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Full text of "Harper's encyclopædia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 : based upon the plan of Benson John Lossing"

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HARPER'S ENCYCLOPEDIA 

of 

UNITED STATES HISTORY 

From 458 a.d. to 1906 



BASED UPON THE PLAN OF 



BENSON JOHN LOSSING, LL.D. 

SOMETIME EDITOR OF " THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL RECORD " AND AUTHOR OF 
" THE PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION " " THE PICTORIAL FIELD- 
BOOK OF THE WAR OF l8l2" ETC., ETC., ETC. 

WITH SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS COVERING EVERY PHASE OF AMERICAN HISTORY AND 
DEVELOPMENT BY EMINENT AUTHORITIES, INCLUDING ■ . 

JOHN FISKE. WOODROW WILSON, Ph.D 4 , LL.D. 

THE AMERICAN HISTORIAN PRESIDENT OF PRINCE TO A \ UNIVERSITY' 

WM. R. HARPER, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D. GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L, U.D. 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PROF. OF HISTORY UNIV. OFtOROMO 

ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, Ph.D. MOSES COIT TYLER, LL,D„. 

PROF. OF HISTORY AT HARVARD PROF. OF HISTORY AT CORNELL 

JOHN B. MOORE. EDWARD G. BOURNE, Ph.D. 

PROF. OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AT COLUMBIA PROF. OF HISTORY AT YALE 

JOHN FRYER, A.M., LL.D. R. J. H. GOTTHEIL, Ph.D. 

PROF. OF LITERATURE AT UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA PROF. OF SEMITIC LANGUAGES AT COLUMBIA 

WILLIAM T. HARRIS, Ph.D., LL.D. ALFRED T. MAHAN, D.C.L., LL.D. 

U. S. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION CAPTAIN UNITED STATES NAVY (Rcti~e<l) 

ETC., ETC., ETC., ETC. 

WITH A PREFACE ON THE STUDY OF AMERICAN HISTORY BY 

WOODROW WILSON, Ph.D., LL.D. 

PRESIDENT OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 
AUTHOR OF 

"A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE," ETC., ETC. 

WITH ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS, PORTRAITS, MAPS, PLANS, &*c. 

COMPLETE IN TEN VOLUMES 
VOL. VII 



HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS 
NEW YORK = 1907 = LONDON 



■^u 



^ 






Copyright, 1905, by Harper & Brothers. 

Copyright, 1901, by Harper & Brothers. 

All rights reserved. 









V 




J 








/ 



0\ 



LIST OF PLATES 



I President Theodore Roosevelt 
I Scene on the Luneta, Manila 
v President Franklin Pierce 
I The Landing of the Pilgrims . 
I President James K. Polk . . 
Admiral David D. Porter . . 



Frontispiece 
Facing page 180 
" 202 
" 212 
u 240 
" 258 



MAPS 



Philippine Islands 
^orto Rico . . . 



Facing page 176 
272 



35331 



HARPERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA 

OF 

UNITED STATES HISTORY 



o. 



Oak Woods, Battle of. In the Civil 
War the siege of Richmond had gone on 
quietly until near the close of June, 1862, 
v/hen General Heintzel man's corps, with 
a part of Keyes's and Sumner's, was order- 
ed to move forward on the Williamsburg 
road, through a swampy wood, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the nature of the 
ground beyond, and to place Heintzelman 
and Sumner in a position to support a 
proposed attack upon the Confederates at 
a certain point by General Franklin. They 
met a Confederate force, and a fight en- 
sued, in which the brigades of Sickles 
and Grover, of Hooker's division, bore the 
brunt. The Confederates were driven from 
their encampment, and the point aimed at 
was gained. The National loss was 516 
men killed and wounded. 

Oaths, solemn appeals to God for the 
truth of an affirmation. There are two 
classes of oaths : ( 1 ) assertatory, when 
made as to a fact, etc.; (2) promissory, 
oaths of allegiance, of office, etc. Taken by 
Abraham, 1892 B.C. (Gen. xxi. 24), and 
authorized 1491 B.C. (Exod. xxii. 11). 
The administration of an oath in judicial 
proceedings was introduced by the Saxons 
into England, 600. 

Of supremacy, first administered to 
British subjects, and ratified by Par- 
liament, 26 Henry VIII 1535 

Oaths were taken on the Gospels so 
early as 528 ; and the words, " So 
help me God and all saints," conclud- 
ed an oath until 1550 

Ancient oath of allegiance in England, 
" to be true and faithful to the King 
and his heirs, and truth and faith to 
VTI. — A 



bear of life and limb and terrene 
honor ; and not to know or hear of 
any ill or damage intended him with- 
out defending him therefrom." to 
which James I. added a declaration 
against the pope's authority 1603 

It was again altered p . 1689 

Affirmation of a Quaker authorized in- 
stead of an oath, by statute, in 1696 
et seq. 

Of abjuration, being an obligation to 
maintain the government of King, 
lords, and Commons, the Church of 
England, and toleration of Protestant 
Dissenters, and abjuring all Roman 
Catholic pretenders to the crown, 13 
William III 1701 

Affirmation, instead of oath, was per- 
mitted to Quakers and other Dis- 
senters by acts passed in 1833, 1837, 
1838, and 1863. 

In 1858 and I860 Jews elected members 
of Parliament were relieved from part 
of the oath of allegiance. 

New oath of allegiance by 31 and 32 
Victoria c. 72 (1868), for members of 
the new Parliament : "I do swear 
that I will be faithful and bear true 
allegiance to her Majesty Queen Vic- 
toria, her heirs and successors, ac- 
cording to law, so help me God." 
(Bradlaugh case, Parliament, 1880.) 

Following is the form of the oath of 
allegiance Washington was directed by 
Congress to administer to the officers 
of the army before leaving Valley 
Forge: "I [name and office], in the- 
armies of the United States of Amer- 
ica, do acknowledge the United States 
of America to be free, independent, and 
sovereign States, and declare that 
the people thereof owe no allegiance 
or obedience to George III., King 
of Great Britain ; and I renounce, re- 
fuse, and abjure any allegiance or 

obedience to him : and I do that 

I will to the utmost of my power sup- 
port, maintain, and defend the said 



OBER— O'BRIEN 



United States against the said King 
George III., his heirs and successors, 
and his or their abettors, assistants, 
and adherents, and will serve the said 

United States in the office of 

which I now hold, with fidelity ac- 
cording to the best of my skill and 

understanding " June, 1778 

[By act of Congress, Aug. 3, 1861, 
the oath of allegiance for the cadets 
at West Point was amended so as to 
abjure all allegiance, sovereignty, or 
fealty to any State, county, or coun- 
try whatsoever, and to require un- 
qualified support of the Constitution 
and the national government.] 
" Iron-clad " or " test " oath, pre- 
scribed by Congress July 2, 1862, to 
be taken by persons in the former 
Confederate States appointed to office 
under the national government. The 
text was as follows : I, A. B., do 
solemnly swear (or affirm) that I 
have never voluntarily borne arms 
against the United States since I 
have been a citizen thereof ; that 
I have voluntarily given no aid, 
countenance, counsel, or encourage- 
ment to persons engaged in armed 
hostility thereto ; that I have neither 
sought, nor accepted, nor attempted 
to exercise the functions of any office 
whatever, under any authority or pre- 
tended authority in hostility to the 
United States ; that I have not yield- 
ed a voluntary support to any pre- 
tended government, authority, power, 
or constitution within the United 
States, hostile or inimical thereto. 
And I do further swear (or affirm) 
that, to the best of my knowledge 
and ability, I will support and defend 
the Constitution of the United States 
against all enemies, foreign and 
domestic ; that I will bear true faith 
and allegiance to the same ; that I 
take this obligation freely, without 
any mental reservation or purpose of 
evasion, and that I will well and 
faithfully discharge the duties of the 
office on which I am about to enter, 
so help me God." 

For another form of special oath, see 
Aguinaldo, Emilio. 

Ober, Frederick Albion, author; born 
in Beverly, Mass., Feb. 13, 1849 ; now con- 
nected as ornithologist with the Smith- 
sonian Institution, for which he has trav- 
elled extensively. Among his works are 
Puerto Rico and its Resources; Brief His- 
tories of Spain, Mexico, and the West 
Indies, etc. 

Oberlin College, a non-sectarian, co- 
educational institution in Oberlin, O., 
founded in 1833 by the Rev. John J. Ship- 
herd and Philo P. Stewart, and so named 



in honor of J. F. Oberlin (1740-1826), a 
Protestant pastor of VValdbach, Alsace. 
In 1903 it reported 96 professors and in- 
structors; 1,509 students; 3,856 grad- 
uates; 68,000 volumes in the library; 
grounds and buildings valued at $716,000; 
and productive funds, $1,576,153. Henry 
C. King, D.D., president. 

Obiong, The. In 1731 the long-disputed 
boundary between New York and Connecti- 
cut seemed to be settled by mutual con- 
cessions. A tract of land lying within 
the claimed boundary of Connecticut, 580 
rods in width, consisting of 61,440 acres, 
and called from its figure " The Oblong," 
was ceded to New York as an equivalent 
for lands near Long Island Sound sur- 
rendered to Connecticut. That tract is 
now included in the Connecticut towns of 
Greenwich. Stamford, New Canaan, and 
Darien. This agreement was subscribed 
by the respective commissioners at Dover, 
then the only village on the west side 
of the Oblong. The dividing - line was 
not run regularly, and this gave rise 
to a vexatious controversy, which was set- 
tled in 1880. 

O'Brien, Jeremiah, naval officer; born 
in Scarboro, Me., in 1740. On hearing of 
the affair at Lexington (April, 1775), he 
and four brothers, and a few volunteers, 
captured a British armed schooner in 
Machias Bay, May 11, 1775. Jeremiah 
was the leader. It was the first naval 
victory, and the first blow struck on the 
water, after the war began. O'Brien soon 
afterwards made other captures, and he 
was commissioned a captain in the Massa- 
chusetts navy. He commanded a privateer, 
but was captured, and suffered six months 
in the Jersey Prison-ship (q. v.). He 
was also confined in Mill Prison, England, a 
year, when he escaped and returned home. 
At the time of his death, Oct. 5, 1818, 
O'Brien was collector of customs at Machias. 

O'Brien, Richard, naval officer ; born in 
Maine in 1758: commanded a privateer in 
the Revolutionary War, and was an officer 
on the brig Jefferson in 1781; was capt- 
ured by the Dey of Algiers, and enslaved 
for many years, carrying a ball and chain 
until a s service performed for his mas- 
ter's daughter alleviated his condition. 
Thomas Jefferson, while Secretary of State 
(1797), procured his emancipation, and 
appointed him an agent for the United 
2 



OBSERVATORY— O'CONOR 



States. He died in Washington, D. C, 
Feb. 14, 1824. 

Observatory. The first observatory in 
Europe was erected at Nuremberg, 1472, 
by Walthers. The two most celebrated of 
the sixteenth century were the one erect- 
ed by Landgrave William IV. at Cassel, 
1561, and Tj'oho Brahe's at Uranienborg, 
156£. The first attempt in the United 
States was at the University of North 
Carolina, 1824; and the first permanent 
one at Williams College, 1836. The lead- 
ing observatories in the United States are 
those of the Naval Observatory in Wash- 
ington, the Princeton University, Harvard 
University, Dudley Observatory at Albany, 
Michigan University, Chicago University, 
Hamilton College, and the Lick Observa- 
tory in California. 

Ocala (Fla.) Platform, of the Farm- 
ers' Alliance, was adopted Dec. 8, 1890. 
It favored free silver, a low tariff, an 
income tax, the abolition of national 
banks, and the establishment of sub- 
treasuries, which should lend money to the 
people at a low interest. 

O'Callaghan, Edmund Bailey, histo- 
rian; born in County Cork, Ireland, Feb. 
29, 1797. He was a member of the 
Parliament of Lower Canada in 1836. 
He came to the United States in 
1837, and was for many years ( 1848— 
70) keeper of the historical manuscripts 
in the office of the secretary of state of 
New York. He translated the Dutch rec- 
ords obtained from Holland by Mr. Brod- 
head, contained in several published vol- 
umes. O'Callaghan wrote and edited very 
valuable works, such as the Documentary 
History of Neic York (4 volumes) ; Docu- 
ments relating to the Colonial History of 
New York (11 volumes) ; Journals of the 
Legislative Councils of Neio York (2 vol- 
umes) ; Historical Manuscripts relating 
to the War of the Revolution ; Laics and 
Ordinances of Neic Netherland (2 volumes, 
1638-74). In 1845-48 he prepared and 
published a History of Xeio Netherland 
(2 volumes). At the time of his death, 
May 27, 1880. he was engaged in translat- 
ing the Dutch records of the citv of New 
York. 

Occom, Samson, Indian preacher; born 
in Mohegan, New London co., Conn., about 
1723; entered the Indian school of Mr. 
Wheelock at Lebanon when he was nine- 



teen years of age, and remained there 
four years. Teaching school awhile at 
Lebanon, he removed to Montauk, L. I., 
where he taught and preached. Sent to 
England (1766) as an agent for Whee- 
lock's Indian school, he attracted great 
attention, for he was the first Indian 
preacher who had visited that country. 
Occum was employed in missionary labors 
among the Indians, and acquired much 
influence over them. He died in New 
Stockbridge, N. Y., July 14, 1792. 

Oconastoto, Indian Chief, elected head 
chief of the Cherokees in 1738. In the 
French and Indian War he sided at first 
with the English, but in consequence of a 
dispute between the Indians and some Eng- 
lish settlers, he made a general attack on 
the frontier settlements of the Carolinas. 
At the head of 10,000 Creeks and Chero- 
kees he forced the garrison of Fort Loudon 
to surrender, and in violation of his prom- 
ise, treacherously killed all his prison- 
ers, over 200 in number. Three men 
only escaped — Capt. John Stuart, and two 
soldiers. Stuart's life was saved by one 
of the chiefs, who assisted him in returning 
to Virginia. As a result of the massacre 
the colonists burned the Cherokee towns, 
and forced Oconastoto into an alliance 
which lasted until the war of the Revolu- 
tion, when Captain Stuart, who had been 
made British Indian agent, induced Ocon- 
astoto to head an attack on the colonists 
with 20,000 Indians. John Sevieb 
(q. v.) after a five years' struggle succeed- 
ed in permanently crushing the power of 
the allied Indians. Oconastoto was re- 
ported alive in 1809 by Return J. Meigs, 
United States Indian agent, although 
eighty years previously (1730) he had 
reached manhood and had represented the 
Cherokee nation in a delegation sent to 
England. 

O'Conor, Charles, lawyer; born in 
New York City, Jan. 22, 1804; admitted 
to the bar in 1824. He was connected 
with many of the most prominent legal 
cases, the most famous of which were 
the suits against the Tammany ring in 
1871, in which William M. Evarts, James 
Emmot. and Wheeler H. Peckham were 
associated with him. In 1872 Mr. 
O'Conor was nominated for the Presi- 
dency by that portion of the Democratic 
party which was opposed to the election 



ODD-FELLOWS— OGBEN 



of Horace Greeley. Mr. O'Conor was one 
of the counsel of Samuel J. Tilden be- 
fore the electoral commission in 1876. He 
died in Nantucket, Mass., May 12, 1884. 

Odd-fellows, a name adopted by mem- 
bers of a social institution having signs 
of recognition, initiatory rites and cere- 
monies, grades of dignity and honor; 
object purely social and benevolent, con- 
fined to members. The independent order 
of odd-fellows was formed in Manchester, 
England, in 1813. Odd-fellowship was in- 
troduced into the United States from Man- 
chester in 1819; and the grand lodge of 
Maryland and the United States was con- 
stituted Feb. 22, 1821. In 1842 the Ameri- 
can branch severed its connection with the 
Manchester unity. In 1843 it issued a 
dispensation for opening the Prince of 
Wales Lodge No. 1, at Montreal, Canada. 
American odd - fellowship has its head- 
quarters at Baltimore and branches in 
nearly all parts of the world, the su- 
preme body being the sovereign grand 
lodge of the world. In 1903 its member- 
ship was 1,031,399; total relief paid, 
$4,068,510. 

Odell, Benjamin B., Jr., governor; 
born in Newburg, N. Y., Jan. 14, 1854; 
member of Congress in 1895-99; elected 
governor of the State of New York in 
1900. 

O'Dell, Jonathan, clergyman; born in 
Newark, N. J., Sept. 25, 1737; grad- 
uated " at the College of New Jersey 
in 1754; took holy orders in 1767, and 
became pastor of the Episcopal Church in 
Burlington, N. J. During the Revolution 
he .was in frequent conflict with the 
patriots in his parish, and at the close of 
the war he went to England, but returned 
to America and settled in New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia. He died in Fredericton, 
N. B., Nov. 25, 1818. 

Odell, Moses Fowler, statesman; born 
in Tarrytown, N. Y., Feb. 24, 1818; elected 
to Congress in 1861 as a fusion Democrat 
from Brooklyn, N. Y., and in 1863 as a 
war Democrat. He was a member of the 
committee on the conduct of the war. In 
1865 he was appointed naval officer of the 
port of New York, and subsequently was 
offered the post of collector of the port, 
which he declined on account of failing 
health. Mr. Odell was a prominent mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 



and widely known as the superintendent 
of the Sunday - school of Sands Street 
Church. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., June 
13, 1866. 

Ogden, Aaron, military officer; born 
in Elizabethtown, N. J., Dee. 3, 1756; 
graduated at Princeton in 1773; taught 
school in his native village; and in the 
winter of 1775-76 assisted in capturing, 
near Sandy Hook, a British vessel laden 
with munitions of war for the army in 
Boston. Early in 1777 he entered the 




AARON OGDEN. 



army as captain under his brother Mat- 
thias, and fought at Brandy wine. He was 
brigade-major under Lee at Monmouth, 
and assistant aide-de-camp to Lord Stir- 
ling; aid to General Maxwell in Sullivan's 
expedition; was at the battle of Spring- 
field (June, 1780) ; and in 1781 was with 
Lafayette in Virginia. He led infantry 
to the storming of a redoubt at Yorktown,, 
and received the commendation of Wash- 
ington. After the war he practised law, 
and held civil offices of trust in his State. 
He was United States Senator from 1801 
to 1803, and governor of New Jersey from 
1812 to 1813. In the War of 1812-15 he 
commanded the militia of New Jersey. 
At the time of his death, in Jersey City 
N. J., April 19, 1839, he was president 
general of the Society of the Cincinnati. 

Ogden, David, jurist; born in Newark, 
N. J., in 1707; graduated at Yale in 1728; 
appointed judge of the Supreme Court of 
New Jersey in 1772, but was obliged to 
resign at the beginning of the War of the 
Revolution. He was in England the great- 
er portion of the time until 1789, acting as 



OGDEN— OGDENSBURG 



agent for the loyalists who had claims on 
Great Britain^ and he secured a com- 
pensation of $100,000 for his own losses. 
He settled in Whitestone, N. Y., in 1789, 
and died there in June, 1800. 

Ogden, Herbert Gouverneur, topog- 
rapher; born in New York, April 4, 
1846; served in the Civil War; connected 
with the United States coast survey; 
took part in the Nicaragua expedition, 
1865; exploration of the Isthmus of 
Darien, 1870; Alaskan boundary ex- 
pedition, 1893, etc. 

Ogden, Matthias, military officer ; born 
in Elizabethtown, N. J., Oct. 22, 1754; 
joined the army at Cambridge in 1775, 
accompanied Arnold in his expedition to 
Quebec (q. v.), and commanded the 1st 
New Jersey Regiment from 1776 until the 
close of the war, when he was bre vetted 
brigadier-general. He died in Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., March 31, 1791. 

Ogdensburg, Battles at. The pres- 




of northern New York from that quarter 
caused Gen. Jacob Brown to be sent to 
Ogdensburg to garrison old Fort Presenta- 
tion, or Oswegatehie, at the mouth of the 
Oswegatchie River. Brown arrived on Oct. 
1, and the next day a British flotilla, com- 
posed of two gunboats and twenty-fivp 
bateaux, bearing about 750 armed men, 
left Prescott to attack Ogdensburg. At 
the latter place Brown had about 1,20(7 
effective men, regulars and militia, and 
a party of riflemen, under Captain For- 
syth, were encamped near Fort Presents 
tion, on the margin of the river. The 
latter were drawn up in battle order to 
dispute the landing of the invaders. Brown 
had two field-pieces, and when the British 
were nearly in mid-channel these were 
opened upon them with such effect that 
the enemy were made to retreat precipi- 
tately and in great confusion. This re- 
pulse gave Brown much credit, and he 
was soon regarded as one of the ablest 
men in the service. 

The British again attacked Ogdensburg 
in the winter of 1813. On Feb. 22 about 
800 British soldiers, under Colonel Mc- 
Donell, appeared on the ice in front of the 
town, approaching in two columns. It 
was early in the morning, and some of the 
inhabitants of the village were yet in bed. 
Colonel Forsyth and his riflemen were sta- 
tioned at Fort Presentation, and against 
them the right column of the invaders, 
300 strong, moved. Forsyth's men were 




PRESENT SITE OP FOliT PRESENTATION. 



ent city of Ogdensburg, N. Y., was a little partially sheltered by the ruins of the 
village in 1812, at the mouth of the fort. Waiting until the column landed, 
Oswegatchie River. The British village the Americans attacked them with great 
of Prescott was on the opposite side of energy with rifle-shot and cannon-balls 
the St. Lawrence. A threatened invasion from two small field-pieces. The invaders 

5 



OGDENSBURG— OGILVIE 

were repulsed with considerable loss, and syth, seeing his peril, gave orders for a re- 
fled in confusion over the frozen bosom of treat to Black Lake, 8 or 9 miles distant, 
the St. Lawrence. Meanwhile the left col- There he wrote to the War Department, 
umn, 500 strong, had marched into the giving an account of the aflair, and say- 
town and captured a 12-pounder cannon ing, " If you can send me 300 men, all 
and its custodians without resistance, shall be retaken, and Prescott too, or X 




MAP OP THE OPERATIONS AT OGDENSBUKG 



They then expected an easy conquest of 
the town, but were soon confronted by 
cannon under Captain Kellogg and Sher- 
iff York. The gun of the former became 
disabled, and he and his men fled across 
the Oswegatchie and joined Forsyth, leav- 
ing the indomitable York to maintain the 
fight alone, until he and his band were 
made prisoners. The village was now in 
complete possession of the British, and 
McDonell proceeded to dislodge Forsyth 
and his party at the fort. He sen + , a mes- 
sage to that commander to surrender, say- 
ing, " If you surrender, it shall be well ; if 
not, every man shall be r^t to the bayo- 
net." " Tell Colonel McDonell," said For- 
syth to the messenger, " there must be 
more fighting done first." Then the two 
cannon near the ruins of the fort gave 
heavy discharges of grape and canister 
shot, which 'hrew the invaders into con- 
fusion. It was only momentary. An 
overwhelm^ ig party of the British were 
preparing to make an assault, when For- 



will lose my life in the attempt." The 
town, in possession of the enemy, was 
plundered by Indians and camp-followers 
of both sexes, who came over from Canada, 
and by resident miscreants. Every house 
in the village but three was entered, and 
the public property carried over to Cana- 
da. Two armea schooners, fast in the ice, 
were burned, and the barracks near the 
river were laid in ashes. Fifty-two pris- 
oners were taken to Prescott. The Amer- 
icans lost in the affair, besides the prison- 
ers, five killed and fifteen wounded; the 
British loss was six killed and forty-eight 
wounded. They immediately evacuated the 
place, and the fugitive citizens returned. 
Ogilvie, John, clergyman ; born in New 
York City in 1722; graduated at Yale in 
1748; missionary to the Indians in 1749; 
chaplain to the Royal American Regiment 
during the French and Indian War; as- 
sistant minister of Trinity Church, New 
York City, in 1764. He died in New York 
City, Nov. 26, 1774. 



G 



OGLESBY— OGLETHORPE 



Oglesby, Richard James, military offi- 
cer; born in Oldham county, Ky., July 25, 
1824; settled in Decatur, 111., in 183G. 
When the Mexican War broke out he en- 
tered the army as lieutenant in the 8th 
Illinois Infantry and participated in the 
siege of Vera Cruz and in the action at 
Cerro Gordo. Resigning in 1847 he 
studied law, and began practice in 1851. 
He was elected to the State Senate in 
1860, but when the Civil War began re- 
signed his seat and became colonel of the 
8th Illinois Volunteers; won distinction 
in the battles of Pittsburg Landing and 
Corinth; and was promoted major-general 
in 1862. He was elected governor of Il- 
linois in 1864 and 1872, but in his second 
term served a few days only when he was 
elected United States Senator. In 1878 he 
was again elected governor. He died in 
Elkhart, 111., April 24, 1899. 

Oglethorpe, James Edward, " father " 
of Georgia; born in London, England, Dec. 
21, 1698. Early in 1714 he was commis- 
sioned one of Queen Anne's guards, and 
was one of Prince Eugene's aids in the 
campaign against the Turks in 1716-17. 
At the siege and capture of Belgrade he 
was very active, and he attained the rank 
of colonel in the British army. In 1722 
he was elected to a seat in Parliament, 
which he held thirty-two years. In that 
body he made a successful effort to relieve 
the distresses of prisoners for debt, who 
crowded the jails of England, and projected 
the plan of a colony in America to serve 
as an asylum for the persecuted Protes- 
tants in Germany and other Continental 
countries, and " for those persons at home 
who had become so desperate in circum- 
stances that they could not rise and hope 
again without changing the scene and mak- 
ing trial of a different country." Thom- 
son, alluding to this project of transporting 
and expatriating the prisoners for debt to 
America, wrote this half-warning line, " 
great design! if executed well." It was 
proposed to found the colony in the coun- 
try between South Carolina and Florida. 
King George II. granted a charter for the 
purpose in June, 1732. which incorporated 
twenty-one trustees for founding the col- 
ony of Georgia. 

.Oglethorpe accompanied the first com- 
pany of emigrants thither, and early in 
1733 founded the town of Savannah on 



Yamacraw Bluff. A satisfactory confer- 
ence with the surrounding Indians, with 
Mary Musgrove (q. v.) as interpreter, 
resulted in a treaty which secured sov- 
ereignty to the English over a large ter- 
ritory. Oglethorpe went to England in 
1734, leaving the colony in care of others, 
and taking natives with him. He did not 
return to Georgia until 1736, when he 
took with him several cannon and about 
150 Scotch Highlanders skilled in the mili- 
tary art. This was the first British army 
in Georgia. With him also came Rev. 
John Wesley (q. v.) and his brother 
Charles, for the purpose of giving 
spiritual instruction to the colonists. 
The elements of prosperity were now 
with the colonists, who numbered more 
than 500 souls; but the unwise re- 
strictions of the trustees were a serious 
bar to advancement. Many Germans, also, 
now settled in Georgia, among them a 
band of Moravians; and the Wesleys were 
followed by George Whitefield ( q. v. ) , a 




JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE. 

zealous young clergyman burning with zeal 
for the good of men, and who worked lov- 
ingly with the Moravians in Georgia. 

With his great guns and his Highland- 
ers, Oglethorpe was prepared to defend his 
colony from intruders; and they soon 
proved to be useful, for the Spaniards at 
St. Augustine, jealous of the growth of 
the new colony, menaced them. With his 
martial Scotchmen, Oglethorpe went on 
an expedition among the islands off the 
coast of Georgia, and on St. Simon's he 
founded Frederica and built a fort. At 
Darien, where a few Scotch people had 



OGLETHORPE— OHIO 



planted a settlement, he traced out a forti- 
fication. Then he went to Cumberland 
Island, and there marked out a fort that 
would command the mouth of the St. 
Mary's River. On a small island at the 
entrance of the St. John's River he 
planned a small military work, which he 
named Fort George. He also founded Au- 
gusta, far up the Savannah River, and 
built a stockade as a defence against hos- 
tile Indians. 

These hostile preparations caused the 
Spaniards at St. Augustine to threaten 
war. Creek tribes oifered their aid to 
Oglethorpe, and the Spaniards made a 
treaty of peace with the English. It was 
disapproved in Spain, and Oglethorpe was 
notified that a commissioner from Cuba 
would meet him at Frederica. They met. 
The Spaniard demanded the evacuation of 
all Georgia and a portion of South Caro- 
lina by the English, claiming the territory 
to the latitude of Port Royal as Spanish 
possessions. Oglethorpe hastened to Eng- 
land to confer with the trustees and seek 
military strength. He returned in the au- 
tumn of 1738, a brigadier-general, author- 
ized to raise troops in Georgia. He found 
the colonists languishing and discontented. 
Idleness prevailed, and they yearned for 
the privilege of employing slave-labor. 
Late the next year war broke out between 
England and Spain. St. Augustine had 
been strengthened with troops, and Ogle- 
thorpe resolved to strike a blow before the 
Spaniards should be well prepared; so he 
led an unsuccessful expedition into Flori- 
da. Two years later the Spaniards pro- 
ceeded to retaliate, but were frustrated by 
a stratagem. Oglethorpe had successfully 
settled, colonized, and defended Georgia, 
spending a large amount of his own fort- 
une in the enterprise, not for his own 
glory, but for a benevolent purpose. He 
returned to England in 1743, where, after 
performing good military service as major- 
general against the " Young Pretender " 
(1745), and serving a few years longer 
in Parliament, he retired to his seat in 
Essex. When General Gage returned from 
America, in 1775, Oglethorpe was offered 
the general command of the British troops 
in this country, though he was then about 
seventy-seven years of age. He did not 
approve the doings of the ministry, and 
declined. He was among the first to 



offer congratulations to John Adams, 
because of American independence, when 
that gentleman went as minister to 
England in 1784. He died in Essex, 
England, Jan. 30, 1785. See Florida; 
Georgia. 

O'Hara, Charles, military officer; born 
in 1730; was a lieutenant of the Cold- 
stream Guards in 1756, and, as colonel 
of the Foot Guards, came to America in 
1780 in command of them. He served 
under Cornwallis, and commanded the 
van in the famous pursuit of Greene in 
1781. He was badly wounded in the battle 
of Guilford (q. v.), and was commander 
of the British right, as brigadier-general, 
at the surrender at Yorktown, when he 
gave to General Lincoln the sword of Corn- 
wallis, the latter too ill, it was alleged, 
to appear on the field. After serving as 
governor of several English colonies, he 
was lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar in 
1787, and governor in 1795. In 1797 he 
was made general. He died in Gibraltar, 
Feb. 21, 1802. 

O'Hara, Theodore, poet; born in Dan- 
ville, Ky., Feb. 11, 1820; graduated at 
St. Joseph Academy, Bardstown, Ky. ; and 
admitted to the bar in 1845. He was ap- 
pointed captain and assistant quarter- 
master in the army in June, 1846, and 
served with distinction throughout the 
Mexican War. After the remains of the 
Kentucky soldiers who fell at Buena Vista 
were reinterred in their native State he 
wrote for that occasion the well-known 
poem, The Bivouac of the Dead, the first 
stanza of which is: 



'The muffled drum's Bad roll has beat 

The soldier's lust tattoo. 
No more on life's parade shall meet 

That brave and fallen few. 
On Fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread; 
And Glor}' guards, with solemn round, 

The bivouac of the dead." 



During the Civil War he enlisted in the 
Confederate army and became colonel of 
the 12th Alabama Regiment. He died near 
Guerryton, Ala., June 6, 1867. 

Ohio, State of, was first explored by 
La Salle about 1680, his object being trade 
and not settlement. Conflicting claims 
to territory in that region led to the 
French and Indian War (q. v.). The 



S 



OHIO, STATS OF 



French held possession of the region north 
of the Ohio River until the conquest of 
Canada in 17G0 and the surrender of vast 
territory by the French to the English in 
1763. After the Revolution disputes arose 




SEAL OP THE STATE OF OHIO. 



between several States as to their respec- 
tive rights to the soil in that region. 
These were settled by the cession of the 
territory to the United States by the re- 
spective States, Virginia reserving 3,709,- 
848 acres near the rapids of the Ohio, 
and Connecticut a tract of 3,666,921 acres 



near Lake Erie. In 1800 jurisdiction 
over these tracts was relinquished to 
the national government, the States 
retaining the right to the soil, while 
the Indian titles to the rest of the State 
were bought up by the national govern- 
ment. 

In the autumn of 1785 United States 
troops began the erection of a fort on the 
right bank of the Muskingum, at its 
mouth. The commander of the troops 
was Maj. John Doughty, and he named 
it Fort Harmar, in honor of his com- 
mander, Col. Josiah Harmar. It was the 
first military post of the kind built in 
Ohio. The outlines formed a regular 
pentagon, embracing three-fourths of an 
acre. United States troops occupied Fort 
Harmar until 1790, when they left it to 
construct Fort Washington, on the site of 
Cincinnati. After the treaty of Green- 
ville it was abandoned. 

In 1788 Gen. Rufus Putnam, at the 
head of a colony from Massachusetts, 
founded a settlement at the mouth of the 
Muskingum River, and named it Marietta, 
in honor of Marie Antoinette, the Queen of 
Iouis XVI. of France. A stockade fort 
was immediately built as a protection 
against hostile Indians, and named Cam- 
pus Martius. In the autumn of the same 




OHIO, STATE OF 





CAMPLS MART1CS. 

year a party of settlers seated themselves 
upon Symmes's Purchase {q. v.) and 
founded Columbia, near the mouth of the 
Little Miami. Fort Washington was soon 
afterwards built, a little below, on 
the site of Cincinnati. 

Ohio was soon afterwards organ- 
ized into a separate territorial gov- 
ernment. The settlers were annoy- 
ed by hostile Indians until Wayne's 
victories in 1794 and the treaty at 
Greenville gave peace to that re- 
gion. In 1799 the first territorial 
legislature assembled, and Ohio was 
admitted into the Union as a State 
April 30, 1802. From 1800 to 1810 
the seat of government was at 
Chillicothe. For a while it was at 
Zanesville, then again at Chilli- 
cothe, and finally, in 1816, Colum- 
bus was made the permanent seat 
of the State government. 

Its people were active on the 
frontiers in the War of 1812. The 
President called on Gov. P. J. 
Meigs for 1,200 militia to be pre- 
pared to march to Detroit. Gov. 
William Hull, of Michigan, was 
persuaded to accept the commission 
of brigadier-general and take command of 
them. Governor Meigs's call was gen- 
erously responded to, and at the mouth 
of the Mad River, near Dayton, O., 



the "full number 
had assembled at 
the close of April, 
1812. They were 
organized into 
three regiments, 
and elected their 
field - officers be- 
fore the arrival 
of Hull. The colo- 
nels of the re- 
spective reg- 
iments were 
Duncan McAr- 
thur, James 
Fincllay, and 
Lewis Cass. The 
4th Regiment of 
regulars, station- 
ed at Vincennes, 
under Lieut.-Col. 
James Miller, 
had been ordered 
to join the militia at Dayton. The com- 
mand of the troops was surrendered to 
Hall by Governor Meigs on May 25, 1812. 
They began their march northward June 




SEAT OF GOVERNMENT AT CHILLICOTHE IN 1S00. 

1 ; and at Urbana they were joined by 
Miller's 4th Regiment, which, under Colo- 
nel Boyd, had participated in the battle 
of Tippecanoe (q. v.). They encountered 



10 



OHIO, STATE OF 

heavy rains and terrible fatigue all the army during the war 317,133 soldiers. Pop- 
way to Detroit, their destination. See ulation in 1890, 3,672,316; in 1900, 4,157,- 
Hull, William. 545. See United States, Ohio, in vol. ix. 




THE STATE CAPITOL, COLUMBl'S. 



In March, 1851, a convention revised the 
State constitution, and it was ratified in 
June; but a new constitution, framed by 
a convention in 1873, was rejected by the 
people at an election in 1874. 

At the beginning of the Civil War, the 
governor of Ohio, William Dennison, Jr., 
was an avowed opponent of the slave 
system. The legislature met on Jan. 7, 
1861. In his message the governor ex- 
plained his refusal to surrender alleged 
fugitive slaves on the requisition of the 
authorities of Kentucky and Tennessee; 
denied the right of secession ; affirmed the 
loyalty of his State; suggested the repeal 
of the fugitive slave law as the most 
effectual way of procuring the repeal of 
the personal liberty acts; and called for 
the repeal of the laws of the Southern 
States which interfered with the consti- 
tutional rights of the citizens of the free- 
labor States. " Determined to do no 
wrong," he said, " we will not contentedly 
submit to wrong." The legislature de- 
nounced (Jan. 12) the secession move- 
ments; promised for the people of Ohio 
their firm support of the national govern- 
ment; and, on the 14th, pledged "the en- 
tire power and resources of the State for 
a strict maintenance of the Constitution 
and laws of the general government by 
whomsoever administered." These prom- 
ises and pledges were fulfilled to the ut- 
most, the State furnishing to the National 



territorial governors. 



Name. 


Terra 
began. 


Term 1 t>„r.- 
expired. | Pohtlcs - . 


Arthur St. Clair 


1788 
1802 


1802 .... 


Charles W. Byrd 


1803 1 



STATE 
Edward Tiffin 


GOVERN 
1803 
1807 
1808 
1810 
1814 
1814 
1818 
1822 
1822 
1826 
1830 
1832 
1836 
1838 
1840 
1842 
1844 
1S44 
1846 
1849 
1850 
1853 
1856 
1860 
1802 
18C4 
1865 
1866 
1868 
1872 
1874 
1876 
1878 
1880 
1884 
1886 
1890 
1892 
1896 
laou 
1904 


ORS. 

1807 
1808 
1810 
1814 
1814 
1818 
1822 
1822 
1826 
1830 
1832 
1836 
1838 
1840 
1842 
1844 
1844 
1846 
1849 
1850 
1853 
1856 
1860 
1862 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1868 
1872 
1874 
1876 
1878 
1880 
1884 
1886 
1890 
1892 
1896 
1900 
1904 








Return Jonathan Meigs. . 

Othniel Looker 

Thomas Worthington... 


.... 






Duncan McArthur 






Whig. 




Democrat 

Whig. 

Democrat 

Whig. 


William Bebb 




it 






William Medill 




Salmon P. Chase 

David Tod 


Republican. 




ii 


Rutherford B. Hayes 




Rutherford B. Hayes 

Richard M. Bishop 


Republican 

Democrat. 
Republican 




James E Campbell 

William McKinley, Jr 


Republican. 

Democrat. 
Republican. 




tc 



11 



OHIO— OHIO COMPANY 



UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



Name. 


No. of CongTess. 


Term. 




8th to 10th 

8th " luth 

10th " 11th 

10th " 11th 

11th 
11th to 13th 
11th " 13th 
13th " 14th 
13th " 16th 
14th " 23d 
16th " 17th 
17th " 19th 
19th " 20th 
20th " 23d 
22d " 25th 
23d «« 26th 
25th " 31st 
26th " 29th 
29th " 31st 

31st 
31st to 34th 
32d " 41st 
34th " 37th 

37 th 
37th to 45th 
41st " 47th 
45th " 46th 
46th " 4'Jth 

47th 
47th to 54th 
49th " 52d 
52d " 65th 

55th " 

55th " 58th 
58th " 


1803 to 1808 


Thomas Worthington 

Return Jonathan .Meigs 

Edward Tiffin 


1803 " 1807 
18U9 " 1810 
1807 " 1809 




1809 




1810 to 1813 

1811 il 1814 
1814 " 1815 




1813 " 1819 


Benjamin Ruggles 

William A.Trimble 

Ethan Allen Brown 

William Henry Harrison. . . 


1815 " 1833 
1819 " 1821 
1822 " 1825 
1825 " 1828 
1828 " 1831 




1831 " 1837 




1833 " 1839 




1837 " 1849 




1839 " 1845 




1845 " 1850 




1850 




1849 to 1855 




1851 " 1869 
1855 " 1861 




1861 




1861 to 1877 


Allen G. Thnrman 


1869 " 1880 




1877 " 1879 




1879 " 1885 
1880 




1881 to 1897 




1885 " 1891 
1891 " 1896 




1«<17 «' 




1897 " 1904 




1904 " 



Ohio Company, The. When, by treaty, 
the Indians had ceded the lands of the 
Northwestern Territory, the thoughts of 
enterprising men turned in that direc- 
tion as a promising field for settlements. 
On the night of Jan. 9, 178G, Gen. Rufus 
Putnam and Gen. Benjamin Tupper form- 
ed a plan for a company of soldiers of the 
Revolution to undertake the task of settle- 
ment on the Ohio River. The next day 
they issued a call for such persons who 
felt disposed to engage in the enter- 
prise to meet at Boston on March 1 ( 
by delegates chosen in the several 
counties in Massachusetts. They met, 
and formed " The Ohio Company." 
It was composed of men like Rufus 
Putnam, Abraham Whipple, J. M. Var- 
num, Samuel Holden Parsons, Benja- 
min Tupper, R. J. Meigs, whom Amer- 
icans think of with gratitude. They 
purchased a large tract of land on the 
Ohio River; and on April 7, 1788, the 
first detachment of settlers sent by the 
company, forty-eight in number — men, 
women, and children — seated themselves 




SITE OF MARIETTA IN 1781. 

12 



OHIO LAND COMPANY 



hear the confluence of 
the Muskingum and 
Ohio rivers, athwart 
the great war-path of 
the fierce Northwest- 
ern tribes when they 
made their bloody in- 
cursions to the fron- 
tiers of Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. They 
named the settlement 
Marietta, in honor of 
Marie Antoinette, 
Queen of France, the 
ally of the Americans. 
This was the seed 
from which sprang the 
great State of Ohio. 
It was composed of 
the choice materials 
of New England society. At one time 
— in 1789 — there were no less than 
ten of the settlers there who had re- 
ceived a college education. During that 
year fully 20,000 settlers from the East 
were on lands on the banks of the Ohio. 
At the beginning of 1788 there was not a 
white family within the bounds of that 
commonwealth. 

Ohio Land Company, The. Soon 
after the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle an 
association of London merchants and Vir- 
ginia land speculators, known as " The 




GENERAL PUTNAM'S LAND OFFICE AT MARIETTA. 

and, at their own cost, to build and gar- 
rison a fort. The government was anx- 
ious to carry out this scheme of coloniza- 
tion west of the Alleghany Mountains to 
counteract the evident designs of the 
French to occupy that country. 

The French took immediate measures 
to countervail the English movements. 
Galissoniere, who had grand dreams of 
French empire in America, fitted out an 
expedition under Celeron de Bienville in 
1749 to proclaim French dominion at 
various points along the Ohio. The com- 
Ohio Land Company," obtained from the pany took measures for defining and occu- 
crown a grant of 500,000 acres of land on pying their domain. Thomas Lee, two of 
the east bank of the Ohio River, with the the Washingtons, and other leading Vir- 
exclusive privilege of the Indian traffic, ginia members ordered goods suitable for 
International, or at least intercolonial, the Indian trade to be sent from London, 
disputes immediately occurred. • The The company sent an agent to explore the 
French claimed, by right of discovery, the country and confer with the Indian tribes ; 
whole region watered by the tributaries and in June, 1752, a conference was held 



of the Mississippi River. The English set 
up a claim, in the name of the Six Na- 
tions, as under British protection, and 
which was recognized by the treaties of 
Utrecht (1713) and Aix-la-Chapelle 
(1748), to the region which they had 
formerly conquered, and which included 
the whole eastern portion of the Missis- 
sippi Valley and the basin of the lower 
lakes, Erie and Ontario. These conflict- 
ing claims at once embarrassed the opera- 
tions of the Ohio Land Company. It was 
provided by their charter that they were to 
pay no quit-rent for ten years: to colonize 
at least 100 families within seven years; 



at Logstown, near the Ohio, and friendly 
relations were established between the 
English and the Indians. But the West- 
ern tribes refused to recognize the right 
of either the English or the French to 
lands westward of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains. A Delaware chief said to Gist, the 
agent of the company, " The French claim 
ail the land on one side of the river, and 
the English claim all the land on the other 
side of the river: where is the Indian's 
land?" This significant question was an- 
swered by Gist: "Indians and white men 
are subjects of the British King, and all 
have an equal privilege in taking up and 



13 



OJEDA— OKEMOS 



possessing the land." The company sent ened, in case of their refusal, to make war 

surveyors to make definite boundaries, upon them, and subdue them " to the yoke 

Fnglish settlers and traders went into the and obedience of the Church and his Maj- 

country. The jealousy of the French was esty"; that he would make slaves of 

aroused. They seized and imprisoned their wives and children, take all their 

some of the surveyors and traders, and possessions, and do them all the harm he 



built forts. The French and Indian War 
that broke out soon afterwards put a 
stop to the operations of the company. 
See French and Indian War; Ohio 
Company. 

Ojeda, Alonzo de, adventurer; born in 
Cuenca, Spain, in 1465; was among the 
earliest discoverers in America after 
Columbus and Cabot. He was with Co- 



could, protesting that they alone would 
be to blame for all deaths and disasters 
which might follow their disobedience. 
See Alexander VI. 

This proclamation, which justified mur- 
der and robbery under the sanction of 
the Church and State, indicated the spirit 
of most of the Spanish conquerors. The 
natives delayed, and slaughter began. 



lumbus in his first voyage. Aided by the Captives were carried to the ships as 

Bishop of Badajos, he obt.iined royal per- slaves. The outraged Indians gathered 

mission to go or a voyage of discovery, in bands and slew many of the Spanish 

and the merchants of Seville fitted out soldiers with poisoned arrows. Ojeda 

four ships for him, in which he sailed for took shelter from their fury among mat- 

St. Mary's on May 20, 1499, accompanied ted roots at the foot of a mountain, where 



by Americus Vespucius as geographer 
Following the track of Columbus in his 
third voyage (see Columbus, Christo- 
pher), they reached the northeastern 
coast of South America, and discovered 
mountains on the continent. Coasting 
along the northern shore of the continent 
(naming the country Venezuela), Ojeda 
crossed the Caribbean Sea, visited Santo 
Domingo, and returned to Spain in Sep- 
tember. In 1509 the Spanish monarch di- 
vided Central America into two provinces, 
and made Ojeda governor of one of them 
and Nicuessa of the other. Ojeda sailed 
from Santo Domingo late in the autumn, 
accompanied by Pizarro and some Spanish 
friars, whose chief business at the outset 
seems to have been the reading aloud to 
the natives in Latin a proclamation by the 
Spanish leader, prepared by eminent 
Spanish divines in accordance with a de- 
cree of the Pope of Rome, declaring that 
trod, who made them all, had given in 
charge of one man named St. Peter, who 
had his seat at Rome, all the nations on 
the earth, with all the lands and seas on 
the globe; that his 
popes, were endowed 



his followers found him half dead. At 
that moment Nicuessa, governor of the 
other province, arrived, and with rein- 
forcements they made a desolating war on 
the natives. This was the first attempt 
to take possession of the mainland in 
America. Ojeda soon retired with some 
cf his followers to Santo Domingo. The 
vessel stranded on the southern shore 
of Cuba, then under native rule, and a 
refuge for fugitive natives from Santo 
Domingo. The pagans treated the suffer- 
ing Christians kindly, and were reward- 
ed with the fate of those of Hispaniola 
(see Santo Domingo). The pious Ojeda 
had told of the wealth of the Cubans, 
and avaricious adventurers soon made that 
paradise a pandemonium. He built a 
chapel there, and so Christianity was 
introduced into that island. He died 
in Hispaniola in 1515. 

Ojibway Indians. See Chippewa Ind- 
ians. 

Okeechobee Swamp, Battle of, an en- 
gagement in Florida in which General 
Taylor defeated the Seminoles and capt- 

successors, called ured Osceola, Dec. 25, 1837. 

by God with the Okemos, Indian chief; nephew of Pon- 



same rights; that one of them had given tiac (q. v.). When a boy he fought the 

to the monarchs of Spain all the islands Americans under Arthur St. Clair and 

and continents in the Western Ocean, and Anthony Wayne, and took an active part 

that the natives of the land he was on in the War of 1812, receiving a severe 

were expected to yield implicit submission wound in the attack on Fort Meigs. He 

to the servants of the King and Ojeda, his died in Lansing, Mich., December, 1886, 

representative. The proclamation threat- probably much over 100 years of age. 

14 



OKLAHOMA 

Oklahoma, Territory of. During the the Indians were permitted to sell to the 

Civil War many of the Indians belonging United States a vast tract of unused 

_to the Five Civilized Nations in the Ind- lands in the central and western part of 

ian Territory espoused the cause of the their territory. Several millions of acres 

Confederacy and took up arms against the were bought by the government, for the 

1 United States. At the close of the war purpose of making a place of settlement 

I the government declared that by these acts for freedmen and several Indian tribes. 




THE RUSH OF SETTLERS INTO OKLAHOMA. 



of hostility the grants and patents by Included in this tract was Oklahoma, 

which the tribes held their extensive do- which originally consisted of about 2,000,- 

mains had become invalid, and a read- 000 acres in the centre of the territory, 

jjustment of the treaty acts under which It remained for several years unoccupied, 

these grants had been made was ordered, being closed to white immigrants because, 

By the conditions of this new adjustment as its former owners, the Creeks, claimed, 

15 



OKLAHOMA— OLD PROBABILITIES 

it had been purchased for another pur- thrown open to settlers, and again there 

pose, was a wild rush of home-seekers; in July, 

In 1889 the government bought it a 1901, the same scenes were enacted in the 

second time from the Creeks, paying a Kiowa ana Comanche country. Popula- 

much higher price, but obtaining it with- tion in 1890, 61,834; in 1900, 398,331. See 

out any restrictive conditions. For ten United States — Oklahoma, in vol. ix. 
years companies of adventurers, called 

" boomers," under the lead of Capt. David territorial governors. 

L. Payne, had been hovering on the out- ^^^......^.^ •;.•""." JSSSS 

skirts of the territory, and now and then William c. Renfrew Democrat 1893-1S97 

stealing across the border for the pur- J* to^^.-i^Wo^.......... 1897-1901 

pose of making settlements on the forbid- 
den lands. As often -as they had thus Old Dominion, a title often given to 
trespassed, however, they were promptly the State of Virginia. The vast, unde- 
driven out again by the United States fined region named Virginia by Queen 
troops. A proclamation was issued by Elizabeth was regarded by her as a fourth 
the President, April 22, 1889, opening kingdom of her realm. Spenser, Raleigh's 
1,900,000 acres of land for settlement, firm friend, dedicated his Faery Queene 
There was immediately a grand rush into (1590) to Elizabeth, "Queen of England, 
the territory by the "boomers," and by France, Ireland, and Virginia." When 
thousands of home-seekers and specula- James VI. of Scotland came to the Eng- 
tors. In a single day the city of Guth- lish throne (1603), Scotland was added, 
rie, with a population of 10,000, sprang and Virginia was called, in compliment, 
into existence, and all the valuable land the fifth kingdom. On the death of 
was taken up. By subsequent proclama- Charles I. on the scaffold (1649), his son 
tions other lands were opened, and the Charles, heir to the throne, was in exile, 
bounds of the territory were extended un- Sir William Berkeley (q. v.), a stanch 
til, in 1891, it embraced 39,030 square miles, royalist, was then governor of Virginia, 
A large portion of Oklahoma, however, and a majority of the colony were in sym- 
remained under the occupancy of Indian pathy with him. He proclaimed that son, 
tribes, who were under the control of the '"' Charles the Second, King of England, 
Indian bureau, and received regular sup- Scotland, Ireland, and Virginia " ; and 
plies of clothing and food from the gov- when, in 1652, the Virginians heard that 
ernment. Among these tribes were about the republican government of England 
500 Sacs and Foxes, 400 Kickapoos, 2,000 was about to send a fleet to reduce them 
Cheyennes, and 1,200 Arapahoes. to submission, they sent a message to 
Oklahoma when settled was a richly Breda, in Flanders, where Charles then 
wooded country, except in the west, where resided, inviting him to come over and be 
there were extensive prairies. The climate King of Virginia. He was on the point of 
is delightful, and the soil fertile and well sailing for America, when circumstances 
adapted to agriculture. The first territo- foreshadowed his restoration to the throne 
rial governor was appointed by the Pres- of his father. When that act was accom- 
ident in 1890. The name Oklahoma means plished, the grateful monarch caused the 
" Beautiful Country." The Cherokee Strip arms of Virginia to be quartered with 
or Outlet towards Kansas was acquired those of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
from the Cherokee nation, and on Sept. as an independent member of the empire. 
16, 1893, it was opened to settlers. The From this circumstance Virginia received 
scenes attending the opening resembled the title of The Dominion. Coins with such 
those in 18S9 and 1891. Ninety thou- quarterings were struck as late as 1773. 
sand intending settlers registered, and Old Ironsides, a name given to the 
20,000, it was estimated, encamped on the frigate Constitution (q. v.). 
site selected for the chief town. The Old Probabilities, a title familiarly 
Strip contains about 6,000,000 acres, part given to the head of the United States 
of which is good farming land. On May weather bureau, first applied to Professor 
23, 1896, another great section of terri- Abbe by Gen. Albert J. Myer, the chief 
tory, called the Kiekapoo Strip, was signal-officer of the bureau. 

18 



OLD SOUTH CHURCH- OLIPHANT 

Old South Church, Boston. The oppo- tion in church and commonwealth." Be- 

sition to the requirement of church-mem- fore these disclosures Oldham had be- 

bership for the exercise of political rights haved with much insolence, abusing the 

(see Half-way Covenant) led to the es- governor and Captain Standish, calling 

tablishment, in 1669, of the " Third Church them " rebels and traitors," and, when 

in Boston," known as " The Old South " proved guilty, he attempted to excite a 

since 1717, of which Mr. Fiske says: "It mutiny on the spot. Lyford burst into 

is a building with a grander history than tears and confessed that he " feared he 

any other on the American continent, was a reprobate." Both were ordered to 

unless it be that other plain brick build- leave the colony, but Lyford, humbly 

ing in Philadelphia where the Declara- begging to stay, asking forgiveness and 

tion of Independence was adopted and the promising good behavior, was reinstated, 

federal Constitution framed." Oldham went to Nantasket, with some of 

Old Style, dates according to the his adherents, and engaged in traffic with 

Julian calendar, which was supplanted by the Indians. Lyford was soon detected 

the Gregorian calendar in 1582, but not again in seditious work and expelled from 

accepted by Great Britain until 1752. the colony. He joined Oldham. They 

Oldham, John, Pilgrim; born in Eng- afterwards lived at Hull and Cape Anne, 

land about 1600. In 1623 the Pilgrims, and Oldham represented Watertown in the 

regarding Robinson, in Holland, as their popular branch of the Massachusetts gov- 

pastor, and expecting him over, had no ernment in 1634. He made an exploring 

other spiritual guide than Elder Brewster, journey to the site of Windsor, on the 

Because of this state of things at Plym- Connecticut River, the next year, which 

outh, the London partners were taunted was followed by the emigration to that 

with fostering religious schism. To re- region in 1635. While in a vessel at 

lieve themselves of this stigma, they sent Block Island, in July, 1636, Oldham was 

a minister named Lyford to be pastor, murdered by some Indians, who fled to 

He was kindly received, and, with John the Pequods, on the mainland, and were 

Oldham, who went to Plymouth at about protected by them. This led to the war 

the same time, was invited to the consul- with the Pequod Indians (q. v.). 

tations of the governor with his council. Oldmixon, John, author; born in 

It was soon discovered that Lyford and Bridgewater, England, in 1673; and died 

Oldham were plotting treason against the in London, July 9, 1742. He was the 

Church and State. Several letters written author of The British Empire in Amer- 

by Lyford to the London partners, breath- ica (2 volumes), published in 1708. 

ing sedition, were discovered by Bradford Oligarchy. See Aristocracy. 

a3 they were about to be sent abroad. Olin, Stephen, clergyman; born in 

The governor kept quiet for a while, but Leicester, Vt., March 2, 1797; graduated 

when Lyford set up a separate congrega- at Middlebury College in 1820; became 

tion, with a few of the colonists whom he a Methodist clergyman in 1824; presi- 

had seduced, and held meetings on the dent of Randolph-Macon College in 1834; 

Sabbath, Bradford summoned a General president of Wesleyan University in 1839. 

Court (1624), before whom the offending He died in Middletown, Conn., Aug. 16, 

clergyman and his companions were ar- 1851. 

raigned on a charge of seditious corre- Oliphant, Laurence, author; born in 

spondence. They denied the accusation, Cape Town, Africa, in 1829. Lord Elgin 

when they were confronted by Lyford's let- made him his private secretary in 1853, 

ters, in which he defamed the settlers, ad- and in 1865 he was elected to Parliament, 

vised the London partners to prevent Rob- but he resigned in 1868 in obedience to 

inson and the rest of his congregation instructions from Thomas L. Harris, 

coming to America, as they would inter- leader of the Brotherhood of the New 

fere with his church schemes, and avowed Life a spiritualistic society of which both 

his intention of removing the stigma of Oliphant and his wife were members, 

schism by a regularly organized church. Among his publications are Minnesota, or 

A third conspirator had written that the Far West in 1855 ; and The Tender 

Lyford and Oldham " intended a reforma- Recollections of Irene Ma-cgillicuddy, a sa- 
VH. — B 17 



OLIVER— OLMSTEAD 



tire on American society. He died in 
Twickenham, England, Dec. 23, 1888. 

Oliver, Andrew, governor; born in 
Boston, March 28, 1706; graduated at 
Harvard in 1724; a representative in the 
General Court from 1743 to 174G; one of 
his Majesty's council from 1746 to 1765; 
secretary of the provincefrom 1756 to 1770; 
and succeeded Hutchinson (his brother-in- 
law) as lieutenant-governor. In 1765 he 
was hung in effigy because he was a stamp 
distributer, and his course in opposition 
to the patriotic party in Boston caused 
him to share the unpopularity of Hutchin- 
son. His letters, with those of Hutchin- 
son, were sent by Franklin to Boston, and 
created great commotion there. He died 
in Boston, March 3, 1774. See Hutchin- 
son, Thomas. 

Oliver, Benjamin Ltnde, author; born 
in Marblehead, Mass., in 1788; was ad- 
mitted to the bar. His publications in- 
clude The Rights of an American Cit- 
izen; Laio Summary; Forms of Practice, 
or American Precedents in Personal and 
Real Actions; Forms in Chancery, Ad- 
miralty, and Common Law, etc. He died 
in 1843. 

Oliver, Henry Kemele, musician ; born 
in Beverly, Mass., Nov. 24, 1800; gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1818; 
taught music for many years; elected 
mayor of Lawrence, Mass., 1859; State 
treasurer of Massachusetts, 1861; mayor 
of Salem, Mass., 1866. Mr. Oliver is best 
known as organist, director of choirs, 
and composer. He wrote Federal Street; 
Beacon Street, and many other well- 
known hymn-tunes, and published a num- 
ber of church tune - books. He died in 
Boston, Mass., Aug. 10, 1885. 

Oliver, Peter, author; born in Han- 
over, N. H, in 1822; studied law and be- 
gan practice in Suffolk county, Mass. He 
was the author of The Puritan Common- 
wealth: An Historical Review of the Puri- 
tan Government in Massachusetts in Us 
Civil and Ecclesiastical Relations, from 
its Rise to the Abrogation of the First 
Charter; together with some General Re- 
flections on the English Colonial Policy 
and on the Character of Puritanism. In 
this book, which revealed much literary 
skill as well as great learning, he em- 
phasized the unfavorable side of the 
Puritan character, and severely criticised 



the Puritan policy. He died at sea in 
1855. 

Oliver, Peter, jurist; born in Boston, 
Mass., March 26, 1713; was a brother 
of Andrew Oliver, and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1730. After holding several 
offices, he was made judge of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts in 1756, and in 
1771 chief-justice of that court. His 
course in Boston in opposition to the pa- 
triots made him very unpopular, and he 
was one of the crowd of loyalists who fled 
from that city with the British army in 
March, 1776. He went to England, where 
lie lived on a pension from the British 
crown. He was an able writer of both 
prose and poetry. Chief-Justice Oliver, on 
receiving his appointment, refused to ac- 
cept his salary from the colony, and was 
impeached by the Assembly and declared 
suspended until the issue of the impeach 
ment was reached. The Assembly of Mas 
sachusetts had voted the five judges of the 
Superior Court ample salaries from the 
colonial treasury, and called upon them to 
refuse the corrupting "pay from the crown. 
Only Oliver refused, and he shared the 
fate of Hutchinson. He died in Birming- 
ham, England, Oct. 13, 1791. 

Oliver, Robert, military officer; born 
in Boston, Mass., in 1738; served through 
the War of the Revolution, and was one of 
the earliest settlers in Ohio, locating in 
Marietta. He filled various State offices, 
and died in Marietta, O., in May, 1810. 

Oliver, Thomas, royal governor; born 
in Dorchester, Mass., Jan. 5, 1734; grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1753; succeeded 
Lieut.-Gov. Andrew Oliver (of another 
family) in March, 1774, and in September 
following was compelled by the people of 
Boston to resign. He took refuge with 
the British troops in Boston, and fled 
with them to Halifax in 1776, and thence 
to England. He died in Bristol, England, 
Nov. 29, 1815. 

Olmstead, Case of. During the Revo- 
lutionary War, Capt. Gideon Olmstead, 
with some other Connecticut men, was 
captured at sea by a British vessel and 
taken to Jamaica, where the captain and 
three others of the prisoners were com- 
pelled or persuaded to enter as sailors on 
the British sloop Active, then about to 
sail for New York with stores for the 
British there. When off the coast of 



18 



OLMSTED— OLITSTES STATION 



Delaware the captain and the other three 
Americans contrived to secure the rest of 
the crew and officers (fourteen in number) 
below the hatches. They then took pos- 
session of the vessel and made for Little 
Egg Harbor. A short time after, the 
Active was boarded by the sloop Conven- 
tion of Philadelphia, and, with the priva- 
teer Girard, cruising with her, was taken 
io Philadelphia. The prize was there 
libelled in the State court of admiralty. 
Here the two vessels claimed an equal 
share in the prize, and the court decreed 
one-fourth to the crew of the Convention, 
one-fourth to the State of Pennsylvania 
as owner of the Convention, one-fourth to 
the Girard, and the remaining one-fourth 
only to Olmstead and his three com- 
panions. Olmstead appealed to Congress, 
and the committee of appeals decided in 
his favor. The Pennsylvania court re- 
fused to yield, and directed the prize sold 
and the money paid into court to await 
its further order. This contest continued 
until 1809, when the authorities of Penn- 
sylvania offered armed resistance to the 
United States marshal at Philadelphia, 
upon which he called to his assistance a 
posse comitatus of 2,000 men. The mat- 
ter was, however, adjusted without an 
actual collision, and the money, amounting 
to $18,000, paid to the United States 
marshal. 

Olmsted, Dentson, scientist; born in 
East Hartford, Conn., June 18, 1791; 
graduated at Yale in 1813; taught in New 
London schools, Yale College, and the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. He published 
the Geological Survey of North Carolina; 
Text-books on Astronomy and Natural 
Philosophy ; and Astronomical Observa- 
tions in the Smithsonian Collections. He 
died in New Haven, Conn., May 13, 1859. 
I Olmsted, Frederick Law, landscape 
architect; born in Hartford, Conn., April 
26, 1822; chief designer (with Calvert 
Vaux) of Central Park, New York City, 
1857; and, with others, of many public 
parks in Brooklyn, Boston, Buffalo, Chi- 
cago (including World's Fair), Milwau- 
kee, Louisville, Washington, etc. He died 
in Waverly, Mass., Aug. 28, 1903. 

Olney, Jeremiah, military officer; born 
in Providence, R. I., in 1750; was made 
lieutenant-colonel at the beginning of the 
Revolutionary War (afterwards made 



colonel), and was often the chief officer 
of the Rhode Island forces. He fought 
conspicuously at Red Bank, Springfield, 
Monmouth, and Yorktown, and after the 
war he was collector of the port of Provi- 
dence, and president of the Rhode Island 
Society of Cincinnati. He died in Provi- 
dence, R. I., Nov. 10, 1812. 

Olney, Jesse, geographer; born in 
Union, Conn., Oct. 12, 1798; taught school 
for some 'years; then devoted himself to 
the preparation of text-books, geographies, 
a history of the United States, arithme- 
tics, readers, etc. He died in Stratford, 
Conn., July 31, 1872. 

Olney, Biciiard, lawyer; born in 
Oxford, Mass., Sept. 15, 1835; graduated 
at Brown University in 1856; admitted to 
the bar in 1859; member of the Massa- 
chusetts legislature; appointed United 
States Attorney-General by President 
Cleveland in 1893, and Secretary of State 
in 1895. 

Olney, Stephen, military officer; born 
in North Providence, R.I., in October, 1755 ; 
brother of Jeremiah Olney; entered the 
army as a lieutenant in his brother's com- 
pany in 1775, and served with distinction 
in several of the principal battles of the 
Revolutionary War. He served under La- 
fayette in Virginia, and was distinguished 
in the capture of a British redoubt at 
Yorktown during the siege, where he was 
severely wounded by a bayonet-thrust. 
Colonel Olney held many town offices, and 
for twenty years represented his native 
town in the Assembly. He died in North 
Providence, R. I., Nov. 23, 1832. 

Olustee Station, Battle at. Early in 
1864 the national government was in- 
formed that the citizens of Florida, tired 
of the war, desired a reunion with the 
national government. The President com- 
missioned his private secretary (John 
Hay) a major, and sent him to Charleston 
to accompany a military expedition which 
General Gillmore was to send to Florida, 
Hay to act in a civil capacity if required. 
The expedition was commanded by Gen. 
Truman Seymour, who left Hilton Head 
(Feb. 5, 1864) in transports with 6,000 
troops, and arrived at Jacksonville, Fla., 
on the 7th. Driving the Confederates from 
there, the Nationals pursued them into 
the interior. General Finnegan was in 
command of a considerable Confederate 



19 



OMAHA— OMAHA INDIANS 

force in Florida, and stoutly opposed this the best of the material resources of their 

movement. At Olustee Station, on a rail- commonwealths; and while art and music 

way that crossed the peninsula in the and all phases of the aesthetic were not 

heart of a cypress swamp, the Nationals neglected, it was the fine panorama »f the 

encountered Finnegan, strongly posted. A material West which afforded the most 

sharp battle occurred (Feb. 20), when interest. Cast in a different figure, this 

Seymour was repulsed and retreated to Trans-Mississippi Exposition was an epit- 

Jacksonville. The estimated loss to the ome of the wealth — and not only of the 

Nationals in this expedition was about wealth, but of the progress — of the great 

2,000 men; the Confederate loss, 1,000 men central region of the nation, 
and several guns. Seymour carried with One of the speakers at the opening of 

him about 1,000 of the wounded, and left the exposition put the progress of the re- 

250 on the field, besides many dead and gion in a nutshell when he made note of 

dying. The expedition returned to Hilton the fact that in the land where only fifty 

Head. The Nationals destroyed stores years ago the Indians wandered at will, 

valued at $1,000,000. At about the same there are now 22,000,000 people, with an 

time Admiral Bailey destroyed the Confed- aggregate wealth of $22,000,000,000. 
erate salt-works on the coast of Florida, Many of the States contributed liberally 

valued at $3,000,000. to the exposition in the way of suitable 

Omaha, the metropolis of Nebraska; buildings, while the general government 
county seat of Douglas county; military appropriated $200,000 for its building, and 
headquarters of the Department of the in it placed exhibits of great interest. 
Platte; has extensive machine, car, and The government took official notice of the 
repair shops, smelting and refining works, exposition by issuing a series of postage- 
large trade, seven national banks, and an stamps, from one cent to $2, inclusive, 
assessed property valuation of $101,256,- commemorative of the event. Over three 
290. Population in 1890, 140,452; in 1900, hundred millions of these stamps were 
102,555. The city was the seat of ordered for the first instalment. The de- 
the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. The signs on the stamps are appropriate to 
corner-stone of the exhibition was laid the great West and its progress, illustra- 
on Arbor Day, 1897, and the opening ting phases of pioneer life, 
ceremonies were held June 1, 1898. In The officers of the exposition were: Gor- 
the telegram which President McKinley don W. Wattles, president; Alvin Saunders, 
sent to the exposition, after setting resident vice-president; Herman Kountze, 
in motion its machinery, he paid a treasurer; John A. Wakefield, secretary; 
tribute, for which the success of this Major T. S. Clarkson, general manager, 
exposition will give warrant, when he said with an executive committee of seven, 
that nowhere have the unconquerable de- and vice-presidents for each of the twen- 
termination, the self-reliant strength, and ty-four Trans-Mississippi States. The 
the sturdy manhood of American citizen- exposition covered a tract of more than ' 
Bhip been more forcibly illustrated than in 200 acres, containing a water amphi- 
the achievements of the people from be- theatre and many handsome buildings, 
yond the Mississippi. Despite the fact that the country was at 

It would not be easy to estimate the war with Spain, the exposition was well 
value of such an exposition as this in attended and a great success in every way. 
illustrating to the nation at large the Omaha Indians, a tribe of Indians of 
immense resources of the region which the Dakota family. They are represented 
lies in the great Mississippi basin and in Marquette's map in 1673. They were 
contiguous to it. The exhibits of the divided into clans, and cultivated corn and 
mining, the manufacturing, the agricult- beans. One of their customs was to pro- 
ure, the forestry, the horticulture, the hibit a man from speaking to his father- 
commerce were an epitome of the business in-law and mother-in-law. They were re- 
of this vast region extending from the duced, about the year 1800, by small-pox, 
Canadian line to the Gulf of Mexico. The from a population capable of sending out 
States themselves, through appropriations, 700 warriors to about 300. They then 
provided the funds to show to the world burned their villages and became wander- 

20 



O'MAHONY— " ON TO RICHMOND I" 



ers. They were then relentlessly pursued 
by the Sioux. They had increased in num- 
ber, when Lewis and Clarke found them 
on the Quicoure in 1805, to about 600. 
They have from time to time ceded lands 
to the United States, and since 1855 have 
been settled, and have devoted themselves 
exclusively to agriculture. In 1899 they 
numbered 1,202, and were settled on the 
Omaha and Winnebago agency, in Ne- 
braska. 

O'Mahony, John Francis, Fenian 
leader; born in Kilkenny, Ireland, in 
1816; emigrated to the United States in 
1854; organized the Fenian Brotherhood 
in 1860; issued bonds of the Irish Repub- 
lic, which were purchased by his followers 
to the amount of nearly a million dollars. 
He died in New York City, Feb. 7, 1877. 

Omnibus Bill, The. The subject of the 
admission of California as a State of the 
Union, in 1850, created so much sectional 
ill-feeling that danger to the integrity of 
the Union was apprehended. Henry Clay, 
feeling this apprehension, offered a plan 
of compromise in the United States 
Senate, Jan. 29, 1850, in a series of 
resolutions, providing for the admission 
of California as a State; the organization 
of new territorial governments; fixing the 
boundary of Texas; declaring it to be in- 
expedient to abolish slavery in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia while that institution 
existed in Maryland, without the consent 
of the people of the District, and without 
just compensation to the owners of slaves 
within the District; that more effectual 
laws should be made for the restitution of 
fugitive slaves; and that Congress had no 
power to prohibit or obstruct the trade 
in slaves between the several States. Clay 
spoke eloquently in favor of this plan. 
Mr. Webster approved it, and Senator 
Foote, of Mississippi, moved that the 
whole subject be referred to a committee 
of thirteen — six Southern members and 
six Northern members — they to choose the 
thirteenth. This resolution was adopted 
April 18; the committee was appointed, 
and Mr. Clay was made chairman of it. 
On May 8, Mr. Clay reported a plan of 
compromise in a series of bills substantial- 
ly the same as that of Jan. 29. It was call- 
ed an " omnibus bill." Long debates en- 
sued, and on July 31 the whole batch was 
rejected except the proposition to establish 



a territory in the Mormon settlements in 
Deseret, called Utah. Then the com- 
promise measures contained in the omni- 
bus bill were taken up separately. In 
August a bill for the admission of Cali- 
fornia passed the Senate; also for provid- 
ing a territorial government for New 
Mexico. In September a fugitive slave 
bill passed the Senate; also a bill for the 
suppression of the slave-trade in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. All of these bills were 
adopted in the House of Representatives 
in September, and received the signature 
of President Fillmore. See Clay, Heney. 

" On to Richmond!" At the beginning 
of 1862 the loyal people became very 
impatient of the immobility of the im- 
mense Army of the Potomac, and from 
every quarter was heard the cry, " Push 
on to Richmond!" Edwin M. Stanton 
succeeded Mr. Cameron as Secretary of 
War, Jan. 13, 1862, and the President 
issued a general order, Jan. 27, in which 
he directed a general forward movement 
of all the land and naval forces on Feb. 
22 following. This order sent a thrill 
of joy through the heart of the loyal peo- 
ple, and it was heightened when an order 
directed McClellan to move against the 
inferior Confederate force at Manassas. 
McClellan remonstrated, and proposed to 
take his great army to Richmond by the 
circuitous route of Fort Monroe and the 
Virginia peninsula. The President finally 
yielded, and the movement by the longer 
route was begun. After the Confederates 
had voluntarily evacuated Manassas, the 
army was first moved in that direction, 
not, as the commander-in-chief said, to 
pursue them and take Richmond, but to 
give his troops " a little active experience 
before beginning the campaign." The 
'" promenade," as one of his French aides 
called it, disappointed the people, and the 
cry was resumed, " On to Richmond ! " 
The Army of the Potomac did not begin 
its march to Richmond until April. The 
President, satisfied that General McClel- 
lan's official burdens were greater than 
he could profitably bear, kindly relieved 
him of the chief care of the armies, 
and gave him, March 11, the command 
of only the Department of the Potomac. 

While Hooker and Lee were contending 
near Chancellorsville (q. v.), a great- 
er part of the cavalry of the Army of 



21 



u ON TO RICHMOND I"—" ON TO WASHINGTON !" 

the Potomac was raiding on the communi- Rapidan. For a while the opposing armies 
cations of Lee's army with Richmond, rested. Meade advanced cautiously, and 
Stoneman, with 10,000 men, at first per- at the middle of September he crossed 
formed this service. He rode rapidly, cross- the Rappahannock, and drove Lee beyond 
ing rivers, and along rough roads, and the Rapidan, where the latter took a 
struck the Virginia Central Railway near strong defensive position. Here ended 
Louisa Court-house, destroying much of it the race towards Richmond. Meanwhile 
before daylight. They were only slightly the cavalry of Buford and Kilpatrick 
opposed, and at midnight of May 2, 1863, had been active between the two rivers, 
the raiders were divided for separate work, and had frequent skirmishes with Stuart's 
On the morning of the 3d one party de- mounted force. Troops had been drawn 
stroyed canal - boats, bridges, and Con- from each army and sent to other fields 
federate supplies at Columbia, on the of service, and Lee was compelled to 
James River. Colonel Kilpatrick, with take a defensive position. His defences 
another party, struck the Fredericksburg were too strong for a prudent commander 
Railway at Hungary Station and destroy- to assail directly. See Richmond, Cam- 
ed the depot and railway there, and, paign against. 

sweeping down within 2 miles of Rich- " On to Washington!" The seizure of 
mond, captured a lieutenant and eleven the national capital, with the treasury and 
men within the Confederate works of that archives of the government, was a part 
capital. Then he struck the Virginia Cen- of the plan of the Confederates everywhere 
tral Railway at Meadows Bridge, on the and of the government at Montgomery. 
Chickahominy ; and thence pushed on, de- Alexander H. Stephens, the Vice-Presi- 
stroying Confederate property, to Glou- dent of the Confederacy, was sent by Jef- 
cester Point, on the York River. Another ferson Davis to treat with Virginia for its 
party, under Lieutenant - Colonel Davis, annexation to the league, and at various 
destroyed the station and railway at Han- points on his journey, whenever he made 
over Court-house, and followed the road speeches to the people, the burden was, " On 
to within 7 miles of Richmond, and also to Washington!" That cry was already re- 
pushed on to Gloucester Point. Another sounding throughout the South. It was an 
party, under Gregg and Buford, destroyed echo of the prophecy of the Confederate 
the railway property at Hanover Junction. Secretary of War. " Nothing is more 
They all returned to the Rappahannock probable," said the Richmond Inquirer, 
by May 8; but they had not effected the in 1861, "than that President Davis will 
errand they were sent upon — namely, the soon march an army through North Caro- 
complete destruction of Lee's communica- lina and Virginia to Washington " ; and 
tions with Richmond. it called upon Virginians who wished to 

Three days after General Lee escaped " join the Southern army " to organize at 
into Virginia, July 17-18, 1863, General once. "The first fruits of Virginia seces- 
Meade crossed the Potomac to follow his sion," said the New Orleans Picayune, on 
flying antagonist. The Nationals marched the 18th, " will be the removal of Lincoln 
rapidly along the eastern base of the Blue and his cabinet, and whatever he can 
Ridge, while the Confederates went rapidly carry away, to the safer neighborhood of 
up the Shenandoah Valley, after trying to Harrisburg or Cincinnati — perhaps to Buf- 
check Meade by threatening to re-enter falo or Cleveland." The Vicksburg (Miss.) 
Maryland. Failing in this, Lee hastened Whig of the 20th said: "Maj. Ben Mc- 
to oppose a movement that menaced his Culloch has organized a force of 5,000 men 
front and flank, and threatened to cut off to seize the Federal capital the instant 
his retreat to Richmond. During that ex- the first blood is spilled." On the evening 
citing race there were several skirmishes of the same day, when news of bloodshed 
in the mountain-passes. Finally Lee, by in Baltimore reached Montgomery (see 
a quick and skilfxil movement, while Meade Baltimore) , bonfires were built in front of 
was detained at Manassas Gap by a heavy the Exchange Hotel, and from its balcony 
skirmish, dashed through Chester Gap, Roger A. Pryor, of Virginia, in a speech 
and, crossing the Rappahannock, took a to the multitude, said that he was in " favor 
position between that stream and the of an immediate march on Washington." 

22 



" ON TO WASHINGTON !»— ONEIDA 



At the departure of the 2d Regi- 
ment of South Carolina Infantry for 
Richmond, the colonel, as he handed 
the flag just presented to it to the color- 
sergeant, said: " To your particular charge 
is committed this noble gift. Plant it 
where honor calls. If opportunity offers, 
let it be the first to kiss the breezes of 
heaven from the dome of the Capitol at 
Washington." The Richmond Examiner 
said, on April 23 — the day when Stephens 
arrived in that city: "The capture of 
Washington City is perfectly within the 
power of Virginia and Maryland, if Vir- 
ginia will only make the proper effort 
by her constituted authorities. There 
never was half the unanimity among the 
people before, nor a tithe of the zeal upon 
any subject that is now manifested to 
take Washington ard drive from it every 
Black Republican who is a dweller there. 
From the mountain-tops and valleys to the 
shores of the sea there is one wild shout 
of fierce resolve to capture Washington 
City at all and every human hazard." 

On the same day Governor Ellis, of 
North Carolina, ordered a regiment of 
State troops to march for Washington; 
and the Goldsboro (N. C.) Tribune of the 
24th, speaking of the grand movement of 
Virginia and a rumored one in Maryland, 
said: " It makes good the words of Secre- 
tary Walker, of Montgomery, in regard 
to the Federal metropolis. It transfers 
the lines of battle from the Potomac to 
the Pennsylvania border." The Raleigh 
(N. C.) Standard of the same date said: 
" Our streets are alive with soldiers " 
(North Carolina was then a professedly 
loyal State); and added, "Washington 
City will be too hot to hold Abraham Lin- 
coln and his government. North Carolina 
has said it, and she will do all she can to 
make good her declaration." The Eufaula 
(Ala.) Express said, on the 25th: "Our 
policy at this time should be to seize the 
old Federal capital, and take old Lincoln 
and his cabinet prisoners of war." The 
Milledgeville (Ga.) Southern Recorder 
said: "The government of the Confeder- 
ate States must possess the city of Wash- 
ington. It is folly to think it can be used 
any longer as the headquarters of the Lin- 
coln government, as no access can be had 
to it except by passing through Virginia 
and Maryland. The District of Columbia 



cannot remain under the jurisdiction of 
the United States Congress without humil- 
iating Southern pride and disputing 
Southern rights. Both are essential to 
gieatness of character, and both must co- 
operate in the destiny to be achieved." A 
correspondent of the Charleston Courier, 
writing from Montgomery, said : " The de- 
sire for taking Washington, I believe, in- 
creases every hour; and all things, to my 
thinking, seem tending to this consumma- 
tion. We are in lively hope that before 
three months roll by the [Confederate] 
government — Congress, departments, and 
all — will have removed to the present Fed- 
eral capital." Hundreds of similar ex- 
pressions were uttered by Southern poli- 
ticians and Southern newspapers; and 
Alexander H. Stephens brought his logic 
to bear upon the matter in a speech at At- 
lanta, Ga., April 30, 1861, in the follow- 
ing manner : " A general opinion prevails 
that Washington City is soon to be at- 
tacked. On this subject I can only say, 
our object is peace. We wish no aggres- 
sions on any man's rights, and will make 
none. But if Maryland secedes, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia will fall to her by re- 
versionary right — the same as Sumter to 
South Carolina, Pulaski to Georgia, and 
Pickens to Florida. When we have the 
right, we will demand the surrender of 
Washington, just as we did in the other 
cases, and will enforce our demand at ev- 
ery hazard and at whatever cost." At the 
same time went forth from the free-labor 
States, "On to Washington!" for its pres- 
ervation; and it was responded to effectu- 
ally by hundreds of thousands of loyal 
citizens. 

Onderdonk, Henry, author; born in 
North Hempstead, N. Y., June 11, 1804; 
graduated at Columbia in 1827. Among 
his publications are Revolutionary His- 
tories of Queens; Neio York; Suffolk; 
and Kings Counties; Long Island and 
New York in the Olden Times; The An- 
nals of Hempstead, N. Y., etc. He died 
in Jamaica, N. Y., June 22, 1886. 

Oneida, The. The first warlike meas- 
ure of the Americans previous to the hos- 
tilities begun in 1812 was the construction, 
at Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., of the brig 
Oneida, 16 guns, by Christian Berg and 
Henry Eckford. She was launched in 
1809, and was intended for a twofold pur- 



23 



ONEIDA COMMUNITY— ONONDAGA INDIANS 

pose — to enforce the revenue laws under titude they were largely held by the in- 
the embargo act, and to be in readiness fluence of Samuel Kirkland, a Protestant 
to defend American property afloat on missionary, and Gen. Philip Schuyler. 
Lake Ontario in case of war with Great Because of this attitude they were sub- 
Britain. Her first duty in that line was jected to great losses by the ravages of 
performed in 1812, when she was com- Tories and their neighbors, for which the 
manded by Lieut. Melancthon T. Woolsey. United States compensated them by a 
The schooner Lord Nelson, laden with treaty in 1794. They had previously ceded 
flour and merchandise, and owned by their lands to the State of New York, 
British subjects at Niagara, was found in reserving a tract, now in Oneida county, 
American waters in May, 1812, on her where some of them still remain. They 
way to Kingston, and was captured by the had been joined by the Stockbridge and 
Oneida and condemned as lawful prize. Brotherton Indians. Some of them emi- 
About a month later (June 14) another grated to Canada, and settled on the 
British schooner, the Ontario, was capt- Thames; and in 1821 a large band pur- 
ured at St. Vincent, but was soon dis- chased a tract on Green Bay, Wis. They 
charged. At about the same time still an- have all advanced in civilization and the 
other offending schooner, the Niagara, was mechanic arts, as well as in agriculture, 
seized and sold as a violator of the and have schools and churches. In 1899 
revenue laws. These events soon led to there were 270 Oneidas at the New York 
retaliation. agency, and 1,945 at the Green Bay 

Oneida Community. See Notes, John agency. 
Humphreys. O'Neill, John, military officer; born in 

Oneida Indians, the second of the five Ireland in 1834; served in the National 
nations that composed the original Iro- army during the Civil War; commanded 
quois Confederacy (q. v.). Their domain a force of 1,200 Fenians who invaded Can- 
extended from a point east of Utica to ada in 1866, most of whom were arrested 
Deep Spring, near Manlius, south of by the United States authorities. He 
Syracuse, in Onondaga county, N. Y. again invaded Canada in 1870, was capt- 
Divided into three clans — the Wolf, Bear, ured and imprisoned. He died in Omaha, 
and Turtle — their tribal totem was a stone Neb., Jan. 7, 1878. 

in a forked stick, and their name meant Onondaga Indians, the third nation 
"tribe of the granite rock." Tradition of the Iroquois Confederacy; their name 
says that when the great confederacy was means " men of the great mountain." Tra- 
formed, Hiawatha said to them: "You, dition says that at the formation of the 
Oneidas, a people who recline your bodies confederacy Hiawatha said to them: "You, 
against the ' Everlasting Stone,' that can- Onondagas, who have your habitation at 
not be moved, shall be the second nation, the ' Great Mountain,' and are overshad- 
because you give wise counsel." Very soon owed by its crags, shall be the third 
after the settlement of Canada they be- nation, because you are greatly gifted 
came involved in wars with the French with speech, and are mighty in war." 
and their Huron and Montagnais allies. Their seat of government, or " castle," 
In 1653 they joined their neighbors, the was in the hill country southward from 
Onondagas, in a treaty of peace with the Syracuse, where was the great council- 
French, and received missionaries from fire of the confederacy, or meeting - place 
the latter. At that time they had been of their congress. The Atatarho, or great 
so reduced by war with southern tribes sachem of the tribe, was chosen to be 
that they had only 150 warriors. In the the first president of the confederacy, 
general peace with the French, in 1700, They were divided into fourteen clans, 
they joined their sister nations; and when with a sachem for each clan, and their 
the Revolutionary War was kindling they domain extended from Deep Spring, near 
alone, of the then Six Nations in the great Manlius, Onondaga co., west to a line 
council, opposed an alliance with the Eng- between Cross and Otter lakes. This na- 
lish. tion carried on war with the Indians 

They remained faithful to the English- in Canada, and also with the French, 

American colonists to the end. In this at- after their advent on the St. Lawrence; 

24 



ONONDAGA INDIANS— ONTARIO 




AN ONONDAGA COUNCIL. 



and they were prominent in the destruc- was weakened, and finally, in 1777, the 
tion of the Hurons. In 1653 they made council-fire at Onondaga (as the confed- 
peace with the French, and received Jesuit erate government was familiarly called) 
missionaries among them. The peace was was formally extinguished. The Onon- 
not lasting, and in 1662 a large force of dagas joined the English, and the war 
Onondagas ravaged Montreal Island. They left them helpless, and in 1778 they ceded 
again made peace, and in 1668 the French all their lands to the State of New York, 
mission was re-established. except a reservation set apart for their 
As the English extended their influence remnant, which they continue to hold, 
among the Five Nations, the Iroquois were In 1899 they numbered 549. There are 
won to their interest, and the Onondagas about 400 Onondagas in Canada, making- 
permitted them to erect a fort in their the total number of the once powerful 
domain; but when, in 1696, Frontenac nation less than 1,000. It is said that 
invaded their territory, the Onondagas the Onondaga dialect is the purest one 
destroyed the fort and their village, and of the Iroquois. 

returned to the forests. The French sent Ontario, Lake, Operations on. Com- 
deputies to the Onondaga sachems, and modore Isaac Chauncey was in command 
then, in 1700, signed the general treaty of a little squadron of armed schooners, 
of peace at Montreal. This was broken hastily prepared, on Lake Ontario late 
in 1709, when the Onondagas again made in 1812. The vessels were the Oneida (his 
war on the French, and were alternately flag- ship), Conquest, Growler, Pert, 
hostile and neutral towards them until Scourge, Governor Tompkins, and Hamil- 
the overthrow of the French power, in ton. He sailed from Sackett's Harbor 
1763. When the war for independence (Nov. 8) to intercept the British squad- 
was kindling, a general council of the ron, under Commodore Earl, returning to 
confederacy was held at Onondaga Castle. Kingston from Fort George, on the Niag- 
The Oneidas and Tuscaroras opposed an ara River, whither they had conveyed 
alliance with the English, and each na- troops and prisoners. Chauncey took 
tion was left to act as it pleased in the his station near the False Ducks, a group 
matter. By this decision the confederacy of islands nearly due west from Sackett'3 

25 



ONTARIO, LAKE, OPERATIONS ON 

Harbor. On the afternoon of Nov. 9 he of a cannon. He would not leave the 
fell in with Earl's flag-ship, the Royal deck, and was knocked overboard and 
George. He chased her into the Bay of drowned. 

