab- 

The entire four years of President Mc- inet. See Cabinet, President's. 

Kinley's first administration were history- For the leading events in President Mc- 

making years, and the problems he had to Kinley's administration see Acquisition 

face were greater and graver than those of Territory; Annexed Territory, 

confronted by any other President since Status of; Bryan, William Jennings; 

Lincoln. When war with Spain was un- Clayton - Bulwer Treaty ; Cuba ; Im- 

avoidable Congress placed $50,000,000 at perialism; Philippine Islands; Porto 

the disposal of the President, upon his Rico; Spain; United States. 

31 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 




IXTERIOR OF THE TEITPLE OF MTSIO. . 
frhe X marks the spot where IvIcKinley stood when shot.) 



Shortly after his second inauguration the a reception at the Temple of Music, with 
President, accompanied by Mrs. McKinley, Mr. John G. Milburn, president of the ex- 
the members of the cabinet, and their position, at his right hand. Among the 
wives, made an extended tour through the throng filing past the President walked a 
South and West and the Pacific coast, medium-sized young man, brown-haired 
The party was received with such enthusi- and smooth-shaven, apparently a respect- 
asm and demonstrations of genuine respect able mechanic. His right hand was 
and affection as to make the journey one swathed in a handkerchief, and as he ap- 
continuous triumph. Unfortunately a por- proached he held it close to the back of 
tion of the trip had to be abandoned in the man in front of him, as if he wished 
consequence of the serious illness of Mrs. to conceal it as much as possible. As his 
McKinley when the party reached San turn came he stopped in front of the 



Francisco. This necessitated an earlier 
return to Washington than had been ex- 
pected, and with rest and care Mrs. Mc- 
Kinley was restored to health. 



President. Mr. McKinley smiled and ex- 
tended his hand. As he did so two re- 
volver shots rang out sharply above the 
subdued murmur of voices and the shuffl- 



The President had accepted an invitation ing of feet; the assassin had discharged a 

to attend the Pan-American Exposition on concealed revolver through the handker- 

" President's Day," Sept. 5. Accompanied chief wrapped about his hand. 
by Mrs. McKinley, he spent the entire day As the smoke cleared, it became evident 

at tlie fair, in the course of which he made that the shots had taken effect. The Presi- 

an address on the prosperity of th£ coun- dent was seen to stagger, while a look of 

try, ending with a f>rayer for prosperity bewilderment passed over his face. Then 

and peace to all nations. lie sank back, half fainting, into the arms 

On Friday the President again visited f>f Secretary Cortelyou. The assassin, Leon 

the exposition, and in the afternoon held Czolgosz, a Polish anarchist, was seized by 

32 



MoKINLEY, WILLIAM 



the bystanders and was with difficulty res- daily life of the people. They open 
cued from immediate death by the police mighty storehouses of information to the 
and secret service men. student. Every exposition, great or small, 
The President was taken to the emer- has helped to some onward step. Oom- 
gency hospital on the exposition grounds parison of ideas is always educational, 
and immediately operated upon. For some and as such instructs the brain and hand 
days the reports of his condition were so of man. Friendly rivalry follows, which 
favorable that the Vice-President and is the spur to industrial improvement, 
members of the cabinet, who had been the inspiration to useful invention and 
summoned to Buffalo, felt at liberty to re- to high endeavor in all departments of 
turn to their homes, but on Friday the human activity. It exacts a study of the 
President grew weaker and weaker, and wants, comforts, and even the whims of 
breathed his last on Saturday, Sept. 14, the people, and recognizes the efficacy of 
1901, at a quarter past two o'clock in high quality and new prices to win their 
the morning. The body lay in state in the favor. The quest for trade is an incentive 
City Hall, Buffalo, and in the Capitol at to men of business to devise, invent, im- 
Washington. The last ceremonies were prove, and economize in the cost of pro- 
held in the Methodist Church at Can- duction. Business life, whether among 



ton, O. 

The President's Address at the Pan- 
American Exposition, Sept. 5, 1901. (The 
italicized headings to the various sub- 



ourselves or with other people, is ever a 
sharp struggle for success. It will be 
none the less so in the future. Without 
competition we would be clinging to the 



divisions of this address are not in the clumsy and antiquated processes of farm- 
original, but have been added to make ing and manufacture and the methods of 
reference easy.) business of long ago, and the twentieth 

would be no further advanced than the 

President Milburn, Director - General eighteenth century. But though com- 
Buchanan, Commissioners, Ladies and mercial competitors we are, commercial 
Gentlemen, — I am glad to be again in the enemies we must not be. 
city of Buffalo and exchange greetings with International Assets. — The Pan-Ameri- 
her people, to whose generous hospitality I can Exposition has done its work thor- 
am not a stranger and with whose good- oughly, presenting in its exhibits evi- 
will I have been repeatedly and signally dences of the highest skill, and illustrating 
honored. To-day I have additional satis- the progress of the human family in the 
faction in meeting and giving welcome to Western Hemisphere. This portion of the 
the foreign representatives assembled here, earth has no cause for humiliation for 
whose presence and participation in this the part it has performed in the march of 
exposition have contributed in so marked civilization. It has not accomplished 
a degree to its interest and success. To everything; far from it. It has simply 
the commissioners of the dominion of done its best, and without vanity or boast- 
Canada and the British colonies, the fulness, and recognizing the manifold 
French colonies, the republics of Mexico achieveroients of others, it invites the 
and of Central and South America, and friendly rivalry of all the powers in the 
the commissioners of Cuba and Porto peaceful pursuits of trade and commerce, 
Rico, who share with us in this under- and will co-operate with all in advancing 
taking, we give the hand of fellowship the highest and best interests of humanity, 
and felicitate with them upon the triumphs The wisdom and energy of all the nations 
of art, science, education, and manufact- are none too great for the world's work, 
ures which the old has bequeathed to the The success of art, science, industry, and 
new century. invention is an international asset and a 

Expositions are time-keepers of prog- common glory, 

ress. They record the world's advance- After all, how near one to the other is 

ment. They stimulate the energy, enter- every part of the world! Modern in- 

prise, and intellect of the people, and ventors have brought into close relation 

quicken human genius. They go into the widely separated peoples and made them 

home. They broaden and brighten the better acquainted. Geographie and politi- 
VI.— c 33 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



cal divisions will continue to exist, but 
distances have been efl'aced. Swift ships 
and fast trains are becoming cosmopoli- 
tan. They invade fields which a few years 
ago were impenetrable. The world's prod- 
ucts are exchanged as never before, and 
with increasing transportation facilities 
come increasing knowledge and larger 
trade. Prices are fixed with mathematical 
precision by supply and demand. The 
world's selling prices are regulated by 
market and crop reports. We travel 
greater distances in a shorter space of 
time and with more ease than was ever 
dreamed of by the fathers. Isolation is 
no longer possible or desirable. The 
same important news is read, though in 
different languages, the same day in all 
Christendom. The telegraph keeps us ad- 
vised of what is occurring everywhere, 
and the press foreshadows, with more or 
less accuracy, the plans and purposes of 
the nations. Market prices of products 
and of securities are hourly known in 
every commercial mart, and the invest- 
ments of the people extend beyond their 
own national boundaries into the remotest 
parts of the earth. Vast transactions are 
conducted and international exchanges 
are made by the tick of the cable. Every 
event of interest is immediately bulle- 
tined. The quick gathering and transmis- 
sion of news, like rapid transit, are of re- 
cent origin, and are only made possible by 
the genius of the inventor and the courage 
of the investor. It took a special messen- 
ger of the government, with every facility 
known at the time for rapid travel, nine- 
teen days to go from the city of Washing- 
ton to Xew Orleans with a message to 
General Jackson that the war with Eng- 
land had ceased and a treaty of peace had 
been signed. How difTerent now! 

Annihilation of Distance. — We reached 
General Miles in Porto Rico by cable, and 
he was able through the military tele- 
graph to stop his army on the firing-line 
with the message that the United States 
and Spain had signed a protocol suspend- 
ing hostilities. We knew almost in- 
stantly of the first shot fired at Santiago, 
and the subsequent surrender of the Span- 
ish forces was known at Washington with- 
in less than an hour of its consummation. 
The first ship of Cervera's fleet had hardly 
emerged from that historic harbor when 



34 



the fact was flashed to our capital, and 
the swift destruction that followed was an- 
nounced immediately through the wonder- 
ful medium of telegraphy. So accustomed 
are we to safe and easy communication 
with distant lands that its temporary 
interruption even in ordinary times re- 
sults in loss and inconvenience. We shall 
never forget the days of anxious waiting 
and awful suspense when no information 
was permitted to be sent from Peking, 
and the diplomatic representatives of the 
nations in China, cut off from all com- 
munication inside and outside of the 
walled capital, were surrounded by an 
angry and misguided mob that threatened 
their lives; nor the joy that thrilled the 
world when a single message from the 
government of the United States brought 
through our minister the first news of the 
safety of the besieged diplomats. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury there was not a mile of steam rail- 
road on the globe. Now there are enough 
miles to make its circuit many times. 
Then there was not a line of electric tele- 
graph; now we have a vast mileage 
traversing all lands and all seas. God and 
man have linked the nations together. 
No nation can longer be indifferent to any 
other. And as we are brought more and 
more in touch with each other the less 
occasion is there for misunderstanding, 
and the stronger the disposition, when we 
have differences, to adjust them in the 
court of arbitration, which is the noblest 
forum for the settlement of international 
disputes. 

The Nation's Great Prosperity. — ^My 
fellow - citizens, trade statistics indicate 
that this country is in a state of unex- 
ampled prosperity. The figures are almost 
appalling. They show that we are util- 
izing our fields and forests and mines, 
and that we are furnishing profitable em- 
ployment to the millions of working-men 
throughout the United States, bringing 
comfort and happiness to their homes and 
making it possible to lay by savings for 
old age and disability. That all the peo- 
ple are participating in this great pros- 
perity is seen in every American com- 
munity and shown by the enormous and 
unprecedented deposits in our savings- 
banks. Our duty is the care and security 
of these deposits, and their safe investment 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



demands the highest integrity and the 
best business capacity of those in charge 
of these depositories of the people's earn- 
ings. 

We have a vast and intricate business, 
built up through years of toil and struggle, 
in which every part of the country has its 
stake, which will not permit of either 
neglect or of undue selfishness. No nar- 
row, sordid policy will subserve it. The 
greatest skill and wisdom on the part of 
manufacturers and producers will be re- 
quired to hold and increase it. Our indus- 
trial enterprises, which have grown to 
such great proportions, affect the homes 
and occupations of the people and the wel- 
fare of the country. Our capacity to pro- 
duce has developed so enormously and our 
products have so multiplied that the 
problem of more markets requires our 
urgent and immediate attention. Only a 
broad and enlightened policy will keep 
what we have. No other policy will get 
more. In these times of marvellous busi- 
ness energy and gain, we ought to be look- 
ing to the future, strengthening the weak 
places in our industrial and commercial 
systems, that we may be ready for any 
storm or strain. 

Reciprocity Favored. — By sensible trade 
arrangements which will not interrupt our 
home production, we shall extend the out- 
lets for our increasing surplus. A sys- 
tem which provides a mutual exchange of 
commodities is manifestly essential to the 
continued and healthful growth of our 
export trade. We must not repose in 
fancied security that we can forever sell 
everjrthing and buy little or nothing. If 
such a thing were possible it would not be 
best for us or for those with whom we 
deal. We should take from our customers 
such of their products as we can use with- 
out harm to our industries and labor. 
Eeciprocity is the natural outgrowth of 
our wonderful industrial development un- 
der the domestic policy now firmly es- 
tablished. What we produce beyond our 
domestic consumption must have a vent 
abroad. The excess must be relieved 
through a foreign outlet, and we should 
sell everywhere we can buy and wherever 
the buying will enlarge our sales and pro- 
ductions, and thereby make a greater de- 
mand for home labor. 

The period of exclusiveness is past. The 



expansion of our trade and commerce is 
the pressing problem. Commercial wars 
are unprofitable. A policy of good-will and 
friendly trade relations will prevent re- 
prisals. Reciprocity treaties are in har- 
mony with the spirit of the times; meas- 
ures of retaliation are not. 

If, perchance, some of our tariffs are 
no longer needed for revenue or to en- 
courage and protect our industries at 
home, why should they not be employed 
to extend and promote our markets 
abroad? Then, too, we have inadequate 
steamship service. New lines of steamers 
have already been put in commission be- 
tween the Pacific coast ports of the Unit- 
ed States and those on the western coasts 
of Mexico and Central and South America. 
These should be followed up with direct 
steamship lines between the eastern coast 
of the United States and South American 
ports. One of the needs of the times is 
direct commercial lines from our vast fields 
of production to the fields of consumption 
that we have but barely touched. Next 
in advantage to having the thing to sell 
is to have the convenience to carry it to 
the buyer. We must encourage our mer- 
chant marine. We must have more ships. 
They must be under the American flag, 
built and manned and owned by Ameri- 
cans. These will not only be profitable 
in a commercial sense; they will be mes- 
sengers of peace and amity wherever 
they go. 

Isthmian Canal and Pacific Cable. — We 
must buil-d the isthmian canal, which will 
unite the two oceans, and give a straight 
line of water communication with the 
western coasts of Central and South Amer- 
ica and Mexico. The construction of a 
Pacific cable cannot be longer postponed. 

In the furtherance of these objects of 
national interest and concern you are per- 
forming an important part. This exposi- 
tion would have touched the heart of that 
American statesman whose mind was ever 
alert and thought ever constant for a 
larger commerce and a truer fraternity of 
the republics of the New World. His 
broad American spirit is felt and manifest- 
ed here. He needs no identification to 
an assemblage of Americans anywhere, for 
the name of Blaine is inseparately asso- 
ciated with the Pan-American movement 
which finds this practical and substantial 



35 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



expression, and whicli we all hope will be 
firmly advanced by the Pan- American Con- 
gress that assembles this autumn in the 
capital of Mexico. The good work will go 
on. It cannot be stopped. These build- 
ings will disappear; this creation of art 
and beauty and industry will perish from 
sight, but their influence will remain to 

Make it live beyond its too short living 
With praises and thanksgiving. 

The Victories of Peace. — Who can tell 
the new thoughts that have been awakened, 
the ambitions fired, and the high achieve- 
ments that will be wrought through this 
exposition? Gentlemen: Let us ever re- 
member that our interest is in concord, 
not conflict, and that our real eminence 
rests in the victories of peace, not those 
of war. We hope that all who are repre- 
sented here may be moved to higher and 
nobler effort for their own and the world's 



good, and that out of this city may come, 
not only greater commerce and trade for 
us all, but, more essential than these, re- 
lations of mutual respect, confidence, and 
friendship, which will deepen and endure. 

Our earnest prayer is that God will 
graciously vouchsafe prosperity, happiness, 
and peace to all our neighbors, and like 
blessings to all the peoples and powers of 
earth. 

The Conclusion of President McKin- 
ley's First Inaugural Address, Delivered 
in Washington, March 4, 1891. — In con- 
clusion, I congratulate the country upon 
the fraternal spirit of the people and the 
manifestations of good-will everywhere so 
apparent. The recent election not only 
most fortunately demonstrated the oblit- 
eration of sectional or geographical lines, 
but to some extent also the prejudices 
which for years have distracted our coim- 
cils and marred our true greatness as a 




HOME OF WILLIAM McKINLEY, CANTON, O. 

36 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



nation. The triumph of the people, whose 
verdict is carried into effect to-day, is not 
the triumph of one section, nor wholly of 
one party, but of all sections and all the 
people. The North and the Sonth no longer 
divide on the old lines, but upon principles 
and policies, and in this fact surely every 
lover of the country can find cause for 
true felicitation. Let us rejoice in and 
cultivate this spirit; it is ennobling, and 
will be both a gain and blessing to our 
beloved country. It will be my constant 
aim to do nothing, and permit nothing to 
be done, that will arrest or disturb this 
growing sentiment of unity and co-opera- 
tion, this revival of esteem and affiliation 
which now animates so many thousands 
in both the old antagonistic sections, but 
I shall cheerfully do everything possible 
to promote and increase it. 

To keep the obligations which I have 
reverently taken before the Lord Most 
High will be my single purpose — my con- 
stant prayer; and I shall confidently rely 
upon the forbearance and assistance of all 
the people in the discharge of my solemn 
responsibilities. 

Second Letter of Acceptance. — The fol- 
lowing letter, addressed to the chairman 
of the notification committee of the Re- 
publican National Convention, is one of 
the most important papers in the politi- 
cal history of the country. It not only 
considers with much detail and clearness 
the engrossing interests of a most event- 
ful epoch, but it discloses without reserve 
the policy and intentions of President Mc- 
Kinley's administration. (The italicized 
headings to the various subdivisions of 
this letter are not in the original, but 
have been added to make reference easy.) 

Executive Mansion, Washington, D. C, 

8ept. 8, 1900. 

The Eon. Henry Ca'bot Lodge, Chairman 
"Notification Committee: 

My dear Sir, — The nomination of the 
Republican National Convention of June 
19, 1900, for the office of the President 
of the United States, which, as the official 
representative of the convention, you have 
conveyed to me, is accepted. I have care- 
fully examined the platform adopted and 
give to it my hearty approval. Upon the 
great issue of the last national election 



it is clear. It upholds the gold standard, 
and indorses the legislation of the present 
Congress by which that standard has been 
effectively strengthened. 

The stability of our national currency 
is therefore secure so long as those who 
adhere to this platform are kept in con- 
trol of the government. In the first bat- 
tle—that of 1896 — the friends of the 
gold standard and of sound currency were 
triumphant, and the country is enjoying 
the fruits of that victory. Our antago- 
nists, however, are not satisfied. They 
compel us to a second battle upon the 
same lines on which the first was fought 
and won. While regretting the reopening 
of this question, which can only disturb 
the present satisfactory financial condi- 
tion of the government and visit uncer- 
tainty upon our great business enter- 
prises, we accept the issue and again 
invite the sound-money forces to join in 
winning another, and we hope a per- 
manent, triumph for an honest financial 
system which will continue inviolable the 
public faith. 

Policy of the Silver Parties. — As in 
1896, the three silver parties are united 
under the same leader who, immediately 
after the election of that year, in an 
address to the bimetallists, said: 

" The friends of bimetallism have not 
been vanquished; they have simply been 
overcome. They believe that the gold 
standard is a conspiracy of the money- 
changers against the welfare of the hu- 
man race, and they will continue the 
warfare against it." 

The policy thus proclaimed has been 
accepted and confirmed by these parties. 
The Silver Democratic platform of 1900 
continues the warfare against the so- 
called gold conspiracy when it expressly 
says: 

" We reiterate the demand of that 
(the Chicago) platform of 1896 for an 
American financial system made by the 
American people for themselves, which 
shall restore and maintain a bimetallic 
price level, and as part of such system 
the immediate restoration of the free 
and unlimited coinage of silver and gold 
at the present ratio of 16 to 1, without 
waiting for the aid or consent of any oth- 
er nation." 

So the issue is presented. It will be 



37 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 

noted that the demand is for the imme- to discuss. All of them are important, 
diate restoration of the free coinage of Whichever party is successful will be 
silver at 16 to 1. If another issue is bound in conscience to carry into adrain- 
paramount, this is immediate. It will istration and legislation its several dec- 
admit of no delay and will suffer no post- larations and doctrines. One declaration 
ponement. will be as obligatory as another, but 

Turning to the other associated parties all are not immediate. It is not pos- 

we find in the Populist national plat- sible that these parties would treat the 

form, adopted at Sioux Falls, S. D., May doctrine of 16 to 1, the immediate real- 

10, 1000. the following declaration: ization of which is demanded by their 

"We pledge anew the People's party nev- several platforms, as void and inoperative 

er to cease the agitation until this finan- in the event that they shall be clothed 

cial conspiracy is blotted from the statute with power. Otherwise their profession 

book, the Lincoln greenback restored, the of faith is insincere. It is therefore the 

bonds all paid, and all corporation money imperative business of those opposed to 

forever retired. We reaffirm the demand this financial heresy to prevent the tri- 

for the reopening of the mints of the umph of the parties whose union is only 

United States for the free and unlimited assured by adherence to the silver issue, 

coinage of silver and gold at the present Will the American people, through indif- 

legal ratio of 16 to 1, the immediate in- ference or fancied security, hazard the 

crease in the volume of silver coins and overthrow of the wise financial legislation 

certificates thus created to be substituted, of the past year and revive the danger of 

dollar for dollar, for the bank-notes issued the silver standard with all of the in- 

by private corporations under special evitable evils of shattered confidence and 

privilege granted by law of March 14, general disaster which justly alarmed and 

1900, and prior national banking laws." aroused them in 1896? 

The platform of the ' Silver party. The Chicago platform of 1896 is re- 
adopted at Kansas City, July 6, 1900, affirmed in its entirety by the Kansas 
makes the following announcement: City convention. Nothing has been omit- 

" We declare it to be our intention to ted or recalled; so that all the perils then 
lend our eff'orts to the repeal of this cur- threatened are presented anew with the 
rency law, which not only repudiates the added force of a deliberate reaffirmation, 
ancient and time-honored principles of Four years ago the people refused to 
the American people before the Constitu- place the seal of their approval upon 
tion was adopted, but is violative of the these dangerous and revolutionary policies, 
principles of the Constitution itself; and and this year they will not fail to record 
we shall not cease our eff'orts until there again their earnest dissent, 
has been established in its place a mone- The Work of Congress. — The Repub- 
tary system based upon the free and un- lican party remains faithful to its prin- 
limited coinage of silver and gold into ciples of a tariff which supplies sufficient 
money at the present legal ratio of 16 revenues for the government and adequate 
to 1 by the independent action of the protection to our enterprises and pro- 
United States, under which system all ducers, and of reciprocity which opens 
paper money shall be issued by the gov- foreign markets to the fruits of Ameri- 
ernment, and all such money coined or can labor, and furnishes new channels 
issued shall be a full legal tender in pay- through which to market the surplus 
nu-nt of all debts, public and private, of American farms. The time-honored 
without exception." principles of protection and reciprocity 

In all three platforms these parties an- were the first pledges of Republican vic- 

nounce that their efforts shall be unceas- tory to be written into public law. 
ing until the gold act shall be blotted The present Congress has given to Alas- 

fiom the statute books and the free and ka a territorial government for which 

unlimited coinage of silver at 16 to 1 it had waited more than a quarter of a 

shall take its place. century; has established a representative 

All the Issues Important. — The rela- government in Hawaii; has enacted bills 

tive importance of the issues I do not stop for the most liberal treatment of the 

38 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 

pensioners and their widows; has re- Groicth of Foreign Trade. — Our foreign 
vived the free homestead policy. In its trade shows a satisfactory and increas- 
great financial law it provided for the ing growth. The amount of our exports 
establishment of banks of issue with a for the year 1900 over those of the ex- 
capital of $25,000 for the benefit of vil- ceptionally prosperous year of 1899 
lages and rural communities, and bringing was about $500,000 for every day of 
the opportunity for profitable business in the year, and these sums have gone into 
banking within the reach of moderate cap- the homes and enterprises of the people, 
ital. Many are already availing them- There has been an increase of over $50,- 
selves of this privilege. 000,000 in the exports of agricultural 

Prosperity of the Country. — During products; $92,692,220 in manufactures, 

the past year more than $19,000,000 and in the products of the mines of over 

United States bonds have been paid from $10,000,000. Our trade balances cannot 

the surplus revenues of the treasury, fail to give satisfaction to the people of 

and in addition $25,000,000 2 per cents, the country. In 1898 we sold abroad 

matured, called by the government, are $615,432,676 of products more than we 

in process of payment. Pacific Railroad bought abroad; in 1899, $529,874,813, and 

bonds issued by the government in aid in 1900, $544,471,701, making during the 

of the roads in the sum of nearly $44,000,- three years a total balance in our favor 

000 have been paid since Dec. 31, 1897. of $1,689,779,190 — nearly five times the 

The treasury balance is in satisfactory con- balance of trade in our favor for the whole 

dition, showing on Sept. I $135,419,000, in period of 108 years, from 1790 to June 30, 

addition to the $150,000,000 gold reserve 1897, inclusive. 

held in the treasury. The government's Four hundred and thirty - six million 
relations with the Pacific railroads have dollars of gold have been added to the gold 
been substantially closed, $124,421,000 be- stock of the United States since July 1, 
ing received from these roads, the greater 1896. The law of March 14, 1900, author- 
part in cash, and the remainder with ized the refunding into 2 per cent, bonds 
ample securities for payments deferred. of that part of the public debt represented 

Instead of diminishing, as was predict- by the 3 per cents, due in 1908, the 4 per 

ed four years ago, the volume of our cents, due in 1907, and the 5 per cents, due 

currency is greater per capita than it in 1904, aggregating $840,000,000. More 

has ever been. It was $21.10 in 1896. It than one-third of the sum of these bonds 

had increased to $26.25 on July 1, 1900, was refunded in the first three months 

and $26.85 on Sept. 1, 1900. Our total after the passage of the act, and on Sept. 

money on July 1, 1896, was $1,506,434,966; 1 the sum had been increased more than 

on July 1, 1900, it was $2,062,425,490, and $33,000,000, making in all $330,578,050, re- 

$2,096,683,042 on Sept. 1, 1900. suiting in a net saving of over $8,379,520. 

Our industrial and agricultural con- The ordinary receipts of the government 
ditions are more promising than they for the fiscal year 1900 were $79,527,060 
have been for many years; probably more in excess of its expenditures, 
so than they have ever been. Prosperity Decreased Expenditures. — While our re- 
abounds everywhere throughout the re- ceipts, both from customs and internal 
public. I rejoice that the Southern as revenue, have been greatly increased, our 
well as the Northern States are enjoying expenditures have been decreasing. Civil 
a full share of these improved national and miscellaneous expenses for the fiscal 
conditions, and that all are contributing year ended June 30, 1900, were nearly 
so largely to our remarkable industrial $14,000,000 less than in 1899, while on 
development. The money - lender receives the war account there is a decrease of 
lower rewards for his capital than if more than $95,000,000. There were re- 
it were invested in active business. The quired $8,000,000 less to support the navy 
rates of interest are lower than they have this year than last, and the expenditures 
ever been in this country, while those on account of Indians were nearly $2,750,- 
things which are produced on the farm 000 less than in 1899. The only two 
and in the workshop, and the labor pro- items of increase in the public expenses 
ducing them, have advanced in value. of 1900 over 1899 are for pensions and 

39 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 

interest on the public debt. For 1890 The British government declined to ac- 
•we expended for pensions $139,394,929, and cept the intervention of any power, 
for the fiscal year 1900 our payments on Need of American Shipping. — Ninety- 
this account amounted to $140,877,316. one per cent, of our exports and imports 
The net increase of interest on the pub- are now carried by foreign ships. For 
lie debt of 1900 over 1899 required by the ocean transportation we pay annually to 
war loan was $263,408.25. While Congress foreign ship - owners over $165,000,000. 
authorized the government to make a war We ought to own the ships for our carry- 
loan of $400,000,000 at the beginning of ing - trade with the world, and we ought 
the war with Spain, only $200,000,000 of to build them in American ship-yardfe and 
bonds were issued, bearing 3 per cent, in- man them with American sailors. Our 
terest, which Avere promptly and patriot- own citizens should receive the transpor- 
ically taken by our citizens. tation charges now paid to foreigners. I 

Unless something unforeseen occurs to have called the attention of Congress to 

reduce our revenues or increase our ex- this subject in my several annual mes- 

penditures, the Congress at its next ses- sages. In that of Dec. 6, 1897, I said: 

sion should reduce taxation very mate- " Most desirable from every stand-point- 

rially. of national interest and patriotism is the 

Five years ago we were selling govern- effort to extend our foreign commerce, 
ment bonds bearing as high as 5 per cent. To this end our merchant marine should 
interest. Now we are redeeming them be improved and enlarged. We should 
with a bond at par bearing 2 per cent, do our full share of the carrying - trade 
interest. We are selling our surplus prod- of the world. We do not do it now. We 
ucts and lending ovir surplus money to should be the laggard no longer." 
Europe. One result of our selling to oth- In my message of Dec. 5, 1899, I said: 
er nations so much more than we have " Our national development will be one- 
bought from them during the past three sided and unsatisfactory so long as the 
years is a radical improvement of our remarkable growth of our inland indus- 
financial relations. The great amounts of tries remains unaccompanied by progress 
capital which have been borrowed of Eu- on the seas. There is no lack of consti- 
rope for our rapid material development tutional authority for legislation which 
have remained a constant drain upon our shall give to the country maritime 
resources for interest and dividends, and strength commensurate with its indus- 
made our money markets liable to con- trial achievements and with its rank 
stant disturbances by calls for payment or among the nations of the earth, 
heaw sales of our securities whenever " The past year has recorded exceptional 
moneyed stringency or panic occurred activity in our ship-yards, and the prom- 
abroad. We have now been paying these ises of continual prosperity in ship-build- 
debts and bringing home many of our ing are abundant. Advanced legislation 
securities and establishing countervail- for the protection of our seamen has been 
ing credits abroad by our loans and plac- enacted. Our coast - trade under regula- 
ing ourselves upon a sure foundation of tions wisely framed at the beginning of 
financial independence. the government and since shows results 

Action in the Boer War. — In the un- for the past fiscal year unequalled in our 
fortunate contest between Great Britain records or those of any other power. We 
and the Boer states of South Africa, the shall fail to realize our opportunities. 
United States has maintained an attitude however, if we complacently regard only 
of neutrality in accordance with its well- matters at home and blind ourselves to 
known traditional policy. It did not hes- the necessity of securing our share in the 
itate, however, when requested by the gov- valuable carrying-trade of the world." 
ernments of the South African republics, I now reiterate these views. 
to exercise its good offices for a cessation The Intcr-Oceanic Canal. — A subject of 
of hostilities. It is to be observed that immediate importance to our country is 
while the South African republics made the completion of a great waterway of 
like request of other powers, the United commerce between the Atlantic and Pa- 
States was the only one which complied, cific. The construction of a maritime ca- 

40 



MoKINLEY, WILLIAM 

nal is now more than ever indispensable labor in a depreciated currency. For 

to that intimate and ready communica- labor, a short day is better than a short 

tion between our Eastern and Western dollar; one will lighten the burdens; the 

seaports demanded by the annexation of other lessens the rewards of toil. The 

the Hawaiian Islands and the expansion one will promote contentment and inde- 

of our influence and trade in the Pacific. pendence; the other penury and want. 

Our national policy more imperatively The wages of labor should be adequate 

than ever calls for its completion and to keep the home in comfort, educate the 

control by this government, and it is be- children, and, with thrift and economy, 

lieved that the next session of Congress, lay something by for the days of infirmity 

after receiving the full report of the com- and old age. 

mission appointed under the act approved Civil Service Reform. — Practical civil 

March 3, 1899, will make provisions for service reform has always had the support 

the sure accomplishment of this great or encouragement of the Republican party, 

work. The future of the merit system is safe 

Trusts and Labor. — Combinations of in its hands. During the present adminis- 
capital which control the market in com- tration, as occasions have arisen for mod- 
modities necessary to the general use of ification or amendment in the existing 
the people, by suppressing natural and civil service law and rules, they have 
ordinary competition, thus enhancing been made. Important amendments were 
prices to the general consumer, are ob- promulgated by executive order under 
noxious to the common law and the pub- date of May 29, 1899, having for their 
lie welfare. They are dangerous conspir- principal purpose the exception from com- 
acies against the public good and should petitive examination of certain places in- 
be made the subject of prohibitory or volving fiduciary responsibilities or duties 
penal legislation. Publicity will Ibe a of a strictly confidential, scientific, or 
helpful influence to check the evil. Uni- executive character, which it was thought 
formityof legislation in the several States might better be filled either by non-com- 
should be secured. Discrimination between petitive examination or by other tests of 
what is injurious and what is useful and fitness in the discretion of the appointing 
necessary in business operations is es- officer. It is gratifying that the expe- 
sential to the wise and effective treat- rience of more than a year has vindicated 
ment of this subject. Honest co-operation these changes, in the marked improvement 
of capital is necessary to meet new busi- of the public service. The merit system, as 
ness conditions and extend our rapidly far as practicable, is made the basis for 
increasing foreign trade, but conspiracies appointments to office in our new terri- 
and combinations intended to restrict tory. 

business, create monopolies, and control Pensions should be Liberal. — The Amer- 

prices should be effectively restrained. ican people are profoundly grateful to 

The best service which can be rendered the soldiers, sailors, and marines who 

to labor is to afford it an opportunity for have in every time of conflict fought 

steady and remunerative employment, and their country's battles and defended its 

give it every encouragement for advance- honor. The survivors and the widows 

ment. The policy that subserves this end and orphans of those who have fallen 

is the true American policy. The past are justly entitled to receive the generous 

three years have been more satisfactory and considerate care of the nation. Few 

to American workingmen than many pre- are now left of those who fought in the 

ceding years. Any change of the present Mexican War, and while many of the 

industrial or financial policy of the gov- veterans of the Civil War are still spared 

ernment would be disastrous to their to us, their numbers are rapidly dimin- 

highest interests. With prosperity at ishing and age and infirmity are increas- 

home and an increasing foreign market ing their dependence. These, with the 

for American products, employment should soldiers of the Spanish War, will not be 

continue to wait upon labor, and with neglected by their grateful countrymen, 

the present gold standard the working- The pension laws have been liberal. They 

man is secured against payment for bis should be justly administered and will be. 

41 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 

Preference should be given to the sol- the United States, Congress complied 

diers, sailors, and marines, their widows with my recommendation by removing, 

and orphans, with respect to employment on May 1 last, 85 per cent, of the 

in the public service. duties and providing for the removal 

Cuba and Porto Rico. — We have been of the remaining 15 per cent, on March 

in possession of Cuba since Jan. 1, 1899. 1. 1902, or earlier, if the legislature of 

We have restored order and established Porto Rico shall provide local revenues 

domestic tranquillity. We have fed the for the expenses of conducting the govern- 

starving. clothed the naked, and minis- ment. 

tered to the sick. We have improved During this intermediate period Porto 

the sanitary condition of the island. We Rican products coming into the United 

have stimulated industry, introduced pub- States pay a tariff of 15 per cent, of the 

lie education, and taken a full and com- rates under the Dingley act, and our 

prehensive enumeration of the inhabi- goods going to Porto Rico pay a like 

tants. The qualification of electors has rate. The duties thus paid and collected, 

been settled, and imder it officers have both in Porto Rico and the United States, 

been chosen for all the municipalities of are paid to the government of Porto Rico; 

Cuba. These local governments are now and no part thereof is taken by the na- 

in operation, administered by the people, tional government. All of the duties 

Our military establishment has been re- from Nov. 1, 1898, to June 30, 1900, ag- 

duced from 43,000 men to less than 6,000. gregating the sum of $2,250,523.21, paid 

An election has been ordered to be held at the custom houses in the United States 

on Sept. 15. under a fair election law upon Porto Rican products under the laws 

already tried in the municipal elections, existing prior to the above-mentioned act 

to choose members of a constitutional con- of Congress, have gone into the treasury 

vention, and the convention by the same of Porto Rico to relieve the destitute and 

order is to assemble on the first Mon- for schools and other public purposes, 

day of November to frame a constitution In addition to this, we have expended 

upon which an independent government for relief, education, and improvement of 

for the island will rest. All this is a loads the sum of .$1,513,084.95. The 

long step in the fulfilment of our sacred United States military force on the isl- 

guarantees to the people of Cuba. and has been reduced from 11,000 to 1,500, 

We hold Porto Rico by the same title and native Porto Ricans constitute for 

as the Philippines. The treaty of peace the most part the local constabulary, 

v.'hich ceded us the one conveyed to us the Under the new law and the inaugura- 

other. Congress has given to this island tion of civil government there has been 

a government in which the inhabitants a gratifying revival of business. The 

participate, elect their own legislature, manufactures of Porto Rico are develop- 

enact their own local laws, provide their ing; her imports are increasing, her tariff 

own system of taxation, and in these is yielding increased returns, her fields 

respects have the same power and privi- are being cultivated, free schools are being 

leges enjoyed by other territories belong- established. Notwithstanding the many 

ing to the United States, and a much embarrassments incident to a change of 

larger measure of self-government than national conditions, she is rapidly showing 

was given to the inhabitants of Louisi- the good effects of her new relations to 

ana under .Jefferson. A district court of this nation. 

the United States for Porto Rico has been The Philippine Problem. — For the sake 

established and local courts have been of full and intelligent understanding of 

inaugurated, all of which are in oper- the Philippine question, and to give to 

ation. the people authentic information of the 

The generous treatment of the Porto acts and aims of the administration, I 

Ricans accords with the most liberal present at some length the events of im- 

thought of our own country and encour- portance leading up to the present situ- 

ages the bfst aspirations of the people ation. The purposes of the executive 

of the island. While they do not have are best revealed and can best be judged 

instant free commercial intercourse with by what he has done and is doing. It 

42 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 

will be seen that the power of the govern- the dictates of humanity and in the ful- 

ment has been used for the liberty, the filment of high public and moral obli- 

peace, and the prosperity of the Philip- gations. We had no design of aggran- 

pine peoples, and that force has been dizement, and no ambition of conquest, 

employed only against force which stood Through the long course of repeated rep- 

in the way of the realization of these resentations which preceded and aimed to 

ends. avert the struggle and in the final arbit- 

On April 25, 1898, Congress declared rament of force, this country was im- 

that a state of war existed between Spain pclled solely by the purpose of relieving 

and the United States. On May 1, 1898, grievous wrongs and removing long-exist- 

Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish ing conditions which disturbed its tran- 

fleet in Manila Bay. On May 19, 1898, quillity, which shocked the moral sense 

Major - General Merritt, United States of mankind, and which could no longer 

army, was placed in command of the be endured. 

military expedition to Manila, and direct- " It is my earnest wish that the United 
ed among other things to immediately States, in making peace, should follow 
" publish a proclamation declaring that the same high rule of conduct which 
we come not to make war upon the people guided it in facing war. It should be as 
of the Philippines, nor upon any part scrupulous and magnanimous in the Con- 
or faction among them, but to protect eluding settlement as it was just and hu- 
them in their homes, in their employ- mane in its original action. . . . Our aim 
ments, and in their personal and re- in the adjustment of peace should be di- 
ligious rights. All persons who, either rected to lasting results, and to the 
by active aid or by honest submission, achievement of the common good under 
co-operate with the United States in its the demands of civilization, rather than 
efforts to give effect to this beneficent to ambitious designs. . . . 
purpose will receive the reward of its " Without any original thought of com- 
support and protection." plete or even partial acquisition, the pres- 

On July 3, 1898, the Spanish fleet, in ence and success of our arms in Manila 

attempting to escape from Santiago Har- imposes upon us obligations which we can- 

bor, was destroyed by the American fleet, not disregard. The march of events rules 

and on July 17, 1898, the Spanish gar- and overrules human action. Avowing un- 

rison in the city of Santiago surrendered reservedly the purpose which has animated 

to the commander of the American forces, all our effort, and still solicitous to ad- 

Pea-ce Envoys' Instructions. — Follow- here to it, we cannot be unmindful that 

ing these brilliant victories, on Aug. without any desire or design on our part 

12, 1898, upon the initiative of Spain, hos- the war has brought us new duties and 

tilities were suspended and a protocol responsibilities which we must meet and 

was signed with a view to arranging discharge as becomes a great nation on 

terms of peace between the two govern- whose growth and career from the begin- 

ments. In pursuance thereof I appointed ning the Ruler of Nations has plainly 

as commissioners the following distin- written the high command and pledge of 

guished citizens to conduct the negotia- civilization." 

tions on the part of the United States: On Oct. 28, 1898, while the peace corn- 
William R. Day, of Ohio; William P. mission was continuing its negotiations 
Frye, of Maine; Cushman K. Davis, of in Paris, the following additional instruc- 
Minnesota; George Gray, of Delaware, tion was sent: 

and Whitelaw Reid, of New York. In " It is imperative upon us that as vic- 

addressing the peace commission before tors we should be governed only by motives 

its departure for Paris, I said : which will exalt our nation. Territorial 

" It is my wish that throughout the ne- expansion should be our least concern, 

gotiations intrusted to the commission the that we shall not shirk the moral obliga- 

purpose and spirit with which the United tions of our victory is of the greatest. 

States accepted the unwelcome necessity It is undisputed that Spain's authority 

of war should be kept constantly in view, is permanently destroyed in every part 

We took up arms only in obedience to of the Philippines. To leave any part in 

43 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



her feeble control now would increase our 
difficulties and be opposed to the inter- 
ests of humanity. . . . Nor can we per- 
mit Spain to transfer any of the islands 
to another power. Nor can we invite an- 
other power or powers to join the United 
States in sovereignty over them. We must 
either hold them or turn them back to 
Spain. 

" Consequently, grave as are the respon- 
sibilities and unforeseen as are the diffi- 
culties which are before us, the President 
can see but one plain path of duty, the 
acceptance of the archipelago. Greater 
difficulties and more serious complications 
— administrative and international — would 
follow any other course. The President 
has given to the views of the commission- 
ers the fullest consideration, and in reach- 
ing the conclusion above announced in the 
light of information communicated to the 
commission and to the President since 
your departure, he has been influenced by 
the single consideration of duty and hu- 
manity. The President is not unmindful 
of the distressed financial condition of 
Spain, and whatever consideration the 
United States may show must come from 
its sense of generosity and benevolence 
rather than from any real or technical 
obligation." 

Again, on Nov. 13, I instructed the 
commission: 

" From the stand-point of indemnity 
both the archipelagoes (Porto Eico and 
the Philippines) are insufficient to pay our 
war expenses, but aside from this do we 
not owe an obligation to the people of the 
Philippines which will not permit us to 
return them to the sovereignty of Spain? 
Could we justify ourselves in such a 
course or could we permit their barter 
to some other power ? Willing or not, we 
have the responsibility of duty which we 
cannot escape. . . . The President cannot 
believe any division of the archipelago 
can bring us anything but embarrassment 
in the future. The trade and commercial 
side, as well as the indemnity for the 
cost of the war, are questions we might 
yield. They might be waived or com- 
promised, but the questions of duty and 
humanity appeal to the President so 
strongly that he can find no appropriate 
answer but the one he has here marked 
out." 



Orders to Military Commander. — The 
treaty of peace was concluded on Dec. 10, 
1898. By its terms the archipelago known 
as the Philippine Islands was ceded by 
Spain to the United States. It was also 
provided that " the civil rights and polit- 
ical status of the native inhabitants of 
the territories hereby ceded to the United 
States shall be determined by the Con- 
gress." Eleven days thereafter, on Dec. 
21, the following direction was given to 
the commander of our forces in the Phil- 
ippines: 

" The military commander of the Unit- 
ed States is enjoined to make known to 
the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands 
that in succeeding to the sovereignty of 
Spain, in severing the former political 
relations of the inhabitants and in es- 
tablishing a new political power, the au- 
thority of the United States is to be ex- 
erted for the securing of the persons and 
property of the people of the islands, and 
for the confirmation of all their private 
rights and relations. It will be the duty 
of the commander of the forces of occu- 
pation to announce and proclaim in the 
most public manner that we come not as 
invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to 
protect the natives in their homes, in 
their employments, and in their personal 
and religious rights." 

First Philippine Commission. — ^In order 
to facilitate the most humane, pacific, 
and effective extension of authority 
throughout these islands, and to secure, 
with the least possible delay, the bene- 
fits of a wise and generous protection 
of life and property to the inhabitants, 
I appointed, in January, 1899, a commis- 
sion consisting of Jacob Gould Schur- 
man, of New York; Admiral George Dew- 
ey, United States navy; Charles Denby, 
of Indiana ; Prof. Dean C. Worcester, of 
Michigan, and Ma j. -Gen. Elwell S. Otis, 
United States army. Their instructions 
contained the following: 

" In the performance of this duty the 
commissioners are enjoined to meet at 
the earliest possible day in the city of 
Manila and to announce by public proc- 
lamation their presence and the mission 
intrusted to them, carefully setting forth 
that, while the military government al- 
ready proclaimed is to be maintained and 
continued so long as necessity may re- 



44 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 

quire, efforts will be made to alleviate tions were exchanged by the United States 

the burden of taxation, to establish in- and Spain on Aug. 11, 1899. 
dustrial and commercial prosperity, and As early as April, 1899, the Philippine 

to provide for the safety of persons and commission, of which Dr. Schurman was 

of property by such means as may be president, endeavored to bring about peace 

found conducive to these ends. in the islands by repeated conferences 

" The commissioners will endeavor, with- with leading Tagalogs representing the 
out interference with the military author- so-called insurgent government, to the 
ities of the United States now in control end that some general plan of government 
of the Philippines, to ascertain what might be offered them which they would 
amelioration in the condition of the in- accept. So great was the satisfaction 
habitants and what improvements in pub- of the insurgent commissioners with the 
lie order may be practicable, and for this form of government proposed by the Amer- 
purpose they will study attentively the ican commissioners that the latter sub- 
existing social and political state of the mitted the proposed scheme to me for 
various populations, particularly as re- approval, and my action thereon is shown 
gards the forms of local government, the by the cable message following: 
administration of justice, the collection " May 5, 1899. 
of customs and other taxes, the means " Schurman, Manila, — Yours of the 4th 
of transportation, and the need of pub- received. You are authorized to propose 
lie improvements. They will report . . . that under the military power of the 
the results of their observations and re- President, pending action of Congress, 
flections, and will recommend such execu- government of the Philippine Islands 
tive action as may from time to time shall consist of a governor - general ap 
seem to them wise and useful. pointed by the President; cabinet ap 

" The commissioners are hereby author- pointed by the governor-general ; a genera 

ized to confer authoritatively with any advisory council elected by the people: 

persons resident in ihe islands from whom the qualifications of electors to be care 

they may believe themselves able to de- fully considered and determined, and 

rive information or suggestions valuable the governor - general to have absolute 

for the purposes of their commission, or veto. Judiciary strong and independent; 

whom they may choose to employ as principal judges appointed by the Presi- 

agents, as may be necessary for this dent. The cabinet and judges to be chosen 

purpose. . . . from natives or Americans, or both, hav- 

" It is my desire that in all their ing regard to fitness. The President ear- 
relations with the inhabitants of the isl- nestly desires the cessation of bloodshed, 
ands, the commissioners exercise due re- and that the people of the Philippine Isl- 
spect for the ideals, customs, and institu- ands at an early date shall have the larg- 
tions of the tribes which compose the est measure of local self-government con- 
population, emphasizing upon all occa- sistent with peace and good order." 
sions the just and beneficent intentions Report of the Commission. — In the 
of the government of the United States, latter part of May another group of 
It is also my wish and expectation that representatives came from the insurgent 
the commissioners may be received in a leader. The whole matter was fully dis- 
manner due to the honored and author- cussed with them and promise of accept- 
ized representatives of the American Ee- ance seemed near at hand. They assured 
public, duly commissioned on account of our commissioners they would return af- 
their knowledge, skill, and integrity as ter consulting with their leader, but they 
bearers of the good-will, the protection, never did. 

and the richest blessings of a liberating As a result of the views expressed by 

rather than a conquering nation." the first Tagalog representative favorable 

Offer to the Filipinos. — On Feb. 6, 1899, to the plan of the commission, it appears 
the treaty was ratified by the Senate of that he was, by military order of the in- 
the United States and the Congress im- surgent leader, stripped of his shoulder- 
mediately appropriated $20,000,000 to straps, dismissed from the army, and sen- 
carry out its provisions. The ratiflca- tenced to twelve years' imprisonment. 

45 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



The views of the commission are best 
set forth in their ouTi words: 

'■ Deplorable as war is, the one in which 
we are now engaged was unavoidable by 
us. We were attacked by a bold, advent- 
urous, and enthusiastic array. No alter- 
native was left to us except ignominious 
retreat. 

" It is not to be conceived of that any 
American would have sanctioned the sur- 
render of Manila to the insurgents. Our 
obligations to other nations and to the 
friendly Filipinos and to ourselves and 
our flag demanded that force should be met 
•with force. Whatever the future of the 
Philippines may be, there is no course 
open to us now except the prosecution of 
the war until the insurgents are reduced 
to submission. The commission is of the 
opinion that there has been no time since 
the destruction of the Spanish squadron 
by Admiral Dewey when it was possible 
to withdraw our forces from the islands 
either with honor to ourselves or with 
safety to the inhabitants." 

After the most thorough study of the 
peoples of the archipelago, the commission 
reported, among other things: 

" Their lack of education and political 
experience, combined with their racial 
and linguistic diversities, disqualify them, 
in spite of their mental gifts and domes- 
tic virtues, to undertake the task of gov- 
erning the archipelago at the present 
time. The most that can be expected of 
them is to co-operate with the Americans 
in the administration of general affairs 
from Manila as a centre, and to under- 
take, subject to American control or 
guidance (as may be found necessary), the 
administration of provincial and munici- 
pal affairs. . . . 

" Should our power by any fatality be 
withdrawn, the commission believes that 
the government of the Philippines would 
speedily lapse into anarchy, which would 
excuse, if it did not necessitate, the in- 
tervention of other powers, and the event- 
ual division of the islands among them. 
Only through American occupation, there- 
fore, is the idea of a free, self-governing, 
and united Philippine commonwealth at 
all conceivable. . . . 

" Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coin- 
cides with the dictates of national honor 
in forbidding our abandonment of the 



archipelago. We cannot from any point 
of view escape the responsibilities of gov- 
ernment which our sovereignty entails; 
and the commission is strongly persuaded 
that the performance of our national duty 
will prove the greatest blessing to the peo- 
ple of the Philippine Islands." 

Satisfied that nothing further could be 
accomplished in pursuance of their mis- 
sion until the rebellion was suppressed, 
and desiring to place before the Congress 
the result of their observations, I re- 
quested the commission to return to the 
United States. Their most intelligent and 
comprehensive report was submitted to 
Congress. 

Ciiiil Commission Appointed. — In 
March, 1900, believing that the insurrec- 
tion was practically ended and earnestly 
desiring to promote the establishment of 
a stable government in the archipelago, 
I appointed the following civil commis- 
sion: William H. Taft, of Ohio; Prof. 
Dean C. Worcester, of Michigan; Luke 
I. Wright, of Tennessee ; Henry C. Ide, 
of Vermont; and Bernard Moses, of Cali- 
fornia. My instructions to them contain- 
ed the following: 

" You ( the Secretary of War ) will in- 
struct the commission to devote their 
attention in the first instance to the es- 
tablishment of municipal governments, in 
which the natives of the islands, both in 
the cities and in the rural communities, 
shall be aff"orded the opportunity to man- 
age their owti local affairs to the fullest 
extent of which they are capable, and sub- 
ject to the least degree of supervision and 
control which a careful study of their 
capacities and observation of the workings 
of native control show to be consistent 
with the maintenance of law, order, and 
loyalty. Whenever the commission is of 
the opinion that the condition of affairs 
in the islands is such that the adminis- 
tration may safely be transferred from 
military to civil control they will report 
that conclusion to you (the Secretary of 
War ) , with their recommendations as to 
the form of central government to be es- 
tablished for the purpose of taking over 
the control. 

"Beginning with Sept. 1, 1900, the 
authority to exercise, subject to my ap- 
proval,, through the Secretary of War, 
that part of the power of government in 



46 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



the Philippine Islands which is of a legis- 
lative nature is to be transferred from 
the military governor of the islands to 
this commission, to be thereafter exercised 
by them in the place and stead of the 



to be a witness against himself; that the 
right to be secure against unreasonable 
searches and seizures shall not be vio- 
lated; that neither slavery nor involun- 
tary servitude shall exist except as a 



military governor, under such rules and punishment for crime; that no bill of at- 
regulations as you (the Secretary of War) tainder or ex post facto law shall be pass- 
shall prescribe, until the establishment of ed; that no law shall be passed abridging 
the civil central government for the the freedom of speech or of the press, 
islands contemplated in the last foregoing or the rights of the people to peaceably 
paragraph, or until Congress shall other- assemble and petition the government for 



wise provide. Exercise of this legislative 
authority will include the making of rules 
and orders having the eflfect of law for the 
raising of revenue by taxes, customs 



a redress of grievances; that no law shall 
be made respecting the establishment of 
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise 
thereof, and that the free exercise and en- 



duties and imposts, the appropriation and joyment of religious profession and wor- 



expenditure of the public funds of the 
islands, the establishment of an edu- 
cational system throughout the islands, 
the establishment of a system to secure 
an efficient civil service, the organization 
and establishment of courts, the organ- 
ization and establishment of municipal 
apd departmental governments, and all 
other matters of a civil nature for which 
the military governor is now competent 
to provide by rules or orders of a legisla- 
tive character. The commission will also 
have power during the same period to ap- 
point to office such officers under the 
judicial, educational, and civil service 
systems and in the municipal and depart- 
mental governments as shall be provided." 
Commission's Instructions. — Until Con- 
gress shall take action I directed that: 



ship without discrimination or preference 
shall forever be allowed. . . . 

" It will be the duty of the commission 
to promote and extend, and, as they find 
occasion, to improve, the system of edu- 
cation already inaugurated by the military 
authorities. In doing this they should 
regard as of first importance the extension 
of a system of primary education which 
shall be free to all, and which shall tend 
to fit the people for the duties of citizen- 
ship, and for the ordinary avocations of a 
civilized community. . . . Especial atten- 
tion should be at once given to affording 
full opportunity to all the people of the 
islands to acquire the use of the English 
language. . . . 

" Upon all officers and employes of the 
United States, both civil and military, 



Upon every division and branch of the should be impressed a sense of the duty to 

government of the Philippines must be im- observe not merely the material but the 

posed these inviolable rules: personal and social rights of the people 

"That no person shall be deprived of life, of the islands, and to treat them with the 



liberty, or property without due process 
of law; that private property shall not be 
taken for public use without just com- 
pensation; that in all criminal pros- 
ecutions the accused shall enjoy the right 
to a speedy and public trial, to be 
informed of the nature and cause of 
the accusation, to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him, to have compulsory 
process for obtaining witnesses in his 
favor, and to have the assistance of 
counsel for his defence; that excessive 
bail shall not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual 
punishment inflicted ; that no person shall 
be put twice in jeopardy for the same of- 
fence, or be compelled in any criminal case 



same courtesy and respect for their per- 
sonal dignity which the people of the 
United States are accustomed to require 
from each other. 

" The articles of capitulation of the city 
of Manila on Aug. 13, 1898, concluded 
with these words: 

" ' This city, its inhabitants, its churches 
and religious worship, its educational 
establishments and its private property of 
all descriptions, are placed under the 
special safeguard of the faith and honor 
of the American army.' 

" I believe that this pledge has been faith- 
fully kept. As high and sacred an obliga- 
tion rests upon the government of the 
United States to give protection for prop- 



47 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



erty and life, civil and religious freedom, 
and wise, firm, and imselfish guidance in 
the paths of peace and prosperity to all 
the people of the Philippine Islands. I 
charge this commission to labor for the 
full performance of this obligation, which 
concerns the honor and conscience of their 
country, in the firm hope that through 
their labors all the inhabitants of the 
Philippine Islands may come to look back 
with gratitude to the day when God gave 
victory to the American army at Manila 
and set their land under the sovereignty 
and the protection of the people of the 
United States." 

That all might share in the regeneration 
of the islands and participate in their 
government, I directed General Mae- 
Arthur, the military governor of the 
Philippines, to issue a proclamation of 
amnesty, which contained among other 
statements the following: 

" Manila, P. I., June 21, 1900. 

" By direction of the President of the 
United States, the undersigned announces 
amnesty, with complete immunity for the 
past and absolute liberty of action for the 
future, to all persons who are now, or at 
any time since Feb. 4, 1899, have been in 
insurrection against the United States in 
either a military or civil capacity, and 
who shall, within a period of ninety days 
from the date hereof, formally renounce 
all connection with such insurrection and 
subscribe to a declaration acknowledging 
and accepting the sovereignty and au- 
thority of the United States in and over 
the Philippine Islands. The privilege 
herewith published is extended to all con- 
cerned without any reservation whatever, 
excepting that persons who have violated 
the laws of war during the period of 
active hostilities are not embraced within 
the scope of this amnesty. . . . 

" In order to mitigate as much as possi- 
ble consequences resulting from the vari- 
ous disturbances which since 1896 have 
succeeded each other so rapidly, and to pro- 
vide in some measure for destitute Fili- 
pino soldiers during the transitory period 
which must inevitably succeed a general 
peace, the military authorities of the 
United States will pay 30 pesos to each man 
who presents a rifle in good condition." 

Civil Comrnifision'a Report. — Under their 
inatructiona the commission, composed of 



representative Americans of diflferent 
sections of the country and from differ- 
ent political parties, whose character and 
ability guarantee the most faithful intel- 
ligence and patriotic service, are now 
laboring to establish stable government 
under civil control, in which the inhabi- 
tants shall participate, giving them op- 
portunity to demonstrate how far they are 
prepared for self-government. This com- 
mission, under date of Aug. 21, 1900, 
makes an interesting report, from which 
I quote the following extracts: 

" Hostility against Americans original- 
ly aroused by absurd falsehoods of un- 
scrupulous leaders. The distribution of 
troops in 300 posts has by contact largely 
dispelled hostility, and steadily improved 
the temper of the people. This improve- 
ment is furthered by abuses of insurgents. 
Large numbers of people long for peace, 
and are willing to accept government un- 
der the United States. Insurgents not sur- 
rendering after defeat divided into small 
guerilla bands under general officers or 
become robbers. Nearly all of the promi- 
nent generals and politicians of the insur- 
rection, except Aguinaldo, have since been 
captured or have surrendered and taken 
the oath of allegiance. . . . 

" All northern Luzon, except two prov- 
inces, is substantially free from in- 
surgents. People are busy planting, and 
asking for municipal organization. Rail- 
way and telegraph line from Manila to 
Dagupan, 122 miles, not molested for five 
months. . . . Tagalogs alone active in 
leading guerilla warfare. In Negros, 
Cebu, Romblon, Masbate, Sibuyan, Tablas, 
Bohol, and other Philippine Islands little 
disturbance exists and civil government 
eagerly awaited. . . . 

" Four years of war and lawlessness in 
parts of islands have created unsettled 
conditions. . . . Native constabulary and 
militia, which should be organized at 
once, will end this, and the terrorism to 
which defenceless people are subjected. 
The natives desire to enlist in these or- 
ganizations. If judiciously selected and 
officered, will be efficient forces for main- 
tenance of order, and will permit early 
material reduction of United States 
troops. . . . Turning islands over to 
coterie of Tagalog politicians will blight 
fair prospects of enormous improvement. 



48 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



drive out capital, make life and property, 
secular and religious, most insecure; 
banish by fear of cruel proscription con- 
siderable body of conservative Filipinos 
who have aided Americans in well-founded 
belief that their people are not now fit 
for self-government, and reintroduce same 
oppression and corruption which existed 
in all provinces under Malolos insurgent 
government during the eight months of its 
control. The result will be factional strife 
between jealous leaders, chaos and anarchy, 
and will require and justify active in- 
tervention of our government or some 
other. . . . 

" Business, interrupted by war, much 
improved as peace extends. ... In Ne- 
gros more sugar in cultivation than ever 
before. New forestry regulations give 
impetus to timber trade, and reduce high 
price of lumber. The customs collections 
for the last quarter 50 per cent, greater 
than ever in Spanish history, and August 
collections show further increase. The total 
revenue for same period one-third greater 
than in any quarter under Spain, though 
cedula tax, chief source of Spanish rev- 
enue, practically abolished. Economy and 
efficiency of military government have 
created surplus fund of $6,000,000, which 
should be expended in much-needed public 
works, notably improvement of Manila 
Harbor. . . . With proper tariff and 
facilities, Manila will become great port 
of Orient.'' 

Philippines' Bright Outlook. — The com- 
mission is confident that " by a judicious 
customs law, reasonable land tax, and 
proper corporation franchise tax, imposi- 
tion of no greater rate than that in an 
average American State will give less an- 
noyance, and with peace will produce rev- 
enues sufficient to pay expenses of efficient 
government, including militia and constab- 
ulary." They " are preparing a stringent 
civil service law, giving equal opportunity 
to Filipinos and Americans, with prefer- 
ence for the former where qualifications 
are equal, to enter at lowest rank, and 
by promotion reach head of department. 
. • . Forty - five miles of railroad ex- 
tension under negotiation will give access 
to a large province rich in valuable min- 
erals, a mile high, with strictly temperate 
climate. . . . Railroad construction will 
give employment to many, the com- 



49 



munication will furnish market to vast 
stretches of rich agricultural lands." 
They report that there are " calls from all 
parts of the islands for public schools, 
school supplies, and English teachers 
greater than the commission can provide 
until a comprehensive school system is 
organized. Night schools for teaching 
English to adults are being established in 
response to popular demand. Native chil- 
dren show aptitude in learning English. 
Spanish is spoken by a small fraction of 
people, and in a few years the medium 
of communication in the courts, public 
offices, and between difi"erent tribes will 
be English; creation of central govern- 
ment within eighteen months, under which 
substantially all rights described in the 
bill of rights in the federal Constitution 
are to be secured to the people of the 
Philippines, will bring to them content- 
ment, prosperity, education, and political 
enlightenment." 

No Alliance with Natives. — ^This shows 
to my countrymen what has been and is 
being done to bring the benefits of liberty 
and good government to these wards of 
the nation. Every eff"ort has been directed 
to their peace and prosperity, their ad- 
vancement and well-being, not for our 
aggrandizement nor for pride of might, 
not for trade or commerce, not for ex- 
ploitation, but for humanity and civiliza- 
tion, and for the protection of the vast 
majority of the population who welcome 
our sovereignty against the designing 
minority whose first demand after the 
surrender of Manila by the Spanish army 
was to enter the city that they might loot 
it and destroy those not in sympathy with 
their selfish and treacherous designs. 

Nobody who will avail himself of the 
facts will longer hold that there was any 
alliance between our soldiers and the in- 
surgents, or that any promise of indepen- 
dence was made to them. Long before their 
leader had reached Manila they had re- 
solved if the commander of the American 
army would give them arms with which to 
fight the Spanish army they would later 
turn upon us, which they did murderously 
and without the shadow of cause or jus- 
tification. There may be those without 
the means of full information who believe 
that we were in alliance with the insur- 
gents and that we assured them that they 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



should have independence. To such let 
me repeat the facts: On May 26, 1898, Ad- 
miral Dewey was instructed by me to 
make no alliance with any party or faction 
in the Philippines that would incur 
liability to maintain their cause in the 
future, and he replied, under date of June 
6, 1898: 

" Have acted according to spirit of de- 
partment's instructions from the begin- 
ning, and I have entered into no alliance 
with the insurgents or with any faction. 
This squadron can reduce the defences of 
Manila at any moment, but it is consid- 
ered useless until the arrival of sufficient 
United States forces to retain possession." 

In the report of the first Philippine 
commission, submitted on Nov. 2, 1899, 
Admiral Dewey, one of its members, said: 

" No alliance of any kind was entered 
into with Aguinaldo, nor was any promise 
of independence made to him at any time." 

General Merritt arrived in the Philip- 
pines on July 25, 1898, and a despatch 
from Admiral Dewey to the government at 
Washington said: 

" Merritt arrived yesterday. Situation is 
most critical at Manila. The Spanish may 
surrender at any moment. Merritt's most 
difficult problem will be how to deal with 
the insurgents under Aguinaldo, who have 
become aggressive and even threatening 
towards our army." 

Here is revealed the spirit of the insur- 
gents as early as July, 1898, before the 
protocol was signed, while we were still 
engaged in active war with Spain. Even 
then the insurgents were threatening our 
army. 

The Capture of Manila. — On Aug. 13 
Manila was captured, and of this and sub- 
sequent events the Philippine commission 
says: 

" When the city of Manila was taken, 
Aug. 13, the Filipinos took no part in 
the attack, but came following in with 
a view to looting the city, and were only 
prevented from doing so by our forces 
preventing them from entering. Agui- 
naldo claimed that he had the right to oc- 
cupy the city ; he demanded of General 
Merritt the palace of Malacanan for him- 
self and the cession of all the churches of 
Manila, also that a part of the money 
taken from the Spaniards as spoils of 
war should be given up, and, above all. 



that he should be given the arms of the 
Spanish prisoners. All these demands 
were refused." 

Generals Merritt, Greene, and Ander- 
son, who were in command at the begin- 
ning of our occupation and until the sur- 
render of Manila, state that there was no 
alliance with the insurgents and no prom- 
ise to them of independence. On Aug. 
17, 1898, General Merritt was instructed 
that there must be no joint occupation 
of Manila with the insurgents. General 
Anderson, under date of Feb. 10, 1900, 
says that he was present at the in- 
terview between Admiral Dewey and the 
insurgent leader, and that in this inter- 
view Admiral Dewey made no promises 
whatever. He adds: 

" He [Aguinaldo] asked me if my gov- 
ernment was going to recognize his gov- 
ernment. I answered that I was there 
simply in a military capacity; that I 
could not acknowledge his government be- 
cause I had no authority to do so." 

The Duty of Holding the Philippines. — 
Would not our adversaries have sent 
Dewey's fleet to Manila to capture and 
destroy the Spanish sea-power there, or, 
despatching it there, would they have 
withdrawn it after the destruction of the 
Spanish fleet; and if the latter, whither 
would they have directed it to sail ? Where 
could it have gone ? What port in the Orient 
was opened to it? Do our adversaries 
condemn the expedition under the com- 
mand of General IMerritt to strengthen 
Dewey in the distant ocean and assist 
in our triumph over Spain, with which 
nation we were at war? Was it not our 
highest duty to strike Spain at every 
vulnerable point, that the war might be 
successfully concluded at the earliest prac- 
ticable moment? 

And was it not our duty to protect the 
lives and property of those who came 
within our control by the fortunes of war? 
Could we have come away at any time 
between May 1, 1898, and the conclusion 
of peace without a stain upon our good 
name? Could we have come away with- 
out dishonor at any time after the ratifi- 
cation of the peace treaty by the Senate 
of the United States? 

There has been no time since the de- 
struction of the enemy's fleet when we 
could or should have left the Philippine 



60 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 

Archipelago. After the treaty of peace made. It is our purpose to establish in 
was ratified no power but Congress could the Philippines a government suitable 
surrender our sovereignty or alienate a to the wants and conditions of the in- 
foot of the territory thus acquired. The habitants, and to prepare them for self- 
Congress has not seen fit to do the one or government, and to give them self-gov- 
the other, and the President had no au- ernment when they are ready for it 
thority to do either, if he had been so in- and as rapidly as they are ready for it. 
clined, which he was not. So long as the That I am aiming to do under my con- 
sovereignty remains in us it is the duty of stitutional authority, and will continue 
the executive, whoever he may be, to up- to do until Congress shall determine the 
hold that sovereignty, and if it be attack- political status of the inhabitants of the 
ed to suppress its assailants. Would our archipelago, 
political adversaries do less? Democrats are Responsible. — Are our 

Tagals took the Offensive. — It has been opponents against the treaty? If so, they 

asserted that there would have been no must be reminded that it could not have 

fighting in the Philippines if Congress had been ratified in the Senate but for their 

declared its purpose to give independence assistance. The Senate which ratified the 

to the Tagal insurgents. The insurgents treaty and the Congress which added its 

did not wait for the action of Congress, sanction by a large appropriation com- 

They assumed the offensive; they opened prised Senators and Eepresentatives of 

fire on our army. Those who assert our the people of all parties, 

responsibility for the beginning of the Would our opponents surrender to the 

conflict have forgotten that before the insurgents, abandon our sovereignty, or 

treaty was ratified in the Senate, and cede it to them? If that be not their 

while it was being debated in that body, purpose then it should be promptly dis- 

and while the Bacon resolution was under claimed, for only evil can result from 

discussion, on Feb. 4, 1899, the insur- the hopes raised by our opponents in 

gents attacked the American army, after the minds of the Filipinos that, with their 

being previously advised that the Amer- success at the polls in November, there 

ican forces were under orders not to fire will be a withdrawal of our army and of 

upon them except in defence. The papers American sovereignty over the archipelago, 

found in the recently captured archives the complete independence of the Tagalog 

of the insurgents demonstrate that this people recognized, and the powers of gov- 

attack had been carefully planned for ernment over all the other peoples of the 

weeks before it occurred. Their unpro- archipelago conferred upon the Tagalog 

voked assault upon our soldiers at a leaders. 

time when the Senate was deliberating The effect of a belief in the minds of 

upon the treaty shows that no action on the insurgents that this will be done has 

our part except surrender and abandon- already prolonged the rebellion, and in- 

nient would have prevented the fighting, creases the necessity for the continuance 

and leaves no doubt in any fair mind of of a large army. It is now delaying full 

where the responsibility rests for the peace in the archipelago and the establish- 

shedding of American blood. ment of civil governments, and has in- 

With all the exaggerated phrase-mak- fluenced many of the insurgents against 

ing of this electoral contest we are in accepting the liberal terms of amnesty of- 

danger of being diverted from the real fered by General MacArthur under my 

contention. We are in agreement with all direction. But for these false hopes a con- 

of those who supported the war with siderable reduction could have been had 

Spain, and also with those who counselled in our military establishment in the Phil- 

the ratification of the treaty of peace, ippines, and the realization of a stable 

Upon these two great essential steps there government would be already at hand, 

can be no issue, and out of these came The American people are asked by our 

all of our responsibilities. If others would opponents to yield the sovereignty of the 

shirk the obligations imposed by the war United States in the Philippines to a 

and the treaty, we must decline to act small fraction of the population, a single 

further with them, and here the issue was tribe out of eighty or more inhabiting 

51 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



the archipelago, a fraction which wanton- 
ly attacked the American troops in Ma- 
nila while in rightful possession under 
the protocol with Spain, awaiting the rati- 
fication of the treaty of peace by the 
Senate, and which has since been in active, 
open rebellion against the United States. 
We are asked to transfer our sovereignty 
to a small minority in the islands with- 
out consulting the majority, and to aban- 
don the largest portion of the population, 
which has been loyal to us, to the cruel- 
ties of the guerilla insurgent bands. More 
than this, we are asked to protect this 
minority in establishing a government, and 
to this end repress all opposition of the 
majority. We are required to set up a 
Btable government in the interest of those 
who have assailed our sovereignty and 
fired upon our soldiers, and then main- 
tain it at any cost or sacrifice against 
its enemies within and against those hav- 
ing ambitious designs from without. 

Democrats loant Militarism. — This 
would require an army and navy far 
larger than is now maintained in the 
Philippines, and still more in excess of 
what will be necessary with the full 
recognition of our sovereignty. A mili- 
tary support of authority not our o\vn, 
as thus proposed, is the very essence of 
militarism, which our opponents in their 
platform oppose, but which by their pol- 
icy would of necessity be established in 
its most offensive form. 

The American people will not make the 
murderers of our soldiers the agents of 
the republic to convey the blessing of lib- 
erty and order to the Philippines. They 
will not make them the builders of the 
new commonwealth. Such a course would 
be a betrayal of our sacred obligations 
to the peaceful Filipinos, and would place 
at the mercy of dangerous adventurers the 
lives and property of the natives and the 
foreigners. It would make possible and 
easy the commission of such atrocities as 
were secretly planned, to be executed on 
Feb. 22, 1899, in the city of Manila, when 
only the vigilance of our army prevented 
the attempt to assassinate our soldiers 
and all foreigners and pillage and destroy 
the city and its surroundings. 

In short, the proposition of those op- 
posed to us is to continue all the obliga- 
tions in the Philippines which now rest 



upon the government, only changing the 
relation from principal, which now exists, 
to that of surety. Our responsibility ia 
to remain, but our power is to be dimin- 
ished. Our obligation is to be no less, 
but our title is to be surrendered to another 
power, which is without experience or 
training or the ability to maintain a stable 
government at home, and absolutely help- 
less to perform its international obliga- 
tions with the rest of the world. To this 
we are opposed. We should not yield 
our title while our obligations last. In 
the language of our platform, " Our au- 
thority should not be less than our re- 
sponsibility," and our present responsi- 
bility is to establish our authority in every 
part of the islands. 

Soviereignty is Essential. — No govern- 
ment can so certainly preserve the peace, 
restore public order, establish law, jus- 
tice, and stable conditions as ours. Neither 
Congress nor the executive can establish 
a stable government in these islands except 
under our right of sovereignty, our au- 
thority, and our flag. And this we are 
doing. We could not do it as a protec- 
torate power so completely or so success- 
fully as we are doing it now. As the 
sovereign power we can initiate action and 
shape means to ends, and guide the Fili- 
pinos to self-development and self-govern- 
ment. As a protectorate power we could 
not initiate action, but would be compelled 
to follow and uphold a people with no 
capacity yet to go alone. In the one case, 
we can protect both ourselves and the 
Filipinos from being involved in danger- 
ous complications; in the other, we could 
not protect even the Filipinos until after 
their trouble had come. 

Besides, if we cannot establish any gov- 
ernment of our own without the consent 
of the governed, as our opponents contend, 
then we could not establish a stable gov- 
ernment for them or make ours a pro- 
tectorate without the like consent, and 
neither the majority of the people nor a 
minority of the people have invited us 
to assume it. We could not maintain a 
protectorate even with the consent of the 
governed without giving provocation for 
conflicts and possibly costly wars. Our 
rights in the Philippines are now free from 
outside interference, and will continue so 
in our present relation. They would not 



52 



MoKINLEY, WILLIAM 



be thus free in any other relation. We 
will not give up our own to guarantee 
another sovereignty. 

American Title is Good. — Our title is 
good. Our peace commissioners believed 
they were receiving a good title when they 
concluded the treaty. The executive be- 
lieved it was a good title when he sub- 
mitted it to the Senate of the United 
States for its ratification. The Senate 
believed it was a good title when they 
gave it their constitutional assent, and 
the Congress seem not to have doubted 
its completeness when they appropriated 
$20,000,000 provided by the treaty. If 
any who favored its ratification be- 
lieved it gave us a bad title, they were 
not sincere. Our title is practically 
identical with that under which we hold 
our territory acquired since the beginning 
of the government, and under which we 
have exercised full sovereignty and estab- 
lished government for the inhabitants. 

It is worthy of note that no one out- 
side of the United States disputes the ful- 
ness and integrity of the cession. What, 
then, is the real issue on this subject? 
Whether it is paramount to any other or 
not, it is whether we shall be responsible 
for the government of the Philippines with 
the sovereignty and authority which en- 
able us to guide them to regulated liberty, 
law, safety, and progress, or whether we 
shall be responsible for the forcible and 
arbitrary government of a minority with- 
out sovereignty and authority on our 
part, and with only the embarrassment of 
a protectorate which draws us into their 
troubles without the power of preventing 
them. 

There were those who two years ago 
were rushing us up to war with Spain 
who are unwilling now to accept its clear 
consequence, as there are those among us 
who advocated the ratification of the 
treaty of peace, but now protest against 
its obligations. Nations which go to war 
must be prepared to accept its resultant 
obligations, and when they make treaties 
must keep them. 

The Administration's Purpose. — Those 
who profess to distrust the liberal and 
honorable purposes of the administration 
in its treatment of the Philippines are 
not justified. Imperialism has no place 
in its creed or conduct. Freedom is a 



rock upon which the Republican party 
was builded and now rests. Liberty is 
the great Republican doctrine, for which 
the people went to war, and for which a 
million lives were offered and billions of 
dollars were expended to make it a law- 
ful legacy of all without the consent of 
master or slave. There is a strain of 
ill-concealed hypocrisy in the anxiety to 
extend the constitutional guarantees to 
the people of the Philippines, while their 
nullification is openly advocated at 
home. 

Our opponents may distrust themselves, 
but they have no right to discredit the 
good faith and patriotism of the majority 
of the people, who are opposed to them; 
they may fear the worst form of impe- 
rialism with the helpless Filipinos in 
their hands, but if they do, it is because 
they have parted with the spirit and 
faith of the fathers and have lost the 
virility of the founders of the party which 
they profess to represent. 

The Republican party doesn't have to 
assert its devotion to the Declaration of 
Independence. That immortal instrument 
of the fathers remained unexecuted until 
the people, under the lead of the Repub- 
lican party in the awful clash of battle, 
turned its promises into fulfilment. It 
wrote into the Constitution the amend- 
ments guaranteeing political equality to 
American citizenship, and it has never 
broken them or counselled others in break- 
ing them. It will not be guided in its 
conduct by one set of principles at home 
and another set in the new territory be- 
longing to the United States. 

If our opponents would only practise 
as well as preach the doctrines of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, there would be no fear for 
the safety of our institutions at home or 
their rightful influence in any territory 
over which our flag floats. Empire has 
been expelled from Porto Rico and the 
Philippines by American freemen. The 
flag of the republic now floats over these 
islands as an emblem of rightful sover- 
eignty. Will the republic stay and dis- 
pense to their inhabitants the blessings 
of liberty, education, and free institutions, 
or steal away, leaving them to anarchy 
or imperialism? 

The American question is between duty 
and desertion — the American yerdict will 



53 



MoKINLEY, WILLIAM 



be for duty and against desertion, for the 
republic is against both anarchy and im- 
perialism. 

The Chinese 8itua1io>i. — The country 
has been fully advised of the purposes of 
the United States in China, and they will 
be faithfully adhered to as already de- 
fined. The nation is filled with grati- 
tude that the little band, among them 
many of our own blood, who for two 
months have been subjected to privations 
and peril by the attacks of pitiless hordes 
at the Chinese capital, exhibiting su- 
preme courage in the face of despair, have 
been enabled by God's favor to greet their 
rescuers and find shelter under their own 
flag. 

The people, not alone of this land, but 
of all lands, have watched and prayed 
through the terrible stress and protract- 
ed agony of the helpless sufferers in Pe- 
king, and while at times the dark tidings 
seemed to make all hope vain, the res- 
cuers never faltered in the heroic fulfil- 
ment of their noble task. We are grate- 
ful to our own soldiers and sailors and 
marines, and to all the brave men, who, 
though assembled under many standards 
representing peoples and races strangers 
in country and speech, were yet united 
in the sacred mission of carrying succor 
to the besieged with a success that is now 
the cause of a world's rejoicing. 

Reunion of the No7'th and South in 
Feeling. — Not only have we reason for 
thanksgiving for our material blessings, 
but we should rejoice in the complete 
unification of the people of all sections 
of our country that has so happily de- 
veloped in the last few years and made for 
us a more perfect union. 

The obliteration of old differences, the 
common devotion to the flag and the 
common sacrifices for its honor, so con- 
spicuously shown by the men of the North 
and South in the Spanish War, have so 
htrengthened the ties of friendship and 
mutual respect that nothing can ever 
again divide us. The nation faces the new 
century gratefully and hopefully, with in- 
creasing love of country, with firm faith 
in its free institutions, and with high 
resolve that they " shall not perish from 
the earth. 

Very respectfully yours, 

William McKinlet. 



54 



Second Inaugural Address, March ^, 
1901 : 

My fellow - citizens, — When we as- 
sembled here on March 4, 1897, there was 
great anxiety with regard to our currency 
and credit. None exists now. Then our 
treasury receipts were inadequate to meet 
the current obligations of the government. 
Now they are sufficient for all public 
needs, and we have a surplus instead of 
a deficit. Then I felt constrained to con- 
vene the Congress in extraordinary session 
to devise revenues to pay the ordinary 
expenses of the government. Now I have 
the satisfaction to announce that the Con- 
gress just closed has reduced taxation in 
the sum of $41,000,000. Then there was 
deep solicitude because of the long de- 
pression and the consequent distress of 
our laboring population. Now every ave- 
nue of production is crowded with 
activity, labor is well employed, and 
American products find good markets at 
home and abroad. 

Our diversified productions, however, are 
increasing in such unprecedented volume 
as to admonish us of the necessity of still 
further enlarging our foreign markets by 
broader commercial relations. For this 
purpose reciprocal trade arrangements 
with other nations should in liberal spirit 
be carefully cultivated and promoted. 

The national verdict of 1896 has for the 
most part been executed. Whatever re- 
mains unfulfilled is a continuing obliga- 
tion resting with undiminished force upon 
the executive and the Congress. But 
fortunate as our condition is, its perma- 
nence can only be assured by sound busi- 
ness methods and strict economy in na- 
tional administration and legislation. We 
should not permit our great prosperity 
to lead us to reckless ventures in busi- 
ness or profligacy in public expenditures. 
While the Congress determines the objects 
and the sum of appropriations, the offi- 
cials of the executive departments are re- 
sponsible for honest and faithful disburse- 
ment, and it should be their constant care 
to avoid waste and extravagance. 

Honesty, capacity, and industry are no- 
where more indispensable than in public 
employment. There should be funda- 
mental requisites to appointment and the 
surest guarantees against removal. 



MoKINLEY, WILLIAM 



Four years ago we stood on the brink 
of war without the people knowing it and 
without any preparation or effort at prepa- 
ration for the impending peril. I did 
all that in honor could be done to avert 
the war, but without avail. It became in- 
evitable, and the Congress at its first 
regular session, without party division, 
provided money in anticipation of the 
crisis and in preparation to meet it. It 
came. The result was signally favorable 
to American arms, and in the highest de- 
gree honorable to the government. It im- 
posed upon us obligations from which we 
cannot escape and from which it would be 
dishonorable to seek to escape. We are 
now at peace with the world, and it is 
my fervent prayer that if differences arise 
between us and other powers they may be 
settled by peaceful arbitration and that 
hereafter we may be spared the horrors 
of war. 

Entrusted by the people for a second 
time with the office of President, I enter 
upon its administration appreciating the 
great responsibilities which attach to this 
renewed honor and commission, promising 
unreserved devotion on my part to their 
faithful discharge and reverently invoking 
for my guidance the direction and favor 
of Almighty God. I should shrink from 
the duties this day assumed if I did not 
feel that in their performance I should 
have the co-operation of the wise and pa- 
triotic men of all parties. It encourages 
me for the great task which I now under- 
take to believe that those who voluntarily 
committed to me the trust imposed upon 
the chief executive of the republic will 
give to me generous support in my duties 
to " preserve, protect, and defend the Con- 
stitution of the United States" and to 
" care that the laws be faithfully exe- 
cuted." The national purpose is indicated 
through a national election. It is the 
constitutional method of ascertaining the 
public will. When once it is registered 
it is a law to us all, and faithful observ- 
ance should follow its decrees. 

Strong hearts and helpful hands are 
needed, and, fortunately, we have them in 
every part of our beloved country. We 
are reunited. Sectionalism has disap- 
peared. Division on public questions can 
no longer be traced by the war maps of 
1861. These old differences less and less 



55 



disturb the judgment. Existing problems 
demand the thought and quicken the con- 
science of the country, and the responsi- 
bility for their presence as well as for 
their righteous settlement rests upon us 
all — no more upon me than upon you. 
There are some national questions in the 
solution of which patriotism should ex- 
clude partisanship. Magnifying their 
difficulties will not take them off our 
hands nor facilitate their adjustment. 
Distrust of the capacity, integrity, and 
high purposes of the American people will 
not be an inspiring theme for future po- 
litical contests. Dark pictures and gloomy 
forebodings are worse than useless. These 
only becloud, they do not help to point 
the way to safety and honor. " Hope 
maketh not ashamed." The prophets of 
evil were not the builders of the republic, 
nor in its crises since have they saved or 
served it. The faith of the fathers was a 
mighty force in its creation, and the faith 
of their descendants has wrought its prog- 
ress and furnished its defenders. 

They are obstructionists who despair 
and who would destroy confidence in the 
ability of our people to solve wisely and 
for civilization the mighty problems rest- 
ing upon them. The American people, in- 
trenched in freedom at home, take their 
love for it wherever they go, and they re- 
ject as mistaken and unworthy the doc- 
trine that we lose our own liberties by se- 
curing the enduring foundations of liberty 
to others. Our institutions will not de- 
teriorate by extension, and our sense of 
justice will not abate under tropic suns in 
distant seas. As heretofore, so hereafter 
will the nation demonstrate its fitness to 
administer any new estate which events 
devolve upon it, and in the fear of God 
will " take occasion by the hand and make 
the bounds of freedom wider yet." If 
there are those among us who would make 
our way more difficult, we must not be 
disheartened, but the more earnestly dedi- 
cate ourselves to the task upon which we 
have rightly entered. The path of progress 
is seldom smooth. New things are often 
found hard to do. Our fathers found 
them so. We find them so. They are in- 
convenient. They cost us something. 
But are we not made better for the effort 
and sacrifice, and are not those we serve 
lifted up and blessed? 



McKINLEY, WILLIAM 



We will be consoled, too, with the fact 
that opposition has confronted every on- 
ward movement of the republic from its 
opening hour until now, but without suc- 
cess. The republic has marched on and 
on, and its every step has exalted free- 
dom and humanity. We are undergoing 
the same ordeal as did our predecessors 
nearly a century ago. We are following 
the course they blazed. They triumphed. 
Will their successors falter and plead or- 
ganic impotency in the nation? Surely 
after 125 years of achievement for man- 
kind we will not now surrender our equal- 
ity with other powers on matters funda- 
mental and essential to nationality. With 
no such purpose was the nation created. 
In no such spirit has it developed its full 
and independent sovereignty. We adhere 
to the principle of equality among our- 
selves, and by no act of ours will we as- 
sign to ourselves a subordinate rank in the 
family of nations. 

My fellow-citizens, the public events of 
the past four years have gone into his- 
tory. They are too near to justify recital. 
Some of them were unforeseen ; many of 
them momentous and far-reaching in their 
consequences to ourselves and our rela- 
tions with the rest of the world. The part 
which the United States bore so honorably 
in the thrilling scenes in China, while new 
to American life, has been in harmony 
with its true spirit and best traditions, 
and in dealing with the results its policy 
will be that of moderation find fairness. 

We face at this moment a most impor- 
tant question — that of the future relations 
of the United States and Cuba. With our 
near neighbors we must remain close 
friends. The declaration of the purposes 
of this government in the resolution of 
April 20, 1898, must be made good. Ever 
since the evacuation of the island by the 
army of Spain the executive with all 
practicable speed has been assisting its 
people in the successive steps necessary 
to the establishment of a free and inde- 
pendent government, prepared to assume 
and perform the obligations of interna- 
tional law which now rest upon the 
United States under the treaty of Paris. 
The convention elected by the people to 
frame a constitution is apprbaehing the 
completifm of its labors. The transfer of 
American control tt» the new government 



is of such great importance, involving an 
obligation resulting from our intervention 
and the treaty of peace, that I am glad 
to be advised by the recent act of Con- 
gress of the policy which the legislative 
branch of the government deems essential 
to the best interests of Cuba and the 
United States. The principles which led 
to our intervention require that the funda- 
mental law upon which the new govern- 
ment rests should be adapted to secure a 
government capable of performing the du- 
ties and discharging the functions of a 
separate nation, of observing its inter- 
national obligations, of protecting life and 
property, insuring order, safety, and lib- 
erty, and conforming to the established 
and historical policy of the United States 
in its relation to Cuba. 

The peace which we are pledged to leave 
to the Cuban people must carry with it 
the guarantees of permanence. We became 
sponsors for the pacification of the island 
and we remain accountable to the Cubans, 
no less than to our own country and peo- 
ple, for the reconstruction of Cuba as a 
free commonwealth on abiding foundations 
of right, justice, liberty, and assured or- 
der. Our enfranchisement of the people 
will not be completed until free Cuba 
shall "Ipe a reality, not a name; a perfect 
entity, not a hasty experiment, bearing 
within itself the elements of failure." 

While the treaty of peace with Spain 
was ratified on Feb. 6, 1899, and rati- 
fications were exchanged nearly two years 
ago, the Congress has indicated no form 
of government for the Philippine Isl- 
ands. It has, however, provided an 
army to enable the executive to suppress 
insurrection, restore peace, give security 
to the inhabitants, and establish the au- 
thority of the United States throughout 
the archipelago. It has authorized the or- 
ganization of native troops as auxiliary 
to the regular force. It has been ad\nsed 
from time to time of the acts of the mili- 
tary and naval officers in the islands, of 
my action in appointing civil commis- 
sions, of the instructions with which they 
were charged, of their duties and powers, 
of their recommendations, and of their 
Sv veral acts under executive commission, 
together with the very complete general 
information they have submitted. These 
reports fully set forth the conditions, past 
5G 



MoKiNLEY— Mcknight 



and present, in the islands, and the in- 
structions clearly show the principles 
which will guide the executive until the 
Congress shall, as it is required to do by 
the treaty, determine " the civil rights and 
political status of the native inhabitants."' 

The Congress having added the sanction 
of its authority to the powers already 
possessed and exercised by the executive 
under the Constitution, thereby leaving 
with the executive the responsibility for 
the government of the Philippines, I shall 
continue the efforts already begun until 
order shall be restored throughout the 
islands, and as fast as conditions permit 
will establish local governments, in the 
formation of which the full co-operation 
of the people has been already invited, and 
when established will encourage the peo- 
ple to administer them. The settled pur- 
pose, long ago proclaimed, to afford the 
inhabitants of the islands self-government 
as fast as they were ready for it will be 
pursued with earnestness and fidelity. 
Already something has been accomplish- 
ed in this direction. The government's 
representatives, civil and military, are 
doing faithful and noble work in their 
mission of emancipation, and merit the ap- 
proval and support of their countrymen. 

The most liberal terms of amnesty have 
already been communicated to the insur- 
gents; the way is still open for those who 
have raised their arms against the govern- 
ment for honorable submission to its 
authority. Our countrymen should not 
be deceived. We are not waging war 
against the inhabitants of the Philippine 
Islands. A portion of them are making 
war against the United States. By far 
the greater part of the inhabitants recog- 
nize American sovereignty and welcome it 
as a guarantee of order and of security for 
life, property, liberty, freedom of con- 
science, and the pursuit of happiness. To 
them full protection will be given. They 
shall not be abandoned. We will not leave 
the destiny of the loyal millions in the 
islands to the disloyal thousands who are 
in rebellion against the United States. 
Order under civil institutions will come as 
soon as those who now break the peace 
shall keep it. Force will not be needed or 
used when those who make war against 
us shall make it no more. May it end 
without further bloodshed, and there be 



ushered in the reign of peace to be made 
permanent by a government of liberty 
under law! 

McKinly, John, governor of Delaware ; 
born in Ireland, Feb. 24, 1724; emigrated 
to the United States when a young man; 
held several State offices, and in 1777 was 
elected governor of Delaware. After the 
battle of the Brandywine the British plun- 
dered Wilmington and captured McKinly, 
but released him on parole in August, 
1778. He died in Wilmington, Del., Aug. 
31, 1796. 

McKinney, Mordecai, lawyer; born 
near Carlisle, Pa., about 1796; graduated 
at Dickinson College in 1814; admitted to 
the bar in 1817; began practice in Harris- 
burg; and was made deputy attorney- 
general of Miami county in 1821. Later 
he devoted his time to compiling works 
on law. His publications include The 
Pennsylvania Justice of the Peace; The 
United States Constitutional Manual; Our 
Government; The American Magistrate 
and Civil Officer: A Manual for Popular 
Use; Pennsylvania Tax Laws; and A 
Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania Rel- 
ative to Banks and Bankers. He died in 
Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 17, 1867. 

McKnight, Charles, surgeon; born in 
Cranberry, N, J., Oct. 10, 1750; grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1771, studied 
medicine with Dr. William Shippen, and 
entered the Continental army as a sur- 
geon. He soon became surgeon of the 
Middle Department. After the war he 
settled in New York, where he became a 
very eminent practitioner, and was for 
some time Professor of Anatomy and Sur- 
gery in Columbia College. He died in 
New York City, Nov. 10, 1791. 

McKnight, Harvey Washington, edu- 
cator; born in McKnightstown, Pa., April 
3, 1843; graduated at Pennsylvania Col- 
lege, Gettysburg, in 1865, and at the 
Theological Seminary there in 1867. He 
served in the Union army from 1862 till 
the close of the war. In 1867-70 he was 
pastor of the Zion Lutheran Church, in 
Newville, Pa.; in 1872-80 of St. Paul's 
Church in Easton, Pa.; in 1880-84 of the 
first English Lutheran Church in Cincin- 
nati. In the latter year he became presi- 
dent of Pennsylvania College. In 1889- 
91 he was president of the General Synod 
of the Lutheran Church of thf United 



57 



McLANE— Mclaughlin 



states. He established the Pennsylvania 
Chautauaua. 

McLane, Allan, military officer; born 
presumably in Philadelphia, Aug. 8, 1746. 
Removing to Delaware in 1774, he left 
an estate in Philadelphia worth $15,000, 
the whole of which he sacrificed in the ser- 
vice of his country. He entered warmly 
into the contest for freedom, becoming first 
a lieutenant in Caesar Rodney's regiment; 
joined the army under Washington in 
1776, and distinguished himself at the 
battles of Long Island, White Plains, 
Trenton, and Princeton ; was made a cap- 
tain in 1777; commanded the outposts of 
the Continental army around Philadelphia 
while that city was occupied by the Brit- 
ish (1777-78) ; and was made major of the 
infantry of Lee's " Legion." While in ser- 
vice under Gen. Henry Lee {q. v.), he 
discovered and reported the weakness of 
the garrison at Stony Point, and promoted 
its capture on July 16, 1779. He also re- 
vealed the w^eakness of the garrison at 
Paulus's Hook, and participated in the 
brilliant affair there, Aug. 19, 1779. His 
personal courage and strength were re- 
markable. In an encounter, near Frank- 
ford, Pa., with three British dragoons, 
he killed one, wounded another, and 
caused the third to flee for his life. After 
the war he held prominent civil posts — 
namely, member of the Assembly of Dela- 
ware, and its speaker ; six years a privy 
councillor; a judge of the court of com- 
mon pleas; marshal of the district from 
1790 to 1798; and collector of the port 
of Wilmington from 1808 until his death, 
in that city, May 22, 1829. 

McLane, Louis, diplomatist; born in 
Smyrna, Del., May 28, 1786; son of Allan 
McLane; entered the navy at thirteen 
years of age, and served as a midshipman 
under Decatur in the Philadelphia, but 
afterwards studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1808. When Baltimore was 
threatened, in 1814, he was a member of 
a volunteer corps that marched to its de- 
fence. For ten successive years (1817-27) 
he represented Delaware in Congress, and 
was United States Senator in 1827-29. 
In May, 1829, President Jackson appoint- 
ed him American minister to Croat lirit- 
ain, which post he held two years, when 
he was called to Jackson's cabinet as Sec- 
retary of the Treasury. In his instruc- 



tions to Minister McLane, the President 
said, " Ask nothing but what is right, and 
submit to nothing that is wrong." In 
1833, in consequence of his declining to 
remove the government deposits from the 
L^nited States Bank, he was transferred 
to the post of Secretary of State, which 
he held until 1834, when he resigned. In 
1837-47 he was president of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad. Pending the 
settlement of the Oregon boundary ques- 
tion, he was again minister to Great Brit- 
ain, appointed by President Polk in June, 
1845. His last public acts were as a mem- 
ber of the convention at Annapolis to re- 
form the constitution of Maryland. He 
died in Baltimore, Md., Oct. 7, 1857. 

McLane, Robert Milligan, diploma- 
tist; born in Wilmington, Del., June 23, 
1815; a son of Louis McLane; gradii- 
ated at the United States Military Acad- 
emy in 1837, and assigned to the 1st Ar- 
tillery. In 1841-43 he studied the dike 
and drainage systems of Italy and Hol- 
land. Returning to the United States, 
he resigned from the army; began prac- 
tising law in Maryland; and was elected 
to Congress as a Democrat in 1844, 1846, 
and 1848. In 1853 President Pierce ap- 
pointed him United States commissioner 
to China, with plenipotentiary pow<ers. 
After accomplishing his mission he re- 
turned to the United States. In 1859 
he was appointed United States minister 
to Mexico, where he negotiated a treaty 
for the protection of American citizens. 
He again held a seat in Congress in 1878- 
82, and soon after the expiration of his 
last term was elected governor of Mary- 
land. In 1885-89 he was United States 
minister to France. He died in Paris, 
France, April 16, 1898. 

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, 
educator; born in Beardstown, 111., Feb. 
14, 1861 ; graduated at the University of 
Michigan in 1882, and from its law de- 
partment in 1885; instructor of Latin in 
the University of Michigan in 1886-87, 
and of History in 1887-88; assistant pro- 
fessor in 1888-91 ; and Professor of Ameri- 
can History since 1891. He has edited 
('oolry's Principles of Constitutional Laio 
(.'id and revised edition); and American 
Historical Review; .and is author of His- 
tory of Higher Education in Michigan; 
Lewis Cass (in American Statesmen 



58 



McLAimiN— McMASTER 



Series) ; Civil Government of Michigan; 
The History of the American Nation; etc. 

McLaurin, Anselm Joseph, lawyer; 
born in Brandon, Miss., March 26, 1848; 
was educated at Summerville Institute; 
served in the Confederate army during the 
Civil War; admitted to the Mississippi 
bar in 1868; and practised in Raleigh, 
and later in Brandon. He was a member 
of the State legislature in 1879; Demo- 
cratic United States Senator in 1894-95 
and 1901-07; and governor of Missis- 
sippi in 1896-1900. 

McLaws, Lafayette, military officer; 
born in Augusta, Ga., Jan. 15, 1821; 
graduated at West Point in 1842; re- 
mained in the army until 1861, when he 
joined the Confederates, and became one 
of the most active of their military lead- 
ers. He had served in the war against 
Mexico. Made a major-general in the 
Confederate army, he commanded a di- 
vision under Lee, and surrendered with 
Johnston's army in April, 1865; was after- 
wards collector of internal revenue and 
postmaster in Savannah; and lectured on 
The Maryland Campaign. He died in 
Savannah, July 24, 1897. 

Maclay, Edgar Stanton, author; born 
in Foo Chow, China, April 18, 1863; 
graduated at Syracuse University in 1885 ; 
connected with the Brooklyn Times and 
the New York Trihune, 1886-96; be- 
came light-house keeper on Old Field 
Point in 1896; and a clerk in the Brook- 
lyn Navy-yard in 1901. He is author of 
The History of the United States Navy; 
Reminiscences of the Old Navy; the His- 
tory of American Privateers ; etc. His 
reflections on the conduct of Bear-Ad- 
miral Schley at Santiago led to the court 
of inquiry on that officer's actions. 

McLean, Sib Allan, military officer; 
born in Scotland, in 1725; was at the 
capture of Fort Duquesne in 1758; 
served under Amherst in 1759; and in 
1775 came to America again, to fight the 
colonists. He occupied Quebec late in 
1775, and rendered great service during 
the siege by Montgomery. He commanded 
the fort at Penobscot in 1779, and was 
promoted brigadier-general after leaving 
America. He died in 1784. 

McLean, John, jurist; born in Morris 
county, N. J., March 11, 1785. His father 
removed first to Virginia, then to Ken- 



tucky, and in 1799 settled in Warren 
county, O. John labored on a farm until 
he was sixteen years old, receiving a scanty 
education ; studied law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1807, and was a member of 
Congress from 1813 to 1816. He was a 
supporter of Madison's administration, 
and from 1816 to 1822 was a judge of 
the Supreme Court of Ohio. In 1822 he 
was made commissioner of the general 
land-office, and in 1823 Postmaster-General. 
In 1830 he became a justice of the United 
States Supreme Covirt, and was always 
known as an advocate for the freedom 
of the slaves. In the Dred Scott Case 
.{q. v.), Judge McLean dissented from the 
opinion of Chief-Justice Taney. He died 
in Cincinnati, O., April 4, 1861. 

McLellan, Isaac, poet; born in Port- 
land, Me., May 21, 1806; graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1826. During his 
course there he was a fellow-student of 
Henry W. Longfellow, Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, and George B. Cheever. After 
graduation he studied law and practised 
in Boston for several years. In 1851 he 
removed to New York and applied him- 
self to literary work, chiefly poetry and 
writings on field sports. His publications 
include The Year, and Other Poems; The 
Fall of the Indian; Poem^ of the Rod 
and Gun; Haunts of Wild Game; War 
Poems, etc. He died in Greenport, Long 
Island, Aug. 20, 1899. 

McLeod, Alexander, clergyman; born 
on the island of Mull, Scotland, June 12, 
1774; came to the United States early 
in life; graduated at Union College in 
1798; ordained in the Reformed Presby- 
terian Church in 1799; and was pastor 
of the First Reformed Presbyterian Church 
of New York till his death. His pub- 
lications include Negro Slavery Unjustifi- 
able; View of the Late War, etc. He died 
in New York City, Feb. 17, 1833. 

McMahon, John Van Lear, lawyer; 
born in Maryland in 1800; graduated at 
Princeton College in 1817; admitted to 
the bar in 1821 ; attained prominence both 
as a lawyer and as a political speaker; 
was counsel for the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company for several years. He 
published An Historical Vieiv of Mary- 
land. He died in Cumberland, Md., June 
15, 1871. 

McMaster, John Bach, historian ; born 



59 



McMillan— macmoitnies 



in Brooklyn, N. Y., June 29, 1852; 
graduated at the College of the City of 
New York in 18'72; employed in civil en- 
gineering in 1873-77; instructor in civil 
engineering at Princeton University in 
1877-83; and became Professor of Amer- 
ican History in the University of Penn- 
sylvania in the latter year. He has been 
prolific producer of historical work of 



40,000 men turned his face towards the 
Ohio. Bragg divided his force into three 
corps, commanded respectively by Generals 
Hardee, Polk, and E. Kirby Smith. The 
latter was sent to Knoxville, Tenn., while 
the two former held Chattanooga and its 
vicinity. Buell disposed his line from 
Huntsville, Ala., to McMinnsville, Warren 
CO., Tenn. So lay the opposing armies 



high merit, his best known publications when Kirby Smith left Knoxville to in- 



being A History of the People of the 
United States (7 volumes) ; Benjamin 
Franklin as a Man of Letters; With the 
Fathers; Origin, Meaning, and Application 
of the Monroe Doctrine; A School His- 
tory of the United States, etc. 

McMillan, Charles, civil engineer; 
born in Moscow, Russia, March 24, 1841; 
educated there and in Hamilton, Canada; 
graduated at Rensselaer Polytechnic In- 
stitute, Troy, N. Y., in 1860; and became 
assistant engineer of the Brooklyn water- 
works; in 1861-65 he was assistant en- 
gineer of the Croton waterworks. New 
York; in 1865-71 Professor of Geodesy 
and Road Engineering in Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute; in 1871-75 Professor of 
Civil and Mechanical Engineering in La- 
high University; and in 1875 was called 
to the chair of Civil Engineering and Ap- 
plied Mathematics in Princeton Univer- 
sity. In 1885 he became editor of Sinith's 
Topographical Draicing. 

MacMillan, Conway, botanist; born in 
Hillsdale, Mich., Aug. 26, 1867; was edu- 
cated at the University of Nebraska, and 
Harvard and Johns Hopkins universities; 



vade Kentucky. Bragg crossed the Ten- 
nessee, just above Chattanooga, on Aug. 21, 
with thirty-six regiments of infantry, five 
of cavalry, and forty guns. Louisville 
was his destination. He advanced among 
the rugged mountains towards Buell's left 
at McMinnsville as a feint, but fairly 
flanked the Nationals. This was a caval- 
ry movement, which resulted in a battle 
there. The horsemen were led by General 
Forrest, who, for several days, had been 
liovering around Lebanon, Murfreesboro, 
and Nashville. Attempting to cut of? 
Buell's communications, he was confront- 
ed (Aug. 30) by National cavalry under 
E. P. Fyffe, of Gen. T. J. Wood's division, 
who had made a rapid march. After a 
short struggle the Confederates were rout- 
ed. Supposing Bragg was aiming at 
Nashville, Buell took immediate meas- 
ures to defend that city. 

MacMonnies, Frederick William, 
sculptor; born in Brooklyn, N. Y., Sept. 
30, 1863; received a common school edu- 
cation; entered the studio of Augustus St. 
Gaudens in 1880; studied for four years 
in the life classes of the Academy of De- 



became assistant in geology in the Uni- sign and Art Students' League, and com- 
versity of Nebraska in 1886; entomologist pleted his art education abroad, studying 
to the Nebraska agricultural experiment in Munich in the atelier of Falguiere; in 



station in 1887; and instructor in botany 
in the University of Minnesota in 1888. 
He is the editor of Minnesota Botanical 
Studies. 