Quint6, where he lost sight of her in After the capture of Fort George Chaun- 
the darkness of night. On the following cey crossed the lake, looked into York, 
morning (Nov. 10) he captured and burn- and then ran for Kingston without meet- 
ed a small armed schooner, and soon after- ing a foe. He retired to Sackett's Harbor, 
wards espied the Royal George making where he urged forward the completion 
her way towards Kingston. Chauncey of a new corvette, the General Pike, 26 
gave chase with most of his squadron guns. She was launched June 12, 1813, 
(which had been joined by the Julia), and placed in command of Capt. Arthur 
and followed her into Kingston Harbor, Sinclair. It was late in the summer be- 
where he fought her and five land-batter- fore she was ready for a cruise. Mean- 
ies for almost an hour. These batteries while, the keel of a fast-sailing schooner 
were more formidable than he supposed, was laid by Eckford at Sackett's Harbor, 
A brisk breeze having arisen, and the and named the Sylph, and a small vessel 
night coming on, Chauncey withdrew and was kept constantly cruising, as a scout, 
anchored. The next morning the breeze off Kingston, to observe the movements 
had become almost a gale, and Chauncey of the British squadron there. This little 
weighed anchor and stood out lakeward. vessel (Lady of the Lake) captured the 
The Tompkins (Lieutenant Brown), the British schooner Lady Murray (June 16), 
Hamilton (Lieutenant McPherson), and laden with provisions, shot, and fixed 
Julia (Sailing-master Trant) chased the ammunition, and took her into the har- 
Simcoe over a reef of rocks (Nov. 11), bor. Sir James L. Yeo was in command 
and riddled her so that she sank before of the British squadron on the lake. He 
she reached Kingston. Soon afterwards made a cruise westward, and on July 7 
the Hamilton captured a large schooner appeared with his squadron off Niagara, 
from Niagara. This prize was sent past Chauncey and Scott had just returned 
Kingston with the Growler (Sailing-mas- from the expedition to York. Chauncey 
ter Mix), with a hope of drawing out immediately went out and tried to get 
the Royal George; but Chauncey had so the weather-gage of Sir James. He had 
bruised her that she was compelled to thirteen vessels, but only three of them 
haul on shore to keep from sinking. A had been originally built for war pur- 
number of her crew had been killed, poses. His squadron consisted of the 
The wind had increased to a gale on the Pike, Madison, Oneida, Hamilton, Scourge, 
nights of the 11th and 12th, and during Ontario, Fair American, Governor Tomp- 
the nio-ht of the 12th there was a snow- kins, Conquest, Growler, Julia, Asp, and 
storm. Undismayed by the fury of the Pert. The British squadron now consist- 
elements, Chauncey continued his cruise, ed of two ships, two brigs, and two large 
for his heart was set on gaining the su- schooners. These had all been consti'ucted 
premacy of the Lakes. Learning that for war, and were very efficient in arma- 
the Earl of Moira was off the Keal Ducks ment and shields. The belligerents ma- 
Islands, he attempted to capture her. She roeuvred all day, and when at sunset a 
was on the alert and escaped, but a dead calm fell they took to sweeps. When 
schooner that she was convoying was darkness came, the American squadron 
made captive. On the same day Chauncey was collected by signal. The wind finally 
saw the Royal George and two other armed freshened, and at midnight was blowing 
vessels, but they kept out of his way. a fitful gale. Suddenly a rushing sound 
In this short cruise he captured three was heard astern of most of the fleet, and 
merchant vessels, destroyed one armed it was soon ascertained that the Hamil- 
schooner, disabled the British flag-ship, ton and Scourge had disappeared. They 
and took several prisoners, with a loss, had been capsized by a terrible squall, 
on his part, of one man killed and four and all of the officers and men, excepting 
wounded. Among the latter was Sailing- sixteen of the latter, had perished. These 
master Arundel, commander of the Pert, two vessels carried nineteen guns between 
who was badly injured by the bursting them. All the next day the squadrons 

26 



ONTARIO, LAKE, OPERATIONS ON 



manoeuvred for advantage, and towards 
evening Chauncey ran into the Niagara 
River. All that night the lake was swept 
by squalls. On the morning of the 9th 
Chauncey went out to attack Sir James, 
and the day was spent in fruitless manoeu- 
vres. At six o'clock on the 10th, having 
the weather-gage, Chauncey formed his 
fleet in battle order, and a conflict seemed 
imminent; but his antagonist being un- 
willing to fight, the day was spent as 
others had been. Towards midnight there 
was a contest, when the Growler and 
Julia, separating from the rest of the 
fleet, were captured. Returning to Sack- 
ett's Harbor, Chauncey prepared for an- 
other cruise with eight vessels. Making 
but a short cruise, on account of sickness 
prevailing in the fleet, he remained in the 
harbor until Aug. 28, when he went out 
in search of his antagonist. He first saw 
him on Sept. 7, and for a week tried to 
get him into action, but Sir James strict- 
ly obeyed his instructions to " risk noth- 
ing." On the 11th Chauncey bore down 
upon Sir James off the mouth of the 
Genesee River, and they had a running 
fight for three hours. The Pike was 
somewhat injured, but the British vessels 
suffered most. The latter fled to King- 
ston, and Chauncey went 
into Sackett's Harbor. On 
the 18th he sailed for the 
Niagara for troops, and 
was chased by Yeo. After a 
few days Chauncey cross- 
ed over to York with the 
Pike, Madison, and Sylph, 
where the British fleet lay, 
when the latter fled, fol- 
lowed by the American 
vessels in battle order. 
The baronet was now com- 
pelled to fight or stop 
boasting of unsatisfied de- 
sires to measure strength 
with the Americans. An 
action commenced at a 
little past noon, and the 
Pike sustained the desper- 
ate assaults of the heavi- 
est British vessels for twenty min 
utes, at the same time delivering destruC' 
tive broadsides upon her foes. She was 
assisted by the Tompkins, Lieutenant 
Finch; and when the smoke of battle 



floated away it was found that the Wolfe 
(Sir James's flag-ship) was too much in- 
jured to continue the conflict any longer. 
She pushed away dead before the wind, 
gallantly protected by the Royal George. 
A general chase towards Burlington Bay 
immediately ensued. Chauncey could 
doubtless have captured the whole British 
fleet, but a gale was threatening, and 
there being no good harbors on the coast, 
if he should be driven ashore certain 
capture by land troops would be the con- 
sequence. So he called off his ships and 
returned to the Niagara, where he lay 
two days while a gale was skurrying 
over the lake. The weather remaining 
thick after the gales, Sir James left Bur- 
lington Bay for Kingston. Chauncey was 
returning to Sackett's Harbor, whither 
all his transports bearing troops had gone, 
and at sunset, Oct. 5, when pear the 
Ducks, the Pike captured three British 
transports — the Confiance, Hamilton (the 
Growler and Julia with new names), and 
Mary. The Sylph captured the cutter 
Drummond and the armed transport Lady 
Gore. The number of prisoners captured 
on these five vessels was 264. Among the 
prisoners were ten array officers. Sir James 
remained inactive in Kingston Harbor 




DESTRUCTION AT BODC8 BAY. 

during the remainder of the season, and 
Chauncey was busied in watching his 
movements and assisting the army in its 
descent of the St. Lawrence. He did not, 
however, sufficiently blockade Kingston 



27 



ONTARIO— OPECHANCANOUGH 



Harbor to prevent marine scouts from slip- 
ping out and hovering near Wilkinson's 
flotilla on the St. Lawrence. 

A British squadron on the lake hovered 
along its southern shores in the summer 
ot 1813 and seriously interfered with sup- 
plies on their way to the American camp 
on the Niagara. They captured (June 12, 
1813) two vessels laden with hospital 
stores at Eighteen-mile Creek, eastward 
of the Niagara River. They made a de- 
scent upon the village of Charlotte, situ- 
ated at the mouth of the Genesee River, 
on the 15th, and carried off a large quan- 
tity of stores. On the 18th they appeared 
off Sodus Bay, and the next evening an 
armed party, 100 strong, landed at Sodus 
Point for the purpose of destroying Amer- 
ican stores known to have been deposited 
there. These had been removed to a place 
of concealment a little back of the village. 
The invaders threatened to destroy the 
village if the hiding-place of the stores 
was not revealed. The women and chil- 
dren fled from their homes in alarm. A 
negro, compelled by threats, gave the de- 
sired information ; and they were march- 
ing in the direction of the stores when 
they were confronted at a bridge over a 
ravine by forty men under Captain Turner. 
A sharp skirmish ensued. The British 
were foiled, and as they returned to their 
vessels they burned the public storehouses, 
five dwellings, and a hotel. The property 
destroyed at Sodus was valued at $25,000. 
The marauders then sailed eastward, and 
looked into Oswego Harbor, but Sir James 
Yeo, their cautious commander, did not 
venture to go in. 

Chauncey was unable to accomplish 
much with his squadron during 1814. 
Early in the season he was taken sick, 
and in July his squadron was blockaded 
at Sackett's Harbor, and it was the last 
of that month before it was ready for sea. 
On the 31st Chauncey was carried, in a 
convalescent state, on board the Superior 
(his flag-ship), and the squadron sailed 
on a cruise. It blockaded the harbor of 
Kingston, and Chauncey vainly tried to 
draw out Sir James Yeo for combat. At 
the close of September Chauncey was in- 
formed that the St. Lawrence, pierced for 
112 guns, which had been built at Kings- 
ton, was ready for sea, when the commo- 
dore prudently raised the blockade and 



returned to Sackett's Harbor. The St. Law- 
icnce sailed in October with more than 
1,000 men, accompanied by other vessels 
of war; and with this big ship Sir James 
was really lord of the lake. The Amer- 
icans determined to match the St. Laiv- 
rcnce, and at Sackett's Harbor the keels 
of two first-class frigates were laid. One 
of them was partly finished when peace 
was proclaimed, early in 1815. Chaun- 
cey expected that Yeo would attack 
his squadron in the harbor, but he did 
not; and when the lake was closed by 
ice the war had ended on the northern 
frontier. 

Opechancanough, brother of Powhat- 
an, was " King of Pamunkey " when the 
English first landed in Virginia. He was 
born about 1552, and died in 1644. He 
first became known to the English as the 
captor of John Smith in the forest. Ope- 
chancanough would have killed him imme- 
diately, but for Smith's presence of mind. 
He drew from his pocket a compass, and 
explained to the savage as well as he could 
its wonderful nature ; told him of the form 
of the earth and the stars — how the sun 
chased the night around the earth con- 
tinually. Opechancanough regarded him as 
a superior being, and women and children 
stared at him as he passed from village 
to village to the Indian's capital, until 
he was placed in the custody of Pow- 
hatan. Opechancanough attended the mar- 
riage of his niece, Pocahontas, at James- 
town. After the death of his brother 
(1019) he was lord of the empire, and 
immediately formed plans for driving the 
English out of his country. 

Gov. Sir Francis Wyatt brought the 
constitution with him, and there was evi- 
dence of great prosperity and peace every- 
where. But just at that time a fearful 
cloud of trouble was brooding. Opechan- 
canough could command about 1,500 war- 
riors. He hated _the English bitterly, 
and inspired his people with the same 
feeling, yet he feigned friendship for them 
until a plot for their destruction was per- 
fected. 

Believing the English intended to seize 
his domains, his patriotism impelled him 
to strike a blow. In an affray with &< set- 
tler, an Indian leader was shot, and the 
wily emperor made it the occasion for in- 
flaming the resentment of his people 



28 



OPECHANCANOUGH— OPEQUAJf 



against the English. He visited the gov- 
ernor in war costume, bearing in his belt 
a glittering hatchet, and demanded some 
concessions for his incensed people. It 
was refused, and, forgetting himself for 
a moment, he snatched the hatchet from 
his belt and struck its keen blade into a 
log of the cabin, uttering a curse upon 
the English. Instantly recovering himself, 
he smiled, and said : '* Pardon me, govern- 
or; I was thinking of that wicked Eng- 
lishman (see Argall, Samuel) who stole 
my niece and struck me with his sword. 
I love the English who are the friends 
of Powhatan. Sooner will the skies fall 
than that my bond of friendship with the 
English shall be dissolved." Sir Francis 
warned the people that treachery was 
abroad. They did not believe it. They so 
trusted the Indians that they had taught 
them to hunt with fire-arms. 

A tempest suddenly burst upon them. 
On April 1 (March 22, O. S.), 1622, the 
Indians rushed from the forests upon all 
the remote settlements, at a preconcerted 
time, and in the space of an hour 350 men, 
women, and children were slain. At Hen- 
rico, the devoted Thorpe, who had been 
like a father to the children and the sick 
of the savages, was slain. Six members of 
the council and several of the wealthier 
inhabitants were made victims of the 
treachery. 

On the very morning of the massacre 
the Indians ate at the tables of those 
whom they intended to murder at noon. 
The people of Jamestown were saved by 
Chanco, a Christian Indian, who gave 
them timely warning, and enabled them to 
prepare for the attack. Those on remote 
plantations who survived beat back the 
savages and fled to Jamestown. In the 
course of a few days eighty of the in- 
habited plantations were reduced to eight. 
A large part of the colony were saved, and 
these waged an exterminating war. They 
struck such fearful retaliating blows that 
the Indians were beaten back into the 
forest, and death and desolation were 
spread over the peninsula between the 
York and James rivers. The emperor fled 
to the land of the Pamunkeys, and by a 
show of cowardice lost much of his influ- 
ence. The power of the confederacy was 
broken. Before the war there were 6,000 
Indians within 60 miles of Jamestown; 



at its close there were, probably, not 1,000 
within the territory of 8,000 square miles. 
The colony, too, was sadly injured in 
number and strength. A deadly hostility 
between the races continued for more than 
twenty years. Opechancanough lived, and 
had been nursing his wrath all that time, 
prudence alone restraining him from war. 
His malice remained keen, and his thirst 
for vengeance was terrible. 

When, in 1643, Thomas Rolfe, son of 
his niece Pocahontas, came from England, 
and with Cleopatra, his mother's sister, 
visited the aged emperor, and told him of 
the civil war between the English factions, 
the old emperor concluded it was a favor- 
able time for him to strike another blow 
for his country. He was then past ninety 
years of age, and feeble in body. He sent 
runners through his empire. A confed- 
eration of the tribes for the extermination 
of the English was formed, and the day 
fixed to begin the work in the interior and 
carry it on to the sea. Early in April, 
1644, they began the horrid work. The old 
emperor was carried on a litter borne by 
his warriors. In the space of two days 
they slew more than 300 of the settlers, 
sparing none who fell in their way. The 
region between the Pamunkey and York 
rivers was almost depopulated. Governor 
Berkeley met the savages with a com- 
petent armed force, and drove them back 
with great slaughter. Opechancanough 
was made a prisoner, and carried in 
triumph to Jamestown. He was so much 
exhausted that he could not raise his eye- 
lids, and in that condition he was fatally 
wounded by a bullet from the gun of an 
English soldier who guarded him, and who 
had suffered great bereavements at the 
hands of the savages. The people, curious, 
gathered around the dying emperor. 
Hearing the hum of a multitude, he asked 
an attendant to raise his eyelids. When 
he saw the crowd he haughtily demanded 
a visit from the governor. Berkeley came, 
when the old man said, with indignation, 
" Had it been my fortune to have taken 
Sir William Berkeley prisoner, I would 
not meanly have exposed him as a show 
to my people." He then stretched him- 
self upon the earth and died. 

Open Door. See China and the 
Powers. 

Opequan, Battle of. See Winchester. 



29 



ORANGE— ORDERS IN COUNCIL 



Orange, Foet, a defensive- work at employed in coast-survey duty, when he 
Albany, N. Y. In 1614 Captain Chris- was sent to California. He took part in 
tiansen, who, in the interest of trade, expeditions against the Indians, and, in 
went up the Hudson River to the head of September, 18G1, was made brigadier-gen- 
navigation, built a fortified trading-house eral of volunteers, commanding a brigade 
on an island just below the site of Albany, of the Pennsylvania Reserves near the 
which he called Castle Island. The spring Potomac. In May, 1862, he was made 
floods made the place untenable, and in major-general of volunteers, and ordered 
1617 a new fort was built at the mouth to the Army of the Mississippi, where he 
of the Tawasentha ("place of many did good service while in command at 
dead"), or Norman's Kill, on the west Corinth. He commanded the 13th Army 
side of the river. There a treaty of Corps at the siege and capture of Jackson 
friendship and alliance was made with the and Vicksburg. In the campaign against 
Five Nations, the first ever made between Richmond, in 1864, he commanded the 
the Indians and Hollanders. The situa- 18th Corps from July to September, when 
tion of the new fort proving to be in- he was severely wounded in the assault on 
convenient, a more permanent fortification Fort Harrison. He commanded the De- 
was built a few miles farther north, and partment of Virginia from January to 
called Fort Orange, in compliment to the June, 1865, and was a participant in the 
Stadtholder, or chief magistrate, of Hoi- capture of Lee's army in April. General 
land. Some of the Walloons settled there, Ord was brevetted major-general in the 
and held the most friendly relations with United States army, and commissioned 
the Indians. Near the fort Kilian Van a brigadier-general, July 26, 1866; and 
Rensselaer, a wealthy pearl merchant of was retired Dec. 6, 1880. He died in 
Amsterdam, purchased from the Indians a Havana, Cuba, July 22, 1883. 
large tract of land in 1630, sent over a col- Orders in Council. On Nov. 6, 1793, 
ony to settle upon it, and formed the " Col- a British Order in Council was issued, but 
onie of Rensselaerswyck." A settlement was not made public until the end of the 
soon grew around Fort Orange, and so the year, directing British cruisers to stop, 
foundations of Albany (q. v.) were laid, detain, and bring in for legal adjudication 
Ord, Edward Otho Ceesap, military all ships laden with goods the production 
officer; born in Cumberland, Md., Oct. of any French colony, or carrying pro* 

visions or other supplies for the use of 
such colony. The order, which was cal- 
culated to destroy all neutral trade with 
the French colonies, even that which had 
been allowed in times of peace, was issued 
simultaneously with the despatch of a 
great expedition for the conquest of the 
French West Indies. Martinique, Guada- 
loupe, and St. Lucia all fell into the hands 
of the English. The news of the British 
order produced great excitement at Phila- 
delphia, where Congress was in session, 
and public feeling against Great Britain 
ran high. It was manifested in and out 
of Congress by debates and discussions, 
and while these were in progress the feel- 
ing against the British was intensified by 
the publication in New York papers of 
what purported to be a speech of Lord 
Dorchester to a certain Indian deputation 
from a late general council at the Maumee 
18, 1818; graduated at West Point in Rapids, in which he suggested the prob- 
1839, entering the 3d Artillery. He was ability of a speedy rupture between the 
in the Seminole War, and in 1845-46 was United States and Great Britain. 

Id 




EDWARD OTHO CRESAP ORD. 



ORDERS IN COUNCIL— ORDINANCE OF 1787 



The British order and Dorchester's 
speech caused resolutions to be introduced 
by Sedgwick, March 12, 1794, into the 
House of Representatives for raising 
fifteen regiments of 1,000 men each, for 
two years, and the passage of a joint res- 
olution, March 26, laying an embargo for 
thirty days, afterwards extended thirty 
days longer, having in view the obstruct- 
ing of the supply of provisions to the 
British fleet and army in the West Indies. 
Sedgwick's resolutions were rejected, but 
a substitute was passed suggesting a draft 
of militia. It was proposed to detach 
from this body 80,000 minute-men, enlist 
a regiment of artillery, and raise a stand- 
ing force of 25,000 men. While debates 
were going on, news came that a second 
Order in Council had been issued, Jan. 
8, 1794, superseding that of Nov. 6, re- 
stricting the capture of French produce in 
neutral vessels to cases in which the prod- 
uce belonged to Frenchmen, or the vessel 
was bound for France; also, that no 
confiscations were to take place under the 
first order. This allayed the bitterness 
of feeling in the United States against 
Great Britain. 

In 1807 and 1810 Orders in Council were 
issued to meet the effects of the French 
decrees (Berlin and Milan). These re- 
mained in force, and bore heavily upon 
American commerce until after the dec- 
laration of war in 1812. Joel Barlow, 
who had been appointed American ambas- 
sador to France in 1811, had urged the 
French government to revoke the decrees 
as to the Americans. This was done, 
April 28, 1811, and a decree was issued 
directing that, in consideration of the re- 
sistance of the United States to the Orders 
in Council, the Berlin and Milan decrees 
were to be considered as not having exist- 
ed, as to American vessels, since Nov. 1, 
1810. Barlow forwarded this decree to 
Russell, American minister at the British 
Court. It arrived there just in time to 
second the efforts of the British manu- 
facturers, who were pressing the govern- 
ment for a revocation of the Orders in 
Council. A new ministry, lately seated, 
being in danger of the desertion of a por- 
tion of their supporters, yielded, and on 
June 23, 1812, they revoked the orders 
of 1807 and 1810, with a proviso, how- 
ever, for their renewal in case the United 



States government, after due notice, should 
still persist in its non-importation and 
other hostile acts. Efforts were imme- 
diately made by both governments for a 
settlement of existing difficulties, but 
failed. The British minister (Lord Castle- 
reagh) declined to make any stipulation, 
formal or informal, concerning impress- 
ments. The war finally proceeded on the 
matter of impressments alone. See Berlin 
Decree ; Embargo Acts. 

Ordinance of 1787. The title of this 
important act of Congress is " An ordi- 
nance for the government of the territory 
of the United States northwest of the 
River Ohio," and the text is as follows: 

Be it ordained by the United States in 
Congress assembled, that the said terri- 
tory, for the purposes of temporary gov- 
ernment, be one district, subject, however, 
to be divided into two districts, as future 
circumstances may, in the opinion of Con- 
gress, make it expedient. 

Be it ordained by the authority afore- 
said, that the estates, both of resident 
and non-resident proprietors in the said 
territory, dying intestate, shall descend 
to, and be distributed among, their chil- 
dren, and the descendants of a deceased 
child, in equal parts; the descendants of 
a deceased child or grandchild to take the 
share of their deceased parent in equal 
parts among them: And where there 
shall be no children or descendants, then 
in equal parts to the next of kin in equal 
degree; and, among collaterals, the chil- 
dren of a deceased brother or sister of the 
intestate shall have, in equal parts among 
them, their deceased parents' share; and 
there shall, in no case, be a distinction 
between kindred of the whole and half 
blood; saving, in all cases, to the widow 
of the intestate her third part of the real 
estate for life, and one-third part of the 
personal estate; and this law, relative to 
descents and dower, shall remain in full 
force until altered by the legislature of 
the district. And, until the governor and 
judges shall adopt laws as hereinafter 
mentioned, estates in the said territory 
may be devised or bequeathed by wills in 
writing, signed and sealed by him or her, 
in whom the estate may be (being of full 
age), and attested by three witnesses; 
and real estates may be conveyed by lease 
and release, or bargain and sale, signed, 



31 



ORDINANCE OF 1787 



sealed, and delivered by the person, being 
of full age, in whom the estate may be, 
and attested by two witnesses, provided 
such wills be duly proved, and such con- 
veyances be acknowledged, or the execu- 
tion thereof duly proved, and be recorded 
within one year after proper magistrates, 
courts, and registers shall be appointed 
for that purpose; and personal property 
may be transferred by delivery; saving, 
however, to the French and Canadian in- 
habitants, and other settlers of the Kas- 
kaskias, St. Vincents, and the neighbor- 
ing villages who have heretofore profess- 
ed themselves citizens of Virginia, their 
laws and customs now in force among 
them, relative to the descent and convey- 
ance of property. 

Be it ordained by the authority afore- 
said, that there shall be appointed, from 
time to time, by Congress, a governor, 
whose commission shall continue in force 
for the term of three years, unless sooner 
revoked by Congress ; he shall reside in 
the district, and have a freehold estate 
therein in 1,000 acres of land, while in the 
exercise of his office. 

There shall be appointed, from time to 
time, by Congress, a secretary, whose com- 
mission shall continue in force for four 
years unless sooner revoked; he shall re- 
side in the district, and have a freehold 
estate therein in 500 acres of land, while 
in the exercise of his office; it shall be his 
duty to keep and preserve the acts and 
laws passed by the legislature, and the 
public records of the district, and the pro- 
ceedings of the governor in his executive 
department ; and transmit authentic copies 
of such acts and proceedings, every six 
months, to the secretary of Congress: 
There shall also be appointed a court to 
consist of three judges, any two of whom 
to form a court, who shall have a common- 
law jurisdiction, and reside in the district, 
and have each therein a freehold estate in 
oOO acres of land while in the exercise of 
their offices: and their commissions shall 
continue in force during good behavior. 

The governor and judges, or a majority 
of them, shall adopt and publish in the 
district such laws of the original States, 
criminal and civil, as may be necessary 
and best suited to the circumstances of 
the district, and report them to Congress 
from time to time: which laws shall be 



in force in the district until the organi- 
zation of the General Assembly therein, 
unless disapproved of by Congress; but, 
afterwards, the legislature shall have 
authority to alter them as they shall think 
fit. 

The governor, for the time being, shall 
be commander-in-chief of the militia, ap- 
point and commission all officers in the 
same below the rank of general officers; 
all general officers shall be appointed and 
commissioned by Congress. 

Previous to the organization of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, the governor shall appoint 
such magistrates and other civil officers, 
in each county or township, as he shall 
find necessary for the preservation of the 
peace and good order in the same: After 
the General Assembly shall be organized, 
the powers and duties of the magistrates 
and other civil officers shall be regulated 
and defined by the said Assembly; but all 
magistrates and other civil officers, not 
herein otherwise directed, shall, during 
the continuance of this temporary gov- 
ernment, be appointed by the governor. 

For the prevention of crimes and in- 
juries, the laws to be adopted or made 
shall have force in all parts of the dis- 
trict, and for the execution of process, 
criminal and civil, the governor shall make 
proper divisions thereof; and he shall 
proceed, from time to time, as circum- 
stances may require, to lay out the parts 
of the district in which the Indian titles 
shall have been extinguished, into coun- 
ties and townships, subject, however, to 
such alterations as may thereafter be made 
by the legislature. 

So soon as there shall be 5,000 free 
male inhabitants of full age in the dis- 
trict, upon giving proof thereof to the 
governor, they shall receive authority, 
with time and place, to elect representa- 
tives from their counties or townships to 
represent them in the General Assembly: 
Provided, that for every 500 free male 
inhabitants, there shall be one represent- 
ative, and so on progressively with the 
number of free male inhabitants, shall the 
right of representation increase, until the 
number of representatives shall amount to 
twenty-five; after which the number and 
proportion of representatives shall be regu- 
lated by the legislature: Provided, that 
no person shall be eligible or qualified to 



32 



ORDINANCE OF 178? 

act as a representative unless he shall of the council five years, unless sooner 
have been a citizen of one of the United removed. And the governor, legislative 
States three years, and be a resident in council, and House of Representatives shall 
the district, or unless he shall have re- have authority to make laws in all cases 
sided in the district three years; and, in for the good government of the district, 
either case, shall likewise hold in his own not repugnant to the principles and ar- 
right, in fee - simple, 200 acres of land tides in this ordinance established and 
within the same: Provided, also, that a declared. And all bills, having passed 
freehold in 50 acres of land in the dis- by a majority in the House, and by a 
trict, having been a citizen of one of majority in the council, shall be referred 
the States, and being resident in the dis- to the governor for his assent; but no 
trict, or the like freehold and two years' bill, or legislative act whatever, shall be 
residence in the district, shall be neces- - of any force without his assent. The gov- 
sary to qualify a man as an elector of a ernor shall have power to convene, pro- 
representative, rogue, and dissolve the General Assem- 

The representatives thus elected shall bly, when, in his opinion, it shall be 

serve for the term of two years; and, in expedient. 

case of the death of a representative, or The governor, judges, legislative coum 

removal from office, the governor shall oil, secretary, and such other officers as 

issue a writ to the county or township Congress shall appoint in the district, 

for which he was a member, to elect an- shall take an oath or affirmation of fidel- 

other in his stead, to serve for the residue ity and of office; the governor before the 

of the term. president of Congress, and all other offi- 

The General Assembly, or legislature, cers before, the governor. As soon as a 

shall consist of the governor, legislative legislature shall be formed in the dis- 

council, and a House of Representatives, trict, the council and House, assembled 

The legislative council shall consist of five in one room, shall have authority, by 

members, to continue in office five years, joint ballot, to elect a delegate to Con- 

unless sooner removed by Congress; any gress, who shall have a seat in Congress, 

three of whom to be a quorum ; and the with a right of debating but not of voting 

members of the council shall be nomi- during this temporary government, 

nated and appointed in the following man- And, for extending the fundamental 

ner, to wit: As soon as representatives principles of civil and religious liberty, 

shall be elected, the governor shall appoint which form the basis whereon these re- 

a time and place for them to meet to- publics, their laws and constitutions, are 

gether; and, when met, they shall nomi- erected; to fix and establish those prin- 

nate ten persons, residents in the district, ciples as the basis of all laws, constitu- 

and each possessed of a freehold in 500 tions, and governments, which forever 

acres of land, and return their names hereafter shall be formed in the said 

to Congress; five of whom Congress shall territory: to provide also for the estab- 

appoint and commission to serve as afore- lishment of States, and permanent gov- 

said; and, whenever a vacancy shall hap- ernment therein, and for their admission 

pen in the council, by death or removal to a share in the federal councils on an 

from office, the House of Representatives equal footing with the original States, 

shall nominate two persons, qualified as at as early periods as may be consistent 

aforesaid, for each vacancy, and return with the general interest: 

their names to Congress ; one of whom Con- It is hereby ordained and declared by 

gress shall appoint and commission for the authority aforesaid, that the follow- 

the residue of the term. And every five ing articles shall be considered as articles 

years, four months at least before the of compact between the original States 

expiration of the time of service of the and the people and States in the said ter- 

members of council, the said House shall ritory, and forever remain unalterable, un- 

nominate ten persons, qualified as afore- less by common consent, to wit: 

6aid, and return their names to Con- Art. 1. No person, demeaning himself 

gress; five of whom Congress shall ap- in a peaceable and orderly manner, shall 

point and commission to serve as members ever be molested on account of his mode 
vii.— o S3 



ORDINANCE OF 1787 

of worship or religious sentiments, in the the federal debts contracted or to be con- 
said territory. tracted, and a proportional part of the 

Art. 2. The inhabitants of the said ter- expenses of government, to be apportioned 
ritory shall always be entitled to the ben- on them by Congress according to the 
efits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of same common rule and measure by which 
the trial by jury; of a proportionate rep- apportionments thereof shall be made on 
resentation of the people in the legislat- the other States; and the taxes, for paying 
ure; and of judicial proceedings according their proportion, shall be laid and levied 
to the course of the common law. All per- by the authority and direction of the legis- 
sons shall be bailable, unless for capital latures of the district or districts, or new 
offences, where the proof shall be evident States, as in the original States, within 
or the presumption great. All fines shall the time agreed upon by the United States 
be moderate ; and no cruel or unusual pun- in Congress assembled. The legislatures 
ishments shall be inflicted. No man shall of those districts or new States shall 
be deprived of his liberty or property but never interfere with the primary disposal 
by the judgment of his peers or the lav/ of of the soil by the United States in Con- 
the land; and, should the public exi- gress assembled, nor with any regulations 
gencies make it necessary, for the common Congress may find necessary for securing 
preservation, to take any person's prop- the title in such soil to the bona fide pur- 
erty, or to demand his particular services, chasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands 
full compensation shall be made for the the property of the United States; and, 
■jame. And, in the just preservation of in no case, shall non-resident proprietors 
rights and property, it is understood and be taxed higher than residents. The 
declared that no law ought ever to be navigable waters leading into the Missis- 
made, or have force in the said territory, sippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying- 
that shall, in any manner whatever, inter- places between the same, shall be common 
fere with or affect private contracts or en- highways, and forever free, as well to the 
gagements, bona fide, and without fraud, inhabitants of the said territory as to the 
previously formed. citizens of the United States, and those 

Art. 3. Religion, morality, and knowl- of any other States that may be admitted 
edge, being necessary to good government into the confederacy, without any tax, inl- 
and the happiness of mankind, schools and post, or duty therefor, 
the means of education shall forever be en- Art. 5. There shall be formed in the 
couraged. The utmost good faith shall al- said territory not less than three nor 
ways be observed towards the Indians; more than five States; and the boundaries 
their lands and property shall never be of the States, as soon as Virginia shall 
taken from them without their consent; alter her act of cession, and consent to the 
and, in their property, rights, and liberty, same, shall become fixed and established 
they shall never be invaded or disturbed, as follows, to wit: The Western State in 
unless in just and lawful wars authorized the said territory shall be bounded by the 
by Congress; but laws founded in justice Mississippi, the Ohio, and Wabash rivers; 
and humanity shall, from time to time, a direct line drawn from the Wabash and 
be made for preventing wrongs being done Post St. Vincent's, due north, to the terri- 
to them, and for preserving peace and torial line between the United States and 
friendship with them. Canada; and, by the said territorial line, 

Art. 4. The said territory, and the to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. 

States which may be formed therein, shall The middle State shall be bounded by the 

forever remain a part of this confederacy said direct line, the Wabash from Post 

of the United States of America, subject Vincent's, to the Ohio; by the Ohio, by a 

to the Articles of Confederation, and to direct line, drawn due north from the 

such alterations therein as shall be con- mouth of the Great Miami, to the said ter- 

stitutionally made; and to all the acts ritorial line, and by the said territorial 

and ordinances of the United States in line. The Eastern State shall be bounded 

Congress assembled, comformable thereto, by the last-mentioned direct line, the 

The inhabitants and settlers in the said Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said terri- 

territory shall be subject to pay a part of torial line: Provided, however, and it is 

34 



ORDNANCE— OREGON 



further understood and declared, that the 
boundaries of these three States shall be 
subject so far to be altered, that, if Con- 
gress shall hereafter find it expedient, 
they shall have authority to form one or 
two States in that part of the said terri- 
tory which lies north of an east and 
west line drawn through the southerly 
bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. And, 
whenever any of the said States shall 
have 60,000 free inhabitants therein, such 
State shall be admitted, by its delegates, 
into the Congress of the United States, on 
an equal footing with the original States 
in all respects whatever, and shall be at 
liberty to form a permanent constitution 
and State government: Provided, the 
constitution and government so to be 
formed, shall be republican, and in con- 
formity to the principles contained in 
these articles; and, so far as it can 
be consistent with the general inter- 
est of the confederacy, such admission 
shall be allowed at an earlier period, 
and when there may be a less number 
of free inhabitants in the State than 
60,000. 

Art. 6. There shall be neither slavery 
nor involuntary servitude in the said ter- 
ritory, otherwise than in the punishment 
of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been duly convicted; Provided, always, 
that any person escaping into the same, 
from whom labor or service is lawful- 
ly claimed in any one of the original 
States, such fugitive may be lawfully 
reclaimed and conveyed to the person 
claiming his or her labor or service as 
aforesaid. 

Be it ordained by the authority afore- 
said, that the resolutions of the 23d 
of April, 1784, relative to the subject 
of this ordinance, be, and the same are 
hereby repealed, and declared null and 
void. 

Done by the United States, in Congress 
assembled, the 13th day of July, in 
the year of our Lord 1787, and of 
their independence the twelfth. 

See Northwestern Territory, The. 

Ordnance. The whole train of artil- 
lery possessed by the English-American 
colonies when the war for independence 
broke out (April 19, 1775) was com- 
posed of four field-pieces, two belonging 
to citizens of Boston, and two to the 



province of Massachusetts. In 1788 the 
Secretary of War called the attention of 
Congress to the fact that there were in 
the arsenals of the United States " two 
brass cannon, which constituted one 
moiety of the field artillery with which 
the late war was commenced on the part 
of the Americans." Congress by resolu- 
tion directed the Secretary to have suitable 
inscriptions placed on them; and, as they 
belonged to Massachusetts, he was in- 
structed to deliver them to the order of 
the governor of that State. The two 
cannon belonging to citizens of Boston 
were inscribed, respectively, " The Han- 
cock, Sacred to Liberty," and "The 
Adams, Sacred to Liberty " ; with the 
additional words on each, " These were 
used in many engagements during the 
war." 

Ordnance Department, a bureau of 
the War Department, under the direction 
of a chief of ordnance. The duties of the 
department consist in providing, preserv- 
ing, distributing, and accounting for every 
description of artillery, small - arms, and 
all the munitions of war which may be 
required for the fortifications of the coun- 
try, the armies in the field, and for the 
whole body of the militia of the Union. 
In these duties are comprised that of de- 
termining the general principles of con- 
struction, and of prescribing in detail the 
models and forms of all military weapons 
employed in war. They comprise also the 
duty of prescribing the regulations for the 
inspection of all these weapons, for main- 
taining uniformity and economy in their 
fabrication, for insuring their quality, and 
for their preservation and distribution. 

Ordnance Survey. See Coast Survey. 

Oregon, State of. The history of this 
State properly begins with the discovery 
of the mouth of the Columbia River by 
Captain Gray, of Boston, in the ship 
Columbia, May 7, 1792, who gave the 
name of his vessel to that river. His re- 
port caused President Jefferson to send 
the explorers Lewis and Clarke (qq. v.) 
across the continent to the Pacific ( 1804- 
6). In 1811 John J. Astor and others 
established a fur-trading post at the 
mouth of the Columbia Paver, and called 
it Astoria. The British doctrine, always 
practised and enforced by them, that the 
entrance of a vessel of a civilized nation, 



3r> 



OREGON, STATE OP 




STATE SEAL OF OREGON. 

for the first time, into the mouth of a 
river, gives title, by right of discovery, to 
the territory drained by that river and its 
tributaries, clearly gave to the Americans 
the domain to the lat. of 54° 40' N., 
for the discovery of the Columbia River 
by Captain Gray, in 1792, was not dis- 
puted. In 181S it was mutually agreed 



that each nation should equally enjoy the 
privileges of all the bays and harbors on 
that coast for ten years. This agreement 
was renewed, in 1827, for an indefinite 
time, with the stipulation that either 
party might rescind it by giving the other 
party twelve months' notice. This notice 
was given by the United States in 1846, 
and also a proposition to adjust the ques- 
tion by making the boundary on the par- 
allel of 49°. This was rejected by the 
British, who claimed the whole of Oregon. 
The President then directed the proposi- 
tion of compromise to be withdrawn, and 
the title of the United States to the 
whole territory of 54° 40' N. lat. to be 
asserted. The question at one time 
threatened war between the two nations, 
but it was finally settled by a treaty ne- 
gotiated at Washington, June 15, 1S46, by 
James Buchanan on the part of the United 
States and Mr. Pakenham for Great 
Britain, by which the boundary-line was 
fixed at 49° N. lat. 

In 1833 immigration to this region, 




SOEKE ON THE 00MTM&JA RIVER. DISCOVERED BY CAPTAIN GRAY. 
36 



OEEGON, STATE OF 




OREGON" INDIANS. 



overland, began, and in 1850 many thou- don the country. Major-General Wool, sta- 
sands had reached Oregon; but very soon tioned at San Francisco, went to Port- 
many of the settlers were drawn to Cali- land, Ore., and tnere organized a cam- 
fornia by the gold excitement there. To paign against the Indians. The latter 
encourage immigration the Congress, in had formed a powerful combination, but 
1850, passed the " donation law," giving to Wool brought hostilities to a close during 
every man who should settle on land there the summer of 1856. The bad conduct of 
before Dec. 1 of that year 320 acres of Indian agents, and possibly encouragement 
land, and to his wife a like number of given the Indians by employes of the 
acres; also, to every man and his wife who Hudson Bay Company, were the chief 
should settle on such land between Dec. 1, causes of the trouble. 
1850, and Dec. 1, 1853, 160 acres of land In 1841 the first attempt to organize 
each. Under this law 8,000 claims were a government was made. In 1843 an ex- 
registered in Oregon. Settlers in Oregon ecutive and legislative committee was es- 
and in Washington Territory, in 1855, suf- tablished; and in 1845 the legislative com- 
fered much from Indians, who went in mittee framed an organic law which the 
bands to murder and plunder the white settlers approved, and this formed the 
people. The savages were so well organ- basis of a provisional government until 
ized at one time that it was thought the 1848, when Congress created the Territory 
white settlers would be compelled to aban- of Oregon, which comprised all the United 

37 



OREGON 



States territory west of the summit of the 
Rocky Mountains and north of the forty- 
second parallel. The territorial government 
went into operation on March 3, 1849, 
with Joseph Lane as governor. In 1853 
Washington Territory was organized, and 
took from Oregon all its domain north of 
the Columbia River. In 1857 a convention 
framed a State constitution for Oregon, 
which was ratified, in November of that 
year, by the people. By the act of Feb. 14, 
1859, Oregon was admitted into the Union 
as a State, with its present limits. Many 
Indian wars have troubled Oregon, the 
last one of importance being the Modoc 
War, 1872-73 (see Modoc Indians). Pop- 
ulation in 1890, 313,767; in 1900, 413,536. 
See United States, Oregon, in vol. ix. 



UNITED STATES SENATORS. 



Name* 



Delazon Smith. 

Joseph Lane 

Edward D. Baker 

Beujamln Statk...... 

Benjamin F. Harding. 
James \V. Nesmilh... 
George H. Williams... 

Henry W. Corbett 

James K. Kelly 

John H. Mitchell 

Lafayette P. G rover. . . 

James H. Slater 

Joseph N. Dolph 

John H. Mitchell 

George W. McBrlde. . . 

Joseph Simon 

John H Mitchell 

Charles W. Fulton. . .. 



No. of Congress. 



SCth 
35th to 37th 

86th 

37 th 
37th to 39th 
37th " 40th 



Tern 



39th 
40th 
42d 
43d 
45th 
40th 

47 th 

48 th 
54 th 
55th 

57 th 

58 th 



42d 
43d 

45th 
40th 
47 th 
4!>th 
54th 
55th 
57th 
57th 



1859 to 1860 

1859 " 1861 

1860 " 1861 
1862 

1862 to 1865 

1861 " 1867 
18G5 " 1871 
1867 " 1873 



1871 
1873 
1877 
1879 
1883 
1885 
18'.»5 
1898 
1901 
1903 



1877 
1879 
1883 
1885 
1895 
1897 
1901 
1903 



TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS. 



George Abernethy appointed. 

Joseph Lane " 

J.P.Gaines " 

Joseph Lane " 

George L. Curry " 

John W. Davis " 

George L. Curry " 



1845 

1849 



1853 



1854 



STATE GOVERNORS. 

John Whiteaker assumes office 1859 

Addison C. Gibbs " « 1862 

George L. Woods " " 1866 

Lafiiyette G rover " " 1870 

S F. Chadwick acting ...Feb. 1, 1877 

W. W.Thayer assumes office 1878 

Zenas Ferry Moody '• " 1882 

Sylvester Pennoyer, Dem.. " " ...Janl, 1887 

William Paine Lord " <* 1895 

Theodore T Geer " " 1899 

(ieorge E. Chamberlain. ... " " 1903 



Oregon, battle-ship; carries four 13- 
inch guns, eight 8-inch, four 6-inch, and 
thirty-one rapid-fire machine guns. At the 
outbreak of hostilities with Spain, the Ore- 
gon was ordered from San Francisco, where 
she was built, to the Atlantic coast. She 
left San Francisco March 19, and arrived 
at Callao, Peru, April 4, where she took on 
coal; reached Sandy Point April 18, and 
again took on coal; reached Rio de 
Janeiro April 30, Bahia May 8, Barba- 
does May 18, and Jupiter Inlet, Florida, 
May 24. The entire distance run was 
14,706 knots, at an expenditure of 4,155 
tons of coal. While in Rio de Janeiro, 
Captain Clark received word that the 
Spanish torpedo-boat Temerario had sailed 
from Montevideo with the intention of 




UNITED STATES BATTLE-SHIP ORKGOS. 

38 



OREGON BOUNDARY— ORISKANY 

destroying the Oregon. Captain Clark stitutional Association, which was the 
notified the Brazilian authorities that if means of bringing about the reforms in 
the Temerario entered the harbor with the constitution of the State of New York 
hostile intention, she would be attacked; in 184:6. When the Civil War broke out 
and at the same time left orders with the he was one of the most active promoters 
commander of the United States cruiser of measures for the preservation of the 
Marietta to keep a search-light on the Union, and was secretary of the Society 
entrance to the harbor, and in case the for Promoting the- Enlistment of Colored 
Temerario appeared, to notify her com- Troops. He originated, in 1867, an or- 
mander that if she approached within half ganized movement for reforming and 
a mile of the Oregon she would be cheapening the operations of the railroad 
destroyed. In the battle of Santiago the system of the United States. He was au- 
speed of the Oregon enabled her to thor of Sketches of Rochester, with No- 
take a front position in the chase in tices of Western New York, and Ameri- 
which she forced the Cristobal Colon to can Political Anti-Masonry. He died in 
run ashore to avoid destruction from Rochester, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1886. 
the Oregon's 13 -inch shells. Probably O'Reilly, John Boyle, author; born in 
the presence of the Oregon prevented Dowth ^astle, Ireland, June 28, 1844; be- 
the escape of the Colon and, perhaps, the came a Fenian, and was sentenced to death 
Yizcaya. After the conclusion of peace for high treason, but sentence was com- 
ihe Oregon was ordered from New York muted to transportation. He escaped from 
to Manila. Australia in 1869, was picked up on the 
Oregon Boundary. See Oregon. high seas by an American ship and taken 
O'Reilly, Henry, journalist; born in to America. He was editor and proprie- 
Carrickmacross, Ireland, Feb. 6, 1806. tor of the Boston Pilot. He died in Bos- 
His father emigrated to America in 1816, ton, Mass., Aug. 10, 1890. 
and soon afterwards this son was appren- Original Package. Dealers in spirit- 
ticed to the publisher of the New York uous liquors claimed the right of import- 
Columbian (newspaper) to learn the art ing such articles in original packages into 
of printing. The Columbian was a stanch States which had prohibitory laws. The 
advocate of the Erie Canal, and a political United States Supreme Court in 1890 held 
supporter of De Witt Clinton as its able that they had such power, as Congress 
champion. The mind of the apprentice alone could control inter - State traffic, 
was thus early impressed with the impor- Congress then passed an act giving the 
tance of measures for the development of States control, even though such merchan- 
the vast resources of the United States, dise was imported in the original package. 
At the age of seventeen years he became Oriskany, Battle of. Brant, the Mo- 
assistant editor of the New York Patriot, hawk chief, came from Canada in the 
the organ of the People's party, which spring of 1777, and in June was at the 
elected De Witt Clinton governor of New head of a band of Indian marauders on 
Y^ork in 1824. When, in 1826, Luther the upper waters of the Susquehanna. 
Tucker & Co. established the Rochester Brig.-Gen. Nicholas Herkimer was at the 
Daily Advertiser, O'Reilly was chosen its head of the militia of Tryon county, N. Y., 
editor, but after four years he retired. He and was instructed by General Schuyler 
resumed editorial work there in 1831. In to watch and check the movements of the 
1834 he wrote the first memorial presented Mohawk chief, whose presence had put an 
to the legislature and the canal board, end to the neutrality of his tribe and of 
in favor of rebuilding the failing struct- other portions of the Six Nations. Hear- 
ures of the Erie Canal. He then proposed ing of the siege of Fort Schuyler by 
a plan for the enlargement of the canal, Colonel St. Leger (Aug. 3), Herkimer 
and was chairman of the committee ap- gathered a goodly number of Tryon county 
pointed by the first Canal Enlargement militia, and marched to the relief of the 
Association in 1837. In 1838 he was ap- garrison. He and his little army were 
pointed postmaster of Rochester, and after- marching in fancied security on the morn- 
wards engaged in journalism. ing of Aug. 6 at Oriskany, a few miles 
He was tne originator of the State Con- west of the present city of Utiea, when 

39 



ORLEANS— O'RORKE 



Tories and Indians from St. Leger's camp, 
lying in ambush, fell upon the patriots at 
all points with great fury. Herkimer's 
rear-guard broke and tied; the remainder 
bravely sustained a severe conflict for 




GENERAL HERKIMER 8 RESIDENCE. 

more than an hour. General Herkimer 
had a horse shot dead under him, and the 
bullet that killed the animal shattered his 
own leg below the knee. Sitting on his 
saddle at the foot of a beech-tree, he con- 
tinued to give orders. A thunder-shower 
caused a lull in the fight, and then it was 
renewed with greater vigor, when the Ind- 
ians, hearing the sound of firing in the di- 
rection of Fort Schuyler, fled to the deep 
woods in alarm, and were soon followed 
by the Tories and Canadians. The pa- 
triots remained masters of the field, and 
their brave commander was removed to 
his home, where he died from loss of 
blood, owing to unskilful surgery. See 
Herkimer, Nicholas. 

Orleans, Duke of, son of "Philippe 
Egalite," was in the French Revolution- 
ary army, but becoming involved with Du- 
mouriez in 1793; fled from France to 
Switzerland; and in 1796 came to America, 
where he travelled extensively, visiting 
Washington at Mount Vernon in 1797. 
He was elected King of the French in 
1830, and reigned until his abdication in 
1848. He died in Claremont, England, 
Aug. 26, 1S50. 



Orleans, Franco^ Ferdinand Louis 
Marie, Prince de Joinville, son of Louis 
Philippe, King of the French; born in 
Neuilly, Aug. 14, 1818; came to the United 
States in 1861, and with his two nephews, 
the Count of Paris and the Duke of 
Chartres, served on the staff of Gene.al 
McClellan for a year, when they returned 
to France. His son, the Duke of Pen- 
thievre, was at the same time a cadet 
in the Naval Academy at Annapolis. He 
wrote La Guerre d'Amerique; Campagne 
du Potomac; etc. He died in Paris. 
France, June 17, 1900. 

Orleans, Louis Philippe, Count of 
Paris; born in Paris, Aug. 24, 1838; 
served on General McClellan's staff (1861- 
62) ; wrote a History of the Civil War in 
America, which has been translated into 
English and published in the United 
States (4 volumes). He died in London, 
England, Sept. 8, 1894. 

Orleans, Territory of. Louisiana, by 
act of Congress, was divided into two ter- 
ritories, the southern one being called Or- 
leans Territory. The line between them 
was drawn along the thirty-third parallel 
of north latitude. This territory then pos- 
sessed a population of 50,000 souls, of 
whom more than half were negro slaves. 
Refugee planters from Santo Domingo had 
introduced the sugar-cane into that 
region, and the cultivation of cotton was 
beginning to be successful. So large were 
the products of these industries that the 
planters enjoyed immense incomes. The 
white inhabitants were principally French 
Creoles, descendants of the original French 
colonists. 

Orne, Azor, military officer; born in 
Marblehead, Mass., July 22, 1731; was a 
successful merchant and an active patriot, 
a member of the Massachusetts Provincial 
Congress, and long one of the committee 
of safety. In organizing the militia, and 
in collecting arms and ammunition, he was 
very active. In January, 1776, he was 
appointed one of the three Massachusetts 
major-generals, but did not take the field. 
For many years he was a member of the 
State Senate and council of Massachusetts, 
and was a zealous advocate of education. 
He died in Boston, June 6, 1796. 

O'Rorke, Patrick Henry, military offi- 
cer; born in County Cavan, Ireland, 
March 25, 1837; came to the United States 



40 



ORR— OSAGE INDIANS 



in 1842; graduated at West Point in 
1861; served on the staff of Gen. Daniel 
Tyler, and afterwards on that of Gen. 
Thomas W. Sherman. In 1862 he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 140th New York 
Volunteers, and in the Chancellorsville 
campaign temporarily commanded a bri- 
gade. At the battle of Gettysburg, July 
2, 1S63, he charged at the head of his men 
at Little Round Top, and was killed as ha 
reached the top of the hill. 

Orr, Alexander Ector, merchant; born 
in Strabane, Ireland, March 2, 1831 ; came 
to the United States in 1851; has been 
president of the New York Produce Ex- 
change and of the New York Chamber of 
Commerce several times ; president of the 
New York Rapid Transit Commission. 

Orr, James Lawrence, statesman; born 
in Craytonville, S. C, May 12, 1822; 
graduated at the University of Virginia 
in 1842; became a lawyer at Anderson, 
S. C. ; and edited a newspaper there in 
1843. After serving in the State legislat- 
ure, he became a member of Congress in 
1849, and remained such by re-election 
until 1859. He was speaker of the Thirty- 
fifth Congress. In the South Carolina con- 
vention of Dec. 20, 1860, he voted for seces- 
sion, and was appointed one of three com- 
missioners to treat with the national gov- 
ernment for the surrender of the United 
States forts in Charleston Harbor to the 
Confederates. He was a Confederate Sen- 
ator from 1862 to 1865, and provisional 
governor of South Carolina from 1866 to 
18G8, under the appointment of the Presi- 
dent. He afterwards acted with the Re- 
publican party, and in 1870 was made 
judge of the United States circuit court. 
In 1873 he was appointed United States 
minister to Russia, and died soon after 
his arrival there, May 5. 

Orr, John William, artist; born in 
Ireland, March 31, 1815; came to the 
United States with his parents while a 
child ; studied wood-engraving and ma- 
terially advanced the art. He died in 
Jersey City, N. J., March 4, 1887. 

Orth, Godlove Stoxer, statesman; born 
in Lebanon, Pa, April 22, 1817; ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1839, practising in 
Indiana. He was elected State Senator in 
1842; member of Congress in 1863, serving 
till 1871; re-elected to Congress in 1873. 
He favored the annexation of Santo Do- 



mingo in 1868; and was the author of the 
" Orth " bill which regulated the United 
States diplomatic and consular system. In 
1875 he was appointed minister to Austria. 
He died in Lafayette, lnd., Dec. 16, 1882. 

Ortiz, Juan. Soon after De Soto enter- 
ed Florida he was met by a Spaniard who 
was a captive among the Indians. He 
had been captured when on the expedition 
with Narvaez, and preparations had been 
made to sacrifice him. He was bound hand 
and foot and laid upon a scaffold, under 
which a fire was kindled to roast him 
alive. The flames were about reaching 
his flesh when a daughter of Ucita, the 
chief, besought her father to spare his life, 
saying, " If he can do no good, he can do 
no harm." Though greatly incensed by 
the conduct of the Spaniards, Ucita grant- 
ed the petition of his daughter, and Ortiz 
was lifted from the scaffold, and thence- 
forth was the slave of the chief. Three 
years later Ucita was defeated in battle; 
and, believing that the sparing of Ortiz 
had brought the misfortune upon him, re- 
solved to sacrifice the young Spaniard. 
The daughter of Ucita again saved his life. 
She led him at night beyond the bounds 
of her father's village, and directed him 
to the camp of the chief who had defeated 
L'cita, knowing that he would protect the 
Christian. When, years afterwards, he 
was with some hostile Indians fighting De 
Soto, and a horseman was about to slay 
him, he cried out, " Don't kill me, I am a 
Christian." The astonishel Castilians 
stayed their firing, and Ortiz became of 
great use to De Soto as an interpreter. 

Orton, Edward, geologist; born in De- 
posit, N. Y., March 9, 1829; graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1848; became State 
geologist of Ohio in 1869; president of the 
Ohio "State University, 1873-81. He was 
the author of Geology of Ohio; Petroleum, 
in United States Geological Reports; etc. 
He died in Columbus, 0., Oct. 16, 1899. 

Osage Indians. In 1825 a treaty was 
made at St. Louis by Gen. William Clark 
with the Great and Little Osage Indians 
for all their lands in Arkansas and else- 
where. These lands were ceded to the 
United States in consideration of an an- 
nual payment ot $7,000 for twenty years, 
and an immediate contribution of 600 
head of cattle, 600 hogs, 1,000 fowls, 10 
yoke of oxen, 6 carts, with farming uten- 

41 



OSBORN— OSCEOLA 




CHIEF OSCEOLA. 

sils, and other provisions similar to those 
in the treaty with the Kansas Indians. 
It was also agreed to provide a fund for 
the support of schools for the benefit of 
the Osage children. Provision was made 
for a missionary establishment; also for 
the United States to assume the payment 
of certain debts due from Osage chiefs to 
those of other tribes, and to deliver to the 
Osage villages, as soon as possible, $4,000 
in merchandise and $2,600 in horses and 
their equipments. In 1899 the Osage Ind- 
ians numbered 1,761, and were located in 
Oklahoma. 

Osborn, Herbert, scientist; born in 
Lafayette, Wis., March 19, 1856; grad- 
uated at Iowa State College in 1879; State 



entomologist of Iowa 
in 1898; connected 
with the United States 
Department of Agri- 
culture, 1885-94; mem- 
ber of many scientific 
societies. 

Osceola ( Black 
Drink), Seminole Ind- 
ian chief; born on the 
Chattahoochee River, 
Ga., in 1804; was a 
half - breed, a son of 
Willis Powell, an Eng- 
lishman and trader, 
by a Creek Indian 
woman. In 1808 his 
mother settled in Flor- 
ida, and when he grew 
up he became by emi- 
nent ability the govern- 
ing spirit of the Semi- 
noles. In all their 
sports he was foremost, 
and was always inde- 
pendent and self - pos- 
sessed. From the be- 
ginning Osceola op- 
posed the removal of 
the Seminoles from 
Florida, and he led 
them in a war which 
began in 1835 and con- 
tinued about seven 
years. Treacherously 
seized while under the 
protection of a flag of 
truce, Oct. 22, 1837, 
he was sent to Fort 
he was prostrated by 



Moultrie, where 

grief and wasted by a fever, and finally 




OSCEOLA'S GRAVE. 



42 



0SG003>— OSTEOPATHY 

died, Jan. 30, 1838. A monument was Ostend Manifesto. In July, 1853, 
erected to his memory near the main en- William L. Marcy, the Secretary of State, 
trance-gate of Fort Moultrie. His loss wrote to Pierre Soul6, American minis- 
was a severe blow to the Seminoles, who ter at Madrid, directing him to urge 
continued the war feebly four or five upon the Spanish government the sale or 
years longer. cession of Cuba to the United States. 

Osgood, Helen Louise Gibson, philan- Nothing more was done until after the 
tliropist; born in Boston about 1835. Left affair of the Black Warrior in the winter 
an orphan, she was well educated by her of 1S54. In April, 1854, Mr. Soul6 was 
guardian, Francis B. Fay, of Chelsea, and instructed and clothed with full power to 
was endowed with talents for music and negotiate for the purchase of the island, 
conversation. She was among the first to In August the Secretary suggested to 
oiganize soldiers' aid societies when the Minister Buchanan in London, Minister 
Civil War began, and provided work for Mason at Paris, and Minister Soule at 
the wives and daughters of soldiers who Madrid the propriety of holding a con- 
reeded employment. Early in 1802 she ference for the purpose of adopting meas- 
went to the army as a nurse, where her ures for a concert of action in aid of nego- 
gentleness of manner and executive ability tiations with Spain. They accordingly 
made her eminently successful. jShe ad- met at Ostend, a seaport town in Belgium, 
ministered relief and consolation to thou- Oct. 9, 1854. After a session of three 
sands of the wounded, and organized and days they adjourned to Aix-la-Chapelle, 
conducted for many months a hospital for in Rhenish Prussia, and thence they ad- 
1.000 patients of the sick and wounded of dressed a letter, Oct. 18, to the United 
the colored soldiers of the Army of the States government embodying their views. 
Potomac. In 1866 she was married to Mr. In it they suggested that an earnest effort 
Osgood, a fellow-laborer among the sol- io purchase Cuba ought to be immediately 
diers, but her constitution had been over- made at a price not to exceed $120,000,- 
tasked, and she died a martyr to the great COO, and that the proposal should be laid 
cause, in Newton Centre, Mass., April 20, before the Spanish Cortes about to as- 
1868. semble. They set forth the great advan- 

Osgood, Samuel, statesman; born in tage that such a transfer of political 
Andover, Mass., Feb. 14, 1748; gradu- jurisdiction would be to all parties con- 
ated at Harvard University in 1770; cerned; that the oppression of the Spanish 
studied theology, and became a merchant, authorities in Cuba would inevitably lead 
An active patriot, he was a member of to insurrection and civil war; and, in 
the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts conclusion, recommended that, in the event 
and of various committees; was a captain cf the absolute refusal of Spain to sell 
at Cambridge in 1775, and aide to General the island, it would be proper to take it 
Artemas Ward, and became a member of away from its " oppressors " by force, 
the Massachusetts board of war. He left In that event, the ministers said, " we 
the army in 1776 with the rank of colonel, should be justified by every law, human 
and served in his provincial and State and divine, in wresting it from Spain, if 
legislature. He was a member of Con- \?e possess the power." President Pierce 
gress from 1780 to 1784; first commis- did not think it prudent to act upon the 
sioner of the United States treasury from advice of these ministers, and Mr. Soule. 
1785 to 1789, and United States Post- dissatisfied with his prudence, resigned his 
master-General from 1789 to 1791. He office. See Soule, Pierre. 
afterwards served in the New York legis- Osteopathy, a method by which dis- 
lature, and was speaker of the Assembly eases of the human body are treated with- 
from 1801 to 1803. From 1803 until his out medicines. In 1874 Dr. A. T. Still, of 
death, in New York City, Aug. 12, 1813, Baldwin, Kan., discovered what he de- 
he was naval officer of the port of New clared a more natural system of healing 
York. Mr. Osgood was well versed in than that universally accepted. He held 
science and literature. that inasmuch as the human body was so 

Ossawatomie Brown. See Brown, perfectly constructed it ought without any 

John. external aid excepting food to protect itself 

43 



OSTERHAUS— OSWEGATCHIE INDIAN MISSION 



against disease, and further reasoned that in 18G4 he was in the Atlanta campaign. 
"a natural flow of blood is health, and In command of the 15th Corps, he was 
disease is the effect of local or general with Sherman in his march through 
disturbance of blood." After various ex- Georgia and South Carolina. In July, 
periments he became convinced that the 1864, he was made major-general, and in 
different organs of the body depend for 1865 he was General Canby's chief of staff, 
their health on nerve centres which are After the war he was appointed consul at 
principally located along the spine. These Lyons, France; then made his home in 
he declared could be controlled and stimu- Mannheim, Germany; revisited the United 
lated by certain finger manipulations, States in 1904. 

which would not only cause the blood to Oswald, Eleazar, military officer; 
circulate freely, but would produce an born in England about 1755; came to 
equal distribution of the nerve forces. By America in 1770 or 1771; served under 
this treatment the diseased part would Arnold in the expedition against Ticon- 
be readjusted and would have "perfect deroga and became his secretary; and at 
freedom of motion of all the fluids, forces, the siege of Quebec he commanded with 
and substances pertaining to life, thus re- great skill the forlorn hope after Arnold 
establishing a condition known as health.*' was wounded. In 1777 he was made lieu- 
Since the promulgation of this theory a tenant-colonel of Lamb's artillery regi- 
number of institutions for the training of ment, and for his bravery at the battle of 
practitioners have been founded in various Monmouth General Knox highly praised " 
sections of the country, principally in the him. Soon after that battle he left the 
West, where several States have placed service and engaged in the printing and 
osteopathy on the same legal basis as other publishing business in Philadelphia, where 
schools of medicine. he was made public printer. Oswald chal- 

Osterhaus, Peter Joseph, military offi- lenged General Hamilton to fight a duel in 
cer; born in Coblentz, Germany, about 1789, but the quarrel was adjusted. In 
1820; served as an officer in the Prussian business in England in 1792, he went to 
army; removed to St. Louis, Mo., where France, joined the French army, and com- 
he entered the National service in 1861 as manded a regiment of artillery. He died 
major of volunteers. He served under in New York, Sept. 30, 1795. 
Lyon and Fremont in Missouri, command- Oswegatchie Indian Mission. To in- 
ing a brigade under the latter. He com- sure the friendship of the Six Nations, 

Galissoni&re, 
governor of 
Canada, in 1754 
established an 
Indian mission 
on the southern 
bank of the 
St. Lawrence. 
For this work 
the Abb§ Fran- 
cis Piquet was 
chosen, and he 
selected the 
mouth of the . 
Oswegatch i e 
for the station, 
on the site of Ogdensburg, where -he 
hoped to draw in so many Iroquois 
converts as would bind all their kin- 
dred to the French alliance. By order 
of General Brown a redoubt was be- 
gun in 1812 at the site of old Fort Pres- 




FORT OSWEGATCHIE IN 1812. 



manded a division in the battle of Pea 
Bidge, and greatly distinguished himself. 
In June, 1S62, he was made brigadier-gen- 
eral, and, commanding a division, he help- 
ed to capture Arkansas late in January, 
1863. He was in the campaign against 
Vicksburg and in northern Georgia, and entation, which was not finished when 

44 



Oswego 

Ogdensburg was attacked the second time their weakness through sickness and lack 

by the British in 1813. See Ogdensburg. of provisions (of which he was informed 

Oswego, a city and county seat of by spies), collected about 5,000 French- 

Oswego co., N. Y. ; now noted for its man- men, Canadians, and Indians at Frontenac 

ufactures and for its large shipments of (now Kingston), at the foot of Lake On- 

grain and lumber; population in 1900, tario, crossed that lake, and appeared be- 






\\ 



StjfiiSr 1 -:^- 




ATTACK ON FORT ONTARIO, OSWEGO, MAY 6, 1814. 



22,199. The following are among its 
points of historical interest: Governor 
Burnet, of New York, wisely concluding 
that it would be important for the Eng- 
lish to get and maintain control of Lake 
Ontario, as well for the benefits of trade 
and the security of the friendship of the 
Six Nations as to frustrate the designs of 
the French to confine the English colonies 
to narrow limits, began to erect a trading- 
house at Oswego in 1722. This pleased the 
Indians, for they saw in the movement a 
promise of protection from incursions of 
the French. Soon afterwards, at a con- 
vention of governors and commissioners 
held at Albany, the Six Nations renounced 
their covenant of friendship with the Eng- 
lish. 

In 1756 Dieskau was succeeded by the 
Marquis de Montcalm, who, perceiving 
the delay of the English at Albany and 



fore Oswego in force on Aug. 11. He at- 
tacked Fort Ontario, on the east side of 
the river, commanded by Colonel Mercer, 
who, with his garrison, after a short but 
brave resistance, withdrew to an older fort 
on the west side of the stream. The English 
were soon compelled to surrender the fort. 
Their commander was killed, and on the 
14th Montcalm received, as spoils of vic- 
tory, 1,400 prisoners, a large quantity of 
ammunition and provisions and other 
stores, 134 pieces of artillery, and several 
vessels lying in the harbor. The Six Na- 
tions had never been well satisfied with 
the building of these forts by the English 
in the heart of their territory. To please 
them, Montcalm demolished the forts, and 
by this act induced the Six Nations to 
take a position of neutrality. The capture 
of this fort caused the English com- 
mander-in-chief to abandon all the expedi- 



45 



OSWEGO— OTIS 



tions lie had planned for the campaign of the 7th the invaders withdrew, after hav- 
1756. ing embarked the guns and a few stores 
During the winter and spring of 1813- found in Oswego, dismantled the fort, and 
14 the Americans and British prepared burned the barracks. They also raised 
to make a struggle for the mastery of and carried away the Growler; also sev-" 
Lake Ontario. When the ice in Kingston eral citizens who had been promised pro- 
Harbor permitted vessels to leave it, Sir tection and exemption from molestation. 
James L. Yeo, commander of the British In this affair the Americans lost, in killed, 
squadron in those waters, went out upon wounded, and missing, sixty-nine men; 
the lake with his force of about 3,000 the British lost nineteen killed and 
land troops and marines. On May 5, 181 1, seventy-five wounded. See Ontario, Lake, 
he appeared off Oswego Harbor, which was Operations on. 

defended by Fort Ontario, on a bluff on Otis, Elwell Stephen, military officer 

the east side of the river, with a garrison born in Frederick City, Md., March 25, 

of about 300 men under Lieut.-Col. George 1838; removed with his parents to Roches- 

E. Mitchell. Chauncey, not feeling strong ter, N. Y., early in life; graduated at the- 

enough to oppose Yeo, prudently remained University of Rochester in 1858, and at 

with his squadron at Sackett's Harbor, the Harvard Law School in 1861. In the 



The active cruising force of Sir James con- 
sisted of eight vessels, carrying an aggre- 
gate of 222 pieces of ordnance. To op- 
pose these at Oswego was the schooner 
Growler, Captain Woolsey. She was in 
the river for the purpose of conveying 
guns and naval stores to Sackett's Harbor. 
To prevent her falling into the hands of 
the British, she was sunk, and a part of 
her crew, under Lieutenant Pearce, joined 
the garrison at the fort. The latter 
then mounted only six old guns, three of 
which were almost useless, because they 
had lost their trunnions. Mitchell's force 
was too small to defend both the fort and 
the village, on the west side of the river, 
so he pitched all his tents near the town 
and gathered his whole force into the fort. 
Deceived by the appearance of military 
strength at the village, the British pro- 
ceeded to attack the fort, leaving the 
defenceless town unmolested. The land 
troops, in fifteen large boats, covered by 
the guns of the vessels, moved to the shore 
near the fort early in the afternoon. They 
were repulsed by a heavy cannon placed 
near the shore. The next day (May 6) 
the fleet again appeared, and the larger 
vessels of the squadron opened fire on the 
fort. The troops landed in the afternoon, 
and, after a sharp fight in the open field, 
the garrison retired, and the British took 
possession of the fort. The main object 
of the British was 1he seizure of naval 
stores at the falls of the Oswego River 
(now Fulton), and Mitchell, after leaving 
the fort, took position up the river for 



summer of 1862 he recruited in Rochester, 
N. Y., a company of the 140th New York 




ELWELL STEPHEN' OTIS. 

Infantry, with which he served throughout 
the Civil War, and was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel, Oct. 24, 1863. When the 
regular army was reorganized he was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel of the 22d In- 
fantry, July 28, 1866; served against the 
Indians in 1867-81; established the school 
of cavalry and infantry at Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kan., in 1881; and commanded it 
till 1885. He was promoted brigadier- 
general U. S. A., Nov. 28, 1893; appoint- 



their defence. Early on the morning of ed a major-general of volunteers, May 4, 

46 



OTIS 



1898; succeeded Gen. Wesley Merritt as Writs of Assistance (q. v.) called forth 
military governor of the Philippine Isl- popular discussion in 1761. He denounced 
ands in August following; returned to the writs in unmeasured terms. At a 
the United States and was promoted town-meeting in Boston in 1761, when 
major-general, June 16, 1900; retired this government measure was discussed by 
March 25, 1902. He is the author of Mr. Gridley, the calm advocate of the 
The Indian Question. crown, and the equally calm lawyer Oxen- 

Otis, George Alexander, surgeon; born bridge Thacher, the fiery Otis addressed 
in Boston, Mass., Nov. 12, 1830; graduated the multitude with words that thrilled ev- 
at Princeton in 1849; appointed army sur- cry heart in the audience and stirred every 
geon in 1861; assigned to duty in the 

surgeon - general's office, Washington, in _-— a 

1866. Dr. Otis was the author of Report 
on Surgical Cases treated in the Army of 
the United States from 1867-71; Plans for 
the Transport of the Sick and Wounded, 
etc.; and was the compiler of the surgical 
portion of the Medical and Surgical His- 
tory of the War of the Rebellion. He died 
in Washington. D. C. Feb. 23, 1881. 

Otis, Harrison Gray, statesman; born 
in Boston, Mass., Oct. 8, 1765; graduated 
at Harvard University in 1783, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1786, where his fine 
oratory and varied acquirements soon gain- 
ed him much fame. In Shays's insurrec- 
tion (see Shays, Daniel) he was aide to 
Governor Brooks; served in the Massachu- 
setts legislature; was member of Congress 
from 1797 to 1801; United States district 
attorney in 1801 ; speaker of the Assembly 
from 1803 to 1805; president of the State 
Senate from 1805 to 1811; judge of com- 
mon pleas from 1814 to 1818; and mayor 
of Boston from 1829 to 1S32. In 1814 he 

was a prominent member of the Hartford patriotic feeling of his hearers into earnest 
Convention, and wrote a series of letters action. Referring to the arbitrary power 




JAMES OTIS. 



upon it. In 1804 he pronounced an elo- 
quent eulogy of General Hamilton. Many 
of his occasional addresses have been pub- 
lished. His father was Samuel Alleyn 
Otis, brother of James. He died in Bos- 
ton, Oct. 28, 1848. 



of the writ, he said, " A man's house is 
his castle; and while he is quiet, he is as 
well guarded as a prince in his castle. 
This writ, if it should be declared legal, 
would totally annihilate this privilege. 
Custom-house officers may enter our houses 



Otis, James, statesman; born in West when they please; we are commanded to 
Barnstable, Mass., Feb. 5, 1725; graduated permit their entry. Their menial servants 
at Harvard University in 1743, and stud- may enter — may break locks, bars, every- 
ied law with Jeremiah Gridley. He began thing in their way; and whether they 
the practice of his profession at Plymouth, break through malice or revenge, no mar, 
but settled in Boston in 1750, where he no court can inquire. ... I am deter- 
soon obtained a high rank as a lawyer and mined to sacrifice estate, ease, health, ap- 
an advocate at the bar. Fond of literary plause, and even life, to the sacred calls 
pursuits, and a thorough classical scholar, of my country, in opposition to a kind of 
he wrote and published Rudiments of Latin power the exercise of which cost one king 
Prosody in 1760, which became a text-book his head and another his throne." The 
at Harvard. He entered public life as a same year he was chosen a representative 
zealous patriot and gifted orator when the in the Massachusetts Assembly, and there- 

47 



OTIS, JAMES 

in became a leader of the popular party, fore them concerning Writs of assistance. 
In 1764 he published a pamphlet enti- I have accordingly considered it; and now 
tied The Rights of the Colonies Vindi- appear, not only in obedience to your order, 
cated, which attracted great attention in but likewise in behalf of the inhabitants 
England for its finished diction and mas- of this town, who have presented another 
terly arguments. Otis proposed, June 6, petition, and out of regard to the liberties 
1765, the calling of a congress of delegates of the subject. And I take this oppor- 
to consider the Stamp Act. He was chosen tunity to declare that, whether under a fee 
a delegate, and was one of the committee or not (for in such a cause as this I de- 
to prepare an address to the Commons of spise a fee), I will to my dying day op- 
England ( see Stamp Act Congress ) . pose, with all the powers and faculties God 
Governor Bernard feared the fiery, orator, has given me, all such instruments of 
and when Otis was elected speaker of the slavery on the one hand and villany on the 
Assembly the governor negatived it. But other as this writ of assistance is. 
he could not silence Otis. When the min- It appears to me the worst instrument 
istry required the legislature to rescind of arbitrary power, the most destructive of 
its circular letter to the colonies, re- English liberty and the fundamental prin- 
questing them to unite in measures for re- ciples of law, that ever was found in an 
dress (see Massachusetts), Otis made a English law-book. I must, therefore, beg 
speech which his adversaries said was " the your honors' patience and attention to 
most violent, abusive, and treasonable dec- the whole range of an argument that 
laration that perhaps was ever uttered." may, perhaps, appear uncommon in many 
He carried the House with him, and it things, as well as to points of learning 
refused to rescind by a vote of 92 to that are more remote and unusual; that 
17. In the summer of 1769 he publish- the whole tendency of my design may the 
ed an article in the Boston Gazette more easily be perceived, the conclusions 
which greatly exasperated the custom- better descend, and the force of them be 
house officers. He was attacked by one better felt. I shall not think much of my 
of them ( Sept. 9 ) , who struck him on pains in this cause, as I engaged in it from 
the head with a cane, producing a severe principle. I was solicited to argue this 
wound and causing a derangement of the cause as advocate-general ; and, because I 
brain, manifested at times ever after- would not, I have been charged with deser- 
wards. Otis obtained a verdict against tion from my office. To this charge I 
the inflicter of the wound (Robinson) can give a very sufficient answer. I re- 
for $5,000, which he gave up on receiving nounced that office, and I argue this causo 
a written apology. In 1777 Otis withdrew from the same principles;' and I argue it 
to the country on account of ill-health. He with the greater pleasure, as it is in favor 
was called into public life again, but was of British liberty, at a time when we hear 
unable to perform the duties; and finally, the greatest monarch upon earth declaring 
when the war for independence (which his from his throne that he glories in the. 
trumpet-voice had heralded) had closed, he name of Briton, and that the privileges of 
attempted to resume the practice of his his people are dearer to him than the most 
profession. But his death was nigh. He valuable prerogatives of his crown; and 
had often expressed a wish that his death as it is in opposition to a kind of power 
might be by a stroke of lightning. Stand- the exercise of which in former periods of 
ing at his door at Andover during a thun- history cost one king of England his head, 
der-shower, he was instantly killed by a and another his throne. I have taken 
lightning-stroke on May 23, 1783. more pains in this cause than I ever will 

Writs of Assistance. — The following is take again; although my engaging in this 
the substance of an address by Mr. Otis and another popular cause has raised 
before the Supreme Court of Massachu- much resentment. But I think I can sin- 
setts in February, 1761: cerely declare that I cheerfully submit my- 
self to every odious name for conscience' 



May it please your honors, — I was de- sake; and from my soul I despise all those 
sired by one of the court to look into the whose guilt, malice, or folly, has made 
books and consider the question now be- them my foes. Let the consequences be 

48 



OTIS, JAMES 

what they will, I am determined to pro- with this writ, in the daytime, may enter 
ceed. The only principles of public con- all the houses, shops, etc. A at will, and 
duct that are worthy of a gentleman or a command all to assist him. Fourthly, 
man are to sacrifice estate, ease, health, by this writ, not only deputies, etc., but 
and applause — and even life — to the sacred even their menial servants, are allowed 
calls of his country. to lord it over us. What is this but to 

These manly sentiments, in private life, have the curse of Canaan with a wit- 
make the good citizen; in public life, ness on us; to be the servant of servants, 
the patriot and the hero. I do not say the most despicable of God's creation? 
that, when brought to the test, I shall Now one of the most essential branches 
be invincible. I pray God I may never of English liberty is the freedom of one's 
be brought to the melancholy trial; but house. A man's house is his castle; and, 
if ever I should, it will be then known while he is quiet, he is as well guarded 
how far I can reduce to practice princi- as a prince in his castle. This writ, 
pies which I know to be founded in truth, if it should be declared legal, would 
In the mean time, I will proceed to the totally annihilate this privilege. Custom- 
Bubject of this writ. house officers may enter our houses when 

Your honors will find in the old books, they please; and we are commanded to 
concerning the office of a justice of the permit their entry. Their menial ser- 
peace, precedents of general warrants to vants may enter, may break locks, bars, 
search suspected houses. But in more and everything in their way; and whether 
modern buoks you will find only special they break through malice or revenge, 
warrants to search such and such houses, no man, no court can inquire. Bare sus- 
specially named, in which the complain- picion without oath is sufficient. This 
ant has before sworn that he suspects wanton exercise of this power is not a 
his goods are concealed; and will find chimerical suggestion of a heated brain. 
it adjudged that special warrants only I will mention some facts. Mr. Pew had 
are legal. In the same manner, I rely one of these writs, and when Mr. Ware 
on it that the writ prayed for in this succeeded him, he endorsed this writ ovor 
petition, being general, is illegal. It is to Mr. Ware; so that these writs ahe ue- 
a power that places the liberty of every gotiable from one officer to another; arid 
man in the hands of every petty officer, so your honors have no opportunity* of 
I say I admit that special writs of as- judging the persons to whom this" vast 
sistance, to search special places, may be power is delegated. Another instance 
granted to certain persons on oath; but is this: Mr. Justice Walley had called 
I deny that the writ now prayed for can this same Mr. Ware before him, by" a 
be granted, for I beg leave to make some constable, to answer for a breach of the 
observations on the writ itself, before I Sabbath-day acts, or that of profane swear- 
proceed to other acts of Parliament. In ing. As soon as he had finished, Mr. "Ware 
the first place, the writ is universal, being asked him if he had done. He replied, 
directed " to all and singular justices, " Yes." " Well, then," said Mr. War-e, 
sheriffs, constables, and all other officers " I will show you a little of my pOwer. 
and subjects"; so that, in short, it is I command you to permit me to search 
directed to every subject in the King's your house for uncustomed goods";" and 
dominions. Every one with this writ went on to search the house from the 
may be a tyrant; if this commission be garret to the cellar; and then served 
legal, a tyrant in a legal manner; also, the constable in the same manner! But 
may control, imprison, or murder any one to show another absurdity in this writ: 
within the realm. In the next place, it if it should be established, I insist upon 
i« perpetual; there is no return. A man it every person, by the 14th Charles II., 
is accountable to no person for his doings, has this power as well as the custom- 
Every man may reign secure in his petty house officers. The words are : " It shall 
tyranny, and spread terror and desolation be lawful for any person or persons au- 
around him, until the trump of the arch- thorized," etc. What a scene does this 
angel shall excite different emotions in open! Every man prompted by revenge, 
his soul. In the third place, a person ill • humor, or wantonness to inspect the 
vii, — a 40 



OTTAWA INDIANS— OTJVRIER 



inside of his neighbor's house may get 
a writ of assistance. Others will ask it 
from self-defence; one arbitrary exertion 
will provoke another, until society be in- 
volved in tumult and in blood. 

Ottawa Indians, a tribe of the Algon- 
quian family, seated on the northern part 
of the Michigan peninsula when discov- 
ered by the French. When the Iroquois 
overthrew the Hurons in 1649 the fright- 
ened Ottawas fled to the islands in Green 
Bay, and soon afterwards joined the Sioux 
beyond the Mississippi. They were speed- 
ily expelled, when they recrossed the great 
river; and after the French settled at De- 
troit a part of the Ottawas became seat- 
ed near them. Meanwhile the Jesuits 
had established missions among them. 
Finally the part of the nation that was 
at Mackinaw passed over to Michigan; 
and in the war that resulted in the con- 
quest of Canada the Ottawas joined the 
French. Pontiac (q. v.), who was at the 
head of the Detroit family, engaged in 
a great conspiracy in 1763, but was not 
jairied by those in the north of the penin- 
svH., ', At that time the whole tribe num- 
bered 1 about 1,500. In the Revolution and 
suferequent hostilities they were opposed 
to P «the Americans, but finally made a 
treaty of peace at Greenville, in 1795, 
widen .one band settled on the Miami River. 
In. , conjunction with other tribes, they 
ceded " their lands around Lake Michigan 
to thfe United States in 1833 in exchange 
for Jaaads in Missouri, where they flourish- 
ed for a time. After suffering much 
trouble, this emigrant band obtained a 
reservation in the Indian Territory, to 
which the remnant of this portion of the 
f^rilifv emigrated in 1870. The upper 
Michigan Ottawas remain in the North, 
in <thb vicinity of the Great Lakes. There 
are some in Canada, mingled with other 
Indians. Roman Catholic and Protestant 
missions have been established among 
them. Their own simple religion em- 
braces a belief in a good and evil spirit. 
In 1899 there were 162 Ottawas at the 
Quapaw agency, Indian Territory, and a 
larger number at the Mackinac agency, 
Michigan, where 6,000 Ottawas and Chip- 
pewas were living on the same reservation. 

Ottendorfer, Oswald, journalist; born 
in Zwittau, Moravia, Feb. 26, 1826; 
studied in the universities of Prague and 



Vienna; took part in thf Aiiwtmm Revolu- 
tion of 1848; the Schleswig-Holstein war 
against Denmark; and in the revolutions 
in Baden and Saxony; came to the United 
States in 1850; was proprietor of the 
Slaats-Zeitung, New York; and gave large 
sums of money to educational and chari- 
table institutions. He was an active 
Democrat, but opposed to Tammany Hall. 
He died in New York City, Dec. 15, 1900. 

Otterbein, Philip William, clergy- 
man ; born in Germany, June 4, 1726 ; 
ordained in 1749; removed to America in 
1752, where he ministered to the Germans 
in Pennsylvania, among whom he labored 
until his death at Baltimore, Md., Nov. 
17, 1813. 

Ouatanon, Fort, a defensive work on 
the Wabash, just below the present city 
of Lafayette, Ind. At 8 p.m. on May 31, 
1763, a war-belt reached the Indian village 
near the fort. The next morning the com- 
mandant was lured into an Indian cabin 
and bound with cords. On hearing of this 
his garrison surrendered. The French liv- 
ing near saved the lives of the men by 
paying ransom and receiving the English- 
men into their houses. See Pontiac. 

Ouray, Indian chief of the Uncompah- 
gre Utes; born about 1820; always 
friendly to civilization, and generally 
known as the " White man's friend." 
Through his influence the Utes were re- 
strained in 1879 from hostilities. He died 
at Los Pinos agency, Aug. 27, 1880. 

Oureouhare, Indian chief of the Cayu- 
gas; was treacherously captured by the 
French in 1687 and sent to France, but 
was sent back to Canada in 1789 with , 
Frontenac, for whom he conceived a friend- 
ship. He was employed by the French to 
effect an alliance with the Iroquois, but 
was unsuccessful. In the ensuing war he 
led the Christian Huron Indians against 
the Iroquois. He died in Quebec in 1697. 