McMillin, Benton, statesman; born 
in Monroe county, Ky., Sept. 11, 1845; 
elected a member of the Tennessee leg- 
islature in 1874; member of Congress, 



the Ecole des Beaux Arts, in Paris, and 
in the private studio of Antonin Mercie; 
received the " prix d'atelier," the highest 
prize open to foreigners; opened a studio 
of his own in Paris; and in 1896 received 
the Cross of the Legion of Honor. His 
principal works are the famous statue of 
Bacchante, which he gave to C. F. Mc- 



1879-99; elected governor of the State in Kim, who in 1897 presented it to the Met 

l^'^'^- ropolitan Museum of Art in New York 

McMinnsville, Battle near. In the City; the fountain at the World's Colum- 

Bummer of 1862, Generals Bragg and Buell bian Exposition in Chicago; the statue of 

marched in nearly parallel lines eastward -Nathan Hale, in City Hall Park, New 

towards Chattanooga— the latter north of York: Fame, at West Point; Diana: Pan 

the Tennessee River, and the former south of Rohallion ; the quadriga for the Brook- 

of it. Bragg won the race, and with fully lyn Memorial Arch; the two bronze eagles 
^ 60 



McNAB— McNIEL 

for the entrance to Prospect Park, Brook- opening of the Mississippi River; and the 

lyn, etc. In 1903 he was selected to engagements and surrender at Fort Fisher, 

make a statue of General McClellan for He died in Washington, D. C, Nov. 28, 

Washington, D. C. 1900. 

McNab, Sir Allan Napier, military McNamara, John, clergyman; born in 

officer; born in Niagara, Ontario, Canada, Dromore, Ireland, Dec. 27, 1824; received 

Feb. 19, 1798. His father was the principal a collegiate education and studied theology 

aide on the staff of General Simcoe dur- at the General Theological Seminary in 

ing the Revolutionary War. Allan became New York City; was ordained in the 

a midshipman in 1813, in the British fleet Protestant Episcopal Church; labored as 

on Lake Ontario, but soon left the navy, a missionary in Kansas and later as a 

joined the army; commanded the British pastor in North Platte, Neb. His pub- 

at the battle of Plattsburg; was in the lications include Three Years on the 

Canadian Parliament in 1820, being chosen Kansas Border; and The Black Code of 

speaker of the Assembly. In 1837-38 he Kansas. He died in North Platte, Neb., 

commanded the militia on the Niagara Oct. 24, 1885. 

frontier, and was a conspicuous actor in McNeil, John, military officer; born in 

crushing the " rebellion." He sent a party Halifax, N. S., Feb. 4, 1813; was a hatter 

to destroy the American vessel Caroline, in St. Louis about twenty y«ars, and then 

and for his services was knighted (see president of an insurance company; en- 

Canada). After the union of Upper and tered the Union service with General Lyon 

Lower Canada, in 1841, he became speaker in May, 1861; and was in command of St. 

of the legislature. He was prime minis- Louis, under Frgmont. He was made 

ter under the governorship of Lord El- colonel of the 19th Missouri Volunteers 

gin and Sir Edmund Head, and in 1860 Aug. 3, and early in 1862 took command 

was a member of the legislative coun- of a cavalry regiment and of a military 

oil. He died in Toronto, Canada, Aug. 8, district in Missouri, in which he dis- 

1862. tinguished himself by clearing out the 

McNair, Alexander, military officer; guerillas; and was promoted brigadier- 
born in Derry, Pa., in 1774; served in the general. He assisted in driving the 
whiskey insurrection as a lieutenant in forces under Price out of Missouri in 
1794; appointed a lieutenant in the reg- the fall of 1864. He was a commissioner 
ular army in 1799; mustered out in to the Centennial Exposition in 1876 and 
1800; removed to Missouri in 1804, where an Indian inspector in 1878 and 1882. 
he was appointed United States commis- He died in St. Louis, June 8, 1891. 
sary, and in 1812 adjutant and inspector- McNeill, George Rockwell, educator; 
general. He was the first governor of born in Fayetteville, N. C, in 1854; grad- 
Missouri, serving from 1820 to 1824, when uated at Davidson College (N. C.) in 
he became United States Indian agent. 1874; principal of a private school in 
He died in St. Louis, Mo., March 18, 1826. Rowan county, N. C, for nine years; and 

McNair, Frederick Vallette, naval later became county superintendent and 

officer; born in Jenkintown, Pa., Jan. 13, president of the State Association of Coun- 

1839; graduated at the United States ty Superintendents. He was principal of 

Naval Academy in June, 1857; promoted the male academy at Reidsville, N. C, in 

passed midshipman, June, 1860; master, 1883-80; president of Lafayette College 

October, 1860; lieutenant, April, 1861; (Ala.) in 1889-95; president of a female 

lieutenant-commander, April, 1864; com- college in 1895-98; and in the latter year 

mander, January, 1872; captain, October, again became president of Lafayette Col- 

1883; commodore, May, 1895; rear-admi- lege. He died in 1901. 

ral, 1898. In the latter year he was ap- McNiel, John, military officer; born 

pointed superintendent of the United in Hillsboro, N. C, in 1784; entered the 

States Naval Academy. During the Civil army as captain in March, 1812, and was 

War he took part in many engagements, brevetted lieutenant-colonel for his conduct 

including the actions at Fort Jackson, at the battle of Chippewa. The next year 

Fort St. Philip, and the Chalmette bat- he was wounded at the battle of Niagara, 

teries; the capture of New Orleans; the or Lundy's Lane, and was brevetted colonel. 

61 



MACOMB 

In 1830 he resigned his commission, and chief of the armies of the United States, 
was appointed, by President Jackson, sur- which post he held at the time of his 
veyor of the port of Boston, which office death, in Washington, D. C, June 25, 




MACOMB'S MEDAL. 

he held until his death, in Washington, 1841. His remains were interred, with 
D. C, Feb. 23, 1850. His wife was a half- military honors in the congressional cem- 
sister of President Pierce. etery, Washington, and over them stands 

Macomb, Alexander, military officer; a beautiful white marble monument, prop- 
born in Detroit, Mich., April 3, 
1782; entered the army as cor- 
net of cavalry in 1799, and at 
the beginning of the war with 
Great Britain, in 1812, was lieu- 
tenant-colonel of engineers and 
adjutant-general of the army. 
He had five brothers in that con- 
test. He was transferred to the 
artillery, and distinguished him- 
self on the Niagara frontier. In 
January, 1814, he was promoted 
to brigadier - general, and when 
General Izard withdrew from the 
military post on Lake Cham- 
plain, in the summer of that 
year, Macomb was left in chief 
command of that region. In 
that capacity he won a victory 
over the British at Plattsburg, 
Sept. 11. For his conduct on 
that occasion he was commis- 
sioned a major-general and re- 
ceived thanks and a gold medal 
from Congress. 

On the death of General 
Brown, in 1828, General Ma- 
comb was appointed general-in- 




'tt*»M<v'''V'lil'' 



MACOMB'S MONUMENT. 



62 



MACON— Mcpherson 



erly inscribed. He was author of a treat- 
ise on Martial Law and Courts-Martial 
( see Plattsburg, Battle of ) . His son, 
William Henry (born, June IG, 1818; 
died, Aug. 12, 1872), entered the navy, 
as midshipman, in 1834; was engaged 
against the forts in China in 1850, and 
in the expedition to Paraguay in 1859, 
in which he commanded the Metacomet. 
In the Civil War he was active on the 
Mississippi and on the coast of North 
Carolina, attaining the rank of commo- 
dore in 1862. In 1869 he commanded the 
steamship Plymouth, in the European 
squadron, and was light-house inspector in 
1871. 

Macon, Nathaniel, statesman; born 
in Warren county, N. C, Dec. 17, 1757; 
was attending college at Princeton when 
the Revolutionary War broke out; re- 
turned home and volunteered as a pri- 
vate soldier in the company of his 
brother. He was at the fall of Charles- 
ton, the disaster to Gates near Camden, 
and with Greene in his remarkable retreat 
across the Carolinas. From 1780 to 1785 
he was a member of the North Carolina 
Assembly, and there opposed the ratifica- 
tion of the national Constitution. From 
1791 to 1815 he was a member of Congress, 
and from 1816 to 1828 United States Sena- 
tor. He was a warm personal friend of 
Jefferson and Madison, and his name has 
been given to one of the counties of North 
Carolina. John Randolph said of him in 
his will : " He is the best, purest, and 
wisest man that I ever knew." Mr. Jef- 
ferson called him " The last of the Ro- 
mans." He selected for his place of burial 
an untillable ridge, ordered the spot to be 
marked only by a pile of loose stones, and 
directed his coffin to be made of plain 
boards, and to be paid for before his in- 
terment. He died at his birthplace, June 
29, 1837. 

Macon, Fort, Capture of. This fort, 
commanding the harbor of Beaufort, N. C, 
and Bogue Sound, was seized by Gov- 
ernor Ellis early in 1861. Its possession 
by the government would secure the use 
of a fine harbor on the Atlantic coast 
for National vessels engaged in the block- 
ading service. It stood upon a long ridge 
of sand cast up by the ocean, called Bogue 
Island. After the capture of Newbern {q. 
v.), Burnside sent General Parke to take 



the fort. A detachment took possession 
of Beaufort, and a Hag was sent to the 
fort demanding its surrender. The com- 
mander of the garrison, a nephew of Jeffer- 
son Davis, declared he would not yield 
until he had " eaten his last biscuit and 
slain his last horse." On April 11, 1862, 
Parke began a siege. Batteries were 
erected on Bogue Island, and gunboats, 
under Commodore S. Lockwood, co-oper- 
ated with the troops. The garrison was 
cut off from all communication with the 
outside world by land or water. A bom- 
bardment was begun on the morning of 
April 25. The fort responded with great 
spirit and vigor, and a tremendous artil- 
lery duel was kept up for several hours, 
when the fort displayed a white flag. Be- 
fore 10 A.M. on the 26th the fort was in 
possession of the Nationals, with about 
500 prisoners. 

McPherson, Edward, author; born in 
Gettysburg, Pa., July 31, 1830; graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1848; 
became a lawyer, but abandoned this pro- 
fession and took up journalism in Get- 
tysburg; was a Republican Representa- 
tive in Congress in 1859-63; clerk of the 
House in 1863-73, 1881-83, and 1889-91. 
His publications include Political His- 
tory of the United States during the 
Great Rebellion; The Political History 
of the United States during Recon- 
struction; and a Hand-Book of Politics. 
He died in Gettysburg, Pa., Dec. 14, 
1895. 

McPherson, James Birdseye, military 
officer; born in Sandusky, O., Nov. 14, 
1828; graduated at West Point in 185.3, 
the first in his class, and entered the 
engineer corps. He was made captain 
in August, 1861, and brigadier-general 
of volunteers in May, 1862. He was 
aide to General Halleck late in 1861, and 
chief engineer of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee, doing good service at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, Corinth, and luka Springs. 
In December, 1862, he commanded the 
17th Corps with great ability, having been 
made major-general in October. He did 
admirable service, under Grant, in the 
Vicksburg campaign (1863), and was 
made brigadier-general in the United 
States army in August. He was also 
active and efficient in the Atlanta cam- 
paign, in 1864, distinguishing himself 



63 



Mcpherson— MACY 




JAMES BIRDSEYE McPHERSON. 



everywhere as commander of the Army of brevetted colonel for services in defence 
the Tennessee. He was killed while re- of Fort Erie in August, 1814. He was 

sent to France by Major Thayer in 1816, 
to collect scientific and military informa- 
tion for the benefit of the Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, of which Thayer was 
then superintendent. Promoted lieuten- 
ant-colonel in 1818, he resigned in 1819, 
and was surveyor of public lands in the 
Mississippi region from 1825 to 1832. He 
died in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 10, 1832. 

McSherry, James, author; born in 
Frederick county, Md., July 29, 1819; 
graduated at St. Mary's College, Em- 
mettsburg, Md., in 1828; admitted to the 
bar in 1840; began practice in Gettysburg, 
but removed to Frederick City, where he 
engaged in his profession till his death. 
His publications include History of Mary- 
land, 1634-1848 ; Pere Jean, or the Jesuit 
Missionary, etc. He died in Frederick 
City, Md., July 13, 1869. 

MacVeagh, Wayne, diplomatist; born 
connoitring in the Confederate lines, July in Phcenixville, Pa., April 19, 1833; grad- 
22, 1864. uated at Yale College in 1853; and ad- 

McPherson, John Roderic, statesman; mitted to the bar in 1856. He was di.s 
born in Livingston county, N. Y., May 9, trict attorney for Chester county, Pa., in 
1833; removed to New Jersey in 1858; 1859-64; entered the Union army as cap- 
member of the State Senate, 1870-73; tain of cavalry when the invasion of Penu- 
United States Senator, 1883-95. He died sylvania was threatened in September, 
in Jersey City, Oct. 8, 1897. ' 1862; was United States minister to Tur- 

McPherson, William, military officer; key in 1870-71; member of the Pennsyl- 
born in Philadelphia in 1751; was ap- vania constitutional convention in 1872- 
pointed a cadet in the British army at 73; and president of the MacVeagh com- 
the age of thirteen; and became adjutant mission to Louisiana in 1877. In 1881 
of a regiment. He joined the Continental he was appointed United States Attorney- 
army at the close of 1779, and was ap- General, but on the death of President 
pointed to the command of a partisan Garfield he resigned, and resumed law 
corps of cavalry in 1781. He was naval practice in Philadelphia. He was ambas- 
officer of Philadelphia from 1793 until his sador to Italy in 1893-97; and repre- 
death, Nov. 5, 1813. He was made sented the United States in the Venezuela 
brigadier-general of the provisional army case at The Hague arbitration tribunal 
in 1798. His brother, John, was aide to in 1903. 

General Montgomeiy, and perished with Macready, William Charles, English 
him at the siege of Quebec {q. v.). actor; born March 3, 1793; died April 29, 

McPherson, Fort, a modern protective 1873. See Forrest, Edwin; Astor Place 
and garrisoned military post of the Riot. 

United States; established about 4 miles Macy, Jesse, educator; born in Henry 
from Atlanta, Ga., and named in honor county. Ind., June 21, 1842; graduated at 
of Gen. .Tames B. McPherson {q.v.). Iowa College in 1870; became Professor 

McRee, William, military officer; born of Constitutional History and Political 
in Wilmington, N. C, Dec. 13, 1787; Science at Iowa College in 1885. He is 
graduated at West- Point in 1805, and tlie author of Civil Govermnent in Iowa; 
entered the corps of engineers. He was A Oovernment Text-Book for Iowa 
major in July, 1812; became chief engi- Schools; Our Government; Institutional 
neer on the northern frontier, • and was Beginnings in a Western State, etc. 

64 



MADISON, JAMES 

Madison, James, fourth President of Washington ofTered him. He presented 

the United States, from March 4, 1809, to resolutions to the Virginia legislature in 

March 4, 1817; Republican; born in Port 1798, drawn by him, on the basis of a 

Conway, Va., March 16,. 1751; graduated fceries drawn by Jefferson for the Ken- 

at the College of New Jersey in 1771. tucky legislature, which contained the es- 

studied law, and in 1776 was elected to a sence of the doctrine of State supremacy, 

seat in the Virginia Assembly. He became They were adopted. In 1801 he was ap- 

a member of the executive council in pointed Secretary of State, which office 

1778, and was sent to Congress in 1779. he held imtil his inauguration as Presi- 

In that body he continually opposed the dent. He very soon became involved in 

issue of paper money by the States. He disputes about impressment with the gov- 

vvas active until the peace in 1783, when he ernment of Great Britain, and, in 1812, 

retired to private life, but was drawn out was compelled to declare war against that 




MONTPKLIER, THE HOME OF MADISON. 



again as a delegate to the convention 
that framed the national Constitution. In 
that body he took a prominent part in the 
debates, and wrote some of the papers 
in The Federalist, which advocated the 
adoption of that instrument. He was also 
in the Virginia Convention in 1788 that 
ratified the Constitution. A member of 
Congress from 1789 to 1797, Madison did 
much in the establishment of the nation 
on a firm foundation. Uniting with the 
Republican party, he was a moderate op- 
ponent of the administration of Washing- 
ton. He declined the post of Secretary of 
State, vacated by Jefferson in 1793, which 



nation (see below). He was enabled to 
proclaim a treaty of peace in February, 
1815. Retiring from office in 1817, he 
passed the remainder of his days on his 
estate at Montpelier. His accomplished 
wife, Dorothy (commonly called "Dol- 
ly"), shared his joys and sorrows from 
the time of their marriage in Philadelphia 
in 1794 until his death, June 28, 1836, and 
survived him until July 2, 1849. She was 
a long time among the leaders in Wash- 
ington society. 

President Madison, seeing that the cap- 
ital was in danger when victory remained 
with the British at Bladensburg (q. v.}r 



65 



MADISON, JAMES 



sent messengers to his wife, advising her also resolv3d to save, she hastened to the 
to fly to a phice of safety. She had al- carriage, with her sister and her husband, 
ready been apprised of the disaster on the and was borne away to a place of safety 
field. On receiving the message from her beyond the Potomac. Barker and De 
husband. Aug. 24, 1814, between 2 and 3 I'eyster rolled up the picture, and, with 
P.M., she ordered her carriage and sent it, accompanied a portion of the retreat- 
away in a wagon silver plate and other ing armj^ and so saved it. That picture 
valuables, to be deposited in the Bank of was left at a farm-house, and a few weeks 
^laryland. In one of the rooms hung a afterwards ]\Ir. Barker restored it to Mrs. 
full-length portrait of Washington, paint- Madison. It now hangs in the Blue Room 
ed by Stuart. While anxiously waiting of the White House in -Washington. The 
for the arrival of her husband, she took revered parchment is still preserved by the 
measures for preserving the picture, when, government. 

finding the process of unscrewing the Message on British Aggressions. — On 
frame from the wall too tedious, she had June 1, 1812, President Madison sent to 
it broken in pieces, and the canvas was Congress the following message detailing 
removed from the stretcher with her own the existing relations between the United 
hands. Just as she had accomplished so States and Great Britain: 

much, two gentlemen from New York 

(Jacob Barker and R. G. L. De Peyster) Washington, June 1, 1812. 

entered the room. The picture was lying To the Senate and House of Representa- 
on the floor. The sound of approaching fives of the United States, — I communi- 
troops was heard. " Save that picture," cate to Congress certain documents, being 
said Mrs. Madison to the two gentlemen, a continuation of those heretofore laid be- 
" Save it if possible; if not possible, de- fore them on the subject of our affairs 
stroy it; under no circumstances allow it with Great Britain. 

Without going back beyond the re- 
newal in 1803 of the war in which 
Great Britain is engaged, and omit- 
ting unrepaired wrongs of inferior 
magnitude, the conduct of her govern- 
ment presents a series of acts hostile 
to the United States as an indepen- 
dent and neutral nation. 

British cruisers have been in the 
continued practice of violating the 
American flag on the great highway 
of nations, and of seizing and carry- 
ing off" persons sailing under it, not 
in the exercise of a belligerent right 
founded on the law of nations against 
an enemy, but of a municipal pre- 
rogative over British subjects. Brit- 
I /■ II \ ■amiifmmiiinmi^Kr/////rfmimmm^/Mm''' ^ ii ^^^^ jurisdiction is thus extended to 

/ ^^ilrilnSKKKm^^^^^llwl^P^^ * Im ^ci'tral vessels in a situation where 

no laws can operate but the law of 
nations and the laws of the coimtry 
to which the vessels belong, and a 
self-redress is assumed which, if Brit- 
ish subjects were wrongfully detained 
and alone concerned, is that sub- 
tn fall into the hands of the British." stitution of force for a resort to the re- 
Then, .snatching up the precious parchment sponsible sovereign which falls within the 
whif-h bore the engrossed copy of the definition of war. Could the seizure of 
JJeolaration of Independence and the au- British subjects in such cases be regarded 
toj^raphs of the signers, which she had as within the exercise of a belligerent 

66 




.MI;.S. MADi.HON, 



MADISON, JAMES 



right, the acknowledged laws of war, which 
forbid an article of captured property to 
be adjudged without a regular investiga- 
tion before a competent tribunal, would 
imperiously demand the fairest trial where 
the sacred rights of persons were at issue. 
In place of such a trial these rights are 
subjected to the will of every petty com- 
mander. 

The practice, hence, is so far from affect- 
ing British subjects alone that, under the 
pretext of searching for these, thousands 
of American citizens, under the safeguard 
of public law and of their national flag, 
have been torn from their country and 
from everything dear to them ; have been 
dragged on board ships-of-war of a for- 
eign nation and exposed, under the severi- 
ties of their discipline, to be exiled to the 
most distant and deadly climes, to risk 
their lives in the battles of their oppress- 
ors, and to be the melancholy instruments 
of taking away those of their own breth- 
ren. 

Against this crying enormity, which 
Great Britain would be so prompt to 
avenge if committed against herself, the 
United States have in vain exhausted re- 
monstrances and expostulations, and that 
no proof might be wanting of their con- 
ciliatory dispositions, and no pretext left 
for a continuance of the practice, the Brit- 
ish government was formally assured of 
the readiness of the United States to enter 
into arrangements such as could not be 
rejected if the recovery of British sub- 
jects were the real and the sole ob- 
ject. The communication passed without 
effect. 

British cruisers have been in the prac- 
tice also of violating the rights and the 
peace of our coasts. They hover over and 
harass our entering and departing com- 
merce. To the most insulting pretensions 
they have added the most lawless proceed- 
ings in our very harbors, and have wan- 
tonly spilled American blood within the 
sanctuary of our territorial jurisdiction. 
The principles and rules enforced by that 
nation, when a neutral nation, against 
armed vessels of belligerents hovering near 
her coasts and disturbing her commerce 
are well known. When called on, never- 
theless, by the United States to punish 
the greater offences committed by her own 
vessels, her government has bestowed on 



their commanders additional marks of 
honor and confidence. 

Under pretended blockades, without the 
presence of an adequate force and some- 
times without the practicability of apply- 
ing one, our commerce has been plundered 
in every sea, the great staples of our coun- 
try have been cut off from their legitimate 
markets, and a destructive blow aimed at 
our agricultural and maritime interests. 
In aggravation of these predatory meas- 
ures they have been considered as in force 
from the dates of their notification, a 
retrospective effect being thus added, as 
has been done in other important cases, 
to the unlawfulness of the course pursued. 
And to render the outrage the more signal, 
these mock blockades have been reiterated 
and enforced in the face of official com- 
munications from the British government 
declaring as the true definition of a legal 
blockade " that particular ports must be 
actually invested and previous warning 
given to vessels bound to them not to 
enter." 

Not content with these occasional ex- 
pedients for laying waste our neutral 
trade, the cabinet of Britain resorted at 
length to the sweeping system of block- 
ades, under the name of orders in council, 
which has been moulded and managed as 
might best suit its political views, its com- 
mercial jealousies, or the avidity of Brit- 
ish cruisers. 

To our remonstrances against the com- 
plicated and transcendent injustice of this 
innovation the first reply was that the 
orders were reluctantly adopted by Great 
Britain as a necessary retaliation on de 
crees of her enemy proclaiming a general 
blockade of the British Isles at a time 
when the naval force of that enemy dared 
not issue from his own ports. She was 
reminded without effect that her own prior 
blockades, unsupported by an adequate 
naval force actually applied and continued, 
were a bar to this plea; that executed 
edicts against millions of our property 
could not be retaliation on edicts con- 
fessedly impossible to be executed ; that 
retaliation, to be just, should fall on the 
party setting the guilty example, not on 
an innocent party which was not even 
chargeable with an acquiescence in it. 

When deprived of this flimsy veil for a 
prohibition of our trade with her enemj) 



67 



MADISON, JAMES 

by the repeal of his prohibition of oul oly which she covets for her own corn- 
trade with Great Britain, her cabinet, in- merce and navigation. She carries on a 
stead of a corresponding repeal or a prac- war against the lawful commerce of a 
tical discontinuance of its orders, for- friend that she may the better carry on 
mally avowed a determination to persist a commerce with an enemy — a commerce 
in them against the United States until polluted by the forgeries and perjuries 
the markets of her enemy should be laid which are for the most part the only pass- 
open to British products, thus asserting ports by which it can succeed. 
an obligation on a neutral power to re- Anxious to make every experiment short 
quire one belligerent to encourage by its of the last resort of injured nations, the 
internal regulations the trade of another United States have withheld from Great 
belligerent, contradicting her own prac- Britain, under successive modifications, 
tice towards all nations, iu peace as well as the benefits of a free intercourse with 
in war, and betraying the insincerity of tlieir market, the loss of which could not 
those professions which inculcated a be- but outweigh the profits accruing from 
lief that, having resorted to her orders her restrictions of our commerce with 
with regret, she was anxious to find an other nations. And to entitle these ex- 
occasion for putting an end to them. periments to the more favorable consid- 

Abandoning still more all respect for eration they were so framed as to enable 
the neutral rights of the United States her to place her adversary under the ex- 
and for its own consistency, the British elusive operation of them. To these ap- 
government now demands as prerequisites peals her government has been equally 
to a repeal of its orders as they relate to inflexible, as if willing to make sacrifices 
the United States that a formality should of every sort rather than yield to the 
be observed in the repeal of the French claims of justice or renounce the errors 
decrees nowise necessary to their termina- of a false pride. Nay, so far were the 
lion nor exemplified by British usage, and attempts carT-ied to overcome the attach- 
that the French repeal, besides including ment of the British cabinet to its un- 
that portion of the decrees which operates just edicts that it received every encour- 
within a territorial jurisdiction, as well agement within the competency of the 
as that which operates on the high seas, executive branch of our government to 
against the commerce of the United expect that a repeal of them would be 
States should not be a single and special followed by a war between the United 
repeal in relation to the United States, States and France, unless the French 
but should be extended to whatever other edicts should also be repealed. Even this 
neutral nations unconnected with them that communication, although silencing for- 
may be affected by those decrees. And as ever the plea of a disposition in the 
an additional insult, they are called on United States to acquiesce in those edicts 
for a formal disavowal of conditions and originally the sole plea for them, received 
pretensions advanced by the French gov- no attention. 

ernment for which the United States are If no other proof existed of a prede- 

so far from having made themselves re- termination of the British government 

sponsible that, in official explanations against a repeal of its orders, it might be 

which have been published to the world, found in the correspondence of the min- 

and in a correspondence of the American ister plenipotentiary of the United States 

minister at London with the British min- at London and the British secretary for 

ister for foreign affairs, such a respon- foreign affairs in 1810, on the question 

sibility was explicitly and emphatically whether the blockade of May, 1806, was 

disclaimed. considered as in force or as not in force. 

It has become, indeed, sufficiently cer- It had been ascertained that the French 
lain that the commerce of the United government, which urged this blockade 
States is to be sacrificed, not as inter- as the ground of its Berlin decree, was 
fering with the belligerent rights of willing in the event of its removal to re- 
Great Britair. ; not as supplying the wants peal that decree, which, being followed by 
of her enemies, which she herself sup- alternate repeals of the other offensive 
plies, but as interfering with the monop- edicts, might abolish the whole system on 

68 



MADISON, JAMES 



■ both sides. This inviting opportunity for 
accomplishing an object so important to 
the United States, and professed so often 
to be the desire of both the belligerents, 
was made kno\VTi to the British govern- 
ment. As that government admits that 
an actual application of an adequate force 
is necessary to the existence of a legal 
blockade, and it was notorious that if such 
a force had ever been apjjlied its long dis- 
continuance had annulled the blockade 
in question, there could be no sufficient 
objection on the part of Great Britain to 
a formal revocation of it, and no imagi- 
nable objection to a declaration of the fact 
that the blockade did not exist. The dec- 
laration would have been consistent with 
her avowed principles of blockade, and 
would have enabled the United States to 
demand from France the pledged repeal 
of her decrees, either with success, in 
which case the way would have been open- 
ed for a general repeal of the belligerent 
edicts, or without success, in which case 
the United States would have been justi- 
fied in turning their measures exclusively 
against France. The British government 
would, however, neither rescind the block- 
ade, nor declare its non-existence, nor per- 
mit its non-existence to be inferred and 
affirmed by the American plenipotentiary. 
On the contrary, by representing the 
blockade to be comprehended in the orders 
in council, the United States were com- 
pelled so to regard it in their subsequent 
proceedings. 

There was a period when a favorable 
change in the policy of the British cabinet 
was justly considered as established. The 
minister plenipotentiary of his Britannic 
Majesty here proposed an adjustment of 
the differences more immediately endanger- 
ing the harmony of the two countries. The 
proposition was accepted with the prompt- 
itude and cordiality corresponding with the 
invariable professions of this government. 
A foundation appeared to be laid for a sin- 
cere and lasting reconciliation. The pros- 
pect, however, quickly vanished. The 
whole proceeding was disavowed by the 
British government without any explana- 
tions which could at that time repress 
the belief that the disavowal proceeded 
from a spirit of hostility to the commer- 
cial rights and prosperity of the United 
States; and it has since come into proof 



69 



that at the very moment when the public 
minister was holding the language of 
friendship and inspiring confidence in the 
sincerity of the negotiations with which 
he was charged, a secret agent of his gov- 
ernment was employed in intrigues having 
for their object a subversion of our govern- 
ment and a dismemberment of our happy 
Union. 

In reviewing the conduct of Great Brit- 
ain towards the United States our atten- 
tion is necessarily drawn to the warfare 
just renewed by the savages on one of our 
extensive frontiers — a warfare which is 
known to spare neither age nor sex and 
to be distinguished by features peculiarly 
shocking to humanity. It is difficult to 
account for the activity and combinations 
which have for some time been develop- 
ing themselves among tribes in constant 
intercourse with British traders and gar- 
risons without connecting their hostility 
with that influence and without recollect- 
ing the authenticated examples of such in- 
terpositions heretofore furnished by the 
officers and agents of that government. 

Such is the spectacle of injuries and in- 
dignities which have been heaped on our 
country, and such the crisis which its un- 
exampled forbearance and conciliatory ef- 
forts have not been able to avert. It might 
at least have been expected that an en- 
lightened nation, if less urged by moral 
obligations or invited by friendly dispo- 
sitions on the part of the United States, 
would have found in its true interest alone 
a sufficient motive to respect their rights 
and their tranquillity on the high seas; 
that an enlarged jiolicy would have fa- 
vored that free and general circulation of 
commerce in which the British nation is 
at all times interested, and which in times 
of war is the best alleviation of its calami- 
ties to herself as well as to other belliger- 
ents; and more especially that the Brit- 
ish cabinet would not, for the sake of a 
precarious and surreptitious intercourse 
with hostile markets, have persevered in a 
course of measures which necessarily put 
at hazard the invaluable market of a 
great and growing country, disposed to 
cultivate the mutual advantages of an ac- 
tive commerce. 

Other counsels have prevailed. Our 
moderation and conciliation have had no 
other effect than to encourage persever- 



MADISON, JAMES 



ance and to enlarge pretensions. We be- 
hold our seafaring citizens still the daily 
victims of lawless violence, committed on 
the great common highway of nations, 
even within sight of the country which 
owes them protection. We behold our 
vessels, freighted with the products of 
our soil and industry, or returning with 
the honest proceeds of them, wrested from 
their lawful destinations, confiscated by 
prize courts no longer the organs of pub- 
lic law, but the instruments of arbitrary 
edicts, and their unfortunate crews dis- 
persed and lost, or forced or inveigled in 
British ports into British fleets, while 
argimients are employed in support of 
these aggressions which have no founda- 
tion but in a principle equally supporting 
a claim to regulate our external com- 
merce in all cases whatsoever. 

W^e behold, in fine, on the side of Great 
Britain a state of war against the United 
States, and on the side of the United 
States a state of peace towards Great 
Britain. 

Whether the United States shall con- 
tinue passive under these progressive usur- 
pations and these accumulating wrongs; 
or, opposing force to force, in defence 
of their national rights, shall commit 
a just cause into the hands of the Al- 
mighty Disposer of Events, avoiding all 
connections which might entangle it in 
the contest or views of other powers, and 
preserving a constant readiness to con- 
cur in an honorable re-establishment of 
peace and friendship, is a solemn question 
which the Constitution wisely confides to 
tlie legislative department of the govern- 
ment. In recommending it to their early 
deliberations, I am happy in the assur- 
ance that the decision will be worthy 
the enlightened and patriotic councils 
of a virtuous, a free, and ii powerful 
nation. 

Having presented this view of the rela- 
tions of the United States with Great 
Britain, and of the solemn alternative 
growing out of them, I proceed to remark 
that the communications last made to 
Congress on the subject of our lelations 
with France will have shown that, since 
the revocation of her decrees, as they vio- 
lated the neutral rights of the United 
States, her government has authorized 
illegal captures by its privateers and pub- 



lie ships, and that other outrages have 
been practised on our vessels and our citi- 
zens. It will have been seen also that nc 
indemnity had been provided or satie^ 
factorily pledged for the extensive spo- 
liations committed under the violent an*' 
retrospective orders of the French govern- 
ment against the property of our citizen* 
seized within the jurisdiction of France. 
I abstain at this time from recommending 
to the consideration of Congress defini- 
tive measures with respect to that nation, 
in the expectation that the result of un- 
closed discussions between our minister 
plenipotentiary at Paris and the French 
government will speedily enable Congress 
to decide with greater advantage on the 
course due to the rights, the interests, 
and the honor of our country. 

Proclamation of War. — 

KY TTIE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas the Congress of the United 
States, by virtue of the constituted au- 
thority vested in them, have declared by 
their act bearing date the 18th day of 
the present month that war exists between 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland and the dependencies thereof and 
the United States of America and their 
Territories : 

Now, therefore, I. James Madison, Pres- 
ident of the United States of America, do 
hereby proclaim the same to all whom it 
may concern ; and I do specially enjoin on 
all persons holding oflfices, civil or mili- 
tary, under the authority of the United 
States that they be vigilant and zealous 
in discharging the duties respectively in- 
cident thereto ; and I do moreover exhort 
all the good people of the United States, 
as they love their country, as they value 
the precious heritage derived from the 
virtue and valor of their fathers, as they 
feel the wrongs Avhich have forced on them 
the last resort of injured nations, and as 
they consult the best means under the 
blessings of Divine Providence of abridg- 
ing its calamities, that they exert them- 
selves, in preserving order, in promoting 
concord, in maintaining the authority and 
efficacy of the laws, and in supporting and 
invigorating all the measures which may 



70 



MADISON, JAMES 



be adopted by the constituted authorities scious patriotism and worth v/ill animate 



for obtaining a speedy, a just, and an 
honorable peace. 



such men under every change of fortune 
and pursuit, but their country performs a 



In testimony whereof I have hereunto duty to itself when it bestows those tes- 



[SEAL.] 



set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed 
to these presents. 

Done at the city of Washing- 



timonials of approbation and applause 
which are at once the reward and the in- 
centive to great actions. 

The reduction of the public expenditures 
ton, the 19th day of June, 1812, to the demands of a peace establishment 
and of the Independence of the will doubtless engage the immediate at- 
United States the thirty-sixth. tention of Congress. There are, however, 

important considerations which forbid a 
sudden and general revocation of the meas- 
ures that have been produced by the war. 
Experience has taught us that neither the 
pacific dispositions of the American people 
nor the pacific character of their political 
institutions can altogether exempt them 
from that strife which appears beyond 



James Madison 
By the President: 

James Monroe, Secretary of State. 



Message on Peace Treaty. — 

Washington, Feb. IS, 1815. 
To the Senate and House of Representa 
tives of the United States, — I lay before 



Congress copies of the treaty of peace and the ordinary lot of nations to be incident 
amity between the United States and his to the actual period of the world, and the 
Britannic Majesty, which was signed by same faithful monitor demonstrates that 



the commissioners of both parties at 
Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814, and the ratifi- 
cations of which have been duly ex- 
changed. 

While performing this act I congratu- 
late you and our constituents upon an 



a certain degree of preparation for war 
is not only indispensable to avert dis- 
asters in the onset, but affords also the 
best security for the continuance of peace. 
The wisdom of Congress will therefore, 
I am confident, provide for the mainte- 



ftvent which is highly honorable to the nance of an adequate regular force; for 



nation, and terminates with peculiar felic- 
ity a campaign signalized by the most 
brilliant successes. 

The late war, although reluctantly de- 
clared by Congress, had become a neces- 
sary resort to assert the rights and in- 
dependence of the nation. It has been 
waged with a success which is the natural 



the gradual advancement of the naval es- 
tablishment; for improving all the means 
of harbor defence; for adding discipline to 
the distinguished bravery of the militia, 
and for cultivating the military art in its 
essential branches, under the liberal pat- 
ronage of government. 

The resources of our country were at 



result of the wisdom of the legislative all times competent to the attainment of 
councils, of the patriotism of the people, every national object, but they will now 
of the public spirit of the militia, and of be enriched and invigorated by the activity 
the valor of the military and naval forces which peace will introduce into all the 
of the country. Peace, at all times a scenes of domestic enterprise and labor, 
blessing, is peculiarly welcome, therefore, The provision that has been made for 
at a period when the causes for the war the public creditors during the present 
have ceased to operate, when the govern- session of Congress must have a decisive 
ment has demonstrated the efficiency of eft'ect in the establishment of the public 
its powers of defence, and when the na- credit both at home and abroad. The re- 
lion can review its conduct mthout regret viving interests of commerce will claim 
and without reproach. the legislative attention at the earli- 
I recommend to your care and benefi- est opportunity, and such regulations 
cence the gallant men whose achieve- will, I trust, be seasonably devised 
ments in every department of the military as shall secure to the United States their 
service, on the land and on the water, just proportion of the navigation of the 
have so essentially contributed to the world. The most liberal policy towards 
honor of the American name and to the other nations, if met by corresponding dis- 
restoration of peace. The feelings of con- positions, will in this respect be found the 

71 



MADOC— MAGELLAN 



most beneficial policy towards ourselves. 
But there is no suo'^ct that can enter with 
greater force and merit, into the delibera- 
tions of Congress than a consideration of 
the means to preserve and promote the 
manufactures which have sprung into ex- 
istence and attained an unparalleled ma- 
turity throughout the United States dur- 
ing the period of the European wars. This 
source of national independence and 
wealth I anxiously recommend, therefore, 
to the prompt and constant guardianship 
of Congress. 

The termination of the legislative ses- 
sions will soon separate you, fellow-citi- 
zens, from each other, and restore you 
to your constituents. I pray you to bear 
with you the expressions of my sanguine 
hope that the peace which has just been 
declared will not only be the foundation 
of the most friendly intercourse between 
the United States and Great Britain, but 
that it will also be productive of happi- 
ness and harmony in every section of our 
beloved country. The influence of your 
precepts and example must be everywhere 
powerful, and while w^e accord in grate- 
ful acknowledgments for the protection 
which Providence has bestowed upon us, 
let us never cease to inculcate obedience 
to the laws and fidelity to the Union as 
constituting the palladium of the na- 
tional independence and prosperity. 

Iffadoc. Welsh records and traditions 
declare that Madoc, a son of Owen Gwyn- 
neth. Prince of North Wales, disgusted 
with the domestic contentions about the 
rightful successor of his father, went on a 
voyage of discovery, with well-manned 
ships and many followers, about the year 
1170; that he sailed westward from Ire- 
land and discovered a fruitful country; 
that, returning, he fitted out a squadron 
of ten vessels and filled them with a col- 
ony of men, women, and children of his 
country, and with these sailed for the fair 
land ho had found. The expedition was 
never hoard of afterwards. Travellers in 
the Missis-sippi Valley and westward of it 
assert that the Mandans and other Ind- 
ians w-ho are nearly white have many 
Welsh words in their language. Allusions 
to this fact have been made by early and 
late writers, and it is suggested that the 
word Mandan is a corruption of Madawg- 
wys, the name applied to the followers 



of Madawc or Madoc. The traditions of 
the southern Indians, even as far south 
as Peru, that the elements of civilization 
were introduced among them by a white 
person, who came from the north, favor 
the theory that the light-colored Indians 
of our continent have a mixture of Welsh 
blood, as they have of Welsh language. 
Until the translation of the Icelandic 
chronicles, the Welsh historians claimed 
for their countrymen the honor of being 
the discoverers and first European set- 
tlers of America. Southey made Madoc 
the subject of a poem. 

Magellan, Ferdinando, navigator ; 
born in Oporto, Portugal, in 1470; after 
serving long in the Portuguese navy, went 
to Spain and persuaded the authorities 
there that the Molucca or Spice Islands, 
which they coveted, might be reached by 
sailing westward, and so come within the 
pope's gift of lands westwai'd of the 
Azores (see Alexander VI.). Magellan 
was sent in that direction with five ships 
and 236 men. After touching at Brazil, 




FERDINANDO MAGELLAN. 



he went down the coast and discovered 
and passed through the strait which bears 
his name, calling it the Strait of the 
Eleven Thousand Virgins. He passed 
into the South Sea, discovered by Nuiiez 



72 



MAGNA CHARTA— MAGUAGA 



(see Cabeza de Vaca), and, on account 
of its general calmness, he named it the 
Pacific Ocean. Crossing it, he discovered 
the Philippine Islands, eastward of the 
China Sea, where he was killed by the 
natives, April 17, 1521. The expedition 
was reduced to one ship. In that the sur- 
vivors sailed across the Indian Ocean and 
around the Cape of Good Hope, and 
reached Spain, Sept. 6, 1522. That ship, 
the Victoria, was the first that ever cir- 
cumnavigated the globe. 

Magna Charta, the Great Charter, 
wliose fundamental parts were derived 
from Saxon char- 
ters, continued by 
Henry I. and his suc- 
cessors. On Nov. 20, 

1214, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and 
the barons met at St. 
Edmondsbury. On 
Jan. 6, 1215, they pre- 
sented demands to 
King John, who de- 
ferred his answer. On 
May 19 they were cen- 
sured by the pope. 
On May 24 they 
marched to London, 
and the King had to 
yield. The charter 
was settled by John 
at Runnymede, near 
Windsor, June 15, 

1215, and often con- 
firmed by Henry III. 
and his successors. 
The last grand char- 
ter was granted in 
1224 by Edward I. 
The original manu- 
script charter is lost. 

The finest manuscript ^^" 

copy, which is at 

Lincoln, was repro- 
duced by photographs in the National 



of 18G2 as brigadier and major-general. In 
the fall of that year he commanded the 
Confederate forces in Texas, New Mexico, 
and Arizona, and was in command of the 
expedition against the Nationals at Gal- 
veston (q.v.). He died in Houston, Tex., 
Feb. 19, 1871. 

Maguaga, Battle at. After the evac- 
uation of Canada in 1812, General Hull 
sent 600 men, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Miller, to repair the misfortunes of Van 
Home and afford a competent escort for 
Captain Brush and the army supplies 
under his charge at the Raisin River. 




MAGUAGA BATTLEGROUND. 



When the troops were placed in marching 
order, Lieutenant-Colonel Miller said to 



Manuscripts, published by the British gov 
ernment, 1865. For the complete text see the Ohio militia: "Soldiers, we are now 
Great Charter. going to meet the enemy and beat them. 

Magruder, John Bankhead, military The reverses of the 5th must be repaired, 
officer; born in Winchester, Va., Aug. 15, The blood of our brethren, spilt by the 
1810; graduated at West Point in 1830: 
served in the war against Mexico; joined 
the Confederates in 1861, and commanded 
in the defence of Richmond in the summer 



savages, must be avenged. I shall lead 
you. You shall not disgrace yourselves 
nor me. ET.ery man who shall leave the 
ranks or fall back, without orders, shall 



73 



MAGUAGA— MAHAN 



be instantly put to death. I charge the 
otRccis to execute this oi'der." Turning to 
the veterans of the 4th Regiment of Regu- 
hirs. he said: " Jly brave soldiers, you 
will add another victory to that of Tippe- 
canoe — another laurel to that gained on 
the Wabash last fall. If there is now any 
man in the ranks of the detachment who 
fears to meet the enemy, let him fall out 
and stay behind!" They all cried out, 
" I'll not staj"! I'll not stay!" and, led by 
Miller, they pressed southward, in an 
order ready for battle at any moment, un- 
til, about 4 A.M. on Aug. 9, they reached 
the vicinity of Maguaga, 14 miles below 
Detroit. Spies had led the way, under 
^Major Maxwell, followed by a vanguard 
of forty men, under Captain Snelling, of 
the 4tli Regiment. The infantry moved 
in two columns, about 200 yards apart. 
The cavalry kept the road in the centre, 
in double file: the artillery followed, and 
flank guards of riflemen marched at prop- 
er distances. In the Oak Woods, at Ma- 
guaga, near the banks of the Detroit, they 
received from an ambush of British and 
Indians, under Major Muir and Tecumseh, 
a terrible volley. This was a detachment 
sent over from Fort Maiden by General 
Proctor to repeat the tragedy at Browns- 
town, cut off the communication between 
the Raisin and Detroit, and capture Brush 
and his stores. Snelling, in the advance, 
returned the fire and maintained his po- 
sition until Miller came up with the main 
body. These were instantly formed in 
battle order, and, with a shout, the gallant 
young commander and his men fell upon 
the foe. At the same time, a 6-pounder 
poured in a storm of grape-shot that made 
sad havoc. The battle soon became gen- 
eral, when, closely pressed in front and 
rear, the British and Canadians fled, leav- 
ing Tecumseh and his warriors to bear the 
brunt of battle. The white men gained 
their boats as quickly as possible and sped 
across the river to Fort Maiden. The Ind- 
ians .soon broke and fled also, pursued by 
the impetuous Snelling more than 2 miles, 
on a powerful horse, with a few of the 
cavalry. The rout and victory were com- 
plete?. The Americans lost eighteen killed 
and fifty-seven wounded. Miller, though 
injured by a fall from his horse, wished 
to push on to the Raisin, but Hull sent a 
peremptory order for the whole detach- 



ment to return to Detroit. The British 
were gathering in force at Sandwich, and 
threatening the fort and village of De- 
troit. 

Maguire, IMatthew, socialist; born in 
New York in 1850; became a machinist; 
and has been active in organizing trade 
unions. He affiliated with the Green- 
back party, and later on with the Social- 
ist Labor party. He was the candidate 
of his party for Vice-President of the 
United States in 1896, and for governor of 
New Jersey in 1898. 

Mahan, Alfred Taylor, naval officer 
and author ; born in West Point, N. Y., 
Sept. 27, 1840; son of Dennis Hart Mahan, 
for many years Professor of Military 
Engineering in the United States Military 
Academy; graduated at the Naval Acad- 
emy in 1859; promoted lieutenant, 1861; 




ALFRED TAYLOR MAHAN. 

lieutenant-commander, 1865; comniandeT, 
1872; and captain, 1885. After the Civil 
War he served in the South Atlantic, Pa- 
cific, Asiatic, and European squadrons. 
During 1886-93 he was president of the 
Naval War College, at Newport, R. I. ; 
in 1893-96 was in command of the 
United States protected cruiser Chicago; 
and was retired at his own request, 
Nov. 17, 1896. During the war with Spain 
he was recalled to active service and 
made a member of the naval advisory 
board, and in 1899 President McKin- 
ley appointed him a delegate to the 
peace conference at The Hague. Captain 
Mahan is kno\vn the world over for his 



74 



MAHAN— MAINE 



publications on naval subjects, and par- 
ticularlj' on naval strategy. He was dined 
by Queen Victoria ; honored with the de- 
gree of LL.D. by Cambridge, Oxford, and 
McGill universities; and had his Influence 
of Sea Power in History translated by the 
German Naval Department and supplied 
to all the public libraries, schools, and 
government institutions in the German 
Empire. Besides a large number of re- 
view and magazine articles, he has pub- 
lished The Gulf and Inland Waters; Influ- 
ence of Sea Poiver upon History ; Influence 
of Sea Power upon the French Revolution 
and Empire; Life of Admiral Farragut ; 
Life of Nelson; The Interest of the United 
States in Sea Power. See Captain Mahan's 
article on Naval Ships. 

Mahan, Asa, clergyman; born in Ver- 
non, N. Y., Nov. 9, 1800; graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1824, and at Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1827; was or- 
dained in the Presbyterian Church in 1829. 
In 1835 he turned his attention to edu- 
cation ; was president of Oberlin College 
till 1850, and of Cleveland University, 
Cleveland, O., till 1855. His publications 
include Critical History of the late Ameri- 
can War, etc. He died in Eastbourne, 
England, April 4, 1889. 

Mahan, Dennis Hart, engineer; born 
in New York City, April 2, 1802; grad- 
uated at the United States Military Acad- 
emy in 1824; instructor of engineering 
in that institution till 1826; was then 
sent abroad by the War Department to 
study European engineering and military 
institutions. Returning to the United 
States he became Professor of Engineering 
at West Point from 1830 till his death. 
He died near Stony Point, N. Y., Sept. 16, 
1871. 

Mahaqua. See Mohawk Indians. 

Mahone, William, statesman; born in 
Southampton county, Va., Dec. 1, 1826; 
entered the Confederate army in 1861 ; 
took part in the capture of the Norfolk 
navy-yard and in most of the battles in 
Virginia, where he won the sobriquet of 
"The Hero of the Crater"; United States 
Senator from 1881 to 1887. He died in 
Washington, D. C, Oct. 8, 1895. 

Maine, State of. This most easterly 
State in the Union was admitted in 1820. 
Its shores were first visited by Europeans 
under Bartholomew Gosnold (1602) and 



Martin Pring (1603), though it is possi- 
ble they were seen by Cabot (1498) and 
Verrazano (1524). The French, under 
De Monts, wintered near the site of Calais, 
on the St. Croix (1604-5), and took pos- 
session of the Sagadahock, or Kennebec, 
River. Captain Weymouth was there in 
1605, and kidnapped some of the natives; 
and in 1607 the Plymouth Company sent 
emigrants to settle there, but they did 




SEAL OP THE STATE OF MAINE. 

not remain long. A French mission estab- 
lished at Mount Desert was broken up by 
Samuel Argall (q. v.) in 1613, and the 
next year Captain Smith, landing first at 
Monhegan Island, explored the coast of 
Maine. The whole region of Maine, and 
far southward, westward, and eastward, 
was included in the charter of the Plym- 
outh Company, and in 1621 the company, 
having granted the country east of the St. 
Croix to Sir William Alexander {q. v.), 
established that river as the eastern 
boundary of Maine. Monhegan Island 
was first settled (1622) and next Saco 
(1623); and in 1629 the Plymouth Com- 
pany, perceiving its own dissolution to be 
inevitable, parcelled out the territory in 
small grants. In the course of three years 
the whole coast had been thus disposed of 
as far east as the Penobscot River. East of 
that river was claimed by the French, and 
was a subject of dispute for a long time. 

When the Plymouth Company dissolved 
(1635) and divided the American terri- 
tory, Sir Ferdinando Gorges took the 
whole region between the Piscataqua and 



75 



MAINE, STATE OF 









IIOXHEGAN ISLAND. 



the Kennebec, and received a formal char- appointed governor-general of New Eng- 
ter for it from Charles I. in 1639, when land, and his son Thomas was sent as 
the region was called the province of lieutenant to administer the laws in 1640. 
Maine, in compliment to the Queen, who He established himself at Agamenticus 
owned the province of Maine in France, (now York) , when, in 1642, the city called 
In 1636 Gorges sent over his nephew. Will- Gorgeana was incorporated. There the 
iam Gorges, as governor of his domain, first representative government in Maine 
and he established his government at Saco, was established (1640). On the death of 
where, indeed, there had been an organ- Sir Ferdinando (1647) the province of 

Maine descended to his heirs, 
\^ '^^'y~~lif«^(- ^iid w^s placed under four 

jurisdictions. Massachusetts, 
fearing this sort of dismem- 
berment of the colony might 
cause the fragments to fall 
into the hands of the French, 
made claim to the territory 
under its charter. Many of 
the people of Maine preferred 
to be under the jurisdiction of 
Massachusetts, and in 1652 a 
large niimber of the freehold- 
ers in five towns took the oath 
of allegiance to the Bay State. 
The latter province then as- 
sumed supreme rvile in Maine, 
and continued it until the 
restoration of the Stuarts 
(1G60), when Charles II., on 
the petition of the heirs of 
Gorges, sent over a commission 
to re-establish the authority of 
the grantees. Massachusetts, 
after long resistance, purchased 
the interests (1677) of the 
claimants for £12,000 sterling. 
ized government since 1623, when Robert In 1674 tlie llutoh conquered the ter- 
Gorges was governor under the Plymouth lilory eastward from the Penobscot, in- 
Company. In 1039 Sir Ferdinando was eluding that of Acadia and Nova Scotia; 

76 




THE OLD JAIL AT YORK 






MAINE, STATE OF 



and in 1676 Cornelius Steenwyck was ap- 
pointed governor of the conquered terri- 
tory by the Dutch West India Comjiany. 
Settlers from Boston soon afterwards ex- 
pelled the Dutch. Meanwhile the horrors 
of King Philip's War had extended to 
that region, and in the space of three 
months 100 persons were murdered. Then 
came disjiutes arising out of the claims 



cepting at Sagadahock and Pemaquid. 
But when the duke became king (see 
James II.) the charter of Massachusetts 
was forfeited, and Andros ruled Maine 
with cruelty. The Revolution of 1688 re- 
stored the former political status of Mas- 
sachusetts, and thenceforth the history of 
the province of Maine is identified with 
that of Massachusetts. It remained a 




LUMBERING IN MAINE. 



of the Duke of York (to whom Charles II. 
had given New Netherland) to the coun- 
try between the Kennebec and St. Croix 
rivers, which in 1683 had been constituted 
Cornwall county, of the province of New 
York, over which Sir Edmund Andros 
(g. V.) was made governor. Massachu- 
setts, however, continued to hold posses- 
sion of the whole province of Maine, ex- 



77 



part of that province until March 15, 1820, 
when it was admitted into the Union as 
the twenty-third State. In 1890 the popu- 
lation was 661,086; in 1900, 694,466. 

During the Revolutionary War Maine 
was very little disturbed, but during that 
of 1812 it suffered much. The British 
held possession of a part of the country, 
but their rule was comparatively mild 



MAINE— MALDEN 



after they gained a foothold. For more 
than half a century the governments of 
the United States and Great Britain were 
involved in a controversy concerning the 
eastern boundary, which the treaty of 1783 
did not accurately define. The dispute 
was finally settled by treaty in 1842, each 
party making concessions. Maine was 
twice invaded by Confederates during the 
Civil War. On the night of June 29, 
1SG3, the officers and crew of a Confeder- 
ate privateer entered the harbor of Port- 
land, captured the revenue-cutter Caleb 
Cushing, and fled to sea with hei", sharply 
pursued by two steamers manned by 
armed volunteers. Finding they could 
not escape with the cutter, they blew 
her up, and, taking to their boats, were 
soon made prisoners. At mid-day on 
July 18, 1864, some Confederates came 
from St. John, N. B., and entered Calais 
to rob the bank there. Having been fore- 
warned by the American consul at St. 
John, the authorities were prepared, ar- 
rested three of the party, and frightened 
the remainder away. During the Civil 
War Maine contributed its full share of 
men and supplies in support of the gov- 
ernment. In 1872 a Swedish colony was 
planted on the Aroostook, at a place called 
New Sweden, where, in one year, about 609 
Swedes, aided by the State, had settled 
upon 20,000 acres of land. They have 
their own municipal organization and 
schools, in which one of the chief studies 
is the English language. See United 
States, Maine, in vol. ix. 

GOVERNORS. 
(Prior to 1890 Maine was a part of MnsBachiisetts.) 



GOV ERhORS— Continued. 



Name. 



William King 

William D. Williamson. 

Albion K. Parris 

Enoch Lincoln 

Nathan Cutler 

.Jonathan G. Button .... 
Samuel Emerson Smith. 

Robert P. Dunlap 

Edwartl Kent 

.John Fairnelfl 

Eflward Kent 

.lohn'Fairfiel'l 

Edward KavanaKh 

Hugh J. Anderson 

.Tohn W. Dana 

.John Hubbard 

William G. Gropby 

AnKon P. Morrill 

.Samuel Wells 

Hannibal Hamlin 

Joseph H. Willlaros 



1820 


to 


1821 


1821 




1822 


to 


1826 


1827 


" 


1829 


1829 




18.^0 


to 


1831 


IHRl 




1833 


\HU 




1837 


1H38 




1839 


is:?o 




1840 


1840 




1841 


1K41 




1843 


18(:i 




1844 


1844 




1847 


1847 




IK.'iO 


1850 




18.'53 


]8r)3 




^mr, 


18r,5 




18.50 


18.50 




1857 


• Wr,i 




1867 


to 


1858 



Name. 


Term. 


Lot M. Morrill 


1858 
18tU 
1862 
18ti4 
1807 
1871 
1874 
1870 

i«7y 

1880 
1S81 
lS8.i 

1 
1887 
1889 
1893 
1897 
11101 
19U5 


to 1861 


Israel Washburn, Jr 


'■ 1862 


Abner Coburn 


" 1864 


Samuel Corey 


" 1867 


Joshua 1,. Chamberlain 

Sidney Perham 


" 1870 
" 1873 
" 1875 


Selden Conuor 


" l87y 


Alonzo Garcelon 


" 1880 


Daniel V. Davis 


" 1881 


Harris M. Plaisted 


•' 1882 


Frederick Robie 


" 1887 


Joseph R. Bodwell 


887 


Sebastian S. Marble 


tti 1888 


Edwin C. Hurleigh 


" 1892 


Henry B. Cleaves 


" 1897 


IJewellyn Powers 


" 1901 


John F. Hill 


" 1905 


Wni. T. Cobb 


" 1907 







UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



Name. 



1 No. of Congress 



John Chandler 

John Holmes 

Albion K. Parris 

John Holmes 

Peleg Sprague 

John Ruggles 

Ether .Sliei)ley 

Judah Dana 

Reuel Williams 

George Evans 

John Fairfleld 

Wyman B. S. Moor 

Hannibal Hamlin 

James W. Bradbury 

William Pitt Fessenden. 

Amos Nourse 

Hannibal Hamlin 

Lot M. Morrill 

Hannibal Hamlin 

James G. Blaine , 

William P. Frye 

Eugene Hale 



16th to 20th 
^oth - 19th 

20lh 
20th to 22d 
21st " 23d 
23d " 26lh 
23d " 24th 

24th 
25lh to 28th 
27th " 29th 
28th " 30th 

30th 

30th 
30th to 33d 
33d " 41st 

34th 
35th to 3C(h 
S'-.th " 44th 
4Ist " 46th 
44th " 47th 

47th " 

47th " 



Term. 



1820 to 

1820 " 
1828 

1829 to 

1830 " 
1835 " 

1835 " 

1836 " 

1837 " 
1841 " 
1843 " 

1848 

1848 to 

1847 " 

1854 " 

1857 

1857 to 

1861 " 

1869 " 

1876 " 

1881 " 

1881 " 



1829 

1827 

1833 
1835 
1841 
1836 
1837 
1843 
1847 
1847 

1857 
1853 
1869 

1801 
1876 
1881 
1881 



Maine, The Destruction of the. See 
Cuba. 

Maine Liquor Law. The first prohibi- 
tion law in Maine was enacted in 1846, 
and subsequently amended in 1858, 1872, 
1879, 1884. 

Maize. See Indian Corn. 

Maiden, on the Detroit River, 18 miles 
below the city of Detroit and 8 miles from 
Lake Erie, was a place of great impor- 
tance, in a military point of view, during 
the War of 1812-15. It is on the Cana- 
dian shore, and is now called Amherst- 
burg. There the British fleet on Lake 
Erie — captured by Perry in 1813 — was 
built, and it was a rallying-place for Brit- 
ish troops and their Indian allies. The 
long dock seen in the engraving was the 
place where the British fleet was launch- 
ed. From Maiden they sailed on the 
morning of the battle of Lake Erie. In 
the winter of 1813 the British and Ind- 



78 



MALLERY— MALLORY 

inns issued from Maiden on the expe- The Former and Present Number of our 

dition tliat resulted in the massacre at Indians; A Collection of Gestures, Signs, 

the Kaisin River. In March, while Brit- and Signals of tne North American Ind- 

ish ships were frozen at Maiden, Harri- ians; I'iclographs of the North American 




VIEW OF MALDEN IN 1861, WHERE THE BRITISH SHIPS WERE BDILT. 



son sent an expedition to capture them at I)idians ; Picture Writing of the American 

that port. They set off in sleighs, in- Indians, etc. He died in Washington, 

structed to leave the latter at Middle D. C, Oct. 24, 1894. 

Bass Island, whence, with feet muffled by Mallet, John William, chemist; born 
moccasins, they were to make their way in Dublin, Ireland, Oct. 10, 1832; educated 
silently over the frozen river. But when at Trinity College, Dublin; came to the 
they arrived the ice had broken up, and United States in 1853; was an officer on 
the expedition returned. the staff of Gen. Robert E. Rodes, in the 
Mallery, Garrick, ethnologist; born in Confederate army; had general charge of 
Wilkesbarre, Pa., April 23, 1831 ; grad- the ordnance laboratories of the Confed- 
iiated at Yale College in 1850; became a erate government; was Professor of Chem- 
lawyer in Philadelphia in 1853. When istry in the medical department of the 
the Civil War broke out he entered the University of Louisiana in 1865-68; and 
National army; became lieutenant-colo- then was called to the similar chair in the 
nel and brevet colonel. When the regular University of Virginia. He has eontrib- 
army was reorganized in 1870 he was com- uted numerous papers to scientific trans- 
missioned captain in the 1st United States actions and journals. 

Infantry. In 1876 he was assigned to the Mallory, Stephen Russell, military 

command of Fort Rice in Dakota Terri- officer ; born in Trinidad, West Indies, in 

tory, where he became interested in the 1813; was the son of a sea-captain of 

mythology and history of the Dakota Ind- Bridgeport, Conn., who died in Key West 

ians; in 1879 he was retired from the army in 1821.. He studied law, and w^as ad- 

and made ethnologist of the United States mitted to the bar in Key West in 1833. 

bureau of ethnology. His publications He was appointed inspector of customs 

include A Calendar of the Dakota Nation; there, and a judge, and in 1845 was made 

79 



MALTBY— MALVERN HILL 



collector of customs in the same place. 
From 1851 to 1801 he was United States 
Senator from Florida ; and, on the organi- 
zation of the Confederate government in 
February, 1801, he was appointed Secre- 




STEPHEN RUSSELL MALLORY. 

tary of the Navy. At the close of the 
war he was a state prisoner for some time, 
and after his release on parole practised 
law till his death, in Pensacola, Nov. 9, 
1873. 

Maltby, Isaac, author; born in North- 
field, Conn., Nov. 10, 17G7; graduated at 
Yale College in 1786; brigadier-general of 
Massachusetts militia in 1813-15. He was 
prominent in the polities of Massachusetts, 
serving several terms in its legislature. 
He was the author of Elements of War; 
Courts-Martial and Military Laio; and 
Military Tactics. He died in Waterloo, 
X. Y., Sept. 9, 1819. 

Malvern Hill, Battle at. Malvern 
Hill forms a high and dry plateau sloping 
towards Richmond from bold banks on the 
James River, and bounded by deep ravines 
that made it an excellent defensive posi- 
tion. Upon that plateau the Army of 
the Potomac was posted, July 1, 1862, 
under the direction of General Barnard. 
Cen. Fitz-Tohn Porter had reached that 
point the day before, and placed his troops 
po as to command all approaches to it 
from Richmond or the White Oak Swamp. 
Tney were within reach of National gun- 
Ixjats on the James River that might 
prove very efficient in any battle there. 
The last of the Confederate trains and ar- 



tillery arrived there at 4 p.m., and in that 
almost impregnable position preparations 
were made for battle. Yet General Mc- 
Clellan did not consider his ai-my safe 
there, for it was too far separated from 
his supplies; so, on the morning of July 
1, he went on the Galena to seek for an 
eligible place for a base of supplies, and 
for an encampment for the army. During 
his absence the Confederates brought on a 
battle, which proved to be a most sangui- 
nary one. Lee had concentrated his troops 
at Glendale, on the morning of July 1, but 
did not get ready for a full attack until 
late in the afternoon. He formed his line 
with the divisions of Generals Jackson, 
Ewell, Whiting, and D. H. Hill on the 
left (a large portion of Swell's in re- 
serve) ; Generals Magruder and Huger on 
the right; while the troops of A. P. Hill 
and Longstreet were held in reserve on 
the left. The latter took no part in the 
engagement that followed. The National 
line of battle was formed with Porter's 
corps on the left (with Sykes's division on 
the left and Morell's on the right ) , where 
the artillery of the reserve, under Colonel 
Hunt, was so disposed on high ground 
that a concentrated fire of sixty heavy 
guns could be brought to bear on any 
point on his front or left; and on the 
highest point on the hill Colonel Tyler had 
ten siege-guns in position. Couch's divi- 
sion was on Porter's right; next on the 
right were Hooker and Kearny; next 
Sedgwick and Richardson ; next Smith 
and Slocum; and then the remainder of 
Keyes's corps, extending in a curve nearly 
to the river. The Pennsylvania Reserves 
were held as a support in the rear of Por- 
ter and Couch. 

Lee resolved to carry Malvern Hill by 
storm, and concentrated his artillery so 
as to silence that of the Nationals; when, 
with a shout, two divisions were to charge 
and carry a battery before them. This 
shout was to be a signal for a general ad- 
vance with bayonets. This programme 
was not carried out. When, late in the 
afternoon, a heavy artillery fire was open- 
ed on Couch and Kearny, A. P. Hill, be- 
lieving that he heard the shout, advanced 
to the attack, but found himself unsup- 
ported. A single battery was at work, in- 
stead of 200 great guns, as had been 
promised. That battery was soon demol- 



80 



MALVERN HILL— MANASSAS JUNCTION 



ished, and the Confederates driven back 
in confusion to the woods, wlien the Na- 
tionals advanced several hundred yards 
to a better position. Meanwhile Magruder 
and linger had made a strong attack on 
Porter at the left. Two brigades (Ker- 
shaw's and Semmes's) of McLaws's divi- 
sion charged through a dense wood up to 
Porter's guns ; and a similar dash was 
made by Wright, Mahone, and Anderson 
farther to the right, and by Barksdale 
nearer the centre; but all were repulsed, 
and for a while there was a lull in the 
storm of battle. Then Lee ordered an- 
other assault on the batteries. His col- 
umns rushed from the woods over the open 
fields to capture the batteries and carry 



the Confederates were driven to the shel- 
ter of the woods, ravines, and swamps, 
their ranks shattered and broken. 

The victory for the Nationals was de- 
cisive. The victorious generals were anx- 
ious to follow up the advantage and push 
right on to Richmond, 18 miles distant; 
but General McClellan,who came upon the 
battle-ground on the right when the final 
contest was raging furiously on the left, 
issued an order, immediately after the re- 
pulse of the Confederates, for the victo- 
rious army to fall back still farther to 
Harrison's Landing, on the James, a few 
miles below, and then returned to the 
Galena, on which he had spent a greater 
part of the day. The order produced con- 




GUNBOATS AT THK BATTLE OF MALVERN HILL. 



the hill. They were met by a deadly fire 
of musketry and great guns; and as one 
brigade recoiled another was pushed for- 
ward, with a seeming recklessness of life 
under the circumstances. At about seven 
o'clock in the evening, while fresh troops 
under Jackson were pressing the Nationals 
sorely, Sickles's brigade, of Hooker's 
division, and Meagher's Irish brigade, of 
Richardson's division, were ordered up to 
their support. At the same time the gun- 
boats on the James River, full 150 feet be- 
low, were hurling heavy shot and shell 
among the Confederates with terrible 
effect, their range being directed by offi- 
cers of the signal corps on the hill. The 
conflict was furious and destructive, and 
did not cease until almost 9 p.m., when 



VI. — F 



81 



sternation and dissatisfaction, but was 
obeyed. The battle at Malvern Hill was 
the last of the series of severe conflicts 
before Richmond in the course of seven 
days. In these conflicts the aggregate 
losses of the Nationals were reported by 
MeClellan to be 15,249. Of that number 
1,582 were killed, 7,709 wounded, and 
5,958 missing. 

Mammoth Cave, a remarkable cave in 
Edmondson county, Ky., discovered in 
1809 by a Mr. Hutchins while in pursuit 
of a bear. Its extreme extent is less than 
10 miles, and the combined length of all 
the accessible avenues is possibly 150 
miles. 

Manassas Junction. When, at the 
close of April, 18G1, the Confederates were 



MANASSAS JUNCTION 



satisfied tliat tlie national government 
and the loyal people of the country were 
resolved to maintain the authority and 
integrity of the republic, they put for- 
ward extraordinary efforts to strike a 
deadly blow by seizing the national capital 
before it should be too late. There was 
great enthusiasm among the young men 
of the South. They read on the telegraph 
bulletin-boards the call of the President 
for 75,000 men^ and received the an- 
nouncement with derisive laughter and 
cheers for " Old Abe the Rail-splitter." 
Few believed there would be war. One of 
their chroniclers avers that companies were 
quickly formed from among the wealthiest 
of the youth, and that 200,000 volunteers 
could have been organized within a month, 
if they had been called for. The enthu- 
siasm of the young men was shared by 
the other sex. Banners of costly materials 
were made by clubs of young women and 
delivered to the companies with appro- 
priate sijeeches — the young men on such 
occasions swearing that they would perish 
rather than desert the flag thus conse- 
crated. Regarding the whole matter as a 
lively pastime, many of these companies 
dressed in the most costly attire, and bore 
the most expensive rifles, but grave men 
fried to undeceive them. Jefferson Davis 
wrote to a Mississippi friend, telling him 
that hardships and privations awaited 
these young men, and adVising them to 
use the commonest materials for clothing. 
He recommended all volunteers to dress 



in gray-flannel coats and light-blue cot- 
ton pantaloons, for summer was approach- 
ing. The Confederates chose as their 
grand rallying-place, preparatory to a 
march on Washington, Manassas Junction, 
a point on the Orange and Alexandria 
Railway, where another joined it from 
Manassas Gap, in the Blue Ridge. It is 
about 25 miles west from Alexandria, and 
30 miles in a direct line from Washing- 
ton, D. C. It was an admirable strategic 
point, as it commanded the grand south- 
ern railway route connecting Washington 
and Richmond, and another leading to 
the fertile Shenandoah Valley, beyond the 
Blue Ridge. General Scott had been ad- 
vised to take possession of that point, 
but he declined ; and while the veteran 
soldier was preparing for a defensive 
campaign the opportunity was lost. Large 
numbers of Confederate troops were as- 
sembled under General Beauregard. The 
battlefield was the scene of extensive army 
manoeuvres in 1904. See Bull Run. 

The battle of Manassas, or the second 
battle of Bull Run, was fought near the 
battle-ground of the first engagement at 
Bull Run, Aug. 30, 18G2. Pope, after the 
battle of Groveton {q. v.) , found his army 
greatly reduced in numbers — only about 
40,000. It had failed to keep Lee and 
Jackson apart, and it was now decidedly 
the weaker force. Prudence counselled a 
retreat to Bull Run, or even to the de- 
fences of Washington ; but Pope resolved 
to try the issue of another battle. He ex- 




MA.SA.iaA.I JU.VCTIO.N AFTKIt TllK EVACUATION BY THE CONFKDKRATKS. 

a2 



MANASSAS JUNCTION— MANHATTAN ISLAND 



pcctcd rations and forage from McClellan, 
at Alexandria, but was disappointed. 
When it became clear that he would re- 
ceive no aid from McClellan, he had no 
other alternative than to fight or surren- 
der, so he put his line into V shape on the 
morning of Aug. 30. Lee made a move- 
ment which gave Pope the impression that 
the Confederates were retreating, and the 
hitter telegraphed to Washington to that 
effect. He ordered a pursuit. When, at 
10 A.M., an attempt was made to execute 
this order, a fearful state of things was 
developed. The eminence near Groveton 
was found to be swarming with Confeder- 
ates, who, instead of retreating, had been 
massing under cover of the forest, in prep- 
aration for an offensive movement. They 
opened a furious fire on the front of the 
Nationals, and at the same time made a 
heavy flank movement. Porter's corps, 
which had been made to recoil by the first 
unexpected blow, rallied, and performed 
specially good service. Ricketts mean- 
while had hastened to the left. By the 
disposition of Reynolds's corps to meet the 
flank movement, Porter's key - point had 
been uncovered, but the place of Reynolds 
had been quickly supplied by 1,000 men 
under Warren. The battle became very 
severe, and for a while victory seemed to 
incline towards the Nationals, for Jack- 
son's advanced line was steadily pushed 
back until 5 P.M. Then Longstreet turned 
the tide. With four batteries, he poured 
a most destructive fire from Jackson's 
right, and line after line of Nationals was 
swept away. Very soon the whole of 
Pope's left was put to flight, when Jack- 
son advanced, and Longstreet pushed his 
heavy columns against Pope's centre. At 
the same time Lee's artillery was doing 
fearful execution upon Pope's disordered 
infantry. Darkness alone put an end to 
the fearful struggle. Although pushed 
back some distance, the National left was 
still unbroken, and held the Warrenton 
turnpike, by which alone the Nationals 
might safely retreat. Pope had no other 
safe alternative than to fall back towards 
the defences of Washington. At 8 p.m. 
he issued orders to that effect, and dur- 
ing the night the whole army withdrew 
across Bull Run to the heights of Centre- 
ville, the troops under Meade and Seymour 
covering the movement. The night was 



very dark, and Lee, fortunately, did not 
pursue. See Bull Run. 

Mandamus Councillors. See Ma.ssa- 

CIIUSETTS. 

Manderson, Charles Frederick, law- 
yer; born in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 9, 
1837; acquired a public-school education; 
removed to Canton in 18.56; admitted to 
the bar in 1859; served in the Civil War, 
and then resumed practice in Stark 
county, 0.; removed to Nebraska in 18(59; 
was a United States Senator in 1883-95; 
and in the latter year became general 
solicitor of the Burlington system of rail- 
roads west of the Missouri River. 

Mandrillon, Joseph, author; born in 
Bourg, France, in 1743; received a com- 
mercial education ; came to the United 
States with the intention of founding 
branches of a bank which he proposed to 
open in Amsterdam on his return to Eu- 
rope. When the French Revolution began 
he was tried and guillotined as a constitu- 
tional royalist in Paris, Jan. 7, 1794. His 
publications include The Travclli)ig Ameri- 
can, or Observations on the Actual State, 
Culture, and Commerce of the British 
Colonies in America; and The American 
Spectator, or General Remarks on North 
America. 

Mangum, Willie Person, statesman; 
born in Orange county, N. C, in 1792; 
graduated at the University of North 
Carolina in 1815; admitted to the bar in 
1817; elected to the State legislature in 
1818; judge of the Superior Court of the 
State in 1819; and to Congress in 1823 
and 1825, when he resigned on account of 
his second election as judge of the Supe- 
rior Court. He represented North Caro- 
lina in the United States Senate in 1831- 
36, when he resigned ; was re-elected in 
1841, and again in 1848. He died at Red 
Mountain, N. C, Sept. 14, 1861. 

Manhattan Island, the site of the city 
of New York, now comprising the bo'-- 
oughs of Manhattan and the Bronx of the 
Greater New York, was so named by the 
Dutch after a tribe of Indians which they 
first found there, who were called IManna- 
hatans. When Peter Minuit reached 
New Netherland as governor (1620), he 
purchased the island of the natives for the 
Dutch West India Company for the value 
of sixty guilders (about $24), and paid 
for it in trinkets, hatchets, knives, etc. In 



83 



« MANIFEST DESTINY 




LANDING OF THE DUTCH SETTLERS ON MANHATTAN ISLAND. 
(From an old tngraving.) 

the winter of 1613-14, Captain Block phatic applause greeted the aspiring proph- 

built a ship there — the beginning of the eey. But here arose the third speaker 

merchant marine of New York — and there — a very serious gentleman from the Far 

the first permanent settlers within the West. " If we are going," said this truly 

domain of New York State first landed, patriotic American, " to leave the historic 

The purchase of Manhattan Island by the past and present, and take our manifest 

Dutch from the Indians was an event in destiny into the account, why restrict our- 

history as important and as creditable to selves within the narrow limits assigned 

the honesty of the purchasers as was the by our fellow-countryman who has just 

treaty of William Penn. sat down? I give you the United States 

" Manifest Destiny." In a lectvire de- — bounded on the north by the aurora 

livered at the Boyal Institute of Great borealis, on the south by the precession of 

Britain in May, 1880, on the subject of the equinoxes, on the east by the primeval 

" The Manifest Destiny of the Anglo-Saxon chaos, and on the west by the day of 

Race," Prof. John Fiske recalled the story judgment." 

of the three Americans, each of whom Professor Fiske offered some consider- 

proposed a toast. ations concerning the future of the United 

" Here's to the United States," said the States, which he said might seem unrea- 

first speaker — " bounded on the north by sonably large to his audience, but which 

British America; on the south by the were quite modest, after all, when com- 

Gulf of Mexico; on the east by the At- pared with some other prophecies, 

lantic, and on the west by the Pacific A few short extracts from his lecture 

Ocean." are as follows: 

The second speaker said : " Here's to 

the United States — bounded on the north Chronic warfare, both private and pub- 

by the North Pole, on the south by the lie, periodic famines, and sweeping pes- 

South Pole, on the east by the rising, and tilenccs like the Black Death — these were 

on the west by the setting sun." Em- the things which formerly shortened hu- 

84 



" MANIFEST DESTINY 



man life and kept down population. In by we may similarly put public warfare 

the absence of such causes, and with the under the ban? I think not. Already in 

abundant capacity of our country for feed- America, as we have seen, it has become 

ing its people, I think it an extremely customary to deal with questions between 

moderate statement if we say that by the States just as we would deal with ques- 

year 2000 the English race in the United tions between individuals. This we have 

States will number at least six or seven seen to be the real purport of American 

hundred millions. federalism. To have established such a 

The object for which the American gov- system over one great continent is to have 
ernment fought in the Civil War was the made a very good beginning towards estab- 
perpetual maintenance of that peculiar lishing it over the world. To establish 
state of things which the federal Union such a system in Europe will no doubt 
had created — a state of things in which, be difficult, for there we have to deal with 
throughout the whole vast territory over an immense complication of prejudices, 
which the Union holds sway, questions intensified by linguistic and ethnological 
between States, like questions between in- differences. Nevertheless, the pacific press- 
dividuals, must be settled by legal argu- ure exerted upon Europe by America is 
ment and judicial decisions, and not by becoming so great that it will doubtless 
wager of battle. Far better to demon- before long overcome all these obstacles, 
etrate this point once for all, at what- I refer to the industrial competition be- 
ever cost, than to be burdened hereafter, tween the old and the new worlds, which 
like the states of Europe, with frontier has become so conspicuous within the last 
fortresses and standing armies, and all ten years. Agriculturally, Minnesota, Ne- 
the barbaric apparatus of mutual sus- braska, and Kansas are already formi- 
picion. dable competitors with England, France, 

It was thought that eleven States which and Germany; but this is but the begin- 

had struggled so hard to escape from the ning. It is but the first spray from the 

federal tie could not be readmitted to tremendous wave of economic competi- 

voluntary co-operation in the general gov- tion that is gathering in the Mississippi 

ernment, but must henceforth be held as Valley. By-and-by, when our shameful 

conquered territory — a most dangerous tariff — falsely called "protective" — shall 

experiment for any free people to try. have been done away with, and our manu- 

Yet within a dozen years we find the old facturers shall produce sviperior articles 

federal relations resumed in all their at less cost of raw material, we shall 

completeness, and the disunion party begin to compete with European coun- 

powerless and discredited in the very tries in all the markets of the world ; 

States where once it had wrought such and the competition in manufactures will 

mischief. become as keen as it is now beginning to 

It is enough to point to the general be in agriculture, 
conclusion, that the work which the Eng- In some such way as this, I believe, 
lish race began when it colonized North the indvistrial development of the English 
America is destined to go on until every race outside of Europe will by-and-by en- 
land on the earth's surface that is not al- force federalism iipon Europe, 
ready the seat of an old civilization shall It may after many more ages of politi- 
become English in its language, in its po- cal experience become apparent that there 
litical habits and traditions, and to a i? really no reason, in the nature of things, 
predominant extent in the blood of its why the whole of mankind should not con- 
people, stitute politically one huge federation. 

We have not yet done away with rob- I believe that the time will come when 

bery and murder, but we have at least such a state of things will exist upon the 

made private warfare illegal ; we have earth. 

arrayed public opinion against it to such Then it will be possible to speak of the 

an extent that the police court usually United States as stretching from pole to 

makes short shrift for the misguide^l man pole ; or, with Tennj'son, to celebrate the 

who tries to wreak vengeance on his ene- " parliament of man and the federation 

my. Is it too much to hope that by-and- of the world," 

85 



MANILA 




MANILA — BUSINESS OFFICES. 



Manila, city, port of entry, and capital 
of Luzon and of the Philippine Islands; 
on the west coast of Luzon and on the 
west shore of Manila Bay; at the mouth 
of the Pasig Eiver. The city proper is a 
walled one, containing a citadel and the 
public buildings. The remainder of the 
city consists of a large, straggling busi- 
ness town and a wide fringe of sviburban 
settlements. The walled city is in the 
angle of land at the south of the river's 
mouth. Along the sea-front, facing west- 
ward, is a narrow strip of low land which 
has been reclaimed by means of a break- 
water. Across the river, north of the 
walled city, is the large and flourishing 
business town. The central part is called 
Binondo, which name is often applied to 
the whole, though the city has grown so 
large as to include nearly a dozen other 
wards. Driving in any direction, it is 
about 3 miles before one gets away from 
built-up streets and reaches the open 
country. Even then the rural settlements 
are found full of the residences of city 
business people, and so it is difficult to 
say exactly what should be considered 
part of the city and what should not. 

The city is irregularly laid out, the 
streets very narrow, and the houses crowd- 
ed together. The principal business street 



is crooked and filled with commonplace, 
mean-looking structures. The Pasig is 
bridged in several places, connecting the" 
old city with Binondo, and there are tram- 
ways running into the outlying parts of 
the town, and a steam tramway to the 
northern suburb of Malabon. There is 
also a railway from Manila to Dagupan, 
about 120 miles north. A little way back 
from the sea is the Jesuit Observatory, a 
splendidly equipped institution. Here, far 
removed from petty troubles, the monks 
pursue their meteorological observations, 
carefully compiling data and employing 
delicate instruments the like of which is 
not to be seen east of Calcutta. Outside of 
the populous suburbs there are more rural 
and less settled districts, dotted with hand- 
some residences, scattered remotely among 
the rice-fields and tropical woodlands. 

The climate of Manila is hot and wet, 
but salubrious. The city is often swept 
by typhoons from the China Sea, and is 
also subject to frequent earthquakes, 
which are often very destructive. Manila 
is celebrated for the hemp and cigars 
which form its principal exports. 

The city was founded by Miguel Lopez 
de Legaspi in 1571, and was surrounded 
by a wall in 1590. It was invaded by the 
British in 1762. Commerce with Scain, 



86 



MANILA 



by way of Cape Horn, was started in 
] 764. Previously, all trade had been 
carried on by way of Acapulco, Mexico. 
In 178!) the port was opened to foreign 
vessels, but commerce did not thrive un- 
til the expiration of the privileges of the 
Koyal Company of the Philippines, in 
1834. Manila was connected by cable 
with Hong-Kong in 1880. On May 1, 
1898, the United States Asiatic squadron, 
under Commodore Dewey, defeated the 
Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, and on Aug. 
15 the American land forces, assisted by 
the navy and the native revolutionists, 
gained possession of the city. It has since 
been the seat of the American military 
authorities. See Luzon. 

Capture of the City. — The following is 
an extended synopsis of the oiflcial report 
of Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt (q. v.) 
on the operations around Manila and the 
capture of the city, under date of Aug. 
31, 1898: 

I found General Greene's command en- 
camped on a strip of sandy land running 



parallel to the shoi-e of the bay and not 
far distant from the beach, but, owing to 
the great dilllculty of landing supplies, the 
greater portion of the force had shelter- 
tents only, and were suffering many dis- 
comforts, the camp being situated in a 
low, flat place, without shelter from the 
heat of the tropical sun or adequate pro- 
tection during the terrific downpours of 
rain so frequent at this season. T was 
at once struck by the exemplary spirit of 
patient, even cheerful, endurance shown 
by the officers and men under such cir- 
cumstances, and this feeling of admira- 
tion for the manner in which the Ameri- 
can soldiers, volunteer and regular, accept 
the necessary hardships of the work they 
have undertaken to do has grown and in- 
creased with every phase of the difficult 
and trying campaign which the troops of 
the Philippine expedition have brought to 
such a brilliant and successful conclusion. 
The Filipinos, or insurgent forces at 
war with Spain, had, prior to the arrival 
of the American land forces, been waging 
a desultory warfare with the Spaniards 




A TYPICAL VILLAGE NEAR MANILA. 

87 



MANILA 



for several months, and Avere, at the time 
of my arrival, in considerable force, vari- 
ously estimated and never accurately as- 
certained, but probably not far from 
12.000 men. These troops, well supplied 
with small-arms, with plenty of ammuni- 
tion and several field-guns, had obtained 
positions of investment opposite to the 
Spanisli lines of detached works through- 
out their entire extent. 

[General Merritt then speaks of Agaii- 
naldo's accomplishments previous to his 
arrival, and continues:] 

As General Aguinaldo did not visit me 
on my arrival nor offer his services as a 
subordinate military leader, and as my 
instructions from the President fully con- 
templated the occupation of the islands 
by the American land forces, and stated 
that " the poAvers of the military occupant 
are absolute and supreme and immediately 
operate upon the political condition of the 
inhabitants," I did not consider it wise 
to hold any direct communication with 
the insurgent leader until I should be 
in possession of the city of Manila, es- 
pecially as I would not until then be in 
a position to issue a proclamation and en- 
force my authority, in the event that his 
pretensions should clash with my designs. 



For these reasons the preparations for 
the attack on the city were pressed and 
military operations conducted without 
reference to the situation of the insurgent 
forces. The wisdom of this course was 
subsequently fully established by the fact 
that when the troops of my command car- 
ried the Spanish intrenchments, extend- 
ing from the sea to the Pasay road on 
the extreme Spanish right, we were under 
no obligations, by prearranged plans of 
mutual attack, to turn to the right and 
clear the front still held against the in- 
surgents, but were able to move forward 
at once and occupy the city and suburbs. 

To return to the situation of General 
Greene's brigade as I found it on my ar- 
rival, it will be seen that the difficulty in 
gaining an avenue of approach to the 
Spanish line lay in the fact of my dis- 
inclination to ask General Aguinaldo to 
withdraw from the beach and the " Calle 
Eeal," so that Greene could move forward. 
This was overcome by instructions to Gen- 
eral Greene to arrange, if possible, with 
the insurgent brigade commander in his 
immediate vicinity to move to the right 
and allow the American forces unobstruct- 
ed control of the roads in their immediate 
front. No objection was made, and ac- 




STRKET TRAFFIC IN MANILA. 



MANILA 




TYPES OF NATIVES. 



cordingly General Greene's brigade threw after day, and the only way to get the 
forward a heavy outpost line on the " Calle troops and supplies ashore was to load 
Real " and the beach and constructed a them from the ship's side into native 
trench, in which a portion of the guns lighters (called "cascos") or small 
of the Utah batteries were placed. steamboats, move them to a point opposite 
The Spanish, observing this activity on the camp, and then disembark them 
our part, made a very sharp attack with through the surf in small boats or by run- 
infantry and artillery on the night of July ning the lighters head on on the beach. 
31. The behavior of our troops during The landing was finally accomplished, af- 
this night attack was all that could be ter days of hard work and hardship, and 
desired, and I have in cablegrams to the I desire here to express again my admira- 
War Department taken occasion to com- tlon for the fortitude and cheerful willing- 
mend by name those who deserve special ness of the men of all commands engaged 
mention for good conduct in the affair, in this operation. 

Our position was extended and strength- Upon the assembly of MacArthur's bri- 

ened after this and resisted successfully gade in support of Greene's I had about 

repeated night attacks, our forces suffer- 8,500 men in position to attack, and I 



ing, however, considerable loss in wounded 
and killed, while the losses of the enemy, 
owing to the darkness, could not be as- 
certained. 



deemed the time had come for final action. 
During the time of the night attacks 1 
had communicated my desire to Admiral 
Dewey that he would allow his ships to 



The strain of the night fighting and the open fire on the right of the Spanish line 
heavy details for outpost duty made it of intrenchments, believing that such ac- 
imperative to reinforce General Greene's tion would stop the night firing and loss 
troops with General MacArthur's brigade, of life, but the admiral had declined to 
which had arrived in transports on July order it unless we were in danger of los- 
31. The difficulties of this operation can ing our position by the assaults of the 
hardly be overestimated. The transports Spanish, for the reason that, in his opin- 
were at anchor off Cavite, 5 miles from a ion, it would precipitate a general en- 
point on the beach where it was desired gagement, for which he was not ready. 
to disembark the men. Several squalls, Now, however, the brigade of General 
accompanied by floods of rain, raged day MacArthur was in position and the Mon- 

89 



MANILA 




ESCOLTA STREET, MANILA. 



terey had arrived, and under date of Aug. 
6 Admiral Dewey agreed to my suggestion 
that we should send a joint letter to the 
captain-general notifying him that he 
should remove from the city all non-com- 
batants within forty-eight hours, and that 
operations against the defences of Manila 
might begin at any time after the expira- 
tion of that period. 

This letter was sent Aug. 7, and a 
reply was received the same date to the 
effect that the Spaniards were without 
places of refuge for the increased num- 
bers of wounded, sick, women, and chil- 
dren now lodged within the walls. On 
the 9th a formal joint demand for the 
surrender of the city was sent in. This 
demand was based upon the hopelessness of 
the struggle on the part of the Spaniards, 
and that every consideration of humanity 
demanded that the city should not be sub- 
jected to bombardment under such circum- 
stances. The captain-general's reply, of 
same date, stated that the council of de- 
fence had declared that the demand could 
not be granted, but the captain-goneral 
offered to consult his government if we 
would allow him the time strictly neces- 
pary for the communications by way of 
Hong-Kong. 

This was declined on our part, for the 
reason that it could, in the opinion of 
the admiral and inyself, lead only to a 



continuance of the situation, with no im- 
mediate result favorable to us, and the 
necessity was apparent and very urgent 
that decisive action should be taken at 
once to compel the enemy to give up the 
town, in order to relieve our troops from 
the trenches and from the great exposure to 
unhealthy conditions which were unavoid- 
able in a bivouac during the rainy season. 

The sea - coast batteries in defence of 
Manila are so situated that it is impos- 
sible for ships to engage them without 
firing into the town, and as the bombard- 
ment of a city filled with women and 
children, sick and wounded, and contain- 
ing a large amount of neutral property, 
could only be justiiled as a last resort, it 
was agreed between Admiral Dewey and 
myself that an attempt should be made 
to carry the extreme right of the Spanish 
line of intrenchments in front of the posi- 
tions at that time occupied by our troops, 
which, with its flank on the seashore, 
was entirely open to the fire of the navy. 

It was not my intention to press the 
assault at this point, in case the enemy 
should hold it in strong force, imtil after 
the navy had made practicable breaches 
in the works and shaken the troops hold- 
ing them, which could not be done by the 
army alone, owing to the absence of siege 
guns. This is indicated fully in the or- 
ders and memorandum of attack hereto 



90 



MANILA 



appended. It was believed, however, as 
most desirable and in accordance with the 
principles of civilized warfare, that the 
attempt should be made to drive the 
enemy out of his intrenchments before re- 
sorting to the bombardment of the city. 

By orders issued some time previously 
MacArthur's and Greene's brigades were 
organized as the 2d Division of the 8th 
Army Corps, Brig.-Gen. Thos. M. Anderson 
commanding; and in anticipation of the 
attack General Anderson moved his head- 
quarters from Cavite to the brigade camps 
and assumed direct command in the field. 
Copies of the written and verbal instruc- 
tions referred to above and appended 
hereto were given to the division and bri- 
gade commanders on the 12th, and all the 
troops were in jiosition on the 13th at an 
early hour in the morning. 

About 9 A.M. on that day our fleet 
steamed forward from Cavite, and before 
10 A.M. opened a hot and accurate fire of 



heavy shells and rapid-fire projectiles on 
the sea liank of the Spanish intrench- 
ments at the powder-magazine fort, and 
at the same time the Utah batteries, in 
position in our trenches near the Calle 
ileal, began firing with great accuracy. 
At 10.25, on a prearranged signal from 
our trenches that it was believed our 
troops could advance, the navy ceased 
firing, and immediately a light line of 
skirmishers from the Colorado regiment 
of Greene's brigade passed over our 
trenches and deployed rapidly forward, 
another line from the same regiment from 
the left flank of our earthworks advanc- 
ing swiftly up the beach in open order. 
Both these lines found the powder-maga- 
zine fort and the trenches flanking it de- 
serted, but as they passed over the Span- 
ish works they were met by a sharp fire 
from a second line situated in the streets 
of Malate, by which a number of men 
were killed and wounded, among others 




STREET IN Till 



Jl 



MANILA 



the soldiers who pulled down the Spanish 
colors still Hying on the fort and raised 
our own. 

The works of the second line soon gave 
way to the determined advance of Greene's 
troops, and that officer pushed his bri- 
gade rapidly through Malate and over the 
bridges to occupy Binondo and San 



captain-general. I soon personally fol- 
lowed these officers into the town, going 
at once to the palace of the governor- 
general, and tliere, after a conversation 
with the Spanish authorities, a prelimi- 
nary agreement of the terms of the capitu- 
lation was signed by the captain-general 
and myself. This agreement was sub- 




THE ADVANCE ON MANILA. 



Miguel, as contemplated in his instruc- 
tions. In the mean time the brigade of 
General MaciVrthur, advancing simulta- 
neously on Pasay road, encountered a 
very sharp fire coming from the block- 
house, trenches, and woods in his front, 
positions which it was very difficult to 
carry, owing to a swampy condition of 
the ground on both sides of the roads and 
the heavy undergrowth concealing the 
enemy. With much gallantry and excel- 
lent judgment on the part of the brigade 
commander and the troops engaged, these 
difficulties were overcome with a mini- 
mum loss, and MacArthur advanced and 
held the bridges and the town of Ma- 
late, as was contemplated in his instruc- 
tions. 

The city of Manila was now in our pos- 
session, excepting the walled town, but 
shortly after the entry of our troops into 
Malate a white flag was displayed on the 
walls, whereupon Lieut.-Col. C. A. Whit- 
tier, United States Volunteers, of my 
fitafT, and Lieutenant Biumlty, United 
States Navy, representing Admiral Dewey, 
were sent ashore to communicate with the 



sequently incorporated into the formal 
terms of capitulation, as arranged by the 
officers representing the two forces. 

Immediately after the surrender the 
Spanish colors on the sea-front were 
hauled down and the American flag dis- 
played and saluted by the guns of the 
navy. The 2d Oregon Regiment, which 
had proceeded by sea from Cavite, was 
disembarked and entered the walled town 
as a provost-guard, and the colonel was 
directed to receive the Spanish arms anc^ 
deposit them in places of security. The 
town was filled with the troops of the 
enemy driven in from the intrenehm_ents. 
regiments formed and standing in line in 
the streets, but the work of disarming 
proceeded quietly, and nothing unpleasant 
occurred. 

In leaving the subject of the operations 
of the 13th, I desire here to record my 
appreciation of the admirable manner in 
which the orders for attack and the plan 
for occuyiation of the city were carried 
out by the troops exactly as contemplated. 
T submit that for troops to enter under 
fire a town covering a wide area, to rapi*^ 



92 



MANILA 

ly dejiloy and guard all principal points in with natives hostile to the European in- 

the extensive suburbs, to kec]) out the in- terests and stirred up by the knowledge 

surgent forces pressing for admission, that their own people were fighting in the 

to quietly disarm an army of Spaniards outside trenches, was an act which only 




THE CAPTURE OP MANILA — ATTACK ON FORT SAN' ANTONIO. 



more than equal in number to the Ameri- 
can troops, and finally by all this to pre- 
vent entirely all rapine, pillage, and dis- 
order, and gain entire and complete pos- 
session of a city of 300,000 people filled 



93 



the law-abiding, temperate, resolute Amer- 
ican soldier, well and skilfully handled 
bj' his regimental and brigade commander, 
could accomplish. 

It will be observed that the trophies of 



MANILA 



Bitas R. 




ORMAt & CC.tN&fl'S.N.y, 



MAP OP THE BATTLE OP MANILA. 



Manila were nearly $900,000, 13,000 pris- 
oners, and 22,000 arms. 

[General Merritt then details the in- 
auguration of the military movement of 
Manila by the Americans. Further he 
says:] 



the establishment of mj'^ office as military 
governor, I had direct written communi- 
cation with General Aguinaldo on several 
occasions. He recognized my authority as 
military governor of the town of Manila 
and suburbs, and made professions of hii 



On the 16th a cablegram containing the willingness to withdraw his troops to a 



text of the President's proclamation di- 
recting a cessation of hostilities was re- 
ceived by me, and at the same time an 
order to make the fact known to the Span- 
ish authorities, which was done at once. 
This resulted in a formal protest from 
the governor-general in regard to the 



line which I might indicate, but at the 
same time asking certain favors for him- 
self. The matters in this connection had 
not been settled at the date of my depart- 
ure. Doubtless much dissatisfaction is 
felt by the rank and file of the insur- 
gents that they have not been permitted to 



transfer of public funds then taking place, enjoy the occupancy of Manila, and there 
on the ground that the proclamation was is some ground for trouble with them ow- 



dated prior to the surrender. To this I re- 
plied that that status quo in which we 
were left with the cessation of hostilities 
was that existing at the time of the re- 
ceipt by me of the official notice, and that 



ing to that fact, but notwithstanding 
many rumors to the contrary, I am of the 
opinion that the leaders will be able to 
prevent serious disturbances, as they are 
sufficientl}'' intelligent and educated to 



1 must insist upon tlie delivery of the know that to antagonize the United States 
funds. The delivery was made under pro- would be to destroy their only chance of 
teat. future political improvement.- 

After the issue of my proclamation and I may add that great changes for the 

94 



MANILA BAY 

better have taken place in Manila since Reeve, 13th Minnesota, were most pron- 

tlie occupancy of tlie city by the American cient in preserving order. A stranger to 

troops. The streets have been cleaned the city miglit easily imagine that the 

under the general management of General American forces had been in control for 

MacArthur, and the police, under Colonel months rather than days. 



MANILA BAY, BATTLE OF 

Manila Bay, Battle of. The following McCulloch, which had been left at Hong- 
is an account of the memorable naval bat- Kong, brought the desired message. It 
tie of May 1, 1898, by Ramon Reyes Lala, read as follows: 

Filipino author and lecturer, here re- " Washington, Apri^ 26. 

produced by courtesy of his publishers, " Dewey, Asiatic Squadron, — Commence op- 

the Continental Publishing Company: erations at once, particularly against the Span- 
ish fleet. You must capture or destroy them. 

It was the 19th of April. An American 

fleet lay in the harbor of Hong-Kong, "Thank God!" said the commodore, 

where it had been anchored for nearly a " At last we've got what we want. We'll 

month, impatiently awaiting the command blow them off the Pacific Ocean." 

that should send it to battle. And now the fleet was headed direct 

There was feverish expectation of war, for Manila, a distance of 628 miles; and, 

and bustle of preparation, and Commodore with hearts beating high with hope, the 

Dewey nervously walked the deck; for sailors cheered lustily for Old Glory and 

every moment the longed-for order was the navy blue, 

expected. In the squadron were the following ves- 

It was the 19th of April, and the white sels: Olympia, flag-ship, Capt. C. V. Grid- 
squadron lay gleaming in the simlight; ley commanding; Boston, Capt. Frank 
and yet by the night of the 20th the Wildes; Concord, Commander Asa Walk- 
white squadron was no more; for she had er; and the Petrel, Commander E. P. 
exchanged the snowy garb of peace for Wood. The Raleigh, Capt. J. B. Coughlan 
the sombre gray of war. The ships' paint- commanding, and the Baltimore, com- 
ers had, in this short time, given the en- inanded by Capt. N. M. Dyer, also joined 
tire fleet a significant coat of drab. the squadron. 

The English steamer Nanshan, with All these vessels were cruisers. The 

over 3,000 tons of Cardiff coal, and the single armored ship in the squadron was 

steamer Zafiro, of the Manila-Hong-Kong the Olympia, and the armor, 4 inches 

line, carrying 7,000 tons of coal and pro- thick, was around the turret guns, 

visions, had just been bought by the com- In making the journey to the Philip- 

niodore, in anticipation of a declaration pines, a speed of only 8 knots was main- 

of neutrality, which would preclude such tained, for the transport ships could not 

purchases, and thus two more vessels were make fast headway against the rolling sea. 

added to the fleet, Lieutenant Hutchins During this run, gun-drills and other 

being made commander of the Nanslian, exercises kept the men busy, and every 

and Ensign Pierson of the Zafiro. The minute was employed in earnest prepa- 

Zafiro was then made a magazine for the ration for what all knew was to come, 

spare ammunition of the fleet. It was on Saturday morning, April 30, 

Hong-Kong, for strategic reasons, had that Luzon was sighted, and final prepa- 

heen chosen as a place of rendezvous for rations for the battle were immediately 

the Asiatic squadron. made. Impedimenta of all kinds were 

On April 2.5 war was declared between thrown overboard — chairs, tables, chests 

the United States and Spain, and, at the and boxes, and the ships were stripped 

request of the acting governor of Hong- and made ready for action. It was in- 

Kong, the American fleet steamed away tensely warm, and the most ordinary evo- 

to Mirs Bay,' about 30 miles from Hong- lution proved exhausting. 

Kong. On April 26 the revenue-cutter The Boston, the Concord, and the Bal- 

95 



MANILA BAY, BATTLE OF 





liillitlHi;!iill;!!i;ii;lt!iil;!ll'J;ii: 



Immm 



./s, „^i^- -V 



^^^ 



//y/'^ 






■> 



FORT AND EARTHWORKS AT CAVIT^;, CAPTDRED BY DEWEY. 



timore were now sent ahead to discover 
whether the Spanish fleet was anywhere 
around. 

After looking in at Bolinao Bay, these 
three vessels cautiously approached Subig 
Bay, about 30 miles from Manila. How- 
ever, only a few small trading-vessels 
were here discovered, though it had been 
reported that the enemy intended to give 
the Americans battle there. 

When the scouting ships reported that 
the enemy was nowhere in sigiit, the com- 
modore replied: "All right, we shall 
meet them in Manila Bay." A war-coun- 
cil was then held on the Olympia, and the 
American commander told his officers that 
he intended to enter Manila Bay that 
very night. 

The squadron then slowly proceeded in 
the direction of Manila. It was a sultry 
evening, and the yellow moon paved the 
waves with a pathway of gold, that seem- 
ed like a glorious avenue to victory. 

Fearing that they might come upon the 
enemy at any moment, the men were post- 
ed at their guns, and, with tlie greatest 
quietness, the fleet steamed stealthily for- 
ward. The lights on all the ships were 



jjut out, save the one at the stern, and 
so the squadron slipped into the bay, each 
moment dreading a challenge from the 
strongly fortified batteries that tlie Amer- 
icans had been taught to believe were lo- 
cated at every point along the entrance. 

The speed was now increased to 8 knots ; 
for the commodore wished to be as far 
inside as possible before his presence was 
discovered. 

Through the dangerous channels, mined 
with death-hurling torpedoes, swept the 
silent squadron, grim and spectre-like. 
Well did the Americans know the dangers 
of this undertaking; and few there were 
that did not momentarily expect some ex- 
ploding mine to hurl them into eternity. 