Ouvrier, Pierre Gustave, historian; 
born in Calais, France, in 1765; was ap- 
pointed chancellor to the French consulate 
in Philadelphia in 1795; later he descend- 
ed the Mississippi River to New Orleans, 
and also explored the Missouri and 
Arkansas rivers. In 1796-1804 he ex- 
plored Missouri, Louisiana, northern 
Texas, both Carolinas, Georgia, Ohio, 
Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
southern Illinois. He returned to France 






50 



OVANDO— OWEN 

on the restoration of Louis XVIII. His Owen, Robert, social reformer; born in 
publications include The Political and Newtown, North Wales, May 14, 1771. 
Civil History of the United States of At the age of eighteen he was part pro- 
North America; and Critical Studies on prietor of a cotton-mill, and became a 
the Political Constitution of the United proprietor of cotton-mills at Lanark, Scot- 
States of North America and the Con- land, where he introduced reforms. In 
traductions which exist oeticeen it and the 1812 he published his New Vieics of So- 
Civil Laics of the Various States of the ciety, etc., and afterwards his Book of 
Union. He died in Calais, France, in 1822. the New Moral World, in which he main- 
uvanao, Nicholas de, military officer; tained a theory of modified communism, 
born in Valladolid, Spain, in 1460 ; was Immensely wealthy, he distributed tracts 
sent by Queen Isabella to supplant Bobadil- inculcating his views very widely, and soon 
la as governor of Santo Domingo in 1501, had a host of followers. In 1823 he came 
charged by the Queen not to allow the to the United States and bought 20,000 
enslavement of the natives, but to pro- acres of land — the settlement at New Har- 
tect them as subjects of Spain, and to mony, Ind. — with dwellings for 1,000 per- 
carefully instruct them in the Christian sons, where he resolved to found a com- 
faith. Ovando sailed for the West Indies, munist society. This was all done at his 
Feb. 13, 1502, with thirty-two ships, bear- own expense. It was an utter failure. He 
ing 2,500 persons to become settlers in that returned in 1827, and tried the same 
country. By command of the Queen, the experiment in Great Britain, and after- 
Spaniards and natives were to pay tithes; wards in Mexico, with the same result, 
none but natives of Castile were to live Yet he continued during his life to ad- 
in the Indies; none to go on discoveries vocate his peculiar social notions as the 
without royal permission; no Jews, Moors, founder of a system of religion and so- 
nor new converts were to be tolerated ciety according to reason. During his 
there; and all the property that had latter years he was a believer in spiritual- 
been taken from Columbus and his brother ism, and became convinced of the im- 
was to be restored to them. In Ovando's mortality of the soul. He was the origi- 
fleet were ten Franciscan friars, the first nator of the " labor leagues," from which 
of that order who came to settle in the sprang the Chartist movement. He died 
Indies. Ovando, like Bobadilla, treated in Newtown, North Wales, Nov. 19, 1858. 
Columbus with injustice. He was recalled See New Harmony. 

in 1508, and was succeeded in office by Owen, Robert Dale, author; born in 
Diego Columbus, son of the great ad- Glasgow, Scotland, Nov. 9, 1801 ; son of 
miral. Ovando died in Madrid, Spain, Robert Owen; educated in Switzerland; 
in 1518. came with his father to the United States 
Ovenshine, Samuel, military officer; in 1825, settled at New Harmony, Ind., 
born in Pennsylvania, April 2, 1843; and, with Madame d'Arusmont (nee 
served through the Civil War, advancing Frances Wright), edited the New Har- 
from second lieutenant to major; appoint- mony Gazette, afterwards published in 
ed brigadier-general United States volun- New York and called the Free Inquirer 
teers in 1898, and ordered on duty in the (1825-34). He returned to New Har- 
Philippine Islands; promoted brigadier- mony, and was elected, first to the Indi- 
general United States army, and retired, ana legislature, and then to Congress, 
both in October, 189&. wherein he served from 1843 to 1847, tak- 
Overland Express. See Pony Express, ing a leading part in settling the north- 
Owen, Griffith, pioneer; born in western boundary question. He introduced 
Wales, where he was educated as a physi- the bill (1845) organizing the Smithso- 
cian. In 1684 he induced William Penn nian Institution, and became one of its 
to set apart 40,000 acres in Pennsylvania regents. He was a member of the con- 
for a Welsh settlement, the land to be vention that amended the constitution of 
sold to Welsh-speaking persons only. Indiana in 1850, and secured for the 
Griffith and his family led the settlers to women of that State rights of property, 
this tract of land, which he called Merion. In 1853 he was sent to Naples as charge 
He died in Philadelphia in 1717. d'affaires, and was made minister in 1855. 

fl 



OWSLEY— OXNARD 

He published, in pamphlet form, a dis- lather in 1783, where h« became a lawyer 

cus&ion he had with Horace Greeley la and a member of the State legislature. He 

1860 on divorce, and it had a circulation served as a judge of the Kentucky Supreme 

of 60,000 copies. During the Civil War Court from 1812 to 1828; elected governor 

he wrote much in favor of emancipating of the State in 1844, serving two terms, 

the slaves, and pleaded for a thorough He died in Danville, Ky., December, 1862. 
union of all the States. Mr. Owen was Oxnard, Benjamin A., manufacturer; 

a firm believer in spiritualism, and wrote born in New Orleans, La., Dec. 10, 1855; 

much on the subject. He died at Lake graduated at the Massachusetts Institute 

George, N. Y., June 25, 1877. of Technology in 1875; became the founder 

Owsley, William, jurist; born in Vir- of the beet-root sugar industry in the 

ginia in 1782; taken to Kentucky by his United States. 



p. 



Paca, William, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence; born in Wye Hall, 
Harford co., Md., Oct. 31, 1740; studied 
law in London; and began its practice in 
Annapolis, where he became a warm op- 
ponent to the obnoxious measures of Par- 
liament. He was a member of the commit- 
tee of correspondence in 1774, and was a 
delegate in Congress from 1774 to 1779. 
He was State Senator from 1777 to 1779; 
chief-justice from 1778 to 1780, and gov- 
ernor fiom 1782 to 1786. From 1789 
until his death he was United States dis- 
trict judge. From his private wealth he 
gave liberally to the support of the patriot 
cause. He died in Wye Hall, in 1799. 

Pacific Exploring Expedition. The 
acquisition of California opened the way 
for an immense commercial interest on 
the Pacific coast of the United States, and 
in the spring of 1853 Congress sent four 
armed vessels, under the command of 
Captain Ringgold, of the navy, to the 
eastern shores of Asia, by way of Cape 
Horn, to explore the regions of the Pa- 
cific Ocean, which, it was evident, would 
soon be traversed by American steam- 
ships plying between the ports of the 
western frontier of the United States and 
V Japan and China. The squadron left Nor- 
folk May 31, with a supply-ship. The ex- 
pedition returned in the summer of 1856. 
It made many very important explora- 
tions, among them of the whaling and 
scaling grounds in the region of the coast 
of Kamtehatka and Bering Strait. 

Pacific Ocean. See Cabeza de Vaca; 
Nuxez de; Magellan, Ferdixando. 

Pacific Railway. The greatest of 
American railroad enterprises undertaken 
up to that time was the construction of 
a railway over the great plains and lofty 
mountain - ranges between the Missouri 
River and the Pacific Ocean. As early as 
1846 such a work was publicly advocated 
by Asa Whitney. In 1849, after the dis- 



covery of gold in California promised a 
rapid accumulation of wealth and popula- 
tion on the Pacific coast, Senator Thomas 
H. Benton introduced a bill into Congress 
providing for preliminary steps in such 
an undertaking. In 1853 Congress passed 
an act providing for surveys of various 
routes by the corps of topographical en- 
gineers. By midsummer, 1853, four ex- 
peditions for this purpose were organized 
to explore as many different routes. One, 
under Major Stevens, was instructed to 
explore a northern route, from the upper 
Mississippi to Puget's Sound, on the Pa- 
cific coast. A second expedition, under 
the direction of Lieutenant Whipple, was 
directed to cross the continent from a line 
adjacent to the 36th parallel of N. lat. 
It was to proceed from the Missis- 
sippi, through Walker's Pass of the 
Rocky Mountains, and strike the Pacific 
near San Pedro, Los Angeles, or San 
Diego. A third, under Captain Gunnison, 
was to proceed through the Rocky Moun-. 
tains near the head-waters of the Rio del 
Norte, by way of the Hueferno River and 
the Great Salt Lake in Utah. The fourth 
was to leave the southern Mississippi, 
and reach the Pacific somewhere in Lower 
California — perhaps San Diego. These 
surveys cost about $1,000,000. Nothing 
further, however, was done, owing to po- 
litical dissensions between the North and 
the South, until 1862 and 1S64, when Con- 
gress, in the midst of the immense strain 
upon the resources of the government in 
carrying on the war, passed acts granting 
subsidies for the work, in the form of 6 
per cent, gold bonds, at the rate of $16,- 
000 a mile from the Missouri River to the 
eastern base c £ the Rocky Mountains, $48,- 
000 a mile for 300 miles through those 
mountains, $32,000 a mile between the 
Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, 
and $16,000 a mile from the western slope 
of the latter range to the sea. In addi- 



53 



PACIFIC RAILWAY—" PACIFICUS 



tion to these subsidies, Congress granted 
about 25,000,000 acres of land along the 
line of the road. Some modifications were 
afterwards made in these grants. Work 
was begun on the railway in 1863, by 
two companies — the " Central Pacific," 
proceeding from California and working 
eastward, and the " Union Pacific," work- 
ing westward. The road was completed 
in 1809, when a continuous line of rail- 
road communication between the Atlantic 



tance being about 3,400 miles. Another 
railroad with a land-grant from the gov- 
ernment, and called the " Northern Pacific 
Railroad," to extend from Lake Superior 
to Puget's Sound, on the Pacific, was be- 
gun in 1870. 

" Pacificus " and " Helvidius." Wash- 
ington's proclamation of neutrality was 
violently assailed by the Democratic press 
throughout the country, and the adminis- 
tration found determined opposition grow- 




OXK OF THE FIRST TRAIN'S ON THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 



and Pacific oceans was perfected. The 
entire length of the road, exclusive of its 
branches, is about 2,000 miles. It crosses 
nine distinct mountain-ranges, the highest 
elevation in the route being 8,235 feet, at 
the crossing of the Black Hills at Evan's 
Pass. The route from New York to San 
Francisco, by way of Chicago and Omaha, 
is travelled in six or seven days, the dis- 



ing more and more powerful. The Prssi- 
dent received coarse abuse from the op- 
posing politicians. Under these circum- 
stances, Hamilton took the field in defence 
of the proclamation, in a series of articles 
over the signature of " Pacificus." In 
these he maintained the President's right, 
by its issue, to decide upon the position 
in which the nation stood. He also de- 



54 



PADTJCAH— PAINE 



fended the policy of the measure. To 
these articles a reply appeared, July 8, 
1793, over the signature of " Helvidius," 
which was written by Madison, at the 
special request of Jefferson. The latter, in 
a letter urging Madison to answer Hamil- 
ton, felt compelled to say that Genet (see 
Genest, Edmond Charles) was a hot- 
headed, passionate man, without judgment, 
and likely, by his indecency, to excite pub- 
lic indignation and give the Secretary of 
State great trouble. Indeed, Jefferson 
afterwards offered his resignation, but 
Washington persuaded him to withdraw it. 

Padiicah. General Forrest, the Con- 
federate cavalry leader captured Jackson, 
Tenn., and, moving northward, appeared 
before Paducah, held by Colonel Hicks, 
with 700 men. His demand for a surrender 
was accompanied with the threat, " If 
you surrender you shall be treated as 
prisoners of war^ but if I have to storm 
your works you may expect no quarter." 
He made three assaults, and then retired 
after losing over 300 men, and moved on 
to Fort Pillow. 

Page, Thomas Jefferson, naval officer ; 
born in Virginia in 1808. In 1815 he was 
in command of the Water Witch, which 
was sent by the United States to explore 
the La Plata River, and in 1858 he was 
authorized to continue his explorations. 
His report, which was published in New 
York, was the first definite source of in- 
formation of the La Plata River and its 
tributaries. During the Civil War he 
served in the Confederate navy. He died 
in Rome, Italy, Oct. 26, 1899. 

Page, Thomas Nelson, author; born 
in Hanover county, Va., April 23, 1853; 
graduated at the University of Virginia ; 
is the author of In Old Virginia; The Old 
South: Essays, Social and Historical: 
Before the War; Red Rock: A Chronicle 
of Reconstruction, etc. 

Paige, Lucius Robinson, author; born 
in Hardwick, Mass., March 8, 1802; re- 
ceived an academic education; became a 
Universalist minister in 1823 ; retired 
from pastoral work in 1S39. His publica- 
tions include Universalism Defended; His- 
tory of Cambridge, Mass., 1630-1877 ; His- 
tory of Hardwick, Mass., etc. He died in 
Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 2, 1896. 

Paine, John Knowles, musician ; born 
in Portland, Me., Jan. 9, 1839; studied 



music in Germany; appointed Professor 
of Music at Harvard in 1872. He is the 
author of the music which was sung at 
the opening of the World's Fair of 1876, 
and also of the march and hymn for the 
World's Fair of 1893, etc. 

Paine, Robert Treat, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence; born in Bos- 
ton, March 11, 1731; graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1749; taught school 
to help support his parents, and also made 
a voyage to Europe. He studied theology, 
and in 1758 was chaplain of provincial 
troops. Then he studied law, and prac- 
tised it in Taunton successfully for many 
years. He was the prosecuting attorney 
in the case of Captain Preston and his 
men after the Boston massacre. A dele- 
gate to the Provincial Congress in 1774, 
he was sent to the Continental Congress 
the same year, where he served until 1778. 
On the organization of the State of Massa- 
chusetts, he was made attorney-general, he 
having been one of the committee who 
drafted the constitution of that common- 
wealth. Mr. Paine settled in Boston in 
1780, and was judge of the Massachusetts 
Supreme Court from 1790 to 1804. He 
died in Boston, May 11, 1814. 

Paine, Robert Treat, Jr., poet, son of 
the signer; born in Taunton, Mass., Dec. 
9, 1773; graduated at Harvard University 
in 1792; was originally named Thomas, 
but in view of the character of Thomas 
Paine, author of Common Sense, he had it 
changed by the legislature, he desiring, as 
he said, to bear a " Christian " name. He 
became a journalist and a poet, and was 
the author of the popular ode entitled 
Adams and Liberty. He became a lawyer 
in 1802, and retired from the profession 
in 1809. His last important poem — The 
Steeds of Apollo — was written in his 
father's house in Boston. He died in Bos- 
ton, Nov. 13, 1811. 

Adams and Liberty. — In the spring 
and early summer of 1798 a war-spirit of 
great intensity excited the American peo- 
ple. The conduct of France towards the 
United States and its ministers had caused 
the American government to make prep- 
arations for war upon the French. In 
June Paine was engaged tt write a 
patriotic song to be sung at the anniver- 
sary of the Massachusetts Charitable Fire 
Society. He composed one which he 



55 



PAINE 



entitled Adams and Liberty. It was can have none of my port, Mr. Paine, until 

adapted to the spirit of the time, and had you have written another stanza with 

a wonderful effect upon the people. It Washington's name in it." Paine walked 

was really a war-song, in nine stanzas, back and forth a few minutes, called for 

The following verses expressed the temper a pen, and wrote the fifth verse in the 

of the people then: poem as follows: 



" While France her huge limbs bathes recum- 
bent in blood. 
And Society's base threats with wide dis- 
solution, 
May Peace, like the dove, who returned 
from the flood, 
Find an ark of abode In our mild Con- 
stitution. 
But though Peace is our aim, 
Yet the boon we disclaim, 
If bought by our Sov'reignty, Justice, or 
Fame. 

" 'Tis the fire of the flint each American 
warms ; 
L«t Rome's haughty victors beware of 
collision, 
Let them bring all the vassals of Europe in 
arms — 
We're a world by ourselves, and disclaim 
a division. 
While with patriot pride 
To our laws we're allied, 
No foe can subdue us, no faction divide. 

" Oar mountains are crowned with Imperial 
oak, 
Whose roots, like our liberties, ages have 
nourished ; 
But long ere our nation submits to the yoke, 
Not a tree shall be left on the field where 
it flourished. 
Should invasion impend, 
Every grove would descend 
From the hill-tops they shaded, our shores 
to defend. 

" Let our patriots destroy Anarch's pestilent 
worm, 
Lest our Liberty's growth should be 
checked by corrosion, 
Then let clouds thicken round us, we heed 
not the storm, 
Our realm fears no shock but the earth's 
own explosion. 
Foes assail us in vain, 
Though their fleets bridge the main, 
For our altars and laws with our lives we'll 
maintain. 
For ne'er shall the sons of Columbia be 

slaves 
While the earth bears a plant or the sea 
rolls Its waves." 

At the* home of Major Russell, editor 
of the Boston Centinel, the author offered 
it to that gentleman. "It is imperfect," 
said Russell, " without the name of Wash- 
ington in it." Mr. Paine was about to 
take some wine, when Russell politely and 
good-naturedly interfered, saying, " You 



" Should the tempest of war overshadow our 
laDd, 
Its bolts could ne'er rend Freedom's 
temple asunder ; 
For, unmoved, at its portal, would Wash- 
ington stand, 
And repulse with his breast the assaults 
of the thunder ! 
His sword from the sleep 
Of its scabbard would leap, 
And conduct with its point ev'ry flash to 
the deep ! 
For ne'er shall the sons of Columbia be 

slaves 
While the earth bears a plant or the sea 
rolls its waves." 

This song became immensely popular, 
and was sung all over the country — in 
theatres and other public places, in draw- 
ing-rooms and work-shops, and by the 
boys in the streets. 

Paine, Thomas, patriot; born in Thet- 
ford, England, Jan. 29, 1737. His father 
was a Quaker, from whom he learned the 
business of stay-making. He went on a 
privateering cruise in 1755, and after- 




56 



wards worked at his trade and preached 
as a Dissenting minister. He was an ex- 
ciseman at Thetford, and wrote (1772) a 
pamphlet on the subject. Being accused 
of smuggling, he was dismissed from office. 



PAINE, THOMAS 

Meeting Dr. Franklin, the latter advised Greene. In December, 1776, he published 
him to go to America. He arrived in the first number of his Crisis, and con- 
Philadelphia in December, 1774, and was tinued it at intervals during the war. 
employed as editor of the Pennsylvania In 1777 he was elected secretary to the 
Magazine. In that paper he published, committee on foreign affairs. Silas 
October, 1775, Serious Thoughts, in which Deane (q. v.), who acted as mercantile as 
he declared his hope of the abolition of well as diplomatic agent of the Conti- 
slavery. At the suggestion of Dr. Benja- nental Congress during the earlier portion 
min Rush, of Philadelphia, it is said, he of the war, incurred the enmity of Arthur 
put forward a powerfully written pam- Lee and his brothers, and was so misrep- 
phlet, at the beginning of 1776, in favor resented by them that Congress recalled 
of the independence of the colonies. It him from France. It had been insinuated 
opened with the often-quoted words, by Carmichael that Deane had appropri- 
" These are the times that try men's ated the public money to his private use. 
souls." Its terse, sharp, incisive, and Two violent parties arose, in and out of 
vigorous sentences stirred the people with Congress, concerning the doings of the 
irrepressible aspirations for independence, agents of Congress abroad. Robert Mor- 
A single extract will indicate its char- ris, and others acquainted with financial 
acter: "The nearer any government ap- matters, took the side of Deane. The pow- 
proaches to a republic, the less business erful party against him was led by Rich- 
there is for a king; in England a king ard Henry Lee, brother of Arthur, and 
hath little more to do than to make war chairman of the committee on foreign 
and give away places. Arms must decide affairs. Deane published (1779) An Ad' 
the contest [between Great Britain and dress to the People of the United States, 
America] ; the appeal was the choice of in which he commented severely on the 
the King, and the continent hath escaped conduct of the Lees, and justly claimed 
the challenge. The sun never shone on a credit for himself in obtaining supplies 
cause of greater worth. 'Tis not the affair from France through Beaumarchais. 
of a city, a county, a province, or a king- Paine, availing himself of documents in 
dom, but of a continent — of at least one- his custody, published a reply to Deane's 
eighth part of the habitable globe. 'Tis address, in which he asserted that the sup- 
not the concern of a day, a year, or an plies nominally furnished through a mer- 
age; posterity are virtually involved in it cantile house came really from the French 
even to the end of time. . . . Freedom government. This avowal, which the 
hath been hunted round the globe: Asia French and Congress both wished to con- 
and Africa hath long expelled her; Eu- ceal, drew from the French minister, Ge- 
rope regards her like a stranger ; and Eng- rard, a warm protest, as it proved duplic- 
land hath given her warning to depart, ity on the part of the French Court; and, 
Oh, receive the fugitive, and prepare an to appease the minister, Congress, by reso- 
asylum for mankind." The effect of Com- lution, expressly denied that any present 
mon Sense was marvellous. Its trumpet of supplies had been received from France 
tones awakened the continent, and made previous to the treaty of alliance. Paine 
every patriot's heart beat with intense was dismissed from office for his impru- 
emotion. It was read with avidity every- dence in revealing the secrets of diplo- 
where; and the public appetite for its macy. 

solid food was not appeased until 100,000 Late in November, 1779, he was made 
copies had fallen from the press. The clerk of the Pennsylvania Assembly; and 
legislature of Pennsylvania voted to the in that capacity read a letter to that body 
author $2,500. Washington, in a letter from General Washington, intimating that 
written at Cambridge, highly applauded a mutiny in the army was imminent be- 
lt, and all over the colonies there were im- cause of the distresses of the soldiers. The 
mediate movements in favor of absolute Assembly was disheartened. Paine wrote 
independence. a letter to Blair McClenaghan, a Phila- 
For a short time after ,the Declaration delphia merchant, stating the case, and 
of Independence Paine was in the military enclosing $500 as his contribution to a 
service, and was aide-de-camp to General relief fund. A meeting of citizens was 

57 



% : 



PAINE— PAKENHAM 




PAINE'S MONUMENT. 



called, when a subscription was circu- in London he was indicted for sedition 
lated, and very soon the sum of £300,000 and afterwards outlawed. Paine assisted. 
(Pennsylvania currency) was collected, in framing the French constitution in 
With this capital a bank (afterwards the 1793; and the same year he opposed the 

execution of the King, and proposed his 
banishment to America. This action 
caused his imprisonment by the Jaco- 
bins, and he had a narrow escape from 
the guillotine. It was at that period 
that he wrote his Age of Reason. James 
Monroe, then American minister to France, 
procured his release from prison in 1794. 
After an absence from the United States 
of fifteen years, he returned in a govern- 
ment vessel in 1802. His admirers hon- 
ored him with public dinners; his political 
opponents insulted him. Settled in New 
York, he died there, June 8, 1809, and wag 
buried on his farm at New Rochelle, the 
Quakers, for peculiar reasons, having de- 
nied his request to be interred in one of 
their burying-grounds. Near where he 
was buried a neat monument was erected 
in 1839. In 1819 William Cobbett took 
his bones to England. In 1875 a me* 
Bank of North America) for the relief of morial building was dedicated in Boston, 
the army was established. With Colonel having over the entrance the inscription, 
Laurens, Paine obtained a loan of 6,000,- " Paine Memorial Building and Home of 
000 livres from France in 1781. In 1786 the Boston Investigator." See Ingersoll, 
Congress gave him $3,000 for his services Rorert Green. 

during the war, and the State of New Pakenham, Sir Edward Michael, mili- 
York granted him a farm of 300 acres of tary officer; born in County Westmeath, 
land at New Rochelle, the confiscated es- Ireland, March 19, 1778. At the age of 
tate of a loyalist. about fifteen years he was appointed ma- 

Sailing for France in April, 1787, his jor of light dragoons, and at twenty 
fame caused him to be cordially received lieutenant-colonel of foot. In 1812 he 
by distinguished men. In 1788 
he was in England, superin- 
tending the construction of 
an iron bridge (the first of 
its kind) which he had in- 
vented. It now spans the 
Wear, at Sunderland. He 
wrote the first part of his 
Rights of Man in 1791, in 
reply to Burke's Reflections 
on the Revolution in France. 
It had an immense sale, and 
the American edition had a 
preface by Thomas Jefferson. 
An active member of the rev- 
olutionary society in England, 
he was elected to a seat in the 
French National Convention 
in 1792. He had a trium- 
phant reception in Paris, but 




THE PECAN-TREES AT VILLERE'S 

58 



NEW ORLEANS- 



PALATINES— PALMER 

I was made major-general; served with dis- Palfrey, John Gorham, author; born 

tinction under Wellington in the Penin- in Boston, Mass., May 2, 1796; grandson 

{ sular campaign; and in 1814 was intrusted of William Palfrey (1741-80); gradu- 

I with the expedition against New Orleans ated at Harvard College in 1815; minister 



(q. v.), where he was killed, Jan. 8, 1815. 
The body of Sir Edward was conveyed to 
Villere's, when the viscera were removed 
and buried between two pecan-trees near 
the mansion. The rest of the body was 



of Brattle Street Church, Boston, from 
1818 to 1830; Dexter Professor of Sacred 
Literature in Hazard; editor of the 
North American Revicio from 1835 to 
1843; member of the legislature of Massa- 



placed in a cask of rum and conveyed to chusetts; and from 1844 to 1848 was 
England for interment. Such was the dis- secretary of state. Mr. Palfrey is distin- 
positionof the bodies of two or three other guished as a careful historian, as evinced 



officers. It is said the pecan-trees never bore 
fruit after that year, and the negroes look- 
j ed upon the spot with superstitious awe. 
Palatines. Early in the eighteenth 
century many inhabitants of the Lower 
I Palatinate, lying on both sides of the 
i Rhine, in Germany, were driven from 
their homes by the persecutions of Louis 
I XVI. of France, whose armies desolated 
: their country. England received many of 
i the fugitives. In the spring of 1708, on 
the petition of Joshua Koekerthal, evan- 
gelical minister of a body of Lutherans, 
for himself and thirty-nine others to be 
transported to America, an order was 
issued by the Queen in Council lor such 
! transportation and their naturalization 
i before leaving England. The Queen pro- 
vided for them at her own expense. This 
first company of Palatines was first land- 
ed on Governor's Island, New York, and 
afterwards settled near the site of New- 
burg, Orange co., N. Y., in the spring of 
i 1709. In 1710 a larger emigration of 
! Palatines to America occurred, under the 



by his History of New England to 1GS8 
{'3 volumes, 1858-64). He delivered 
courses of lectures before the Lowell In- 
stitute, and was an early and powerful 
anti-slavery writer. He died in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., April 26, 1881. 

Palnia, Tomas Estrada, patriot; born 
in Bayamo, Cuba ; studied at the Univer- 
sity of Seville, Spain. He was active in 
the Cuban insurrection of 1867-78, dur- 
ing the latter part of which he was Presi- 
dent of the Cuban Republic. He repre- 
sented the Cuban Republic during the last 
revolution as plenipotentiary. He was 
olccted President of the Cuban Republic in 
1901, and sailed for Cuba from New York 
on April 17, 1902. He was inaugurated 
May 20, 1902. 

Palmer, Erastus Dow, sculptor; born 
in Pompey, Onondaga co., N. Y., AprH 
2, 1817. Until he was twenty-nine 
years of age he was a carpenter, when he 
began cameo-cutting for jewelry, which 
was then fashionable. This business in- 
jured his eyesight, and he attempted 



guidance of Robert Hunter, governor of sculpture, at which he succeeded at the 



New York. These, about 3,000 in number, 
went farther up the Hudson. Some set- 
tled on Livingston's Manor, at German- 
town, where a tract of 6,000 acres was 
bought from Livingston by the British 
government for their use. Some soon 
afterwards crossed the Hudson into Greene 



age of thirty-five. His first work in 
marble was an ideal bust of the infant 
Ceres, which was exhibited at the Academy 
of Design, ^Tew York. It was followed 
by two exquisite bas-reliefs representing 
the morning and evening star. Mr. Pal- 
mer's works in bas-relief and statuary 



county and settled at West Camp; others are highly esteemed. He produced more 



went far up the Mohawk and settled the 
I district known as the German Flats; 
I while a considerable body went to Berks 
I county, Pa., and were the ancestors of 
[ many patriotic families in that State. 
I Among the emigrants with Hunter a vio- 
I lent sickness broke out, and 470 of them 
I died. With this company came John 
J Peter Zenger (q. v.) and his widowed 
1 mother, Johanna. 



than 100 works in marble. His Angel 
of the Resurrection, at the entrance to 
the Rural Cemetery at Albany, and 
The White Captive, in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum, New York City, com- 
mand the highest admiration. He went 
to Europe in 1873, and in 1873-74 com- 
pleted a statue of Robert R. Livingston for 
the national Capitol. He died in Albany, 
N. Y., March 9, 1904. 



59 



PALMER— PALO ALTO 



Palmer, Innes Newton, military 
officer ; born in Buffalo, N. Y., Mareh 30, 
1824; graduated at West Point in 1846; 
served in the war against Mexico; and 
in August, 1861, was made major of 
cavalry. In September he was made 
brigadier-general of volunteers, having 
been engaged in the battle of Bull Run in 
July previous. He commanded a brigade 
in the Peninsular campaign in 1862; a 
division in North Carolina the first half 
cf 1863; and from August of that year 
until April, 1864, he commanded the de- 
fences of the North Carolina coast. He 
was in command of the District of North 
Carolina until March, 1865, participating 
in Sherman's movements. In 1865 he was 
brevetted brigadier-general U. S. A. ; in 
1868 commissioned colonel of the 2d 
United States Cavalry; and in 1879 was 
retired. 

Palmer, James Shedden, naval officer; 
born in New Jersey in 1810; entered the 
navy as midshipman in 1825, and was 
promoted rear-admiral in 1866. He served 
in the East India seas in 1838, and in 
blockading the coast of Mexico from 1846 
to 1848. At the beginning of the Civil 
War he was in the blockade fleet under 
Dupont. In the summer of 1863 he led the 
advance in the passage of the Vicksburg 
batteries, and later in the same year per- 
formed the same service. Palmer was 
Farragut's flag-captain in the expedition 
against New Orleans and Mobile, and 
fought the Confederate ram Arkansas. 
In 1865 he was assigned to the command 
of the North Atlantic squadron. He died 
in St. -Thomas, W. I., Dec. 7, 1867. 

Palmer, John McCatjley, military offi- 
cer; born in Eagle Creek, Scott co., Ky., 
Sept. 13, 1817; became a resident of Il- 
linois in 1832; was admitted to the bar 
in 1840; member of the State Senate from 
1852 to 1854; and a delegate to the peace 
convention in 1861. He was colonel of 
ihe 14th Illinois Volunteers in April, 
1861; served under Fremont in Missouri; 
and in December was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers. He was at the capt- 
ure of New Madrid and Island Number 
Ten, and commanded a brigade in the 
Army of the Mississippi. He commanded 
a division under Grant and Rosecrans in 
1862, and was with the latter at the battle 
of Stone River. For his gallantry there 




PALMETTO COCKADE. 



he was promoted major-general. He took 
part in the battle of Chickamauga, and 
commanded the 14th Corps in the Atlanta 
campaign. He was governor of Illinois 
in 1868-72; United States Senator in 
1891-97; and candidate of the gold 
standard Democrats for President in 
1896. He died in Springfield, 111., Sept. 
25, 1900. 

Palmetto Cockades, ornaments made 
of blue silk ribbon, 
with a button in the 
centre bearing the 
image of a palmetto- 
tree. They were also 
called Secession cock- 
ades. Secession bon- 
nets, made by a North- 
ern milliner in Charles- 
ton, were worn by the 
ladies of that city on 
the streets immediately 
after the passage of the 
ordinance of secession. 
Palmetto State, a popular name given 
to the State of South Carolina, its coat- 
ot-arms bearing the figure of a palmetto- 
tree. 

Palo Alto, Battle of. On a part of 
a prairie in Texas, about 8 miles north- 
east of Matamoras, Mexico, flanked by 
ponds and beautified by tall trees (which 
gave it its name), General Taylor, march- 
ing with less than 2,300 men from Point 
Isabel towards Fort Brown, encountered 
about 6,000 Mexicans, led by General 
Arista, in 1846. At a little past noon a 
furious battle was begun with artillery by 
the Mexicans and a cavalry attack with 
the lance. The Mexicans were forced back, 
and, after a contest of about five hours, 
they retreated to Resaca de la Palma and 
encamped. They fled in great disorder, 
having lost in the engagement 100 men 
killed and wounded. The Americans lost 
fifty-three men. During the engagement 
Major Ringgold, commander of the Amer- 
ican Flying Artillery, which did terrible 
work in the ranks of the Mexicans, wag 
mortally wounded by a small cannon- 
ball that passed through both thigbs 
and through his horse. Rider^and horse 
both fell to the ground. The latter 
was dead; the major died at Point Isabel 
four days afterwards. See Mexico, War 
with. 



60 






PANAMA— PANAMA CANAL 

Panama, Congress at. In 1823 Simon Canal Company of America was incor- 

Bolivar, the liberator of Colombia, South porated with a capital of $30,000,000. The 

America, and then President of that re- Colombian government extended the limit 

public, invited the governments of Mexico, of its concessions several times, the last 

Peru, Chile, and Buenos Ayres to unite one till Oct. 31, 1910. 

with him in forming a general congress at In 1897 President McKinley appointed 
Panama. Arrangements to that effect an Isthmian Canal Commission to ex- 
were made, but the congress was not held amine available routes; in 1900 the com- 
until July, 1826. The object was to settle mission recommended the Nicaragua 
upon some line of policy having the force route; and soon afterwards the French 
of international law respecting the rights Panama Canal Company offered to sell 
of those republics, and to adopt measures its unfinished canal, franchises, and rights 
for preventing further colonization by Eu- to the United States for $40,000,000. The 
ropean powers on the American continent. Isthmian Commission then recommended 
They fully accepted the Monroe doctrine the purchase of the Panama canal, esti- 
(see Monroe, James). In the spring of mating that it could be completed in ten 
1825 the United States was invited to send years, that it would cost $45,630,700 less 
commissioners to the congress. These to complete it than to construct the Nica- 
were appointed early in 1826, and ap- ragua canal, and that the annual cost of 
peared at the congress early in July; but maintenance and operation would be 
its results were not important to any of $1,300,000 less. On June 28, 1902, Presi- 
the parties concerned. dent Roosevelt approved an act which 

Panama Canal. The first exploration authorized the President to acquire, for 
for an interoceanic canal at the isthmus $40,000,000, all the rights, privileges, 
was made by H. de la Serna in 1527-28, franchises, etc., of the French Panama 
and a canal was proposed by Lopez de Canal Company. Also to acquire from 
Gomarfa in 1551, William Paterson in Colombia perpetual control of a strip of 
1698, Gogonche, the Spaniard, in 1799, land not less than six miles wide, and to 
and Humboldt in 1803. Naval officers of construct and perpetually operate and 
the United States, Great Britain, and maintain the canal, the control to include 
France made a number of independent sur- the right to maintain and operate the 
veys in the ensuing fifty years. A ship- Panama Railroad, also jurisdiction over 
canal was proposed in the Clayton-Bulwer said strip and the ports at the ends there- 
treaty in 1850; the United States and of. Failing to secure such title and such 
Colombia signed a treaty for the con- control, he, having obtained for the United 
struction of a canal in 1870; an inter- States perpetual control of the necessary 
national canal congress was held in Paris territory from Costa Pica and Nicaragua, 
in 1879; and French engineers began work should construct a canal from Greytown 
on the Panama route in 1881. In the on the Caribbean Sea to Brito on the 
meantime a canal through Nicaragua was Pacific. The act appropriated $10,000,- 
proposed by Americans and favored by 000 and authorized additional appropria- 
General Grant. The de Lesseps company, tions, not to exceed $135,000,000 should 
organized with a capital of $100,000,000, the Panama route be adopted, or $180,- 
continued work till December, 1888, when 000,000 should the Nicaragua route be 
it was compelled to suspend payments, adopted. The act also requested the Presi- 
By that time the canal had been exca- dent to open negotiations with Great 
vated for about fourteen miles only on Britain for the abrogation of the canal 
the first section. The French government clause in the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, and 
ordered an investigation of the canal on Nov. 18, 1901, a convention was signed 
company's affairs ; amazing evidences of in Washington, D. C, to this effect. 
fraud and bribery were discovered; and After the approval of this act the United 
by 1894 the costly plant and works had States sought to secure from Colombia the 
reached the stage of decay and ruin. In rights and privileges enumerated in the 
1897 a new company was organized in act, and a treaty to this effect was nego- 
France, with a capital of $10,000,000, to tiated, but was not ratified by Colombia. 
•ontinue the w«rk, and in 1809 the Panama On Nov. 3, 1903, th« Colombian D«part- 

61 



PANAMA RAILWAY— PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION, 1901 



ment of Panama seceded and proclaimed of the United States. Questions of inter- 
its independence of Colombia. On Nov. 18 national importance were discussed, and 
a treaty between the new republic and the ten republics signed an arbitration treaty. 
United States was signed, in which the Another conference was held in Mexico 
latter secured all the desired rights and City in 1901-02, when the following 



privileges. On Feb. 29, 1904, the Presi- 
dent appointed a Panama Commission 
consisting of the following: Pear-Admiral 
John G. Walker; Maj.-Gen. George W. 



measures affecting the United States were 
endorsed : 

A pan-American railway; a pan-Amer- 
ican bank; the St. Louis Exposition; the 



Davis, William Barclay Parsons, William Philadelphia Commercial Museum; the 
H. Burr, Benjamin M. Harrod, Carl E. Olympian games at Chicago; adhesion to 
Grunsky, and Frank J. Hecker. General The Hague conference; compulsory arbitra- 
Davis was appointed governor of the tion between seventeen states (the United 
Canal Zone. The purchase-price of $40,- States refused to endorse this measure) ; 
000,000 was paid to the French company an interoceanic ship-canal; the reorgan- 
in April, 1904. ization of the Bureau of American Re- 

The engineering committee of the Pana- publics; improved maritime communica- 
ma Canal Commission recommended a tion; the exchange of official and other 
sea-level canal at cost of $230,500,000 on publications; the codification of the pub- 
Feb. 26, 1905. lie and private international law; con- 

The members of the Canal Commission ventions as to patents, trade-marks, copy- 
resigned, March 29, 1905, and the Presi- rights, and extradition; the appointment 
dent appointed a new commission, con- of coffee experts to meet in New York 
sisting of Theodore P. Shonts, chairman; City to study the coffee crisis; the preser- 
Charles E. Magoon, governor of Canal vation of archaeological remains. These 
Zone; John F. Wallace, chief engineer; measures are to be submitted to the sep- 
M. T. Endicott, Pear-Admiral, U.S.N. ; arate governments for ratification. 
Peter C. Hains, Brigadier-General, U.S.A., Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, 
retired; Oswald H. Ernst, Colonel, U. S. N. Y., held May 1-Nov. 3, 1901; one of 
Engineers; and Benjamin M. Harrod — on the most important expositions in the 
April 3, 1905. United States, as it confined itself to the 

A few days later the President invited productions of North and South Amer- 
Germany, England, and France to nomi- ica. Entirely novel architectural, elec- 
nate one engineer each to serve on the trical, and landscape effects were de- 
Panama Canal Commission. veloped, the electrical exhibition particu- 

A force of about 8,000 men were en- larly being far superior to that of any 
gaged in the active work of excavation other world's fair. The electric tower was 



in May, 1905, but several thousand addi- 
tional men will be put to work on the 
completion of the surveys and the arrival 



the centre of the exposition and was 375 
feet high, the main structure being 80 
square feet and 200 feet high. This 



of new and improved machinery from the tower and the surrounding buildings and 

United States. grounds were most brilliantly illuminated 

Panama Railway, The. A railway by electric lights, on a scale never before 

extending from the Atlantic to the Pa- attempted, and with a result never before 

cific side of the isthmus that connects approached. The general style of the 

North and South America; completed in architecture was the Spanish Renaissance, 

1855. It extends from Colon on the making a general use of many brilliant 

Caribbean Sea to Panama on the Pacific tints and colors. The popular name for 



Ocean. The railway was purchased by 
the United States, March 29, 1905. 

Pan-American Conference, a confer- 
ence of representatives of the American 
republics inspired by James G. Blaine, 



the exposition was the Landscape City. 
A portion of Delaware Park, Buffalo, em- 
bracing 350 acres, was selected as the 
site for the fair, the total cost of which 
was estimated at $10,000,000. Buffalo is 



opened in Washington, D. C, Oct. 2. 1889, the chief gateway between the East and the 
and extended into 1890, during which time West. Within a radius of 500 miles there 
the delegates visited the principal cities is a population of over 40,000,000 people, 

62 



PAN-AMERICAN UNION— PAPINEAU 



In addition to the classified and special ex- 1 A.M. (Sept. 21) leaped from the gloom 
hibit was the Midway Pleasure Ground, like tigers from a jungle, and began the 
comprising many interesting and novel ex- work of death at different points. The 
hibits. patriots, not knowing at what point was 

While holding a public reception in the the chief attack, fired a few volleys, and, 
Temple of Music on Sept. 6, President breaking into fragments, fled in confu- 
McKinley was shot by an anarchist named sion towards Chester. The British and 
Leon Czolgosz, and died of the wounds Hessians killed 150 Americans, some of 
Saturday, Sept. 14, 1901. See McKinley, them in cold blood, after they had sur- 
William. rendered and begged for quarter. A Hes- 

Pan- American Union. See Adams, sian sergeant afterwards said: " We killed 
John Quincy. 300 of the rebels with the bayonet. I 

Panics, exceptional disturbances in stuck them myself like so many pigs, one 
financial and commercial affairs. Periods after another, until the blood ran out of 
of prosperity generally run a course of the touch-hole of my musket." This event 
ten years in England, as, lblG, 1825, 1837, has been pi-operly spoken of as a massacre. 
1847, 1857, 1866, 1875, and 1885, in each The dead were buried on the site of the 
of which years there was a commercial encampment. The spot is enclosed by a 
crisis in that country. In the United wall, and a monument of marble within 
States the periodical return has been less commemorates the dead, 
regular and less frequent, the most notable Paper Money in America. To defray 
panics that were followed by crises being the expenses of De Nonville's expedition, 
those of 1819, 1S37, 1857, 1873, and 1893. a paper currency, similar to the Conti- 
Of these that of 1837 was caused by ex- rental bills of credit, was issued by the 
cessive land speculations and the opera- government of Canada in 1684, which was 
tions of '"wild-eat" banks (see Banks, called "card money." It was redeemable 
Wild-cat) ; that of 1857, in large measure in bills on France. Levies for the French 
also due to land speculations, causing sus- and Indian War were raised in Virginia, 
pension of many banks, and 5,123 com- and in 1755 the Virginia Assembly, having 
mercial failures with liabilities 
exceeding $300,000,000; that of 
1873, caused by over-speculation 
and the suspension of specie pay- 
ments, was precipitated by the 
failure of Jay Cooke & Co. ; and 
that of 1893, attributed both to 
silver legislation in Congress and 
a fear of changes in the tariff. 

Paoli Tavern. Near this build- 
ing, on the Lancaster road, Gen- 
eral Wayne lay encamped, with 
1,500 men and two cannon, in 
a secluded spot, on the night of 
Sept. 20. 1777. A Tory inform- 
ed Howe of this encampment, and 
he sent General Grey, with a con- 
siderable force, to attack it at 
midnight. The night was dark 

and stormy. Grey gave- orders to use only voted £20,000 towards their support, au- 
the bayonet, and give no quarter. He ap- thorized the issue of treasury notes — the 
proached stealthily, murdering the pickets first paper money of that province. See 
near the highway. Warned by this, Currency. 

Wayne immediately paraded his men, but, Papineau, Louis Joseph, politician; 
unfortunately, in the light of his camp- born in Montreal, Canada, in October, 
fires. Towards midnight Grey's force, in 1789; educated at the Seminary of Que- 
two divisions, crept up a ravine, and at bee; admitted to the bar; and entered the 

68 




PAOLI MONTMEXT. 



PAREDES Y ARRILLAGA— PARKER 

Lower Canadian Parliament in 1809, be- When Santa Ana reappeared in Mexico, 
coming speaker in 1815. He became a Pared.es was seized and confined, but es- 
leader of the radical, or opposition, party caped to Havana. Going to Europe, he 
at the beginning of his public life. He op- sought to place a Spanish or French prince 
posed the union of the two Canadas, at at the head of the Mexicans. He after- 
which the English party aimed, and in wards returned to Mexico City, where he 
1823 he was sent on a mission to London, died on Sept. 11, 1849. 
to remonstrate against that measure. In Parke, John Grubb, military officer; 
1827 he was again a member of the House, born in Chester county, Pa., Sept. 22, 1827; 
and elected its speaker; and in 1834 he graduated at West Point in 1849. Entering 
introduced to that body a list of the de- the engineer corps, he became brigadier- 
mands and grievances of the Lower Cana- general of volunteers Nov. 23, 1861. He 
dians, known as the " Ninety-two Resolu- commanded a brigade under Burnside in 
tions." He supported the resolutions with his operations on the North Carolina 
great ability, and recommended constitu- coast early in 1862, and with him joined 
tional resistance to the British govern- the Army of the Potomac. He served in 
ment and commercial non-intercourse with McClellan's campaigns, and when Burn- 
England. Matters were brought to a crisis side became its commander he was that 
in 1837, when the new governor (Lord general's chief of staff. In the campaign 
Gosford) decided to administer the gov- against Vieksburg he was a conspicuous 
ernment without the assistance of the actor. He was with Sherman, command- 
colonial Parliament. The Liberal party ing the left wing of his army after the 
flew to arms. Papineau urged peaceful fall of Vieksburg. He was also engaged 
constitutional opposition, but an insurrec- in the defence of Knoxville; and in the 
tion was begun that could not be allayed Richmond campaign, in 1864, he command- 
by persuasion, and he took refuge in the ed the 9th Corps, and continued to do so 
United States at the close of that year, until the surrender of Lee. In 1865 he was 
In 1839 he went to France, where he en- brevetted major-general; in 1889 was re- 
gaged in literary pursuits about eight tired. He died in Washington, D. C, Dec. 
years. After the union of the Canadas, 16, 1900. 

in 1841, and a general amnesty for po- Parker, Alton Brooks, jurist; born in 
litical offences was proclaimed, in 1844, Cortland, N. Y., May 14, 1852; acquired a 
Papineau returned to his native coun- public-school education; taught school in 
try (1847), and was made a member of Virgil, Binghamton, and Rochester, N. Y., 
the Canadian Parliament. After 1854 he and later attended the Albany Law School, 
took no part in public affairs. He where he was graduated in 1872. Admit- 
died in Montebello, Quebec, Sept. 23, ted to the bar in 1872, practising in Kings- 
1871. ton, N. Y. ; became clerk of the board of 
Paredes y Arrillaga, Mariano, mili- supervisors of Ulster county in 1873, 
tary officer; born in Mexico City in 1797; surrogate in 1877, and was re-elected in 
became an active participant in the polit- 1883; elected justice of the Supi'eme 
ical events in Mexico in 1820. When, Court of New York in 1885 to fill a 
upon the annexation of Texas to the Unit- vacancy, and was re-elected; was a 
ed States (1845), President Herrera en- member of the Second Division of the 
deavored to gain the acquiescence of the Court of Appeals of New York in 1889- 
Mexicans to the measure, Paredes assist- 93, and of the General Term of the 
ed him, and with 25,000 men defeated First District in 1893-96; elected chief- 
Santa Ana., who was banished. After- justice of the Court of Appeals of New 
wards Paredes, with the assistance of York in 1897; and Democratic nominee 
Arista, defeated Herrera, and was installed for President of the United States, in 
President of Mexico June 12, 1845. The 1904. 

next day he took command of the army, Gold-Standard Telegram. — Immediately 

leaving civil affairs in the hands of Vice- after his nomination he broke his silence 

President Bravo. He was at the head of as to his political views by sending to the 

the government on the breaking-out of national convention the following tolt- 

war with tha United States (May, 1846). gram: 

64 



PARKER 



" Esopus, N. Y., July 9, 1904- 

" I regard the gold standard as firmly 
and irrevocably established and shall act 
accordingly if the action of the conven- 
tion to-day shall be ratified by the people. 

" As the platform is silent on the sub- 
ject, my view should be made known to 
the convention, and if it is proved to be 
unsatisfactory to the majority I request 
you to decline the nomination for me at 
once, so that another may be nominated 
before adjournment. 

" Alton B. Parker." 

After the election Judge Parker re- 
moved to New York City and engaged in 
active law practice. 

Parker, Edward Grtfftn, lawyer; born 
in Boston, Mass., Nov- 16, 1825; gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1847; admitted to 
the bar in 1849, and practised in Boston 
till 1861, when he entered the National 
army as an aide on the staff of Gen. 
Benjamin F. Butler. After the war 
he removed to New York City. His 
publications include The Golden Age of 
American Oratory and Reminiscences of 
Rufus Choate. He died in New York City, 
March 30, 1868. 

Parker, Ely Samuel, military officer; 
born on the Seneca Indian reservation, 
Tonawanda, N. Y., in 1828; became chief 
of the Six Nations; was educated for a 
civil engineer ; was a personal friend of 
Gen. U. S. Grant, and during the Civil 
War was a member of his staff, and mili- 
tary secretary. In the latter capacity he 
drew up the first copy of the terms of 
capitulation of General Lee's army. He 
was commissioned a first lieutenant of 
U. S. cavalry in 1866; brevetted brigadier- 
general U. S. A. in 1867; and was com- 
missioner of Indian affairs in 1869-71. 
He died in Fairfield, Conn., Aug. 31, 1895. 

Parker, Foxhall Alexander, nara.1 
officer; born in New York City, Aug. 5, 
1S21 ; graduated at the Naval Academy in 
1843; served through the Civil War with 
distinction ; was promoted commodore in 
1872. His publications include Fleet 
Tactics; Squadron Tactics; The Naval 
Howitzer ; The Battle of Mobile Bay; etc. 
He died in Annapolis, Md., June 10, 
1879. 

Parker, Sir Hyde, naval officer; born 
in England in 1739; was in command of 
one of the ships which attacked New York 



City in 1776. He also participated in the 
capture of Savannah in 1778. He died in 
Copenhagen, Denmark, March 7, 1807. 

Parker, Joel, jurist; born in Jaffrey, 
N. H., Jan. 25, 1795; graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1811; admitted to the 
bar and began practice in Keene, N. H., in 
1815; became chief-justice of the Supreme 
Court of New Hampshire in 1836; was 
Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in 
Dartmouth College in 1847-57. His pub- 
lications include Daniel Webster as a 
Jurist; The Non-Extension of Slavery; 
Personal Liberty Laics and Slavery in the 
Territories ; The Right of Secession; Con- 
stitutional Laic; The War Powers of Con- 
gress and the President; Revolution and 
Construction; The Three Poicers of Gov- 
ernment; Conflict of Decisions ; etc. He 
died in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 17, 1875. 

Parker, Sir Peter, naval officer; born 
in England in 1721; became a post-cap- 
tain in the British navy in 1747. As com- 
mander of a fleet, he co-operated with Sir 
Henry Clinton in an unsuccessful attack 
on Charleston, June 28, 1776. He after- 
wards assisted both Viscount General 
Howe and Admiral Lord Howe in the 
capture of New York, and commanded the 
squadron which took possession of Rhode 
Island late in that year. He died in 
England, Dec. 21, 1811. 

Parker, Sir Peter, grandson of the 
above; born in England in 1786; entered 
the navy at an early age, and commanded 
the Menelaus in the War of 1812. On a 
plundering expedition, Aug. 30, 1814, he 
met a band of Maryland militia, and in 
the fight Sir Peter was killed. 

Parker, Theodore, clergyman; born in 
Lexington, Mass., Aug. 24, 1810. His 
grandfather, Capt. John Parker, command- 
ed the company of minute-men in the skir- 
mish at Lexington. In 1829 he entered 
Harvard College, but did not graduate; 
taught school until 1837, when he wa9 
settled over a Unitarian society at West 
Roxbury. In 1846 he became minister 
of the 28th Congregational Society in 
Boston. Parker became the most famous 
preacher of his time. He urgently op- 
posed the war with Mexico as a scheme 
for the extension of slavery; was an early 
advocate of temperance and anti-slavery 
measures; and after the passage of the 
fugitive slave law he was one of its 



65 



PARKER, THEODORE 



most uncompromising opponents. So mark- ruled — as it is commonly thought — either 
ed was his sympathy for Anthony Burns, by the mass of men who follow their na- 
the seized fugitive slave at Boston (Janu- tional, ethnological, and human instincts, 
ary, 1854), as to cause his indictment and or by a few far-sighted men of genius for 
trial for a violation of the fugitive slave politics, who consciously obey the law of 
law. It was quashed. In 1859 hemor- God made clear in their own masterly mind 
rhage of the lungs terminated his public and conscience, and make statutes in ad- 
career. He sailed first to Santa Cruz, vance of the calculation or even the in- 
thence to Europe, spending the winter stincts of the people, and so manage the 

ship of state that every occasional tack 

r- - "1 is on a great circle of the universe, a 

' right line of justice, and therefore the 

V- - shortest way to welfare; but by two very 

T ^"^ different classes of men — by mercantile 

men, who covet money, actual or expectant 
,.-. _, capitalists; and by political men, who 

want power, actual or expectant office- 
holders. These appear diverse; but there 
is a strong unanimity between the two — 
for the mercantile men want money as a 
means of power and the political men 
power as a means of money. There are 
noble men in both classes, exceptional, not 
instantial, men with great riches even, 
and great office. But, as a class, these 
men are not above the average morality 
of the people, often below it ; they have 
no deep religious faith, which leads them 
to trust the higher law of God. They do 
not look for principles that are right, con- 
formable to the constitution of the uni- 
verse, and so creative of the nation's 
permanent welfare, but only for expedient 
measures, productive to themselves of self- 
ish money or selfish power. In general, 
they have the character of adventurers, 
the aims of adventurers, the morals of ad- 
venturers ; they begin poor, and of course 
obscure, and are then " democratic," and 
hurrah for the people: "Down with the, 
powerful and the rich," is the private 
maxim of their heart. If they are suc- 
cessful and become rich, famous, attaining 
high office, they commonly despise the 
I. Will there be a separation of the two people: "Down with the people!" is the 




THKODORK PARKER. 



of 1859-60 in Rome, whence, in April, 
he set out for home, but only reached 
Florence, where he died, May 10, 1860. 
He bequeathed 13,000 valuable books to 
the Public Library of Boston. 

The following are extracts from Parker's 
oration en the dangers of slavery: 



elements, and a formation of two distinct 
states — freedom with democracy, and sla- 
very with a tendency to despotism ? That 
may save one-half the nation, and leave 
the other to voluntary ruin. Certainly, 
it is better to enter into life halt or maim- 
ed rather than having two hands and two 
feet to be cast into everlasting fire. . . . 
But I do not think this " dissolution of 



axiom of their heart — only they dare not 
say it; for there are so many others with 
the same selfishness, who have not yet 
achieved their end, and raise the oppo- 
site cry. The line of the nation's course 
is a resultant of the compound selfishness 
of these two classes. 

From these two, with their mercantile 
and political selfishness, we are to expect 



the Union " will take place immediately no comprehensive morality, which will se- 
or very soon. For America is not now cure the rights of mankind; no compre- 

66 



PARKER, THEODORE 

hensive policy which will secure expedient Mexico, to get more slave soil. Ninth, 

measures for a long time. Both will unite America gave ten millions of money to 

in what serves their apparent interest, Texas to support slavery, passed the fugi- 

brings money to the trader, power to the tive slave bill, and has since kidnapped 

politician — whatever be the consequence men in New England, New York, New 

to the country. Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wis- 

As things now are, the Union favors consin, Illinois, Indiana, in all the East, 

the schemes of both of these classes of in all the West, in all the Middle States, 

men; thereby the politician gets power, All the great cities have kidnapped their 

the trader makes money. own citizens. Professional slave-hunters 

If the Union were to be dissolved and a are members of New England churches; 
great Northern commonwealth were to be kidnappers sit down at the Lord's table 
organized, with the idea of freedom, three- in the city of Cotton, Chauncey, and May- 
quarters of the politicians, federal and hew. In this very year, before it is half 
State, would pass into contempt and ob- through, America has taken two more 
livion; all that class of Northern dema- steps for the destruction of freedom. The 
gogues who scoff at God's law, such as repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the 
filled the offices of the late Whig admin- enslavement of Nebraska: that is the tenth 
istration in its day of power or as fill the step. Here is the eleventh : the Mexican 
offices of the Democratic administration treaty, giving away $10,000,000 and buy- 
to-day — they would drop down so deep ing a little strip of worthless land, solely 
that no plummet would ever reach them; that it may serve the cause of slavery. 
you would never hear of them again. . . . Here are eleven great steps openly taken 

II. The next hypothesis is, freedom may towards the ruin of liberty in America, 
triumph over slavery. That was the ex- Are these the worst? Very far from it! 
pectation once, at the time of the Declara- Yet more dangerous things have been done 
tion of Independence; nay, at the forma- in secret. 

tion of the Constitution. But only two I. Slavery has corrupted the mercantile 

national steps have beeen taken against class. Almost all the leading merchants 

slavery since then — one the ordinance of of the North are pro-slavery men. They 

1787, the other the abolition of the Afri- hate freedom, hate your freedom and 
can slave-trade; really that was done in mine! This is the only Christian country 

1788, formally twenty years after. In in which commerce is hostile to freedom, 
the individual States the white man's free- II. See the corruption of the political 
dom enlarges every year ; but the federal class. There are 40,000 officers of the 
government becomes more and more ad- federal government. Look at them in 
dieted to slavery. This hypothesis does Boston — their character is as well known 
not seem very likely to be adopted. as this hall. Read their journals in this 

III. Shall slavery destroy freedom? It city — do you catch a whisper of freedom 
looks very much like it. Here are nine in them? Slavery has sought its menial 
great steps, openly taken since '87, in servants — men basely born and basely 
favor of slavery. First, America put sla- bred: it has corrupted them still further, 
very into the Constitution. Second, out and put them in office. America, like Rus- 
of old soil she made four new slave States, sia, is the country for mean men to thrive 
Third, America, in 1793, adopted slavery in. Give him time and mire enough — 
as a federal institution, and guaranteed a worm can crawl as high as an eagle 
her protection for that kind of property flies. State rights are sacrificed at the 
as for no other. Fourth, America bought North ; centralization goes on with rapid 
the Louisiana territory in 1803, and put strides; State laws are trodden under foot, 
slavery into it. Fifth, she thence made The Northern President is all for slavery. 
Louisiana, Missouri, and then Arkansas The Northern members of the cabinet are 
slave States. Sixth, she made slavery for slavery; in the Senate, fourteen North- 
perpetual in Florida. Seventh, she an- ern Democrats were for the enslavement 
nexed Texas. Eighth, she fought the Mexi- of Nebraska; in the House of Representa- 
can War, and plundered a feeble sister tives, forty-four Northern Democrats voted 
republic of California, Utah, and New for the bill — fourteen in the Senate, forty- 

67 



BARKER, THEODORE 



four in the House; fifty-eight Northern 
men voted against the conscience of the 
North and the law of God. Only eight 
men out of all the South could be found 
friendly to justice and false to their own 
local idea of injustice. The present ad- 
ministration, with its supple tools of tyr- 
anny, came into office while the cry of 
" No higher law " was echoing through the 
land! 

III. Slavery has debauched the press. 
How many leading journals of commerce 
and politics in the great cities do you 
know that are friendly to freedom and 
opposed to slavery? Out of the five large 
daily commercial papers in Boston, Whig 
or Democratic, I know of only one that 
has spoken a word for freedom this great 
while. The American newspapers are poor 
defenders of American liberty. Listen to 
one of them, speaking of the last kidnap- 
ping in Boston: " We shall need to employ 
the same measures of coercion as are neces- 
sary in monarchical countries." There is 
always some one ready to do the basest 
deeds. Yet there are some noble jour- 
nals, political and commercial, such as the 
New York Tribune and Evening Post. 

IV. Then our colleges and schools are 
corrupted by slavery. I do not know of 
five colleges in all the North which pub- 
licly appear on the side of freedom. 
What the hearts of the presidents and 
professors are, God knows, not I. The 
great crime against humanity, practical 
atheism, found ready support in Northern 
colleges in 1850 and 1851. Once the com- 
mon reading-books of our schools were full 
of noble words. Head the school-books now 
made by Yankee peddlers of literature, and 
what liberal ideas do you find there? 
They are meant for the Southern market. 
Slavery must not be offended! 

V. Slavery has corrupted the churches! 
There are 28,000 Protestant clergymen in 
the United States. There are noble 
hearts, true and just men among them, 
who have fearlessly borne witness to the 
truth. I need not mention their names. 
Alas ! they are not very numerous ; I 
should not have to go over my fingers 
many times to count them all. I honor 
these exceptional men. Some of them are 
old, far older than I am, older than my 
father need have been ; some of them are 
far younger than I; nay, some of them 



younger than my children might be: and 
I honor these men for the fearless testi- 
mony which they have borne — the old, 
the middle-aged, and the young. But 
they are very exceptional men. Is there 
a minister in the South who preaches 
against slavery? How few in all the 
North ! 

At this day 600,000 slaves are directly 
and personally owned by men who are 
called " professing Christians," " members 
in good fellowship " of the churches of 
this land ; 80,000 owned by Presbyterians, 
225,000 by Baptists, 250,000 owned by 
Methodists — 600,000 slaves in this land 
owned by men who profess Christianity, 
and in churches sit down to take the 
Lord's Supper, in the name of Christ and 
God! There are ministers who own their 
fellow-men — " bought with a price." 

Does this not look as if slavery were to 
triumph over freedom? 

VI. Slavery corrupts the judicial class. 
In America, especially in New England, 
no class of men has been so much respected 
as the judges; and for this reason: we 
have had wise, learned, excellent men for 
our judges; men who reverenced the high- 
er law of God, and sought by human 
statutes to execute justice. You all know 
their venerable names, and how reveren- 
tially we have looked up to them. Many 
of them are dead ; some are still living, 
and their hoary hairs are a crown of 
glory on a judicial life, without judicial 
blot. But of late slavery has put a dif- 
ferent class of men on the benches of the 
federal courts — mere tools of the govern- 
ment ; creatures which get their appoint- 
ment as pay for past political service, 
and as pay in advance for iniquity not yet 
accomplished. You see the consequences. 
Note the zeal of the federal judges to 
execute iniquity by statute and destroy 
liberty. See how ready they are to sup- 
port the fugitive slave bill, which tram- 
ples on the spirit of the Constitution, 
and its letter, too; which outrages jus- 
tice and violates the most sacred prin- 
ciples and precepts of Christianity. Not 
a United States judge, circuit or district, 
has uttered one word against that " bill 
of abominations." Nay, how greedy 
they are to get victims under it! No 
wolf loves better to rend a lamb into 
fragments than these judges to kidnap 






PARKER— PARKMAN 



a fugitive slave, and punish any man 
who dares to speak against it. You know 
what has happened in fugitive slave bill 
courts. You remember the " miraculous " 
rescue of Shadrach: the peaceable snatch- 
ing of a man from the hands of a coward- 
ly kidnapper was " high treason " ; it was 
" levying war." You remember the 
" trial " of the rescuers ! Judge Sprague's 
charge to the grand jury that, if they 
thought the question was which they ought 
to obey, the law of man or the law of God, 
then they must "obey both!" serve God 
and mammon, Christ and the devil, in the 
same act ! You remember the " trial," the 
" ruling " of the bench, the swearing on 
the stand, the witness coming back to 
alter and " enlarge his testimony " and 
have another gird at the prisoner! You 
have not forgotten the trials before Judge 
Kane at Philadelphia, and Judge Grier at 
Christiana and Wilkesbarre. 

These are natural results of causes well 
known. You cannot escape a principle. 
Enslave a negro, will you? — you doom to 
bondage your own sons and daughters by 
your own act. . . . 

All this looks as if the third hypothesis 
would be fulfilled, and slavery triumph 
over freedom ; as if the nation would 
expunge the Declaration of Independence 
from the scroll of time, and, instead of 
honoring Hancock and the Adamses and 
Washington, do homage to Kane and Grier 
and Curtis and Hallett and Loring. Then 
the preamble to our Constitution might 
read " to establish justice, insure domestic 
strife, hinder the common defence, dis- 
turb the general welfare, and inflict the 
curse of bondage on ourselves and our 
posterity." Then we shall honor the Puri- 
tans no more, but their prelatical tor- 
mentors, nor reverence the great reform- 
ers, only the inquisitors of Rome. Yea, we 
may tear the name of Jesus out of the 
American Bible; yes, God's name. . . . 

See the steady triumph of despotism! 
Ten years more like the ten years past, 
and it will be all over with the liberties 
of America. Everything must go down, 
and the heel of the tyrant will be on our 
neck. It will be all over with the rights 
of man in America, and you and I must 
go to Austria, to Italy, or to Siberia for 
our freedom; or perish with the liberty 
which our fathers fought for and secured 



to themselves — not to their faithless sons! 
Shall America thus miserably perish? 
Such is the aspect of things to-day! 

Parkhurst, Charles Henry, clergy- 
man ;- born in Framingham, Mass., April 
17, 1842; graduated at Amherst in 1866; 
studied at Halle and Leipzig; became 
pastor of the Madison Square Presbyte- 
rian Church, New York City, in 1880. In 
1891 he accepted the presidency of the So- 
ciety for the Prevention of Crime. The 
revelations made by the society led to an 
investigation of the New York police by 
the State authorities in 1894. Among 
Dr. Parkhurst's publications is Our Fight 
xcith Tammany. 

Parkman, Francis, author; born in 
Boston, Mass., Sept. 16, 1823; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1844, and fitted him- 
self for the legal profession, but soon aban- 
doned it. He made a tour of the Rocky 
Mountains, and lived for some time among 
trie Dakota Indians. The hardships he 




FRANCIS PARKMAN. 



there endured caused a permanent im- 
pairment of his health, and through life 
he suffered from a chronic disease and 
partial blindness. Notwithstanding these 
disabilities he long maintained a fore- 
most rank among trustworthy and accom- 
plished American historians. His chief 
literary labors were in the field of in- 
quiry concerning the power of the French, 
political and ecclesiastical, in North Amer- 
ica. So careful and painstaking were his 



PARKS IN THE UNITED STATES— PARLIAMENT 

labors that he was regarded as authority crown; it can alter and establish the re- 
on those subjects which engaged his ligion of the country, 
pen. Mr. Parkman's first work was The The first act of the British Parliament 
California and Oregon Trail, in which relating to the American colonies was 
he embodied his experience in the Far passed in 1548, and prohibited the ex- 
West. His first work on the French in action of any reward by an officer of 
America was The Conspiracy of Pon- the English admiralty from English 
tiac (1851). It was followed by Pioneers fishermen and mariners going on the 
of France in the New World (1865); The service of the fishery at Newfoundland. 
Jesuits in North America; The Discovery The next of importance, and the first that 
of the Great West. (1869); The Old Re- elicited debate, was in 1621, when the 
gime in Canada (1874); Montcalm and House of Commons denounced the new 
Wolfe (1883). He died in Boston, Mass., charter given to the Plymouth Company 
Nov. 8, 1893. {q. v.) as a " grievance." The King, anger- 
Parks in the United States. The de- ed by what he regarded as an attack upon 
velopment of the park system, national, his prerogative, had Sir Edward Coke, 
state, and civic, in the United States, is Pym, and other members imprisoned, or 
recent, though Boston had its " Common," virtually so, for what he called " factious 
part of a purchase for a cow pasture in conduct." The debates involved the dec- 
1634, and since 1878 protected from en- laration of the right of Parliament to 
croachment by law. Interest in public absolutely rule colonial affairs and a flat 
parks was created by the papers of A. J. denial of the right — the course of debate 
Downing in 1849, and led to the establish- followed before the War of the Bevolu- 
ment of Central Park (862 acres) in the tion began. At that session King James 
city of New York in 1857. The most im- took high-handed measures against the 
portant national parks or reservations in representatives of the people. He declared 
the United States are: the proceedings of the House of Commons 

the work of " fiery, popular, and turbu- 

Yosemite Park and Mariposa Grove, on lent spirits," to which they replied by in- 

thc Merced River in Mariposa county, , . . ,, . . ■, ■. ■, , . 

Cal., discovered in 1851, and estab- sertin g m their journals a declaration 

lished by Congress 1864 that they had the right of discussing all 

Yellowstone National Park, 3,575 square subjects in such order as they might think 

miles, nearly all in northwestern proper, and asserting that they were not 

Wyoming, established by act of Con- ., , , ,, % r . ,. ,, . 

gress May 1, 1872 responsible to the King for their con- 

&.State forestry commission was appointed duct. James sent for the book, tore out 

by New York State for the preservation the obnoxious entry with his own hand, 

of the Adirondack forest 1885 „ i „„„„„j„j «.„;,. „:j.a:„,,„ 

State reservation at Niagara Falls opened and suspended their sittings. 

to the public July 15, 1885 In 1763 the extent of the powers of 

Parliament over the colonies began to 
Parliament, English. The Teutonic be seriously questioned. A certain su- 
Witenagemot or assembly of the wise, the premacy was admitted. For a long time 
noble, and the great men of the nation the colonies, especially of New England, 
was the origin of parliament. Coke de- bad carried on a struggle with Parliament 
clared that the term parliament was used concerning its interference with colonial 
in the time of Edward the Confessor, manufactures, trade, and commerce. It 
a.d. 1041. The first regular parliament, had interfered with their currency, with 
according to many historians, was that joint-stock companies, the collection of 
of Edward I. in 1294. The first speaker debts, laws of naturalization, assumed to 
of the House of Commons, Peter De La legislate concerning the administration of 
Mare, was elected in 1377. The powers oaths, and to extend the operations of 
and jurisdiction of Parliament are abso- the mutiny act to the colonies. Against 
lute, and cannot be confined either by these and other interferences in their local 
causes or persons within bounds. It has affairs the colonists had protested. Par- 
sovereign and uncontrollable authority in liament had persisted, and, by a sort of 
making and repealing laws; it can regu- forced, though partial, acquiescence, these 
late and new-model the succession to the interferences came to be regarded as vest- 

70 



PARLIAMENT, ENGLISH 



ed rights. The Parliament had never vent- 
ured to impose direct taxes on the col- 
onies — a supereminent power — but the in- 
direct taxation, by means of custom-house 
officers, was regarded as an equivalent by 
the colonists, and watched with jealous vig- 
ilance. When, in 1765, schemes of indirect 
taxation were put in operation to increase 
the imperial revenue, and not for the mere 
regulation of trade, the colonists rebelled. 
The second Parliament of George III. 



adjustment. The mercantile and trading 
interests of every kind, whose business was 
seriously menaced by the American Associ- 
ation, formed a powerful class of outside 
opponents of the ministers. The English 
Dissenters, also, were inclined, by relig- 
ious sympathies, to favor the Americans. 
In the House of Commons, the papers re- 
ferring to America were referred to a 
committee of the whole; while in the 
House of Lords, Chatham (William Pitt), 



opened in December, 1768. All the papers after long absence, appeared and proposed 



relating to the American colonies were 
laid before it. The House of Lords se- 
verely denounced the public proceedings 
in Massachusetts. Approving the conduct 
of the ministry, they recommended instruc- 
tions to the governor of Massachusetts to 
obtain full information " of all treasons," 
and to send the offenders to England 
for trial, under an unrepealed statute of 



an address to the King advising a recall 
of the troops from Boston. This proposi- 
tion was rejected by a decisive majority. 
Petitions for conciliation, which flowed 
into the House of Commons from all the 
trading and manufacturing towns in the 
kingdom, were referred to another com- 
mittee, which the opposition called the 
" committee of oblivion." Among the pe- 



Henry VIII. for the punishment of treason titions to the King was that of the Conti- 



committed out of the kingdom. These rec- 
ommendations met powerful opposition in 
the House of Commons, in which Barre. 
Burke, and Pownall took the lead. But 
Parliament, as a body, considered the pro- 
ceedings in the colonies as indicative of a 
factious and rebellious spirit, and the rec- 
ommendations of the House of Lords were 



nental Congress, presented by Franklin, 
Bollan, and Lee, three colonial agents, who 
asked to be heard upon it, by counsel, at 
the bar of the House. Their request was 
refused on the ground that the Congress 
was an illegal assembly and the alleged 
grievances only pretended. 

On Feb. 1, Chatham brought forward 



adopted by a very decided majority; for a bill for settling the troubles in America, 

each member seemed to consider himself which provided for a full acknowledgment 

insulted by the independent spirit of the on the part of the colonies of the suprem- 

Americans. " Every man in England," acy and superintending power of Parlia- 

wrote Franklin, " regards himself as a ment, but that no tax should ever be levied 

piece of a sovereign over America — seems except by consent of the colonial assem- 

to jostle himself into the throne with the blies. It provided for a congress of the 



King, and talks of our subjects in the 
colonies." 

The election for members of a new Par- 
liament that took place in November, 
1774, resulted in a large ministerial ma- 
jority, which boded no good for the Amer- 
ican colonies. The King, in his opening 



colonies to make the acknowledgment, and 
to vote, at the same time, a free grant to 
the King of a certain perpetual revenue to 
be placed at the disposal of Parliament. 
His bill was refused the courtesy of lying 
on the table, and was rejected by a vote 
of two to one at the first reading. The 



speech (Nov. 30), spoke of the "daring ministry, feeling strong in their large ma- 
spirit of resistance in the colonies," and jority of supporters, presented a bill in 
assured the legislature that he had taken the House of Commons (Feb. 3) for cut- 
measures and given orders for the restora- ting off the trade of New England else- 
tion of peace and order, which he hoped where than to Great Britain, Ireland, and 
would be effectual. A large majority of the British West Indies. This was intend- 
both Houses were ready to support the ed to offset the American Association. It 
King and his ministers in coercive meas- also provided for the suspension of these 
ures; but there was a minority of able colonies from the prosecution of the New- 
men, in and out of Parliament, utterly op- foundland fisheries, a principal branch of 
posed to subduing the colonies by force of their trade and industry. In an address 
arms, and anxious to promote an amicable to the throne proposed by ministers (Feb. 

71 



PAELIAMENT, ENGLISH 

7), it was declared tnat rebellion existed colonies," and entreating the King, as a 
in Massachusetts, countenanced and fo- first step towards the redress of givev- 
mented by unlawful combinations in other ances, to dismiss his present ministry. In 
colonies. Effectual measures were recom- tliese debates the speakers exhibited vari- 
mended for suppressing the rebellion. The ous phases of statesmanship, from the sa- 
support of Parliament was pledged to the gacious reasoner to the flippant optimist, 
King. who, believing in the omnipotence of Great 
Then Lord North astonished his party Britain and the cowardice and weakness 
and the nation by proposing a scheme for of the Americans, felt very little concern, 
conciliation, not much unlike that of Charles James Fox advised the administra- 
Chatham. It proposed that when any tion to place the Americans where they 
colony should offer to make a provision stood in 1763, and to repeal every act 
for raising a sum of money disposable passed since that time which affected 
by Parliament for the common defence, either their freedom or their commerce, 
and should provide for the support of civil Lord North said if such a scheme should 
government and the administration of be effected there would be an end to the 
justice within its own limits, and such dispute. His plan was to send an arma- 
offer should be approved by the King, Par- ment to America, accompanied by commis- 
liament should forbear the levy of any sioners to offer mercy upon a proper 
duties or taxes within such colony, so submission, for he believed the Americans 
long as it should be faithful to its prom- were aiming at independence. This belief 
ises, excepting such as might be required and its conclusion were denied by Gen- 
for the regulation of trade. The bill was eral Conway, who asked, " Did the Ameri- 
warmly opposed by the ultra advocates of cans set up a claim for independence pre- 
parliamentary supremacy, until North ex- vious to 1763?" and answered, "No, they 
plained that he did not believe it would were then dutiful and peaceable subjects, 
be acceptable to all the colonies, and that and they are still dutiful." He declared 
it was intended to divide and weaken that the obnoxious acts of Parliament had 
them. Then the bill passed. With a simi- forced them into acts of resistance, 
lar design, a bill with the features of " Taxes have been levied upon them," he 
the New England "restraining bill" was said; "their charters have been violated, 
passed, after hearing of the general sup- nay, taken away; administration has at- 
port given by the colonial assemblies to tempted to overawe them by the most 
the proceedings of the Congress. It ex- cruel and oppressive laws." Edmund 
tended similar restrictions to all the colo- Burke condemned the use of discretionary 
nies excepting New York, North Carolina, power made by General Gage at Boston, 
and Georgia, the first and last named James Grenville deprecated the use of 
having declined to adopt the American force against the Americans, because they 
Association, and the ministers entertain- did not aim at independence; while Mr. 
ing hope of similar action by the Assembly Adam thought it absolutely necessary to ' 
of North Carolina. reduce them to submission by force, be- 
Finally Burke offered a series of resolu- cause, if they should be successful in their 
tions to abandon all attempts at parlia- opposition, they would certainly " proceed 
mentary taxation and to return to the old to independence." He attempted to show 
method of raising American supplies by that their subjugation would be easy, be- 
the free grant of the colonial assemblies, cause there would be no settled form of 
His motion was voted down. Soon after- government in America, and all must be 
wards John Wilkes (then Lord Mayor of anarchy and confusion. 
London, as well as member of the House of Mr. Burke asked leave to bring in a, 
Commons), whom the ministry had tried bill for composing the troubles in Amer- 
to crush, and whom they regarded as their ica, and for quieting the minds of the - 
mortal enemy, presented to the King, in his colonists. He believed concession to be 
official capacity, a remonstrance from the the true path to pursue to reach the happy 
City authorities expressing " abhorrence " result. He proposed a renunciation of 
of the measures in progress for " the op- the exercise of taxation, but not the right ; 
pression of their fellow-subjects in the to preserve the power of laying duties for 

72 



PARLIAMENT OF RELIGIONS— PARROTT 



the regulation of commerce, but the money 
raised was to be at the disposal of the 
several general assemblies. He proposed 
to repeal the tea duty of 1767, and to pro- 
claim a general amnesty. His speech on 
that occasion embraced every considera- 
tion of justice and expediency, and warn- 
ed ministers that if they persisted in vex- 
ing the colonies they would drive the 
Americans to a separation from the 
mother-country. The plan was rejected. 
Mr. Luttrell proposed to ask the King to 
authorize commissioners to receive pro- 
posals for conciliation from any general 
convention of Americans, or their Con- 
gress, as the most effectual means for pre- 
venting the effusion of blood. It was re- 
jected. In the House of Lords the Duke 
of Grafton proposed to bring in a bill for 
repealing every act which had been passed 
by Parliament relative to America since 
1763. It was not acted upon. Lord 
Lyttelton severely condemned the meas- 
ures of the administration, and united 
with the Duke of Grafton in his proposi- 
tion for a repeal of the obnoxious acts. 
He, with others, had believed that a show 
of determination to reduce the colonies to 
submission would cause them to quail. 
He now knew he was mistaken. The 
valiant declaration went forth, backed by 
10,000 men, but it had not intimidated a 
single colony. Notwithstanding the strong 
reasons given by the opposition for minis- 
ters to be conciliatory towards the Amer- 
icans, the majority of Parliament were in 
favor of attempting coercion with a strong 
hand. Towards the end of the session 
Burke asked leave to lay before the Com- 
mons the remonstrance lately voted by 
the Assembly of New York. The ministry 
and their friends had counted largely on 
Ihe defection of that province; and they 
were so sorely disappointed when they 
found the document so emphatic in its 
claims of the rights of Englishmen that 
Lord North opposed and prevented its re- 
ception by the House. The acts of that 
session of Parliament greatly widened the 
breach between Great Britain and her 
American colonies. 

Parliament of Religions, held at the 
World's Fair in Chicago, Sept. 11-27, 
1893. The objects proposed were: (1) 
To bring together in conference the lead- 
ing representatives of different religions; 



(2) to define and expound the important 
truths they hold and teach in common; 

( 3 ) to promote and deepen human brother- 
hood; (4) to strengthen the foundations 
of theism and the faith in immortality; 
(5) to hear ~ from scholars, Brahman, 
Buddhist, Confucian, Parsee, Mohammedan, 
Jewish, and other faiths, and from all 
sects and denominations of the Christian 
Church, accounts of the influence of each 
belief on literature, art, science, commerce, 
government, social life, etc. ; ( 6 ) to record 
the present condition and outlook of the 
various religions of the world. 

Parmentier, Auguste Henry, histo- 
rian; born in Sancerre, France, in 1752, 
ordained a priest in 1791. He wrote The 
History of the French Provinces in 'North 
America; The History of the French Col- 
ony of Louisiana, etc. He died in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in 1816. 

Parnell, Charles Stewart, Irish 
leader, born in Avondale, Ireland, in 1846; 
entered Parliament in 1875; and died in 
Brighton, England, Oct. 2, 1891. His 
father, John Henry Parnell, visited the 
United States in 1824 and married Delia 
Tudor Stewart, daughter of Admiral 
Charles Stewart, " Old Ironsides." 

Parris, Samuel, clergyman; born in 
London, England, in 1653; was first a 
merchant and then a minister. It was in 
his family that Salem witchcraft began 
its terrible work, and he was the most 
zealous prosecutor of persons accused of 
the "black art." In April, 1693, his 
church brought charges against him. He 
acknowledged his error and was dismissed. 
He preached in various places afterwards, 
but was an unhappy wanderer, and died 
in Sudbury, Mass., Feb. 27, 1720. 

Parrott, Enoch Greenleaf, naval offi- 
cer; born in Portsmouth, N. H., Dec. 10, 
1814; entered the navy as midshipman 
in 1831, and was with Commodore Perry 
on the coast of Africa in 1843. In the 
frigate Congress he assisted at the capt- 
ure of Guaymas and Mazatlan on the 
Mexican Pacific coast, and in 1861 was 
made commander. He assisted in the de- 
struction of the war-vessels at Norfolk 
and the navy-yard opposite, in April, 1861, 
and was at the capture of the Savannah. 
In active service on the Atlantic coast 
from the Chesapeake to Georgia, and on 
the James River, he was in command of 



73 



PARROTT— PARSONS 



the Monadnock in the two attacks on Fort 1756; admitted to the bar in 1759; was 
Fisher, and was at the surrender of a representative in the Connecticut Assem- 
Charleston. He became a rear-admiral in bly for eighteen sessions. He was an ac- 
1873; retired in 1874. He died in New tive patriot at the beginning of the Revo- 
York City, May 10, 1879. lution. He was made colonel of a Con- 

Parrott, Robert Parker, military offl- irectieut regiment in 1775, and engaged 
cer; born in Lee, N. H., Oct. 5, 1804; in the siege of Boston. In August, 1776, 
graduated at West Point in 1824; served he was made a brigadier-general, and as 
in the army until 1836, when he resigned such engaged in the battle on Long Island, 
to accept the superintendency of the West In 1779 Parsons succeeded General Put- 
Point foundry. He invented a system of nam in command of the Connecticut line, 
casting and rifling cannon which he placed and in 1780 was commissioned a major- 
at the disposition of the United States general. At the close of the war he re- 
government. This system was used in sumed the practice of law, and was ap- 
the United States during the Civil War. pointed by Washington first judge of the 
He died in Cold Spring, N. Y., Dec. 24, Northwestern Territory. He was also em- 
1877. ployed to treat with the Indians for the 

Parry, Sir William Edward, Arctic extinguishment of their titles to the Con- 
navigator; born in Bath, England, Dec. 19, necticut Western Reserve, in northern 



1790; entered the royal navy at thirteen. 
Being engaged in blockading the New Eng- 
land coast in 1813, he ascended the Con- 
necticut River about 20 miles, and de- 
stroyed twenty-seven privateers and other 



Ohio. He went to the new territory in 
1787; settled there; and was drowned 
in the Big Beaver River, Ohio, Nov. 17, 
1789. 
Parsons, Theophiltjs, jurist; born in 



vessels. In 1818 he joined Sir John Ross's Byfield, Mass., Feb. 24, 1750; graduated 
expedition to the Polar seas, and the next at Harvard College in 1769; admitted to 
year he commanded a second expedition, the bar in 1774; and was at the head 
penetrating to lat. 70° 44' 20" N. and long, of a grammar-school in Falmouth (now 
110° W., which entitled him to receive the Portland), Me., when it was destroyed, 
reward of $20,000 offered by Parlia- He began practice in Newburyport in 
inent for reaching thus far west within 1777, and in 1780 was one of the principal 
the Arctic Circle. He was promoted to framers of the State constitution of 
commander on his return, in 1820, and Massachusetts. He removed to Boston in 
was knighted in 1829. He made another 1800, where, until his death, he was re- 
expedition in 1821-23; and in another, in garded as the brightest of the legal lights 
1826, he reached the lat. of 82° 45' in of New England. He had been a zealous 
boats and sledges, the nearest point to advocate of the national Constitution 
the north pole which had then been reach- in 1788, and in 1806 was made chief- 
ed. Parry was made rear-admiral of the justice of Massachusetts. His decisions 
white in 1852, and in 1853 lieutenant- are embraced in six volumes. His mem- 
governor of Greenwich Hospital. He died ory was wonderful, and he was elo- 
in Ems, Germany, July 8, 1855. quent as a speaker. His Opinions were 

Parsons, Frank, lawyer ; born in Mount published in New York in 1836, under 
Holly, N. J., Nov. 14, 1854; graduated the title of Commentaries on Ameri- 
at Cornell in 1873; lecturer on law in the can Law. He died in Boston, Oct. 30, 
Boston University in 1892; Professor of 1813. 

History and Political Science in the Kan- Parsons, Theophiltjs, lawyer; born in 
sas Agricultural College in 1897. He is Newburyport, Mass., May 17, 1797; grad- 
the author of a large number of articles uated at Harvard College in 1815; studied 
on economics in the public press, and law; was Professor of Law in Harvard in 
among his books are Our Country's Need; 1847-82. His publications include Ele- 
Rational Money; The Drift of Our Time, ments of Mercantile Law; Laws of Busi- 
etc. ness for Business Men; Maritime Law; 

Parsons, Samuel Holden, military Notes on Bills of Exchange; Shipping and 
officer; born in Lyme, Conn., May 14, Admiralty ; The Political, Personal, and 
1737 ; graduated at Harvard College in Property Rights of a Citizen of the Unit- 

74 



PARSONS' CASE— PASTORIUS 

ed States, etc. He died in Cambridge, of Aaron Burr; Life of Andrew Jackson; 

Mass., Jan. 22, 1882. Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin; 

Parsons' Case, The. A short crop of Manual for the Instruction of Rings, Rail- 

tobacco in Virginia having enhanced the road and Political, and How New York is 

value of that staple, and the issuing of Governed; Famous Americans of Recent 

bills of credit (1755) for the first time Times; The Words of Washington; Life 

in that province having depreciated the of Thomas Jefferson, Third President of 

currency, the Assembly passed a tempo- the United States, etc. He died in New- 

rary act authorizing the payment of all buryport, Mass., Oct. 17, 1891. 

tobacco debts in the depreciated currency, Parvin, Theodore Sutton, author; 

at a stipulated price. Three years later born in Cedarville, N. J., Jan. 15, 1817; 

(175S) an expected short crop caused removed to Ohio and later to Iowa. In the 

the re-enactment of this tender-law. The latter State he served in the legislature 

salaries of the parish ministers, sixty-five and also filled many public offices. He 

in number, were payable in tobacco, and was the author of a History of Iowa and 

they were likely to become losers by this a History of the Knights Templar in 

tender-law. The clergy sent an agent to A merica. For fifty-five years he was 

England, who obtained an Order in Coun- grand secretary of the Knights Templar 

cil pronouncing the law void. Suits were in Iowa. He died in 11)01. 

brought to recover the difference between Paschal, George Washington, lawyer; 

twopence per pound in depreciated cur- born in Skull Shoals, Ga., Nov. 23, 1812; 

reney and the tobacco, to which, by law, received an academic education; was ad- 

the ministers were entitled. In defend- mitted to the bar in 1832; removed to 

ing one of these suits the rare elo- Texas in 1847. During the Civil War he 

quence of Patrick Henry was first devel- earnestly supported the National cause; 

oped. settled in Washington, D. C, in 1869. His 

Parton, James, author; born in Canter- publications include Annotated Digest of 

bury, England, Feb. 9, 1822; was brought the Laivs of Texas; Annotated Constitu- 

to the United States when a child; re- Hon of the United States; Decisions of 

ceived a common school education in New the Supreme Court of Texas; Sketch of 

York City; removed to Newburyport, the Last Years of Samuel Houston, etc. 

Mass., in 1875. His publications include He died in Washington, D. C, Feb. 16, 

Life of Horace Greeley; Life and Times 1S78. 



PASTOBIUS, FRANCIS DANIEL 

Pastorius, Francis Daniel, author of the fourteenth, gathered about the pastor 

A Particular Geographical Description of Spener, and the young and beautiful 

the Lately Discovered Province of Penn- Eleonora Johanna von Merlau. In this 

sylvania, Situated on the Frontiers of this circle originated the Frankfort Land Com- 

Westem World, America; published in pany, which bought of William Penn, the 

Frankfort and Leipzig in 1700; translated governor of Pennsylvania, a tract of land 

from the original German by Lewis H. near the new city of Philadelphia. 
Weiss. " The company's agent in the New 

John G. WTiittier, in an introductory World was a rising young lawyer, Francis 

note to his poem, The Pennsylvania Pit- Daniel Pastorius, son of Judge Pastorius, 

grim, wrote : " The beginning of German of Windsheim, who studied law at Stras- 

emigration to America may be traced to burg, Basle, and Jena, and at Ratisbon, 

the personal influence of William Penn, and received the degree of Doctor of Law, 

who in 1677 visited the Continent, and at Nuremberg, in 1676. In 1679 he be- 

made the acquaintance of an intelligent came deeply interested in the teachings 

and highly cultivated circle of Pietists, or of Dr. Spener. In 1680-81 he travelled in 

Mystics, who, reviving in the seventeenth France, England, Ireland, and Italy with 

century the spiritual faith and worship his friend Herr von Rodeck. ' I was,' he 

of Tauler and the ' Friends of God ' in says, ' glad to enjoy again the company 

75 



PASTORIUS, FRANCIS DANIEL 

of ray Christian friends rather than be colonies had arisen in this Western World, 
with Von Rodeck, feasting and dancing.' such as Nova Hispania, Nova Gallia, 
In 1683, in company with a small number Brasilia, Peru, Golden Castilia, His- 
of German Friends, he emigrated to Amer- paniola, Cumana, Jamaica, Nova Anglia, 
ica, settling upon the Frankfort Company's Florida, Virginia, etc., it so happened, 
tract. The township was divided into anno 1065 [!], by means of the skilful and 
four hamlets — namely, Germantown, Kris- enterprising navigators sent out under the 
heim, Crefield, and Sommerhausen. He auspices of Caroli Stuardus I., King of 
united with the Society of Friends, and England, a new and large country was dis- 
became the recognized head and law- covered, lying far beyond the above-men- 
giver of the settlement. He married, two tioned colonies. For the time being, how- 
years after his arrival, Anneke, daughter ever, no name was given to it, inasmuch 
of Dr. Klosterman, of Muhlheim. as tlie natives roamed about the forests, 

" In the year 1688 he drew up a memorial not having any fixed residences or towns 

against slave-holding, which was adopted from which any name could have been de- 

by the Germantown Friends, and sent up rived; but they lived here and there in 

to the monthly meeting, and thence to the the wilderness in Tuguriis, or huts made 

yearly meeting at Philadelphia. It is of the bark of trees. 

noteworthy as the first protest made by About the time of this discovery the 

a religious body against negro slavery. Duke of York, having great numbers of 

The original document w T as discovered in Swedes and others under his control, com- 

1844, by the Philadelphia antiquarian, manded that a town should be commenced 

Nathan Kite, and published in The Friend, on the Dellavarra Eiver, which was 

It is a bold and direct appeal to the best fortified; and he called the place New 

instincts of the heart. ' Have not,' he Castle. He likewise granted to the Swedes 

asks, ' those negroes as much right to large privileges to induce them to remain 

fight for their freedom as you have to there, and to cultivate the lands, intend- 

keep them slaves?' ing to settle it, also, with English emi- 

" Under the wise direction of Pastorius, grants. The Swedes began to clear away 

the Germantown settlement grew and pros- the forests, and soon became a flourishing 

pered. The inhabitants planted orchards community. 

and vineyards, and surrounded themselves About this time the unheard-of tragedy 
with souvenirs of their old home. A large was enacted in England, that the King 
number of them were linen-weavers, as was taken by his own subjects and behead- 
well as small farmers. The Quakers were ed; his son, the heir to the throne, pur- 
the principal sect; but men of all re- sued for his life; but he managed to make 
ligions were tolerated, and lived together his escape through the instrumentality 
in harmony. In 1692 Richard Frame pub- of his general, Lord Penn, who carried 
lished, in what he called verse, a De- him to France in disguise, for which 
scription of Pennsylvania, in which he goodly service Penn's entire estates were 
alludes to the settlement: confiscated or destroyed; and he himself 

uirrur. * ^ri-i-T i i. r died in exile, before the restoration of the 
" ' ine German town of which I spoke before, 

Which is at least in length one mile or prince. 

more, Upon the reinstating of Carolus II. on 
W Dut h iV6S H!Sh ° Srman Pe ° ple and L ° W the throne of his father, he was visited 
WhoV trade in weaving linen cloth is V William Penn, the only son of Lord 
much — Penn ; and he received him very gracious- 
There grows the flax, as also you may know ly. In consideration of the services of 

^SS.^-*^ -f me n e £ d -° diV ^ 6 ^ e t0W ' his father > he presented to him this entire 

Their trade suits well their habitation — . . .,- .,, ,, , - , T 

We find convenience for their occupation.' » re g!°n, together with the colony of New 

Castle, forever. This royal bounty bears 

the date April 21, 1681. Penn now pub- 

OF THE DISCOVERY OF THE PENNSYLVANIAN Hshed ft fc the dty of London , that he 

regions. intended to establish a colony there, 

^ Although, after the successful expedi- and offered to sell lands to all such as 

tions of Columbus and Americus, many wished to emigrate. Upon this many 

76 



PASTORIUS, FBAttCIS DAUIEL 



persons offered to go, and Penn accom- 
panied them thither, where he founded the 
city of Philadelphia, in 1682. A Ger- 
man society also contracted with his 
agents in London for several thousand 
acres of land to establish a German colony 
there. The entire region was named 
Pennsylvania, which signifies Penn's forest 
lands. 

[Here follow Penn's charter and plans 
of settlement, which are already well 
known and are therefore omitted.] 

CONCERNING THE GERMAN SOCIETY. 

The German society commissioned my- 
self, Francis Daniel Pastorius, as their 
licensed agent, to go to Pennsylvania and 
to superintend the purchase and survey 
of their lands. 

I set out from Franckfort - on - the- 
Mayne, went to London, where I made 
the purchase, and then embarked for 
America. 

Under the protection of the Almighty, 
I arrived safely at Philadelphia ; and I 
was enabled to send my report home to 
Germany on the 7th of March, 1684. 

The lands I purchased were to be as 
follows: fifteen thousand acres in one 
tract on some navigable stream. 

Three hundred acres in the City Liber- 
ties, which is the strip of land lying be- 
tween the rivers Dellavarra and Scol- 
kill, above Philadelphia. 

Three lots in the city proper for the 
purpose of building thereon. 

Upon my arrival I applied to the 
governor, William Penn, for warrants, 
so as to survey and take possession of 
the aforesaid lands. 

His first answer, concerning the three 
hundred acres in the Liberties and the 
three lots in the city, was this: "That 
these could by right not be claimed by the 
German Company, because they had been 
purchased after he had left London, the 
books closed, and all the lots previously 
disposed of." He, however, had three lots 
in the city surveyed for me, out of his 
youngest son's portion, instead of those 
above mention* d, 

Beginning to number the houses from 
the Dellavarra River, our trading-house 
is the ninth in order. 

Our first lot in the city is of the fol- 
lowing dimensions. It has one hundred 



feet front, and is four hundred feet deep. 
Next to it is to be a street. Adjoining 
it lies the second lot of the same size 
as No. 1. Then another street. Lot No. 
3 joins this street, its size being the same 
as the other two. On these lots we can 
build two dwellings at each end, making 
in all twelve buildings with proper yards 
and gardens, and all of them fronting on 
the streets. 

For the first few years, little or no 
profit can reasonably be expected to ac- 
crue from these lots, on account of thtf 
great scarcity of money in this prov- 
ince, and, also, that as yet this coun- 
try has no goods or productions of 
any kind to trade with or export to Eu- 
rope. 

Our governor, William Penn, intends to 
establish and encourage the growing and 
manufactory of woollens; to introduce the 
cultivation of the vine, for which this 
country is peculiarly well adapted, so that 
our company had better send us a quantity 
of wine barrels and vats of various sorts, 
also all kinds of farming and gardening 
implements. Item, several iron boilers of 
various sizes, and copper and brass ket- 
tles. Item, an iron stove, several blankets 
and • mattresses, also a few pieces of 
Bardlet and white linens, which might be 
sold in our trading-house here to good ad- 
vantage. 

On the 16th of November last a fair had 
been held at Philadelphia; but we only 
sold about ten dollars' worth at our trad- 
ing-house, owing altogether to the scarc- 
ity of money, as has been already men- 
tioned. 

As relating to our newly laid out town, 
Germanopolis, or Germantown, it is situ- 
ated on a deep and very fertile soil, and 
is blessed with an abundance of fine 
springs and fountains of fresh water. The 
main street is sixty and the cross street 
forty feet in width. Every family has 
a plot of ground for yard and garden 
three acres in size. 

[Here follow William Penn's laws, 
which are already well known and there- 
fore omitted.] 

OF THE SITUATION OF THE COUNTRY AND 
THE RIVERS THEREOF. 

The situation of Pennsylvania is like 
unto that of Naples in Italy. This region 



77 



PASTORIUS, FRANCIS DANIEL 

lies in the fortieth degree of north lati- The town of Uplandt is twenty miles 

tude, is bounded on the east by the Del- above New Castle on the river, and is a 

lavarra River, and extends in length 75 fine large place, inhabited mostly by 

miles, in breadth 45.* Swedes. 

The islands bordering upon this prov- On the twenty-fourth day of Octobriis, 

ince are New Jersey, Marieland, and Vir- anno 1685, I, Francis Daniel Pastorius, 

ginia. In these regions, several new and with the wish and concurrence of our 

beautiful stars and constellations are governor, laid out and planned a new 

visible, which have heretofore been en- town, which we called Germantown or 

tirely unknown to the European astrologi Germanopolis, in a very fine and fertile 

and learned ones. district, with plenty of springs of fresh 

The river Dellavarra is so beautiful a water, being well supplied with oak, wal- 
stream as not to have its equal among nut, and chestnut trees, and having be- 
all the rivers of Europe. sides excellent and abundant pasturage 

It is navigable for vessels of one hun- for the cattle. At the commencement 
dred tons thirty miles beyond Philadelphia, there were but twelve families of forty- 
It separates Pennsylvania from New Jer- one individuals, consisting mostly of 
sey. At Philadelphia it is two and at German mechanics and weavers. The 
New Castle three miles wide; is abun- principal street of this, our town, I made 
dantly stocked with the finest fish, as is sixty feet in width, and the cross street, 
likewise the river Scolkill. forty feet. The space or lot for each 

The springs and fountains of water are house and garden I made three acres in 

innumerable. size; for my own dwelling, however, six 

The woods and copses are filled with acres, 

beautiful birds of great variety, which Before my laying out of this town, I 

proclaim their Creator's praises, in their had already erected a small house in 

pleasantest manner. There is, besides, a Philadelphia, thirty feet by fifteen in 

great abundance of wild geese, ducks, tur- size. The windows, for the want of 

keys, quails, pigeons, partridges, and many glass, were made of oiled paper. Over 

other sorts of game. the door I had placed the following in- 
scription: 






TOWNS AND CITIES IN 
PROVINCE. 



THIS Parva domus, sed arnica bonis, procul este 
prophani, 



The governor, William Penn, laid out 
the city of Philadelphia, between the two 
rivers Dellavarra and Scolkill, naming 
it with the pious wish and desire that its 
inhabitants might dwell together in 
brotherly love and unity. 

The Dellavarra is deep enough so that 
the largest vessels can come up close to 
the bank, which is but about a stone's 
cast from the city. 

Another English company have laid out 
the new town of Frankfort, five miles 
above Philadelphia, at which now so 
flourishing and pleasant place they have 
already established several good mills, 
a glass-house, pottery, and some stores 
and trading-houses. 

New Castle lies forty miles from the 
ocean on the Dellavarra, and has a very 
good harbor. 

* German miles, one of which Is equal to 
5 English miles. 



at which our governor, when he paid me 
a visit, laughed heartily, at the same 
time encouraging me to build more. 

I have also obtained 15,000 acres 
of land for our company, in one tract, 
with this condition — that within one' 
year at least thirty families should 
settle on it; and thus we may, by God's 
blessing, have a separate German prov- 
ince, where we can all live together in 
one. 



OF THE PRODUCTIONS OF THE COUNTRY. 

Inasmuch as this region lies in the same 
degree of latitude as Montpelier and 
Naples, but has a much richer soil, and 
that better watered by its many springs 
and rivulets, it is but reasonable to sup- 
pose that such a country must be well 
calculated to produce all kinds of fruit. 
The air is pure and serene, the summer is 

rs 



PASTORIUS, FRANCIS DANIEL 



longer and warmer than it is in Germany, 
and we are cultivating many kinds of 
fruits and vegetables, and our labors meet 
with rich reward. 

Of cattle we have a great abundance, 
but for want of proper accommodation 
they roam at large for the present. 

Sugar and syrup we import from Bar- 
bados, and he that has not money bar- 
ters with such articles of produce as he 
may have. The articles of trade be- 
tween the Indians and the Christians 
consist of fish, birds, deer-skins, and the 
furs of beavers, otters, foxes, etc. They 
usually exchange these things for liquor 
or else for their own kind of money, 
which they call wampum, and consists 
of red and white sea - shells, which are 
neatly prepared, and strung like beads. 
These strings of wampum they make 
use of to decorate themselves with. 
Their king wears a crown made of the 
same. 

Twelve strings of the red are valued as 
much as twenty-four white ones. They 
like this kind of money much better than 
our silver coin, because they are so often 
deceived by it, not being able to dis- 
tinguish the counterfeit from the genuine, 
and, as they cannot well calculate the 
difference in its value, they do not much 
like to take it. 

The money in circulation among our- 
selves is Spanish and English coin. Gems 
and precious stones we have none, neither 
do we desire any. We would not give 
him any great thanks who would dig 
them out of the earth; for these things 
Which God has created for good and wise 
purposes have been most shamefully 
abused by man, and have become the ser- 
vants of human pride and ostentation 
rather than being conducive to the 
Creator's glory. 

OF THE GROWTH AND IMPROVEMENT OF 
THIS COLONY. 

Although this far-distant land was a 
dense wilderness — and it is only quite re- 
cently that it has come under the cul- 
tivation of the Christians — there is much 
cause of wonder and admiration how 
rapidly it has already, under the blessing 
of God, advanced, and is still advancing, 
day by day. The first part of the time 



we were obliged to obtain our provisions 
from the Jerseys for money, and at a 
high price; but now we not only have 
enough for ourselves, but a considerable 
surplus to dispose of among our neighbor- 
ing colonies. Of the most needful me- 
chanics we have enough now; but day- 
laborers are very scarce, and of them 
we stand in great need. Of mills, brick- 
kilns, and tile-ovens we have the necessary 
number. 

Our surplus of grain and cattle we 
trade to Barbados for rum, syrup, sugar, 
and salt. The furs, however, we ex- 
port to England for other manufactured 
goods. 

We are also endeavoring to introduce 
the cultivation of the vine, and also the 
manufacture of woollen cloths and linens, 
so as to keep our money as much as pos- 
sible in the country. For this reason 
we have already established fairs to be 
held at stated times, so as to bring the 
people of different parts together for 
the purposes of barter and trade, and 
thereby encourage our own industry 
and prevent our little money from going 
abroad. 



OF THE INHABITANTS OF THIS LAND. 

The inhabitants may be divided into 
three classes: (1) the Aborigines, or, as 
they are called, the savages; (2) those 
Christians who have been in the country 
for years, and are called old settlers; (3) 
the newly arrived colonists of the different 
companies. 

1. The savages, or Indians, are in gen- 
eral strong, nimble, and well-shaped peo- 
ple, of a dark, tawny complexion, and 
wore no clothing whatever when the first 
Europeans came to this country. Now, 
however, they hang a blanket about their 
shoulders, or some of them also have 
shirts. 

They have straight black hair, which 
they cut off close to the head, save one 
tuft, which they leave stand on the right 
side. Their children they anoint with the 
fat of the bears and other animals, so 
as to make their skin dark, for by nature 
they would be white enough. They cul- 
tivate among themselves the most scrupu- 
lous honesty, are unwavering in keeping 
promises, defraud and insult no one, are 



PASTORIUS, FRANCIS DANIEL 



very hospitable to strangers, obliging to 
their guests, and faithful even to death 
towards their friends. 

Their huts, or wigwams, they make by 
bending down several young trees, and 
covering them with bark. 

They use neither tab'es nor chairs 
nor furniture of any kind, except, per- 
haps, a single pot or kettle to cook their 
food. 

I once saw four of them dining together 
in great enjoyment of their feast. It con- 
sisted in nothing more than a pumpkin, 
simply boiled in water, without salt, 
butter, or spice of any kind. Their seat 
and table was the bare ground, their 
spoons were sea-shells, wherewith they 
supped the warm water, and their plates 
were the leaves of the nearest tree, which, 
after they were done their meal, they had 
no occasion of washing or any need of 
carefully preserving for future use. I 
thought to myself on witnessing this 
scene how these poor savages, who have 
never heard of the Saviour's doctrines and 
maxims of contentment and temperance, 
how far superior they are to ourselves, 
so-called Christians, at least so far as 
these virtues are concerned. 

They are otherwise very grave and re- 
served, speak but little, and in few 
words, and are greatly surprised when 
they hear much needless and even foolish 
talking and tale-bearing among us Chris- 
tians. 

They are true and faithful in their 
matrimonial relations, abhorring licen- 
tiousness in the extreme. Above all do 
they despise deception and falsehood. 
They have no idols, but adore one great, 
good Spirit, who keeps the devil in sub- 
jection. They believe in the immor- 
tality of the soul, and, according as 
they have lived in this world, do they 
expect a reward or punishment in the 
future. 

Their peculiar mode of worship con- 
sists principally in singing and dancing, 
during which they make use of the most 
singular contortions and positions of the 
body: and, when the remembrance of the 
death of parents or dear friends is brought 
to their mind, they break forth into the 
most piteous cries and lamentations. 

They are fond of hearing us speak about 
the Creator of heaven and the earth, and 



of his wisdom and divine power, and par- 
ticularly do they listen with emotion to 
the narrative of the Saviour's life and 
sufferings; but it is greatly to be re- 
gretted that we are not yet sufficiently 
acquainted with their language, so as to 
explain the great plan of salvation to 
them fully. 

They behave with the greatest respect 
and decorum whenever they attend public 
worship in our churches ; and it is my 
firm belief that many of these poor Amer- 
ican savages will in the great day rise 
up in judgment with those of Tyre and 
Sidon against our own wicked and per- 
verse generation. As regards their domes- 
tic arrangements, the men attend to the 
chase, hunting, and fishing, the women 
bring up their children, instructing them 
in virtue and honor. They raise some 
few vegetables, such as corn and beans; 
but, as to any extensive farming and cul- 
tivation, they concern themselves nothing 
about it, but are rather surprised that 
we, as Christians, should have so many 
cares and anxieties as to our support and 
nourishment, just as if we did not believe 
that God will and can sustain and provide 
for us. 

They speak a most beautiful and grave 
language, which sounds very much like 
the Italian, although it has entirely dif- 
ferent words. 

They are in the habit of painting their 
faces with various colors, and the women 
as well as the men are very fond of 
tobacco. 

2. The earlier European or old settlers. 
These never had the proper motives in 
settling here; for, instead of instructing 
the poor Indians in the Christian virtues, 
their only desire was gain, without ever 
scrupling about the means employed in 
obtaining it. 

By these means they have taught those 
natives who had dealings with them 
nothing but deception and many other 
evil habits, so that there is very little 
of virtue or honesty remaining on either 
side. 

These wicked people make it a custom 
to pay the savages in rum and other 
liquors for the furs they bring to them, 
so that these poor deluded Indians have 
become very intemperate, and sometimes 
drink to such excess that they can neither 



80 



PASTOMTJS, FRANCIS DANIEL 



walk nor stand. On such occasions they 
often commit thefts and other vices. 

3. The newly arrived colonists of our 
and other companies. We who have come 
over to this land with good and honest 
intentions have purchased considerable 
tracts of land where we will settle, and 
endeavor to live in happiness and content- 
ment; and we are living in the hope and 
expectation that we can in time do some- 
thing for the eternal welfare and salvation 
of the aborigines. May our God prosper 
and bless our undertakings! 



OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF THIS LAND. 

The aborigines of this country had their 
own chiefs and kings. 

We Christians acknowledge as our gov- 
ernor and chief magistrate the oft-named 
and excellent, the Hon. William Penn, to 
whom this region was granted and given 
as his own by his Majesty of England, 
Carolus II., with the express command 
that all the previous and future colonists 
should be subject to Penn's laws and juris- 
diction. 

This wise and truly pious ruler and gov- 
ernor did not, however, take possession of 
the province thus granted without hav- 
ing first conciliated, and at various coun- 
cils and treaties duly purchased from, 
the natives of this country the various 
regions of Pennsylvania. He, having by 
these means obtained good titles to the 
province, under the sanction and signature 
of the native chiefs, I therefore have pur- 
chased from him some thirty thousand 
acres for my German colony. 

Now, although the oft-mentioned Will- 
iam Penn is one of the sect of Friends, 
or Quakers, still he will compel no man 
to belong to his particular society; but 
he has granted to every one free and un- 
trammelled exercise of their opinions and 
the largest and most complete liberty of 
conscience. 



OF THE VARIOUS RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS 
OF THESE PARTS. 

The native Indians have no written re- 
ligious belief or creed; and their own 
peculiar ideas, which are by no means 
so rude or so barbarous as those of many 
other heathens, have to be transmitted 
vn. — f 81 



from the parents to their children only 
per traditionem. 

The English and the Dutch adhere to 
the Calvinistic persuasion. 

The colonists of William Penn are near- 
ly all Quakers. 

The Swedes and Germans are Evangeli- 
cal Lutherans, under the jurisdiction of 
the Bishop of Upsala. The Swedes have 
their own churches. The name of their 
clergyman is Fabricius, of whom I must 
say with deep regret that he is an intem- 
perate man, and, as regards spiritual 
things, very dark and ignorant. We in 
Germantown built a little chapel for our- 
selves in 1686, but did not so much care 
for a splendid stone edifice as for having 
an humble but true temple devoted to the 
living God, in which true believers might 
be edified to the salvation of their souls. 
The ministers here might have an excel- 
lent opportunity to obey and practise the 
command of the Saviour, " Go ye into all 
the world and preach the gospel " ; but, 
unfortunately, they seek more their own 
comfort and ease than they do the glory of 
the Redeemer. 



OF THE GERMAN SOCIETY FOR THE SETTLING 
IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

The principal participants in this so- 
ciety of ours are the following-named 
gentlemen : 

Jacob von De Walle, Dr. John Jacob 
Schuetz, and Daniel Behagel, all of 
Franckfort-on-the-Mayne. 

Gerhard von Mastricht, of Duisburg; 
Thomas von Wylich, and John Lebrunn, of 
Wesel. 

Benjamin Furly, of Rotterdam; Philip 
Fort, of London. 

These persons will attend to and care 
for all letters and papers for our colony, 
and will also assist and give advice to 
all such as desire to emigrate, if such 
applicants be of good moral character 
and standing, and their motives and in- 
tentions for emigrating are honest and 
good. 

In Pennsylvania the whole direction 
and management of the colony has been 
intrusted to my humble abilities, for the 
time being; and may the Almighty give 
me the proper wisdom and strength to 
fulfil all my arduous duties. 



PASTOKITJS, FRANCIS DANIEL 



OF THE OPPORTUNITIES AND WAYS OF EMI- 
GRATING TO THIS COUNTRY. 

From the month of April until in the 
fall of every year there are vessels sailing 
to Pennsylvania, at frequent times, from 
England, principally from the port of 
Deal, although there is no fixed time or 
day set for sailing, and persons are 
therefore compelled to watch their op- 
portunity. Whenever there is a company 
of thirty-five or forty passengers together, 
exclusive of the ship's crew, a vessel is 
despatched. Every grown-up man pays 
for hi3 passage the sum of £6 sterling, 
or thirty-six rix dollars. For a female 
or servant, twenty-two rix dollars. One 
round sterling is equal to six rix dol- 
lars. 

OF MY OWN VOYAGE HITHER. 

After I had left London, where I had 
made all my arrangements with Penn's 
agent, and arrived at Deal, I hired four 
male and two female servants, and on the 
7th of June, 1683, set sail with a com- 
pany of eighty passengers. Our ship drew 
thirteen feet of water. Our fare on board 
was poor enough. The allowance of pro- 
vision for ten persons per week was as 
follows: three pounds of butter; daily, 
four cans of beer and one can of water; 
every noon, two dishes of pease; four times 
per week salt meat, and three times salt 
fish, which we were obliged to cook, each 
man for himself, and had daily to save 
enough from dinner to serve for our sup- 
pers also. And, as these provisions were 
usually very poor, and the fish sometimes 
tainted, we were all compelled to make 
liberal use of liquors and other refresh- 
ments of a similar nature to preserve the 
health amid such hard fare. Moreover, 
it is the practice of the masters of these 
vessels to impose upon their passengers 
in a shameful manner by giving them very 
short allowances. It is therefore advisable 
not to pay the passage in full in England, 
but to withhold a part until the arriving 
in America, so that they are obliged to 
fulfil their part of the contract. Fur- 
thermore, it is advisable to endeavor to 
obtain passage in vessels bound to Phila- 
delphia direct, inasmuch as those who 
come in such, landing at Upland, are 
subjected to many and grievous molesta- 
tions. 



On the sixteenth day of August, 1683, 
we came in sight of the American conti- 
nent, but did not enter the Capes of Dela- 
ware until the 18th ejusdem. The 20th 
ejusdem we passed by New Castle and 
Upland, and arrived toward evening at 
Philadelphia, in perfect health and safety, 
where we were all welcomed with great 
joy and love by the governor, William 
Penn, and his secretary. He at once made 
me his confidential friend, and I am fre- 
quently requested to dine with him, where 
I can enjoy his good counsel and edify- 
ing conversations. Lately I could not 
visit him for eight days, when he waited 
upon me himself, requesting me to dine 
with him in future twice in each week, 
without particular invitation, assuring 
me of his love and friendship toward 
myself and the German nation, hoping 
that all the rest of the colonists would 
do the same. 

OF THE DUTIES AND LABORS OF THE GERMAN 
COLONIST. 

Our German society have in this place 
now established a lucrative trade in 
woollen and linen goods, together with a 
large assortment of other useful and 
necessary articles, and have intrusted this 
extensive business to my own direction. 
Besides this they have now purchased and 
hold over thirty thousand acres of land, 
for the sake of establishing an entirely 
German colony. In my newly laid out 
Germantown there are already sixty-four 
families in a very prosperous condition. 
Such persons, therefore, and all those 
who still arrive, have to fall to work and 
swing the axe most vigorously; for wher- ' 
ever you turn the cry is, Itur in antiquam 
si/lvam, nothing but endless forests. So 
that I have been often wishing for a num- 
ber of stalwart Tyrolians. to throw down 
these gigantic oak and other forest trees, 
but which we will be obliged to cut down 
ourselves by degrees and with almost in- 
credible labor and exertion, during which 
we can have a very forcible illustration 
of the sentence pronounced upon our poor 
old father Adam, that in the sweat of his 
brow he should eat his bread. To our 
successors, and others coming after us, we 
would say that they must not only bring 
over money, but a firm determination to 
labor and make themselves useful to our 



82 



PATCH— PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY 

infant colony. Upon the whole, we may In 1870 the Patent Office was made a 
consider that man blessed whom the devil branch of the State Department; it after- 
does not find idling. In the mean time wards became a bureau of the Interior 
we are employing the wild inhabitants as Department. During the fiscal year 1903- 
day-laborers, for which they are, however, 04 there were 56,023 applications for 
not much inclined; and we ourselves are patents, re-issues, etc. 

gradually learning their language, so to Paterson, John, military officer; born 
instruct them in the religion of Christ, in New Britain, Conn., in 1744; graduated 
inviting them to attend our church ser- at Yale College in 17G2; became a lawyer, 
vices, and therefore have the pleasing and was an active patriot in Massa- 
liope that the spirit of God may be the chusetts at the breaking-out of the Revolu- 
means of enlightening many of these poor tion, being a member of the Provincial 
heathens unto their souls' salvation. To Congress. After the affair at Lexington he 
Him be honor, praise, thanks, and glory, hastened with a regiment of minute-men 
forevermore. Amen. to Cambridge, where he cast up the first 
Patch, Samuel, diver; born in Rhode redoubt of the fortifications around Bos- 
Island in 1807. As an athlete he became ton. After the evacuation of that city 
known as a diver, making his first cele- he was sent to Canada, and a part of his 
brated leap from the bridge over the regiment was engaged at the Cedars. 
Passaic River at Paterson, N. J. He met When the army left Canada he joined 
his death Nov. 13, 1829, in jumping from Washington, and was engaged in the bat- 
a bridge over the Genesee River at Roches- ties of Trenton and Princeton ; and in 
ter, N. Y., at a height of 125 feet above the February, 1777, he was made brigadier- 
water, general and attached to the Northern De- 
Patent Laws. Clause 8, section 8, partment, where he rendered important 
article 3 of the national Constitution gives services in the events which ended in the 
to Congress power to " promote the prog- capture of Burgoyne. At the battle of 
ress of science and useful arts by securing, Monmouth, the next year, he was very 
for a limited time, to authors and in- efficient, and remained in the service until 
ventors, the exclusive right to their re- the close of the war. In 1786 he com- 
spective writings and discoveries." The manded a detachment of Berkshire mili- 
first law framed under this provision was tia which was sent to suppress Shays's 
approved April 10, 1790, and secured to insurrection. He removed to Lisle, N. Y., 
authors and inventors the exclusive rights after that, where he became a member of 
in the use of their productions for four- the legislature, member of the convention 
teen years. It remained in force three that revised the State constitution in 
years, when it was repealed. Only three 1801, and member of Congress from 1803 
patents were granted the first year, thirty- to 1805. He died in Lisle, N. Y., July 
three the second, and eleven the third. I9 5 1808. 

A new law was passed in 1793. It was Paterson, William, jurist; born at 
amended from time to time, and remained sea in 1745; graduated at Princeton in 
in force until 1836, when all. existing 1763; admitted to the bar in 1769; at- 
patent laws were repealed, and a new one torney-general for New Jersey in 1776; 
was approved. During the ten years from elected to the Continental Congress in 
1790 to 1800 the number of patents grant- 1780; to the Constitutional Convention in 
m was 276. The matter of infringement 1787: elected United States Senator in 
of patents was first brought under the 1789; governor of New Jersey, 1791; ap- 
cquity jurisdiction of the United States pointed justice of the United States 
courts in 1819, and in 1832 provision was Supreme Court in 1793. He died in Al- 
made by Congress for the re-issue of bany. N. Y., Sept. 9, 1806. 
patents under certain conditions. Prior Patrons of Husbf ndry, a secret order 
to the new law of 1836, only 10,020 patents organized in the United States, Di j. 4, 
had been issued. From 1837 to 1890, the 1867, by O. H. Kelly, of the United States 
number of patents issued was 475,785. In bureau of agriculture, for the purpose 
1861 the time for which patents were of promoting the social and material in- 
issued was extended to seventeen years, terests of persons engaged directly or indi- 

83 



PATROONS 

rectly in the agricultural and allied indus- manufacture cloth of any kind, on pain 
tries. The unit of organization is the of banishment from the colony; and the 
local grange, subordinate to the State company agreed to furnish them with 
grange, and that in turn under the juris- as many African slaves " as they con- 
diction of the national grange. Although veniently could"; also, to protect them 
the order is non-political, the national against foes. 

grange has expressed favor towards the Each colony was bound to support a 
following subjects of reform: minister of the Gospel and a school-master, 

1. Postal savings-banks. 2. Enactment and so provide a comforter of the sick and 
of pure food laws. 3. Rural free-mail de- a teacher of the illiterate. Such was the 
livery. 4. Additional powers to the Inter- modified feudalism introduced into the 
state Commerce Commission. 5. Speedy young Dutch colony, which naturally fos- 
construction of the Nicaragua Canal by tered aristocratic ideas. It recognized the 
the United States. 6. To prevent the right of the Indians to the soil by corn- 
pooling of railroads. 7. Impartial inves- pelling its purchase from them; it invited 
tigation of foreign trade relations. 8. independent farmers, to whom a homestead 
Election of United States Senators by should be secured, and promised protection 
popular vote. 9. Settlement of interna- to all in case of war, and encouraged re- 
tional differences by arbitration. ligion and learning. Yet the free New 

In 1901 the national grange had estab- England system was far better for the de- 
lished 27,689 subordinate granges in forty- velopment and growth of popular liberty. 
four States and Territories. See Farm- Several of these patroon domains were 
ees' Alliance; People's Party. secured by directors of the Amsterdam 

Patroons. To induce private capital- Chamber. The patroons began vigorously 
ists to engage in making settlements in to make settlements on the Hudson and 
New Netherland (q. v.), the West India Delaware rivers, and so construed the 
Company, in 1629, resolved to grant charter of privileges and exemptions that 
lands and manorial privileges to such as they claimed a right to traffic with the 
should accept the conditions of a proposed Indians. This brought them into collision 
charter of privileges and exemptions, with the other directors, whose jealousy 
Reserving the island of Manhattan, they was aroused. The patroons persisted, and 
offered to grant lands in any part of New an appeal was made to the States-General, 
Netherland, to the extent of 16 miles which prudently postponed a decision, "in 
along any navigable stream (or 4 miles order to enable the parties to come to 
if on each shore), and indefinitely in an amicable settlement." So ended the 
the interior, to any person who should action of the Dutch government in the 
agree to plant a colony of fifty adults matter. 

within four years; or, if he should bring The patroon system discouraged indi- 
more, his domain to be proportionately vidual enterprise. Private persons who 
enlarged. He was to be absolutely lord of wished to emigrate dared not attempt it. , 
the manor, politically and otherwise, hold- Some of the best tracts of land in the 
ing inferior courts for the jurisdiction of colony were appropriated by the patroons. 
petty civil cases; and, if cities should The latter, ambitious and grasping, at- 
grow up on his domain, he was to have tempted to enlarge their privileges, and 
power to appoint the magistrates and boldly presented to the States-General a 
other officers of such municipalities, and new plan for the purpose, in which they 
have a deputy to confer with the governor, demanded that they should monopolize 
These lords of manors were called pa- more territory; have longer time to settle 
troons, or patrons, and the settlers under colonists ; be invested with larger feudal 
them were to be exempted from all taxa- powers; be made entirely independent of 
tion and tribute for the support of the the control of the company with respect 
provincial government for ten years; and to the internal government of the colonies j 
for the same period every man, woman, enjoy free-trade throughout and around 
and child was bound not to leave the ser- New Netherland; have a vote in the coun- 
vice of the patroon without his written cil of the director-general; be supplied 
consent. The colonists were forbidden to with convicts from Holland as servants, 

84 



PATROONS— PATTERSON 

and with negro slaves; and, finally, that form a political party favorable to their 
all private persons and poor immigrants cause. It succeeded in 1842, and several 
should be forbidden to purchase lands years afterwards, in electing one-eighth 
from the Indians, and should be required of the legislature who favored the anti- 
to settle themselves within the established renters; and in 1846 a clause was in- 
colonies and under the control of the serted in the revised constitution of the 
manorial lords. These extravagant de- State, abolishing all feudal tenures and 
mands caused their existing privileges to incidents, and forbidding the leasing of 
be curtailed by a new charter of privileges agricultural lands for a longer term than 
and exemptions, issued in 1640. A host twelve years. The same year Governor 
of smaller " masters of colonies " was Wright, who was a candidate for re- 
created, and the legal powers of the old election as chief magistrate, was defeated 
patroons were abridged. Quarrels between by 10,000 majority given to John Young, 
these lords of manors and the civil gov- the anti-rent candidate, who afterwards 
eminent of New Netherland continued released all offenders of the law who 
nntil the province passed from the pos- were in prison. The excitement gradually 
session of the Dutch to that of the subsided, and only in courts of law were 
English. the anti-rent associations actively seen. 

These feudal tenures having been abol- The last proprietor of the Van Rensselaer 
ished, the proprietors of manor grants manor sold his interests in his lands to 
contrived a form of deed by which the a person who made amicable arrangements 
grantees agreed to pay rents and dues al- with all the tenants for the rent, sale, and 
most precisely as before. This tenure be- purchase of the farms, 
came burdensome and odious to the tillers; Patten, George Washington, military 
and in 1839 associations of farmers were officer; born in Newport, R. I., Dec. 25, 
formed for the purpose of devising a 1808; graduated at Brown University in 
scheme of relief from the burdens. The 1824, and at West Point in 1830. He 
movement was soon known as anti-rent- served in the war against the Seminoles 
ism, and speedily manifested itself in open and in Mexico and was brevetted major 
resistance to the service of legal processes for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, where he 
for the collecting of manorial rents. The lost a hand. He was made lieutenant- 
first overt act of lawlessness that attract- colonel of the 2d Infantry, June 7, 1862, 
ed public attention was in the town of and retired Feb. 17, 1864. Colonel Patten 
Grafton, Rensselaer county, where a band was a contributor of poetical pieces for 
of anti-renters, disguised, killed a man, yet periodicals from his youth, and a volume 
the criminal was never discovered. In of his poems was published in 1867. He 
1841 and 1842 Governor Seward in his was also author of an Army Manual 
messages recommended the reference of the (1863); and Tactics and Drill for In- 
alleged grievances and matters in dispute fantry, Artillery, and Cavalry (3 volumes, 
on both sides to arbitrators, and appoint- 1861-63). He died in Houlton, Me., April 
ed three commissioners to investigate and 28, 1882. 

report to the legislature. Nothing was ac- Patterson, Daniel Tod, naval officer; 
complished, and the disaffection increased, born in New York, March 6, 1786; enter- 
So rampant was the insubordination to ed the navy as midshipman in 1800; was 
law in Delaware county that Governor with Bainbridge at Tripoli, and master- 
Wright, in 1845, recommended legislation commander in 1813. In 1814 he command- 
for its suppression, and he declared the ed the naval force at and near New 
county in a state of insurrection. Finally, Orleans that co-operated with General 
the trial and conviction of a few persons Jackson in defence of that city. Patterson 
for conspiracy and resistance to law, and was active, afloat and ashore, for nearly 
their confinement in the State prison, forty years. He died in Washington, 
caused a cessation of all operations by D. C., Aug. 15, 1839. 
ma..'.. i Lands. Patterson, Robert, military officer; 

There was so much public sympathy born in Tyrone county, Ireland, Jan. 12, 

manifested for the cause of the anti-rent- 1792: was brought to America by his par- 

ers that the association determined to ents in his early youth; engaged in mer- 

85 



PATTISON— PAULDING 




ROBERT PATTERSON. 



cantile pursuits; but entered the army in New York in 1846-87. His publica- 
1813; was made full captain in 1814, and Hons include Four Hundred Years of 
served to the end of the war. He resumed American History; Natural Resources of 
mercantile life and became largely in- the United States; Yorktown, 1181-1S81; 
terested in manufactures. Commissioned The Democratic Party, its History and In- 
major-general of volunteers when the war fluence; A Brief History of the Presby- 
with Mexico broke out, he took an active terian Church in the United States; 
part in the campaign under Scott from Political Parties in the United States, 

etc. 

Paulding, Hiram, naval officer; born 
in New York City, Dee. 11, 1797; entered 
the United States navy as midshipman in 
September, 1811; was under Macdonough, 
on Lake Champlain, and received a sword 
from Congress for his services there. He 
accompanied Porter against the pirates 
in the West Indies in 1823, and became 
master-commander in 1837. He was com- 
missioned captain in 1844, and was in 
active service in the West Indies and on 
the Pacific coast; and for the important 
services which he rendered the State of 
Nicaragua in suppressing the filibuster 
Walker, that republic gave him a sword. 
He was made a rear-admiral on the retired 
list (1861). In command of the navy- 
yard at Brooklyn (1862-65) he did ex- 
Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico. When cellent service in preparing ships for the 
the Civil War broke out, he was placed different squadrons, and in 1866 was gov- 
in command of a division of three months' ernor of the Philadelphia Naval Asylum, 
men. In command of troops watching the Admiral Paulding was a son of John 
forces under the Confederate General Paulding, one of the captors of Major 
Johnston at Winchester, Va., the fail- 
ure of General Scott to send him or- 
ders caused him to fail to co-operate 
with McDowell in his movements that 
resulted in the battle of Bull Run 
(q. v.). For this failure he was un- 
justly dismissed from the service, 
and he was under a cloud for some 
time. He did not re-enter the serv- 
ice. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Aug. 7, 1881. 

Pattison, Robert Emory, states- 
man; born in Quantico, Md., Dec. 8, 
1850; comptroller of Philadelphia, 
1877-82; governor of the State, 1883- 
86 and 1891-94; United States Pacific 
Railway commissioner, 1887-90. He 
died in Overbrook, Pa., Aug. 1, 1904. 
Patton, Jacob Harris, author; 
born in Fayette county, Pa., May 20, 
1812; graduated at Jefferson College, 
Pa., in 1839; and at the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1846; was prin- 
cipal of a private classical school in 




PAULDING— PAULUS'S HOOK 



Andr6. He died in Huntington, L. I., Oct. gress a silver medal each, and were award- 
20, 1878. ed an annuity of $200. In 1827 a marble 

Paulding, James Kirke, author; born monument was erected by the corpora- 
in Dutchess county, N. Y., Aug. 22, 1779; 
was a son of an active Revolutionary 
soldier, who was commissary-general of 
New York troops in the Continental 
service, and was ruined by the non-ac- 
ceptance by the government of his drafts, 
or non-redemption of his pledges, and he 
was imprisoned for debt. James went to 
New York City, and in early life became 
engaged in literary pursuits with Wash- 
ington Irving, whose brother William mar- 
ried Paulding's sister. They began, in 1807, 
the popular publication Salmagundi. He 
was introduced to the government through 
his pamphlet on The United States and 
England, and, in 1814, was made secre- 
tary of the board of naval commissioners. 
Afterwards he was navy agent at New 
York, and, from 1839 to 1841, was Secre- 
tary of the Navy. Mr. Paulding was a 
facile and elegant writer of essays and 
stories, and was possessed of a fund of 
humor that pervaded his compositions. 
He contributed to the periodicals of the 
day, and wrote and published several 
volumes. He died in Hyde Park, N. Y., 
April 6, 1860. tion of New York City in St. Peter's 

Paulding, John, patriot, and one of church-yard near Peekskill, as a memorial 
the captors of Andre; born in New York of him. He died in Staatsburg, N. Y., 
City in 1758. Three times he was made Feb. 18, 1818. 




JOHN PAULDING. 



a prisoner during the Revolutionary War, 



Paulus's Hook, Surprise of. In 1779 
there was a British military 
work at Paulus's Hook (now 
Jersey City), garrisoned by 500 
men, under Major Sutherland. 
A plan was formed for taking it 
by surprise, and its execution 
was intrusted to Maj. Henry 
Lee, then back of Bergen. With 
300 picked men, followed by a 
strong detachment under Lord 
Stirling as a reserve, at 3.30 
a.m. on Aug. 19, he passed the 
unguarded outer works and en- 
tered the main works undiscov- 
ered ; for the garrison, feeling 
secure, had not barred the sally- 
port, and the sentinels were all 
absent or asleep. The surprise 
was most complete. He captured 
and had escaped, the second time, only 159 of the garrison, including officers. The 
four days before the capture of Andre, remainder retreated to a circular redoubt. 
He and his associates received from Con- It was too strong to be affected by small- 

87 




PAULDING'S MONUMENT. 



PAUNCEFOTE— PAUPERISM IN" THE UNITED STATES 





MEDAL AWARDED TO. HENRY LEE. 



arms, and Lee retreated, with his prison- 
ers, back to camp. His loss was only 
two killed and three wounded. In Sep- 
tember following Congress voted thanks 
and a gold medal to Lee for this exploit. 

Pauncefote, Lord Julian of Preston, 
diplomatist; born in Preston Court, Eng- 
land, in 1828; was called to the bar in 
1852; appointed attorney-general of Hong- 
Kong in 1865; acting chief -justice of the 
Supreme Court in 1869-72; became per- 
manent foreign under secretary in 1882; 



minister to the United States in 1889; and 
ambassador in 1893. He represented 
Great Britain at the Suez Canal confer- 
ence in 1885, and at the peace conference 
at The Hague in 1899, and in the latter 
year was created first Lord Pauncefote. 
Since his official residence in the United 
States he won the esteem of the United 
States government and people. He died 
in Washington, D. C, May 24, 1902. His 
body was sent to England in a United 
States man-of-war. 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES 

Pauperism in the United States. Pro- lected in the same year in different States, 
fessor Richard T. Ely, formerly of Johns nor have they been collected according to 
Hopkins University, now of the Univer- similar methods. The word pauper in one 
sity of Wisconsin, contributes the fol- State means one thing, and in another 
lowing to the study of this question: State something else. For example, de- 
pendent children are in one place classed 

While we may deplore the lack of care- among the paupers, and in another place 
ful statistical information concerning they are put in a category by themselves, 
pauperism in this and other countries, The only authority competent to gather 
there are certain facts which we do know, the facts which we ought to know for 
First of all is this fact: there exists in the whole country is the federal govern- 
the United States an immense mass of ment, and it has attempted to do some- 
pauperism. No one knows either how thing in the various censuses. The census 
great this mass is, or whether it is rela- reports, however, have been heretofore in- 
tively, or even absolutely, larger than in complete and unsatisfactory. Mr. Fred- 
former times. Several States in the erick H. Wines, a high authority, was the 
Union, as New York, Massachusetts, Penn- special agent of the tenth census ap- 
sylvania, and Ohio, publish statistics con- pointed to gather the statistics concern- 
cerning the defective, delinquent, and de- ing pauperism, and he reported altogether 
pendent classes, but many of the States about 500,000. This, however, is an un- 
gather no statistics at all, or very inade- derestimate. . Only a little over 21,000 
quate ones. Such statistics as we have out-door paupers were reported, where- 
cannot well be brought together and com- as a single city undoubtedly has a 
pared, because they have not been col- larger number receiving public relief out- 

88 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES 

side of public institutions. It is admitted the direct and indirect cost of pauperism 
in the report that " the attempt to se- to this country. The direct pauper ex- 
cure anything like a complete or adequate penditures of the United States may be 
enumeration of them in the present census placed at $25,000,000 at least; indeed, this 
was a failure." " The present census " must be an underestimate, for New York 
means the census of 1S80. State alone expends for charitable pur- 

At the sixteenth conference of chari- poses through its various institutions over 

ties and correction, in Omaha, in 1889, $13,000,000. If we place the average num- 

the committee on reports from States ex- ber of persons in the country supported 

pressed the opinion that it was safe to by charity at 500,000, and estimate the 

estimate the number of persons in the loss of productive power for each one of 

United States receiving out-door relief at these at $100 per year, we shall have an in- 

an average of 250,000 during the year, in- direct loss of $50,000,000 to be added to 

eluding at least 600,000 different persons, the direct expenditures. One hundred mil- 

This same committee, including Messrs. lions of dollars a year must be regarded 

F. B. Sanborn and H. H. Hart, did not as a conservative estimate of the total 

regard 110,000 persons as an overesti- direct or indirect pecuniary loss to the 

mate of the population of the almshouses country on account of pauperism. A far 

of the country. Five States of the Union more serious loss, however, is the loss in 

alone report nearly half that number, manhood and womanhood. 

These are New York, with' 19,500 inmates In contrast to this first fact of the 

of almshouses; Pennsylvania, with 13,- great mass of pauperism, we have the 

500; Massachusetts, with 9,000; Ohio, second equally indisputable fact that it 

with 8,000 ; and Illinois, with 5,000. These is for the most part a curable disease. 

States, however, do not include much over Wherever there has been any earnest and 

one-third of the population of the country, intelligent attempt to remedy the evil, 

Mr. Charles D. Kellogg, the able and de- the success has been equal to all the 

voted secretary of the New York Charity most sanguine could anticipate. I have 

Organization Society, has estimated that read accounts of many such attempts to 

3,000,000 people in the United States lessen pauperism, and everything that I 

were wholly or partially supported by have read has confirmed in my mind the 

alms during a recent year, and that the belief that it is a curable evil. A few 

support received by this number was equal illustrations out of a great number at 

to the total support of 500,000 paupers hand must suffice for present purposes, 

during the entire year. This estimate The Elberfeld system of charitable relief 

is based upon such facts as he had been is well known. About 1850 an earnest 

able to gather, and even a guess from one attempt was made in that city to deal 

situated as he is has some weight. . . . with the question of pauperism. At that 

The number of paupers varies greatly time the number of inhabitants was 

from year to year, according to the gen- 50,000; in 18S0 it was 90,000; but the 

eral prosperity of the country and other number of friendly visitors required had 

causes, and even within the same year, not increased. The number needing help 

according to the season. The estimate fell from 2,948 in the year 1853 to 1,287 

of 3,000,000 cannot be regarded as an in 1876, or from fifty-seven in the thou- 

extravagant one for the United States sand of population to between fifteen and 

during hard times. We have, then, that sixteen in the thousand. The city of Leip- 

number of persons who at some time sic introduced the Elberfeld system in 

or another are compelled to ask support 1881, and in a single year tlfe number of 

which they will not or cannot obtain for paupers fell off 2,000. Even England 

themselves. If we should cut down this seems to have met with some success in 

number to 500,000, it would be sufficient dealing with pauperism, for the paupers 

to cause distress to every lover of comprised 5 8 /io per cent, of the popula- 

his kind, and to justify inquiry into tion in 1863, 4 6 / 10 in 1871, and only 2 

the nature of pauperism, its causes and per cent, in 1882. 

its cure. The experience of Buffalo, in this 

Numerous estimates have been made of country, has been as instructive as it is 

89 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES 

gratifying. During the first ten years of children belong to the redeemable portion 
the existence of the Buffalo Charity Or- of humanity. This second fact states, 
ganization Society — namely, from 1877 to then, this proposition: pauperism as now 
1887 — the pauperism of the city decreased, known may be considered a needless evil; 
so far as statistics indicate, at least 50 in other words, in modern society there 
per cent. Of 7(33 families dealt with by are sufficient resources to cure it if men 
that society in 1878-79, Mr. Rosenau, the would but apply them, 
secretary, was able to state that, so far The third indisputable fact observed i3 
as he knew, 458 families had never been that only slight effort is put forth by 
applicants for charity since 1879, and the community at large to cure the evil 
only 81 were met with in 1887. Mr. of pauperism. Mr. Rosenau has shown 
Eosenau further said that, if the citizens that only one in 713 persons, in thirty- 
of Buffalo would furnish the society with two cities where there are charity or- 
funds and workers, the close of 1897 ganization societies which reported, con- 
would see the city practically free from tributed to their funds. These cities 
pauperism, and, he hoped, with very little represented a population of about 7,250,- 
abject poverty within her limits. Mr. 000, and the number of contributors was 
Kellogg, of the New York society, in his only a little over 10,000. When we put 
fifth annual report, claims that of 4,280 this in contrast with the church-mem- 
cases treated during the preceding year, bership of the country, which comprises 
697 became self-supporting by securing something like one - third of the pop- 
employment for them, by training them ulation, or, if we count only adult 
in industry, or by starting them in busi- members, one - fourth, we are remind- 
ness. During the same year 1,508 cases ed of the conclusion reached by Mr. 
treated during the first year of the Frederic Harrison and others that for 
society's existence were re-examined, and social regeneration Christianity is a fail- 
over 20 per cent, of these cases were ure. Of course many cannot contribute 
known to continue self-supporting. Of money, but there is equal complaint of a 
course some of the others treated during lack of persons who are willing to con- 
the first year who could not be traced con- tribute their time and sympathy as 
tinued self-supporting. friendly visitors. Those who have read 
There is reason to believe that there are Tolstoi's book, What to Do, will find 
adult paupers who can never be rendered there described the experience of every 
entirely independent and self-supporting, sincere friend of humanity who has at- 
Some of these are willing to work, but tempted to secure genuine co-operation 
have simply not been furnished with among the fortunate classes to help ele- 
qualities requisite for success in the com- vate the less fortunate classes out of their 
petitive world of to-day, or their latent economic, physical, and moral wretched- 
faculties, which might once have been ness — namely, general but vague expres- 
developed, have been allowed to remain un- sions of interest, with a final refusal of 1 
used so long that their present develop- the aid needed. As in the parable of the 
ment is practically impossible. These re- New Testament, they all begin to make 
quire permanent treatment in establish- excuses. . . . 

ments adapted to them, where such powers What are the causes of pauperism? 

as they have can be utilized for their These causes are many, and they cannot 

own good and the benefit of society, be stated in any single sentence. The 

With some others the trouble is not so most general statement possible is that 

much mental or physical as moral, and the causes of poverty are heredity and 

these require permanent treatment, severe environment, producing weak physical, 

but kind, in separate establishments, mental, and moral constitutions. If 

The first of these permanently helpless sociological investigations have made one 

classes belongs to a certain extent to the thing clearer than another, it is that 

imbeciles, while the second belongs rather paupers are a class into which one is 

to the criminal class. Both of these often born, and from which, when born 

classes, however, are few in number, and into it, one can be rescued, as a rule, only 

all others can be redeemed. Nearly all by a change of environment. These in- 

90 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES 



vestigations show likewise that paupers McCulloch, who is a clergyman in In- 
are a class of inferior men. Inquiry was dianapolis, found the poor and degraded 
made at the Prison Association two years in that part of the country closely con- 



ago as to the chief cause of crime, and 
every expert in criminal studies was re- 
ported to have replied, " Bad homes and 
heredity." The same reply may be given 
as to the causes of pauperism. Four dif- 
ferent careful studies of the causes of 
pauperism have been made, two in New 



nected by ties of blood and marriage. 
This band of paupers and criminals takes 
its name from one Ben Ishmael, who can 
be traced as far back as 1790, when he 
was living in Kentucky. The descendants 
of this family have intermarried with 
thirty other families. In the first genera- 



York State, one in Indiana, and one in tion we know the history of 3, in the 



Berlin. 

The first which I have in mind was 
made by Mr. Richard L. Dugdale, and was 
called " The Jukes." The ancestor of the 
Jukes is called " Margaret, the mother of 
criminals." Mr. Dugdale estimated that 
1,200 of this family in seventy-five years 



second of 84, in the third of 283, in the 
fourth of 640, in the fifth of 679, and in 
the sixth of 57. We have a total of 
1.750 individuals, with but scant records 
previous to 1840. Among these we find 
121 prostitutes. Several murders can be 
traced to the Tribe of Ishmael. Thiev- 



cost the community directly and indirectly ing and larceny are common among them, 
not less than $1,250,000. and they are nearly all beggars. Look- 
The second study was made in New ing back into the history of the family 
York State under the direction of the of Ben Ishmael, we find that three of 
legislature by the State board of chari- his grandchildren married three sisters 
ties. The investigation occupied the sec- from a pauper family. Death is frequent 
retary of this board and various assistants among them, and they are physically un- 
for nearly two years, and the antecedents able to endure hard work or bad climate, 
of every inmate of the poor-houses of the They break down early and go to the poor- 
State were examined. Mrs. C. R. Lowell, house or hospital. . . . 
who has been so active in the charities The fourth of the studies is that made 
of New York State, and who has achieved by city missionaries in Berlin a few years 
a well-merited reputation, read a report ago, and reported by Court Pastor 
on the results of this investigation. She Stocker. The ancestors of this criminal 
describes typical women. The description and pauper family were two sisters, of 
of two cases may be quoted, and they will whom the older died in 1825. Their pos- 



6erve for all. 

" In the Herkimer county poor-house a 
single woman, aged sixty-four years, twenty 
of which have been spent in the poor-house : 
has had six illegitimate children, four of 
whom have been paupers." 

" In the Montgomery county poor-house a 
woman twenty years of age, illegitimate, un- 
educated, and vagrant ; has two children in 
the house, aged, respectively, three years and 
six months, both illegitimate, and the latter 
born in the institution ; recently married 
an intemperate, crippled man, formerly a 
pauper." 

Mrs. Lowell says : " These mothers are 
women who began life as their own children 
have begun it — inheriting strong passions 
and weak wills, born and bred in the poor- 
house, taught to be wicked before they could 
speak plain, all the strong evil in their nat- 
ures strengthened by their surroundings, and 
the weak good trampled out of life." 

The third study to which I referred is 
that made by Mr. Oscar McCulloch, and 
is called The Tribe of Ishmael. Mr. 



terity numbers 834 persons. The crim- 
inalists are able to trace the history of 
709 with tolerable accuracy. Among 
these there were 106 illegitimate children, 
164 prostitutes, 17 pimps, 142 beggars, 
64 inmates of poor-houses, and 76 guilty 
of serious crimes, who together had passed 
116 years in prison. It is estimated that 
this single family cost the State over 
$500,000. It is worthy of note in this 
connection that the members of the Tribe 
of Ishmael are, as a rule, temperate, and 
total abstainers are found among the worst 
classes. . . . 

There are those, undoubtedly, whose 
pauperism can be traced neither to hered- 
ity nor unfavorable environment, but they 
are comparatively few. Well-brought- 
up children of morally and physical- 
ly sound parents seldom become pau- 
pers. 

Perhaps the most careful analysis of 



91 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES 



the causes of pauperism has been made by 6.000,000, and in the United States at over 
Professor AniwS G. Warner, of the Uni- 1,000,000, and an extremely small percent- 
versity of Nebraska. He presents the fol- age is due to strikes or lockouts. Child- 
lowing analysis of the more immediate or labor, which has assumed terrible propor- 



tions m recent years, and the employment 
of women must be placed among the causes 
of poverty, both of them tending to break 
up the home. Industrial crises are a 
chief cause of modern pauperism, it having 
been observed in every modern nation 
that the number of tramps and paupers 
increases immensely during a period of 
industrial depression. Many men, while 
seeking work during these periods, fall 
hopelessly into vagabondage and pauper- 
ism, and those dependent upon them are 
thrown upon the public. 

What has been said about causes of 
pauperism makes it easy to understand the 
nature of the remedies required. It is 
necessary to go back of the phenomena 
which lie on the surface to underlying 
causes. Things which are not seen are of 
more importance than things which are 
seen. I have said that the two chief 
causes of pauperism are heredity and en- 
vironment, and the question arises, How 
change these for the better? Fortunately 
the more powerful is environment, and 
that is the more easilv controlled. The 



proximate causes of poverty: 

ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF POVERTY. 

Characteristics : 

1. Undervitalization and indolence. 

2. Lubricity. 

3. Specific disease. 

4. Lack of judgment. 

5. Unhealthy appetites. 

S. Habits producing and produced by the 
above : 

1. Shiftlessness. 

2. Self-abuse and sexual excess. 

3. Abuse of stimulants and narcotics. 

4. Unhealthy diet. 

5. Disregard of family ties. 

' 1. Inadequate natural resources. 

2. Bad climatic conditions. 

3. Defective sanitation, etc. 

4. Evil associations and surroundings. 

5. Defective legislation and defective ju- 
dicial and punitive machinery. 

6. Misdirected or inadequate education. 

7. Bad industrial conditions : 

a. Variations in value of money. 

b. Changes in trade. 

c. Excessive or ill-managed taxation. 

d. Emergencies unprovided for. 

e. Undue power of class over class. 

f. Immobility of labor. 

8. Unwise philanthropy. 

remedy is to break up these pauper and 

According to all careful investigations, criminal bands, and at the earliest age 
intemperance plays a minor, although an to remove the children from their poison- 
important, role, the returns under this ous atmosphere. Wherever an attempt has 
head depending largely upon the preju- been made to improve the children of the 
dices of the person making the investi- lowest classes by placing them in whole- 
gation. One Prussian table of causes of some environment, the results have been 
destitution attributes less than 2 per cent, eminently satisfactory. Not all, but a 
to intemperance. The tenth report of large majority, grow up to be indepen- 
the Buffalo Charity Organization Society dent, self-respecting, and respected citizens, 
shows that during the period of its exist- Less may be done for adults who have 
ence'over 11 per cent, of the cases of pau- once become thoroughly identified with the 
perism were traced by its secretary to " lost and lapsed classes," but even for 
intemperance. In London Mr. Charles most of these much can be accomplished 
Booth — not General Booth — attributes by bringing wholesome influences to bear, 
from 13 to 14 per cent, of the cases to in- The class regarded as most helpless of all 
temperance. There are others who attrib- is that of fallen women, but the Salvation 
ute a much larger percentage of pauper- Army's " Slum Sisterhood," consisting of 
ism to intemperance, but nearly if not young women of character who go anions 
quite always a minority. Lack of em- the most degraded, have secured success 
ployment, or involuntary idleness, is a even among these. The secret is to 
more prominent cause of pauperism, and among these people of the submerged tenth 
undoubtedly many cases of intemperance as Christ went among men, sharing their 
may be traced back to a period of involun- sorrows and helping them with the per- 
tary idleness. The number of unemployed sonal contact of superior natures. Self- 
in England and Wales has been placed at sacrifice, enjoined by true Christianity, is 

92 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES 



the neglected social force which solves 
social problems. 

Germany has a large number of " labor- 
ers' colonies " for the dependent classes, 
and these colonies have succeeded well, on 
the whole. It seems clear that there is a 
class which must be kept permanently iso- 
lated in asylums and subjected to kind 
but firm discipline. They are called by 
General Booth the " morally incurable," 
and include those who " will not work and 
will not obey." These are to be regard- 
ed, from the stand-point of competitive 
society, as social refuse, but they are not 
entirely useless on that account. Their 
own good requires strong government, 
which will utilize whatever powers they 
possess, and only in case improvement is 
seen in individuals among them should 
greater liberty be allowed to these relative- 
ly more hopeful cases. It is felt by all 
specialists in sociology that these hope- 
lessly lost and lapsed should not be al- 
lowed to propagate their kind. 

The analysis of applicants for relief 
made by American charity organization 
societies shows that the number of poor 
and worthy people is much larger than 
one would gather from superficial news- 
paper articles. Nearly 28,000 cases were 
analyzed, with this result : 

Worthy of continuous relief. . . 10.3 per cent. 

Worthy of temporary relief. . . 26.6 " " 
Needing relief in the form of 

work 40.4 " " 

Unworthy of relief 22.7 " " 

It is difficult to say who ought to be called 
unworthy of relief, but evidently those 
are placed in that category whose trouble 
is above everything else moral, and among 
these are some who ought most of all to 
excite our compassion. 

Turning now to more specific remedies, 
we may instance two which have been 
tried and failed. One is miscellaneous 
alms-giving, which has been a social curse, 
producing the very evil which we want to 
cure. Every time money is given on the 
street to a beggar without inquiry harm 
is done. The other remedy which has 
been tried is still advocated by some, and 
that is tract-distribution and preaching. 
Social reformers have long said that con- 
ditions must first be changed before we 
can work upon the individual by appeals 
to his moral nature. Social reformers 



93 



have been much abused for emphasizing 
external circumstances, but they seem at 
last to have carried conviction to those 
actually at work among the poor. The 
late Mr. Charles Loring Brace, who work- 
ed successfully among the poor of New 
York City, although himself a religious 
man, warned us against the effort to cure 
the worst evils of the slums of cities by 
technical religious means. Mr. Brace 
speaks of a too great confidence in " the 
old technical methods, such as distribut- 
ing tracts, holding prayer-meetings, and 
scattering Bibles," and assures us that 
" the neglected and ruffian classes are in 
no way affected directly by such influences 
as these." But if the testimony of a lay- 
man is doubted, we may quote the Rev. 
Mr. Barnett, rector of St. Jude's, in Lon- 
don, who tells us that " the social reform- 
er must go alongside the Christian mis- 
sionary." The Methodists have generally 
as much confidence as any denomination 
in these technically religious methods, but 
the well-known Methodist minister, the 
Rev. Hugh Price Hughes, of London, says: 
" I have had almost as much experience of 
evangelistic work as any man in this 
country, and I have never been able to 
bring any one who was actually starving 
to Christ." Let us hear the chief of the 
Salvation Army, who certainly does not 
underrate religious exhortation. General 
Booth says: 

" I have had some experience on this sub- 
ject, and have been making observations with 
respect to it ever since the day I made my 
first attempt to reach these starving, hungry 
crowds — just over forty-five years ago — and I 
am quite satisfied that these multitudes will 
not be saved in their present circumstances. 
All the clergymen, home missionaries, tract- 
distributers, sick-visitors, and every one else 
who cares about the salvation of the poor, 
may make up their minds as to that. The 
poor must be helped out of their present social 
miseries." 

Some specific remedies must, on account 
of lack of space, be merely mentioned. A 
prominent cause of misery in all cities 
is found to be early and thoughtless mar- 
riages. A public sentiment must be 
formed on this subject. The results are 
weak and feeble children, and often ulti- 
mate discouragement and pauperism on 
the part of parents unable to carry the 
burdens which they have taken upon them- 
selves. A further development of charity 



PAUPERISM IN THE UNITED STATES— PAXTON MASSACRE 

organization societies will he helpful, to such an extent conform to their proud 

Friendly societies and trades - unions professions that the slums of cities will 

should be encouraged in every way, and disappear and be replaced by wholesome 

the example of a few educated and cult- dwellings, permitting in these quarters 

ured people not of the wage-earning class, once more to spring up that old and benef- 

who have joined societies like the Knights icent institution — the Home, 

of Labor, ought to be more generally fol- Pavonia. Michael Pauw, one of the 

lowed. The close association with one's directors of the Dutch West India Com- 

fellows in these societies is most helpful, pany, bought of the Indians (1630) a 

and this keeps their members from pauper- large tract of land in the present limits 

ism. Very few paupers are members of of New Jersey, including what are now 

any trades-union. When in a time of great Jersey City and Hoboken, to which he 

distress a large fund was raised in London presently added, by purchase, Staten Isl- 

for distribution, in one district 1,000 men and and neighboring districts, and be- 

applied for help before one mechanic came, came a patroon. This region was called 

and among all the applicants there was Pavonia, and one of the ferries to New 

only one member of a trades-union. York City now bears that name. 

The chief agency of reform, however, Pawnee Indians, a warlike tribe of 

must be sought in the helpful co-opera- North American Indians, which lived in 

tion of citizens with public authorities, villages of earth-covered logs, on the bor- 

particularly with those of the city. Pri- ders of the Platte River, in Nebraska and 

vate societies have made a failure of Kansas. They appear to be of the Illinois 

efforts to improve social conditions. The family, divided into several bands, and 

Elberfeld system, so often quoted, means were continually at war with the Sioux 

precisely this co-operation of private ef- and other surrounding tribes. Hostile to 

fort with municipal authorities. This or- the Spaniards, they have ever been friend- 

ganization of charities is a municipal one, ly to the Americans. Sometimes they sac- 

which drafts into its service the best rificed prisoners to the sun; cultivated a 

citizens as friendly visitors in such num- few vegetables; and shaved their heads, 

bers that there is one to every four poor excepting the scalp-lock. The women 

families. dressed decently, and the men went on a 

Finally, every social improvement tends hunt regularly to the plains for buffalo, 
to diminish the number of paupers, and At the beginning of the nineteenth century 
the question of pauperism thus involves they numbered about 6,000, with 2,000 
the whole of social science. Remedies are warriors. In 1833 they were seated upon 
of two kinds, positive and preventive — a reservation north of the Nebraska River, 
namely, those which seek to cure the and made rapid progress towards civil- 
evil and those which aim to prevent ization, when the fierce Sioux swept down 
its coming into existence. The num- upon them, ravaged their country, and 
ber of our almshouses, asylums, and char- killed many of their people. Driven south 
itable institutions of all sorts, of which of the Nebraska, they lost nearly half their 
we boast so much, is really our shame, number by disease. In 1861 they num- 
They show that we are but half-Chris- bered 3,414, and assisted the government 
tians. As we progress in real Christian- in a war with the Sioux. As soon as the 
ity, preventive measures will be more and latter made peace with the government, 
more emphasized. They will include, they fell upon the Pawnees and slaughter- 
among other things, improved education ed them without mercy. In 1872 their 
of every grade, better factory legislation, crops were destroyed by locusts, and they 
including employers'-liability acts, means removed to another section, where they 
for the development of the physical man, were placed under charge of the Quakers, 
like gymnasiums, play-grounds, and parks, with a perpetual annuity of $30,000. In 
increased facilities for making small sav- 1899 there were 706 of them on a reser- 
ings, like postal savings-banks, and more vation in Oklahoma. 

highly developed sanitary legislation and Paxton Massacre, The. The atrocities 

administration. We may hope to see the of Pontiac's confederates on the frontiers 

time when the practice of Christians will of Pennsylvania aroused the ferocity of 

94 



PAYNE 



the Scotch-Irish settlers there, and on the Payne, John Howard, dramatist; born 

night of Dec. 14, 1763, nearly fifty of them in New York City, June 9, 1792; was very 

fell upon some peaceful and friendly Ind- precocious, editing The Thespian Mirror 

ians at Conestoga, on the Susquehanna, when only thirteen years of age. Hja be- 

who were living quietly there, under the came a poet, a dramatist, and an actor of 

guidance of Moravian missionaries. These renown. At the age of fifteen and six- 



Indians were wrongly suspected of har- 
boring or corresponding with hostiles. 
Very few of the Indians were ever at 
Conestoga, and all who remained — men, 
women, and children — were murdered by 
the " Paxton Boys," as they called theni- 



teen he published twenty-five numbers of 
a periodical called The Pastime, and in 
1S09, at the age of seventeen, he made a 
successful entrance upon the theatrical 
profession at the Park Theatre, New York, 
as Young Norval. In 1810 he played 



selves. The village, with the winter Hamlet and other leading parts with great 
stores, was laid in ashes. The citizens of success, and, at the age of twenty and 
Lancaster collected the scattered sur- twenty-one, he played with equal success 
vivors into the workhouse for protection, at Drury Lane, London. While there he 
The " Paxton Boys " burst into it, and be- produced many dramas, chiefly adapta- 
fore the citizens could assemble, murdered tions from the French. In one of these 
all the Indians and fled. The Moravian occurs Ihe song Home, Sweet Home, by 
Indians at Wyalusing and Nain hurried to which he is chiefly known. Payne be- 
Philadelphia for protection, 
but the " Paxton Boys " 
threatened to go there in 
large numbers and kill them, 
and they were sent to Prov- 
ince Island, put under the 
charge of the garrison there, 
and were saved. The govern- 
ment offered a reward for 
the arrest of the murder- 
ers, but such was the state 
of feeling in the interior of 
Pennsylvania that no one 
dared to move in the matter. 
It assumed a political and 
religious aspect. The par- 
ticipators in the crime were 
not ignorant and vulgar 
borderers, but men of such 
high standing and conse- 
quence that the press, in 
denouncing their acts, for- 
bore to give their names. 

Payne. Henry B., states- 
man; born in Hamilton, 
N. Y., Nov. 30, 1810; re- 
moved to Cleveland, 0., in 
1834; State Senator, 1849; 

member of Congress, 1875-77; United came a correspondent of Coleridge and 
States Senator, 1885-91. He died in Lamb; and, in 1818, when he was twenty- 




JOH.V HOWARD PAYNE. 



Cleveland, 0., Sept, 9, 1896. 

Payne, Henry C, statesman; born in 
Ashfield, Mass., Nov. 23, 1843; removed to 
Wisconsin in 1863; postmaster of Mil- 
waukee, 1876-86; appointed Postmaster- 
General, Jan. 8, 1902. 



95 



six years of age, his tragedy of Brutus was 
successfully brought out at Drury Lane. 
He returned to the United States in 1832. 
He was appointed consul at Tunis, and 
died in office there. April 10, 1852. His 
remains were brought to Washington late 



PAYSON— PEACE COMMISSION 

in March, 1883, and interred at George- Conference of 1864) there were in the 

town. year 1864 two semi-official attempts to 

Payson, Phillips, clergyman; born in bring about peace between the North and 
Walpole, Mass., Jan. 18, 1736; gradu- the South. General Grant, under date of 
ated at Harvard College in 1754; studied July 8, wrote a letter to Gen. Robert E. 
theology, and was pastor of the Congrega- Lee, requesting that Col. James S. Jacques, 
tional Church in Chelsea, Mass., in 1757- 78th Illinois Infantry, and James R. 
1801. His publications include Transac- Gilmour be allowed to meet Col. Robert 
tions of ■ the American Academy of Arts Ould, Confederate commissioner for the 
and Sciences; Battle of Lexington ; Death exchange of prisoners. The reply was 
of Washington, etc. He died in Chelsea, satisfactory, and the two Northern corn- 
Mass., Jan. 11, 1801. missioners, after meeting Colonel Ould, 

Peabody, George, philanthropist; born had an interview with President Davis, 
at Danvers, Mass., Feb. 18, 1795. After The plan proposed by the Northern corn- 
serving as a clerk in his uncle's store in missioners was declared by President/ 
Georgetown, D. C, in 1812-13, he became Davis to be altogether impracticable, 
a partner with Elisha Riggs, in New York Mr. Benjamin, Confederate Secretary of 
City, and afterwards in Baltimore. In State, in an official letter to James M. 
July, 1843, he became a banker, in Lon- Mason, commissioner in Europe, states 
don, and amassed an immense fortune, " it was proposed that there should be a 
which he used in making princely benefac- general vote of all the people of both fed- 
tions, as follows: To his native town, erations, the majority of the vote thus 
$200,000, to establish a lyceum and libra- taken to determine all disputed questions, 
ry; to the first Grinnell expedition in President Davis replied that as these pro- 
search of Sir John Franklin, $10,000; to posals had been prefaced by the remark ' 
found an institute of science, literature, that the people of the North were in the 
and the fine arts, in Baltimore, $1,400,- majority, and that the majority ought 
000; and, in 1862, to the city of London, to govern, the offer was in effect a pto- 
$2,500,000, for the benefit of its poor. In posal that the Confederate States should 
1866 he gave to Harvard University $150,- surrender at discretion, admit that thoy 
000 to establish a professorship of Amer- had been wrong from the beginning, sub- 
ican archaeology, and, the same year, to mit to the mercy of their enemies, and 
the Southern Educational Fund, $2,000,- avow themselves to be in need of pardon; 
000. The trustees dissolved the fund, that extermination was preferable to dis- 
Jan. 24, 1905, giving $1,000,000 to found honor." 

the Peabody School at Nashville, Tenn. Later in the year, Messrs. Clement C. 

He also gave to Yale College, to found a Clay, of Alabama, Jacob Thompson, of 

chair of geology, $150,000. He died in Mississippi, Prof. James P. Holcombe, 

London, England, Nov. 4, 1869, and of Virginia, and George N. Sanders, of 

his remains were sent to the United Kentucky, arrived in Canada via the Ber- 

States on the British man - of - war mudas, and opened communications with a 

Monarch, and received by an Amer- view to a conference. Horace Greeley wrote 

ican squadron under command of Admiral I'resident Lincoln urging him to invite the 

Farragut. Confederate commissioners to Washington, 

Peabody, Selim Hobart, scientist; there to submit their propositions. The 
born in Rockingham, Vt., Aug. 20, 1829; President acquiesced in Mr. Greeley's re- 
graduated at the University of Vermont quest, but directed that Mr. Greeley should 
in 1852; was connected with a number proceed to Niagara and accompany the 
of colleges as professor of physics, math- Confederate commissioners to Washing- 
cmatics, civil engineering, etc. He was ton. 

the chief of the department of liberal In an exchange of letters between Mr. 

arts in the World's Fair of 1893, and first Greeley and Messrs. Clay and Holcombe, 

editor-in-chief of the International Cyclo- the latter stated that the safe conduct 

pcedia. He died May 26, 1903. of the President of the United States had 

Peace Commission. In addition to the been tendered them under a misapprehen- 

Hampton Roads Conference (see Peace sion of the facts; that they were not ac- 

06 



PEACE COMMISSIONERS 



credited by the Confederacy as bearers 
of propositions looking to the establish- 
ment of peace; that they were, however, 
in the confidential employ of their gov- 
ernment, and entirely familiar with its 
wishes and opinions. Under the circum- 
stances, Mr. Greeley declined to meet 
Messrs. Clay and Holcombe without 
further instructions from the President 
of the United States. July 20 Mr. Greeley 
and Major Hay, President Lincoln's pri- 
vate secretary, crossed the Niagara and 
met Messrs. Clay and Holcombe, to whom 
the following letter was handed: 



" Executive Mansion, 

" Washington, July 18, 1864. 
" To Whom It May Concern: 

"Any proposition wliich embraces the res- 
toration of peace, the integrity of the whole 
Union, and the abandonment of slavery, and 
which comes by and with an authority that 
can control the armies now at war against 
the United States, will be received and con- 
sidered by the executive government of the 
United States, and will be met by liberal 
terms on other substantial and collateral 
points ; and the bearer thereof shall have safe 
conduct both ways. 

" Abraham Lincoln." 



In the absence of any official authority 
on the part of Messrs. Clay, Holcombe, 
Sanders, and Thompson, all negotiations 
ceased. 

Peace Commissioners. Viscount Gen- 
eral Howe and Admiral Lord Howe, who 
arrived at New York almost simultane- 
ously (July, 1776), were authorized as 
joint commissioners to treat with the 
Americans for reconciliation, pursuant to 
a recent act of Parliament. They had 
very limited powers. They were not al- 
lowed to recognize the validity of any con- 
gress, or of the commission of any military 
officer among the colonies ; they could only 
treat with persons as individuals; grant 
pardons to* individuals or communities 
which should lay down their arms or dis- 
sol /e their governments, but they might 
not be judges of any complaints, nor prom- 
ise any redress. They began the business 
of their mission in the spirit of these in- 
structions by addressing the American 
commander-in-chief as " Mr. Washington, 
Esq.," in superscribing a note which they 
sent by a flag, accompanied with a copy of 
the declaration of the royal clemency. 
vii. — G 9 



Washington refused to receive it. An 
officer who bore a second note (which also 
was not received) assured Washington 
that the commissioners were invested with 
large powers to effect reconciliation. " They 
seem to have power only to grant pardons," 
said Washington — " having committed no 
fault, we need no pardon." 

The admiral addressed a letter to Dr. 
Franklin, whom he had known person- 
ally in England, and received a reply, cour- 
teous in tone, but in nowise soothing to 
his feelings as a statesman or a Briton. 
As they had equal power to negotiate 
peace or wage war, the commissioners now 
prosecuted the latter, and not long after- 
wards the battle on Long Island occurred,, 
in which the Americans were defeated. 
General Sullivan was among the prisoners. 
Thinking it to be a favorable time to try 
their peace measures again, the commis- 
sioners sent Sullivan, on his parole, to 
Congress, to induce that body to designate 




THE BILLOP HOUSE. 



some person with whom the admiral 
might hold a conference. They appoint- 
ed Messrs. Franklin, Adams, and Rutledge 
a committee to meet him, informally, at 
a place on Staten Island (which he had 
indicated) opposite Amboy. They met 
there, Sept. 11, 1776, at the house of the 
loyalist Colonel Billop. Both parties 
were very courteous. Lord Howe told 
them he could not receive them as repre- 
sentatives of the Congress, but as private 
gentlemen, and that the independence of 
the colonists, lately declared, could not be 
considered for a moment. " You may call 
us what you please," they said, " we are 
nevertheless the representatives of a free 
and independent people, and will entertain 
no proposition which does not recognize 



PEACE COMMISSIONERS— PEACE CONFERENCE OF 1864 



our independence." Further conference trusted to the discretion of the negotiators 
was unnecessary. for peace who might be appointed, former 
On June 4, 177S, the Earl of Carlisle, instructions indicating the wishes of Con- 
George Johnstone, and William Eden, com- gress. These concessions were opposed by 
missioners appointed by the King under the New England delegates, but were 
Lord North's conciliatory bills, arrived at adopted by the votes of Southern mem- 
Philadelphia. The brothers Howe, who bers, who were anxious for peace. It 
were to be of the commission, could not was proposed to have five commission- 
join them, but Sir Henry Clinton took the ers who should represent the differ- 
place of Sir William. The commissioners ent sections of the Union, and John 
sent their credentials and other papers by Adams, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, 
their secretary to the Congress at York, Thomas Jefferson, and Henry Laurens 
Pa., with a flag. That body and the Amer- were appointed. The Russian and German 
ican people, having already perused the mediation resulted in nothing, and Great 
bills and found in them no word about in- Britain haughtily refused to acknowledge 
dependence, had resolved to have nothing the independence of the United States in 
to do with commissioners that might be any form. 

sent, and to meet no advance on the part Peace Conference of 1864. Francis 
of the government of Great Britain unless P. Blair, Sr., conceived the idea that 
the fleets and armies should be withdrawn through his personal acquaintance with 
and the independence of the United States most of the Confederate leaders at Rich- 
be declared. Their papers were returned mond he might be able to effect a peace, 
to them with a letter from the president So, without informing the President of 
of the Congress saying they cou'd not his purpose, he asked Mr. Lincoln for a 
treat excepting on a basis of acknowledged pass through the National lines to the 
independence. The commissioners tried by Confederate capital. On Dec. 26, the 
various arts to accomplish their purpose, President handed Mr. Blair a card on^ 
but failed, and, after issuing an angry which was written, "Allow Mr. F. P. 
and threatening manifesto, sailed for Eng- Blair, Sr., to pass our lines to go South 



land in October. 

After the total destruction of the South- 
ern army near Camden, in August, 1780, 
some of the Southern members of Con- 



and return," and signed his name to it. 
This self-constituted peace commissioner 
went to Richmond, had several interviews 
with President Davis, and made his way 



gress, alarmed at the progress of the Brit- back to Washington in January, 1805, 

ish, became so anxious for the aid of with a letter written to himself by Jef- 

Spain that they proposed, in October, ferson Davis, in which the latter express- 

1780, to abandon all claims to the naviga- ed a willingness to appoint a commission 

tion of the Mississippi as the price of a " to renew the effort to enter into a ccn- 

Spanish subsidy and alliance. Meanwhile ference with a view to secure peace to the 

(January, 17S1) the Empress of Russia two countries." This letter Mr. Blair 

had been joined by the Emperor of Ger- placed in the hands of the President, 

many in an offer of mediation. Great when the latter wrote a note to Blair 



Britain, getting wearied of the war, had 
accepted the offer. These facts being com- 
municated to Congress by the French 
minister, a committee was appointed to 



which he might show to Davis, in which 
he expressed a willingness now, as he had 
ever had, to take proper measures for 
" securing peace to the people of our com^ 



confer with him. Their report, the opin- mon country." With this letter Blair re- 
ions of the French ambassador, and the turned to Richmond. 

financial pressure made Congress greatly Mr. Lincoln's expression, " our common 

modify its terms of peace on which they country," as opposed to Davis's " the two 

had so strenuously insisted. They waived countries," deprived the latter of all hope 

an express acknowledgment of indepen- of a negotiation on terms of independence 

dence. They were willing to accept any- for the Confederate States. But there 

thing which substantially amounted to it. was an intense popular desire for the war 

The treaty with France was to be main- to cease which he dared not resist, and he 

tained in full force, but all else was in- appointed Alexander H. Stephens, John A. 

98 



PEACE CONFERENCE 



Campbell, and R. M. T. Hunter commis- 
sioners to proceed to Washington. 
They were "permitted to go on a steamer 
only as far as Hampton Roads, without 
the privilege of landing, and there, on 
board the vessel that conveyed them, they 
held a conference (Feb. 3, 18G5) of several 
hours with President Lincoln and Secre- 
tary of State Seward. That conference 
clearly revealed the wishes of both parties. 
The Confederates wanted an armistice by 
which an immediate peace might be 
secured, leaving the question of the separa- 
tion of the Confederate States from the 
Union to be settled afterwards. The Presi- 
dent told them plainly that there would 
be no suspension of hostilities and no 
negotiations, except on the basis of the 
disbandment of the Confederate forces and 
the recognition of the national authority 
throughout the republic. He declared, 
also, that he should not recede from his 
position on the subject of slavery, and the 
commissioners were informed of the adop- 
tion by Congress three days before of the 
Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitu- 
tion. So ended the peace conference. 

In a speech at a public meeting in Rich- 
mond on Jan. 6, Davis, in reference to the 
words of President Lincoln — " our com- 
mon country " — said, " Sooner than we 
should ever be united again, I would be 
willing to yield up everything I hold on 
earth, and, if it were possible, would 
sacrifice my life a thousand times before 
I would succumb." The meeting passed 
resolutions spurning with indignation the 
terms offered by the President as a " gross 
insult " and " premeditated indignity " to 
the people of the " Confederate States." 
Davis declared that in less than twelve 
months they would " compel the Yankees 
to petition them for peace upon their own 
! terms." He spoke of " his Majesty Abra- 
I ham the First," and said that " before the 
| campaign was over, Lincoln and Seward 
, might find they had been speaking to their 
{ masters." At a war-meeting held a few 
jdays afterwards at Richmond, it was re- 
solved that they would never lay down 
I their arms until their independence was 
(won. See Peace Commission. 

Peace Conference, Universal. Count 
iMouravieff, the Russian minister for for- 
leign affairs, on Aug. 24, 189S, suggested a 
I conference of the powers with a view to 



the maintenance of universal peace, and 
the limiting of excessive armaments. As 
the suggestion met with general favor, the 
Emperor of Russia, on Jan. 11, 1S99, pro- 
posed a congress to be held at The Hagus, 
May IS, 1S99, in which each power, what- 
ever the number of its delegates, would 
have only one vote. The subjects to be 
submitted for international discussion at, 
the congress could be summarized as fol- 
lows : 

1. An understanding not to increase 
for a fixed period the present effective 
of the armed military and naval forces, 
and at the same time not to increase the 
budgets pertaining thereto; and a prelim- 
inary examination of the means by which 
a reduction might even be effected in 
future in the forces and budgets above- 
mentioned. 

2. To prohibit the use in the armies and 
fleets of any new kind of fire-arms what- 
ever and of new explosives, or any pow- 
ders more powerful than those now in use 
either for rifles or cannon. 

3. To restrict the use in military war- 
fare of the formidable explosives already 
existing, and to prohibit the throwing of 
projectiles or explosives of any kind from 
balloons or by any similar means. 

4. To prohibit the use in naval warfare 
of submarine torpedo-boats or plungers, 
or other similar engines of destruction; 
to give an undertaking not to construct 
vessels with rams in the future. 

5. To apply to naval warfare the stipu- 
lations of the Geneva Convention of 18G4, 
on the basis of the Additional Articles of 
1868. 

G. To neutralize ships and boats em- 
ployed in saving those overboard during 
or after an engagement. 

7. To revise the declaration concerning 
the laws and customs of war elaborated 
in 1874 by the conference of Brussels, 
which has remained unratified to the pres- 
ent day. 

8. To accept in principle the employment. 
of good offices, of mediation and faculta- 
tive arbitration in cases lending themselves 
thereto, with the object of preventing arm- 
ed conflicts between nations; to come to 
an understanding with respect to the mode 
of applying these good offices, and to es- 
tablish a uniform practice in using them. 

The following governments were repre- 



99 



i 



PEACE CONFERENCE— PEACE CONGRESSES 

sented: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bui- dent Roosevelt announced his intention 
garia, China, Denmark, France, Germany, of inviting at an early day the leading 
Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Japan, Lux- nations to join in a second peace con- 
embourg, Mexico, Montenegro, the Nether- ference at The Hague. The members of 
lands, Persia, Portugal, Rumania, Rus- the Union assembled in Boston, Oct. 3, 
sia, Servia, Siam, Spain, Sweden and following, to hold the thirteenth annual 
Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, and the convention of the International Peace Con- 
United States of America. gress. See Arbitration, International. 

The United States were represented by Peace Congresses. In 1782 Prince Kau- 

the Hon. Andrew D. White, ambassador nitz agreed with Vergennes that, in a pro- 

to Berlin; the Hon. Seth Low, president posed peace congress at Vienna, the United 

of Columbia University; the Hon. Stan- States government should be represented, 

ford Newel, minister to The Hague; Capt. so that direct negotiations between it and 

Alfred T. Mahan, U. S. N. ; Capt. William Great Britain might proceed simultane- 

Crozier, U. S. A., and the Hon. Frederick ously with those of the European powers. 

W. Holls, of New York. The proposition was pronounced by the 

At the opening of the conference, May able Queen of France to be a masterpiece 
18, M. de Staal, the Russian ambassador, of political wisdom. But England re- 
was elected President. fused to negotiate for peace Avith France 

The subjects suggested in the Russian until that power should give up its con- 
circular of Jan. 11 were referred to three nection with the American "rebels." 
committees, the reports of which were This proposition was embodied by Kau- 
submitted July 29 and signed by all. Ac- nitz in the preliminary articles which he 
eompanying the report were the follow- prepared for the peace congress. He cast 
ing proposed conventions: the blame of its ill-success on the un- 

I. Convention for the pacific settlement reasonable pretensions of the British 
of international conflicts. ministry. 

II. Convention regarding the laws and On Jan. 19, 1861, a series of resolutions 
customs of war by land. were adopted by the Virginia legislature 

III. Convention for the adaptation to recommending a national peace convention 
maritime warfare of the principles of or congress to be held in the city of Wash- 
the Geneva Convention of Aug. 22, 1864. ington on Feb. 4, for the purpose of effect- 
Added to the convention relative to ing a general and permanent pacification; 

laws and customs of war were three dec- commending the Crittenden compromise 

larations, separately signed as follows: as a just basis of settlement; and ap- 

1. The contracting powers agree to pro- pointing two commissioners, one to go 
hibit, for a term of five years, the launch- to the President of the United States, and 
ing of projectiles and explosives from bal- the other to the governors of the seceding 
loons, or by other new methods of a States, to ask them to abstain from all i 
similar nature. hostile action pending the proceedings of j 

2. The contracting parties agree to the proposed convention. The proposition j 
abstain from the use of bullets which for such a convention was received with 
expand or flatten easily in the human body, great favor. President Buchanan laid it i 
such as bullets with a hard envelope which before Congress with a commendatory [ 
does not entirely cover the core, or is message, but the Virginians had accom- j 
pierced with incisions. panied this proposition with a menace. 