Then Corregidor Island, with its lofty 
light-house, came within view, and the 
ships swept into the chief channel, known 
as the Boca Grande. 

The commodore, having so far failed 
to discover the presence of the enemy, 
naturally concluded that the Spanish fleet 
was lying at Cavite, where it would have 
the advantage of the protection of the 
forts and the shore batteries. 

And thus, with a full appreciation of 



96 



MANILA BAY, BATTLE OF 

the thousand and one dangers, known and roar, and the battle was on. Again the 

unknown, tliat beset his patli, Dewey battery sent its deadly missive over the 

kept straight by Corregidor. lleet, and this time tlie Concord, taking 

It was eleven o'clock, and the men of its aim by the Hash, res2)onded by throw- 

the fleet, wliich was now almost past the ing a G-inch shell into the Spanish fort, 

island, were congratulating themselves A crash and a cry and all was still. It 

that they were undiscovered when a soli- was learned afterwards that considerable 

tary rocket soared over the lofty light- damage was done by this wonderfully ac- 

house; there was an answering light from curate shot, several of the Spanish gun- 

the shore, and every moment the Amer- ners being killed. 

ioans expected the boom of the Spanish The Boston and the McCulloch fired an- 

guns, long primed with a deadly welcome other round or two, but the forts had 

for the "Yankee pigs." evidently had enough of it; they were no 

The narrowest part of the inlet had longer heard from, 

been passed; and still no sign that the Meanwhile, the squadron continued its 

entering fleet had been discovered. Im- course, though its speed was reduced to 

pressive, indeed, was that long line of about 3 knots an hour, the commodore 

gloomy hulls, steering for battle, and not wishing to arrive at Manila before 

courting destruction. The Olympia, the dawn. 

Baltimore, the lialcigh, the Petrel, the Darkness hung over the harbor as the 
Concord, and the Boston, with the two gray procession glided noiselessly in. Had 
transports the Nanshan and the Zafiro, a Spanish scout been on the lookout, it 
convoyed by the McCulloch, on the flag- would scarcely have been possible for him 
ship's port quarter — all kept on in the to have distinguished his approaching en- 
same straight course, while the men on emy. A strict lookout was kept for the 
board were partaking of light refresh- Spanish ships and for the dreaded torpedo- 
ment. For all felt that a great day's boats, while most of the men lay down 
work was before them. by their guns to get a little sleep. But 

But where are the enemy? was the with the terrible fate of the Maine vivid 

thought uppermost in every mind. For in their memories, the more imaginative 

to the Americans themselves it seemed ones conjured up a shuddering sense of in- 

that they were surely making enough noise security in a harbor supposed to be liter- 

to be heard by the sentries on the shore, ally planted with destructive mines. 

Doubtless they were asleep, dreaming a This invisible foe, and not the longed- 

Spanish dream of maiiana. for and expected combat with the enemy's 

It was shortly past eleven o'clock, when fleet, was feared by the brave Americans, 

from the smoke-stack of the convoy Mc- and when the morning sun, in all his trop- 

Culloch flew a shower of sparks. A fire- ieal splendor, rose right before the Ameri- 

man had thrown open the furnace-doors cans, under the guns of the Cavite lay the 

and shovelled in a few pounds of soft Spanish fleet. The Americans were at 

acal. last face to face with the enemy. 

This was evidently seen by some one on The commander-in-chief of the Spanish 

shore, for it was just fourteen minutes squadron was Rear-Admiral Patricio Mon- 

past eleven wiien a bugle sounded an tojo y Pasaron; the second in command 

alarm, and from the west came a blind- was the Commandante - General Enrique 

ing glare, a shrill whistle overhead, and Sostoa y Ordennez. 

the heavy boom of a cannon. Under Admiral Montojo's command were 

It was the first shot of the war, and it the following vessels: 

was fired with characteristic Spanish in- Reina Cristina, flag-ship, armored cruis- 

aceuracy. er, Capt. L. Cadarso commanding, 3,500 

Again the battery thundered; and then tons; battery, six 0.2-inch, two 2.7-inch, 

a third time, before there was a reply from six G-pounders, and six 3-pounder rapiJ- 

the American fleet. The Raleigh, which fire guns; speed, 17.5 knots; crew, 400 

was the third vessel in the line, was the officers and men. 

first to speak for the American side, and Castilla, Capt. A. M. de Oliva command- 
then the Boston followed, with stentorian ing, 3,334 tons; .battery, four 5.9-inch, 
\^.— G 97 



MANILA BAY, BATTLE OF 



two 4.7-inch, two 3.3-inc'h, four 2.9-inch, 
and eight 6-pounder rapid-fire guns ; speed, 
14 knots ; crew, 300. 

Isla de Cuba. Capt. J. Sidrach, and Isla 
dc Luzon, Capt. J. de la Herian; 1,030 
tons each; battery, four 4.7-inch, four 6- 
pounder, and two 3-pounder rapid-fire 
guns; speed, 14 knots; crew, 200 men each. 

General Lezo, Commander R. Benevento, 
and Marques del Duero, Commander S. 
Morena Guerra; the former was 524, the 
latter 500 tons; batteries, two 4.7-inch, 
one 3.5-inch, and two 3-pounder rapid-fire 
guns; speed, 11 knots; crew, 100. 

Altogether, the Americans had four 
cruisers, two gunboats, one cutter; fifty- 
seven classified big guns, seventy-four 
rapid-firing guns and machine-guns, and 
1,808 men. On the other side were seven 
cruisers, five gunboats, two torpedo-boats; 
fifty-two classified big guns, eighty-three 
rapid-firing and machine guns, and 1,948 
men. It will thus be seen that the Amer- 
■cans had a few more lieavy guns; but the 
Spanish had several more ships and over 
100 more men. They were also assisted 
by the powerful land-batteries, and by the 
knowledge of the exact distance of the 
American ships. For the latter had no 
range-marks with which to determine the 
proper elevation to be given to their 
sights. In the American squadron, more- 
over, was not a single armored cruiser; 
besides, the Spaniards Avere at their base 
of supplies, while Commodore Dewey was 
more than G,000 miles away from all 
aid. Such were the numbers and the dis- 
position of the combatants now about to 
fight. 

With Old Glory flying at every mast- 
head, and with the beating of drums, the 
American squadron, after a brief recon- 
noitring detour in the harbor, sailed in a 
straight line past the fleet of the enemy. 
Each ship was to hold its fire until near 
enough to inflict the most damage, when 
as many shots should be fired as possible. 
Then to steam as quickly as possible out 
of efTective range: to wheel and return — 
keeping close to the opposite shore — to 
the original point of starting, when the 
same manoeuvre was to be repeated — and 
80 again and again till the enemy was 
destroyed or defeated. 

On the Spanish fleet, too, all was bustle 
and preparation ; the national flag, that 



symbol of mediaeval tyranny, floated from 
every masthead, the admiral's flag on the 
Rcina Cristina being the cynosure of all 
eyes. 

The Americans had left their supply- 
ships behind, and their fleet, according to 
prearranged plan, steamed slowly past 
the enemy. Meanwhile the batteries of 
Cavit§ kept up an incessant roar, and 
now Montojo's flag-ship thundered a 
deadly welcome; while over the American 
flag-ship was hoisted a code-flag, with the 
watchword, " Remember the Maine !" Tliis 
was the signal for a concerted yell from 
the sailors in the fleet. And thus, with 
colors flying, and with flre reserved till a 
closer range should make it more effective, 
the commodore and his brave officers bore 
down towards the Spaniards, who were 
awaiting their approach with curiosity not 
unmixed with alarm, at the same time 
they sent a thunderous fusillade as a 
greeting to the hated Yankees. 

Bvit the Americans, undeterred, grimly 
kept their course, notwithstanding one or 
two mines exploded beneath the water, 
one near the Raleigh and one beside the 
Baltimore. Again and again the Spanish 
guns thundered, until the roar became in- 
cessant and shells were bursting all 
around. When about 6,000 yards from the 
Spanish fleet the commodore shouted to 
Captain Gridley, who was in the conning 
tower : " Fire as soon as you get ready, 
Gridley." 

Hardly had he given the word, which 
also was passed down the line, when the 
whole ship shivered, and the 8-inch gun 
in the front turret burst info a sheet 
of flame, while a dull, muffled roar 
belched forth that awoke the apparent 
torpor of the whole fleet to instant 'ac- 
tivity. 

The Baltimore and the Boston now took 
up the cue, and sent their tremendous 
shells crashing into the enemy, who re- 
plied vociferously. The din was deafen- 
ing, and over and around all the American 
ships was the shriek and scream of ter- 
rifying shells. Some of these fell upon the 
decks, some smashed into the woodwork, 
but, as if providentially, not an American 
was hit. 

" Open with all the guns," signalled the 
commodore; and all the ships joined to- 
gether in a roaring chorus, as if Cerberus 



98 



MANILA BAY, BATTLE OF 



and all the dogs of hell had opened their shell eiashed through the bowels of the 
mighty throats. ship and there exploded, hurling its dead- 

And thus, with incessant firing, the bat- ly contents all round, while from the 
tie-line passed the whole length of the shattered deck rose columns of steam, 
stationary Spanish fleet, then slowly mingled with human fragments. The 
swung round and began the return to its ship, now completely disabled, continued 
starting-point, keeping up the same flash her retreat. Sixty of her crew had been 
and clatter, the Spaniards responding killed, and had she continued longer with- 
furiously. It was at this time that a in the Americans' range all would have 
shot passed clean through the Baltimore, met a like fate. 

though, fortunately, no one was hurt. Meanwhile, the little Petrel was en- 
Lieutenant Brumby had the signal hal- gaged in a duel with two Spanish torpedo- 
yard shot out of his hands; while on the boats, headed for the American line. One 
Boston a shell burst 
in the state-room of 
Ensign Dodridge, and 
another passed 
through the Boston's 
foremast. 

During the third 
round the Raleigh 
was carried by the 
strong current against 
the bows of two of 
the Spanish cruisers, 
where all aboard 
seemed too bewildered 
to take advantage of 
their opportunity. 
Captain Coughlan, 
however, did not lose 
his presence of mind, 
but poured a destruc- 
tive broadside into the 
enemy. His vessel was 
then carried back into 
the line. 

While this fierce 
combat Was waging 
the lieina Cristina 

moved out of the Spanish line and made of these she chased to the shore, where 
direct for the American flag-ship, which the crew sought shelter in the woods, while 
hurled a perfect tornado of steel into the their abandoned vessel was blown into 
approaching cruiser, her immense hulk pieces by the daring American. The 
being soon riddled with large holes, where other advanced to within 500 yards of the 
the 8-inch shells had entered. The port- Olyinpia, braving the storm of shot and 
bridge, where Admiral Montojo was stand- shell that threatened to overwhelm her. 
ing, was also struck, but he bravely stvick As it was, a shell ploughed its way into 
to his post, while ton after ton of steel her middle, where it exploded. From 
fell upon the deck. stem to stern she shivered, gave a for- 

No ship, however, could withstand such ward plunge, and sank beneath the waves, 
a fire, and the gallant Rcina Cristina The Baltimore, too, was engaged in an 
turned round and made for the shore, encounter with the CastiUa that resulted 
As she swung round Captain Gridley gave most disastrously to the latter, for she 
her a parting shot that caused her to was soon a blazing wreck, 
tremble and stagger, while the 250-pound Five times the American fleet passed 

99 




WRECK OF THE REIXA CRISTINA. 



MANILA BAY, BATTLE OF 

in front of the enemy, keeping up the were both on fire, and the Mindanao 
same deadly fire that showed only too beached not far from Cavite. 
well the results of American training and Admiral ^Montojo had meanwhile trans- 
marksmanship. And though the Spanish ferred his flag to the Isla de Cuba; and 
g\ms in the ships and the forts ceased the Baltimore, leaving the American line, 
rattling not an instant, they neither dis- made straight for his former flag - ship, 
concerted nor damaged in the least the which threw a torrent of shells towards 
Americans. It was now a quarter to the intrepid American. The Baltimore, 
eight, and so dense was the smoke hang- however, notwithstanding that a few of 
ing over the waters that it was inipos- these deadly missiles exploded on her deck, 
sible for the Americans to distinguish wounding eight of her crew, continued her 
not alone the enemy's ships, but their course till within 2,500 yards of her an- 
own vessels, and the signals, too. tagonist. Tlien from her decks she fired 

The commodore now wisely concluded a broadside at the Spaniard. There was 

to stop for a while the fighting, and allow an ominous silence for a minute or two, 

bis men a chance to take some breakfast; and both Spaniards and Americans wait- 

for the brave fellows, after their morn- ed anxiously for the smoke to lift. Sud- 

ing's hard work, were hungry as wolves; denly, all saw a sight that struck every 

so the signal " cease firing " was given, man in both fleets with terror, for it 

and the ships were headed for the eastern seemed the probable fate of all. The 

side of the bay, near the transport ships. Cristina shot into the air and then fell 

It is related that the Spaniards were back upon the waves with a thunderous 

exceedingly relieved when they saw the crash, wliile a thousand fragments of men 

Americans in — as they thought — full re- and timbers — promiscuously mingled in 

treat, and many of them stood on the awful confusion — were whirling through 

decks and cheered, thinking they had the. air. Do^\^l into the waves she sank^ 

gained the victory. that gallant man-of-war — the pride of the 

When the various commanders came on Spanish fleet — down into the deep blue sea. 

hoard to report to Commodore Dewey, it Upon the surface, amid tons of floating 

was found that not a ship was disabled, debris, 100 sailors struggled for life; 

not a gun out of order, not a man killed many sank to rise no more; some, how- 

or injured. It is true Frank B. Eandall, ever, succeeded in reaching one of the 

the engineer of the McCuUocJi, died from adjacent consorts. 

heart-disease as the fleet steamed past The Baltimore, aided by the Olympia 
Corregidor, but this was not in any wise and the Raleigh, now kept up a deadly 
due to the engagement. ]\Iany miraculous fire on the Juan de Attstria, which an- 
escapes, indeed, are related; and it is swered this terrible fusillade with inter- 
really wonderful that no serious casual- mittent volleys, that spoke well for the 
ties took place. The sailors, as may easily courage, but poorly for the aim, of her 
be imagined, were nearly wild with joy; gimners. 

and, as all hands were piped to break. It was at this moment that the Raletgh 

fast, the decks were gay with merry sent a shell crashing through the other's 

jackies improvising a dance of victory, centre, exploding her magazine; in an 

while the strains of Yankee Doodle and instant she seemed a crater of flame, and 

the fitar-Hpanglcd Banner filled the morn- sank back like the Cristina, a total wreck, 

ing air. Cheery was that breakfast, and Her flying fragments also inflicted such 

sweet, ah, sweet, was the three hours' rest damage upon the gunboat El Corrco, 

so nobly earned! which lay beside her, that she was com- 

At 10.4.5 the boatswains' whistles and pletely disabled. The Petrel gave her a 

the drums announced the renewal of the finishing shot, that closed her brief career, 

battle. Instantly every man was at his Another Spanish gunboat, the General 

post, eager to finish the job so well be- Lezo, also set out to accomplish great 

gun. Again the American squadron was things, but the Concord, with a few good 

headed towards the enemy's battle -line; shots, put a quietus upon her warlike 

but several of the Spanish ships were now ambition, and, like her sister ships, she 

disabled, the Cristina and the Castilla too was soon a floating wreck. 

100 



MANILA BAY, BATTLE OP 



and tlie surrender of the Spanish fleet, the 
batteries kept up an incessant fire. The 
Americans now turned their attention to 
these, and speedily sileneed them. The 
Petrel was left behind to complete the de- 
struction of the smaller gunboats. This 
she did most effectually. 

As the Cavite arsenal unfurled the white 
flag, the command " Cease firing " was 
given, and the various American com- 
manders once more gathered on the flag- 
ship, their men cheering themselves 
hoarse. 

A most extraordinary victory, truly! 
Not one man lost, and only six men 
slightly wounded, all on the Baltimore ; 
while the Baltimore, Olympia, and Raleigh 
suffered injuries that could be repaired in 
a few hours. 

The Spanish, on the other hand, were 
almost annihilated, and lost the following 



Meanwhile, the Boston was engaged in 
a duel with the Yelasco. Captain Wildes, 
of the former, stood on the bridge of 
nis ship vigorously fanning with a palm- 
loaf fan: for it was a hot morning, and 
it was the captain's policy to keep cool. 
The Velasco responded to the Boston's 
broadsides but feebly. Then with a 
plunge she careened to one side and sank 
heavily, her crew having scarcely enough 
time to escape to the adjacent shore. The 
Castilla had already been set on fire and 
scuttled by her crew, to prevent her maga- 
zine from exploding. 

The Don Antonia de Ulloa, which was 
engaged with the Olympia and the Boston, 
though riddled with shells and on fire in 
a dozen places, refused to surrender. Her 
gallant commander, Robion, stuck to his 
ship to the very last; then she sank with 
colors flying, a signal example of Spanish 
bravery. Another ves- 
sel had hauled down 
her flag, but when a 
boat's crew from the 
McCulloch approach- 
ed to take possession 
of her, she treacher- 
ously fired on them. 
Suddenly from every 
ship in the American 
fleet there thundered 
a swift and awful 
retribution. There 
was darkness around 
^er shivering hull, 
there was a dull ex- 
plosion and a lurid 
glare; and when the 
smoke had rolled 
away nothing but a 
few floating frag- 
ments were left to in- 
dicate the traitor's 
fate. 

Thus ship after 
ship of the Spanish 
fleet met a like fate, 
until Admiral ^lon- 
tojo, on the deck of 
the deserted and al- 
most useless Isla de 

Cuba, took down his colors, and, with a vessels: Sunk — Reina Cristina, Castilla, 
few surviving officers, escaped to the Don Antonia dc Ulloa; burned — Don Juan 
g],ore. f^c Austria, Isla de Luzon, Isla dc Cuba, 

But, notwithstanding the destruction General Lezo, Marques del Duero, El 

101 




WRECK OP THE ISLA DE LUZON. 



MANLEY— MANSFIELD 




J7^^tr-t^.'e<.<^ e^^-^aC* 



Corrco, Tclasco, and Isla dc Mindanao; vocated measures for the extinction of 
captured ^Manila, and several tugs and slavery in the republic. From 1852 imtil 
small launches. Besides this, the enemy his death he was president of Antioch Col- 
lost more than GOO men. Ipge, Ohio. Dr. Mann's annual reports 

On the day following the engagement, 
the squadron returned to Cavite, where it 
took up a permanent position until the 
arrival of the transports from America. 
On May 3 the Spanish evacuated Cavite 
arsenal, which was then held by a de- 
tachment from the fleet. The same day 
the batteries on Corregidor Island sur- 
rendered to the Raleigh and the Balti- 
more. And thus ended the greatest naval 
battle in American history. 

Manley, JoitN Mars, naval officer; 
born in Torquay, England, in 1733; be- 
came a seaman in early life; settled in 
Marblehead ; commanded a vessel in the 
merchant service before the Revolution- 
ary War, and was commissioned captain 
in the naval service by Washington in the 
fall of 1775. He soon captured in Boston 
Harbor, with the schooner Lee, three valu- 
able prizes laden with heaA^ guns, mor- 
tars, and intrenching tools, much wanted 
by the patriots besieging Boston. In Au- 
gust, 1776, Congress commissioned him on education deservedly rank high, and 
captain, and placed him in command of the some of them were highly extolled in Eu- 
frigate Hancock, thirty-two guns, in which rope. He died in Yellow Springs, 0., Aug. 
he captured the British man-of-war Fox. 2, 1859. 

The Hancock was captured in July, 1777, Manning, Daniel, financier; born in 
and Manley was a prisoner during nearly Albany, N. Y., May 16, 1831; received a 
the whole of the war. In September, public school education; was for many 
1782, he commanded the frigate Hague, years connected with the Albany Argus, 
and cruised in the West Indies. He died and was also an officer in several financial 
in Boston, Mass., Feb. 12, 1793. institutions. He became conspicuously 

Mann, Horace, educator; born in active in the Democratic party in 1872; 
Franklin, Mass., May 4, 1796; gradu- Avas chairman of the New York State 
ated at Brown University in 1819; studied Democratic Convention in 1881-84; a dele- 
law in Litchfield, Conn., and began prac- gate to the National Democratic Con- 
tice in Dedham in 1823; was a member ventions of 1876, 1880, and 1884, and 
of the ^Massachusetts House of Represent- chairman of the convention of 1880. He 
atives in 182.3-33, and of the Senate in was Secretary of the United States 
183.3-37. He was always distinguished for Treasury in 1885-87. He died in Albany, 
hi.s efforts to promote popular education N. Y., Dec. 24, 1887. 

and temperance. He made Boston his Mansfield, John Brainard, author; 
residence in 1833, and in 1837-48 was born in Andover, Vt., March 6, 1826; re- 
secretary of the Massachusetts board of ceived an academic education ; served with 
education. He effected salutary changes the National army in 186.3-64; removed 
in the system of education in Massachu- to Kansas in 1882. His publications in- 
setts and in the laws pertaining to it, and elude the first part of a History of the 
in 1843 visited Europe to examine the edu- Neriy England states (with Austin J. 
cational systems there. From 1848 to Cooledge), and A fiketch of the Political 
1853 he was the successor of .lohn Quincy History of the United States of America. 
Adams in Congress, and, like him, ad- He died in Effingham, Kan., Oct. 29, 1886. 

102 



MANSFIELD— MANUFACTURES 



Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno, mili- 
tary officer; born in New Haven, Conn., 
]3ec. 22, 1803; graduated at West Point 
in 1822, and entered the engineer corps. 
He served as cliicf engineer under Gen- 
eral Taylor in the war against Mex- 
ico, and was brevetted «.K)lonel for his 
services there. In 1853 he was inspector- 
general, with the rank of colonel; in 
May, 1861, he was made brigadier-gen- 
eral, and placed in command of the city 
of Washington, which he thoroughly forti- 
fied; was promoted major-general of 
volunteers, July 18, 18G2; and took com- 
mand of the corps formerly under General 
Banks. With that he went into the bat- 
tle of Antietam, and was mortally wound- 
ed early in the day, dying Sept. 18. 

Mansfield, William Murray, Lord, 
jurist; born in Scone, Perthshire, Scot- 
land, March 2, 1705; was chief-justice of 
the King's Bench in 1756-88; and in the 
famous Somerset ease decided that slavery 
was contrary to the laws of England. 
He opposed the repeal of the Stamp Act. 
He died in Highgate, England, March 20, 
1793. See Slavery (1771). 

Manual Training Schools. An inter- 
esting feature in the development of the 
educational system of the United States 
is the rapidly growing interest in manual 
or industrial training. The twentieth 
century opened with th.is form of instruc- 
tion in operation in nearly all of the 
large cities in the country, and as a part 
of the public - school system ; and the 
technical schools were giving the most 
practical instruction in the branches of 
industrial work that the new business in- 
terests and conditions of the country 
rendered the most advantageous to yovmg 
men. At the close of the school year 
1902, the United States bureau of educa- 
tion received reports from 163 manual or 
industrial training - schools, of which 
thirty-nine were exclusively for Indian 
children. These schools combined were 
giving training to 49,269 pupils, of whom 
29,183 were boys and 20,086 girls. For 
this total attendance there were 559 
teachers. In the schools for Indians 
there were 4.266 boys and 3,252 girls. An 
evidence of the popularity and growth of 
this form of education is found in the fact 
that in 1890 it was given in thirty-seven 
cities, and at the close of 1902 in 270 



cities. The expenditures in the school 
year then ended, of 124 of the 270 then 
reporting, aggregated $1,118,406. Boston, 
New York, and Chicago have the largest 
and best of these schools. The fol- 
lowing comprises the principal branches 
of instruction: Carpentry, printing, 
broom-making, mechanical drawing, free- 
hand drawing, wood-turning, clay model- 
ling, forging, pattern-making, electricity, 
sewing, cooking, blacksmithing, general 
machine-shop work, shocmaking, brick-lay- 
ing, engineering, plumbing, basket-weav- 
ing, metal moulding, tailoring, cabinet- 
making, painting, hygiene and nursing, 
baking, sloid farm and garden work, 
sheet-metal work, power weaving, cotton 
spinning, textile designing, woollen and 
worsted spinning, embroidering, fresco 
painting, architectural drawing, teleg- 
raphy, and vise-work. 

Manufactures, Colonial. As soon as 
the American colonies began to manufact- 
ure for themselves, they encountered 
the jealousy of the English manufactur- 
ers. The act of 1663 extended to the 
" vent of English woollens, and other man- 
ufactures and commodities." In 1699 
Parliament declared that " no wool, yarn, 
or woollen manufactures of the American 
plantations should be shipped there, or 
even laden, in order to be transported 
thence to any place whatever." This was 
the beginning of restrictions on our colo- 
nial manufactures. In 1719 the House of 
Commons said that " the erecting of man- 
ufactories in the colonies tended to lessen 
their dependence upon Great Britain." 
The colonies continually increased in popu- 
lation, and in the products of their in- 
dustry and economy, and complaints from 
interested persons were constantly made 
to the British government that they were 
not only carrying on trade, but setting up 
manufactories detrimental to Great Brit- 
ain. In 1731 the House of Commons di- 
rected the board of trade to inquire and 
report respecting the matter. They report- 
ed that paper, iron, flax, hats, and leather 
were manufactured in the colonies; that 
there were more manufactories set up in 
the colonies northward of Virginia, " par- 
ticularly in New England," than in any 
other of the British colonics; that they 
were capable of supplying their own wants 
in manufactured goods, and therefore det- 



103 



MANUFACTURES, COLONIAL 



rimental to British interests, and made 
less dependent on the mother-country. 
The company of hatters in London com- 
phiined that large numbers of hats were 
manufactured in New England, and ex- 
ported to foreign countries ; and through 
their intluence an act of Parliament was 
procured in 1732, not only to prevent such 
exportation, and to prevent their being 
carried from one colony to another, but to 



ited the erection or continuance of any 
" mill or other engine for slitting and roll- 
ing iron, or any plating-forge to work 
with a belt-hammer, or any furnace for 
making steel in the colonies, under the 
penalty of $1,000." Every such mill, en- 
gine, plating - forge, and furnace was de- 
clared a " nuisance," which, if not abated 
within thirty days, was subject to a for- 
feit of $2,500. This was exceedingly op- 




WEAVING IN COLONIAL DAYS. 



restrain, to a certain extent, the manu- 
facture of them in the colonics. They 
were forbidden being shipped, or even 
laden upon a horse or cart, with an in- 
tent to be exported to any place whatever. 
The colonial hatters were forbidden to em- 
ploy more than two apprentices at the 
«ame time ; and no negro was permitted to 
work at the business. 

In 17.50 an act was passed permitting 
pig and bar iron to be imported from the 
colonies to London duty free, but prohib- 



pressive; and some of the colonies, re- 
garding these acts as violations of their 
charters, obeyed them only sufficiently to 
prevent an open rupture. The narrow 
views of publicists like Dr. Davenant and 
Sir Josiah Child, and the greed of the 
English manufacturers, stinuilated Parlia- 
ment to the adoption of such unjust moas- 
\ires. Mr. C'hild, no doubt, expressed the 
convictions of the English mind when he 
wrote, in 1670, that "New England was 
the most prejudicial plantation to the 



104 



MARBOIS— MARCOU 



kingdom." In fact, the people of England 
from an early period regarded the North 
American colonies, particularly those of 
New England, as their rivals in naviga- 
tion and trade. Child declared that " there 
is nothing more prejudicial, and in pros- 
pect more dangerous to any mother-king- 
dom, than the increase of shipping in her 
colonies, plantations, and provinces." Dr. 
Davenant, Avho wrote later, was in ac- 
cordance with these views of Child. The 
proceedings of the British government were 
generally in accordance with the views of 
these writers. It is believed that Adam 
Smith (1770) Avas the first English writer 
who dared to deny, not only the policy, 
but the justice of these features in the 
British colonial system. 

Marbois, Francjois de Barbe, Marquis 
DE, diplomatist; born in Metz, France, Jan. 
31, 1745; obtained (1779) the appoint- 
ment of secretary of legation to the United 
States; and became the principal agent in 
the most important operations of the em- 
bassy while Luzerne was minister. After 
the return of the latter Marbois remained 
as charge d'affaires, and resided in Amer- 
ica until 1785, arranging all the French 
consulates. He was afterwards appointed 
Intendant of Santo Domingo, and returned 
to France in 1790, when he was sent as 
ambassador to the German Diet. Having 
offended the ruling party in the course of 
the fierce French Revolution, he was con- 
demned to exile at Cayenne. On his re- 
turn, Bonaparte, then First Consul, nomi- 
nated him as the first councillor of state, 
and in 1801 he was made secretary of the 
treasury. He successfully negotiated the 
sale of Louisiana to the United States in 
1803. He served in conspicuous posts in 
civil life, and was among the first of the 
senators who voted for the deposition of 
Napoleon in 1814. Louis XVIII. created 
him peer and made him keeper of the seals 
in 1815. Soon after that he was created 
a marquis. On Napoleon's return from 
Elba, Marbois Avas ordered to quit Paris. 
After the revolution of July, 18.30, he took 
the oath of allegiance to Louis Philippe. 
He died in Paris, Jan. 14, 1837. 

March, Francis Andreav, philologist; 
horn in Millbury, Mass., Oct. 25, 1825; 
graduated at Amherst College in 1845, and 
admitted to the bar of New York in 1850. 
He entered the service of Lafayette College 



in 1855 as an instructor; and since 1856 
has been professor of English language 
and comparative philology there. He has 
also served the college as adjunct pro- 
fessor of belles-lettres and English lit- 
erature; lecturer on constitutional and 
Roman laAV, and librarian. In 1891 he 
succeeded James Russell Lowell as presi- 
dent of the Modern Language Association 
of America. He received the degrees of 
Litt.D. and D.C.L. from Cambridge Uni- 
A'ersity, in 1896, being one of six per- 
sons only Avho have ever been honored 
Avith these degrees by Cambridge. Profess- 
or March Avas president of the American 
Philological Association in 1873-74 and 
1895-96; of the Spelling Reform Associa- 
tion in 1876-99; and of the Modern Lan- 
guages Association in 1891-93. He is au- 
thor of Tke Relation of the Study of 
J urisprudencc to the Origin and Progress 
of the Baconian Philosophy ; Hamilton's 
Theory of Perception and Philosophy of 
the Conditioned; A Method of Philo- 
logical Study of the English Language ; 
A Parser and Analyzer for Beginners ; 
Comparative Gramma/r of the Anglo-Saxon 
Language; Anglo-Saxon Readers. He is 
author of Latin Hymns, etc. 

Marconi, Guglielmo, electrician ; born 
in Marzabooto, Italy, Sept. 23, 1875; Avas 
educated at the Universities of Bologna 
and Padua ; began experimenting in elec- 
tricity in 1890. He invented a system of 
wireless telegraphy, the use of Avhich he 
tried to sell to the United States govern- 
ment. In 1899 he came to the United 
States and used this system in reporting 
election returns in 1900, and the contest 
for the America's Cup in 1901. Constant 
improA'ements have been made during the 
period of 1901 to 1905. 

Marcou, Jules, geologist; born in Sa- 
lins, Jura, France, April 20, 1824; Avas 
educated in Paris, and Avhile travelling in 
Switzerland became interested in scien- 
tific iuA-estigation. In 1840 he AA\as ap- 
pointed an assistant in the department of 
mineralogy in the Sorbonne, and in 1847 
travelling geologist for the Jardin des 
Plaiites, in Paris. It Avas under this last 
appointment that he came to the United 
States, and Avith Prof. Louis Agassiz vis- 
ited the region around Lake Superior in 
1848. During the following year he 
studied the geology of Pennsylvania, New 



105 



MAECY— MARINE CORPS 



Jersey, Virgiuia, and the Canadian prov- 
inces. He returned to Europe in 1850, 
but was soon again in the United States, 
and in 1S53 entered the service of the gov- 
ernment. He was the tirst geologist to 
cross the American continent, and during 
his trip he made a section map of the 
thirty-fifth parallel from the Mississippi 
to the Pacific coast. In 1861-64 he had 
charge of the division of paleontology in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoologj^ an 
institution which he founded in conjunc- 
tion with Professor Agassiz, in Cambridge, 
Mass. His publications include Recher- 
ches geologiqucs sur la Jura Salinois; 
Geological Map of the United States and 
British Provinces of North America; 
Geology of North America; Geological 
Map of the World; A Catalogue of Geo- 
logical Maps of Amei'ica, etc. He died in 
Paris, France, April 16, 1898. 

Marcy, Randolph Barnes, military 
ofiicer: born in Greenwich, Mass., April 
9, 1812; graduated at the United States 
Military Academy and commissioned 
brevet second lieutenant in the 5th In- 
fantry in July, 1832; promoted to first 
lieutenant in 1837; captain in 1846; major 
and paymaster in 1859; colonel and in- 
spector-general in 1861; brigadier-general 
and inspector-general in 1878; and was 
retired Jan. 2, 1881. At the beginning of 
the Civil War he was appointed a briga- 
dier-general of volunteers; was chief of 
staff to General McClellan (his son-in- 
law) till 1863; and served principally on 
inspection duty through the war. He 
died in Orange, N. J., Nov. 22, 1887. 
General Marcy was author of Explora- 
tions of the Red River in 1852; The Prai- 
rie Traveller; and Thirty Years of Army 
Life on the Border. 

Marcy, William Learned, statesman; 
born in Southbridge, Mass., Dec. 12, 
178G; graduated at Brown University 
in 1808, and taught school in Newport, 
K. I., for a while. He began the practice 
of law in Troy, N. Y., and, as an officer of 
militia, volunteered his services in the 
War of 1812. He had the honor of tak- 
ing the first prisoners captured on land, 
by seizing, Oct. 22, 1812. a corps of Cana- 
dian militia at St. Regis. Their flag was 
the first trophy of the kind captured dur- 
ing the war. In 1816 Captain Marcy was 
recorder of Troy, where also he edited the 



Troy Budget, a leading Democratic news- 
paper. In 1821 he was adjutant-general 
of the State, and State comptroller in 
1823. He was made associate justice of 
the New York Supreme Court in 1829; 
was United States Senator from 1831 to 
1833; and governor from 1833 to 1839. 
In 1839-42 he was a commissioner to de- 
cide upon the claims of the Mexican gov- 
ernment, and in 1845-49 was Secretary of 
War. Governor Marcy opposed all inter- 
ference with slavery; was Secretary of 
State from 1853 to 1857, while the sub- 
ject of slavery was in fearful agitation; 
and was a plain man, possessed of a clear 
mind, good judgment, and great integrity. 
He died at Ballston Spa, N. Y., July 4, 
1857. 

Mareuil, Pierre de. See Jesuit Mis- 
sions. 

Maria Christina. See Alfonso XIII. 

Marine Corps, United States. The 
United States Marine ' rps was estab- 
lished in Revokitionary times. Congress, 
in November, 1775, authorized the enlist- 
ment of two battalions of marines. After 
the adoption of the Constitution and the 
formation of the nation, the Marine Corps 
became a permanent arm of the service 
by the act of July 11, 1798, which "es- 
tablished and organized a marine corps." 
Since then the Marine Corps has been lia- 
ble, under the President's direction, to 
do duty in forts and garrisons of the 
United States, on the sea-coast, or any 
other duty on shore. The marines, when 
enlisted, are exempt from arrest for debt 
or contract. The corps has no regimental 
organization, but it may be formed into 
as many companies or detachments as 
the President may direct. The marines 
are at all times subject to the laws and 
regulations of the na^'y, except when de- 
tached by order of the President for ser- 
vice in the army, when they are subject 
to the rules prescribed for the army. The 
position of the corps has risen in impor- 
tance and respect, as it has greatly in- 
creased since the establishing of this part 
of the service. During the war with Spain 
in 1898 the officers and men of the corps 
greatly distinguished themselves in the 
initial land operations in the Santiago 
campaign, and also in the first movement 
of foreign forces on Chinese territory in 
1900. In 1901 the official force consisted 



106 



MARION 



of one brigadier-general commandant, a 
general staff of ten ollicers, five colonels, 
five lieutenant-colonels, ten majors, fifty- 
nine captains, fifty-eight lieutenants and 
fifty-three second lieutenants. The total 
force comprised 211 ollicers and (1,000 men. 
Marion, Francis, military officer; born 
near Georgetown, S. C, in 1732; died 
Feb. 29, 1793. At the age of sixteen, 
while on a voyage to the West Indies, the 
vessel in which he sailed foundered at sea, 
and he was rescued only when several of 
the crew, who, with himself, had taken to 
■the boat, had died of starvation. Work- 
ing on a farm imtil 1759, that year he 
joined an expedition against the Chero- 
kees. In 1761 he was made a captain, 
under Colonel Grant. He led the forlorn 
hope in the battle of Etchowee, and was 
among the few who escaped death. On the 
breaking out of the Revolutionary War, 
Marion was elected to the South Carolina. 
Provincial Congress; became a captain of 
Provincial troops; served as major in de- 
fence of Fort Sullivan ; and was lieuten- 
ant-colonel of his regiment at Savannah 
in 1779, and at the siege of Charleston. 
Appointed a brigadier-general in 1780, 



" Colonel Marion," wrote Cornwallis, " so 
wrought on the minds of the people that 
there was scarcely an inhabitant between 
the Santee and Pedce tliat was not in arms 




FRANCIS MARION. 

he began his famous partisan career with 
only sixteen men. 

He had gathered many partisans to his 
standard while Cornwallis was carrying 
out his reign of terror in South Carolina. 




MAIUO.N S KKSIDKNCB. 

against us." Some parties even crossed 
the Santee and carried terror to the gates 
of Charleston. One of the earliest of 
Marion's great exploits was near Nelson's 
Ferry, on the Santee, on Aug. 20, 1780, 
two days after Williams's exploit at Mus- 
grove's Mill. At dawn on that day a 
British party, with 150 prisoners of the 
Maryland line, captured from Gates near 
Camden (see Gates, Horatio), were cross- 
ing at the great savanna, near the ferry, on 
the route from Camden to Charleston, 
when Marion and his men sprang upon 
the guai'd, liberated the prisoners, and cap- 
tured twenty-six of the escort. 

Marion and his brigade achieved victory 
after victory over bands of Tories and 
British among the swamps of the Santee, 
and late in October they pushed forward 
to assail the British garrison at George- 
town, on Winyaw Bay, for the purpose of 
obtaining necessary supplies. This was 
an unusual and serious undertaking for 
them. The garrison was on the alert, and 
in a severe skirmish with a large party 
near the town Marion was repulsed. He 
then retired to Snow's Island, at the con- 
fluence of Lynch's Creek and the Pedee 
Eiver, where, in a most secluded spot, he 
fixed his camp and strengthened its nat- 
ural defences. It was chiefly high river 
swamp, covered with forest trees and 
abounding with game. From that swamp 
fastness the partisan sent out or led ex- 
peditions which, for many weeks, accom- 
plished marvellous results by celerity of 
movements, stealthiness of approaches to 
the enemy, and the suddenness and fierce- 
ness of the blows. It was in allusion to 



107 



MARION— MARKHAM 



these movements that Bryant wrote in his 
t^ong of Marion's Men: 

" A moment in the British camp — 
A moment — and away, 
Back to the pathless forest, 
Before the breali of day." 

The British became thoroughly alarmed, 
and the destruction of Marion's camp be- 
came, with them, an object of vital im- 
portance. 

Tarleton was employed by Cornwallis 
in searching out partisan corps, such as 
Marion's and Sumter's. He performed the 
orders of his general with fidelity. When, 
on one occasion, he set out to pursue 
Marion, Cornwallis wrote (Nov. 5, 1780) : 
" I most sincerely hope you will get at 
]Mr. Marion." On that march Tarleton 
and his corps set fire to all the houses and 
destroyed all the corn from Camden to 
Nelson's Ferry; beat the widow of a gen- 
eral officer because she would not tell 
where Marion was encamped, and burned 
her dwelling and wasted everything about, 
not leaving her even a change of raiment. 
All along the line of their march were 
seen groups of houseless women and chil- 
dren, who had enjoyed the comforts afford- 
ed by ample fortunes before the destroyer 
came, sitting aroimd fires in the ojjen air. 
Marion, on the contrary, although equally 
alert, was always humane. In September, 
1780, a band of 200 Tories were sent to 
surprise him. With only fifty-three men, 
he first surprised a part of his pursuers 
and dispersed them, capturing some who 
had committed great outrages; but he 
would not allow a prisoner to be hurt. 
At Black Mingo Creek, on the 28th, he 
made a successful attack on a guard of 
sixty militiamen, and made prisoners of 
those under its escort. At that time the 
British were burning houses on the Lit- 
tle Pedee. He allowed his men to return to 
protect their families and property, but 
would not permit them to retaliate. He 
Avrote afterwards: " There is not one house 
burned by my ojders or by any of my peo- 
ple. It is what I detest, to distress poor 
women and children." 

After the war he married a wealthy 
lady of Huguenot descent (Mary Videau), 
and in time became a State Senator. T« 
ll'M) he was a member of the State Consti- 
tutional Convention. Small in stature. 



reserved, and very modest, he was exceed- 
ingly captivating in manner. His resi- 
dence was at Pond Bluff, on the Santee, 
near Nelson's Ferry. It was built by him- 
self soon after his marriage, and there he 
and his young wife dispensed most gen- 
erous hospitality. He died Feb. 27, 1795. 

Markham, Edwin, poet; born in Ore- 
gon City, Or., in 1852; spent his boyhood 
on a cattle ranch in central California; 
received a normal school and collegiate 
education; and studied law, but never 
practised. He was employed in the black- 
smith trade for a time, and then engaged 
in educational work, becoming superin- 
tendent of the schools of California. Since 
1899 he has been principal of the Observa- 
tion School of the University of California 
at Oakland. Mr. Markham owns one of 
the largest and best selected private libra- 
ries in the State. He has occasionally 
contributed to leading magazines for 
many years ; and is most widely known by 
his poem, The Man icith the Hoe, which 
was inspired by Millet's painting of that 
name, and was first published in the San 
Francisco Examiner, Jan. 8, 1899. This 
work was followed by various fugitive 
poems, and The Man toith the Hoe and 
Other Poems. In 1901 he inscribed the 
poem. Inasmuch, to the memory of the late 
Baron and Baroness de Hirsch. 

Markham, William, colonial govern- 
or; born in England about 1G35. When 
William Penn, who was his first cousin, 
secured the charter for Pennsylvania, he 
appointed him deputy, with power to 
fotmd courts, dispose of lands, fix boun- 
daries, etc., with the one exception of 
calling a legislative assembly. He sailed 
by way of Boston to New York, where, 
after showing his credentials, the acting 
governor notified the officials on the Dela- 
ware of the transfer of authority. He 
reached Upland (now Chester), Aug. 3, 
1681. Not long after, with a number of 
surveyors, he chose the site for the city 
of Philadelphia. In 1691, when the terri- 
tory which constitutes the present State 
of Delaware was separated from Pennsyl- 
vania, Markham was made deputy gov- 
ernor over it; and in 1694-99 was lieu- 
tenant-governor of Pennsylvania, vacating 
the office on the arrival of a proprietary 
governor. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
.Tune 12, 1704. 



108 



MARMADUKE— MARQUETTE 



Marmaduke, John Sappington, mill- Marque and Reprisal, Lettbihs of. 
tary oflicer; born near Arrow Rock, Mo., commissions granted in time of war to a 



March 14, 1833; graduated at the United 
States Military Academy in 1857. When 
the Civil War broke out he joined the 
Confederate army under Gen. William J. 
Hardee in southeastern Arkansas. In 
recognition of his remarkable bravery at 
the battle of Shiloh he was commissioned 



private person commanding a vessel to 
cruise at sea and make prizes of the ene- 
my's ships and mercliandisc. The ship so 
commanded is sometimes called by the 
same name. The word Marie was used by 
the Germans to denote the right of captur- 
ing property beyond the frontier of an 



a brigadier-general. He was transferred other province. See Privateering. 

to the Trans-Mississippi Department in Marquette, Jacques, missionary and 

1862, and for half a year commanded in explorer; born in Laon, France, in 1G37. 

Missouri and northwestern Arkansas. In his youth he entered the order of 

After frequent raids he forced General Jesuits, and at the age of twenty-nine 



Blunt to withdraw to Springfield, Mo. 
Later, in reward for distinguished ser- 
vices, he was promoted a major-general. 
In the summer of 18G4 he accompanied 
Gen. Sterling Price in the invasion of 
Missouri, and though he fought with skill 
and bravery was finally surrounded and 
forced to surrender near Fort Scott, on 
Oct. 24, following. In 1884 he was elected 
governor of Missouri. He died in Jeffer- 
son City, Mo., Dec. 28, 1887. 

Marmier, Xavier, author; born in Pon- 
tarlier, France, June 24, 1809; engaged in 
journalism, travelled in Canada and the 
northern United States in 1842-45; re- 
turned to the United States in 1847, and 
travelled through the Western States. 
Later he made several other trips to the 
United States. His publications include 
Travel in California ; Letters on America; 
In America and in Europe; From Paris 
to San Francisco, etc. He died in Paris, 
Oct. 11, 1892. 

Marquand, Henry Gurdon, capitalist; 
born in New York, April 11, 1819; was 
educated at Pittsfield, Mass. ; engaged in 
the real estate, banking, and railroad busi- 
ness. He has been greatly interested in 
the work of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, of which he has been president for 
many years, and to which he has made 
many costly gifts, including a collection 
of bronzes valued at $50,000 ; bonds repre- 
senting a value of $50,000; and a price- 
less collection of paintings by Van Dyke, 
Rubens, Gainsborough, Velasquez, Turner, 
Franz Hals, Hogarth, Van der Meer, and 
other old masters. He also built a chapel 
and (with Robert Bonner) a gymnasium 
for Princeton University, and, with his 
brother, a pavilion for Bellevue Hospital. 
He died in New York City, Feb. 26, 1902. 



years sailed for Canada as a missionary. 




STATl'K OF JACQl'ES MAKQIETTK. 

After residing eighteen months at Three 
Rivers, on the St. Lawrence, learning the 
dialects of the Montagnais and other Ind- 



109 



MARQUETTE, JACQUES 



ian tribes — also the Huron and Iroquois — 
he went to Lake Superior in 10G8, and 
founded a mission at Sault Sainte Marie, 
or Falls of St. Mary, at the outlet of the 
lake. The next year he was sent to take 
the place of Allouez among the Ottawas 
and Hurons, but these tribes were soon 
afterwards dispersed by the Sioux, and he 
returned with the Hurons to Mackinaw, 
near the strait that connects Lakes Michi- 
gan and Huron, where he built a chapel 
and established the mission of St. Igna- 
tius. Hearing of the Mississippi River, he 
resolved to find it, and in 1669 he pre- 
pared for the exploration of that stream, 
when he received orders to join Joliet in 
a thorough exploration of the whole course 
of the great river. That explorer and five 
others left Mackinaw in two canoes in 
^lay, 1673, and, reaching the Wisconsin 
River by way of Green Bay, Fox River, 
and a portage, floated down that stream 
to the Mississippi, where they arrived 
June 17. Near the mouth of the Ohio 
Elver savages told them it was not more 
than ten days' journey to the sea. Voyag- 
ing down the great river until they were 
satisfied, when at the mouth of the Arkan- 
sas River, that the Mississippi emptied 
into the Gulf of Mexico, and not into the 
Atlantic or Pacific Ocean, they concluded 
to return, to avoid captivity among the 
Spaniards farther south. They had accom- 
plished their errand, and travelled in 
open canoes over 2,-500 miles. Passing up 
the Illinois River instead of the Wiscon- 
sin, they reached Green Bay in Septem- 
ber. There, at a mission, Marquette was 
detained a whole year by sickness. In 
1674 he sent an account of his explora- 
tions of the Mississippi to Dablon, the 
superior of the Jesuit mission in Canada, 
and set out on a journey to Kaskaskia, 
but was compelled, by his infirmities and 
severely cold weather in December, to stop 
at the portage on the Chicago, and there 
he spent the winter. At the close of 
March, 1675, he resumed his journey, 
reached Kaskaskia in April, erected a 
chapel, and celebrated the Easter festival 
in it. Warned by his infirmities that his 
life was near its end, he attempted to re- 
turn to Mackinaw. He crossed Lake 
Michigan to its eastern shore, and, enter- 
ing the mouth of a small stream that bore 
his name long afterwards, he prepared to 

1 



die there. His attendants (two French- 
men) bore him tenderly to a bed of leaves 
in the shadows of the forest. Then, ask- 
ing for some holy water which he had pre- 
pared, and taking a crucifix from his neck 
and placing it in the hand of one of his 
companions, he desired him to keep it 
constantly before his eyes while he lived. 
With clasped hands he pronounced aloud 
the profession of his faith, and soon after- 
wards died. May 18, 1675. His companions 
buried him near, and erected a cross at 
his grave. His remains were afterwards 
taken to Mackinaw, where they still repose, 
Marquette at Lake Michigan. — The fol- 
lowing account of his arrival at " the lake 
of the Ilinois " is from his Narrative: 



After a month's navigation down the 
Mississippi, from the 42d to below the 
34th degree, and after having published 
the gospel as well as I could to the nations 
I had met, we left the village of Akam- 
sea on July 17, 1673, to retrace our steps. 
We accordingly ascended the Mississippi, 
which gave us great trouble to stem its 
currents. We left it indeed, about the 38th 
degree, to enter another river which greatly 
shortened our way, and brought us, with 
little trouble, to the lake of the Ilinois.* 

We had seen nothing like this river for 
the fertility of the land, its prairies, woods, 
wild cattle, stag, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parrots, and even beaver, 
its many little lakes and rivers. That on 
which we sailed is broad, deep, and gentle 
for 65 leagues. During the spring and 
part of the summer the only portage is 
half a league. 

We found there an Ilinois town called 
Kaskaskia, composed of seventy-four cab- 
ins. They received us well, and compelled 
me to promise to return and instruct them. 
One of the chiefs of this tribe, with his 
young men, escorted us to the Ilinois Lake, 
whence at last we returned in the close of 
September, to the Bay of the Fetid, whence 

* Lake Michigan was so caiied for a long 
tiiTip, probably from the fact that through 
it lay the direct route to the Ilinois villages, 
which Father Marquette was now the first to 
visit. Mai'pst erroneously treats the name 
as a mistake of geographers, and is one of 
the first to call it Michigan. The river which 
Marfiuctte now ascended has been more fort- 
unate : it still bears the name of ilinois. 
— Shea. 

10 



MABRYAT— MARSHALL 

we had set out in the beginning of June, animals yet discovered, etc. In 1877 he 
Had all this voyage caused but the salva- received the first Bigsby medal given by 
tion of a single soul, I should deem all my the Geological Society of London, and in 
fatigue well repaid; and this I have rea- 1898 the Cuvier prize of the French Acad- 
son to think, for, when I was returning, emy of Sciences. In 1883-95 he was presi- 
I passed by the Indians of Peoria. I was dent of the National Academy of Sciences. ' 
three days announcing the faith in all He was a member of numerous scientific 
their cabins, after which, as we were em- organizations. In 1898 he presented the 
barking, they brought me on the water's collections of his lifetime to Yale Uni- 
edge a dying child, which I baptized a versify, and also gave his estate, having 
little before it expired, by an admirable a supposed value of $150,000, to that 
Providence for the salvation of that inno- institution. His publications include 
cent soul. Odontornithes : A Monograph on the Ex- 

Marryat, Frederick, author; born in Unct Toothed Birds of North America; 
London, England, July 10, 1792; joined Dinoeerata: A Monograph of an Extinct 
the British navy in 1812, and served in Order of Gigantic Mammals; and The 
the war with the United States. He won Dinosaurs of North America. He died in 
distinction by driving four vessels out of New Haven, Conn., March 18, 1899. 
Boston Harbor, and in 1814, just prior Marshall, Edward Ciiauncey, author; 
to the battle of New Orleans, further dis- born in Little Falls, N. Y., July 8, 1824; 
tinguished himself in an engagement with graduated at Hobart College, Geneva, 
gunboats on Lake Pontchartrain ; was N. Y., in 1843; was connected with the 
promoted captain in 1829. He travelled in New York Star and the Evening Telegram 
the United States in 1839. His pub- in 1875-85. His publications include His- 
lications include A Diary in America, with tory of the United States Naval Academy; 
Remarks on its Institutions ; The Narra- Ancestry of General Grant; and a paper 
tive of Monsieur Violet in California, entitled Are the West Point Graduates 
Sonora, and Western Texas, 1839; The Loyal? 

Settlers in Canada, etc. He died in Lang- Marshall, Humphrey, statesman; born 
ham, England, Aug. 2, 1848. in Frankfort, Ky., Jan. 13, 1812; grad- 

Marsh, George Perkins, diplomatist; uated at West Point in 1832, and re- 
born in Woodstock, Vt., March 15, 1801; signed the next year. He served as colonel 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1820; mem- of cavalry, under General Taylor, in the 
ber of Congress, 1842-49; minister to war against Mexico, leading a charge at 
Turkey, 1849-53; minister to Italy, 18G1- Buena Vista. He was in Congress from 
82. He died in Vallombrosa, Italy, July 1849 to 1852, and from 1855 to 1859, and 
23, 1882. was sent as commissioner to China. Es- 

Marsh, Othniel Charles, paleontolo- pousing the cause of the Confederacy, he 
gist; born in Lockport, N. Y., Oct. 29, entered its army; became a brigadier- 
1831; graduated at Yale University in general; and was defeated by General 
1860. He was called to the chair of Garfield at Prestonburg, Ky., in January, 
Paleontology at Yale University in 18GG, 1862. He served afterwards under Gen. 
which he retained till his death. Later Kirby Smith, and after the war practised 
he organized and conducted several scien- law in Richmond. He died in Louisville, 
tific expeditions to the Rocky Mountain Ky., March 28, 1872. 

region. During 1882-99 he was vertebrate Marshall, Joiiisr, LL.D., jurist; born in 
paleontologist for the United States geo- Germantown, Fauquier co., Va., Sept. 24, 
logical survey. He discovered more than 1755. His father (Thomas) led a regi- 
1,0U0 new fossil vertebrates, more than ment that bore the brunt of battle 
half of which he classified and described, with Cornwallis near the banks of the 
Among his more important finds were Brandy^vine, Sept. 11, 1777. In early 
a sub-class of birds with teeth, which youth John obtained a limited classical 
he named Odontornithes ; two new classes education, and at the breaking out of the 
of large mammals, the Tillodontia and Revolutionary War he entered the mili- 
Dinocerata ; several new orders of di- tary service as lieutenant. He had for- 
nosaurs, supposed to be the largest land merly led some Virginia militia against 

111 



MARSHALL— MARTIN 



Dunmore's troops in the battle of Great 
Bridge. He, too, was in the battle at the 
Branih-Avine ; also at Germantown and 
Monmouth. He left the military service 
in 17S1, and began the practice of law, in 
which he soon attained eminence. He was 
in the Virginia convention that ratified 
the national Constitution, where he dis- 
tinguished himself by his eloquence and 




JOHN MARSHALL. 



logic. He became also a conspicuous mem- 
ber of the Virginia Assembly. President 
Washington offered Marshall the post of 
Attorney-General, but he declined. On the 
return of Monroe from France, Washing- 
ton offered the mission to Marshall, but 
it, too, was declined. He afterwards ac- 
cepted the post of special envoy to France 
from President Adams, and was associated 
in that fruitless mission with Messrs. 
Pinckney and Gerry. In 1799 Mr. Mar- 
shall was in the Congress, and in 1800 
was made Secretary of War, which office 
he held only a short time. He succeeded 
Timothy Pickering as Secretary of State, 
May 3, 1800, and on the resignation of 
Chief-Justice Ellsworth he was appointed 
J his successor, Jan. 20, 1801, and held the 
office until his death, in Philadelphia, Pa., 
July 6, 1835. Chief-Justice Marshall was 
president of the American Colonization 
Society and vice-president of the American 
Bible Society. He was also the author of 
a Life of Washington, published in .5 vol- 
umes in 180.5. He also wrote a History 
of the Colonies Planted hy the British in 
North America. 



Marshall, Orsamus Holmes, his- 
torian; born in Franklin, Conn., Feb. 
13, 1813; graduated at Union College in 
1831; admitted to the bar in 1834; and 
practised in Buffalo till 1867. His pub- 
lications include Champlain's Expedition 
in 1613-13 against the Onondagas ; The 
Expedition of the Marquis de 'Nouville in 
16S9 against the Senccas ; La Salle's First 
Visit to the Senecas in 1G99; Historical 
Sketches of the Niagara Frontier; The 
Building and the Voyage of the Griffon in 
1679; and The History of the New York 
Charter, 1664-74. He died in Buffalo, 
N. Y., July 9, 1884. 

Martial Law. See Military Law. 

Martin, Fkaxcois Xavier, jurist; born 
in Marseilles, France, March 7, 1762; re- 
moved to North Carolina in 1782, where 
he taught French, learned printing, and 
established a newspaper. He also pub- 
lished almanacs and school-books, studied 
law, and began its practice in 1789. Jef- 
ferson appointed him a judge of the Mis- 
sissippi Territory, and he was made attor- 
ney-general of the State of Louisiana in 
1813. In 1815 he was made a judge of the 
Supreme Court of Louisiana; remained on 
that bench for thirty-two years, and was 
chief-justice from 1837 to 1845. He died 
in New Orleans, La., Dec. 11, 1846. 

Martin, Josiah, royal governor; born 
in Antigua, West Indies, April 23, 1737; 
was appointed governor of North Carolina 
in 1771, and became extremely obnoxious to 
the people by his attempts to thwart the 
patriotic movements. He denounced the 
Provincial Congress, and announced his 
determination to use all the means in his 
power to counteract their influence. Find- 
ing the Assembly firm in their stand 
against him, he dissolved them, April 8, 
1775. Soon after this a letter from the 
governor to General Gage, asking for a 
supply of men and ammunition, was in- 
tercepted. The people were greatly exas- 
perated. The committee of safety at New- 
bern seized and carried off six cannon 
which he had placed in front of the 
" palace " there. News of hostile prepara- 
tions reached the governor's ears from 
every quarter. Becoming alarmed for his 
personal safety, he fied to Fort Johnson, 
June 14, on the Cape Fear River, near 
Wilmington, whence he sent forth, June 
10, a menacing proclamation. A plot for 



112 



MARTIN— MARTINEZ-CAMPOS 



a servile insurrection was discovered in 
July. It was supposed the governor had 
plaimed it, and the indignant people de- 
termined to demolish Fort Johnson, and 
not allow Martin to make it a stronghold. 
Five hundred of them, led by John Ashe, 
marched on the fort. The governor fled 
to the sloop-of-war Cruiser, lying in the 
river, and the people demolished the fort. 
The patriots disarmed the Tories, and 
confined as prisoners on their plantations 
those who were most obnoxious, and the 
Continental Congress voted to sustain the 
Whigs in North Carolina with a force of 
1,000 men. They prepared to hold a new 
convention, when Martin, from on ship- 
board, issued a proclamation forbidding 
the meeting, and making accusations 
against the patriots. The Whigs de- 
nounced it as " a malicious and scandal- 
ous libel, tending to disunite the good 
people of the province," and it was 
burned by the common hangman. They 
authorized the raising of three regiments. 
Martin never returned, and thus ended 
royal rule in North Carolina. He died in 
London, England, in July, 1786. 

Martin, Luther, jurist; born in New 
Brunswick, N. J., Feb. 9, 1748; grad- 
uated at Princeton in 1766; taught 
school at Queenstown, Md. ; was admitted 
to the bar in 1771; and soon obtained a 
lucrative practice in Maryland. He was 
a decided patriot, but was not found in 
public office until 1778, when he was at- 
torney-general. He had been a member 
of a committee to oppose the claims of 
Great Britain in 1774, and wrote essays 
and made addresses on the topics of the 
day. In 1784-85 he was in Congress, and 
was a member of the convention which 
framed the national Constitution, the 
adoption of which he opposed, because it 
did not sufficiently recognize the equality 
of the States. He was a defender of Judge 
Chase when he was impeached, and in 
1807 he was one of the successful de- 
fendants of Aaron Burr, his personal 
friend, in his trial for treason, at Rich- 
mond. In 1813 Mr. Martin was made 
chief-justice of the court of oyer and 
terminer in Baltimore, and in 1818 he 
again became attorney-general of Mary- 
land. He was stricken with paralysis in 
1820, and in 1822 he took refuge with 
Aaron Burr in New York, broken in health 
VI. — H 1 



and fortune. Judge Martin was a violent 
political partisan, and savagely attacked 
Joilerson and the Democratic party. He 
died in New York, July 10, 182G. 

Martindale, John Henry, military 
officer; boin in Sandy Hill, N. Y., March 
20, 1815; graduated at West Point in 
1835; left the army the next year, and 
became a civil engineer; and Anally prac- 
tised law in Batavia, N. Y. He was made 
brigadier-general of volunteers in August, 
1861, and served in the Army of the Po 
tomac, in the campaign of 18G2, under 
Gen. Fitz-John Porter. He was in the 
Army of the James, and also in the army 
of the Potomac, in the campaign against 
Richmond, commanding (in July and 
September, 1864) the 18th Army Corps. 
For gallantry at Malvern Hill (q. v.) he 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers. 
He resigned in 1864, and was made at- 
torney-general of New York in 1866. He 
died in Nice, France, Dec. 13, 1881, 

Martinelli, Sebastian, clergyman ; 
born in Lucca, Tuscany, Aug. 20, 1848; 
was educated at the Seminary of Lucca, 
and at the College of St. Augustine, 
Rome; entered the Augustinian Order in 
1803; was ordained to the Roman Catholic 
priesthood, March 4, 1871; elected prior- 
general of his order in 1889; and in 1896 
was appointed papal delegate to the United 
States, to succeed Cardinal Satolli, and was 
consecrated a special archbishop. On April 
15, 1901, he was raised to the cardinalate. 

Martinez-Campos, Arsenio, military 
officer; born in Cuba in 1834; was edu- 
cated at Madrid; and became a colonel 
when twenty-nine years old. For a time 
he served in Morocco and Cuba, and re- 
turned to Spain, with the rank of briga- 
dier-general, in 1870, and took part in 
putting dovsm the Carlist insurrection. 
Later he declared against the republic 
and was imprisoned as a conspirator, but 
after requesting to serve in the Liberal 
army he was set free, and given the com- 
mand of a division under Concha. He 
took part in the battles of Los Munecas 
and Galdames, and raised the siege of 
Bilbao. Returning to Madrid he espoused 
the cause of Alfonso XII., and with Jovel- 
lar succeeded in placing the royal heir on 
the throne. He was next sent into the 
disturbed territory of Catalonia, wliieh he 
pacified in less than a month. In 1877 
13 



MARTINIQUE— MARYLAND 



he was ordered to Cuba, to combat the 
ijisurrectioii, and brouoht about a cessa- 




ARSENIO MARTIXEZCAMPOS. 

tion of hostilities by pledjjing the Cubans 
a more liberal government. This pledge 
he made a strenuous effort to have kept 
when he became prime minister and min- 
ister of war, but the Cortes would not 
support him, and, feeling his honor vio- 
lated thereb7, he resigned his office ( 1879) . 



In April, 1805, he was again sent to Cuba, 
but was unable to accomplish any practical 
result, and was recalled in January fol- 
lowing. He died at Zarauz, Spain, Sept. 
23, 1900. 

Martinique. An island in the West In- 
dies. Area, 381 square miles; population, 
nearly 200,000. On May 8, 1902, St. 
Pierre, the chief city, was annihilated by 
the violent eruption of Mont Pelee. In a 
few minutes over 30,000 persons were 
smothered by gases or burned to death 
by lava and fiery stones. Simultaneously 
over 2,000 persons lost their lives in the 
neighboring island of St. Vincent. The 
United States lavished money and stores 
on the panic-stricken survivors. 

Martyn, Carlos, clergyman; born in 
Xew York City in 1843; graduated at 
Union Theological Seminary in 1869; or- 
dained in the Presbyterian Church ; held 
various pastorates, including one in New 
York, in 1876-90. His publications in- 
clude English Puritans; Pilgrim Fathers; 
History of the Huguenots; Wendell Phil- 
lips; Christian Citizenship; William E. 
Dodge, etc. 

Marvel, Andrew. See Middleton, 
Arthur. 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 

Maryland, State of, one of the original British sovereign, both in respect to the 
thirteen States of the Union; was first proprietor and the settlei's. The govern- 
settled by Capt. William Claiborne, with ment of the province was made indepen- 
a party of men from Virginia, in 1631. dent of the crown, and equality in religious 
Earlier than this, George Calvert, an Irish 
j^eer, had obtained a patent from King 
James (1022) to plant a Roman Catholic 
colony in America. Failing in some of 
his projects, he applied for a charter for 
the domain between south and north Vir- 
ginia, but before the matter was completed 
he died, and a patent was issued to his 
son Cecil Calvert, June 20, 1632 (see 
Baltimore, Lords), who inherited the title 
of his father. The province embraced in 
the grant had been partially explored by 
the first Lord Baltimore, and it is be- 
lieved that the charter granted to Cecil 
was drawn by the hand of George Calvert. 
In honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles L, it was called Terra Marioe — 
Mary's Land — hence Maryland. It was 
the most liberal grant yet made by a 

114 




BTATE SEAL OP MARYLAVft 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 



and civil freedom was secured to every 
Christian sect excepting the Unitarians. 

This toleration promoted the growth of 
tlie colony, and persecuted people found a 
refuge there. Armed with this charter, 
young Lord Baltimore set about the busi- 
ness of colonizing his domain. He ap- 



paniod by two Jesuit priests, Andrew 
White and John Altham. The Calvorts 
and the other " gentlemen," and some of 
the " laboring-men," were Koman Catho- 
lics, but a greater portion of the latter 
were Protestants. After a terribly tem- 
pestuous voyage, in which the vessels were 




THE LANDING ON BLACKSTONE ISLAND. 



pointed his half-brother, Leonard Cal- 
vert (q. v.), governor, and Nov. 22, 
1633, that kinsman and another brother, 
" with very near twenty other gentlemen 
of very good fashion and 300 laboring- 
men" (so Lord Baltimore wrote to Went- 
worth), sailed from Cowes, Isle of Wight, 
in two vessels, the Ark and Dove, accom- 



115 



separated, they met at Barbadoes and 
finally entered the broad mouth of the 
Potomac River, in February, 1634. They 
sailed up the Potomac, and upon Black- 
stone Island (which they named St. 
Clement's) they landed, performed re- 
ligious ceremonies, and were visited by the 
wondering natives. 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 



The governor made further explorations, 
and. finally, on March 27 (O. S.), Cal- 
vert, having entered into a treaty for the 
pnrchase of a domain on a pleasant little 
river, determined there to plant a settle- 
ment. With imposing religious ceremonies 
it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and 
the place was called St. Mary. It was 
near the entrance of the Potomac into 
Chesapeake Bay. A year afterwards, they 
established their capital at St. Mary, and 
a legislative assembly composed of the 
whole people — a purely democratic legis- 
lature — met there. As their ranks in- 
creased by emigration this method was 
found inconvenient, and in 1639 a rep- 
resentative government was established, 
the people being allowed to send as many 
delegates as they pleased. So was founded 
the commonwealth of Maryland. Clai- 




AR.MS OF THE CALVERT FAMILY. 

borne, the first settler, refused to ac- 
knowledge the new government, and was 
finally expelled from Kent Island. Under 
the charter. Lord Baltimore had the power 
of enacting all necessary laws for the 
colony " with the advice, consent, and ap- 
probation of the freemen of the prov- 
ince " or their representatives convened 
in general assembly; but in the first As- 
sembly (1035) a dispute arose respecting 
the right of initiating legislation. The 
contention continued until 1638, when 
Lord Baltimore yielded the right to the 
Assembly. 

The first statutes of Maryland were 



enacted in 1039. In 1642 a company of 
Puritans, who had been driven out of Vir- 
ginia, settled in Maryland, and soon show- 
ed a spirit of resistance to the authorities. 
Claiborne, who had been deprived of his 
property and civil rights by the legislat- 
ure of Maryland, now reappeared at 
Kent Island and stirred up the Indians 
with jealousy of the colonists, and they 
made war upon the settlers. It was not 
long nor very distressing, and it was just 
ended (1645) when Claiborne, by false 
representations, fanned the embers of dis- 
content into a flame of civil war. The in- 
surgents, with disaflfected Indians, drove 
the governor and his council into Vir- 
ginia, and for about a year and a half the 
rebels held the reins of power. The rebel- 
lion was crushed in the summer of 1647, 
when the governor returned (in August) 
and resumed his chair. Many of the rec- 
ords had been destroyed in the turmoil, 
and a greater portion were carried into 
Virginia and lost. In 1649 an important 
law called the toleration act was passed, 
which simply reaffirmed the provisions of 
the charter concerning religious freedom. 
The Puritans in Maryland called their 
chief settlement Providence, which was 
afterwards changed to Annapolis. Leon- 
ard Calvert died in 1647, and was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Greene; but on the 
death of the King (1649), Lord Baltimore 
professed to be a Protestant, and ap- 
pointed William Stone, of Virginia, a 
warm friend of Parliament and a Protes- 
tant, governor. The Parliament, not hav- 
ing confidence in Lord Baltimore's pro- 
fessions, removed Stone from office and 
appointed commissioners to administer the 
government. Claiborne was one of them, 
so also was Governor Bennet, of Virginia. 
These commissioners entered upon their 
duties with a high hand. They removed 
Governor Stone, took possession of the 
records, and abolished the authority of 
Lord Baltimore. So the " outlaw " tram- 
pled on his old enemy. A few months 
later they reinstated Stone, and put Kent 
and Palmer's islands into the possession 
of Claiborne again. 

On the dissolution of the Long Parlia- 
ment (1653), Cromwell restored Lord 
Baltimore's power as proprietor, and Stone 
proclaimed the actions of the commission- 
ers rebellious. The incensed commission- 
16 



MABYLAND, STATE OF 



ers returned to Maryland and compelled 
Stone to surrender his office; then they 
vested the government in a board of ten 
commissioners. Civil and religious dis- 
putes now ran high. The Puritans, being 
in the majority in the Assembly, passed an 
act disfranchising the Roman Catholics 
and members of the Church of England. 
These narrow-minded bigots flogged and 
imprisoned Quakers, and tried to hold 
sway as their co-religionists did in Mas- 
sachusetts. Baltimore appealed to Crom- 
well, and the latter sent word to the com- 
missioners in Maryland not " to busy 
themselves about religion, but to settle the 
civil government." So encouraged, Balti- 
more directed Stone to raise an army for 
the restoration of the authority of the 
proprietor. He obeyed. Stone's forces 
were mostly Roman Catholics. He seized 
the colonial records, resumed the office of 
governor, and inaugurated civil war. A 
sharp and decisive battle was fought near 
Providence (Annapolis) early in April, 
1655, when many of Stone's party were 
killed or taken prisoners, and he was de- 
feated and became a captive. His life 
was spared, but four others were executed, 
having been convicted of treason. An- 
archy reigned in Maryland for several 
months, when Lord Baltimore appointed 
Josiali Fendall, a former insurgent, gov- 
ernor. For two years longer there was 
bitter strife between the people and the 
agent of the proprietor. The latter finally 
made important concessions to the popular 
demands. Fendall acted discreetly, and 
there was comparative quiet in the colony 
until the death of Cromwell. 

In the spring of 1660, the people, boldly 
asserting popular supremacy, assumed the 
legislative powers and gave Fendall a com- 
mission as governor. The restoration of 
monarchy in England soon afterwards led 
to the reinstatement of Lord Baltimore 
in his rights, and Fendall was found guilty 
of treason because he had accepted office 
from a " rebellious Assembly." Baltimore 
proclaimed a general pardon of all politi- 
cal offenders, and for thirty years after- 
wards Maryland enjoyed repose. Lord 
Baltimore died in 1675, and was succeeded 
by his son Charles; and he and his suc- 
cessors continued to administer the gov- 
ernment of the province, with a few inter- 
ruptions, until the Revolutionary War. 



The revolution in England (1678) shook 
the colony. The deputy governor hesi- 
tated to proclaim William and Mary, and 
a restless spirit named Coode made this a 
pretext for exciting the people by giving 
currency to a story that the local magis- 
trates and the Roman Catholics were about 
to join the Indians and exterminate tlie 
Protestants. The old religious feud in- 
stantly flamed out with intensity. The 
armed Protestants, led by Coode, took forci- 
ble possession of the capital of the prov- 
ince (September, 1689), and assumed the 
administration of the government. They 
called a convention, invested it with legis- 
lative functions, and by that body public 
affairs were managed until June, 1691, 
when the sovereign of England, ignoring 
the rights of Lord Baltimore, made Mary- 
land a royal province, with Lionel Copley 
governor. 

In 1694 the capital of the province was 
transferred from St. Mary to the town 
soon afterwards named Annapolis, where 
it yet remains. The proprietary rights of 
Baltimore (Benedict Leonard Calvert) 
were restored to his infant son and heir 
(Charles) in 1716, and the original form 
of government was re - established. So it 
remained until the Revolutionary War. 

The city of Baltimore was created by 
act of the Assembly, Aug. 8, 1729, and 
named in honor of Cecil Calvert, Lord 
Baltimore. The town was laid out Jan- 
uary 12, 1730. Population in 1752 was 
200; in 1790, 13,503; in 1890, 434,439; in 
1900, 508,957. 

Maryland was disposed to be very con- 
servative on the question of independence. 
Its convention voted, May 20, 1776, that 
it was not necessary to suppress every ex- 
ercise of royal authority. Several inter- 
cepted letters, written by Governor Eden, 
which had just come to light, caused Con- 
gress to recommend his arrest. The Balti- 
more committee volunteered in the matter, 
but became involved, in consequence, in a 
collision with the provincial convention. 
A committee of that body reported, on in- 
vestigation, that the governor, in his cor- 
respondence with the British ministry, had 
not acted in a hostile character; but. at 
the same time, it was voted to signify to 
Governor Eden that the public safety and 
quiet required him to leave the province, 
which he did. 



117 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 




LAYING OUT BALTIMORE, JAN. 12, 1730. 



While stirring events were occurring on 
the New England coast and the Northern 
frontier in 1814, others of equal impor- 
tance occurred in the vicinity of Chesa- 
peake Bay and the national capital. There 
were premonitions of impending danger in 
that region early in 1814. News reached 
the government that 4,000 British troops, 
destined for the United States, had landed 
at Bermuda. This news was followed by 
the arrival, in Lynn Haven Bay, of Admi- 
ral Cockburn, with a strong naval force, 
to begin the work indicated in Admiral 
Cochrane's order to " destroy the seaport 
towns and ravage the country." In April 
news came of the downfall of Napoleon 
and of his abdication, which was expected 
to release British veterans from service 
in Europe. Notwithstanding the national 
capital was then almost defenceless, the 
passage of the British ships up the Poto- 
mac might be disputed only by the guns 
of Fort Washington, a few miles below 
the city, and there was little force to ob- 
struct the passage of land troops across 

1 



Maryland from the Chesapeake. On July 
1 official intelligence reached the President 
that " a fleet of transports, with a large 
force, bound to some port in the United 
States, probably on the Potomac," was 
about to sail from Bermuda. In the mili- 
tary district of which the District of 
Columbia formed a part there were only 
a little more than 2,000 effective men. 
under General Winder, and these weve 
scattered at points some distance f'om 
each other. There was a company of ma- 
rines at the barracks at Washington, and 
a company of artillery at Fort Washing- 
ton. With all this knowledge of weakness 
and impending danger, the Secretary of 
War, whose opinions governed the Presi- 
dent and cabinet, could not be persuaded 
that the capital was likely to receive any 
harm. The government organ, the Na- 
tional Intelligencer, boasted that any Brit- 
ish force that might come could be easily 
driven away. The folly of this boast was 
soon made manifest by sad events. 

deneral Winder continually warned the 
18 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 



governinciit of clanger; and when danger 
actually appeared he was placed, by offi- 
cial orders, at the head of 15,000 militia 
for the defence of the capital. This army 
was on 2^ap*-'i' only. The militia lay hid- 
den in official orders; and when, at the 
middle of August, a powerful British land 
and naval force appeared in Chesapeake 
Bay, Winder had only a handful of men 
with which to defend the capital. The 
call for the militia was tardily answered, 
for they feared the loss of their slaves if 
the masters should leave the plantations. 
There was widespread alarm over Mary- 
land and Virginia. At that juncture Com- 
modore Barney, with an armed schooner 
and fifteen barges, was in the Patuxent 
Eiver, near its mouth. He fled up the 
stream to avoid attack by British vessels. 
The latter landed a strong force, under 
General Boss, and pushed on towards 
Washington. Winder issued stirring ap- 
peals for the militia to turn out, and 
asked General Smith, of Baltimore, to 
turn out his brigade. The British pur- 
sued Barney and caused the destruction 
of his flotilla. Pressing on towards the 
capital, they were met by troops under 
Winder at Bladensburg, when a severe 
engagement ensued, which resulted in vic- 
tory for the invaders. Then they marched 
on Washington, set fire to its public build- 
ings, and gave the town up to plunder. 
Only the Patent Office building was saved. 
The vessels and other public property at 
the navy-yard were destroyed by the 
Americans to prevent them falling into 
the hands of the British. The total value 
of the property annihilated by the Ameri- 
cans and British at that time was esti- 
mated at about $2,000,000. 

"Willingly," said the London States- 
man, " would we throw a veil of oblivion 
over our transactions at Washington. The 
Cossacks spared Paris, but we spared not 
the capital of America." While Ross was 
crossing Maryland to the national capital 
a British fleet, under Commodore Gor- 
don, went up the Potomac and plundered 
Alexandria, on the Virginia shore. The 
British retreated to their ships after des- 
olating the capital, and, flushed with suc- 
cess, they attempted to capture Baltimore. 
Rose landed with 9,000 troops at North 
Point, 12 miles from Baltimore, on Sept. 
12, and proceeded to march on the city, 

1 



when he was confronted by an American 
force under General Strieker and driven 
back. Ross was killed, and his troops fled 
to their ships. At the same time the 
Biitish fleet sailed up Patapsco Bay and 
bombarded Fort Mcllenry, that guarded 
Baltimore Harbor. They were repulsed, 
and ships and troops, discomfited, left the 
Chesapeake to operate on the more south- 
ern regions of the American coast. See 
Baltimore. 

It was very important in carrying out 
the plan of the Confederates, early in 
18G1, to seize the national capital, to have 
tlie authorities of the State of Maryland 
in accord with the movement. Emissaries 
and commissioners from the cotton-grow- 
ing States were early within its borders 
plying their seductive arts; and they 
found in Baltimore so many sympathizers 
among leading citizens that, for a while, 
they felt sure of the co-operation of Mary- 
land. In the governor, Thomas H. Hicks, 
however, they found a sturdy opponent of 
their schemes. It is said that on Jan. 1, 
1861, there were no less than 12,000 men 
organized in that State, bound by solemn 
oaths to follow their leaders in seizing 
Washington, D. C. Against such an array, 
against the natural sympathy of blood- 
relationship with the Southern people, and 
against the seeming self-interest of the 
holders of 700,000 slaves, valued at $50,- 
000,000, which property might be im- 
perilled, they thought, by alliance with the 
North, Governor Hicks manfully contend- 
ed. He was supported by an eminently 
loyal people among the so-called " masses." 
Hicks was urged by the Confederates to 
call a meeting of the legislature to con- 
sider the state of affairs; but he too well 
knew the danger that would attend the 
gathering of a body largely made up of 
slave-holders, and he steadily refused to 
make the call. In fact, he had been in- 
formed that the members of the legislature 
had already formed a plan for " carrying 
Maryland out of the Union," and resolu- 
tions to that effect had already been 
drawn. These facts he set forth in an ad- 
dress to the people of his State, Jan. 6, 
1861, which delighted the Unionists. Al- 
ready the late Henry Winter Davis, a Rep- 
resentative of the Baltimore district in 
Congress, had published (Jan. 2. 1861) 
a powerful appeal against the calling of 
19 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 



a meeting of the legislature, or the as- 
semblinti of a Border State convention, 
as had been proposed. The Confederates 
denounced Hicks as a traitor, and tried 
every means to counteract his influence, 
but in vain. A strong Union party was 
organized. Maryland became the great 
battle-field of opposing opinion. The 
Union men triumphed; and within the 
space of four years slavery was abolished 
in Maryland, not only by the Proclamation 
of Emancipation, but by the constitutional 
act of its own authorities. 

For a while after the attack on Massa- 
chusetts troops in Baltimore {q. v.), the 
Unionists of Maryland were almost si- 
lenced. The legislature was filled with 



and conduct pursued by the authorities 
of the citj' of Baltimore on Friday, April 
19, and since that time, be and the same 
iive hereby made valid by the General As- 
sembly." This would cover the disloyal 
acts of the mayor, the chief of police, the 
murderous rioters, and the bridge-burners. 
To further shield the olTenders, T. Parkins 
Scott ofl'ered in the same body a bill to 
suspend the operations of the criminal 
laws, and that the grand jury should be 
estopped from finding indictments against 
any of the oflfenders. These measures 
alarmed the best friends of the common- 
wealth, and added strength to the sym- 
pathy for the Union cause in that State. 
When General Butler, by a single, bold 




THE MAS.SACHCSETTS SIXTH ATTACKKD WIIE.N MARCHING THROUGH BALTIMORE. 



disloyal men. Abettors of the mob in Bal- stroke, revealed the real weakness of the 
timort, who were members of the legis- Confederate element in Maryland, the 
lature, proposed laws to shield the rioters Unionists breathed freer, and very soon 
from harm. S. T. Wallis propo.sed for manifested their strength. 
that purpose, " That the measures adopted May 14, 18G1, was a memorable one in 

120 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 



the annals of Maryland. On that day the 
legislature adjourned, and Governor Hicks, 
relieved of the presence of the Confederate 
element, and assured by the Secretary of 
War that National troops would remain in 
MaiyJand as long as seeming necessity de- 
manded their presence, issued a proclama- 
tion calling for Maryland's quota of troops 
(four regiments) in response to the Presi- 
dent's call. On that day the veteran Maj. 
VV. W. Morris, commander of Fort Mc- 
Henry, first gave practical force to the 
suspension of the privilege of the writ of 
habeas corpus which the exigency of the 
times gave constitutional sanction for. A 
man claiming to be a Maryland soldier 
was imprisoned in Fort McHenry. A Bal- 
timore judge issued a writ of habeas corpus 
for his release. Morris refused to obey, 
saying, in a letter: "At the date of issu- 
ing your writ, and for two weeks previous, 
the city in which you live and where your 
court has been held was entirely under 
the control of revolutionary authorities. 
Within that period. United States soldiers, 
while committing no offence, had been per- 
fidiously attacked and inhumanely murder- 
ed in your streets; no punishment had been 
awarded, and, I believe, no arrests had 
been made for these atrocious crimes; 
supplies of provisions intended for this 
garrison had been stopped; the intention 
to capture this fort had been boldly pro- 
claimed; your most public thoroughfares 
had been daily patrolled by large numbers' 
of troops armed and clothed, at least in 
part, with articles stolen from the United 
States, and the federal flag, while waving 
on the federal offices, was cut down [by 
order of the chief of police Kane] by some 
person wearing the uniform of a Maryland 
soldier. To add to the foregoing, an as- 
semblage elected in defiance of law, but 
claiming to be the legislative body of your 
State, and so recognized by the executive 
of Maryland, was debating the federal 
compact. If all this be not rebellion, I 
know not what to call it. I certainly re- 
gard it as sufficient legal cause for sus- 
pending the privilege of the writ of habeas 
corpus." 

At the request of the governors of many 
States the President, on July 1, 18G2, 
called for 300,000 volunteers to serve dur- 
ing the war; and in August he called for 
300,000 more for three months, with the 



understanding that an equal number 
would be drafted from the citizens who 
were between eighteen and forty-five years 
of age, if they did not appear among tho 
volunteers. These calls were cheerfully 
responded to; and the Confederate gov- 
ernment, alarmed, ordered General Lee to 
make a desperate effort to capture the 
national capital before the new army 
should be brought into the field. Lee per- 
ceived that it would be madness to make 
a direct attack upon its formidable de- 
fences, so he resolved to cross the Poto- 
mac with a large force into Maryland, as- 
sail Baltimore, and, if successful, to fall 
upon Washington in the rear. He be- 
lieved the people of Maryland were chafing 
under the dominion of the national gov- 
ernment; that they were eager to aid the 
Confederate cause; and that the presence 
of his army on the soil of Maryland would 
cause an immediate and almost universal 
uprising in favor of the Confederacy. 
Lee was joined, Sept. 2, 1862, by the fresh 
division of Gen. D. H. Hill. This was 
sent as a vanguard to Leesburg, Va. The 
whole Confederate army followed, and be- 
tween the 4th and 7th crossed the Poto- 
mac at the Point of Rocks, and encamped 
not far from the city of Frederick, on 
the Monocacy River. There General Lee, 
on the 8th, issued a stirring appeal in the 
form of a proclamation to the people of 
Maryland. He was sorely disappointed. 
Instead of a general uprising in his favor, 
he lost more men by desertions than he 
gained by accessions. 

When General McClellan heard of this 
invasion, he left General Banks with some 
troops at Washington, and with about 
90,000 men crossed the Potomac above 
Washington and advanced cautiously tow- 
ards Frederick. At McClellan's apjiroach 
Lee withdrew. There the plan for seiz- 
ing Washington was discovered. It was 
to take possession of Harper's Ferry and 
open communication with Richmond, by 
w^ay of the Shenandoah Valley, and then, 
marching towards Pennsylvania, entice 
McClellan's forces in that direction. At a 
proper time Lee was to turn suddenly, de- 
feat his antagonist, and then march upon 
Washington. See South Mountain. 

After the battle at Ciiancellorsville 
{q. V.) Lee's army was sti'ong in mate- 
rial and moral force. Recent successes 
21 



MABYLAND, STATE OF 

had greatly inspirited it. It was re- iiient. Milroy called in his outposts and 

organized into three army corps, com- prepared to fight, but before daybreak he 

manded respectively by Generals Long- resolved to retreat. He sjjiked his cannon, 

street, A. P. Hill, and Ewell. At no time, dro^vned his powder, and was about to 

probably, during the war was the Confed- depart, when the Confederates fell upon 

erate army more complete in numbers, him. 

equipment, and discipline, or furnished Then began a race towards the Potomac, 
with more ample materials for carrying but the Nationals were stopped by a force 
on the conflict, than it was at the middle some miles from Winchester, and many 
of June, 1863, when Lee invaded Mary- of them made prisoners. The garrison at 
land. According to Confederate official Harper's Ferry fled across the river to 
retiirns, there were at least 500,000 men Maryland Heights. Informed of Lee's 
on the army rolls, and more than 300,000 movement, Hooker moved rapidly north- 
" present and fit for duty." Richmond ward, intent upon covering Washington, 
seemed secure from harm. Vicksburg and while his cavalry watched the passes of 
Port Hudson, on the Mississippi, seemed the Blue Ridge. The national authorities, 
impregnable against any National forces as well as those of Maryland and Pennsyl- 
that might be employed against them, vania, were thoroughly aroused by a sense 
Their European friends gave them great of danger. The President called (June 
encouragement, for there were strong 15) upon the States nearest the capital 
manifestations of desires for the acknowl- for an aggregate of 100,000 militia; and 
edgment of the independence of the " Con- the governor of Pennsylvania called out 
federate States of America." the entire militia of the State. Lee had 
Feeling thus strong, the Confederate au- about a week the start of Hooker in the 
thorities ordered Lee to invade Maryland race for the Potomac. On the 15th 1,500 
and Pennsylvania. His force was now Confederate cavalry dashed across the 
almost equal to that of Hooker, and in Potomac at Williamsport, in pursuit of 
better spirits than was the Army of the Milroy's wagon-train; swept up the Cum- 
Potomac. As early as May 20 Hooker berland Valley to Chambersburg, Pa.; de- 
suspected such a movement would be un- stroyed the railroad in that vicinity; 
dertaken, and informed the Secretary of plundered the region of horses, cattle, and 
War. Earlier than this, Clement C. Bar- other supplies; and, with fifty kidnapped' 
day, of Philadelphia, who had rare oppor- negroes, going back to Hagerstown, waited 
tunities for information, had warned the for Lee. The information procured by the 
authorities at Washington, Baltimore, and raiders satisfied Lee that he should not 
Harrisburg of impending danger, but they meet with much opposition, and he pressed 
were slow to believe Lee would repeat the forward. Ewell's corps crossed the Po- 
folly of the previous year. Lee's first tomac at Williamsport, near Shepherds- 
nriovement in that direction was to get town, on June 21 and 22, and swept on to 
Hooker from the Rappahannock by feints Chambersburg, and thence to the Susque- 
and a real flanking movement. There was hanna, opposite Columbia, levying contri- 
considerable preliminary cavalry skir- butions on the people, 
mishing early in June, and finally a The greatest alarm everywhere pre- 
cavalry reconnoissance by Pleasonton re- vailed. It was believed that Harrisburg 
vealed the fact of Lee's grand move- and Philadelphia would soon be entered 
ment. Hooper supposed he would follow by the Confederates, and vast quantities 
his route of the previous year, and was of valuable property were sent north from 
watching and guarding the fords of the the latter city for safety. Even New York 
Rappahannock, when Lee projected his seemed menaced. The remainder of Lee's 
right wing, under Ewell, througli the Blue army crossed the Potomac on the 24th 
Ridge into the Shenandoah Valley at and 25th, and pressed on after Ewell 
Strasburg. He pushed down the valley towards the Susquehanna. Hooker's 
to Winchester, where General Milroy was army, now fully 100,000 strong, crossed the 
in command of nearly 10,000 men, on the river at Edwards's Ferry. Regarding 
evening of .June 13, having marched 70 Harper's Ferry, at that moment, of little 
miles in three days. It was a bold move- account, he asked for the abandonment 

12? 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 



of that vicinity by 11,000 National troops. 
The general-in-chief (Hallcck) would net 
consent, and Hooker, at his own request, 
was at once relieved of his command, and 
was superseded by Gen. George C. Meade 
on June 28. 

At the beginning of July, 1864, Mary- 
land was invaded by the Confederates for 



Baltimore and Washington. The raid had 
a twofold purpose — to draw troops from 
before Petersburg for the defence of Wash- 
ington, and to plunder. When informed 
of it, General Grant sent the Gth Corps 
to protect Washington. Meanwhile Gen. 
Lew. Wallace (then in command of the 
Middle Department, with his headquarters 




CONFEDERATES CROSSING THE POTOMAC. 



the third time. The Confederate General 
Early had been gathering troops for the 
purpose in the Shenandoah Valley, and 
with from 1.5,000 to 20,000 men, of all 
arms, he swept rapidly down the valley 
towards Williamsport. General Sigel, too 
weak to resist, fled into Maryland, with a 
heavy loss of stores, and General Weber, 
in command at Harper's Ferry, retired to 
Maryland Heights. Early crossed the 
Potomac at Williamsport. and pushing on 
to Hagerstown, July 6, 1864, levied a con- 
tribution on the inhabitants there of $20,- 
000. Then he hastened on to Frederick, on 
the Monocacy River, and threatened both 

1 



in Baltimore) had proceeded from that 
city, with a few troops hastily collected, 
to confront the invaders. Gen. E. B. Ty- 
ler was then at the railway bridge over 
the Monocacy with about 1,000 men. Wal- 
lace went to Tyler's camp, saw the ne- 
cessity for prompt and energetic action, 
and chose a commanding position on the 
east side of the Monocacy for the concen- 
tration of his forces. On the 9th he 
fought the hosts of Early desperately not 
far from Frederick. He had been joined 
by a portion of Rickett's brigade, from 
the advance of the Gth Corps. This hand- 
ful of men, after fighting overwhelming 
23 



MARYLAND, STATE OF 



numbers eight hours, was defeated, with 
heavy loss, when Early pushed on towards 
Washington. The vanquished Nationals 
bad really won a victory, for they had de- 
tained the Confederates long enough that 
evening to allow the (3th and 19th Corps 
to reach and secure the national capital. 

When Early perceived this he pushed 
across the Potomac at Edwards's Ferry 
with a large amount of plunder, closely 
pursued by General Wright to the Shenan- 
doah Valley. He was struck by the Na- 
tionals at Snicker's Ferry and at Snicker's 
Gap, and sharp skirmishes ensued. At 
Ashby's Gap there was also a brisk 
skirmish, and in two encounters the Na- 
tionals lost about 500 men. Early moved 
up the valley as if continuing his retreat, 
when General Wright, handing his com- 
mand over to General Crook, returned to 
Washington. Meanwhile General Averill, 
with a considerable force, moved towards 
Winchester, and near that place he fought 
the Confederates, July 20, three hours. 
They lost 400 men (about 200 of them 
made prisoners ) , with four guns. Averill's 
loss was about 200. It was supposed 
Early was moving up the valley, but 
Crook, marching from Harper's Ferry to 
Winchester, soon afterwards encountered 
him in heavy force, and he was driven 
back, July 23, to Martinsburg, with a 
loss of 1,200 men. Early sent 3,000 cav- 
alry, under General McCausland, to make 
a plundering and devastating raid in the 
direction of the Susquehanna. They swept 
over the country in eccentric lines, bewil- 
dering its defenders, and on July 30 enter- 
ed the defenceless and partly deserted 
village of Chambersburg, Pa., and demand- 
ed of the inhabitants $200,000 in gold or 
$500,000 in "greenbacks" (paper cur- 
rency) as a tribute to insure the town 
against destruction. The tribute was not 
ofTered, and two-thirds of the town was 
laid in ashes. No time was given for the 
removal of the sick, infirm, women, or chil- 
dren. General Averill, with 2,000 cavalry, 
was soon after the raiders. He drove them 
across the Potomac with such blows that 
they did not stop to plunder and destroy. 
Mosby, another guerilla chief, dashed 
across the Potomac and carried off a few 
horsemen. Averill pursued the Confed- 
erates up the south branch of the Potomac, 
attacked and defeated them, Aug. 4, 18G4, 



at Moorfield, captured their guns, trains, 
and 500 men, with a loss to himself of 
fifty men. Grant now, to protect Wash- 
ington from seizure, and Maryland and 
Pennsylvania from invasion, consolidated 
several departments, calling the organ- 
ization the Middle Division. General 
Sherman was assigned to its command, 
Aug. 7, 1864, and at once entered upon his 
duties, at the head of over 30,000 troops. 
See United States, Maryland, in vol. ix. 

GOVERNORS UNDER THE BALTIMORES (Pro- 
prietary). 



Leonard Calvert.. 
Thomas Greene.. 
William Stone — 



Josias Kendall 

Philip Calvert 

Charles Calvert 

Thomas Notley 

Charles, Lord Baltimore. 



Term. 



1637 to 1647 

1647 " 1648 

1648 " 1654 
1654 " 1658 
1G58 " 1C60 
1660 " 1662 
1662 " 1676 
1677 " 1680 
1681 " 1689 



UNDER THE ENGLISH GOVERNMENT (Royal) 

John Coode and the Protestant associa- 
tion 

Sir Lionel Copley 

Francis Nicholson 

Nathaniel Blackstone 

Thomas Trench 

John Seymour 

Edward Lloyd 

John Hart 



1690 to 1692 

1692 " 1693 
1694 " 1695 
1696 " 1702 

1703 "1704 

1704 " 1708 
1709 " 1713 
1714 " 1715 



UNDER THE BALTIMORES RESTORED (Proprietary). 



John Hart 

Charles Calvert 

Benedict L. Calvert 

Samuel Ogle 

Charles, Lord Baltimore. 

Samuel Ogle 

Thomas Bladen 

Samuel Ogle 

Benjamin Tasker 

Horati o Sharpe 

Robert Eden, . , 



1715 to 1719 
1720 " 1726 
1727 " 1730 

1731 " 1732 

1732 " 1733 
1734 " 1741 
1742 " 1745 
1746 " 1751 

1752 
17.53 to 1768 
1769 " 1774 



UNDER THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. 

Thomas .Johnson 1777 to 1779 

Thomas Sim Lee 1780 " 1782 

William Paca 1783 " 1784 

William Smallwood 1785 " 1788 



UNDER THE CONSTITUTION. 



John E. Howard 

(Jeorge Plater 

Thomas Sim Lee 

John H. Stone 

John Henry 

Benjamin Ogle 

John F. Mercer 

Robert Bowie 

Robert Wright 

Edward Lloyd. 

Robert Bowie 

Levin Winder 

Charles Ridgely 

Cliarles W. Goldsborough. 

Samuel Sjirigg 

Samuel Stevens, Jr 

Joseph Kent 

Daniel Martin 



1789 to 1790 
1791 " 1792 
1793 " 1794 
1795 " 1797 

179S 
1799 to 1801 
1802 " 1803 
1804 " 1805 
1806 " 1808 
1809 " 1810 
1811 " 1812 
1813 " 1814 
1815 " 1817 
1818 " 1819 
1820 " 1822 
1823 " 1825 
1826 " 1828 

1829 



124 



MASON 



GOVERNORS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION- 
linued. 



-Con- 



Na 



Thomas K. CaiToU 

Daniel Martin 

George Howard 

James Thomas 

TliLnias W. Veazey. . . . 

William Graysou 

Francis Thomas 

Thomas G. Pratt 

Philip F. Thomas 

Enoch L. Lowe 

Thomas W. Ligon 

Thomas H. Hicks 

Augustus W. Bradford. 

Thomas Swaun 

Oden Bowie 

\V. P. Whyte 

James B. Groome 

John Lee Carroll 

William T. Hamilton. . 

Robert M. McLane 

Elihu E. Jackson 

Frank Brown 

Lloyd Lowndes 

John W. Smith 

Edwiu Warfleld 



Term. 



during 18G7-82 was on the staff of various 
Chicago dailies. While tariff editor of 
the Inter-Ocean, of Chicago, he wrote A 
Tariff History of the United States. He 
died in Chicago, 111., June 17, 1903. 

Mason, George, statesman; born in 

1838 Fairfax county, Va., in 1725; was a firm 

1844 patriot and able statesman. In 1769 he 

i«48 '' ]ttl ^^^""^ "P ^^^^ non-importation resolutions 



1830 

1831 
1831 to 1832 
1833 " 1835 
1836 
1839 
1842 



1848 
1851 
1856 
1858 
1862 



1850 



UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



Name. 



2d 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 
8th 
9th 
13th 



• 6th 
7th 
9th 
13th 
12th 
15th 



Charles Carroll 1st to 2d 

John Henry 1st " 5th 

Richard Potts 2d " 4th 

John Eager Howard 4th " 7th 

James Lloyd 

William Hindman 

Robert Wright 

Samuel Smith 

Philip Reed 

Robert Henry Goldsborough. 

Robert G. Harper 

Alexander C. Hanson 

Edward Lloyd 

William Pinkney 

Samuel Smith 

Ezekiel F. Chambers 

Joseph Kent 

Robert Henry Goldsborough. 

John S. Spence 

William D. Merrick 

John L. Kerr. 

James A. Pearce 

Reverdy Johnson 

David Stewart 

Thomas G. Pratt 

Anthony Kennedy 

Thomas H. Hicks 

John A. J. Creswell 

Reverdy Johnson 

William Pinckney Whyte. . . 

George Vickers 

William T. Hamilton 

George R, Dennis 

William Pinckney Whyte. . . 

James G. Groome 

Arthur P. Gorman 

Ephraim K. Wilson 

Charles H. Gibson 

George L. Wellington 

Louis E. McComas 

Arthur P. Gorman i 58th 

Isador Rayner 58th 

Wm. P. Whyte | 59th 



No. of Coneresa. 



14th 
14th to 15th 
16th " 19th 
16th " 17th 

17th 
19th to 23d 
23d " 25th 
23d " 24th 
24th " 26th 
25th " 28th 
26th "27 th 
28th " 37th 
29th " 30th 

31st 
31st to 34th 
35th " 38th 
37th " 38th 

39th 
39th to 40th 

40th 
40th to 42d 
41st " 43d 



43d 

44th 

46th 

47th 

49th 

52d 

55th 

66th 



' 45th 
' 46th 
' 49th 
' 56th 
' 52d 
' 55th 
'57th 
'SSth 
59 th 



1855 v/hich Washington presented to the Vir- 

' 1857 ginia Assembly, and which were unani- 

' 1864 mously adopted. He also wrote a pow- 

1868 '' 1871 ^■^^"^ ^^^^"*' against the claim of the 

1872 " 1874 British Parliament to tax the colonies 

1875 
1876 to 1879 
1880 " 1883 
1884 " 1887 
1888 " 1891 • • -1 , , 1 J. X, 

1892 " 1896 Viewing the whole ground of the pending 

1896 " 1900 controversy; recommended a general con- 
1900 " 1904 1 1 , , .J 

gress; and urged the non-intercourse pol- 
icy. In 1775 he was a member of the Vir- 
ginia committee of safety; and in 1776 
1789 to 1793 ^^^ drafted the Declaration of Rights 
1789 " 1797 and State constitution of Virginia, which 

1796 



without their consent. At a meeting of 
the inhabitants of Fairfax, July 18, 1774, 
he offered twenty-four resolutions re- 



1904 " 1908 



Term. 



were adopted unanimously. In 1777 he 
was elected to the Continental Congress, 
and in 1787 he was a leading member of 
the convention which framed the national 
In that body he opposed 
every measure which tended to the per- 



1803 
1800 
1803 
1806 
1815 

J^J^ Constitution 



1793 
1796 
1798 
1800 
1801 
1803 
1806 
1813 
1816 

1819 '"1826 Petuation of slavery. Dissatisfied with 

1820 " 1822 the Constitution, he declined to sign it, 

1826^0^1834 ^^^' ^^ connection with Patrick Henry, 

1833 " 1837 led the opposition to it in the convention 

1835 '' 1840 °^ Virginia. He also declined the oflice 

1838 " 1845 of United States Senator, to which he was 

iQ^Q !1 Jaro elected. Jefferson wrote of Mason: "He 

1843 1862 r 21 n 

1845 " 1849 was a man ot the first order of wisdom, 

1850^tcfi857 °^ expansive mind, profound judgment, 

1857 " 1865 cogent in argument, learned in the lore 

}o^i '! }l^^ of our form of Constitution, and earnest 

1865 " 1867 J./I ,,. , 

1865 " 1868 for the republican change on democratic 

1868 '' 187^ principles." He died in Fairfax county, 

1869 " 1875 Va., Oct. 7, 1792. A statue of Mason oc- 
1873 '1 1879 cupies a pedestal on Crawford's monument 
1879 " 1885 of Washington in Kichmond, Va. 
1881 " 1899 Mason, .Iames Murray, legislator ; 

1885 "1891 , ' , T 1 J T-. • r XT 

1891 " 1897 born on Mason s Island, Fairfax co., Va., 

1897 '1 1903 Nov. 3, 1798; graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1818; begun the prac- 
tice of law in 1820; served in the Vir- 
ginia House of Delegates from 1826 t® 

Mason, David Hastings, journalist; 1832, was a member of Congress from 1837 

born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 8, 1829; to 1839; and United States Senator from 

studied at Yale college; was editor of 1847 until expelled in July, 1861. Senator 

the New Haven Journal and Courier; and Mason was the author of the Fugitive 

125 



1899 
1903 
1905 
1906 



1905 
1906 



MASON 



Sla%'E Law (</. v.) ; an active leader in justify him in seizing these men on the 
the disunion movement in ISGO-Gl ; and Trent and transferring them to his own 
a member of the Confederate Congress, vessel, he went out in search of her. He 
He died near Alexandria, Va., April 28, found her on Nov. 8, and brought her to 
1871. by firing a shell across her bow. Then 

Early in the career of the Confederate he sent Lieutenant Fairfax, a kinsman of 
government they sent diplomatic agents Mason, on board the Trent to demand of 
to European courts who proved to be in- the captain the delivery of the ambassadors 
competent. Then the government under- and their secretaries to Captain Wilkes, 
took to correct the mistake by sending two The officers of the Trent protested, and 
of their ablest men to represent their the ambassadors refused to leave the ship 
cause at the courts of Great Britain and unless forced by physical power to do so. 
France respectively. These were James M. Lieutenant Greer and a few marines were 

sent to help Fairfax, who then took Mason 
by the shoulders and placed him in a boat 
belonging to the San Jacinto. Then the 
lieutenant returned to Slidell. The pas- 
sengers were greatly excited. They gather- 
ed around him, some making contemptuous 
allusions to the lieutenant, and even cry- 
ing out " Shoot him ! " The daughter of 
Slidell slapped Fairfax in the face three 
times as she clung to the neck of her 
father. The marines were called, and Sli- 
dell and the two secretaries were com- 
pelled to go. The captive ambassadors 
were conveyed to Boston and lodged in 
Fort Warren as prisoners of state. The 
British government pronounced the act 
of Wilkes a " great outrage," though in 
exact accordance with their code of in- 
ternational law as expounded by their 
judges and publicists ; and the British 
Mason, of Virginia, and John Slidell, of government prepared for war on the 
Louisiana, who was deeply interested in United States. It did not wait for diplo- 
the scheme for reopening the African matic correspondence, but made extensive 
slave-trade. These ambassadors, each ac- preparations for hostilities before sending 
companied by a secretary of legation, a peremptory demand for the release of 
left Charleston Harbor on a stormy night the prisoners. The Tory papers abused 
(Oct. 12, 1861), eluded the blockading the American government without stint, 
squadron, and landed in Havana, Cuba, While these preparations were going on, 
where they were cordially greeted by the and Congress and other legislative bodies 
British consul and other sympathizers, were thanking Captain Wilkes, the United 
There they eml)arkf'd for St. Thomas on the States government, acting upon the wise 
British mail-steamer Trent, intending to counsel of President Lincoln, and true to 
go to England in the regular packet from its long-cherished principles concerning 
the latter port. While the vessel was on the sacredness of neutrality, proceeded to 
her way to St. Thomas, and when ofT disavow the act of Wilkes and to release 
the northern coast of Cuba, she fell in the prisoners. They were placed on board 
with the American war-ship Han Jacinto, a British vessel, and went to England, 
Capt. Charles Wilkes (q. v.), then on where they were treated with marked cold- 
his way home from the coast of Africa! ness. The London Timcft. which had teemed 
He had touched at Havana, where he heard with abuse of the Americans because of the 
of the movement of the Confederate am- arrest, now declared that the ambassadors 
bassadors. Satisfied that the English rule were "worthless," and added, "England 
concerning neutrals and belligerents would would have done as much for two negroes." 