3. The contracting parties agree to ab- On the same day the legislature resolved, j 
stain from the use of projectiles the ob- " That if all efforts to reconcile the un- J 
ject of which is the diffusion of asphyxi- happy differences between the sections ( 
ating or deleterious gases. of our country shall prove abortive, then ; 

The United States signed the first of every consideration of honor and interest 

these declarations, but declined to sign demands that Virginia shall unite her des- 

the second and third. tinies with the slave-holding States." I 

On receiving the members of the Inter- Delegates to the peace convention were 

national Parliamentary Peace Union at chosen from nearly every State but thei 

the White House, Sept. 24, 1904, Presi- seven seceding ones. They met at Wil- 

100 



PEACE CONGBESSES 



lard's Hotel, in Washington, D. C, Feb. 4. 
The convention was permanently organized 
by the appointment of ex-President John 
Tyler, of Virginia, to preside, and Crafts 
J. Wright, of Ohio, as secretary. The con- 
vention was opened with prayer by Rev. 
Dr. P. D. Gurley. Mr. Guthrie, of Ken- 
tucky, opened the business by offering a 
resolution for the appointment of a com- 
mittee consisting of one from each State 
represented, to whom all resolutions and 
jiropositions for the adjustment of diffi- 
culties might be referred, with authority 
to report a plan to " restore harmony and 
preserve the Union/' The committee was 
appointed, and Mr. Guthrie was chosen its 
chairman. He made a report on the 15th., 
in which several amendments to the Con- 
stitution were offered. It proposed: 

First. The re - establishment of the 
boundary between slavery and freedom 
on the line fixed by the Missouri Com- 
promise — lat. 36° 30' N. It also pro- 
posed that when any territory north or 
south of that line should contain the req- 
uisite number of inhabitants to form a 
State, it should be admitted into the 
Union on an equal footing with the orig- 
inal States, either with or without slavery, 
as the constitution of the new State may 
determine. 

Second. That territory should not be ac- 
quired by the United States unless by 
treaty, nor, except for naval or commercial 
stations, unless such treaty should be rati- 
fied by four-fifths of all the members of 
the Senate. 

Third. That neither the Constitution 
nor any amendment thereof should be con- 
strued to give power to Congress to inter- 
fere with slavery in any of the States of 
the Union, nor in the District of Columbia, 
without the consent of Maryland and the 
slave-holders concerned, compensation to 
be made for slaves emancipated to owners 
who refuse their consent ; nor to interfere 
with slavery under the jurisdiction of the 
United States, such as in arsenals, navy- 
yards, etc., in States where it was recog- 
nized ; nor to interfere with the trans- 
portation of slaves from one slave- 

| labor State to another; nor to authorize 

I any higher taxation on slaves than on 

i land. 

Fourth. That the clause in the Constitu- 

| tion relating to the rendition of slaves 



should not be construed to prevent any 
of the States, by appropriate legislation, 
and through the action of their judicial 
and ministerial officers, from enforcing the 
delivery of fugitives from labor to the 
person to whom such service or labor 
should be due. 

Fifth. That the foreign slave - trad3 
should be forever prohibited. 

Sixth. That the first, second, third, and 
fifth of the foregoing propositions, when 
in the form of ratified amendments to the 
Constitution, and the clause relating to 
the rendition of fugitive slaves, should not 
be amended or abolished without the con- 
sent of all the States. 

Seventh. That Congress should provide 
by law that the United States should pay 
to the owner the full value of his fugi- 
tive slave in all cases where the law-officer 
whose duty it was to arrest such fugitive 
should be prevented from doing so by vio- 
lence or intimidation, or where such fugi- 
tive should be rescued, after arrest, and 
the claimant thereby should lose his prop- 
erty. 

This was the majority report, and was 
substantially the Crittenden compromise 
then before the Senate. Two members of 
the committee — Baldwin, of Connecticut, 
and Seddon, of Virginia — each presented 
a minority report. The former proposed 
a general convention of all the States to 
consider amendments to the Constitution : 
the latter objected to the majority report 
because it fell short of the demands of 
Virginia. He proposed an amendment to 
the Constitution that would protect the 
slave-holder in transporting his slaves any- 
where, as property; also that should for- 
ever exclude from the ballot-box and pub- 
lic office " persons who are in Avhole or in 
part of the African race." He also pro- 
posed an amendment recognizing the right 
of peaceable secession. Other propositions 
were submitted by members in open con- 
vention, among them one from Salmon 
P. Chase, of Ohio, proposing an adjourn- 
ment of the convention to April 4, to en- 
able all the States to be represented. The 
various propositions were earnestly dis- 
cussed for several days. David Dudley 
Field, of New York, proposed, Feb. 26, to 
amend the majority report by striking 
out the seventh section and inserting the 
words, " No State shall withdraw from the 



101 



PEACE CONGRESSES— PEACE ESTABLISHMENT 

Union without the consent of all the rejected. The peace convention was a fail- 
States convened in pursuance of an act ure. It was a vain attempt to conciliate 
passed by two-thirds of each House of the slave power. 

Congress." This was rejected by a vote Peace Establishment. When the evac- 

of 11 States against 10. The votes were nation of the seaboard by the British 

by States. When, on the same day, the was completed in November, 1783, the 

majority report was taken up for final ac- northern and western frontier posts con- 

tion, Baldwin's proposition, offered as a tinued to be held by British garrisons, 

substitute, was rejected by a vote of 13 These were Oswegatchie (now Ogdens- 

States against 8. Seddon then offered burg), Oswego, Niagara, Presque Isle 

his substitute, and it was rejected — 16 (now Erie) , Sandusky, Detroit, Mackinaw, 

States against 4. James B. Clay, a son and some of lesser importance. The occu- 

of Henry Clay, then offered Crittenden's pation of these posts by garrisons did not 

compromise. It was rejected by 14 States enter into the calculations for an immedi- 

against 5. Guthrie's report was then ate peace establishment at the close of the 

taken up, and after some modifications Revolution, and the military force retain- 

was adopted. ed was less than 700 men. These were 

Following this, T. E. Franklin moved, under the command of Knox, and placed 

as the sense of the convention, that the in garrison at West Point and Pittsburg, 

highest political duty of every citizen of Even these were discharged very soon 

the United States is allegiance to the afterwards, excepting twenty- five men to 

national government, and that no State guard the stores at Pittsburg and fifty-five 

has a constitutional right to secede there- for West Point. No officer above the rank" 

from. It was rejected by 10 States of captain was retained in the service. It 

against 7. Mr. Guthrie offered a preamble was provided, however, that whenever the 

to his propositions, which was agreed to, western posts should be surrendered by 

and Mr. Tyler was requested to present the the British, Connecticut, New York, New 

plan to Congress forthwith. This ended Jersey, and Pennsylvania should furnish 

the business of the convention, when Rev- their quota of 700 twelve-months' men to 

erdy Johnson, of Maryland, obtained leave do garrison duty. 

to place on record and have printed with At the close of the War of 1812 Presi- 
the proceedings of the convention a resolu- dent Madison proposed a military peace 
tion deploring the secession of some of the establishment of 20,000 men. When Con- 
States; expressing a hope that they would gress considered it, the House of Repre- 
return; that "the republican institutions sentatives proposed 0,000, and the Senate 
guaranteed each State cannot and ought proposed 15,000. There was a compro- 
not to be maintained by force," and that mise, and 10,000 was the number agreed 
therefore the convention deprecated any to. Two major-generals, four brigadier- 
effort of the federal government to coerce, generals, and the necessary staff, regimen- 
in any form, the said States to reunion tal, and company officers, were selected by 
or submission, as tending to an irrepara- the President from those in the service, 
ble breach, and leading to incalculable ills. The supernumerary officers and men, ac? 
The proceedings of the convention were cording to the original terms of enlist- 
laid before the Senate, March 2, 1861. ment, were to be discharged, with three 
After a long debate on that and several months' extra pay. The naval establish- 
other propositions, it was finally decided ment was left as it was, with an addition- 
by a vote of 25 to 11 to postpone the al appropriation of $200,000 annually for 
" Guthrie plan " in favor of a proposition three years for its gradual increase. A 
of amendment adopted by the House of board of three naval officers was created 
Representatives, which provided that " no to exercise, under the Secretary of the 
amendment shall be made to the Constitu- Navy, the general superintendence of the 
tion which will authorize or give to Con- Navy Department. The grade of officers 
gress the power to interfere within any in the naval service remained unaltered, 
State with the domestic institutions there- a proposition to create the offices of ad- 
of." The Senate concurred, and the Crit- miral and vice-admiral having failed. See| 
tendon compromise being called up, it was Army. 

102 



PEACE MEDALS— PEACE PARTY 



Peace Medals. 
There was rejoicing 
in Great Britain as 
well as in the Unit- 
ed States on the 
conclusion of peace 
in 1814, particular- 
ly among the manu- 
facturing and mer- 
cantile classes. A 
medal was struck in 
commemoration of 
the great event, 
which bore upon 
one side the words, 
" Treaty of Peace 

and Amity between Great Britain and 
the United States of America. Signed 
at Ghent, Dec. 24, 1814"; and upon the 
other a feminine figure standing on the 
segment of a globe, holding in one hand the 
olive branch of peace. Another was struck, 
which is represented in the accompanying 
engraving. The British government, grate- 
ful for the loyalty of Canada during the 
war, caused a medal of gratitude to be 
struck, as seen below. 




MEDAL COMMEMORATIVE OF Tllti TREATY OF PEACE. 



members of the Congressional minority, 
whose protest against the war had been 
conscientiously made, this peace faction 
endeavored — by attempting to injure the 
public credit, preventing enlistments into 
the armies, spreading false stories con- 
cerning the strength of the British and 
the weakness of the Americans, and public 
speeches, sermons, pamphlets, and news- 
paper essays — to compel the government to 
sheathe the sword and hold out the 




MEDAL OP GRATITUDE. 



Peace Party. On the declaration of 
war in June, 1812, an organization known 
as the peace party soon appeared, com- 
posed of the more violent opposers of the 
administration and disaffected Democrats, 
whose partisan spirit held their patriot- 
ism in complete subordination. Lacking 
the sincerity and integrity of the patriotic 



olive branch of peace at the cost of na- 
tional honor and independence. Their un- 
scrupulous, and sometimes treasonable, 
machinations were kept up during the 
whole war, and prolonged it by embar- 
rassing their government. The better 
portion of the Federal party discounte- 
nanced these acts. With a clear percep- 



103 



PEACE PARTY— PEACE RESOLUTIONS 

tion of duty to the country, rather than jecting or holding as a conquered province 

to their party, leaders like Quincy, Emott, any sovereign State now or lately one of 

and a host of others gave their support the United States." To this John C. 

to the government in its hour of need. Breckinridge added, " or to abolish sla- 

The first call for the marshalling of very therein." From the beginning of 
the hosts of the peace party, so conspicu- the Civil War there was a faction, com- 
ous during the Civil War, was sounded in posed of the disloyal politicians of the 
Congress when (July 10, 1861), a loan opposition, who used every means in their 
bill was introduced authorizing the Sec- power to embarrass the government. They 
retary of the Treasury to borrow $250,- affiliated with the Knights of th*: Gold- 
000,000 for the support of the govern- en Circle (q. v.), and, like the peace 
ment and to prosecute a war in its defence, faction in 1812-15, they were practical 
Clement L. Vallandigham, Representative enemies of their country. Matthew F. 
in Congress from Ohio, made an elabo- Maury, formerly superintendent of the 
rate speech against the measure and the National Observatory, in a letter to the 
entire policy of the administration in its London Times (Aug. 17, 1863), said, in 
vindication of the national authority by proof that there was no chance for the 
force of arms. He charged the President preservation of the Union, " There is al- 
with usurpation in calling out and in- ready a peace party in the North. All 
creasing the military and naval forces of the embarrassments with which that party 
the country; in blockading ports; in sus- can surround Mr. Lincoln, and all the 
pending the privilege of the writ of habeas difficulties that it can throw in the way 
corpus; and other acts which the safety of the war party in the North, operate 
of the government seemed to require— directly as so much aid and comfort to 
and all done without the express author- the South." The faction issued many pub- 
ity of Congress. He declared that the lications in furtherance of their views, 
denunciation of slavery and slave-holders and never ceased their operations until 
was the cause of the war; denounced the the close of the war which they had pro- 
revenue laws as injurious to the cotton- longed. 

growers; charged his political opponents Peace Resolutions. During the holi- 

with being anxious for war instead of day recess of Parliament in 1781-82, the 

peace, and of having adopted a war policy people and legislators of England had the 

for partisan purposes; warned the coun- surrender of Cornwallis to reflect upon, 

try that other usurpations would follow, and came to the conclusion that further 

such as the denial of the right of pe- efforts to subdue the colonies were useless, 

tition and the freedom of conscience; and On Feb. 22, 1782, a motion was offered by 

pronounced the war for the " coercion of Conway, in the House of Commons, 

sovereign States " to be " unholy and un- against continuing the war in America, 

just." From that time until the close of It was then negatived by a majority of 

the war, and even afterwards, Mr. Vallan- cne. Five days later, Conway's resolution 

digham used all his powers in giving " aid for an address to the King on the subject 

and comfort " to the Confederates. He was carried by a majority of 19. To this 

and the peace party opposed every meas- address the King gave an equivocal an- 

ure of the administration for ending the swer. On March 4 Conway brought for- 

war. They were doubtless sincere; but ward an address to the King to declare 

the friends of the republic regarded them that the House would consider as enemies 

as mistaken and mischievous. to the King and country all those who 

Benjamin Wood, Representative from should further attempt the prosecution 

New York, proposed (July 15) that Con- of a war on the continent of America for 

gress should take measures for assembling the purpose of reducing the revolted colo- 

a border-State convention to devise means iries to obedience. It was adopted without 

for securing peace. Mr. Powell, of Ken- a division. The next day, with like unan- 

tucky, introduced (July 18) an addition imity, leave was given by the House to 

to a bill for the reorganization of the bring in an " enabling bill," allowing the 

army, which declared that no part of the King to make a peace or truce with Amer- 

army or navy should be employed in " sub- ica. It was accordingly brought in, but 

104 



PEACH-TREE CREEK— PEACOCK 



it was ten weeks before it became a law 
under a new administration. The North 
administration was no more. Of it Dr. 
Johnson said : " Such a bunch of imbecility 
never disgraced the country. It was com- 
posed of many corrupt and greedy men, 
who yielded to the stubbornness of the 
King for the sake of the honors and emolu- 
ments of office." 

Peach-tree Creek, Battle of. See At- 
lanta. 

Peacock, The, a notable war-vessel of 
the United States in the War of 1812, 
mounting eighteen guns. In March, 1814, 
under command of Captain Warrington, 
she sailed from New York on a cruise. She 



were killed or wounded. Only two of the 
Peacock's men were wounded ; and so little 
was she injured that an hour after the 
battle ^she was in perfect fighting order. 
The Epervier sold for $55,000, and on 
board of her was found $118,000 in specie. 
She was such a valuable prize that War- 
rington determined to take her into Sa- 
vannah himself. On the way, when abreast 
of Amelia Island, on the coast of Florida, 
the Epervier, in charge of Lieut. John B. 
Nicholson, came near being captured by 
two English frigates. She entered the Sa- 
vannah River in safety on May 1, 1814. 
The Peacock reached the same port on 
May 4. This capture produced much ex- 




WARRINGTON MEDAL. 



was off the coast of Florida for some time 
without encountering any conspicuous ad- 
venture. On April 29, Warrington dis- 
covered three sails to the windward, under 
convoy of an armed brig of large dimen- 
sions. The two war-vessels made for each 
other, and very soon a close and severe 
battle ensued. The Peacock was so badly 



ultation. Congress thanked Warrington 
in the name of the nation, and gave him a 
gold medal. In another cruise to the 
shores of Portugal soon afterwards, the 
Peacock captured fourteen vessels, and 
returned to New York at the end of Octo- 
ber. 

In 1815, after parting with Biddle, Cap- 



injured in her rigging at the beginning tain Warrington pursued his cruise in the 



that she was compelled to fight " run- 
ning at large," as the phrase is. She 
could not manoeuvre much, and the con- 
test became one of gunnery. The Peacock 
wen the game at the end of forty minutes. 
Her antagonist, which proved to be the 
Epervier, eighteen guns, Captain Wales, 
struck her colors. She was badly injured, 



Peacock, and on June 30, when off Anjer, 
in the Strait of Sunda, between Sumatra 
and Java, he fell in with the East India 
cruiser Nautilus, fourteen guns, Lieut. 
Charles Boyce. Broadsides were exchanged, 
when the Nautilus struck her colors. She 
had lost six men killed and eight wounded. 
The Peacock lost none. This event oe- 



no less than forty-five round-shot having curred a few days after the period set by 
struck her hull. Twenty-two of her men the treaty of peace for the cessation of 

105 



PEALE— PEA RIDGE 



hostilities. Warrington was ignorant of Mr. Peale painted several portraits of 
any such treaty, but, being informed the Washington, among them one for Houdon's 
next day of its ratification, he gave up use in making his statue of the patriot, 
the Nautilus and did everything in his He labored long for the establishment of 
power to alleviate the sufferings of her an academy of fine arts in Philadelphia, 
wounded crew. He then returned home, and when it was founded he co-operated 
bearing the distinction of having fired the faithfully in its management, and con- 
last shot in the second war for indepen- tributed to seventeen annual exhibitions, 
dence. When the Peacock reached the Most of his family inherited his artistic 
United States every cruiser, public and and philosophical tastes. He died in 
private, that had been out against the Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 22, 1827. Rem- 
British had returned to port, and the war brandt, his son, born in Bucks county, Pa., 
was over. Feb. 22, 1778; died in Philadelphia, Oct. 

Peale, Charles Wilson, painter; born 3, 1860; painted a portrait of Washing- 
in Chestertown, Md., April 16, 1741; was ton from life, which is now in the Senate 
at first apprenticed to a saddler, and after- chamber in Washington, and was corn- 
wards carried on that business, as well mended by personal friends of the patriot 
as silversmith, watch-maker, and carver, as the best likeness of him (excepting 
He finally became a portrait-painter, and Houdon's statue) ever made. He studied 
was a good sportsman, naturalist, pre- under West in London, and, going to 
server of animals, an inventor, and was Paris, painted portraits of many eminent 
the first dentist in the country who made men for his father's museum. Charles 
sets of artificial teeth. He took instruc- Wilson Peale's youngest son, Titian Ram- 
sey, born in Philadelphia in 1800; died 
there, March 13, 1S85, was also a painter 
and naturalist. He was painter and 
naturalist to the South Sea Surveying 
and Exploring Expedition. 

Pearce, James Alfred, statesman; 
born in Alexandria, Va., Dec. 14, 1805 ; 
graduated at Princeton in 1822; admitted 
to the bar in 1824; elected to the Mary- 
land legislature in 1831; elected member 
of Congress in 1835; elected United States 
Senator in 1843. President Fillmore 
nominated Senator Pearce as Secretary of 
the Interior. The nomination was con- 
firmed but declined. He died in Chester- 
town, Md., Dee. 20, 1862. 

Pea Ridge, Battle at. When the Con- 
federates under General Price fled into 
Arkansas in February, 1861, General Cur- 
tions from Copley, in Boston, in 1770-71; tis and a strong force of Nationals pur- 
studied at the Boyal Academy in London; sued him. Curtis crossed the Arkansas 
and in 1772 painted the first portrait of line on Feb. 18 and drove Price and his 
Washington ever executed, in the costume followers over the Boston Mountains. He 
of a Virginia colonel, and at the same then fell back and took a position near 
time painted a miniature of Mrs. Wash- Pea Ridge, a spur of the Ozark Mountains, 
ington. He did military service and car- Meanwhile Price had been joined by Gen. 
ried on portrait-painting during the Revo- Earl Van Dorn, a dashing young officer 
lutionary War, and for fifteen years he was who was his senior in rank, and now took 
the only portrait-painter in America. He chief command of the Confederates. Forty 
made a portrait gallery of Revolutionary heavy guns thundered a welcome to the 
worthies, and opened, in Philadelphia, the young general. " Soldiers!" cried the gen- 
first museum in the country, and was the eral, "behold your leader! He comes to 
first to give lectures on natural historv. show you the way to glory and immortal 

*106 




CHARLKS WILSON PEALE. 



PEA RIDGE, BATTLE AT 

renown. He comes to hurl back the were in battle order. His 1st and 2d 

minions of the despots at Washington, divisions, on the left, were commanded re- 

whose ignorance, licentiousness, and bru- spectively by Generals Asboth and Sigel; 

tality are equalled only by their craven the 3d was under Gen. J. C. Davis, and 

natures. They come to free your slaves, composed the centre, and the 4th, on the 




BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE. 



lay waste your plantations, burn your vil- 
lages, and abuse your loving wives and 
beautiful daughters." Van Dorn came 
from western Arkansas with Generals Mc- 
Culloch, Mcintosh, and Pike. The lat- 
ter was a New England man and a poet, 
and came at the head of a band of Indians 
whom he had lured into the service. The 
whole Confederate force then numbered 
25,000 men; the National troops, led by 
Curtis, did not exceed 11,000 men, with 50 
pieces of artillery. 

On March 5 Curtis was informed by his 
scouts of the swift approach of an over- 
whelming force of Confederates; he con- 
centrated his army in the Sugar Creek 
Valley. He was compelled to fight or 
make a disastrous retreat. Choosing the 
former, he prepared for the struggle. 
Meanwhile Van Dorn, by a qiiick move- 
ment, had flanked Curtis and gained his 
rear, and on the morning of the 7th he 
moved to attack the Nationals, not doubt- 
ing his ability to crush him and capture 
his train of 200 wagons. Curtis's troops 



107 



right, was commanded by Colonel Carr. 
His line of battle extended about 4 miles, 
and there was only a broad ravine be- 
tween his troops and the heavy Confed- 
erate force. Towards noon the battle 
was opened by a simultaneous attack of 
Nationals and Confederates. A very 
severe conflict ensued, and continued a 
greater part of the day, with varying fort- 
unes to each party, the lines of strife 
swaying like a pendulum. At 11 A.M. the 
pickets on Curtis's extreme right under 
Major Weston were violently assailed, and 
Colonel Osterhaus, with a detachment of 
Iowa cavalry and Davidson's Peoria Bat- 
tery, supported by Missouri cavalry and 
Indiana infantry, attacked a portion of 
Van Dorn's troops before he was fairly 
ready for battle. Colonel Carr went to the 
assistance of Weston, and a severe engage- 
ment ensued. Thus the battle near Pea 
Eidge was opened. 

Osterhaus met with a warm reception, 
for the woods were swarming with Con- 
federates. His cavalry were driven back, 



PEA RIDGE— PEARSON 



when General Davis came to his rescue (March 8), when the Nationals hurled 

with General Sigel, who attacked the Con- such a destructive tempest of shot and 

federate flank. Soon afterwards Davis shell upon the Confederates that the lat- 

fought severely with McCulloch, Mcintosh, ter soon broke and fled in every direction 

and Pike. Then the battle raged most in the wildest confusion. Van Dorn, who 

fiercely. The issue of the strife seemed had been a greater part of the day with 

doubtful, when the 18th Indiana attacked the troops that fought Carr, concentrated 

the Confederate flank and rear so vigor- his whole available force on Curtis's right, 

ously with ball and bayonet that they The latter had been vigilant, and at 2 

were driven from that part of the field, a.m. he had been joined by Sigel and his 

when it was strewn with the dead bodies command. The whole four divisions of the 

of Texans and Indians. The Confederates army were in position to fight Van Dorn 

now became fugitives, and in their flight at daylight. With batteries advantageous- 

they left their dead and wounded on the ly planted, and infantry lying down in 

field. Among the latter were Generals front of them, Curtis opened a terrible 

McCulloch and Mcintosh, mortally hurt, cannonade. Battery after battery of the 

Osterhaus, and Sigel with his heavy guns, Confederates was silenced in the course of 

two hours, and so horrible was 



Infantry u b 
Artillery * + + ♦ 
Ttoads ===== 
Woods 



the tempest of iron that Van 
Dorn and his followers were 
compelled to fly to the shelter 
of the ravines of Cross Tim- 
ber Hollow. At the same time, 
Sigel's infantry, with the 
troops of the centre and right, 
engaged in the battle. Van 
Dorn fled suddenly, and Gen 
eral Price, who had been post- 
ed some distance off, was forced 
to participate in the flight. 
The Confederate army, made so 
strong and hopeful by Van 
Dorn's speech twenty-four hours 
before, was now broken into 
fragments. This conflict, call- 
ed the battle of Elkhorn by the 
Confederates, was a sanguinary 
one. The Nationals lost 1.351 
killed, wounded, and missing. 
The loss of the Confederates 
was never reported. 

Pearl. See Schooner Pearl. 
Pearson, Alfred L., mil- 
itary officer; born in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., Dec. 28, 1838; en- 
tered the United States army 
as captain in 1862; retired as 
major-general in 1865; re- 
now went to the assistance of Colonel Carr ceived the congressional medal of honor ; 
on the right. But Carr had held his commander of the Nation? 1 Union 
ground. There were no indications that Veteran Legion in 1888. He died in Pitts- 
the Confederates wished to renew the burg, Pa., Jan. 6, 1903. 
fight, for it was now sunset. The Na- Pearson, George Frederick, naval offi- 
tionals bivouacked on the battle-field that cer; born in Exeter, N. H, Feb. 6, 1796; 
night among the dead and dying. entered the navy as midshipman, March 

renewed at dawn 11, 1815, and rose to captain in 1855 
108 




MAP OP BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE. 



The contest was 



PEARSON— PEFFER 



While he was at Constantinople, in 1837, 
the Sultan offered to give him command of 
, the Turkish navy, with the rank of ad- 
miral, and the salary of $10,000 a year. 
It was declined. He effectually cleared 
the Gulf of Mexico of pirates. In 1865- 
66 he was in command of the Pacific 
squadron. Retired in 1861; promoted 
commodore in 1862, and rear-admiral in 
1866 on the retired list. He died in Ports- 
mouth, N. H., June 30, 1867. 

Pearson, Jonathan, educator; born in 
Chichester, N. H., Feb. 23, 1813; grad- 
uated at Union College in 1835; was 
instructor there in 1835-39; assistant 
professor of chemistry and natural 
philosophy in 1839-49; professor of nat- 
ural history in 1849-73; and was then 
given the chair of agriculture and 
botany. 

Peary, Robert Edwin, explorer; born 
in Cresson, Pa., May 6, 1856; graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1877; appointed 
civil engineer United States navy in 1881; 
assistant engineer Nicaragua ship - canal 
in 1884. He, Peary, made voyages to the 
Polar regions in 1886, 1891, 1893-95, 
1896, 1897, and 1898-1902, and in 1904 
was preparing for another voyage in the 
summer of 1905. He was president of 
the American Geographical Society in 
1903-05. He is the author of Over the 
Great Ice; A Complete Narrative of Arc- 
tic Work. 

Peck, George, clergyman; born in Mid- 
dlefield, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1797; was ordain- 
ed in the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
1816; was editor of the Methodist Quar- 
terly Review in 1840-48, and of the Chris- 
tian Advocate in 1848-52. His publica- 
tions include Reply to Dr. Bascom on 
Slavery; History of Wyoming; Our Coun- 
try, Its Trials and its Triumphs; etc. 
He died in Scranton, Pa., July 29, 1876. 

Peck, John James, military officer; 
born in Manlius, N. Y., Jan. 4, 1821; 
graduated at West Point in 1843, enter- 
ing the 2d Artillery. He served in the 
war against Mexico, and resigned in 1853, 
settling in Syracuse as a banker. In Au- 
gust, 1861, he was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, and, July 4, 1862, ma- 
jor-general. He performed excellent ser- 
vice during the whole Civil War, espe- 
cially in defence of Suffolk. He was mus- 
tered out in August, 1865, after which 



he was president of a life-insurance com- 
pany in Syracuse, N. Y., where he died, 
April 21, 1878. See Suffolk, Siege of. 

Peck, John Mason, clergyman; born in 
Litchfield, Conn., Oct. 31, 1789; was or- 
dained in the Baptist Church in 1813; 
was an itinerant preacher in the West in 
1817-26; settled in Rock Spring, 111., in 
1826. His publications include A Guide 
for Emigrants; Gazetteer of Illinois; 
Father Clark, or the Pioneer Preacher; 
and Life of Daniel Boone. He died in 
Rock Spring, 111., March 15, 1858. 

Peckham, Rufi t s William, jurist ; 
born in Albany, Nov. 8, 1838 ; admitted 
to the bar in 1859; elected justice of the 
State Supreme Court, New York, in 1883: 
appointed associate justice of the United 
States Supreme Court in 1895. 

Peculiar Institution. A phrase ap- 
plied in the South to slavery. 

Peet, Harvey Prindle. educator; born 
in Bethlehem, Conn., Nov. 19, 1794; 
graduated at Yale College in 1822; be- 
came instructor in the deaf - and - dumb 
asylum in Hartford in the same year, and 
soon after was made superintendent of that 
institution. In 1831-68 he was principal 
of the New York Institution for the Deaf 
and Dumb. His publications include 
Course of Instruction for the Deaf and 
Dumb; Statistics of the Deaf and Dumb; 
Legal Rights, etc., of the Deaf and Dumb; 
History of the United States of America, 
etc. He died in New York City, Jan. 1, 
1873. 

Peet, Stephen Denison, clergyman; 
born in Euclid, O., Dec. 2, 1830;' grad- 
uated at Beloit College in 1851 and at 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1854; 
was active in the ministry of the Congre- 
gational Church in 1855-66; later became 
known as an archaeologist. In 1878 he 
founded and became editor of The Amer- 
ican Antiquarian, the first journal in the 
United States devoted entirely to archaeol- 
ogy. His publications include History of 
Ashtabula County, Ohio; Ancient Archi- 
tecture in America; History of Early Mis- 
sions in Wisconsin ; Primitive Symbolism; 
Mound Builders; Animal Effigies; Cliff 
Dwellers; The Effigy Mounds of Wiscon- 
sin, etc. 

Peffer, William Alfred, legislator; 
born in Cumberland county, Pa., Sept. 10, 
1831; enlisted as a private in the 83d 



109 



PEGBAM— PEMAQUID 



Illinois Infantry in 1862; mustered out in 
1865 with the rank of lieutenant; then 
removed to Kansas and established the 
Fredonia Journal. He was elected to the 
State Senate in 1874; to the United 
States Senate in 1891; and was the un- 
successful candidate for governor of Kan- 
sas in 1898 on the Prohibition ticket. See 
Imperialism ; People's Party ; Senate. 

Pegram, John, military officer; born 
in Petersburg, Va., Jan. 24, 1832; gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1856; left the 
army, and took command of a Confed- 
erate regiment, which he led when made 
a prisoner by General McClellan. In 1862 
he was made a brigadier-general, was a 
noted leader in all the campaigns in Vir- 
ginia, and was regarded as one of the 
ablest of the Confederate division com- 
manders. Wounded in a battle at Hatch- 
er's Run, he died there, Feb. 6, 1865. 

Peirce, Benjamin, scientist; born in 
Salem, Mass., April 4, 1809; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1829; became tutor 
in mathematics there in 1831, and from 
1842 to 1867 was Perkins Professor of 
Astronomy and Mathematics, and was 
also consulting astronomer to The Ephem- 
eris and Nautical Almanac from its estab- 
lishment in 1849. Dr. Peirce was a pupil of 
Dr. Bowditch's, and read the proof-sheets 
of his translation of the Mecanique Celeste. 
In September, 1867, he was appointed 
superintendent of the United States Coast 
Survey, which post he held until his 
death in Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 6, 1880. 
He was a member of leading scientific 
societies at home and abroad; an as- 
sociate of the Royal Astronomical So- 
ciety of London, 1842; member of the 
Royal Society of London, 1852; president 



of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science in 1853; and one 
of the scientific council that established, 
the Dudley Observatory at Albany, N. Y., 
in 1855. Dr. Peirce published many sci- 
entific essays; and in 1S51 discovered 
and announced the fluidity of Saturn's 
rings. 

Pelagic Seal Killing. See Bering Sea 
Arbitration. 

Pemaquid. On Feb. 29, 1631, the Presi- 
dent and Council for New England grant- 
ed to Robert Aldworth and Giles Elbridge 
100 acres of land for every person whom 
they should transport to the province of 
Maine within seven years, who should 
continue there three years, and an abso- 
lute grant of 12,000 acres of land as 
" their proper inheritance forever," to be 
laid out near the Pemaquid River. In 
1677 Governor Andros sent a sloop, with 
some forces, to take possession of the ter- 
ritory in Maine called Cornwall, which 
had been granted to the Duke of York. 
He caused Fort Frederick to be built at 
Pemaquid Point, a headland of the south- 
west entrance to Bristol Bay. The East- 
ern Indians, who, ever since King Philip's 
War, had been hostile, then appeared 
friendly, and a treaty was made with 
them at Casco, April 12, 1678, by the 
commissioners, which put an end to a 
distressing war. In 1692 Sir William 
Phipps, with 450 men, built a large stone 
fort there, which was superior to any 
structure of the kind that had been built 
by the English in America. It was called 
Fort William Henry, and was garrisoned 
by sixty men. There, in 1693, a treaty 
was made with the Indians, by which 
they acknowledged subjection to the crown 







PEMACJUID. 

110 



PEMBERTON— PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN 

of England, and delivered hostages as a was a leading member of the Virginia 

pledge of their fidelity; but, instigated House of Burgesses when the Revolution- 

by the French, they violated the trea- ary War broke out, and, as a conservative 

ty the next year. patriot, Avas opposed to radical Patrick 

The French, regarding the fort at Pema- Henry. He was a member of the Conti- 
quid as " controlling all Acadia," de- nental Congress in 1774-75, and president 
termined to expel the English from it. of the Virginia conventions of December, 
An expedition against it was committed 1775, and May, 1776, the latter instruct- 
to Iberville and Bonaventure, who anchor- ing their representatives in Congress to 
ed at Pentagoet, Aug. 7, 1696, where they vote for independence. Mr. Pendleton was 
were joined by the Baron de Castine, with a member of the committee of correspon- 
200 Indians. These auxiliaries went for- denee and of the committee of safety, 
ward in canoes, the French in their ves- which controlled the military affairs of 
sels, and ._i vested the fort on the 14th. Virginia. On the organization of the State 
Major Chubb was in command. To a sum- he was appointed speaker of the Assembly, 
mons from Iberville to surrender, the ma- and, with Wythe and Jefferson, revised 
jor replied, " If the sea were covered with the colonial laws. He was president of 
French vessels and the land with Indians, both the court of chancery and court of 
yet I would not give up the fort." Some appeals, and in 1788 he presided over the 
skirmishing occurred that day, and, hav- convention that ratified the national Con- 
ing completed a battery, the next day stitution. He died in Richmond, Va., Oct. 
Iberville threw some bombs into the fort, 23, 1803. 

which greatly terrified the garrison. Cas- Pendleton, George Hunt, statesman; 
tine sent a letter, assuring the garrison born in Cincinnati, 0., July 25, 1825; 
that, if the place should be taken by as- member of Congress from Ohio, 1857-65; 
sault, they would be left to the Indians, United States Senator, 1879-85. He was 
who would give no quarter; he had seen the author of the civil - service - reform 
the King's letter to that effect. The gar- measure known as the Pendleton act. 
rison, compelling Chubb to surrender, were During President Cleveland's first ad- 
sent to Boston, to be exchanged for French ministration, 1885-89, Senator Pendleton 
and Indian prisoners, and the costly fort represented the United States at Berlin, 
was demolished. He died in Brussels, Belgium, Nov. 24, 

Pemberton, John Clifford, military 1889. 

officer; born in Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. Penick, Charles Clifton, clergyman; 

10, 1814; graduated at West Point in born in Charlotte county, Va., Dec. 9, 

1837; served in the Seminole War, and 1843; graduated at Alexandria Seminary 

was aide-de-camp to General Worth in in 1869. During the Civil War he served 

the war against Mexico. He entered the the Confederacy in the 38th Virginia 

Confederate service in April, 1861, as Regiment; was ordained in the Protestant 

colonel of cavalry and assistant adjutant- Episcopal Church in 1870, and was conse- 

general to Gen. J. E. Johnston. He rose crated bishop of Cape Palmas, West 

to lieutenant-general, and was the oppo- Africa, in 1877. His publications include 

nent of Grant in northern Mississippi in Hopes, Perils, and Struggles of the A T c- 

1863, to whom he surrendered, with his groes in America; What Can the Church 

army, at Vicksburg (q. v.). He died in Do for the Negro in the United States, 

Penllyn, Pa., July 13, 1881. etc. 

Pendergrast, Garrett Jesse, naval of- Peninsular Campaign, the name of the 

ficer; born in Kentucky, Dec. 5, 1802; en- campaign conducted by General McClel- 

tered the United States navy in 1812. He Ian in 1862 on the Virginia peninsula, be- 

commanded the Cumberland in 1861, which tween the York River and its tributaries 

he saved by threatening to fire on Nor- and the James River, which rivers empty 

folk unless the harbor obstructions were into Chesapeake Bay or its adjacent 

removed. He died in Philadelphia, Nov. waters. On the extremity of the point of 

V 18(1)2 - land between them stands Fort Monroe. 

Pendleton, Edmund, statesman ; born The campaign continued from the landing 

in Caroline county, Va., Sept. 9, 1721; of General Heintzelman's corps of the 

111 



PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN— PENN 




12 3 5 6 11 12 

badges or designation of the army of the potomac (The numbers designate the different army corps). 



Army of the Potomac at Fort Monroe, 
March 22, 1862, until the departure of 
the army from Harrison's Landing, in 
August of the same year, including the 
famous seven days' battle before Rich- 
mond. 



Heintzelman's corps embarks for For- 
tress Monroe March 17, 

Headquarters of the Army of the Poto- 
mac transferred to vicinity of Por- 
tress Monroe April 1, 

McDowell's corps detached from the 
army April 4, 

Yorktown and its line of defence, about 
13 miles in length, occupied by 11,000 
Confederates under Magruder, is at- 
tacked by the Nationals; repulsed.. 
April 4, 

Siege, so-called, of Yorktown 

April 4-May 5, 

Confederates evacuate Yorktown. May 5, 

Battle of Williamsburg (q. v.) 

May 5, 
[General Hooker attacked the Con- 
federates with his division alone un- 
til reinforced by Kearny's division 
about 4 p.m. The Confederates re- 
tired towards Richmond during the 
night. The National loss in killed, 
wounded, and missing, 2,228.] 

General Franklin's division lands at 
West Point May 6, 

Norfolk evacuated by the Confederates. 

May 10, 

Iron-clad Herrimac blown up by the 
Confederates May 11, 

Com. John Rodgers, moving up the 
James to within 8 miles of Richmond 
with his fleet, retires after an unequal 
contest with batteries on Drury's 
Bluff or Fort Darling May 15, 

McClellan's headquarters established at 

the " White House " (belonging to 

Mrs. Robt. B. Lee) on the Pamunkey. 

May 16, 

McDowell, with a corps of 40,000 men 

and 100 pieces of artillery, instructed 

to co-operate with the Army of the 

Potomac advancing on Richmond. . . . 

May 17, 

To frustrate this union " Stonewall " 
Jackson assumes the offensive by 
threatening Washington. The Na- 
tional forces in northern Virginia 
at this time were : Banks, 20,000, 
Milroy and Schenck, 6,000, Fremont, 
10,000, and McDowell's corps at 
Fredericksburg, 40,000. Jackson suc- 



1862 

1862 
1862 

1862 

1862 
1862 

1862 



1862 
1862 
1S62 

1862 
1862 

1862 



ceeds, and McDowell is retained to de- 
fend Washington by an order issued 

May 24, 1862 
[This order saved the Confederate capital. | 

Jackson drives Banks out of Win- 
chester (see Cross Keys., Action 
at) May 25, 1862 

Hauover Court-house May 27, 1862 

[Fitz-John Porter, with a corps of 
12,000 men, is ordered by McClellan 
to destroy the bridges over the South 
Anna, as instructed to do from Wash- 
ington ; opposed by the Confederates 
under Branch at Hanover Court- 
house, he defeats them.] 

Porter returns to his former position 
at Gaines's Mills May 29, 1862 

Battle of Fair Oaks (q. v.) or Seven 

Pines May 31-June 1, 1862 

Robt. E. Lee assumes command of the 

Confederates June 3, 1862 

Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, with a small 
cavalry division, passes around the 
Army of the Potomac June 12-13, 1862 

Battle of Mechanics ville (q. v.) . . . . 

June 26, 1862 

Battle of Gaines's Mills (q. v.).... 

June 27, 1862 

First siege of Richmond abandoned ; 
Keyes's corps ordered to the James 

on the evening of June 27, 1862 

[Lee, failing to comprehend Mc- 
Clellan's plans, loses the whole of 
June 28 in false movements.] 

Battle of Savage's Station; Sumner re- 
pulses Magruder June 29, 1862 

Entire Army of the Potomac safely 
across " White Oak Swamp " on the 
morning of June 30, 1862 

Battle of Glendale (q. v.).. June 30, 1862 

Army of the Potomac, with its immense 
trains, concentrated on and around 
Malvern Hill on the morning of.... 

July 1, 1862 

Battle of Malvern Hill (q. v.).... 

July 1, 1862 

President visits McClellan at Har- 
rison's Landing July 7, 1862 

Hooker reoccupies Malvern Hill 

Aug. 4, 1862 

McClellan ordered to withdraw to Aquia 
Creek Aug. 4, 1862 

Harrison's Landing entirely vacated... 

Aug. 16, 1862 

McClellan reaches Aquia Creek 

Aug. 24, 1802 

Reports at Alexandria Aug. 26, 1862 



112 



Penn, John, a signer of the Declara- I 
tion of Independence; born in Caroline 



PENN 



county, Va., May 17, 1741; studied law onciled them, and the youth was sent to 
Avith Edmund Pendleton; was an eloquent France, with the hope that gay society in 
and effective speaker ; and possessed a high Paris might redeem him from his almost 
order of talent. In 1774 he settled in morbid soberness. It failed to do so, 
Greenville county, N. C, and was a dele- and, on his return, in 1664, in compliance 
gate in the Continental Congress from with the wishes of his father, he became 
there in 1775-76 and 1778-80. Mr. Penn a student of law. The great fire in Lon- 
was placed in charge of public affairs in don, in 1665, drove him from the city and 
North Carolina when Cornwallis invaded deepened his serious convictions. Then 
the State in 1781. He died in North Caro- he was sent to the management of his 
lina in September, 1788. father's estates, near Cork, Ireland, where 

Penn, John, the " American Penn," he again fell in with Thomas Loe, and 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 29, 1700; became a Quaker in all but garb, 
son of William Penn by his second wife; On returning to England, his father 
was the only male descendant of the tried to persuade him to conform to the 
founder who remained a Quaker. He died customs of polite society, but he steadily 
in England in October, 1746. refused. He soon became a Quaker 

Penn, William, founder of Pennsyl- preacher and a powerful controversial 
vania; born in London, England, Oct. 14, writer, producing several notable pam- 
1644. His father 
was Admiral Sir 
William Penn, of 
the royal navy, and 
his mother was an 
excellent Dutch- 
woman of Rotter- 
dam. He received 
very strong relig- 
i o u s impressions 
while he was yet a 
child. At the age 
of fifteen years he 
entered Christ 
Church College, Ox- 
ford, where, through 
the preaching of 
Thomas Loe, he be- 
came a convert to 
the doctrine of the 
Quakers. He, with 
two or three others, 
refused to conform 
to the worship of 
the Established 
Church, or to wear 
the surplice, or 
gown, of the stu- 
dent. He and his 
companions even 
went so far as to 
strip some of the 
students of their 
robes, for which he 

was expelled from the college. For this phlets. He attacked the generally received 
offence his father beat him and turned doctrines of the Trinity, but afterwards 
him out of the house. The mother ree- partially retracted, when it had produced 
VII. — H 113 




WILLIAM PENN. 



PENN, WILLIAM 



great excitement in the religious society conformity. He travelled in Holland and 
of England. He was confined in the Germany to propagate the doctrines of 
Tower nine months, during which he wrote Friends, and there interceded in behalf 
his principal work, entitled No Cross, no of his persecuted brethren. In 1672 Penn 

married a daugh- 
ter of Sir Will- 
iam Springett, 
and, the next few 
years, devoted 
his time to 
preaching and 
writing. 

In 1674 he be- 
came umpire in 
a dispute be- 
tween Fenwick 
and Byllinge, 
both Quakers, 
concerning their 
property rights 
in New Jersey. 
Penn decided in 
favor of Byl- 
linge, and after- 
wards bought 
the domain from 
him. Penn at 
once became zeal- 
ously engaged in 
the work of col- 
onization, and, 
desiring to have 
a safe asylum 
from persecution 
for his brethren, 
he obtained a 
grant of a large 
domain in Amer- 
ica from Charles' 
II., in 1681, in 
payment of a 
debt of about 
$80,000 due to 
his father from 
the crown. The charter vested the per- 
petual proprietorship of the vast region 
(with Delaware, which was then annexed 
to it), containing 45,000 square miles, in 
him and his heirs, in the fealty of an an- 
nual payment of two beaver-skins. Penn 
to call the domain New Wales, 




DEPARTURE OP THE WELCOME 



Crown. The Duke of York, under whom 
Admiral Penn had served, procured his re- 
lease. Penn was arrested for preaching 
in the streets in London, charged with 
creating a tumult and disturbing the 
peace. His trial took place in the mayor's 
court. The jury declared him not guilty, wished 



but the court determined to convict him, 
snd ordered the jury to bring in a verdict 
ot guilty. They refused, and were fined 
and sent to Newgate Prison. Afterwards 
he suffered much persecution for his non- 



114 



and afterwards, on account of extensive 
forests, he suggested Sylvania. The King 
ordered it to be called Penn Sylvania, 
because he had great admiration for 
Penn's father. Penn tried to get the sec- 



PENN, WILLIAM 



retary to change the name, but could not, Indians, and that the person of an Indian 



and it was called Pennsylvania in the 
charter. 

When he had secured his charter Penn 
issued an advertisement which contained 
inducements for persons to emigrate to 
the new province, and a scheme of admin- 
istration of justice suited to the disposi- 
tion of the Quakers. He declared that his 
object was to establish a just and right- 
eous government in the province, that 
would be an example for others. He as- 
sumed that government is a part of re- 



should be held as sacred as that of a white 
man. Penn advertised his land at 40s. 
an acre, and servants could hold 50 acres 
in fee-simple. Penn was so well known 
in his own country and on the Continent 
that perfect confidence was placed in his 
declarations. English Friends, in large 
numbers, proposed to come over, and a 
German company, led by Pastorius (q. v.), 
bought 15,000 acres. This was the com- 
mencement of German emigration to 
Pennsylvania. The colony flourished. The 



ligion itself, as sacred in its institution motto on Penn's seal — " Mercy and Jus- 
and end ; that any 
government is free 
to the people under 
it, whatever be its 
frame, where the 
laws rule and the 
people are a party 
to the laws. He 
declared that gov- 
ernments depend 
upon men, not men 
upon governments; 
and he guaranteed 
liberty of con- 
science. He de- 
clared that none 
should be molested 
or prejudiced in 
matters of faith 
and worship, and 
that nobody should 
be compelled, at 
any time, to fre- 
quent or maintain 
any religious place 
of worship or 
ministry whatso- 
ever. He said that 
prisons must be 
converted into 
schools of reforma- 
tion and edu- 
cation ; that liti- 
gation ought to 
give way to arbi- 
tration; that an 
oath was a super- 
fluity, and made 
lying punishable as a crime, 
jury was established, and, in 
where an Indian was involved 
should consist of six white men and six 




LANDING OF PENN AT PHILADELPHIA. 



Trial by 
all cases 
the jury 



tice " — expressed prominent traits of his 
character. 

Penn, with others, purchased east Jer- 
sey, which was already a flourishing 



115 



PENN, WILLIAM 



colony. In September, 1682, he embarked 
for America on the ship Welcome, and, at 
the end of six weeks, landed (Oct. 28, O. 




PENN S SEAL. 

S.) near the site of New Castle, Del., 
where he was joyfully received by the 
settlers. After conferring with Indian 
chiefs* and making some unimportant trea- 
ties, he went up the Delaware to the site 
of a portion of Philadelphia, and there 
made a famous treaty. It was to be an 
everlasting covenant of peace and friend- 
ship between the two races. " We meet," 
said Penn, " on the broad pathway of good 
faith and good-will; no advantage shall 
be taken on either side, but all shall be 
openness and love. I will not call you 
children, for parents sometimes chide 
their children too severely; nor brothers 
only, for brothers differ. The friendship 
between me and you I will not compare 
to a chain, for that the rains might rust, 
or a falling tree might break. We are 
the same as if one man's body was to be 
divided into two parts; we are all one 
flesh and blood." Then Penn gave the 
chiefs presents, and they, in turn, handed 
him a belt of wampum, a pledge of their 
fidelity. Delighted with his words, and 
with implicit faith in his promises, they 
said: "We will live in love with William 
Penn and his children as long as the sun 
and moon shall endure." 

This promise was kept; not a drop of 
the blood of a Quaker was ever shed by 
an Indian. Penn had achieved a mighty 
victory by the power of justice and love. 
There is no written record of that treaty 
extant; it seemed an ineradicable tradi- 
tion among both races. Of the personal 
character of the European actors in it 

1 



we have more information. Penn was 
then thirty-eight years of age. Most of 
his companions — the deputy-governor and 
a few others — were younger than he, and 
were dressed in the garb of Friends — the 
fashion of the more simple Puritans dur- 
ing the protectorate of Cromwell. The 
Indians were partly clad in the skins of 
beasts, for it was on the verge of winter 
(Nov. 4, 1682), and they had brought 
their wives and children to the council, as 
was their habit. The scene must have 
been a most interesting one — Europeans 
and Indians mingling around a great fire, 
kindled under the high branches of the 
elm, and the contracting parties smoking 
the calumet. That tree was blown down 
in 1810; it was estimated to be 233 years 
old. Upon its site the Penn Society, of 
Philadelphia, erected a commemorative 
monument. It stands near the intersec- 
tion of Beach and Hanover streets. 

After visiting New York and New 
Jersey, and meeting a general assembly, 




TKEATV MONUMENT. 

Penn sailed for England in August, 1684. 
The King died a few months after Penn's 
arrival. He was succeeded by James, 
Duke of York, who was a warm friend of 
Penn's. The latter took lodgings near the 
court, where he constantly used his in- 
fluence in obtaining relief for his suffer- 
ing brethren, who thronged his house by 
hundreds, seeking his aid. He finally ob- 
tained a royal decree, by which more than 
1,200 Quakers were released from prison. 
16 



PENN, WILLIAM 



This was followed by a proclamation of 
the King (April, 1687), declaring liberty 
of conscience to all, and removing tests 
and penalties. Meanwhile Penn had made 
a tour on the Continent, and, by order of 
James, had a conference with the 
monarch's son-in-law, William of Orange, 
and tried to persuade him to adopt the 
principles of universal toleration. Be- 
cause Penn had been personally intimate 
with James, soon after the Revolution 
(1688) he was summoned before the 



of the King's Bench, and acquitted. The 
charge was renewed, in 1691, by a man 
who was afterwards branded by the House 
of Commons as a cheat, a rogue, and a 
false accuser. 

In the mean time Pennsylvania had been 
much disturbed by civil and religious quar- 
rels, and, in 1692, the monarchs deprived 
Penn of his authority as governor of the 
province, and directed Governor Fletcher. 
of New York, to assume the adminis- 
tration. Powerful friends interceded in 




y^vwH 



TREE UNDER WHICH THE TREATY WAS MADE. 



privy council to answer a charge of trea- 
son. No evidence appearing against him, 
he was discharged. Not long afterwards, 
a letter from the exiled monarch to Penn, 
asking him to come to France, having been 
intercepted, he was again brought before 
the council, in presence of King William. 
Penn declared his friendship for James, 
but did not approve his policy, and he was 
again discharged. In 1690 he was a third 
time accused, and was arrested on a 
charge of conspiracy, tried by the court 

I 



Penn's behalf, and he was honorably ac- 
quitted (November, 1693) by the King and 
council. Three months later his wife, 
Gulielma Maria, died, and, within two 
years, he married Hannah Callowhill, a 
Quaker lady of great excellence. His 
proprietary rights having been fully re- 
stored to him (August, 1694), he sailed 
for Pennsylvania with his wife and 
daughter in September, 1699. He was 
soon recalled by tidings that the House 
of Lords was considering a measure for 
Z7 



PENN, WILLIAM 



bringing all the proprietary governments 
in America under the crown. Penn hast- 
ened to England, giving to Philadelphia 




kt^ 



PENX S CHAIK. 



a city charter, dated Oct. 25, 1701. It was 
one of his last official acts. The measure 
which hastened his departure from Amer- 
ica was soon abandoned ; but he was deeply 
moved with anxiety about his affairs in 
Pennsylvania, where Lis son, whom he had 
sent as his deputy, had been guilty of dis- 
graceful conduct. At the same time his 
confidential agent in London, who was a 
Friend, had left to his executors false 
charges against Penn to a very large 
amount. To avoid extortion, Penn suffer- 
ed himself to be confined in Fleet Prison 
for a long time (170S), until his friends 
compromised with his creditors. In 1712 
Penn made arrangements for the transfer 
of his proprietary rights to the crown for 
$60,000, when he was prostrated by 
paralysis. He lived till July 30, 1718, 
much of the time unable to move, and 
never regained his mental vigor. Penn's 
remains were buried in Jordan's Ceme- 
tery, near the village of Chalfont St. Giles, 
in Buckinghamshire. 

William Penn's character was frequent- 
ly assailed by the wicked and envious dur- 
ing his life, but always without success, 



and Lord Macaulay was equally unsuc- 
cessful in his assaults upon the honor, 
honesty, purity, and integrity of the 
founder of Pennsylvania, for official rec- 
ords have proved the falsity of the allega- 
tions made by contemporaries and the 
eminent historian. Penn had a fine coun- 
try residence, sometimes called " The Pal- 
ace," on the bank of the Delaware River, 
nearly opposite Bordentown. It was con- 
structed in 1083, at an expense of about 
$35,000. In 1700 his city residence in 
Philadelphia was the " Slate-roof House," 
on the northeast corner of Second Street 
and Norris's Alley. It was a spacious 
building for the time, constructed of brick 
and covered with slate. It was built for 
another in 1690. Penn occupied it while 
he remained in America, and there his 
son, John Penn, governor of Pennsylvania 
when the Revolution broke out, was born. 
In that house the agent of Penn (James 
Logan) entertained Lord Cornbury, of 
New York, and his suite of fifty persons. 
The house was purchased by William 
Trent, the founder of Trenton. Arnold 
occupied it as his headquarters in 1778, 
and lived there in extravagant style. 

Essay toicards the Present and Future 
Peace of Europe. This was published by 
Penn in the latter part of the year 1693- 
94, while war was raging on the Conti- 
nent. Penn sought to show " the desirable- 
ness of peace and the truest means of it" 
at that time and for the future. His 
essay consisted of a scheme for a general 
alliance, or compact among the different 
states of Europe, whereby they should 
agree to constitute a " General Diet " or 




SLATE-ROOF (PENN'S), HOUSE IN PHILADELPHIA. 



118 



PENNINGTON— PENNSYLVANIA 



congress of nations, wherein each should 
be represented by deputies, and all dif- 
ferences should be settled on equitable 
terms ancTwithout recourse to arms. The 
tract was printed twice in 1693. It is not 
included in the original folio edition of 
Penn's works, but finds place in one of 
the later editions. It is reprinted in the 
Memoirs of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, vol. vi. 

Penn's plan for the federation and peace 
of Europe, doubly interesting to us as the 
work of one whose relation to American 
history was so conspicuous, is noteworthy 
as the first essay of such an international 
character known to us which is free from 
every suspicion of ulterior motive and 
inspired purely by the love of humanity. 
The one great plan of earlier date is the 
" Great Design " of Henry IV. of France, 
to which Penn himself refers in his essay. 
The original account of this is in Sully's 
Memoirs. It is a matter of controversy 
how much this design was really Henry's; 
and those interested in the matter may 



find a careful discussion of it in Kitchin't 
History of France, vol. ii., p. 472. A most 
interesting and stimulating article based 
upon the " Great Design " is Edward 
Everett Hale's The United States of Eu- 
rope, first published in Old and New, 
1871, and republished in Lend a Hand, 
July, 1896. The most famous and impor- 
tant modern essay on international arbi- 
tration and the federation of the world 
is Kant's Eternal Peace, of which there 
are two good English translations, one by 
Morell, the other by Hastie, included in 
a little volume of translations of Kant's 
political essays, entitled Kant's Principles 
of Politics. 

Pennington, William, statesman; born 
in Newark, N. J., May 4, 1796; gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1813; admitted to 
the bar of New Jersey in 1815; elected 
governor of New Jersey in 1837 ; elected 
member of Congress in 1859, and was 
chosen speaker of the House, February, 
IS 60. He died in Newark, N. J., Feb. 16, 
1862. 



hard and exacting landlord; with keep- 
ing the constitution of the courts and the 
administration of justice in his own 



PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF 

Pennsylvania, State of, one of the negative on the Assembly which he had 
original thirteen States of the American once yielded; with playing the part of a 
Union, and a former colony; named in 
honor of William Penn, in the sketch of 
whose life much of its early history has 
been given. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth cen 
tury a Church of England party had 
grown up in Pennsylvania, towards which 
the Christian Quakers gravitated. These 
Episcopalians jealously watched the pro- 
ceedings of the Quaker magistrates of the 
province, and represented them as unfit 
to rule, especially in time of war. Penn's 
governor (Evans) having thrown out a 
hint that the proprietor " might throw 
off a load he had found too heavy " — the 
political interference of the Assembly — 
that body became very angry, and, headed 
by David Lloyd, a lawyer, and their speak- 
er (who had been at one time Penn's at- 
torney-general ) , they agreed to nine res- 
olutions, which Lloyd embodied in a 
memorial addressed to the proprietary. 
In it Penn was charsred with an evasion 
of the fulfilment of his original promises 




STATE SEAL OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



hands; with appointing oppressive offi- 
cers: and, finally, with a downright be- 
trayal of the colonists in his present 
negotiation for parting with the govern- 
to the colonists, by artfully securing that ment — a matter in which he was charged 

119 



PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF 



to proceed no further, lest it should look 
like a " first fleecing and then selling." 

Penn demanded the punishment of Lloyd. 
The new Assembly shifted the responsibility 




A PENNSYLVANIA OIL REFINERY. 

of Lloyd's memorial upon their predecessors. 
The friends of Penn, headed by Logan, 
secured a majority the next year, which 
voted an affectionate address to the pro- 
prietary. But vexatious troubles soon 
broke out again. Complaints were sent to 
Penn against Evans and Logan. The former 
was dissipated, and had corrupted Will- 
iam, the eldest son of Penn, who became 
a companion of his revels. That son pub- 
licly renounced Quakerism. Evans was 
superseded by Charles Gookin. He found 
the Assembly in a bad humor, because 
Penn sustained Logan, whom they de- 
nounced as " an enemy to the welfare of 
the province, and abusive of the repre- 
sentatives of the people." Logan went to 



England, and, returning, brought a letter 
from Penn to the Assembly, giving an out- 
line history of his efforts in settling his 
province, and intimating that, unless a 
change should take place, and 
quiet be restored, he might 
find it necessary to dispose of 
so troublesome a sovereignty. 
An entirely new Assembly was 
chosen at the next election, 
and nearly all the points in 
dispute were arranged. But 
Penn, wearied with conten- 
tions, made an arrangement 
to cede the sovereignty of his 
province to the Queen for the 
consideration of about $60,- 
000, reserving to himself the 
quit-rents and property in the 
soil. The consummation of 
this bargain was prevented 
by Penn being prostrated by 
paralysis (1712). 

In 1733 the proprietary of 
Maryland agreed with the 
heirs of Penn that the boun- 
dary-line between their re- 
spective provinces and Dela- 
ware should be as follows: 
For the southern boundary of 
Delaware, a line commencing 
at Cape Henlopen, to be drawn 
due west from Delaware Bay 
to the Chesapeake. The west 
boundary of Delaware was to 
be a tangent drawn from the 
middle point of this line to a 
circle of 12 miles radius 
around New Castle. A due 
west line, continued northward to a par- 
allel of latitude 15 miles south of Phil- 
adelphia, was to be the southern boun- 
dary of Pennsylvania. On his arrival in 
Maryland, the proprietary, on the plea of 
misrepresentation, refused to be bound by 
this agreement. He petitioned the King 
to be confirmed in possession of the whole 
peninsula between the Chesapeake and 
Delaware bays. The boundary was finally 
determined (see Mason and Dixon's 
Line) substantially in accordance with 
the original agreement. 

In January, 1757, the Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania passed a bill granting for his 
Majesty's service £100,000, by a tax on all 
the estates, real and personal, " taxable," 
20 



PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF 



within, the province. The governor 
(Denny) refused to sanction it, because it 
would heavily tax the proprietaries of the 
province. He asked them to frame a bill 
providing supplies for the public service, 
such as he could, " consistent with his 
honor and his engagements to the proprie- 
taries," subscribe. The Assembly re- 
monstrated, saying they had framed the 
bill consistent with their rights as an 
" English representative body," and, in the 
name of their sovereign, " and in behalf 
of the distressed people whom they repre- 
sented " unanimously demanded of the 



governor that he would give his assent 
to the bill they had passed. As it was a 
money bill, they demanded that it should 
not be altered or amended, " any instruc- 
tions whatsoever from the proprietaries 
notwithstanding," as he would " answer 
to the crown for all the consequences of 
his refusal at his peril." The governor 
persisted in his refusal, grounded upon 
parliamentary usage in England, and the 
supposed hardship of taxing the unim- 
proved land of the proprietaries. As the 
governor would not sign a bill that did 
not exempt the estates of the proprietaries 




SCENES IN THE COAL-MINING REGION, PENNSYLVANIA. 

121 



PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF 



from taxation, the Assembly sent Benjamin 
Franklin, as agent of the province, to peti- 
tion the King for redress. This was the be- 
ginning of protracted disputes between the 
representatives of the people of Pennsyl- 
vania and the agents of the proprietaries. 
An attempt of the Pennsylvania As- 
sembly, in 1764, to enact a new militia 
law brought on another quarrel between 
the proprietaries and the representatives 
of the people. One of the former, John 
Penn, was now governor. He claimed the 
right to appoint the officers of the militia, 
and insisted upon several other provisions, 
to which the Assembly would not give its 
assent. At the same time a controversy 
arose concerning the interpretation of the 
decision of the Lords of Trade and Plan- 
tations, authorizing the taxation of the 
proprietary estates. At the annual elec- 
tion (May, 1764) the proprietary party 
in Philadelphia, by great exertions, de- 
feated Franklin in that city. Yet the 
anti-proprietary party had a large ma- 
jority in the Assembly. The new Assembly 
sent Franklin to England again as their 
agent, authorized to ask for the abrogation 
of the proprietary authority and the es- 
tablishment of a royal government. The 
mutterings of the gathering tempest of 
revolution which finally gave independence 
to the Americans were then growing louder 
and louder, and nothing more was done in 
the matter. The opponents of the pro- 
prietaries in Pennsylvania were by no 
means united on this point. The Epis- 
copalians and Quakers were favorable to 
a change, while the Scotch-Irish Presby- 
terians were opposed to it, because they 
feared the ascendency of the Church of 
England. The patronage of the proprie- 
taries attached many to their interests, 
a,nd the pleasant memories of William 
Penn inclined many to favor them. On 
June 18, 1774, there was a general con- 
ference of the committees of the several 
counties in the State. They assembled at 
Garpenters' Hall, in Philadelphia. In this 
conference few, if any, of the old Assembly 
appeared. Thomas McKean was chosen 
president, and on the 19th the 104 mem- 
bers present unanimously approved the 
action of Congress respecting the forma- 
tion of States. They condemned the pres- 
ent government of the colony as incom- 
petent, and a new one was ordered to be 

1 



formed on the authority of the people. 
On the afternoon of the 24th, with equal 
unannimity, the delegates declared, for 
themselves and their constituents, their 
willingness to concur in a vote of Con- 
gress for independence. 

After the stirring events at Lexington 
and Concord, a large public meeting was 
held at Philadelphia (April 24, 1775), at 
which measures were taken for entering 
into a volunteer military association, the 
spirit of which pervaded the whole prov- 
ince. Many of the young Quakers took 
part in the organization, in spite of the 
remonstrance of their elders, and were 
disowned. They afterwards formed a so- 
ciety called " Free Quakers." Thomas 
Mifflin (afterwards a major-general) was 
a leading spirit among these. John 
Dickinson (q. v.) accepted the command 
of a regiment; so, also, did Thomas Mc- 
Kean and James Wilson, both afterwards 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 
The Assembly, which met soon afterwards, 
voted £1,800 towards the expenses of these 
volunteers. They also appointed a com- 
mittee of safety, with Dr. Franklin as 
chairman, which not only took measures 
for the defence of Philadelphia, but soon 
afterwards assumed the whole executive 
authority of the province. Timidity mark- 
ed the course of the legislature of Penn- 
sylvania in the autumn of 1775, while the 
people at large, especially in Philadelphia, 
were zealously in favor of the martial 
proceedings of Congress. The Assembly 
was under the influence of John Dickin- 
son, who opposed independence to the last. 
When the Assembly met (Oct. 16, 1775), ' 
all of the members present subscribed to 
the usual engagement of allegiance to the 
King. In a few days the Quakers pre- 
sented an address in favor of conciliatory 
measures, and deprecating everything 
" likely to widen or perpetuate the breach 
with the parent state." The committee 
of sixty for the City and Liberties of 
Philadelphia, headed by George Clymer 
and Thomas McKean, went in procession, 
two by two, to the State-house, and de- 
livered a remonstrance, calculated to coun- 
teract the influence of Dickinson and the 
Quakers. This halting spirit in the Assem- 
bly appeared several months longer, and on 
the vote for independence (July 2, 1776) 
the Pennsylvania delegates were divided. 
22 



PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF 




STEELWORKS JN PENNSYLVANIA. 



The Assembly, influenced by the pro- in not requiring newly elected members to 
prietary government and office-holders in swear allegiance to the King. Finally, on 
its own body, as well as by timid patriots, May 24, the committee of inspection of 
hoping, like John Dickinson, for peace the city of Philadelphia addressed a me- 
and reconciliation, steadily opposed the morial to the Congress, setting forth that 
idea of independence. Finally, a town- the Assembly did not possess the confi- 
meeting of 4,000 people, held in State- dence of the people, nor truly represent 
house Yard, in Philadelphia (May 24, the sentiments of the province; and that 
1776), selected for its president Daniel measures had been taken for assembling 
Pioberdeau. The meeting voted that the a popular convention. The Assembly be- 
instruction of the Assembly for forming came nervous. It felt that its dissolution 
a, new government (in accordance witb # was nigh. In the first days of June no 
John Adams's proposition) was illegal governor appeared. The members showed 
and an attempt at usurpation; and the signs of yielding to the popular pressure; 
committee of the City and Liberties of but on the 7th, the very day when Rich- 
Philadelphia were directed to summon a ard Henry Lee offered his famous resolu- 
.conference of the committees of every tion for independence in Congress, John 
county in the province to make arrange- Dickinson, in a speech -in the Assembly, 
ments for a constituent convention to be pledged his word to the proprietary chief- 
chosen by the people. Then was prepara- justice (Allen), and to the whole House, 
tion made for the fall of the proprietary that he and a majority of the Pennsyl- 
charter of Pennsylvania. Dickinson and vania delegates in the Congress would 
his friends persisted in opposition to in- continue to vote against independence, 
dependence. Concessions were made to Only once again (after June 9, 1776) did 
the Continental Congress by the Assembly a quorum of members of the Pennsylvania 

123 



PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF 



Assembly appear. The proprietary gov- 
ernment had expired. 

The gloomy outlook after the fall of 
Fort Washington and the flight of Wash- 
ington and his melting army across New 
Jersey in 1776 caused many persons of 
influence in Pennsylvania', as well as in 
New Jersey, to waver and fall away from 
the patriot cause. The most conspicuous 
of these in Pennsylvania were Joseph 
Galloway, who had been a member of the 
first Continental Congress, and Andrew 
Allen, also a member of that Congress, 
and two of his brothers. The brothers 
Howe having issued a new proclamation 
of pardon and amnesty to all who should 
within sixty days promise not to take up 
arms against the King, these men availed 
themselves of it, not doubting their speedy 
restoration to their former fortunes and 
political importance. They went over to 
Howe; so did Samuel Tucker, a leader in 
the movements against British oppression 
in New Jersey, and a host of Jerseymen, 
who signed a pledge of fidelity to the 
British crown. Even John Dickinson, 
whose fidelity as a patriot may not be 
questioned, was so thoroughly convinced 
of the folly of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the probability of a return 
to the British fold that he discredited the 
Continental bills of credit, and refused to 
accept an appointment from Delaware as 
a delegate in Congress. The State of 
Maryland also showed a willingness at 
this juncture to renounce the Declaration 
of Independence for the sake of peace. 
Amid this falling away of civilians and 
the rapid melting of his army, Washing- 
ton's faith and courage never faltered. 
From Newark, when he was flying with 
his shattered and rapidly diminishing 
forces towards the Delaware River before 
pursuing Cornwallis, he applied to the 
patriotic and energetic William Living- 
ston, governor of New Jersey, for aid. 
To expressions of sympathy from the gov- 
ernor he replied (Nov. 30, 1776), "I will 
not despair." 

Early in 1799 an insurrection broke out 
due to a singular cause. A direct tax had 
been levied, among other things, on houses, 
arranged in classes. A means for making 
that classification was by measuring win- 
dows. The German inhabitants of North- 
ampton, Bucks, and Montgomery counties 



made such violent opposition to this meas- 
urement that those engaged in it were 
compelled to desist. Warrants were is- 
sued for the arrest of opposers of the law; 
and in the village of Bethlehem the mar- 
shal, having about thirty prisoners, was 
set. upon by a party of fifty horsemen, 
headed by a man named Fries. The Presi- 
dent sent troops to maintain the law. No 
opposition was made to them, and Fries 
and about thirty others were arrested and 
taken to Philadelphia, where their leader 
was indicted for treason, tried twice, each 
time found guilty, but finally pardoned. 
Several others were tried for the same 
offence. While these trials were going on, 
Duane, editor of the Aurora (Bache had 
died of yellow fever), abused the officers 
and troops, who, finding no law to touch 
him, sent a deputation of their own num- 
ber to chastise him, which they did on his 
own premises. 

Pennsylvania was governed by a code 
framed by William Penn, and several 
times amended, until Sept. 28, 1776, when 
a State constitution was adopted, and 
Pennsylvania took her place in the Union. 
In 1790 a new constitution was adopted, 
which has since been several times amend- 
ed. In 1838 provision was made for elect- 
ing, instead of appointing, county officers ; 
the right of voting was limited to white 
persons, and the term of judicial offices 
was reduced from life to ten and fifteen 
years. In 1850 the judiciary was made 
elective by the people; subscriptions to in- 
ternal improvements by municipal authori- 
ties was prohibited, and in 1864 the right 
of suffrage was guaranteed to soldiers in 
the field. An amended constitution went 
into force on Jan. 1, 1S74. Lancaster was 
the seat of the State government from 
c 1799 till 1812, when Harrisburg became 
the State capital. In 1808 a case which 
had been in existence since the Revolu- 
tion brought the State of Pennsylvania 
into collision with the Supreme Court of 
the United States. During the disputes 
in the case alluded to — about prize-money 
— David Rittenhouse, as State treasurer of 
Pennsylvania, had received certain certifi- 
cates of national debt. Rittenhouse set- 
tled his accounts as treasurer in 1788 and 
resigned his office, but still retained these 
certificates, having given his bond to the 
judge of the State court to hold him 



124 



fENNSYLVAtfIA, SttATE OF 

harmless as to other claimants. The cer- (1864) the Confederates penetrated to 

tificates were held by Rittenhouse to in- Chambersburg, and nearly destroyed the 

demnify him against the bond he had town by fire. At the beginning of the 

given. When the public debt was funded Civil War Pennsylvania raised a large 

lie caused these certificates to be funded body of reserve troops, and during the 

in his own name, but for the benefit of war furnished to the National army 387,- 

whom it might concern. Rittenhouse died 284 troops. 

in 1801, leaving his three daughters execu- This State has the honor of having sent 
tors of his estate. They were called upon the first troops to the national capital 
by the State treasurer to deliver the cer- for its defence, in April, 1861. The 
tificates to him and pay over the accrued troops comprised five companies from the 
interest. They refused to do so, on ac- interior of the state — namely, Washing- 
count of a pending suit in the State court ton Artillery and National Light Infantry, 
by a claimant for the amount. The State of Pottsville; the Ringgold Light Artil- 
court finally declined to interfere, on the lery, of Reading; the Logan Guards, of 
technical ground that it was an admiralty Lewistown; and the Allen Infantry, of 
matter and was not cognizable in a court Allentown. On the call of the President, 
of common law. The claimant then ap- the commanders of these companies tele- 
plied to the United States district court graphed to Governor Curtin that their 
for an order to compel the executors of ranks were full and ready for service. 
Rittenhouse to pay over to him the certif- They were assembled at Harrisburg on 
icates and accumulated interest, then the evening of April 17. Accompanied by 
amounting to about $15,000. Such a de- forty regular soldiers destined for Fort 
cree was made in 1803, when the legis- McHenry, they went by rail to Baltimore 
lature of Pennsylvania passed a law to the next morning, and while passing from 
compel the executors to pay the funds into one railway station to another were sub- 
the State treasury, pledging the faith of jected to gross insults and attacked with 
the State to hold them harmless. Finally missiles by a mob. They were without 
the Supreme Court of the United States arms, for their expected new muskets 
issued a mandamus for the judge of the were not ready when they got to Harris- 
district court to carry the decree into ex- burg. They found Maryland a hostile 
eeution, despite the State law. It was territory to pass through, but they reach- 
done (March 12, 1809) ; but the marshal, ed the capital in safety early in the even- 
when he went to serve the process of at- ing of April 18. They were received by 
taehment, found the houses of the re- the government and loyal people there 
spondents protected by an armed guard, with heartfelt joy, for rumors that the 
who resisted his entrance by bayonets, minute-men of Maryland and Virginia 
These guards were State militia, under were about to seize Washington, D. C, 
General Bright, with the sanction of the had been prevalent all day. The Pennsyl- 
governor. The legislature and the govern- vanians were hailed as deliverers. They 
or now receded somewhat. The former were marched to the Capitol grounds, 
made an appropriation of $18,000 to meet greeted by cheer after cheer, and assign- 
any contingency; and finally, after a show ed to quarters in the hall of the House of 
of resistance, which, to some, threatened Representatives. The startling rumor 
a sort of civil war in the streets of Phila- soon spread over the city that 2,000 Na- 
delphia, the governor paid over the sum tional troops had arrived, well armed 
to the marshal out of the appropriation, with Minie rifles. The real number was 
This was a blow to the doctrine of State 530. The disunionists and their sym- 
supremacy, which still held a large place pathizers were overawed just in time to 
in the political creed of the people of all save the capital from seizure, 
the States. The supremacy of the nation- Gen. Robert Patterson (q. v.), then 
al judiciary was fully vindicated. commander of the Department of Pennsyl- 
In the Civil War Pennsylvania was in- vania, comprehended the wants of govern- 
vaded by the Confederates, and on its ment, and, while the capital was cut off 
soil the decisive battle of the war oc- from communication with the loyal peo- 
curred, at Gettysburg. The next year pie of the State, he took the responsibil- 

125 



PENNSYLVANIA— PENNYMITE AND YANKEE WAR 



ity of officially requesting (April 25, 1861) 
the governor of Pennsylvania to direct 
the organization of twenty-five regiments 
of volunteers. It was done. These were 
in addition to the sixteen regiments call- 
ed for by the Secretary of War. The 
legislature took the twenty-five regiments 
into the service of the State, the Secre- 
tary of War first declining to receive 
them. This was the origin of the fine 
body of soldiers known as the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, who were gladly accepted 
by the Secretary after the battle of Bull 
Run. See United States, Pennsylvania, 
in vol. ix. 

COLONIAL GOVERNORS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 
[Under the proprietary government, when there was 
no deputy governor the president of the council acted as 
such.] 

William Penn Proprietor and Governor. ... 1682 

Thomas Lloyd President 1084 

John Black well Deputy Governor 1688 

Benjamin Fletcher. .. .Governor 1693 

Will am Markham. ... " " 

William Penn " " 

Andrew Hamilton Deputy Governor 1701 

Edward Shippen President 1703 

John Evans Deputy Governor 1704 

Charles Gookin " " 1709 

Sir William Keith " " 1717 

Patrick Gordon " " 1726 

James Logan President 1736 

George Thomas Deputy Governor 1738 

Anthony Palmer President 1747 

James Hamilton Deputy Governor 1748 

Robert H Morris " " 1754 

William Denny " " 1756 

James Hamilton " " 1759 

John Penn ~T'. Governor 1763 

James Hamilton President 1771 

Richard Penn Governor " 

John Penn " 1773 

[Proprietary government ended by the Constitution of 
1776. The representatives of the Penn family were paid 
for the surrender of their rights, and a government by 
the people established.] 

STATE GOVERNORS. 

Thomas Wharton President (died in office 1778) 1777 

George Bryan Acting. 

Joseph Reed President 1778 

William Moore " , 1781 

John Dickinson " 1782 

Benjamin Franklin.... " 1785 

Thomas Mifflin Governor* 1 788 

Thomas McKean 1799 

Simon Snvder 1808 

William Finriley 1817 

Joseph Hiester 1820 

J. Andrew Shulze... 1S23 

George Wolf 1829 

Joseph Ritner 18:i7 

David It. Porter 1839 

Francis R. Shunk Resigned, 1848 1845 

William F. Johnson. ..Acting 1849 

William Rigler 1852 

James Pollock 1855 

William F. Packer 1.X58 

Andrew G. Curtin 1861 

John W. Gearv 1867 

John F. Hartranft 1873 

* From 1790, nndi>r the new State constitution, the executive has 
been termed governor instead of president. 



STATE GOVERNORS— Continued. 

Henry M. Hoyt 1879 

Robert E. Pattison 1883 

James A. Beaver 1887 

Robert E. Pattison 1891-1895 

Daniel H. Hastings 1895-1808 

William A. Stone 1899-1903 

Samuel W. Pennypacker 1903-1907 

UNITED STATES SEXATOP.S. 



Name. 


No. of 


Congress. 


Term. 




1st 

1st 

3d 
4th 

7th 
8th 
10th 
10th 
13th 
13th 
IGth 
17th 
19th 
20th 
22d 
22d 
23d 
23d 
26th 
29th 
31st 
32d 
34th 

37th 
37 th 
38th 
40th 
41st 
44th 
45th 
47th 
50th 
55th 
57 th 


to 2d 
" 4th 
3d 

to 8th 
" 7th 
tth 

to 9th 
" 10th 
" 13th 
" 13th 
" 16th 
" 17th 
" 19 th 
" 20th 
" 22d 
" 22d 
" 23d 
" 23d 
" 26th 
" 29th 
" 32d 
" 31st 
" 34th 
" 35th 
" 37th 
" 37th 
" 38th 
" 40th 
" 41st 
" 45th 
" 44th 
" 47th 
" 55th 
" 50th 
" 56th 

" 5Mh 


1789 t 

1789 

1793 

1794 

1795 

1801 

1801 

1803 

1807 

1809 

1813 

1814 

1819 ' 

1821 

1825 

1827 

1831 

1831 

1833 

1834 

1839 

1845 

1849 

1851 ' 

1855 ' 

1857 ' 

1861 ' 

1861 ' 

1S63 

1867 ' 

1869 ■ 

1875 ' 

1877 ' 

1881 ' 

1887 ' 

1897 ' 

1901 ' 

1904 ' 


1791 




' 1795 


Albert Gallatin 


' 1803 




' 1799 


John Peter G. Muhlenberg.. 


' 1802 
' 1805 


Samuel Maclay 


' 1808 
' 1813 




'1814 
' 1819 




' 1821 




' 1825 




' 1827 




' 1831 




' 1831 


George M. Dallas 


' 1833 
' 1834 


Samuel McKean 

James Buchanan 


' 1839 
'1845 
' 1851 




' 1849 




'1855 




'1857 
' 1861 


David Wilmot 


'1861 
' 1863 




' 1867 


Charles R. Buckalew 


' 1869 
' 1877 




' 1875 


James Donald Cameron.... 
John I. Mitchell 


'1881 
'1897 
' 1887 


Matthew S. Quay 


' 1899 


Matthew S. Quay 


' 1904 



Pennymite and Yankee War. Trouble 
began in Wyoming Valley between Con- 
necticut settlers under the auspices of 
the Susquehanna Company and the Penn- 
sylvanians in 1769, when the former 
made a second attempt to clear the way 
for planting a colony in that region. In 
1768 the proprietary of Pennsylvania 
purchased of the Six Nations the whole 
Wyoming Valley, and leased it for seven 
years to three Pennsylvanians, who built 
a fortified trading-house there. In Febru- 
ary, 1769, forty pioneers of the Susquehan- 
na Company entered the Wyoming Valley 
and invested the block-house, garrisoned 
by ten men, who gave Governor Penn no- 
tice* of the situation. Three of the Con- 
necticut men were lured into the block- 
house under pretence of making an adjust- 
ment of difficulties, and were seized by 
the sheriff and taken to jail at Easton. 
Other immigrants flocked in from Con- 



126 



PENNYMITE AND YANKEE WAR— PENOBSCOT 



nectieut, and the sheriff called upon the 
posse of the county to assist in their ar- 
rest. The Connecticut people also had 
built a block-house, which they named 
Forty Fort. The sheriff broke down its 
doors, arrested thirty of the inmates, and 
sent them to Easton jail. When admitted 
to bail, they returned with about 200 men 
from Connecticut, w,ho built Fort Durkee, 
just below Wilkesbarre, so named in honor 
of their commander, John Durkee. Then 
the sheriff reported to the governor that 
the whole power of the county was in- 
sufficient to oppose the " Yankees." 

Meanwhile the company had sent com- 
missioners to Philadelphia to confer upon 
a compromise. The governor (Penn) 
refused to receive them, and sent an armed 
force, under Colonel Francis, into the 
valley. The sheriff joined Francis with a 
strong armed party, with a 6-pounder 
cannon. Colonel Durkee and several of 
the inhabitants were captured, and the 
fort was surrendered upon conditions 
which were immediately violated. The 
next year Colonel Durkee, released, took 
command of the Connecticut people, and 
captured the sheriff's cannon; also one 
of the leading Pennsylvanians (Amos Og- 
den), who had fortified his house. Imi- 
tating the bad faith of their opponents, 
the Yankees seized his property and burn- 
ed his house. Governor Penn now (1770) 
called upon General Gage, in command 
of the British troops at New York, for a 
detachment " to restore order in Wy- 
oming." He refused. In the autumn Og- 
den marched by the Lehigh route, with 
140 men, to surprise the settlers in Wy- 
oming. From the mountain-tops he saw 
the farmers in the valley pursuing their 
avocations without suspicion of danger. 
He swooped down upon the settlement in 
the night, and assailed Fort Durkee, then 
filled with women and children. The fort 
and the houses of the settlement were 
plundered, and many of the chief inhab- 
itants were sent to Easton jail. The 
Yankees left the valley, and the " Penny- 
mites," as the Pennsylvanians were called, 
took possession again. 

On the nisrht of Dec. 18 the Connecticut 
people, led by Lazarus Stewart, returned, 
and, attacking Fort Durkee, captured it 
and drove the Pennymites out of the val- 
ley. In January following they returned 



in force, when Stewart fled from the val- 
ley, leaving a garrison of twelve men, 
who were made prisoners. Peace reigned 
there until near midsummer, when Capt. 
Zebulon Butler, with seventy armed men 
from Connecticut, suddenly descended from 
the mountains and menaced a new fort 
which Ogden had built. Ogden managed 
to escape, went to Philadelphia, and in- 
duced the governor (Hamilton) to send a 
detachment of 100 men to Wyoming. 
The besiegers kept them at bay, and the 
siege, during which several persons were 
killed, was ended Aug. 11. By the terms 
of capitulation, the Pennsylvanians were 
to leave the valley. So ended the contest 
for 1771. 

The Yankees, under the advice of the 
Connecticut Assembly, organized civil gov- 
ernment there upon a democratic system. 
The settlement was incorporated with the 
colony of Connecticut, and its representa- 
tives were admitted into the General As- 
sembly. Wilkesbarre was laid out, and for 
four years peace smiled upon the beautiful 
valley. Suddenly, in the autumn of 1775, 
the Pennsylvanians, encouraged by Gov- 
ernor Penn, renewed the civil war. The 
Continental Congress interfered in vain; 
but when the proprietary government was 
abolished this Pennymite and Yankee 
War was suddenly ended. See Susque- 
hanna Company. 

Pennypacker, Samuel Wiiitaker, 
jurist; born in Phoenixville, Pa., April 9, 
1843; served in the Civil War; was gradu- 
ated at the law department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1866; president 
of the Law Academy of Philadelphia in 
1866; and president judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas of Pennsylvania till 1902, 
when he was elected governor of Pennsyl- 
vania. He compiled four volumes of the 
Pennsylvania Supreme Court Reports; and 
is the author of General Weedon's Orderly 
Book at Valley Forge; Capture of Stony 
Point; The Settlement of Germantoion ; 
Congress Ball; Bistorical and Biographi- 
cal Sketches; etc. 

Penobscot. The " Company of New 
France," which had purchased Sir W. 
Alexander's rights to territory in Nova 
Scotia through Stephen, Lord of La Tour, 
in 1630, conveyed the territory on the 
banks of the river St. John to this noble- 
man in 1635. Rossellon, commander of a 



127 



PENOBSCOT— PENSACOLA 



French fort in Acadia, sent a French man- 
of-war to Penobscot and took possession 
of the Plymouth trading-house there, with 
all its goods. A vessel was sent from 
Plymouth to recover the property. The 
French fortified the place, and were so 
strongly intrenched that th? expedition 
was abandoned. The Plymouth people 
never afterwards recovered their interest 
at Penobscot. 

The first permanent English occupation 
of the region of the Penobscot — to which 
the French laid claim — was acquired in 
1759, when Governor Pownall, of Massa- 
chusetts, with the consent of the legislat- 
ure, caused a fort to be built on the west- 
ern bank of the Penobscot (afterwards 
Fort Knox), near the village of Prospect, 
which was named Fort Pownall. An 
armed force from Massachusetts took pos- 
session of the region, built the fort, cut 
off the communications of the Eastern 
Indians (the only ones then hostile to the 
English), and so ended the contest for the 
Penobscot region by arms. 

In 1779 a British force of several hun- 
dred men from Nova Scotia entered east- 
ern Maine and established themselves in a 
fortified place on the Penobscot River. 
Massachusetts sent a force to dislodge the 
intruders. The expedition consisted of 
nineteen armed vessels (three of them 
Continental ) , under Captain Saltonstall, 
ot Connecticut, and 1,500 militia, com- 
manded by General Lovell. These were 
borne on the fleet of Saltonstall, and land- 
ed (July 26) near the obnoxious post, 
with a loss of 100 men. Finding the 
works too strong for his troops, Lovell 
sent to General Gates, at Boston, to for- 
ward a detachment of Continentals. Hear- 
ing of this expedition, Sir George Collins, 
who had been made chief naval command- 
er on the American station, sailed for the 
Penobscot with five heavy war-ships. The 
Massachusetts troops re-embarked, Aug. 
13, when Sir George approached, and, in 
the smaller vessels, fled up the river. 
When they found they could not escape, 
they ran five frigates and ten smaller ves- 
sels ashore and blew them up. The others 
were captured by the British. The sol- 
diers and seamen escaped to the shore, and 
suffered much for want of provisions while 
traversing an uninhabited country for 100 
miles. 



123 



Penology. See Livingston, Edward. 

Pensacola. When Iberville was on his 
way to plant a colony at the mouth of the 
Mississippi River, he attempted to enter 
Pensacola Bay, but found himself con- 
fronted by Spaniards in arms, who had 
come from Vera Cruz and built a fort 
there, under the guns of which lay two 
Spanish ships. The Spaniards still claim- 
ed the whole circuit of the Gulf of Mexico, 
and, jealous of the designs of the French, 
had hastened to occupy Pensacola Harbor, 
the best on the Gulf. The barrier there 
constructed ultimately established the di- 
viding-line between Florida and Louisiana. 
In 1696 Don Andre d'Arriola was appoint- 
ed the first governor of Pensacola, and 
took possession of the province. He built 
a fort with four bastions, which he called 
Fort Charles; also a church and some 
houses. 

On Feb. 28, 1781, Galvez the Spanish 
governor of Louisiana, sailed from New 
Orleans with 1,400 men to seize Pensa- 
cola. He could effect but little alone; but 
finally he was joined (May 9) by an armed 
squadron from Havana, and by a rein- 
forcement from Mobile. Galvez now gain- 
ed possession of the harbor of Pensacola, 
and soon afterwards Colonel Campbell, 
who commanded the British garrison 
there, surrendered. Pensacola and the 
rest of Florida ha<$ passed into the pos- 
session of the British by the treaty of 
1763. Two years after Galvez captured 
the place (1783) the whole province was 
retrocedcd to Spain. 

In April, 1814, Andrew Jackson was 
commissioned a major-general in the arnvy 
of the United States and appointed to the 
command of the 7th Military District. 
While he was yet arranging the treaty 
with the conquered Creeks, he had been 
alarmed by reports of succor and refuge 
given to some of them by the Spanish 
authorities at Pensacola, and of a com- 
munication opened with them by a British 
vessel which had landed arms and agents 
at Apalachicola. In consequence of his 
report of these doings, he received orders 
to take possession of Pensacola. But 
these orders were six months on the way. 
Meanwhile two British sloops-of-war, with 
two or three smaller vessels, had arrived 
at Pensacola, and were proclaimed (Aug. 
4) as the van of a much larger naval 



PENSACOLA 

force. Col. Edward Nichols had been per- This proposition was rejected; and Jack- 
mitted to land a small body of troops at son, satisfied that the governor's protesta- 
Pensacola, and to draw around him, arm, tions of inability to resist the British in- 
and train hostile refugee Creeks. Jack- vasion were only pretexts, marched upon 
son's headquarters were at Mobile. Late Pensacola before the dawn with 3,000 
in August the mask of Spanish neutrality men. They avoided the fire of the forts 
was removed, when nine British vessels of and the shipping in the harbor, and the 
war lay at anchor in the harbor of Pensa- centre of the column made a gallant 
cola, and Colonel Nichols was made a wel- charge into the town. They were met by 
come guest of the Spanish governor. A a two-gun battery in the principal street, 
British flag, raised over one of the Spanish and showers of bullets from the houses and 
forts there, proclaimed the alliance; and gardens. The Americans, led by Captain 
it was found that Indian runners had been Laval, captured the battery, when the 
sent out from Pensacola among the neigh- frightened governor appeared with a 
boring Seminoles and Creeks, inviting white flag and promised to comply with 
them to Pensacola, there to be enrolled any terms if Jackson would spare the 
in the service of the British. Almost town. An instant surrender of all the 
1,000 of them were gathered there, where forts was demanded and promised, and, 
they received arms and ammunition in after some delay, it was done. The Brit- 
abundance from the British officers, ish, also alarmed by this sudden attack, 
Nichols also sent out proclamations to blew up Fort Barancas, 6 miles from 
the inhabitants of the Gulf region con- Pensacola, which they occupied; and early 
taining inflammatory appeals to the preju- in the morning, Nov. 7, 1814, their ships 
dices of the French and the discontent of left the harbor, bearing away, besides the 
others; and he told his troops that they British, the Spanish commandant of the 
were called upon to make long and tedious forts, with 400 men and a considerable 
marches in the wilderness and to concili- number of Indians. The Spanish govern- 
atc the Indians. or (Manriquez) was indignant because 
At this juncture Jackson acted prompt- of the flight of his British friends, and 
ly and effectively, without the advice of the Creeks were deeply impressed with a 
his tardy government. He caused a beat- feeling that it would be imprudent to 
up for volunteers, and very soon 2,000 again defy the wrath of General Jackson, 
sturdy young men were ready for the field. He had, by this expedition, accomplished 
After they arrived Jackson took some time three important results — namely, the ex- 
to get his forces well in hand; and early pulsion of the British from Pensacola, the 
in November he marched from Fort Mont- scattering of the gathering Indians in 
gomery, which was due north from Pensa- great alarm, and the punishing of the 
cola, with 4,000 troops — some Mississippi Spaniards for such perfidy, 
dragoons in the advance — and encamped At the beginning of the Civil War the 
within two miles of Pensacola on the United States had a navy-yard at the 
evening of Nov. 6. He sent word to the little village of Warrington, 5 miles from 
Spanish governor that he had come, not to the entrance to Pensacola Bay. It was 
make war on a neutral power, nor to in- under the charge of Commodore Arm- 
jure the town, but to deprive the enemies strong, of the navy. He was surrounded 
of the United States of a place of refuge, by disloyal men, and when, on the morn- 
His messenger (Major Pierre) was in- ing of Jan. 10, 1861 (when Fort Pickens 
structed to demand the surrender of the was threatened), about 500 Florida and 
forts. When Pierre approached, under a Alabama troops, and a few from Missis- 
flag of truce, he was fired upon by a 12- sippi, commanded by Colonel Lomax, ap- 
pounder at Fort St. Michael, which was peared at the navy-yard and demanded its 
garrisoned by British troops. Jackson surrender, Armstrong found himself pow- 
sent Pierre again at midnight with a erless. Of the sixty officers and men under 
proposition to the governor to allow Amer- his command, he afterwards said more 
icans to occupy the forts at Pensacola un- than three-fourths were disloyal, and 
til the Spanish government could send a some were actively so. Commander Far- 
sufficient force to maintain neutrality, rand was actually among the insurgents, 
vii.— l 129 



PENSIONS— PEOPLE'S PARTY 

who demanded the surrender to the gov- the disbursements for pensions were $2,- 
ernor of Florida. The disloyal men would 942,178,145.93, and for cost of mainte- 
have revolted if the commodore had made nance and expenses $95,647,934.71, or a 
resistance. Lieutenant Renshaw, the flag- total of $3,037,826,080.64, making the 
officer, one of the leaders among the dis- entire cost of the maintenance of the pen- 
loyal men, immediately ordered the Na- sion system since the foundation of the 
tional standard to be lowered. It fell to C4overnment $3,134,271,524.87. 
the ground, and was greeted with derisive Of the amount that has been expended 
laughter. The command of the navy-yard for pensions since the foundation of the 
was then given to Capt. V. N. Randolph, Government, $70,000,000 was on account of 
who had deserted his flag; and the post, the War of the Revolution; $45,186,197.22 
with ordnance and stores valued at $156,- on account of service in the War of 1812; 
000, passed into the hands of the authori- $6,234,414.55 on account of service in the 
ties of Florida. See Pickens, Fort. Indian wars; $33,483,309.91 on account of 

Pensions. According to an official state- service in the Mexican War; $5,479,268.31 

ment by United States Pension Commis- on account of the war with Spain; and 

sioner Ware on Aug. 25, 1904, high-water $2,878,240,400.17 on account of the Civil 

mark in the history of the Pension Bureau War. On March 16, 1904, an order was 

was reached on July 31, 1902, when the issued, to take effect April 13, making old 

number of pensioners on the roll was age (beginning with 62 years) a pension- 

1,001,494. On June 30, 1903, there were able disability. 

996,545 pensioners on the rolls, who were The following shows the payments 

classified as follows: Survivors, 7,530; in- under recent administrations: 

valids, 721,202; widows, 267,189. These President Grant's first term... $116,136,275 

comprised 12,199 widows and the 7,530 ^Sfn^GraK 'second term '. '. llliU'Ml 

survivors on account of wars prior to Average per year 28,598,839 

1861; 268,282 invalids and 89,087 widows ^J?"*. °f f f f .". . ^/f^ 145,322,489 

on account of general laws, disability in Average per year 38,330,622 

service, origin, mostly Civil War; 443,- Pr t ^on e ?!. Ga . rfi ?! d 'f.f d . mi . n . i ! t . r . a .' 237.825.070 

720 invalids and 162,241 widows on ac- Average per year 59i456,263 

count of the June, 1890, act, Civil War £*w\S e ^^?^^: ^SlSoSilSi 

disability not due to service; 624 army President Harrison's administra- 

nurses, and 9,200 invalids and 3,662 Av ^ 'per' year! ! I ! \ I \ ! ! \ \ \ \ V8W& 

widows on account of the war with Spain. President Cleveland's second 

The total amount paid to pensioners as Av *^ ' p ' e V year! '. ! ! ". ! ! ! ! ! '. ! ! liSiSSI 

first payments ou the aFowance of their President Mckinley's first term. 560.000.547 

claims in 1903 was $9,359,905. #3K$gSJE£iLt U^l \ '/. \ \ i&BStfS 

The disbursements for pensions by the Average per year 140,295,191 

United States from July 1, 1790, to June People, Agreement op the. See 

30, 1865, were $96,445,444.23. Since 1865 Agreement of the People. 



PEOPLE'S PARTY 

People's Party. The Farmer's Alii- President and Adlai E. Stevenson for Vice- 
ance may be considered its nucleus. It President; and in 1904 nominated Thomas 
was organized at Cincinnati in May, 1891. E. Watson, of Georgia, for President, and 
In 1892 it nominated for President Gen. Thomas H. Tibbies, of Nebraska, for Vice- 
James B. Weaver, of Iowa, and James G. President. See Political Parties; 
Field, of Virginia, for Vice-President; in Presidential Elections. 
1896 it combined with the Democratic The Hon. W. A. Peffer, one of the 
party in nominating William J. Bryan leaders of the People's party, wrote as 
for President, but nominated Thomas E. follows during the campaign of 1900: 

Watson for Vice-President; in 1900 it 

again combined with the Democratic That the People's party is passing must 
party in nominating William J. Bryan for be evident to all observers. Why it is go- 

130 



PEOPLE'S PARTY 

ing, and where, are obviously questions of two-thirds of the net average savings of 

present public concern. the whole people. 

The party has a good and sufficient ex- Charges for services rendered by private 
cuse for its existence. With our great persons or corporations intrusted with 
war old issues were overshadowed and public functions — such as railroading and 
new forces came into play. The suspen- banking — had never before attracted much 
sion of specie payments forced the gov- attention among the common people; and 
eminent to adopt a new monetary policy, as to interest for the use of money and 
and the ignorance and prejudices of law- rent for the use of land, they had been 
makers afforded bankers a tempting op- looked upon as things in the natural 
portunity, of which they promptly avail- order, and therefore, being unavoidable, 
ed themselves, to use the public credit for had to be endured. But the gold stand- 
purposes of speculation. Our currency ard regime had driven the people to think- 
was converted into coin interest-paying ing. They saw that while they were pay- 
bonds, the word " coin " was construed to ing from 10 to 100 per cent., according 
mean gold, and the minting of silver dol- to the pressure of their necessities, for the 
lars was discontinued. The general level of use of money, the annual increase of the 
prices fell to the cost line or below it, country's taxable wealth had but little 
and the people were paying 7 to 10 per exceeded 3 per cent., including the ad- 
cent, annual interest on an enormous pri- vance of values by reason of settlement 
vate debt. Personal property in towns and labor. And rent, they saw, was the 
and cities was rapidly passing beyond the same thing as interest on the estimated 
view of the tax - gatherer. Agriculture value of the property. If all the people 
was prostrate. Farmers were at the working together as one cannot save more 
mercy of speculators; the earth had come than 3 per cent, a year, when in posses- 
under the dominion of landlords; forests sion of a vast area that did not cost them 
and mines were owned by syndicates; rail- more than two cents an acre, is it cause 
way companies were in combination; for wonder that they did not thrive when 
wealth and social influence had usurped paying three or four times that rate for 
power, and the seat of government was the use of money? And was there not 
transferred to Wall Street. something radically wrong in conditions 

These abuses were fruits of our legis- when, in a country so great in extent as 

lation. Congress had forgotten the peo- this, so rich and varied in resources and 

pie and turned their business over to the populated by freemen under a government 

money-changers. Both of the great polit- of their own choosing, more than half the 

ical parties then active were wedded to people were compelled to pay money or 

these vicious policies which were despoil- other property for the use of land to live 

ing the farmers and impoverishing the on? Why should any man or woman be 

working-classes generally. Gold was king required to hire space to live in? 

and a new party was needed to shorten Forests are diminished and coal is used 

its reign. for fuel. But the coal is found in great 

And hence it was that the People's party beds under the earth's surface, and these 

was born. It came into being that gov- sources of fuel are monopolized by a few 

eminent by the people might not perish men, and the rest of us are forced to pay 

from the earth. It planted itself on the them not only a price for the coal, but 

broad ground of equality of human rights, for rent of the land and interest on a 

It believed the earth is the people's heri- fictitious capitalization of corporate fran- 

tage and that wealth belongs to him who chises. By what authority is one man al- 

creates it; that the work of distributing lowed to take and possess more of the 

the products and profits of labor ought resources of nature than are sufficient for 

to be performed by public agencies; that his own use and then demand tribute 

money should be provided by the govern- from others who are equally with him 

ment and distributed through government entitled to share them? And why shall 

instrumentalities so that borrowers might one man or company of men be permitted 

secure its use at an annual charge not to dictate to other men what wages they 

exceeding 2 per cent., which is equal to shall receive for the labor they perform? 

131 



PEOPLE'S PARTY 



And why should an employer be favored 
by the law rather than the person whom 
he employs? And by what rule of law or 
justice are the working masses required 
to use non-legal tender money in their 
daily business affairs, while the " pri- 
mary " money is kept in reserve for the 
special use of the speculating classes? 
Why have one kind of money for the rich 
and another kind for the poor? Why 
should a stringency in New York City be 
treated more tenderly than a stringency 
in any other part of the country? Why 
pay a premium of 25 per cent, in gold on 
bonds that have many years yet to run? 
And why pay interest nine to twelve 
months before it is due? Why leave 
$18,000,000 or more without interest for 
years and years in national banks to be 
lent by them to their customers at 6 per 
cent, and upwards? 

Questions like these were suggested by 
conditions present when the People's party 
was formed. It was the first great body 
of men, organized for political purposes, 
that took up these matters and put them 
in issue before the country with a view 
of ultimately securing relief through 
legislation. Its principles were essentially 
different from those of the other great 
parties on every fundamental proposition. 
Republicans and Democrats were given to 
old ideas in politics and law. Formed for 
altogether different purposes, they did not 
take kindly to any of the proposed re- 
forms that would change established poli- 
tics. Hence they were attached to the 
national banking system; they believed 
that the precious metals only are fit for 
use as money, and that all other forms of 
currency and all debts and pecuniary lia- 
bilities must be ultimately paid in coin. 
They believed that only private corpora- 
tions should be intrusted with the func- 
tion of issuing paper to be used as cur- 
rency, and that the people's fiscal affairs 
ought to be conducted through the agency 
of private banks. They believed in private 
ownership of everything not absolutely 
necessary for the government's use in con- 
ducting its operations. They believed the 
coal-mines might properly be owned and 
operated by corporations with the accom- 
panying privilege of charging what they 
please for the output. They believed in 
unlimited private ownership of land and 



132 



in private means of transportation on 
public highways. They believed that rail- 
way and express companies might right- 
fully tax their patrons enough to pay 
dividends on a capitalization equal to 
two or three times the actual value of the 
property used. They believed that em- 
ployers might justly dictate the rate of 
wages to be paid, and that, in case of 
resistance on the part of the employes, 
this right may be enforced by the use of 
military power, if need be. 

On the other hand, Populists do not 
believe these things. They believe that 
every child has exactly equal rights with 
those persons who were here when he 
came; that he is entitled to a place to 
live, and that, equally with his fellow- 
men, he is entitled to the use of natural 
resources of subsistence, including a parcel 
of vacant land where he may earn a liveli- 
hood. Populists believe that the interests 
of all the people are superior to the in- 
terests of a few of them or of one, and 
that no man or company of men should 
ever be permitted to monopolize land or 
franchises to the exclusion of the common 
rights of all the people or to the detri- 
ment of society. They believe that what 
a man honestly earns is his, and that the 
workman and his employer ought to have 
fair play and an equal showing in all dis- 
putes about wages. They believe that 
railways and canals, like the lakes and 
navigable rivers, ought to belong to the 
people. They believe that money, like the 
highway, is made to serve a public use; 
that dollars, like ships, are instruments 
of commerce, and that citizens ought not 
to be subjected to inconvenience or loss 
from a scarcity of money any more than 
they should be hindered in their work or 
their business by reason of a shortage in 
the supply of wagons, cars, or boats. They 
believe that the people themselves, acting 
for themselves through their own agen- 
cies, should supply all the money required 
for the prompt and easy transaction of 
business ; that in addition to silver and 
gold coin, government paper, and only 
that, ought to be issued and used, that 
it should be full legal tender, and that 
there should be no discrimination in favor 
of or against anything which is allowed 
to circulate as money. 

It will be seen that every proposition 



PEOPLE'S PARTY 



in this code is intended to be in the in- 
terest of the great body of the people 
and in opposition to class distinctions. 
The monetary scheme proposed — gold, sil- 
ver, and government paper — is not a new 
departure; but it provides for unlimited 
coinage of both metals and an immediate 
increase of paper money to a limit suffi- 
cient for the people's use in their daily 
business. It opposes land monopoly, which 
is giving us a class of landlords and pau- 
perizing a million people that are de- 
pendent on those who work in coal-mines. 
This new party proposes to get the people 
in the saddle. Summarized, its party 
platform was this: Equal rights and op- 
portunities to all: let the people rule. 
On that it went to the country and re- 
ceived more than a million votes. 

A. more earnest, enthusiastic, sincere, 
and disinterested campaign was never en- 
tered upon or waged than that of the 
Populists in 1892, and although the work 
was done under a continuing fire of ridi- 
cule on the part of Republicans and Demo- 
crats alike not before equalled in the his- 
tory of American politics, the new party 
made a profound impression on the voters. 

But early in 1896 it was agreed among 
the men in lead that an alliance should 
be formed with the Democrats for the 
campaign of that year, and now the Peo- 
ple's party is afflicted with political 
anaemia. It took too much Democracy. 

Shall the alliance of 1896 be continued? 
That is the question at issue. Fusionists 
answer yes, conditionally ; Anti-fusioniets 
answer no, unconditionally; and every day 
the question remains open these parties 
appear to get farther apart rather than 
closer together. Fusionists aver that they 
have not yet determined in favor of per- 
petual union with another party. That, 
they say, can be settled later — when they 
know what the other parties are going to 
do. Right there is the seat of trouble. 
If they would only declare against any 
and every form of alliance or fusion with 
any of the old parties, that declaration 
alone would settle the question and bring 
the party together again, while their fail- 
ure to do so leaves the matter still in 
issue, and the breach widens. This claim 
of the Fusionists that they are simply 
waiting to see what course the other 
parties will take, that Populists may 

1 



avail themselves of whatever strategy 
there is then in the situation, cannot, in 
the opinion of the Anti-fusionists, be safe- 
ly accepted or allowed. It lacks evidence 
of party loyalty in the first place, they 
say; it lacks good faith in the second 
place; and in the third place it is want- 
ing in truth. They are not waiting. On 
the contrary, they are actively at work 
forming local alliances preparatory to the 
Congressional campaign in 1898 and the 
Presidential contest in 1900. In every 
part of the country where they are com- 
paratively strong, as in Iowa, Nebraska, 
and Kansas, they are in hearty accord 
with the fusion Democrats. In Iowa, at 
the late election, the regular State con- 
vention of the People's party refused to 
put out a ticket of its own, and personally 
the fusion members united in support of 
the Democratic nominees from governor 
down. In Nebraska, where the Populists 
are largely in majority over Democrats, 
they united in support of a ticket headed 
by a Democrat. In Kansas the patronage 
of the State administration (Populist) is 
divided among the parties to the triple 
alliance of 1896. 

These things indicate the direction of 
political wind currents. They are signs 
full of meaning, and none but the blind 
can fail to comprehend their significance. 
Mr. Bryan, on his part, has already con- 
tributed $1,500 to the People's party cam- 
paign fund, and Senator Allen has in- 
vested the money in interest-bearing se- 
curities that it may increase unto the 
day of its use in " promoting the cause of 
bimetallism." 

On the other hand, the Anti-fusionists 
wish to maintain their party relations, 
and they do not see how they can do that 
by supporting some other party, more 
especially one whose principles do not 
accord with their own; and the division 
growing out of this difference is fatal. 
It is drawn on the dead-line. These Anti- 
fusionists are like Cubans in this respect: 
they demand the independence of their 
party; they do not desire to be merely 
an attachment to another body, and par- 
ticularly one from which they have once 
separated on account of unsatisfactory 
relations. They are affirmatively against 
fusion or alliance or federation of any 
sort with either the Republican or the 
33 



PEOPLE'S PARTY 



Democratic party in any national election, triotic as it is, brings no response from 

They are Populists because they believe the other side. 

in the principles of the People's party, Two things may be taken as facts: 
and they intend and expect to remain First, that as long as Mr. Bryan is in the 
such, at any rate until a greater and bet- field as the Democratic candidate for the 
ter party is formed out of other existing Presidency, Fusion Populists will co- 
political bodies that are aiming at higher operate with the Democracy. Second, that 
ideals in government. the Anti-fusion, or Middle-of-the-road, 
Nor can it be said that the Anti-fusion- Fopulists will not again ally themselves 



ists have been wanting in attentions to 
their fusion brethren, for they have 
warned them from time to time of at- 
tempts of their national committee to ex- 
tend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over 



either individually or as a body with the 
Democratic party, no matter who is its 
candidate. 

These facts show why the People's 
party is passing. It now remains to con- 



them. They have repeatedly asked for a sider where it is going, 
conference of the disagreeing factions, It will not go to the Republicans, be- 
with the view of a friendly adjustment of cause its leading doctrines are diametri- 
their differences, but no attention is paid eally opposed to the principles and policies 
to these requests. And that their number of the present Republican party. Every- 
and temper might not be underestimated thing of importance favored by Populists 
or their motives and wishes misunder- is opposed by Republicans, and everything 
stood, they called a conference themselves, cardinal in the Republican creed is op- 
held at Nashville, Tenn., July 4, 1897, posed by Populists; hence the latter are 
and on that occasion it was unanimous- not headed for the Republican camp. This 
ly resolved by them to have no further is enough on that part of the subject, 
union or alliance with other parties, and If the People's party be merged, it will 
a committee was appointed to reor- be in a new body that shall include ad- 
ganize the Anti-fusion Populists of the vanced Democrats, like Altgeld and 
country. Bryan, Silver Republicans, and men of re- 
Several independent suggestions have form views in every other body that has 
been submitted by individual Anti-fusion- been organized to promote political re- 
ists on their own responsibility, proposing forms. And that would be a wise and 
plans to bring the members of the party practicable ending of these disastrous 
together on new lines. One of these is party antagonisms. But old party names 
to call a conference of delegates repre- would have to be dropped and a new 
senting all political bodies that are op- name and creed adopted for the new 
posed to the present gold-standard regime, party. If they could agree on doctrines, 
to consider whether it be not practicable, surely they would not fail to agree on a 
out of many, to form one great party name by which they should wish to be 



with a single creed embodying everything 
regarded as essential by each of the 
parties represented. Such a conference, it 
is urged, would bring together the strong- 



known. This course would bring into one 
army all the forces that are now march- 
ing in the same direction — voters who 
ought to be together and who must be 



est and best men among the members of together before final victory is achieved 
all parties. If, upon full and free con- over class rule. United in one party un- 
forence, such a body should agree upon a der a new name, with one creed and one 
common declaration of principles and a leader, every member would feel the 
new name for the new body, the trouble warmth of new friendships and be en- 
which is now so threatening among Popu- couraged by the stimulus of a large com- 
lists would be disposed of. Such a move- panionship; for, together they would be 
ment, if successful, would bring into be- able soon to re-establish popular govern- 
ing the most splendid body of men ever ment in the United States, and the people 
organized for any purpose, and they could would be in power again, 
gain possession of the government by the Such a party could be easily formed if 
use of a freeman's safeguard — the ballot. Democrats were not opposed to it. And 
This proposition, however, wise and pa- they would not be opposed if the Popu- 

134 



PEOPLE'S PARTY 

lists, united, should declare against fusion If it be inquired why they are op- 
and merging and all sorts of co-operation, posed to Democracy, let the record an- 
with any existing party. And that is just swer. They believe the people of the 
what they ought to do. Let Populists United States constitute a nation; they 
but rise to the level of the occasion, shake believe the government is an agency cre- 
off the hypnotic stupor of Democracy and ated by the people for their use and 
assert themselves as party men, announc- benefit, and hence that all great national 
ing the end of all unions and alliances instrumentalities and franchises ought to 
with other parties, except such as shall be owned and operated by the government, 
relate to the formation of one great new This principle they hold to be vital. The 
party made up of voters opposed to the Democratic party is always, and always 
present Republican regime, and Demo- has been, opposed to this theory. It has 
cratic leaders, seeing that alone they are uniformly opposed internal improvement 
lost, would take counsel of their fears by the general government except for mili- 
and hasten to the newer and securer fold, tary or naval purposes. That party be- 
lt is the readiness of Fusion Populists to lieves in metallic money as the only real 
train with their Democratic brethren that money; it is a "hard money" party, and 
encourages them and turns their heads it favors State bank-notes for currency, 
upward. If Mr. Bryan could not win for And while from the Populist doctrine 
his party when he had virtually the united on silver coinage, " sixteen to one " was 
Populist support, how can he succeed made the Bryan battle-cry in 1896, there 
with half that vote? The candidate of i s no evidence that his party had then or 
the Democratic party in 1900 will not get has since changed front on the theory of 
the vote of the Anti-fusion Populists, and Senate bill No. 2,642, introduced by Sena- 
without this support the chances for that tor Jones, of Arkansas, on Jan. 23, 1895, 
party's success will be greatly lessened. f which the ninth section is as follows: 
But a union of all reformers in one body 

would be invincible. " From and after the passage of this aet 
T . . ., ,. the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby au- 
It is no answer to these suggestions to tnoriS 5ed and directed to receive at any Unit- 
question the loyalty or patriotism of the ed Slates mint, from any citizen of the United 
i\nti-fusionists/ for they will retort bv States, silver bullion of standard fineness, and 

j.1- a. «jr ta x • " coin the same into silver dollars of 412 V> 

saying that if Democrats are in sym- gra , ng each The seigniorage on tne s Ja 

pathy with Populism, their disinter- bullion shall belong to the United States, 
estedness would be more apparent if they and shall be the difference between the coin- 
would come over and help the People's a = e vaIue thereof and the price of the bullion 

x! x -x i j -j j in London on the day the deposit is made, 

party, seeing that it had occupied and ap- et 

propriated this reform ground long before 

it was discovered by the followers of Mr. The Democrats are now everywhere try- 
Bryan, ing to get together on the silver question, 
Unless some new alignment of voters is and they can readily effect a union by 
effected soon, the People's party will per- agreeing to a law which shall have this 
manently separate into two parts. One section nine as one of its provisions. It 
faction will go backward to the Demo- is proverbially a party of compromise, 
crats, and it will not have to go far, as A party with Bryan and Croker working 
the distance between the rear of the harmoniously together in it need not 
People's party and the vanguard of De- struggle hard or long over so trifling a 
mocracy is so short that they readily matter as the ratio between silver and 
mingle in the same camp and one counter- gold. There is nothing in any of the pub- 
sign answers for both. The other faction lie utterances of Mr. Bryan to indicate 
will go forward to still higher ground, that, after securing the Populist vote, he 
These men having nothing in common with would not consent to any ratio that would 
Democracy except their views on the in- save to his party its conservative silver 
come tax and silver coinage, and these, element. 

even if they be taken as leading issues, Our coin debts were all contracted when 

are Populist doctrines, announced long be- the coin of the country consisted of silver 

fore they appeared in the Chicago platform, and gold at the sixteen-to-one ratio, and 

135 



PEOPLE'S PARTY 

every United States bond now out ex- Seven sections following this section 

pressly declares on its face that it is " re- provide details, including authority to 

deemable, principal and interest, in coin national banks to enlarge their circula- 

of the standard value of July 14, 1870," tion to the full limit of their bonds de- 

and the ratio was sixteen to one at that posited. No Populist could endorse a 

time. Besides, the greenbacks and treas- measure like that; yet when the bill was 

ury notes are all redeemable in that kind reported favorably to the Senate by Mr. 

of coin, and for these reasons Populists Jones every Democrat in Congress at the 

are not willing to change the ratio. time, with the possible exception of a few 

Nor can they agree with the Democrats nionometallists, stood ready to support it. 

on the subject of government paper money. There are still other matters of differ- 

The Chicago platform says: ence. Populists regard the land question 

,,,,,, , . , . , as of supreme importance. The people's 

"We demand that all paper which is made . r ,. . L , ,. r r TTT 

legal tender for public and private debts, homes are slipping away from them. We 

or which is receivable for duties to the Unit- are fast becoming a nation of renters. 

ed States, shall be issued by the government w e have a million or more unemployed 

to coin™* 6 * Stat6S aDd ShaU ^ redeemable men and women all the time, some of 

whom, at least, could earn a living on the 
That is to say, not that we demand or pu bli c lands if they could only get to 
favor that kind of paper; but that, if them with means to start. Populists 
any of it is issued, it " shall be redeemable think the national and State governments 
in coin." The truth is, the Democratic ought to take hold of the labor problem 
party is now, as it has always been, op- am i ge t the people at work again. Strikes 
posed to government legal-tender paper an( j ] ck-outs, and consequent disturb- 
money. Otherwise, it would not demand arices i n trade, can be prevented by keep- 
redemption in coin. ing people employed at fair remunera- 
te Populist platform puts it this way: t ion. There is nothing in the Democratic 
" We demand a national currency, safe, platform or in that party's history which 
sound, and flexible, issued by the general j s j n any way - reS ponsive to these ad- 
government only, a full legal tender for all V ances of Populism. So, too, Populists 
debts"— a demand quite different from believe that the present capitalization of 
that of the Democrats. ur great railway system is a standing 
As a further matter of difference, at- men ace to the commercial peace of the 
tention is called to the fact that there is COU ntry, and that final government owner- 
no evidence tending to show that the s hi p and management is the only safe 
Democratic party has changed its position an< j cer tain cure for the accumulating 
on the subject of retiring government embarrassments attending present meth- 
paper money. Section 1 of Senator ods of handling the business of these 
Jones's bill, above cited, provides as fol- powerful corporations. Democracy is op- 
lows: posed to such a policy. And if there is 
"That authority is hereby given to the anything on which the Populist heart is 
Secretary of the Treasury to issue bonds of chiefly set, it is the right of the people 
the United States to the amount of $500,- to pr0 pose legislation and to pass on im- 
000,000, coupon or registered, at the option *, \_ , , ,, r , , «■ . 
of the buyer; payable, principal and interest, pcrtant measures before they take effect 
in coin of the present standard value, and as laws. But this doctrine has not found 
bearing interest at the rate of 3 per cent, favor in any body of orthodox Democrats, 
per annum, payable quarterly, and not to Final]y as to all matters which Popu- 
be sold at less than par, the bonds to mature *" j » 
thirty years from date, and be redeemable at llsts _ regard as fundamental and ot sur- 
the option of the government after twenty passing importance, the two parties are 
years ; and that the Secretary of the Treas- Rot on lv not in accord, but are positively 
ury be, and he is hereby authorized to use ^ to psLoh ofhpr Th PponVs 
the proceeds of the sale of said bonds to 0PP 0se °- to eactl otner. ine leop^es 
defray current expenses of the government, party was formed for present duties, while 
and for the redemption of United States that of the Democracy came from divis- 
legal-tender notes and of treasury notes iong am th founders of t he republic, 
issued under the act of July fourteenth, . & , r . 
eighteen hundred and ninety, as hereinafter The doctrines of this young party are, in 
provided." brief, the equal rights of men; its creed 

136 



PEOPLE'S PARTY— PEPPERELL 



is the golden rule; its idea of law is jus- of gravitation. While the factors are being 

tice, and its theory of government is the arranged in equations of the next cen- 

rule of the people. tury, and during the sittings and winnow- 

If the scheme to organize a new body is ings of the time, these devoted Populists 

left untried, or, if tried, it is found to be will gravitate to their proper places among 

impracticable and the People's party is the leaders of thought and action in the 

finally separated into two wings, the work of the trying days to come. To 

Fusionists will have no difficulty in find- them, and to such as they, will be given 

ing a resting-place; but the work for truths of the future to reveal to others 

which the party was born and which it as they can bear them, and they shall 

bravely commenced will be left for their have at least the reward of the faithful. 



old associates and new co-workers who 
shall be found in other bodies — men and 
women who believe good government can 
be maintained only through social order 



Pepperell, Sin William, military offi- 
cer; born in Kittery, Me., June 27, 1696. 
His father, a Welshman, came to New 
England as apprentice to a fisherman, 



and just laws, citizens who believe in where he married. The son became a 
doing good because they love their fellow- merchant, amassed a large fortune, and 
men, reformers whose faces have always became an influential man. Fitted by 
been to the front, veterans who draw the temperament for military life, he was f re- 
enemy's fire and who fight better in the quently engaged against the Indians, and 
field than in the camp. attained much distinction. About 1727 

There will be plenty of work for them he was appointed one of his Majesty's 
to do. Conditions will not improve un- council for the province of Massachusetts, 
der the present regime. Times will get and held the office, by re-election, thirty- 
no better. Stringency and panic will be two consecutive years. Appointed chief- 
here on time again and again as of old, justice of common pleas in 1730, he be- 
for neither Repub- 
licans nor Demo- 
crats offer a pre- 
ventive. They do 
not seem to know 
what ails the coun- 
try and the world. 
High tariff is but 
heavy taxation, 
and free silver 
alone will not give 
work to the idle 
nor bread to the 
poor. The case 
needs heroic treat- 
ment — just such as 
the People's party 
proposed. 

Yes, the work 
will be delayed, but 
it will be done. 
Justice will be re- 
established in the 
land and the peo- 
ple's rights will be 
restored to them. 
The law of prog- 
ress will not be 
suspended any 

more than the law sir william pepperell's house at kittery, me. 

137 




PEQUOD WAR 



came eminent as a jurist. In 1745 he Sassaeus undertook the task alone. First 
commanded the successful expedition his people kidnapped children, murdered 



against Louisburg, and was knighted. On 
visiting England in 1749, he was com- 
missioned colonel in the British army; 




SIR WILLIAM PKPPKKELL, 



men alone in the forests or on the waters, 
and swept away fourteen families. A 
Massachusetts trading- vessel was seized 
by the Indians at Block Island, plundered, 
and its commander, John Oldham, mur- 
dered. They were allies of the Pequods, 
who protected them. The authorities at 
Boston sent Endicott and Captain Gar- 
diner to chastise them. With a small mili- 
tary force in three vessels they entered 
Long Island Sound. They killed some Ind- 
ians at Block Island, and left the domain 
a blackened desolation. Then they went 
over to the mainland, made some demands 
which they could not enforce; desolated 
fields, burned wigwams, killed a few 
people, and departed. 

The exasperated Pequods sent ambas- 
sadors to the Narragansets urging them 
to join in a war of extermination. 
Through the influence of Roger Williams, 
who rendered good for evil, the Narragan- 
sets were not only kept from joining the 
Pequods, but became allies of the English 
in making war upon them. All through 
the next winter the Pequods harassed the 
settlements in the Connecticut Valley, and 
in the spring of 1637 the colonists deter- 
became major-general in 1755; and lieu- mined to make war upon the aggressors, 
tenant-general in 1759. From 1756 to They had slain more than thirty English- 
1758 Sir William was acting governor of men. Massachusetts sent troops to assist 
Massachusetts before the arrival of Pow- the Connecticut people. The English were 
nail. He died in Kittery, Me., July 6, joined by the Mohegans under Uncas, and 
1759. the entire army was under the command 

Pequod War, The. The most power- of Capt. John Mason, who had been a 
ful of the New England tribes were the soldier in the Netherlands. The little 
Pequods, whose territory extended from army proceeded by water to the Narragan- , 
Narraganset Bay to Hudson River, and set country, whence the Pequods would 
over Long Island. Sassaeus, their em- least expect attack, and marched upon 
peror, ruled over twenty-six native princes, their rear. The Indians, seeing them sail 
He was bold, cruel, cool, calculating, eastward, concluded the English had aban- 
treacherous, haughty, fierce, and malig- doned the expedition and the Connecticut 
nant. Jealous of the friendship of the Valley. It was a fatal mistake. The 
English for the Mohegans, and believing white people were joined by many Narra- 
the garrison at the mouth of the Con- gansets and Niantics, and while Sassaeus 
necticut River would soon be strengthened was dreaming of the flight of the Euro- 
and endanger his dominions, Sassaeus de- peans more than fifty warriors, pale and 
termined in 1636 to exterminate the white dusky, were marching swiftly to attack 
people. He tried to induce the Narragan- his stronghold near the waters of the 
sets and the Mohegans to join him. The Mystic River. Mason was accompanied 
united tribes might put 4,000 braves on by Captain Underhill, another brave sol- 
the war-path at once, while there were dier. 

not more than 250 Englishmen in the Con- When the invaders reached the foot of 
necticut Valley capable of bearing arms, the hill on which the fort of Sassaeus 

138 



PEQUOD WAR— PERCY 



stood — a circular structure strongly pali- 
saded, embracing seventy wigwams covered 
with matting and thatch — they were yet 
undiscovered. The sentinels could hear 
the sounds of revelry among the savages 
within the fortress. At midnight all was 
still. Two hours before the dawn (May 
26) the invaders marched upon the fort 
in two columns. The Indian allies grew 
fearful, for Sassacus was regarded as all 
but a god. Uncas was firm. The dusky 
warriors lingered behind, and formed a 
cordon in the woods around the fortress 
to kill any who might attempt to escape. 
The moon shone brightly. Stealthily the 
little army crept up the hill, when an 
aroused sentinel awakened the sleepers 



and they threatened his life if he did not 
immediately lead them against the in- 
vaders. Just then the blast of a trumpet 
was heard. The white invaders were near, 
fully 200 strong. The Indians fled with 
their women and children across the 
Thames, through the forest and over green 
savannas westward, closely pursued. The 
fugitives took refuge in Sasco Swamp, 
near Fairfield, where they all surrendered 
to the English excepting Sassacus and a 
few followers, who escaped. A nation had 
perished in a day. That blow gave peace 
to New England for forty years. The last 
representative of the pure blood of the 
Pequods, probably, was Eunice Manwee, 
who died in Kent, Conn., about 1860, aged 




WHERE MASON'S AKMY LANDED. 



within the fort. Mason and Underhill, 
approaching from opposite directions, 
burst in the sally-ports. The terrified Ind- 
ians rushed out, but were driven back by 
swords and musket-balls. Their thatched 
wigwams were fired, and within an hour 
about 600 men, women, and children were 
slain. The bloodthirsty and the innocent 
shared the same fate. Only seven of the 
Pequods escaped death, and Cotton Mather 
afterwards wrote : " It was supposed that 
no less than five or six hundred Pequod 
souls were brought down to hell that day." 
Sassacus was not there; he was at an- 
other fort near the Thames, opposite the 
site of New London. Sassacus sat stately 
and sullen when told of the massacre at 
the Mystic. His warriors were furious, 



100 years. Sassacus took refuge with the 
Mohawks, who, at the request of the 
Narragansets, cut off his head. The 
Puritans, who believed themselves to be 
under the peculiar care of Divine Provi- 
dence, and the Indians to be the children 
of the devil, exulted in this signal instance 
of the favor of Heaven. " The Lord was 
pleased," wrote Captain Mason, " to smite 
our enemies in the hinder parts and give 
us their land for an inheritance." See 
Mason, John. 

Percy, George, born in Syon House, 
England, Sept. 4, 1586; succeeded Capt. 
John Smith as governor of Virginia in 
1610. He was the author of A History of 
the Plantations of the Southern Colonie 
of Virginia, which is a history of the voy- 



139 



PERCY— PERRIN DTJ LAC 




HUGH PERCY. 



age and all their explorations during the perfected steam-engines, and for many 
first year of the existence of the colony, years carried on a large manufactory in 
He died in England in March, 1G32. London. He originated the process used 

Percy, Hugh, Duke of Northumberland ; by bank-note engravers for transfer- 
born in England, Aug. 25, 1742. Entering ring an engraving from one steel plate 
the army in his youth, he first saw service to another, and perfected many other 
under Prince Ferdinand in Germany. He inventions, for which he received the gold 
commanded as brigadier-general against medal of the Society of Arts in London. 

He died in London, England, July 30, 
1849. 

Perkins, James Handasyd, author; 
born in Boston, Mass., July 31, 1810; re- 
ceived an academic education; settled in 
Cincinnati, O., in 1832; later became a 
Unitarian minister; deeply interested him- 
self in prison reform; and was first presi- 
dent of the Cincinnati Historical Society. 
His publications include Digest of the 
Constitutional Opinions of Chief -Justice 
John Marshall; Christian Civilization; 
and Annals of the West. He died in Cin- 
cinnati, O., Dec. 14, 1849. 

Perkins, Samuel, author; born in 
Lisbon, Conn., in 1767; graduated at Yale 
College in 1785; studied theology, and for 
a time preached, but afterwards became 
a lawyer. His publications included His- 
tory of the Political and Military Events 
of the Late War between the United 
the Americans in 1775-76. To Lexing- States and Great Britain; General Jack- 
ion, on the morning of the affray there, son's Conduct in the Seminole War; and 
he led a timely reinforcement, and in the Historical Sketches of the United States, 
fall of 1776 he assisted in the reduction 1815-30. He died in Windham, Conn., in 
of Fort Washington. The next month his September, 1850. 

mother died, when he succeeded to the Perrein, Jean, naturalist; born near 
baronetcy of Percy, and returned to Eng- Mont de Marsan, France, in 1750; visited 
land. He became Duke of Northumber- North America in 1794, and travelled in 
land in June, 1786, and died July 10, the Rocky Mountains, in all the New Eng- 
1817. land States, and in Quebec, Ontario, and' 

Perfectionists. See Notes, John other parts of British America. He was 
Humphrey. the author of a valuable work entitled 

Perkins, Jacob, inventor; born in New- Travel among the Indians of North Amer- 
buryport, Mass., July 9, 1766. As early iea, with a Sketch of the Customs and 
as his fifteenth year he carried on the Character of the People. He died in New 
business of a goldsmith in Newburyport, York in October, 1805. 
and early invented a method for plating Perrin Du Lac, Francois Marie, trav- 
shoe-buckles. He made dies for coining eller; born in Chaux-de-Fonds, France, in 
money when the United States Mint was 1766; came to the United States in 1791, 
under consideration. He was then twenty- and travelled through Louisiana, Missis- 
one, and when he was twenty-four he in- sippi, Illinois, Ohio, Maryland, Pennsyl- 
vented a machine for making nails at one vania, and other sections: returned to 
operation, and steel plates for bank-notes, France in 1803. He wrote Journey in the 
which, it was supposed, could not be Two Louisianas, and among the Savage 
counterfeited. After living in Boston, Nations of Missouri, through the United 
New York, and Philadelphia, he went States, Ohio, and the Border Provinces, 
to England in the year 1815, where he in 1801, 1802, and 1803, with a Sketch 

140 



PERRY 



of the Manners, Practices, Character, and way for, and accelerated an introduc- 
the Religious Customs and Civil Laws of tion of a new order of things; an event 
the People of the Various Regions. He that enabled the country to enter upon 
died in Rambouillet, France, July 22, the unprecedented era in national pros- 
1824. Parity in which we now live. Japan has 

Perry, Benjamin Franklin, lawyer; not forgotten — nor will she ever forget — 
born in Pendleton District, S. C, Nov. 20, that next to her reigning and most be- 
1805; was admitted to the bar in 1827; loved sovereign, whose rare virtue and 
was a strong Unionist, and was instru- great wisdom is above all praise, she owes 
mental in organizing a Union party in her present prosperity to the United 
South Carolina ; founded a Union paper States of America. After a lapse of forty- 
iu Greenville, S. C, in 1850, entitled The eight years the people of Japan have come 
Southern Patriot. In 1860 he made to entertain but an uncertain memory of 
strenuous efforts to prevent the secession Kurihama, and yet it was there that 
of the State, but, being unsuccessful, em- Commodore Perry first trod on the soil 
braced the Southern cause. His publica- of Japan, and for the first time awoke the 
tions include Reminiscences of Public country from three centuries of slumberous 
Men; and Sketches of Eminent American seclusion, and there first gleamed the rays 
Statesmen, with Speeches and Letters of of her new era of progress." He died in 
Governor Perry, prefaced by an Outline New York City, March 4. 1858. 
of the Author's Life. He died in Green- Perry, Oliver Hazard, naval officer; 
ville, S. C, Dec. 3, 1886. born in South Kingston, P. I., Aug. 23, 

Perry, Matthew Calbraith, naval 1785; entered the navy as midshipman in 
officer; born in Newport, R. I., April 10, 1799; served in the Tripolitan War; had 
1794; was a brother of Commodore Oliver charge of a flotilla of gunboats in New 
II. Perry, and entered the navy as mid- York Harbor in 1S12; and in 1813 was 
shipman in 1809. In command of the called to the command of a fleet on Lake 
Cyane, in 1819, he fixed the locality of Erie. On the evening of Sept. 9, 1813, 
the settlement of Liberia. He captured Perry called around him the officers of his 
several pirate vessels in the West Indies squadron and gave instructions to each in 
from 1821 to 1824, and was employed on writing, for he had determined to attack 
shore from 1833 to 1841, when he 
again, as commodore, went to sea 
in command of squadrons for sev- 
eral years, engaging in the siege of 
Vera Cruz in 1847. From 1852 to 
1S54 he commanded the expedition 
to Japan, and negotiated a very im- 
portant treaty with the rulers of 
that empire, which has led to won- 
derful results in the social and re- 
ligious condition of that people, 
and secured great advantages to 
America. 

A monument commemorating 
Commodore Perry's visit to Japan 
was erected at Kurihama, Japan, 
in 1901. In a circular sent out by 
the " American Association of 
Japan," of which the Japanese 
Minister of Justice is president, 
the following language is used: 
" Commodore Perry's visit was, in a 
word, the turn of the key which 
opened the doors of the Japanese 
Empire, an event which paved the 

141 




OLIVER U.lZAKU PKJtKY. 



PERRY, OLIVER HAZARD 




Mmy, wirti/ou take some more 



Oh ! Terry /// One thatferryl 

—One disaster after another— J nave 

—J-have rut half recovered of the Bloody-nose 



Queen Charlotte tmdSohnnu Bull jot their dose of (Terru. 



the British squadron at its anchorage the 
next day. The conference ended at about 
10 P.M.. The unclouded moon was at its 
full. Just before the officers departed, 
Perry brought out a square battle-flag 
which had been privately prepared for 
him at Erie. It was blue, and bore in 
large white letters made of muslin the al- 
leged dying words of Lawrence — " Don't 
give up the ship." 

" When this flag shall be hoisted at the 
main-yard," said Perry, " it shall be your 
signal for going into action." On the fol- 
lowing day he gained a complete victory 
over the British squadron (see Erie, Lake, 
Battle of). When Perry had fought the 
battle and his eye saw at a glance that 
victory was secure, he wrote in pencil on 
the back of an old letter, resting the paper 
on his navy cap, the following despatch to 
General Harrison, the first clause of which 
lias often been quoted: 

" We have met the enemy and they are 
ours: two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and 
one sloop. 

" Yours, with great respect and esteem, 
" O. H. Perry." 

Many songs were written and sung in 
commemoration of Perry's victory. One of 
the most popular of these was " Amer- 
ican Perry," beginning: 

142 



Bold Barclay one day to Proctor did say, 

I'm tired of Jamaica and cherry ; 
So let us go down to that new floating town 
And get some American Perry. 
Oh, cheap American Perry ! 
Most pleasant American Perry ! 
We need only bear down, knock and call, 
And we'll have the American Perry." 




PERRY'S MONUMENT, NEWPORT, R. J. 



PERRY 



Among the caricatures of the day was one 
by Charles, of Philadelphia, representing 
John Bull, in the person of the King, seat- 
ed, with his hand pressed upon his stom- 
ach, indicating pain, which the fresh juice 
of the pear, called perry, will produce. 
Queen Charlotte, the King's wife (a fair 
likeness of whom is given), enters with 
a bottle labelled " Perry," out of which 
the cork has flown, and in the foam are 
seen the names of the vessels composing 
the American squadron. She says, 
" Johnny, won't you take some more 
perry?" John Bull replies, while writh- 
ing in pain produced by perry, " Oh ! 
Perry! Curse that Perry! One disaster 
after another — I have not half recovered 
of the bloody nose I got at the boxing- 
match!" This last expression refers to 
the capture of the Boxer by the American 
schooner Enterprise. This caricature is 
entitled " Queen Charlotte and Johnny 
Bull got their dose of Perry." The point 
will be better perceived by remembering 
that one of the principal vessels of the 
British squadron was named the Queen 
Charlotte, in honor of the royal consort. 
In a ballad of the day occur the following 
lines: 

" On Erie's wave, while Barclay brave, 
With Charlotte making merry, 
He chanced to take the belly-ache, 
We drenched him so with Perry." 

At the time of his great victory Perry 
was only master-commander, but was im- 
mediately promoted to captain, and re- 
ceived the thanks of Congress and a medal. 
He assisted Harrison in retaking Detroit 
late in 1813. In 1S15 he commanded the 
Java in Decatur's squadron in the Mediter- 
ranean, and in 1819 was sent against the 
pirates in the West Indies. He died in 
Port Spain, Trinidad, Aug. 23, 1819. The 
name and fame of Perry is held in loving 
remembrance by all Americans. In 1860 a 
fine marble statue of him by Walcutt was 
erected in a public square in Cleveland, 
0., with imposing ceremonies, and a monu- 
ment to his memory has been erected in 
Newport, R. I. At the unveiling of the 
statue at Cleveland, George Bancroft de- 
livered an address; Dr. Usher Parsons, 
Perry's surgeon in the fight on Lake 
Erie, read an historical discourse, and, 
at a dinner afterwards, about 300 sur- 




mm 

PERRY'S STATUE, CLEVELAND, 0. 

viving soldiers of the War of 1812-15 sat 
down. 

Perry, Wiixiam Stevens, clergyman; 
born in Providence, R. L, Jan. 22, 1832; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1854; 
ordained in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in 1858; held pastorates in various 
parts of New England; and was conse- 
crated bishop of Iowa, Sept. 10, 1876. 
His publications include Journals of the 
General Conventions of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of the United States of 
America; Documentary History of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the Unit- 



US 



PERRYVILLE 



ed States of America; Historical Collec- 
tions of the American Colonial Church; 
The History of the American Episco- 
pal Church, 1587-1883; The American 
Church and the American Constitution, 
etc. He died in Dubuque, la., May 13, 
1898. 

Perryville, Battle at. Bragg's troops 
formed a junction with those of Gen. E. 
Kirby Smith at Frankfort, Ky., on Oct. 1, 
1862, when they made Richard Hawes 
" provisional governor of Kentucky " 
while Bragg's plundering bands were 
scouring the State and driving away 
southward thousands of hogs and cattle 



command, had charge of the right wing, 
and soon began to feel the Confederates. 
Bragg, outflanked, fell slowly back towards 
Springfield, when Buell, informed that he 
was moving to concentrate his army at 
Harrodsburg or Perryville, ordered the 
central division of his army under Gilbert 
to march for the latter place. The head 
of this division, under Gen. R. B. Mitchell, 
fell in with a heavy force of Confederates 
(Oct. 7) within 5 miles of Perryville, 
drawn up in battle order. These were 
pressed back about 3 miles, when General 
Sheridan's division was ordered up to an 
eligible position. Buell was there, and, 






k&*mmm 




PKKRVVILLK. 



and numerous trains bearing bacon, bread- expecting a battle in the morning, he sent 
stuffs, and store-goods taken from mer- for the flank corps of Crittenden and Me- 
diants in various large towns. As a show Cook to close up on his right, and, if pos- 
ot honesty, these raiders gave Confederate sible, surround the Confederates. There 
scrip in exchange. Regarding Kentucky was a delay in the arrival of Crittenden, 
as a part of the Confederacy, conscription and Bragg, perceiving his peril, had be- 
was put in force by Bragg at the point gun to retreat. He was anxious to secure 
of the bayonet. The loyal people cried for the exit of the plunder-trains from the 
help. The cautious Buell made a tardy State. 

response. He had been engaged in a race As Crittenden did not speedily arrive, 

for Louisville with Bragg, and, on Oct. Bragg resolved to give battle in his ab- 

1, turned to strike his opponent. His sence. His army was immediately com- 

army, 100,000 strong, was arranged in manded by General Polk. There had been 

three corps, commanded respectively by a sharp engagement on the morning of the 

Generals Gilbert, Crittenden, and McCook. 8th, when the Confederates were repulsed 

Gen. George H. Thomas, Buell's second in and driven back by troops under Col. D. 

144 



PERRYVILLE— PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS 



McCook, of Sheridan's division, with 
Harnett's battery, some Michigan cavalry, 
and a Missouri regiment. The Confeder- 
ates were repulsed, and so ended the pre- 
liminary battle of that day. Mitchell, 
Sheridan, Rousseau, and Jackson advanced 
with troops to secure the position, and 

a Michigan and an Indiana battery were by Wheeler's cavalry, 
planted in commanding positions. A re- force that advanced on 



they retired to Harrodsburg, where Bragg 
was joined by Kirby Smith and General 
Withers. All fled towards east Tennessee, 
leaving 1,200 of their sick and wounded 
at Harrodsburg, and about 25,000 barrels 
of pork at various points. The retreat 
was conducted by General Polk, covered 
Buell's effective 
Perryville was 



connoisance in force was now made. 58,000, of whom 22,000 were raw troops. 

Bragg was stealthily approaching, being He lost in the battle 4.348 men, of whom 

well masked, and Cheatham's division fell 016 were killed. The Confederate loss was 

suddenly and heavily upon McCook's flank estimated at about the same. Bragg 

with horrid yells, when the raw and out- claimed to have captured fifteen guns and 

numbered troops of General Terrell broke 400 prisoners. It is believed that the Con- 

and fled. General Jackson had been kill- federates lost more than they gained by 



ed. In an attempt to rally his troops, 
Terrell was mortally w r ounded. When 
Terrell's force was scattered, the Confed- 
erates fell with equal weight upon Rous- 



seau's division. An attempt to destroy it Cumberland. 



their plundering raid. Buell was soon 
superseded in command by General Rose- 
crans, and the name of the Army of the 
Ohio was changed to the Army of the 



was met by Starkweather's brigade and 
the batteries of Bush and Stone, who 
maintained their positions for nearly 
three hours, until the ammunition of 
both infantry and artillery was nearly ex- 



Personal Liberty Laws. The provi- 
sions of the fugitive slave law, and the 
danger to the liberty of free colored citi' 
zens, caused several States to pass laws 
for their protection. The laws of Maine 



hausted. Bush's battery had lost thirty- provided that no public officer of the State 

five horses. Meanwhile, Rousseau's troops should arrest or aid in so doing, or in 

fought stubbornly, and held their position detaining in any building belonging to the 

while resisting Confederates commanded State, or any county or town within it, 

by Bragg in person. The Confederates any alleged fugitive slaves; so that duty 

finally made a fierce charge on the brigade was left to the United States officers, 

of Lytle, hurling it back with heavy loss. The laws of New Hampshire provided that 

They pressed forward to Gilbert's flank, any slave coming into that State by the 

held by Mitchell and Sheridan. The lat- consent of the master should be free, and 



ter held the king-point of the Union 
position. He quickly turned his guns 
on the assailants, when Mitchell sent 
Carlin's brigade to the support of Sheri- United 
dan's right. This force charged at the 
double-quick, broke the Confederate line, 



declared that an attempt to hold any 
person as a slave within the State was 
a felony, unless done by an officer of the 



process, 
of the 



States in the execution of legal 

This was to relieve the people 

dutv of becoming slave-catchers 



and drove them through Perryville to the by command of the United States officers, 

protection of their batteries on the bluff The law in Vermont provided that ju- 

beyond. dicial officers of the State should take no 

Meanwhile, Colonel Gooding's brigade cognizance of any warrant or process un- 

had been sent to the aid of McCook, and der the fugitive slave law, and that no 

fought with great persistence for two person should assist in the removal of any 

hours against odds, losing fully one-third alleged fugitive from the State, except- 

of its number, its commander being made ing United States officers. It also or- 

prisoner. General Buell did not know the dered that the privilege of the writ of 

magnitude of the battle until 4 p.m., when habeas corpus, and a trial of facts by a 

McCook sent a request for reinforcements, jury, should be given to the alleged fugi- 

They were promptly sent. The conflict tive, with the State's attorney for coun- 

ended at dark in a victory for the Na- sel. This was a nullification of the 

tionals, the Confederates having been re- fugitive slave law. The law in Massa- 

pulsed at all points, and during the night chusetts provided for trial by jury of al- 
vn. — k 145 



PETERS 

leged fugitive slaves, who might have the procure an alteration in the navigation 
services of any attorney. It forbade the laws, and had several interviews with 
issuing of any process under the fugitive Charles I. He preached to and commanded 
slave law by any legal officer in the a regiment of Parliamentary troops in 
State, or " to do any official act in fur- Ireland in 1649, and afterwards held civil 
therance of the execution of the fugitive offices. After the restoration he was corn- 
slave law of 1793 or that of 1850." It mitted to the Tower, and on Oct. 16, 1660, 
forbade the use of any prison in the State Avas beheaded for high treason, as having 
for the same purpose. All public offi- been concerned in the death of Charles I. 
cers were forbidden to assist in the arrest Jfe wrote a work called A Good Work for 
of alleged fugitive slaves, and no officer in a Good Magistrate, in 1651, in which he 
the State, acting as United States com- recommended burning the historical rec- 
missioner, was allowed to issue any war- ords in the Tower. 

rant, excepting for the summoning of Peters, Richard, jurist; born near 
witnesses, nor allowed to hear and try Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 22, 1744; was a 
any cause under the law. This, also, was distinguished lawyer, a good German 
a virtual nullification of the fugitive scholar, and a bright wit. At the begin- 
elave law. The law in Connecticut was ning of the Revolutionary War he corn- 
intended only to prevent the kidnapping manded a company, but Congress placed 
of free persons of color within its borders, him with the board of war, of which he 
by imposing a heavy penalty upon those was made secretary in June, 1776, and 
who should cause to be arrested any free served as such until December, 1781. In 
colored person with the intent to reduce 1782-83 he was a member of Congress, 
him or her to slavery. The law in Rhode and from 1789 until his death he was 
Island forbade the carrying away of any United States district judge of Penn- 
person by force out of the State, and pro- sylvania. The country is indebted to 
vided that no public officer should official- Judge Peters for the introduction of 
ly aid in the execution of the fugitive gypsum as a fertilizer. In 1797 he pub- 
slave law, and denied the use of the lished an account of his experience with 
jails for that purpose. Neither New it on his own farm. He was president 
York, New Jersey, nor Pennsylvania pass- of the Philadelphia Agricultural So- 
ed any laAvs on the subject, their statute- ciety. He died at his birthplace, Aug. 
books already containing acts which they 22, 1828. 

deemed sufficient to meet the case. The Peters, Samuel Andrew, clergyman; 

law in Michigan secured to the person born in Hebron, Conn., Dec. 12, 1735; 

arrested the privilege of the writ of habeas graduated at Yale College in 1757; be- 

corpus, a trial by jury, and the employ- came a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 

ment of the State's attorney as counsel, land; and in 1762 took charge of the 

It denied the use of the jails in the execu- Episcopal churches at Hebron and Hart- 

tion of the fugitive slave law, and im- lord. He opposed the movements of the 

posed a heavy penalty for the arrest of patriots; became exceedingly obnoxious 

free colored persons as fugitive slaves, to them; and in 1774 was obliged to flee 

The law in Wisconsin was precisely like to England. In 1781 he published A 

that of Michigan. The remainder of the General History of Connecticut, which 

free-labor States refrained from passing has been characterized as the " most un- 

any laws on the subject. scrupulous and malicious of lying narra- 

Peters, Hugh, clergyman; born in fives." In it he gave pretended extracts 

Fowey, Cornwall, England, in 1599 ; wa? from the " blue laws," and the whole 

both a clergyman and politician, and after narrative shows an " independence of time, 

imprisonment for non-conformity he went place, and probabilities." In 1794 he was 

to Rotterdam, where he preached several chosen bishop of Vermont, but was never 

years. He came to New England in 1635, consecrated. In 1805 he returned to the 

succeeded Eoger Williams as pastor at I nited States, and towards the latter 

Salem, and excommunicated his adherents, years of his life he lived in obscurity in 

In politics and commerce he was equally New York City, where he died, April 19, 

active. In 1641 he sailed for England, to 1826. 

146 



PETERSBURG 



Petersburg. This city, on the south 
side of the Appomattox River, about 20 
iniles from Richmond, and 15 from City 
Point, was occupied, in the summer of 
1864, by a large Confederate force, who 
cast up strong intrenchments upon its ex- 
posed sides. When the Army of the Po- 
tomac was led to the south side of the 
James River (June 14-16), it began imme- 
diate operations against Petersburg, which 
was then the strong defence of Richmond. 
Butler, at Bermuda Hundred, was very 
securely intrenched. Grant sent General 
Smith's troops quickly back to him after 
the battle at Cold Harbor ( q. v. ) , and 
directed him to co-operate with the Army 
of the Potomac in an attempt to capture 
Petersburg. On June 10 Butler sent 
10,500 men, under Gillmore, and 1,500 
cavalry, under Kautz, to attack the Con- 
federates at Petersburg; at the same time 
two gunboats went up the Appomattox to 
bombard an earthwork a little below the 
city. The troops crossed the Appomattox 



4 miles above City Point, and marched on 
Petersburg, while Kautz swept round to 
attack on the south. The enterprise was 
a failure, and the Nationals retired. Five 
days later there was another attempt to 
capture Petersburg. Smith arrived at 
Bermuda Hundred with his troops on 
June 14, and pushed on to the front of the 
defences of Petersburg, northeastward of 
the city. These were found to be very 
formidable and, ignorant of what forces 
lay behind these works, he proceeded so 
cautiously that it was near sunset (June 
15), before he was prepared for an assault. 
The Confederates were driven from their 
strong line of rifle-pits. 

Pushing on, Smith captured a powerful 
salient, four redoubts, and a connecting 
line of intrenchments about 2V., miles in 
extent, with 15 guns and 300 prisoners. 
Two divisions of Hancock's corps had come 
up, and rested upon their arms within the 
works just captured. While these troops 
were reposing, nearly the whole of Lee's 




ATTACKING THE CONFEDERATE INTRENCHMENTS. 

147 



PETERSBURG 



army were crossing the James River at 
Richmond, and troops were streaming 
down towards Petersburg to assist in its 
defence, and during the night (June 15- 
16) very strong works were thrown up. 
The coveted prize was lost. Twenty-four 
hours before, Petersburg might have been 
easily taken ; now it defied the Nationals, 
and endured a most distressing siege for 
ten months longer. At the middle of June, 
a large portion of the Army of Northern 
Virginia was holding the city and the sur- 
rounding intrenchments, and a great part 
of the Army of the Potomac, with the com- 
mand of Smith upon its right, confronted 
the Confederates. On the evening of the 
16th a heavy bombardment was opened 
upon the Confederate works, and was kept 
up until 6 a.m. the next day. Birney, of 
Hancock's corps, stormed and carried a 
redoubt on his front, but Burnside's corps 
could make no impression for a long time, 
in the face of a murderous fire. There 
was a general advance of the Nationals, 
but at a fearful cost of life. At dawn 
General Potter's division of Burnside's 
corps charged upon the works in their 
front, carried them, and captured four 
guns and 400 men. He was relieved by 
General Ledlie's column, which advanced 
to within half a mile of the city, and held 



Beauregard's lines, and destroy and hold, 
if possible, the railway in that vicinity. 
He had gained possession of the track, and 
was proceeding to destroy it, when he was 
attacked by a division of Longstreet's 
corps, on its way from Richmond to Peters- 
burg. Terry was driven back to the in- 
trenchments at Bermuda Hundred before 
aid could reach him. On the morning of 
the 17th the 7th and 9th Corps renewed 
the attack upon the works at Petersburg, 
when the hill upon which Fort Steadman 
was afterwards built was carried and held 
by the former. Another attack was made 
by the 9th Corps in the afternoon, and a 
severe battle began, and continued until 
night, with great slaughter. Desperate 
attempts had been made to recapture what 
the Confederates had lost, and that night 
a heavy Confederate force drove back the 
9th (Burnside's) Corps. A general as- 
sault was made on the 18th, with dis- 
aster to the Nationals, who were repulsed 
at every point. 

Then, after a loss of nearly 10,000 men, 
further attempts to take Petersburg by 
storm were abandoned for a while, and 
Grant prepared for a regular siege. He 
at once began intrenching, and to extend 
his left in the direction of the Peters- 
bui-g and Weldon Railway, which he de- 




TEARWG UP THE RAILROAD. 



a position from which shells might be cast 
^nto the town. They were driven back 
with great loss. 

On the same day (June 16) General 
Butler sent out General Terry to force 



sired to seize, and thus envelop Peters- 
burg with his army. He moved the corps 
of Hancock and Wright stealthily to the 
left, to attempt to turn the Confederate 
right. The former was pushed back. 



148 



PETERSBURG 




SCENE AT THE SIEGE OF PETERSBURG. 



On the following morning (June 22) the a cavalry force under Fitzhugh Lee. 
Nationals were attacked by divisions of Kautz pushed on, and tore up the track 
the corps of A. P. Hill, driving back a of the Southside and Danville railways, 
portion of them with heavy loss. At sun- at and near their junction. The united 
set Meade came up and ordered both forces destroyed the Danville road to the 
corps to advance and retake what had Staunton River, where they were con- 
been lost. It was done, when Hill retired fronted by a large force of Confederates, 
with 2,500 prisoners. The next morning They were compelled to fight their way 
Hancock and Wright advanced, and reach- back to Reams's Station, on the Weldon 
ed the Weldon road without much oppo- road, which they had left in the posses- 
sitiou, until they began to destroy it, sion of the Nationals; but they found the 
when a part of Hill's corps drove off the cavalry of Wade Hampton there, and a 
destroyers. The National line had now considerable body of Confederate infan- 
been extended to the Weldon road. Mean- try. 

while a cavalry expedition, 8,000 strong, In attempting to force their way 

under Kautz and Wilson, had been raid- through them, the Nationals were de- 

ing upon the railways leading southward feated, with heavy loss, and they made 

from Petersburg, the latter being in chief their way sadly back to camp with their 

command. They destroyed the buildings terribly shattered army of troopers, 

at Reams's Station, 10 miles south of Their estimated loss during the raid was 

Petersburg, and the track for a long nearly 1.000 men. 

distance. They then struck the South- Now, after a struggle for two months, 

side Railway, and destroyed it over a both armies were willing to seek repose, 

space of 20 miles, fighting and defeating and for some time there was a lull in 

149 



PETERSBURG 

the storm of strife. The Union army fully 50 feet in width, and from 20 to 30 
lay in front of a formidable line of re- feet in depth. The fort, its guns, and 
dans and redoubts, with lines of intrench- other munitions of war, with 300 men, 
ments and abatis, altogether 40 miles were thrown high in air and annihilated, 
in length, extending from the left bank Then the great guns of the Nationals open- 
of the Appomattox around to the west- ed a heavy cannonade upon the remainder 
ern side of Petersburg, and to and across of the Confederate works, with precision 
the James to -the northeastern side of and fatal effect, all along the line; but, 
Richmond. Within eight or nine weeks, owing partly to the slowness of motion of 
the Union army, investing Petersburg, a portion of the assaulting force, the re- 
had lost, in killed, wounded, and prison- suit was a most disastrous failure on the 
ers, about 70,000 men. Reinforcements part of the assailants, 
had kept up its numbers, but not the A fortnight later General Grant sent 
quality of its materials. Many veterans another expedition to the north side of 
remained, but a vast number were raw the James, at Deep Bottom, composed of 
troops. The Nationals continued building the divisions of Birney and Hancock, with 
fortifications and preparing for an effect- cavalry under Gregg. They had sharp 
ive siege. Butler, by a quick movement, engagements with the Confederates on 
had thrown Foster's brigade across the Aug. 13, 16, and 18, in which the Nation- 
James River at Deep Bottom, and form- als lost about 5,000 men without gaining 
ed an intrenched camp there, within 10 any special advantage excepting the in- 
miles of Richmond, and connected with cidental one of giving assistance to troops 
the army at Bermuda Hundred by a pon- sent to seize the Weldon Railway south 
toon bridge. By this movement a way of Petersburg. This General Warren ef- 
was provided to move heavy masses of fected on Aug. 18. Three days afterwards 
troops to the north side of the James he repulsed a Confederate force which at- 
at a moment's warning, if desired. Lee tempted to recapture the portion of the 
met this by laying a similar bridge at road held by the Unionists; and on the 
Drury's Bluff. By the close of July, 1864, same day (Aug. 21) General Hancock, 
Grant was in a position to choose his who had returned from the north side of 
method of warfare — whether by a di- the James, struck the Weldon road at 
rect assault, by the slower process of a Reams's Station and destroyed the track 
regular siege, or by heavy operations on for some distance. The Nationals were 
the flanks of the Confederates. finally driven from the road with consider- 

The regular siege of Petersburg began able loss, 
in July. On June 25 operations were For a little more than a month after 
started for mining under the Confederate this there was comparative quiet in the 
forts so as to blow them up. One of these vicinity of Petersburg and Richmond. 
Mas in charge of Lieutenant-Colonel The National troops were moved simul- 
Pleasants, who completed it on July 22. taneously towards each city. General 
When the mine was ready Grant sent Butler, with the corps of Birney and 
Hancock to assist Foster to flank the Con- Ord, moved upon and captured Fort Har- 
federates at Deep Bottom, and, pushing rison on Sept. 29. These troops charged 
on to Chapin's Bluff, below Drury's upon another fort near by, but were re- 
Bluff, to menace Lee's line of communi- pulsed with heavy loss. Among the slain 
cations across the river. It was done; was General Burnham, and Ord was 
and, to meet the seeming impending dan- severely wounded. In honor of the slain 
ger to Richmond, Lee withdrew five of his general the captured works were named 
eight remaining divisions on the south Fort Burnham. In these assaults the gal- 
side of the James, between the 27th and lantry of the colored troops was con- 
the 29th. Grant's opportunity for a grand spicuous. Meanwhile, Meade had sent 
assault now offered. The mine under one Generals Warren and Parke, with two 
of the principal forts was exploded early divisions of troops each, to attempt the 
on the morning of July 30, with terrible extension of the National left to the 
effect. In the place of the fort was left Weldon road and beyond. It was a feint 
a crater of loose earth, 200 feet in length, in favor of Butler's movement on the 

150 



PETERSBURG 

north side of the James, but it resulted sum would be fully 100,000 men. The 

in severe fighting on Oct. 1 and 2, with Army of the Potomac had captured 15,- 

varying fortunes for both parties. Then 378 prisoners, sixty-seven colors, and 

there was another pause, but not a set- thirty-two guns. They had lost twenty- 




THE KETURN OP THE CAVALRY. 



tied rest, for about two months, when the 
greater portion of the Army of the 
Potomac was massed on the Confederate 
right, south of the James. On Oct. 27 
they assailed Lee's works on Hatcher's 
Run, westward of the Weldon road, where 
a severe struggle ensued. The Nationals 
were repulsed, and, on the 29th, they 
withdrew to their intrenchments in front 
of Petersburg. Very little was done by 
the Army of the Potomac until the open- 
ing of the spring campaign of 1865. The 
losses of that army had been fearful dur- 
ing six months, from the beginning of May 
until November, 1864. The aggregate 
number in killed, wounded, missing, and 
prisoners was over 80,000 men, of whom 
nearly 10,000 were killed in battle. Add 
to these the losses of the Army of the 
James during the same period, and the 

1 



five guns. The Confederates had lost, in- 
cluding 15,000 prisoners, about 40,000 
men. 

The Army of the Potomac had its win- 
ter quarters in front of the Army of 
Northern Virginia in 1864-65. The left 
of the former held a tight grasp upon 
the Weldon road, while the Army of the 
James, on the north side of that river, 
and forming the right of the besiegers of 
Petersburg and Richmond, had its pick- 
ets within a few miles of the latter city. 
Sheridan, at the same time, was at Kerns- 
town, near Winchester, full master of the 
Shenandoah Valley from Harper's Ferry 
to Staunton. Grant's chief business dur- 
ing the winter was to hold Lee tightly 
while Sherman, Thomas, and Canby were 
making their important conquests, in ac- 
cordance with the comprehensive plan of 
51 



PETERSBURG 

the lieutenant-general. The leaders in the Confederacy to obtain a law to that 
the Confederate government at Richmond effect. "Viewing the situation calmly, he 
contemplated the abandonment of Vir- saw no hope for the preservation of his 
ginia and the concentration of the troops army from starvation or capture, nor for 
of Lee and Johnson south of the Roanoke, the existence of the Confederacy, except in 
The politicians of Virginia would not breaking through Grant's lines and form- 
allow such a movement, nor would Lee ing a junction with Johnston in North 
have led the Army of Northern Virginia Carolina. He knew such a movement 
out of that State ; so President Davis would be perilous, but he resolved to at- 
and his advisers had to abandon their tempt it; and he prepared for a retreat 
project. Besides, Grant held Lee so firm- from the Appomattox to the Roanoke, 
ly that he had no free choice in the mat- Grant saw symptoms of such a movement, 
ter. and, on March 24, 18G5, issued an order 

It was near the close of March, 1865, for a general forward movement on the 
before Grant was ready for a general 29th. On the 25th Lee's army attempted 
movement against Lee. Early in Decern- to break the National line at the strong 
ber Warren had seized the Weldon road point of Fort Steadman, in front of the 
farther south than had yet been done. 9th Corps. They also assailed Fort Has- 
He destroyed it (Dec. 7) all the way to kell, on the left of Fort Steadman, but 
the Meherin River, meeting with little were repulsed. These were sharp but 
opposition. A few weeks later there fruitless struggles by the Confederates to 
was some sharp skirmishing between Con- break the line. The grand movement of 
federate gunboats and National batteries the whole National army on the 29th was 
near Dutch Gap Canal. A little later a begun by the left, for the purpose of turn- 
movement was made on the extreme left ing Lee's right, with an overwhelming 
of the Nationals to seize the Southside force. At the same time Sheridan was 
Railway and to develop the strength of approaching the Southside Railway to de- 
Lee's right. The entire army in front of stroy it. Lee's right intrenched lines ex- 
Petersburg received marching orders, and, tended beyond Hatcher's Run, and against 
on Feb. 6, the flanking movement began, these and the men who held them the 
After a sharp fight near Hatcher's Run, turning column marched. General Ord, 
the Nationals permanently extended their with three divisions of the Army of the 
left to that stream. Grant now deter- James, had been drawn from the north 
mined to cut off all communication with side of that river and transferred to the 
Richmond north of that city. The op- left of the National lines before Peters- 
portunity offered towards the middle of burg. The remainder of Ord's command 
February. Lee had drawn the greater por- was left in charge of General Weitzel, to 
tion of his forces from the Shenandoah hold the extended lines of the Nationals, 
Valley, and Sheridan, under instructions, fully 35 miles in length, 
made a grand cavalry raid against the Sheridan reached Dinwiddie Court-house 
northern communications with the Con- towards the evening of March 29. Early 
federate capital, and especially for the that morning the corps of Warren (5th) 
seizure of Lynchburg. It was a most de- and Humphreys (2d) moved on parallel 
structive march, and very bewildering to roads against the flank of the Confed- 
.he Confederates. erates, and, when within 2 miles of 

This raid, the junction of the National their works, encountered a line of battle, 
armies in North Carolina, and the opera- A sharp fight occurred, and the Confed- 
tions at Mobile and in Central Alabama erates were repulsed, with a loss of many 
satisfied Lee that he could no longer killed and wounded and 100 made prison- 
maintain his position, unless, by some ers. Warren lost 370 men. Lee now fully 
means, his army Might be vastly increased comprehended the perils that menaced 
and new and ample resources for its sup- him. The only line of communication 
ply obtained. He had recommended the with the rest of the Confederacy might 
emancipation of the slaves and making be cut at any hour. He also perceived the 
soldiers of them, but the slave interest necessity of strengthening his right to 
was too powerful in the civil councils of avert the impending shock of battle ; like- 

152 



PETERSBURG 



wise of maintaining his extended line of 
works covering Petersburg and Richmond. 
Not aware of the withdrawal of troops 
from the north side of the James, he left 
Longstreet's corps, 8,000 strong, to defend 
Richmond. Lee had massed a great body 
of his troops — some 15,000 — at a point in 
front of the corps of Warren and Hum- 
phreys, the former on the extreme right of 
the Confederates. There Lee attempted 
(March 30) to break through the National 
lines, and for a moment his success seem- 
ed assured. A part of the line was pushed 
back, but Griffin's division stood firm and 
stemmed the fierce torrent, while Ayres 
and Crawford reformed the broken col- 
umn. Warren soon assumed the offensive, 



break. Parke carried the outer line of 
the Confederate works in his front, but 
was checked at an inner line. Wright 
drove everything before him to the Boyd- 
ton plank-road, where he turned to the 
left towards Hatcher's Run, and, pressing 
along the rear of the Confederate in- 
trenchments, captured several thousand 
men and many guns. Ord's division broke 
the Confederate division on Hatcher's 
Run, when the combined forces swung 
round to the right and pushed towards 
Petersburg from the southwest. On the 
same day the Southside Railway was first 
struck at three points by the Nationals, 
who had driven the Confederates from 
their intrenchments and captured many. 




EVACUATION OF PKTERSBURG. 



made a countercharge, and, by the aid of 
a part of Hancock's corps, drove back the 
Confederates. Lee then struck another 
blow at a supposed weak point on the 
extreme left of the Nationals, held by 
Sheridan. A severe battle ensued (see 
Five Forks, Battle of). Both parties 
lost heavily. 

On the evening of the same day all 
the National guns in front of Petersburg 
opened on the Confederate lines from 
Appomattox to Hatcher's Run. Wright, 
Parke, and Ord, holding the intrenchments 
at Petersburg, were ordered to follow up 
the bombardment with an assault. The 
bombardment was kept up until 4 a.m. 
(April 2), and the assault began at day- 



This achievement effectually cut off one 
of Lee's most important communications. 
Gibbon's division of Ord's command 
captured two strong redoubts south of 
Petersburg. In this assault Gibbon lost 
about 500 men. The Confederates were 
now confined to an inner line of works 
close around Petersburg. Longstreet went 
to the help of Lee, and the latter ordered 
a charge to be made to recover some of 
the lost intrenchments. It failed ; and 
so ended the really last blow struck for 
the defence of Richmond by Lee's army. 
Gen. A. P. Hill, one of Lee's best offi- 
cers, was shot dead while reconnoitring. 
Lee now perceived that he could no longer 
hold Petersburg or the capital with safety 



15C 



PETERSON— PETITION OF RIGHT 



to his army. At 10.30 on Sunday morn- 
ing (April 2) he telegraphed to the gov- 
ernment at Richmond: "My lines are 
broken in three places; Richmond must 
be evacuated this evening." Then Lee's 
troops withdrew from Petersburg, and the 
struggle there ended. 

Peterson, Chart.es Jacobs, author; 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 20, 1819. 
His publications include The Military 
Heroes of the Revolution, xoith a Narra- 
tive of the War of Independence; The 
Military Heroes of the War of 1812 and 
of the War with Mexico ; Grace Dudley, or 
Arnold, at Saratoga; Cruising in the Last 
War; The Naval Heroes of the United 
States, etc. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
March 4, 1887. 

Petigru, James Lewis, statesman ; born 
in Abbeville district, S. C, March 10, 
1789; graduated at the University of 
South Carolina in 1809; admitted to the 
bar in 1811. He was an opponent of nulli- 
fication in 1830, and of secession in I860. 
A Memoir of his life was written by 
William J. Grayson and published in 1866. 
He died in Charleston, S. C, March 3, 
1863. 

Petition of Right, The. The Petition 
of Right is memorable as the first statu- 
tory restriction of the powers of the 
crown since the accession of the Tudor 
dynasty. Yet, though the principles laid 
down in it had the widest possible bear- 
ing, its remedies were not intended to 
apply to all questions which had arisen or 
might arise between the crown and the 
Parliament, but merely to those which had 
arisen since Charles's accession. Parlia- 
ment had waived, for the present at least, 
the consideration of Buckingham's mis- 
conduct. It had also waived the considera- 
tion of the question of impositions. 

The motives of the Commons in keeping 
silence on the impositions were probably 
twofold. In the first place, they probably 
wished to deal separately with the new 
grievances, because in dealing with them 
they would restrain the King's power to 
make war without Parliamentary consent. 
The refusal of tonnage and poundage 
would restrain his power to govern in 
time of peace. In the second place, they 
had a tonnage and poundage bill before 
them. Such a bill had been introduced 
into each of the preceding Parliaments, 



but in each case an early dissolution had 
hindered its consideration, and the long 
debates on the Petition of Right now made 
it impossible to proceed further with it 
in the existing session. Yet, for three 
years the King had been collecting ton- 
nage and poundage, just as he collected 
the impositions — that is to say, as if he 
had no need of a Parliamentary grant. 
The Commons therefore proposed to save 
the right of Parliament by voting ton- 
nage and poundage for a single year, and 
to discuss the matter at length the follow- 
ing session. When the King refused to 
accept this compromise they had recourse 
to the bold assertion that the Petition of 
Right had settled the question in their 
favor. Charles answered by proroguing 
Parliament, and took occasion in so doing 
to repudiate the doctrine which they ad- 
vanced. — Gardiner. 



June 7, 1628. 
The Petition exhibited to His Majesty by 
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and 
Commons in this present Parliament as- 
sembled, concerning divers Rights and 
Liberties of the Subjects, with the 
King's Majesty's Royal Answer there^ 
unto in full Parliament. 
To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

Humbly show unto our Sovereign Lord 
the King, the Lords Spiritual and Tem- 
poral, and Commons in Parliament as- 
sembled, that whereas it is declared and 
enacted by a statute made in the time of 
the reign of King Edward the First, com- 
monly called, Statutum de Tallagio non 
concedendo* that no tallage or aid shall' 
be laid or levied by the King or his heirs 
in this realm, without the goodwill and 
assent of the Archbishops, Bishops, Earls, 
Barons, Knights, Burgesses, and other the 
freemen of the commonalty of this realm; 
and by authority of Parliament holden in 
ihe five and twentieth year of the reign 
of King Edward the Third, it is declared 
and enacted, that from thenceforth no per- 
son shall be compelled to make any loans 
to the King against his will, because such 
loans were against reason and the fran- 
chise of the land; and by other laws of 
this realm it is provided, that none should 



154 



* This is now held not to have been a 
statute. See Gardiner's Documents of the 
Puritan Revolution, page 1. 



PETITION OF RIGHT, THE 



be charged by any charge or imposition, 
called a Benevolence, or by such like 
charge, by which the statutes before-men- 
tioned, and other the good laws and stat- 
utes of this realm, your subjects have in- 
herited this freedom, that they should not 
be compelled to contribute to any tax, 
tallage, aid, or other like charge, not set 
by common consent in Parliament: 

Yet nevertheless, of late divers com- 
missions directed to sundry Commissioners 
in several counties with instructions have 
issued, by means whereof your people have 
been in divers places assembled, and re- 
quired to lend certain sums of money 
upon your Majesty, and many of them 
upon their refusal so to do, have had an 
oath administered unto them, not war- 
rantable by the laws or statutes of this 
realm, and have been constrained to be- 
come bound to make appearance and give 
attendance before your Privy Council, and 
in other places, and others of them have 
been therefore imprisoned, confined, and 
sundry other ways molested and dis- 
quieted: and divers other charges have 
been laid and levied upon your people in 
several counties, by Lords Lieutenants, 
Deputy Lieutenants. Commissioners for 
Musters, Justices of Peace and others, by 
command or direction from your Majesty 
or your Privy Council, against the laws 
and free customs of this realm: 

And where also by the statute called, 
" The Great Charter of the Liberties of 
England," it is declared and enacted, that 
no freeman may be taken or imprisoned 
or be disseised of his freeholds or liber- 
ties, or his free customs, or be outlawed 
or exiled; or in any manner destroyed, 
but by the lawful judgment of his peers, 
or by the law of the land: 

And in the eight and twentieth year of 
the reign of King Edward the Third, it 
was declared and enacted by authority of 
Parliament, that no man of what estate 
or condition that he be, should be put out 
of his lands or tenements, nor taken, nor 
imprisoned, nor disinherited, nor put to 
death, without being brought to answer 
by due process of law: 

Nevertheless, against the tenor of the 
said statutes, and other the good laws and 
statutes of your realm, to that end pro- 
vided, divers of your subjects have of late 
been imprisoned without any cause show- 



ed, and when for their deliverance they 
were brought before your Justices, by 
your Majesty's writs of Habeas Corpus, 
there to undergo and receive as the Court 
should order, and their keepers command- 
ed to certify the causes of their detainer; 
no cause was certified, but that they were 
detained by your Majesty's special com- 
mand, signified by the Lords of your 
Privy Council, and yet were returned back 
to several prisons, without being charged 
with anything to which they might make 
answer according to the law: 

And whereas ol late great companies of 
soldiers and mariners have been dispersed 
into divers counties of the realm, and the 
inhabitants against their wills have been 
compelled to receive them into their 
houses, and there to suffer them to so- 
journ, against the laws and customs of 
this realm, and to the great grievance and 
vexation of the people: 

And whereas also by authority of Par- 
liament, in the 25th year of the reign of 
King Edward the Third, it is declared 
and enacted, that no man shall be fore- 
judged of life or limb against the form 
of the Great Charter, and the law of the 
land: and by the said Great Charter and 
other the laws and statutes of this your 
realm, no man ought to be adjudged to 
death; but by the laws established in this 
your realm, either by the customs of the 
same realm or by Acts of Parliament: and 
whereas no offender of what kind soever 
is exempted from the proceedings to be 
used, and punishments to be inflicted by 
the laws and statutes of this your realm: 
nevertheless of late divers commissions 
under your Majesty's Great Seal have 
issued forth, by which certain persons 
have been assigned and appointed Com- 
missioners with power and authority to 
proceed within the land, according to the 
justice of marticl law against such sol- 
diers and mariners, or other dissolute 
persons joining with them, as should com- 
mit any murder, robbery, felony, mutiny, 
or other outrage or misdemeanour whatso- 
ever, and by such summary course and 
order, as is agreeable to martial law, and 
is used in armies in time of war, to pro- 
ceed to the trial and condemnation of 
such offenders, and them to cause to be 
executed and put to death, according to 
the law martial: 



155 



PETITION OF RIGHT, THE 



By pretext whereof, some of your Maj- 
esty's subjects have been by some of the 
said Commissioners put to death, when 
and where, if by the laws and statutes 
of the land they had deserved death, by the 
same laws and statutes also they might, 
and by no other ought to have been, ad- 
judged and executed: 

And also sundry grievous offenders by 
colour thereof, claiming an exemption, 
have escaped the punishments due to 
them by the laws and statutes of this your 
realm, by reason that divers of your offi- 
cers and ministers of justice have un- 
justly refused, or forborne to proceed 
against such offenders according to the 
same laws and statutes, upon pretence 
that the said offenders were punishable 
only by martial law, and by authority of 
such commissions as aforesaid, which com- 
missions, and all other of like nature, are 
wholly and directly contrary to the said 
laws and statutes of this your realm: 

They do therefore humbly pray your 
Most Excellent Majesty, that no man 
hereafter be compelled to make or yield 
any gift, loan, benevolence, tax, or such 
like charge, without common consent by 
Act of Parliament; and that none be 
called to make answer, or take such oath, 
or to give attendance, or be confined, or 
otherwise molested or disquieted concern- 
ing the same, or for refusal thereof; and 
that no freeman, in any such manner as 
is before-mentioned, be imprisoned or de- 
tained; and that your Majesty will be 
pleased to remove the said soldiers and 
mariners, and that your people may not 
be so burdened in time to come; and that 
the foresaid commissions for proceeding 
by martial law, may be revoked and an- 
nulled; and that hereafter no commissions 
of like nature may issue forth to any per- 
son or persons whatsoever, to be executed 
as aforesaid, lest by colour of them any of 
your Majesty's subjects be destroyed or 
put to death, contrary to the laws and 
franchise of the land. 