12G 




JAMES MrRRAT MASON. 



MASON 



Mason, Jeremiau, legislator; born in 
Lebanon, Conn., April 27, 17C8; grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1788; admitted 
to the bar in 1791; and began prac- 
tice in Westmoreland, N. H. He was At- 
torney-General in 1802, and from 1813 
to 1817 was United States Senator. For 
many years he was in the New Hamp- 
shire legislature, and was the author of 




STATUE OF JOHN MASOM, OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



an able report on the Virginia resolutions 
touching the Missouri Compromise (q. v.). 
In 1837 he removed to Boston, where, un- 
til he was seventy years of age, he was quest of the settlers, and in 1659 removed 
extensively engaged in his profession ; to Norwich. 



Mason, John, founder of New Hamp- 
shire; born in Lynn Kegis, Norfolk, Eng- 
land ; commanded an expedition to subdue 
a rebellion in the Hebrides in IGIO, and 
went to Newfoundland as governor in 
1616. He surveyed the island, made a 
map of it (published in 1G26), and wrote 
a description of it. In 1617 he explored 
the New England coasts, and obtained 
from the Council of Plymouth a tract of 
land there in 1622. With Fernando 
Gorges, he pi'ocured a patent for another 
tract ( see Maine ) , and sent a colony 
there in 1623. In 1629 he obtained a 
patent for the domain which he called 
New Hampshire. In the same year he ac- 
quired, with Gorges, another tract, which 
embraced the country around Lake Cham- 
plain; and in 1631 Mason, Gorges, and 
others formed a company for trading with 
the natives of New England and to make 
settlements there. In 1633 Mason became 
a member of the council for New England 
and its vice-president. He was also judge 
of the courts of Hampshire, England, in 
1665, and in October was appointed vice- 
admiral of New England. He died, in 
London, in December, 1635, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. Mason's 
heirs sold his rights in the province 
of New Hampshire in 1691 to Samuel 
Allan. 

Mason, John, Indian fighter; born in 
England in 1600; served as a soldier under 
Fairfax in the Netherlands, and was in- 
vited by that leader to join his standard 
in the civil war. He came to America 
in 1630, and was one of the first settlers 
of Dorchester. Captain Mason led the 
white and Indian troops against the Pe- 
quods near the Mystic in 1637 (see Pe- 
QUOD War), and was soon afterwards 
made major-general of the Connecticut 
forces, a post he held until his death in 
Norwich, Conn., in 1672. He was a magis- 
trate from 1642 until 1668, and deputy- 
governor from 1660 to 1670. He went to 
Saybrook after the Pequod War at the re- 



but he was little known, personally, out 
of New England. His mind was clear, 
logical, and extremely vigorous, the char- 
acteristics of which, Webster said, were 
" real greatness, strength, and sagacity." 
He died in Boston, Oct. 14, 1848. 



Mason, John Young, diplomatist; born 
in Greenville county, Va., April 18, 1799; 
graduated at the University of North 
Carolina in 1816; admitted to the bar in 
1819; member of Congress in 1831-37; 
appointed judge of the United States dis- 



127 



MASON— MASSACHUSETTS 



tiict court of Virginia, and subsequently 
of the General Court of Virginia. He was 
Secretary of the Xavy under President 
Tyler; Attorney-General and Secretary of 
the Xavy under President Polk. In 1853 
President Pierce appointed him United 
States minister to France. He died in 
Paris, Oct. 3. 1859. 

Mason, Lowell, composer; born in 
Medfield, ]\Iass.. Jan. 8, 1792; at an early 
age became a teacher and composer of 
music, and at the age of twenty years 
went to Savannah, Ga., where he gave in- 
struction and led choirs and musical as- 
sociations. In 1821 he published in Bos- 
ton his Handel and Haydn Collection 
of Church Music, which was so successful 
that he returned north and settled in 
Boston, where, in 1827, he began the in- 
struction of classes in vocal music. He 
taught juvenile classes gratuitously on 
the Pestalozzian system, and published 
many collections of music, glee-books, etc. 
In connection with Professors Park and 
Phelps, he complied a Collection of Psalms 
and Hymns for Public Worship, published 
in 1858. He died in Orange, N. J., Aug. 
11. 1872. 

Mason, Rufus Osgood; born in Sul- 
livan, N. H., Jan. 22, 1830; graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1854, naval surgeon 1861- 
64; author of Telepathy and the Sui- 
liminal Self, etc. He died in 1903. See 
Hypxotism, Educational Uses of. 



Mason, Stev'ens Thomson, legislator-, 
born in Stafford county, Va., 1760; was 
educated at the College of William and 
Mary, and at the age of twenty years held 
the rank of colonel in the Virginia troops. 
At the close of the Revolution he was a 
brigadier-general. In the Virginia House 
of Representatives he was conspicuous; 
also in the convention in Virginia in 1788 
to consider the national Constitution. He 
took a conspicuous place in the Demo- 
cratic party (see Jay, John), and was 
United States Senator from 1794 until 
his death in Philadelphia, Pa., May 10, 
1803. Mr. Mason was distinguished for 
oratory, and was very popular. 

Mason and Dixon's Line, the disputed 
boundary-line between the State of Penn- 
sylvania and the States of Maryland and 
Virginia — the border-line between the free 
and the slave States — fixed by Charles 
Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, English 
mathematicians and surveyors employed' 
for the purpose, between 1763 and 1767. 
In the debates on slavery before the ad- 
mission of Missouri, John Randolph used 
the words " Mason and Dixon's line " as 
figurative of the division between the two 
systems of labor. The press and the poli- 
ticians echoed it; and in that connection 
it was used until the destruction of slavery 
by the Civil War. 

Mason and Slidell Affair. See Trent, 
The; Mason, James Murray. 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 

Massachusetts, State of, one of the America, where they might worship God 

original thirteen States of the Union; with perfect freedom. Having made ar- 

founded by English Puritans who fled rangements with the Plymouth Company 

from persecution (see Puritans). Its for planting a settlement, and for funds 

shores were probably visited by North- ^^'ith some London merchants, they went 

men at the beginning of the eleventh cen- from Delftshaven to England, and sailed 

tury (see Northmen), and possibly Se- for America from Plymouth in the May- 

bastian Cabot saw them (1498), and also flower of 180 tons' burden, on Sept. 

Vorrazano (1524). The shores were ex- 17 (N. S. ), and, after a stormy passage, 

plored by Bartholomew Gosnold (1602), arrived at Cape Cod in November. Seek- 

Samuel Champlain (1604), and John ing a good landing-place, th^ company. 

Smith (1614); but the first permanent 101 in number — men, women, and chil- 

European settlement was made on the dren — did not leave the vessel until 

shores of Cape Cod Bay by some English Dec. 22 (N. S.), when they landed on a 

Non-conformists, who, calling themselves rock on the shores of Cape Cod Bay, built 

" Pilgrims," had fled from England to Hoi- some log-huts in the snow, and called the 

land, sojourned there a few years, formed rude village New Plymouth. In the cabin 

a church at Leyden, and in 1620 came to of the Mayflower the men had drawn up 

]28 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 




soon attempted; but the little colony at 
New Plymouth suffered much at times; 
until 1G23, when they were blessed with a 
bountiful harvest. The community sys- 
tem of labor was abandoned, and in 1627 
the colonists dissolved their partnership 
with the London merchants, and became 
sole proprietors of the soil. As the Pil- 
grims could not obtain a patent, they 
quietly lived under their own simple form 
of government and prospered. An Eng- 
glish company obtained a grant of terri- 
tory on Massachusetts Bay and sent over 
John Endioott {q. v.), with 100 settlers, 
who seated themselves at Naumkeag, now 
Salem. 

In March, 1629, King Charles I. gave a 
charter to a number of wealthy and in- 
fluential Englishmen, confirming a former 
grant to others, to a domain in America, 
with whom they became associated, and 
superadded the power of government. It 
was similar to the Virginia charter (see 
Virginia), and erected the patentees and 



STATE SEAL OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

and signed a form of government — a 
solemn compact — by which they were to 
be ruled (see Pilgrims), and chose John 
Carver (g. v.) governor for one year. 
Cold, exposure, and poor food caused a 
sickness that swept away nearly one-half their associates into a corporation by the 
their number in 
four months. Car- 
ver was among 
the victims, and 
William Brad- 
ford {q. V.) was 
his successor. 
Their spiritual 
leader was Elder 
William Brew- 
ster (q. V.) . 
They made a 
treaty of friend- 
ship with Mas- 
SASOIT {q. v.), 
sachem of the 
surrounding Ind- 
ians, and it was 
long maintained 
inviolate. In 
petty hostilities 
with other chiefs, 
Capt. Miles 
Standish ( q. 
V.) , a valiant sol- 
dier, was very 
useful. 

Other Puritans 
joined the Pil- 
grims, and other 

aettlements were map of new e.ngland coast made bt captain joh.n smith. 

VI.— I 129 




MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 

name of the Governor and Company of Assembly of all the freemen and stock- 
Massachusetts Bay, in New England. The holders, to be held quarterly. The rights 
allairs of the company and the colony were of Englishmen were secured to the colo- 
to be managed by a governor, deputy-gov- nists, but the management of the local gov- 




CUTTINO THE CROSS OUT OF THK ENGLISH FLAG. 

crnor, and eighteen assistants, or magis- crnment was entirely in the hands of the 
trates, the latter to hold monthly courts, corporation in England. No royal nega- 
The more important laws of the colony tive was reserved in the enactments of the 
were to bo enacted by a General Court of company. Nothing was said about reli- 

130 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OE 



gion. The company was organized under 
the charter by the appointment of Mat- 
thew Cradock governor, and Timothy 
Goffe deputy-governor — two wealthy Lon- 
don merchants. The executive administra- 
tion of the colony was intrusted to John 
Endicott, assisted by twelve councillors — 
seven to be named by the company, two to 
be selected by the old planters, and these 
nine to select three more. The settlement 
was called " London's Plantation." Every 
stockholder who should emigrate to Amer- 
ica at his own cost was to receive fifty 
acres of land for each member of his 
family, and the same tor each indentured 
servant he carried with him. The charter 
and the government were soon transferred 
from England to Massachusetts, and a 
large emigration ensued in 1629-30. 

Late in 1634, while Dudley was govern- 
or, John Endicott, incited by Roger Will- 
iams, caused the red cross of St. George 
to be cut out of the military standard of 
England used at Salem, because he re- 
garded it as a " relic of Anti-Christ," it 
having been given by the pope to a former 
king of England as an ensign of victory. 
He had so worked upon the minds of 
many citizens of Salem that they refused 
to follow the standard with the cross 
upon it. At about that time the Brit- 
ish government, jealous of the indepen- 
dent spirit manifested in Massachusetts, 
watched its development with great vigil- 
ance, and the enemies of the colony point- 
ed to this mutilation of the standard as 
evidence of disloyalty to the crown. It 
was simply loyalty to bigotry. The whole 
aspect of the act was theological, not 
political; but the royalists chose to in- 
terpret it otherwise, and it was one of 
the reasons for tyi-annical action towards 
the colony when orders were issued to 
the authorities of Massachusetts to pro- 
duce their charter before the privy coun- 
cil in England. At a Court of Assistants 
at Boston complaint was made of the 
mutilation of the standard, for trouble 
with the home government was antici- 
pated. The ensign-bearer was summoned 
before the court. Afterwards the assist- 
ants met at the governor's house to ad- 
vise about the defacing, and it was agreed 
to write to England about the matter. 

Endicott was, after three months' longer 
deliberation, called to answer for the act. 



131 



The court could not agree whether all the 
ensigns should be laid aside, as many 
would not follow them with the cross 
visible. The commissioners of military 
affairs ordered all the ensigns to be put 
away. Nothing more was done in the 
matter then. Two years later there was 
more trouble about the colors. Henry 
Vane was elected governor (1636), and 
fifteen ships in the harbor having arrived 
with passengers, the seamen commemo- 
rated his election by a volley of gretit 
guns. But, the ensigns being " laid away," 
the fort in Boston could not acknowl- 
edge the compliment by displaying colors. 
The English sailors accused the colonists 
of treason, and the ship-masters requested 
the governor to spread the King's colors 
at the fort, because the question of their 
loyalty might be raised in England. The 
magistrates were all persuaded that the 
cross in the colors was idolatrous, and 
the governor dissimulated by pretending 
that he had no colors. The ship-masters 
offered to lend him theirs, and this was 
accepted as a compromise with the con- 
sciences of the authorities, they arguing 
that, as the fort was the King's, the colors 
might be displayed there at his peril. 

At the request of the General Court, the 
Rev. John Cotton (7. v.) drew up the 
first code of laws of Massachusetts. They 
were taken entirely from the Old Testa- 
ment. It was found that they were not 
adapted to a state of society so different 
from that of the Hebrews in the time of 
Moses, and Rev. Nathaniel Ward, who was 
familiar with the Roman as well as the 
Jewish laws, drew up a code which was 
substituted for Cotton's in 1641. The first 
article of this code provided that the 
rights of person and property vested in the 
citizen should be inviolate, except by ex- 
press law, or, in default of that, by the 
" Word of God." Governor Winthrop did 
not approve of Mr. Ward's adaptation of 
Greek and Roman laws. He thought it 
better that the laws should be taken from 
the Scriptures rather than " on the au- 
thority of the wisdom and justice of those 
heathen commonwealths." The " Body of 
Liberties " compiled by Mr. Ward was 
really the first constitution of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. 

In 1651 Roger Williams and John 
Clarke were appointed agents to seek in 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 




England a confirmation of the Rhode who gave evidence of repentance and 
Island charter. Before their departure, faith; and that only such visible believers 
Mr. Clarke, with Mr. Crandall and Oba- constituted the Church of Christ on the 
diah Holmes, delegates from the Baptist earth. The ministers evaded the trial. 
Church in Newport, visited an aged Bap- Some of Clarke's friends paid his fine, and 
tist brother in Lynn, Mass., who was too he was released. Crandall, fined $25, was 
feeble to attend public worship. On a released at the same time; but Holmes, a 
Sunday morning they ventured to give recent convert to Anabaptism, and lately 

excommunicated, who was fined 
$150, had more of the martyr 
spirit. As he left the bar the 
pastor (John Wilson) struck him 
and cursed him because he said, 
" I bless God I am counted 
worthy to suffer for the name of 
Jesus." Some friends offered to 
pay Holmes's fine, but he declined 
it, and was taken to the public 
whipping - post, where he was 
scourged with a three-corded whip, 
with which a stout man gave him 
thirty stripes most vigorously, " the 
man spitting on his hands three 
times." When led away. Holmes 
said to the magistrates, " You have 
struck me with roses," and prayed 
the punishment might not be laid 
to their charge. Two sympathizing 
friends came up to the bleeding 
victim of bigotry and intolerance, 
a public exhortation at the house of and, shaking hands with him, said, " Bless- 
the brother. For this they were arrested, ed be God." They were arrested for " con- 
and carried by force in the afternoon to tempt of authority," fined 40s. each, and 
hear the regular Congregational preacher imprisoned. Holmes returned to Newport, 
( Thomas Cobbett, author of " a large, and lived to old age. 

nervous, and golden discourse " against the Not long afterwards Sir Richard Salton- 
Baptists). The next day they were sent stall, one of the founders of the Massa- 
to Boston, where Clarke was sentenced to chusetts colony, wrote from England to 
pay a fine of $100, or be whipped. One Cotton and Wilson, ministers in Boston, 
charge against him was that he neglected saying: "It doth not a little grieve my 
to take off his hat when he was forced spirit to hear what sad things are reported 
into the Congregational meeting-house at daily of your tyranny and persecution in 
lA'nn. In a sermon just before Clarke's New England, as that you fine, whip, and 
trial, John Cotton declared that to deny imprison men for their consciences. First 
the efficacy of infant baptism was " to you compel such to come into your assem- 
overthrow all," and was " soul murder " blies as you know will not join you in your 
— a capital offence. So Endicott held in worship, and when they show their dislike 
passing sentence upon the prisoner. He thereof, or witness against it, then you 
charged Clarke with preaching to the weak stir up your magistrates to punish them 
and ignorant, and bade him " try and dis- for such as you conceive their public 
pute with our ministers." offences. Truly, friends, this your practice 

Clarke accepted the challenge, and sent of compelling any, in matters of worship, 
word to the Massachusetts ministers that to do that whereof they are not fully per- 
he would prove to them that the ordi- suaded is to make them sin, for so the 
nance of baptism — that is, dipping in water apostle (Rom. xiv., 23) tells us; and many 
— was to be administered only to those are made hypocrites thereby, conforming 

132 



THE PROVINCE HOUSE, RESIDENCE OP THE ROYAL GOVERNORS 
OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 



in their outward man for fear of pun- 
ishment. . . . These rigid ways have 
laid you very low in the hearts of the 
saints." 

King Charles I. now began to interfere 
with the political independence of the 
colony. He demanded the surrender of the 
charter to the crown; the order was 
evaded, and, by erecting fortifications and 
drilling troops, the colonists prepared to 
resist it. During the civil war the colony 
was quiet, but on the restoration of the 
Stuarts in 1660 (see Charles II.) the 
government of England claimed supreme 
jurisdiction in Massachusetts. A commis- 
sioner was sent to England in 1662, and 
obtained a confirmation of the charter and 
a conditional promise of amnesty for 
offenders during the late troubles between 
royalty and the people. Charles II. de- 



setts, and a concession of the elective fran- 
chise to every man having a competent 
estate. 

There was a diversity of sentiment in 
the colony respecting these demands, some 
acquiescing, some opposing; and in 1664 
commissioners arrived in Boston to in- 
vestigate the affairs of the colony. The 
colonial authorities published an order 
prohibiting any complaints to be made to 
the commissioners, and addressed a remon- 
strance to the King. The commissioners, 
unable to do anything, finally withdrew. 
The King reproved Massachusetts, and 
ordered the governor and others to appear 
before him. They refused to go, and much 
trouble was expected. A more serious 
trouble awaited them. The colony was 
severely scourged by King Philip's Wae 
(q. V.) in 1675-76. The Indians destroyed 




ANCIENT MAP OF MASSACHUSETTS BAT. 



manded the repeal of all laws contrary to a dozen towns, 6,000 houses, and 600 of 
his authority, the taking of an oath of the inhabitants, in their homes or in the 
allegiance, the administration of justice little army. Of the men, one in twenty 
in the King's name, the complete toleration had fallen, and of the families, one in 
of the Church of England in Massachu- twenty was homeless; and the cost of the 

133 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 




GOVKKXOR ANUKOS IN BOSTON. 



war was over $500,000 — enormous at that 
time. 

The royal pretensions to rule the col- 
ony were renewed after the war, though 
England had not furnished a man or a 
farthing to carry it on, but these were 
spumed. In 1G80 a committee of the 
privy council, at the suit of the heirs of 
Gorges, denied the right of Massachusetts 
to New Hampshire and Maine. Mas- 



sachusetts purchased the title to the latter 
(see Maine), and the former became an 
independent province ( see New Hamp- 
shire). In 1684 the high court of chan- 
cery in England gave judgment in favor of 
the crown against the Governor and Com- 
pany of Massachusetts, and the charter 
was declared forfeited. Joseph Dudley 
was appointed royal governor, the General 
Assembly, or Court, was dissolved, and a 



134 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 



new commission superseded the charter 
government. Edmund Andros succeeded' 
Dudley, Dec. 20, 1686, when that tyran- 
nical ruler and his pliant council pro- 
ceeded to make laws and levy taxes with- 
out the consent of the people. The people 
submitted with impatience. They were re- 
lieved by the expulsion (1688) of the last 
Stuart king from the throne of England 
(see James II.), and early in 1689 the 
men of Boston imprisoned Andros, rein- 
stated the old government, and sent the 
ex-royal governor to England ( see Andros, 
Sir Edmund). In the intercolonial war 
between France and England in 1690 Mas- 
sachusetts participated, and to pay the ex- 
penses the colony first issued paper money. 

In 1692 a new charter was given to 
Massachusetts, by which New Plymouth 
was united with it. By its terms the 
colony of Plymouth, the provinces of 
Maine and Nova Scotia, as far north as 
the St. Lawrence River, and all the coun- 
try between them, were added to the old 
province of Massachusetts; also the Eliza- 
beth Islands and the islands of Nantucket 
and Martha's Vineyard. The governor, 
lieutenant-governor, and colonial secretary 
\vere appointed by the crown. The charter 
gave the governor the power to convene 
and dissolve the General Court, and a veto 
of all its acts. The councillors first ap- 
pointed by the crown were afterwards to 
be annually elected by the House of Repre- 
sentatives and the existing council; but 
of the twenty-eight thus chosen the gov- 
ernor might reject thirteen. The advice 
and consent of the council were necessary 
to all appointments and official acts. 
Under this charter the theocracy which 
had ruled Massachusetts with rigor lost 
nearly all its power. Toleration was ex- 
pressly secured to all religious sects, ex- 
cepting the Roman Catholic. The right 
of suffrage, limited by the old government 
to church members and a few persons ad- 
mitted as freemen on a minister's certifi- 
cate, was now bestowed on all inhabitants 
possessing a freehold of the annual value 
of $6.66, or personal property to the 
amount of $133.33. 

In 1692, after the receipt of the new 
charter, the General Court passed an act 
which was a declaration of the rights of 
the colony. Among the general privileges 
which it asserted, it declared that " No 



aid, tax, tollage, assessment, custom, loan, 
benevolence, or imposition whatsoever, 
shall be laid, assessed, imposed, or levied 
on any of their Majesties' subjects, or 
their estates, on any pretence whatsoever, 
but by the act and consent of the govern- 
or council, and representatives of the 
people assembled in General Court." 
About this time the Salem witchcraft de- 
lusion fearfully disturbed the colony for 
six months. The province was smitten by 
French and Indian invaders in 1703-4, and 
war was waged with the Indians in 1722 
and 1725. 

The controversies carried on through 
pamphlets in discussions of the subjects 
of paper money, the small-pox, and the 
quarrels between the governor (Shute) 
and the representatives, had exhibited so 
much freedom that James Franklin was 
encouraged to set up a newspaper at Bos- 
ton, called the Isleio England Coiirant. 
The first number was dated Aug. 6, 1721. 
It was designed as a medium of public dis- 
cussion, to take the place of pamphlets, 
and was the first newspaper in America 
that aspired to this eminence. Its free- 
dom of speech made the authorities un- 
easy; and one of its articles, in relation 
to the fitting-out of a vessel to cruise 
against pirates, was construed as contempt 
of the General Court, for which Franklin 
was imprisoned. His brother Benjamin, 
then a youth of sixteen, published in it 
some mild essays on religious hypocrisy, 
which gave greater oft'ence. It was 
charged that the paper had a " tendency 
to mock religion " ; that it profanely 
abused the Holy Scriptures; injuriously 
reflected upon the ministers of the Gospel 
and " on his Majesty's government," and 
disturbed the peace and good order of the 
province. James Franklin was forbidden 
to publish a newspaper, pamphlet, or any- 
thing else unless it should be approved 
and licensed by the colonial secretary. 
This order was evaded by the Courant 
being published in the name of his 
brother Benjamin, but the caution neces- 
sary to be used made contributors shy. 
They gradually ceased to write, and the 
paper, losing interest, finally perished for 
lack of support. Such was the fate of 
the first nominally free press in America. 

The colony was involved in war with its 
French neighbors in 1744, in consequence 



135 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 



of a war between France and England. 
In that war Massachusetts contributed 
largely in men and means to the capture 
of Louisburg (1745), and in attempts to 
conquer Canada. She also bore her part in 
the French and Indian War; and in the 
opposition to the Stamp Act and other 
schemes of the British Parliament for tax- 
ing the English-American colonists, Massa- 
chusetts took a leading part. 

Eecent acts of Parliament for taxing 
the Americans caused the Massachusetts 



that your Parliament, the rectitude of 
whose intentions is never to be questioned, 
has thought proper to pass divers acts 
imposing taxes on your subjects in Ameri- 
ca, with the sole and express purpose of 
raising a revenue." " If your Majesty's 
subjects here shall be deprived of the 
honor and privilege of voluntarily con- 
tributing their aid to your Majesty," they 
continued, " in supporting your govern- 
ment and authority in the province, and 
defending and securing your rights and 




THE STATE-HOUSE, BOSTON, MASS. 



Assembly, in January, 1768, to send to 
the King a petition which combined, tem- 
perately, the spirit of liberty and of 
loyalty. In it was set forth a brief his- 
tory of the colony of Massachusetts; the 
franchise guaranteed by their charter; ex- 
pressed the happiness of the colonists 
while in the enjoyment of these chartered 
privileges; spoke of the obedience to acts 
of Parliament not inconsistent with these 
chartered rights, and said: "It is with 
the deepest concern that your humble sup- 
pliants would represent to your Majesty 



territories in America, which they have 
always hitherto done with the greatest 
cheerfulness, their liberties would be in 
danger." They declared that if Parlia- 
ment intended to lay taxes upon them 
without their consent, the people " must 
regret their unhappy fate in having only 
the name left of free subjects." " With 
all humility," they continued, " we con- 
ceive that a representation of this prov- 
ince in Parliament, considering these local 
circumstances, is iitterly impracticable. 
Your Majesty has heretofore been gra- 



136 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 



ciously pleased to order your requisitions 
to be laid before the representatives of the 
people in the General Assembly, who never 
failed to afford the necessary aid to the 
extent of their ability, and sometimes be- 
yond it; and it would be ever grievous to 
your Majesty's faithful subjects to be 
called upon in a way that should appear 
to them to imply a distrust of their most 
ready and willing compliance." They 
closed by humbly asking the King to con- 
sider their situation and to afford them 
relief from the oppression of the Par- 
liament. With this petition went to Eng- 
land letters of leading statesmen, urging 
the rights of the province. 

The General Court which met Dec. 30, 
1767, having appointed a large committee 
to consider the state of the province, 
adopted (Feb. 11, 1768) a circular let- 
ter, which was addressed to the speakers 
of the various colonial assemblies, invit- 
ing co-operation and mutual consultation 
concerning the defence of colonial rights. 
This letter embodied the sentiments of the 
petition to the King above mentioned. It 
gave great offence to the ministry. When 
it reached them, Lord Hillsborough, sec- 
retary of the state for the colonies, sent 
instructions to the governor (Bernard) to 
call upon the Assembly to rescind the 
letter, and, in the event of non-compliance, 
to dissolve that body. It was then the 
most numerous legislature in America, 
consisting of 109 members. Instead of 
complying with the governor's demand, 
they made the instructions of Hillsborough 
a fresh cause of complaint against the 
ministry. " When Lord Hillsborough 
knows," said Otis in the Assembly, " that 
we will not rescind our acts, he should 
apply to Parliament to rescind theirs. 
Let Britons rescind these measures, or 
they are lost forever." The House re- 
fused to rescind by a vote of 92 to 17. 
In a letter to the governor notifying him 
of their non - compliance, the Assembly 
said, " If the votes of this House are to 
be controlled by the directions of a minis- 
ter, we have left us but a vain semblance 
of liberty." The governor proceeded to 
dissolve the Assembly; but before that 
was accomplished they had prepared a 
series of accusations against him and a 
petition to the King to remove him. The 
answers to the circular letter from other 



assemblies glowed with sympathy and as- 
surances of CO - operation. When it was 
known that British troops had been or- 
dered to Boston, a town-meeting was held 
and a request sent to Governor Bernard 
to convene the Provincial Assembly. He 
refused, and a convention of delegates from 
all the towns in the province was provided 
for. Delegates from more than 100 towns 
met, Sept. 22, at Boston, ostensibly " in 
consequence of prevailing apprehensions 
of a war with France." This was a mere 
pretext. They ordered all persons not al- 
ready in possession of fire-arms to procure 
them at once; and they appointed a day 
of fasting and prayer to be observed by 
all Congregational societies. The conven- 
tion petitioned the governor to summon a 
general court. He refused to receive the 
petition, and denounced the convention as 
treasonable. They proceeded cautiously. 
All pretensions to political authority were 
expressly disclaimed. They prepared and 
adopted a petition to the King, and a let- 
ter to De Berdt, agent for the provinces 
in England, charging him to defend the 
colony against accusations of sedition or 
a rebellious spirit. Such was the begin- 
ning of the system of conventions which, 
in a few years, assumed the whole political 
authority of the colonies. The convention 
adjourned after a four days' session, and 
the day after the adjournment troops 
from Halifax arrived. 

On March 5, 1774, John Hancock and 
Samuel Adams spoke to a great meeting 
of citizens in Faneuil Hall. The former 
said : " Permit me to suggest a general 
congress of deputies from the several 
Houses of Assembly on the continent as 
the most effectual method of establishing 
a union for the security of our rights and 
liberties." Samuel Adams said : " It will 
be in vain for any to expect that the peo- 
ple of this country will now be content- 
ed with a partial and temporary relief, or 
that they will be amused by Court promises 
while they see not the least relaxation of 
grievances. By means of a brisk corre- 
spondence among the several towns in this 
province they have wonderfully animated 
and enlightened each other. They are 
united in sentiments, and their opposition 
to unconstitutional measures of govern- 
ment is become systematical. Colony be- 
gins to communicate freely with colony. 



137 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE OF 



There is a common affection among them; 
and shortly the whole continent will be 
as united in sentiment and in their meas- 
ures of opposition to tyranny as the in- 
habitants of this province. Their old 
good - will and affection for the parent 
country are not totally lost; if she re- 
turns to her former moderation and good- 
humor, their affection will revive. They 
wish for nothing more than a permanent 
union with her upon the condition of 
equal liberty. This is all they have been 
contending for; and nothing short of 
this will, or ought to, satisfy them." This 
was the ultimatum of Massachusetts. 

An act for remodelling the government 
of Massachusetts was put in force on 
Aug. 1, 1774, and under it Governor Gage 
appointed a council by writ of mandamus. 
Most of those appointed accepted tlie 
office and were sworn in. They became 
at once objects of bitter public odium. 
The new government was denounced 
vehemently, and in some parts of the 
province with violence. The " mandamus 
councillors " were treated as enemies of 
their country by the patriots. In Boston, 
juries refused to serve, lest by consenting 
to act they should recognize the authority 
of the new government. It was not long 
before most of the " mandamus council- 
lors " were compelled to take shelter under 
a resignation to escape popular resent- 
ment. 

At the close of 1774, political power in 
Massachusetts was widely distributed, so 
that it was felt in every nerve of the body 
politic. There was a Provincial Congress 
having the general and supreme direction 
of public affairs. The efforts of this body 
were zealously seconded in every town by 
a committee of safety, vested with gen- 
eral executive powers, a committee of cor- 
respondence, and a committee of inspec- 
tion. The duty of the latter was to look 
after and enforce the observance of the 
requirements of the American Associa- 
tion (q. v.). 

The Provincial Congress of Massachu- 
setts wrote to the Continental Congress, 
May 16, 1775, setting forth the difficulties 
they experienced for the want of a regular 
government, since the act of Parliament 
that was intended to subvert their charter, 
and asking for explicit advice in the mat- 
ter. The Congress resolved (June 9) that 



no obedience was due from the inhabitants 
of Massachusetts to the obnoxious act of 
Parliament, nor to any of the crown offi- 
cers acting under it; that, as there was no 
council, and as Governor Gage was actu- 
ally carrying on war against the people, 
they recommended an election of repre- 
sentatives to an assembly that should ap- 
point councillors, and that this body or 
the councillors should exercise the powers 
of government until a governor should be 
appointed who would consent to govern 
the colony according to the charter. This 
was done. James Warren, president of 
the Provincial Congress, was authorized 
to issue writs for an election. The sum- 
mons was readily obeyed. A full house 
convened on July 20, and Warren was 
chosen speaker. A council was elected, 
and the two branches proceeded to legisla- 
tion, under the charter. 

On May 1, 1776, the General Court of 
Massachusetts passed " an act for estab- 
lishing the Stile of Commissions which 
sliall hereafter be Issued and for Altering 
the Stile of writs. Processes, and all Law 
proceedings within this colony, and for 
directing pene Recognizances to the Use of 
this Government shall for the future be 
taken and prosecuted." The act went on 
to say that, " Whereas, the Petitions of 
the United Colonies to the King had been 
rejected and treated with scorn and con- 
tempt, and the evident design of the gov- 
ernment was to reduce the colonies to a 
state of servile subjection," it was there- 
fore decreed that, " on and after the first 
day of June next ensuing, all Civil Com- 
missions, Writs, and Precepts for conven- 
ing the General Court or Assembly" 
should thereafter be made out " in the 
name and Stile of the Government and 
People of the Massachusetts Bay in New 
England." Also, all the officers of the 
colony, civil and military, should receive 
their authority from the same source. 
This placed the supreme authority of 
Massachusetts, de facto and de jure, in the 
chosen representatives of the people. It 
was an absolute declaration of indepen- 
dence. 

The doctrine of State supremacy had a 
strong hold upon the political opinions of 
New England, and particularly of Massa- 
chusetts, and it was restless under the as- 
sumption of supreme power by the na- 



138 



MASSACHUSETTS, STATE O^ 



tional government in the War of 1812-15. 
In his message to the legislature, May 20, 
1813, Governor Strong defended the right 
of free discussion of the great question of 
the day — peace or war with Great Brit- 
ain. The peace party powerfully influenced 
public opinion in Massachusetts, and, fol- 
lowing the message of the governor, the 
legislature agreed to a remonstrance, in 
Avhich they denounced the perseverance in 
war, and declared that, for aught that ap- 
peared, the questions at issue might be 
adjusted by peaceful negotiations. 

The politicians of the State were chiefly 
instrumental in getting up the Hartford 
Convention {q. v.), and George Cabot, 
of Massachusetts, was its president. In 
1820 the District of Maine was separated 
from Massachusetts, and admitted into the 
Union as a State. During the Civil War 
Massachusetts furnished to the National 
army and navy 159,165 men, and the losses 
were .3,749 killed in battle, 9,086 who died 
from wounds or disease, 15,645 discharged 
for disability contracted in the service, 
and 5,866 not accounted for. The State ex- 
pended on account of the war $30,162,200. 
In 1890 the population was 2,238,943; in 
1900, 2,805,346. See Adams, Samuel 
(Protest against Taxation) ; United 
States, Massachusetts, in vol, ix. 

GOVERNORS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS COLONIES. 

PLYMOUTH COLONY, ELECTED. 



GOVERNORS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS COLONIES- 
Conlinued. 

MASSACHUSKTTS BAY COLONY. 



Name. 


Term. 




1620 
1621 
1633 
1634 
1635 
163C 
1637 
1638 
1639 
1644 
1645 
1657 
1673 
1681 
1686 
1689 


to 1621 


William Bradford 


" 1633 




" 1634 


Thomas Prince 


•' 1635 


William Bradford 


«' 1636 




«' 1637 


William Bradford 


»' 1638 




«' 1639 


William Bradford 


" 1644 


Edward Winslow. ...... 


" 1645 


William Bradford 


«' 1657 


Thomas I'riuce 


" 1673 


Josiah Winslow 


" 1681 


Thomas Hinkley 

Sir Edmund Andros, governor-general.... 
Thomas Hinkley 


» 1686 
" 1689 
" 1692 



MASSACHUSETTS 


BAY COLONY. 




Name. 


Term. 


John Endicott (acting) 


1629 to 1630 


Matthew Cradock (did not servel 




John Winthrop 


. . ■" 


1630 " 1634 


Thomas Dudley 


1634 " 1635 


John Haynes 


1635 " 1636 


Henry Vane 


1636 " 1637 


John Winthrop 


1637 " 1640 


Thomas Dudley 


1640 " 1641 


Richard Bellingham 


1641 " 1642 


John Winthrop 


1642 " 1644 



Name. 

John Endicott. 

Thomas Dudley 

John Winthrop 

John Endicott 

Thomas Dudley 

John Endicott 

Richard Bellingham 

John Endicott 

Richard Bellingham 

John Leverelt 

Simon Bradstreet 

Joseph Dudley, president 

Sir Edmund Andros, governor-general 
Thomas Danforth (acting) 



Term. 



1644 


to 1645 


1645 


" 1646 


1646 


" 1649 


1649 


" 1650 


1650 


" 1651 


1651 


" 1654 


1654 


" 1655 


1655 


" 1665 


1665 


" 1673 


1673 


" 1679 


1679 


" 1684 


1684 


" 1686 


1686 


" 1689 


1689 


" 1692 



GOVERNORS OF MASSACHUSETTS APPOINTED BY 
THE KING UNDER THE SECOND CHARTER. 



Name. 

Sir William Phipps 

William Stonghton 

Richard Coote, Earl of Bellamont 

William Stoughtou 

The Council 

Joseph Dudley 

The Council 

Joseph Dudley 

William Taller 

Samuel Shute 

William Dummer 

William Burnet 

William Dummer 

William Taller 

Jonathan Belcher 

William Shirley 

Spencer Phipps 

William Shirley 

Spencer Phipps 

The Council 

Thomas Pownall 

Thomas Hutchinson ............. 

Sir Francis Bernard 

Thomas Hutchinson 

The Council 



1699 

noo ' 
noi ' 
no2 



noo 
not 

1702 

nis 



Feb. to March, 1715 
March to Nov., 1715 

1715 to 1716 

1716 " 1723 
1123 " 1728 

July, 1728,10 Sept., 1729 
1729 to June, 1730 
June to Aug., 1730 

1730 to 1741 

1741 " 1749 

1749 " 1763 

1763 " 1756 

1766 " 1757 
April to Aug., 1757 

1757 to 1760 
June to Aug., 1760 

1760 to 1769 

1769 •• 1771 

1771 " 1774 

1774 " 1780 



GOVERNORS UNDER THE STATE CONSTITUTION. 



Name. 


Party. 


Term. 


John Hancock 




1780 to 1785 


James Bowdoin 




1785 " 1787 


John Hancock 




1787 to Oct., 1793 


Samuel Adams 




1793 to 1794 

1794 " 1797 


Increase Sumner 


... .... 


1797 to June, 1799 


Moses Gill 


Federal. 


1799 to 1800 




1800 " 1807 


James Sullivan 


Dem. Rep. 


1807 to Dec, 1808 




Federal. 


1808 to 1809 


Christopher Gore 


1809 " 1810 


Elbridge Gerry 


Dem. Rep. 


1810 " 1812 


Caleb .Strong 


Federal. 
Dem. Rep. 


1812 " 1816 




1816 " 1823 


William Eustis 


1823 to Feb., 1825 


Marcus Morton 


" 


Feb. to July. 1825 




Democrat. 
Whig. 


1825 to 1834 




1834 to March, 1835 


Samuel T. Armstrong. 


March, 1835, to 1836 


Edward Everett 


<t 


1836 to 1840 


Marcus Morton 


Democrat. 


1840 " 1841 




Whig. 
Demoi-rat. 


1841 " 1843 


Marcus Morton 


1843 " 1844 


George N. Briggs 


Whig 


1844 " 1851 


George S. Boutwell . . 


Dem. k F. S. 


1851 " 1853 


.John H. ClifTord 


Whig. 


1853 " 1854 


Emory Washburn .... 


" 


1854 " 1855 


Henry J. Gardner. .... 


Republican. 


1855 " 1858 


Nathaniel P. Banks... 




1858 » 1861 



139 



MASSASOIT 



SOVERXOKS UNDER 


THE STATE 
Continued. 


CONSTITUTION— 


Name. 


Party. 


Term. 


John A. Andrews 


Republican. 


1861 to 1866 


Alexander H. Bullock. 


" 


1866 " 1869 


William Claflin 


" 


1869 " 1872 


William B. Washburn. 


«' 


1872 to May, 1874 


Thomas Talbot 


" 


May to Dec, 1874 


Will am Gaston 


Democrat. 


1875 to 1876 


.\lesander H. Rice 


Republican. 


1876 " 1879 


Thomas Talbot 


'• 


1879 " 1880 


John D. l.oug 


" 


1880 " 1883 


Benjamin F. Butler... 


Dem. & Ind. 


1883 " 1884 


George D. Robinson.. 


Republican. 


1884 " 1887 






1887 " 1890 


John Q. A. Brackett.. 


1890 " 1891 


William E. Russell.... 


Democrat. 


1891 " 1892 


Fred. T. Greenhalge. . 


Republican. 


1894 " 1897 


Roger Wolcott 


<t 


1897 " 1900 


W. Jfurrav Crane 


«« 


1900 "1903 


John L. Bates 


it 


1903 " 1905 


William L. Douglas.. 


Democrat. 


1905 " 1907 


Curtis Guild, Jr 


Republican. 


1907 " 1909 



UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



Na 



Tristram Dalton 

Caleb Strong 

George Cabot 

Benjamin Goodhue... 
Theodore Sedgwick... 

Samuel Dexter 

Dwight Foster 

Jonathan Mason 

John Quincy Adams. . 
Timothy Pickering.... 

James Lloyd, Jr 

Joseph B. Varnum.... 

Christopher Gore 

Eli P. Ashraun 

Prentiss Mellen 

Harrison Grav Otis. . . . 

Elijah H Mills 

James Lloyd 

Nathaniel Silsbee 

Daniel Webster 

John Davis 

Rufus Choate 

Isaac 0. Bates 

Daniel Webster 

John Davis 

Robert C. Winthrop... 
Eobert Bantoul, Jr. . . . 

Charles Sumner 

Edward Everett 

Julius Rockwell 

Henry Wilson 

George S. Boutwell 

William B. Washburn. 

Henry L. Dawes 

George F. Hoar 

Henry Cabot Lodge.. 
Winthrop M. Crane 



No. of Congress. 



1st 
1st to 
2d " 
4th " 
4th " 



6th 
6th to 7th 



6th 
8th 
8th 
10th 
12th 
13th 
Uth 
15th 
15th 
16th 
17th 
19th 
20th 
24th 
26th 
26th 
29th 
29th 



7th 
10th 
11th 
12th 
14th 
14th 
15th 
16th 
17th 
19th 
19th 
23d 
26th 
26th 
28th 
28th 
31st 
32d 



31st 

31st 
32d to 43d 

33d 

33d 
33d to 42d 
43d " 44th 

43d 
44th to 52d 
45th " 58th 

5.3d " 

58th " 



1789 
1789 
1791 
1796 
1796 
1799 
1800 
1800 
1803 
1803 
1808 
1811 
1813 
1816 
1818 
1817 
1820 
1822 
1826 
1827 
1835 
1841 
1841 
1845 
1845 



disease, which left only 300 persons alive. 
On March 15, 1621, Massasoit appeared at 
New Plymouth with sixty of his followers, 
armed and painted, prepared for peace or 
war. Edward Winslow had been sent 
with Squanto (see New Plymouth) to 
meet him with presents from the govern- 
or, while Captain Standish, with several 
musketeers, remained a little behind. 
I^eaving Winslow behind as a hostage, 
Massasoit approached with twenty armed 
warriors, and met Standish at a divid- 
ing brook. The dusky people were taken 
to a building where a rug and cushions 
were prepared for the king and his cour- 
tiers, and there, sitting in state, he re- 
ceived Governor Carver, who came with a 
braying trumpet and beaten drum. Squanto 
acted as interpreter. A treaty of peace 
~ and amity was concluded, which was never 

' broken by either party while Massasoit 

*? Jlgg lived. The old sachem sent messengers to 
" 1796 other tribes, inviting them to come and 
make peace with the white people. 

In the summer of 1621, Governor Brad- 
ford sent two envoys (Winslow and Hop- 
kins) to Massasoit, at Pokanoket, near 
Narraganset Bay, 40 miles from Plymouth. 
1817 They were kindly received by the king, 

1818 
1820 
1822 
1827 
1826 
1835 
1841 



1798 
1800 
1803 
1803 
1808 
1811 
1813 



who renewed the covenant with the Eng- 
lish. When he had taken the ambassa- 
dors into his dwelling, heard their mes- 
sage, and received presents from them, he 
put on the horseman's scarlet coat which 
1840 they had given him, and a chain about his 
1845 neck, which made his people " proud to be- 
1850 hold their king so bravely attired." Hav- 
^^^^ ing given a friendly answer to their mes- 
sage, he addressed his people who had 
gathered around him, saying, " Am not 
1 Massasoit, commander of the country 
around you? Is not such a to^vn mine, 
and the people of it? Will you not bring 
vour skins to the English?" After this 



1850 

1851 

1851 to 1874 

1853 " 1854 

1854 
1855 to 1873 
1873 " 1877 

1874 
1875 to 1893 
1877 " 1904 , . , 

1893 " • manner he named at least thirty places, 

1904 '• gjj^ ^Y\ gave their assent and applause. 

At the close of his speech he lighted to- 

~"~~~" bacco for the envoys, and proceeded to dis- 
Massasoit, king of the Waiiipanoag course about England, declaring that he 
Indians : born in the present limits of was " King James's man," and expressing 
Massachusetts about 1580. His domain his wonder how the King could live with- 
extended from Cape Cod to Narraganset out a wife (for the Queen was then dead). 
Bay. At one time his tribe numbered 30,- Massasoit had just returned home, and 
000 souls, but just before the arrival of had no food to offer the envoys, who craved 
the Mayflower they had almost been swept rest by sleep. " He laid us," wrote one of 
from the face of the earth by a malignant them, " on a bed with himself and his 

140 



MATANZAS— MATHER 




MASSASOlT'a LODGE. 



wife — they at the one 
end and we at the 
other; it being only 
planks laid a foot 
from the ground, and 
a thin mat upon them. 
Two more of his chief 
men, for want of 
room, pressed by and 
upon us, so that we 
were more wearied of 
our lodging than of 
our journey." 

In 1623, when Mas- 
sasoit was very sick, 
Winslow again visited 
him, and, in gratitude 
for the attention of the 
Englishman, the 
sachem revealed a plot 
of the Indians to de- 
stroy the white people. 
Thirteen years later, 
when Roger Williams, 
banished from Massa- 
chusetts, was making 
his way towards Nar- 
raganset Bay, he was 

kindly entertained by Massasoit for sev- but were driven off with a loss of twenty 
era! weeks. A contemporary writer says men. 

the Wampanoag king was " a portly man Matchett, Charles Horatio, socialist ; 
in his best years; grave of counte- born in Needham, Mass., May 15, 1843; 
nance and spare of speech." He left two has been an active member of the Knights 
sons. of Labor and of the Socialist Labor party. 

Matanzas, a seaport of Cuba, on the He has been the candidate of his party 
bay of Matanzas, about 50 miles east of for governor of New York, Vice-President 
Havana. It was one of the first places of the LTnited States (1892), and Presi- 
to be blockaded by the United States at dent of the United States (1896). 
the beginning of the war with Spain. Mather, Cotton, clergyman; born in 
Here, on April 27, 1898, a reconnoissance Boston, Feb. 12, 1663; was one of the 
was ordered in force for the purpose of most notable of the early New England 
locating the Spanish batteries, ascertain- divines. He graduated at Harvard in 
ing their number, and preventing the com- 1678, was employed several years in teach- 
pletion of additional fortifications. The ing, and was ordained a minister in May, 
Puritan, Cincinnati, and Neio York ran 1684, as colleague of his father, Dr. In- 
into the bay and opened fire upon a new crease Mather. The doctrine of special 
earthwork, which was struck by the third providence he carried to excess. He was 
shot. The Spaniards replied without hit- credulous and superstitious, and believed 
ting a ship. The Americans fired eighty- he was doing God service by witch-hunt- 
six shots at ranges varying from 4,000 to ing. His Wonders of the Invisihle World 
11,000 yards, and the Spaniards fired (1092) gives an account of the trials of 
twelve. There were no casualties on the witchcraft. In 1700 he published More 
American side, and the Spanish reported Wonders, and seems never to have relin- 
that the only damage done them was the quished his belief in witches and witch- 
death of a mule. During the action a craft. Aside from this peculiarity, he was 
Cuban force approached to attack the city, a most sincere, earnest, indefatigable 

141 



MATHEK— MATTHEWS 




COTTON MATHER. 



Christian worker, engaging in every good at Harvard College in 1723; became col- 
work; and he was the first to employ the league pastor of the Old North Church, 
press extensively in this country in the Boston. Later he left that church with a 
dissemination of tracts treating of tern- number of its members and founded a 
perance. religion, and social morals. He separate congregation in the same city, 
preached and wrote for sailors, Indians, His publications include Life of Cotton 

Mather; Apology for the Liberties of the 
Churches in New England; America 
Knoivn to the Ancients, etc. He died in 
Boston, Mass., June 27, 1785. 

Matlack, Timothy, patriot; born in 
Haddonfield, N. J., in 1730; was a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, or " Fight- 
ing Quakers," as the members of the 
society were called who took an active 
part in the Revolutionary War, like Gen- 
eral Mifflin. Matlack was most active in 
every patriotic movement from the time 
of the Stamp Act imtil the end of the 
war, serving in the councils of the inchoate 
nation and as colonel of a Pennsylvania 
battalion of troops. He was in the civil 
service of Pennsylvania after the war, and 
in all places was distinguished for thor- 
ough uprightness. He died near Holmes- 
burg, Pa., April 1-5, 1829. 

Matteson, ToMPKiisrs Hakrison, artist; 
and negroes. The number of his publish- born in Petcrboro, N. Y., May 9, 1813; 
ed works issued between 1686 and 1727 studied art from boyhood; became an as- 
was 382. He died in Boston, Feb. 13, 1728. sociate of the National Academy of Design 
Mather, Increase, clergyman; born in in New York City in 1847. His paintings 
Dorchester, Mass., June 21, 1639; was edu- include Spirit of '76; The First Sabbath of 
cated at Harvard and Dublin universi- the Pilgrims; Examination of a Witch; 
ties, and returned to Boston in 1661. He Perils of the Early Colonists; Eliot 
was president of Harvard University from Preaching to the Indians; First Prayer in 
168.5 to 1701. He was an energetic and Congress. He died in Sherbourne, N. Y., 
patriotic public man; was sent to Eng- Feb. 2, 1884. 

land to obtain redress of grievances: and Matthews, Edward, military officer; 
returned in 1692 with a new charter, and born in England in 1729. In 1746 he was 
invested with the power to nominate a an ensign in the Coldstream Guards, and 
governor, lieutenant-governor, and council before he came to America, in 1776, 
for Massachusetts. Dr. Mather opposed was a colonel and aide-de-camp to the 
the violent measures promoted by his son, King. He commanded a brigade of the 
Cotton, against persons accused of witch- Guards, with the rank of brigadier-gem 
craft. He wrote a History of the War eral. in the attack on Fort Washington. 
with the Indians and many other books Jn May, 1779, General Clinton sent 2,000 
and pamphlets. He died in Boston, Aug. men from New York, under General 
' ' -■'• Matthews, to plunder the coast of Vir- 

Mather, RicnARD, clergyman; born in pjnia. He entered the Elizabeth River 
England in 1596; emigrated to America on transports, escorted by a squadron of 
m 16.35; pastor of the Dorchester Church, firmed vessels under Sir George Collier, 
1636-69. He drew up the celebrated Cam- on May 9. They plundered and spread 
bridge I'latform of Discipline. He died in desolation on both sides of the river 
Dorclicster, Mass., April 22, 1669. to Norfolk. They seized that city, then 

Mather, Samuel, clergyman; born in rising from its ashes and enjoying a con- 
Boston, Mass., Oct. 30, 1705; f;raduatcd siderable trade, and also Portsmouth, op- 

142 



MATTHEWS— IttAUBILA 



posite. These were the chief places of and is author of The Theatres of France; 
deposit of Virginia agricultural produc- French Dramatists of the Minetecnth Gen- 
tions, especially tobacco. They captured tury; Secret of the /S'ca and Other Htories; 
and burned not less than 130 merchant Pen and Ink; A Family Tree and Other 
vessels in the James and Elizabeth rivers, Stories; Introduction to the Study of 
an untinished Continental frigate on the American Literature; Tales of Fantasy 
stocks at Portsmouth, and eight ships-of- and Fact; Aspect of Fiction; The Dream- 
war on the stocks at Gosport, a short Gown of the Japanese Ambassador; His 
distance above Portsmouth, where the Vir- Father's Son, etc. Mr. Matthews was one 
ginians had established a navy-yard. So of the founders of the Authors' Club, and 
sudden and powerful was the attack, that one of the organizers of the American 
very little resistance was made by Fort Copyright League and the Dunlap So- 
Nelson, below Portsmouth, or by the Vir- ciety. 

ginia militia. Matthews carried away Matthews, Stanley, jurist; born in 
or destroyed a vast amount of tobacco and Cincinnati, O., July 21, 1824; graduated 
other property, estimated, in the aggre- at Kenyon College in 1840; admitted to 
gate, at $2,000,000. Afterwards he as- the bar of Tennessee in 1845; appointed 
sisted in the capture of Verplanck's and United States attorney for the Southern 
Stony Point. Appointed major-general, he District of Ohio in 1858; commissioned 
was stationed at or near New York, and lieutenant-colonel of the 23d Ohio Regi- 
returned to England in 1780; was com- ment in March, 18G1 ; promoted colonel of 
mander-in-chief of the forces in the West the 57th Ohio in October, 18G1; elected 
Indies in 1782, and the next year was gov- judge of the Superior Court of Cincinnati 
ernor of Grenada and the Caribbean Isl- in 1873; United States Senator in 1876; 

appointed justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States in 1881. He died in 
Washington, D. C, March 22, 1889. 

Maubila, Battle of. At Choctaw 



ands. In 1797 he became a general. He 
died in Hants, England, Dee. 26, 1805. 

Matthews, George, military officer; 
born in Augusta county, Va., in 1739; led 



a company in the battle of Point Pleas- Bluff, in Clarke county, Ala., about 25 

ant, and was colonel of the 9th Virginia miles above the confluence of the Alabama 

Regiment in the Revolutionary War. Mads and Tombigbee rivers, was a strong Indian 

a prisoner at the battle of Germantown, town, the capital of Tuscaloosa, the head 

he was a captive in a prison-ship until of the Mobilian tribes. Tuscaloosa was 

exchanged, late in 1781, when he joined gigantic in stature, and was called the 

Greene's army with his regiment. After Black Warrior. De Soto had led his ma- 

the war he settled in Georgia, and was rauders through the beautiful Coosa coun- 

governor of the State from 1793 to 1796. try, and had, as usual, requited kind 

From 1789 to 1791 he was a member of treatment by treachery and cruelty. He 

Congress. He was afterwards brigadier- made captive the Coosa ruler, and carried 

general of the Georgia militia, with which off men, women, and children in chains as 

he was active in taking possession of slaves. Arriving on the borders of Tus- 

Florida, by order of the President (see caloosa's domain, at the great town of 

Florida), and the capture of Amelia Tallase, he there released the Coosa chief. 

Island (q. v.). He died in Augusta, Ga., and found the Black Warrior at his tem- 

Aug. 30. 1812. porary residence. He was seated on a 

Matthews, James Brandek, author; commanding eminence, with beautiful 

born in New Orleans, La., Feb. 21, 1852; mats under his feet, and surrounded by 

graduated at Columbia University in 1871 ; numerous attendants. Forty years of age, 

admitted to the bar in New York in with a handsome face and grave aspect, a 

1873, but never practised; and became head taller thun any of his warriors, and 

Professor of Literature in Columbia Uni- lord of many tribes, he was reverenced by 

versity in 1892. He had devoted much his people and feared by all his neighbors, 

time to the study of the stage, and among and his influence was felt from the Ala- 

his plays are il/argren/'s Lovers, a comedy; bama to the Mississippi River. He re- 

and Tliis Picture and That, a comedy. He ceived De Soto with haughty courtesy. 

is a frequent contributor to periodicals. When a pack-horse was brought, and Tus- 

H3 



MAUBILA— MAUDUIT DUPLESSIS 



caloo»a was requested to mount and ride 
by the side of De Soto, it was evident 
to liim that he was really a prisoner of 
the Spaniard, after the manner of other 
caciques who had been held as hostages. 
They crossed the Alabama River a little 
below the site of Selma, and moved on in 
the direction of the sea. 

De Soto discovered signs which made 
him uneasy. Tuscaloosa was in close and 
continual consultation with his principal 
followers, and was constantly sending run- 
ners ahead to his capital with messages, 
telling De Soto that he was preparing 
for their honorable reception there. De 
Soto did not believe him, and took meas- 
ures against treachery. The Black War- 
rior and the Spanish leader rode side by 
side into the Mobilian capital, a large, high- 
palisaded, and walled town, called Mau- 
bila. They were received in a great square 
with songs, the music of flutes, and the 
dancing of Indian girls. There Tusca- 
loosa requested not to be held as a hostage 
any longer. De Soto hesitated, when the 
cacique, with proud and haughty step, en- 
tered a house. When invited to return, 
he refused, saying, " If your chief knows 
what is best for him, he will immediately 
take his troops out of my country." This 
was followed by a revelation that 10,000 
Indian warriors were in the houses, with 
a vast amount of weapons; that the old 
women and children had been sent to the 
forests, and that the Indians were talking 
about the proper hou,r to fall upon the Span- 
iards. A greater part of De Soto's army 
was lagging behind at that perilous mo- 
ment in fancied security. To postpone at- 
tack until his army should come up, De 
Soto approached Tuscaloosa with smiles 
and kind words. The cacique turned 
haughtily away, when a chief came out 
of a house, and denounced the Spaniards 
as robbers and murderers. Gallegos, one 
of De Soto's most powerful warriors, an- 
gered by his words, cleft the speaker with 
his heavy sword from his head to his loins. 
The fury of the people was aroused. They 
swarmed from the houses, and by force of 
numbers pushed the invaders out of the 
walled town into the plain, releasing the 
Indian captives, and making them fight 
their late masters. Five Spaniards were 
killed and many wounded in that first en- 
counter. 



De Soto himself was wounded, but he 
fought on desperately. At the head of his 
cavalry, he charged upon the Indians, and 
drove them back into their town. They 
rushed to their wall-towers, and hurled 
showers of stones and clouds of arrows 
upon their assailants, which drove them 
back. The Indians rushed out with heavy 
clubs, and there was a fierce hand-to-hand 
fight. Hearing the sounds of battle, De 
Soto's laggards hurried forward, and with 
these fresh troops the Indians were driven 
back into their town, followed by the in- 
vaders. A dreadful carnage ensued. The 
Indians fought with all the desperation of 
patriots. Young women, in large numbers, 
fought side by side with the warriors, and 
their blood flowed as freely. At length 
De Soto, at the head of his cavalry, made 
a furious charge into the town, with a 
shout of, "Our Lady and Santiago!" and 
made fearful lanes in the ranks of fight- 
ing men and women. The houses were 
now fired, and the combatants were 
shrouded in blinding smoke. As the sun 
went down, the sights and sounds of the 
slaughter were dreadful. When night fell 
the contest was over. It had raged nine 
hours. Maubila was a smoking ruin, and 
its inhabitants had perished. It was esti- 
mated that 11,000 native Alabamians had 
fallen, and De Soto lost eighty-two of his 
men, some of them the flower of Spanish 
chivalry. It is believed that Tuscaloosa 
remained in his house and perished in the 
flames. See De Soto. 

Mauduit, Israel, political writer; born 
in Exeter, England, in 1708; was a pros- 
perous London merchant; acting agent of 
the province of Massachusetts in England 
in 1763-64, and wrote much in praise of 
the American cause during the Revolution- 
ary War. He died June 16, 1787. 

Mauduit Duplessis, Thomas Antoine, 
Chevalier de, military officer; born in 
Hennebon, France, Sept. 12, 1752. When 
twelve years of age he ran away frem 
home, visited the battle-fields of Marathon 
and Thermopylae, and made plans of these 
battles with his own hand. He became an 
artillerist, and served in the Continental 
army of America, first as volunteer aide 
to General Knox. He became a lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and behaved with skill and 
bravery at the battles of Brandywine, 
Germantown, Fort Mercer, and Monmouth. 



144 



MATJMEE INDIANS— MAXIM GUN 

In 1781 he distinguished himself at the permanent cripple, and he was placed 
siege of Yorktown. After the war he was in charge of the Hydrographic Office at 
stationed at Santo Domingo, where he Washington. On its union with the 
perished by the hands of the revolution- Naval Observatory, in 1844, he became 
ists, March 4, 1791. its superintendent. He made extensive 

Maum.ee Indians. See Miami Ind- researches concerning the physical geog- 
lANS. raphy of the sea, and published an in- 

Maumee Rapids, or Fallen Timbers, teresting work on the subject. He also 
Battle of. In northern Ohio, Wayne made extensive investigations regarding 
completely routed 2,000 Indians, on Aug. the Gulf Stream. In 1861 he resigned 

20, 1794. The Americans lost thirty-three his appointments from the government and 
killed and 100 wounded. The battle ended espoused the cause of the Confederacy, 
the Indian war in the Northwest. See In 1871 he was made president of the 
Fallen Timbebs. University of Alabama. He died in Lex- 

Maurepas, Jean Frederic Phely- ington, Va., Feb. 1, 1873. 
pEAux, Count de, statesman ; born in Ver- Maury, Sarah Mytton, author ; born 
sailles, France, July 9, 1701; was minister in Liverpool, England, Nov. 1, 1803; was 
of state in 1738, and one of the ablest educated there; came to the United States 
statesmen France ever produced; but be- in 1846. After her arrival she influenced 
cause of an epigram on the mistress of Congress to pass a law making sanitary 
Louis XV. — Madame d'Etoiles — whom the provisions for emigrant vessels obligatory, 
monarch had just created Marquise de Her publications include The English- 
Pompadour, he was removed from office tcoman in America; The Statesmen of 
in 1745. He was recalled in 1774, on the America in 1846; etc. She died in Vir- 
accession of Louis XVI., when he restored ginia in October, 1849. 
the exiled Parliament, and began a system Mauvaises Terras. See Bad Lands. 
of reform. He was instrumental in bring- Maverick, Samuel, colonist; born in 
ing about the treaty of alliance between England in 1602; settled on Noddle's Isl- 
France and the United States in 1778. and, Mass., in 1629. In 1664 he was ap- 
He died in Versailles, Nov. 21, 1781. pointed one of the four commissioners to 

Maury, Dabney Herndon, military settle political difficulties in New Eng- 
officer; born in Fredericksburg, Va., May land, and to wrest New Netherland from 

21, 1822; graduated at the University of the Dutch. He died in New Amsterdam 
Virginia; and at the United States Mili- about 1670. 

tary Academy in 1846; joined the Mounted Maxey, Samuel Bell, soldier and 
Rifles in the same year, and served with statesman; born in Tompkinsville, Ky., 
marked distinction in the Mexican War. March 30, 1825; graduated at West Point 
During the interval between that struggle in 1846; served through the Mexican War 
and the Civil War he was an instructor at with credit; raised the 9th Texas C. S. L 
West Point and later superintendent of in 1861; attained the rank of major- 
cavalry instruction and regimental ad- general; United States Senator from 
jutant at Carlisle Barracks. In 1861 he Texas, 1875-87. He died in Eureka 
resigned his post and became a colonel Springs, Ark., Aug. 16, 1895. 
in the Confederate army; was promoted Maxim, Sir Hiram STE^•ENS, inventor; 
brigadier-general for gallantry in the born in Sangerville, Me., Feb. 5, 1840; 
Elkhorn campaign. His publications in- worked as a coach-builder and in iron- 
>lude System of Tactics in Single Rank; works; removed to England in 1881, 
Recollections of a Virginian; History of where he invented an incandescent lamp, 
Virginia, etc. He died in Peoria, 111., Jan. a smokeless powder, the Maxim gun, 
11, 1900. automatic system of firearms, and other 

Maury, Matthew Fontaine, scientist; ordnance inventions; and devoted much 
born in Spottsylvania county, Va., June time to aerial navigation. He was knight- 
14, 1806; entered the navy as midship- ed by Queen Victoria in 1901. 
man in 1825, and while circumnavigating Maxim Gun, an automatic gun; inven- 
the globe began his treatise on Naviga- tion of Sir Hiram S. IMaxim. On a test 
tion. An accident in 1839 made him a experiment 2,004 shots were fired in 
VI.— K 145 



MAXIMILIAN— MAYAGUEZ 



one minute forty-five seconds. At the 
same time, in a test for accuracy, out of 
33-1 shots fired at a target 12 X 26 feet at 
a distance of 300 yards, 268 hits were made. 
The gun works itself after the first shot 
is fired until the cartridges in the belt or 
magazine are exhausted. See Explosives, 
Maximilian, Ferdixaxd Joseph, Arch- 
duke of Austria and Emperor of Mexico; 
born in Vienna, July 6, 1832, and, having 
entered the naval service, was made rear- 
admiral and chief of the Austrian navy in 
1854, In 1857 he was made governor of 
the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, and in 
the same year married Charlotte, daughter 
of Leopold I,, of Belgium, He departed 
for Mexico in April, 1864, and landed, 
with his wife, at Vera Cruz in May, The 
French army had already taken possession 
of the country. The archduke assumed 
the crown of Mexico, with the title of 
Maximilian I,, and, being childless, adopt- 
ed a son of Iturbide (q. v.) as his pre- 
simiptive successor on the throne, Juarez, 
the President, who had been driven from 
the capital, and, with his followers, de- 
clared by the new Emperor to be an out- 
law and usurper, made such strong re- 
sistance that Maximilian had to struggle 
for his throne from the very beginning. 
When the American Civil War was ended. 
Napoleon was given to understand, by the 
United States government, that the empire 
in Mexico and the presence of French troops 
there could not be regarded with favor 
by the citizens of the United States, The 
Emperor of the French acted upon this 
hint. He suggested the propriety of the 
abdication of Maximilian, but the latter 
would not consent, for he relied upon 
French arms to sustain him. His wife 
went to Europe to have an interview with 
the Emperor and also with the Pope, but 
the boon was refused, and her mind gave 
way under the pressure of her anxiety. 
Napoleon perfidiously abandoned Maxi- 
milian by withdrawing his troops, and 
left the latter to his fate, who, after 
struggling for a while to maintain his 
power, was captured by the Mexicans at 
Queretaro on May 14, 1867. He was shot, 
with two of his generals, on June 19. A 
vessel was sent from Austria, under the 
command of a vice-admiral, to convey his 
remains to his native coimtry, and they 
were interred in the imperial vault in 



January, 1868. His wife yet (1905) lives, 
hopelessly insane. 

Maxwell, William, military officer; 
born in New Jersey; was made colonel of 
the 2d New Jersey Battalion in 1775, and 
served in the campaign in Canada in 1776. 
He had been in the provincial army con- 
tinually for fifteen years before the Revo- 
lutionary War broke out. In October, 
1776, he was appointed brigadier-general, 
and, in command of a New Jersey brigade, 
was distinguished at the battles of Bran- 
dywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. He 
was in Sullivan's campaign in 1779, and 
soon after the action at Springfield, N. J., 
in 1780, he resigned. He died Nov. 12, 
1798. 

May, Cornelius Jacobsen, colonial 
governor; commanded the Dutch trading- 
vessel Fortune on a trading excursion to 
Manhattan in 1613. The next year he 
coasted along New England to Martha's 
Vineyard. In 1620 he was on the coasts 
and rivers southward of Manhattan, in the 
ship Glad Tidings, visited Chesapeake 
Bay, and sailed up the James River to 
Jamestown. The bay at the mouth of the 
Delaware River the Dutch called New Port 
May. in compliment to their commander, 
and the southern extremity of New Jersey 
is still known as Cape May. In the spring 
of 1623, Captain May conveyed to Man- 
hattan thirty families, chiefly Walloons, 
in the ship 'Neio Netherland, with Adriaen 
Joris as lieutenant. May remained at 
Manhattan as first director or governor of 
the colony. He was succeeded by William 
Verhulst, second director of New Nether- 
land, and returned to Holland. Except- 
ing his career in America, little is known 
of his life. 

Mayaguez, a seaport town of Porto 
Rico, in the province of the same name, 
about 50 miles west of Ponce. On Aug. 
8, 1898, a body of American troops, under 
Brig.-Gen. Theodore Schwan, advanced 
rapidly from Yanco towards Mayaguez. 
On the same date Sabona la Grande was 
occupied, and on Aug. 10, San German. 
The Americans then attacked the Span- 
iards near Hormigneros, and with a rapid 
charge carried the position in face of 
a heavy fire. The casualties of the en- 
gagement, as officially reported, were, on 
the American side, one killed and fifteen 
wounded ; on the Spanish side, twenty-five 



146 



MAYER— MAYFLOWER LOG 



killed and fifty wounded. On the next 
morning, Aug. 11, General Schwan en- 
tered Mayaguez unopposed. 

Mayer, Alfred Marshall, physicist ; 
born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 13, 1830; 
left college and entered the draughting- 
room of a mechanical engineer. Later he 
took a laboratory course and made a 
specialty of chemistry. He was appoint- 
ed Professor of Physics and Chemistry in 
the University of Maryland in 1856, and 
three years later accepted the similar chair 
in Westminster College, Fulton, Mo., 
where he remained two years. In 1867-71 
he was Professor of Astronomy in Lehigh 
University, and from 1871 till his death 
Professor of Physics in Stevens Institute 
of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. In 1869 he 
had charge of a party sent to Burlington, 




la., to observe the solar eclipse of Aug. 7, 
for the United States Nautical Almanac. 
During this eclipse he took forty-one suc- 
cessful photographs. In 1871-75 he con- 
tributed a series of investigations en- 
titled Researches in Acoustics to the 
American Journal of Science. Later these 
investigations led to his inventions of the 
topophone and the acoustic pyrometer. 
He was the author of many scientific 
tv'orks. He died in Maplewood, N. J., July 
13, 1897. 

Mayer, Brantz, author; born in Balti- 
more, Md., Sept. 27, 1809; was educated 
at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, and 
made a trip to the East Indies, visiting 



14T 



Sumatra, China, and Japan, returning ii» 
1828. He was admitted to the bar in 
1829; was appointed secretary of legation 
to IMexico in 1841, and afterwards pub- 
lished two important works on that coun- 
try. He was an accurate and industrious 
writer, and issued several valuable pub- 
lications, besides numerous occasional ad- 
dresses. During the Civil War and after- 
wards he held the office of paymaster in 
the army, and resided in California a few 
years. He was one of the judges at the 
Centennial Exhibition in 1876. He died 
in Baltimore, March 2), 1879. 

Mayes, Joel Bryan, Indian chief; born 
in the Cherokee reservation, Ga., Oct. 2, 
1833. His grandfather was James Adaib 
{q. v.). In 1838 he removed to the Ind- 
ian Territory (see Cherokee Indians), 
where he taught in the Indian schools 
until the outbreak of the Civil War, when 
he joined the Confederate army as quar- 
termaster. After the war he was elected 
to the supreme court of the Cherokees, 
and in 1887 became chief of the nation. 

Mayflower Descendants, Society of, 
an organization founded in New York 
City, Dec. 22, 1894, by the lineal descend- 
ants of the Mayfloivcr Pilgrims. The pur- 
pose of the society is "to preserve their 
memory, their records, their history, and 
all facts relating to them, their ancestors, 
and their posterity." Any lineal descend- 
ant of a Pilgrim of the Mayflower who 
has reached the age of eighteen years is 
eligible to membership. The annual meet- 
ing occurs on Nov. 21, the anniversary of 
the signing of the " Compact." The total 
membership in 1900, scattered over sev- 
eral of the New England and Middle 
States, was 2,500. Henry E. Howland is 
governor - general, and Richard Henry 
Greene is secretary-general. See Massa- 
chusetts. 

Mayflower Log. The Mayflower So- 
ciety of Massachusetts, through Ambas- 
sador Bayard, petitioned the British gov- 
ernment for the return to the United 
States of the log of the ship Mayflower, 
upon which the Pilgrims sailed for this 
country in 1620. Queen Victoria favored 
the society's request, and the relic was 
returned in June, 1897, and given into 
the keeping of the governor of Massachu- 
setts. See Bradford, William; Plym- 
outh, New. 



MAYHEW— MAZZEI 



Mayhew, Jonathan, clergyman; born 
in Martha's Vineyard, Mass., Oct. 8, 1720; 
graduated at Harvard in 1744, and or- 
dained minister of the West Church, 
Boston, in 1747, whicli post he held until 
his death, July 9, 1766. He was a zeal- 
ous republican in politics, and his preach- 
ing and writing were remarkable for their 
controversial character. He warmly op- 
posed the operations of the British Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, for he regarded it as an in- 
strument for the spread of Episcopacy. 
He became involved in a controversy with 
Dr. Seeker, Archbishop of Canterbury, be- 
cause the latter proposed the introduction 
of bishops into the colonies; co-operated 
with Otis and others in their resistance to 
measures of the British Parliament con- 
cerning the Americans ; and was among 
the boldest of the Whigs. His death de- 
prived the cause of a stanch champion. 

Majmard, Horace, diplomatist; born 
in Waynesboro, Mass., Aug. 13, 1814; 
graduated at Amherst College in 1838; 
removed to Tennessee in 1839; admitted 
to the bar in 1845; elected to Congress 
in 1857 and 1865; attorney-general of 
Tennessee in 1864; president of the Bor- 
der State Convention in 1867; minister to 
Eussia in 1875-80; appointed Postmaster- 
General by President Playes in 1880. He 
died in Knoxville, Tenn., May 3, 1882. 

Mayo, William Kennon, naval officer; 
born in Drummondto^\Ti, Va., May 29, 
1829 ; entered the na\'y in 1841 ; and served 
in the Mexican War. In July, 1861, when 
the Virginia convention met, he was de- 
clared an alien enemy, and forever 
banished from that State because of his 
adhesion to the Union. His service dur- 
ing the Civil War was marked with skill 
and bravery. He was promoted com- 
modore in 1882, and retired after forty- 
five years' service in 1886. He died in 
Washington, D. C, April 10, 1900. 

Mazzei, Philip, patriot; born in 
Tuscany in 1730; was a practising physi- 
cian at Smyrna for a while, and was en- 
gaged in mercantile business in London 
in 175.5-73. He came to America in De- 
cember, 1773, with a few of his country- 
men, for the purpose of introducing into 
Virginia the cultivation of the grape, 
olive, and other fruits of Italy. He formed 
a company for the purpose. Jefferson was 



a member of it, and Mazzei bought an 
estate adjoining that of Monticello to try 
the experiment. He persevered three 
years, but the war and other causes made 
him relinquish his undertaking. Being 
an intelligent and educated man, he was 
employed by the State of Virginia to go to 
Europe to solicit a loan from the Tuscan 
government. He left his wife in Virginia, 
when he finally returned to Europe, in 
1783, where she soon afterwards died. 
He revisited the United States in 1785, 
and in 1788 wrote a work on the History 
of Politics in the United States, in 4 
volumes. In 1792 Mazzei was made priv-y 
councillor to the King of Poland; and in 
1802 he received a pension from the Em- 
peror Alexander, of Russia, notwithstand- 
ing he was an ardent republican. 

During the debates on Jay's treaty, 
Jefferson watched the course of events 
from his home at Monticello with great 
interest. He was opposed to the treaty, 
and, in his letters to his partisan friends, 
he commented freely upon the conduct 
and character of Washington, regarding 
him as honest but weak, the tool and dupe 
of rogues. In one of these letters, ad- 
dressed to Mazzei, he declared that " in 
place of that noble love of liberty and 
republican government " which carried 
the Americans triumphantly through the 
late struggle, " an Anglican, monarchical, 
aristocratic party " had sprung up, re- 
solved to model our form of government on 
that of Great Britain. He declared that 
the great mass of citizens, the whole land- 
ed interest, and the talent of the country, 
were republicans; but opposed to them 
were the executive (Washington), the ju- 
diciary, two out of three of the national 
legislature, " all the officers of the govern- 
ment, all who want to be officers, all timid 
men who prefer the calm despotism to 
the boisterous sea of liberty, British mer- 
chants and Americans trading on British 
capital, speculators and holders in the 
banks and public funds — a contrivance 
invented for the purpose of corruption, 
and for assimilating us in all things to 
the rotten as well as the sound parts of 
the British model." " It would give you a 
fever," he continued, " were I to name to 
you the apostates who have gone over 
to these heresies — men who were Sam- 
sons in the field and Solomons in the coun- 



148 



ME AD— MEADE 




GEORGE GORDON MEADB. 



oil, but who have had their heads shorn and was in command of the Army of the 
by the harlot of England." Potomac in the summer of 1863. On July 

This was used as political capital by 1, 2, and 3, of that year he fought the 
the Federalists until the election of Jef- decisive battle of Gettysburg. In 1864 
ferson to the Presidency. Mazzei died in he was made major-general in the United 
Pisa, March 19, 1816. States army; and from July, 1865, to 

Mead, Edward Campbell, author; born 
in Newton, Mass., Jan. 12, 1837; travelled 
in the Orient in 1858-59, and later en- 
gaged in farming. He is the author of 
Genealogical History of the Lee Family of 
Virginia and Maryland ; Biographical 
Sketch of Anna M. Chalmers ; and His- 
toric Homes of the Southicest Mountains 
of Virginia. 

Mead, Edwin Doak, editor of the New 
England Magazine; born in Chesterfield, 
N. H., Sept. 29, 1849; studied in English 
and German universities, 1875-79; since 
then engaged in lecturing and literary 
work. He is the director of the Old 
South historical work in Boston, and has 
edited and annotated many of the Old 
South leaflets. 

Mead, Larkin Goldsmith, sculptor; 
born in Chesterfield, N. H., Jan. 3, 1835; 
studied drawing and sculpture with Henry 

K. Brown; and during the Civil War was August, 1866, was in command of the 
employed on Harper's Weekly as a war Military Division of the Atlantic, and sub- 
artist. His works include the National sequently of the Department of the East 
Lincoln Monument in Springfield, 111., and the military district comprising the 
Soldiers' Monument in St. Johnsbury, Vt. ; States of Florida, Georgia, and Alabama, 
statues of Ethan Allen in the National In 1865 he received the degree of LL.D, 
Art Gallery in Washington, D. C, and from Harvard University. He died in 
the State Capitol, Montpelier, Vt., etc. Philadelphia, Nov. 6, 1872. The citizens 

Meade, George Gordon, military offi- of Philadelphia presented to his wife the 
cer; born in Cadiz, Spain, Dec. 31, 1815; house in which he died, and $100,000 was 
graduated at West Point in 1835, served afterwards raised for his family. See 
in the war with the Seminoles, and re- Adams, Charles Francis; Everett, Ed- 
signed from the army in 1836. He prac- ward; Gettysburg, Battle of. 
tised civil engineering until May, 1842, Meade, Richard Worsam, naval offi- 
when he was appointed a second lieuten- cer ; born in New York City, Oct. 9, 1837 ; 
ant of topographical engineers, serving entered the navy as midshipman in 1850; 
through the war against Mexico, attach- promoted passed midshipman, 1856; mas- 
ed to the staff, first of General Taylor, ter and lieutenant, 1858; lieutenant-com- 
and then of General Scott. The citizens mander, 1862; commander, 1868; captain, 
of Philadelphia presented him with an 1880; commodore, 1892; and rear-admiral, 
elegant sword on his return from Mexico. 1894; and was retired in May, 1895. Dur- 
In the summer of 1861 he was made a ing the Civil War he served with much 
brigadier-general of volunteers, having distinction. In 1861-62 he was instructor 
been in charge of the surveys on the in gunnery on the receiving ship Ohio, 
northern lakes until that year as captain in Boston; in the latter half of 1862 he 
of engineers. He was in the Army of the commanded the Louisville, and was em- 
Potomac, active and efficient, from 1861 ployed in aiding the Western armies and 
until the close of the war. In June, 1862, in checking guerilla warfare between 
he was made major-general of volunteers, Memphis and Helena on the Mississippi 

149 



MEADE— MEAGHEB 



River. From September, 18G3, till May, 
18t54, he commanded the gunboat Marble- 
head, of the South Atlantic blockading 
squadron. He took part in the battle of 
Stono Eiver, S. C. Dec. 25, 18G3, when he 
resisted the Confederate attempts to sink 
his vessel, drive the National transports 
out of the river, and turn the left flank 
of General Gillmore. Later he landed and 
destroyed the batteries of the enemy. In 
1864-65, while with the Western Gulf 
blockading squadron, he destroyed or 
captured seven blockade-runners. In 
1870, in the international yacht race in 
New York Harbor, he commanded the 
America, which outsailed the English com- 
petitor. Cambria. In 1893 he was naval 
commissioner to the World's Columbian 
Exhibition. His retirement before the 
sge limit resulted from a disagreement 
with the Xavy Department concerning the 
way in wliicli he had been treated offi- 
cially. An article which appeared in the 
New York Tribune represented Admiral 
Meade as criticising the administration, 
and using the sentence, " I am an Ameri- 
can and a Union man — two things this 
administration can't stand." Subsequent- 
ly when Secretary Herbert asked him to 
affirm or deny this criticism he returned a 
Kon-committal answer. Soon there were 
rumors that he would be court-martialled 
for disrespect to the President, whereupon 
he requested his retirement. President 
Cleveland, in granting his request, cen- 
sured his conduct. He died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, May 4, 1897. 

Meade, William, clergyman ; born 
near Millwood, Frederick (now Clarke) 
CO., Va., Nov. 11, 1789; son of Richard 
Kidder Meade, one of Washington's con- 
fidential aides; graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1808, and became a minister of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. He 
was an earnest and active worker for his 
church and the best interests of religion. 
In 1829 he was made assistant bishop of 
the diocese of Virginia, and became bishop 
on the death of Bishop Moore in 1841. 
For several years he was the acknowl- 
edged head of the " evangelical " branch of 
the Church in the United States. In 1856 
he published Old Churches, Ministers, and 
Families in Virginia. He died in Rich- 
mond. Va., March 14, 1802. 

Meagher, Thomas Francis, military 



officer; born in Waterford, Ireland, Aug. 
3, 1823; was educated in Ireland and in 
England. In 1846 he became one of the 
leaders of the Young Ireland party. He 
was already distinguished for his oratory, 
and was sent to France to congratulate 
the French Republic in 1848. On his re- 
turn he was arrested on a charge of 
sedition and held to bail. Afterwards 
charged with treason, he was again ar- 
rested, tried, found guilty, and sentenced 
to death. That sentence was commuted 
to banishment for life to Van Diemen's 
Land, from which he escaped, and landed 
in New York in 1852. Lecturing with suc- 
cess for a while, he studied law, entered 
upon its practice, and in 1856 edited the 
Irish Neics. When the Civil War broke 
out he raised a company in the 69th New 
York Volunteers, and, as major of the 
regiment, fought bravely at Bull Run. 
Early in 1862 he was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and served in the 
Army of the Potomac in the campaign 
against Richmond that year. He was in 
Richardson's division in the battle of An- 




THOMAS FRASCIS MEAGHEK. 



tietam. Engaged in the desperate battle 
of Fredericksburg, he was badly wounded. 
Immediately after the battle of Chancel- 
LORSViLLE iq. V.) he resigned. He was 
recommissioned brigadier-general of volun- 
teers early in 1864, and was assigned to 
the command of the district of Etowah, 
In 1805 he was appointed secretary, and 



150 



MECHANIC ARTS— MECHANICSVILLE 



in ISnn became acting governor of Mon- 
tana. Wliilc engaged in operations against 
hostile Indians, he was drowned at Fort 
Benton, Mont., .Inly 1, 1867. 

Mechanic Arts. See Agricultural 
Colleges; Schools of TECHNOLOGy; Man- 
ual Training Schools. 

Mechanicsville, or Ellison's Mill, 
Battle of. Gen. Robert E. Lee, wlio liad 
been recalled fvom Georgia, was placed in 
command of the Confederate army led by 
Johnston, after the latter was wounded 
(see Fair Oaks, Battle of). He pre- 
pared to strike McClellan a fatal blow or 
to raise the siege of Richmond. He had 
quietly withdrawn Jackson and his troops 
from the Shenandoah Valley, to have him 



On the right side of the Chickaliominy 
General Porter was posted with 27,000 
men and ten heavy guns in battery. At 
3 P.M., on the 2Gth, Gen. A. P. Hill cross- 
ed the river and drove a regiment and a 
battery at Mechanicsville back to the 
main line near Ellison's Mill, where the 
^Nationals were strongly posted. There, 
on a hill, McCall's Pennsylvania Reserves 
were posted, 8,500 strong, with five bat- 
teries. These, with a part of Meade's bri- 
gade, were supported by regulars under 
Morell and Sykes. General Reynolds held 
the right, and General Seymour the left, 
and the brigades of ]\Iartindale and Griffin 
were deployed on the right of McCall. In 
the face of these formidable obstacles, and 




'i<^^_~=ir 



MECHANICSVILLE, 1862. 



suddenly strike the right flank of McClel- 
lan's army at Mechanicsville and uncover 
the passage of that stream, when a heavy 
force would join him, sweep down the left 
side of the Chickaliominy towards the 
York River, and seize the communications 
of the Army of the Potomac with the 
White House. McClellan did not discover 
Jackson's movement until he had reached 
Hanover Court - house. He had already 
made provision for a defeat by arrange- 
ments for a change of base from the 
Pamunkey to the James River : and when, 
on the morning of June 2.'i, 1802, he heard 
of the advance of Jackson on his right, 
he abandoned all thought of moving on 
Richmond, took a defensive position, and 
prepared for a retreat to the James River. 



a heavy fire of infantry and artillery, the 
leading brigades of Hill advanced, fol- 
lowed by Longstreet's, and moved to the 
attack. They massed on the National 
right to turn it, expecting Jackson to fall 
upon the same wing at the same time ; but 
this movement was foiled by Seymour. A 
terrific battle ensued. The Confederates 
were luirled back with fearful carnage. 
At 9 P.M. the battle of Mechanicsville, or 
Ellison's Mill, ceased. The loss of the 
Nationals was about 400 ; that of the 
Confederates, between 3,000 and 4.000. 
By this victory Richmond was placed 
at the mercy of the National army; but 
^IcClellan, considering his army and 
stores in peril, prepared to transfer both 
to the James River. 



151 



MECKLENB¥RG DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE— MEDALS 



Declaration of 
Declarations of 



Inde- 
Inde- 



Mecklenburg 
pendence. See 

PEXDEXCE. 

Medal of Honor Legion, an organ- 
ization of officers and enlisted men of the 
Union army who, during the Civil War, 
were awarded medals of honor for special 
acts of bravery and devotion under an act 



of Congress of 1862. Up to 1901, 1,500 of 
these medals had been awarded to veterans 
of the army, and 600 to naval veterans, 
of which 69 were on account of the war 
with Spain. 

Medals. The following table is a list 
of the medals awarded by the Congress of 
the United States. 



Date of Resolution. 



To whom presented. 



Foi what service. 



March 25, 1776 
Nov. 4, 1777 
July 26, 1779 



Sept. 
Nov. 



24, " 
3, 1780 



March 9, 1781 



Oct. 29, " 
Oct. 16, 1787 
March 29, 1800 
March 3, 1805 
Jan. 29, 1813 



March 3, " 
Jan. 6, 1814 



Jan. 
Oct. 



Oct. 
Nov. 



Feb. 
Feb. 



21, 
3, 



27, 1815 
22, 1816 



April 4, 1818 



Feb. 13, 
July 16. 
March 2, 

March 3, 



1835 
1846 

1847 



March 9, 
May 9, 
Aug. 4, 



1848 
1854 
May 11, 1858 



Dec. 21, 1861) 
July 16, 1862 ) 



July 12, " I 
March 3, 1863 f 



Dec. 
Jan. 



17, " 
28, 1864 



July 26, 1866 



Gen. George Washington 

Brig.-Gen. Horatio Gates 

Maj.-Geu. Anthony Wayne 

Lieut. -Col. De Fleury 

Maj. John Stewart 

Maj. Henry Lee 

John Paulding 

David Williams 

Isaac Van Wart 

Brig -Gen. Daniel Morgan 

Lieut. -Col. William A. Washington 

Lieut. -Col. John E. Howard 

Maj. -Gee. N'athanael Greene 

Capt John Paul Jones 

Capt. Thomas Truxton 

Com. Edward Preble 

Capt. Isaac Hull 

Capt. Jacob Jones 

Capt. Stephen Decatur. 

Capt William Bainbridge 

Lieut. Edward R. McCall 

Com. Oliver H. Perry 

Capt. Jesse D. Elliott 

Capt. James Lawrence 

Com. Thomas Macdonough 

Capt. Robert Henley 

Lieut. Stephen Cassin 

Capt. Lewis Warrington 

Capt. Johnston Blakely (to the widow). 

Maj. -Gen. Jacob Brown 

Maj. -Gen. Peter B. Porter 

Brig.-Gen. E. W. Ripley 

Brig. -Gen. James Miller 

Maj. -Gen. Winfield Scott 

Maj. -Gen. Edmund P. Gaines 

Maj. -Gen. Alexander Macomb 

Maj. -Gen. Andrew Jackson 

Capt. Charles Stewart 

Capt. James Biddle 

ilaj.-Gen. William H. Harrison 

Gov. Isaac Shelby 

Col. George Groghan (22 years after) 

.Maj. -Gen. Zachary Taylor 



British, French, and Spanish oEBcers ) 

and crews J 

Maj. -Gen. Winfield Scott 

Maj. -Gen. Zachary Taylor 

Capt. Duncan .V. Ingraham 



Dr. Frederick H. Rose, ofthe British navy 

Naval, to be bestowed upon petty ofH- 
cers. seamen, and- marines distin- 
guished for gallantry in action, etc. ; 
200 issued 

Army, to non • commissioned ofBcers) 
and privates for gallantry in action, { 
etc.; 2,000 issued ) 



Maj. -Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. 
Cornelius Vanderbilt 



Capts. Creighton, Low, and Stouffler 



152 



Capture of Boston 

Defeat ot Burgoyne 

Storming of Stony Point. 



Surprise of Paulus Hook. 
Capture of Andre 



Victory ofthe Cowpens. 



Victory at Eutaw Springs 

Capture of the Serapis, 1779 

Action with the Vengeance (French). 

Tripoli 

Capture of the Guerriere 

" " Frolic 

" " Macedonian 

" " Java 

" " Boxer 

Victory on Lake Erie 



Capture of the Peacock 

Victory on Lake Champlain. 



Capture of the Epervier. 

" " Reindeer. 

Victory of Chippewa, etc. 



" " Erie 

" " Plattsburg 

" " New Orleans 

Capture of the Cyane and Levant. 

" " Penguin 

Victory of the Thames 



Defence of Fort Stevenson, 1813 

Victory on Rio Grande , 

Capture of Monterey 

( Rescuing crew of U. S. brig of- war Som-) 
1 ers before Vera Cruz, Dec. 7, 1846. . . j 

Mexican campaign 

Victory of Buena Vista 

Release of Martin Koszta 

!For humanity — care of yellow- fever) 
patients from Jamaica to New York | 
on the U. S. S. /Susquehanna ) 



At Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, the 27th "l 
Maine volunteered to remain for the I 
battle, although its term had expired. ( 
All its members received medals. . . . ) 

Victories of Fort Donelson, Vicksburg, i 
Chattanooga / 

Gift of ship Vanilerhilt 

Rescuing ,500 passengers from the S. S. 
San Francisco. July 20, 1853. Creigh- 
ton, of the Three Bells, Glasgow ; 
Low, of the bark Kelly, of Boston; 
and Stouffler, of the ship Antarctic, 
Liverpool 



Gold. 
Silver. 



Gold. 
Silver. 



Gold. 



(Gold & 

( silver. 

Gold. 



Bronzei 
Gold. 



MEDICAL SCHOOLS— MEDICINE AND SURGERY IN THE U. 

MEDALS AWARDED BV THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES— Conhnwed. 



s. 



Date of ReBolution. 



March 2, 1867 
March 16, " 

March 1, 1871 



Feb. 24, 1873 
June 16, 1874 

June 20, " 



To whom preeented. 

Cyrus W. Field 

George I'eabody 

George F. Robinson 

( Capt. Crandall and others, Long Island 
\ light-house keeper and crew 

Centennial medals 

Life-saving medals. Ist and 2d class. . 



For what eervice. 

Laying the Atlantic cable 

Promotion of education 

Saving William H. Seward from assas-"! 
siualiou, April 14, 1865. Besides the V 

medal, $5,000 ) 

(Saving passengers from the Metis, o(\ 
J the New York and Providence line, > 
i. Aug. 31,1872 ) 

f There have been presented as awards I 
J for life-saving since the passage of I 
] the resolution 167 gold and 209 silver [ 
( medals up to July 1, 1892 J 



Gold. 



Gold & 
silver. 



Medical Schools. Medical education Maryland on a negro supposed to 

,, -TT -, ^ ci^ ^ J. i.1 1 e J.1 have been murdered by bis master; 

in the United States at the close of the surgeons received fees for " dissect- 

school year 1901-02 was promoted by 154 ing and viewing tbe corpse," one 

schools, which had 5,029 professors and hogshead of tobacco Sept. 24, 1657 

, , J .„j.„i „f nc Q01 r,+„,i.->r,+o Treatise on small-pox and measles pub- 
instructors, and a total of 26,821 students j.^j,^^ ^^ Boston by Thomas Thacher ; 

As far as reported the endowments of ^ steet 15 y2 x 10 V^ inches — the 

these schools aggregated $2,132,568. The first medical work published in 

value of the grounds and buildings was America 16(7 

1 T J mir, no/> />^o J j-i Ti • First quarantine act passed by the 

placed at $12,986,642, and the libraries General Assembly of Pennsylvania.. 1700 

contained about 156,929 volumes. Tliese First general hospital chartered in the 

schools included the regular medical, the colonies — Pennsylvania hospital of 

homoeopathic, the eclectic, and the physio- PMladelphia— organized 1751, o^en- ^^^^ 

medical, and with few exceptions the prin- Medical' " de'partmenV, '"'university of 

cipal ones were departments of large col- Pennsylvania, founded 1765 

leges and universities. College of Physicians and Surgeons, 

Medicine and Surgery in the United medical department of Kings Col- 

_^ ^ ^. •,• r 1 • • lege, New York, established 176< 

States. The position of physician - gen- p.^.^^ clinical instruction in America 

eral of the colony of Virginia was held one given by Thomas Bond in Penn- 

year by Lawrence Bohun, who arrived sylvania hospital 1769 

1010; and afterwards by John Pot, the Term ';f^ctor ^^^ * o^^^V^itianl" 

first permanent resident physician m the j^ America {Toner) 1769 

United States. Samuel Fuller, first phy- Medical department, Harvard Univer- 

sician of New England, arrived in the sity, founded 1783 

,, a • ipr>A A T^i,„ „ lo T\/r^„ Philadelphia Dispensary for the gratui- 

Mayfloicer in 1620, and Johannes la Mon- ^^^^ treatment of the sick poor, first 

tagne, first permanent medical settler in in the United States, established 1786 

New Amsterdam, arrived 1637, followed Earliest example of a special American 

the next year by Gerrit Schult and Hans ^^^^vce^^^ l.^'^ZS^ 

Kiersted, while Abraham btaats settled at g^^ Philadelphia, and designed espe- 

Albany prior to 1650. Lambert Wilson, a daily for the army 178S 

" chirurffcon " or surgeon, was sent to "Doctors' mob" in New York........ 1788 

New England in 1629 to serve the colony New Jork ^^ispe-ary^ organ-ed Jan. ^^^^ 
three years, and " to educate and instruct Elisha Perkins, of Norwich, Conn., 
in his art one or more youths." patents his " metallic tractors," after- 
wards known as " Perkinism " 1796 

First original American medical jour- 
Anatomical lectures were delivered in nal, the Medical Repository, appears. 1797 
Harvard College by Giles Firman be- Medical department of Dartmouth Col- 
fore 1647 lege established 1798 

Earliest iaw to regulate practice of First general quarantine act passes 

medicine in the colonies was passed Congress Feb. 23, 1799 

in Massachusetts in 1649 ; adopted First vaccination in United States per- 
by New York 1605 formed by Benjamin Waterhouse, pro- 
Earliest recorded autopsy and verdict fessor in Harvard College, on his four 

of a coroner's jury was made In children July, 1800 

153 



MEDICINE AND SXJRGEBY IN THE IT. S.— MEIGS 



First vaccine institute in tlie United 
States organized by James Smitli in 
Baltimore. Md 1802 

American Dispensatory published by 

John Redman Coxe 180(j 

Ovariotomy performed incidentally by 
Robert Houston in Glasgow (1701) 
and by L'Aumonier, in Rouen (1781), 
is performed by Ephraim McDowell, 
of Kentucky 1809 

United States vaccine agency establish- 
ed by Congress (discontinued in 
1822) 1813 

Work on Therapeutics and Materia 
Aledica, the first in the United States 
and best in the English language 
at that time, published by Nathaniel 
Chapman 1817 

John Syng Dorsey, of Philadelphia, 
author of Elements of Surgery 
(1814), and first surgeon to tie the 
external iliac artery, died (aged 35). 1818 

New York Eye and Ear Infirmary 
founded 1820 

Pennsylvania Eye and Ear Infirmary, 

Philadelphia, founded 1822 

Benjamin W. Dudley, founder of the 
medical department, University of 
Transylvania, Lexington, Ky., tre- 
phines the skull for epilepsy, prob- 
ably the first instance in the United 
States 1828 

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 

Boston, founded 1829 

Dispensatory of the United States of 
America, first published by Franklin 
Bache and George B. Wood 1833 

Oesophagotomy first performed by John 

Watson, of New York; case reported. 1844 

Water-cures introduced into the United Meigs, Montgomery Cunningham, mil- 

States bv R. T. Trail, who opened a ., „ , . , . /-i tit 

hydropathic institute in New York in itary officer; born m Augusta, Ga., May 

1844, and Joel Shew, at Lebanon 3, 1816; graduated at the United States 

Springs, N. Y 1845 Military Academy, and commissioned 

Left subclavian artery tied by J. ^ ^^^^^^^ lieutenant in the 1st Artil- 

Kearney Rodgers 184b . j , , j t ^ a r 

Collodion first applied to surgical pur- lery and a brevet second lieutenant of en- 

poses by J. Parker Maynard in Bos- gineers, all on Jvily 1, 1836; resigned 

ton 1847 July 31, 1837 ; reai^pointed brevet second 

Elizabeth Blackwell graduated M.D. i;„,,4. „„+ „f „„„;.,„^,.„ „„ +i,„ f„n^,„;„« 

, ., T , 1 1 f /-, lieutenant oi engineers on the loUowing 
at the medical school of Geneva, , ? ,- ■ -, 
N. Y. (the first woman in the United day; promoted first lieutenant in 1838; 
States) Jan., 1840 captain in 1853 ; colonel of the 11th In- 
First excision of the hip-joint in the fantry and brigadier-general and quarter- 
United States performed by Henry , i • -Mt ^oo^ t, ^h- a 
J. Bigelow, professor in Harvard Col- master-general, m May, 1861 ; brevetted 

lej^e 1852 major - general, U. S. A., July 5, 1864 ; 

Elkanah Williams, of Cincinnati, earliest and was retired, Feb. 6, 1882. He was 

^racUci''* '" »>phthalmology, begins ^^^^ considered the foremost scientific officer 

Ar'trria'InnomVnata' Vied' for" the' first '^ i" the regular army, and distinguished 

time by Valentine Mott, of New York himself as its quartermaster-general dur- 

(1818) ; by K. W. Hall, of Baltimore ing the Civil War, and also as an engineer. 

n8.".0); by E S. Cooper, of San ^yj^j^g -^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ -^^^ j^^ ^^,.^g p,^^. 

Francisco (18.t9) ; and again, being ,-,.,■, , ,. ;. , - 

the first ciise in whirh the patient's ployed in the construction of a number of 

life was saved, by A. W. Smyth, of forts, and superintended the building of 

New Orleans ]8(;4 ^]^^ l>otomac aqueduct, of the wings and 

"Z? Sa,isr"!n^"di!;^L^7 llle <!-- of the extension of the national 

throat and lungs, died 1860 Capitol, and of the extension of the Tost- 

154 



Centennial international medical con- 
gress held in Philadelphia 1876 

New York Polyclinic organized 1880-81, 

opened 1882 

Valentine Mott, of New York, reports 
four apparently successful inocula- 
tions for hydrophobia, performed by 
himself Oct., 1880 

The ninth international medical con- 
gress held in Washington. Sept. 5-10, 1880 

International medico - legal congress 
opens in Steinway Hall June 4, 1880 

Fortieth meeting of American Medical 
Association op&ns in Newport, R. I. . 

June 25, 1880 

Experiments with the Brown-Sequard 
life elixir i.-ause the death of ten peo- 
ple in Shamokin, Pa Aug. 16, 1889 

The stetho-telephone is patented by 

James I-outh, Chicago Jan. 27, 1890 

The twelfth annual congress of the 
American Laryngological Association 
meets in Baltimore May 29, 1890 

New York Institution for the Diseases 
of the Eye and Ear opened. .Aug. 19, 1890 

American Institution of Homoeopathy 
meets in Washington, D. C....June, 1892 

Pan-American medical congress in 

Washington opened Sept. 5, 1893 

Fifteenth annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Medico-Psychological Association 
in Philadelphia June 15, 1894 

Triennial Congress of American Asso- 
ciation of Physicians and Surgeons 
opens in Washington, D. C. . .May 29, 1894 

First visit of Prof. Adolph Lorenz to 
the United States to demonstrate 
bloodless operations 1902 



MEIGS 




MONTGOMERY CUNNINGHAM MEIG& 



Office Department. Subsequently he was niander of the St. Charles district of 
employed in preparing plans for the Louisiana, with the brevet of colone\, 
National Museum, and the new State, U. S. A. He was a United States district 

judge in Michigan; United States Sen- 
ator from 1808 to 1810; and governor of 
Ohio from 1810 to 1814. His services 
during the War of 1812 were of incalcu- 
lable value. From 1814 to 182.3 he was 
Postmaster-General. He died in Marietta, 
O., March 29, 1825. 

Meigs, Fort. When, in 1813, General 
Harrison heard of the advance of Win« 
cliester to the Maumee and the Raisin, he 
ordered all of his available force to push 
forward to reinforce that officer. The 
advancing column was soon met by fugi- 
tives from French town, and thoughts of 
marching on Maiden were abandoned for 
the time. The troops fell back to the 
rapids of the Maumee, and there built a 
fortification which Avas called Fort Meigs, 
in honor of the governor of Ohio. Har- 
rison's troops there were about 1,800 in 
number, and were employed under the 
direction of Captain Wood, chief engineer 
iVar, and Navy Department buildings, and, of his army. The work was about 2,500 
after his retirement, was the architect of yards in circumference, the whole of 
the new Pension building, all in Washing- which, with the exception of several small 
ton. He presented a remarkable collection intervals left for block-houses, was to be 
of historical articles to the United States picketed with timber 15 feet long and 
government, for deposit in the National from 10 to 12 inches in diameter, set 3 
Museum. He died in Washington, D. C, feet in the ground. When the fort was 
Jan. 2, 1892. finished, March, 1813, the general and 

Meigs, Return Jonathan, military engineer left the camp in the care of 
officer; born in Middletown, Conn., Dec. Captain Leftwich, who ceased work upon 
17, 1734; hastened with a company to it, utterly neglected the suffering garri- 
Cambridge after the affair at Lexington; son, and actually burned the pickets for 
accompanied Arnold to Quebec, Avith the fire-wood. On the return of Wood, work 
rank of major, where he was made pris- on the fort was resumed, and pushed 
oner; and having raised a regiment in towards completion. 

1777, was made a colonel, and performed Harrison had forwarded Kentucky 
a brilliant exploit at Sag Harbor (q. v.). troops from Cincinnati, and on April 12 
He commanded a regiment at Stoni' he himself arrived at Fort Meigs. He 
I'oiNT (7. v.), and served faithfully to had been informed on the way of the fre- 
the end of the war. He was one of the quent appearance of Indian scouts near 
first settlers of Marietta, 0. He died in the rapids, and little skirmishes with 
the Cherokee agency, Ga., Jan. 28, 1823. what he supposed to be the advance of a 
Meigs, Return Jonathan, jurist; more powerful force. Expecting to find 
born in Middletown, Conn., in Novem- Fort ]^Ieigs invested by the British and 
ber, 1765; son of the preceding; gradu- Indians, he took with him all the troops 
ated at Yale College in 1785; and went on the Auglaize and St. Mary's Rivers, 
with his father to Marietta, 0., in 1788. He was agreeably disappointed to find, 
There he took a conspicuous part in pub- on his arrival, that no enemy was near 
lie affairs, and was often engaged in Ind- in force. They soon appeared, however, 
ian fights. In 1803-4 he was chief-justice Proctor, at Fort Maiden, had formed plans 
of Ohio; and for two years he was com- for an early invasion of the Maumee Val- 

155 



MEIGS, FORT 

ley. Ever since the massacre at French- which they were sheltered. Their ammuni- 

to%vn he had been active in concentrating tion was scarce, and it was used spar- 

a h\rge Indian force for the purpose at ingly; they had an abundant supply of 

Amherstburg. He so fired the zeal of food and water for a long siege. Still 

Teeumseh and the Prophet by promises Harrison felt anxious. He looked hourly 




LOOKING UP THE MAUJIEE VALLEY, FROM FORT MEIGS. 



of future success in the schemes for an 
Indian confederation that, at the begin- 
ning of April, the great Shawnee warrior 
was at Fort Maiden with 1,500 Indians, 
l-'ull 600 of them Avere drawn from the 
country between Lake Michigan and the 
Wabash. On April 23 Proctor, with 
white and dusky soldiers, more than 
2.000 in number, left Amherstburg on a 
brig and smaller vessels, and, accom- 
panied by two gunboats and some artil- 
lery, arrived at the mouth of the Maumee, 
12 miles from Fort Meigs, on the 26th, 
where they landed. One of the royal 
engineers (Captain Dixon) was sent up 
with a party to construct works on the 
left bank of the Maumee, opposite Fort 
Meigs. 

On April 28 Harrison was informed of 
the movement of Proctor and his forces. 
He knew that Gen. Green Clay was on the 
march with Kentuckians, and he despatch- 
ed Capt. William Oliver with an oral mes- 
sage urging him to press forward by 
forced marches. Meanwhile Proctor and 
his forces had arrived, and on the morning 
of May 1, IS 1.3, he opened a cannonade and 
bombardnicnt from the site of Maumee 
City upon Fort Meigs, and continued, with 
slight intermission, for five days, but with- 
rmt much injury to the fort and garrison. 
I'he fire was returned occasionally by 18- 
pounders. The Americans had built a 
strong traverse athwart the fort, behind 



up the Maumee for the appearance of Clay 
with reinforcements. The latter had heard 
the cannonading at the fort, and had 
pressed forward as rapidly as possible. 
Proctor had thrown a force of British and 
Indians across the river to gain the rear 
of the fort, and these the vanguard of Claj' 
encountered. When the latter officer drew 
near he received explicit orders from Har- 
rison to detach 800 men from his brigade, 
to be landed on the left bank of the river, 
a mile and a half above Fort Meigs, to 
attack the British batteries, spike their 
guns, destroy their carriages, and then 
cross the river to the fort; the remainder 
of Clay's troops to fight their way to the 
fort. 

These orders met Clay as he was de- 
scending the Maumee in boats (May 5). 
Colonel Dudley was appointed to lead the 
expedition against the British batteries. 
The work was successfully performed ; but 
a band of riflemen, under Capt. Leslie 
Combs, being attacked by some Indians in 
ambush, Dudley led reinforcements to 
them. The Indians were soon put to flight, 
but Dudley, vmmindfvil of his instructions, 
pushed on in pursuit, leaving Col. Isaac 
Shelby in charge of the batteries. Both 
the British and Indians were reinforced ; 
the batteries were retaken ; and after a 
sharp fight, in which Shelby's troops par- 
ticipated, Dudley's whole command was 
put to fiight, and dispersed in great con- 



156 



MEIGS— MELVILLE 



fusion. A great part of them were killed Melville, George Wallace, naval en- 
or captured. Dudley was slain and scalped, gineer; born in New York, Jan. 10, 1841; 



and Combs and many companions were 
marched to Fort Miami below as prison- 
ers. Of the 800 who landed from the boats 
only 170 escaped to Fort Meigs. 

While these scenes were occurring on 
the left bank of the Maumee, there was a 
desperate struggle on the fort side. A part 
of the remainder of Clay's command, under 
Col. W. E. Boswell, having landed a short 
distance above the fort, were ordered to 
fight their way in. They were soon at- 
tacked by a body of British and Indians, 



was educated in the public schools and at 
the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute; enter- 
ed the U. S. N. as third assistant engineer 
on July 29, 1861; was promoted second 
assistant engineer, Dec. 18, 1862; first as- 
sistant engineer, Jan. 30, 1805; passed as- 
sistant engineer, Feb. 24, 1874; chief engi- 
neer, March 4, 1881 ; and was retired Jan. 
10, 1903. On Aug. 9, 1887, Captain Mel- 
ville was appointed chief of the bureau of 
steam engineering in the navy with the 
relative rank of commodore, and on the 



but were joined by a sallying party from abolition of the grade of commodore by 



the fort; and while a sharp struggle was 
going on there, Harrison ordered a help- 
ful sortie from the fort to attack some 
works cast up by the enemy near a deep 
ravine. This was done by 350 men, under 
Col. John Miller, of the regulars. They 
found a motley force there, 850 strong, 
but they were soon driven away and their 



the Navy Personnel Act in 1899 he was 
given the rank of rear-admiral during his 
occupancy of the office of chief engineer. 
In 1879 he joined the Jeannette polar ex- 
pedition under the command of Lieut. 
George W. De Long, and sailed from San 
Francisco July 8. The vessel was crush- 
ed by the ice and sunk June 12, 1881. 



cannon spiked. The fight was desperate, Melville and De Long succeeded in reaching 
the Americans being surrounded at one land 150 miles apart, with a portion of the 
point by four times their own number, crew. De Long and all but two of his men 
The victors returned to the fort with forty- perished from cold and starvation on the 
three captives. Boswell 
in the mean time had 
utterly routed the force 
before him at the point 
of the bayonet. Fort 
Meigs was saved. The 
result of that day's 
fighting, and the ill- 
success of all efforts to 
reduce the fort, caused 
Proctor's Indian allies 
to desert him, and the 
Canadian militia to 
turn their faces home- 
ward. The Prophet 
had been promised by 
Proctor the whole Ter- 
ritory of Michigan as 
his trophy, and Tecum- 
seh was to have the 
person of General Har- 
rison, whom he had in- 
tensely hated since the 
Battle of Tippecanoe 

iq. v.), as his. These promises were un- banks of the Lena. The next spring Mel- 
fulfilled, and the Indians left in disgust, ville with his companions explored the 
Only Tecumseh's commission and pay of a delta for traces of the missing party, 
brigadier-general in the British army se- After finding the remains of De Long and 
cured his further services. his companions he returned to the United 

157 




MAP OF THE SIEGE OF FORT MEIGS. 



MBLYN— MEMMINGER 




GEORGE WALLACE MELVILLE. 

States. He has contributed largely to 
the building up of the new na\^; designed 
the triple-screw machinery for the two 
swiftest cruisers, Columhia and Minneapo- 
lis; and invented many mechanical ap- 
pliances. He is president of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Engineers and 
author of In the Lena Delta. See Arctic 

EXPLOKATIOXS. 

Melyn, Cornelius, patroon; born in 
Antwerp; came to Manhattan in 1639, and 
was so pleased that he returned and 
brought over his family and began a 
colony on Staten Island, under the au- 
thority of the Amsterdam directors. His 
domain was near the Narrows, and he was 
vested with the privilege of a patroon. 
Melyn was active, and was chosen one of 
the Eight Men, under Kieft. He quarrelled 
with Kieft, and, as president of the Eight 
Men, he wrote a vigorous letter to the 
States-General urging them to interfere in 
behalf of the province. On the accession 
of Stuj^-esant, he was falsely accused of 
rebellious practices as one of Kieft's coun- 
cil of Eight Men, and a prejudiced verdict 
was given against him. He was sen- 
tenced to seven years' banishment from the 
colony, to pay a heavy fine, and to " forfeit 
all benefits to be derived from the com- 
pany." Kuyter, another of the Eight in- 



volved in the same charges, received a 
somewhat less severe punishment. He and 
Melyn sailed for Holland in the same ship 
with Kieft, which was lost on the coast 
of Wales, but both were saved, while 
eighty others were drowned. The au- 
thorities in Holland reversed the sentence, 
and Mel^m and Kuyter returned to Man- 
hattan, when he demanded that his vin- 
dication should be made as public as had 
the sentence of disgrace; but his redress 
was denied. Melyn was persistently per- 
secuted by StuyA'esant, and at length, 
weary with suffering, he returned to Hol- 
land to seek justice there. He joined dele- 
gates of the commonalty of New Amster- 
dam, who wrote voluminous documents, 
filled with complaints against Stuy^'esant's 
administration. There were promises of 
relief, but their fulfilment was delayed, 
and when Melyn returned to New Nether- 
land Stuyvesant renewed his persecutions. 
He made new charges against the patroon, 
confiscated his property in New Amster- 
dam, and compelled him to confine himself 
to his manor on Staten Island. Melyn 
finally abandoned New Netherland (1657) 
and went to New Haven, where he took 
the oath of fidelity; and in 1661 he sur- 
rendered his manor and patroonship to the 
West India Compam'. Soon afterwards 
the whole of Staten Island became the 
property of the company. 

Memminger, Charles Gustavus, fin- 
ancier ; born in Wiirtemberg, Germany, 
Jan. 9, 1803; Avas taken to Charleston, 
S. C, in infancy; graduated at South 
Carolina College in 1820, and began to 
practise law in 1826. In the nullifica- 
tion movement in South Carolina (see 
Nullification) he was a leader of the 
Union men. In 1860 he was a leader of 
the Confederates in that State, and on the 
formation of the Confederate government 
was made Secretary of the Treasury. 
He had been for nearly twenty yearg 
at the head of the finance committee of 
the South Carolina legislature. He died 
March 7, 1888. 

In January, 1860, as a representative 
of the political leaders in South Carolina, 
he appeared before the legislature of Vir- 
ginia as a special commissioner to enlist 
the representatives of the "Old Domin- 
ion " in a scheme to combat the abolition- 
ists. In the name of South Carolina, he 



158 



MEMORIAL DAY— MEMPHIS 



proposed a convention of the slave-labor 
States to consider their grievances and to 
" take action for their defence." In an 
able plea he reminded the Virginians of 
their narrow escape from disaster by John 
Brown's raid, and the necessity of a South- 
ern union to provide against similar 
perils. He concluded by saying: "I have 
delivered into the keeping of Virginia the 
cause of the South." He reported that he 
" found it difficult to see through " the 
Virginia legislature, for they hesitated to 
receive his gospel. The slave-holders of 
that State who were deriving a princely 
revenue from th^ inter-State slave-trade — 



" Memorial Day," when the graves of 
Confederate soldiers and sailors are also 
decorated with llowera, with imposing 
ceremonies. In i-ccent years there has 
been a happy commingling of the Boys in 
Blue and the Boys in Gray on these re- 
spective occasions. 

Memphis, Capture of. After the 
capture of Island Number Ten, Commo- 
dore Foote went down the Mississippi 
with his flotilla, and transports bearing 
Pope's army, to attempt the capture of 
Memphis, but was confronted at Chick- 
asaw Bluffs, 80 miles above that city, by 
a Confederate flotilla under Capt. J. S. 




FOItT I'lLI^OW. 



from $12,000,000 to $20,000,000 a year- 
were averse to forming a part of a con- 
federacy in which the African slave-trade 
was to be reopened and encouraged. Mr. 
Memminger, in his report, said : " I see no 
men, however, who would take the posi- 
tion of leaders in a revolution." 

Memorial, or Decoration Day. The 
30th day of May is generally observed as 
a holiday by the citizens of the United 
States, when the touching ceremony of 
decorating the graves of Union soldiers 
and sailors all over the land is performed, 
in public and private cemeteries, with ap- 
propriate ceremonies. The 20th of May 
is observed in the Southern States as 



Hollins and 3,000 troops imder Gen. Jeff 
M. Thompson, who occupied a military 
work on the bluffs, called Fort Pillow, 
then in command of General Villepigue, 
an accomplished engineer. On April 14, 
18G2, Foote began a siege of Fort Pillow 
with his niortar-boats, and soon drove 
Hollins to the shelter of that work. Pope, 
whose troops had landed on the Arkansas 
shore, was unable to co-operate, because 
the country was flooded, and being soon 
called by Halleck to Shiloh, Foote was 
left to operate alone. He was finally com- 
pelled to turn over the command to Capt. 
C. H. Davis on account of the painfulness 
of a wound he had received at Fort Donel- 



159 



MENARD— MENENDEZ DE AVILES 



son. On May 10 Hollins attacked Davis, 
but was repulsed, notwithstanding he was 
aided by the heavy guns of Fort Pillow. 
For more than a fortnight afterwards the 
belligerent fleets watched each other, 
when a " ram " squadron, commanded by 
Col. Charles Ellet, Jr., joined Davis's flo- 
tilla and prepared to attack Hollins. 
The Confederates, having just heard of 
the flight of Beauregard from Corinth, 
which uncovered Memphis, hastily evacu- 
ated Fort Pillow (June 4) and fled down 
the river in transports to Memphis, fol- 
lowed by Hollins's flotilla. On June 6 
the National flotilla won a victory over 
the Confederate squadron in front of Mem- 
phis, when that city was surrendered to 
the Union forces. It was speedily occu- 
pied by troops under Gen. Lew. Wallace, 
who were received with joy by the Union 
citizens. All Kentucky, western Tennes- 
see, northern Mississippi, and Alabama 
were then in possession of the National 
authorities. The population of Memphis 
in 1890 was 64,495; in 1900, 102,320. 

Menard, Rene. See Jesuit Missions. 

Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, naval offi- 
cer; born in Avil6s, Spain, in 1519; en- 
tered the Spanish naval service in his 
youth. After successfully battling with 



French corsairs, Philip II. of Spain ap- 
pointed him captain-general of the India 
fleet. Menendez carried that monarch to 
England to marry Queen Mary, and took 
him back on his return. In 1565 Philip 
made him governor of Florida; and just 
before he was to depart the King was in- 
formed of the Hviguenot settlement there, 
and fitted out an expedition for their de- 
struction. Menendez sailed with thirty- 
four vessels, bearing 2,600 persons — farm- 
ers, mechanics, soldiers, and priests. Ar- 
riving at Porto Rico with a small part of 
his force, Menendez heard of the rein- 
forcements Ribault had taken to Florida, 
and he immediately went to the mouth of 
the St. John with Philip's cruel order to 
murder all the Huguenots. Failing to 
catch the French fleet that escaped from 
the St. John, Menendez landed farther 
southward, built a fort, and founded St. 
Augustine (q. v.). Marching overland, 
he attacked and captured the French Fort 
Carolina, putting nearly the whole of the 
garrison to death. Only seventy of the 
colonists escaped, and some of the prison- 
ers were hanged. Ribault's ships that 
went out to drive Menendez from St. Au- 
gustine were wrecked, and a portion of 
the crew, with Ribault, falling into the 




MENENDEZ'S EXPEDITION ON ITS WAT TO THE NEW WORLD. 

160 



MENNONITES 




DE GOURGUES AVENGING THE MASSACRE OP THE HUGUENOTS BY MENENDEZ. 



liiinds of the Spaniards, were nearly all 
I)Ut to death. These outrages were avenged 
by a Frenchman named De Gourgues. In 
1570 Menendez sent a colony of Jesuits 
to establish a mission near Chesapeake 
Bay. They were massacred by Indians. 
In 1572 he explored the Potomac and the 
Chesapeake Bay, and was preparing to 
colonize that region, when his King ap- 
pointed him commander of a fleet against 
the Low Countries. While preparing for 
this expedition he died, in Santander, Sept. 
17, 1574. See Florida; Huguenots. 

Mennonites. This sect derives its name 
from Simon Menno, the founder, who lived 
early in the sixteenth century. He sepa- 
rated his followers from the other bodies 
of Protestants in Holland and Germany, 
and ^ave them a system of church order. 
Their rseculiar beliefs consisted in con- 
demning all war as sinful, also oaths and 
lawsuits, and in looking for the personal 
reign of Christ in the millennium. All 
immoral practices were condemned by 
them, and their own conduct has been ex- 
emplary, prudent, and devout. Historians 
rank them as among the best Christians 
of the Church, and the best citizens any 
State ever had. Towards the end of the 
sixteenth century William, Prince of 
Orange, granted the Mennonites a settle- 
ment in the United Provinces. Their con- 
fession of faith was made public in 1626, 
and in 1649 they adopted a system of 



church policy, which is still generally ad- 
hered to by them. Persecution in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries drove 
many from other European countries to 
take refuge in Holland, where the church 
became very strong. They established a 
theological seminary at Amsterdam in 
1735. They are now one of the strongest 
religious bodies in Holland. In the seven- 
teenth century many Mennonites emi- 
grated to Russia, but a century later perse- 
cution drove them largely from that coun- 
try. In 1786, however, Catharine II. 
offered special privileges to the members 
of this religious body to persuade them 
to settle in the kingdom. This induced a 
large emigration of them thither, where 
by their diligence they gained great pros- 
perity. They were always protected and 
favored by the government until 1871, 
when their most valued privilege — exemp- 
tion from military duty — was taken from 
them. This brought about the removal of 
the larger part of the Russian Mennonites 
to the United States. 

The first members of these to come to 
tliis country was a delegation that came 
in 1683, by invitation of William Penn. 
Others followed in subsequent years, set- 
tling in Pennsylvania and other States, 
but their numbers were comparatively few 
here until the coming of the colonies from 
Russia. These have generally settled in 
Kansas and Nebraska. There have been 



161 



MEN or THE WOODS— MERCER 



several secessions from the main body of 
the Mennonites. The Reformed Mennonites 
seceded in 1811. Another branch, the 
New Mennonites, organized in 1847, and 
an oflshoot from this, the Evangelical 
Mennonites, was formed in 185G. The 
Amish Mennonites form still another with- 
drawal from tlie main body. These latter 
are often known as " Hookers," because 
they substitute hooks for buttons on their 
clothes. 

The ilennonites in the United States 
are divided into twelve branches, as fol- 
lows: Mennonites proper, Amish, Reform- 
ed, General Conference, Bundes Conference, 
Defenceless, Brethren in Christ, Brueder- 
hoef. Old Amish, Apostolic, Church of 
God in Christ, and Old (Wisler). In 
1904 the principal bodies reported the 
following statistics: 





Ministers. 


Churches. 


Members. 


ifennonite 


425 
274 
43 
135 
44 
20 
76 


288 
124 
34 
76 
16 
11 
59 


22,974 

13,413 

1 680 




Reformed 


General Conference 

Bundes Conference 

Defenceless 

Brethren in Christ 


10,545 
3,000 
1,126 
3,103 


Total 


1,017 


608 


55,841 





Men of the Woods. See Cayuga Ind- 
ians. 

Menomonee Indians, a family of the 
Algonquian nation, residing upon the Me- 
nomonee River, in Wisconsin. They assert 
that their ancestors emigrated from the 
East, but they were found on their present 
domain in 1040 by the French. Jesuit 
missions were established among them in 
1G70 by Allouez and otliers. The IVIenom- 
onees were fast friends of the French, 
marched to the relief of Detroit in 1712, 
and subsequently drove the Foxes from 
Green Bay. Some of their warriors were 
with the French against Braddock in 
1755; aLso at the capture of Fort William 
Henry, on Lake George, and on the Plains 
of Abraham with Montcalm. In the Revo- 
lutionary War and the War of 1812 they 
were the friends of the English. They as- 
sisted in the capture of Mackinaw in 
1812, and were with Tecumseh at Fort 
;Meigs and at Fort Stephenson in 181.3. 
After that they made several treaties with 
the United States, and they served the 
government against the Sacs and Foxes in 
1832 (see Black Hawk Wab). The re- 



ligion of the Mehomonees was that of all 
the other tribes in the North. They are 
now about half pagans and half Roman 
Catholics. They refused to join the Sioux 
in their outbreak in 1861, and several of 
their warriors were volunteers in the Na- 
tional army. They are fading, like the 
otlier tribes. In 1822 they numbered near- 
ly 4,000; in 1899, 1,375, all at the Green 
Bay agency. 

Mercer, Hugh, military officer; born in 
Aberdeen, Scotland, about 1720; became a 
physician, and was assistant surgeon at 
the battle of Culloden, on the side of the 
Pretender, and was obliged to leave his 
country. He came to America in 1747, 
was a captain in the French and Indian 
War, was severely wounded in the battle 




HtGH MEItCER, 

where Braddock was defeated, and re- 
ceived a medal from the corporation of 
Pliiladelphia for his prowess in that expe- 
dition. He was made lieutenant-colonel 
in 1758; entered heartily into the military 
service when the Revolutionary War broke 
out, and was made colonel of the 3d Vir- 
ginia Regiment in February, 1776. In 
June following Congress made him a briga- 
dier-general. He led the column of attack 
at the Battle of Trenton {q. v.), and at 
the council of war there he suggested the 
daring night march on Princeton. In the 
battle that ensued the following morning 
he was mortally wounded, and died Jan. 
12, 1777. See Princeton, Battle of. 

Mercer, Fort, a strong work on the 
New Jersey shore of the Delaware, not far 
below Philadelphia, which in 1777 had a 
garrison under the command of Col. Chris- 



162 



MERCER— MERCHANT MARINE 



topher Greene, of Rhode Island. After 
Howe had taken possession of Philadel- 
phia, in September of that year, he felt 
the necessity of strengthening his position; 
so, in the middle of October, he ordered 
Gen. Sir Henry Clinton to abandon the 
forts he had captured in the Hudson High- 
lands, and send 6,000 troops to Philadel- 
phia. He had just issued this order, when 
news of the surrender of Burgoyne and 
his army reached him. He then perceived 
that he must speedily open the way for 
his brother's fleet to ascend the Delaware 
to Philadelphia or all w^ould be lost. He 
ordered Count Donop to take 1,200 picked 
Hessian soldiers, cross the Delaware at 
Philadelphia, march down the New Jersey 
shore, and take Fort Mercer by storm. 
He obeyed, and at the same time the Brit- 
ish vessels of war in the river opened a fu- 
rious cannonade on Fort Mifflin, opposite. 
Already the w^orks at Billingsport, below, 
had been captured, and a narrow channel 
had been opened through obstructions 
above. This admitted British vessels to 
approach near enough to cannonade the 
two forts. 

On the approach of Donop (Oct. 22), 



non-shot of the fort, Donop planted a bat- 
tery of ten heavy guns, and late in the 
afternoon demanded the instant surrender 
of the fort, threatening that, in case of 
refusal and resistance, no quarter would 
be given. Colonel Greene had only 400 
men back of him, but he gave an instant 
and defiant refusal, saying, " We ask no 
quarter, nor will we give any." Then the 
besiegers opened their heavy guns, and, 
under their fire, pressed up to storm the 
fort. They were received by terrible vol- 
leys of musketry and grape-shot from can- 
non, while two concealed American gal- 
leys smote them with a severe enfilading 
fire. The slaughter of the assailants was 
fearful. Count Donop instantly fell, and 
many of his officers were slain or mortally 
wounded. At twilight the invaders with- 
drew, after a loss of 208 men. The Amer- 
icans lost thirty-seven, killed and wound- 
ed. Donop died three days after the battle. 
He said, " I die a victim to my ambition 
and the avarice of my sovereign." 

Merchant Marine. At the close of 
the War of 1812, the United States was 
noted throughout the world for the ex- 
cellence of its sailing-vessels. As the use 




LAUNCH OP THE SHIP FAME, 1802. 



Greene abandoned the outworks of Fort of steamships increased, however, this 
Mercer, and retired into the principal re- supremacy was lost, and in 1870, when 
doubt. At the edge of a wood, within can- iron and steel vessels began to be needed, 

163 



aytERCHAFT MARINE 



the ship-building industry in this coun- 
try had nearly vanished. In 1890 almost 
the entire carrying trade of American 
ports was done in British bottoms. Re- 
alizing that this was a serious condition, 
Congress in 1892 passed several acts for 
the encouragement of American ship- 
builders, and admitted to American regis- 
try two Inman Line steamers on condi- 
tion that the owners should build at least 
two vessels of eqiial tonnage in American 



twice — in 1864, when 4L5,740 gross tons 
were built, and in 1874, when 432,725 
gross tons were built. 

The construction was classed according 
to the following types: Schooners, schoon- 
er-barges, and sloops, 499, of 109,605 gross 
tons; Great Lake steam-vessels, 25, of 97,- 
847 gross tons ; canal - boats and barges, 
523, of 74,860 gross tons; ocean screw 
steamships, 20, of 60,369 gross tons (of 
which all but one, the Maracaiho, 1,771 




THE AMERICAN STEAMER ST. LOUIS. 



yards. On Nov. 12, 1894, the St. Louis, 
the first-fruit of this law, was launched 
at Philadelphia. The vessel was wholly 
American in build and material, and was 
the second largest merchant vessel afloat. 
Subsequently this fleet was increased, 
and became known as the American Line. 
In the American-Spanish War of 1898 the 
St. Paul, St. Louis, Neio York, and Paris 
were used as auxiliary cruisers, the first 
two under their own names, and the oth- 
ers under those of the Yale and Harvard. 

The official report of the United States 
commissioner of navigation for the fiscal 
/ear ending June 30, 1900, showed that 
1,446 vessels, of 393,168 gross tons, were 
ftuilt and documented in the United States. 
Since 1856 this record was exceeded only 



gross tons, were built wholly or principal- 
ly for trades reserved by law to American 
vessels); river - steamers, 375, of 44,282 
gross tons; square-rigged vessels, 4, of 
6,205 gross tons. 

The steam - vessels built— 420, of 202,- 
498 gross tons — surpassed the record, the 
nearest approach being 1891, when 488 
steam-vessels, of 185,037 gross tons, were 
built. 

The steel vessels built— 90, of 196,851 
gross tons — exceeded the previous record 
year, 1899, when 91 such vessels, of 131,- 
379 gross tons, were built. Cleveland, 
O., ranked first as builder of steel ves- 
sels, with 9 steamships, of 42,119 gross 
tons, followed by Newport News, 7 steam- 
ships, of 28,202 gross tons; Chicago, 5 



164 



MEREDITH— MERRITT 



vessels, 24,504 tons; Detroit, 4 steamships, 
15,693 tons. 

During the decade 1890-1900 the steel 
steam-vessels built in the United States 
aggregated 465, of 742,830 gross tons, of 
which 198, of 450,089 gross tons, were 
built on the Great Lakes. For comparison 
it may be noted that the British board 
of trade reports that 727 steel steam-ves- 
sels, of 1,423,344 gross tons, were built 
in the United Kingdom during 1899. Dur- 
ing the ten years 69 steel steam-vessels, 
of 194,080 gross tons, were built at Cleve- 
land, and 110, of 138,593 gross tons, at 
Philadelphia. 

The total tonnage built and documented 
on the Great Lakes during the year — 125 
vessels, of 130,611 gross tons — was the 
largest in the history of that region. The 
total for the Middle Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts — 605 vessels, of 135,473 tons — ex- 
ceeded any record since 1872. The total 
for the New England coast — 199 vessels, 
of 72,179 gross tons — had not been 
equalled since 1891, while the product of 
the Pacific coast — 300 vessels, of 40,396 
tons — was surpassed only by the returns 
of 1898 and 1899. Construction on the 
Mississippi River and tributaries — 217 ves- 
sels, 14,509 tons — ^was 9,000 less than 1899. 
The foregoing figures do not cover yachts 
nor government vessels. 

Meredith., William Morris, lawyer; 
born in Philadelphia, June 8, 1799 ; gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1812; elected to the State legislature in 
1824; and appointed Secretary of the 
United States Treasury in 1849. He died 
in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 17, 1873. 

Mergenthaler, Ottmar, inventor; born 
in Wiirtemberg, Germany, May 10, 1854; 
came to the United States friendless and 
penniless when eighteen years old; and 
first secured employment under the gov- 
ernment in Washington to look after the 
mechanism of clocks, bells, and signal ser- 
vice apparatus. In 1876 he was employed 
by a mechanical engineering firm in Balti- 
more. Later, while in the employment of 
this firm, he made experiments that led 
to the invention of a type-setting machine. 
For four years he spent all his leisure 
time in perfecting his plans. He first 
conceived the idea of a rotary apparatus, 
but afterwards made a complete change 
in his plan and adopted the linotype 



sclieme, which he finally perfected. His ma- 
chine was worked by a key-board similar 
to that of a typewriter, and was capable 
of setting a line of type or dies, adjusting 
it to a desired width, and casting it into 
a solid line of type-metal. He secured 
patents for his invention, but it was not 
a practical success until the Rogers spacer 
was purchased by the linotype company 
which he organized. He died in Balti- 
more, Md., Oct. 28, 1899. 

Merrimac. See Monitor and Meebi- 

MAC. 

Merriman, Titus Mooney, clergyman; 
born in Charleston, P. Q., Canada, April 
23,1822; graduated at Canada Baptist Col- 
lege, Montreal, in 1844; and ordained in 
the Baptist Church. He became a natural- 
ized citizen of the United States in 1882. 
His publications include Trail of History ; 
Pilgrims, Puritans, and Roger Williams 
Vindicated ; Historical System, etc. 

Merritt, Wesley, military officer; born 
in New York, June 16, 1836; gradu- 
ated at the United States Military Acad- 
emy, and brevetted second lieutenant in 
the 2d United States Dragoons on July 1, 
1860; was promoted successively to second 
and first lieutenant in the 2d Cavalry in 
1861; captain, 1862; lieutenant-colonel of 
the 9th Cavalry in 1866; colonel of the 
famous 5th Cavalry in 1876; brigadier- 
general, April 16, 1887; and major-gen- 
eral, April 5, 1895; and was retired June 
16, 1900. In the volunteer service he was 
commissioned a brigadier-general, June 
29, 1863; brevetted major-general, Oct. 19, 
1864; and promoted to major-general, 
April 1, 1865. During the greater part 
of the Civil War he served in the Army of 
the Potomac, taking part in all of its bat- 
tles, and distinguishing himself at Gettys- 
burg, Yellow Tavern, Hawe's Shop, Five 
Forks, etc. From June, 1864, to the close 
of the war, he accompanied General 
Sheridan on his cavalry raids, commanded 
the cavalry division in the Shenandoah 
campaign, and the cavalry corps in the 
Appomattox campaign; was engaged in 
the battles of Trevillian Station, Winches- 
ter, Fisher's Hill, etc., and was one of the 
three commanders selected from the L^nion 
army to arrange with the Confederate 
commanders for the surrender of General 
Lee's army. After the war he was con- 
spicuous in a number of Indian cam- 



165 



MERRY MOUNT— METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 



paigns; was superintendent of the United 
States Military Academy in 1882-87; and 
commander of the Department of tlie At- 
lantic till May, 18!iS, when he was as- 
signed to the command of the United 
States forces about to be sent to the Phil- 
ippine Islands. He reached Manila Bay 
in July: had charge of the operations 
around ^Manila and the capture of the 




WESLEY IIKRKITT. 



city, and afterwards relinquished the mil- 
itary command to Gen. Elwell S. Otis 
(q. v.), and assumed the duties of the 
first American military governor of the 
Philippines. In August he was ordered 
to Paris as an adviser to the American 
peace commissioners, and in December 
following he returned to the United States 
and was commandant of the Military De- 
partment of the East, with headquarters 
on Governor's Island. New York Harbor, 
till his retirement. See Manila. 

Merry Mount. See Salem. 

Metcalf, IIexky Brewer, Prohibition- 
ist; Vjorn in Boston, Mass., April 2, 1829; 
removed to Rhode Island in 1872: was 
elected to the State Senate as a Repub- 
lican in 1885; and was the candidate for 
Vicf'-President on the Prohibition ticket 
in 1900. 

Metcalf, Victor Howard, lawyer; born 
in Utica, X. Y., Oct. 10, 1853; acquired 
an academic education; was graduated at 
the Yale Law School in 187G, and admit- 

1 



ted to the Connecticut bar in the same 
year; later practised in New York City 
and Utica, and then removed to Oakland, 
Cal.; and was elected a member of Con- 
gress from that State in 1889. In June, 
190-i, he was appointed by President Roose- 
velt secretarj^ of the Department of Com- 
merce and Labor to succeed George B. 

CORTELYOU ( q. V. ) . 

Metcalfe, Thomas, legislator; born in 
Fauquier county, Va., March 20, 1780; 
became a stone-cutter. In the War of 
1812-15 he commanded a company at 
the siege of Fort Meigs (q. v.), in 
1813. After serving in the Kentucky 
legislature, he was a member of Con- 
gress in 1819-29; governor of Kentucky 
in 1828-32; State Senator in 1834, and 
United States Senator in 1848-49. He 
died in Nicholas county, Ky., Aug. 18, 
1855. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, a re- 
ligious denomination which dates its ori- 
gin in the L^nited States back to 1766. 
About thirty years prior thereto John 
and Charles \Yesley visited America and 
labored in Georgia. It was reserved for 
Philip Embury and Robert Strawbridge 
to really organize the movement in Amer- 
ica. Embury began his work in New 
York City, and in"l768 the first Methodist 
church in America was established on John 
Street. Strawbridge at about the same 
time gathered about him a few people in 
Frederick county, INId. The first annual con- 
ference was held in Philadelphia in 1773, 
but the Methodist Episcopal Church was 
not formally established till Dec. 24, 1784. 
They were without an ordained ministry 
during the Revolutionary War. When 
this condition of aff"airs was reported to 
John Wesley, he appointed Dr. Thomas 
Coke, a presbyter of the Church of Eng-' 
land, to organize the Methodists of North 
America into a regular ecclesiastical body 
and to superintend the same. To aid him 
in this %vork Mr. Wesley sent with him 
Francis Asbury and two others. Dr. Coke 
and Francis Asbury were elected as super- 
intendents, or bishops, by the first general 
conference above mentioned, which had 
met for the purpose of following Wesley's 
plan. The constitution of the Church as 
then adopted is held to consist of the Gen- 
eral Rules of Conduct recommended by 
Mr. Wesley, the Articles of Religion, and 
66 



METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH— METRIC SYSTEM 

six rules to limit the power of the general reported 6,381 ministers, 14,920 churches, 
conference, which meets every four years, and 1,533,706 members, 
and is the supreme legislative court of the Methodist Protestant Church, a 
church. The growth of Methodism in the branch of Methodism established in 1S30 
United States has been very rapid. From by a number of ministers and members 
195,000 communicants in 1812 the num- who had left or been expelled from tlie 
ber increased until in 1904 there were Methodist Episcopal Church. Prior to 
2,822,765, including 17,053 ministers. The their organization they had held the 
number of church edifices reported in the opinion that the laity should be per- 
Int+^r vonr was 27.021. mitted to share in the government of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Church. To foster this opinion, a union 
a religious body organized at a conven- society was formed in Baltimore, in 
tion in Louisville, Ky., in 1845, by a num- 1824, which also published a periodical 
ber of annual Methodist conferences in the called Tiie Mutual Rights. The agitation 
Southern States. The slavery agitation soon became so strong that a convention 
was the cause of the separation of the was called in 1827, which presented 
Northern and Southern Methodists. As a petition to the general conference 
early as 1780 a conference held at Balti- of 1828, requesting the representation 
more adopted a resolution requiring of laymen. To this petition an unfavor- 
itinerant preachers who owned slaves to able reply was remitted, which greatly 
set them free, and urging lay slave-holders increased the disaffection. Another con- 
to do the same. In 1789 the following vention met on Nov. 2, 1830, and the 
sentence appeared in the rules of disci- Methodist Protestant Church was found- 
pline which prohibited certain things: ed with 5,000 members and eighty-three 
■' The buying or selling the bodies and clergymen. During the first four years 
souls of men, women, or children, with of its existence there was a rapid in- 
an intention to enslave them." In 1816 crease in membership. Their organiza- 
the general conference passed an act tion was greatly affected by the anti- 
tliat no slave-holder could hold any office slavery agitation, and finally there was 
in the Church, except in such States a division; but in 1877 the two branches 
where the laws did not " admit of reunited under the old name. In doctrine 
emancipation and permit the liberated the Methodist Protestant Church does 
slave to enjoy freedom." The agitation not greatly differ from the Methodist 
caused by slavery which continually dis- Episcopal Church, save that it has 
turbed the Church culminated in a serious twenty-nine instead of twenty-six articles 
condition in 1844, when Bishop Andrew, of religion. In 1904 this denomination 
of the South, became a slave - holder by reported 1,537 ministers, 2,390 churches, 
marriage. At the general conference and 184,040 members. 

held in New York, in May, 1844, a reso- Metric System, a uniform decimal sys- 
lution was adopted, by a vote of III to tem of weights and measures, originated 
09, that Bishop Andrew " desist from in France with a committee of eminent 
the exercise of his office so long as he is scientists, named by the Academy of Sci- 
connected with slavery." The outcome of ences by order of the Constituent Assem- 
the discussion was the report of a com- bly, May 8, 1790. The basis of the system 
niittee that the thirteen annual confer- is the metre, which is 3.37 inches longer 
ences in slave-holding States would " find than the American " yard." This base, de- 
it necessary to unite in a distinct ecclesi- termined by Delambre and Mechain, is the 
astical connection." In May of the fol- 1-40,000,000 part of the circumterence of the 
lowing year these Southern conferences earth on the meridian extending through 
sent representatives to the convention in France from Dunkirk to Barcelona. It 
Louisville, Ky., which formally organized was made the unit of length and the base 
the " Methodist Episcopal Church, of the system by law, April 7, 1795. A 
South." During and for some years after prototype metre was constructed in plati- 
the Civil War the growth of the South- num by an international commission, rep- 
ern Church was slow, but latterly it has resenting the governments of France, Hol- 
been quite rapid. In 1904 this Church land, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, 

167 



METRIC SYSTEM— MEXICO 



Spain. Savoy, and the Roman, Cisalpine, 
and Ligurian republics, in 1799. The unit 
of weight is the gramme, the weight of a 
cubic centimetre of water at 4° centigrade 
(the temperature of greatest density). 
The unit of measure of surface is the are, 
which is the square of the decametre, or 
10 metres. The unit of measure of capac- 
ity is the stere, or cubic metre. The sys- 
tem is now in use in the United States 
Marine Hospital service, in the foreign 
business of the post-office, in the United 
States coast and geodetic survey, and 
to some extent in the mint, United States 
signal service, and United States census: 

Decimal system of money adopted by 
the United States Congress, with the 
dollar as a unit July 6, 1785 

John Quincy Adams, United States 
Secretary of State, makes an elab- 
orate report on the metric system 
to Congress Feb. 23, 1821 

By legislation of July 4, 1837, the use 
of the system in France is enforced, 
to take effect Jan. 1, 1840 

International Decimal Association form- 
ed 1855 

Canada adopts the decimal currency 

used in United States Jan. 1, 1858 

Metric weight of 5 grammes (77.16 
grains) and diameter of 2 centi- 
metres given to the 5-cent copper 
nickel piece in the United States by 
act of Congress May 16, 1866 

Use in the United States authorized 
by act of Congress, and table of 
equivalents approved July 28, 1866 

Convention establishing an internation- 
al bureau of weights and measures 
signed at Paris by representatives of 
Austria, Germany, Russia, Italy, Spain, 
Portugal, Turkey, Switzerland, Bel- 
gium, Sweden, Denmark, United 
States, Argentine Republic, Brazil, 
and Peru May 20, 1875 

International congress on weights and 
measures meets at Paris Sept. 4, 1878 

METRIC SYSTEM. 

Unit of the measure of length. 
Metre = 39.37 inches. 

Decametre 10 metres. 

Hectometre .... 100 

Kilometre 1,000 

Myriametre . . . 10,000 

Decimetre .1 metre. 

Centimetre .... .01 " 

Millimetre .001 

Unit of the measure of (surface. 
Centare = 1 sq. metre = 1,550 sq. inches. 

Are 100 centares. 

Hectare 10,000 



Unit of the measure of capacity and solidity. 

Litre =: cube of .1 metre (decimetre) = 
61.022 cubic inches or .908 qt. 

Decalitre 10 litres. 

Hectolitre 100 

Kilolitre or stere. 1,000 " 

Decilitre .1 litre. 

Centilitre .01 

Millilitre .001 

Unit of toeight. 

Gramme = cube of .01 metre (centimetre) 
= .061022 cubic inch or 15.432 grs. 

Decagramme 10 grammes. 

Hectogramme 100 " 

Kilogramme 1,000 " 

Myriagramme 10,000 " 

Quintal 100,000 

Milller or Tonneau. 1,000,000 

Decigramme 1 gramme. 

Centigramme 01 " 

Milligramme 001 " 

Mexico, Republic of, when first dis- 
covered by the Spanish adventurers, was 
in the possession of the Aztecs, a semi- 
civilized race of dark-hued people, who 
called their country Mexitli. Older occu- 
pants were the Toltecs, who came to the 
valley of Mexico, about the sixth century, 
and were the first known tribe on this 
continent who left a written account of 
their nationality and polity. Their em- 
pire ended in the twelfth century. The 
Aztecs appeared at the close of the thir- 
teenth century, coming from Azatlan, an 
unknown region in the north. They seem 
to have first halted in their migrations 
southward at the Great Salt Lake in 
Utah; the next on the River Gila; and 
the last on the high plateau in the val- 
ley of Mexico, where they led a nomadic 
life until early in the fourteenth century, 
when they laid the foundation of a city 
upon an island in Lake Tezcuco, and call- 
ed it Tenochtitlan ; afterwards Mexitli 
(Spanish, Mexico), after their supreme 
god. It was a large and prosperous city 
when CoRTEZ (q. v.) entered it on Nov. 
8, 1519. Montezuma {q. v.) was then 
emperor of the extended domain of the 
Aztecs. He lived in a fine palace in the 
city. Another palace was assigned to the 
use of Cortez as a guest, large enough to 
hold his whole army. By treachery and 
violence that adventurer took possession 
of the city and empire, caused the death 
of Montezuma and his successor, and an- 
nexed Mexico as a province to Spain. 

The Mexicans were then very much en- 
lightened. They worked metals, practised 



168 



MEXICO, REFTTBLIC OF 



many of the useful arts, had a system of leon III. placed Maximilian {q. v.), arch 
astronomy, kept their records in hiero- duke of Austria, on a throne in Mexico, 
glyphics, and practised architecture and with the title of emperor. Juarez, the 
sculpture in a remarkable degree. They deposed President of the republic, strug- 
had a temple, pyramidal in shape, con- gled for power with the troops of the 
structed solidly of earth and pebbles, and usurper, and succeeded. The Emperor of 
coated externally with hewn stones. The the French withdrew his troops and 
base was 300 feet 
square, and its top 
was reached by 111 
steps spirally con- 
structed. The top 
was a large area 
paved with great 
Hat stones, and on 
it were two towers 
or sanctuaries, and 
before each an altar 
on which fire was 
perpetually burn- 
ing. There they 
made human sacri- 
fices. The conquest 
by Cortez was ac- 
complished by the 
aid of native allies 
who had been sub- 
jected by the Aztecs 
and hated them. He - 
began to rebuild the 
city of Mexico on its 
present plan while 
he was governor, 
and it remained in 
possession of the 
Spanish government 
until 1821, or just 
300 years. 

After years of 
revolutionary move- 
ments the Spanish 
province of Mexico 
was declared inde- 
pendent, Feb. 24, 
1821, with Don Au- 
gustin Iturbide, a 
native of ISIexico, at 
the head of the gov- 
ernment as a repub- 
lic. He afterwards 
became emperor. In 
1836 it lost the fine 
province of Texas 

by revolution, and ten years afterwards abandoned Maximilian, who was captured 
that portion of ancient Mexico was an- early in 1867, and was shot on June 19. 
nexed to the United States. In 1864 Napo- The republic was re-established. 

169 




NATIONAL PALACE, CITY OF MEXICO. 



MEXICO 



Mexico, \Yar with. The annexation 
of Texas caused an immediate rupture be- 
tween the United States and Mexico, for 
the latter claimed Texas as a part of her 
territory, notwithstanding its independence 
had been acknowledged by the United 
States, England, France, and other gov- 
ernments. When Congress had adopted 
the joint resolution for the annexation 
of Texas {q. v.) to the United States, 
General Almonte, the Mexican minister 
at Washington, protested against the 
measure and demanded his passports. 
On June 4 following the President of 
Mexico (Herrara) issued a proclama- 
tion declaring the right of Mexico to 
the Texan territory, and his determination 
to defend it by arms, if necessary. At the 
same time there existed another cause for 
serious dispute between the United States 
and Mexico. The latter had been an un- 
just and injurious neighbor ever since the 
establishment of republican government in 
Mexico in 1824. Impoverished by civil 
war, it did not hesitate to replenish its 
treasury by plundering American vessels 
in the Gulf of Mexico, or by confiscating 
the property of American merchants with- 
in its borders. The United States govern- 
ment remonstrated in vain until 1831, 
when a treaty was made and promises of 
redress were given. These promises were 
never fulfilled. Robberies continued; and, 
in 1840, the aggregate value of property 
belonging to Americans which had been 
appropriated by the Mexicans amounted to 
more than $6,000,000. The claim for this 
amount was unsatisfied when the annexa- 
tion of Texas took place in 1845. 

Being fully aware of the hostile feel- 
ings of the Mexicans, President Polk 
ordered (July, 1845) Gen. Zachary Tay- 
lor, then in command of the United States 
troops in the Southwest, to go to Texas 
and take a position as near the Rio 
Grande as prudence would allow. This 
force, about 1,500 strong, was called the 
Army of Occupation for the defence of 
Texa.s. At the same time a strong naval 
force, under Commodore Conner, sailed to 
the Gulf of Mexico to protect American 
interests there. In September Taylor 
formed a camp at Corpus Christi, and 
there remained during the autumn and 
winter. He was ordered, Jan. 13, 1840, 
to move from his camp at Corpus Christi 



to the Rio Grande, opposite the Spanish 
city of Matamoras, because Mexican troops 
were gathering in that direction. This 
was disputed territory between Texas ani 
the neighboring province of Tamaulipas. 
When he encamped at Point Isabel, March 
25, on the coast, 28 miles from Matamoras, 
Taylor was warned by the Mexicans that 
he was upon foreign soil. He left his 
stores at Point Isabel, under a guard of 
450 men, and with the remainder of his 
army advanced to the bank of the Rio 
Grande, where he established a camp and 
began the erection of a fort, which he 
named Fort Brown, in honor of Major 
Brown, in command there. 

The Mexicans were so eager for war 
that, because President Herrera was anx- 
ious for peace with the United States, 
they elected General Paredes to succeed 
him. The latter sent General Ampudia, 
with a large force, to drive the Americans 
beyond the Nueces. This ofiicer demanded 
of General Taylor, April 12, the with- 
drawal of his troops within twenty-four 
hours. Taylor refused, and continued to 
strengthen Fort Brown. Ampudia hesi- 
tated, when General Arista was put in his 
place as commander-in-chief of the North- 
ern Division of the Army of Mexico. He 
was strongly reinforced, and the position 
of the Army of Occupation became critical. 
Parties of armed [Mexicans soon got be- 
tween Point Isabel and Fort Brown and 
cut off all intercommunication. A recon- 
noitring party under Captain Thornton 
was surprised and captured (April 24) on 
the Texas side of the Rio Grande, when 
Lieutenant Mason was killed. Having 
completed his fort, Taylor hastened to the 
relief of Point Isabel, May 1, which was 
menaced by a Mexican force, 1,500 strong, 
collected in the rear. He reached Point 
Isabel the same day. This departure of 
Taylor from the Rio Grande emboldened 
the Mexicans, who opened fire upon Fort 
Brown, May 3, from Matamoras, and a 
large body crossed the river to attack it 
in the rear. Taylor had left orders that 
in ease of an attack, if peril appeared im- 
minent, signal guns nuist be fired, and he 
would hasten to the relief of the fort. 

On the Gth, when the Mexicans began 
to plant cannon in the rear and Major 
Brown was mortally wounded, the signals 
were given, and Taylor marched for the 



170 



MEXICO, WAR WITH 



Rio Grande on the evening of the 7th, mth 
a little more than 2,000 men, having been 
reinforced by Texan volunteers and ma- 
rines from the lleet. At noon the next 
day he fought and defeated Arista, with 
G,000 troops, at Palo Alto {q. v.). At 2 
A.M. the next day his wearied army was 
summoned to renew its march, and, tow- 
ards evening, fought a more sanguinary 
battle with the same Mexicans, at Resaca 
DE LA Palma (q. v.). Again the Ameri- 
cans were victorious. The Mexican army 
in Texas was now completely broken up. 
Arista saved himself by solitary flight 



drove the Mexican troops from IMatamoras, 
took possession of the town (May 18), and 
remained there until August, when he re- 
ceived reinforcements and orders from his 
government. Tlien, with more tlum 6,000 
troops, he moved on Monterey, defended by 
General Ampudia, with more than 9,000 
troops. It was a very strongly built town, 
at the foot of the great Sierva Madre. A 
siege commenced Sept. 21 and ended with 
the capture of the place on the 24th. Gen- 
eral Wool had been directed to muster and 
prepare for service the volunteers gathered 
at Bexar, in Texas, and by the middle of 




GENERAL TAYLOR'S ATTACK ON MONTEREY. 



across the Rio Grande. The garrison at 
Fort Brown was relieved. In the mean 
while. Congress had declared. May 11, 
1846, that, "by the act of the republic of 
Mexico, a state of war exists between that 
government and the United States," and 
authorized the President to raise 50,000 
volunteers. They also (May 13) appro- 
priated $10,000,000 for carrying on the 
war. The Secretary of War and. General 
Scott planned a magnificent campaign. 
On May 23 the Mexican government also 
declared war. 

General Taylor crossed the Rio Grande, 



July 12,000 of them had been mustered 
into the service. Of these, 9.000 were sent 
to reinforce Taylor. Wool went up the 
Rio Grande with about'3,000 troops, cross- 
ed the river at Presidio, penetrated Mex- 
ico, and, in the last of October, reached 
Monclova, 70 miles northwest of Monterey. 
He pushed on to Coahuila, where he ob- 
tained ample supplies for his own and 
Taylor's troops. General Taylor had 
agreed to an armistice at Monterey. This 
was ended Nov. 13, by order of his govern- 
ment, when, leaving General Butler in 
command at Monterey, he marched to Vic- 



171 



MEXICO, WAR WITH 




THE FIGHT IN THE JTREETS OP MONTEREY, 



and there a severe 
battle was fought, 
Feb. 23, resulting 
in victory for the 
Americans. 

Gen. Stephen 

W. IVE ARNY iq.v.) 
was placed in com- 
mand of the Army 
of the West, with 
instructions to 
conquer New Mex- 
ico and California. 
He left Fort 
Leavenworth in 
June, 1846, and, 
after a journey of 
900 miles over the 
great plains and 
among mountain 
ranges, he arrived 
at Santa Fe, Aug. 
18, having met 
with no resist- 
ance. Appointing 
toria, the capital of Tamaulipas, with the Charles Brent governor, he marched tow- 
intention of attacking Tampico, on the ards California, and was soon met by an 
coast. Meanwhile, General Worth, with express from Commodore Rorert F. Stock- 
900 men, had taken possession of Saltillo ton (q. v.), and Lieut-Col. John C. 
(Nov. 15), the capital of Coahuila. Fremont {q. v.), informing him that the 

Taylor, ascertaining that Tampico had conquest of California had been achieved, 
already surrendered to the Americans Fremont and a party of explorers, sixty in 
(Nov. 14), and that Santa Ana was col- number, joined by American settlers in the 
lecting a large force at San Luis Potosi, vicinity of San Francisco, had capt- 
returned to Monterey to reinforce Worth, ured a Mexican force at Sonoma pass, 
if necessary. Worth was joined at Saltillo June 15, 1846, with the garrison, nine 
by Wool's division (Dec. 20), and Taylor cannon, and 250 muskets. He then de- 
again advanced to Victoria (Dec. 29). fcated another force at Sonoma, and drove 
Just as he was about to proceed to a vigor- the Mexican authorities out of that re- 
ous campaign, Taylor received orders from gion of country. On July 5 the Ameri- 
General Scott, at Vera Cruz, to send the cans in California declared themselves in- 
latter a large portion of his (Taylor's) dependent, and put Fremont at the head 
best officers and troops, and to act only of affairs. On the 7th Commodore Sloat, 
on the defensive. This was a severe trial with a squadron, bombarded and captured 
for Taylor, but he cheerfully obeyed. He Monterey, on the coast; on the 9th Com- 
and Wool were left with an aggregate modore Montgomery took possession of 
force of only about 5,000 men, of whom San Francisco. Commodore Stockton and 
only 500 were regulars, to oppose 20,000, Colonel Fremont took possession of Los 
then gathering at San Luis Potosi, under Angeles on Aug. 17, and there they were 
Santa Ana. Taylor and Wool united their joined by Kearny, who had sent the main 
forces, Feb. 4, 1847, on the San Luis road, body of his troops back to Santa F6. 
determined to fight the Mexicans, who Frumont went to ^lonterey, and there as- 
were approaching. The opportunity was sumod the office of governor, and pro- 
not long delayed. The Americans fell claimed, Feb. 8, 1847, the annexation of 
back to Buena Vista, within 11 miles of California to the United States. 
Saltillo, and encamped in a narrow defile, Meanwhile, Colonel Doniphan, detached 

172 



MEXICO, WAR WITH 



hy Kearny, with 1,000 Missouri volun- 
teers, marched towards Chihuahua to join 
General Wool. In two engagements with 
Mexicans he was victorious, and entered 
the capital of Chihuahua in triumph, 
March 2, and took possession of the prov- 
ince. After resting six weeks, he joined 
Wool at Saltillo, and thence returned to 
New Orleans, having made a perilous 
march from the Mississippi of about 5,000 
miles. 

The conquest of all northern Mexico 
was now complete, and General Scott 
was on his march for the capital. He had 
landed at Vera Cruz, March 9, with an 
army of 13,000 men. It had been borne 
thither by a powerful squadron, com- 
manded by Commodore Conner. He in- 
vested the city of Vera Cruz {q. v.) on 
the 13th, and on the 27th it was sur- 
rendered with the castle of San Juan de 
Ulloa. Scott took possession of the city 
two days afterwards, and, on April 8, 
the advance of his army, under General 
Twiggs, began its march for the capital, 
by way of Jalapa. Santa Ana had ad- 



vanced, with 12,000 men, to meet the in- 
vaders, and had taken post at Cerro 
Gordo, a difficult mountain pass at the 
foot of the Eastern Cordilleras. Scott 
had followed Twiggs with the rest of 
his army, and, on April 18, defeated the 
Mexicans at that strong pass, and, push- 
ing forward, entered Jalapa on the 19th. 
On the 22d the American flag was un- 
furled over the Castle of Perote, on the 
summit of the Eastern Cordilleras, 50 
miles from Jalapa. This was considered 
the strongest fortress in Mexico, except- 
ing Vera Cruz. It was surrendered with- 
out resistance, and with it fifty-four pieces 
of cannon, some mortars, and a large 
amount of munitions of war. 

Onward the victorious army marched, 
and entered the fortified city of Puebla, 
May 15, a city of 80,000 inhabitants; and 
there the army rested until August. Be- 
ing reinforced, Scott then pushed on tow- 
ards the capital. From that very spot on 
the lofty Cordilleras, Cortez first looked 
down upon the quiet valley of Mexico, 
centuries before. Scott now beheld that 




BATTLE OF CHCRUBDSCa 

173 



MEXICO, WAR WITH 

spacious panorama, the seat of the capital That night Santa Ana and his troops, 
of the Aztecs — the " Halls of the Monte- with the civil officers, lied from the city, 
zumas." He pushed cautiously forward, and, at 4 a.m. the next day, a deputation 
and approached the stronghold before the from the municipal authorities waited 
city. The fortified camp of Contreras upon Scott, begging him to spare the 
was taken by the Americans on Aug. 20. town and treat for peace. He would make 
Then the strong fortress of San Antonio no terms, but entered the city, Sept. 13, 
yielded the same day. The heights of a conqueror ; and from the grand plaza 
Chxirubusco were attacked. Santa Ana ad- he proclaimed the conquest of the re- 
vanced, and soon the whole region be- public of Mexico. Santa Ana made some 
came one great battle-field. Churubusco feeble efforts to regain lost power, but 
was taken, and Santa Ana fled towards failed. He was defeated in two slight 
the capital. A Llexican army, 30,000 battles. Before the close of October he 
strong, had in a single day been broken was stripped of every command, and fled 
up by another less than one-third its for safety to the shores of the Gulf. The 
strength in number, and at almost ev- i»resident of the Mexican Congress as- 
ery step the Americans were success- sumed provisional authority, and, on Feb. 
ful. Full 4.000 Mexicans were killed and -, 1848, that body concluded a treaty of 
wounded, 3,000 were made prisoners, and peace with the United States commission- 
thirty-seven pieces of cannon were capt- ers at Guadalupe-Hidalgo. It was rati- 
ured on that memorable day. The Amer- fled by both governments, and, on July 4, 
leans had lost 1,100 in killed and 1848, President Polk proclaimed it. It 
wounded. stipulated the evacuation of Mexico by the 
They might now have entered the city American troops within three months; the 
of Mexico in triumph, but General Scott payment of $3,000,000 in hand, and $12,- 
preferred to bear the olive-branch rather 000,000 in four annual instalments, by the 
than the palm. As he advanced to Taeuba, United States to Mexico, for New Mexico 
Aug. 21, only 7 miles from the city, and California, which had become terri- 
lie met a deputation from Santa Ana tory of the United States by conquest, 
to ask. for an armistice, preparatory to and, in addition, to assume debts due 
negotiations for peace. It was granted, certain citizens of the United States from 
Nicholas P. Trist {q. v.), appointed by Mexico to the amount of $3,500,000. It 
the United States government to treat for also fixed boundaries and otherwise ad- 
peace, was present. The treacherous justed matters in dispute. 
Santa Ana had made this only a pretext Unfaithful American citizens plotted 
to gain time to strengthen the defences schemes for the extinction of the Mexi- 
of the city. When the trick was dis- can Republic ( see Knights of the GoLDEiNr 
covered, Scott declared the armistice at an Circle). While the plots were fast rip- 
end, and advanced upon the city. Less ening, the two governments successfully 
than 4,000 Americans attacked Santa Ana negotiated a treaty by which the bound- 
with 14,000 Mexicans, Sept. 8, at Molino ary-line between the United States and 
del Rey (the King's Mill), near Chapul- Mexico was defined and fixed. The treaty 
tepee. The combatants fought desperate- was ratified early in 1854, and it was 
ly and suffered dreadfully. The Mexicans agreed that the decisions of the eommis- 
left almost 1,000 dead on the field; the sioners appointed under it to revise the 
Americans lost 800. The lofty battle- boundary should be final. By that treaty 
mented hill of Chapultepec was doomed, the United States was to be released 
It was the last place to be defended out- from all obligations imposed by the 
side of the city. It was attacked by mor- treaty of peace with Mexico in 1848, and, 
tar and cannon shells and round-shot, as a consideration for this release, and 
Sept. 12, and the assault continued until for the territory ceded by Mexico, the 
the next day, when the American flag United States agreed to pay the latter 
waved in triumph over its shattered $10,000,000— $7,000,000 on "the ratifica- 
castle. The Mexicans fled into the city, tion of the treaty, and the remainder 
pursued by the Americans to the very as soon as the boundary-line should be 
gates. established. These conditions were ooin- 

174 



MEXICO— MIAMI 

plied with, and the peaceful relation, he- ^, "'^-.-t' ^f ^VnTMr^vL^gLS^^^ 
Leen the two countries have never s.uce '^ly^'^.^^^'.^'J^^ni t™ n.e,. Ou the 

been broken. -^ "^ 




GENERAL SCOTT'S KNTRY INTO THE CITY OF MEXICO. 



For doenments relating to the war see morn ng of May - - ' ^^^^ ^^^^ 

Polk, James Knox. See, also, the titles f^™^^^ ^^^"^^J^^^f p^t \is men on their 

of the military and naval officers above ^^^tacked, and he put h ^^^^^^ 

mentioned, and of the scenes of battles. S^'^fJ^'^^^ ^^Ji„„ ^ ,q,,aw in a 

See Cn..r.™KC, Battle o.; Chuk.- came ^o^J^^l^^., jju.^. .^^^ q^^ ^^.^^^^ 

Busco, Battle of. " 



MIAMI INDIANS— MICHIE 



him to bleed her. He went out, and was 
shot. The sergeant followed, and was 
made prisoner, when the rest of the gar- 
rison surrendered to the Indians who 
swarmed in the forest nearby. See PoN- 

TIAC. 

Miami Indians, an Algonquian family 
that, when discovered by the French in 
1658, were seated near Green Bay, Wis.; 
and their chief, having a body-guard, was 
treated with more reverence than was 
usual among the Northern Indians. The 
English and the Five Nations called them 
Twigh twees. In 1683 they and their kin- 
dred (the Illinois) were attacked by the 
Iroquois Indians (q. v.), whom they 
drove back, though engaged at the same 
time in war with the fiery Sioux. Act- 
ing alternately as friends and foes of the 
French, they were ruthless, and were not 
trusted by Europeans. Some of them 
were with De Nonville in his expedition 
against the Five Nations in 1687; and 
they joined the Iroquois against the Hu- 
rons and opened intercourse with the Eng- 
lish. In their wars with the French and 
the Sioux the Miamis lost heavily; and, 
finally, in 1721, they were mostly seated 
upon the St. Joseph and the Maumee, 
near Fort Wayne, Ind. Miami and Mau- 
mee are the same, the latter simply show- 
ing the French pronunciation of the word. 

When the struggle for dominion began 
between the French and English the 
Miamis hesitated; and when the French 
power fell they would not allow the Eng- 
lish to pass through their country for a 
while, and joined Pontiac {q. v.) in his 
operations. During the Revolutionary 
War they were friends of the English; 
and when, in 1790, General Harmar was 
sent against them, they put 1,500 warriors 
in the field, with the famous Little Turtle 
at tneir head. They defeated Harmar. 
but were crushed by Wayne, and were par- 
ties to the treaty at Greenville in 1795. 
When Tecumseh conspired they refused to 
join him, but favored the British in the 
War of 1812. Since that time they have 
rapidly declined. In 1822 they numbered 
about 2,500; in 1899, the remnant on the 
Quapaw reservation, in the Indian Terri- 
tory, was only ninety-two. 

Miantonomoh, king of the Narragan- 
set Indians; born in Rhode Islanrl : 
nephew of Canonicus and Nineoret 



176 



{qq. v.). As early as 1632 he visit- 
ed Boston with his wife and stayed two 
nights. He went to church with the Eng- 
lish. Governor Winthrop took Miantono- 
moh and his attendants to his home and 
made much of them. In 1637 he as- 
sisted the English in the war with the 
Pequod Indians (q. v.). At the be- 
ginning of 1638 he succeeded his uncle, 
Canonicus, as sachem or king of the Nar- 
ragansets; and in March he granted lands 
on the island of Rhode Island to William 
Coddington and others to make a settle- 
ment. Entering into an agreement with 
Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans, not to 
make war upon each other without first 
appealing to the English, he fell under 
the suspicions of the latter, and was cited 
to appear before the governor and council 
at Boston in 1642. Nothing being found 
against him, he was dismissed with honor. 
It was the policy of the English to fo- 
ment a rivalry between the Mohegans and 
Narragansets, and Uncas was induced to 
insult and injure Miantonomoh as much 
as it was in his power to do. When 
Uncas pressed hard upon Miantonomoh, 
the latter made war. The Narragansets 
were beaten and their sachem was made 
prisoner. Uncas conveyed him to the Eng- 
lish at Hartford, where, by the advice and 
consent of the magistrates and elders of 
the Church, this uniform friend of the 
white people was put to death, in obe- 
dience to a policy that thus favored the 
Mohegans. His death left an indelible 
stain upon the Connecticut authorities. 
The names of Miantonomoh and Canon- 
icus have been given to two vessels in the 
new navy of the United States, the first 
a double-turret monitor, the second a 
single-turret one. 

Michie, Peter Smith, military officer; 
born in Brechin, Scotland, March 24, 
1839; came to the United States in boy- 
hood; graduated at West Point and com- 
missioned a first lieutenant of engi- 
neers in 1863. He was promoted captain 
on Nov. 23, 1865, and was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Natural and Experimental Phi- 
losophy in the United States Military 
Academy on Feb. 14, 1871, a post he held 
till his death. His publications include 
Elements of Wave Motion Relating to 
Sound and Light; Life and Letters of 
Major-Oeneral 'Emory Upton; Personnel 



MICHIGAN 



of Sea-Coast Defence; Elements of Analyt- 
ical Mechanics; Elements of Hydro-Me- 
chanics; and Practical Astronomy. He 
died in West Point, N. Y., Feb. IG, 
1901. 

Michigan, State of, was discovered and 
settled by French missionaries and fur- 
traders. As early as IGIO the site of De- 
troit was visited by Frenchmen, and in 
1G41 some Jesuits reached the falls of St. 
Mary. The first European settlements with- 
in the present limitsof Michigan were made 
there by the establishment of a mission 
by Father Jacques Marquette {q. v.) 
and others in 1668. Three years later 
Fort Mackinaw was established, and in 
1701 Detroit was founded. Michigan 
made slow progress in population from 
that time until it was made a Territory 




SEAL OP THE STATE OP MICHIGAN. 

of the United States. It came into pos- 
session of the English by the treaty of 
1763; suffered from the conspiracy of 
I'ONTIAC {q. V.) ; and it was some time 
after the treaty of peace, in 1783, before 
the British gave up the territory. The 
Americans did not take possession until 
1796. At first it was a part of the North- 
west Territory, and afterwards it formed 
a part of the Territory of Indiana. It 
was erected into an independent Territory 
in 1805, with William Hull {q. v.) as 
its first governor. In August, 1812, it fell 
into the hands of the British (see De- 
troit), and remained so until the fall of 
1813, when General Harrison reconquered 
it (see Thames, Battle of the). In 
consequence of alarming despatches from 
Hull, in Detroit, in July, 1812, a force to 



VI. — M 



177 



support him was organized at Georgetown, 
Ky. ; but before it had crossed the Ohio 
news of the surrender at Detroit reached 
them. That event stirred the patriotic 
zeal of the whole Western country, and 
the greatest warlike enthusiasm prevailed. 
Volunteers gathered under local leaders in 
every direction. Companies were formed 
and equipped in a single day, and were 
ready to march the next. They passed 
over the Ohio from Kentucky, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Virginia; and the governor of 
Ohio sent forward 2,000 men under Gen- 
eral Tupper for the recovery of Michigan. 
General Harrison was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the Army of the North- 
west. For several weeks volunteers found 
employment in driving the hostile Indians 
from post to post, in Ohio and Indiana, 
on the borders of the extreme western 
settlements. They desolated their vil- 
lages and plantations, after the manner 
of Sullivan in 1779, and thereby in- 
curred the fiercest indignation of the 
tribes. 

Harrison took steps early to relieve 
the frontier posts — Fort Harrison, on 
the Wabash; Fort Wayne, at the head of 
the Maumee ; Fort Defiance, at the junction 
of the Auglaize and Maumee; and Fort 
Deposit. At Vincennes General Hopkins 
had assembled about 4,000 mounted Ken- 
tucky militia to chastise the Indians on 
the borders of Illinois. They penetrated 
the Indian country beyond the Wabash; 
but, becoming alarmed, returned to Vin- 
cennes, and left the honors of the cam- 
paign to be gathered by Ninian Edwards, 
governor of the Territory of Illinois, who 
had advanced up the Illinois Eiver with 
about 400 men to co-operate with Hop- 
kins. He succeeded in destroying several 
Indian villages above Peoria. Harrison, 
meanwhile, was busily employed in push- 
ing forward provisions to forts towards 
the lake, whence his troops were to march 
for concentration at the rapids of the 
Maumee, where another depot was to be 
established. 

It was a miserable country to pass over 
— swampy, wooded, and made almost im- 
passable by heavj' rains. The troops be- 
came discontented and mutinous. Orders 
given to Tupper's division to advance to 
the Maumee Rapids were not, or could 
not be, obeyed; it fell back to Urbana. 



MICHIGAN, STATE OF 

Harrison had been very anxious to re- States as a partisan, and the Democratic 
take Detroit before winter; but the nat- party as cause of the alarm, resentment, 
ure of the country compelled him to and discontent in the South, by persistent 
wait for the freezing of the swamps. An- misrepresentations of the principles and 
other expedition, under Hopkins, marched intentions of the Republican party. He 
up the Wabash to Tippecanoe, in Novem- declared the personal liberty act of his 
ber, 1812: but the approach of winter State to be right. "Let it stand," he 
and insufficient clothing of his troops said; " this is no time for timid and vacil- 
compelled him to return to Vincennes lating counsels while the cry of treason 
after destroying one or two Indian vil- is ringing in our ears." The new governor 
lages. So ended in failure the effort to (Austin Blair) , who was inaugurated Jan. 
recover Michigan in the autumn of 1812. 3, took substantially the same ground. 
To this end Harrison had labored in- He recommended the legislature to take 
cessantly all through the months of Oc- action for the support of the national 
tober, November, and December. government, and they responded by pass- 
The lands of Michigan were first ing resolutions, Feb. 2, pledging to that 
brought into market for public sale in government all the military power and 
1818, and from that time it dates its material resources of the State. They ex- 
prosperity. The Territory was author- pressed an unwillingness " to make com- 
ized in 1819 to send a delegate to Con- promises with traitors," and refused to 
gress. and in the election the right of send delegates to the Peace Congress 
sufi"rage was extended to all taxable citi- {q. v.) . The best men of the State, serv- 
zens. Afterwards the Indians made im- ing in the Union army, redeemed this 
portant territorial concessions, and in pledge. Michigan furnished to the Na- 
1836 all the lower peninsula and part of tional army, during the Civil War, 90,747 
the upper were freed from Indian titles, soldiers, of which number 14,823 perished. 
The same year Wisconsin Territory was The expenditures of the State for carry- 
formed from the western portion of Mich- ing on the war were $3,784,408 ; by coun- 
igan. The legislative power of Michigan ties, cities, and townships for the same 
was vested in the governor and judges purpose, $10,173,336; and for the relief 
until 1823, when Congress transferred it of soldiers' families by cormties, $3,591,- 
to a council of nine persons, selected by 248, or a total of nearly $17,600,000. 
the President of the United States from Population in 1890, 2,093,889; in 1900, 
eighteen chosen by the citizens. The 2,420,982. See United States, Michigan, 
council was increased to thirteen in 1825; in vol. ix. 
but two years later the citizens were al- 
lowed to elect the councillors without the TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS, 
interference of the President or Congress. JZZI 



In 1835-36 there was a territorial dispute wiiiiam Hull. 
between Ohio and Michigan that, at one Lewis Cass. 



time, threatened civil war; but it was steTen T Mason '.'.!'.! 

settled by Congress admitting the latter 

into the Union as a State, on condition STATE GOVERNORS. 

that it should relinquish its claim to the Stevpn T. Mason 

,. .1. •, 1 .... , , William Woodbridge 

disputed territory and accept in its stead .james w. Gordon. T 

the iipper peninsula. In .January, 1837, .lohn s. Barry. 



Term. 



Michigan was admitted. In 1847 the seat wllliam L.'^o'reenlev... 

of government was removed from Detroit F.paphroditus Ransom. 

to Lansing. In 1850 a new constitution Robert Mccieiiand..... 

was adopted, which, with subsequent Andrew Parsons 

J , • • r rrii • oi. X Kingslev S. Bingham.. 

amendments, is now in force. This State Mo.ses Wisner..? 



took a decided stand for the Union in the Austin Blair, 

anxious days of 1860. Its legislature met Senry r Baldwin:!" 

at the beginning of January, 1861, when -Tohn J. Bagley 

its retiring governor (Moses Wisner) de- l^^jf /je^.rJ!!".- 

nounced the President of the United Josiah w. Begole 



180.5 to 1813 

1814 " 1S31 

1831 " 1834 

1834 " 1S35 



ISSfi to 1840 

1840 " 1841 

1841 

1842 to 1846 

184G " 1847 

1847 

1848 to 1850 

18.';0 " IS.-io 

1852 " 18,53 

1853 " 18.55 
1855 " 18.59 
18.59 " 1861 
1861 " 1865 
1865 " 1869 
1869 " 1873 
1873 " 1877 
1S77 " 1881 
1881 " 1883 
1883 " 1885 



178 



MICMAC INDIANS— MIFFLIN 



STATE GOVERNORS— CojUtnued. 



Russell A. Alger 

Cyrus G. Luce 

Edwin B. Wiuaus 

JohnT. Rich 

Hazeu S. I'ingrec 

Aaron T. Bliss 

Frederick M. Warner. . 



UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



Lucius Lyon 

John Norvell 

Augustus S. Pcrter 

William Woodbridge. . . 

Lewis Cass 

Thomas Fitzgerald 

Alpbeus Felch 

Lewis Cass 

Charles E. Stuart 

Zachariah Chandler 

Kinsley S. Biugliam... 

Jacob M. Howard 

Thomas W. Ferry 

Isaac P. Christiancy 

Zachariah Chandler. . . . 

Henry P. Baldwin 

Omar I). Conger 

Thomas W. Palmer 

Francis B. Stockbridge. 

James McMillan 

John Patton, Jr 

Julius C. Burrows 

Russell A. Alger 



No. of Congress. 



24th to 25th 
•24th " 20th 
26lh " 28th 
27th " 29lh 
29th " 30th 

30th 
30th to 32d 
31st " 34th 
33d " 35th 
35th " 43d 

3Gth 
37th to 41st 

42d 
44th " 4Gth 

46th 

46th 
47th to 50th 
48th " 51st 
50th " 53d 
Elst " 57th 
53d " 64th 

54th " ■ ■ 

58th " 



Middle Creek, Ky., Battle of, fought 

;^^ Jan. 10, 18G2, in the valley of the Big 

„ — — — Sandy. Gen. James A. Garfield, with 

1887 " 1891 about 1,800 men, defeated Gen. Humphrey 

]^t\ i'l i^o'^ Marshall, commanding 2,500 Confederates. 

1896 " 1900 Middleton, Arthur, signer of the Dec- 

1900 " 1904 laration of Independence; born in Mid- 
(( ions 

dieton Place, on the Ashley River, S. C, 

June 26, 1742; was educated at Harrow 

Term. ^^^^ Westmiustcr schools, England, grad- 



1904 



1908 



1837 ^° 1841 ^^'^ti"? ^^ Cambridge University in 17G4. 

1839 " 1845 After his marriage he became a planter, 

]ma '• 1818 '^^^ ^^ politics a leader of the patriots, 

1849 and a most efficient member of the coun- 

1851 '° 1857 ^'^ °^ safety. In 1776 he helped to frame 

1853 " 1859 the State constitution, and was sent to 

1857 1^ 1875 Congress, where he voted for and sign- 

1862 " 1871 d the Declaration of Independence. In 

1871 1779 he took up arms in defence of 

1875 to 1879 rn 1 + j j 

1879 Charleston, and was made a prisoner 

1879 to 1881 when it fell, in 1780, when his estate 

1881 " 1887 i J J -u i. 

1883 " 1889 ^^^s sequestered and he was sent a pris; 

1887 " 1894 oner, first to St. Augustine, and then to 

1894 " 1895 *''^ prison-ship Jersey. In 1781 he was 

1895 " . exchanged, and was a member of Congress 

1903 u ° » 



= from 1781 to 1783. He was a skilful 
Micmac Indians, the most easterly stenographer, and took notes of the de- 
family of the Algonquian nation. They bates in which he was engaged. Mr. 
spread over New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Middleton wrote some effective political 
Cape Breton, Newfoundland, and Prince essays over the signature of Andb:ew 
Edward Island, and were called by the ]\Iarvel. He died on Goose Creek, S. C, 
neighboring tribes " Salt-water Indians," Jan. 1, 1787. His father, Henry Mid- 
because they also inhabited the sea- dleton, was president of Congress in 
coasts. They carried on wars with the 1775; and his grandfather, Arthur, who 
Little Esquimaux, north of the St. Law- was born at Twickenham, England, was 
ronce, at a very early period; and their often in public affairs in South Carolina, 
chief business, in peace, was fishing, as early as 1712. His influence wajs al- 
When De Monts attempted settlements in ways on the side of the people. He was 
that region and in Canada, the Micmacs governor of the colony (1725-31), and 
numbered fully 3,000. The French estab- was afterwards in the council, 
lished missions among them, and secured Middleton, Henry, author; bora in 
their friendship; and they were a source Paris, France, March 16, 1797; graduated 
of great annoyance to the English in at the United States Military Academy in 
Iheir wars in that region. The Micmacs 1815; admitted to the bar in 1822, but 
plundered English vessels in the Bay of never practised. His publications include 
Fundy, and captured eighteen English The Government and the Currency.; Eco- 
vessels in 1722. They actually cruised iwmical Causes of Slavery in the United 
in their prizes and attacked British armed States and Obstacles to Abolition; Pros- 
vessels. From 1724 to 1760 they were pects of Disunion, etc. He died in Wash- 
the active enemies of the English in Nova ington, D. C, March 15, 1876. 
Scotia; but at the latter date, Canada Mifflin, Thomas, military officer; born 
having been captured by the English, the of Quaker parents, in Philadelphia, Pa., in 
Richibucto Micmacs, the most formi- 1744; was educated in the Philadelphia 
dable of the tribe, laid down their arms College; visited Europe in 1765, and, on 
and submitted to English rule. The Mic- his return, became a merchant. Having 
macs were sun-worshippers. served in the legislature of Pennsylvania, 

i79 



MIFFLIN 




THOMAS MIFFLIN. 



he was chosen a member of the first Con- 
tinental Congress in 1774; was appointed 
major of one of the first regiments raised 
in Philadelphia, and accompanied Wash- 
ington as aide-de-camp to Cambridge in 
the summer of 1775. All through the 
Revolutionary War Mifflin was a faithful 
and efficient officer, rising to the rank of 
major-general in 1777. He was eloquent 
in speech, and was efficient in rousing his 
countrymen to action when necessary. In 
this way, traversing Pennsylvania, he 



caused large numbers of its citizens to 
flock to the standard of Washington before 
the attack on the enemy at Trenton. He 
was quartermaster-general, and, in 1777.. 
was a member of the board of war. Mif- 
flin was one of " Conway's Cabal," a con- 
spiracy to put Gates in the place of Wash- 
ington. Late in 1782 he was elected to 
Congress, and was president of that body 
in the last month of that year, when Wash- 
ington resigned his commission into their 
hands. General Mifflin was a delegate to 
the convention that framed the national 
Constitution (1787), and was president 
of the supreme executive council of Penn- 
sylvania (1788-90). He was also presi- 
dent of the convention that framed his 
State constitution (1790), and was gov- 
ernor of the State from 1791 to 1800. He 
was very efficient in quelling the Whiskey 
Insurrection in 1794. He died in Lancas- 
ter, Pa., Jan. 20, 1800. 

Mifflin, Fort. The firing of the first 
gun upon Fort Mercer (g. v.) was the 
signal for British vessels to approach and 
attack Fort Mifflin, opposite. They had 
made their way through the obstructions 
near Billingsport. The Augusta, ship-of- 
war, and other armed vessels, came up the 
river, but were kept at bay by American 
galleys and fioating batteries. The attack 
was deferred until the morning after (Oct. 
23, 1777) the assault on Fort Mercer. A 
heavy cannonade was brought to bear on 




FORT MIFFLIN — DESTKDCTION OF TUB AUQUSTA. 

180 




LIEUTENANT-GENERAL NELSON A. MILES 



MILAN DECREE— MILITARY ACADEMY 



the British fleet by the American flotilla, Sept. 9, 18G1; promoted lieutenant-colonel 
and at the same time an equally heavy 61st New York Infantry, May 31, 1862, 
fire was kept up by the royal vessels on and colonel, Sept. 30 following; brigadier- 
Fort Mifflin, the little garrison of which general. May 12, 1864; major-general, Oct 

21, 1865; and was mustered out of the 
volunteers, Sept. 1, 1866. On July 28, 1806, 



was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Smith, of Maryland. Smith made a gal- 
lant defence. A hot shot from the fort he was commissioned colonel of the 40th 



set fire to the Augusta, and she blew up. 
After an engagement of several hours, the 
British fleet retired, and the Americans re- 
mained masters of the Delaware a short 



United States Infantry; Dee. 15, 1880, 
promoted brigadier-general ; April 5, 
1890, major-general; June 6, 1900, lieu- 
tenant-general, under an act of Con- 



time longer. Finally the British erected gress of that date; Feb. 5, 1901, 



batteries on Province Island, that com- 
manded Fort Mifflin, and brought up a 
large floating battery, and four 64-gun 
ships and two 40-gun ships to at- 
tack the fort. On Nov. 10 the British 
opened their batteries on land and water. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, with his garri- 



was appointed lieutenant - general under 
the law reorganizing the army; and 
Aug. 8, 1903 was retired. During 
the Civil War he distinguished himself 
at Fair Oaks (wounded), Malvern Hill, 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (wound- 
ed), Ream's Station, and in the opera- 



son of 300 men, sustained the siege six tions against Richmond ; and after the 

consecutive days. When every gun was war conducted a number of campaigns 

dismovmted, and the fort was almost a against the hostile Indians, notably 

ruin, the garrison left in the night (Nov. against the Apaches under Geronimo and 

16), after firing the remains of the bar- Natchez, whose surrender he forced. He 

racks, and escaped to Fort Mercer, which represented the army at the seat of the 

Colonel Greene, despairing of relief, evac- war between Turkey and Greece, and also 

nated Nov. 20. During the siege of Fort at the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria 

Mifflin, about 250 men of the garrison were in 1897. In the war against Spain in 

killed and wounded. The British loss is 1898 he visited Cuba and commanded the 



not known. See Mercer, Fort. 

Milan Decree. See Berlin Decree, 
The ; Embargo Acts ; Orders in Council. 

Milburn, William Henry, clergyman; 



expedition to Porto Rico (g. v.). 

Milet, Pierre. See Jesuit Missions. 

Military Academy, United States, 
a government institution at West Point, 



born in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 26, 1823; N. Y.; established by act of Congress, 

was educated in Philadelphia, Pa., Jack- March 16, 1802, for the purpose of edu- 

sonville. 111., and at Illinois College. When eating and training young men in the 

five years old he lost the sight of one eye theory and practice of military science, 

by an accident, and subsequently became to become officers in the United States 

totally blind. He was licensed as a Meth- army. Attempts had been made by Wash- 

odist preacher in Illinois in 1843, and ington in 1793 and 1796 to have Congress 

travelled about 1,500,000 miles in Amer- establish an institution for this purpose, 

ica and Europe. He afterwards lectured Cadets are appointed, one from each con- 

and preached in the United States, Can- gressional district, Territory, and the 

ad- and Europe. After 1845 he was District of Columbia, by the Secretary of 

chaplain of each house of Congress sev- War, at the request of the Representa- 

eral times. His publications include Rifle, tive or Delegate in Congress of the dis- 

Axe, and Saddlc-Bags ; Ten Years of trict or Territory in which the applicant 

Preacher Life; Lance, Cross, and Camoe ; is an actual resident. There are also 

etc. He died in Santa Barbara, Cal., April thirty appointments at large, specially 

10, 1903. conferred by the President of the United 

Miles, Nelson Appleton, military offi- States. In 1901 there were three extra 

cer; born in Westminster, Mass., Aug. 8, cadets at the Academy, who were author- 

1839; was engaged in mercantile business ized by Congress to enter it at their own 

in Boston till the outbreak of the Civil expense, from Venezuela, Costa Rica, and 

War; entered the volunteer army as a Ecuador. The Representative may nomi- 

captain in the 22d Massachusetts Infantry, nate a legally qualified second candidate, to 

181 



MILITARY ACADEMY, UNITED STATES 



be designated the alternate. The alternate 
will receive from the War Department a 
letter of appointment, and will be ex- 
amined with the regular appointee, and 
if duly qualified will be admitted to the 
Academy, in the event of the failure of 
the principal to pass the prescribed pre- 
liminary examinations. Appointees to the 
Military Academy must be between seven- 
teen and twenty-two years of age, free 
from any infirmity which may render them 
unfit for military service, and able to 
pass a careful examination in reading, 



ties for offences is inflexible rather than 
severe. Examinations are held in each 
January and June, and cadets deficient 
in either conduct or studies are dis- 
charged. From about the middle of June 
to the end of August cadets live in camp, 
engaged only in military duties and re- 
ceiving practical military instructions. 
Cadets are allowed but one leave of ab- 
sence during the course, and this is grant- 
ed at the expiration of the first two 
years. The pay of a cadet is $540 per 
year. The number of students at the 




ACADEMIC BUILDINGS, WEST POINT. 



writing, orthography, arithmetic, gram- 
mar, geography, and history of the United 
States. 

The course of instruction requires 
four years, and is largely mathematical 
and professional. The principal subjects 
taught are mathematics, French, draw- 
ing, drill regulations of all arms of the 
service, natural and experimental philos- 
ophy, chemistry, chemical physics, min- 
eralogj', geology, and electricity, history, 
international, constitutional, and mili- 
tary law, Spanish, civil and military engi- 
neering, art and science of war, and ord- 
nance and gunnery. The discipline is 
very strict, and the enforcement of penal- 



academy is usually about 425. An an- 
nual board of visitors is appointed, 
seven by the President of the United 
States, two by the president of the Sen- 
ate, and three by the speaker of the House 
of Eepresentatives. They visit the acad- 
emy in June, and are present at the con- 
cluding exercises of the graduating 
class of the year. The superintendent 
in 1905 was Col. Albert L. Mills, 
U. S. A. {q. v.), and the military and 
academic staff consisted of seventy-nine 
persons. 

Upon graduation, the class is divided 
by the academic board into three sec- 
tions of varying and unequal numbers, 



182 



MILITARY DEPABTMENTS— MILITIA 

according to class rank; the highest, in-chief, Lieiit.-Gen. John M. Schofield; 

usually very small, is recommended for senior vice - commander - in - chief Acting 

appointment in any corps of the army; Volunteer Lieut. Charles P. Clark; junior 

the second in any corps, excepting the vice-commander-in-chief, Brig.-Gen. Henry 

engineers; and the third in any corps, C. Merriam ; recorder-in-chief , Brev. Lieut.- 

excepting engineers and artillery. Com- Col. John P. Nicholson; registrar-in-chief 

missions for the rank of second lieutenant Brev. Maj. William P. Huxford; treas- 

are then conferred by the President, in urer-in-chief. Paymaster George De F. 

accordance with these recommendations. Barton ; chancellor-in-chief, Brev. Brig.- 

See Leavenworth, Fort; Monroe, Fort; Gen. William L. James; chaplain-in-chief, 

KiLEY, Fort; and Willett's Point. Brev. Maj. Henry S. Burrage. 

Military Departments. See Army. Militia, United States. The pressure 

Military, or Martial, Law is built on of wars with the Indians in the North- 
no settled principle, but is arbitrary, and, west forced Congress to undertake the or- 
in truth, no law ; but sometimes indulged, ganization of the militia throughout the 
rather than allowed, as law. — Sir Mattheio Union. This was a difficult task, for at 
Hale. See Habeas Corpus; Milligan, once there was a conflicting claim for au- 
Case of. thority in the matter between the national 

Military Order of Foreign Wars, and State governments. The President 
an organization founded in New York called the attention of Congress to the sub- 
City, Dec. 27, 1894, by the veterans and jcct on Aug. 7, 1789. Immediate action 
descendants of veterans of one or more was taken. The matter was referred to a 
of the five wars waged between the Unit- committee, but they did not report that 
ed States and foreign powers. The pur- session, and a new committee was appoint- 
pose of this organization is " to perpetu- ed Jan. 15, 1790. A plan was arranged 
ate the names and memory of brave and by General Knox, Secretary of War. A 
loyal men who took part in establishing bill was offered on July 1, 1790, but there 
and maintaining the principles of the were no further proceedings on the sub- 
government," and " to preserve records jcct during that session. Soon after the 
and documents relating to said wars, and assembling of the third session of the 
to celebrate the anniversaries of historic first Congress, another committee was ap- 
cvents connected therewith." A com- pointed (Dec. 10, 1790) by the House of 
mandery may be established in any State. Representatives, and a bill reported, but 
A national commandery was instituted no result was reached at that session. 
March 11, 1896, with the following offi- The President, in his message at the open- 
cers: Commander - general, Maj. - Gen. ing of the second Congress, called atten- 
Alexander S. Webb, U. S. A.; secretary- tion to it, and another committee was ap- 
general, James H. Morgan, New York pointed (Oct. 31, 1791). A bill for the 
City; treasurer - general, Edward S. organization of the militia passed the 
Sayres; registrar-general. Rev. Henry N. House of Representatives, and the Senate 
Wayne; historian-general, Capt. Samuel made amendments which the House would 
E. Cross, U. S. v.; recording-general, not agree to. A committee of conference 
Charles D. Walcott. was appointed, and the bill was passed 

Military Order of the Loyal Legion, March 27, 1792. Some amendments were 
an organization founded by officers and made the next session, and the militia 
ex-officers of the army, navy, and marine system then adopted remained, with very 
corps of the United States, who were en- little alteration, until the breaking out 
gaged in the Civil War of 1861-G5. Only of the Civil War in 1861. 
the eldest direct male lineal descendant, It provided for a geographical arrange- 
according to the rules of primogeniture, ment of the militia by the State legislat- 
is eligible to membership. There are in ures into companies, battalions, regiments, 
all twenty-one commanderies, one repre- brigades, and divisions; each company to 
s'mting the District of Columbia, and each consist of sixty-four men, each battalion 
of the others representing a State. In of five companies, each regiment of two 
1900 the total membership was 9,043. battalions, and each brigade of four regi- 
llie following were officers: Commander- ments. Each company, battalion, regi- 

183 



MILITIA, UNITED STATES 



ment, and division was officered as now, 
except that the commander of a regiment 
held the rank of lieutenant-colonel. This 
arrangement was long perpetuated in the 
regular army, as well as in the militia. 
The rank of colonel, however, had been 
established in both services. There was 
provision made for one company of light 
troops to each battalion, and at least one 
company of artillery and one of horse to 
each division, to be formed out of volun- 
teers, and to be clad in uniform at their 
own expense. Each State was to appoint 
an adjutant-general for the general super- 
intendence of the whole militia system. 
Every able-bodied male citizen between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five years, with 
certain exceptions, was to be enrolled in 



the militia by the captain of the com- 
pany within whose bounds he might re- 
side; such citizen to arm and equip hinv 
self and appear for exercise when called. 
This law simply adopted the system as it 
stood in each State. By another act it 
authorized the President, in case of in- 
vasion by any foreign nation or Indian 
tribe, or imminent danger thereof, or in 
case of insurrection in any State, applica- 
tion being made by its legislature or its 
executive, to call forth the militia of the 
State or States most convenient to the 
scene of action. Whenever there should 
be an invasion, or insurrection, or com- 
bination to resist the laws too strong to 
be suppressed by the civil authorities, the 
President was authorized to call out the 



TABLE SHOWING THE CONDITION OF THE STATE MILITIA ON DEC. 1, 1900. 



Alabama 

•Alaska 

■4rJ£0Da 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbii 

Florida , 

Georgia 

6u 



Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana .... . . . 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. . 

New Jersey 

Jfew Mexico 



■York 



*forth Carolina. 
North Dakota. . . 
Ohi. 



Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Porto Rico ... . 
Rhode Island.. 

Samoa 

Sonth Carolina 
Soath Dakota. 

Tenneuee 

Texas 

UUh 

Vermont 

Virginia 



West Virginia 

Wlieonsln... 

Wyoming.... 



Grand aggregates . 



Official Designation of State Troops. 



Alabama Stato Troops 

No organized militia 

National Guard of Arizona. 

Arkansas State Guard! 

National Guard of California 

National Guard of Colorado 

National Guard of Connecticut 

National Guard of Delaware 

National Guard District of Columbia.. .. 

Florida State Troops 

Georgia Volunteers 

Guam Voiunteeis 

Hawaiian National Guard 

Idaho National Guard 

II linois National Guard 

Indiana Legion 

Indian Territory Militia* 

Iowa National Guard 

Kansas National Guard 

Kentucky National Guard 

Louisiana State National Guard 

National Gu.ard State of Maine 

Maryland National Guard 

Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 

Michigan National Guard 

National Guard of Minnesota 

Mississippi National Guard 

National Guard of Missouri 

National Guard of Montana 

Nebraska National Guard 

Nevada National Guard 

New Hampshire National Guard 

National Guard of New Jersey 

National Guard of New Mexico 

National Guard State of New York 

Norlh Carolina National Guard 

North Dakota National Guard 

Ohio National Guard 

Oklahoma National Guard 

Oregon National Guard 

National Guard Pennsylvania 

Porto Rico Battalion 

Brigade of Rhode Island Militia 

Samoan Volunteers 

South Carolina Volunteer State Troops. 

South Dakota National Guard 

National Guard State of Tennessee 

Texas Volunteer Guard 

National Guard of Utah 

National Guard of Vermont 

Virginia Volunteers 

National Guard of Washington 

Weat Virginia National Guard 

Wl»<;on.ln National Guard 

Wyoming National Guard 



1,027 



5,459 



382 
1,6.30 
2,991 



1,213 
1,167 
3,416 



1,090 
1,762 

780 
1,262 
1,806 
3,874 
2,800 
2,332 

928 
2,444 



13.448 

1,618 



96,899 



7,788 

t 

898 

t 
6,471 

+ 
4,108 

750 
3,320 
1,458 
12,344 

o^OOO 
21,000 
10,626 
4,601 

t 
3,694 
2,131 
3,500 

t 
2,051 
2,700 
6,592 
3,499 
3,729 
1,800 
3,000 
1,124 
2,113 
t 
1,699 
»,127 
1,128 
18,fl00 
5,000 
933 
9,486 
2,164 
1,585 
11,103 
1,000 
1,030 

6,000 
1,000 
3,000 

t 
1,000 

t 

6,I7« 
1,877 
8,359 
3,122 
1,078 



Total Liabli 

to Military 

Service. 



170,000 

12,0OU 

17,200 

262,000 

260.000 

100.000 

107,000 

29,000 

50,000 

85,000 

290,000 

1,200 

4,000 

27,000 

800,000 

650,000 

6,000 

350,000 

110,000 

416.000 

140,000 

110,000 

210,000 

460.000 

280,000 

200,000 

235.000 

415.000 

34,000 

loo,o:)o 

6,600 

35,0ci0 
390.000 

40,000 
950 000 
260,000 

37,000 
660,1100 

62,000 

62,000 
900.000 
170,000 

69,0011 

400 

110,000 

63,000 
166,000 
360,000 

40,000 

46,000 
300,000 

96,000 
130.000 
400,000 
180,000 



199,694 11,448,300 $3,282,407 



State 
Appropria- 
tions. 



$4,710 

t 
164,247 
37,000 
138,450 
6,000 
31,325 
16,000 
25,000 
t 
t 

1,000 
206,000 
45,000 

50,200 
29,150 
7,000 
21 ,000 
33,000 
50,000 

323,900 
90,000 
51,000 
6,000 
10,000 
10,000 
16,000 
2,000 
30,000 

174,000 
31.395 

676,000 
6,000 
11,000 

191,000 

30,000 
350,000 

t 
37,600 

t 

8,000 

«,700 
14,000 

6,000 
10.000 

9,500 
11,200 

X 

16,700 
100,000 

6,000 



Tits t«tal organized forc« Is 105,845. 



' None organized, t ^° limit. X Unknown. J None. 



184 



MILL SPRING— MILLER 

militia in such numbers as he might deem their camp at Beech Grove. They were 

necessary. hard pressed by the Nationals, who had 

The militia of the States and Terri- gained a position where their great guns 
tories constitute primarily an armed local commanded the Confederate works. The 
constabulary that may be called out by next morning the Confederates were gone, 
the governor as commander-in-chief on the The beleaguered troops had escaped si- 
request of a sheriff or other local author- lently across the river, under cover of 
ity to aid in the enforcement of law, pre- darkness, abandoning everything in their 
serve order, etc. In the Civil War as camp and destroying the vessels that car- 
well as that against Spain the bulk of ried them over the stream. The Na- 
the volunteer army of the United States tionals lost 247 men, of whom thirty-nine 
was drawn from the militia of the States, were killed; the Confederates lost 349, of 
and in their more extended service these whom 192 were killed and eighty-nine 
soldiers lose for the time being their State were made prisoners. 

organization and become subject wholly Millard, Joseph Hopkins, legislator; 

to the orders of the President. born in Hamilton, Canada, in April, 1836; 

The table on opposite page, compiled by removed to Omaha in 1856, where he en- 

Capt. W. R. Hamilton, U. S. A., shows the gaged in banking. He was the founder 

condition of the State militia on Dec. 1, and president of the Omaha National 

1900. Bank; mayor of Omaha for one term; 

Mill Spring, Battle of. At Beech government director of the Union Pacific 

Grove and Mill Spring, Ky., there were railroad for six years and director for 

gathered by the middle of January, 1862, seven years; and a Republican United 

about 10,000 effective Confederate soldiers, States Senator in 1901-07. 

with twenty pieces of artillery, under the Milledge, John, statesman; born in 

command of General Crittenden. Gen. Savannah, Ga., in 1757. He was active 

George H. Thomas was sent to attack in civil and military affairs in Georgia 

them, and, if successful, to push over the during the Revolutionary War, and in 

Cumberland Mountains and liberate the 1780 was appointed attorney-general of 

east Tennesseeans from Confederate rule, the State. From 1792 to 1802 he was a 

He divided his forces, giving a smaller member of Congress, excepting one term, 

number to the command of General and from 1802 to 1806 was governor of 

Schoepf, and leading the remainder him- the State. He founded the University of 

self. When he was within 10 miles of Georgia, and the legislature gave his 

the Confederate camp the insurgents came name to the State capital. He died in 

out to meet him. At early dawn (Jan. Sand Hills, Ga., Feb, 9, 1818. 

19) the Confederates, 5,000 strong, led by Miller, Adam, clergyman; born in 

Zollicoffer, met the Union pickets— Wool- Maryland in 1810; ordained a Methodist 

ford's cavalry. A severe battle was soon minister in 1830; became a physician in 

afterwards begun on the side of the Na- 1843. In connection with Dr. William 

tionals by the Kentucky and Ohio regi- Nast (q. v.) he founded the German 

ments and Captain Kinney's battery. It branch of the Methodist Church. At the 

was becoming very warm, when Col. R. L. time of his death he was the oldest phy- 

McCook came up with Ohio and Minne- sician in the United States, with one ex- 

sota troops, also a Tennessee brigade and ception. He died in Chicago, July 29, 

a section of artillery. For a time it was 1901. 

doubtful which side would prevail. They Miller, Cincinnatus Heine (better 
were hotly contesting the possession of a known as Joaquin Miller), author; born 
commanding hill when Zollicoffer was in Wabash district, Ind., Nov. 10, 1841; 
killed at the head of his column. General went with his parents to Oregon in 1850; 
Crittenden immediately took his place, subsequently engaged in mining in Cali- 
and the struggle for the hill continued fornia, and studied law. In 1863 he edit- 
about two hours. A galling fire from ed the Democratic Register, in Eugene, 
Minnesota troops and a charge of Ohio Ore., a weekly paper which was accused 
troops with bayonets compelled the Con- of disloyalty and suppressed; in 1863-66 
federates to give way and retreat towards practised law in Canton City, Ore. ; and 

185 



MILLER 



in 1866-70 was judge of Grant county, lector of the port of Salem from 1825 to 
Ore. Later lie went to London, where he 1849. He died in Temple, N. H., July 7, 
published his first book of poems. Eeturn- 1851. 

ing to the United States he spent several Miller, Joaquin. See ISIiller, Cin- 
years in newspaper work in Washington, cixnatus Heixe. 

Since 1887 he has resided in Oakland, Cal. Miller, Joseph Nelsox, naval officer; 
In 1897-98 he was correspondent for the born in Ohio, Nov. 22, 1836; entered the 
New York Journal in the Klondike. His navy in 1851; was promoted passed mid- 
publications include Songs of the Sierras; shipman in 1856; master in 1858; lieuten- 
Songs of the Sunland; The Ship of the ant in 1860; lieutenant-commander in 
Desert; Life Among the Modocs; The 1862; commander in 1870; captain in 
One Fair Woman; Shadoios of Shasta; 1881; commodore in 1894; and rear-ad- 
Songs of Far -Away Lands; '^5, or the miral, March 21, 1897; and was retired, 
Gold-Seekers of the Sierras; The Life Nov. 22, 1898. During the Civil War he 
of Christ, etc. He has also written plays, served with distinction as executive offi- 
including The Silent Man; '49; the Dan- cer of the iron-clad Passaic in the attack 
ites: Tally-Ho, etc. upon Fort McAllister and Fort Sumter, 

Miller, James, military officer; born in and on the Monadnock in the two engage- 
Peterboro, N. H., April 25, 1776; entered ments with Fort Fisher. In 1875, while 
the army as major in 1808, and was lieu- commander of the Tuscarora, he made 
tenant-colonel and leader of the Ameri- deep-sea soundings in the Pacific Ocean 
cans in the battle at Brownstown in 1812. between the Hawaiian and Fiji Islands. 
He was distinguished in events on the In 1897, with the Brooklyn, he represent- 
ed the United States at Queen Vic- 
toria's jubilee; in August of the 
same year was made commander of 
the Pacific station; and in August, 
1898, he raised and saluted the 
American flag at Honolulu, the 
last act in the annexation of Ha- 
waii to the United States. During 
the war with Spain he organized 
the naval reserves on the Pacific 
coast. 