All which they most humbly pray of 
your Most Excellent Majesty, as their 
lights and liberties according to the laws 
and statutes of this realm: and that your 
Majesty would also vouchsafe to declare, 
that the awards, doings, and proceedings 
to the prejudice of your people, in any of 
the premises, shall not be drawn hereafter 



into consequence or example: and that 
your Majesty would be also graciously 
pleased, for the further comfort and safety 
of your people, to declare your royal will 
and pleasure, that in the things afore- 
said all your officers and ministers shall 
serve you, according to the laws and stat- 
utes of this realm, as they tender the 
honour of your Majesty, and the pros- 
perity of this kingdom. 

[Which Petition being read the 2nd of 
June 1628, the King's answer was thus 
delivered unto it. 

The King willeth that right be done ac- 
cording to the laws and customs of the 
realm; and that the statutes be put in 
due execution, that his subjects may have 
no cause to complain of any wrong or 
oppressions, contrary to their just rights 
and liberties, to the preservation whereof 
he holds himself as well obliged as of his 
prerogative. 

On June 7 the answer was given in the 
accustomed form, Soit droit fait comme 
il est desire.'] 

TnE Eemonstrance against Tonnage 
and Poundage. 

June 25, 1628. 
Most Gracious Sovereign, your Maj- 
esty's most loyal and dutiful subjects, the 
Commons in this present Parliament as- 
sembled, being in nothing more careful 
than of the honour and prosperity of your 
Majesty, and the kingdom, which they 
know do much depend upon that happy 
union and relation betwixt your Majesty 
and your people, do with much sorrow 
apprehend, that by reason of the incer- 1 
tainty of their continuance together, the 
unexpected interruptions which have been 
cast upon them, and the shortness of time 
in which your Majesty hath determined to 
end this Session, they cannot bring to ma- 
turity and perfection divers businesses of 
weig^i-, which they have taken into their 
consideration and resolution, as most im- 
portant for the common good: amongst 
other things they have taken into especial 
care the preparing of a Bill for the grant- 
ing of your Majesty such a subsidy of 
lonnage and Poundage, as might uphold 
your profit and revenue in as ample a 
manner as their just care and respect of 
trade (wherein not only the prosperity, 
but even the life of the kingdom doth con- 



156 



PETITION OF RIGHT, THE 



sist) would permit: but being a work 
which will require much time, and prep- 
aration by conference with your Majesty's 
officers, and with the merchants, not only 
of London, but of other remote parts, 
they find it not possible to be accomplish- 
ed at this time: wherefore considering it 
will be much more prejudicial to the right 
of the subject, if your Majesty should 
continue to receive the same without au- 
thority of law, after the determination of 
a Session, than if there had been a recess 
by adjournment only, in which case that 
intended grant would have related to the 
first day of the Parliament; and assuring 
themselves that yovir Majesty is resolved 
to observe that your royal answer, which 
you have lately made to the Petition of 
Pight of both Houses of Parliament; yet 
doubting lest your Majesty may be mis- 
informed concerning this particular case, 
as if you might continue to take those 
subsidies of Tonnage and Poundage, and 
other impositions upon merchants, with- 
out breaking that answer, they are forced 
by that duty which they owe to your Maj- 
esty, and to those whom they represent, 
to declare, that there ought not any im- 
position to be laid upon the goods of mer- 
chants, exported or imported, without 
common consent by Act of Parliament, 
which is the right and inheritance of your 
subjects, founded not only upon the most 
ancient and original constitution of this 
kingdom, but often confirmed and de- 
clared in divers statute laws. 

And for the better manifestation there- 
of, may it please your Majesty to under- 
stand, that although your royal prede- 
cessors the Kings of this realm have often 
had such subsidies, and impositions grant- 
ed unto them, upon divers occasions, espe- 
cially for the guarding of the seas, and 
safe-guard of merchants; yet the subjects 
have been ever careful to use such cau- 
tions, and limitations in those grants, as 
might prevent any claim to be made, that 
such subsidies do proceed from duty, and 
not from the free gift of the subjects: 
and that they have heretofore used to limit 
a time in such grants, and for the most 
part but short, as for a year or two, and 
if it were continued longer, they have 
sometimes directed a certain space of 
cessation, or intermission, that so the 
right of the subject might be more evi- 

1 



dent. At other times it hath been grant- 
ed upon occasion of war, for a certain 
number of years, with proviso, that if the 
war were ended in the meantime, then the 
grant should cease; and of course it hath 
been sequestered into the hands of some 
subjects to be employed for the guarding 
of the seas. And it is acknowledged by 
the ordinary answers of your Majesty's 
predecessors in their assent to the Bills 
of subsidies of Tonnage and Poundage, 
that it is of the nature of other subsidies, 
proceeding from the goodwill of the sub- 
ject. Very few of your predecessors had 
it for life, until the reign of Henry VII,* 
who was so far from conceiving he had 
any right thereunto, that although he 
granted commissions for collecting cer- 
tain duties and customs due by law, yet 
he made no commissions for receiving the 
subsidy of Tonnage and Poundage, until 
the same was granted unto him in Parlia- 
ment. Since his time all the Kings and 
Queens of this realm have had the like 
giants for life by the free love and good- 
will of the subjects. And whensoever the 
people have been grieved by laying any 
impositions or other charges upon their 
goods and merchandises without authority 
of law (which hath been very seldom), 
yet upon complaint in Parliament they 
have been forthwith relieved; saving in 
the time of your royal father, who having 
through ill counsel raised the rates and 
charges upon merchandises to that height 
at which they now are, yet he was pleased 
so far forth to yield to the complaint of 
his people, as to offer that if the value of 
those impositions which he had set might 
be made good unto him, he would bind 
himself and his heirs by Act of Parliament 
never to lay any other; which offer the 
Commons at that time, in regard of the 
great burden, did not think fit to yield 
unto. Nevertheless, your loyal Commons 
in this Parliament, out of their especial 
zeal to your service, and especial regard 
of your pressing occasions, have taken 
into their consideration, so to frame a 
grant of subsidy of Tonnage or Poundage 
to your Majesty, that both you might have 
been the better enabled for the defence of 
your realm, and your subjects, by being 

* Tonnage and poundage was granted for 
life to Edward IV. in 1464. It was also 
granted in 1483 to Richard III. for life. 

i)7 



PETITION OF RIGHT— PETREL 



secure from all undue charges, be the 
more encouraged cheerfully to proceed 
in their course of trade; by the increase 
whereof your Majesty's profit, and like- 
wise the strength of the kingdom would 
be very much augmented. 

But not now being able to accomplish 
this their desire, there is no course left 
unto them, without manifest breach of 
their duty, both to your Majesty and 
their country, save only to make thi3 
humble declaration, " That the receiving 
of Tonnage and Poundage, and other im- 
positions not granted by Parliament, is a 
breach of the fundamental liberties of this 
kingdom, and contrary to your Majesty's 
royal answer to the said Petition of 
Right." And therefore they do most 
humbly beseech your Majesty to forbear 
any further receiving of the same, and not 
to take it in ill part from those of your 
Majesty's loving subjects, who shall re- 
fuse to make payment of any such 
charges, without warrant of law demanded. 

And as by this forbearance, your Most 
Excellent Majesty shall manifest unto the 
world your royal justice in the observa- 
tion of your laws: so they doubt not, but 
hereafter, at the time appointed for their 
coming again, they shall have occasion 
to express their great desire to advance 
your Majesty's honour and profit. 

The King's Speech at the Prorogation 

of Parliament at the end of the 

Session of 1628. 

June 26, 1628. 

It may seem strange, that I came so 
suddenly to end this Session ; before I give 
my assent to the Bills, I will tell you the 
cause, though I must avow, that I owe 
the account of my actions to God alone. 
It is known to every one, that a while ago 
the House of Commons gave me a Re- 
monstrance,* how acceptable every man 
may judge; and for the merit of it, I 
will not call that in question, for I am 
sure no wise man can justify it. 

Now since I am truly informed, that a 
second Remonstrance is preparing for me 
to take away the profit of my Tonnage and 
Poundage, one of the chiefest mainte- 

* A general remonstrance on the misgovern- 
ment of the kingdom, in which Buckingham 
was named as the author of abuses, had been 
presented to the King on June 17. 



nances of my Crown, by alleging I have 
given away my right thereto by my an- 
swer to your Petition: 

This is so prejudicial unto me, that I 
am forced to end this Session some few 
hours before I meant, being not willing 
to receive any more Remonstrances, to 
which 1 must give a harsh answer. And 
since I see that even the House of Com- 
mons begins already to make false con- 
structions of what I granted in your Peti- 
tion, lest it be worse interpreted in the 
country, I will now make a declaration 
concerning the true intent thereof: 

The profession of both Houses in the 
time of hammering this Petition, was no 
ways to trench upon my Prerogative, say- 
ing they had neither intention or power 
to hurt it. Therefore it must needs be 
conceived that I have granted no new, 
but only confirmed the ancient liberties of 
my subjects: yet to show the clearness of 
my intentions, that I neither repent, nor 
mean to recede from anything I have 
promised you, I do here declare myself, 
that those things which have been done, 
whereby many have had some cause to ex- 
pect the liberties of the subjects to be 
trenched upon, — which indeed was the first 
and true ground of the Petition, — shall 
not hereafter be drawn into example for 
your prejudice, and from time to time; 
in the word of a king, ye shall not have 
the like cause to complain: but as for 
Tonnage and Poundage, it is a thing I 
cannot want, and was never intended by 
you to ask, nor meant by me — I am sure 
— to grant. 

To conclude, I command you all that 
are here to take notice of what I have 
spoken at this time, to be the true intent 
and meaning of what I granted you in 
your Petition; but especially, you my 
Lords the Judges, for to you only under 
me belongs the interpretation of laws, for 
none of the Houses of Parliament, either 
joint or separate, (what new doctrine so- 
ever may be raised) have any power either 
to make or declare a law without my 
consent. 

Petrel, The. The United States rev- 
enue-cutter Aiken, which had been sur- 
rendered to the insurgents at Charleston, 
in December, 1860, was converted into a 
privateer, manned by a crew of thirty-six 
men, mostly Irish, and called the Petrel. 



158 



PETROLEUM— PHELPS 

On July 28, 1861, she went to sea, and auction in 1902 was 89,275,302 barrels, 
soon fell in with the National frigate St. valued at $71,397,739. The largest pro- 
Lawrencc, which she mistook for a rner- during States were Ohio, 21,014,231 bar- 
chantman. She was regarded as a rich rels; West Virginia, 13,513,345 barrels; 
prize, and the Petrel bore down upon her, and Pennsylvania, 12,063,880 barrels, 
while she appeared to be trying to escape. Petticoat Insurrection. See Ni« 
When the latter came within fair range, yelles, Charles Etienne de. 
the St. Lawrence opened her ports and Pettit, Charles, legislator; born in 
gave her the contents of three heavy guns. Amwell, N. J., in 1736; admitted to the 
One of these sent a shell known as the bar in 1770; appointed secretary to Gov- 
" Thunderbolt," which exploded in the ernor Franklin of New Jersey in 1772; 
hold of the Petrel, while a 32-pound shot was also secretary to Governor Living- 
struck her amidships, below the water- ston, Franklin's successor. He served as 
mark. In an instant she was made a quartermaster during the War of the Rev- 
total wreck, and went to the bottom of olution. He was elected to Congress in 
the ocean, leaving the foaming waters over 1785, and was instrumental in obtaining 
her grave thickly strewn with splinters Pennsylvania's adoption of the United 
and her struggling crew. Four of these States Constitution. He died in Phila- 
were drowned; the remainder were saved, delphia, Pa., Sept. 4, 1806. 
They were so dazed that they did not Peyton, Balie, legislator ; born in Sum- 
known what had happened. A flash of ner county, Tenn., Nov. 26, 1803; elected 
fire, a thunder-peal, the crash of timbers, to Congress in 1833; served four years, 
and engulfment in the sea had been the when he removed to Louisiana. He served 
incidents of a moment of their experience, during the war with Mexico, and in 1849 
Her surviving crew were sent to prison to was appointed United States minister to 
answer the charge of piracy, but received Chile. He died in Gallatin county, Tenn., 
the same treatment as those of the Aug. 19, 1878. 

Savannah (q. v.). Peyton, John Lewis, author; born in 
Petroleum. The early settlers around Staunton, Va., Sept. 15, 1824; graduated 
the headwaters of the Alleghany River, at the University of Virginia Law School 
in Pennsylvania and New York, were ac- i n 1845; removed to Chicago, 111., about 
quainted with the existence of petroleum 1S55. He was made agent for the South- 
there, where it oozed out of the banks of era Confederacy in Europe in 1861, and 
streams. Springs of petroleum were soon afterwards ran the blockade at Char- 
struck in Ohio, in 1820, where it so much leston, S. C. He was the author of A 
interfered with soft-water wells that it Statistical View of the State of Illinois; 
was considered a nuisance. Its real value Pacific Railway Communication and the 
was suspected by S. P. Hildreth, who Trade of China; The American Crisis; 
wrote, in 1826: "It affords a clear, brisk Over the Allcyhanies and Across the 
light when burned in this way [in lamps Prairies; History of Augusta County, Va.; 
in workshops], and it will be a valuable etc. He died in 1896. 
article for lighting the street-lamps in Phelps, Edward John, diplomatist; 
the future cities of Ohio." It remained born in Middlebury, Vt., July 11, 1822; 
unappreciated until 1859, when Messrs. graduated at Middlebury College in 1840; 
Bowditeh & Drake, of New Haven, Conn., admitted to the bar in 1843, and began 
bored through the rock at Titusville, on practice in his native town; removed to 
Oil Cr^ek, Pa., r.nd struck oil at the depth Burlington, Vt., in 1845 and practised 
of 70 feet. They pumped 1,000 gallons there till 1851; was Professor of Law in 
a day, and so the regular boring for pe- Yale Law School in 1881-85; United 
troleum was begun. From 1861 until 1876 States minister to England in 1885-89; 
the average daily product of all the wells and senior counsel for the United States 
was about 11,000 barrels. The total yield on the Bering Sea Court of Arbitration, 
within that period was about 2,250,000,- He died in New Haven, Conn., March 9, 
000 gallons of crude oil. The first export 1900. 

of petroleum was in 1861, of 27,000 bar- Phelps, John Wolcott, military offi- 

rels, valued at $1,000,000. The total pro- cerj born in Guilford, Vt., Nov. 13, 1813; 

159 



PHELPS— PHILADELPHIA 



graduated at West Point in 1836; and 
served in the artillery in the Seminole 
War. He fought in the war against 
Mexico, and accompanied the Utah expedi- 
tion in 1858. He resigned in 1859. In 
May, 1S61, he became colonel of a Ver- 
mont volunteer regiment, with which he 
established an intrenched camp at New- 
port News, and was soon afterwards made 
brigadier-general. Attached to General 
Butler's expedition against New Orleans, 
he landed on Ship Island, Miss., on Dec. 
4, 1861, when he issued a proclamation 
hostile to slavery. It was disavowed by 
his superiors, and the temporizing policy 
which he believed was to rule caused his 
resignation. He was the first officer who 
enlisted and disciplined negro soldiers in 
the Civil War. He died in Guilford, Vt., 
Feb. 2, 1885. 

Phelps, Oliver, jurist; born in Wind- 
sor, Conn., in 1749; was a successful mer- 
chant, and during the Revolutionary War 
was in the Massachusetts commissary de- 
partment. In 1788 he, with Nathaniel 
Gorham, purchased a large tract of land 
(2,200,000 acres) in the State of New 
York, and at Canandaigua opened the first 
land-office established in America. In 
1795 he and William Hart bought the 
Connecticut Western Reserve, in Ohio, 
comprising 3,300,000 acres. Mr. Phelps 
afterwards settled with his family at 
Canandaigua, then a wilderness; repre- 
sented that district in Congress from 
1803 to 1805; and was judge of a circuit 
court. He died in Canandaigua, N. Y., 
Feb. 21, 1809. 

Phelps, Thomas Stowell, naval offi- 
cer; born in Buckfield, Me., Nov. 2, 1822; 
graduated at the United States Naval 
Academy in 18-16; promoted lieutenant in 
1855; distinguished himself in the Civil 
War at Fort Fisher, on blockading duty, 
and during the battle of West Point; was 
promoted rear-admiral in 1884; and re- 
tired in 1885. He wrote Reminiscences of 
Washington Territory. He died in New 
York City, Jan. 10, 1901. 

Phelps, William Walter, diplomatist; 
born in New York City, Aug. 24, 1839; 
graduated at Yale in 1860; elected to Con- 
gress in 1872; appointed United States 
minister to Austria in 1881; re-elected 
to Congress in 1882. In the same year he 
was appointed a commissioner of the 



United States to the international con- 
ference on Samoa in Berlin, and also ap- 
pointed minister to Germany, retiring 
in 1893 and being appointed a judge of 
the court of errors and appeals of New 
Jersey. He died in Teaneck, N. J., June 
17, 1894. 

Philadelphia, the metropolitan city of 
Pennsylvania; popularly known as the 
" City of Brotherly Love " and the " City 
of Homes " ; ranking among American 
cities third in area, population, product 
of manufactures, and foreign trade ton- 
nage. The city is coextensive with the 
county of the same name; is situated at 
the junction of the Delaware and Schuyl- 
kill rivers, and on three main lines of 
railroads, the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore 
& Ohio, and the Philadelphia & Read- 
ing, controlling 28,000 miles of direct 
trackage; and is the terminus of nine 
transatlantic steamship lines, one Pacific 
line, three West-Indian lines, and five 
coastwise lines. Population (1900), 1,293,- 
697; 1905 (estimated), 1,408,150. 

Government. — Philadelphia is a mu- 
nicipality with three local governmental 
departments, viz.: Executive, with au- 
thority vested in a mayor; legislative, 
comprising select and common councils; 
and judicial, with magistrates and civil, 
criminal, and orphans' courts. The di- 
rectors of the Departments of Public 
Safety, Public Works, Supplies, and Pub- 
lic Health and Charities constitute the 
mayor's cabinet, and each of these de- 
partments embraces a number of bureaus. 
Other executive functions, largely finan- 
cial, are vested in officers or boards elected 
by the people or appointed by officials 
other than the mayor, and besides munici- 
pal officers proper there are a number of 
county executive officers, acting for and 
representing the State, and independent 
of the mayor. 

Public Interests.' — The city embraces 
an area of 129.5 square miles, divided for 
administrative purposes into forty - two 
wards, and in its general arrangement fol- 
lows the plans laid down by William Penn. 
There are 3,000 miles of highways, 1,142 
of which are paved; 1,860 miles of side- 
walks ; 350 bridges belonging to the city, 
and valued at $20,500,000; 299,474 build- 
ings, of which 271.482 are dwellings; a 
water - works system, utilizing the two 



160 



PHILADELPHIA 



rivers, which cost over $43,000,000, and is 
being supplemented by a sand - filtration 
system to cost $26,000,000; a system of 
979 miles of sewers, at a cost of $23,330,- 
450. Owing to popular opposition, an or- 
dinance passed by the Councils to lease 
the gas and electric lighting plants for 
seventy-five years for $25,000,000 was 
withdrawn, May 27, 1905. The police 
force of 3,100 men costs annually about 
$3,198,000; and the fire department of 880 
men costs about $1,242,220. 

The public parks and squares comprise 
4,329 acres, the principal park, the mag- 
nificent Fairmount, having an area of 



558 persons, exclusive of proprietors and 
firm members; paid in salaries and wages, 
$132,001,912, and for materials used in 
manufacturing, $326,877,441 ; and had a 
combined product valued at $603,466,526. 
In the period 1880-1900 the increase of 
capital was 166.5 per cent.; of wages, 
82.9; of materials, 71.6; and of gross 
products, 95. Among cities of the United 
States Philadelphia ranks first in the 
manufacture of carpets and rugs, woollen 
goods, leather, locomotives, hosiery and 
knit goods, chemicals, dentists' materials, 
bricks and tiles, car and carriage springs, 
dyeing and finishing textiles, and saws. 




PUBLIC BUILDINGS IN PHILADELPHIA IN 1790. 

The buildings, from left to right, are . 1, back pirt of Protestant Episcopal Academy, not entirely finished. 2, County Court-house, 

•howing west si'le on Sixth Street, and the hack part extending into State-house Square. 3, State-house, built 1735 ; its original lofty 

itetple has been removed. 4, Hall of the Americm Philosophical Society. 5, Library Company of Philadelphia. 6, Carpenter's Hall. 

I Reduced from a plate in the " Columbian Magazine," January, 1790. ) 



3,411 acres, and being the largest munici- 
pal park in the United States. In 1904 
the assessed real and personal valuations 
aggregated $1,162,074,023; tax rate, $15 
per $1,000. The real estate owned by the 
city had a value of $66,787,369. On Jan. 
1, 1905, the gross funded debt was $69,- 
851,820; the revenue of the calendar year 
1904 was $45,992,209; expenditure, $35,- 
270,684; general cash balance, $22,809,- 
081; liabilities, $22,174,205; surplus, 
$634,875. 

Industrial Affairs. — According to the 
United States census of 1900, Philadelphia 
had 15,887 manufacturing and mechanical 
industries, which were operated on a total 
capital of $476,529,407; employed 265,- 



Eleven per cent, of all textiles made in 
the United States are produced here. 

No city in the world shows a wider 
range in production of iron and steel than 
Philadelphia, and its locomotive plants, 
ship - yards, rolling - mills, machine - tool 
plants, and saw-factories lead all similar 
establishments in the world. The Bald- 
win Locomotive Works have an output 
equal to the gross production of the re- 
maining twenty-seven plants operating in 
the United States. The largest oil-refinery 
in the world is located at Point Breeze, 
Philadelphia, and several pipe-lines, sup- 
plemented by lines of tank-cars connect- 
ing the oil regions with the seaboard, have 
their terminals here. 



VII. — L 



161 



PHILADELPHIA 




FIRST CHURCH IN PHILADELPHIA. 

Foreign Trade. — Measured by the ton- 
nage engaged in foreign trade, Philadel- 
phia ranks third among American sea- 
ports, with a total shipping, both inward 
and outward, of more than 3,870,000 gross 
tons. The value of the foreign trade in 
merchandise in the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1904, was: Imports, $53,890,106, of 
which $34,211,068 was dutiable; exports, 
$71,393,254, of which all excepting $155,- 
770 was of domestic production; — total for- 
eign trade, $125,283,360. Despite its rela- 
tive inland location, the city has the ad- 
vantages of a great seaport. Situated 100 
miles from the ocean, at the junction of 
the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, the 
former offers clear passage to the ocean 
for vessels drawing up to twenty-six feet, 
and dredging under way early in 1905 
promised a thirty-foot channel to the sea, 
to be deepened later to thirty-five feet. 
Three large ship-yards afford ample fa- 
cilities for repairing disabled merchant- 
vessels; there are three commodious dry 
docks along the Delaware, and a fourth, 
capable of holding the largest vessel afloat, 
is being built at the League Island navy- 
yard; and the port also has three patent 
slip-railways, a floating derrick with lift- 
ing capacity of 125 tons, and four grain 
elevators on the water-front. 

Domestic Trade. — Seventy - one com- 
mercial organizations, sixty-one of which 
are purely local, promote the foreign and 
domestic trade of the city, and its value 
as a distributing centre in the domestic 
field is attested by a wholesale annual 



business of $500,000,000, conducted by 
1,000 wholesale and jobbing houses, many 
having a capital in excess of $1,000,000. 
Four organizations represent the com- 
bined interests of the city: the Board of 
Trade, Manufacturers' Club, Merchants' 
and Travellers' Association, and Trades 
League; the others are interested gen- 
erally in a single industry. Many of the 
commercial organizations, as well as ex- 
changes, are housed in the Philadelphia 
Bourse, a magnificent structure in the 
business section. 

The Philadelphia Commercial Museum 
is a unique institution, known all over 
the world, supported by municipal appro 
priations and membership subscriptions 
and having for its specific purpose the de 
velopment of foreign trade. One inter- 
national and two Pan-American com- 
mercial congresses have been held under 
its auspices, and it has also conducted a 
National Export Exposition. 

Financial Interests. — The citizens of 
Philadelphia have been noted for their 
thrift for generations, and this quality 
has not only built up the wealth of the 
city, but has made it more distinctively 
than any other in the United States a 
city of home-builders and home-owners, 
the latter feature being a noteworthy in- 
dication of the distribution of the aggre- 
gate wealth. In 1904 the city had eighty- 
six banks, trust companies, and saving- 
fund societies, possessing a combined cap- 
ital of $56,000,000, surplus and undivided 
profits of $79,000,000, and deposits reach- 
ing the great total of $494,000,000. Thir- 
ty-four of the banks were national, and 
had capital of $21,905,000; deposits, 
$224,635,754; surplus, $24,830,000; and 
annual clearings of about $6,000,000,000. 
Forty-three trust and safe deposit com- 
panies had capital of $34,142,115; rur- 
plus and undivided profits, $39,189,759; 
and deposits, $152,804,450. Six saving- 
fund societies and savings-banks had de- 
posits of $102,949,427, equal to nearly $70 
for every man, woman, and child in the 
city. 

No exposition of the thrift of Phila- 
delphia would be adequate without a rec- 
ognition of the great work of the build- 
ing and loan associations. In the latest 
year of record there were 486 such asso- 
ciations, having 107,000 members, over 



3 

: 



162 



PHILADELPHIA 



$45,000,000 in assets, $22,750,000 in an- 
nual receipts, and $11,000,000 in annual 
membership dues; and upward of 2,000 
ltouses were purchased or built through 
their aid in a single year. The various 
lines of insurance are represented by 
forty-five local companies, and by a large 
number of agents of foreign corporations. 
It is worthy of note that many of the 
financial institutions have been in unin- 
terrupted operation for 150 years and up- 
ward. 

Educational Activities. — The public- 



161,000 pupils, with more than 3,800 
teachers. The cost of maintaining the 
public-school system is about $4,722,500 
per annum, and its property is valued at 
upward of $15,000,000. Among the higher 
public institutions are a Central High 
School for boys, Central and Northeast 
Manual-training schools for boys, Girls' 
High School, Girls' Commercial High 
School, Girls' Normal School, and a school 
of pedagogy connected with the Boys' 
High School. 

Private and denominational institutions 




CARPENTER'S HALL, PHILADELPHIA. 

school system of to-day is marked by sev- include the William Penn Charter School 
end features inaugurated by the Pro- (1G89), the oldest school of its kind in 
vincial Assembly in 1683, which provided the country; Cheltenham Military Acad- 
for general, compulsory, and industrial emy (1760); Protestant Episcopal Acad- 
education, and the night school may trace emy (1785) ; Roman Catholic High 
its birth in an unbroken line back to School; La Salle and St. Joseph's col- 
1698. The Model School, established in leges; Drexel Institute; Temple College; 
1818, was the first institution in the Franklin and Spring Garden institutes; 
country organized expressly for the train- Philadelphia Textile School; Builders' 
ing of teachers. To-day Philadelphia Exchange School of Trades; School of De- 
spends about one-sixth of its total in- sign for Women; School of the Academy 
come for public education, for which there of Fine Arts; Girard College; and the 
are 277 schools, accommodating more than Williamson Free School of Mechanical 

163 



PHILADELPHIA 



Trades. The University of Pennsylvania, 
with its fourteen departments, heads the 
higher institutions of learning, and there 
are many legal, medical, dental, pharma- 
ceutical, and theological schools of high 
repute. Public and private educational 
systems are supplemented by thirty scien- 
tific associations, twenty-two museums, 
nine historical societies, thirty-one art, 
and thirty-three specific associations. 

The library was early recognized as an 
essential adjunct to the public-school sys- 
tem, and to-day there are 146 public and 
subscription libraries, with more than 
2,000,000 bound volumes, while libraries in 
private homes probably contain 10,000,000 
volumes more. The largest circulating 
library is the Free Library of Philadel- 
phia, consisting of a main and seventeen 
branch houses. Already the city has ap- 
propriated $1,000,000 for a central build- 
ing, and Andrew Carnegie has given $1,- 
500,000 for thirty branches. The Phila- 
delphia Library, organized in 1731, is the 



oldest subscription library in the United 
States. 

Religious Work. — Practically every re- 
ligious denomination has a place of wor- 
ship in the city, the aggregate of churches 
being 848, with 325,000 communicants or 
members, of which the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church predominates, with 146 edi- 
fices. The oldest religious organization is 
that of the Old Swedes' Church, founded 
in 1673, and the oldest church building is 
that of this congregation, begun in 1698 
and finished in 1700. Christ Protestant 
Episcopal Church, established in 1695, is 
the second oldest, and Trinity Protestant 
Episcopal (1698) the third. 

Besides the individual church agencies, 
religious interests are promoted by five 
Deaconesses' Training-houses; twenty-six 
religious communities; forty-two general 
religious associations, guilds, leagues, and 
social unions; twenty-two Bible and tract 
societies; eighteen Sunday-school associa- 
tions; eighty- three church conferences and 




A BIT OF PHILADELPHIA AS IT IS TO-DAY 

164 



PHILADELPHIA 

ministerial associations; thirty-five church is not only the largest building in the 
extension, education, publication, and his- United States, but it is the most striking 
torical associations; twenty-six home and in boldness of architectural treatment. It 
foreign missionary associations; and is built of granite and marble; has a cen- 
eighteen city missionary societies. The tral tower rising to a height of 547 feet, 
Young Men's Christian Association, its 11 inches above the pavement, and sup- 
railroad branch, and the Young Women's porting a statue of William Penn 36 
Christian Association are exerting a pow- feet in height; measures 486 feet, 6 inches 
erful influence for good in special fields from north to south, and 470 feet from 
of endeavor. east to west; covers an area of 4% acres; 

Benevolent Agencies. — At the head of and cost upward of $20,000,000. The 
philanthropic enterprises is the Citizens' building accommodates the various mu- 
Permanent Relief Committee, the only or- nicipal offices. Historically, the most in- 
ganization of its kind in the country; teresting buildings are Independence Hall, 
founded to relieve suffering and destitu- where the Continental Congress adopted 
tion caused by great calamities in any the Declaration of Independence, and 
part of the world. Started in 1877, it where the famous Liberty Bell may yet 
had distributed upward of $5,000,000 in be seen, and Carpenter's Hall, near by, 
money and materials in the United States, where the first congress of the United 
Canada, Cuba, India, Armenia, and the Colonies assembled. 

South Sea Islands, up to 1905. Alto- Other buildings of note are the new 
gether the city has 1,200 agencies for the United States Mint, Masonic Temple, Odd 
sole or secondary object of human relief, Fellows' Hall, new Bourse, Commercial 
the majority being supported by indi- Museum, United States Custom-house 
vidual subscriptions and endowments, the (copied after the famous Parthenon), 
others by State or municipal appropria- Pennsylvania Hospital, Historical Society, 
tions. Pennsylvania and Philadelphia & Read- 

Public relief was first extended in 1713, ing railroad stations, Jefferson Medical 
and has never since been permitted to lag. College, Academy of Fine Arts, Philadel- 
The city maintains the Philadelphia, In- phia Library, Cathedral of SS. Peter and 
digent, Insane, General, and Municipal Paul, Girard College, Drexel Institute, 
hospitals, the last for contagious dis- Williamson Free School of Mechanical 
eases; and there are twenty-three other Trades, University of Pennsylvania, Uni- 
general hospitals, racial, sectarian, and ted States Naval Asylum, League Island 
memorial, and twenty-seven special hos- navy - yard group, Eastern Penitentiary, 
pitals. All of these institutions have dis- and several reminders of the Centennial 
pensaries connected with them, and there Exposition in Fairmount Park, especially 
are also twenty independent ones. Memorial Hall, the Horticultural Build- 

Philadelphia is rich in charitable homes, ing, William Penn's cottage, the Belmont 
For adults there are twenty-four tem- Mansion, and General Grant's City Point 
porary and sixty-two permanent homes, log cabin. 

Similar provisions for children of both History. — A few Swedes settled on the 
sexes number thirty-five; for boys and site of the city in 1638, but the permanent 
girls six each; and there are twenty day settlement dates from the spring of 1682, 
nurseries. Homes for children have a when three ships sent out from England 
wide scope; many are for orphans; some by William Penn (q. v.) landed their 
notable ones for cripples. Relief of pov- human and material freight. Penn had 
erty and general out-door relief are car- inherited a claim against the British 
ried on by the churches and many so- crown of £16,000, and had accepted in lieu 
cieties, all co-operating with the Philadel- thereof the grant of 26,000,0000 acres of 
phia Society for Organizing Charity, a land which later became the State of 
most active and effective agency, supported Pennsylvania (q. v.). A feature of 
entirely by subscriptions. Penn's grant, which is highly Suggestive 

Notable Buildings.— The great struct- to-day, is that it placed him under obliga- 
ure at the intersection of Broad and Mar- tion to pay the British crown annually 
ket streets, known as the Public Buildings, two beaver skins and one-fifth of all the 

165 



PHILADELPHIA 

^old and silver found within the limits accompanied the famous 6th Massachu- 
of the grant. Had other natural pro- setts Regiment to Washington. As they 
ductions been included or substituted, the were wholly unarmed, they had to remain 
crown would still be in receipt of an enor- in the President Street depot in Balti- 
mous revenue from the yield of coal, iron, more while their comrades were fighting 
and petroleum. the mob in the streets. While in their 

Penn himself arrived in October of the cars they were attacked by a body of 
same year with a large number of Qua- rioters, when many of them sprang out, 
kers, and soon afterwards he made the and, aided by some sympathizing Union- 
first treaty with the Indians at Shacka- ists, had a hand-to-hand fight with their 
maxon. The site of Chester and another assailants for about two hours, when order 
twelve miles above Philadelphia at first was restored, and they resumed their 
appealed to Penn as possessing the ad- journey to the national capital, 
vantages he had in mind for his projected Chief among the later historical events 
city; but the junction of the two rivers, of the city were the celebration of the 
affording a double water-front, and the centennial of American independence by 
underlying deposit of clay that was proved the great Centennial Exposition (1876) 
to be well adapted to building purposes, ( q. v.) ; the gift by the city to the Penn- 
settled the question. sylvania Society of Colonial Dames of the 

One year after the landing of the first building in which Washington was in- 
party, Philadelphia was described as a augurated the second time (1893) ; the or- 
town of 357 houses; but in three years ganization by the manufacturers and mer- 
after its foundation it contained 600 chants of the Commercial Museum 
houses. In 1683-4 the population was (1897), and the National Export Expo- 
largely increased by immigration from sition held under its auspices (1899). 
England, Wales, Germany, and Holland. Philadelphia, The, a frigate of the 
The city was incorporated in 1691; re- United States navy. On Oct. 3, 1803, the 
ceived its charter in 1701 ; and was active ship, under command of Captain Bain- 
in resisting British aggression in 1763-4. bridge, chased a corsair into the harbor 
The First Continental Congress met here of Tripoli. In endeavoring to beat off, 
on Sept. 5, 1774; the second on May 10, the Philadelphia struck a sunken rock not 
1775; and Col. George Washington was laid down in the charts. In that helpless 
appointed Commander-in-Chief of the condition Bainbridge and his men were 
American army in the State-house here on made prisoners, and the vessel was final- 
June 15, 1775. ly released and taken into the harbor 

Here the immortal Declaration of In- of Tripoli. Bainbridge found means to 
dependence (q. v.) was adopted on July inform Preble, at Malta, of his misfort- 
4, 1776, and proclaimed four days later, une, and suggested the destruction of the 
The city, being the seat of authority of Philadelphia, which the Tripolitans were 
the revolted colonies, became a focal point fitting for sea. The Americans had capt- 
of British military operations, and was ured a ketch, which was taken into the 
occupied by the enemy from September, service and named Intrepid. She was 
1777, to June, 1778. During this period assigned to the service of cutting out, 
(Oct. 4, 1777) the Germantown (q. v.) or destroying, the Philadelphia. Lieut, 
section of the city of to-day was the scene Stephen Decatur was placed in command, 
of a battle in which the Americans were and, with seventy determined young men, 
defeated, with losses about equal on both sailed for Tripoli, accompanied by the 
sides. In the summer of 1787 delegates brig Siren, Lieut. Charles Stewart. On 
from the various States assembled here a moonlight evening (Feb. 16, 1804) the 
and framed the Federal Constitution, and Intrepid sailed into the harbor, and was 
on March 4, 1793, Washington's second warped alongside the Philadelphia without 
inauguration took place in the building exciting suspicion, for she seemed like an 
adjoining Independence Hall. innocent merchant - vessel with a small 

On the call for volunteers at the begin- crew, as most of the officers and men were 
ning of the Civil War ten companies of concealed below. At a signal given, offi- 
the Washington Brigade of Philadelphia eers and men rushed from their conceal- 

166 



PHILIP 



ment, sprang on board the Philadelphia, Massasoit (q. v.) ; became sachem in 
and, after a desperate struggle, drove her 1662. 

turbaned defenders into the sea. She was In 1671 the English were alarmed by 
immediately burned, and the Intrepid and warlike preparations made by Philip. A 
Siren departed for Syracuse. conference was held with him at Plym- 

Philip, John Woodward, naval officer; outh, when he averred that his warlike 
born in New York City, Aug. 26, 1840; preparations were against the Narragan- 
entered the navy in 1861 ; served with dis- sets. This, however, it is said, he con- 
tinction during the Civil War and was fessed was false. Subsequently he was 
wounded in the action on Stone River; compelled to pay the expenses of the col- 
was on duty in various capacities till ony caused by his conduct. This, and espe- 
placed in command of the battle - ship cially the disarming of the Wampanoags, 
Texas, Oct. 18, 1897. In the war with caused great indignation in the tribe. 
Spain he greatly distinguished himself by Philip made open war in July, 1675, and 
his conduct in the action at Santiago. His perished at its close, Aug. 12, 1676. 
ship, with the Oregon, forced the Almi- 
rante Oquendo of the Spanish fleet to run 

ashore. It was on that occasion that he King Philip's War. — Massasoit kept his 
uttered the memorable words: "Don't treaty of friendship faithfully until his 
cheer, boys. The poor devils are dying." death. Philip assumed the covenants on 
He was promoted commodore, Aug. 10, the death of his father and kept them in- 
1898, and rear-admiral, March 3, 1899; violate many years. As he saw spreading 
and at the time of his death, in Brooklyn, settlements reducing his domains, his 
N. Y., June 30, 1900, was commandant of hunting-grounds broken up, his fisheries 
the Brooklyn navy-yard. diminished, and his nation menaced with 

Philip, King, sachem of the Wampa- annihilation, his patriotism was so vio- 
noag Indians; Indian name Pometacom, lently aroused that he listened to his war- 
or Metacomet; was the youngest son of riors, who counselled the extermination 

of the whites. His capital was at Mount 
Hope, 300 feet high, not far from the 
eastern shore of Narraganset Bay. There 
he reigned over the Pokanokets and Wam- 
panoags, and there he planned a confed- 
eracy of several New England tribes, com- 
prising about 5,000 souls. It was done 
secretly and with great skill. John Sas- 
samon, who had been educated at Har- 
vard, and was a sort of secretary for 
Philip, betrayed him. Philip sent his 
women and children to the Narragansets 
for protection, and proclaimed war. He 
struck the first blow at Swanzey, July 4, 
1675, 35 miles southwest of Plymouth, 
when the people were just returning from 
public worship. The surrounding settle- 
ments were aroused. The men of Boston, 
under Major Savage, joined the Plymouth 
forces, and all pressed towards Mount 
Hope. Philip had fled to a swamp at 

V. A,v ^icr/^.ew^ Pocas f v et - (T i verton) - / here w 

i? Ctf?iC°f^ was besieged many days, but 

finally escaped and took refuge 

)0 with the Nipmucks, an interior 

tribe in Massachusetts, who 

espoused his cause; and, with 

portrait and sign manual op kino philip. j^qo warriors, Philip hastened 

1G7 





jus ybuttify 



PHILIP— PHILIPPI 

towards the settlements in the valley of mucks. During the winter he vainly 

the Connecticut. asked the Mohawks to join him, but tribes 

Meanwhile, the little colonial army had eastward of Massachusetts became his 
reached Narraganset and extorted a allies. In the spring of 1676 the work of 
treaty of friendship from Canonchet, the destruction began. In the course of a few 
chief sachem. The news of this discour- weeks the war extended over a space of 
aged Philip, and he saw that only in ener- almost 300 miles. Weymouth, Groton, 
getic action was there hope for him. He Medfield, Lancaster, and Marlborough, in 
aroused other tribes, and attempted a war Massachusetts, were laid in ashes. War- 
of extermination by the secret and efficient wick and Providence, in Rhode Island, 
methods of treachery, ambush, and sur- were burned, and isolated dwellings of set- 
prise. It seemed at one time as if the tiers were everywhere laid waste. About 
whole European population would be anni- 600 inhabitants of New England were 
hilated. Twenty Englishmen sent to treat killed in battle or murdered; twelve towns 
with the Nipmucks were nearly all treach- were destroyed entirely, and about 600 
erously slain (Aug. 12, 1675) near Brook- buildings were burned. The colonists had 
field, which was burned. Sept. 12, Deerfield contracted an enormous debt for that pe- 
was laid in ashes. On the same day Hadley riod. Quarrels at length weakened the 
was attacked while the people were wor- Indians. The Nipmucks and Narragan- 
shipping. A venerable-looking man, with sets charged their misfortunes to the am- 
white hair and beard, suddenly appeared, bition of Philip, and they deserted him. 
with a glittering sword, and led the peo- Some of the tribes surrendered to avoid 
pie to a charge that dispersed the Indians, starvation ; others went to Canada, while 
and then suddenly disappeared ( see Goffe, Captain Church chased Philip from one 
William). Over other settlements the hiding-place to another, until he was kill- 
scourge swept mercilessly. Many valiant ed at Mount Hope. See Swamp Fight. 
young men, under Captain Beers, were Philippi. One of the earliest contests 
slain in Northfield (Sept. 23), and others in the Civil War occurred June 3, 1861, 
— "the flower of Essex" — under Captain at Philippi, Va. Ohio and Indiana vol- 
Lathrop, were butchered by 1,000 Indians unteers and loyal armed Virginians gath- 
near Deerfield. Encouraged by these sue- ered at Grafton (on the Baltimore & 
cesses, Philip now determined to attack Ohio Railroad). They were divided into 
Hatfield, the chief settlement above two columns, one commanded by Col. 
Springfield. The Springfield Indians join- Benjamin F. Kelley, the other by Col. E. 
ed him, and with 1,000 warriors he fell Dumont. Colonel Porterfield, with 1,500 
upon the settlement (Oct. 29); but the Virginians, one-third of them mounted, 
English being prepared, he was repulsed was at Philippi. The two Union columns 
with great loss. marched against him, by different routes, 

Alarmed, he moved towards Rhode Isl- to make a simultaneous attack. Kelley 
and, where the Narragansets, in violation was misled by a treacherous guide, and 
of their treaty, joined him on the war- Dumont approached Philippi first. His 
path. Fifteen hundred men from Massa- troops were discovered by a woman, who 
chusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut fired a pistol at Colonel Lander, and sent 
marched to chastise Canonchet for his her boy to alarm Porterfield. The lad 
perfidy. They found the treacherous Ind- was caught, but Porterfield's camp was 
ians with Philip, 3,000 in number, in aroused. Dumont's cannon commanded a 
a fort within a swamp (South Kingston, bridge, the village, and the insurgent 
R. I.). The English began a siege (Dec. camp. Colonel Lander had taken com- 
19), and in a few hours 500 wigwams mand of the artillery, and, without wait- 
were in flames. Hundreds of men, women, ing for the arrival of Kelley, he opened 
and children perished in the fire. Fully heavy guns upon the Confederates. At 
1,000 warriors were slain or wounded, and the same time Dumont's infantry swept 
several hundred were made prisoners. The clown to the bridge, where the Jonfederates 
English lost 86 killed and 150 wounded, had gathered to dispute their passage. 
Canonchet was slain, but Philip escaped The latter were panic-stricken, and fled, 
and took refuge again with the Nip- Kelley, approaching rapidly, struck the 

168 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



flank of the flying force, which was driven 
in wild confusion through the village and 
up the Beverly Road. The two columns 
pursued them about 2 miles, when the 
fugitives, abandoning their baggage-train, 
escaped. Colonel Kelley was severely 
wounded by a pistol-shot that passed 
through his right breast, and, fainting 
from loss of blood, fell into the arms of 



some of his soldiers. For a long time his 
recovery was doubtful, but, under the 
watchful care of a devoted daughter, he 
finally recovered, and was commissioned a 
brigadier-general. Colonel Dumont as- 
sumed the command of the combined 
columns. Lacking transportation, the 
Indiana troops were recalled to Grafton by 
the chief-commander, T. A. Morris. 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Philippine Islands, an archipelago be- the south Belambangan, an island off the 

tween the Pacific Ocean and the China extreme north coast of Borneo, 31 miles 

Sea; formerly belonging to Spain, and south of Balabac, and on the west Cochin 

ceded to the United States for $20,000,000 China, 515 miles west of Palawan. The 

by the treaty of peace between the United nearest approach of the international di- 

States and Spain in 1898. viding line between Asia and Oceania 

Location. — They occupy the most north- passes about 15° (900 nautical miles) east 

em part of the east end of the geograph- of Batac Island, off the northeast coast of 

ical grand division known as the Eastern Siimar, in about latitude 12° 40' N. 

Archipelago in eastern Asia. Through the Spain also relinquished to the United 

capital and chief emporium, Manila, they States all title and claim to the islands 

are the key to the commerce of the islands of Cagayan Sulu and Sibutu and their de- 

that border the steam routes between pendencies, and all others belonging to the 

Japan and China and the Philippines, the Philippine Archipelago and lying outside 

Sulu Archipelago, the islands of the South the lines described in Article III. of the 

Pacific, the coasts of Borneo, Celebes Sea treaty, the United States paying the sum 

and Islands, Molucca and Gillolo passages, of $100,000 in consideration thereof. 
Banda and Arafura seas, the coasts of Area. — The Philippine Islands within 

Papua, or New Guinea, and Australia to the treaty lines of boundary have an ag- 

the southeast and south; and Indo-China, gregate area of 724,329 geographical 

Siam, Malay Peninsula, Java, and India, miles, or, in statute miles: 
and countries beyond to the southwest 

and west. They lie entirely within the water! '.'.'..'.'.'.'.' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.".'.'. '.7054 15 

north torrid zone. They received their 

present name from Ruiz Lopez de Villalo- Total land and water 832 ' 968 

bos, one of the early discoverers, in honor The land area lies between parallels 

of the Prince of Asturias, afterwards 21° 10' N. (Y'Ami Island, the most 

King Philip of Spain. The archipelago is northern of the Batanes group) and 4° 40' 

bounded on the north by the China Sea, N. (the extreme south point of Balut Isl- 

on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the and of the Sarangani Islands, south of 

south by the Celebes Sea and Borneo, and Mindanao), and meridians 116° 40' (west 

on the west by the China Sea. The nearest coast of Balabac Islands) and 126° 34' 

land on the north is the island of For- (Sanco Point) longitude east of Green- 

mosa, a dependency of Japan, 93 miles wich, or a total of 1,010 nautical or 1,152 

northwest of Y'Ami, the most northern of statute miles from north to south, and 

the Batanes group; on the east the Pelew 594 nautical or 682 statute miles from 

Islands (German), 510 miles off Minda- west to east. The land superficies within 

nao; on the south Ariaga (de la Silla the limits defined is greater than the com- 

Island), the most northern of the Carcara- bined area of the States of New York, 

long group (Dutch), 37 miles south of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, 

the Saranganis, off Mindanao; on the nearly twice as large as the five States of 

southwest the extreme east point of New England, and larger than the New 

Borneo, 24 miles southwest of Sibutu; on England States, New York, and New Jer- 

169 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



sey. The area of the archipelago is 7,000 
square miles larger than that of the 
British Isles, within 20,000 square miles of 
that of the islands of Japan. Within 
this expansive area of the earth's surface, 
in general, in the northern part lie the 
Batanes and Babuyanes groups, eight of 
them important, separated by the Bachi 
channel from the Japanese island of For- 
mosa, at a distance of 93 miles to the 
northwest; to the south lies the great 
island of Luzon, with the adjacent large 
islands of Polillo and Catanduanes on the 
Pacific side and Marinduque, Burias, Ticao, 
and Masbate off its Visayan seashores; to 
the southwest of Luzon extends the large 
island of Mindoro, forming, with the 
islands of Busuanga, the Calamianes, Pala- 
wan (Paragua), and Balabac, the great 
western chain of the archipelago between 
Luzon and the continental island of 
Borneo; to the southeast of Luzon lies 
the island of Samar, to the west of which 
is Leyte, and continuing towards the west 
the other great islands of the Visayan 
group, Bohol, Cebu, Negros, and Panay, 
and the smaller islands of Sibuyan, Rom- 
blon, Tablas, Guimaras, the last named 
near Panay, and Siquijor, south of Negros. 
Continuing south along the east side of 
the archipelago is Mindanao, in area one 
of the two most important islands of the 
entire group. To the southwest of Min- 
danao and very close to its shore is Ba- 
silan, the connecting link in the impor- 
tant chain between the mainland of the 
Philippine Archipelago and the east coast 
of the great island of Borneo through the 
Sulu and Tawi Tawi and other groups of 
the American Sulu Archipelago. Be- 
tween this east-and-west chain, scattered 
over the northern waters of the Sulu Sea, 
are the Cuyos and Cagaynes groups and 
the Palawan islands of Dumaran. The 
following shows the areas by divisions: 



Physical Features. — In general, the 
physical structure of the Philippine Archi- 
pelago as to mountains belongs to the 
succession of lofty ranges of volcanic 
origin which form the circuit and water- 
sheds of the Pacific basin of the earth's 
surface. Mount Irada, 3,667 feet in 
height, in Bataan of the Batanes, and 
Camiguin, 2,793 feet, in Babuyanes, are 
the outlying summits of the Cordillera 
del Norte on the north. The summits of 
Marinduque, Burias, Masbate, and Ticao 
are the outcropping of the hidden connect- 
ing group, continued in the lofty Cor- 
dilleras of Mindanao, to the southeast, and 
with less elevation in the hills of Basilan 
and the larger islands of the Sulu Archi- 
pelago, to the southwest. From Mindoro 
through the Calamianes and the long, nar- 
row mainland of Palawan another series 
terminates in the Sierra Empinada, with 
its peaks of Balabac in the extreme south- 
west of the possessions of the United 
States. The distribution of the igneous 
rocks of the Philippine Islands indicates 
the prevalence of a number of volcanic 
belts. There are 50 volcanoes in the 
Philippine Islands, 20 of these being more 
or less active and 30 extinct or dormant. 
The islands abound in minero-medicinal 
waters, of temperatures from cold to ther- 
mal, of all degrees to boiling. Of these 50 
have been analyzed in Abra, Albay, Ambos 
Camarines, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, 
Bulacan, Ilocos Sur, Laguna, Lepanto, 
Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Fuzal, Tarlac, 
Tayabas, in Luzon ; Cebu in Visayas, and 
Cottabato in Mindanao. Besides these 117 
are well known, but not analyzed, in all 
parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Marinduque, Sa- 
mar, Calamianes, Panay, Leyte, Cebu, Ne- 
gros, Bohol, Panglao, Siquijor, and Min- 
danao. The medicinal properties and 
curative effects of these waters are well 
known and patronized by the natives. 



Grand Territorial Divisions. 



Luzon 

Marinduque 

Mindanao 

Mindoro 

Palawan (Paragua) 
Sulu Archipelago. . 
Visayan Islands. . . 
Unassigned 

Total 



Sq. M. 



44,235 

681 

46,721 

4,108 

5,037 

1,029 

25,302 

740 



127,853 
170 



Mainlatu 
Sq. M. 



43,075 

667 

45,559 

4,050 

4,579 

520 

23,411 



121,861 



Dependent Islands. 



Sq. M. 



1,160 

14 

1,162 

58 

458 

509 

1,891 

740 



5.992 



311 
13 
258 
26 
135 
188 
507 
145 



1,583 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

The large islands of the archipelago have ous gulfs, bays, coves, ports, and harbors, 
extensive fluvial systems, determined by affording commercial and coastwise ad- 
the great mountain ranges. That of Luzon vantages unsurpassed in the Far East, 
is represented by four streams and their Among the larger gulfs and bays, in 
drainage basins: the Grande de Cagayan, their order of importance, Manila, the 
the Agno Grande, the Abra, and the principal bay of the archipelago, and one 
Grande de la Pampanga. The lakes — of the finest in the East, occupies a 
Laguna de Bay, draining three provinces, strategic position, in peace or war, about 
having its sea outlet through the Pasig, the centre of the western, or China Sea, 
the Bombon or Taal, with its drainage coast of Luzon. It is beautiful, expan- 
through the Pansipit — form a distinct sys- sive, and clear of obstruction, with excel- 
tem between the Pacific Ocean and Manila lent anchorage. The capital of the United 
Bay. States possessions in the Far East is 

Climate. — The climate of the Philip- situated on its shore, as also Cavite, the 
pine Islands is temperate in the months United States naval headquarters in the 
of November, December, January, and Philippines. It is surrounded by five 
February, the monthly mean oscillating be- provinces. Subic Bay lies immediately 
tween 25° C. and 26.5° C. It is exces- north of Manila Bay. It is 6 miles be- 
sively hot in the months of April, May, tween heads and 8 miles inland, forming 
and June, when the monthly mean ranges two safe harbors, with 7 to 10 fathoms, 
between 27.5° and 28.5° C, and is inter- and sheltered from all winds. Lingayen, 
mediate in the months of March, July, a gulf, is north of Subic Bay, on the same 
August, September, and October. Accord- coast, with an entrance 20 miles wide, 
ing to these variations of temperature, the extending inland 31 miles, and having a 
year is divided into three seasons: (1) depth and shelter for the fleets of the 
Dry and temperate (November, December, world. It washes the shores of three 
January, and February) ; (2) hot (April, provinces, and its chief landmark, Mount 
May, and June) ; and (3) intermediate Sto. Tomas, to the east, is 7,418 feet 
(March, July, August, September, and high. Lamon, on the north coast of Taya- 
October). bas; South Luzon, 45 miles wide at the 

Rainfall. — The maximum of days of mouth, and 35 miles inland, with a good 
rain is during July, August, and Septem- depth of 10 to 75 fathoms, well sheltered 
ber, and the minimum in February and by Polillo and other islands of some size, 
March. From the maximum rainfall ob- capable of accommodating a large fleet; 
served in the first-named three months Tayabas, on the opposite shore, 50 miles 
until the minimum in the last-named two between heads and 18 miles inland — re- 
months, the number of rainy days gradu- duce the peninsula of Luzon to a narrow 
ally diminishes; and the number of rainy neck of but 5 miles from bay to bay. 
days increases gradually from the mini- Bagay, another large indentation of the 
mum in February to the maximum in south coast, forms between the peninsula 
July. On account of this distribution of of Tayabas and Ambos Camarines, being 
rain, two seasons are recognized in the 26 miles between heads and extending 52 
Philippines, namely, the dry season, which miles inland. Balayan and Batangas, 
lasts from November to May, inclusive, separated from it by a narrow peninsula 
and the humid or rainy season, which on the south coast of Batangas, Luzon, 
continues from June to October, both in- also afford spacious facilities for vessels 
i elusive. This division, however, can only of all sizes. On the same coast, Sorsogon, 
] be applied to the interior, and principally in the province of the same name, extends 
| to the occidental coasts of the archipelago, 19 miles inland to Sorsogon, the capital. 
J but not to the oriental regions. On the On the opposite, or Pacific, shore is the ex- 
\ east coasts the season from November pansive bay of Lagonoy, which is 26 miles 
to May is distinguished by much pre- between heads and lies along the coast of 
i oipitation, and the season from June to Ambos Camarines and Albay. Albay is 
October is far from being as wet as on the also an important bay in the province of 
west coasts. the same name immediately south of La- 

Bays and Harbors. — There are numer- q-onov. Asid forms a deep bight on the 

171 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

south coast of Masbate, 20 miles between bas, and continues as a highway, horse 
heads and 23 miles inland. Carigara, on path, or trail the entire length of the 
the north coast of Leyte, is connected by peninsula of southeast Luzon, terminating 
means of the Janabatas channel on the at Sorsogon in the extreme southeast, 
strait of San Juanico, between Leyte and From this central line roads, paths, or 
Samar, with the Pacific, Bay of San Pedro trails branch in every direction to the 
and San Pablo. Sogod is an important towns on the different bays, ports, and 
bay on the south coast of Leyte, 11 miles harbors on the Pacific and Visayan sea- 
between heads and 20 miles inland. Sin- sides. 

dangan, Iligan, Macajalar, and Butuan on Railroads. — Manila is connected with 
the north, and Davao, Sarangani, Illana, Dagupan by railroad, the only one in the 
and Sibuguey on the south coasts of island. From this point an extension was 
Mindanao, are among the finest of the projected in 1902 paralleling the China 
landlocked coast waters of the archi- Sea coast to Laoag, the capital of Uocos 
pelago. Norte, the extreme northwest province of 

Roadways. — The means of communica- Luzon, and another from Dagupan to 
tion between the provinces, towns, and vil- Baguio Benguet. Another line was plotted 
lages on the different islands are by cart from Manila along the Pasig River and. 
road, horse trail, or foot-path. On the Laguna de Bay to Santa Cruz in Laguna. 
island of Luzon, Manila is the centre of At Calamba a branch was proposed to 
a system of intercourse by highways con- connect with Batangas on that bay on 
structed with an idea to continuous lines the south side. A steam tramway extends 
of trade and transportation. Among the from Manila to Malabon. In Cebu two 
great lines of intercourse by land may be private lines connect certain mines. An 
mentioned the main highway which expert estimate gives 1,000 miles of rail- 
leaves Manila, and, passing through Bula- roads as sufficient to meet all requirements 
can and Bacolor, divides a short distance of the islands for some years, at a cost of 
beyond the latter point, one line follow- $35,000,000. This project includes a 
ing the course of the Grande Pampanga trunk line 600 miles through the Rio 
River towards the northeast after entering Grande de Cagayan valley and the entire 
Nueva Vizcaya, crossing to the head length of Luzon, an extension of the exist- 
waters of the Grande Cagayan River, the ing Manila and Dagupan railroad to the | 
course of which stream it follows to the north, along the China Sea coast provinces 
north to Aparri on the north coast of of Union, Ilocos Sur, and Norte, 200 { 
Luzon. At the point north of Bacolor an- miles, to Laoag, the capital of the latter; 
other main line extends in a northwest a cross-island (east and west) line with 1 
direction to Lingayen, whence another Manila as its starting-point, about 100 1 
main highway parallels the entire north miles; an extension of the Manila and 
stretch of Chinese Sea coast to Cape Dagupan railroad to Baguio Benguet, the. 1 
Bojeador, the extreme northwest corner of proposed sanitarium, 55 miles; and short 
the island, thence by horse path following feeders to the main line as the productive; 
the north coast to Aparri. From these development of the country will warrant, 
trunk lines extend branch roads, horse Telegraphs. — The signal corps of the' 
trails, and foot-paths to the towns in the army has constructed and laid approxi-j 
interior, or into the adjacent provinces, mately 9,000 miles of telegraph, tele-i 
Another main line, leaving Manila to the phone, and submarine cable lines in thfj 
south, parallels the coast of Laguna de Philippines since the occupancy by th<| 
Bay, making almost the entire circuit of United States forces. About one-third o) 
that inland body of water. At Binang a this mileage was for extensive temporary! 
highway leaves the main line and extends field lines erected for the purpose of maim 
to the southwest of the Balayan Bay on taining communication between flying mili 
the south coast. At Calamba another tary columns and their bases, the latte 
road branches off and connects Laguna being always in communication by meani 
de Bay with Batangas, on the bay of that of permanent lines with division head 
name, on the south shore. At Santa Cruz quarters, and lines destroyed throug 
another branch road extends into Taya- hostile operations of the insurgents. Tfc 

172 






PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



permanent system embraces 1,327 miles of 
military cables and 5,000 miles of mili- 
tary telegraph lines, the whole aggre- 
gating 6,327 miles. These afford the 
means of prompt communication, and 
consequent executive control, from Appari 
and Bangui, on the north of Luzon, to the 
island of Siassi, in the extreme south, and 
connecting all the important islands of 
the archipelago except Palawan and Rom- 
blon. In addition to the signal corps 
telegraph and cable systems, the islands 
of Luzon, Panay, Negros, and Cebu are 
connected by the cables of the Eastern 
Extension Australasia and China Tele- 
graph Company, approximately 610 miles 
in length, with stations at Manila, Iloilo, 
Bacolod, and Cebu; and the United States 
is now connected directly by cable, opened 
by President Roosevelt on July 4, 1903, 
extending from San Francisco to Hawaii, 
Midway Island, Guam, and thence to 
Luzon and Manila City. 

Agriculture. — Although agriculture is 
the chief occupation of the Philippines, 
yet only one-ninth of the surface is under 
cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and 
even after deducting the mountainous 
areas it is probable that the area of culti- 
vation can be very largely extended and 
that the islands can support a population 
equal to that of Japan (42,000,000). The 
chief products are rice, corn, hemp, sugar, 
tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacao. Coffee and 
cotton were formerly produced in large 
quantities — the former for export and the 
latter for home consumption ; but the 
coffee plant has been almost exterminated 
by insects and the home-made cotton cloths 
have been driven out by the competition of 



Visayasj hemp is produced in southern 
Luzon, Mindoro, the Visayas, and Min- 
danao, and is nearly all exported in bales. 
Tobacco is raised in all the islands, but 
the best quality and greatest amount in 
Luzon. A large amount is consumed in 
the islands, smoking being universal 
among the women as well as the men, but 
the best quality is exported. Cocoanuts are 
grown in southern Luzon, and are used in 
various ways. The products are largely 
consumed in the islands. Cattle, goats, 
and sheep have been introduced from 
Spain, but they are not numerous. Do- 
mestic pigs and chickens are seen every- 
where in the farming districts. The 
principal beast of burden is the carabao, 
or water-buffalo, which is used for 
ploughing rice - fields, as well as draw- 
ing heavy loads on sledges or on carts. 
Large horses are almost unknown, but 
there are great numbers of native ponies 
from 9 to 12 hands high, possessing 
strength and endurance far beyond their 
size. 

Commerce. — The extraordinary increase 
in exports during the year ending June 30, 
1903, established a new record in the 
commercial history of the Philippines, and 
for the first time since American occupa- 
tion a balance of trade in favor of the 
islands was shown, in addition to the fact 
that their total foreign commerce was con- 
siderably larger than ever before. The 
following figures show the value of the 
archipelago's trade, exclusive of gold and 
silver and government supplies, during 
each of the five fiscal years of American 
administration, as compared with the aver- 
age annual trade for periods prior thereto. 



Years. 



Average annual, 1880-1884. 
Average annual, 1885-1889. 
Average annual, 1890-1894. 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 



Imports. 



519,500.274 
15,789,165 
15,827,694 
13,113,010 
20,601,436 
30,279,406 
32.141,842 
32,971,8S2 



Exports. 



$20,838,325 
20,991,265 
19,751,293 
12,366,912 
19,751,068 
23,214,948 
23,927,679 
33,121,780 



Total Imports 

and 

Exports. 



$40,338,599 
36,780,430 
35,578,987 
25,479,922 
40.452,504 
53,494,354 
56,069,521 
66,093,662 



Excess of 
Exports. 



$1,338,051 
5,202,100 
3,923,599 



149,898 



Excess of 
Imports. 



$746,098 

850,368 

7,064,458 

8,214,163 



those imported from England. Rice and 
corn are principally produced in Luzon and 
Mindoro, and are consumed in the islands. 
Cacao is raised in the southern islands and 
is all made into chocolate and consumed 
in the islands. Sugar-cane is raised in the 



The value of goods imported from the 
United States during 1903, inclusive of 
coin shipments amounting to $164,862, 
was $4,108,960, and the Philippine exports 
to the United States approximated $14,- 
000,000 in value. 



173 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



Revenue, etc. — In the following state- in 1898, 6,559,998 souls were distributed 

ment, covering revenues and expenditures among 746 regular parishes, 105 mission 

of the insular government in 1899-1903, parishes, 116 missions — total, 967. Of the 

the figures included audited accounts, regular parishes all but 150 were admin- 

with the exception of returns for the fis- istered by Spanish friars of the Domini- 

cal year ending June 30, 1903, which were can, Augustinian, or Franciscan order, 

estimated: By the revolutions of 1896 and 1898 mem- 

FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30 





1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


Total 


Revenues. 


$3,097,864.15 
42,954.87 
240,754.00 


$5,739,297.40 
104,282.54 
561,993.18 


$9,105,754.67 
122,816.83 
966,400.47 


$8,550,758.49 

137,811.99 

225,505.09 

1,993,270.97 

1,199,590.01 

524,482.97 


$9,686,533.29 

146,659.44 

222,980.40 

2,559,601.94 

1,561,473.61 

1,148,877.05 


$36,180,208.00 




554,525.67 




2,217,633.14 




4,552,872.91 










2,761,063.62 




127,109.81 


357,954.61 


491,217.00 


2,649,641.44 


Total 


$3,503,682.83 


$6,763,527.73 


$10,686,188.97 


$12,631,419.52 


$15,326,125.73 


$48,915,944.78 






Expenditures. 


$28,817.90 
30,410.75 


$100,194.09 
89,149.51 


$207,446.88 
155,347.77 


$490,126.40 
175,156.57 
746,586.80 

324,479.35 
1,744,344.56 
6,564,426.64 


$587,142.89 

226,730.33 

1,163,585.01 

1,760,563.87 
1,813,118.10 
8,711,363.27 


$1,473,728.13 


Postal 


676,794.96 




1,910,171.81 
2,085,043.22 


Loans and refunds to 
















3,557,462.66 


Otlier expenditures. . . 


2,316,779.97 
$2,376,008.62 


4,569,334.15 


5,050,971.79 


27,812,875.82 


Total 


$4,758,677.75 


$0,073,766.44 


$10,045,120.32 


$14,262,503.47 


$37,516,076.60 







Finance. — The ordinary receipts (ex- 
pressed in United States currency) of the 
insular government during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1903, were $9,964,472, and 
the ordinary disbursements aggregated 
$7,514,161. Including extraordinary rev- 
enues the total receipts were $12,074,730, 
and including extraordinary expenditures 
the payments aggregated $12,557,116. Of 
the total receipts $9,215,551 was from 
customs duties. 

On March 2, 1903, the Congress of the 
United States passed " an act to establish 
a standard of value and to provide for a 
coinage system in the Philippine Islands," 
which made the unit of value a gold peso 
of twelve and nine-tenths grains of gold, 
nine-tenths fine, equal to 50 cents, United 
States currency, and also for the coinage 
of 75,000,000 subsidiary silver coins of 
four denominations. The act also provided 
for the issue of certificates of indebtedness 
to maintain the parity of silver pesos for 
the unit of value, to be limited to $10,- 
000,000. 

Religion. — The establishment of re- 
ligious freedom was guaranteed under the 
treaty of peace of 1898. Except the 
Moros (Moslem) and wild tribes (pagans), 
the people of the islands are Roman Cath- 
olics. As shown by the church registry, 

17 



bers of the orders were obliged to take 
refuge in Manila ; of the number, 40 
were killed and 403 imprisoned until re- 
lieved by the American troops; of 1,124 in 
the islands in 1896, but 246 remained in 
1903. There were at that time missions 
and missionaries — 42 Jesuits, 16 Capu- 
chins, 6 Benedictines, and 150 native secu- 
lar clergymen with small parishes. The 
American members of the commission 
who negotiated the treaty of peace, in 
their deliberations in Paris, became con- 
vinced that one of the most important 
steps in tranquillizing the islands and in 
reconciling the Filipinos to the American 
government would be the governmental 
purchase of the so-called friars' agricult- 
ural lands in the Philippines, and the 
sale of these lands to the tenants on long 
and easy payments. This policy was 
recommended by the first, or Schurman, 
commission, and was approved by both 
the Secretary of War and the President. 
After a series of negotiations between 
Governor Taft and the authorities of the 
Roman Catholic Church, the most im- 
portant part of which was conducted in 
Rome with the aid of the late Pope Leo, 
the purchase of upward of 410,000 acres 
for $7,239,000 gold was consummated in 
December, 1903. 
4 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



As soon as it was evident that the Amer- 
ican occupation of the Philippines would 
be permanent the leading denominations 
in the United States undertook the estab- 
lishment of various religious institutions 
on the islands based on American methods 
so far as local conditions would permit. 
Archbishop Chapelle of New Orleans was 
appointed by the Pope apostolic delegate 
in 1899, and in 1903 the Rev. Jeremiah 
J. Harty was appointed archbishop of 
Manila, the Rev. Frederick Z. Rooker, 
bishop of Nueva Caceres, the Rev. Dennis 
J. Dougherty bishop of Nueva Segovia, 
and the Rev. Thomas A. Hendrick, bishop 
of Cebu. In 1901 the Rev. Charles H. 
Brent, of Boston, Mass., was appointed 
Protestant Episcopal bishop of the Philip- 
pine Islands. Experienced teachers and 
missionaries were also sent out from the 
Presbyterian, Congregational, Methodist, 
and other denominations. 

Public Instruction. — One of the first 
concerns of the American military au- 
thorities after the occupation of the 
islands was the establishment of an educa- 
tional system based on that of the United 
States. Men and women trained in the 
profession of teaching were sent out 
from the United States, and without 
understanding a word of Spanish or of 
the local dialects, they set to work to im- 
part information in an unknown tongue. 
In 1903 the islands were divided into 35 
school divisions, and 681 municipal and 
384 barrio (outlying districts) primary 
schools were in operation. In addition 
to the primary schools there were a 
nautical school, a trade school, 2 normal 
schools, 3 high - schools, and 38 sec- 
ondary schools. The teaching force was 
composed of 691 American and 2,496 na- 
tive teachers. The Christian population 
of the islands was estimated at 6,967,000, 
and the school population at 1,424,776, of 
which 182,202 were enrolled in the day 
schools and 11,429 in the night schools, 
making a total of 193,631 who had been 
brought within the sphere of educational 
influence. The average attendance in the 
day schools was 131,371, and in the 
night schools 8,595, a total attendance 
of 139,966, or about seventy-three per 
cent, of the enrolment. The total ap- 
propriation for the bureau of education 
for the year ending June 30, 1903, 

1 



was $1,562,161, and the expenditure was 
$1,128,433. 

Population. — The first systematic census 
of the Philippine Islands was taken 
March 2, 1903, under the direction of Gen. 
J. P. Sanger, U. S. A., assisted by Henry 
Gannett and Victor H. Olmsted. 



Province or Military District 

Philippine Islands 

Abra 

Albay 

Ambos Carnarines. . . . 

Antique 

Basilan 

Bataan 

Batangas 

Benguet 

Bohol 

Bulacan 

Cagayan 

Capiz 

Cavite 

Cebu 

Cottabato 

Dapital 

Pavao 

Ilocos Norte 

Ilocos Sur 

Ilolo 

Isabela 

Jolo 

La Laguna 

La UDion 

Lepanto-Bontoc 

Leyte 

Manila City 

Marinduque , 

Masbate 

Mindoro 

Misamis 

Negros Occidental.... 

Negros Oriental , 

Nueva Ecija , 

Nueva Vizcaya , 

Pami'anga 

Pangasinan 

Paragua 

Paragua Sur 

Rizal 

Romblon 

Samar 

Siassi 

Sorsogon 

Surigao 

Tarlnc 

T;iwi Tawi 

Tayabas 

Zambales 

Zamboanga 



Total 
Population. 


Civilized. 


Wild. 


7,635,426 


6,987,686 


647,740 


51,860 


37,823 


14,037 


240,326 


239,434 


892 


239,405 


233,472 


5,933 


134,166 


131,245 


2,921 


30,179 


1,331 


28,848 


46,787 


45,166 


1,621 


257,715 


257,715 




22,745 


917 


21,828 


269,223 


269,223 




223,742 


223,327 


415 


156,239 


142,825 


13,414 


230,721 


225.092 


5,629 


134,779 


134,779 




653,727 


653,727 




125,875 


2,313 


123,562 


23,577 


17,154 


6,423 


65,496 


20,224 


45,272 


178,995 


176.785 


2,210 


187,411 


173,800 


13,611 


410.315 


403.932 


6,383 


76,431 


68,793 


7,638 


51.389 


1,270 


60,119 


148,606 


148,606 




137,839 


127,789 


10,050 


72,750 


2,467 


70,283 


388.922 


388,922 




219,928 


219,928 




51,674 


51,674 




43,675 


43,675 




39,582 


32,318 


7.264 


175,683 


135.473 


40,210 


308,272 


303,660 


4,612 


201.494 


184,889 


16.605 


134,147 


132,999 


1,148 


62,541 


16.026 


46,515 


223,754 


222.656 


1,098 


397,302 


394.516 


3,386 


29,351 


27.493 


1,858 


6,345 


1,359 


4,986 


150,023 


148.502 


2,421 


52,848 


52.848 




266,237 


265,549 


688 


24,562 


297 


24,265 


120,495 


120.454 


41 


115,112 


99.298 


15,814 


135.107 


133,513 


1,594 


14.638 


93 


14,545 


153,065 


150,262 


2,803 


104,549 


101,381 


3,168 


44,322 


20,692 


23,630 



GOVERNORS. 

Military. 

Appointed. 

Maj.-Gen. Wesley Merritt, U.S. A May 11, 1898 

Maj.-Gen. ElwellS. Otis. U.S.A Aug. 29,1898 

Maj.-Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, U.S.A July 4, 1901 

Civil. 

William H. Tail June 5, 1901 

Luke E. Wright Aug. 25, 1903 

Americanizing the Islands. — On Jan. 17, 
1899, President McKinley announced to 
75 



Philippine islands 



liis Cabinet the appointment of the fol- prescribed their duties in the following 
lowing commission to visit and report on letter of instructions: 
the affairs of the archipelago: Messrs. Ja- 



cob G. Schurman, president of Cornell Uni- 
versity; Admiral George Dewey, U. S. N.j 
Maj.-Gen. Elwell S. Otis, U. S. A.; Col. 
Charles Denby, ex-minister to China; and 



Executive Mansion, April, 7, 1900. 
The Secretary of War, Washington. 

Sir, — In the message transmitted to the 
Congress on Dec. 5, 1899, I said, speak- 



Prof. Dean C. Worcester, of the University ing of the Philippine Islands: "As long 

of Michigan. The report of this commission as the insurrection continues the military 

was sent to Congress in February, 1900. arm must necessarily be supreme. But 

After reviewing the situation the com- there is no reason why steps should not be 

mission reached the following conclusions: taken from time to time to inaugurate 

1. The United States cannot withdraw governments essentially popular in their 
from the Philippine Islands. We are there form as fast as territory is held and con- 
and duty binds us to remain. There is trolled by our troops. To this end I am 
no escape from our responsibility to the considering the advisability of the return 
Filipinos and to mankind for the govern- of the commission, or such of the members 
ment of the archipelago and the amelio- thereof as can be secured, to aid the exist- 
ration of the condition of the inhabitants, ing authorities and facilitate this work 

2. The Filipinos are wholly unprepared throughout the islands." 

for independence, and if independence were To give effect to the intention thus ex- 
given to them they could not maintain it. pressed, I have appointed Hon. William 

3. Under the third head is included a H. Taft, of Ohio; Prof. Dean C. Worcester, 
copy of Admiral Dewey's letter to Senator of Michigan; Hon. Luke E. Wright, of 
Lodge, which was read in the Senate the Tennessee; Hon. Henry C. Ide, of Ver- 
other day, denying Aguinaldo's claim that mont; and Prof. Bernard Moses, of Cali- 
he was promised independence. fornia, commissioners to the Philippine 

4. There being no Philippine nation, but Islands to continue and perfect the work 
only a collection of different peoples, there of organizing and establishing civil govern- 
is no general public opinion in the archi- ment already commenced by the military 



pelago; but the men of property and edu- 
cation, who alone interest themselves in 
public affairs, in general recognize as in- 
dispensable American authority, guidance, 
and protection. 

5. Congress should, at the earliest prac- 



authorities, subject in all respects to any 
laws which Congress may hereafter enact. 
The commissioners named will meet and 
act as a board, and the Hon. William H. 
Taft is designated as president of the 
board. It is probable that the transfer 



ticable time, provide for the Philippines the of authority from military commanders to 

form of government herein recommended civil officers will be gradual and will oc- 

or another equally liberal and beneficent, cupy a considerable period. Its successful 

6. Pending any action on the part of accomplishment and the maintenance of 
Congress, the commission recommends that peace and order in the mean time will re- 
the President put in operation this scheme quire the most perfect co-operation be- 
of civil government in such parts of the tween the civil and military authorities in 
archipelago as are at peace. the islands, and both should be directed 

7. So far as the finances of the Philip- during the transition period by the same 
pines permit, public education should be executive department. The commission 
promptly established, and, when establish- will therefore report to the Secretary of 



ed, free to all. 

8. The greatest care should be taken in 
the selection of officials for administration. 
They should be men of the highest char- 
acter and fitness, and partisan politics 
should be entirely separated from the 
government of the Philippines. 

On the return of this commission the 
President appointed a second one, and 



176 



War, and all their action will be subject 
to your approval and control. 

You will instruct the commission to pro- 
ceed to the city of Manila, where they will 
make their principal office, and to commu- 
nicate with the military governor of the 
Philippine Islands, whom you will at the 
same time direct to render to them every 
assistancewithin his power in the perform- 



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14;^ 













-V 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



ance of their duties. Without hampering 
them by too specific instructions, they 
should in general be enjoined, after mak- 
ing themselves familiar with the condi- 
tions and needs of the country, to devote 
their attention in the first instance to the 
establishment of municipal governments, 
in which the natives of the islands, both 
in the cities and in the rural communities, 
shall be afforded the opportunity to man- 
age their own local affairs to the fullest 
extent of which they are capable, and sub- 
ject to the least degree of supervision and 
control which a careful study of their ca- 
pacities and observation of the workings of 
native control show to be consistent with 
the maintenance of law, order, and loyalty. 

The next subject in order of importance 
should be the organization of government 
in the larger administrative divisions cor- 
responding to counties, departments, or 
provinces, in which the common interests 
of many or several municipalities falling 
within the same tribal lines or the same 
natural geographical limits, may best be 
subserved by a common administration. 
Whenever the commission is of the opinion 
that the condition of aft'airs in the is'ands is 
such that the central administration may 
safely be transferred from military to civil 
control, they will report that conclusion to 
you, with their recommendations as to the 
form of central government to be established 
for the purpose of taking over the control. 

Beginning with Sept. 1, 1900, the au- 
thority to exercise, subject to my approval, 
through the Secretary of War, that part 
of the power of government in the Philip- 
pine Islands which is of a legislative 
nature is to be transferred from the mili- 
tary governor of the islands to this com- 
mission, to be thereafter exercised by it 
in the place and stead of the military 
governor, under such rules and regula- 
tions as you shall prescribe, until the 
establishment of the civil central govern- 
ment for the islands contemplated in the 
last foregoing paragraph, or until Con- 
gress shall otherwise provide. Exercise of 
this legislative authority will include the 
making of rules and orders, having the 
effect of law, for the raisinsr of revenue 
bv taxes, customs duties, and imposts; the 
appropriation and expenditure of public 
funds of the islands, the establishment of 
an educational system throughout the 



islands, the establishment of a system 
to secure an efficient civil service, the or- 
ganization and establishment of courts, 
the organization and establishment of 
municipal and departmental governments, 
and all other matters of a civil nature for 
which the military governor is now com- 
petent to provide by rules or orders of a 
legislative character. 

The commission will also have power 
during the same period to appoint to 
office such officers under the judicial, edu- 
cational, and civil service systems, and in 
the municipal and departmental govern- 
ments, as shall be provided for. Until the 
complete transfer of control the military 
governor will remain the chief executive 
head of the government of the islands, and 
will exercise the executive authority now 
possessed by him and not herein expressly 
assigned to the commission, subject, how- 
ever, to the rules and orders enacted by 
the commission in the exercise of the 
legislative powers conferred upon them. 
In the mean time the municipal and de- 
partmental governments will continue to 
report to the military governor and be 
subject to his administrative supervision 
and control, under your direction, but that 
supervision and control will be confined 
within the narrowest limits consistent 
with the requirement that the powers of 
government in the municipalities and de- 
partments shall be honestly and effectively 
exercised and that law and order and 
individual freedom shall be maintained. 

All legislative rules and orders, estab- 
lishments of government and appoint- 
ments to office by the commission will 
take effect immediately, or at such times 
as they shall designate, subject to your 
approval and action upon the coming in 
of the commission's reports, which are 
to be made from time to time as their 
action is taken. Wherever civil govern- 
ments are constituted under the direction 
of the commission, such military posts, 
garrisons, and forces will be continued for 
the suppression of insurrection and brig- 
andage, and the maintenance of law and 
order, as the military commander shall 
deem requisite, and the military forces 
shall be at all times subject under his 
orders to the call of the civil authorities 
for the maintenance of law and order and 
the enforcement of their authority. 



177 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

J a the establishment of municipal gov- preclude very definite instruction as to the 

eium^nts the commission will take as the part which the people shall take in the se- 

basis of their work the governments estab- lection of their own officers; but these gen- 

lished by the military governor under his eral rules are to be observed: That in all 

order of Aug. 8, 1899, and under the report cases the municipal officers, who adminis- 

of the board constituted by the military ter the local affairs of the people, are to be 

governor by his order of Jan. 29, 1900, to selected by the people, and that, wherever 

formulate and report a plan of municipal officers of more extended jurisdiction are 

government, of which his Honor Cayetano to be selected in any way, natives of the 

Arellano, president of the Audiencia, was islands are to be preferred, and, if they 

chairman, and they will give to the con- can be found competent and willing to per- 

clusions of that board the weight and con- form the duties, they are to receive the 

sideration wbich the high character and offices in preference to any others, 
distinguished abilities of its members jus- It will be necessary to fill some offices 

tify. for the present with Americans, which, 

In the constitution of departmental or after a time, may well be filled by natives 

provincial governments they will give spe- of the islands. As soon as practicable a 

cial attention to the existing government system for ascertaining the merit and fit- 

of the island of Negros, constituted, with ness of candidates for civil office should be 

the approval of the people of that island, put in force. An indispensable qualification 

under the order of the military governor for all offices and positions of trust and 

of July 22, 1899, and after verifying, so authority in the islands must be absolute 

far as may be practicable, the reports of and unconditional loyalty to the United 

the successful working of that government, States, and absolute and unhampered au- 

tbey will be guided by the experience thus thority and power to remove and punish 

acquired, so far as it may be applicable any officer deviating from that standard 

to the condition existing in other portions must at all times be retained in the hands 

of the Philippines. They will avail them- of the central authority of the islands, 
selves to the fullest degree practicable of In all the forms of government and ad- 

the conclusions reached by the previous ministrative provisions which they are au- 

commission to the Philippines. thorized to prescribe, the commission should 

In the distribution of powers among bear in mind that the government which 

the governments organized by the commis- they are establishing is designed not for 

sion, the presumption is always to be in our satisfaction, or for the expression of 

favor of the smaller subdivision, so that our theoretical views, but for the happi- 

all the powers which can properly be ex- ness, peace, and prosperity of the people 

ercised by the municipal government shall of the Philippine Islands, and the meas- 

be vested in that government, and all the ures adopted should be made to conform 

powers of a more general character which to their customs, their habits, and even 

can be exercised by the departmental gov- their prejudices, to the -fullest extent con- 

ernment shall be vested in that govern- sistent with the accomplishment of the 

ment, and so that in the governmental indispensable requisites of just and ef- 

system, which is the result of the process, fective government. 

the central government of the islands, At the same time the commission should 
following the example of the distribution bear in mind, and the people of the 
of the powers between the States and the islands should be made plainly to under- 
national government of the United States, stand, that there are certain great prin- 
shall have no direct administration except ciples of government which have been 
of matters of purely general concern, and made the basis of our governmental sys- 
shall have only such supervision and con- tem which we deem essential to the rule of 
trol over local governments as may be nee- law and the maintenance of individual 
essary to secure and enforce faithful and freedom, and of which they have, unfortu- 
efficient administration by local officers. nately, been denied the experience possess- 
^ The many different degrees of civiliza- ed by us; that there are also certain prac- 
tion and varieties of custom and capacity tical rules of government which we have 
among the people of the different islands found to be essential to the preservation 

178 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



of these great principles of liberty and 
law, and that these principles and these 
rules of government must be established 
and maintained in their islands for the 
sake of their liberty and happiness, how- 
ever much they may conflict with the cus- 
toms or laws of procedure with which 
tliey are familiar. 

It will be the duty of the commission 
to make a thorough investigation into the 
titles to the large tracts of land held or 
claimed by individuals or by religious 
orders; into the justice of the claims and 
complaints made against such landholders 
by the people of the island or any part of 
the people, and to seek by wise and peace- 
able measures a just settlement of the 
controversies and redress of wrongs which 
have caused strife and bloodshed in the 
past. In the performance of this duty 
the commission are enjoined to see that 
no injustice is done; to have regard for 
substantial rights and equity, disregarding 
technicalities so far as substantial right 
permits, and to observe the following rules. 

That the provision of the treaty of 
Paris, pledging the United States to the 
protection of all rights of property in the 
islands, and as well the principle of our 
own government which prohibits the tak- 
ing of private property without due proc- 
ess of law, shall not be violated; that the 
welfare of the people of the islands, which 
should be a paramount consideration, 
shall be attained consistently with this 
rule of property right; that if it becomes 
necessary for the public interest of the 
people of the islands to dispose of claims 
to property which the commission find to 
be not lawfully acquired and held, disposi- 
tion shall be made thereof by due legal 
procedure, in which there shall be full 
opportunity for fair and impartial hearing 
and judgment ; that if the same public 
interests require the extinguishment of 
property rights lawfully acquired and 
held, due compensation shall be made out 
of the public treasury therefor; that no 
form of religion and no minister of relig- 
ion shall be forced upon any community 
or upon any citizen of the islands; that 
upon the other hand no minister of relig- 
ion shall be interfered with or molested 
in following his calling, and that the 
separation between State and Church 
shall be real, entire, and absolute. 