Miller, Samuel, LL.D.,' theolo- 
gian; born in Dover, Del., Oct. 31, 
1769; graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1789; minister 
(if a Presbyterian church in New 
York City from 1793 to 1813, and 
was noted as a political and theo- 
logical writer. From 1813 to 1849 
he was Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History and Church Government in 
the Theological Seminary at Prince- 
ton. His published works are quite 
numerous. Dr. Miller was an early 
member of the American Philosoph- 
ical Society. He died in Princeton, 
N. J., Jan. 7, 1850. 
Niagara frontier, especially in the battle Miller, Samuel Freeaian, jurist; born 
at Niagara Falls, or Lundy's Lane, in July, in Piehmond, Ky., April 5, 1816; grad- 
1814. For his services there he was brev- uated at Transylvania University in 1838; 
etted brigadier-general, and received from removed to Iowa in 1850; appoint- 
Congress a gold medal. He was governor ed associate justice of the United States 
of Arkansas from 1819 to 1825, and col- Supreme Court by President Lincoln in 

186 




JAMES MILLER. 



MILLER— MILLIGAN 

18G2. lie died in Washington, D. C, Oct. Union army; and after his discharge was 
13, 1890. admitted to the bar and practised law at 

Miller, Walter, philologist; born in Fort Wayne, Ind., in 18GG-74. In the lat- 
Ashland county, O., May 5, 1864; grad- ter year he moved to Indianapolis and 
uatcd at the University of Michigan became a law partner of Benjamin Har- 
in 1884, and studied in the University of kison (7. v.). He was Attorney-General 
Leipsic in 1884-85 and 1889-91. He was of the United States (1889-93) in Presi- 
instructor of Latin and Sanskrit in 1887- dent Harrison's cabinet, and afterwards 
88 and acting assistant professor in 1888- resumed practice in Indianapolis. 
89. In 1S92 he was called to the chair of Millet, Francis Davis, artist; born in 
Classical Philology in the Stanford Uni- Mattapoisett, Mass., Nov. 3, 1840; grad- 
versity. He is the author of Excavations uated at Harvard College in 1869; studied 
upon the Akropolis at Athens; The The- at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts 
aire of Thoricus; Latin Prose Composi- in Antwerp in 1871-72, was secretary 
lion for College Use; Pronunciation of of the Massachusetts Commission to the 
Greek and Latin Proper Names; History Vienna Exposition in 1873, and art cor- 
of the Akropolis of Athens; Johannes respondent for the London Daily Neivs, 
Orcrbeck; Scientific Names of Latin and the London Graphic, and the New York 
Greek Derivation; The Roman Religion; Herald during the Russo-Turkish war of 
Steller's Great Sea Beasts, etc. ' 1877-78. In 1892-93 he was director of dec- 

Miller, William, founder of the sect of orations and of functions at the World's 
MiLLERiTES, or Ad^-entists {q. V.) ; born Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and 
in Pittsfield, Mass., Feb. 5, 1782; was in 1898 was art correspondent for the Lon- 
mainly self-taught during his leisure mo- don Times and Harper's Weekly at Manila, 
ments while working on a farm. At the Philippine Islands. He designed the cos- 
beginning of the War of 1812 he was a tumes for the representation of the Oedi- 
recruiting officer, and later a captain in pus Tyrannus of Sophocles by Harvard 
the army. During his early manhood he students in 1880; has executed a large 
read and advocated the teachings of Vol- amount of decorative work; and received 
taire, Thomas Paine, and Hume. Subse- numerous foreign war medals, 
quently he was converted to Christian- Milligan, Case of. On Oct. 5, 1864, 
ity, and joined a Baptist church. He be- Lambdin P. Milligan, while at home in 
came a deep student of the Old Testament Indiana, was arrested, with others, for 
prophecies, which convinced him that treasonable designs, by order of Gen. Al- 
Christ would reappear to judge the world vin P. Hovey, commanding the military 
between the years 1831 and 1844. Churches district of Indiana; on Oct. 21 brought 
were thrown open to him every^vhere, and before a military commission convened at 
multitudes flocked to hear his interpreta- Indianapolis by General Hovey, tried on 
tion of prophecy. When the time set by certain charges and specifications, found 
Father Miller, as he was popularly called, guilty, and sentenced to be hanged, Friday, 
for the second advent of Christ had ex- May 19, 1865. The proceedings of the 
pired, the majority of his followers, about military commission closed in January, 
50,000, did not give up their faith in the 1865. When the circuit court of the Unit- 
speedy coming of the Saviour. On April ed States met at Indianapolis in Jan- 
25, 1845, a convention was called, which uary, 1865, the grand jury did not indict 
agreed upon a declaration of faith and Milligan, who then petitioned the court to 
the name Adventists. Father Miller's be brought before it and tried by jury or 
Dream of the Last Day was widely circu- released. With the petition was filed the 
lated. He died in Low Hampton, N. Y., order appointing the commission, the 
Dec. 20, 1849. charges, finding of the commission, with 

Miller, William Henry Harrison, law- the order from the War Department re- 
yer; born in Augusta, N. Y., Sept. 6, 1840; citing that the sentence was approved by 
spent his early life on a farm; and the President, and directing that the sen- 
graduated at Hamilton College in 1861. tence be carried out without delay. The 
He settled in Maumee City, O., where lie judges differed on three questions: (1) 
taught school a year; then entered the Whether on the facts submitted a writ of 

187 



MILLIKEN'S BEND— MILLS 



habeas corpus should be issued; (2) 
Whether Milligan ought to be discharged; 
(3) Whether the military commission had 
acted within its jurisdiction; and these 
■were submitted to the Supreme Court 
of the United States. The first two ques- 
tions were answered in the aflfirmative, the 
third in the negative, Justices Davis, 
Grier, Xelson, Clifford, and Fields holding 
that Congress had not the constitutional 
power to authorize such commission — that 
the Constitution lorbids it, and is the su- 
preme law of the land, in war as in peace. 
Chief-Justice Chase, supported by Justices 
Wayne, Swayne, and Miller, held that Con- 
gress has the power to authorize military 
commissions in time of war; but all con- 
curred in the answers given to the three 
questions submitted, and Milligan was 
released. " The decision of the court 
overthrew the whole doctrine of military 
arrest and trial of private citizens in 
peaceful States." — Lalor's Cyclopcedia of 
Political Science, vol. ii., p. 433. See 
Habeas Corpus. 

Milliken's Bend, a locality in Louisi- 
ana, attacked by Confederates under Gen. 
H. McCulloch; repulsed June 6, 1863, by 
Union forces (mostly colored), aided by 
the gunboats Choctaio and Lexington. 
Union loss, killed and wounded, 404. 

Mills, Albert Leopold, military officer ; 
born in New York City, May 7, 1854; 
graduated at the United States Military 
Academy, and was commissioned a second 
lieutenant in the 1st United States 
Cavalry, and selected as military in- 
structor in 1879; Professor of Military 
Science and Tactics in the South Carolina 
Academy in 1886; promoted first lieu- 
tenant of 1st Cavalry in 1889; adjutant 
of 1st Cavalry in 1890-94; and promoted 
captain of the 6th Cavalry, Oct. 8, 1898. 
Ill the war with Spain (1898) he was ap- 
pointed captain and assistant adjutant- 
general of volunteers May 12. He served 
on the frontier during the war against the 
Sioux Indians in 1890; was engaged in 
the Santiago campaign at Las Guasimas 
and Santiago City, in 1898, where he was 
wounded ; was brevetted major and pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel for gallantry; 
and was appointed superintendent of the 
United States Military Academy, Aug. 8, 
1898. He is author of Campaigns in 1862 
in Virginia. 



Mills, Anson, military officer; born in 
Boone county, Ind., Aug. 31, 1834; studied 
in the United States Military Academy in 
1855-57 ; was surveyor of the commission 
to determine the boundary between New 
Mexico, Indian Territory, and Texas; 
served with distinction throughout the 
Civil War. When peace was declared he 
was assigned to frontier duty and partic- 
ipated in nearly all of the Indian wars. 
He was promoted brigadier-general, June 
16, 1897, and was retired six days later. He 
invented the woven cartridge belt, also the 
loom by which it is made, which the govern- 
ment adopted for use in the army and navy. 

Mills, Clark, sculptor ; born in Ononda- 
ga county, N. Y., Dec. 1, 1815; settled in 
Charleston, S. C, at an early age, and 
there discovered a method of taking a cast 
from a living face. In 1848 he completed 
the equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson 
in Washington, D. C. ; later he made the 
colossal equestrian statue of George Wash- 
ington in the same city; and in 1863 
finished his statue of Freedom, which was 
placed above the dome of the Capitol. He 
died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 12, 1883. 

Mills, Herbert Elmer; born in Salem, 
N. H., Aug. 8, 1861 ; graduated at Uni- 
versity of Rochester in 1883; appointed 
Professor of Economics in Vassar College 
in 1890. He is the author of Practical 
Economical Problems ; Labor Problem; The 
French Revolution in San Domingo, etc. 

Mills, Robert, architect; born in 
Charleston, S. C, Aug. 12, 1781; studied 
architecture under Benjamin H. Latrobe; 
was made United States architect in 1830; 
planned the construction of the United 
States Post-office, Patent Office, and TreavS- 
ury buildings. He drew the original design 
of the Washington Monument, on which 
work was begun in 1848 on the site select- 
ed by Washington for a memorial of the 
Revolutionary War. His publications in- 
clude Statistics of South Carolina; The 
American Pharos, or Light-house Guide; 
and Guide to the National Executive Of- 
fices. He died in Washington, D. C, 
March 3, 1855. 

Mills, Roger Quarles, lawyer; born in 
Todd county, Va., March 30, 1832; became 
a lawyer in Corsicana, Tex. ; was colonel 
of the 10th Texas Regiment in the Con- 
federate army in the Civil War; and en- 
tered the national House of Representa- 



188 



MILLS— MIMS 

tives in 1873 as a Democrat. Having 1813 they were led to expect an exter- 

given especial attention to revenue ques- minating blow. They knew that a British 

tions, he was appointed, in the Congress squadron was in the Gulf, and on friendly 

of 1887-89, chairman of , the ways and terms with the Spaniards at Pensacola. 

means committee, and reported in 1888 They prepared to defend themselves as 

the so-called Mills bill. This measure, well as they might. They learned that 

prepared in the direction of tariff reform, British agents at Pensacola were distrib- 

passed the Democratic House and was de- uting supplies among the Creeks. Very 

fcated in the Republican Senate. Mr, soon hostilities began here and there, and 

Mills was defeated by Mr. Crisp in the the white people fled to secret places for 

contest for speaker in 1891, and was a refuge — some in the thick swamps not far 

United States Senator in 1892-99. above the junction of the Alabama and 

Mills, Samuel, John, clergyman; born Tombigbee rivers. There they were joined 
in Torringford, Conn., April 21, 1783; by wealthy half-blood families, and the 
graduated at Williams College in 1809; house of Samuel Mims, an old and wealthy 
was the originator of the American Bible inhabitant, was strongly stockaded with 
Society, founded in 1816; and was also heavy pickets. Several other buildings were 
instrumental in the formation of the enclosed within the acre of ground stock- 
American Colonization Society {q. v.) . aded, and the whole was known as Fort 
In behalf of the latter society he explored Mims. Major Beasley was placed in com- 
the western coast of Africa for a suit- mand and authorized to receive any cit- 
able site for a colony, in 1818, and died izens who would assist in defence of the 
on his passage homeward, June 16, 1818. station, and issue soldiers' rations to them. 

Millspaugh, Charles Frederic, bota- Its dimensions were soon too small for the 
nist; born in Ithaca, N. Y., June 20, people who flocked to it for protection 
1854; graduated at New York Homoeo- against the impending storm, and a new 
pathic Medical College in 1881 ; appointed enclosure was built. At the close of Au- 
Professor of Botany in West Virginia Uni- gust Indians were seen prowling around 
versity in 1891; Professor of Medical Fort Mims; but Major Beasley was con- 
Botany in the Chicago Homoeopathic Medi- fident that he could " maintain the post 
cal College in 1897; lecturer on botany in against any number of Indians." 
the University of Chicago in 1895. In Aug. 30 was a beautiful day, and no 
the interest of botanical science he has sense of danger was felt at the fort. It 
made explorations in the West Indies, contained 550 men, women, and children. 
Mexico, and Brazil. He is the author of The mid-day drum was beaten for dinner. 
Weeds of West Virginia, Flora of West The soldiers' were loitering listlessly 
Virginia, American Medical Plants, Flora around, or were playing cards; almost 100 
of Yucatan, etc. children were playing around, and young 

Milroy, Robert Huston, military offi- men and maidens were dancing. At that 
cer; born in Washington county, Md., moment 1,000 almost naked Creek war- 
June 11, 1816; became a la^vyer; served riors lay in a ravine not more than 
in the 1st Indiana Volunteers in the Mexi- 440 yards from the fort, ready, like 
can War; became colonel of the 9th Indi- famished tigers, to spring upon their 
ana Volunteers, April 26, 1861; brigadier- prey. They were led by Weathersford, 
general, Feb. 6, 1862; and major-general a famous Creek chief. The first tap 
in 1863 ; served principally in western Vir- of the dinner-drum was the signal for the 
ginia and the Shenandoah Valley. Indians to rise from their cover and rush 

Mims, Fort, Massacre at. In the to the fort; and the first intimation of 

autumn of 1812, Tecumseh and his brother, their presence was a horrid yell, that 

the Prophet, went among the Creeks to filled the air as they came streaming over 

stir them up to make war upon the whites, a field towards an open gate of the fort. 

They were divided in sentiment, for many Beasley flew to close it, and the soldiers 

of them preferred peace and friendship rushed with their arms to the portholes, 

with the Americans, and civil war was en- The unarmed men and the women and 

gendered. The white settlers among them children, pale with terror, huddled within 

were in great peril, and in the spring of the houses and cabins of the enclosure. 

189 



MILWAUKEE— MINE RUN 

Beasley was too late. He was felled by and Martin in 1835, the first sale of lots 

clubs and tomahawks, and over his dead taking place in August of that year. In 

body the terrible torrent rushed into the 1838 the population of Milwaukee was 

new enclosure. 700; 1840, 1,700; and by decades since, 

The soldiers made a gallant fight for 1850, 20,061; 1860, 45,246; 1870, 71,440; 
three hours. They were nearly all slain. 1880, 115,587; 1890, 204,468; 1900, 285.- 
The unarmed people were in the old 315; by this census the fourteenth city in 
enclosure, with a picket between them the United States in point of population, 
and the slaughter. The Indians became Mine Explosion. See Petersburg. 
weary, and slackened their fire. The peo- Mine Run, Operations near. Early in 
pie in the main fort hoped the savages November, 1863, General Lee was pre- 
were about to depart. They were dis- paring to go into winter quarters near 
appointed. Weathersford was not a man Culpeper Court-house when the National 
to accept half a victory when a whole victory at Rappahannock Station and the 
one was attainable. His people, who had crossing of that stream by Meade, Nov. 8, 
begun to carry away plunder, were re- caused him, under cover of darkness, to 
buked by him, and exhorted to complete withdraw beyond the Eapidan, and in- 
the work. The horrid task was resumed, trench his army on Mine Run and its 
The few soldiers left made stout resist- vicinity, a strong defensive position. 
ance, when the Indians sent fire on the Meade lay quietly between the Rappahan- 
wings of arrows to the roof of Mims's nock and Rapidan, until late in Novem- 
house, and it burst into a flame. Very ber, when, his communications being per- 
soon the whole " fort " was in flames, feet with his supplies and the capital, he 
The Indians pressed into the main fort, undertook a bold movement. He proceed- 
With the most horrible cruelties they cd to attempt to turn the right of the 
murdered the defenceless. Weathersford Confederates, and, sweeping round tow- 
begged the warriors to spare the women ards Orange Court-house, overwhelm Ewell, 
and children, but they refused. He had turn the works on Mine Run, and ef- 
raised the storm, but was not able to feet a lodgment at Orange and Gordons- 
control it. At sunset 400 of the inmates ville. This would involve the perilous 
of Fort Mims lay dead. Not a white measure of cutting loose from his supplies, 
woman or child escaped. Twelve of the but he took the risk. He left his trains 
soldiers cut their way throvigh the cor- parked at Richardsville, on the north side 
don of Indians and escaped. Most of the of the Rapidan, and moved on the morn- 
negroes were spared, and were made ing of Nov. 26; but instead of crossing 
Blaves of the Indians. A negro woman, that stream in a short time, so as to 
who had received a ball in her breast, march rapidly and surprise the Confed- 
escaped to the river, seized a canoe, and, erates, the whole day was consumed in 
paddling down to Fort Stoddart, gave to the passage. It was 10 a.m. the next 
General Claiborne there the first tidings day before any of the troops reached the 
of the horrible tragedy. The contest last- designated point, when the movement had 
ed from 12 m. until 5 p.m. The Ind- become known to the Confederates. 
ians had suffered severely, for not less Warren, with 10,000 men, followed by 
than 400 Creek warriors were killed or an artillery reserve, was confronted by a 
wounded, as the victims had sold their large portion of Ewell's corps, and brisk 
lives as dearly as possible. skirmishing began. French's troops, that 

Milwaukee, known as the " Cream were to support Warren, did not, for 

City," the metropolis of Wisconsin, situ- various causes, come up until night, when 

ated on the western shore of Lake Michi- the latter was so hard pressed that Meade 

gan, was founded by Solomon Juneau, who was compelled to send troops from his 

arrived there Sept. 14, 1818. The place left to Warren's assistance. These vari- 

and name were known as early as Nov. 10, ous delays had given Lee ample time to 

1699, as John Buisson de St. Comes men- prepare to meet his antagonist, and 

tions being storm-bound at Milwarclc on Meade's plans, so well laid, were frus- 

that date. The east side was first platted trated. He concentrated his whole army 

and named Milwaukee by Messrs. Juneau on the west bank of Mine Run, and ex- 

190 



MINE RUN— MINISINK 



tended his fortifications along the line 
of that stream until they crossed the two 
highways on which Meade's army lay. In 
front of all was a strong abatis. Meade, 
however, resolved to attack Lee, and to 
Warren was intrusted the task of opening 
the assault, his whole force being about 
26,000 men. He was to make the attack 
at 8 A.M., Nov. 30. 

At that hour Meade's batteries on the 
left and centre were opened, and skirmish- 
ers of the latter dashed across Mine Run 
and drove back those of the Confederates. 
But Warren's guns were not heard. He 
had found the Confederates much stronger 
than he expected, and prudently refrained 
from attacking. Satisfied that Warren 
had done wisely, Meade ordered a general 
suspension of operations. Lee's defences 
were growing stronger every hour, while 
Meade's strength was diminishing. His 
rations were nearly exhausted, and his 
supply-trains were beyond the Rapidan. 
To attempt to bring them over might ex- 
pose them to disaster, for winter was at 



between that stream and the Rappahan- 
nock. 

Miner, James G., military officer; born 
in New England in 181'J; graduated at the 
University of Edinburgh ; later removed 
to Texas. During tlie Mexican War he 
served under General Taylor. Prior to the 
Civil War he was a partner in the famous 
Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Va., 
and during that war was assistant Secre- 
tary of the Confederate Navy. Later he 
invented a high-pressure engine, but it 
did not prove a financial success. He died 
in Milford, O., May 28, 1901. 

Mingoes, the Algonquian name for the 
Indians of the Five Nations or Iroquois, 
especially of the Mohawk tribe. 

Minisink, Desolation of. On the night 
of July 19, 1779, Joseph Brant, the Mo- 
hawk chief, at the head of sixty Indiana 
and twenty-seven Tories disguised as sav- 
ages, stole upon the little town of Mini- 
sink, Orange co., N. Y., which was wholly 
unprotected, and, before the people were 
aroused from their slumbers, set on fire 




THK ABATIS IN FRONT OF LEE S FORTIFICATIONS. 



hand and rain might suddenly swell the 
streams and make them impassable. 
Meade therefore determined to sacrifice 
himself, if necessary, rather than his 
army. He abandoned the enterprise, re- 
crossed the Rapidan, and went into win- 
ter quarters on his old camping - ground 



several houses. The inhabitants fled to 
the mountains. Their small stockade fort, 
mill, and twelve houses and barns were 
burned ; their orchards and plantations 
were laid waste; their cattle were driven 
away, and booty of every kind was borne 
to the banks of the Delaware, where the 



191 



MINISINK— MINNESOTA 



jfiief had left the main body of his war- 
riors. Several of the inhabitants were 
killed, and some were made prisoners. 

\Yhen news of this invasion reached 
Goshen, Dr. Tusten, colonel of the local 
militia, ordered the officers of his regiment 
to meet him at Minisink the next day, 
with as many volunteers as they could 
muster. They promptly responded, and 
140 hardy men were gathered around Tus- 
ten the next morning, many of them the 
most respected citizens. They pursued the 
invaders, under Colonel Hathorn, who 
joined Tusten with a small reinforcement, 
and, being senior officer, took chief com- 
mand. The more prudent officers coun- 
selled against pursuit when the great 
number of Indians at Brant's command be- 
came known. But hot-heads ruled, and 
the expedition soon became involved in a 
desperate fight mth the Indians on July 
22. The Indians pressed upon the white 
people on every side, until they were 
hemmed within the circumference of one 
acre, on a rocky hill that sloped on all 
sides. The conflict began at 11 a.m., and 
lasted till sunset. Into that hollow square 
the Indians broke. The survivors of the 
conflict attempted to 
escape. Behind a 
ledge of rocks Dr. 
Tusten had been 
dressing the wounds 
of his companions 
all day. When the 
retreat began he had 
seventeen under his 
care. The Indians 
fell upon these with 
fury, and all, with 
the doctor, were 
slain. The flower of 




MONUMB.VT AT GOSHEN. 



The event made thirty-three widows in 
the congregation of the Presbyterian 
church, at Goshen. It gave firmness to 



Sullivan's men, who, a few weeks after- 
wards, desolated the beautiful land of the 
Cayugas and Senecas. In 1822 the citi- 
zens of Orange county collected the bones 
of the slain, and caused them to be buried 
near the centre of the green at the foot 
of the main street of the village of Goshen. 
There was a great multitude of citizens 
present. Over their remains a new marble 
monument was erected the same year, the 
corner-stone of which was laid by General 
Hathorn, then over eighty years of age, 
and one of the survivors of the massacre. 
The monument bears the names of the 
slain. 

Minnesota, State of. The first Eu- 
ropeans who trod its soil were two Hugue- 
nots, Sieur Groselliers and Sieur Radisson, 
who, in search of a northwest passage to 
China, passed through this region in 1659. 
Returning to Montreal in 1660 with sixty 
canoes laden with skins, they excited 
others to go in search of peltries, and this 
was the beginning of the French fur- 
trade which afterwards interfered with 
the Hudson Bay Company. To secure this 
trade, which the English were grasping, 
Daniel Greysolon du Luth, a native of 
Lyons, left Quebec in September, 1678, 
with twenty men, and entered Minnesota. 
The next year Father Hennepin and two 
others, who were a part of La Salle's ex- 
pedition, penetrated the country far above 
the falls of St. Anthony. The territory 
was formally taken possession of in the 
name of the French monarch, by Perrot 
and his associates, in 1689. They built 
a fort on the west shore of Lake Pepin; 
and Le Seur built another fort, in 1695, 
on an island in the Mississippi, just be- 
low the mouth of the St. Croix River, af- 
ter which the fur-traders fiocked into that 
region. In 1763, Jonathan Carver visited 
Minnesota and published a description of 
the country. In 1800, a part of Minnesota 
lying west of the Mississippi 
was included in the Territory of 
Indiana. 

The purchase of Louisiana, in 

1803, gave the United States pos- 

i session of the whole country west 

of the Mississippi, and in 1816 

Congress passed a law excluding 

foreigners from the fur-trade in that 

region. Fort Snelling was built and 

garrisoned in 1819, and active trade with 



192 



MINNES-OTA, STATE OF 



the Indians was carried on there. In 
1820 that region was explored by a party 
under Gen. Lewis Cass, and by Major 




STATE SEAL OP MINNESOTA, 

Long in 1821. A third exploring party 
went there in 1832, led by Henry R. 
Schoolcraft, who discovered the main 
source of the Mississippi River. In 1837, 
some lumbering operations began in Minne- 



and at the end of eight years (1857) the 
number was 1.50,000. In 1851 the Sioux 
ceded to the United States all their lands 
in Minnesota. In 1857 application was 
made by the people for the admission of 
Minnesota into the Union as a State. 
This was effected May 11, 1858. Min- 
nesota furnished to the National army 
and navy during the Civil War 25,034 
soldiers. The population in 1890, a 
little more than fifty years after the 
first settlement, was 1,301,826; in 1900, 
1,751,394. 

The people of the State were faithful 
to the old flag in 1861 ; so was the 
governor, Alexander Ramsey. The legis- 
lature that assembled Jan. 26 passed a 
series of loyal resolutions, in which se- 
cession was denounced as revolution, and 
the acts of the South Carolinians in 
Charleston Harbor as treasonable; and 
said that the full strength of the national 
authority under the national flag should be 
put forth. It gave assurance that the peo- 
ple of Minnesota would never consent to 
the obstruction of the free navigation of 



;. ,j,.f_TiCEeS-' 




A VIEW OP SX. PAUL. 



sota, upon the St. Croix River. The town 
of St. Paul was founded in 1842, and in 
1849 the Territory of Minnesota was cre- 
ated. At that time one-half the lands in- 
cluded in the Territory belonged to the 
Indians, and the white population was 
less than 5,000. Emigrants flocked in, 



the Mississippi River " from its source to 
its mouth by any power hostile to the fed- 
eral government." 

At midsummer, in 1862, Little Crow, a 
saintly looking savage in civilized costume, 
leader of Sioux warriors, began war on 
the white people, and in August and 



193 



MINNESOTA, STATE OF 




A SIODX MASSACKE. 



September butchered inhabitants at three scattered them among the wilds of the 
points in Minnesota, and at posts beyond eastern slopes of the spurs of the Rocky 
the boundary of the State. For nine days Mountains. An outbreak by the Pillager 
the Sioux besieged Fort Ridgely. Fort band of Chippewas at Leech Lake occurred 
Abercrombie was also besieged, and twice in October, 1898, because of continued im- 
assaulted ; and in that region the Indians positions by the whites ; but it was quick- 
murdered about 500 white inhabitants, ly suppressed by a detachment of the regu- 
mostly defenceless women and children, lar army. See United States, Minne- 
Gen. H. H. Sibley was sent with a body sota, in vol. ix. 
of militia to crush the Indians. He at- 
tacked a large force under Little Crow at 
Wood Lake, and drove them into Dakota, 
making 500 of their number prisoners. 
Tried by court-martial, 300 of them were 
sentenced to be hanged. The President 

interfered, nnd only thirty-seven of the Henry H. Sibley 

1 ce 1 iiTnuno Alexander liamsey 

worst olienuers were executed, reb. 28, Henrv a. Swift... 

1863. The "Sioux War" was not ended Stephen MUier... 

..1 J.V £ 7o/>o 1, /-^ 1 Willi;im R. llarshall. Rep. . . 

until the summer of 1863, when General Horace Austin, "... 



TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS, 

Alex. Ramsey, of Pennsylvania.. appointed April 2, 
Willis A (ioriuan, of Indiana.... " March 4, 
Samuel Jledary " 



gTATE GOVERNORa 
elected 



1849 
1853 
1857 



Pope took command of that department, Cusbmnn K. Davis, 
picketed the line of settlements in the far j^uci'us V. Hubbard 
Northwest with 2,000 soldiers, and took Andrew R. McGill, 
vigorous measures to disperse the hostile KnntTsflJn^""''^' 

bands. Generals Sibley and Sully moved David M. Clough 

against them in June, 1803, fought the ^"^'I^oVr "vanSantV 
Indians at diflerent places, and finally John A. Johnson ... , 

194 



1857 

" Oct., 1859 

" July, 1863 

" Oct., 1863 

" ...Nov. 7, 1865 

" Nov., 1869 

" Nov., 1873 

" ...Nov. 2, 1875 

" Nov., 1881 

" ...Nov. 2, 1886 

term begins Jan. 9, 1889 

. " " ....Jan. 4, 1893 

" " ...Jan. 31, 1895 

" "... .Jan. 2, 1899 

" " ....Jan. 7. 1901 

" " ....Jan, 2, 1905 



MINOT— MINT 



UNITED STATES SENATORS 



Name. 


No. of Congress, 


Tir.,1. 




35th to 37th 
35th 


1858 
1858 


to 


1863 


William W. l'he)ps 


1859 


Morton S. Wilkiuson 


36th to 38th 


1859 


" 


1865 


Alexander Ramsey 


3Sth 


186£ 




Daniel S. Norton 


39th to 41st 


1865 


to 


1870 


William Windoin 


41st " 45th 


1870 




1881 


Ozora P. Stearns 


41st " 43d 


1871 




1875 


Samuel J. R. McMillau. .. 


44th " 49th 


1875 




1887 


Dwight M. Sabin 


47th " 49th 


1881 




1887 


Ciishman K. Davis 


50th " 56th 


1887 




1900 


Charles A. Towne 


5(ith 


1900 




1901 


William D. Washburn... 


51st to 54th 


1889 




1895 




54th " 

56th " 


1895 
1901 






Moses E. Clapp 





side with N. E., and on the other side 
with Xlld, VId, and Hid," according to 
the value of each piece. These coins were 
to be of the fineness of " new sterling 
English money," and every shilling was to 
" weigh three penny Troy weight, and 
lesser peeces proportionably." It was 
found, as soon as they were in circulation, 
that, owing to the excessive plainness of 
their finish, they were exposed to " wash- 
ing and clipping." To remedy this evil, 
the General Court, on Oct. 9 of the same 
year, ordered a new die, and required that 




MILLS AT MINNEAPOLIS. 



Minot, George Richards, jurist; born 
in Boston, Mass., Dec. 22, 1758; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1778; began law 
practice in Boston; became probate judge 
for Suffolk county in 1792; and was secre- 
tary of the convention which adopted the 
national Constitution. His publications 
include Eulogy on Washington; History of 
the Insurrection in Massachusetts in 1186 ; 
and Continuation of the (Uutchinso-n's) 
History of Massachusetts Bay from the 
Year 1748, with an Introductory Sketch 
of Events from its Original Settlement. 
He died in Boston, Mass., Jan. 2, 1802. 

Mint, First American. The earliest 
colonial coinage was in Massachusetts, in 
pursuance of an order of the General 
Court, passed May 27, 1652, which estab- 
lished a " mint - house " at Boston. The 
order required the coinage of " 12-pence, 
G-pence, and 3-pence peeces, which shall 
be for forme flatt, and stamped on one 



" henceforth both shillings and smaller 
peeces shall have a double ring on either 
side, with this inscription : Massachu- 
setts, and a tree in the centre, on the one 
side, and New England and the date of 
the year on the other side." In 1662 a 
two-penny piece was added to the series. 
This mint existed thirty-four years, but 
the coins issued have only the dates 1652 










THE PINE-TRKB SHILLING. 



and 1662, the original dies having done 
serTice throughout the whole period 

as '■ pine-tree j^hillings." See Coinage; 
Currency; United States ;Mint. 



195 



MINTY— MISCHIANZA 

Minty, Egbert Horatio George, mill- feeling between the United States an/ 
tarv officer: born in County Mayo, Ire- Spain, and the government officers avert- 
land, Dec. 4, 1831; served in the British ed their eyes from Miranda's doings. His 



army from 1849 to 1853; removed to 
Michigan ; and was made lieutenant-colonel 
of the 3d Michigan Cavalry in 1861. He 
distinguished himself in battles in the 
West "and South, notably at Stone River, 
Chickamauga, and in the Atlanta cam- 
paign, raiding with Kilpatrick in Georgia; 
was promoted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers in 1864; and at the close of the war 
was brevetted major-general. 



preparations for the expedition were 
made at New York, while he resided at 
Washington, D. C, and was on intimate 
social relations with President Jefferson 
and Secretary Madison. He chartered the 
ship Leander at New York, and she sailed 
from that port (February) with arms 
and about 250 men. He was joined by 
other vessels. The expedition reached 
Caracas in safety, and, with the help of 



Minuit, Peter, colonist; born in Wesel, the English in that quarter, Miranda took 
Germany, about 1580; appointed director, possession of two or three towns on the 
or governor, of New Netherland, 1625- coast. The people would not listen to his 
31 ; entered the service of the Swedish offers of liberty. The Spaniards captured 
West India Company in 1633; led a two transports, with about sixty Ameri- 
body of settlers to New Sweden (q. v.) cans, and the expedition ended in failure 
in 1637. He died in Fort Christiania, about three months after the Leander left 
Del. in 1641. New York. Miranda escaped to Cartha- 

Minute-men, In November, 1774, the gena, when Bolivar delivered him to the 
Provincial Congress of Massachusetts au- Spaniards, who confined him in a dun- 
thorized the enrolment of 12,000 men in geon in Cadiz till his death, July 14, 
the province, who should be prepared to 1816. 

take the field at a minute's warning. Dea- Mischianza, The. Before Sir William 
cons of churches, and even pastors, became Howe's departure from Philadelphia, May 
captains of companies, and magistrates led 24, 1778, he and his brother, the admiral, 
the people. This army was, from the con- were honored by a grand complimentary 
ditions of its enlistment, called " Minute- entertainment, " the most splendid," the 
men." There were similar organizations accomplished Major Andre wrote, " ever 
in other colonies, especially in Virginia. 

Miranda, Francisco, military offi- 
cer ; born in Caracas, Venezuela, June 
9, 1756; became a captain in the 
Spanish army; and served in the 
United States in 1779 and 1781. He 
was a born agitator and revolution- 
ist, and tried to free Spanish-Ameri- 
can colonies from the Spanish yoke, 
presenting his projects to various Eu- 
ropean courts. In the French Rev- 
olution he acquired a high reputa- 
tion as a military leader, especially 
as an engineer and tactician, and be- 
came a general of division. Twice lie 
was expelled from France as a dan- 
gerous intriguer. 

About the beginning of 1806 he 
was again in the United States, for 
the purpose of fitting out an expedi- 
tion having for its object the rev- 
olutionizing of the Spanish province 
of Caracas, which now constitutes 
the republic of Venezuela. At that 
time there was much irritation, of 

196 



^^^B^^j/ 




MJSOHIANZA TICKET. 



MISSIONABY RIDGE 

given by an army to their commander." It a considerable distance in advance ot 
was given at the Wharton Mansion and the former. Wood's division of Granger'a 
lawns on the present Fifth Street. Andnl corps led the left, and Sheridan's the 
was the chief inventor of the pageant, right. General Palmer supported Gran- 
which was called, in the Italian tongue, ger's right, Johnson's division remained in 
niischianza, a medley, and the ticket of the trenches, and Howard's corps was in 
admission was designed by him. It began reserve. The Nationals soon drove the 
with a grand regatta on the Delaware, in Confederates from Orchard Knob by a vig- 
the presence of thousands of spectators, orous charge, carrying the rifle-pits on 
and accompanied by martial music and that eminence and taking 200 prisoners, 
the flutter of banners. This over, the Wood immediately intrenched; Howard 
scene changed to a tournament on Whar- moved up and took position on the left, 
ton's lawn, in which young ladies of Tory and Bridge's (Illinois) battery was placed 
families in Philadelphia joined in a spec- in position on the crest. Bragg had 
tacle imitating the noted military pas- been fatally outgeneralled. To get Sher- 
times of the Middle Ages. There were man's troops across the Tennessee with- 
knights and ladies, a queen of beauty, out discovery. Hooker was ordered to 
and all the paraphernalia of a scene of divert the attention of the Confederates 
ancient chivalry. Then there was a grand by an attack on Bragg's left on Lookout 
ball and supper in a temporary hall, deco- Mountain (q. v.). The troops liad all 
rated by the skilful hand of Andre, with crossed before noon of the 24th, and pro- 
painted scenery, and with evergreens, lus- ceeded to attack the Confederates on the 
trous mirrors, and a host of chandeliers, northern end of Missionary Ridge, and 
The entertainment was concluded by a secured an important point. The night 
grand display of fireworks. It was an ap- of the 24th was spent in important prep- 
propriate closing of a round of dissipation arations for battle the next day. Bragg 
in which the British army had indulged in drew all his troops across Chattanooga 
Philadelphia for six months, where prcfli- Creek and concentrated them on Mission- 
gacy among the officers became so conspic- ary Ridge on the morning of the 25th. 
uous that many of the Tory families who Hooker moved do^vn to the Chattanooga 
had welcomed the invaders had prayed for Valley from Lookout Mountain, and, in 
their departure. the afternoon, drove the Confederates out 
Missionary Ridge, Battle of. Gen. of Ross's Gap, capturing a large quanti- 
W. T. Sherman was lying, with his corps, ty of artillery, small-arms, ammunition, 
along the line of the Big Black River, in wagons, and stores. He then attempted to 
Mississippi, when General Grant called clear the ridge of Confederates, but found 
him, Sept. 22, 1863, and a greater portion them strongly fortified behind the in- 
of his command to Chattanooga. Sherman trenchments cast up there by Thomas at 
fought his way eastward. He crossed the the time of the battle of Ciiickamauga 
Tennessee River to the north side, at East- (q. v.). Osterhaus was leading the Na- 
port (Nov. 1), under cover of gunboats, tionals parallel with the ridge on its 
and, pushing on, reported to Grant in per- eastern side, while Cruft was ordered to 
son on Nov. 15. Sherman's corps was then move along its crest, and Geary, with the 
in command of Gen. Frank Blair, and, on batteries, marched up the valley on the 
the afternoon of Nov. 2.3, it was ready to western side. 

cross the Tennessee above Chattanooga, on This dangerous movement in the valley 
a pontoon bridge which it had stealthily Bragg's skirmishers attempted to meet, 
brought with them, at the moment when but were driven back upon their main line 
General Thomas was moving the centre of by a part of Cruft's forces. Meanwhile, 
the Nationals towards the Confederates on the remainder of Cruft's column formed 
Missionary Ridge, to ascertain whether in battle-line, and moving at a charging 
Bragg was preparing to flee or to fight, pace, steadily pushed the Confederates 
He was ready for the latter act. When back, their front line, under General Stew- 
Thomas moved, the heavy guns at Fort art, retreating, while fighting, upon the 
Wood, Chattanooga, played upon Mission- second line, under General Bate, while 
ary Ridge and Orchard Knob, a lower hill Geary and Osterhaus were pouring mur- 

197 



MISSIONAEY RIDGE, BATTLE OF 



derous fires upon their flanks. So the 
half-running fight continued until near 
sunset, when the Confederates broke into 
confusion and fled, and fully 2,000 of them 
were made prisoners. Hooker's victory 
in that part of the field was complete at 
twilight. 

Meanwhile, Sherman had been busy 
clearing the ridge at the other extremity 



tional centre. The divisions of Wood, 
Baird, Sheridan, and Johnson moved 
steadily forward. They created such a 
panic among the occupants of the rifle- 
pits at the base of the ridge that they 
lied in great haste towards the crest. 

The Nationals stopped but for a moment 
to reform, when, by an irresistible im- 
pulse, the troops, without orders from 




BATTLE OP MISSIONARY RIDGE. 



of the battle-line, where Hardee was in 
command. His order of battle was similar 
to that of Hooker, and his troops were 
roused at sunrise. The ground to be 
traversed was very diSicult; instead of 
a continuous ridge, it was a chain of 
hills, each wooded and fortified. General 
Corse led the way. Having gained the 
second crest from his point of departure, 
Corse, in moving forward, had a severe 
hand-to-hand struggle for an hour, but 
could not carry the works, nor could the 
Confederates repulse him. At the same 
time. Gen. Morgan L. Smith and Colonel 
Loomis were advancing on both sides of 
the ridge, fighting their way to the Con- 
federate fianks. Up to 3 p.m. Sherman 
had not been able to gain much advantage. 
General Grant, from his post on Orchard 
Knob, had been watching all those move- 
ments. Early in the afternoon he ordered 
General Thomas to advance with the Na- 

1 



their commanders, began to follow the 
fugitives. The men of Willich's and Ha- 
zen's brigade had commenced running for- 
ward for security under the ridge, but 
as they reached it they commenced its 
ascent. Hazen then gave the order " For- 
ward!" and sent his staff-officers to urge 
everybody forward up the declivity. The 
fire they passed through was dreadful, 
but the men, without preserving lines, 
formed into groups, wherever the ground 
gave cover; and each group, led by a color, 
steadily made its way up. Their colors 
were often shot down, but they were at 
once seized and borne along. The men 
pressed vigorously on, in the face of a 
terrible storm of grape and canister shot 
from about thirty guns on the summit, 
and murderous volleys of musketry from 
the well-filled rifle-pits on the crest. The 
Nationals did not waver for a moment, 
but pressed forward, when Lieutenant- 
98 



MISSISSIPPI 



Colonel Langdon, with Ohio volunteers, 
sprang forward and made a lodgment on 
the hill-top, within 500 yards of Bragg's 
headquarters. With shouts the remainder 
of the Nationals pushed upward, and 
very speedily the whole battle-line of the 
Confederates on Missionary Ridge was in 
their possession, with all the Confederate 
cannon and ammunition. Sherman soon 
drove the Confederates from the front, 
and the battle ceased at that end of the 
line. The divisions of Wood and Baird 
were obstinately resisted until dark, 
when, at the edge of the evening, the 
Confederates fled. General Breckinridge 
barely escaped capture. Grant reported 
the Union loss in the series of struggles 
which ended in victory at Missionary 
Ridge at 5,286, of whom 757 were killed 
and 330 missing. Bragg's loss was about 
3,000 in killed and wounded and 6,000 
made prisoners. The Nationals captured 
forty pieces of artillery and 7,000 small- 
arms. 

Mississippi, State of. The first 
Europeans who traversed this region were 
De Soto and his companions. They made 
no settlements. La Salle discovered the 
river in 1682, and took formal possession 
of the country it watered in the name 
of his King. In 1716 the French erected 
a fort on the site of Natchez. The colonies 
planted there grew slowly until New Or- 
leans was founded, when many settlers 
were attracted to the Mississippi River; 
but hostile Indians suppressed rapid 
growth, and it was not until after the 
creation of the Territory of Mississippi, 
April 7, 1798, that the population be- 
came numerous. The boundaries of the 
Territory at first included all of Alabama 
north of the 31st parallel. In 1817 
Mississippi was admitted into the Union 
as a State. A new constitution was 
adopted in 1832. In November, 1860, the 
legislature, in extraordinary session, pro- 
vided for an election of delegates to a con- 
vention to be held on Jan. 7, 1861, to 
consider the subject of secession. That 
convention passed an ordinance of seces- 
sion on the 9th, and, on March 30, rati- 
fied the constitution of the Confederate 
States. 

The northern portion of the State was 
the theatre of military operations in 1862, 
but the most important ones were in 1863, 



in movements connected with the siege and 
capture of Vicksburg {q. v.). On June 
13, 1805, President Johnson appointed 
a provisional governor (W. L. Sharkey), 




STATE SEAL OP MISSISSIPPI. 

who ordered an election of delegates to a 
convention which met Aug. 14. By that 
convention the constitution of the State 
was so amended as to abolish slavery, 
Aug. 21, 1865, and the ordinance of seces- 
sion was repealed. In October Benjamin 
G. Humphreys was elected governor, and 
Congressmen were also chosen. The lat- 
ter were not admitted to seats, for Con- 
gress had its own plan for reorganizing 
the Union. By that plan Mississippi and 
Arkansas constituted one military dis- 
trict, and military rule took the place of 
civil government. Early in January, 1868, 
a convention assembled to adopt a con- 
stitution, and remained in session until 
May IS. Gen. Adelbert Ames (q. v.) 
was appointed governor, June 16, in place 
of Governor Humphreys, and, at an elec- 
tion held June 22, the constitution was 
rejected. On April 10, 1869, Congress 
authorized the President to submit the 
constitution again to a vote of the peo- 
ple, with such clauses separate as he might 
deem proper. The constitution was al- 
most unanimously ratified at an election 
in November. Objectionable clauses, such 
as those disfranchising and disqualifying 
persons who had taken part against the 
government in the Civil War, being voted 
upon separately, were rejected. A Repub- 
lican governor (James L. Alcorn) was 
elected. In January, 1870, the legislature 
ratified the Fourteenth and Fifteenth 



199 



MISSISSIPPI— MISSISSIPPI RIVER 



amendments to the national Constitution. 
By act of Congress, Feb. 23, 1870, Missis- 
sippi was readmitted into the Union, and 
on March 10 Governor Alcorn was in- 
augurated, and the civil authority as- 
sumed rightful control. Population in 
1S90, 1,289,600; in 1900, 1,551,270. See 
United States, Mississippi, in vol. ix. 

TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS. 

Winthrop Sargent appointed May 10, 1798 

William C. G. Claiborne " July 10, 1801 

Robert Williams " 1804 

David Holmes. " March, 1809 



UNITED STATES SES ATORS— Continued. 



STATE GOVERNORS. 



Nov. 



Jan. 



David Holmes term begins 

George Poiudexter " 

Walter Leake " 

Lieut. -Gov. Gerard C. Brandon . . acting 

David Holmes term begins 

Gerard G. Brandon " 

Abram M. Scott " 

Lieut. -Gov. Fountain Winston... acting 

Hiram G. Runnels term begins 

Charles Lynch " " 

Alexander G. JIcNutt, Democrat " " 

Tilgham M. Tucker, " " " 

Albert G. Brown, " " " 

Joseph W. Matthews, " " " 

John A. Quitman, " " " 

John Isaac Guion. pres. of the Senate, acting, Feb. 3, 
James Whitefield. " " " " Nov. 25, 

Henry S. Foote, Union term begins Jan. 

John J. McRae " " 

William McWillie " Nov. 16, 

John J. Pettus, Democrat " Jan. 

Jacob Thompson " " 

Charles Clarke " " 

W. L. Sharkey, provisional appointed June 13, 

Benjamin G. Humphreys term begins Oct. 16, 

Gen. Adelbert Ames, provisional, appointed June 15, 

James L. Alcorn, Republican term begins Jan. 

R. C. Powers acting Dec. 

Adelbert Ames, Republican term begins Jan. 

John M. Stone acting, JIarch 29, 

Robert Lowry term begins Jan. 

John M. Stone " " 

A. J. McLaurin " " 

A. H. Longino ♦' " 

James K. Vardaman " " 

UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



1817 
1819 
1821 

1825 

1827 
1831 
1833 
1834 
1836 
1838 
1842 
1844 
1848 
1850 
1851 

1852 
1854 
1857 
1860 
1862 
1864 
1865 

1868 
1870 

1874 
1876 
1882 
1890 
1896 
1900 
1904 



Na 



Walter Leake 

Thoma-a H. Williams. 

David Holmes 

Powhatan Ellis 

Thomas B. Reed 

Robert H Adams 

George Poindexter. . . 

.lohn Black 

Robert J Walker 

James F. Trotter. . . . 
Thomas H. Williams. 

John Henderson 

Joseph W. Chalmers. 

Jes.=e Speight 

Jefferson r)avjs 

Henry 3 Foote 

John I. McRae 

Stephen Adams. 

Walter Brooke 

Alberto Brown 

Jefferson Davis 



No. of Congress. 



15th to 16th 

15th 
16th to 18th 
19th " 22d 
19th " 20th 

21st 
21st to 23d 
22d " 25th 
24th " 29th 

25th 

25th 
26th to 28th 

29th 
20th to 30th 
30th " 32d 
30th " 32d 

32d 
32d to 34th 

32d 
33d to 36th 
35th '• 30th 



rerm. 



(37th, 38th, 30th, 40th Congresses 

Adelbert Ames | 41st to 43d 

Hiram R Revels (colored). | 4l8t 



1817 to 1820 

1817 
1820 to 1825 

1825 " 1832 

1826 " 1829 
1830 

1830 to 1836 
1832 " 1838 
1836 " 1845 

18.38 

1838 
1839 to 1845 

1845 
1845 to 1847 
1847 '■ 1H51 
1847 " 18.51 

1852 
18.52 to 18.57 
18.52 " 18.53 
18.54 " 1861 
1857 " 1861 
vacant.] 
I 1870 to 1874 
1870 " 1871 



Name. 


Xo. of Congress. 


Term. 


James Lusk Alcorn 


42d to 44th 


1871 to 


1877 




43d 
44th to 46th 


1874 
1875 to 




Blanche K.Bnice(colored, 


1881 


Lucius Q. C. Lamar 


45th " 48th 


1877 " 


1885 


James Z. George 


47th " 54th 


1881 " 


1807 


Edward C. Walthall 


49th " 53d 


1885 " 


1804 


Anselm J. McT,anrin 


53d " .54th 


1894 " 


1805 


Will Van Amberg Sullivan 


.55th '■ 57th 


1808 " 


1901 


Hernando De Soto Money. 


.54th " 


1807 " 




Anselm J. McLaurin 


57th " 


1901 " 





Mississippi Company. See Law, 

John. 

Mississippi River. Indian name 
Miche-sepe, meaning " Great Water," or 
"Father of Waters"; was first discovered 
by Europeans with De Soto, in June, 1541, 
not far from the site of Helena, Ark., it is 
supposed. De Soto died on its banks. A 
London physician named Coxe purchased 
the old patent for Carolina gi'anted to Sir 
Robert Heath (see North Carolina) in 
1630, and put forward pretensions to the 
mouth of the Mississippi, which two 
armed English vessels were sent to ex- 
plore. Bienville, exploring the Mississippi 
at a point some 50 miles from its mouth, 
unexpectedly encountered one of Coxe's 
vessels coming up. Assured that this was 
not the Mississippi, but a dependency of 
Canada, already occupied by the French, 
the English commander turned about and 
left the river; and that point has ever 
since been known as " the English Turn." 
In 1673 Joliet and Marquette descended 
the river to a point within three days' 
journey of its mouth. Father Hennepin 
explored it from the mouth of the Illinois 
River up to the falls of St. Anthony in 
1680, and in 1682 La Salle descended it to 
the Gulf of Mexico, and took possession of 
the country drained by it and its tribu- 
taries in the name of the French King, 
and named the great stream River Col- 
bert. In 1690 Iberville built Fort Biloxi 
near its mouth, and in 1703 the first settle- 
ment of Europeans in that region was 
made at St. Peter's, on the Yazoo branch. 
New Orleans was laid out in 1708, and the 
building of levees was commenced there. 

Tn Civil War Time. — The gunboats of 
Commodore Farragut and the mortar-fleet 
of Commodore Porter attacked Fort Jack- 
son, 60 tniles below New Orleans (q. v.). 
on April IS, 1862. Fort Jackson opened 
the conflict by a shot, when a bombard- 
ment was commenced by twenty mortar- 



200 



MISSISSIPPI BIVER 



vessels. Porter, on the Harriet Lane, become free she was furiously attacked 
directed the firing. This conflict was con- by the ram Manassas, but without being 
tinued several days, assisted by the gun- much injured. She had just escaped the 
boats, when, perceiving little chance for ram, when a large Confederate steamer 
reducing the forts, Farragut prepared to assailed her. She gave it a broadside, 
run by them. In the intense darkness of which set it on fire, and its swift de- 
the night of the 20th five of the gunboats struction ensued. Then she brought her 
ran up and destroyed the boom below the guns to bear upon Fort St. Philip and 
forts. The Nationals were discovered, and silenced that work. Meanwhile the Hart- 
a heavy fire from the forts was opened ford was battling with Fort Jackson and 
upon them ; and two hours later a blaz- ejicountering a fire-raft that set her ablaze, 
ing fire-raft came roaring down the river, but the flames were soon extinguished, 
but did no damage. Night after night Captain Bell made his way up the channel, 
these fire-rafts were sent 
down. During the bom- 
bardment 1,000 shells fell 
within the fort. At sun- 
set on the 23d Farragut 
was prepared for the 
perilous feat of running 
past the forts. The mor- 
tar-boats, keeping their 
position, were to cover the 
advance of the fleet. At 
2 A.M. the next day the 
fleet moved. Farragut, 
with his wooden flag-ship 
Hartford and the large 
ships Richmond and 
Brooklyn, that formed the 
first division, was to keep 
near the right bank and 
fight Fort Jackson; while 
Capt. Theodorus Bailey {q. v.) with the Three of his vessels had passed the forts, 
second division, composed of eight gun- when a fourth was disabled by a storm of 
boats, was to keep close to the left bank shot, one of which pierced her boiler, and 
and fight Fort St. Philip. To Captain she drifted down the river. Another ves- 
Bell, with six gunboats, was assigned the sel recoiled, and yet another, entangled 
duty of attacking the Confederate fleet among obstructions, could go no farther, 
above the forts. Keeping in the channel. Before the fleet had fairly passed the 
he was to push on to his assigned work forts the Confederate gunboats and rams, 
without regard to the forts. commanded by Captain Mitchell, had at- 

These were silent until the Cayuga, Cap- tacked the National vessels. The scene 
tain Bailey's ship, passed the boom, when was then awfully grand. The noise of 
hpa\y guns were brought to bear upon twenty mortars and 260 great guns, afloat 
her. She did not reply until she was and ashore, was terrific. Added to these 
close to Fort St. Philip, when she gave were blazing fire-rafts, lighting up the 
it tremendous broadsides of grape and scene with their lurid blaze. Upon the 
canister as she passed by. Four other Cayuga (Captain Bailey) and the Varuna 
gunboats were close in her wake and imi- (Captain Boggs) the chief wrath of the 
tated her example, and the whole of Bai- Confederates seemed to be directed. These 
ley's division passed the forts almost un- commanders performed wonders of valor, 
harmed. The Hartford and her consorts Bailey's vessel escaped up the river after 
had a tremendous struggle with Fort Jack- having been struck forty-two times. The 
son. The Brooldyn had become entangled Tanma- had rushed into the midst of the 
with a sunken hulk, and just as she had Confederate fleet to assist the Cayuga, 

201 




THE HARTFORD. 



MISSISSIPPI mVEK, 



and delivered her broadsides right and ing from every opening, for she was on 
left with destructive effect. She was fire. At length, giving a plunge like some 
finally attacked by a ram, Avhich she huge monster, she went hissing to the 
di-ove ashore in flames, when Boggs, find- bottom of the Mississippi, 
ing his own vessel sinking, let go her The river was well blockaded at Vicks- 
anchor and tied her bow up to the shore, burg and Port Hudson. Between these 
at the same time firing upon an antago- points Confederate transports were sup- 
nist. This was kept up until the water plying the troops at both places. It was 
was over the gun-trucks, when Boggs got determined by the federal authorities to 
Lis crew on shore. The Variina had destroy them; and for this purpose the 
driven four Confederate gunboats ashore ram Queen of the West ran by the bat- 
in flames. teries at Vicksburg before dayligat, Feb. 
Thus ended one of the most desperate 2, 1863, destroyed some vesseU near 
conflicts of the war. Within the space Natchez, ran a few miles up the Red 
of an hour and a half after the National luver, and, returning, repassed the 
vessels left their anchorage the forts Vicksburg batteries. On Feb. 10 she 
were passed, and eleven of the Confeder- started on another raid down the river, 
ate vessels — nearly the whole of their fleet accompanied by a gunboat and coal-barge. 
— were destroyed. The National loss was They passed the batteries at Vicksburg, 
thirty killed and 125 wounded. All of went up the Red River to the Atchafa- 
Farragufs vessels — twelve in number — • laya, captured a train of army-wagons 
joined the Cayuga at quarantine above a.nd a quantity of stores on that stream, 
the forts, when the dead were carried and also a small steamer (the Era) 
ashore and buried. The forts were svir- laden with corn and Texas soldiers, 
rendered, and the lower Mississippi was Captain Ellet compelled the pilot of the 
opened as far as New Orleans. Era to serve the Queen of the West in 
In this desperate engagement the ram the same capacity, when he purposely 
Manassas had taken a conspicuous part ran her ashore near Fort Taylor, where 
in the flotilla fight above the forts. She hea^y guns soon disabled her. Captain 
was a peculiar-shaped iron-clad vessel, Ellet and his crew abandoned her, and 
with a powerful iron beak; but in this retreated on floating bales of cotton. The 
engagement she was so dreadfully pound- accompanying gunboat (De Soto) picked 
cd and shattered by the shot of the Na- them up, when the same pilot ran her 
tional gunboats that she was at length ashore, and the vessel and coal-barge were 
sent adrift, in a helpless condition, going scuttled and sunk. 

towards Porter's mortar-fleet. Some of The little Era was now Ellet's last 

refuge. Casting her corn over- 
board (her Texan soldiers had 
been paroled), he went as lightly 
and rapidly as possible down to 
tlie Mississippi, when the same 
Confederate pilot ran her ashore, 
while four armed boats were close 
in chase. The Era was extricated, 
and, going slowly up the Missis- 
sippi, met the powerful National 
iron-clad Indianola coming down 
in a fog. She rescued the Era 
from her pursuers (among which 
was the powerful ram Webb, which 
had come out of the Red River), 
these vessels opened fire upon her; but and she reached a point below Vidts- 
it was soon perceived that she was harm- burg in safety. The Indianola block- 
less. Her f»ipes were all twisted and aded the mouth of the Red River a few 
riddled by shot, and her hull was well days, and then ascending the Mississippi 
battered and pierced. Smoke was issu- to enter the Big Black River, she was as- 

202 




THK MA.VAHHAM. 



MISSISSIPPI RIVER— MISSOURI 



sailed near Grand Gulf, at 9 p.m., by pow- 
erful Confederate gunboats (among them 
the Wchb and the captured Queen of the 
West), and was compelled to surrender. 
The Confederates now believed they had 
nothing to fear between Vicksburg and 
I'ort Hudson, when they were alarmed and 
disconcerted by a trick. Admiral Porter 
fitted up a worthless flat-boat in imitation 
of a ram, with smoke-stacks made of pork- 
barrels, and set it afloat one night with- 
out a man on board. When the Confed- 
erates discovered it they believed it to 
be a terrible iron-clad monster. As it 
passed sullenly by it drew a tremendous 
fire from the batteries at Vicksburg. It 
seemed to defy shot and shell. Word was 
quickly sent to the gunboats below. The 
Queen of the West fled in great haste. 
The Indianola was destroyed to prevent 
her being captured by the awful ram, and 
her great guns went to the bottom of the 
river. 

Modem Improvements. — It has been 
oflicially estimated that during the period 
of 1850-90 something like $35,000,000 was 
spent on the levees of the Mississippi, and 
that nearly or quite one-half of this sum 
was contributed by the taxpayers of the 
localities directly benefited. The engi- 
neers of the Mississippi River commis- 
sion, authorized by act of Congress, re- 
ported in 1897 that a further sum of about 
$18,000,000 would be required to complete 
the work of construction and improve- 
ment, after which the chief expense would 
be confined to maintenance. The impor- 
";ance of the river to navigation and the 
great damage its banks have sustained 
from floods (see Inundations) induced 
Congress in 1892 to take a larger share 
in the work of constructing and strength- 
ening the levees than previously, and to 
thus relieve the people of Missouri, Ar- 
kansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisi- 
ana. Hence, of the allotment to the com- 
mission, averaging $2,500,000 per annum, 
usually one-half, and sometimes three- 
fifths, is used for this purpose. The fol- 
lowing apportionment of the congression- 
al appropriation of $2,250,000 for the 
improvement of the river in 1900-1 gives 
an idea of the character and costliness of 
the work: 

Upper St. Francis Levee District... $20,000 
Lower St. Francis Levee District. . 114,500 



White River Levee District .$50,000 

Upper Yazoo Levee District 94,000 

Lower Yazoo Levee District 150.000 

Upper Tansas Levee District ;{00,0(iO 

Lower Tausas Levee District 11 (>,()( mi 

Atcliafa Levee District 55,000 

La Fourclie Levee District 28,000 

Barataria Levee District 14,000 

Lalie Borgne Levee District 14,500 

Dredges and dredging 400,000 

Surveys and observations 40,000 

Plum Point Reach 80,000 

Hopefleld Point 50,000 

Asbbrook Neck 70,000 

Lake Providence Revetment 75,000 

Kemple Bend Revetment 150,000 

Giles Bend Revetment 150,000 

For surveys 15,000 

Plant 75,000 

The Eads jetties at the mouth of the 
river form one of the grandest and most 
successful triumphs of engineering skill 
in the interest of inland navigation to be 
found anywhere. 

Mississippi Valley, The. See Hart, 
Albert Bushnell. 

Missouri, State of, was a part of what 
was originally known as Upper Louisiana. 
By the grant of Louis XIV. to Crozat, 
Sept. 14, 1712, "all the country drained 
by the waters emptying, directly or indi- 
rectly, into the Mississippi River," is in- 
cluded in the boundaries of Louisiana. In 
northern Louisiana were included Arkan- 
.sas, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebras- 
ka. Below the Missouri the settlements 
were more rapid. In 1720 the discovery of 
lead-mines within its present borders drew 
adventurers there. Its oldest town, St. 
Genevieve, was founded in 1755, and, by 
the treaty of Paris, in 1763, that whole 
region passed into the possession of the 
English. Already many of the Canadian 
French had settled on the borders of the 
Mississippi. Lands were liberally granted 
to the colonists by the English. Emigrants 
from Spain flocked in. In 1775 St. Louis, 
which had been first a fur-trading estab- 
lishment, contained 800 inhabitants, and 
St. Genevieve about 460. In the region of 
Missouri there were soon stirring events ; 
for Spain, taking sides with the Ameri- 
cans, made war on the English, and that 
country became master of lower Louisiana 
and Florida. In 1780 the British from 
the Lakes attacked St. Louis, but the time- 
ly arrival of Col. George Rogers Clarke 
iq. V.) in Illinois saved it from capture. 

After the war Spain retained Louisiana, 



203 



MISSOURI, STATE OF 



and the country on the east bank of the 
Mississippi became the property of the 
United States. American settlers crossed 
the Mississippi, and collisions with the 
Spanish authorities ensued. Diplomacy 
settled the disputes, and the navigation of 
the Mississippi was made free to both par- 
ties. The purchase of Louisiana {q. v.) 
made a final settlement. It was divided 
into the Territory of New Orleans and the 
District of Louisiana. The latter was ad- 
mitted into the Union as the State of 
Louisiana in 1812. The name of the Dis- 
trict of Louisiana was changed to Mis- 
souri, and at that time the population was 
full 22,000. In 1817 it had increased to 
60,000, and application was made to Con- 
gress for permission to frame a State con- 
stitution. It was framed, and application 
was made for the admission of Missouri 
as a State. Then came the struggle be- 
tween the friends and foes of the slave- 
labor system, which ended in the famous 
compromise (see Missouri Compromise), 
in accordance with the provisions of which 




STATE SEAL OP MISSOURI. 

Missouri was admitted to the Union, Aug. 
10, 1821. From that time the material 
prosperity of the State rapidly increased. 
It was chocked somewhat by the Civil 
War. 

The inhabitants of the State were much 
agitated by the political events in Kan- 
sas iq. v.). They had pretty well learned 
the merits of the question at issue, and 
when they were called upon to act they did 
80 intelligently. They knew the value of 



204 



the Union; and the great body of the peo- 
ple deprecated the teachings of the dis- 
loyal politicians, and determined to stand 
by the national government. Claiborne F. 
Jackson was inaugurated governor of Mis- 
souri, Jan. 4, 1861. In his message to the 
legislature he recommended the people to 
stand by their sister slave-labor States in 
whatever course they might pursue. He 
recommended the calling of a convention. 
This the legislature authorized (Jan. 16), 
but decreed that its action on the subject 
of secession should be submitted to the 
people before it should be valid. 

The convention assembled in Jefferson 
City, Feb. 28. On the second day of the 
session it adjourned to St. Louis, where 
it reassembled, March 4, with Sterling 
Price as president, and Samuel A. Lowe 
as secretary. Price professed to be a 
Unionist, and so obtained his election. 
He soon afterwards became one of the 
most active Confederate military leaders 
in that region. Luther J. Glenn, an ac- 
credited commissioner from Georgia, was 
allowed to address the convention on the 
first day of the session at St. Louis. He 
strongly urged Missouri to join the 
" Southern Confederacy " ; but it was 
found that the atmosphere of St. Louis, 
in and out of the convention, was not con- 
genial to the nourishment of such an idea. 
The population of that city was made up 
largely of New-Englanders and Germans, 
who were loyal ; while emigrants from 
slave-labor States, especially Virginia, 
composed the great body of the Confed- 
erates. Glenn's remarks were greeted with 
hisses by spectators at the convention. 
The convention itself officially assured him 
that his views were not acceptable to that 
body, and its proceedings throughout were 
marked by a great dignity and propriety. 

The report of a committee on federal 
relations, submitted to the convention on 
March 9, deplored the offensive language 
used towards the slave-labor States and 
the institution of slavery by the anti- 
slavery speakers and writers in the free- 
labor States ; but declared that " hereto- 
fore there has been no complaint against 
the actions of the federal government, 
in any of its departments, as designed to 
violate the rights of the Southern States." 
The committee concluded that, while the 
possession of the government by . a sec- 



MISSOURI, STATE OF 




A VIEW OF ST. LOUIS. 



tional party might lead to dangerous drawal of the National troops from the 
strife, the history of the country taught forts within the borders of the seceding 
that there was not much to be feared from States where there is danger of collision 
political parties in power. The report between the State and National troops, 
closed with seven resolutions evincing After appointing delegates to a Border 
attachment to the Union; declaring the State convention, and giving power to a 
Crittenden Compromise (see Crittenden, committee to call another session when 
John Jordan) to be a proper basis for it might seem necessary, the convention 
an adjustment; that a convention of the adjourned to the third Monday in De- 
States to propose amendments to the Con- cember. 

stitution would be useful in restoring A Union convention, which had been 

peace and quiet to the country; that an held, in February, 1861, and adjourned, 

attempt to " coerce the submission of the reassembled at Jefferson City, on July 

seceding States, or the employment of 22, and proceeded to reorganize the civil 

military for^e by the seceding States to government of the State, which had been 

assail the government of the United broken up by the flight of the governor 

States," would inevitably lead to civil and other officers and the dispersion of 

war; and earnestly entreated the national the legislature, many of whom were now 

government and the Confederates to " stay Confederate soldiers. By a vote of 56 to 25 

the arms of military power." the convention declared the various State 

The convention substantially adopted offices vacant; also that the seats of the 

this report, March 19 ; and an amendment members of the General Assembly were 

was agreed to recommending the with- vacant; and they proceeded to fill the ex- 

205 



MISSOURI, STATE OF 



ecutive offices to carry on a provisional 
government, and appointed the first Mon- 
day in November as the time for the 
people to elect all the State officers and 
a new Assembly. The convention issued 
an address to the people, in which they 
set forth the dangers with which the 
commonwealth was menaced by the acts 
of the Confederates, and exposed the trea- 
sonable acts of the governor and his as- 
sociates. H. R. Gamble was appointed 
provisional governor; W. P. Hall, lieu- 
tenant-governor; and M. Oliver, secretary 
of state. 

On July 31, 18G1, Thomas C. Reynolds, 
lieutenant-governor of Missouri, issued a 
I)roclamation at New Madrid, as acting 
chief-magistrate in the " temporary ab- 
sence," he said, " of Governor Jackson," in 
which he declared the absolute severance 
of Missouri from the Union. " Disregard- 
ing forms," he said, " and looking to 
realities, I view any ordinance for the 
separation from the North and union with 
the Confederate States as a mere outward 
ceremony to give notice to others of an 
act already consummated in the hearts of 
the people; consequently, no authority of 
the United States will hereafter be per- 
mitted in Missouri." This short way of 
transferring the allegiance of the people 
of a State from one power to another was 
followed by the announcement, in the same 
proclamation, that they were placed under 



the military rule of the Confederacy, and 
that by invitation of Governor Jackson, 
Gen, Gideon J. Pillow (q. v.), of Ten- 
nessee, had already entered Missouri with 
troops. The fugitive governor (Jackson) 
had been to Richmond to prepare the way 
for the admission of Missouri into the 
Confederacy. From New Madrid he pro- 
claimed, Aug. 5, 1861, that Missouri was 
" a sovereign, free, and independent re- 
public." On the 20th of the same month 
the Confederate Congress at Richmond 
passed an act to " aid the State of Mis- 
souri in repelling invasion by the United 
States, and to authorize the admission of 
said State as a member of the Confederate 
States of America." Measures were speed- 
ily adopted for the consummation of 
the alliance, and during a greater por- 
tion of the war men claiming to repre- 
sent the people of Missouri occupied seats 
in the Confederate Congress at Rich- 
mond. The old legislature of Missouri 
met at Neosho, Oct. 21, and on the 28th 
passed an ordinance of secession. An act 
to provide for the defence of the State of 
Missouri was adopted Nov. 1, in which 
provision was made for the issue of what 
were called " defence bonds " to the 
amount of $10,000,000, payable in three, 
five, and seven years. 

As before indicated, popular feeling in 
Missouri was opposed to secession, but 
the State authorities favored it. Civil 




OS THE LEVEE, ST. LOUIS. 

206 



MISSOURI, STATE OF 




GENERAL LYON'S MARCH TO BOONEVILLE. 



war was begun there by the governor (C. 
F. Jackson), who, on Jvine 12, 1861, issued 
a call for the active service of 50,000 of 
the State militia, " for the purpose of re- 
pelling invasion, and for the protection 
of the lives, liberty, and property of the 
citizens." Gen. Nathaniel Lyon {q. v.), 
in command of the Department of ' Mis- 
souri, moved against Governor Jackson 
as soon as the latter had raised the stand- 
ard of revolt at Jefferson City. He sent 
(July 12, 1861) a regiment of Missouri 
volunteers, under Col. Franz Sigel {q. 
V. ) to occupy and protect the Pacific Rail- 
way from St. Louis to the Gasconade 
Elver, preparatory to a movement south- 
ward to oppose an invasion by Gen. Ben- 
jamin MeCulloch, a Texan ranger, who 
had crossed the Arkansas frontier 
with about 800 men, and was march- 
ing on Springfield. Lyon left St. 
Louis (June 13) with 2.000 men, on 
two steamboats, for Jeff"erson City, to 
drive Jackson and Price out of it. The 
Missouri troops were commanded by Col- 
onels Blair and Boernstein, the regulars 
by Captain Lathrop, and the artillery by 
Capt. J. Totten. The Confederates fied 
westward to a point near Booneville. 



Leaving Boernstein to hold the capital, 
Lyon followed, June 16. He overtook the 
fugitives not far from Booneville. Lyon 
landed his men and attacked the camp of 
the Confederates, commanded by Colonel 
Marmaduke, of the State forces, some of 
whose troops had made a citadel of a briclc 
house. The camp was on an eminence. 
liVon ascended this and opened a battle 
by firing into the midst of the Confeder- 
ates. A sharp fight ensued. Two of 
Lyon's shells entered the brick house and 
drove out the inmates. Finally the Con- 
federates fled. They lost a battery, 
twenty prisoners, several horses, and a 
considerable amount of military stores. 
Leaving a company to hold the deserted 
camp, Lyon pushed on to Booneville. The 
fugitives scattered, some going westward 
and some southward. With the latter 
went Governor Jackson. At Warsaw, on 
the Osage, he was joined (June 20) by 
400 men under Colonel O'Kane, who had 
just captured and dispersed about the 
same number of the loyal Missouri Home 
Guards. 

The governor and his followers contin- 
ued their flight to the extreme south- 
western corner of Missouri, where he was 



207 



MISSOURI, STATE OF 

joined by General Price, when the whole served. The loyal people were alarmed, 
Confederate force amounted to full 3,000 for they well knew the governor would 
men. At the same time Gen. J. G. Rains, violate his pledge. The national govern- 
a graduate of West Point, was hurrying raent did not sanction the compact. Gen- 
forward to join Jackson with a consider- eral Harney was relieved of his com- 
able force, closely pursued by Major Stur- mand, and on May 29 Lyon, who had 
gis, with a body of Kansas volunteers, been commissioned (May 16) a briga- 
Jackson was now satisfied that the whole dier-general, was put in his place and 
of northern Missouri was lost to the cause made commander of the Department of 
of secession, and he endeavored to concen- Missouri. The purse and sword of Mis- 
trate all the armed disloyal citizens, with souri were in the hands of the governor, 
]McCulloch's men, in the southwestern part and he defied the national government, 
of the commonwealth. Assured by the as- He determined to wield the power of the 
pect of affairs, and conciliatory and as- State in favor of the Confederacy. Final- 
suring proclamations from both General ly General Lyon and others held a con- 
Lyon and Colonel Boernstein, the people ference (June 11) with Governor Jack- 
became quieted, and the loyal State con- son. He demanded, as a vital condition 
vention was called to assemble at Jeffer- of pacification, the disbanding of the 
son City on July 22, 1861. General Lyon Home Guards — loyal citizens — through- 
remained at Booneville about a fortnight, out the State, and that no National troops 
preparing for a vigorous campaign in the should be allowed to set foot on the soil 
southwest. He then held military con- of Missouri. Lyon refused compliance, 
trol over the whole region northward of and on the following day the governor 
the Missouri River, and on July 1 there raised the standard of revolt, as before 
were at least 10,000 loyal troops in Mis- narrated. 

souri, and 10,000 more might have been Strengthened by the successes of Pope 
there within forty-eight hours from camps (see Blackwater, Battle at the). Gen. 
in neighboring States. Sigel was push- Henry W. Halleck, who had succeeded to 
ing forward towards the borders of Kan- the command of the Department of Mis- 
sas and Arkansas to open the campaign, souri, prepared to put forth more vigor- 
The capture of the Confederate troops at ous efforts to purge the State of Confed- 
St. Louis {q. v.) produced consternation erates. On Dec. 3, 1861, he declared 
among their friends in Jefferson City, martial law in St. Louis, and afterwards 
where the Missouri legislature was in ses- extended it to all railroads and their 
sion. A bill was immediately passed by vicinities. Meanwhile Price, being prom- 
which the governor was authorized to re- ised reinforcements from Arkansas, moved 
ceive a loan of $500,000 from the Ij^nks back to Springfield, where he concentrated 
and to issue $1,000,000 in State bonds for about 12,000 men, and prepared to spend 
war purposes. He was also authorized to the winter there. Halleck sent Gen. 
purchase arms, and the whole military S. R. Curtis to drive him out of the 
power of the State was placed under his State. Curtis was assisted by Generals 
control. Meanwhile General Harney had Davis, Sigel, Asboth, and Prentiss. They 
issued a proclamation denouncing the bill moved in three columns. Early in Feb- 
as an indirect secession ordinance, and ruary, 1862, Price fled into Kansas, 
null; yet, anxious for peace, he was ready whither he was pursued by Curtis; and 
to pursue a conciliatory policy. He en- Halleck wrote to his government, late in 
tered into a compact (May 21) with February, that he had "purged Mis- 
Sterling Price (7. v.), a general of the souri," and that the flag of the Union 
State militia, which had for its object the was " waving in triumph over the soil of 
securing of the neutrality of Missouri Arkansas." In accomplishing this work 
in the impending conflict. Price, in no less than sixty battles — most of them 
the name of the governor, pledged the skirmishes — had been fought on Missouri 
yjower of the State to the maintenance soil, beginning with Booneville, at the 
of order. Harney, in the name of his middle of June, 1861, and ending at the 
government, agreed to make no military middle of February, 1862. These con- 
movements as long as order was pre- flicts resulted in the loss, to both par- 

208 



MISSOURI— MISSOURI COMPROMISE 



ties, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, of 
about 11,000 men. 

Emboldened by the failure of the Red 
River Expedition (q. v.), the Confed- 
erates, by raiding bands, awed the Union- 
ists in Arkansas into inactivity, and 
gave General Price an opportunity, 
early in the fall of 1864, to invade 
Missouri again, this time chiefly for 
a political purpose. Secret societies 
in sympathy with the Knights of the 
Golden Circle (q. v.) had been formed 
in Missouri and neighboring Southern 
States, whose object was to give aid to 
the Confederate cause. Price had been 
promised 20,000 recruits if he should enter 
Missouri with a respectable military force. 
He and General Shelby crossed the Mis- 
souri border early in September with 
20,000 followers, and pushed on to Pilot 
Knob, half-way to St. Louis. But the 
promised recruits did not appear. The 
vigilant Rosecrans, then in command of 
the Department of the Missouri, had dis- 
covered Price's plans and, by some arrests, 
had so frightened the remainder that they 
prudently remained in concealment. Price 
was disappointed; and he soon perceived 
that a web of great peril was gathering 
around him. General Ewing, with a bri- 
gade of National troops struck him an 
astounding blow at Pilot Knob. Soon af- 
terwards these and other troops under 
Gen. A. J. Smith and General Mower sent 
Price flying westward towards Kansas, 
closely pursued. This chase was enlivened 
by several skirmishes, and late in Novem- 
ber Price was a fugitive in western Ar- 
kansas with a broken and dispirited army. 
This was the last invasion of Missouri by 
the Confederates. In the expulsion of 
Price from Missouri Gen. Alfred Pleas- 
ONTON {q. V.) bore a conspicuous part. 
The total loss of the Nationals during 
the invasion was 346 killed and wounded. 
Price left Missouri much weaker than 
when he entered it. 

On Jan. 6, 1865, another convention as- 
sembled at St. Louis and framed a new 
constitiition, which was ratified by a pop- 
ular vote in June following. During the 
war Missouri furnished to the National 
army 108,773 troops. In 1869 the legis- 
lature of Missouri ratified the Fifteenth 
Amendment to the national Constitution. 
Population in 1890, 2,679,184; in 1900. 



3,106,605. See United States, Missouri, 
in vol. ix. 

territorial governor. 

William Clark assumes duties July, 1813 

state governors. 

Alexander McNair term begins. .Sept. 19, 

Frederick Bates " Nov. 

Abraham J. Williams acting ...Aug. l' 

Gen. John Miller term begins Nov.' 

Daniel Dunklin " " 

Lilburn W. Boggs " '.'.'.'.', "■ 

Thomas Reynolds (Dem.). .. " ....'. " 

II. M. Marmaduke acting ....Feb. 9 

John C. Edwards (Dem,) term begins Nov.,' 

Austin A. King (Dem.) " " ' 

Sterling Price (Dem.) " Dec, 

Trusten Polk (Dem.) " ..... " *' 

Hancock Jackson acting ...March 

Robert JI. Stewart (Dem.). .term begins Dec' 

Claiborne F. Jackj^on (Dem.) " Jan. 4, 

H. R. Gamble (provisional)., elected ...July3l' 

Willard P. Hall acting ...Jan. 3l| 

Thomas C. Fletcher (Rep. ).. term begins... " 
Joseph W. McClurg (Rep.).. " ... " 

R. Gratz Brown (Lib. ) " ... «> 

Silas Woodson (Dem.) " ... <• 

Charles H. Hardin (Dem.). .. " ... «' 

John S. Phelps (Dem.) " ... '< 

Thos. T. Crittenden (Dem.).. " ... " 

John S. Marmaduke (Dem.). 

Albert G. Morehouse... 

David R. Francis (Dem.). 
William J. Stone (Dem.). 
Lou V. Stephens (Dem.).... " ,'.'.'. 

A. M. Dockery (Dem.) «♦ 

Joseph W. Folk (Dem.) " *,', 

UNITED states SENATORS. 



acting . ..Dec. 28, 
. .term begins Jan., 



1820 
1824 
1825 

1832 
1836 
1840 
1844 

1848 
1852 
1856 
1857 

1861 

1864 
1865 
1869 
1871 
1873 
1875 
1877 
1881 
1885 
1887 
1889 
1893 
1897 
1901 
1905 



Name. 



David Barton 

Thomas H. Benton 

Alexander Buckner .. 

Lewis F. Linn 

David R. Atchison 

Henry S. Geyer 

James Stephen Green. 

Trusten Polk 

Waldo P. Johnson 

John B. Henderson... 

Robert Wilson 

B. Gratz Brown 

Charles D. Drake 

Francis P. Blair, Jr. . . 

Carl Schurz 

Lewis F. Bogy 

Francis M. Cockrell. .. 
David H. Armstrong.. 

George G. Vest 

William J. Stone 

William Warner 



No. of Congress. 



17th to 21st 
17th " 31st 

22d 
23d to 27th 
28th " 33d 
32d " 34th 
34th " 36th 
35th " 37th 

37th 
37th to 40th 

37th 
3Hth to 39th 
40th " 41st 
41st " 42d 
41st " 42d 
43d " 4.5 th 
44th " 58th 

45th 
46th to 57th 

58th " 

59th " 



Term. 



1821 to 1831 
1821 " 1851 
1831 " 1833 
1833 " 1843 
1843 " 1856 
1851 " 1857 
1857 " 1861 
1857 " 1862 

1861 " 1862 

1862 " 1869 
1862 

1863 to 1867 
1867 " 1870 
1871 " 1873 
1869 " 1875 
1873 " 1877 
1875 " 1905 
1H77 " l.s;9 
1879 " 1903 

iyu3 " 

1905 " 



Missouri Compromise, The. In 1817 
Missouri Territory petitioned Congress for 
admission as a State. A bill was intro- 
duced into Congress (Feb. 13, 1819) for 
that purpose, when James Tallmadge, Jr., 
of New York, moved to insert a clause 
prohibiting any further introduction of 
slaves within its domains, and granting 
freedom to the children of those already 
there, on their attaining the age of twen- 
ty-five years. This motion brought the 
slavery question again before Congress 



209 



MISSOURI COMPROMISE, THE 



most conspicuously. After a three days' 
vehement debate, it was carried, 87 to 76. 
As a companion to the Missouri bill, an- 
other to organize the Territory of Arkan- 
sas was introduced (Feb. IG). When it 
was taken up, John W. Taylor, of New 
York, moved to add a provision that 
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude 
should hereafter be introduced into any 
part of the Territories of the United States 
north of lat. 36° 30' N., the northern 
boundary of the proposed new Territory 
of Arkansas. Arthur Livermore, of New 
Hampshire, who had been zealous for the 
Missouri restrictions, conceived that this 
proposition had been made " in the true 
spirit of compromise," but thought that 
line of division not sufficiently favorable 
to freedom. Gen. W. H. Harrison agreed 
to the necessity of some such partition, 
but he proposed a line due west from the 
mouth of the Des Moines River, thus giv- 
ing up to slavery the State of Missouri 
and all territory south of that latitude. 
This partition policy was warmly op- 
posed by a large number of members of 
Congress from the North and the South, 
declaring themselves hostile to any com- 
promise whatever. Slavery was either 
right or wrong, and there could be no com- 
promise. Taylor withdrew his motion. 

The proposition for a compromise which 
was finally agreed to was originated by a 
Northern member, and not by Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, as is generally supposed. 
This Missouri bill caused one of the most 
exciting debates on the slavery question 
ever before known in the national legis- 
lature. Extreme doctrines and foolish 
threats were uttered on both sides. South- 
ern members threatened a dissolution of 
the Union. There was much adroit man- 
agement by the party leaders, who used 
great dexterity in trying to avoid a com- 
promise — for one party insisted upon Mis- 
souri entering, if at all, as a free-labor 
State, and the other party insisted that it 
should enter as a slave-labor State. But 
compromise seemed to be the only door 
through which Missouri might enter; and, 
by adroit management, a compromise bill 
was carried, March 2, 1820, by a vote of 
134 against 42. John Randolpli denounced 
it as " a dirty bargain," and the eighteen 
Northern men who voted for it as " dough- 
faces." There was an almost solid North 



against admitting Missouri as a slave- 
labor State. President Monroe consulted 
his cabinet concerning the constitutional- 
ity of the act. The matter was allowed to 
go over until the next session, and it occu- 
pied much time during that session. A. 
length Henry Clay moved a joint commit 
tee (February, 1821) to consider whethei 
or not it was expedient to admit Missouri 
into the Union ; and if not, what provision 
adapted to her actual condition ought to 
be made. The motion prevailed — 101 to 
55 — all of the Southern members, except- 
ing Randolph and two or three followers, 
voting for it. The committee was appoint- 
ed, and soon reported. The closing de- 
cision on the Missouri question was finally 
reached by the adoption of a compromise, 
Feb. 27, 1821, substantially as proposed 
by Taylor, of New York, in 1819 — namely, 
tiiat in all territory north of lat. 36° 30' 
N. (outside the boundary of the State of 
Missouri) slavery should not exist, but 
should be forever prohibited in the region 
north of that line. But Missouri was ad- 
mitted as a slave-labor State. In the 
course of the later debates there was much 
angry feeling displayed, and unwise men, 
North and South, uttered the cry of dis- 
union. A member from Georgia said, 
pathetically, in the course of the debate: 
" A fire has been kindled which all the 
waters of the ocean cannot put out, and 
which only seas of blood can extinguish." 
The " seas of blood " shed in the Civil War 
did alone extinguish it. 

When President IMonroe hesitated about 
signing the Missouri Compromise act, and 
laid the matter before his cabinet, he sub- 
mitted two questions to his advisers: Has 
Congress the power to prohibit slavery in 
a Territory? and Was the term " forever," 
in the prohibitive clause in the bill, to be 
understood as referring only to the terri- 
torial condition of the district to which it 
related, or was it an attempt to extend 
the prohibition of slavery to such States 
as might be erected therefrom? The cabi- 
net was imanimous in the affirmative on 
the first question. On the second ques- 
tion, John Quincy Adams (Secretary of 
State) thought the term meant forever, 
and not to be limited to the existence of 
the territorial condition of the district. 
Others limited it to the territorial con- 
dition — a territorial " forever " — and not 



210 



MISSOUBI RIVER— MITCHEL 



interfering with the right of any State 
formed from it to establish or prohibit 
slavery. Calhoun wished not to have this 
question mooted, and at his suggestion the 
second question was modified into the 
mere inquiry, Is the provision, as it stands 
in the bill, constitutional or not? This 
was essentially a different question. To 
it all could answer yes, and did so an- 
swer in writing. This writing was ordered 
to be deposited in the archives of state, 
but it afterwards mysteriously disappear- 
ed. The act was then signed by the Presi- 
dent, but with a different understanding 
from that which had been adopted by Con- 
gress. 

Missouri River, The. Recent investi- 
gations seem to make it certain that the 
Mississippi River, from its confluence with 
the Missouri, should be called the Mis- 
souri ; and that the Mississippi proper, 
above that confluence, is a branch of the 
Missouri. Above their confluence the 
Mississippi drains 169,000 square miles, 
and the Missouri drains 518,000 square 
miles. From that point to Lake Itasca 
the length of the Mississippi is 1,330 
miles; while that of the Missouri, from 
its sources in Madison, Red Rock, and 
Gallatin lakes, is about 3,047 miles. At 
the confluence of the rivers the Mississippi 
has a mean discharge of 105,000 cubic 
feet of water a second, and the Missouri 
120.000 cubic feet a second. Above that 
confluence the ]\Iissouri is navigable to 
Fort Benton, Mont., by good-sized steam- 
boats, a distance of 2,682 miles, or more 
than twice the length of the Mississippi 
from Lake Itasca to its confluence with 
the Missoviri. Reckoning the Mississippi 
below the confluence as the Missouri 
makes the latter, to the Gulf — 4,347 miles 
— the longest river in the world. 

Mitchel, Oriisby McKjNtight, astrono- 
mer and soldier ; born in Union county, 
Ky., Aug. 28, 1810; graduated at West 
Point in 1829, and was assistant Professor 
of Mathematics there until 1831. He 
became a lawyer, and for ten years 
(1834-44) was Professor of Mathematics, 
Philosophy, and Astronomy in Cincinnati 
College. When an observatory was estab- 
lished at Cincinnati he became its director. 
Soon afterwards he became engineer of 
a railroad, and from 1859 to 1861 he was 
director of the Dudley Observatory at Al- 

21 



bany, N. Y. Professor Mitchel was a very 
popular lecturer on astronomy, but the 
breaking out of the Civil War turned his 
e.\traordinary energies into another field 
of effort. In August, ISGl, he was made 




ORMSBY Mcknight mitchel. 

a brigadier-general of vohmteers and or- 
dered to the Department of the Ohio. 

The Confederate forces under Geh. A. 
S. Johnston, when they passed through 
Nashville {q. v.) pushed on to Mur- 
freesboro, and there, taking a south- 
westerly course, joined the forces under 
Beauregard at Corinth, in northern Mis- 
sissippi. Gen. Ormsby M. Mitchel was sent 
by General Buell, with a part of his force, 
in the direction of Huntsville, Ala., to 
seize and hold the Memphis and Charles- 
ton Railway at that place. He performed 
this task with most wonderful vigor. 
With engines and cars captured at Bowl- 
ing Green he entered Nashville, and push- 
ed on southward. He reached the south- 
ern boundary of Tennessee on April 10, 
crossed the State-line the same day, and 
entered northern Alabama. He had pass- 
ed through a very hostile region, but now 
saw signs of loyalty. Pushing on to 
Huntsville, before dawn, April 11, while 
the tmsuspecting inhabitants were soimd- 
ly slumbering, he surprised and captured 
the place. He did not tarry long there. 
Finding himself in possession of an ample 
supply of rolling-stock, he speedily or- 
ganized two expeditions to operate along 
the line of the railway each way from 
1 



MITCHX3LL 

Huntsville. Colonel Sill led the expedi- Nantucket, Mass., Aug. 1, 1818; inherited 
tion eastward to Stevenson, and Colonel from her father, William Mitchell (who 
Turchin the other westward to Tuscura- died in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in April, 
bia. Mitchell was promoted major-gen- 18G9), a fondness for astronomical studies 
eral in April, 1862. In September he was and became a valuable assistant to him 
made commander of the Department of in the study of astronomy when she was 
the South, with his headquarters at Hil- quite young. Examining nebulse and 
ton Head, where he was working with his searching for comets, her industry and 
usual energy in preparations for a vigor- efforts were rewarded when, on Oct. 1, 
ous campaign, when he died with yellow 1847, she discovered a telescopic comet, 
fever. Oct. 30, 1862. for which she received a gold medal from 
Mitcliell, Donald Graxt (pen-name the King of Denmark. She was after- 
Ik ilARraL), author; born in Norwich, wards employed in making observations 
Conn., April 12, 1822; studied at Judge connected with the United States coast 
Hall's Ellington School in 1830-37, and survey, and for many years assisted in the 
graduated at Yale College in 1841. After compilation of the Nautical Almanac. In 
spending three years in farm-work he the spring of 1865 she was appointed 
studied law in New York in 1846. He Professor of Astronomy and superintend- 
was United States consul in Venice in tnt of the observatory at Vassar College, 
1853-55. Returning to the United States, and entered upon her duties in Septem- 
he settled on his farm at Edgewood and ber. She resigned in 1888. Professor 
devoted himself to literature. Mitchell was a member of the American 
Mitcliell, Jonyi, physician; born in Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
England; came to America and settled in t-nce, being the first woman admitted to 
Urbana, Va., in 1700; devoted much time that body. She received the honorary de- 
to botanical researches and made valuable greos of Ph.D. and LL.D. She died in 
contributions to the knowledge of that T-ynn- Mass., June 28, 1889. 
science. His publications relating to the Mitcliell, Nahum, jurist; born in East 
history of the United States include A Bridgewater, Mass., Feb. 12, 1769; grad- 
Map of the British ami French Dominions uated at Harvard College in 1789; ad- 
hi North America; The Contest in Amer- mitted to the bar in 1792; member of 
ica between Crreat Britain and France; Congress in 1803-5, and attained prom- 
and The Present State of Great Britain inence as a jurist in his native State. 
and North America. He died in England He published a History of the Early Set- 
in March, 1768. tlemcnts of Bridgewater, a valuable con- 
Mitchell, JoHX, labor leader; born in tribution to the history of New England. 
Braidwood, 111., Feb. 4, 1869; worked in He died in East Bridgewater, Mass., Aug. 
coal mines in 1882; joined the Knights of 1; 1853. 

Labor in 1885; travelled in the West, Mitchell, Silas Weir, physician and 
where he mined coal till 1890; became author; born in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 
secretary-treasurer of the sub-district of !•'>,• 1830; was educated at the University 
the United Mine Workers of America in of Pennsylvania, and graduated at the 
1895, and its president in 1898; vice- Jefferson Medical College in 1850. He 
president of the American Federation of began practice in Philadelphia, and later 
Labor in 1898; and took personal charge became renowned as a physiologist, but 
of the great strike in the anthracite-coal more especially as a neurologist. In 
mines in 1902. 1S65 he was elected a member of the Na- 
Mitchell, .John Hipple, legic-lator; tional Academy of Sciences, and for many 
born in Washington county. Pa., June 22, years was identified with the leading 
1835; removed to Portland, Or., in 1860; scientific societies of the United States 
State Senator, 1862-06 (president, 1864) ; and Europe. Dr. Mitchell was also wide- 
professor of medical jurisprudence, Wil- ly known as a poet and novelist. His 
liamette University, 1867-71; United ])ublications include Treatises on Neurol- 
States Senator, 1873-79, 1885-97, and ocry; Serpent Poisons; Comparative Phys- 
1901-07. ioloqy ; many papers on neurological sub- 
Mitchell, !Mabia, astronomer; born in jects; Hepzibah Ouinnes; Far in the 

212 



MITCHILL— MOBILE 



Forest; Characteristics; Hugh Wynne, 
Free Quaker; Adventures of Frangois, 
etc. 

Mitchill, Samuel Latham, scientist; 
born in North Hempstead, Long Island, 
N. Y., Aug. 20, 1764; studied medicine 
with Dr. Samuel Bard, but turned his 
attention to law, and began a public 
career by serving as commissioner (1788) 
to treat with the Iroquois Indians 
{q. V.) in New York State for the pur- 
chase of their lands. In 1700 he was in 
the legislature, and at the age of twenty- 
eight became Professor of Chemistry, 
Natural History, and Philosophy in Co- 
lumbia College. Dr. Mitchill was ever 
ready to labor for the enlargement of the 
bounds of human knowledge, and to ad- 



and was vice-president of tlie Rutgers 
Medical School. With Drs. Hosack and 
VVilliamson he founded the New York 
Literary and Philosophical Society. Dr. 
Mitchill possessed a very retentive mem- 
ory, and acquired vast stores of learning. 
He believed in Fulton's ability to estab- 
lish navigation by steam, promoted his 
interests in the legislature, and was one 
of the friends who accompanied him on 
his experimental voyage from New York 
to Albany in September, 1807. He died 
in New York City, Sept. 7, 1831. 

Mobile, City of. Under the act of 
cession of Louisiana from France the 
United States claimed all of west Florida, 
including Mobile. A large portion of that 
territory had been annexed to the Terri- 




OPENING OF THE BATTLE OF MOBILE BAY. 



vance the interests of mankind. He was 
one of the founders of the Society for the 
Promotion of Agriculture, Manufactures, 
and Useful Arts, and his scientific labors 
made him famous at home and abroad 
when he was little past thirty years of 
age. In 1797 he assisted in establishing 
the Medical Repository, a *^nagazine 
which he edited sixteen years. He was 
a member of the national House of Repre- 
sentatives from 1801 to 1804, and a Unit- 
ed States Senator from 1804 to 1809. 
From 1808 to 1820 he was Professor of 
Natural History in the New York College 
of Physicians and Surgeons ; of Botany 
and Materia Medica from 1820 to 1826; 

21 



tory of Mississippi, and in the winter and 
spring of 1812, when war had been deter- 
mined upon, the importance to the United 
States of possessing Mobile was very ap- 
parent. In March General Wilkinson, in 
command of the United States troops in 
the Southwest, was ordered to take pos- 
session of it. Wilkinson sent Commodore 
Shaw, with gunboats, to occupy Mobile 
Bay and cut off communications with Pen- 
sacola. Lieutenant-Colonel Bowyer, then 
with troops at Fort Stoddart, was ordered 
to be prepared to march on Mobile at a 
moment's notice for the purpose of invest- 
ing the fort there. Wilkinson left Mo- 
bile March 29 on the sloop Alligator, and, 
3 



MOBILE, CIT-S OF 



after a perilous voyage, reached. Petit 
Coquille, when he sent a courier with 
orders to Bowyer to march immediately. 
Wilkinson's troops arrived in Mobile Bay 
April 12, landed the next morning, and 
at noon 600 men appeared before Fort 
Charlotte, commanded by Capt. Cayetano 
Perez, and demanded its surrender. On 
the loth the Spaniards evacuated the fort 
and retired to Pensacola, and the Amer- 
icans took possession. Placing nine can- 
non in battery on Mobile Point, Wilkinson 
marched to the Perdido. There he began 
the erection of a fort, but the place was 
soon abandoned and another was begun 
and finished on Mobile Point and called 
Fort Bowyer, in honor of the brave lieu- 
tenant-colonel of that name. Such was 
the beginning of a movement which re- 
sulted in the acquisition of all Florida by 
the Americans. 

In 1864, after the destruction of the 
Alabama (q. v.), it was determined to 
seal up the ports of Mobile and Wilming- 
ton against English blockade-runners. 
These were the only ports then open to 
them. Admiral Farragut was sent for that 
purpose to the entrance of Mobile Bay, 30 
miles below the city of Mobile, with a fleet 
of eighteen vessels, four of them iron-clad, 
while a co-operating land force, 5,000 
strong, under Gen. Gordon Granger 
{q. v.), was sent from New Orleans to 
Dauphin Island. Farragut entered the bay 
Aug. 5, 1864. That entrance is divided into 
two passages by Dauphin Island. On the 
eastern side of this island was Fort Gaines, 
commanding the main entrance ; and south- 
easterly from it was Fort Morgan, a still 



stronger work, with a light-house near it. 
These forts the Confederates had well 
armed and nuinned, and witliin the bay 
lay a Confederate flotilla under Admiral 
Buchanan. 

His flag-ship was the Tennessee, a pow- 
erful ram, and it was accompanied by 
three ordinary gunboats. Farragut lashed 
his wooden ships together in couples, his 
own flag-ship, the Hartford, being tethered 
to the Metacornet. Wishing to have a 
general oversight of the battle, he ascended 
the rigging, when Captain Drayton, fear- 
ing he might be dislodged by a sudden 
shock, sent up a man with a line, which he 
passed around the admiral and made it 
fast. In this position he went into the 
battle, boldly sailing in between the forts, 
and delivering terrific broadsides of grape- 
shot, first upon Fort Morgan. The mon- 
itor Tecumseh, which led the National 
vessels, was struck by the explosion of a 
torpedo directly under her turret, carrying 
down with her Commander Craven and 
nearly all of his ofiicers and crew — only 
seventeen of 130 being saved. Farragut 
ordered the Hartford to push on and the 
others to follow, unmindful of torpedoes. 
The forts were silenced by the storm of 
grape-shot poured upon them, but as the 
National fleet entered the bay the Confed- 
erate vessels opened upon them. The ram 
Tennessee rushed at the Hartford, but 
missed her. The fire of the three gun- 
boats was concentrated on the flag-ship. 
The flght was short. One of the Confed- 
erate gunboats was captured, and the other 
two sought safety under the guns of the 
fort. Under cover of night one of them 




CAI'TI'UH 111'' PORT MOROAN, Mdllir.K BAY. 

214 



MOBILE, CITY OF 



escaped to Mobile. Believing the battle to 30,000 troops, including cavalry; and 
over at dusk, Farragut had anchored his the West Gulf Squadron, under Admiral 
vessels, when, at nearly 9 p.m., the ram Thatcher, was ready to co-operate. It 
Tennessee came rushing at the Hartford was so strongly fortified by three lines of 
under a full head of steam. The other works on its land side that it was de- 
National vessels were ordered to close upon tcrmined to flank the post by a movement 
her. A tremendous fight with the monster of the main army up the eastern side of 



at short range occurred, and very soon the 
Tennessee, badly injured, surrendered. Her 
commander was severely wounded. The 
Confederate squadron was destroyed. The 



the bay. The 13th Army Corps began a 
march on the 17th from Fort Morgan over 
a swampy region in heavy rain, and the 
16th Corps crossed the bay from Fort 



forts were assailed by land and water the Gaines and joined the other. At the same 

next day, and the three were surrendered, time a feint was made on Mobile to at- 

the last (Fort Morgan) on the morning tract attention from this movement. 

of Aug. 23. With this victory the govern- General Steele, with Hawkins's division 

nient came into possession of 104 guns and of negro troops and some cavalry, had 

1,464 men, and eflfectually closed the port been marching from Pensacola to Blake- 

of Mobile to blockade-runners. This vie- ly, 10 miles north of Mobile, to induce 



tory, and that at Atlanta, soon afterwards, 
together with the hearty response given 
by the people of the free-labor States to 
the call of the President (July 18, 1864) 
for 300,000 men, gave assurance that the 
Civil War was nearly ended. 

Capture of Mobile. Gen. J. E. John- 
ston said Mobile was the best - fortified 
place in the Confederacy. It was garrison- 



the belief that Montgomery was Canby's 
real objective point. On March 25 this 
force encountered and defeated 800 Ala- 
bama cavalry under General Clanton. 
The Confederates lost about 200 men 
killed and wounded, and 275 made pris- 
oners. Steele found very little opposition 
afterwards until he reached the front of 
Blakely. The Nationals on the east side 



ed by 15,000 men, including troops on the of the bay pushed on to Spanish Foi't, 7 
east side of the bay and 1,000 negro labor- miles east of Mobile. It was invested, 
ers subject to the command of the engin- March 27, but its garrison of nearly 3,000 
eers. The department was then (1865) in of Hood's late army, with its neighbors, 
command of Gen. Richard Taylor, son of made it a stout antagonist, willing to give 
President Taylor. For several months after blow for blow. Warmer and warmer 
the harbor of ISIobile was sealed there was waxed the fight on that day, and before 
comparative quiet in that region; but sunset a tremendous artillery duel was 
when Sherman had finished his triumphal in progress, in which gunboats of both 
march from Atlanta to the sea the govern- parties joined, and kept it up all night, 
ment determined to repossess Alabama, be- Then a siege was formally begun (March 
ginning with a movement against Mobile, 28). The Nationals finally brought to 
and by other operations in the interior, bear upon the fort sixteen mortars, 
Gen. Edward E. S. Canby {q. v.), com- twenty heavy guns, and six field-pieces, 
manding the West Mississippi Army, was Towards sunset, April 8, Canby began a 
charged with the conduct of the expedi- general assault by a consecutive fire from 
tion against Mobile, and the co-operating all his heavy guns, his field-pieces, and his 
force was that of Gen. J. H. Wilson, the gunboats. An Iowa regiment, encoun- 
eminent cavalry leader, under the direc- tering some Texas sharp-shooters, charged 
tion of General Thomas. Early in 1865 upon and overpowered them. Sweeping 
Gen. A. J. Smith's corps joined Canby at along the rear of the intrenchments, they 
New Orleans, Feb. 21. That corps went to captured 300 yards of them, with 350 
Pauphin Island, at the entrance to Mobile prisoners and three battle-flags. This ex- 
Bay, where a siege-train was organized, ploit made the Confederates evacuate the 
consisting of ten batteries. Knipe's cav- fort, and by 2 a.m. the next day it was 



airy, attached to the corps, marched over- 
land from New Orleans. P' very thing was 
in readiness for an attack on Mobile by 
the middle of March, with from 25,000 



in possession of the Nationals. The gar- 
rison, excepting 600 made prisoners, es- 
caped. It had expected assistance fronj 
Forrest, but Wilson was keeping him 



215 



MOBILE, CITY OF 




MAP OP DEFENCES AROUND MOBILE. 

away. The spoils were thirty heavy 
guns and a large quantity of munitions 
of war. Forts Huger and Tracy were also 
captured, April 11. The key to Mobile 
was now in the hands of the Nationals. 
Torpedoes were fished up, and the Na- 
tional squadron approached the city. The 



But the army found no 
enemy to fight, for 
Gen. D. H. Maury, in 
command there, had 
ordered the evacuation 
of the city; and on the 
11th, after sinking two 
powerful rams, he fled 
up the Alabama River 
with 9,000 men on gun- 
boats and transports. 
On the 12th General 
Granger and Eear-Ad- 
miral Thatcher de- 
manded the surrender 
of the city. This was 
formally done the same 
evening by the civil au- 
thorities, and on the 
following day Veatch's 
division entered the 
city and hoisted the 
National flag on the 
public buildings. Gen- 
erals Granger and 
Canby entered the city 
soon afterwards. A 
large amount of cotton 
and several steamboats 
were burned by order 
of the military authorities, before the city 
was given up. The " repossession " of 
Mobile cost the national government 2,000 
men and much treasure. Seven vessels of 
war had been destroyed by torpedoes. 
During this campaign of about three 
weeks the army and navy captured about 




CONFLAGRATION IN MOBILB. 



army moved on Blakely, and on April 9 
the works there were attacked and car- 
ried. Meanwhile the 13th Corps had been 
taken across the bay to attack Mobile. 



.'jjOOO men, nearly 400 cannon, and a vast 
amount of public property. The value of 
ammunition and commissary stores found 
in Mobile was valued at $2,000,000. 



216 



MOBILIAN INDIANS— MOHAWK INDIANS 



Mobilian, or Floridian, Indians, a na- 
tion composed of a large number of tribes; 
ranking next to the Algonquians in the ex- 
tent of their domain and power when Euro- 
peans discovered them. They were supe- 
rior to most of the Algonquians in the at- 
tainments which lead to civilization, and 
tliey were evidently related to the inhab- 
itants of Central and South America. The 
domain of the Mobilians extended along 
the shores of the Gulf of Mexico from the 
Atlantic to the Mississippi River, more 
than 600 miles. It stretched northward 
along the Atlantic coast to the mouth of 
the Cape Fear River, and up the Missis- 
sippi to the mouth of the Ohio, comprising 
a large portion of the present cotton-grow- 
ing States. A greater portion of Georgia, 
the whole of Florida, Alabama, and Mis- 
sissippi, and parts of South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, and Kentucky were included in 
their territory. The nation was divided 
into three grand confederacies — viz., Mus- 
coghees, or Creeks, Choctaws, and Chicka- 
saws. See these titles respectively. 

Modoc Indians, a tribe that originally 
formed a part of the Klamath nation. 
Their name means " enemies," and was 
given to them by others. The Modocs were 
first found on the south shore of Lake 
Klamath, in California, when both sexes 
were clothed in skins. In their wars they 
held captives as slaves, and traded in 
tliem. The early emigrants to California 
encountered them as hostiles, and they 
massacred many white people. In 1852 
Ben Wright, who sought revenge, invited 
a band of Modocs to a peaceful feast, when 
he and his men murdered forty-one out of 
forty-six Indians who were there. The 
Llodocs never forgave the outrage, and 
war with them was kept up at intervals 
until 1864, when, by a treaty, they ceded 
their lands to the United States, and 
agreed to go on a reservation. The treaty 
was not ratified by the government until 

1870, nor the reservation set apart until 

1871. The Modocs meanwhile had gone 
upon the Klamath reservation, but it was 
so sterile that they could not live there. 
Tliey were cheated by the government and 
harassed by the Klamaths, who were an- 
ciently their enemies, and some went to 
another reservation. Unfortunately some 
Klamaths were put with them, and trouble 
continued, when two Modoc bands left the 



reservation. A clan known as Captain 
Jack's band were uneasy and turbulent. 
Their tribe complained of them, and in 
the spring of 1872 they were ordered back 
to the Klamath reservation. They refused 
to go, and late in November ( 1872) United 
States troops and citizens of Oregon at- 
tacked their two camps on opposite sides 
of a river. The people were repulsed with 
loss, and the united Modocs, retreating, 
massacred some white settlers on the way, 
and took refuge in the Lava Beds, a vol- 
canic region difficult for a foe to enter 
if moderately defended. In June, 1873, 
General WTieaton attempted to drive the 
Modocs from their stronghold, but could 
not penetrate within 3 miles of them, after 
the loss of several men. General Gillem 
made an equally unsuccessful attempt to 
dislodge them. In the mean time the gov- 
ernment had appointed a commission of 
inquiry, and clothed it with power to ad- 
just all difficulties. It met the Modocs 
in conference on April 11, 1873, when the 
Indians killed Gen. Edward R. S. Canby 
{q. V.) and Dr. Thomas, two of the com- 
missioners, and wounded Mr. Meacham, 
another commissioner. After this act of 
treachery, operations against the Modocs 
were pressed with vigor. A long and stub- 
born resistance ensued, but finally Captain 
Jack and his band were compelled to sur- 
render. The chief and three of his promi- 
nent associates were tried by a military 
commission and executed at Fort Kla- 
math, Oct. 3, 1873. The remainder were 
placed on the Quapaw reservation, in 
the Indian Territory. Jack's band num- 
bered 148 ; those left at the Klamath 
agency, and who took no part in hostili- 
ties, numbered about 100. 

Moffet, Samuel Erasmus, journalist; 
born in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 5, 1860; edu- 
cated at the universities of California 
and Columbia. In 1885 he became an 
editorial writer; and was connected at 
difi'erent times with the San Francisco 
Post, San Francisco Examiner, and the 
New York Journal. His publications in- 
clude The Tariff: What It Is and What It 
Does ; Chapters on Silver; and Suggestions 
on Government. 

Mohawk Indians, the most celebrated 
of the Five Nations (see Iroquois Con- 
federacy). Their proper name was Ag- 
megue, and they called themselves, as 



217 



MOHAWK INDIANS 

a tribe, She-bears. That animal was their into the forest with their women and chil- 

totemic symbol. The neighboring tribes dren, and all the invaders accomplished 

called them Mahaqua, which name the was to burn several villages and murder 

English pronounced Mohawk. Champlain some sachems. 

and his followers, French and Indians In the spring of 1667 the exasperated 
from Canada, fought them in northern Canadians resolved to chastise them for 
New York in 1609. At Norman's Kill, their perfidy. De Tracy again set out in 
below the site of Albany, the Dutch made person at the head of 1,200 white soldiers 
a treaty with them in 1698, which was and 100 Indian allies, passed down Lake 
lasting; and the English, also, after the Champlain in boats and canoes, and in Oc- 
conquest of New Netherland, gained their tober marched through the Mohawk coun- 
friendship. The French Jesuits gained try, burning the villages and setting up 
many converts among them, and three the arms of France at conspicuous places, 
villages of Roman Catholics on the St. On his return to Quebec De Tracy sent 
Lawrence were largely filled with the Mo- back prisoners with terms of peace for the 
hawks. They served the English against Mohawks to consider. The English, made 
the Canadians in the French and Indian anxious by these events, tried to persuade 
War, and in the Revolutionary War, in- the Mohawks to remain faithful to them ; 
fluenced by Sir William Johnson and his but the latter, remembering how well the 
brother-in-law Brant, they made savage French could fight, and also the fearful 
war on the patriots, causing the valleys sight of their burning villages, their 
in central New York to be called the women and children hiding in the woods, 
" Dark and Bloody Ground." After that and their dead warriors, would not listen 
struggle, the greater portion of them re- to the appeals of the English. When the 
moved to Grand River, 50 or 60 miles warm weather came deputations from the 
west of the Niagara River, where they Mohawks and Oneidas appeared in Quebec 
still are. Many of them are Christians, and promised submission. The Indians 
The Common Prayer-book has been trans- brought their families with them to attest 
lated into their language, one edition by their sincerity, and a treaty was made by 
Eleazar Williams {q. v.), the "Lost which the Mohawks promised allegiance 
Prince." Tradition says that at the for- to the French monarch. They also con- 
mation of the confederacy Hiawatha said, sented to listen to the teachings of the 
" You, the Mohawks, sitting under the Jesuit missionaries. This treaty left the 
shadow of the ' Great Tree,' whose roots whole northern frontier exposed to incur- 
aink deep into the earth, and whose sions by the French and Indians, 
branches spread over a vast country, shall In 1693 Count Frontenac, governor of 
be the first nation, because you are war- Canada, unable to effect a treaty of peace 
like and mighty." The confederacy being with the Five Nations, meditated a blow 
called " the long house," the Mohawks on the Mohawks. In midwinter he col- 
were denominated the " eastern door." lected an army of about 700 French and 
The Mohawks in eastern New York Indians, well supplied with everything for 
made frequent incursions into Canada, a campaign at that season. They left 
Finally, in 1661, M. de Tracy, French Montreal Jan. 15, and after several hard- 
Ticeroy of New France, although over ships reached the Mohawk Valley early in 
seventy years of age, led a military expe- February, and captured three castles. At 
dition against them. He was accompanied the third castle they found some Indians 
by M. de Courcelles, governor of Canada, engaged in a war-dance. There a severe 
A regiment had lately been sent to Canada conflict ensued, in which the French lost 
from France. With twenty-eight com- about thirty men. In the expedition they 
panies of foot, and all the militia of the captured about 300 Indians in the English 
colony of Quebec, he marched 700 miles interest, and were making their way back 
into the Mohawk country in the dead of to Canada when they were pursued by 
winter, easily crossing the swamps and Colonel Schuyler and several skirmishes 
streams on bridges of ice, and Inirrowing ensued. In the Scarron (Schroon) Valley 
in the snow at night. The Mohawks, on the pursuit ended. The French had de- 
the approach of th© French, retired deeper sired to kill their prisoners to facilitate 

218 



MOHAWK INDIANS— MOHAWK VALLEY 



their retreat, but their Indian allies would hawks cliose a large tract of land, com- 

not consent. Of these Schuyler recapt- prising 200 square miles on the Ouise or 

ured about fifty. The Mohawks called Grand Kivcr, or G miles on each side of 

• that stream from its source to its 

mouth. It is chiefly a beautiful 
and fertile region. Of all that 
splendid domain, the Mohawks 
now retain only a comparatively 
small tract in the vicinity of 
Brantford, on the Grand River. 
In 1830 they surrendered to the 
government the town - plot of 
Brantford, when it was surveyed 
and sold to actual settlers. On 
their present reservation is a 
chiirch built of wood in 1783, a 
plain, unpretending structure. It 
is furnished with a silver com- 
munion service which Queen Anne 
presented to the Mohawks in 1712. 
Upon each piece is engraved the 
royal arms of England and the 
monogram of the Queen, " A. R." 
— Anna Regina — with the follow- 
ing inscription: "The Gift of her 
Majesty, Anne, by the Grace of 
God, of Great Britain, France, 
and Ireland, and of her Planta- 
tions in North America, Queen, to 
her Indian Chapel of the Mo- 
hawks." 

Mohawk Valley, The. The 
valley of the Mohawk River, ex- 
Colonel Schuyler " Great Swift Hero," be- tending from near the middle of the State 
cause of his promptness in coming to their of New York to the Hudson River, is one 
relief. The Mohawks, discouraged by of the most interesting historical regions 
their heavy loss, were disposed to make a in the republic. Within it, according to 
treaty of peace with the French, but 
Schuyler prevented it. 

The governors of Canada during 
the Revolutionary War promised 
those of the Six Nations who joined 
the British in that war that they 
should be well provided for at its 
close. In the treaty of peace (1783) 
no such promise was kept. At that 
time the Mohawks, with Brant at 
their head, were temporarily residing 
on the American side of the Niagara 
River, below Lewiston. The Senecas 
offered them a home in the Genesee 
Valley, but Brant and his followers 

had resolved not to reside within the Unit- tradition, was formed the powerful Iro- 
ed States. He went to Quebec to claim QUOis Confederacy {q. v.), the members 
from Governor Haldimand a fulfilment of which have been called " The Romans of 
of his and Carleton's promises. The Mo- the Western World." French mission- 

219 




MOHAWK CHURCH. 




COMMUNION PLATE PRESE.NTED BV QUEKN ANNE. 



MOHEGAN INDIANS— MOLLY MAGUIRES 



aries spread tlirough the vallej' a knowl- 
edge of the Christian religion, and 100 
years before the Eevolutionary War it 
was the scene of sharp conflicts between 
the natives and intruding Europeans. 
Within its borders, before that time, its 
cliief inhabitant (William Johnson) re- 
ceived the honors of knighthood, and 
ruled not only over a vast private mano- 
rial domain, but also over Indian tribes 
of the confederacy, as their official super- 
intendent. When the Revolution broke out 
his family were the leaders of the ad- 
herents to r_o crown in the northern re- 
gions of Xev,- York; ?nd his son. Sir 
John, who inherited his title and his pos- 
sessions, with a large number of Scotch 
retainers and other white people, organ- 
ized a corps of loyalists called " Johnson 
Greens," which, with Indians under 
Brant, his kinsman by marriage, carried 
on a distressing warfare against the 
patriots. Later, the Erie Canal, the most 
gigantic single work of internal improve- 
ment in the United States, was dug the 
whole length of the valley, and became 
the highway for a vast commerce between 
the Western States and the Atlantic 
Ocean. 

Mohegan, or MoMcan, Indians, an 
Algonquian family found by the iJutch on 
the Hudson River above the Highlands. 
The name was also given to several inde- 
pendent tribes on Long Island, and in the 
country between the Lenni-Lenapes, or 
Delawares ( see Delaware Indians ) , and 
the New England Indians. Of this family 
the Pequods, who inhabited eastern Con- 
necticut, were the most powerful, and ex- 
ercised authority over thirteen cantons on 
Ix)ng Island. They received the Dutch 
kindly, and gave them lands on which they 
erected Fort Orange, now Albany. They 
were then at war with the Mohawks, and 
when furiously attacked by the latter the 
Mohegans fled to the valley of the Connect- 
icut, whither a part of the nation had 
gone before, and settled on the Thames. 
This portion was the Pequods (see Pequod 
IxDiA.xs). A part of them, led by Uncas, 
seceded, and these " rebels " aided the 
English in their war with the Pequods in 
1C.37. The oulk of the nation finally re- 
turned to t.he Hudson, and kept up a com- 
munication with the French in Canada, 
who called them Loups (wolves), which is 



the meaning of Mohegan. When the Eng- 
lish and French began their great struggle 
for the mastery in America (about 1690), 
the Hudson Mohegans made peace with 
the Mohawks and joined the English, but 
were soon reduced to 200 warriors, and 
the Connecticut Mohegans to about 1.50. 
Some of the latter were collected at Stock- 
bridge, Mass.: and from 1740 to 1744 the 
Moravians had a flourishing mission among 
them at Shekomeco, in Dutchess county, 
N. Y. Some of these went to Pennsylvania 
under the care of the Moravians. In the 
Revolution they joined the Americans, and 
were found in the ranks at Bunker Hill, 
White Plains, and other fields. After the 
war some of the Mohegans emigrated to 
Oneida, under the Rev. Samson Occum, a 
native preacher, and others, and before 
1830 they had emigrated to Green Bay, 
Wis., where they abandoned their tribal 
relations and became citizens. They have 
almost given up their own language for 
the English, and are nearly extinct. Those 
who remained in Connecticut took up their 
abode near Norwich, at a place known as 
Mohegan Plains, and also near the vil- 
lage of Kent, in western Connecticut. 
At the latter place they have intermin- 
gled with other races, until now, among 
less than a hundred, not one of pure 
blood remains. The last surviving Pequod 
of pure blood was Eunice Mauwee, who 
died near Kent in 1S60, aged about 100 
years. The last lineal descendant of 
Uncas, the " rebel," was buried at Nor- 
wich in 1827. The tribe in Connecticut is 
extinct. 

Molino del Rey. See El LIolixo del 
Rey. 

Molly Maguires, The. There are sev- 
eral stories related in regard to the origin 
of the name of the " Molly Maguires," all 
of which seem to come from one parent 
tradition. One which has gained some- 
what general currency is that an old 
woman named Maguire was murdered in 
Ireland, many years ago, at the hands of 
a land agent, who, in company with his 
followers, seized on her property for rent. 
The sons of the woman and their friends 
formed a society, to which the name of the 
deceased was given. Another story runs 
that the society was formed under the aus- 
pices of an old woman, Maguire by name, 
and that the first meetings were held at 



220 



MOLLY MAGUIRES— MONCKTON 

her house. Still another is to the effect shot " was exercising an unwholesome in- 
that there was a " sort of Amazon of that fluence in Schuyler and Luzerne counties, 
name, who not only planned deviltry, but Both these organizations have had laid at 
also was foremost in assisting to execute their doors crimes of various kinds, as- 
it." It is, however, believed by many who saults, arson, and even murder. It was 
have given the origin and history of the in the midst of such lawlessness that the 
organization careful attention that the Molly Maguires grew rapidly, and in such 
best-authenticated explanation of the name communities that their deeds of darkness 
is that the members were stout, active and bloodshed were perpetrated. To give 
young men, dressed up in women's clothes, even a record of the murders and outrages 
with their faces blackened and otherwise they committed would take a large vol- 
disguised, with crape or fantastic masks, ume. Those which are known are num- 
or with burnt cork about their eyes, mouths, bered by the hundred, and the unfortunate 
and cheeks. In this condition they would victims in most cases were gentlemen well 
pounce upon process-servers and others known and highly respected in the corn- 
engaged in the prosecutions and evictions munity in which they lived. However, in 
of tenants, duck them in bog-holes, beat, 1873, a young detective named James 
and otherwise misuse them. The custom McParlan, attached to the Pinkerton de- 
of wearing women's clothes does not ap- tective agency of Chicago, was detailed 
pear to have been observed in all localities, to investigate the Molly Maguires, and 
and it is noticed that there is no recorded learn their character and purposes. He 
instance of this disguise ever having been did so, and the secrets of the order were 
resorted to in the United States. To the revealed, the sanguinary work of its mem- 
discriminating reader it is scarcely neces- bers shown to the public, many of its 
sary to suggest that, whatever may have perpetrators brought to justice, and the 
been the causes for the organization of the strength and terrorism of its lawless lead- 
Molly Maguires in Ireland, no such reasons ers and tools broken. 

warranted their existence in this country. Mompesson, Roger, jurist; born in 
Here were no oppressive land laws, here England ; was appointed judge of the vice- 
no landed proprietors who ground down admiralty for Massachusetts, Rhode Isl- 
their struggling tenants, here no alien and, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
monopolists of the soil to grow richer and and Pennsylvania in April, 1703; and 
richer while the peasantry grew poorer settled in Pennsylvania in 1704. Though 
and poorer; so that whatever may be urged highly spoken of as a man and a lawyer, 
in extenuation of the offences of the Molly he was a mere tool in the hands of Lord 
Maguires in Ireland, on account of their Cornbury, the governor of New York and 
wrongs and temptations, their race and New Jersey. He died in March, 1715, 
their history must not be confounded with some authorities say in New Jersey, others 
the deeds of violence committed by the in New York. 

illegitimate offspring of the order which Monckton, Robert, colonial governor; 

terrorized whole counties in Pennsyl- born in England; was son of the first Vis- 

vania, and left a blood-red trail behind count Galway, and began his military 

it in the coal regions of the Keystone life in Flanders in 1742. In 1754 he was 

State. governor of Annapolis ( Port Royal ) , Nova 

When the coal-fields began to be opened Scotia; assisted in the reduction of the 

up in Pennsylvania there was a large de- French power in that peninsula, and was 

mand for laborers, and many of the best lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia in 

of the working-classes answered the call ; 1756. He commanded a battalion at the 

but with these were numbers of the float- siege of Louisburg in 1758, and the next 

ing, drifting, unstable. In early war year he was second in command under 

times vague rumors were abroad that these General Wolfe at the capture of Quebec, 

restless elements in the neighborhood of where he acted as brigadier-general, and 

Pottsville had crystallized, and that an was severely wounded. In 1761 he was 

order called the " Black Spots " was in made major-general, and the next year 

existence there. In 1862 it was rumored governor of New York. He commanded 

that a powerful society called' the " Buck- the expedition against Martinique in 1762; 

221 



MONETARY REFOBM 

was a member of Parliament in 1768; in America in 1775, but he declined to 
made lieutenant-general in 1770, and was draw his sword against British subjects, 
offered the command of the British forces He died in England, May 3, 1782. 



MONETARY REFORM 



Monetary Reform. A national mone- 
tary conference, called at the request of 
the Indianapolis Board of Trade, and com- 
posed of representatives of similar organ- 
izations in all parts of the United States, 
was held in Indianapolis, Ind., in January, 
1897. Nearly 300 delegates were pres- 
ent. Among the points made in the ad- 
dresses and papers were: That the green- 
backs should be retired; that national 
banks should be permitted to issue notes 
up to the par value of bonds deposited to 
secure their payment; that the country 
needed a stable tariff, stable government, 
and stable currency; that prosperity 
could only be restored by the establish- 
ment of a sound monetary system; that 
the government should base all its issues 
on the gold standard and replace all notes 
by coin certificates protected by a 25 
per cent, gold reserve; that the gov- 
ernment should withdraw from the bank- 
ing business; that postal savings-banks 
should be established; and that legisla- 
tion was necessary for the maintenance 
of the gold standard, cancellation of 
United States legal-tender notes, and the 
creation of a safe and expansive cur- 
rency on the basis of the plan followed in 
Baltimore, where there had been no bank 
failure in sixty years. Under a resolu- 
tion, the conference appointed a monetary 
commission, and charged it with the duty 
of making a comprehensive investigation 
of the existing currency system with a 
view to urging a currency reform meas- 
ure on Congress at its session of 1897-98. 
The commission consisted of ex - Senator 
Edmunds, of Vermont ; ex - Secretary 
Charles S. Fairfield, of New York ; C. 
Stuart Patterson, of Philadelphia; John 
W. Fries, of North Carolina; T. G. Bush, 
of Alabama; G. E. Leigh ton, of St. Louis; 
VV. B. Dean, of St. Paul ; Prof. J. Laurence 
Laughlin, of Chicago; L. A. Garnett, of 
San Francisco; Stuyvosant Fish, of New 
York; H. H. TIanna, of Indianapolis, and 
Kobert S. Taylor, of Indiana. At a session 
of the commission, Sept. 28, President 



Edmunds announced the following com- 
mittees: On Metallic Currency — C. Stuart 
Patterson, of Pennsylvania; Louis A. Gar- 
rett, of California; and J. Laurence 
Laughlin, of Illinois. On Demand Obli- 
gations of the Government — Robert S. 
Taylor, of Indiana; Stuyvesant Fish, of 
New York; J. W. Fries, of North Caro- 
lina, and George Edmunds, of Vermont. 
On the Banking System — Charles S. Fair- 
child, of New York; T. G. Bush, of Ala- 
bama; W. B. Dean, of Minnesota, and 
George E. Leighton, of Missouri. 

In January, 1898, a second conference 
was held in Indianapolis, during which 
the report of the commission was unan- 
imously adopted. The report, after recit- 
ing the facts as to the currency, the de- 
mand obligations of the government, and 
the banking system, gave the following 
plan of currency reform: 

I. METALLIC CURRENCY AND DEMAND OB- 
LIGATIONS. 

1. The existing gold standard shall be 
maintained ; and to this end the standard 
unit of value shall continue, as now, to 
consist of 25.8 grains of gold, nine-tenths 
fine, or 23.22 grains of pure gold, as now 
represented by the one-tenth part of the 
eagle. All obligations for the payment of 
money shall be performed in conformity 
to the standard aforesaid; but this pro- 
vision shall not be deemed to affect the 
present legal-tender quality of the silver 
coinage of the United States or of their 
paper currency having the quality of legal 
tender. All obligations of the United 
States for the payment of money now ex- 
isting, or hereafter entered into, shall, 
imless otherwise expressly provided, be 
deemed, and held, to be payable in gold 
coin of the United States as defined in 
the standard aforesaid. 

2. There shall continue to be free coin- 
nge of gold into coins of the denomina- 
tions, weights, fineness, and legal-tender 
quality i)rescribed by existing laws. 



222 



MONETARY BEFOBM 



3. No silver dollars shall be hereafter cent, of the aggregate amount of both the 
coined. United States notes and treasury notes 

4. Silver coins of denominations less issued under the act of July 14, 1890, 
tlian $1 shall be coined upon government outstanding, and a further sum in gold 
account, of the denominations, weight, equal to 5 per cent, of the aggregate 
fineness, and legal - tender quality pre- amount of the coinage of silver dollars, 
scribed by existing laws. This reserve shall be held as a common 

5. Minor coins shall continue to be fund, and used solely for the redemption 
coined upon government account, of the of such notes and in exchange for such 
denominations, weight, fineness, and legal- notes, and for silver and subsidiary and 
tender quality prescribed by existing laws, minor coins. 

6. Subsidiary and minor coins shall be 10. It shall be the duty of the Secre- 
issued and exchanged as prescribed by ex- tary of the Treasury to maintain the gold 
isting laws, except as hereinafter other- reserve in the division of issue and re- 
wise provided. demption at such sum as shall secure the 

7. There shall be created a separate di- certain and immediate resumption of all 
vision in the Treasury Department, to be notes and silver dollars presented, and 
known as the Division of Issue and Re- the preservation of public confidence; and 
demption, under the charge of an assist- for this purpose he shall from time to 
ant treasurer of the United States, who time as needed transfer from the general 
shall be appointed by the President by and fund of the treasury to the division of 
with the advice and consent of the Sen- issue and redemption any surplus revenue 
ate. not otherwise appropriated, and in addi- 

8. To this division shall be committed tion thereto he shall be authorized to 
all functions of the Treasury Department issue and sell, whenever it is, in his 
pertaining to the issue and redemption judgment, necessary for that purpose, 
of notes or certificates, and to the ex- bonds of the United States bearing inter- 
change of coins, and this division shall est not exceeding 3 per cent., running 
have the custody of the guarantee and re- twenty years, but redeemable in gold coin, 
demption funds of the national banks, at the option of the United States, after 
and shall conduct all the operations of one year; and the proceeds of all such 
redeeming national bank notes, as pre- sales shall be paid into the division of 
scribed by law, and to this division shall issue and redemption for the purposes 
be transferred all gold coin held against aforesaid. 

outstanding gold certificates, all United 11. To provide for any temporary de- 
States notes held against outstanding cur- ficiency which may at any time exist in 
roncy certificates, all silver dollars held the fiscal department of the treasury of 
against outstanding silver certificates, and the United States, the Secretary of the 
ail silver dollars and silver bullion held Treasury shall be authorized, at his dis- 
against outstanding treasury notes of cretion, to issue certificates of indebted- 
1890, and all subsidiary and minor coins ness of the United States, payable in 
needed for the issue and exchange of such from one to five years after their date, 
coins, and the funds deposited with the to the bearer, of the denominations of $50, 
treasury for the liquidation of national or multiples thereof, with interest at a 
bank notes. All accounts relating to the rate not to exceed 3 per cent, per an- 
business of this division shall be kept en- num, and to sell and dispose of the same 
tirely apart and distinct from those of the for lawful money at the Treasury Depart- 
fiscal departments of the treasury, and ment, and at the sub-treasuries and des- 
the accounts relating to the national banks ignated depositories of the United States, 
shall be kept separate and apart from all and at such post-offices as he may select. 
other accounts. And such certificates shall have the like 

9. A reserve shall be established in this privileges and exemptions provided in the 
division by the transfer to it by the treas- act to authorize the refunding of the 
urer of the United States from the gen- national debt, approved July 14, 1870. 
eral funds of the treasury of an amount of 12. Whenever money is to be borrowed 
gold in coin and bullion equal to 23 per on the credit of the United States the 

223 



MONETABY REFORM 

Secretary of the Treasury shall be author- for gold coin, United States notes, or 
ized, instead of issuing the usual forms of treasury notes. 

engraved bonds, upon receiving lawful (g) Pay out United States notes or 
money of the United States in sums of treasury notes, not subject to immediate 
not less than fifty dollars ($50) in any sin- cancellation, in exchange for gold coin, 
gle payment, to cause a record of all such (h) Pay out and redeem subsidiary and 
payments to be made in books to be kept minor coins as provided by existing laws, 
for that purpose in Washington, and there- (i) Pay out United States notes in ex- 
after, from time to time, to pay to those change for currency certificates, 
so registered on such books interest not 14. United States notes or treasury 
exceeding 3 per cent, per annum in gold notes once redeemed shall not be paid 
coin on the amount with which they shall out again except for gold, unless there 
severally stand credited on such books, shall be an accumulation of such notes 
in the same manner and at the same dates in the division of issue and redemption 
as if they were the holders and owners of which cannot then be cancelled under the 
registered bonds of the United States; and provisions of the act, in which case the 
he shall also pay to those so registered Secretary of the Treasury shall have au- 
the principal sum originally deposited, in thority, if, in his judgment, that course 
gold coin, at the date of maturity of such is necessary for the public welfare, to 
inscribed loans. Suitable arrangements invest the same or any portion thereof 
shall be made at each and every money- in bonds of the United States for the ben- 
order post-office in the United States for efit of the redemption fund, such bonds 
receiving such payments into the treas- to be held in the division of issue and re- 
ury on like terms, as well as for the trans- demption, subject to sale at the discre- 
fer, on proper identification, of any in- tion of the Secretary of the Treasury for 
Bcription on the books in Washington, or the benefit of the division of issue and re- 
ef any part thereof not less than fifty demption, and not for any other purpose, 
dollars ($50). No interest shall accrue 15. The Secretary of the Treasury shall 
or be paid on inscriptions which shall be authorized to sell from time to time, 
have been reduced below fifty dollars in his discretion, any silver bullion in the 
($50). No charge of any kind shall be division of issue and redemption; and the 
made by any department or officer of the proceeds in gold of such sales shall be 
government for any service in connee- placed to the account of the gold reserve 
tion with the receipt or transmission of in the division of issue and redemption, 
the lawful money, nor in the transfer of 16. The gold certificates and the cur- 
inscriptions on the books at Washing- rency certificates shall, whenever present- 
ton, ed and paid or received in the treasury, 

13. The division of issue and redemp- be retired and not reissued, 
tion shall on demand at Washington, and 17. No United States note or treasury 
at such sub-treasuries of the United States note of 1890 of a denomination less than 
as the Secretary of the Treasury may from $10 shall hereafter be issued; and silver 
time to time designate: certificates shall hereafter be issued or 

(a) Pay out gold coin for gold certifi- paid out only in denominations of $1, $2, 
cates. and $5 against silver dollars held by or 

(b) Pay out gold coin in redemption deposited in the treasury. 

of United States notes or treasury notes 18. The assistant treasurer in charge 

of 1890. of the division of issue and redemption 

(c) Pay out silver dollars for silver shall, on demand, pay in gold coin all 
certificates of any denomination. United States notes and treasury notes 

(d) Issue silver certificates of dcnomi- presented for payment, and as paid cancel 
nations of $1, $2, and $5 in exchange for the same up to the amount of $50,000,- 
hilver dollars, and silver certificates in 000. After that amount shall have been 
denominations above $5. paid and cancelled, he shall then, from 

(e) Pay out gold coin in exchange for time to time, cancel such further amounts 
silver dollars. of notes so paid as shall equal, but not ex- 

(£) Pay out silver dollars in exchange ceed, the increase of national bank notes 

224 



MONETARY REFORM 



issued subsequent to the taking effect 
of the proposed act. 

19. If at the end of five years next 
after the taking effect of the proposed 
act any United States notes or treasury 
notes shall be outstanding, a sura not ex- 
ceeding one - fifth of such outstanding 
amount shall be retired, and cancelled each 
year thereafter; and at the end of ten 
years after the passage of the proposed act 
the United States notes and treasury notes 
then outstanding shall cease to be legal 
tender for all debts, public and private, ex- 
cept for dues to the United States. 

20. The Secretary of the Treasury may, 
in his discretion, transfer from surplus 
revenue in the general treasury to the di- 
vision of issue and redemption any Unit- 
ed States notes or treasury notes which 
on such transfer could then lawfully be 
cancelled under the provisions of the pro- 
posed act if they had been redeemed on 
presentation; and when so transferred the 
same shall be cancelled. The Secretary 
of the Treasury, in his discretion, when- 
ever there may be United Stated notes 
or treasury notes in the general treas- 
ury, which are not available as surplus 
revenue, and which, upon transfer to the 
division of issue and redemption, could 
then lawfully be cancelled under the pro- 
visions of the act, may exchange such 
notes with the division of issue and re- 
demption for gold coin, and such notes 
shall thereupon be cancelled. 

21. All vested rights of property or con- 
tract, and all penalties incurred before 
the taking effect of the proposed act or 
any part of it, shall not be affected by the 
passage thereof, and all provisions of law 
inconsistent with any of the provisions 
of the proposed act should be repealed. 

n. BANKING SYSTEM. 

22. The total issues of any national bank 
shall not exceed the amount of its paid- 
up and unimpaired capital, exclusive of 
so much thereof as is invested in real es- 
tate. All such notes shall be of uniform 
design and quality, and shall be made a 
first lien upon all the assets of the issuing 
bank, including the personal liability of 
the stockholders. No such notes shall be 
of less denomination than $10. 

23. Up to an amount equal to 25 per 
cent, of the capital stock of the bank (the 



whole of its capital being unimpaired), 
the notes issued by it shall not exceed the 
value of United States bonds, to be fixed 
as hereinafter provided, deposited with 
the treasurer of the United States. The 
additional notes authorized may be issued 
without further deposit of bonds. 

Beginning five years after the passage 
of the proposed act, the amount of bonds 
required to be deposited before issuing 
notes in excess thereof shall be reduced 
each year by one-fifth of the 25 per cent, 
of capital herein provided for, and there- 
after any bank may at any time withdraw 
any bonds deposited in excess of the re- 
quirements hereof. 

24. Every national bank shall pay a tax 
at the rate of 2 per cent, per annum pay- 
able monthly upon the amount of its notes 
outstanding in excess of 60 per cent., and 
not in excess of 80 per cent, of its capital, 
and a tax at the rate of 6 per cent, per 
annum payable monthly upon the amount 
of its notes outstanding in excess of 80 
per cent, of its capital. 

25. Any bank may deposit any lawful 
money with the treasurer of the United 
States for the retirement of any of its 
notes; and every such deposit shall be 
treated as a reduction of its outstanding 
notes to that extent; and the tax above 
provided for shall cease as of the 1st of 
the following month on an equal amount 
of its notes. 

26. The Secretary of the Treasury shall 
annually fix the value of each series of 
bonds of the United States bearing a rate 
of interest exceeding 3 per cent, as equal- 
ized upon the rate of interest of 3 per 
cent, per annum, and such valuation as 
fixed by the Secretary on this basis shall 
be the valuation at which the bonds will 
be receivable upon deposit. Bonds paya- 
ble at the option of the government shall 
be receivable at 95 per cent, of their then 
m.arket value as determined by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury. If any bonds shall 
be issued hereafter payable at date named 
and bearing interest at 3 per cent, or less, 
they shall be receivable at par. 

27. The comptroller of the currency shall 
from time to time, as called for, issue to 
any bank the capital of which is full paid 
and unimpaired any of the notes herein 
elsewhere provided for, on the payment 
to the treasurer of the United States in 



225 



MONETARY REFORM 

gold ccin, of 5 per cent, of the amount paragraph 24, as well as the interest 
of Dotes thus called for, which payments accruing from investment of any part 
shall go into the common guarantee fund, of the guarantee fund, shall be held in 
for the prompt payment of the notes of the division of issue and redemption in 
any defaulted national bank. Upon the gold coin or in United States bonds, in 
failure of any bank to redeem its notes, the discretion of the Secretary of the 
they shall be paid from the said guarantee Treasury, and shall be a fund supple- 
fund, and forthwith proceedings shall be mentary and in addition to the guarantee 
ta'^en to collect from the assets of the fund to be used in case said guarantee 
oank and from the stockholders thereof, fund shall ever become insufficient to re- 
if necessary, a sum sufficient to repay to deem any bank notes issued hereunder, 
said guarantee fund the amount thereof and it shall not be taken into account in 
that shall have been used to redeem said estimating the amount of assessments 
notes; and also such further sums as necessary to replenish said guarantee fund 
shall be adequate to the redemption of all or in payments to banks of their contribu- 
thc unpaid notes of said banks outstand- tions to the guarantee fund, 
ing. 30. The present system of national bank- 

28. Persons ^^'ho, having been stockhold- note redemption should be continued, with 
ers of the bank, have transferred their a constantly maintained redemption fund 
shares, or any of them, to others, or regis- of 5 per cent, in gold coin, and with 
tered the transfer thereof within sixty power conferred on the comptroller of the 
days before the commencement of the sus- currency, with the approval of the Secre- 
pension of payment by the bank, shall be tary of the Treasury, to establish addi- 
liable to all calls on the shares held or tional redemption agencies at any or all 
subscribed for by them, as if they held of the sub-treasuries of the United States, 
such shares at the time of suspension of as he may determine. 

payment, saving their recourse against 31. So much of the provisions of exist- 

those by whom such shares were then ing law as require each national bank to 

actually held. So long as any obligation receive at par in payment of debts to it 

of the bank shall remain unsatisfied, the the notes of other national banks, and 

liability of each stockholder shall extend making such notes receivable at par in 

to, but not exceed in the whole, an amount payment of all dues to the United States 

equal to the par of his stock. except duties on imports, shall be ex- 

29. If the said guarantee fund of 5 per tended to cover notes issued under the 
cent, of all the notes outstanding shall be- proposed plan. 

come impaired by reason of payment made 32. National banks shall hold reserves 

to redeem the said notes as herein pro- in lawful money against their deposits 

vided, the comptroller of the currency shall of not less than 25 per cent, and 15 per 

make an assessment upon all the banks in cent, for the respective classes, as now 

proportion to their notes then outstanding provided by law, at least one-fourth of 

sufficient to make said funds equal to 5 which reserve shall be in coin, and held 

per cent, of said outstanding «otes. in the vaults of the bank. Neither the 

Any bank may deposit any lawful money 5 per cent, redemption fund nor the 5 

with the treasurer of the United States per cent, guarantee fund shall be count- 

for the retirement of any of its notes, or ed as part of the reserve required. No 

return its own notes for cancellation, bank shall count or report any of its 

whereupon the comptroller shall direct the own notes as a part of its cash or cash 

repayment to such bank of whatever sura assets on hand. 

may be the unimpaired portion of said 33. Permit the organization of national 

bank's contribution to the guarantee fund banks with a capital stock of $25,000 in 

on account of said notes. places of 4,000 population or less. 

Any portion of the guarantee fund may 34. Provision should be made whereby 
be invested in United States bonds in branch banks may be established, with 
the discretion of the Secretary of the the consent of the comptroller of the cur- 
Treasury, rency and approval of the Secretary of 

The taxes on circulation, provided for in the Treasury. 

226 



MONETARY REFORM 

35. For the purpose of meeting the ex- paired capital sufficient to entitle it to 
penses of the treasury in connection with become a national banking association un- 
the jiational-bank system, a tax of one- der the provisions of the proposed act, 
eighth of 1 per cent, per annum upon its may, by the consent in writing of the 
franchise, as measured by the amount of sliareholders owning not less than two- 
its capital, surplus, and undivided profits, thirds of the capital stock of such bank 
shall be imposed upon each bank. or banking association, and with the ap- 

36. To so amend existing laws as to proval of the comptroller of the currency, 
provide: become a national bank under this system, 

(a) For more frequent and thorough under its former name or by any name 
examinations of banks. approved by the comptroller. The directors 

(b) For fixed salaries for bank ex- thereof may continue to be the directors 
aminers. of the association so organized until oth- 

(c) To provide for rotation of exam- ers are elected or appointed in accordance 
iners. with the provisions of the law. When the 

(d) For public reports, regular or spe- comptroller of the currency has given to 
cial, at the call of the comptroller of the such bank or banking association a certifi- 
currency. cate that the provisions of this act have 

(e) To make it penal for any bank to been complied with, such bank or banking 
loan money, or grant any gratuity, to an association, and all its stockholders, oifi- 
examiner of that bank, and penal for cers, and employes shall have the same 
such examiner to receive it. powers and privileges, and shall be subject 

37. Any national banking association to the same duties, liabilities, and regula- 
heretofore organized may at any time tions, in all respects, as shall have been 
within one year from the passage of the prescribed for associations originally or- 
proposed act, and with the approval of the ganized as national banking associations 
comptroller of the currency, be granted, under the proposed act. 

as herein provided, all the rights, and be At the adjourned session of the confer- 
subject to all the liabilities, of natural ence in Indianapolis, in 1898, after the re- 
banking associations organized hereunder: port of the commission was adopted, a sub- 
Provided, that such action on the part committee of the commission, consisting of 
of such associations shall be authorized ex-Senator Edmunds, ex-Secretary Fair- 
by the consent in writing of shareholders child, and C. Stuart Patterson, prepared a 
owning not less than two-thirds of the bill for introduction in Congress, based on 
capital stock of the association. the conclusions of the commission. This 

38. Any national banking association bill was introduced into the House of Rep- 
now organized which shall not, within one resentatives by Representative Overstreet, 
year after the passage of the proposed of Indiana, on Dec. 4, 1899. On Dec. 18, 
act, become a national banking asso- following, the measure was passed by the 
ciation under the provisions hereinbefore House by a vote of 190 yeas to 150 nays, 
slated, and which shall not place in the On Dec. 9 the bill was laid before the 
hands of the treasurer of the United Senate, referred to the committee on 
States the sums hereinbefore provided for finance, and, after being considerably 
the redemption and guarantee of the cir- amended, was passed on Feb. 15, 1900, by 
culating notes, or which shall fail to comply a vote of 49 yeas to 46 nays. The House 
Vvfith any other provision of the proposed refused to concur in the Senate amend- 
act, shall be dissolved, but such dissolu- ments, whereupon a committee of confer- 
tion shall not take away or impair any ence was appointed, which agreed upon 
remedy against such corporation, its stock- a substitute, and its report was adopted, 
holders or officers, for any liability or pen- March 13, 1900, and received the Presi- 
»lty which shall have been previously in- dent's approval on the following day. 
curred. The provisions of the measure as finally 

39. Any bank or banking association adopted are as follows: 

incorporated by special law of any State, That the dollar consisting of 25.8 grains 

or organized under the general laws of any of gold nine-tenths fine, as established by 

State, and having a. paid-up and unim- Section 3,511 of the Revised Statutes of 

227 



MONETARY REFORM 

the United States, shall be the standard United States, as well as from taxation in 
unit of value, and all forms of money any form by or under State, municipal, or 
issued or coined by the United States shall local authority; and the gold coin re- 
be maintained at a parity of value with ceived from the sale of said bonds shall 
this standard, and it shall be the duty of fust be covered into tlie general fund of 
the Secretary of the Treasury to maintain the treasury and then exchanged, in the 
such parity. manner hereinbefore provided, for an 
Sec. 2. That United States notes, and equal amount of the notes redeemed and 
treasury notes issued under the act of held for exchange, and the Secretary of the 
July 14, 1890, when presented to the Treasury may, in his discretion, use said 
treasury for redemption, shall be fixed in notes in exchange for gold, or to purchase 
the first section of this act, and in order or redeem any bonds of the United States, 
to secure the prompt and certain redemp- or for any other lawful purpose the public 
tion of such notes as herein provided it interests may require, except that they 
shall be the duty of the Secretary of the shall not be used to meet deficiencies in 
Treasury to set apart in the treasury a the current revenues. That United States 
reserve fund of $150,000,000 in gold coin notes when redeemed ie accordance with 
and bullion, which fund shall be used for the provisions of this section shall be re- 
such redemption purposes only, and when- issued, but shall be held in the reserve 
ever and as often as any of said notes fund until exchanged for gold, as herein 
shall be redeemed from said fund it shall provided; and the gold coin and bullion in 
be the duty of the Secretary of the Treas- the reserve fund, together with the redeem- 
ury to use said notes so redeemed to re- ed notes held for use as provided in this 
store and maintain such reserve fund in section, shall at no time exceed the maxi- 
the manner following, to wit: First, by mum sum of .$150,000,000. 
exchanging the notes so redeemed for any Sec. 3. That nothing contained in this 
gold coin in the general fund of the treas- act shall be construed to affect the legal- 
ury; second, by accepting deposits of gold tender quality as now provided by law of 
coin at the treasury or at any sub-treas- the silver dollar, or of any other money 
ury in exchange for the United States coined or issued by the United States, 
notes so redeemed; third, by procuring Sec. 4. That there be established in the 
gold coin by the use of said notes, in ac- Treasury Department, as a part of the 
cordance with the provisions of Section office of the treasurer of the United 
3,700 of the Revised Statutes of the Unit- States, divisions to be designated and 
ed States. If the Secretary of the Treas- known as the division of issue and the 
ury is unable to restore and maintain the division of redemption, to which shall be 
gold coin in the reserve fund by the fore- assigned, respectively, under such regula- 
going methods, and the amount of such tions as the Secretary of the Treasury may 
gold coin and bullion in said fund shall at approve, all records and accounts relating 
any time fall below $100,000,000, then it to the issue and redemption of United 
shall be his duty to restore the same to States notes, gold certificates, silver cer- 
the maximum sum of $150,000,000 by bor- tificates, and currency certificates. There 
rowing money on the credit of the United shall be transferred from the accounts of 
States, and for the debt thus incurred to the general fund of the treasury of the 
issue and sell coupon or registered bonds United States, and taken up on the books 
of the United States, in such form as he of said divisions, respectively, accounts 
may prescribe, in denominations of $50 or relating to the reserve fund for the re- 
any multiple thereof, bearing interest at demption of United States notes and 
the rate of not exceeding 3 per cent, per treasury notes, the gold coin held against 
annum, payable quarterly, such bonds to outstanding gold certificates, the United 
be payable at the pleasure of the United States notes held against outstanding cur- 
States after one year from the date of rency certificates, and the silver dollars 
their issue, and to be payable, principal held against outstanding silver certifi- 
and interest, in gold coin of the present cates, and each of the funds represented 
standard value, and to be exempt from bj- these accounts shall be used for the re- 
thc payment of all taxes or duties of the demption of the notes and certificates for 

228 



MONETARY REFORM 

which they are respectively pledged, and Sec. 7. That hereafter silver certifi- 

shall be used for no other purpose, the cates shall be issued only of denomina- 

same being held as trust funds. tions of $10 and under, except that not 

Sec. 5. That it shall be the duty of the exceeding in the aggregate 10 per cent. 

Secretary of the Treasury, as fast as of the total volume of said certificates, in 

standard silver dollars are coined under the discretion of the Secretary of the 

the provisions of the acts of July 14, Treasury, may be issued in denominations 

1890, and June 13, 1898, from bullion pur- of $20, $50, and $100; and silver certifi- 

chased under the act of July 14, 1890, cates of higher denominations than $10, 

to retire and cancel an equal amount of except as herein provided, shall, when- 

treasury notes whenever received into the ever received at the treasury or redeemed, 

treasury, either by exchange in accord- be retired and cancelled, and certificates 

ance with the provisions of this act or in of denominations of $10 or less shall be 

the ordinary course of business, and upon substituted therefor, and after such sub- 

the cancellation of treasury notes silver stitution, in whole or in part, a like vol- 

certificates shall be issued against the sil- ume of United States notes of less denomi- 

ver dollars so coined. nation than $10 shall from time to time 

Sec. G. That the Secretary of the Treas- be retired and cancelled, and notes of de- 
ury is hereby authorized and directed to nominations of $10 and upward shall be 
receive deposits of gold coin with the reissued in substitution therefor, with 
treasurer or any assistant treasurer of the like qualities and restrictions as those re- 
United States in sums of not less than tired and cancelled. 

$20, and to issue gold certificates there- Sec. 8. That the Secretary of the Treas- 
lor in denominations of not less than $20, ury is hereby authorized to use, at his 
and the coin so deposited shall be retained discretion, any silver bullion in the treas- 
in the treasury and held for the payment ui-y of the United States purchased under 
of such certificates on demand, and used the act of July 14, 1890, for coinage into 
for no other purpose. Such certificates such denominations of subsidiary silver 
shall be receivable for customs, taxes, and coin as may be necessary to meet the pub- 
all public dues, and when so received may lie requirements for such coin: Provided, 
be reissued, and when held by any na- that the amount of subsidiary silver coin 
tional banking association may be counted outstanding shall not at any time exceed 
as part of its lawful reserve: Provided, in the aggregate $100,000,000. Whenever 
that whenever and so long as the gold any silver bullion purchased under the 
coin held in the reserve fund in the treas- act of July 14, 1890, shall be used in the 
ury for the redemption of United States coinage of subsidiary silver coin, an 
notes and treasury notes shall fall and ainount of treasury notes issued under 
remain below $100,000,000, the authority said act equal to the cost of the bullion 
to issue certificates, as herein provided, contained in such coin shall bo cancelled 
shall be suspended: And provided further, and not reissued. 

that whenever and so long as the aggre- Sec. 9. That the Secretary of the Treas- 
gate amount of United States notes and ury is hereby authorized and directed to 
silver certificates in the general fund of cause all worn and uncurrent subsidiary 
the treasury shall exceed $60,000,000 the silver coin of the United States now in 
Secretary of the Treasury may, in his dis- the treasury, and hereafter received, to be 
cretion, suspend the issue of the certifi- rccoined, and to reimburse the treasurer 
cates herein provided for: And provided of the United States for the difference be- 
further, that of the amount of such out- tween the nominal or face value of such 
standing certificates one-fourth at least coin and the amount the same will pro- 
shall be in denominations of $50 or less : dnce in new coin from any moneys in the 
And provided further, that the Secre- treasury not otherwise appropriated. 
tary of the Treasury may, in his discre- Sec. 10. That Section 5,138 of the Re- 
tion, issue such certificates in denomina- vised Statutes is hereby amended so as to 
tions of $10,000, payable to order. And read as follows: 

Section 5,193 of the Revised Statutes of " Sec. 5,138. No association shall be or- 

the United States is hereby repealed. ganized \vith a less capital than $100,000, 

229 



MONETARY REFORM 



except that banks with a capital of not 
less tlian $50,000 may, w-ith the approval 
of the Secretary of the Treasury, be or- 
ganized in any place the population of 
Avhich does not exceed G.OOO inhabitants, 
and except that banks ^^*ith a capital of 
not less than $25,000 may, with the sanc- 
tion of the Secretary of the Treasury, be 
organized in any place the population of 
Avhich does not exceed 3,000 inhabitants. 
No association shall be organized in a city 
the population of which exceeds 50,00 per- 
sons with a capital of less than $200,000." 
Sec. 11. That the Secretary of the 
Treasury is hereby authorized to receive 
at the treasury any of the outstanding 
bonds of the United States bearing inter- 
est at 5 per cent, per annum, payable 
Feb. 1, 1904, and any bonds of the United 
States bearing interest at 3 per cent, per 
annum, payable Aug. 1, 1908, and to issue 
in exchange therefor an equal amount of 
coupon or registered bonds of the United 
States in such form as he may prescribe, 
in denominations of $50, or any multiple 
thereof, bearing interest at the rate of 
2 per cent, per annum, payable quarterly, 
such bonds to be payable at the pleasure 
of the United States after thirty years 
from the date of their issue, and said 
bonds to be payable, principal and interest, 
in gold coin of the present standard value, 
and to be exempt from the payment of 
all taxes or duties of the United States, 
as well as from taxation in any form by 
or under State, municipal, or local au- 
thority: Provided, that such outstanding 
bonds may be received in exchange at a 
valuation not greater than their present 
worth to yield an income of 2y^ per cent, 
per annum; and in consideration of the re- 
duction of interest effected, the Secretary 
of the Treasury is authorized to pay to 
the holders of the outstanding bonds sur- 
rendered for exchange, out of any money 
in the treasury not otherwise appro- 
priated, a sum not greater than the differ- 
ence between their present worth, com- 
puted as aforesaid, and their par value, 
and the payments to be made hereunder 
shall be held to be payments on account 
of the sinking-fund created by Section 
3,f594 of the Revised Statutes: And pro- 
vided further, that the 2-per-cent. bonds, 
to be issued under the provisions of this 
act shall be issued at not less than par, 



and they shall be numbered consecutively 
in the order of their issue, and when pay- 
ment is made the last number issued shall 
be first paid, and this order shall be fol- 
lowed until all the bonds are paid, and 
whenever any of the outstanding bonds 
are called for payment interest thereon 
shall cease three months after such call ; 
and there is hereby appropriated out of 
any money in the treasury not otherwise 
appropriated, to effect the exchanges of 
bonds provided for in this act, a sum not 
exceeding one-fifteenth of 1 per cent, of 
the face value of said bonds, to pay the 
expense of preparing and issuing the same 
and other expenses incident thereto. 

Sec. 12. That upon the deposit with the 
treasurer of the United States, by any 
national banking association, of any bonds 
of the United States in the manner pro- 
vided by existing law, such association 
shall be entitled to receive from the comp- 
troller of the currency circulating notes 
in blanlv, registered and countersigned as 
provided by law, equal in amount to the 
par value of the bonds so deposited; and 
any national banking association now 
having bonds on deposit for the security 
of circulating notes, and upon which an 
amount of circulating notes has been 
issued less than the par value of the bonds, 
shall be entitled, upon due application to 
the comptroller of the currency, to receive 
additional circulating notes in blank to an 
amount which will increase the circulating 
notes held by such association to the par 
A^alue of the bonds deposited, such ad- 
ditional notes to be held and treated in 
the same way as circulating notes of na- 
tional banking associations heretofore 
issued, and subject to all the provisions 
of law affecting such notes: Pro\'ided, 
that nothing herein contained shall be 
construed to modify or repeal the pro- 
visions of Section 5.167 of the Revised 
Statutes of the United States, authorizing 
the comptroller of the currency to require 
additional deposits of bonds or of lawful 
money in case the market value of the 
bonds held to secure the circulating notes 
shall fall below the par value of the cir- 
culating notes outstanding for which such 
bonds may be deposited as security: And 
provided further, that the circulating 
notes furnished to the national banking 
associations under the provisions of this 



230 



MONETARY REFORM— MONITOR AND MERRIMAC 



act shall be of the denominations pre- cnt and practicable to secure the same 
scribed by law, except that no national by concurrent action of the leading corn- 
banking association shall, after the pas- mercial nations of the world and at a 
sage of this act, be entitled to receive from ratio which shall insure permanence of 
the comptroller of the currency, or to relative value between gold and silver, 
issue or reissue or place in circulation. Monitor and Merrimac. At the mo- 
more than one-third in amount of its eir- ment when the Confederates evacuated 
culating notes of the denomination of $5 : Manassas a strange naval battle occurred 
And provided further, that the total in Hampton Roads. The Confederates 
amount of such notes issued to any such had raised the sunken Merrimac in the 
association may equal at any time, but Gosport navy-yard and converted it into 
shall not exceed, the amount at such time an iron-clad ram, which they called the 
of its capital stock actually paid in: And Virginia, commanded by Captain Buchan- 
provided further, that under regulations an, late of the United States navy. She 
to be prescribed by the Secretary of the had gone down to Hampton Roads and de- 
Treasury any national banking association stroyed (March 8, 18G2) the wooden sail- 
may substitute the 2 per cent, bonds is- 
sued under the provisions of this act for 
any of the bonds deposited with the 
treasurer to secure circulation or to se- 
cure deposits of public money; and so 
much of an act entitled " An act to en- 
able national banking associations to ex- 
tend their corporate existence, and for 
other purposes, approved July 12, 1882," 
as prohibits any national bank which 
makes any deposit of lawful money in 
order to withdi'aw its circulating notes 
from receiving any increase of its cir- 
culation for the period of six months 
from the time it made such deposit of 
lawful money for the purpose aforesaid, 
is hereby repealed, and all other acts or 
parts of acts inconsistent with the pro- 
visions of this section are hereby re- 
pealed. 

Sec. 13. That every national banking 
association having on deposit, as pro- 
vided by law, bonds of the United States 
bearing interest at the rate of 2 per 
cent, per annum, issued under the pro- 
visions of this act, to secure its circulating ing frigates Congress and Cumberland, at 
notes, shall pay to the treasurer of the the mouth of the James River, and it was 
United States, in the months of January expected she would annihilate other ships 
and July, a tax of one-fourth of 1 per cent, there the next morning. Anxiously the 
each half-year upon the average amount army and navy officers of that vicinity 
of such of its notes in circulation as are passed the night of the 8th, for there ap- 
based upon the deposit of said 2 per cent, pearcd no competent human agency near 
bonds; and such taxes shall be in lieu of to avert the threatened disaster. Mean- 
existing taxes on its notes in circulation while another vessel of novel form and 
imposed by Section 5,214 of the Revised aspect had been constructed at Green- 
Statutes, point. L. I., N. Y., under the direction 

Sec. 14. That the provisions of this act of Capt. John Ericsson {q. v.), who 
are not intended to preclude the accom- used Theodore R. Timby's invention of 
plishment of international bimetallism a revolving turret. It presented to the 
whenever conditions shall make it expedi- eye, when afloat, a simple platform, 

231 




MAP OF HAMPTON ROADS. 



MONITOR AND MERRIMAC 



sharp at both ends, and bearing in its 
centre a round Martello tower 20 feet in 
diameter and 10 feet in height, made, as 




INTERIOR O^ THB MONITOR'S TURRET. 

was the rest of the vessel, of heavy iron. 
It presented a bomb-proof fort, in which 
were mounted two 11-inch Dahlgren guns. 
The hull of this vessel was only 8y, feet 
in depth, with a flat bottom, and was 124 
feet in length, and 34 feet the greatest 
width at top. On this hull rested an- 
other, 5 feet in height, that extended over 
the lower one 3 feet 7 inches all around, 
excepting at the ends, where it projected 
25 feet, by which protection was afforded 



guarded by a wall of white oak, 30 inches 
in thickness, on which was laid iron 
armor 6 inches in thickness. A shot to 
strike the lower hull would 
have to pass through 25 feet 
of water, and then strike an 
inclined plane of iron at an 
angle of about 10°. The 
deck was well armed also. 

Such was the strange 
craft that entered Hampton 
Roads from the sea, under 
the command of Lieut. 
John L. Worden {q. v.), 
unheralded and unknown, 
at a little past midnight, 
March 9, on its trial trip. 
It had been named Monitor. 
It had been towed to the 
Roads by steamers, outrid- 
ing a tremendous gale. 
Worden reported to the 
flag-officer of the fleet in the 
Roads, and was ordered to aid the Min- 
nesota in the expected encounter with the 
Merrimac in the morning. It was a bright 
Sabbath morning. Before sunrise the dread- 
ed Merrimac and her company came down 
from Norfolk. The stern guns of the Min- 
nesota opened upon the formidable iron- 
clad, when the little Monitor, which the 
Confederates called in derision a " cheese- 
box," ran out and placed herself by the 
side of the huge monster. She was like a 




battle' BETWKEN THB MONITOR AND MERRIMAC, IN HAMPTON ROADS. 

the anchor, propeller, and rudder. The pigmy by the side of a giant. Suddenly 
whole was built of 3-inch iron, and was her mysterious citadel began to revolve, 
very buoyant. Its exposed parts were and from it her guns hurled ponderous 

232 



MONITOR AND MERMMAC— MONMOUTH 



shot in quick succession. The Merrimac 
answered by heavy broadsides, and so 
they struggled for some time without in- 
juring each other. Then the Monitor 
withdrew a little to seek a vulnerable part 
of her antagonist, while the Merrimac 
pounded her awfully, sometimes sending 
upon her masses of iron weighing 200 
pounds at a velocity of 200 feet per sec- 
ond. These struck her deck and 
tower without harming them, and coni- 
cal bolts that struck the latter glanced 
off as pebbles would fly from solid 
granite. The Merrimac drew off and at- 
tacked the Minnesota. Seeing the latter 
in great peril, the Monitor ran between 



nished with sails. At her bow was a for- 
midable wrought-iron ram or beak. She 
was accidentally set on fire and destroyed 
at her moorings at League Island, below 
Philadelphia, Dec. 15, 1806. 

Monk's Corner, the scene of a notable 
surprise of American cavalry. While the 
British were besieging Charleston in 1780 
General Lincoln endeavored to keep an 
open communication with the country, 
across the Cooper River, so as to receive 
reinforcements, and, if necessary, to make 
a retreat. To close that communication 
Sir Henry Clinton detached Lieutenant- 
Colonel Webster, with 1,400 men. The 
advanced guard, composed of Tarleton's 




THE NEW IRONSIDES AND MONITOR. 



them. A most severe duel ensued, and 
as a result the Merrimac was so much 
disabled that she fled up to Norfolk, and 
did not again invite her little antagonist 
to combat. Worden was severely injured 
by concussion in the tower of the Monitor, 
and for a few days his life was in peril. 
This class of vessels was multiplied in the 
National navy, and did good service. A 
comparison of the appearance of the two 
vessels may be made in looking at the en- 
graving of the Ne7o Ironsides and Monitor. 
The New Ironsides was a powerful vessel 
built in Philadelphia. It had a wooden 
hull covered with iron plates four inches 
in thickness. Her aggregate weight of 
guns was 284,000 lbs., two of them 200- 
pounder Parrott guns. She had two 
horizontal steam-engines, and was fur- 



legion and Ferguson's corps, surprised the 
American cavalry (about 300 men), with 
militia attached to them, under the com- 
mand of Gen. Isaac Huger, who were sta- 
tioned at Biggin's Bridge, near Monk's 
Corner. The Americans were attacked 
just at dawn (April 14) and were scat- 
tered. Twenty-five of the Americans were 
killed; the remainder fled to the swamps. 
Tarleton secured nearly 300 horses, and, 
after closing Lincoln's communications 
with tht country, he returned to the Brit- 
ish camp in triumph. 

Monm^outh, Battle of. Just before 
the da%vn of June 18, 1778, the British be- 
gan their evacuation of Philadelphia. 
They crossed the Delaware to Gloucester 
Point, and that evening encamped around 
Haddonfield, a few miles southeast from 
33 



MONMOUTH, BATTLE OF 



Camden, N. J. The news of this evacua- 
tion reached Washington, at Valley Forge, 
before morning. He immediately sent 
General MaxAvell, with his brigade, to co- 
operate with the New Jersey militia under 
General Dickinson in retarding the march 
of the British, who, when they crossed the 
river, were 17,000 strong in effective men. 
They marched in two divisions, one vmder 
Cornwallis and the other led by Knyphau- 
sen. General Arnold, whose wounds kept 
him from the field, entered Philadelphia 
with a detachment before the rear-guard 
of the British had left it. The remainder 
of the army, under the immediate com- 
mand of Washington, crossed the Dela- 
ware above Trenton and pursued. Gen. 
Charles Lee ( q. v. ) , who had been ex- 
changed, was now with the army, and per- 
sistently opposed all interference with 
Clinton's march across New Jersey, and 
found fault with everything. 

Clinton had intended to march to New 
Brunswick and embark his army on Rari- 
tan Bay for New York; but, finding Wash- 
ington in his path, he turned, at Allen- 
town, towards IMonmouth, to make his 
way to Sandy Hook, and thence to New 
York by water. Washington followed him 
in a parallel line, prepared to strike him 
whenever an opportunity should ofli'er, 
while Clinton wished to avoid a battle, 
for he was encumbered with baggage- 




OLD MO.NIIOCTU COLKT-HOUSE. 



wagons and a host of camp-followers, 
making his line 12 miles in length. He 
encamped near the court-house in Free- 
hold, Monmouth co., N. J., on June 27, 
and there Washington resolved to strike 
him if he should move the next morning, 
for it was important to prevent his reach- 
ing the advantageous position of Middle- 
town Heights. General Lee was now in 
command of the advanced corps. Wash- 
ington ordered him to form a plan of at- 
tack, but he omitted to do so, or to give 
any orders to Wayne, Lafayette, or Max- 
well, who called upon him. And when, 
the next morning (June 28) — a hot Sab- 
bath — Washington was told Clinton was 
about to move, and ordered Lee to fall 
upon the British rear, unless there should 
be grave reasons for not doing so, that 
officer so tardily obeyed that he allowed 
his antagonist ample time to prepare for 
battle. 

When Lee did move, he seemed to have 
no plan, and by his orders and counter- 
orders so perplexed his generals that they 
sent a request to Washington to appear 
on the field with the main army immedi- 
ately. And while Wayne was attacking 
with vigor, with a sure prospect of vic- 
tory, Lee ordered him to make only a 
feint. At that moment Clinton changed 
front, and sent a large force, horse and 
foot, to attack Wayne. Lafayette, believ- 
ing there was now a good opportunity to 
gain the rear of the British, rode quickly 
up to Lee and asked permission to at- 
tempt the movement. He at first refused, 
but, seeing the earnestness of the marquis, 
he yielded a little, and ordered him to 
wheel his column by the right and attack 
Clinton's left. At the same time he weak- 
ened Wayne's detachment by taking three 
regiments from it to support the right. 
Tlien, being apparently disconcerted by a 
movement of the British, he ordered his 
right to fall back; and Generals Scott and 
Maxwell, who were then about to attack, 
were ordered to retreat. At the same time 
I/afayette received a similar order, a gen- 
eral retreat began, and the British pur- 
sued. In this flight and pursuit Lee 
sliinvcd no disposition to check either 
parly, and the retreat became a disorder- 
ly (light. Washington was then pressing 
forward to the support of Lee, when he 
was met by the astounding intelligence 



234 



MONMOUTH, BATTLE OF 



that the advance division was in full re- 
treat. Lee had scut him no word of this 
disastrous movement. 

The fugitives, falling back upon the 
main army, might endanger the whole. 
Washington's indignation was fearfully 
aroused, and when he met Lee, at the 



The two armies now confronted each 
other. The British, about 7,000 strong, 
were upon a narrow road, bounded by 
morasses. Their cavalry attempted to 
turn the American left Hank, but were re- 
jtulsed and disappointed. The regiments 
of foot came up, when a severe battle 




BATTLE-GROUND AT MONMOUTH. 



head of the second retreating column, he 
rode up to him, and, in a tone of wither- 
ing reproof, he exclaimed, " Sir, I desire 
to know what is the reason and whence 
comes this disorder and confusion?" 
Lee replied sharply, " You know the at- 
tack was contrary to my advice and opin- 
ion." The chief replied in a tone that 
indicated the depth of his indignation, 
" You should not have undertaken the 
command unless you intended to carry 
it out." There was no time for alterca- 
tion, and, wheeling his horse, he hastened 
to Ramsay and Stewart, in the rear, and 
soon rallied a gi'eater portion of their 
regiments, and ordered Oswald to take 
post on an eminence near, with two guns. 
These pieces, skilfully handled, soon 
checked the enemy. Washington's pres- 
ence inspired the troops with courage, 
and ten minutes after he appeared the re- 
treat was ended. The troops, lately a 
fugitive mob, were soon in orderly battle 
array on an eminence on which Gen. Lord 
Stirling placed some batteries. The line, 
then, was commanded on the right by 
General Greene, and on the left by Stirling. 



occurred with musketry and cannon. The 
American artillery, under the general di- 
rection of Knox, did great execution 
For a while the result seemed doubtful, 
when General Wayne came up with a 
body of troops and gave victory to the 
Americans. Colonel Monckton, perceiv- 
ing that the fate of the conflict depend- 
ed upon driving Wayne away or captur- 
ing him, led his troops to a bayonet 
charge. So terrible was Wayne's storm 
of bullets upon them that almost every 
British officer was slain. Their brave 
leader was among the killed, as he was 
pressing forward, waving his sword and 
shouting to his men. His veterans then 
retreated, and fell back to the heights oc- 
cupied by Lee in the morning. The battle 
ended at twilight, when the wearied 
armies rested on their weapons, prepared 
for another conflict at dawn. 

Through the deep sands of the roads, 
Clinton withdrew his army so silently 
towards midnight that he was far on his 
way towards Sandy Hook when the 
American sentinels discovered his flight 
in the morning (June 29). Washington 

as 



MONOCACY 







RELICS OF THE BATTLE OF MONMOUTH. 

did not pursue, and the British escaped 
to New York. They had lost 1,000 men by 
desertion while crossing New Jersey, and 
they left four officers and 245 non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates on the field, 
taking with them many of the wounded. 
They lost fifty-nine by the terrible heat 
of the day. More than fifty Americans 
died from the same cause. The loss of 
the Americans was 228, killed, wounded, 
and missing. Many of the latter after- 
wards returned to the army. Washing- 
ton marched northward, crossed the Hud- 
son River, and encamped in Westchester 
county, N. Y., until late in the autumn. 
See Pitcher, Molly. 

Monocacy, Battle of. On July 5, 1864, 
Gen. Lew. Wallace (q. v.), in command 
of the Middle Department, with his 
headquarters at Baltimore, received in- 
formation that Gen. Jubal A. Early (q. 
v.), with 15,000 or 20,000 Confederates, 
who had invaded Maryland, was march- 
ing on Baltimore. Already General 
Grant had been informed of the invasion, 
and had sent General Wright, with the 
(Jth Corps, to protect the capital. Gen. 
E. B. Tyler was at Frederick with about 
1,000 troops, and Wallace gathered there, 
on the Gth, all the available troops in his 
department that could be spared from the 
duties of watching the railways leading 
into Baltimore from the North. lie sent 
Colonel Clendennin to search for positive 



information with 400 men and a section 
of artillery, and at Middletown he en- 
countered 1,000 Confederates under Brad- 
ley Johnson, a Marylander, who pushed 
him steadily back towards Frederick, 
There was a sharp fight near Frederick 
that day (July 7, 18G4), and, at 6 p.m. 
Gilpin's regiment charged the Confeder- 
ates and drove them back to the moun- 
tains. Satisfied that the destination of 
the invaders was Washington, and know- 
ing it was then too weak in troops to re- 
sist the Confederates successfully, Wal- 
lace threw his little force in front of 
them to impede their march. He with- 
drew his troops from Frederick to a 
chosen position on the left bank of the 
Monocacy, and on the 9th fought the in- 
vaders desperately for eight hours. Wal- 
lace had been joined by the brigade of 
Ricketts, the advance of the oncoming Gth 
Corps. Although finally defeated, this little 
band of Nationals had kept the invading 
host at bay long enough to allow the re- 
mainder of the Gth Corps to reach Wash- 
ington. Wallace's troops had thus gained 
a real victory that saved the capital. So 
declared the Secretary of War and the 
lieutenant-general. The check to the Con- 




PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF MONOCACT. 



23G 



MONONGAHELA— MONROE 



federates, altogether, was over thirty 
hours. The number of National troops en- 
gaged in the battle was about 5,500; the 
Confederates numbered about 20,000. The 
Nationals lost 1,959 men, of whom 98 were 
killed, 579 wounded, and 1,282 missing. 

Monongahela, Battle of. See Brad- 
dock, Edward. 

Monroe, Andrew, clergyman; born in 
Virginia, Oct. 29, 1792; became a Metho- 
dist preacher in 1815, joining the Ohio 
conference.- He was sent as a circuit rider 
to the outline settlements in Ohio, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and Missouri, the great- 
er portion of his labors being in Missouri, 
where he was known as the patriot of 



Methodism. He died in Mexico, Mo., 
Nov. 18, 1871. 

Monroe, Elizabeth Kobtwright, wife 
of President James Monroe; born in New 
York City in 1768; married Monroe in 
1786; accompanied her husband abroad in 
1794 and 1803. She was instrumental in 
obtaining the release of Madame Lafay- 
ette during the French Revolution. She 
died in Loudon county, Va., in 1830. 

Monroe, Harriet, poet; born in Chi- 
cago, 111., Dec. 23, 1860. She was the au- 
thor of the Columbian ode which was read 
and sung at the opening ceremonies of 
the 400th anniversary of the discovery of 
ximerica, Oct. 21, 1892. 



MONB.OE, JAMES 



Monroe, James, fifth President of the 
United States; born in Westmoreland 
county, Va., April 28, 1759; graduated 
at the College of William and Mary 
in 1776; immediately joined the patriot 
army as a cadet in Mercer's regiment ; and 
was in the engagements at Harlem Plains, 
White Plains, and Trenton. He was 
wounded in the latter engagement, and 
was promoted to a captaincy for his 
bravery. In 1777-78 he was aide to 
Lord Stirling, and was distinguished 
at the battles of Brandywine, German- 
town, and Monmouth. After the latter 
battle he left the army, studied* law un- 
der Jefferson, and again took up arms 
when Virginia was invaded by Cornwallis. 
In 1780 he visited the Southern array un- 
der De Kalb as military commissioner 
from Virginia, and was a member of the 
Virginia Assembly in 1782. He soon be- 
came a member of the executive council, 
a delegate in Congress, and in his State 
convention in 1788 he opposed the ratifica- 
tion of the national Constitution. From 
1790 to 1794 he was United States Sen- 
ator. In May of the latter year he was ap- 
pointed minister to France, though an op- 
ponent of Washington's administration, but 
was recalled in 1796, because of his oppo- 
sition to Jay's treaty (see Jay, John). 
In defence of his conduct, he published the 
whole diplomatic correspondence with his 
government while he was in Paris. From 
1799 to 1802 he was governor of Virginia, 
and in 1802 was sent as envoy to France. 



The next year he was United States min- 
ister at the Court of St. James. In 1805 
he was associated with Charles C. Pinck- 
ney (q. v.) in a negotiation with Spain, 
and, with William Pinkney, he negotiated 
a treaty with England in 1807, which Jef- 
ferson rejected because it did not provide 
against impressments. Serving in his 
State Assembly, he was again elected gov- 
ernor in 1811, and was Madison's Secre- 
tary of State during a large portion of 
that President's administration. From Sep- 
tember, 1814, to March, 1815, he performed 
the duties of Secretary of War. 

Before the close of Madison's adminis- 
tration the Federal party had so much de- 
clined in strength that a nomination for 
office by the Democratic party was equiva- 
lent to an election. On March 16, 1816, a 
congressional Democratic caucus was held, 
at which the names of James Monroe 
and William H. Crawford {q. v.) were 
presented for nomination. There were 
many who did not like Monroe who were 
ready to press the nomination of Craw- 
ford, and, had he been inclined for a 
struggle, he might have received the votes 
of the caucus. There had been much in- 
triguing before the caucus. At that gath- 
ering Henry Clay and John Taylor, of 
New York, moved that congressional cau- 
cus nominations for the Presidency were 
inexpedient and ought not to be continued. 
These motions having failed, Monroe re- 
ceived 65 votes to 54 for Crawford. Dan- 
iel D. Tompkins received 85 votes of the 
37 



MONROE, JAMES 



caucus for Vice-President to 30 for Gov- 
ernor Snyder. After the election in the 
autumn it was found, when the votes of 
the electoral colleges were counted, that 
Monroe had received the votes of all the 
States excepting Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, and Delaware, which gave Rufus King 
34 electoral votes. Three federal electors 
chosen in Maryland and one in Delaware 
did not vote at all. 

Monroe received 183 of the 221 votes, 
and Tompkins the same number for Vice- 
President. Monroe was inaugurated on 
March 4, 1817, and entered ujjon the duties 
of his office under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances. His inaugural address wag 
liberal in its tone and gave general satis- 
faction; and the beginning of his admin- 
istration was regarded as the dawning of 
an " era of good feeling." President Mon- 
roe had been urged by General Jackson, 
with whom he was on terms of great inti- 
macy, to disregard former party divisions 
in the formation of his cabinet, and to use 
his influence and power to destroy party 
spirit by appointing the best men to office 
without regard to their political prefer- 
ences. He preferred to follow the example 
of Jefferson and Madison, and appoint only 



those of his OAvn political faith. He chose 
John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts, for 
Secretary of State; William H. Crawford, 
of Georgia, Secretary of the Treasury; and 
John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, for 
Secretary of War. These were all aspir- 
ants for the Presidential chair. B. W. 
Crowninshield was continued Secretary of 
the Navy, to which office Madison had ap- 
pointed him in December, 1814, and Rich- 
ard Rush continued in the office of Attor- 
ney-General until succeeded, Nov. 13, 1817, 
by William Wirt. Return J. Meigs was 
continued Postmaster-General, to which 
office Madison had appointed him in 1817. 
After his first term, so faithfully had 
President Monroe adhered to the promises 
of his inaugural address, that he was not 
only renominated, with Tompkins as Vice- 
President, but was elected by an almost 
unanimous vote in the electoral college. 
Only one elector voted against Monroe, and 
but fourteen against Tompkins. That re- 
election was at the commencement of a 
new political era. The reannexation of 
Florida to the United States, the recog- 
nized extension of the domain of the re- 
public to the Pacific Ocean, and the parti- 
tion of those new acquisitions between 




MO.NKOE'a KKSIDKNOK. AT OAK HILL, VA. 

238 



MONROE, JAMES 



present session, of which I shall endeavor 
to give, in aid of your deliberations, a just 
idea in this coniinunication. I undertake 
this duty with dillidcnce, from the vast 
extent of the interests on which I liave to 
treat and of their great importance to ev- 
ery portion of our Union. I enter on it 
with zeal, from thorough conviction tliat 
there never was a period since the estab- 
lishment of our Revolution when, regard- 
ing the condition of the civilized world 
and its bearing on us, there was greater 
necessity for devotion in the public ser- 
vants to their respective duties, or for 
virtue, patriotism, and union in our con- 
stituents. 

Meeting in you a new Congress, I deem 
it proper to present this view of public 
affairs in greater detail than might other- 
wise be necessary. I do it, however, with 
peculiar satisfaction, from a knowledge 
that in this respect I shall comply more 
fully with the sound principles of our 
government. The people being with us 
freedom and slavery marked a new depart- exclusively the sovereign, it is indis- 
ure. All the old landmarks of party had pensable that full information be laid 
been uprooted by embargoes and the war, before them on all important subjects to 
and, by the question of the United States enable them to exercise that high power 
Bank, internal improvements, and the with complete effect. If kept in the dark, 
tariff, had been almost completely swept they must be incompetent to it. We are 
away. During his administration he rec- all liable to error, and those who are en- 
ognized the independence of several of the gaged in the management of public affairs 
South American states, and promulgated are more subject to excitement, and to 
the " Monroe Doctrine " (see below). He be led astray by their particular inter- 
retired to private life in 1825, and in 1831, ests and passions, than the great body 
after the death of his wife, he left Vir- of our constituents, who, being at home 
ginia and made his residence with his in the pursuit of their ordinary avocations, 
son-in-law, Samuel L. Gouverneur, in the are calm but deeply interested spectators 




C^^f/'u. '^i 



TOMB OP M©NROE. 



city of New York, where he died, July 
4, 1831. 

The Mo7iroe Doctrine. — This great na- 
tional principle, which the United States 
has most strenuously maintained ever 
since its enunciation, was proclaimed by 
President Monroe in his message to Con- 
gress on Dec. 2, 1823. The declaration 
itself consists of but few w^ords and is 



of events, and of the conduct of those 
who are parties to them. To the people, 
every department of the government and 
every individual in each are responsible, 
and the more full their information the 
better they can judge of the wisdom of 
the policy pursued, and of the conduct 
of each in regard to it. From their dis- 
passionate judgment much aid may always 



here printed in italics; but to afford a be obtained, while their approbation will 



fuller view of its far-reaching import, as 
well as to show the national conditions 
which called it forth, the entire message 
is reproduced as follows: 



form the greatest incentive and most 
gratifying reward for virtuous actions, 
and the dread of their censure the best 
security against the abuse of their con- 

fidence. Their interests in all vital qucs- 

Fellow-citizens of the Senate and House tions are the same, and the bond by 
of Representatives, — Many important sub- sentiment as well as by interest will be 
jects will claim your attention during the proportionately strengthened as they are 

239 



MONROE, JAMES 

better informed of the real state of public ests of both parties, a negotiation has 

atl'airs, especially in difficult conjunctures, been opened with the British government 

It is by such knowledge that local preju- which, it is hoped, will have a satisfactory 

dices and jealousies are surmounted, and result. 

that a national policy, extending its fos- The commissioners under the sixth and 

tering care and protection to all the great seventh articles of the treaty of Ghent, 

interests of our Union, is formed and having successfully closed their labors in 

steadily adhered to. relation to the sixth, have proceeded to 

A precise knowledge of our relations the discharge of those relating to the 
with foreign powers, as respects our nego- seventh. Their progress in the extensive 
tiittions and transactions with each, is survey required for the performance of 
thought to be particularly necessary, their duties, justifies the presumption that 
Equally necessary is it that we should it will be completed in the ensuing year, 
form a just estimate of our resources. The negotiation which had been long 
rerenue, and progress in every kind of depending with the French government 
improvement connected with the national on several important subjects, and par- 
prosperity and public defence. It is by ticularly for a just indemnity for losses 
rendering justice to other nations that sustained in the late wars by the citizens 
we may expect it from them. It is by of the United States, under unjustifiable 
our ability to resent injuries and redress seizures and confiscations of their proper- 
wrongs that we may avoid them. ty, has not as yet had the desired effect. 

The commissioners under the fifth ar- As this claim rests on the same principle 
tide of the treaty of Ghent, having dis- with others which have been admitted 
agreed in their opinions respecting that by the French government, it is not per- 
portion of the boundary between the ter- ceived on what just grounds it can be 
ritories of the United States and of Great rejected. A minister will be immediately 
Britain, the establishment of which had appointed to proceed to France and resume 
been submitted to them, have made their the negotiations on this and other subjects 
respective reports in compliance with that which may arise between the two nations, 
article, that the same might be referred At the proposal of the Russian imperial 
to the decision of a friendly power. It government, made through the minister of 
being manifest, however, that it would the Emperor residing here, a full power 
be difficult, if not impossible, for any and instructions have been transmitted 
power to perform that office without great to the minister of the United States at 
delay and much inconvenience to itself, St. Petersburg, to arrange, by amicable 
a proposal has been made by this govern- negotiations, the respective rights and 
ment, and acceded to by that of Great interests of the two nations on the north- 
Britain, to endeavor to establish that west coast of this continent. A similar 
boundary by amicable negotiation. It ap- proposal has been made by his Imperial 
pea ring, from long experience, that no Majesty to the government of Great 
satisfactory arrangement could be formed Britain, which has likewise been acceded 
of the commercial intercourse between to. The government of the United States 
the United States and the British colo- has been desirous, by this friendly pro- 
nies in this hemisphere by legislative acts, ceeding, of manifesting the great value 
while each party pursued its own course which they have invariably attached to 
without agreement or concert with the the friendship of the Emperor, and their 
other, a proposal has been made to the solicitude to cultivate the best understand- 
British government to regulate this com- ing with his government. In the discus- 
mcrce by treaty, as it has been to arrange sions to which this interest has given rise, 
in like manner the just claim of the and in the arrangements by which they 
citizens of the United States inhabiting may terminate, the occasion has been 
the States and Territories bordering on judged proper for asserting, as a principle 
the lakes and rivers which empty into the in which the rights and interests of the 
St. Lawrence to the navigation of that United States are involved, that the Amer- 
river to the ocean. For these and other ican continents, by the free and indepen- 
objecta of high importance to the inter- dent condition which they hare assumed 

240 



MONROE, JAMEB 



and maintain, are henceforth not to be 
considered as subjects for future colo- 
nization by any European powers. 

Since the close of the last session of 
Congress, the commissioners and arbitra- 
tors for ascertaining and determining the 
amount of indemnitication which may be 
due to citizens of the United States under 
the decision of his Imperial Majesty the 
Emperor of Russia, in conformity to the 
convention concluded at St. Petersburg, 
on July 12, 1822, have assembled in this 
city and organized themselves as a board 
for the performance of the duties assigned 
to them by that treaty. The commission 
constituted under the eleventh article of 
the treaty of Eeb. 22, 1819, between .the 
United States and Spain, is also in session 
here; and as the term of three years lim- 
ited by the treaty for the execution of the 
trust will expire before the period of the 
next regular meeting of Congress, the at- 
tention of the legislature will be drawn to 
the measures which may be necessary to 
accomplish the objects for which the com- 
mission was instituted. 

In compliance with a resolution of the 
House of Representatives adopted at their 
last session, instructions have been given 
to all the ministers of the United States 
accredited to the powers of Europe and 
America to propose the proscription of the 
African slave-trade by classing it under 
the denomination, and inflicting on its 
perpetrators the punishment, of piracy. 
Should this proposal be acceded to, it is 
not doubted that this odious and criminal 
practice will be promptly and entirely 
suppressed. It is earnestly hoped that 
it will be acceded to from a firm belief 
that it is the most effectual expedient that 
can be adopted for the purpose. 

At the commencement of the recent 
war between France and Spain it was de- 
clared by the French government that it 
would grant no commissions to privateers, 
that neither the commerce of Spain her- 
self nor of the neutral nations should be 
molested by the naval force of France, 
except in the breach of a lawful block- 
ade. This declaration, which appears to 
have been faithfully carried into effect, 
concurring with principles proclaimed 
and cherished by the United States from 
the first establishment of their indepen- 
dence, suggested the hope that the time 



had arrived when the proposal for adopt- 
ing it as a permanent and invariable rule 
in all future maritime wars might meet 
the favorable consideration of the great 
European powers. Instructions have ac- 
cordingly been given to our ministers with 
France, Russia, and Great Britain, to 
make these proposals to their respective 
governments; and when the friends of 
humanity reflect on the essential amelio- 
ration to the condition of the human race 
which would result from the abolition of 
private war on the sea, and on the great 
facility by which it might be accom- 
plished, requiring only the consent of a few 
sovereigns, an earnest hope is indulged 
that these overtures will meet with an at- 
tention animated by the spirit in which 
they were made, and that they will ulti- 
mately be successful. 

The ministers who were appointed to 
the republics of Colombia and Buenos 
Ayres during the last session of Congress 
proceeded, shortly afterwards, to their des- 
tinations. Of their arrival there official 
intelligence has not yet been received. The 
minister appointed to the republic of Chile 
will sail in a few days. An early ap- 
pointment will also . be made to Mexico. 
A minister has been received from Co- 
lombia; and the other governments have 
been informed that ministers, or diplo- 
matic agents of inferior grade, would be 
received from each accordingly, as they 
might prefer the one or the other. 

The minister appointed to Spain pro- 
ceeded, soon after his appointment, for 
Cadiz, the residence of the sovereign to 
whom he was accredited. In approach- 
ing that port, the frigate which conveyed 
him was warned off by the commander of 
the French squadron by which it was 
blockaded, and not permitted to enter, al- 
though apprised by the captain of the 
frigate of the public character of the 
person whom he had on board, the land- 
ing of whom was the sole object of his 
proposed entry. This act, being consid- 
ered an infringement of the rights of am- 
bassadors and of nations, will form a 
just cause of complaint to the government 
of France against the officer by whom it 
was committed. 

The actual condition of the public 
finances more than realizes the favorable 
anticipations that were entertained of it 



VI. — Q 



241 



MONROE, JAMES 



at the opening of the last session of Con- 
gress. On Jan. 1 there was a balance in 
the treasury of $4,237,427.55. From that 
time to Sept. 30 the receipts amounted to 
upward of $16,100,000, and the expendi- 
tures to $11,400,000. During the fourth 
quarter of the year it is estimated that the 
receipts will at least equal the expendi- 
tures, and that there will remain in the 
treasury on Jan. 1 next a surplus of 
nearly $9,000,000. 

On Jan. 1, 1825, a large amount of the 
war debt and a part of the Revolutionary 
debt will become redeemable. Additional 
portions of the former will continue to 
become redeemable annually until the year 
1835. It is believed, however, that, if the 
United States remain at peace, the whole 
of that debt may be redeemed by the ordi- 
nary revenue of those years, during that 
. period, under the provisions of the act of 
March 3, 1817, creating the sinking fund; 
and in that case the only part of the debt 
that will remain after the year 1835 will 
be the $7,000,000 of 5 per cent, stock sub- 
scribed to the Bank of the United States, 
and the 3 per cent. Revolutionary debt, 
amounting to $13,290,099.06, both of 
which are redeemable at the pleasure of 
the government. 

The state of the army and its organi- 
zation and discipline has been gradually 
improving for several years, and has now 
attained a high degree of perfection. The 
military disbursements have been regu- 
larly made, and the accounts regularly 
and promptly rendered for settlement. 
The supplies of various descriptions have 
been of good quality, and regularly is- 
sued at all of the posts. A system of 
economy and accountability has been 
introduced into every branch of the 
service, which admits of little additional 
improvement. This desirable state has 
been attained by the act reorganizing 
the staff of the army, passed on April 
14, 1818. 

The moneys appropriated for fortifica- 
tions have been regularly and economi- 
cally applied, and all the works advanced 
as rapidly as the amount appropriated 
would admit. Three important works 
will be completed in the course of this 
year — that is. Fort Washington, Fort 
Delaware, and the fort at the Rigolets in 
Louisiana. 



The board of engineers and the topo- 
graphical corps have been in constant 
and active service, in surveying the coast, 
and projecting the works necessary for 
its defence. 

The Military Academy has attained a 
degree of perfection in its discipline and 
instruction equal, as is believed, to any 
institution of its kind in any country. 

The money appropriated for the use 
of the ordnance department has been 
regularly and economically applied. The 
fabrication of arms at the national 
armories, and by contract with the de- 
partment, has been gradually improving 
in quality and cheapness. It is believed 
that their quality is now such as to admit 
of but little improvement. 

The completion of the fortifications 
renders it necessary that there should 
be a suitable appropriation for the pur- 
pose of fabricating the cannon and car- 
riages necessary for those works. 

Under the appropriation of $5,000 for 
exploring the Western waters for the loca- 
tion of a site for a Western armory, a 
commission was constituted, consisting of 
Colonel McRee, Colonel Lee, and Captain 
Talcott, who have been engaged in ex- 
ploring the country. They have not yet 
reported the result of their labors, but 
it is believed that they will be prepared 
to do it at an early part of the session 
of Congress. 

During the month of June last. Gen- 
eral Ashley and his party, who were trad- 
ing under a license from the government, 
were attacked by the Ricarees while 
peaceably trading with the Indians at 
their request. Several of the party were 
killed or wounded, and their property 
taken or destroyed. 

Colonel Leavenworth, who commanded 
Fort Atkinson, at the Council Bluffs, the 
most western post, apprehending that the 
hostile spirit of the Ricarees would ex- 
tend to other tribes in that quarter, and 
that thereby the lives of the traders on 
the Missouri, and the peace of the fron- 
tier, would be endangered, took imme- 
diate measures to check the evil. 

With a detachment of the regiment sta- 
tioned at the Bluffs, he successfully at- 
tacked the Ricaree village, and it is 
hoped that such an impression has been 
made on them, as well as on the other 



242 



MONROE, JAMES 



tribes on the Missouri, as will prevent a In the West Indies and the Gulf of 



recurrence of future hostility. 

The report of the Secretary of War, 
which is herewith transmitted, will ex- 
hibit in greater detail the condition of 
the department in its various branches, 
and the progress which has been made in 
its administration during the first three 
quarters of the year. 

I transmit a return of the militia of 
the several States, according to the last 
reports which have been made by the 
proper officers in each to the Department 
of War. By reference to this return, it 
will be seen that it is not complete, al- 
though great exertions have been made to 
make it so. As the defence, and even the 
liberties, of the country must depend, in 
times of imminent danger, on the militia, 
it is of the highest importance that it be 
well organized, armed, and disciplined, 
throughout the Union. The report of the 
Secretary of War shows the progress made 
during the first three quarters of the pres- 
ent year, by the application of the fund 
appropriated for arming the militia. Much 
difficulty is found in distributing the arms 
according to the act of Congress provid- 
ing for it, from the failure of the proper 
departments in many of the States to 
make regular returns. The act of May 
12, 1820, provides that the system of 
tactics and regulations of the various 
corps in the regular army shall be ex- 
tended to the militia. This act has been 
very imperfectly executed, from the want 
of uniformity in the organization of the 
militia, proceeding from the defects of 
the system itself, and especially in its ap- 
plication to that main arm of the public 
defence. It is thought that this important 
subject, in all its branches, merits the at- 
tention of Congress. 

The report of the Secretary of the Navy, 
which is now communicated, furnishes an 
account of the administration of that de- 
partment for the first three quarters of 
the present year, with the progress made 
in augmenting the na\'y, and the manner 
in which the vessels in commission have 
been employed. 

The usual force has been maintained in 
the Mediterranean Sea, the Pacific Ocean, 
and along the Atlantic coast, and has af- 
forded the necessary protection to our 
pommeree in those seas. 



Mexico our naval force has been augment- 
ed by the addition of several small vessels, 
provided for by the " act authorizing an 
additional naval force for the suppression 
of piracy," passed by Congress at their 
last session. That armament has been emi- 
nently successful in the accomplishment of 
its object. The piracies by which our com- 
merce in the neighborhood of the island of 
Cuba had been afflicted have been repress- 
ed, and the confidence of our merchants, in 
a great measure, restored. 

The patriotic zeal and enterprise of 
Commodore Porter, to whom the command 
of the expedition was confided, has been 
fully seconded by the officers and men un- 
der his command; and, in reflecting with 
high satisfaction on the honorable manner 
in which they have sustained the reputa- 
tion of their country and its navy, the 
sentiment is alloyed only by a concern 
that, in the fulfilment of that arduous 
service, the diseases incident to the sea- 
son and to the climate in which it was 
discharged have deprived the nation of 
many useful lives, and among them of sev- 
eral officers of great promise. 

In the month of August a very malig- 
nant fever made its appearance at Thomp- 
son's Island, which threatened the destruc- 
tion of our station there. Many perished, 
and the commanding officer was severely 
attacked. Uncertain as to his fate, and 
knowing that most of the medical officers 
had been rendered incapable of discharging 
their duties, it was thought expedient to 
send to that post an officer of rank and 
experience, with several skilful surgeons, 
to ascertain the origin of the fever, and 
the probability of its recurrence there in 
future seasons ; to furnish every assistance 
to those who were suffering, and, if prac- 
ticable, to avoid the necessity of abandon- 
ing so important a station. Commodore 
Eodgers, with a promptitude which did 
him honor, cheerfully accepted that trust, 
and has discharged it in the manner an- 
ticipated from his skill and patriotism. 
Before his arrival. Commodore Porter, 
with the greater part of the squadron, 
had removed from the island, and return- 
ed to the United States, in consequence 
of the prevailing sickness. Much useful 
information has, however, been obtained 
as to the state of the island, and great 



243 



MONUOE, JAMES 

relief afforded to those who had been efficient and equally econamical organiza- 
necessarily left there. tion of it might not, in several respects, be 

Although our expedition, co-operating effected. It is supposed that higher 
with an invigorated administration of the grades than now exist by law would be 
government of the island of Cuba, and useful. They would afford well-merited 
with the corresponding active exertions rewards to those who have long and faith- 
of a British naval force in the same seas, fully served their country; present the 
have almost entirely destroyed the un- best incentives to good conduct, and the 
licensed piracies from that island, the sue- best means of insuring a proper discipline ; 
cess of our exertions has not been equally destroy the inequality in that respect be- 
effectual to suppress the same crime, under tween the military and naval services, and 
other pretences and colors, in the neigh- relieve our officers from many inconven- 
boring island of Porto Rico. They have iences and mortifications which occur 
been committed there under the abusive when our vessels meet those of other 
issue of Spanish commissions. At an nations — ours being the only service in 
early period of the present year remon- which such grades do not exist, 
strances were made to the governor of that A report of the Postmaster-General, 
island by an agent, who was sent for the which accompanies this communication, 
purpose, against those outrages on the will show the present state of the Post- 
peaceful commerce of the United States, office Department, and its general opera- 
of which many had occurred. That offi- tions for some years past, 
cer, professing his own want of authority There is established by law 88,600 miles 
to make satisfaction for our just com- of post-roads, on which the mail is now 
plaints, answered only by a reference of transported 85,700 miles; and contracts 
them to the government of Spain. The have been made for its transportation on 
minister of the United States to that Court all the established routes, with one or two 
was specially instructed to urge the neces- exceptions. There are 5,240 post-offices in 
sity of the immediate and effectual inter- the Union, and as many postmasters. The 
position of that government, directing gross amount of postage which accrued 
restitution and indemnity for wrongs al- from July 1, 1822, to July 1, 1823, was 
ready committed and interdicting the repe- $1,114,345.12. During the same period 
tition of them. The minister, as has been the expenditures of the Post-office De- 
seen, was debarred access to the Spanish partment amounted to $1,169,885.50, and 
government, and, in the mean time, several, consisted of the following items: Compen- 
new cases of flagrant outrage have oc- sation to postmasters, $353,995.98; inci-- 
curred, and citizens of the United States dental expenses, $30,866.37 ; transportation 
in the island of Porto Rico have suffered, of the mail, $784,600.08 ; payments into the 
and others been threatened with assassina- treasury, $423.08. On July 1 last there 
tion, for asserting their unquestionable was due to the department, from post- 
rights, even before the lawful tribunals of masters, $135,245.28; from late postmas- 
the country. ters and contractors, $256,749.31, making 

The usual orders have been given to all a total amount of balances due to the de- 
our public ships to seize American vessels partment of $391,994.59. These balances 
engaged in the slave-trade, and bring embrace all delinquencies of postmasters 
them in for adjudication; and I have the and contractors which have taken place 
gratification to state that not one so em- since the organization of the department, 
ployed has been discovered, and there is There was due by the department to con- 
good reason to believe that our flag is now tractors, on July 1 last, $26,548.64. 
seldom, if at all, disgraced by that traffic. The transportation of the mail within 

It is a source of great satisfaction that five years past has been greatly extended, 
we are always enabled to recur to the con- and the expenditures of the department 
duct of our navy with pride and com- proportionately increased. Although the 
mendation. As a means of national de- postage which has accrued within the last 
fence, it enjoys the public confidence, and three years has fallen short of the expendi- 
is steadily assuming additional impor- tures $262,841.46, it appears that collec- 
tance. It is submitted, whether a more tions have been made from the outstand- 

244 



MONKOE, JAMES 

ing balances to meet the principal part tlement, the difficulty of settling the resi- 

of the current demands. due is increased from the consideration 

It is estimated that not more than that, in many instances, it can be obtained 

$250,000 of the above balances can be only by a legal process. For more precise 

collected, and that a considerable part of details on this subject, I refer to a re- 

this sum can only be realized by a resort port from the first comptroller of the 

to legal process. Some improvement in treasury. 

the receipts for postage is expected. A The sum which was appropriated at the 
prompt attention to the collection of last session for the repair of the Cumber- 
moneys received by postmasters, it is be- land road has been applied with good 
lieved, will enable the department to con- effect to that object. A final report has 
tinue its operations without aid from the not j'et been received from the agent who 
treasury, unless the expenditure shall be was appointed to superintend it. As soon 
increased by the establishment of new as it is received it shall be communicated 
mail-routes. to Congress. 

A revision of some parts of the post- Many patriotic and enlightened citizens, 
office law may be necessary; and it is who have made the subject an object of 
submitted whether it would not be proper particular investigation, have suggested 
to provide for the appointment of post- an improvement of still greater impor- 
masters, where the compensation exceeds tance. They are of opinion that the waters 
a certain amount, by nomination to the of the Chesapeake and Ohio may be con- 
Senate, as other officers of the general iiected together by one continued canal, 
government are appointed. and at an expense far short of the value 

Having communicated my views to Con- and importance of the object to be ob- 

gress at the commencement of the last tained. If this could be accomplished, it 

session respecting the encouragement which is impossible to calculate the beneficial 

ought to be given to our manufactures, consequences which would result from it. 

and the principle on which it should be A great portion of the produce of the 

founded, I have only to add that those very fertile country through which it 

views remain unchanged, and that the would pass would find a market through 

present state of those countries with which that channel. Troops might be moved 

we have the most immediate political re- with great facility in war, with cannon 

lations and greatest commercial inter- and every kind of munition, and in either 

course tends to confirm them. Under direction. Connecting the Atlantic with 

this impression, I recommend a review the Western country, in a line passing 

of the tariff", for the purpose of affording through the seat of the national govern- 

such additional protection to those arti- ment, it would contribute essentially to 

cles which we are prepared to manufact- strengthen the bond of Union itself. Be- 

ure, or which are more immediately con- lieving, as I do, that Congress possess the 

nected with the defence and independence right to appropriate money for such a 

of the country. national object (the jurisdiction remain- 

The actual state of the public accounts ing to the States through which the canal 

furnishes additional evidence of the effi- would pass), I submit it to your consider- 

ciency of the present system of account- ation whether it may not be advisable to 

ability in relation to the public expendi- authorize, by an adequate appropriation, 

ture. Of the money drawn from the treas- the employment of a suitable number of 

ury since March 4, 181'^, the sum remain- the officers of the corps of engineers to 

ing unaccounted for on Sept. 30 last is examine the unexplored ground during 

more than $1,500,000 less than on Sept. 30 the next season, and to report their opin- 

preceding; and during the same period a ion thereon. It will likewise be proper 

reduction of nearly $1,000,000 has been to extend their examination to the several 

made in the amount of the unsettled ac- routes through which the waters of the 

counts for moneys advanced previously to Ohio may be connected, by canal, with 

March 4, 1817. It will be obvious that, those of Lake Erie. 

in proportion as the mass of accounts of As the Cumberland road will require 

the latter description is diminished by set- annual repair, and Congress have not 

245 



MONROE, JAMES 

thought it expedient to recommend to the taken part against them. Their cause and 
States an amendment to the Constitution, their name have protected them from dan- 
for the purpose of vesting in the United gers which might ere this have overwhelm- 
States a power to adopt and execute a ed any other people. The ordinary calcu- 
system of internal improvement, it is also lations of interest and of acquisition, with 
submitted to your consideration whether a view to aggrandizement, which mingle 
it may not be expedient to authorize the so much in the transactions of nations, 
executive to enter into an arrangement seem to have had no efl'eet in regard to 
with the several States through which the them. From the facts which have come to 
road passes to establish tolls each within oiir knowledge, there is good cause to be- 
lts limits, for the purpose of defraying lieve that their enemy has lost forever 
the expense of future repairs, and of pro- all dominion over them; that Greece will 
viding also, by suitable penalties, for its become again an independent nation. That 
protection against future injuries. she may obtain that rank is the object of 

The act of Congress of May 7, 1822, ap- our most ardent wishes, 
propriated the sum of $22,700 for the pur- It was stated at the commencement of 
pose of erecting two piers as a shelter for the last session that a great effort was 
vessels from ice near Cape Henlopen, Dela- then making in Spain and Portugal to 
ware Bay. To effect the object of the act, improve the condition of the people of 
the officers of the board of engineers, those countries, and that it appeared to 
with Commodore Bainbridge, were direct- be conducted with extraordinary modera- 
ed to prepare plans and estimates of tion. It need scarcely be remarked that 
piers sufficient to answer the purpose in- the result has been, so far, very different 
tended by the act. It appears by their re- from what was then anticipated. Of 
port, which accompanies the documents events in that quarter of the globe with 
from the War Department, that the ap- which we have so much intercourse, and 
propriation is not adequate to the pur- from which we derive our origin, we 
pose intended ; and, as the piers would be have always been anxious and interested 
of great service, both to the navigation spectators. The citizens of the United 
of the Delaware Bay and the protection States cherish sentiments the most friend- 
of vessels on the adjacent parts of the ly in favor of the liberty and happiness 
coast, I submit for the consideration of of their fellow-men on that side of the 
Congress whether additional and sufficient Atlantic. In the icars of the European 
appropriation should not be made. poioers in matters relating to themselves 

The board of engineers were also di- ice have never taken any part, nor does 
rected to examine and survey the entrance it comport ivith our policy so to do. It 
of the harbor of the port of Presque Isle is only lohen our rights are invaded or 
in Pennsylvania, in order to make an es- seriously menaced that tve resent injuries 
timate of the' expense of removing the or make preparation for our defence. 
obstructions to the entrance, with a plan With the movements in this hemisphere 
of the best mode of effecting the same, we are, of necessity, more immediately 
imder the appropriation for that purpose connected, and by causes tchich must he 
by act of Congress passed March 3 last, obvious to all enlightened and impartial 
The report of the board accompanies the observers. The political system of the 
papers from the War Department, and allied powers is essentially different in 
is submitted for the consideration of Con- this respect from that of America. This 
gress. difference proceeds from that which exists 

A strong hope has been long entertained, in their respective governments. And to 
founded on the heroic struggle of the the defence of our own, which has been 
Greeks, that they would succeed in their achieved by the loss of so much blood 
contest, and resume their equal station and treasure, and matured by the wisdom 
among the nations of the earth. It is be- of their most enlightened citizens, and 
lieved that the whole civilized world takes under which we have enjoyed unexampled 
a deep interest in their welfare. Although felicity, this whole nation is devoted. 
no power has declared in their favor, yet We owe it, therefore, to candor, and to 
none, according to our information, has the amicable relations existing between 

246 



MONBOE, JAMES 



the United States and those powers, to 
declare that we should consider any at- 
tempt on their part to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere 
as dangerous to our pence and safety. 
With the existing colonies or dependen- 
cies of any European power we have not 
interfered, and shall not interfere. But 
icith the governments who have declared 
tlieir independence, and maintained it, 
and ivhose independence we have, on great 
consideration and on just principles, 
acknotvledged, we could not vieio any in- 
terposition for the purpose of oppressing 
them, or controlling in any other man- 
ner their destiny, hy any European poioer, 
in any other light than as the manifesta- 
tion of an unfriendly disposition towards 
the United States. In the war between 
these new governments and Spain we de- 
clared our neutrality at the time of their 
recognition, and to this we have ad- 
hered, and shall continue to adhere, pro- 
vided no change shall occur which, in the 
judgment of the competent authorities 
of this government, shall make a corre- 
sponding change on the part of the 
United States indispensable to their se- 
curity. 

The late events in Spain and Portu- 
gal show that Europe is still unsettled. 
Of this important fact no stronger proof 
can be adduced than that the allied 
powers should have thought it proper, on 
any principle satisfactory to themselves, 
to have interposed, by force, in the inter- 
nal concerns of Spain. To what extent 
such interposition may be carried, on the 
same principle, is a question in which all 
independent powers whose governments 
differ from theirs are interested, even 
those most remote, and surely none more 
so than the United States. Our policy 
in regard to Europe, which was adopted 
at an early stage of the wars which have 
so long agitated that quarter of the 
globe, nevertheless remains the same, 
which is, not to interfere in the internal 
concerns of any of its powers; to con- 
sider the government de facto as the 
legitimate government for us ; to culti- 
vate friendly relations with it, and to 
preserve those relations by a frank, firm, 
and manly policy, meeting, in all in- 
stances, the just claims of every power; 
submitting to injuries from none. But 



in regard to these continents, circum- 
stances are eminently and conspicuously 
different. It is impossible that the allied 
powers should extend their political sys- 
tem to any portion of either continent 
without endangering our peace and hap- 
piness; nor can any one believe that our 
southern brethren, if left to themselves, 
would adopt it of their own accord. It 
is equally impossible, therefore, that we 
should behold such interposition, in any 
form, with indifference. If we look to 
the comparative strength and resources 
of Spain and those new governments, and 
their distance from each other, it must 
be obvious that she can never subdue 
them. It is still the true policy of the 
United States to leave the parties to 
themselves, in the hope that other powers 
will pursue the same course. 

If we compare the present condition of 
our Union with its actual state at the 
close of our Revolution, the history of the 
world furnishes no example of a progress 
in improvement in all the important cir- 
cumstances which constitute the happiness 
of a nation which bears any resemblance 
to it. At the first epoch our population 
did not exceed 3,000,000. By the last 
census it amounted to about 10,000,000, 
and, what is more extraordinary, it is al- 
most altogether native, for the emigration 
from other countries has been inconsider- 
able. At the first epoch half the terri- 
tory within our acknowledged limits was 
uninhabited and a wilderness. Since then 
new territory has been acquired of vast ex- 
tent, comprising within it many rivers, 
particvilarly the Mississippi, the naviga- 
tion of which to the ocean was of the 
highest importance to the original States. 
Over this territory our population has 
expanded in every direction, and new 
States have been established almost equal 
in number to those which formed the first 
bond of our Union. This expansion of our 
population and accession of new States 
to our Union have had the happiest effect 
on all its highest interests. That it has 
eminently augmented our resources and 
added to our strength and respectability 
as a power is admitted by all. But it is 
not in these important circumstances only 
that this happy effect is felt. It is mani- 
fest that, by enlarging the basis of our 
system and increasing the number of 



247 



MONROE 



States, the system itself has been greatly 
strengthened in both its branches. Consoli- 
dation and disunion have thereby been 
rendered equally impracticable. Each 
government, confiding in its own strength, 
has less to apprehend from the other; and 
in consequence, each enjoying a greater 
freedom of action, is rendered more effi- 
cient for all the purposes for which it was 
instituted. It is unnecessary to treat 
here of the vast improvement made in the 
system itself by the adoption of this Con- 
stitution, and of its happy eflTect in ele- 
vating the character and in protecting the 
rights of the nation as well as of individ- 
uals. To what, then, do we owe these 
blessings? It is known to all that we de- 
rive them from the excellence of our in- 
stitutions. Ought we not, then, to adopt 
every measure which may be necessary to 
perpetuate them? 

Monroe, James, military officer; born 
in Albemarle county, Va., Sept. 10, 1799; 
graduated at West Point in 1815; partici- 
pated in the war with Algiers; was 
wounded in an action with the Mashouda 



off the coast of Spain. He resigned from 
the army in 1832 and settled in New 
York City, where he became an alderman in 
1833. He was elected to Congress in 1839, 
He died in Orange, N. J., Sept. 7, 1870. 

Monroe Doctrine, a doctrine that has 
been repeatedly reaffirmed as the settled 
policy of the people and government of 
the United States. See Monroe, James, 
for President's message in which the state- 
ment of this " doctrine " first appeared ; 
Venezuela. 

Monroe, Fort (official form), planned 
to be the most extensive military work in 
the United States. Its construction was 
begun in 1819, and was completed at a 
cost of $2,500,000. It was named in honor 
of President Monroe. Its walls, faced 
with heavy blocks of granite, were 35 feet 
in thickness and casemated below, and 
were entirely surrounded by a deep moat 
filled with water. It stands upon a pen- 
insula known as Old Point Comfort, 
which is connected with the main by a 
narrow isthmus of sand and by a bridge in 
the direction of the village of Hampton. 




FORT MONROE IN 18B1. 

248 



MONTAGU— MONTCALM 



There were sixty-five acres of land within 
its walls, and it was armed with almost 
400 great guns when the Civil War broke 
out. It had at that time a garrison of 
only 300 men, under Col. Justin Dimick, 
U. S. A. Its possession was coveted by the 
Confederates, but Dimick had turned some 
of its cannon landward. These taught 
the Confederates, civil and military, pru- 
dence, wisdom, and discretion. Gen. B. 
F. Butler, having been appointed com- 
mander of the Department of Virginia, 
with his headquarters at Fort Monroe, 
arrived there on May 22, 1861, and took 
the chief command, with troops sufficient 
to insure its safety against any attacks of 
the Confederates. Butler's first care was 
to ascertain the practicability of a march 
iipon and seizure of Richmond, then the 
seat of the Confederate government. Its 
capture was desired by the national gov- 
ernment, but no troops could then be 
spared from Washington. Fort Monroe 
was firmly held by the Nationals during 
the war. It was then as now an impor- 
tant post, for it is the key to the principal 
waters of Virginia. Since the close of the 
Civil War the War Department has main- 
tained a noteworthy artillery school at 
this post. See also Leavenworth, Fort; 
Riley, Fort; and Willett's Point. 

Montagu, Charles, first Earl of Hali- 
fax, statesman; born April 16, 1661; 
appointed a lord of the treasury in 1692; 
induced Parliament to raise a large loan, 
which was the beginning of the national 
debt of England. He became chancellor of 
the exchequer in 1694; Baron of Halifax 
in 1700; Earl of Halifax in 1714. He died 
May 19, 1715. 

Montague, William Lewis, linguist; 
born in Belchertown, Mass., April 6, 1831 ; 
graduated at Amherst College in 1855; 
instructor in Latin and Greek in Williston 
Seminary; Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages in Amherst College in 1864-94; 
and in 1896 removed to Paris, where he 
has since resided. His publication include 
Spanish and Italian Grammo/rs; Intro- 
duction to Italian Literature, etc. He also 
edited Biographical Records of the Alumni 
and Non-Oraduate Members of Amherst 
College, 182 1-71, etc. 

Montana, State of, is bounded on the 
north by British Columbia and the North- 
west Territory; on the east by North and 



South Dakota; on the south by Wyoming 
and Idaho; and on the west by Idaho; 
area, 146,080 square miles; capital, He- 
lena; admitted to the Union Nov. 8, 1889. 



,/v\y'^ 




STATE SEAL OP MONTANA. 

By act of Congress in May, 1864, Montana 
was taken from the eastern portion of 
Idaho and organized as a separate Terri- 
tory. The State is exceedingly rich in min- 
eral productions, especially gold, silver, 
copper, lead, and coal. There are also 
very large and excellent tracts of grazing 
land. The population in 1890 was 132,159; 
in 1900, 243,329. See United States, 
Montana, in vol. ix. 

territorial governors. 

Sydney Edgerton term begins June 22, 1864 

Thos. Francis Meagher, acting 1865 

Green Clay Smith term begins July 13, 1866 

' April 9, 1869 

' July 13, 1870 

' 1883 

' 1884 

' 1885 

' 1887 

' 1889 



James M. Ashley. 

Benjamin F. Potts 

John Schuyler Crosby. . 

B. Piatt Carpenter. 

Samuel T. Hauser 

Preston H. Leslie 

Benjamin F. White 



STATE GOVERNORS. 

Joseph K. Toole term begins Nov. 8, 1889 

John E. Rickards " Jan. 1893 

Robert B. Smith. " " 189T 

Joseph K. Toole " " 1901 

UNITED states SENATORS. 



Name. 


No. of Congress. 


Term. 


Wilbur F. Sanders 

Thomas C. Power 


51st 
51st to 54th 

53d 
54th to 56th 

54th " 

56th " 

56th " 


1890 to 1893 
1890 " 1895 




1895 " 1899 


Thomas H. Carter 

William A. Clark 


1895 " 1901 
1901 " 1907 
1901 " 1905 







Montcalm, Gozon de St. Veban, Louis 
Joseph, Marqltis de. military officer; born 



249 



MONTCALM— MONTEZUMA 



at the Chateau Candiac, near Nismes, 
France, Feb. 28, 1712. Well educated, he 
entered the French army at the age of 
fourteen years, distinguished himself in 
Germany in the War of the Austrian 
Succession, and gained the rank of colo- 
nel for his conduct in the disastrous bat- 
tle of Piacenza, in Italy, in 174G. In 
1 756 he was appointed to the command of 
the French troops in Canada, where, in the 
three campaigns which he conducted, he 
displayed skill, courage, and humanity. 
W^eakly seconded by his government, he 
did not accomplish what he might have 
done. He prepared, with all the means at 
his command, for the struggle for the su- 
premacy of French dominion in America, 
in 1759, in which he lost his life. He had 




WOMB AND MONTCALM S MONUMENT. 

resolved, he said, " to find his grave under 
the ruins of the colony," and such was his 
fate. The English had spared nothing to 
make the campaign a decisive one. The 
final struggle occurred in Quebec, and 
there, on Sept. 13, 1759, he was mortally 
v/ounded, and died the next day. Wolfe, 
the commander of the English, was mor- 
tally wounded at the same time. When 
Montcalm was told that his death was 
near, he calmly replied, " So much the 
better; I sliall not live to see the sur- 
render of Quebec." A fine monument 
stands on Cape Diamond, at Que))ec, erect- 
ed to the memory of both Montcalm and 
Wolfe. The skull of Montcalm, with a 
military coat-collar of blue velvet em- 



broidered with gold lace, is preserved in 
the Ursuline convent at Quebec. See 
Quebec; Wolfe, James. 

Monterey, Capture of. After General 
Taylor had entered Mexico at Matamo- 
ras, he remained there until September, 
waiting for further instructions from his 
government and reinforcements for his 
army. Early in September the first divi- 
sion of his army, under Gen. W. J. Worth, 
moved towards Monterey, the capital of 
New Leon, which was strongly fortified, 
and then defended by General Ampudia 
with about 9,000 Mexican troops. Tay- 
lor soon joined Worth, and they en- 
camped within 3 miles of the city, on 
Sept. 19, with about 7,000 men, and on 
the morning of the 21st attacked the 
stronghold. Joined by other divisions of 
the army, the assault became general on 
the 23d, and the confiict in the streets 
was dreadful. The Mexicans fired volleys 
of musketry from the windows of the 
strong store-houses upon the invaders, and 
the carnage was terrible. Finally, on the 
fourth day of the siege, Ampudia asked 
for a truce. It was granted, and he pre- 
pared to evacuate the city. Taylor de- 
manded absolute surrender, which was 
made on the 24th, when General Worth's 
division was quartered in the city, and 
General Taylor, granting an armistice for 
eight weeks if permitted by his govern- 
ment, encamped with the remainder of his 
forces at Walnut Springs, a few miles 
from Monterey. In the siege of that city 
the Americans lost over 500 men. The 
Mexican loss was about double that num- 
ber. See Mexico, War with. 

Montezuma, the last Aztec emperor of 
Mexico; born about 1470. Because of his 
merits as a warrior and priest, he was 
elected emperor in 1502. He was in the 
act of sweeping the stairs of the great 
temple-teocalle at Mexico when his eleva- 
tion was announced to him. His sumptu- 
ous style of living and great public ex- 
penses caused a grievous imposition of 
taxes. This, with his haughty deport- 
ment, made many of his subjects discon- 
tented. His empire was invaded by Cor- 
tez in 1519, when he gave the audacious 
Spaniard, at first, great advantages by 
a temi)orizing policy. Cortez seized him 
and held him as a hostage. He would not 
accept Christianity in exchange for his 



250 



MONTGOMERIE— MONTGOMERY 



own religion, but he formally recognized 
the supremacy of the crown of Spain, to 
whom he sent an immense quantity of 
gold as tribute. While Cortez was about 
to assail a force sent against him by 
Velasquez, the Mexicans revolted against 
the Spaniards. Cortez either persuaded or 
compelled Montezuma to address his tur- 
bulent subjects and try to appease the 
rising tumult; but the latter, having lost 
respect for their emperor, assailed and 
wounded him with missiles. From the in- 
juries thus received he died in June, 1520. 
See Cortez, Hernando; Velasquez, 
Diego. 

Montgomerie, John, colonial govern- 
or ; born in Ayrshire, Scotland ; was 
officially attached to the person of King 
George II. ; served several years in Par- 
liament; and came to America in the 
capacity of governor of New York in 
1728. He died in New York City, July 1, 
1731. 

Montgomery, John Berrien, naval 
officer; born in Allento^vn, N. J., Nov. 17, 
1794; entered the navy as midshipman in 
1812; passed through the various grades 
until, in July, 1862, he became commo- 
dore, and in July, 1866, rear-admiral on 
the retired list. He served on Lake On- 
tario under Chauncey, and was in the 
Niagara with Perry at the battle on Lake 
Erie, and received a sword and thanks 
from Congress for his gallantry. He was 
with Decatur in the Mediterranean in 




1815. In command of the sloop Ports- 
mouth in the Pacific squadron (1845-48), 
he established the authority of the United 
States at various places along the coast 
of California. In 18G1 he was in command 
of the Pacific squadron. He died in Car- 
lisle, Pa., March 25, 1873. 




^.^^ 



JOHN BERRIKN MONTGOMBKV. 



Montgomery, Richard, military officer; 
born in Swords County, Dublin, Ireland, 
Dec. 2, 1736; was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, and entered the army at the 
age of eighteen. Fighting under Wolfe 
at the siege of Louisburg (1756), he won 
the approval of that commander. After 
its surrender his regiment formed a part 
of Amherst's force, sent to reduce the 
French forts on Lake ChamplaiU; in 1759. 
Montgomery became adjutant of his regi- 
ment in 1760, and was under Colonel Havi- 
land in his march upon Montreal when 
that city was surrendered. In 1762, Mont- 
gomery was promoted to captain, and 
served in the campaign against Havana 
in the same year. After that he resided 
in this country awhile, but revisited Eng- 
land. In 1772 he sold his commission and 
came to America, and the following year 
h& bought an estate at Rhinebeck, on the 
Hudson, and married a daughter of R. R. 
Livingston. He was chosen representa- 
tive in the Colonial Assembly, and was a 
member of the Provincial Convention in 
1775. In June following he was appointed 



251 



MONTGOMERY— MONTBEAL 



by the Continental Congress one of the 
ei^ht brigadier - generals for the Conti- 
neatal army. Appointed second in com- 
mand, under Schuyler, in the Northern 
Department, he became acting commander- 
in-chief because of his superior's protract- 
ed illness. He entered Canada early in 
September, with a considerable army, 
captured St. John, on the Sorel or Riche- 
lieu River, Nov. 3, took Montreal on the 
13th, and pushed on towards Quebec, 
and stood before its walls with some 
troops under Arnold, Dec. 4. On the 9th 
the Continental Congress made him a 
major-general. He invested Quebec and 
continued the siege until Dec. 31, when 
he attempted to take the city by storm. 
In that effort he was slain by grape- 
shot from a masked battery, Dec. 31, 
1775. His death was regarded as a 
great public calamity, and on the floor of 
the British Parliament he was eulogized 
by Burke, Chatham, and Barre. Even Lord 
North spoke of him as " brave, humane, 
and generous;" but added, "still he was 
only a brave, humane, and generous rebel; 
curse on his virtues, they've undone his 




' Montgomery's mdnlmknt. 

country." To this remark Fox retorted: 
"The term 'rebel' is no certain mark 
of disgrace. All the great assertors of 
liberty, the saviors of their country, the 
benefactors of mankind in all ages, have 

2, 



been called ' rebels.' We owe the constitu- 
tion which enables us to sit in this House 
to a rebellion." Montgomery was buried 
at Quebec. In 1818 his remains were re- 
moved to the city of New York, at the 
expense of the State, and they were de- 
posited near the monument which the 
United States government had erected to 
his memory in the front of St. Paul's 
Church, New York. 

Montgomery, Ala., the first capital 
of the Confederate States in 1861. 

Montgomery, Fort. See Clinton, 
Fort. 

Montreal, Massacre at. On July 12, 
1689, about 1,200 of the Five Nations (see 
Iroquois Confederacy) invaded the isl- 
and of Montreal, burned all the planta- 
tions, and murdered men, women, and 
children. This event threw the whole 
French colony into consternation. It was 
reported that 1,000 of the French were 
slain during the invasion, besides twenty- 
six carried into captivity and burned alive. 
It was this massacre that the French 
sought to avenge the next year, when 
Frontenac sent into the Mohawk country 
the mongrel party that destroyed Schenec- 
tady, and two others which attacked 
Salmon Falls and Casco, in Maine. Sir 
William Phipps having been successful 
in an expedition against Port Royal, 
Acadia, in 1690, a plan for the conquest 
of Canada was speedily arranged. A fleet 
under Phipps proceeded against Quebec, 
and colonial land forces were placed un- 
der the supreme command of Fitz-John 
Winthrop, son of Governor Winthrop, of 
Connecticut. Milborne, son - in - law of 
Leisler, undertook, as commissary, to pro- 
vide and forward subsistence for the 
march. Colonel Schuyler with a party 
of Mohawks, the van of the expedition, 
pushed forward towards the St. Lawrence, 
but was repulsed by Frontenac (August). 
The remainder of the troops did not pro- 
ceed farther than Lake George, where 
they were stopped by a deficiency of pro- 
visions and the prevalence of the small- 
pox. Mutual recriminations followed, and 
Leisler actually caused Winthrop's arrest. 
The latter charged the failure to Mil- 
borne, who, it was alleged, had failed 
to furnish needed provisions and trans- 
portation. In 1711. within a fortnight 
after Colonel Nicholson had given notice 
52 



MONTREAL— MOODY 



of an intended expedition against Canada, 
New York and the New England col- 
onies were busy in preparations for the 
movement. Massachusetts issued bills of 
credit amounting to about $200,000 to 
guarantee bills drawn on the imperial 
treasury ; New York issued bills , to the 
amount of $50,000 to defray the expenses 
of her share of the enterprise; and Penn- 
sylvania, under the name of a present 



800 men he marched to the relief of the gar- 
rison at St. John, after he heard of the 
capture of Chambly. He crossed the St. 
Lawrence in small boats, and when about 
to land at Longueil was attacked by Col. 
Seth Warner and about 300 Green Moun- 
tain Boys, and driven back in great con- 
fusion. The news of this repulse caused 
the speedy surrender of St. John, when 
Montgomery pressed on towards Montreal. 




VIEW OF MONTREAL AND ITS WALLS IN 1760 (From au olJ French print). 

to the Queen, contributed $10,000 towards Carleton, knowing the weakness of the 
the expedition. About 1,800 troops — the fort, at once retreated on board a vessel 
quotas of Connecticut, New York, and New of a small fleet lying in the river, and 
Jersey — assembled at Albany with the in- attempted to flee to Quebec with the 
tention of attacking Montreal simulta- garrison. Montgomery entered Montreal 
neously with the appearance of the fleet without opposition, and sent a force under 
from Boston before Quebec. Nicholson was Colonel Easton to intercept the intend- 
in general command; and at Albany he ing fugitives. He hastened to the mouth 
was joined by 500 warriors of the Five of the Sorel with troops, cannon, and 
Nations and 1,000 palatines, chiefly from armed gondolas. The British fleet could 
the Mohawk Valley, making the whole not pass, and Prescott, several other offi- 
force about 4,000 strong. Nicholson was cers, members of the Canadian Council, 
assisted by Colonels Schuyler, Whiting, and 120 private soldiers, with all the ves- 
and Ingoldsby, and on Aug. 28 they began sels, were surrendered. Carleton escaped, 
their march for Canada. At Lake George Then IMontgomery wrote to the Congress, 
Nicholson heard of the miscarriage of the " Until Quebec is taken Canada is un- 
naval expedition, and returned to Albany, conquered." Leaving Wooster in command 
abandoning the enterprise. at Montreal, Montgomery then pushed on 
In 1775, when the republicans invaded towards Quebec. See Montgomebt, Rich- 
Canada, General Carleton was in command ard ; Qitebec. 

of a few troops at Montreal. With about Moody, Dwight Lyman, evangelist; 

253 



MOODY— MOORE 



born in Northfield, Mass., Feb. 5, 1837; 
was educated in the district schools of 
his neighborhood. When seventeen years 
old he went to Boston and became a 
clerk in a shoe-store. AYhile there he was 
converted and united with the Mount Ver- 
non Congregational Church. In 1856 he 
settled in Chicago and became greatly 
interested in Sunday-school mission work, 
building up a school of more than 1,000 
pupils. He soon after entirely relinquished 
business, that he might devote all his 
time to Christian work. During the Civil 
War he was connected with the United 
States Christian Commission, and after 
the war he became general missionary of 
the Young Men's Christian Association in 
Chicago, and built a church for the tise 
of his Sunday-school and the many con- 
verts of his ministry. In 1871 this church 
was destroyed in the great fire, but sub- 
sequently was rebuilt, and under the name 
of the Chicago Tabernacle supervises the 
great Chicago Training-School for foreign 
missionaries and lay Christian workers. 
In 1873, with Ira D. Sankey, his famous 
co-worker, who had joined him two 
years before, he visited Great Britain and 
began Christian work in York. This mis- 
sion produced many good results, and the 
fame of it spread widely. Later he visit- 
ed Sunderland, Newcastle - on - Tyne, and 
other places. From England he went to 
Edinburgh, and soon afterwards the whole 
of Scotland was aroused. Great meetings 
were held in Dundee, Glasgow, and other 
important cities. After risiting the chief 
cities of Ireland, where he met with simi- 
lar success, he returned to England, and 
conducted great meetings in Manchester, 
Birmingham, and Liverpool. His greatest 
meetings of all were held in Agricultural 
Hall, London, where audiences of from 
10.000 to 20.000 gathered. In Novem- 
ber, 187-5, enormous meetings were begun 
in Philadelphia, continuing for three 
months. Then, in turn, New York, Chi- 
cago, and Boston had similar religious 
awakenings. In the latter city a great tab- 
ernacle was built in 1877, at a cost of $40,- 
000, and daily meetings were held for four 
months, with an average attendance of 
from .5,000 to 10.000. Like success attend- 
ed Mr. Moody during his whole life, both 
in the United States and in Great Britain. 
In 1880 he erected the first public build- 



ing of the now famous Northfield and 
Mount Hermon institutions. In 1900 the 
plant at Northfield was valued at about 
$1,000,000. It is estimated that Mr. 
Moody, during his ministry, addressed 
more than 50,000,000 people. He died in 
Northfield, Mass., Dec. 22, 1899. 

Moody, William Henry, statesman; 
born in Newbury, Mass., Dec. 23, 1853; 
graduated from Harvard University in 
187G; district attorney for eastern dis- 
trict of Massachusetts, 1890-95; member 
of the 54th, 55th, 56th, and 57th Con- 
gresses: Secretary of the Na\y in 1902; 
Attorney-General, 1904. 

Moody, WiLLiAii Ee\-ell, educator; 
born in Chicago, 111., March 25, 1869; son 
of Dwight L. ]\Ioody; was graduated at 
Yale University in 1891; and since the 
death of his father has had charge of the 
Northfield schools. He is the author of 
The Life of Dwight L. Moody and the 
editor of Record of Christian Work since 
1897. 

Mooers, Benjamin, military officer; 
born in Haverhill, Mass., April 1, 1758; 
was in the Continental army; at the sur- 
render of Burgoyne; and served as lieu- 
tenant in Hazen's regiment to the end of 
the war. In 1783 he settled in the wilder- 
ness on the western shore of Lake Cham- 
plain, near the present Plattsburg. He 
was eight years in the New York legislat- 
ure, and, as major-general of militia, com- 
manded that body of soldiers in the battle 
of Plattsburg {q. v.) in 1814. He died 
in Plattsburg. N. Y., Feb. 20, 1838. 

Mooney, James, ethnologist; born in 
Richmond, Ind., Feb. 10, 1861. When a 
boy he began studying Indian life and 
character, which became his life-work. He 
has conducted extended investigations 
among the Southern and Western Indian 
tribes; and prepared government exhibits 
for several expositions. He wrote Sacred 
Formulas of the Cherolcees; Siouan 
Tribes of the East; Calendar History of 
the Kiowa Indians; Myths of the Chero- 
lcees: etc. 

Moore, Alfred, jurist; born in Bruns- 
wick county, N. C, May 21, 1755; served 
in the Revolutionary army throughout 
the war; elected attorney-general of North 
Carolina in 1792; appointed associate 
justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States in 1799. He resigned in 



254 



MOORE 



1804, and died in Bladen county, N. C, at the University of New York in 1843; 
Oct. 15, 1810. made librarian of the New York Historical 

Moore, Edwin Ward, naval officer ; born Society in 1849; became superintendent 
in Alexandria, Va., in 1811; entered the and a trustee of the Lenox Library in 
United States navy in 1825; became 1872. His publications include The Trea- 
lieutenant in 1835. After the Republic of son of Charles Lee; Employment of Ne- 
Texas was founded he was chosen by its groes in the Revolutionary Army; Notes on 
government to command its navy. Fitting the History of Slavery in Massachusetts; 
out two small vessels as ships-of-war, he History of Jurisprudence of New York; 
sailed from New Orleans early in 1843 to Withcraft in Massachusetts, etc. He died 
meet the Mexican fleet of ten vessels, in New York City, May 5, 1897. 
During the unequal contest which ensued Moore, Sib Henry, colonial governor; 
he defeated the enemy, causing them great born in Jamaica, West Indies, in 1713; 
loss. When Texas was annexed to the was made governor of that island in 1756; 
Union, Moore unsuccessfully sought rein- and for his services in suppressing a slave 
statement in the United States navy with insurrection there was rewarded with the 
the rank of commodore, which he had held title of baronet. He was appointed gov- 
in the Texas navy. In 1855, however, ernor of New York in 1764; arrived in 
$17,000 was appropriated to him as November, 1765, in the midst of the Stamp 
'"leave" pay during the interval between Act excitement; and held the office until 
annexation and the passage of the bill, his death, Sept. 11, 1769. 
He died in New York City, Oct. 5, 1865. Moore, Jacob Bailey, author; born 

Moore, Eliakim Hastings, educator; in Andover, N. H., Oct. 31, 1797; learned 
born in Marietta, O., Jan. 26, 1862 ; was the printer's trade in Concord, N. H. ; mar- 
graduated at Yale University in 1883; ried a sister of Isaac Hill, proprietor of 
was an instructor in mathematics there the New Hampshire Patriot; became hi? 
in 1887-89; assistant professor of the same business partner; and afterwards estab- 
branch in the Northwestern University in lished the New Hampshire Statesman. He 
1889-91; and associate professor in the was a member of the State legislature in 
latter institution in 1891-92. In 1892 1828. He and Mr. Farmer published, from 
he accepted the chair of mathematics in 1822 to 1824, three volumes of Historical 
the University of Chicago, where sub- Collections of Neio Hampshire, of great 
sequently he was made head professor of value; and this was one of the first pub- 
that branch. He holds membership in lications in this country devoted to local 
the American Mathematical Society, the history. He pursued journalism in New 
Circolo Mathematico di Palermo, Deutsche York (whither he went in 1839) for a 
Mathematiker-Vereinigung, and the Lon- while, when he was appointed to a place 
don Mathematical Society. He is contrib- in the general post-office; and from 1845 



utor to American and European mathe- 
matical periodicals. 

Moore, Frank, editor; born in Concord, 
N. H., Dec. 17, 1828: was assistant secre- 



to 1848 he was librarian of the New York 
Historical Society. Mr. Moore was the 
first postmaster in California, serving in 
San Francisco from 1848 to 1852. He 



tary of the United States legation in died in Bellows Falls, Vt., Sept. 1, 1853. 
Paris in 1869-72, and later engaged in Moore, John, military surgeon; born 

journalism in New York. He is the editor in Indiana, Aug. 16, 1826; entered the 

of Soncjs and Ballads of the American army as assistant surgeon in June, 1853; 

Revolution; Cyclopwdia of American Elo- served in the Cincinnati Marine Hospital 

quence; Diary of the American Revolu- in 1861-62; promoted surgeon and ap- 

tion; Materials for History; The Rebellion pointed medical director of the Central 

Record; Speeches of Andrew Johnson, with Grand Division of the Army of the Poto- 

a Biographical Introduction; Life and mac in June, 1862; and became medical 

Speeches of John Bright; Women of the director of the Department and Army of 

War, 1861-66; Songs and Ballads of the the Tennessee in 1863. He was with Sher- 

Southern People, 1861-65, etc. man in the Atlanta campaign. In 1883-86 

Moore, George Henry, librarian; born in he was assistant medical purveyor, with 

Concord, N. H., April 20, 1823; graduated the rank of lieutenant-colonel; in 1886-90 

^55 



MOORE— MOORE'S CREEK BRIDGE 



was surgeon-general of the army with the 
rank of brigadier-general ; and in the lat- 
ter year was retired. 

Moore, John Bassett, author; born in 
Smyrna, Del., Dec. 3, 1860; was educated 
at the University of Virginia, and ad- 




JOHN BASSETT MOORE. 

mitted to the bar of Delaware in 1883. 
In 1885 he was appointed law clerk in the 
State Department in Washington, D. C, 
and in the following year became third 
assistant Secretary of State. In 1891 he 
resigned this oifice to accept the chair of 
International Law and Diplomacy in 
Columbia University. In April, 1898, he 
was recalled to the United States Depart- 
ment of State, and in September became 
secretary and counsel to the American 
Peace Commissioners in Paris. He is 
author of Extradition and Interstate 
Rendition; American Notes on the Con- 
flict of Laios; History and Digest of In- 
ternational Arbitrations, etc., and one of 
the editors of the Political Science Quar- 
terly, and of the Journal du Droit Inter- 
national Prive. See Professor Moore's 
article on the Alaskan Boundary, in vol. 
i., p. 81. 

Moorehead, Warren Kino, archssolo- 
gist; born in Siena, Italy, of American 
parents, March 10, 1806; received a liberal 
education, and applied himself to archa;o- 



logical study in Licking county, O. Later 
he studied with D. Thomas Wilson, curate 
of Prehistoric Anthropology in the Smith- 
sonian Institution, in Washington, D. C. 
He had charge of archaeological work in 
the Ohio Valley, Utah, Colorado, and 
New Mexico, for the World's Columbian 
Exposition, and while so engaged made 
important discoveries in the altar mounds 
of the Scioto Valley. In 1898 he was en- 
gaged in explorations in the West. He 
is a member of the Victoria Institute 
of England, and a fellow of the Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. 
His publications include Primitive Man 
in Ohio; Fort Ancient; Wanneta, ths 
Sioux, and many reports. 

Moore's Creek Bridge, Battle at. In 
January, 1776, Sir Henry Clinton sailed 
from Boston on a secret mission. Suspect- 
ing his destination to be New York, Wash- 
ington sent General Lee thither. His 
presence probably deterred Clinton from 
landing, after a conference with Governor 
Tryon, and he proceeded to the coast of 
North Carolina to assist Governor Martin 
in the recovery of his power in that prov- 
ince. Martin, aware of his approach, 
and anticipating an armament from Ire- 
land, kept up a continual intercourse from 
his " floating palace " on the Cape Fear 
with the Scotch Highlanders (who had 
settled in large numbers in that province) 
and other Tories. He commissioned 
Donald McDonald brigadier-general. He 
was a veteran who had fought for the 
Young Pretender at the battle of Cul- 
loden (1746). Under him, as captain, 
was Allan McDonald. These two men had 
great influence over the Scotch Highland- 
ers. They enlisted for the royal cause 
about 1,500 men, and marched from the 
vicinity of Fayetteville for the coast to 
join the governor and his friends on the 
Cape Fear. Col. James Moore, on hearing 
of this movement, marched with more than 
1,000 men to intercept McDonald. At the 
same time minute-men of the Neuse re- 
gion, under Colonels Caswell and Lilling- 
ton, were gathering to oppose the loyalists, 
and on the evening of Feb. 26 were 
encamped at a bridge near the mouth of 
Moore's Creek, in Hanover county. There 
McDonald, chased by Colonel Moore, came 
upon the minute-men. He was sick, and 
the force was commanded by Lieutenant- 



256 



MORA— MORAVIANS 



Colonel McLeod. A sharp battle ensued United States Exploring Expedition to 

the next morning, when McLeod was killed, the region of the Yellowstone, and in 

The Scotchmen were routed and dispersed, 1873 made a second journey thither, his 

and about 850 of them were made prison- sketches resulting in the famous paintings 

ers, among them the two McDonalds. The The Mountain of the Holy Cross; Grand 

loyalists lost seventy men, killed and Canon of the Yellowstone; and Chasm of 

wounded. The republicans had only two the Color-ado. The two last paintings 

wounded, one mortally. were purchased by Congress and placed 

Mora, Antonio Maximo, claimant ; in the Capitol. His other paintings in- 
born in Cuba in 1818; inherited large elude The Last Arroic; The Ripening of 
sugar plantations near Havana; declared the Leaf; Dreamland; The Groves were 
his intention to become a citizen of the God's First Temples; The Pictured Rocks 
United States in New York City in 1853; of Lake Superior; The Flight into Egypt; 
and after the beginning of the Cuban The Remorse of Cain; The Track of the 
revolution in 1868 was accused of aiding Storm, etc. 

the insurgents. His property, valued at Moravian Town, a settlement in Kent 
$3,000,000, was seized by the Spanish county, Ontario, Canada, on the bank of 
government (1869), and he was arrested, the River Thames, near which General 
imprisoned, and in 1870 was sentenced to Harrison defeated General Proctor in bat- 
death. He, however, escaped to the United tie on Oct. 5, 1813. The settlers were 
States, where he laid his case before Indians who had been converted to Chris- 
Hamilton Fish, then Secretary of State, tianity by the Moravians, who fled to 
at the same time declaring that he had Canada from the Muskingum, in Ohio, in 
in no way aided the insurgents. The 1792. By an order of the Provincial Coun- 
United States immediately opened a diplo- cil in 1793, about 50,000 acres of land 
matic correspondence with Spain in regard were granted for their use, on which they 
to the matter. In September, 1873, Spain proceeded to build a church and a village, 
relinquished all claims against American Rev. John Scott, of Bethlehem, ministered 
property in Cuba, excepting the Mora there for some time. At the time of the bat- 
plantation. An agreement was made that tie this Christian Indian village had about 
claims for damages by de facto Ameri- 100 houses, mostly well built, a school- 
can citizens should be placed before an in- house and chapel, and very fine gardens, 
ternational committee. Accordingly the Moravians. The church of evangelical 
claim of Mora was submitted to such a Christians known as Moravians, or United 
committee, which decided against him. Brethren, has a most remarkable history. 
The case was again brought up in 1883, Its germs appear as early as the ninth 
and Spain was requested to restore the century, when Christianity was introduced 
embargoed estates to Mora. It was not, into Bohemia and Moravia; but it does 
however, until Sept. 14, 1895, that Spain not appear distinct in history until 1457, 
paid the amount of the adjudicated dam- when a separate church was formed. The 
age to Mora ($1,449,000) to the United members of that church always mani- 
States for him. In this contest, which fested the spirit afterwards called Protes- 
had been carried on for twenty-five years, tantism, and, like the primitive church, 
Mr. Mora had been under great expense, held the Bible to be the only rule of faith 
so that he realized only $994,509 out of the and practice. They have an episcopacy, 
amount awarded him. He died in New and the episcopal succession from 1457 to 
York City, April 24, 1897. 1874 embraced 174 bishops. Their epis- 

Moran, Thomas, artist; born in Bol- copate is not diocesan, but their bishops 

ton, Lancashire, England, Jan. 12, 1837 ; are bishops of the whole United Breth- 

came to the United States when seven ren. When, in 1621, Ferdinand II. of 

years old, and was educated in the public Austria began the persecution of Prot- 

schools of Philadelphia, Pa. Subsequently estants, 50,000 of his subjects emigrated 

he studied art under James Hamilton and to other lands. The church in Bohemia 

afterwards in Paris and Italy. He became and Moravia was almost extinguished, and 

distinguished as a landscape painter and its faith — a hidden seed — was preserved 

illustrator. In 1871 he went with the by a few families for 100 years, when 
VI.— B 257 



MORAVIANS— MOREY LETTER 



it was renewed with strength. In 1722 
two Moravian families found a refuge 
on the estate of Count Zinzendorf, of 
Saxony, then an officer in the Saxon Court, 
and a lover of pure and simple worship. 
In five years 300 Moravians gathered there. 
Zinzendorf became a bishop, and after- 
wards he spent his life and fortune in 
missionary work. 

Churches were established on the Con- 
tinent, in Great Britain, and in North 
America; and in 1749 the British Par- 
liament passed acts to encourage their set- 
tlement in the English-American colonies. 
The trustees of Georgia granted 500 acres 
of land to Count Zinzendorf for the pur- 
pose, and also gave Bishop Spangen- 
berg 150 acres embraced in a part of 
the site of Savannah. A number of Mo- 
ravians settled in Georgia in 1735. Others 
followed the next year, led by Bishop 
David Nitschmann; and on Feb. 28, 1736, 
the first Moravian church in America was 
organized, undir the pastorship of An- 
thony Seifferth, who was ordained in the 
presence of John Wesley. In Georgia their 
labors were mostly among the Indians 
and negroes. As they could not conscien- 
tiously take up arms to defend Georgia 
against the Spaniards at St. Augustine, 
they abandoned their settlement and went 
to Pennsylvania Avith Whitefield. Bishops 
Nitschmann and Spangenberg returned to 
Europe. Whitefield had purchased lands 
at the forks of the Delaware, and invited 
the Moravians to settle upon them; but 
doctrinal differences produced a rupture 
between them and Whitefield, and he or- 
dered them to leave his domain forthwith 
(see Whitefield, George). 

Bishop Nitschmann came back, and 
founded a settlement on the Lehigh, the 
first house being completed in 1741. When, 
on Christmas day. Count Zinzendorf visit- 
ed the settlement, he called it " Bethle- 
hem." That is the mother-church in Amer- 
ica. Their labors among the Indians were 
extended far and wide, and their princi- 
pal station in the West was at Gnaden- 
hiitten — " tents of grace " — in Ohio, where 
many Indian converts were gathered, and 
where nearly 100 of them were massacred 
by white people in IVIarch, 1782, under 
the false impression that they were Brit- 
ish spies or were concerned in some Ind- 
ian outrages in Pennsylyania. The first 



Indian congregation gathered by the Mo- 
ravians was in the town of Pine Plains, 
Dutchess CO., N. Y., at a place called She- 
kom-e-ko. A mission was established there 
by Christian Henry Rauch in August, 1740. 
The next year a sickly young German from 
Bethlehem, named Gottlob Biittner, join- 
ed Rauch in his work. He preached fer- 
vently, and many converts were the fruits 
of the mission of Rauch and Biittner. 
Count Zinzendorf and his daughter visit- 
ed the mission in 1742. Here Biittner 
died in 1745, and over his grave the 
Moravians placed a handsome monument 
in 1859. In 1745 the mission was broken 
up. 

The Moravian Church is divided into 
three provinces — namely, Continental, 
British, and American. The American 
province is divided into two districts — 
Northern and Soufhern — 'the respective 
centres being in Bethlehem, Northampton 
CO., Pa., and Salem, Forsyth co., N. C. 
There were in 1904„in the American prov- 
ince, 115 churches. 127 ministers, and 
16,095 communicants. There are several 
church boarding-schools : and, at Bethle- 
hem, a college and theological seminary. 
At first the social and political exclusive- 
ness of the iloravians prevented a rapid 
increase in their numbers ; but latterly 
there have been great changes in this re- 
spect, as well as in the constitution of 
the church, whose grand centre is at Herrn- 
hiitt, in Saxony, the village built on 
Count Zinzendorf's estate. The Moravians 
use a liturgy, and their ritual is similar 
to that of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. 

IVIordecai, Alfred, military officer ?, 
born in Warrenton, N. C, Jan. 3. 1804; 
graduated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1823; promoted captain of 
ordnance in 1832; became a member of 
the ordnance board in 1839; was appoint- 
ed assistant inspector of arsenals in 1842; 
and resigned from the army May 5, 1861. 
His publications include Difjest of Military 
I.aics ; Ordnance Manual for the Use of 
Officers in the United States Army; Re- 
ports of Experiments on Gunpowder ; and 
Artillery for the United States Land Ser- 
vice, as Devised and Arranged by the Ord- 
nance Board. He died in Philadelphia, 
Pa., Oct. 23, 1887. 

Morey Letter. During the Presiden- 



258 



MORGAN 



tial campaign of 1880 a letter on the Chi- 
nese question, purporting to have been 
written by the Republican nominee, Gen- 
eral Garfield, to H. L. Morey, of Lynn, 
Mass., was published. It asserted that in- 
dividuals as well as companies have the 
right to buy labor where it is cheapest, etc. 
This letter appeared in New York, and was 
circulated by Democratic journals. Gar- 
field at once declared the letter a for- 
gery. 

Morgan, Anne Eugenia Felicia, edu- 
cator; born in Oberlin, 0., Oct. 3, 1845; 
was graduated at Oberlin College in 1866; 
studied philosophy in Germany in 1872- 
74; and, returning to the United States, 
was instructor of languages at Oberlin 
College in 1875-76, and instructor of 
Greek and Latin in Vassar in 1877-78. 
In the latter year she became Professor 
of Philosophy in Wellesley College. In 
1897 she invented a game called " Belle- 
cycle," which in order to play requires 
a practical application of experimental 
psychology. Her publications include 
Scripture Studies on the Origin and Des- 
tiny of Man; and The White Lady, a plan 
for the study of comparative literature. 

Morgan, Daniel, military officer; born 
in Hunterdon county, N. J., in 1736; at 
the age of seventeen he was a wagoner in 
Braddock's army, and the next year he 
received 500 lashes for knocking down a 
British lieutenant who had insulted hira. 




-4^' / 

DANIEL MORGAN. 



That officer afterwards made a public 
apology. Morgan became an ensign in 
the militia in 1758; and while carrying 
despatches he was severely wounded by 
Indians, but escaped. After the French 
and Indian War he was a brawler and 
fighter and a dissipated gambler for a 
time; but he reformed, accumulated prop- 
erty, and commanded a company in Dun- 
more's expedition against the Indians in 
1774. In less than a week after he heard 
of the affair at Lexington he had enrolled 
ninety-six men, the nucleus of his famous 
lifle-corps, and marched them to Boston. 
He accompanied Arnold in his march to 
Quebec in 1775, commanding three com- 
panies of riflemen, and in the siege of 
that city was made prisoner. As colonel 
of a rifle regiment, he bore a conspicu- 
ous part in the capture of Burgoyne and 
his army in 1777. After serving in Penn- 
sylvania, he joined the remnant of the 
defeated army of Gates at HillsborOjN.C. ; 
and on Oct. 1 was placed in command of 
a legionary corps, with the rank of briga- 
dier-general. He served under Greene; 
gained a victory in battle at the Cowpens 
(for which Congress gave him thanks and 
a gold medal) ; and was in Greene's re- 
treat. He led troops that suppressed the 
Whiskey Insurrection, and was a member 
of Congress from 1795 to 1799. He died 
in Winchester, Va., July 6, 1802. 

Morgan, Edwin Dennison, " war gov- 
ernor " ; born in Washington, Berkshire 
CO., Mass., Feb. 8, 1811; at the age of 
seventeen years became a clerk in a gro- 
cery store in Hartford, Conn. ; and at 
twenty was a partner in the business. 
He was active, industrious, and enterpris- 
ing; and six years later (1836) removed 
to New York, where he became a very suc- 
cessful merchant and amassed a large 
fortune. Mr. Morgan took an active in- 
terest in the political movements of his 
time, and in 1849 was elected to a seat 
in the New York Senate, which he occu- 
pied until 1853. The Republican party 
had no more eflFicient and wise adviser 
and worker than Mr. Morgan, and he was 
made chairman of its New York State 
Committee. In 1859 he was elected gov- 
ernor of New York, and in 1861 was re- 
elected. Governor Morgan was one of 
the most energetic of the " war govern- 
ors." During the Civil War, his brain, 
259 



MORGAN 



his hand, and his fortune were at the 
service of his country. His administra- 
tion was marked by a great decrease in 
the public debt of the State and an in- 




EDWIN DEXNISOS MORGAN. 

crease in the revenue from the canals. 
Such impetus did his zeal, patriotism, 
and energy give to the business of raising 
troops for the war that the State sent 
about 220,000 men to the field. From 
1863 to 1869 Mr. Morgan was United 
States Senator, and then retired from 
public life. In 1867 Williams College 
conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. He died in New York City, 
Feb. 14, 1883. 

Morgan, George Washington, mili- 
tary officer; born in Washington county, 
Pa., Sept. 20, 1820. He was captain in 
the Texan war for independence; studied 
two years at West Point, 1841-43; and 
began the practice of law in Ohio in 1845. 
In the war against Mexico he became 
colonel of the 2d Ohio Volunteers, and for 
his gallantry won the brevet of brigadier- 
general. From 1856 to 1858 he was con- 
sul at Marseilles; 1858 to 1861 was minis- 
ter resident at Lisbon, and in November 
of the latter year was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunt*?er8. He was in command of 
a division in the Army of the Ohio in 
1862. He served under Rosecrans, and 
commanded a division under Sherman at 
Vicksburg in 1863. That year he resigned. 
He was a member of Congress from 1868 
to 1872. He died in Fort Monroe, July 
27, 1895. 

Morgan, .James Dady, military offi- 



cer; born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 1, 1810; 
vvas in mercantile business in Quincy, 
111., when the war against Mexico 
began, and was captain of a company in 
the 1st Illinois Volunteers in that war. 
In 1861 he was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel of the 10th Illinois Regiment, and 
was promoted brigadier-general in July, 
1862. He commanded a brigade at Nash- 
ville late in that year, and was in com- 
mand of a division in the 14th Corps in 
Sherman's Atlanta campaign. In 1885 
he was brevetted major-general of vol- 
unteers. He died in Quincy, 111., Sept. 
12, 1896. 

Morgan, John, physician; born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1735; graduated at 
the Philadelphia College in 1757; stud- 
ied medicine; and served as a surgeon 
of Pennsylvania troops in the French and 
Indian War, after which he went to Eng- 
land. He attended the lectures of the cele- 
brated Dr. Hunter; and after spending 
two years in Edinburgh, and receiving the 
degree of M.D., he travelled on the Con- 
tinent. On his return to London (1765) 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety, also of the College of Physicians in 
Edinburgh and London. Returning to 
Philadelphia the same year, he was elected 
to a professorship in the College of Phila- 
delphia, in which he fovinded a medical 
school. When the treason of Church was 




JOHN MORGAN. 



discovered. Dr. Morgan was appointed, by 
the Continental Congress (Oct. 17, 1775), 
director-general of the Army General 



260 



MORGAN 



Hospital, in which capacity he served 
until 1777. Dr. Morgan was one of the 
founders of the American Philosophical 
Society. He died in Philadelphia, Oct. 
15, 1789. 

Morgan, John Hunt, military officer; 
born in Huntsville, Ala., June 1, 182G; 
killed at Greenville, Tenn., Sept. 4, 1864. 
Settled near Lexington, Ky., in 1830, with 
his parents; served under Taylor in the 




JOHN HUNT MORGAN. 

war with Mexico; and in 1861, at the 
head of the Lexington Rifles, he joined 
Buckner of the Kentucky State Guard. 
At the battle of Shiloh he commanded a 
squadron of Confederate cavalry, and soon 
afterwards began his career as a raider. 
His first noted exploit was his invasion of 
Kentucky from eastern Tennessee (July, 
1861), with 1,200 men, under a conviction 
that vast numbers of young men would 
flock to his standard and he would become 
the " liberator " of that commonwealth. 
Dispersing a small National force at 
Tompkinsville, Monroe co., he issued a 
flaming proclamation to the people of Ken- 
tucky. He was preparing the way for 
Bragg's invasion of that State. Soon re- 
cruits joined Morgan, and he roamed 
about the State, plundering and destroy- 
ing. At Lebanon he fought a Union force, 
routed them, and took several prisoners. 
His raid was so rapid that it created in- 
tense excitement. Louisville was alarmed. 
He pressed on towards the Ohio, destroy- 
ing a long railway bridge (July 14) be- 



261 



tween Cynthiana and Paris, and laying 
waste a railway track. On July 17 he had 
a sharp fight with the Home Guards at 
Cynthiana, who were dispersed. He hoped 
to plunder the rich city of Cincinnati. 
His approach inspired the inhabitants 
with terror; but a pursuing cavalry force 
under Green Clay Smith, of Kentucky, 
caused him to retreat southward in the 
direction of Richmond. On his retreat his 
raiders stole horses and robbed stores with- 
out inquiring whether the property be- 
longed to friend or foe. 

In June and July, 1863, he crossed the 
Ohio River for the purpose of plunder for 
himself and followers ; to prepare the way 
for Buckner to dash into Kentucky from 
Tennessee and seize Louisville and, with 
Morgan, to capture Cincinnati ; to form 
the nucleus of an armed counter-revolution 
in the Northwest, where the " Knights of 
the Golden Circle," or the " Sons of 
Liberty " of the peace faction, w^ere 
numerous; and to prevent reinforcements 
from being sent to Meade from that re- 
gion. Already about eighty Kentuckians 
had crossed the Ohio (June 19) into In- 
diana to test the temper of the people. 
They were captured. Morgan started 
(June 27) with 3,500 well-mounted men 
and six guns, crossing the Cumberland 
River at Burkesville, and, pushing on, 
encountered some loyal cavalry at Colum- 
bia (July 3), fought them three hours, 
partly sacked the town, and proceeded to 
destroy a bridge over the Green River, 
when he was driven away, aftev a des- 
perate fight of several hours, by 200 Michi- 
gan troops under Colonel Moore, well in- 
trenched. Morgan lost 250 killed and 
wounded; Moore lost twenty-nine. He 
rushed into Lebanon, captured a small 
Union force there, set fire to the place, 
and lost his brother — killed in the fight. 
He reached the Ohio, 40 miles below 
Louisville, July 7. His ranks were swelled 
as he went plundering through Kentucky, 
and he crossed the Ohio with 4,000 men 
and ten guns. He captured two steamers, 
with which he crossed. He was closely 
pursued by some troops under General 
Hobson. and others went up the Ohio in 
steamboats to intercept him. He plunder- 
ed Corydon, Ind., murdered citizens, and 
stole 300 horses. On he went, robbing mill 
and factory owners by demanding $1,000 



MORGAN 



as a condition lor the safety of their prop- 
erty. In like manner he went from village 
to village until the 12th, when, at a rail- 
way near Vernon, he encountered Colonel 
Lowe with 1,200 militiamen. Morgan was 
now assured that Indiana was aroused, 
and that there was a great uprising of the 
loyal people against him. The victories 
at Gettysburg and Vicksburg now inspirit- 
ed the people. Governor Morton called on 
the citizens to turn out and expel the in- 
vaders. \Mthin forty-eight hours 65,000 
citizens had tendered their services, and 
were hastening towards the rendezvous. 
Morgan was alarmed. He stole fresh 
horses for the race before Hobson, his 
persistent pursuer. He passed swiftly 
north of Cincinnati through the southern 
counties, and struck the river a little 
above Pomeroy. The people of Ohio, also, 
were aroused. General Judah went up the 
Ohio, from Cincinnati, in steamboats, to 
head him off; and the people were gather- 
ing from different points. At Buffington 
Ford he attempted to cross the river and 
escape into* Virginia ; but there the head of 
Hobson's column, under General Shackle- 
ford, struck his rear. General Judah struck 
his flank, and two armed vessels in the 
stream opened upon his front. Hemmed 
in, about 800 of his men surrendered, and 
the remainder, leaving all their plunder 
behind them, followed their leader up the 
river, and again attempted to cross to 
Belleville by swimming their horses. 
About 300 crossed, but the remainder were 
driven back by a gunboat, when Morgan 
fled inland to McArthur, fighting militia, 
burning bridges, and plundering. At last 
he was obliged to surrender to General 
Shackleford, July 26, 1863, at New Lisbon, 
the capital of Columbiana county. Mor- 
gan and so7Tie of his officers were confined 
in the Ohio penitentiary at Columbus, 
from which he and six of them escaped in 
November, and joined the Confederate 
forces in northern Georgia. The race be- 
tween the troops of Morgan and his pur- 
suers had continued three weeks, without 
cessation, at the rate of 35 miles a day. 
Mor^'an afterwards received an ovation at 
Richmond as a great hero. 

When Longstreet left Knoxville, Tenn., 
late in 18G3, he lingered awhile between 
there and the Virginia border. He had 
been xjursued by cavalry, and near Bean's 



Station he had a sharp skirmish (Dec. 
14), when the Nationals were pushed back 
with a loss of 200 men ; Longstreet's loss 
was greater. Longstreet finally retired to 
Virginia, leaving Morgan in eastern Ten- 
nessee. Gen. John G. Foster was there, in 
command of the Army of the Ohio ; and 
on Dec. 29 Gen. S. D. Sturgis, with the 
National advance at Knoxville, between 
Mossy Creek and New Market, met and 
fought Morgan and Armstrong, who led 
about 6,000 Confederates. The latter were 
defeated. On Jan. 16, 1864, Sturgis was 
attacked by Morgan and Armstrong at 
Dandridge, the capital of Jefferson county. 
After a severe encounter, Sturgis fell back 
to Strawberry Plains, where his soldiers 
suffered intensely from the extreme cold. 
Morgan lingered in eastern Tennessee un- 
til May, and late in that month, with com- 
paratively few followers, he went over the 
mountains into Kentucky, and raided rap- 
idly through the eastern counties of that 
State, plundering as they sped on in the 
richest part of that commonwealth. They 
captured several small places, dashed 
into Lexington, burning the railway sta- 
tion and other property there, and hurried 
towards Frankfort. General Burbridge, 
who, when he heard of Morgan's passage 
of the mountains, had started in pursuit, 
struck him a severe blow near Cynthiana, 
by which 300 of the raiders were killed 
or woimded, 400 made prisoners, and 
1,000 horses captured. Burbridge lost 
about 150 men. This staggering blow made 
Morgan reel back into eastern Tennessee. 
Early in September he was at Greenville 
with his shattered brigade. Morgan and 
liis staff were at the house of Mrs. Will- 
iams in that town, when it was sur- 
rounded by troops under General Gillem, 
and Morgan, attempting to escape, was 
shot dead in the garden, Sept. 4, 1864. 

Morgan, John Pierpont, capitalist; 
born in Hartford, Conn., April 17, 1837; 
son of Junius Spencer Morgan (born April 
14, 1813; died April 8, 1890); was edu- 
cated in the English High School of Bos- 
ton, and at the University of Gottingen, 
Germany. Returning to the United States 
in 1857 he entered the banking-house of 
Duncan, Sherman & Co., and in 1860 be- 
came American agent of the London house 
of George Peabody & Co. In 1871 he 
became a partner in ihe firm of Drexel, 



262 



MORGAN 



Morgan & Co., which later became J. 
Pierpont Morgan & Co. Mr. Morgan's 
firm has been conspicuous for many 
years in the reorganization of large indus- 
trial and railroad interests, and as syn- 
dicate managers. In 1895 the firm agreed 
to supply the United States government 
with 3,500,000 ounces of standard gold 
coin at the rate of $17.80 per ounce, for 
thirty-year 4-per-cent. bonds, and later in 
the year, when the financial situation 
again became alarming, the firm organized 
a syndicate which took $37,911,350 of a 
new government loan. The greatest 
achievement of the firm, and the largest 
financial enterprise ever undertaken by a 
single individual, was consummated in 
April, 1901, when an amended certificate 
of incorporation of the newly formed 
United States Steel Corporation was filed 
in Trenton, N. J. This combination rep- 
resented a merging of the Carnegie Steel 
Works and a number of the other great 
steel concerns of the country, with a capi- 
tal stock of $1,100,000,000, and a working 
cash capital of $200,000,000. Mr. Morgan 
has long been noted for his active and large 
benevolence. His gifts include $500,000 
to the New York Trade Schools, in 1892; 
$1,000,000 to erect a new building for the 
Lying-in Hospital, in 1897; an additional 
$350,000 to the same institution, in 1899; a 
rare collection of ancient Greek ornaments 
valued at $150,000 to the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, in 1900 ; the finest collection 
of minerals in the United States, valued at 
$200,000, to the Museum of Art; $100,000 
to the Young Men's Christian Association 
of New York City; and an electric-light- 
ing plant, valued at $40,000, to the Loomis 
Sanitarium in Liberty, N. Y., in 1901. 

Morgan, John Tyler, statesman; born 
in Athens, Tenn., June 20, 1824; removed 
to Alabama when nine years of age; re- 
ceived an academic education; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1845; and practised 
till the beginning of the Civil War, when 
he entered the Confederate Army as a pri- 
vate. Subsequently he raised the 5th 
Alabama Regiment, became its colonel, and 
was commissioned a brigadier-general in 
1863. After the war he resumed practice 
at Selma, Ala. In 1876 he was elected 
to the United States Senate, and in 1882, 
1888, 1894, and 1900 was re-elected. In 
1892 President Harrison appointed him 



one of the American arbitrators in the 
Bering Sea Court of Arbitration, and in 
1898, after the passage of the Hawaiian 
annexation bill. President McKinley ap- 
pointed him one of the commissioners to 
prepare a system of government for the 




JOHN TYLER MORGAN. 

islands. For several years Senator Mor- 
gan has been especially conspicuous be- 
cause of his forceful advocacy of the 
construction of an interoceanic canal on 
the Nicaraguan route by the United 
States. As chairman of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Interoceanic Canals, he early de- 
manded the abrogation of the Clayton- 
BULWEB Treaty {q. v.), contending that 
the canal should be wholly an American 
enterprise; and after Great Britain re- 
jected (March, 1901) the amended Hay- 
I'auncefote treaty, he urged that the Unit- 
ed States should ignore the objectionable 
features of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, and 
proceed with the construction of the canal 
without further negotiation with Great 
Britain. 

The iSficaragua Canal. — The following is 
Senator Morgan's argument in favor of ex- 
tending the aid of the federal government 
to the construction of the Nicaragua 
Canal : 

In the testimony of Count Ferdinand 
de Lesseps, given before the select com- 



263 



MORGAN, JOHN TYLER 



niittee of the House of Representatives, 
March 8, 1880 (Mis. Doc. No. 16, Forty- 
fourth Congress, third session), he said: 
'■ Tliere were fourteen projects of canals 
presented at the Paris congress, but the 
interest had entirely centred in the Nica- 
ragua and Panama routes. . . . If it were 
determined to biiild a lock canal, and if 
there could not be a canal between the two 
oceans, except a lock canal, then there was 
no doubt that the Nicaragua route was the 
best route." 

The Panama Canal Company, after 
years of exhaustive effort, and the expendi- 
ture of immense sums of money of the 
French people, demonstrated the fact that 
no other than a lock canal can be built and 
maintained across the Isthmus of Darien 
at any cost that the commerce of the world 
would be able to bear, as the basis of 
toll charges. 

The abandonment of the effort to change 
the plan of the Panama Canal from a sea- 
level waterway to a canal with locks (for 
the amount of water at the highest level 
has settled that problem as being be- 
yond the reach of successful solution) has 
verified the assurances of Mr. Menocal 
and Admiral Ammen, given to the con- 
gress at Paris, that the work was imprac- 
ticable. 

If the canal was built with locks and 
if it could be supplied with water by steam 
pumping, according to the last desperate 
alternative suggested by the company's 
engineers when the sea-level plan was 
abandoned, the future use of the canal 
would be embarrassed with the other in- 
surmountable difficulties thus graphically 
presented by Mr. Eads in his testimony 
before the House select committee, on the 
same hearing (Mis. Doc. 10). Mr. Eads 
says: 

" Any one who contemplates the depth of 
the proposed cut through the several miles of 
the Cordilleras, and thinlis of the frightful 
rains and tempests which prevail during six 
months of the year, can form some faint con- 
ception, perhaps, of the amount of material 
which would be washed down the side of this 
Immense cut, as well as from all other parts 
of the canal, and which must be continually 
dredged out of it to preserve its usefulness." 

Other statements equally worthy of 
credit show that no work in that locality 
could be maintained against the destruc- 



tive floods which would suddenly rush 
through, what Mr. Eads describes as, " the 
narrow and tortuous stream which Count 
de Lesseps proposes to locate at the bot- 
tom of an artificial canon to be cut 
through the Cordilleras at Panama. 

These facts, and the opinions of many 
great engineers, eliminate all other canal 
projects from the necessity of further dis- 
cussion, and leave us to consider alone the 
political and financial questions presented 
in the project of the Nicaraguan Canal, 
under the present concessions from Nica- 
ragua and Costa Rica. 

Those concessions are grants of rights, 
privileges, and property to individuals, 
and through them to a corporation char- 
tered in the United States. They have been 
complied with by that corporation, as to 
all the preliminary conditions, and have 
been confirmed as permanent grants by the 
governments of Nicaragua and Costa 
Rica. 

In making these exclusive concessions 
these governments announce to the world 
a plan for the change of geographical con- 
ditions, in which all civilized nations have 
an interest, and, accordingly, they have 
so planned the canal and regulated its con- 
trol as to give equal advantages without 
discrimination to the ships and commerce 
of all nations. 

In this sense the concessions were a 
political convenant with mankind and, in 
this sense, it is obvious that "government 
aid " has, so far, supplied every element 
of tlie progress of the work. The canal is 
the creature, alone, of " government aid." 
Without discussing the right of every 
maritime power, other than the United 
States, to claim that these concessions 
confer upon them privileges that they may 
insist shall not be withdrawn, to their det- 
riment, it is clear that the concessions 
distinctly relate to the political right of 
the United States to have an influential 
part in the project of changing the 
geography of the Western Hemisphere. It 
is provided in the concessions that *' a 
company of execution " shall be formed, 
having its place of business in New York. 
A great corporation was contemplated 
which should own the concessions granted 
to American citizens, and that it should 
be subject to the laws of organization, 
control and administration to be enacted 



264 



MORGAN, JOHN TYLER 



in the United States and enforced by like 
authority. All governments, and through 
them their people, are invited to become 
stockholders in the company styled in the 
concessions " The Maritime Canal Com- 
pany of Nicaragua." 

Nicaragua and Costa Rica are stock- 
holders in the company and may vote for 
directors, and, through them, take part 
in all the doings of the directors. They 
are bound thereby to the full extent that 
is included in the grants and limitations 
of the concessions, as completely as the 
other stockholders are bound. They pro- 
vide expressly for the ownership of stock 
in the canal company by other govern- 
ments, giving a preference to other Ameri- 
can states in the right to subscribe for 
the stock. The corporation, therefore, is 
not only to be a public corporation, but in- 
ternational, and is to have governments, 
as its stockholders, that are to vote in the 
direction of the affairs of the company, 
including the governments that made the 
grants. 

This is, necessarily, a very peculiar 
political situation, in connection with a 
geographical situation, and its attendant 
necessities, that exists nowhere else in the 
world. It presents opportunities, rights, 
and duties to the consideration and deter- 
mination of the United States that are 
universally recognized as entitling us to 
a powerful, if not a dominant, influence 
in everything relating to the canal and its 
uses. The duties thus resting with us 
are well defined in the message of Presi- 
dent Hayes, where he said that " this must 
be an American canal, under American 
control." 

The concessions made by Nicaragua and 
Costa Rica are in line with this dec- 
laration, and make it even more specific 
by the opportunity given to the United 
States to build the canal and make it 
subject to our control. When this new at- 
titude had been sedately taken by those 
governments and was formulated in con- 
cessions to citizens of the United States — 
-not less solemn, or obligatory, than formal 
treaties — Congress met the overture by 
granting a charter to " The Maritime 
Canal Company of Nicaragua," to be the 
" company of execution " provided for in 
the concession. Here was the concurrent 
"aid" of three governments to the canal. 



These three republics lent their sovereign 
powers in aid of this benefaction to man- 
kind, without considering the question of 
its cost, or its value as an investment, and 
without the least thought that they could 
help a few favorites to grow rich; or the 
least apprehension that, while they we're 
all looking on at the dealings of the com- 
pany of execution, and were represented 
in the company, any fraud or corruption 
could scandalize their great and patriotic 
work. 

Congress accepted these concessions as 
the basis of its action, as was contem- 
plated in their provisions, and conformed 
its legislation to the pledges of good faith 
towards our citizens in securing them the 
enjoyment and protection of their rights 
and privileges therein granted. 

This was governmental control over the 
canal in accordance with the concessions, 
and Congress reserved the right to alter, 
amend, or repeal the charter, according 
to its pleasure. Congress also required 
the president and secretary of the canal 
company to make reports, under oath, 
from time to time, to the Secretary of the 
Interior, " giving such detailed statement 
of its officers and of its assets and liabili- 
ties as may be prescribed by the Secretary 
of the Interior, and any wilfully false 
statement so made shall be deemed per- 
jury and punishable as such." Congress 
fixed the number of directors of the canal 
company and the manner of their elec- 
tion, the amount of the capital stock to 
be issued, and required that a majority 
of the board of directors shall be citizens 
and residents of the United States. 

In these and other provisions of the 
charter, quite as important. Congress ex- 
ercised legislative jurisdiction and polit- 
ical power over the corporation as full 
and complete as if this had been a do- 
mestic corporation. This, also, was " gov- 
ernment aid " to the canal, strictly re- 
sponsive to the action taken by Costa 
Rica and Nicaragua. It was aid without 
which the canal would not have been built 
or controlled by American citizens. 

After Congress had taken this line of 
action and had thus created international 
obligations with two sister republics, and 
had assumed the duty of framing laws 
for creating and controlling " the company 
of execution." provided for in these con- 



MORGAN, JOHN TYLER 

cessions, for the benefit of all commercial io say that we shall not make that legisla- 

countries, we had thereby established very tion elTectual by giving material aid to 

intimate goA-ernmental relations with this the building of the canal, and secure our 

canal and its public and private promot- government against loss. The Clayton- 

ers. Bulwer treaty, our treaty with Nicaragua, 

So intimate are these relations and so concluded Aug. 21, 1867, and her treaty 
necessary to the preservation of the com- of Feb. 11, 1860, with Great Britain, upon 
merce, business interests, and the social which our treaty was modelled, all look 
and political communication of our East- to and provide for this canal and for ma- 
ern and Western States and people, and terial aid to it. They only exclude the 
to the practical continuity of our coast right of either power from acquiring sov- 
line, and the safety of our country, that ereign rights in Nicaragua. If British 
Ave may say that the United States has subjects now held the concessions that 
adopted the Nicaragua Canal as an in- are owned by our people, and if Parlia- 
strumentality of government ; not a means ment should charter a " company of exe- 
of governing Nicaragua and Costa Rica, cution," and grant it a subsidy or any 
or any foreign people or power, but as form of aid, we should have nothing to 
a means necessary to the better govern- interpose, in the way of logical argu- 
ment of our own country. ment, to prevent the British Empire from 

To us this canal is as much a means dominating the canal to the extent of 

of government as it is to those republics ; every power, right, and privilege included 

its distance from our possessions being in these concessions. Nicaragua and Costa 

the only real difference. It equally removes Rica could not present an argument or a 

the barrier to water communication be- plausible protest, against such dominion by 

tween the two oceans for the benefit of Great Britain, and we could only interpose 

each of the three republics, which is meas- an argument upon the Monroe doctrine, as 

ured by twice the length of South America, it was emasculated by the Clayton-Bulwer 

and which is made extremely perilous by treaty, if we stood simply on our treaty re- 

the dangerous navigation of the cold and lations for the measure of our rights. 
turbulent seas of the Antarctic regions. But we are solemnly warned and assured 

Following this result, this canal opens by the convictions of every American 
an easy and short route for the transit heart that it would be dangerous, unpa- 
of the mails, for the passage of troops, triotic, and cowardly in us to admit any 
and of ships of war and of commerce, and transatlantic power to usurp the place 
lessens the cost of naval armaments to we naturally occupy towards that route 
all American states by about one-half. In of transit between the Atlantic and Ra- 
the interest of the peace of the world, this cific oceans. We have a duty in this mat- 
is a blessing of incalculable value. There ter, laid upon us by the hand of Provi- 
is no light in which this project can be dence, which we cannot evade, and a 
viewed that does not disclose the practical power to execute that command, which 
necessity of this canal as an instrument of we cannot surrender, that compel us to 
better government and a facility of actual take a decisive part in this greatest work 
government to the people. States, and laid out for human hands to complete. If 
federal government of the United States. our internal policy is not such as to make 

No nation has the right, in view of us the least and most impotent of all the 
the concessions made by Nicaragua and great powers, and to fetter our hands 
Costa Rica to our citizens, and of our when we would stretch them forth to en- 
legislation to aid and perfect those rights, large our commerce, increase our mail 
to say to us that we shall not proceed to facilities, lower the shipping charges upon 
aid the canal by a subvention, or in any our productions, increase our population 
other way that is consistent with the and their industries, and send out fleets 
sovereignty of Nicaragua and Costa Rica to protect our coasts and to secure respect 
over their own domain. for our flag, there is no question as to 

Any other nation may as well demand our power and duty to aid in the con- 

of us the repeal of the charter granted strnction of the Nicaragua Canal. 
by Congress to the canal company, as As to getting closer to the subject and 

266 



MORGAN, JOHN TYLER 

exerting sovereign dominion over the canal But, if v/e run up the conjectural cost 
in the country where it is located, which to $100,000,000, the canal, if built for that 
some enemies of the canal insist that we sum, must be the most valuable property 
should do, the answer is that we Avould in the world, of its magnitude. The ton- 
add nothing to our proper influence over nage, annually, can scarcely fall below 
the canal by this means, and, in doing that of the Suez Canal. It will gradu- 
this by force, we should dishonor our- ally exceed that amount. If it is two-thirds 
^-.f'lves in the esteem of sister republics as great as that which passes through llio 
that have always trusted the honor and St. Mary's Canal on the lakes it will equal 
integrity of the United States. Then, 0,000,000 tons. Who does not know that it 
recent history would condemn us in the must be greater than the traffic supplied 
eyes of all nations, for, when Nicaragua by so small an area of inland country? 
tendered to us almost the full measure A just estimate would be fixed, con- 
of sovereignty over the territory occupied fidently, by the most careful and hesitat- 
by the canal, we seemed to shrink from ing persons at 9,000,000 tons per annum, 
that opportunity, as the ghost of the to say nothing of income from passengers, 
Clayton-Bulwer treaty seemed to rise from of whom swarms will emigrate to the Pa- 
its forgotten grave to warn us of danger, cific coast. On this estimate we could 
After that, it ill becomes us to say that place the tolls at the rate of $1 per ton, 
we will have no canal unless we shall and realize $9,000,000 per annum. Take 
first have usiTrped the sovereignty over $3,000,000 of this sum for maintenance of 
Nicaragua and Costa Rica. the canal, which will not exceed half that 

The Suez Canal, with almost 100 miles sum; $3,000,000 for interest on the bonded 
of continuous digging, cost about $100,- debt, and $3,000,000 for the stockholders, 
000,000; of this sum $30,000,000 was and we will have a result that should ex- 
wasted in interest, commissions, changes cite the cupidity of the most grasping 
of location, and bad management. That speculator. But the true friend of the 
canal has now a traffic of nearly 9,000,000 industrial and commercial people will see 
tons annually, and it must be speedily in this resvilt a saving to industry and 
enlarged to accommodate the commerce commerce of more than one-half the 
that is crowding through it to the western charges for tonnage that are now paid to 
coast of the Pacific Ocean. The Nicaragua the Suez Canal. 

Canal has 2914 miles of canal prism, or If the United States is the owner of 

axial, line. Of this one-third is very 80,000,000 of the 100,000,000 of the stock 

Tight dredging. The total length of this in this canal, and if it is to cost $100,- 

transit, from sea to sea, is 169yo miles; 000,000 to build it, the dividends on that 

of this line, I5514 miles is slack-water SO.000,000 of stock, employed in a sinking 

navigation at an elevation of 110 feet fund and invested in the bonds of the 

above the level of the sea. company, would pay the entire cost of con- 

This small lift is overcome by six struction and the interest on the bonds in 

locks — three on either side of the lake, less than fifty years. 

The entire cost of the canal ready for These are some of the indisputable facts 

use, as estimated by Mr. Menocal, allow- that show that it is a good financial oper- 

ing 25 per cent, for contingencies, is ation, and a duty that concerns the honor, 

$65,084,176. A board of five other great welfare, and security of the United States, 

engineers went over Mr. Menocal's meas- Above all, it will stand as an example to 

urements and estimates with great care?, mankind to prove that the great republic 

and out of abundant caution, and not of republics is the best form of political 

because of any substantial changes in his government for securing the welfare of the 

figures, they added to his estimates an- citizen and the fruits of his liberties. It 

other 20 per cent, for contingencies, and will, indeed, be the crowning glory of this 

so changed his estimate as to make the era that the Nicaragtui Canal should be 

total cost of the canal ready for service, built by the aid, and controlled by the in- 

$87,799,570. It seems that this may be fluence, of the United States, 

reasonably accepted as the outside possi- The people who have money will build 

ble cost of the canal. this canal, if no government takes it in 

267 



MORGAN— HORGAN AND GAINES 



band. But some other government be- the Pacific slope. As we have aided great 
sides Nicaragua or Costa Rica will build corporations by building railroads for 
and control iL The people of Europe built them, let us now aid the people by building 
the Suez Canal when the profits of such a canal that will make freights cheaper 
an investment were vaguely conjectural, and will enrich the common treasury. 
The French people poured hundreds of Morgan, Lewis Henry, anthropologist; 
millions of francs into the Panama Canal born in Aurora, N. Y., Nov. 21, 1818; 
scheme, and would repeat the investment graduated at Union College in 1840; and 
if they had a hope of success. If their became a lawyer in Rochester, N. Y. He 
money had been honestly expended on vt'as deeply interested in the history of the 
the present line of the Nicaragua Canal, American Indians, and was among the 
it would now be in operation, and we first to examine into their origin. He was 
would be vainly endeavoring to get our the author of Letters on the Iroquois; 
rights there, as we are now doing with Houses and House-Life of the American 
reference to the American railroad at Aborigines ; and The American Beaver and 
Panama. The people will build this canal His Works. He also arranged the mate- 
if some government does not build it, and rial, much of which he had himself col- 
they will not be American people. It will leeted, for the work entitled Systems of 
cost the canal- company $250,000,000 to Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human 
raise the money to build the canal, and Family, published by the Smithsonian In- 
cur coastwise and foreign commerce will stitution. He died in Rochester, N. Y., 
be taxed on that basis for its use. If we Dec. 17, 1881. 

submit to that exaction, without causing Morgan, Thomas Jefferson, clergy- 
a trouble that would spread through the man; born in Franklin, Ind., Aug. 17, 
world, it will be a new and dark chapter 1839; educated at Franklin College; 
in our history. The just, wise, and safe served in the National array in 1862-65, 
policy is to prevent svich a disaster; to receiving the brevet of brigadier-general; 
turn aside the temptation to careless in- graduated at the Rochester Theological 
difference, and to prevent danger rather Seminary in 1868. Later he was pro- 
than to take the chances of finding a fessor of homiletics and church history 
rough road to our future destiny. at the Baptist Tlieological Seminary in 

A government that has given far more Chicago; United States commissioner of 
than $100,000,000 to build transconti- Indian affairs; and corresponding secre- 
nental railroads should not fear to invest tary of the American Baptist Home Mis- 
money, on an assured basis of profit, in sion Society. His publications include 
order to give some of the advantages of Patriotic Citizenship ; The Negro in Amer- 
fair competition in transportation charges ica; etc. He died in Ossining, N. Y., July 
to the great body of the industrial classes. 13, 1902. 

Unpleasant scandals did attend the use of Morgan, William, Freemason; born 
the money raised on the credit of the gov- in Culpeper county, Va., in 1775; was in 
ernment, in the building of one of these the battle of New Orleans; and was a 
railroads, but corruption was made pos- brewer in Toronto, Canada, in 1821. He 
sible by the absence of governmental con- was a resident, in 1826, of Batavia, N. Y., 
trol in the board of directors. A repeti- where he was seized, carried to Fort 
tion of that wrong has become impossible. Niagara, and, as many persons have since 
Those railroads are our pride, as a people, believed, was drowned in Lake Ontario, 
They are essential parts of our civili- Sept. 19, 1826, because it was reported 
zation and indispensable factors in our that he was about to publish an exposure 
government; but they are becoming too of the secrets of Freemasonry. This affair 
much a burden upon our internal and ex- created intense excitement and a new po- 
ternal commerce. Water transportation litical party. See Anti-masonic Party. 
through the Isthmus of Darien is to be the Morgan and Gaines, Forts, Seizure 
efficient and just competitor for transcon- of. On the night of Jan. 3. 1861, Col. 
tinental traflic, and will add immensely to J. B. Todd, under orders of Governor 
their income, at lower rates of transporta- Moore, embarked on a steamboat, with 
tion. by the rapid increase of population on four companies of Confederate volunteer;^ 

368 



MORGAN CITY— MORMONS 



for Fort Morgan, at the entrance to Mo- 
bile Harbor, about 30 miles below the 
city. They reached the fort at about 
3 A.M. the next day. The garrison made 
no resistance, and cheered the flag of Ala- 
bama when it was put in the place of 
that of the United States. At 5 a.m. the 
fort was in the hands of the Confederates. 
One of the captors wrote : " We found 
here about 5,000 shot and shell; and we 



are ready to receive any distinguished 
strangers the government may see fit to 
send on a visit to us." Fort Gaines, on 
Dauphin Island, opposite Fort Morgan, 
shared the fate of the latter. That morn- 
ing, Jan. 4, the United States revenue 
cutter Lewis Cass was surrendered to the 
collector of the port of Mobile (g. v.). 
See BowYER, Fort. 
Morgan City. See Bras hear City. 



MORMONS 

Mormons, the most common name of call the " Three Witnesses." Several years 
members of the Church of Jesus Christ afterwards these men quarrelled with 
of Latter-Day Saints. This sect, whose Smith, renounced Mormonism, and solemn- 
origin and growth are strange social phe- ly declared that their testimony was false, 
nomena, originated with Joseph Smith, The Book of Mormon is a collection of 
a native of Vermont, who pretended that sixteen distinct books, professing to be 
as early as 1823, when he was living written at different periods by successive 
with his father in Ontario (now Wayne) prophets. Its style is that of our English 
county, N. Y., at the age of fifteen years, version of the Bible, from which quota- 
he began to have visions. He said God tions to the amount of 300 pages of the 
had then revealed to him that in a cer- work are made without allusion to their 
tain hill were golden plates, on which source. Smith and Rigdon became part- 
were written the records of the ancient ners in the scheme of establishing a new 
inhabitants of America, and that with church. With this Book of Mormon in 
the plates would be found two transparent their hands as text and authority, they 
stones, which were called in the Hebrew began to preach the new gospel. They 
tongue Urim and Thummim, on looking found followers, and in April, 1830, organ- 
through which the inscriptions on the gold- ized the first Mormon church at Manches- 
en plates would become intelligible. He ter, N. Y., when the members numbered 
said that four years afterwards ( Sept. 22, thirty. Smith pretended to be guided by a 
1827) the angel of the Lord had placed series of revelations. By one of these he 
these golden plates and their interpreters was directed to lead the believers to Kirt- 
in his hands. The inscriptions were neat- land, 0., which was to be the seat of the 
ly engraved on the plates in hieroglyphics New Jerusalem. They went, and converts 
of the " reformed Egyptian," then not rapidly appeared. Desiring a wider field 
known on the earth. From these plates, for the growth of the Church, Smith and 
with the aid of the Urim and Thummim, Rigdon found it in Jackson county, Mo., 
Smith, sitting behind a blanket-screen where, at Independence, Smith dedicated 
to hide the plates from eyes profane, read the site for the temple to be erected by 
the Book of Mormon (or Golden Bible, as the Saints. Then they went back to Kirt- 
he sometimes called it) to Oliver Cow- land to remain five years and "make 
dery, who wrote it down as Smith read money." There they established a mill, 
it. It was printed in 1830 in a volume a store, and a bank. Smith was presi- 
of several hundred pages. Appended to dent of the latter, and Rigdon was cashier, 
the narrative is a declaration signed by and the neighboring country was flooded 
Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer. and Mar- with the bank's worthless notes. Accused 
tin Harris in these words: "We declare, of fraudulent dealing, a mob dragged 
with words of soberness, that an angel of Smith and Rigdon from their beds (March 
God came do\vn from heaven, and he 22, 1832), and tarred and feathered them, 
brought and laid before our eyes, that About this time Brigham Youya 
we beheld and saw the plates and the (7. v.), a native of Vermont, a painter 
engravings thereon." These the Mormons and glazier, became a convert, and joined 

269 



MORMONS 



the Mormons at Kirtland. rfis ability 
and shrewdness soon made him a leader, 
and when a new organization of the 
Church occurred, and a hierarchy was 
established with twelve apostles, he was 
ordained one of them, and was sent out 
to preach the new gospel. They built a 
costly temple at Kirtland, which was ded- 
icated in 1S36. Their first missionaries 
to Europe were sent in 1837. Early the 
next year the bank at Kirtland failed, 
and Smith and Rigdon, to avoid arrest for 
fraud, decamped in the night and took ref- 
uge in Missouri, where a large number of 
Mormons had gathered. They were 
driven by the exasperated inhabitants 



The Mormons were kindly received in 
Illinois. Lands were given them, and 
Smith was directed by a revelation to 
build a city, to be called Nauvoo, at Com- 
merce. He laid out the city, sold lots to 
his followers at high inices, and amassed 
a considerable fortune. Nauvoo soon be- 
came a city of several thousand inhabi- 
tants, the Saints being summoned by a 
new revelation to assemble there from all 
parts of the world, and to build a tem- 
ple for the Lord, and a hotel in which 
Smith and his family should " have place 
from generation to generation, for ever 
and ever." Extraordinary privileges were 
given to Nauvoo by the legislature 




TUK UUMB OF BRIGHAM YuU-NG. 



towards the western border of the State, 
where Smith and Rigdon joined them. In 
conflicts with the Mormons, several were 
killed on each side. Finally, late in 1838, 
these conflicts assumed the character of 
civil war, and apostates from the Mor- 
mon Church declared that Smith was re- 
garded by his followers as superior to all 
earthly magistrates, and that it was his 
avowed intention to possess himself of the 
State. The armed Mormons defied the 
laws. Smith and Rigdon were arrested 
on a charge of treason, murder, and felony. 
The Mormons were finally driven out of 
Missouri ; and, to the number of several 
thousands, they crossed the Mississippi 
into Illinois, where they were joined by 
Smith, who had broken out of jail. 



of Illinois, and Smith and Rigdon ex- 
ercised almost unlimited power. They 
organized a military corps called the 
" Nauvoo Legion," of which Smith was 
made lieutenant-general, and they chose 
a site for a temple on a bluff, the plan of 
which, it was said, had been revealed to 
Joseph Smith, their leader, and a " Gen- 
tile " architect was employed to build it. 
Its corner-stone was laid April 6, 1841. It 
was built of beautiful white limestone. 
In style, size, and decorations, it was in- 
tended to rival every other fane on the 
globe. Rumors of scandalous practices 
among the Mormons began to be cir- 
culated, and the leaders resolved to desert 
" the City of Beauty." They had expend- 
ed $1,000,000 on their temple, and it was 



270 



MORMONS 



not yet finished; but they determined to and the "Prophet" and his brother were 
dedicate it. That ceremony was a scene shot dead. Rigdon now aspired to be the 
of great interest. Young men and maidens leader of the Mormons, but Brighara 
came with festoons of llowers to decorate Young had himself appointed president 
the twelve elaborately carved oxen upon of the Church, and Rigdon, becoming con- 
which rested the great baptismal laver. tumacious, was cast out to be " buffeted 
Prayers were uttered, chants were sung, for 1,000 years." 

and, in the midst of bishops in their sacer- Public sentiment in Illinois soon set 
dotal robes, the voice of the Seer (Brig- strongly against the Mormons. Armed 
ham Y'oung) was heard pronouncing the mobs attacked the smaller settlements, 
temple dedicated to the service of Al- and also Nauvoo, their city. At length 
mighty God. Over the door was placed a special " revelation " commanded their 

departure for the Western wilderness; and 

in February, 1846, 1,600 men, women, and 

children crossed the Mississippi River on 

" BUILT BY THECHURCH op_ JESUS CHRIST OF the icc, and, travelling with ox-teams and 

on foot, penetrated the Indian country 
and rested at Council Bluffs, on the Mis- 
souri River. Other bands continued to 
emigrate; and finally, in September, 1846, 



this inscription: 

" THE HOUSE OP THE LORD 



LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 
HOLINESS TO THE LORD.' 



On the day when the temple was ded- 
icated it was abandoned to the " Gen- 
tiles." Thirty months afterwards it was the last lingering Mormons at Nauvoo 
destroyed by fire; and in May, 1850, " the were driven out at the point of the bayonet 
City of Beauty" was desolated by a tor- by 1,600 troops. At their resting-place 
nado, and the partially restored temple they were met by a requisition for 500 men 
was cast to the earth a heap of ruins. for the army in Mexico, which was com- 

Smith had been almost absolute in power pHed with. The remainder stayed, turn- 
and influence; and as early as 1838 he had ed up the virgin soil, and planted there, 
by persuasion corrupted several women. Leaving a few to cultivate and gather, 
calling them " spiritual wives," although for wanderers who might come after them, 
he had a lawful wife to whom he had the host moved on. Order reigned. To 
been married eleven years. She naturally them the voice of their Seer (Brigham 
became jealous, and, to pacify her, Smith Young) was the voice of God. Every ten 
pretended to receive (July 12, 1843) a wagons were under the command of a cap- 
revelation authorizing men to have more tain, who obeyed a captain of fifty, and 
than one wife. So polygamy was estab- ^^, in turn, obeyed a centurion, or cap- 
lished among the Mormons. Much scandal tain of 100. Discipline every^vhere pre- 
was created at Nauvoo. The " Apostles " vailed. They formed Tabernacle Camps, 
strenuously denied the fact until it could where a portion of them stopped to sow 
no longer be concealed, when it was admit- and reap, spin and weave, and perform 
ted (1852), and boldly avowed and de- necessary mechanical work. They had 
fended on the authority of the revelation singing and dancing; they made short 
in 1843. Smith's licentiousness became marches and encamped in military order 
so flagrant that a great uproar was ere- every night; they forded swift-flowmg 
ated at Nauvoo, and he was denounced streams and bridged the deeper floods, 
as a corrupter of virtue. The affidavits Many were swept away by miasmatic 
cf sixteen women were published to the fevers ; and when winter fell upon them m 
effect that Smith and Rigdon had tried the vast plains, inhabited by Indians, they 
to persuade them to become " spiritual sufi'ered much, though more kindly treated 
wives." Great excitement followed. Smith by the Indians than they had been by 
and some followers having destroyed the their own race. They made caves in the 
property of one of his accusers, attempts sand-hills; and in the spring of 1847 they 
were made to arrest him, when the Mor- marked out the site of a city upon a great 
mons, armed, defended him. At last he, prairie, on the bank of the Missouri River, 
his brother Hyrum, and others were lodged where the Omahas dwelt. There more than 
in jail at Carthage in 1844. On the even- 700 houses were built, a tabernacle was 
ing of June 27 a mob attacked the jail, raised, mills and workshops were construct- 

271 



MORMONS 



ed, and a newspaper, The Frontier Guar- 
dian, was established. The city was called 
Kane, in honor of Colonel Kane (brother 
of the Arctic explorer ) , who gave them 
much aid in their exodus. During the 
summer and early autumn bountiful har- 
vests were gathered. From Kane they 
sent out missionaries to Oregon and Cali- 
fornia, and even to the Sandwich Islands, 
while others went forward deeper into the 
wilderness to spy out a " promised land '' 
for " an everlasting habitation." 

They chose the Great Salt Lake Valley, 
enclosed within lofty and rugged moun- 
tains, fertile, isolated, and healthful ; and 
thitherward, in the early summer of 1847, 
a chosen band of 143 men, accompanied by 
their wives and children and the mem- 
bers of the high council, with seventy 
wagons drawn by horses, proceeded as 
pioneers to take possession of the country. 
They passed up the north fork of the 
Platte River to Fort Laramie, crossed 



that stream, followed its course along the 
banks of the Black Hills to South Pass, 
which they penetrated. Along the rivers, 
through deep caiions, over the lofty Utah 
Mountains, they toiled on until, on the 
evening of July 20, they saw, from the 
summits of the Wasatch Mountains, the 
placid Salt Lake glittering in the beams 
of the setting sun. It was like the vision 
of the Hebrew law-giver on Mount Pisgah. 
It was a scene of wondrous interest. 
Stretched out before them was the Land 
of Promise where they hoped never to be 
molested by " Gentiles," or the arm of 
" Gentile " government. The pilgrims en- 
tered the valley on July 21, and on the 
24th the president and high council ar- 
rived. They chose the site for a city on 
a gentle slope, on the banks of a stream 
which they called Jordan, connecting the 
more southern Utah Lake with the Great 
Salt Lake. They built a fort, planted 
seed, and with solemn ceremonies the land 




8A1,T LAKE CITY. 



272 



MORMONS 



was consecrated to the Lord. In the 
spring of 1848 fields were seeded, crops 
were raised, and the blessings of plenty 
ensued. The inhabitants of Kane pressed 
forward to the new Canaan; other Saints 
followed; and the New Jerusalem was 
laid out within an area of 4 square 
miles, and called Salt Lake City. A large 
number of converts arrived from Europe, 
and in 1849 the Mormons organized an in- 
dependent State, called Deseret — " the 
land of the honey-bee." A legislature 
was elected, and a constitution framed and 
sent to Washington. Congress refused to 
recognize it, but formed a territorial gov- 
ernment for their country under the name 
of Utah (q. v.), and appointed Brigham 
Young territorial governor. 

On Aug. 29, 1852, the doctrine of polyg- 
amy was openly announced as a divine 
revelation and a tenet of the Chvirch. From 
the establishment of Utah as a Territory 
the authority of the United States was 
constantly disregarded by the Mormons. 
A number of federal judges were forced 
by threats of violence to leave the Terri- 
tory, and after a mob of armed Mormons 
had broken into the court-room of the 
United States district judge in February, 
1856, the government sent a military ex- 
pedition to the scene of the disturbance, 
and after quiet had been restored the 
Mormons promised to submit to the fed- 
eral authority. The promise, however, 
was not kept, and in 1862 Congress passed 
an act prohibiting polygamy in the va- 
rious Territories. The Mormons first ig- 
nored this law, then defied it, and after- 
wards challenged its constitutionality, 
when the L^nited States Supreme Court 
in 1879 declared the act valid. Despite 
this law the Mormons continued to con- 
tract plural marriages, which induced 
Congress in 1882 to pass the Edmunds 
act, of which the following is the sub- 
stance : 

" That if any male person in a Terri- 
tory or other place over which the United 
States has exclusive jurisdiction hereaf- 
ter cohabits with more than one wom- 
an, he shall be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and on conviction thereof shall 
be punished by a fine of not more than 
$300, or by imprisonment for not more 
thaHi six months, or by both said pun- 
ishments, in the discretion of the court; 



that every person who has a husband or 
wife living who, in a Territory or other 
place over which the United States has 
exclusive jurisdiction, hereafter marries 
another, whether married or single, and 
any man who hereafter simultaneously, 
or on the same day, marries more than 
one woman, in a Territory or other place 
over which the United States has exclu- 
sive jurisdiction, is guilty of polygamy, 
and shall be punished by a fine of not 
more than $500 and by imprisonment for 
a term of not more than five years; but 
tliis section shall not extend to any per- 
son by reason of any former marriage, 
whose husband or wife by such marriage 
shall have been absent for five successive 
jears and is not known to such person 
to be living and is believed by such per- 
son to be dead, nor to any person by rea- 
son of any former marriage which shall 
have been dissolved by a valid decree of a 
competent court, nor to any person by 
reason of any former marriage which shall 
have been pronounced void by a valid de- 
cree of a competent court, on the grounds 
of nullity of the marriage contract; that 
the President is hereby authorized to grant 
amnesty to such classes of offenders guilty 
of bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohab- 
itation before the passage of this act, on 
such conditions and under such limita- 
tions as he shall think proper; but no 
such amnesty shall have effect unless the 
conditions thereof shall be complied with; 
that the issue of bigamous or polygamous 
marriages, known as Mormon marriages, 
in cases in which such marriages have 
been solemnized accordingly to the cere- 
monies of the Mormon sect in any Terri- 
tory of the United States, and such issue 
shall have been born before the first 
day of January, anno Domini eighteen 
hundred and eighty- three, are hereby le- 
gitimated; and that no polygamist, biga- 
mist, or any person cohabiting with more 
than one woman, and no woman cohab- 
iting with any of those persons described 
as aforesaid in this section in any such 
Territory or other place over which the 
United States has exclusive jurisdiction, 
shall be entitled to vote at any election 
held in any such Territory or place, or be 
eligible for election or appointment to, or 
be entitled to hold any office or place of 
public trust, honor, or emolumrnt in, 



^. — s 



273 



MORMONS 



under, or for any snch Territory or place, 
or under the United States." 

This act, however, did not meet the re- 
quirements as considered by tlie federal 
authorities, and in 1887 Congress passed 
what is known as the Edmund-Tucker act. 



wise, and generally reserved, as it did in 
the case of Utah, the right to revoke all 
acts of the territorial legislature. It fol- 
lows, therefore, that it had the right to 
revoke the Church charter. 

" A distinguishing feature of Mormon- 




INTERIOR OF THE MORMON TABERNACLE. 



Under this act more than 1,000 Mor- 
mons, including many leaders of the 
Church, were fined and imprisoned, and 
measures were instituted by the Mormon 
leaders to test the constitutionality of the 
act. On May 19, 1890, the Supreme Court 
of the United States declared the act con- 
stitutional in an opinion by Justice Brad- 
ley, three justices of the court, however, 
dissenting from the opinion. The following 
are the principal points in the decision: 

" Two questions are involved in this 
ease. The first is, has Congress the pow- 
er to repeal the charter of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints? This 
question it answers in the affirmative. The 
power of Congress over the Ten "_ Tories 
is generally dependent on the right to ac- 
quire the Territory itself. It is derived 
from the treaty-making power, the power 
to declare war. The incidents of these 
powers are those of national sovereignty. 
Congress had supreme power over the Ter- 
ritories acquired by purchase or other- 



ism is well known to be polygamy and an 
absolute ecclesiastical control of its church- 
members. Notwithstanding all the efforts 
to suppress this barbarous practice, the 
sect perseveres, in defiance of law, in prop- 
agating this nefarious doctrine. The ex- 
istence of such a propaganda is a blot on 
our civilization. The organization of a 
community for the spread of polygamy 
is a return to barbarism. The question, 
therefore, is whether the promotion of 
such an unlawful system, so repugnant to 
our laws, is to be allowed to continue, 
and whether the enormous funds which 
have been accumulated shall be wielded 
for the propagation of the obnoxious prac- 
tice. The history of the government's 
dealings with the Mormons is one of pa- 
tience on the part of the government, and 
of the resistance to law, and pitiless 
atrocities on the part of the Mormons. 

" The contention that polygamy is a 
part of the Mormons' religious belief is a 
sophistical plea. No doubt the thugs of 



274 



MOBMONS 

India imagined their belief in assassina- of opposition, which was embodied in a 
tion was a religious belief, but that did remarkable manifesto, issued by Wilford 
not make it so. Society has a perfect Woodrufli', then president of the Church, 
right to prohibit ofl'ences against the en- in which he solemnly denied that the 
lightened sentiment of mankind. Since Church was then practising polygamy or 
the Church persists in claiming the right plural marriage, and stated that the En- 
to use the funds with which it has been en- dowment House had been taken down by 
dowed for the purpose of promoting these his orders on account of a report that a 
unlawful practices, the question arises, has plural marriage, without his knowledge 
the government a right to seize these funds or consent, had taken place there in the 
which the Mormons are misusing, and de- spring of the previous year. The mani- 
vote them to worthy and charitable pur- festo concluded as follows: "Inasmuch as 
poses, as nearly akin as possible to those laws have been enacted by Congress for- 
to which the funds were dedicated." bidding plural marriages, which laws have 

After an elaborate historical review of been pronounced constitutional by the 
the common law, the court came to the court of last resort, I do hereby declare 
conclusion that Congress had the right my intention to submit to those laws, 
to seize the property, and said: and to use all my influence with the 

" Congress had before it a contumacious members of the Church over which I pre- 
organization, wielding by its resources an side to have them do likewise. There is 
immense power in the Territory of Utah nothing in my teachings to the Church, or 
and employing those resources in constant- in those of my associates, during the time 
ly attempting to oppose, subvert, and specified, which can reasonably be con- 
thwart tlie legislation of Congress and the strued to inculcate or encourage polyg- 
will of the government. Under such cir- amy, and when any elder of the Church 
cumstances we have no doubt of the right has used language which appeared to 
of Congress to do as it did. The decree convey such teaching he has been prompt- 
cf the lower court is affirmed." ly reproved ; and I now publicly declare 

Justice Fuller said that he and Justices that my advice to the Latter-Day Saints 
Field and Lamar were constrained to is to refrain from contracting any mar- 
dissent from this decision. The power riage forbidden by the laws of the land." 
of Congress to legislate over the Terri- On Oct. 6, of the same year, the great 
tories was not incident to the treaty-mak- semi-annual conference of the Church, at- 
ing power; and its power was restricted tended by apostles, bishops, elders, and 
directly to that expressed or implied in about 1,000 people, unanimously adopted 
the Constitution. There was no such the following resolution : " That, recog- 
power granted as that involved in the nizing Wilford Woodruff as the president 
act under consideration. Congress un- of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
questionably had power to suppress polyg- Day Saints, and the only man on earth, 
amy, and it was immaterial whether at the present time, who holds the keys of 
the crime was committed in the name of the sealing ordinances, we consider him 
religion. But Congress had not power fully authorized, by virtue of his position, 
to seize and confiscate the property of to issue the manifesto which has been 
corporations because they may have been read in our hearing, and which is dated 
guilty of crime. If the purposes of the fund Sept. 24, 1890, and that as a Church in 
were such as had been depicted, it was im- general conference assembled, we accept 
possible to subject it to a purpose as near his declaration concerning plural mar- 
as possible to the object denounced. In the riages as authoritative and binding." 
judgment of the minority the conversion of President Woodruff said at the time: 
the fund, contemplated by Congress, was " The action of the conference is con- 
in contravention of the specific limitations elusive. The Church has no disposition 
of the Constitution. to violate the laws or defy the govern- 

On Sept. 24 following this affirmation ment. The revelation of God requires us 
by the Supreme Court, the Mormon to obey the constitiitional laws of the 
Church, for the first time in its history, land. The Supreme Court of the United 
presented a policy of acquiescence instead States is the legal interpreter of the laws 

275 



MORBELL— MORBILL 



and the final arbitrator as to their va- 
lidity. The Territorial convention has 
also pronounced in favor of full allegiance 
to the government, and willing submission 
to its authority. Judge Zane has recog- 
nized the action of the Church as sincere 
and final, and has rescinded the rule ex- 
cluding Mormon aliens from naturaliza- 
tion." On pledges of the membership of 
the Church, and on recommiendation of 
the Utah Commission, President Harrison, 
on Jan. 4, 1893, issued a proclamation 
granting full amnesty and pardon to all 
persons who had, since Nov. 1, 1890, ab- 
stained from unlawful cohabitation, " but 
upon express condition that they shall 
in future faithfully obey the laws of 
the United States." On Sept. 27, 1894, 
President Cleveland issued the following 
proclamation of amnesty to those who 
had failed to avail themselves of the 
clemency offered by President Harrison: 

" BY THE PRESIDENT OP THE UNITED 

STATES OF AMERICA. 

" A Proclamation : 

" Whereas, Congress by a statute approved 
March 22, 1882, and by statutes in further- 
ance and amendment thereof, defined the 
crimes of bigamy, polygamy, and unlawful 
cohabitation in the Territories and other 
places within the exclusive jurisdiction of the 
United States, and prescribed a penalty for 
such crimes ; and, 

" Whereas, On or about the 6th day of 
October, 1890, the Church of the Latter-Day 
Saints, commonly known as the Mormon 
Church, through its president, issued a mani- 
festo proclaiming the purpose of said Church 
no longer to sanction the practice of polyg- 
amous marriages, and calling upon all mem- 
bers and adherents of said Church to obey 
the laws of the United States In reference 
to said subject matter ; and, 

" Whereas, On the 4th day of January, 
1893, Benjamin Harrison, then President of 
the United States, did declare and grant 
a full pardon and amnesty to certain of- 
fenders, under condition of future obedience 
to their requirements, as is fully set forth 
in said proclamation of amnesty and pardon ; 
and. 



'• Whereas, Upon the evidence now furnish- 
ed me, I am satisfied that the members and 
adherents of said Church generally abstain 
from plural marriages and polygamous co- 
habitation, and are now living in obedience 
to the laws, and that the time has now ar- 
rived when the interests of public justice 
and morality will be promoted by the grant- 
ing of amnesty and pardon to all such of- 
fenders as have complied with the conditions 
of said proclamation, including such of said 
offenders as have been convicted under the 
provisions of said acts ; 

" Now, therefore I, Grover Cleveland, Presi- 
dent of the United States, by virtue of powers 
in me vested, do hereby declare and grant a 
full amnesty and pardon to all persons who 
have, in violation of said acts, committed 
each of the offences of polygamy, bigamy, 
adultery, or unlawful cohabitation under 
the color of polygamous or plural marriage, 
or who, having been convicted of violation 
of said acts, are now suffering deprivation 
of civil rights, having the same, excepting 
all persons who have not complied with the 
conditions noted in said executive proc- 
lamation of Jan. 4, 1893. 

" In witness whereof I have hereunto set 
my hand and caused the seal of the United 
States to be afHxed. 

" Done at the City of Washington this 27th 
day of September, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, 
and of the independence of the United