179 



It is evident that the most enlightened 
thought of the Philippine Islands fully 
appreciates the importance of these prin- 
ciples and rules, and they will inevitably 
within a short time command universal 
assent. Upon every division and branch 
of the government of the Philippines, 
therefore, must be imposed these invio- 
lable rules: 

That no person shall be deprived of life, 
liberty, or property without due process of 
law; that private property shall not be 
taken for public use without just compen- 
sation; that in all criminal prosecutions 
the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, to be informed of 
the nature and cause of the accusation, 
to be confronted with the witnesses against 
him, to have compulsory process for ob- 
taining witnesses in his favor, and to have 
the assistance of counsel for his defence; 
that excessive bail shall not be required, 
nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and 
unusual punishment inflicted; that no 
person shall be put twice in jeopardy for 
the same offence, or be compelled in any 
criminal case to be a witness against him- 
self; that the right to be secure against 
unreasonable searches and seizures shall 
not be violated; that neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude shall exist, except 
as a punishment for crime; that no bill 
of attainder, or ex-post-facto law shall be 
passed; that no law shall be passed 
abridging the freedom of speech or of the 
press, or the rights of the people to peace- 
ably assemble and petition the govern- 
ment for a redress of grievances; that no 
law shall be made respecting an establish- 
ment of religion, or prohibiting the fret 
exercise thereof, and that the free exercise 
and enjoyment of religious profession and 
worship without discrimination or prefer- 
ence shall forever be allowed. 

It will be the duty of the commission 
to promote and extend, and as they find 
occasion, to improve, the system of edu- 
cation already inaugurated by the military 
authorities. In doing this they should re- 
gard as of first importance the extension 
of a system of primary education which 
shall be fret to all, and which shall tend 
to fit the people for the duties of citizen- 
ship and for the ordinary avocations of 
a civilized community. This instruction 
should be given in the first instance v» 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



every part of the islands in the language 
of the people. In view of the great num- 
ber of languages spoken by the different 
tribes, it is especially important to the 
prosperity of the islands that a common 
medium of communication may be estab- 
lished, and it is obviously desirable that 
this medium should be the English lan- 
guage. Especial attention should be at 
once given to affording full opportunity to 
all the people of the islands to acquire the 
use of the English language. 

It may be well that the main changes 
which should be made in the system of 
taxation and in the body of the laws under 
which the people are governed, except such 
changes as have already been made by the 
military government, should be relegated 
to the civil government which is to be es- 
tablished under the auspices of the com- 
mission. It will, however, be the duty of 
the commission to inquire diligently as to 
whether there are any further changes 
which ought not to be delayed, and, if so, 
they are authorized to make such changes, 
subject to your approval. In doing so 
they are to bear in mind that taxes which 
tend to penalize or repress industry and 
enterprise are to be avoided; that provi- 
sions for taxation should be simple, so that 
they may be understood by the people; that 
they should affect the fewest practicable 
subjects of taxation which will serve for 
the general distribution of the burden. 

The main body of the laws which regu- 
late the rights and obligations of the peo- 
ple should be maintained with as little 
interference as possible. Changes made 
should be mainly in procedure, and in the 
criminal laws to secure speedy and impar- 
tial trials, and at the same time effective 
administration and respect for individual 
rights. 

In dealing with the uncivilized tribes of 
the islands the commission should adopt 
the same course followed by Congress in 
permitting the tribes of our North Ameri- 
can Indians to maintain their tribal or- 
ganization and government, and under 
which many of those tribes are now living 
in peace and contentment, surrounded by 
a civilization to which they are unable or 
unwilling to conform. Such tribal govern- 
ments should, however, be subjected to 
wise and firm regulation ; and, without un- 
due or petty interference, constant and 



active effort should be exercised to prevent 
barbarous practices and introduce civilized 
customs. 

Upon all officers and employes of the 
United States, both civil and military, 
should be impressed a sense of the duty 
to observe not merely the material but the 
personal and social rights of the people 
of the islands, and to treat them with the 
same courtesy and respect for their per- 
sonal dignity which the people of the 
United States are accustomed to require 
from each other. 

The articles of capitulation of the city 
of Manila on Aug. 13, 1898, concluded 
with these words: 

" This city, its inhabitants, its churches 
and religious worship, its educational es- 
tablishments, ami its private property of 
all descriptions are placed under the spe- 
cial safeguard of the faith and honor of 
the American army." 

I believe that this pledge has been faith- 
fully kept. As high and sacred an ob- 
ligation rests upon the government of the 
United States to give protection for prop- 
erty and life, civil and religious freedom, 
and wise, firm, and unselfish guidance in 
the paths of peace and prosperity to all 
the people of the Philippine Islands. I 
charge this commission to labor for the 
full performance of this obligation, which 
concerns the honor and conscience of their 
country, in the firm hope that through 
their labors all the inhabitants of the 
Philippine Islands may come to look back 
with gratitude to the day when God gave 
victory to American arms at Manila and 
set their land under the sovereignty and 
the protection of the people of the United 
States. William McKinley. 

Code of Civil Government. — On Jan. 31, 
1901, the Taft Commission enacted into 
law a code of civil government for the isl- 
ands, thus outlined in the official report of 
the commission: 

The pueblos of these islands some- 
times include a hundred or more square 
miles. They are divided into so-called 
barrios, or wards, which are often very 
numerous and widely separated. In order 
that the interests of the inhabitants of 
each ward may be represented in the coun- 
cil, on the one hand, and that the body 
may not become so numerous as to be un- 



180 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



wieldy, on the other, it is provided that 
the councillors shall be few in number 
(eighteen to eight, according to the num- 
ber of inhabitants), and shall be elected 
at large; that where the wards are more 
numerous than are the councillors the 
wards shall be grouped into districts, and 
that one councillor shall be in charge of 
each ward or district with power to ap- 
point a representative from among the 
inhabitants of every ward thus assigned 
to him, so that he may the more readily 
keep in touch with conditions in that por- 
tion of the township which it is his duty 
to supervise and represent. 

The subject of taxation has been made 
the object of especially careful attention. 
The effect of the old Spanish system was 
to throw practically the whole burden 
on those who could least afford to bear it. 
The poor paid the taxes, and the rich, in 
many instances, went free, or nearly so, 
unless they were unfortunate enough to 
hold office and thus incur responsibilityfor 
the taxes of others which they failed to col- 
lect. There was a considerable number of 
special taxes, many of which were irritating 
and offensive to the people, and yielded at 
the best a pitifully small revenue. 

In dealing with the question of taxation 
it has been our purpose, first, to do away 
with all taxes Avhich, through irritating 
those from whom they were collected or 
through the small amount of resulting 
revenue, were manifestly objectionable: 
second, to remove the so-called industrial 
taxes, except where levied on industries re- 
quiring police supervision ; third, to abol- 
ish special taxes, such as the tax for light- 
ing and cleaning the municipality and the 
tax for the repair of roads and streets; 
fourth, to provide abundant funds for the 
legitimate needs of the township by a 
system which should adjust the burden 
of contribution with some reference to the 
resources of those called upon to bear it. 
To this end provision has been made for a 
moderate tax on land and improvements 
thereon. 

It is reasonably certain that at the out- 
set there will be more or less opposition 
to this tax. This opposition will come 
from the rich, who have thus far escaped 
their fair share of the burden of taxation, 
and who will naturally be more or less un- 
willing to assume it. It is believed, how- 



ever, that this opposition will be transient 
and will disappear as the people come to 
realize that the payment of taxes results 
in direct benefit to the communities in 
which they live and to themselves indi- 
vidually. 

The exact rate of taxation on land and 
improvements is left to the several munic- 
ipal councils, within certain limits. They 
may reduce it to one-fourth of 1 per cent, 
of the assessed valuation or raise it to 
one-half of 1 per cent.; but in any event 
they must spend the amount accruing 
from a tax of at least one-fourth of 1 per 
cent, on free public schools. Education is 
the crying need of the inhabitants of this 
country, and it is hoped and believed that 
the funds resulting from the land tax 
will be sufficient to enable us to establish 
an adequate primary-school system. Care- 
ful and, it is believed, just provisions have 
been made for the determination of values 
and for the protection of the rights of 
property owners. 

In the matter of collection of revenues 
a complete innovation has been introduced, 
which, it is believed, will be productive of 
satisfactory results. It is intended to cre- 
ate for the islands a centralized system 
for the collection and disbursement of rev- 
enues, the head officer of which shall be the 
insular treasurer at Manila. It is pro- 
posed to establish subordinate offices in 
the several departments, and others, sub- 
ordinate in turn to the several department 
al offices, in the various provinces. All 
revenues within any given province, wheth- 
er for the municipal, provincial, depart- 
mental, or insular treasury, will be collect- 
ed by deputies of the provincial treasurer, 
who will immediately turn over to the 
several municipalities all funds collected 
for them. It is believed that by this 
means a much higher degree of honesty 
and efficiency can be secured than would be 
the case were the collectors appointed by 
the municipalities or chosen by suffrage, 
while it will be of great convenience to 
the taxpayer to be able to meet his obliga- 
tions to all departments of the government 
at one time, and thus escape annoyance at 
the hands of a multiplicity of officials, 
each of whom is collecting revenue for a 
different end. Furthermore, the provin- 
cial treasurer will know the exact amount 
paid in to each municipal treasury, and 



181 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

will thus have a valuable check on the rection, and who have rendered our forces 

finances of every one in his province. valuable service by furnishing them with 

In order to meet the situation presented information, serving as carriers, and aid- 
by the fact that a number of the pueblos ing them in other ways. They certainly 
have not as yet been organized since the deserve well of us. They are, however, 
American occupation, while some 250 illiterate pagans, and it is stated on good 
others are organized under a comparative- authority that there are not three Igor- 
ly simple form of government and fifty- rotes in the province who can read or 
five under a much more complicated form write. They are uncomplaining, and, 
on which the new law is based, the course when wronged, fly to the mountain fast- 
of procedure which must be followed in nesses in the centre of the island, instead 
order to bring these various towns un- of seeking redress. 

der the provisions of the new law has The conditions in Benguet may be taken 

been prescribed in detail, and every effort as fairly typical of those which prevail in 

has been made to provide against unneces- many other provinces, populated in whole 

sary friction in carrying out the change, or in part by harmless and amiable but 

In view of the disturbed conditions ignorant and superstitious wild tribes, 
which still prevail in some parts of the The commission has already passed an 
archipelago it has been provided that the act for the establishment of township 
military government should be given con- governments in this province, and it is 
trol of the appointment and arming of the believed that this measure will serve as 
municipal police, and that in all provinces a model for other acts necessitated by 
where civil provincial government has not similar conditions in other provinces, 
been established by the commission the The division of the province into town- 
duties of the provincial governor, pro- ships and wards is provided for. The 
vincial treasurer, and provincial " fiscal " government of each township is nominally 
(prosecuting attorney) shall be performed vested in a president and council, the 
by military officers assigned by the mili- latter composed of one representative from 
tary governor for these purposes. each ward of the township. The president 

The law does not apply to the city of and vice-president are chosen at large by 

Manila or to the settlements of non- a viva voce vote of the male residents of 

Christian tribes, because it is believed that the township eighteen or more years of age, 

in both cases special conditions require and the councillors are similarly chosen 

special legislation. by the residents of the several barrios. 

The question as to the best methods of The difficulties arising from the corn- 
dealing with the non-Christian tribes is plete illiteracy of the people are met by 
one of no little complexity. The number providing for the appointment of a secre- 
of these tribes is greatly in excess of the tary for each town, who shall speak and 
number of civilized tribes, although the write Ilocano. which the Igorrotes under- 
total number of Mohammedans and pagans stand, and English or Spanish. He is 
is much less than the number of Chris- made the means of communication be- 
tanized natives. Still, the non-Christian tween the people and the provincial gov- 
tribes are very far from forming an insig- ernor, makes and keeps all town records, 
nificant element of the population. They and does all clerical work, 
differ from each other widely, both in The president is the chief executive of 
their present social, moral, and intellectual the township, and its treasurer as well. 
state and in the readiness with which they He is also the presiding officer of a court 
adapt themselves to the demands of mod- consisting of himself and two councillors 
em civilization. chosen by the council to act with him. 

The necessity of meeting this problem This court has powev to hear and adjudge 

has been brought home to the commission violations of local ordinances, 

by conditions in the province of Benguet. It is believed that, by encouraging the 

The Igorrotes, who inhabit this prov- municipal councils to attempt to make 

ince, are a pacific, industrious, and rela- ordinances, and then giving them the bene- 

tively honest and truthful people, who fits of the criticism and suggestions of the 

have never taken any part in the insur- provincial governor with reference to such 

182 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

attempts, they may be gradually taught postal and revenue departments. In con- 
much-needed lessons in self-government, nection with educational efforts, Governor 
while sufficient power is given to the gov- Taft said that adults should be educated 
ernor to enable him to nullify harmful by an observation of American methods, 
measures and to take the initiative when He said that there was a reasonable hope 
a council fails to act. that Congress would provide a tariff that 

The Igorrotes are tillers of the soil, and would assist in the development of the 
a few of the inhabitants of each township Philippines instead of an application of 
have acquired very considerable wealth. the United States tariff. According to the 

Civil Government Inaugurated. — On civil governor, there was an unexpended 
July 4, 1901, the authorities in Manila balance in the insular treasury of $3,700,- 
ceremoniously inaugurated civil govern- 000, and an anual income of $10,000,000. 
ment in the Philippines. The President The reading of President McKinley's 
had previously appointed Judge Taft civil message of congratulation was enthusias- 
governor of the islands, and Gen. Adna tically cheered. The entire front of the 
R. Chaffee (q. v.) military governor in Tribuna, a block long, was decorated with 
succession to Gen. Arthur MacArthur flags, and several hundred officers, with 
(q. v.). their families and friends, were seated 

Commissioner Taft was escorted by Gen- therein. General MacArthur, Civil Gov- 
crals MacArthur and Chaffee from the pal- ernor Taft, and Military Governor Chaffee, 
ace to a great temporary tribune opposite with the other generals. Rear-Admiral 
.the Plaza Palacio. Standing on a pro- Kempff and his staff, the United States 
jecting centre of the Tribuna, Judge Taft commissioners and the justices of the Su- 
took the oath of office, which was adminis- preme Court and the Filipino leaders were 
tered by Chief-Justice Arellano. Governor there, but there were more Americans 
Taft was then introduced by General Mac- than Filipinos present. The transfer of 
Arthur, a salute being fired by the guns the military authority was carried out 
of Fort Santiago. without any formality. 

A feature of the inaugural address of On March 16, 1905, Secretary Taft an- 
Governor Taft was the announcement that nounced the retention of the Philippines 
on Sept. 1, 1901, the Philippine Commis- as the policy of the administration, 
sion would be increased by the appoint- Military and Naval Operations. — For an 
ment of three native members, Dr. Wardo account of the principal operations of the 
Detavera, Benito Legarda, and Jose Luzu- United States forces against Spain and 
riaga. Before Sept. 1 departments would the Filipino insurgents the reader is re- 
exist as follows, heads having been ar- ferred to Agtjinaldo, Dewey, MacArthur, 
ranged thus : Interior Commissioner, Wor- Manila, Merritt ; Spain, War with, and 
cester; Commerce and Police Commis- other readily suggested titles. In his last 
sioner, Wright; Justice and Finance Com- annual report as military commander of 
missioner, Ide; Public Instruction Com- the Division of the Philippines, General 
missioner, Moses. Of the twenty-seven MacArthur gave the folowing statistics of 
provinces organized, Governor Taft said military operations from May 5, 1900, to 
the insurrection still existed in five. This June 30, 1901: 1,062 contacts _ between 
would cause the continuance of the mili- American troops and insurgents, involving 
tary government in these provinces. Six- the following casualties: Americans — kill- 
teen additional provinces were reported ed, 245; wounded, 490; captured, 118; 
without insurrection, but as yet they had missing, 20. Insurgents— killed, 2,854; 
not been organized. Four provinces were wounded. 1,193; captured, 6,572; surren- 
not ready for civil government. dered, 23,095. During the same period the 

Governor Taft predicted that with the following material was captured from or 
concentration of troops into larger garri- surrendered by the insurgents: rifles, 15,- 
sons it would be necessary for the people 693; rifle ammunition, 296,365 rounds; 
to assist the police in the preservation of revolvers, 868; bolos, 3,516; cannon, 122; 
order. Fleet launches would be procured, cannon ammunition, 10,270 rounds, 
which would facilitate communication Chronology of the War. — The following 
among the provinces as well as aid the is a list of the more important events from 

183 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



the outbreak of the insurrection to July, 

1902: 

Feb. 4, 1899. The Filipinos, under Agui- 
naldo, attacked the American defences at 
Manila. The Americans assumed the 
offensive the next day,' and in the fight- 
ing which ensued for several days the 
American loss was fifty-seven killed 
and 215 wounded. Five hundred Fili- 
pinos were killed, 1,000 wounded, and 
500 captured. 

Feb. 10. Battle of Caloocan. 

March 13-19. General Wheaton attacked 
and occupied Pasig. 

March 21 - 30. General MacArthur ad- 
vanced towards and captured Malolos. 

Military operations were partially sus- 
pended during the rainy season. 

Meanwhile the southern islands were oc- 
cupied by the American forces; Iloilo 
by General Miller, Feb. 11 ; Cebu by the 
Navy, March 27 ; and Negros. Mindanao, 
and the smaller islands subsequently. 

A treaty was concluded with the Sultan 
of Sulu, in which his rights were guar- 
anteed, and he acknowledged the su- 
premacy of the United States. 

With the advance of the dry season mili- 
tary operations on a much larger scale 
than heretofore were begun, the army of 
occupation having been reinforced by 
30.000 men. 

April 4. The commission issued a proc- 
lamation promising " The amplest lib- 
erty of self-government, reconcilable with 
just, stable, effective, and economical 
administration, and compatible with the 
sovereign rights and obligations of the 
United States. 

April 22-May 17. General Lawton led an 
expedition to San Isidro. 

April 25 - May 5. General MacArthur 
captured Calumpit and San Fernando. 

June 10-19. Generals Lawton and Whea- 
ton advanced south to Imus. 

June 26. General Hall took Calamba. 

Aug. 16. General MacArthur captured 
Angeles. 

Sept. 28. General MacArthur, after sev- 
eral days' fighting, occupied Porac. 

Oct. 1 - 10. General Schwan's column 
operated in the southern part of Luzon 
and captured Rosario and Malabon. 

Nov. 2. The Philippine commission ap- 
pointed by the President, consisting of 
J. G. Schurman, Prof. Dean Worcester, 



Charles Denby, Admiral Dewey, and 
General Otis, which began its labors at 
Manila, March 20, and returned to the 
United States in September, submitted 
its preliminary report to the President. 

Nov. 7. A military expedition on board 
transports, under General Wheaton, 
captured Dagupan. 

Dec. 25. Gen. S. B. M. Young appoint- 
ed military governor of northwestern 
Luzon. 

Dec. 26. The Filipino general Santa Ana, 
with a force of insurgents, attacked the 
garrison at Subig; the Americans suc- 
cessfully repelled the attack. 

Dec. 27. Colonel Lockett, with a force of 
2,500 men, attacked a force of insur- 
gents near Montalban; many Filipinos 
were killed. 

Jan. 1, 1900. General advance of the 
American troops in southern Luzon; 
Cabuyac, on Laguna de Bay, taken by. 
two battalions of the 39th Infantry; 
two Americans killed and four wounded. 

Jan. 7. Lieutenant Gillmore and the 
party of Americans held as prisoners by 
the Filipinos arrive at Manila. 

Jan. 12. A troop of the 3d Cavalry de- 
feated the insurgents near San Fer- 
nando de la Union; the Americans lose- 
two killed and three wounded. Gen- 
eral Otis reports all of Cavite prov- 
ince as occupied by General Wheaton. 

Jan. 17. Lieutenant McRae, with a com- 
pany of the 3d Infantry, defeated an 
insurgent force under General Hizon 
and captured rifles and ammunition 
near Mabalacat. 

Feb. 5. Five thousand Filipino insur- 
gents attacked American garrison at 
Duroga and were repulsed. 

Feb. 16. Expedition under Generals Bates 
and Bell leave Manila to crush rebellion 
in Camarines. 

March. Civil commission appointed by 
President McKinley (Wm. H. Taft, Dean 
C. Worcester, Luke E. Wright, Henry 
C. Ide, Bernard Moses). They reached 
the Philippines in April. 

April 7. General Otis relieved. General 
MacArthur succeeds him. 

May 5. Gen. Pantelon Garcia, the chief 
Filipino insurgent in central Luzon, is 
captured. 

May 29. Insurgents capture San Miguel 
de Mayamo, five Americans killed, seven 



184 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS— PHILLIPS 



wounded, and Capt. Charles D. Reports 
made a prisoner. 

June 8. Gen. Pio del Pilar is captured 
at San Pedro Macati. 

June 12. General Giant reports the capt- 
ure of an insurgent stronghold near 
San Miquel. 

June 21. General MacArthur issues a 
proclamation of amnesty. 

Nov. 14. Major Bell entered Tarlac. 

Nov. 14. Brisk fighting near San Jacinto. 
Maj. John A. Logan killed. 

Nov. 24. General Otis announced that 
the whole of central Luzon was in the 
hands of the United States authori- 
ties; that the president of Filipino con- 
gress, the secretary of state, and treas- 
urer were captured, and that only small 
bands of the enemy were in arms, while 
Aguinaldo was being pursued towards 
the mountains. 

Nov. 26. The navy captured Vigan on 
the coast. 

Nov. 20. At Pavia, in Panay, the Fili- 
pinos are driven out of their trenches. 

Nov. 28. Colonel Bell disperses the in- 
surgents in the Dagupan Valley. Bay- 
ombong, in the province of Nueva Vis- 
caya, defended by 800 armed Filipinos, 
surrenders to Lieutenant Monroe. 

Dec. 3. Gen. Gregario del Pilar, one of 
the Filipino insurgent leaders, is killed 
in a fight near Cervantes. 

Dec. 4. Vigan, he'd by American troops 
Under Lieutenant-Colonel Parker, at- 
tacked by 800 Filipinos; they are driven 
off, leaving forty killed and thirty-two 
prisoners ; the Americans lose eight men. 

Dec. 11. General Tierona, the Filipino 
insurgent commander in Cagayan, sur- 
renders the entire province to Captain 
McCalla. of the Newark. 

Dec. 11. The President directed General 
Otis to open the ports of the Philip- 
pines to commerce. 

Dec. 19. General Lawton was killed in 
attacking; San Mateo. 

Jan. 22, 1901. The islands of Cibutu and 
Cagayan bought for $100,000 by United 
States. 

Jan. 28. Petition from Filipinos pray- 
ing for civil government presented. 

March 1. Twenty-one officers and 120 
bolomen surrender. 

March 23. Aguinaldo captured by Gen- 
eral Funston. 



April 2. Aguinaldo takes oath of allegiance. 
April 20. General Tinio surrendered. 
June 15. Arellano, chief-justice, and six 
other Supreme Court judges appointed. 
June 21. Promulgation of order estab- 
lishing civil government, and appoint- 
ing William H. Taft the first governor. 
July 4. Civil government established. 
July 24. General Zunbano, with 547 men, 

surrenders at Zabayas. 
Sept. 29. Massacre of forty-eight Amer- 
icans at Balangiga, Samar. 
Jan. 14, 1902. Twenty-two officers and 
245 men surrendered to the United 
States. 

Organized rebellion ended early in 1902. 
Throughout the larger part of the Philip- 
pine Islands the people are peaceable, 
satisfied, are learning English, and are 
approaching self-government fairly well. 
The exceptions lie in the Sulu (or Jolo) 
Archipelago and the island of Samar, 
where the Moros, who are Mohammedans, 
bitterly hate the civilized Filipinos. 

Early in March, 1906, a large band of 
insurgent Moros intrenched themselves 
in the crater of Mt. Dago. They were at- 
tacked by Gen. Wood, and 600 of them 
were killed, including some women and 
children. The Moros are bitter fanatics, 
who believe they merit heaven by dying 
in battle with unbelievers. The women, 
dressed as men, fought as men. The men 
used their children as shields when charg- 
ing upon the United States troops. 

On March 24, 1906, a band of over 100 
Pulajanes, in Samar, offered to surrender 
under a flag of truce. They treacherous- 
ly attacked the Americans who were to 
receive their arms, forcing Gov. Curry, 
Judge Loebinger, and the constabularv 
to fly. 

Phillips, John, philanthropist; born 
in Andover. Mass., Dec. 6, 1719 ; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1735. He founded 
Phillips Academy at Andover, and Phi'lips 
Academy at Exeter. He died in Exeter, 
N. H., April 21, 1795. His nephew, 
Samuel Phillips, was born in Andover, 
Feb. 7, 1751: graduated at Harvard 
College in 1771; was a member of the 
Massachusetts Provincial Congress four 
years; State Senator twenty years; and 
president of the Senate fifteen years; a 
judge of the court of common pleas; 
commissioner of the State to deal with 



185 



PHILLIPS 



Shays's insurrection, and was lieutenant- 
governor of the State at his death. He 
left $5,000 to the town of Andover, the 
interest of which was to be applied to 



educational purposes. He was one of the 
founders of the Academy of Arts and 
Sciences at Boston. He died in Andover. 
Mass., Feb. 10, 1802. 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 



Phillips, Wendell, orator and re- 
former; born in Boston, Mass., Nov. 29, 
1811; son of John Phillips, the first 
mayor of Boston; graduated at Harvard 
College in 1831, and at the Cambridge 
Law School in 1833, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1834. At that time the agita- 
tion of the slavery question was violent 
and wide-spread, and in 1836 Mr. Phillips 
joined the abolitionists. He conceived it 
such a wrong in the Constitution of the 



need not curiously investigate. While Mr. 
Everett on one side, and Mr. Sumner on 
the other, agree, you and I may take for 
granted the opinion of two such opposite 
statesmen — the result of the common-sense 
of this side of the water and the other — 
that slavery is the root of this war. I 
know some men have loved to trace it 
to disappointed ambition, to the success 
of the republican party, convincing 300,- 
000 nobles at the South, who have hith- 



TJnited States in sanctioning slavery that erto furnished lis the most of the Presi- 
he could not conscientiously act under his dents, generals, judges, and ambassadors 
attorney's oath to that Constitution, and Ave needed, that they would have leave to 



he abandoned the profession. From that 
time until the emancipation of the slaves 
in 1863 he did not cease to lift up his 
voice against the system of slavery and in 
condemnation of the Constitution of the 
1'nited States. His first great speech 
against the evil was in Faneuil Hall, in 
December, 1837, at a meeting " to notice 
in a suitable manner the murder, in the 
city of Alton, 111., of Rev. Elijah P. Love- 
,]oy, who fell in defence of the freedom of 
the press." Mr. Phillips was an eloquent, 
logical, and effective speaker. He con- 
scientiously abstained from voting under 
the Constitution, and was ever the most 
earnest of " Garrisonian abolitionists." 
lie was an earnest advocate of other re- 
forms — temperance, labor, and other social 
lelations. He was president of the Amer- 



stay at home, and that 20,000,000 of 
Northerners would take their share in 
public affairs. I do not think that cause 
equal to the result. Other men before 
Jefferson Davis and Governor Wise have 
been disappointed of the Presidency. 
Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Stephen 
A. Douglas were more than once disap- 
pointed, and yet who believed that either 
of these great men could have armed the 
North to avenge his wrong? Why, then, 
should these pygmies of the South be 
able to do what the giants I have named 
could never achieve? Simply because 
there is a radical difference between the 
two sections, and that difference is sla- 
very. A party victory may have been the 
occasion of this outbreak. So a tea-chest 
was the occasion of the Revolution, and it 



ican Anti-slavery Society at the time of went to the bottom of Boston Harbor on 
its dissolution, April 9, 1870. He died in the night of December 16, 1773; but that 
Boston, Mass., Feb. 2, 1884. tea-chest was not the cause of the Revo- 
ke War for the Union. — In December, lution, neither is Jefferson Davis the 
1861, Mr. Phillips delivered a patriotic cause of the rebellion. If you will look 
address in Boston, which is here reprinted, upon the map, and notice that every slave 
somewhat abridged. State has joined or tried to join the re- 

bell ion, and no free State has done so, T 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — It would be think you will not doubt substantially the 

impossible for me fitly to thank you for origin of this convulsion. . . . 
this welcome; you will allow me, there- I know the danger of a political proph- 

fore, not to attempt it, but to avail my- ecy — a kaleidoscope of which not even a 

self of your patience to speak to you, as Yankee can guess the next combination 

I have been invited to do, upon the war. —but for all that, I venture to offer 

Whence came this war? You and I my opinion, that on this continent the 

186 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 




- 




WEJfDKLL PHILLIPS. 



system of domestic slavery has received 
its death-blow. Let me tell you why I 
think so. Leaving out of view the war 
with England, which I do not expect, 
there are but three paths out of this war. 
One is, the North conquers; the other i , 
the South conquers; the third is, a com- 
promise. Now, if the North conquers, or 
there be a compromise, one or the other of 
two things must come — either the old Con- 
stitution or a new one. I believe that, so 
far as the slavery clauses of the Constitu- 
tion of '89 are concerned, it is dead. It 
seems to me impossible that the thrifty 
and painstaking North, after keeping 



G00,000 men idle for two or three years, 
at a cost of $2,000,000 a day; after that 
Hag lowered at Sumter; after Baker, and 
Lyon, and Ellsworth, and Winthrop, and 
Putnam, and Wesselhoeft have given their 
lives to quell the rebellion; after our 
Massachusetts boys, hurrying through 
ploughed fields and workshops to save the 
capital, have been foully murdered on the 
pavements of Baltimore — I cannot believe 
in a North so lost, so craven as to put 
back slavery where it stood on March 4 
last. But if there be reconstruction 
without those slave clauses, then in a 
little while, longer or shorter, slavery 



187 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 



dies — indeed, on other basis but the basis 
of '89 she has nothing else to do but to 
die. On the contrary, if the South — no, 
I cannot say conquers — my lips will not 
form the word — but if she balks us of 
victory; the only way she can do it is to 
write Emancipation on her banner, and 
thus bribe the friends of liberty in Eu- 
rope to allow its aristocrats and trad- 
ers to divide the majestic republic whose 
growth and trade they fear and envy. 
Either way, the slave goes free. Unless 
England flings her fleets along the coast, 
the South can never spring into separate 
existence, except from the basis of negro 
freedom; and I for one cannot yet be- 
lieve that the North will consent again 
to share his chains. Exclusively as an 
abolitionist, therefore, I have little more 
interest in this war than the frontiers- 
man's wife had, in his struggle with the 
bear, when she didn't care which whipped. 
I'.ut before I leave the abolitionists let 
me say one word. Some men say we are 
the cause of this war. Gentlemen, you 
do us too much honor ! If it be so, we 
have reason to be proud of it; for in my 
heart, as an American, I believe this year 
the most glorious of the republic since 
'76. The North, craven and contented un- 
til now, like Mammon, saw nothing even 
in heaven but the golden pavement; to- 
day she throws off her chains. We have 
a North, as Daniel Webster said. This 
is no epoch for nations to blush at. Eng- 
land might blush - in 1620, when English- 
men trembled at a fool's frown, and were 
silent when James forbade them to think; 
but not in 1649, when an outraged people 
cut off his son's head. Massachusetts 
might have blushed a year or two ago, 
when an insolent Virginian, standing 
on Bunker Hill, insulted the Common- 
wealth, and then dragged her citizens to 
Washington to tell what they knew about 
John Brown; but she has no reason to 
blush to-day, when she holds that same 
impudent Senator an acknowledged felon 
in her prison - fort. In my view, the 
bloodiest war ever waged is infinitely 
better than the happiest slavery which 
ever fattened man into obedience. And 
yet I love peace. But it is real peace; 
not peace such as we have had, not peace 
that meant lynch-law in the Carolinas and 
mob-law in New York; not peace that 

1 



meant chains around Boston court-house, 
a gag on the lips of statesmen, and the 
slave sobbing himself to sleep in curses. 
No more such peace for me; no peace that 
is not born of justice, and does not recog- 
nize the rights of every race and every 
man. . . . 

Now, how do we stand? In a war — 
not only that, but a terrific war — not a 
war sprung from the caprice of a woman, 
the spite of a priest, the flickering am- 
bition of a prince, as wars usually have; 
but a war inevitable ; in one sense no- 
body's fault; the inevitable result of past 
training, the conflict of ideas, millions of 
people grappling each other's throat, every 
soldier in each camp certain that he 
is fighting for an idea which holds the 
salvation of the world — every drop of his 
blood in earnest. Such a war finds no 
parallel nearer than that of the Catholic 
and Huguenot of France, or that of 
aristocrat and republicans in 1790, or 
of Cromwell and the Irish, when victory 
meant extermination. Such is our war. 
I look upon it as the commencement of 
the great struggle between the disgusted 
aristocracy and the democracy of America. 
You are to say to-day whether it shall 
last ten years or seventy, as it usually 
has done. It resembles closely that strug- 
gle between aristocrat and democrat which 
began in France in 1789, and continues 
still. While it lasts it will have the 
same effect on the nation as that war 
between blind loyalty, represented by the 
Stuart family, and the free spirit of the 
English constitution, which lasted from 
1660 to 1760, and kept England a second- 
rate power almost all that century. 

Such is the era on which you are enter- 
ing. I will not speak of war in itself — ■ 
1 have no time; I will not say with 
Napoleon, that it is the practice of bar- 
barians; I will not say that it is good. 
It is better than the past. A thing 
may be better, and yet not good. This 
war is better than the past, but there is 
not an element of good in it. I mean, 
there is nothing in it which we might 
not have gotten better, fuller, and more 
perfectly in other ways. And yet it is 
better than the craven past, infinitely 
better than a peace which had pride for 
its father and subserviency for its mother. 
Neither will I speak of the cost of war. 
88 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 



although you know we shall never get 
out of this one without a debt of at least 
$2,000,000,000 or $3,000,000,000. . . . 

You know that the writ of habeas 
corpus, by which government is bound 
to render a reason to the judiciary 
before it lays its hands upon a citizen, 
has been called the high-water mark of 
English liberty. Jefferson, in his calm 
moments, dreaded the power to suspend 
it in any emergency whatever, and wished 
to have it in " eternal and unremitting 
force." The present Napoleon, in his 
treatise on the English constitution, calls 
it the gem of English institutions. Lieber 
says that the habeas corpus, free meetings 
like this, and a free press are the three 
elements which distinguish liberty from 
despotism. All that Saxon blood has 
gained in the battles and toils of 200 
years are these three things. But to- 
day, Mr. Chairman, every one of them 
— habeas corpus, the right of free meet- 
ing, and a free- press — is annihilated 
in every square mile of the republic. 
We live to-day, every one of us, under 
martial law. The Secretary of State puts 
into his bastile, with a warrant as irre- 
sponsible as that of Louis, any man whom 
he pleases. And you know that neither 
press nor lips may venture to arraign 
the government without being silenced. 
At this moment 1,000 men, at least, 
are " bastiled " by an authority as des- 
potic as that of Louis — three times 
as many as Eldon and George III. seized 
when they trembled for his throne. Mark 
me, I am not complaining. I do not say 
it is not necessary. It is necessary to 
do anything to save the ship. It is neces- 
sary to throw everything overboard in 
order that we may float. It is a mere 
question whether you prefer the despotism 
of Washington or that of Richmond. I 
prefer that of Washington. But, never- 
theless, I point out to you this tendency 
because it is momentous in its significance. 
We are tending with rapid strides, you 
say inevitably — I do not deny it; neces- 
sarily — I do not question it ; we are tend- 
ing towards "that strong government which 
frightened Jefferson ; towards that un- 
limited debt, that endless army. We have 
already those alien and sedition laws 
which, in 1798, wrecked the Federal 
party, and summoned the Democratic into 

1 



existence. For the first time on this con- 
tinent we have passports, which even 
Louis Napoleon pronounces useless and 
odious. For the first time in our his- 
tory government spies frequent our great 
cities. And this model of a strong gov- 
ernment, if j'ou reconstruct on the old 
basis, is to be handed into the keeping 
of whom? If you compromise it by re- 
construction, to whom are you to give 
these delicate and grave powers? To com- 
promisers? Reconstruct this government, 
and for twenty years you can never elect 
a Republican. Presidents must be wholly 
without character or principle, that two an- 
gry parties, each hopeless of success, con- 
temptuously tolerate them as neutrals. . . . 
What shall we do? The answer to that 
question comes partly from what we think 
has been the cause of this convulsion. ■ 
Some men think — some of your editors 
think — many of ours, too — that this war 
is nothing but the disappointment of 
1,000 or 2,000 angered politicians, who 
have persuaded 8,000,000 of Southern- 
ers, against their convictions, to take 
up arms and rush to the battle-field; no 
great compliment to Southern sense! 
They think that, if the Federal army 
could only appear in the midst of this 
demented mass, the 8,000,000 will find 
out for the first time in their lives 
that they have got souls of their own, 
tell us so, and then we shall all be piloted 
back, float back, drift back into the good 
old times of Franklin Pierce and James 
Buchanan. There is a measure of truth 
in that. I believe that if, a year ago, when 
the thing first showed itself, Jefferson 
Davis and Toombs and Keitt and Wise, 
and the rest, had been hung for traitors 
at Washington, and a couple of frigates 
anchored at Charleston, another couple 
in Savannah, and a half-dozen in New 
Orleans, with orders to shell those cities 
on the first note of resistance, there never 
would have been this outbreak, or it would 
have been postponed at least a dozen 
years; and if that interval had been used 
to get rid of slavery, we never should 
have heard of the convulsion. ... I do 
not consider this a secession. It is no 
secession. I agree with Bishop-General 
Polk — it is a conspiracy, not a secession. 
There is no wish, no intention to go peace- 
ably and permanently off. It is a con- 
89 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 



spiracy to make the government do the 
will and accept the policy of the slave- 
holders. Its root is at the South, but it 
has many a branch at Wall Street and in 
State Street. It is a conspiracy, and on 
the one side is every man who still thinks 
that he that steals his brother is a gentle- 
man, and he that makes his living is not. 
It is the aristocratic element which sur- 
vived the Constitution, which our fathers 
thought could be safely left under it, and 
the South to-day is forced into this war 
by the natural growth of the antagonistic 
principle. You may pledge whatever sub- 
mission and patience of Southern institu- 
tions you please — it is not enough. South 
Carolina said to Massachusetts in 1835, 
when Edward Everett was governor, 
" Abolish free speech — it is a nuisance." 
She is right — from her stand-point it is. 
That is, it is not possible to preserve the 
quiet of South Carolina consistently with 
free speech; but you know the story Sir 
Walter Scott told of the Scotch laird, 
who said to his old butler, " Jock, you 
and I can't live under this roof." " And 
where does your honor think of going?" 
So free speech says of South Carolina to- 
day. Now I say you may pledge, com- 
promise, guarantee what you please. The 
South well knows that it is not your pur- 
pose — it is your character she dreads. It 
is the nature of Northern institutions, 
the perilous freedom of discussion, the 
flavor of our ideas, the sight of our 
growth, the very neighborhood of such 
States, that constitutes the danger. It is 
like the two vessels launched on the stormy 
seas. The iron said to the crockery, " I 
won't come near you." " Thank you," 
said the weaker vessel ; " there is just as 
much danger in my coming near you." 
This the South feels ; hence her determina- 
tion ; hence, indeed, the imperious neces- 
sity that she should rule and shape our 
government, or of sailing out of it. I 
do not mean that she plans to take posses- 
sion of the North, and choose our Northern 
mayors; though she has done that in Bos- 
ton for the last dozen years, and here 
till this fall. But she conspires and aims 
to control just so much of our policy, 
trade, offices, presses, pulpits, cities, as is 
sufficient to insure the undisturbed exist- 
ence of slavery. She conspires with the 
full intent so to mould this government 



as to keep it what it has been for thirty 
years, according to John Quincy Adams — 
a plot for the extension and perpetuation 
of slavery. As the world advances, fresh 
guarantees are demanded. The nineteenth 
century requires sterner gags than the 
eighteenth. Often as the peace of Virginia 
is in danger, you must be willing that a 
Virginian Mason shall drag your citizens 
to Washington, and imprison them at his 
pleasure. So long as Carolina needs it, 
you must submit that your ships be 
searched for dangerous passengers, and 
every Northern man lynched. No more 
Kansas rebellions. It is a conflict between 
the two powers, aristocracy and democ- 
racy, which shall hold this belt of the 
continent. You may live here, New York 
men, but it must be in submission to such 
rules as the quiet of South Carolina re~ 
quires. That is the meaning of the oft- 
repeated threat to call the roll of one's 
slaves on Bunker Hill and dictate peace 
in Faneuil Hall. Now, in that fight, I go 
for the North — for the Union. 

In order to make out this theory of " ir- 
repressible conflict" it is not necessary to 
suppose that evei-y Southerner hates every 
Northerner (as the Atlantic Monthly 
urges). But this much is true: some 
300,000 slave-holders at the South, 
holding 2,000,000,000 of so-called prop- 
erty in their hands, controlling the 
blacks and befooling the 7,000,000 of 
poor whites into being their tools — into 
believing that their interest is opposed 
to ours — this order of nobles, this privileged 
class, has been able for forty years to keep 
the government in dread, dictate terms 
by threatening disunion, bring us to its 
verge at least twice, and now almost break 
the Union in pieces. . . . 

Now some Republicans and some Demo- 
crats — not Butler and Bryant and Coch- 
rane and Cameron ; not Boutwell and Ban- 
croft and Dickinson and others — but the 
old set — the old set say to the Repub- 
licans, " Lay the pieces carefully to- 
gether in their places; put the gunpowder 
and the match in again, say the Consti- 
tution backAvard instead of your prayers, 
and there never will be another rebel- 
lion!" I doubt it. It seems to me that 
like causes will produce like effects. If 
the reason of the war is because we are 
two nations, then the cure must be to 



190 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 



make us one nation, to remove that cause 
which divides us, to make our institutions 
homogeneous. If it %vere possible to subju- 
gate the South, and leave slavery just 
as it is, where is the security that we 
should not have another war in ten 
years? Indeed, such a course invites an- 
other war, whenever demagogues please. 
I believe the policy of reconstruction is 
impossible. If it were possible, it would 
be the greatest mistake that Northern 
men could commit. I will not stop to 
remind you that, standing as we do to- 
day, with the full constitutional right to 
abolish slavery — a right Southern trea- 
son has just given us — a right, the use 
of which is enjoined by the sternest neces- 
sity — if after that, the North goes back 
to the Constitution of '89, she assumes, a 
second time, afresh, unnecessarily, a crim- 
inal responsibility for slavery. Hereafter 
no old excuse will avail us. A second 
time with open eyes, against our honest in- 
terests we clasp bloody hands with tyrants 
to uphold an acknowledged sin, whose evil 
we have fully proved. 

Reconstruction is but another name for 
the submission of the North. It is her 
subjugation under a mask. It is nothing 
but the confession of defeat. Every mer- 
chant, in such a case, puts everything he 
has at the bidding of Wigfall and Toombs 
in every cross-road bar-room at the South. 
For, you see, never till now did anybody 
but a few abolitionists believe that this 
nation could be marshalled, one section 
against the other, in arms. But the secret 
is out. The weak point is discovered, Why 
does the London press lecture us like a 
school-master his seven-year-old boy? Why 
does England use a tone such as she has 
not used for half a century to any power? 
Because she knows us as she knows Mexico, 
as all Europe knows Austria — that we 
have the cancer concealed in our very 
vitals. Slavery, left where it is, after 
having created such a war as this, would 
leave our commerce and all our foreign 
relations at the mercy of any Keitt, Wig- 
fall, Wise, or Toombs. Any demagogue has 
only to stir up a pro-slavery crusade, 
point back to the safe experiments of 
1861 ; and lash the passions of the 
aristocrat, to cover the sea with privateers, 
put in jeopardy the trade of twenty States, 
plunge the country into millions of debt, 



191 



send our stock down 50 per cent., and 
cost thousands of lives. Reconstruction 
is but making chronic what now is tran- 
sient. What that is, this week shows. 
What that is, we learn from the tone Eng- 
land dares to assume towards this divid- 
ed republic. I do not believe reconstruction 
possible. I do not believe that the cabinet 
intend it. True, I should care little if 
they did, since I believe the administration 
can now more resist the progress of 
events than a spear of grass can retard 
the step of an avalanche. But if they 
do, allow me to say, for one, that every 
dollar spent in this war is worse than 
wasted, that every life lost is a public 
murder, and that every statesman who 
leads States back to reconstruction will 
be damned to an infamy compared with 
which Arnold was a saint, and James 
Buchanan a public benefactor. I said re- 
construction is not possible. I do not 
believe it is, for this reason; the moment 
these States begin to appear victorious, 
the moment our armies do anything that 
evinces final success, the wily statesman- 
ship and unconquerable hate of the South 
will write " Emancipation " on her ban- 
ner, and welcome the protectorate of a 
European power. And if you read the 
European papers of to-day, you need not 
doubt that she will have it. . . . 

The value of the English news this 
week is the indication of the nation's 
mind. No one doubts now that should the 
South emancipate, England would make 
haste to recognize and help her. In 
ordinary times, the government and 
aristocracy of England dread American 
example. They may well admire and envy 
the strength of our government, when, 
instead of England's impressment and 
pinched levies, patriotism marshals 600,- 
000 volunteers in six months. The Eng- 
lish merchant is jealous of our growth; 
only the liberal middle classes sympathize 
Avith us. When the two other classes 
are divided, this middle class rules. But 
now Herod and Pilate are agreed. The 
aristocrat, who usually despises a trader, 
whether of Manchester or Liverpool, as 
the South does a negro, now is secession- 
ist from sympathy, as the trader is from 
interest. Such a union no middle class 
can checkmate. The only danger of war 
with England is, that, as soon as England 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 

ieclared war with us, she would recognize the government announcing a policy in 
the Southern Confederacy immediately, South Carolina. What is it? Well, Mr. 
just as she stands, slavery and all, as a Secretary Cameron says to the general 
military measure. As such, in the heat of in command there: " You are to welcome 
passion, in the smoke of war, the English into your camp all comers; you are to 
people, all of them, would allow such a organize them into squads and companies; 
recognition even of a slave-holding empire, use them any way you please — but there 
War with England insures disunion, is to be no general arming." That is a 
When England declares war, she gives very significant exception. The hint is 
slavery a fresh lease of fifty years. Even broad enough for the dullest brain. In 
if we had no war with England, let an- one of Charles Reade's novels, the heroine 
other eight or ten months be as little sue- flies away to hide from the hero, an- 
cessful as the last, and Europe will nouncing that she never will see him again, 
acknowledge the Southern Confederacy, Her letter says: "I will never see you 
slavery, and all, as a matter of course, again, David. You, of course, won't come 
Further, any approach towards victory on to see me at my old nurse's little cottage, 
our part, without freeing the slave, gives between eleven in the morning and four 
him free to Davis. So far, the South is in the afternoon, because I sha'n't see 
sure to succeed, either by victory or de- you." So Mr. Cameron says there is to 
feat, unless we anticipate her. Indeed, be no general arming. But I suppose there 
the only way, the only sure way, to break is to be a very particular arming. But he 
this Union, is to try to save it by pro- goes on to add: "This is no greater in- 
tecting slavery. " Every moment lost," as terference with the institutions of South 
Napoleon said, " is an opportunity for mis- Carolina than is necessary, than the war 
fortune." Unless we emancipate the slave, will cure." Does he mean he will give 
we shall never conquer the South without the slaves back after the war is over? I 
her trying emancipation. Every South- don't know. All I know is, that the Port 
I erner, from Toombs up to Fremont, has Royal expedition proved one thing — it laid 
.'acknowledged it. Do you suppose that forever that ghost of an argument, that 
Davis and Beauregard, and the rest, meant the blacks loved their masters — it set- 
to be exiles, wandering contemned in every tied forever the question whether the 
great city in Europe, in order that they blacks were with us or the South. My 
may maintain slavery and the Constitution opinion is that the blacks are the key of 
of '89? They, like ourselves, will throw our position. He that gets them wins, 
everything overboard before they will sub- and he that loses them goes to the wall, 
mit to defeat — defeat from Yankees. I Port Royal settled one thing — the blacks 
do not believe, therefore, that reconcilia- are with us and not with the South. At 
tion is possible, nor do I believe that the present they are the only Unionists. I 
cabinet have any such hopes. Indeed, I know nothing more touching in history, 
do not know where you will find the evi- nothing that art will immortalize and 
dence of any purpose in the administration poets dwell upon more fondly — I know 
at Washington. If we look to the West, no tribute to the stars and stripes more 
if we look to the Potomac, what is the impressive than that incident of the blacks 
policy? If, on the Potomac, with the aid coming to the water-side with their little 
of twenty governors, you assemble an army bundles, in that simple faith which had 
and do nothing but return fugitive slaves, endured through the long night of so 
jthat proves you competent and efficient, many bitter years. They preferred to be 
If, on the banks of the Mississippi, un- shot rather than driven from the sight 
aided, the magic of your presence summons of that banner they had so long prayed 
an army into existence, and you drive to see. And if that was the result when 
your enemy before you a hundred miles nothing but General Sherman's equivocal 
farther than your second in command proclamation was landed on the Caro- 
thought it possible for you to advance, linas. what should we have seen if there 
that proves you incompetent, and entitles had been 18,000 veterans with Fremont, 
your second in command to succeed you. the statesman-soldier of this war, at their 
Looking in another direction, you see head, and over them the stars and stripes, 

192 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 

gorgeous with the motto, " Freedom for years' practice has incorporated it as a 
all, freedom forever!" If that had gone be- principle in our constitutional law, that 
fore them, in my opinion they would have what the necessity of the hour demands, 
marched across the Carolinas and joined and the continued assent of the people 
Brownlow in east Tennessee. The bul- ratifies, is law. Slavery has established 
wark on each side of them would have been that rule. We might surely use it in the 
100,000 grateful blacks; they would have cause of justice. But I will cite an un- 
cut this rebellion in halves, and while questionable precedent. It was a grave 
our fleets fired salutes across New Orleans, power, in 1807, in time of peace, when 
Beauregard would have been ground to Congress abolished commerce; when, by 
powder between the upper millstone of Mc- the embargo of Jefferson, no ship could 
Clellan and the lower of a quarter-million quit New York or Boston, and Congress 
of blacks rising to greet the stars and set no limit to the prohibition. It an- 
stripes. McClellan may drill a better army nihilated commerce. New England asked, 
— more perfect soldiers. He will never " Is it constitutional ?" The Supreme 
marshal a stronger force than those grate- Court said, " Yes." New England sat 
ful thousands. . . . down and starved. Her wharfs were 
When Congress declares war, says John worthless, her ships rotted, her merchants 
Quincy Adams, Congress has all the power beggared. She asked no compensation, 
incident to carrying on war. It is not The powers of Congress carried bank- 
an unconstitutional power — it is a power ruptcy from New Haven to Portland; but 
conferred by the Constitution ; but the the Supreme Court said, " It is legal," 
moment it comes into play it rises be- and New England bowed her head. We 
yond the limit of constitutional checks, commend the same cup to the Carolinas 
I know it is a grave power, this trusting to-day. We say to them that, in order 
the government with despotism. But to save the government, there resides 
what is the use of government, except somewhere despotism. It is in the war 
just to help us in critical times? All powers of Congress. That despotism can 
the checks and ingenuity of our institu- change the social arrangement of the 
tions are arranged to secure for us men Southern States, and has a right to do it. 
wise and able enough to be trusted with Now, this government, which abolishes 
grave powers — bold enough to use them my right of habeas corpus — which strikes 
when the times require. Lancets and down, because it is necessary, every Sax- 
knives are dangerous instruments. The on bulwark of liberty — which proclaims 
use of the surgeon is, that when lancets martial law, and holds every dollar and 
are needed somebody may know how to every man at the will of the cabinet — do 
use them, and save life. One great merit you turn round and tell me that this 
of democratic institutions is, that, rest- same government has no rightful power 
ing as they must on educated masses, to break the cobweb — it is but a cobweb — 
the government may safely be trusted in which binds a slave to his master — to 
a great emergency, with despotic power, stretch its hands across the Potomac and 
without fear of harm or of wrecking the root up the evil which for seventy years 
State. No other form of government can has troubled its peace and now culminates 
venture such confidence without risk of in rebellion? I maintain, therefore, the 
national ruin. Doubtless the war power power of the government itself to inau- 
is a very grave power; so are some or- gurate such a policy; and I say in order 
dinary peace powers. I will not cite ex- to save the Union, do justice to the black, 
treme cases — Louisiana and Texas. We I would claim of Congress — in the 
obtained the first by treaty, the second exact language of Adams, of the " govern- 
by joint resolutions ; each case an exercise ment " — a solemn act abolishing slavery 
of power as grave and despotic as the throughout the Union, securing compen- 
abolition of slavery would be, and unlike sation to the loyal slave-holders. As the 
that, plainly unconstitutional — one which Constitution forbids the States to make 
nothing but stern necessity and subsequent and allow nobles, I would now, by equal 
acquiescence by the nation could make authority, forbid them to make slaves 
valid. Let me remind you that seventy or allow slave-holders. 
vn.— n 193 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 

People may say this is a strange Ian- erations have been given for this purpose, 
guage for me— a disunionist. Well, I was To break up that Union now is to de- 
a disunionist, sincerely, for twenty years ; fraud us of mutual advantages relating 
I did hate the Union, when Union meant to peace, trade, national security, which 
lies in the pulpit and mobs in the streets, cannot survive disunion. The right of 
when Union meant making white men disunion is not matter of caprice. " Gov- 
hypocrites and black men slaves. I did ernments long established," says our 
prefer purity to peace — I acknowledge it. Declaration of Independence, " are not to 
The child of six generations of Puritans, be changed for light and transient causes." 
knowing well the value of Union, I did When so many important interests and 
prefer disunion to being the accomplice of benefits, in their nature indivisible and 
tvrants. But now, when I see what the which disunion destroys, have been secured 
Union must mean in order to last, when by common toils and cost, the South must 
I see that you cannot have Union with- vindicate her revolution by showing that 
out meaning justice, and when I see our government has become destructive 
20,000,000 of people, with a current of its proper ends, else the right of revo- 
as swift and as inevitable as Niagara, lution does not exist. Why did we steal 
determined that this Union shall mean Texas? Why have we helped the South 
justice, why should I object to it? I en- to strengthen herself? Because she said 
deavored honestly, and am not ashamed that slavery within the girdle of the Con- 
of it, to take nineteen States out of this stitution would die out through the in- 
Union, and consecrate them to liberty, fluence of natural principles. She said: 
and 20,000,000 of people answer me " We acknowledge it to be an evil ; but 
back, " We like your motto, only we mean at the same time it will end by the spread 
to keep thirty-four States under it." Do of free principles and the influence of 
you suppose I am not Yankee enough to free institutions." And the North said: 
l-uy Union when I can have it at a fair " Yes ; we will give you privileges on that 
price? I know the value of Union; and account, and we will return your slaves 
the reason why I claim that Carolina has for you." Every slave sent back from a 
no right to secede is this: we are not a Northern State is a fresh oath of the 
partnership, we are a marriage, and we South that she would secede. Our father 
have done a great many things since we trusted to the promise that this racf 
were married in 1789, which render it un- should be left under the influence of the 
just for a State to exercise the right of Union, until, in the maturity of time, 
revolution on any ground now alleged, the day should arrive when they would 
I admit the right. I acknowledge the be lifted into the sunlight of God's 
great principles of the Declaration of equality. I claim it of South Carolina. 
Independence, that a State exists for the By virtue of that pledge she took Boston 
liberty and happiness of the people, that and put a rope round her neck in that 
these are the ends of government, and infamous compromise which consigned to 
that, when government ceases to promote slavery Anthony Burns. I demand the 
those ends, the people have a right to fulfilment on her part even of that in- 
remodel their institutions. I acknowledge famous pledge. Until South Carolina 
the right of revolution in South Carolina, allows me all the influence that 19,- 
but at the same time I acknowledge that 000,000 of Yankee lips, asking infinite 
right of revolution only when govern- questions, have upon the welfare of those 
ment has ceased to promote those ends. 4,000,000 of bondsmen, I deny her right 
Now, we have been married for seventy to secede. Seventy years has the Union 
years. We have bought Florida. We postponed the negro. For seventy years 
rounded the Union to the Gulf. We has he been beguiled with the prom- 
bought the Mississippi for commercial ise, as she erected one bulwark after 
purposes. We stole Texas for slave pur- another around slavery, that he should 
poses. Great commercial interests, great have the influence of our common in- 
interests of peace, have been subserved by stitutions. 

rounding the Union into a perfect shape; I know how we stand to-day, with the 

and the money and sacrifices of two gen- frowning cannon of the English fleet 

194 



PHILLIPS, WENDELL 

ready to be thrust out of the port-holes It is not power that we should lose, but 
against us. But I can answer England it is character. How should we stand 
with a better answer than William H. Sew- when Jeff Davis has turned that corner 
ard can write. I can answer her with upon us — abolished slavery, won European 
a more statesmanlike paper than Simon sympathy, and established his Confeder- 
Cameron can indite. I would answer her acy? Bankrupt in character — outwitted 
with the stars and stripes floating over in statesmanship. Our record would be, 
Charleston and New Orleans, and the itin- as we entered the sisterhood of nations — 
erant cabinet of Richmond packing up " Longed and struggled and begged to be 
archives and wearing apparel to ride back admitted into the partnership of tyrants, 
to Montgomery. There is one thing and and they were kicked out!" And the 
only one, which John Bull respects, and South would spring into the same* arena, 
that is success. It is not for us to give bearing on her brow — " She flung away 
counsel to the government on points of what she thought gainful and honest, in 
diplomatic propriety, but I suppose we order to gain her independence!" A rec- 
may express our opinions, and my opin- ord better than the gold of California or 
ion is, that, if I were the President of all the brains of the Yankee, 
these thirty- four States, while I was, I Righteousness is preservation. You 
should want Mason and Slidell to stay who are not abolitionists do not come to 
with me. I say, then, first, as a matter this question as I did — from an interest 
of justice to the slave, we owe it to him; in these 4,000,000 of black men. I came 
the day of his deliverance has come. The on this platform from sympathy with the 
long promise of seventy years is to be ful- negro. I acknowledge it. You come to 
filled. The South draws back from the this question from an idolatrous regard 
pledge. The North is bound in honor of for the Constitution of '89. But here we 
the memory of her fathers, to demand its stand. On the other side of the ocean is 
exact fulfilment, and in order to save this England, holding out, not I think a threat 
Union, which now means justice and peace, of war — I do not fear it — but holding out 
to recognize the rights of 4,000,000 of its to the South the intimation of a, willing- 
victims. And if I dared to descend to a ness, if she will but change her garments, 
lower level, I should say to the merchants and make herself decent, to take her in 
of this metropolis, Demand of the govern- charge, and give her assistance and pro- 
ment a speedy settlement of this question, tection. There stands England, the most 
Every hour of delay is big with risk. Re- selfish and treacherous of modern govern - 
member, as Governor Boutwell suggests, ments. On the other side of the Potomac 
that our present financial prosperity comes stands a statesmanship, urged by personal 
because we have corn to export in place of and selfish interests, which cannot be 
cotton, and that another year, should matched, and between them they have 
Europe have a good harvest and we an but one object — it is in the end to divide 
ordinary one, while an inflated currency the Union. 

tempts extravagance and large imports, I do not forget the white man, the 

general bankruptcy stares us in the face. 8,000,000 of poor whites, thinking them- 

Do you love the Union? Do you really selves our enemies, but who are really 

think that on the other side of the Po- our friends. Their interests are identi- 

tcmac are the natural brothers and cus- cal with our own. An Alabama slave- 

tcmers of the manufacturing ingenuity holder, sitting with me a year or two 

of the North ? I tell you, certain as fate, ago, said : " In our northern counties they 

C4od has written the safety of that rela- are your friends. A man owns one slave 

tion in the same scroll with justice to the or two slaves, and he eats with them, and 

negro. The hour strikes. You may win sleeps in the same room (they have but 
him to your side; you may anticipate the. one), much as a hired man here eats 

South; you may save 12,000,000 of cus- with the farmer he serves. There is no dif- 

tomers. Delay it, let God giant McClel- ference. They are too poor to send their 

Ian victory, let God grant the stars and sons north for education. They have no 

stripes over New Orleans, and it is too newspapers, and they know nothing but 

late. what they are told by us. If you could 

195 



PKlLLIPfc, -WfEttfiELl 



get at them, they Would be on your side, 
but we mean you never shall." 

In Paris there are 100,000 men whom 
caricature or epigram can at any time 
raise to barricade the streets. Whose 
fault is it that such men exist? The gov- 
ernment's; and the government under 
which such a mass of ignorance exists de- 
serves to be barricaded. The government 
under which 8,000,000 of people exist, so 
ignorant that 2,000 politicians and 100,- 

000 aristocrats can pervert them into 
rebellion, deserves to be rebelled against. 
In the service of those men I mean, for 
one, to try to fulfil the pledge my 
fathers made when they said, " We will 
guarantee to every State a republican 
form of government." A privileged class, 
grown strong by the help and forbearance 
of the North, plots the establishment of 
aristocratic government in form as well 
as essence — conspires to rob the non- 
slave-holders of their civil rights. This is 
just the danger our national pledge was 
meant to meet. Our fathers' honor, na- 
tional good faith, the cause of free institu- 
tions, the peace of the continent, bid us 
fulfil this pledge — insist on using the right 
it gives us to preserve the Union. 

I mean to fulfil the pledge that free in- 
stitutions shall be preserved in the several 
States, and I demand it of the government. 

1 would have them, therefore, announce to 
the world what they have never yet done. 
I do not wonder at the want of sympathy 
on the part of England with us. The 
South says, " I am fighting for slavery." 
The North says " I am not fighting against 
it." Why should England interfere? The 
people have nothing on which to hang their 
sympathy. 

I would have government announce to 
the world that we understand the evil 
which has troubled our peace for seventy 
years, thwarting the natural tendency of 
our institutions, sending ruin along our 
wharves and through our workshops every 
ten years, poisoning the national con- 
science. We well know its character. But 
democracy, unlike other governments, is 
strong enough to let evils work out their 
own death — strong enough to face them 
when they reveal their proportions. It 
was in this sublime consciousness of 
strength, not of weakness, that our fathers 
submitted to the well-known evil of 



slavery, and tolerated, until the viper we 
thought we could safely tread on, at the 
touch of disappointment starts up a fiend 
whose stature reaches the sky. But our 
cheeks do not blanch. Democracy ac- 
cepts the struggle. After this forbearance 
of three generations, confident that she 
has yet power to execute her will, she 
sends her proclamation down to the Gulf 
— freedom to every man beneath the stars. 
and death to every institution that dis- 
turbs our peace or threatens the future 
of the republic. 

The following is an extract from his 
oration on Garrison: 



His was an earnestness that would 
take no denial, that consumed opposition 
in the intensity of its convictions, that 
knew nothing but right. As friend after 
friend gathered slowly, one by one, to 
his side, in that very meeting of a dozen 
heroic men to form the New England 
Anti - slavery Society, it was his com- 
pelling hand, his resolute unwillingness to 
temper or qualify the utterance, that 
finally dedicated that first organized 
movement to the doctrine of immediate 
emancipation. He seems to have under- 
stood — this boy without experience — he 
seems to have understood by instinct that 
righteousness is the only thing which will 
finally compel submission ; that one, with 
God, is always a majority. He seems to 
have known it at the very outset, taught 
of God, the herald and champion, God- 
endowed and God-sent to arouse a nation, 
that only by the most absolute asser- 
tion of the uttermost truth, without 
qualification or compromise, can a nation' 
be waked to conscience or strengthened 
for duty. No man ever understood so 
thoroughly — not O'Connell nor Cobden — 
the nature and needs of that agitation 
which alone, in our day, reforms states. 
In the darkest hour he never doubted the 
omnipotence of conscience and the moral 
sentiment. 

And then look at the unquailing cour- 
age with which he faced the successive 
obstacles that confronted him! Modest, 
believing at the outset that America 
could not be as corrupt as she seemed, he 
waits at the door of the churches, im- 
portunes leading clergymen, begs for a 
voice from the sanctuary, a consecrated 



196 



PHIPPS— PICKENS 



protest from the pulpit. To his utter treasure to the amount of about $1,400,- 
amazement, he learns, by thus probing it, 000, of which his share amounted to about 
that the Church will give him no help, $75,000. The King knighted him, and he 
but, on the contrary, surges into the was appointed high sheriff of New Eng- 
movement in opposition. Serene, though land. In 1690, in command of a fleet, he 
astounded by the unexpected revelation, captured Port Royal (Acadia), and late 
he simply turns his footsteps, and an- in the same year he led an unsuccessful 
nounces that " a Christianity which keeps expedition against Quebec. Phipps went 
peace with the oppressor is no Christi- to England in 1692 to solicit another ex- 
anity," and goes on his way to supplant pedition against Canada. There he was 
the religious element which the Church appointed captain-general and governor 
had allied with sin by a deeper religious of Massachusetts under a new royal char- 
faith. Yes, he sets himself to work — ter, just issued, and he returned in May 
this stripling with his sling confronting of that year, bringing the charter with 
the angry giant in complete steel, this him. In 1694 he was summoned to Eng- 
solitary evangelist — to make Christians land to answer charges preferred against 
of 20,000,000 of people! I am not exag- him, and there he died of a malignant 
gerating. You know, older men, who fever, Feb. 18, 1695. Sir William was a 
can go back to that period ; I know that member of the congregation over which 
when one, kindred to a voice that you Cotton Mather preached. He was dull of 
have heard to-day, whose pathway Gar- intellect, rude'j educated, egotistical, 
rison's bloody feet had made easier for superstitious, headstrong, and patriotic, 
the treading, when he uttered in a pulpit but totally unfitted for statesmanship or 
in Boston only a few strong words, in- to be a leader in civil or military affairs, 
jected in the course of a sermon, his Pickens, Andrew, military officer ; born 
venerable father, between seventy and in Paxton, Bucks co., Pa., Sept. 19, 1739. 
eighty years, was met the next morning His parents, who were of Huguenot de- 
and his hand shaken by a much-moved scent, went to South Carolina in 1752. 
friend. " Colonel, you have my sym- 
pathy. I cannot tell you how much I 
pity you." " What," said the brusque 
old man, "what is your pity?" "Well, 
I hear your son went crazy at ' Church 
Green ' yesterday." Such was the utter 
indifference. At that time bloody feet had 
smoothed the pathway for other men to 
tread. Still, then and for years after- 
wards, insanity was the only kind-hearted 
excuse that partial friends could find for 
sympathy with such a madman! 

Phipps, Sir William, royal governor; 
born in Pemaquid (now Bristol), Me., 
Feb. 2, 1631 ; was one of twenty-six 
children by the same father and mother, 
twenty-one of whom were sons. Nurtured 
in comparative poverty in childhood and 
youth, he was at first a shepherd-boy, and 
at eighteen years of age became an ap- 
prentice to a ship-carpenter. He went to 
Boston in 1673, where he learned to read 
and write. In 1684 he went to England 

to procure means to recover a treasure- Andrew served in the Cherokee War in 
ship wrecked near the Bahamas. With a 1761, and at the beginning of the Rev- 
ship furnished by the government, he was olutionary War was made a captain of 
unsuccessful ; but with another furnished militia and soon rose to the rank of briga- 
bv the Duke of Albemarle, he recovered dier-general. He, with Marion and Sum- 

197 




ANDREW PICKENS. 



PICKENS 



ter, by their zeal and boldness, kept alive colleges and literary institutions. He died 
the spirit of resistance in the South when in Edgefield, S. C, Jan. 25, 1869. 
Cornwallis overran South Carolina. He Pickens, Fort, a defensive work on 
performed excellent service in the field Santa Rosa Island, commanding the en- 
during the war, and for his conduct at the trance to the harbor of Pensacola Bay. 
battle of the Cowpens Congress voted him At the beginning of the Civil War, nearly 
a sword. He led the Carolina militia in opposite, but a little farther seaward, on a 
the battle of Eutaw Springs, and, in 1782, low sand-pit, was Fort McRae. Across 
a successful expedition against the Chero- from Fort Pickens, on the main, was Fort 
kees. From the close of the war till 1793 Barrancas, built by the Spaniards, and 
he was in the South Carolina legislature, taken from them by General Jackson, 
and was in Congress from 1793 to 1795. Nearly a mile eastward of the Barrancas 
In the latter year he was made major-gen- was the navy-yard, then in command of 
eral of militia, and was in the legislature Commodore Armstrong. Before the Flori- 
from 1801 to 1812. A treaty made by him da ordinance of secession was passed 
with the Cherokees obtained from the lat- (Jan. 10, 1861) the governor (Perry) 
ter the region of South Carolina now made secret preparations with the govern- 
known as Pendleton and Greenville dis- or of Alabama to seize all the national 
tricts, and he settled in the former dis- property within the domain of Florida — 
trict, where he died Aug. 17, 1817. namely, Fort Jefferson, at the Garden 

Pickens, Francis Wilkinson, diplo- Key, Tortugas ; Fort Taylor, at Key West ; 
niatist; born in St. Paul's parish, S." C, Forts Pickens, McRae, and Barrancas, and 
April 7, 1805; became a lawyer, and was the navy -yard near Pensacola. Early in 

January the commander of Fort Pickens 
(Lieut. Adam J. Slemraer), a brave Penn- 
sylvanian, heard rumors that the fort 
was to be attacked, and he took immediate 
measures to save it and the other forts 
near. He called on Commodore Arm- 
strong (Jan. 7) and asked his co-opera- 
tion, but having no special order to do so, 
he declined. On the 9th Slemmer received 
instructions from his government to use 
all diligence for the protection of the forts, 
and Armstrong was ordered to co-operate 
with Slemmer. It was feared that the 
small garrison could not hold more than 
one fort, and it was resolved that it should 
be Pickens. It was arranged for Arm- 
strong to send the little garrison at 
the Barrancas on a vessel to Fort 
Pickens. Armstrong failed to do his 
part, but Slemmer, with great exertions, 
had the troops of Barrancas carried over 
lina legislature during the nullification to Pickens, with their families and much 
excitement. ' He spoke *and wrote much of the ammunition. The guns bearing 
against the claim that Congress might upon Pensacola Bay at the Barrancas were 
abolish slavery in the District of Colum- spiked; but the arrangement for the ves- 
bia. He was minister to Russia (1857- sels of war Wyandotte and Supply to an- 
60) ; and when South Carolina declared its chornear Fort Pickens was not carried out. 
secession from the Union, he was elected To Slemmer's astonishment, these vessels 
the first governor, or president, of that were ordered away to carry coal and stores 
"sovereign nation." He held the office un- to the home squadron on the Mexican 
til 1862. Governor Pickens was a sue- coast. On the 10th the navy-yard near 
cessful planter, of great wealth, and was Pensacola was surrendered to Florida and 
popular in his State as a speaker before Alabama troops, and these prepared to 

198 




FRANCIS WILKINSON PICKENS. 



a distinguished debater in the South Caro- 



PICKENS, FORT 

bring guns to bear upon Pickens and Fort a new line of policy was adopted. The 

Barrancas. Slemmer was now left to his government resolved to reinforce with 

own resources. His was the strongest fort in men and supplies both Sumter and Pick- 

the Gulf, but his garrison consisted of only ens. Between April 6 and 9 the steamers 

eighty-one officers and men. These labored A tlantic and Illinois and the United 

unceasingly to put everything in working States steam frigate Powhatan left New 




order. Among the workers were the he- York for Fort Pickens with troops and 
roic wives of Lieutenants Slemmer and supplies. Lieut. John L. Worden (q. v.) 
Gilmore, refined and cultivated women, was sent by land with an order to Cap- 
whose labors at this crisis form a part of tain Adams, of the Sabine, then in com- 
the history of Fort Pickens. On the 12th mand of a little squadron off Port Pickens, 
Captain Randolph, Major Marks, and to throw reinforcements into that work 
Lieutenant Rutledge appeared, and, in the at once. Braxton Bragg was then in corn- 
name of the governor of Florida, demand- mand of all the Confederate forces in the 
ed a peaceable surrender of the fort. It vicinity, with the commission of briga- 
was refused. " I recognize no right of any dier-general ; and Captain Ingraham, late 
governor to demand the surrender of Unit- of the United States navy, was in corn- 
ed States property," said Slemmer. On mand of the navy-yard near Pensacola. 
the 15th Col. William H. Chase, a native Bragg had arranged with a sergeant of 
of Massachusetts, in command of all the the garrison to betray the fort on the 
insurgent troops in Florida, accompanied night of April 11, for which service he 
by Farrand, of the navy-yard near Pensa- was to be rewarded with a large sum of 
cola, appeared, and, in friendly terms, money and a commission in the Con- 
begged Slemmer to surrender, and not be federate army. He had seduced a few of 
" guilty of allowing fraternal blood to his companions into complicity in his 
flow." On the 18th Chase demanded the scheme. A company of 1,000 Confederates 
surrender of the fort, and it was refused, were to cross over in a steamboat and 
Then began the siege. escalade the fort when the sergeant and 
When President Lincoln's administra- his companions would be on guard. The 
tion came into power (March 4, 1861) plot was revealed to Slemmer by a loyal 

199 



PICKENS— PICKERING 



man in the Confederate camp named 
Richard Wilcox, and the catastrophe was 
averted by the timely reinforcement of the 
fort by marines and artillerymen under 
Captain Vogdes. A few days afterwards 
the Atlantic and Illinois arrived with sev- 
eral hundred troops under the command 
of Col. Henry Brown, with ample supplies 
of food and munitions of war; and Lieu- 
tenant Slemmer and his almost exhausted 
little garrison were sent to Fort Hamil- 
ton, New York, to rest. By May 1 there 
was a formidable force of insurgents 
menacing Fort Pickens, numbering nearly 
7,000, arranged in three divisions. The 
first, on the right, was composed of Missis- 
sippians, under Col. J. R. Chalmers; the 
second was composed of Alabamians and a 
Georgia regiment, under Colonel Clayton ; 
and the third was made up of Louisian- 
ians, Georgians, and a Florida regiment — 
the whole commanded by Colonel Gladdin. 
There were also 500 troops at Pensacola, 
and General Bragg was commander-in- 
chief. Reinforcements continued to be 
sent to Fort Pickens, and in June Wilson's 
Zouaves, from New York, were encamped 
on Santa Rosa Island, on which Fort 



Pickering, Timothy, statesman; born 
in Salem, Mass., July 17, 1745; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1763; and admit- 
ted to the bar in 1768. He was the leader 




\ C>Y>V^ o\ \K\."k\^Q 



MAP OF PENSACOLA BAY. 

Pickens stands. During the ensuing sum- 
mer nothing of great importance occurred 
in connection with Fort Pickens, and 
other efforts afterwards made by the Con- 
federates to capture it failed. 




200 



YS 



TIMOTHY PICKERING. 

of the Essex Whigs in the controversy pre- 
ceding the Revolutionary War; was on 
the committee of correspondence; and 
wrote and delivered the address of the 
people of Salem to Governor Gage, on the 
occasion of the Boston port bill in 1774. 
The first armed resistance to British 
troops was by Pickering, as colonel of 
militia, in February, 1775, at a draw- 
bridge at Salem, where the soldiers were 
trying to seize military stores. He was a 
judge in 1775, and in the fall of 1776 
joined Washington, in New Jersey, with 
his regiment of 700 men. In May, 1777, 
he was made adjutant-general of the army, 
and after he had participated in the 
battles of Brandywine and Germantown, 
he was appointed a member of the board 
of war. He succeeded Greene as quarter- 
master-general in August, 1780, and after 
the war resided in Philadelphia. In 1786 
he was sent to the Wyoming settlement, 
to adjust difficulties there (see Susque- 
hanna Company; Pennymite and 
Yankee War), where he was personally 
abused, imprisoned, and put in jeopardy 
of his life. He was an earnest advocate 
of the national Constitution, and suc- 
ceeded Osgood as United States Postmas- 
ter-General. In 1794-95 he was Secretary 
of War and from 1795 to 1800 Secretary 
of State. Pickering left office poor, and 



PICKETT— PIEDMONT 



settling on some wild land in Pennsyl- the National army June 25, 1861 ; and was 
vania, lived there with his family, in a appointed a colonel of Virginia State 
log hut; but the liberality of friends en- troops. He was promoted brigadier-gen- 
abled him to return to Salem in 1801. eral under Longstreet in 1862, and soon 
He was made chief judge of the Essex afterwards major-general. He became 
county court of common pleas in 1802; famous by leading the charge, named after 
was United States Senator from 1803 to him, in the battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 
1811; and then was made a member of the 1863. On that day he carried a hill and 
council. During the War of 1812-15 he entered the lines of the National troops, 
was a member of the Massachusetts board Though his command was nearly anni- 
of war, and from 1815 to 1817 of Con- hilated, his feat is considered the most 
gress. He died in Salem, Mass., Jan. 29, brilliant one in the history of the Confed- 
1829. erate army. In May, 1864, when General 

Pickett, Albert James, historian ; born Butler tried to take Petersburg, that city 
in Anson county, N. C, Aug. 13, 1810; was saved by Pickett's brave defence. He 
settled with his parents in Autauga died in Norfolk, Va., July 30, 1875. See 
county, Ala., in 1818; devoted his time Gettysburg, Battle of. 
mainly to literature; and participated Pico, Pio, governor; born in Los Ange- 
in the Creek War in 1836. He published les, Cal., May 5, 1801 ; appointed governor 
a History of Alabama (2 volumes), of Northern and Southern California in 
He died in Montgomery, Ala., Oct. 28, 1832, and reappointed in 1846. At this 
1858. time the United States was at war with 

Pickett, George Edward, military offi- Mexico, and Pio Pico had instituted a 
cer; born in Richmond, Va., Jan. 25. revolution against Mexico in connection 
1825; graduated at the United States with his brothers, Jesus and Andres. Fre- 
Military Academy in 1846; distinguished mont advanced from Northern California 

and captured Gen. Jesus Pico, who was 
paroled. While under parole he took part 
in an insurrection, was discovered, and 
he was condemned to death, but, at the 
solicitation of his mother and wife, was 
pardoned by Fremont. This action on 
the part of Fremont converted the Picos 
to the American cause. Pio Pico was 
the last Mexican governor of Califor- 
nia. He died in Los Angeles, Sept. 11, 
1894. 

Pidansat de Mairobert, Mathieu 
Francois, author; born in Chaource. 
France, Feb. 20, 1727; began his literary 
career at an early age. His publications 
relating to the United States include Let- 
ters on the True Boundaries of the Eng- 
lish and French Possessions in America; 
Some Discussions on the Ancient Boun- 
daries of Acadia; English Observations, 
etc. He died in Paris, France, March 29, 
1779. 

Piedmont, Battle at. General Hunt- 
er, with 9,000 men, advanced on Staunton, 
Va., early in June, 1864. At Piedmont, 
not far from Staunton, he encountered 
(June 5) an equal force of Confeder- 
himself in the Mexican War, taking part ates, under Generals Jones and Mc- 
in most of the important actions; was Causland. An obstinate and hard-fought 
promoted captain in 1855; resigned from battle ensued, which ended with the day, 

201 




PIEGAN INDIANS— PIEECE 

and resulted in the complete defeat of prisoners. The spoils of victory were 
the Confederates. Their leader, General battle-flags, three guns, and 3,000 small- 
Jones, was killed by a shot through the arms, 
head, and 1,500 Confederates were made Piegan Indians. See Blackfeet. 



PIERCE, FRANKLIN 

Pierce, Franklin, fourteenth President The act to organize the Territories of 

of the United States, from 1853 to 1857; Nebraska and Kansas was a manifesta- 

Democrat; born in Hillsboro, N. H., Nov. tion of the legislative opinion of Congress 

23, 1804; graduated at Bowdoin College on two great points of constitutional con- 
in 1824; became a lawyer; was admitted struction: One, that the designation of the 
to the bar in 1827, and made his perma- boundaries of a new Territory and provi- 
nent residence at Concord in 1838. He sion for its political organization and ad- 
was in Congress from 1833 to 1837; ministration as a Territory are measures 
United States Senator from 1837 to 1842; which of right fall within the powers of 
served first as colonel of United States the general government; and the other, 
infantry in the war against Mexico, and that the inhabitants of any such Territory, 
as brigadier-general, under Scott, in 1847, considered as an inchoate State, are en- 
leading a large reinforcement for that titled, in the exercise of self-government, 
general's army on its march for the Mexi- to determine for themselves what shall be 
can capital. In June, 1852, the Demo- their own domestic institutions, subject 
cratic Convention nominated him for only to the Constitution and the laws duly 
President of the United States, and he enacted by Congress under it, and to the 
was elected in November (see Cabinet, power of the existing States to decide ac- 
President's) . President Pierce favored cording to the provisions and principles 
the pro-slavery party in Kansas, and in of the Constitution, at what time the Ter- 
January, 1856, in a message to Congress, ritory shall be received as a State into 
he denounced the formation of a free-State the Union. Such are the great political 
government in Kansas as an act of rebel- rights which are solemnly declared and 
lion. During the Civil War ex-President affirmed by that act. 

Pierce was in full sympathy with the Based upon this theory, the act of Con- 
Confederate leaders. He died in Concord, gress defined for each Territory the outlines 
N. H., Oct. 8, 1869. of republican government, distributing 
Special Message on Kansas. — On Jan. public authority among lawfully created 

24, 1856, President Pierce sent the fol- agents — executive, judicial, and legisla- 
lowing message to the Congress on the af- tive — to be appointed either by the general 
fairs in Kansas: government or by the Territory. The leg- 
islative functions were intrusted to a 

Washington, Jan. 24, 1856. council and a House of Representatives, 
To the Senate and House of Representa- duly elected, and empowered to enact all 
fives, — Circumstances have occurred to the local laws which they might deem 
disturb the course of governmental or- essential to their prosperity, happiness, 
ganization in the Territory of Kansas, and and good government. Acting in the same 
produce there a condition of things which spirit, Congress also defined the persons 
renders it incumbent on me to call your who were in the first instance to be con- 
attention to the subject and urgently to sidered as the people of each Territory, 
recommend the adoption by you of such enacting that every free white male in- 
measures of legislation as the grave exi- habitant of the same above the age of 
gencies of the case appear to require. twenty-one years, being an actual resident 
A brief exposition of the circumstances thereof and possessing the qualifications 
referred to and of their causes will be nee- hereafter described, should be entitled to 
essary to the full understanding of the vote at the first election, and be eligible 
recommendations which it is proposed to to any office within the Territory, but that 
submit. the qualification of voters and holding 

202 



PIERCE, FRANKLIN 



office at all subsequent elections should be 
such as might be prescribed by the legisla- 
tive Assembly; provided, however, that the 
right of suffrage and of holding office 
should be exercised only by citizens of the 
United States and those who should have 
declared on oath their intention to become 
such, and have taken an oath to support 
the Constitution of the United States and 
the provisions of the act; and provided 
further, that no officer, soldier, seaman, or 
marine, or other person in the army or 
navy of the United States, or attached 
troops in their service, should be allowed 
to vote or hold office in either Territory by 
reason of being on service therein. 

Such of the public officers of the Terri- 
tories as by the provisions of the. act were 
to be appointed by the general government, 
including the governors, were appointed 
and commissioned in due season, the law 
having been enacted on May 30, 1854, 
and the commission of the governor of the 
Territory of Nebraska, being dated Aug. 
2, 1854, and of the Territory of Kansas on 
June 29, 1854. Among the duties imposed 
by the act on the governors was that of 
directing and superintending the political 
organization of the respective Territo- 
ries. 

The governor of Kansas was required 
to cause a census or enumeration of the 
inhabitants and qualified voters of the sev- 
eral counties and districts of the Territory 
to be taken by such persons and in such 
mode as he might designate and appoint: 
to appoint and direct the time and places 
of holding the first elections, and the man- 
ner of conducting them, both as to the 
persons to superintend such elections and 
the returns thereof; to declare the number 
of the members of the council and the 
House of Representatives for each county 
or district; to declare what persons might 
appear to be duly elected, and to appoint 
the time and place of the first meeting 
of the legislative Assembly. In substance, 
the same duties were devolved on the gov- 
ernor of Nebraska. 

While by this act the principle of con- 
stitution for each of the Territories was 
one and the same, and the details of or- 
ganic legislation regarding both were as 
nearly as could be identical, and while the 
Territory of Nebraska was tranquilly and 
successfully organized in the due course of 



law, and its first legislative Assembly met 
on Jan. 16, 1855, the organization of Kan- 
sas was long delayed, and has been at- 
tended with serious difficulties and embar- 
rassments, partly the consequence of local 
maladministration, and partly of the un- 
justifiable interference of the inhabitants 
of some of the States, foreign by residence, 
interests, and rights to the Territory. 

The governor of the Territory of Kan- 
sas, commissioned as before stated, on 
June 29, 1854, did not reach the desig- 
nated seat of his government until the 7th 
of the ensuing October, and even then 
failed to make the first step in its legal 
organization, that of ordering the census 
or enumeration of its inhabitants, until 
so late a day that the election of the mem- 
bers of the legislative Assembly did not 
take place until March 30, 1855, nor its 
meeting until July 2, 1855. So that for a 
year after the Territory was constituted 
by the a«t of Congress and the officers to 
be appointed by the federal executive had 
been commissioned it was without a com- 
plete government, without any legislative 
authority, without local law, and, of 
course, without the ordinary guarantees of 
peace and public order. 

In other respects the governor, instead 
of exercising constant vigilance and put- 
ting forth all his energies to prevent or 
counteract the tendencies to illegality 
which are prone to exist in all imperfectly 
organized and newly associated communi- 
ties, allowed his attention to be diverted" 
from official obligations by other objects, 
and himself set an example of the viola- 
tion of law in the performance of acts 
which rendered it my duty in the sequel 
to remove him from the office of chief 
executive magistrate of the Territory. 

Before the requisite preparation was ac- 
complished for election of a Territorial 
legislature, an election of delegate to Con- 
gress had been held in the Territory on 
Nov. 29, 1854, and the delegate took his 
seat in the House of Representatives with- 
out challenge. If arrangements had been 
perfected by the governor so that the 
election for members of the legislative 
Assembly might be held in the several pre- 
cincts at the same time as for delegate to 
Congress, any question appertaining to the 
qualifications of the persons voting as 
people of the Territory would have passed 



203 



PIERCE, FRANKLIN 

necessarily and at once under the super- Under these inauspicious circumstances 

vision of Congress, as the judge of the the primary elections for members of the 

validity of the return of the delegate, and legislative Assembly were held in most, 

would have been determined before con- if not all, of the precincts at the time 

flicting passions had become inflamed by and the places and by the persons desig- 

time, and before opportunity could have nated and appointed by the governor ac- 

been afforded for systematic interference cording to law. 

of the people of individual States. Angry accusations that illegal votes had 

This interference, in so far as concerns been polled abounded on all sides, and 
its primary causes and its immediate com- imputations were made both of fraud and 
mencement, was one of the incidents of violence. But the governor, in the exer- 
that pernicious agitation on the subject cise of the power and the discharge of 
of the condition of the colored persons the duty conferred and imposed by law 
held to service in some of the States which on him alone, officially received and con- 
has so long disturbed the repose of our sidered the returns, declared a large ma- 
country and excited individuals, other- jority of the members of the council and 
wise patriotic and law-abiding, to toil with the house of representatives " duly elect- 
misdirected zeal in the attempt to propa- ed," withheld certificates from others be- 
gate their social theories by the perver- cause of alleged illegality of votes, ap- 
sion and abuse of the powers of Con- pointed a new election to supply the 
gress. places of the persons not certified, and 

The persons and the parties whom the thus at length, in all the forms of stat- 
tenor of the act to organize the Terri- ute, and with his own official authentica- 
tories of Nebraska and Kansas thwarted tion, complete legality was given to the 
in the endeavor to impose, through the first legislative Assembly of the Territory, 
agency of Congress, their particular views Those decisions of the returning officers 
of social organization on the people of and of the governors are final, except 
the future new States, now perceiving that that by the parliamentary usage of the 
the policy of leaving the inhabitants of country applied to the organic law it may 
each State to judge for themselves in be conceded that each house of the As- 
this respect was ineradicably rooted in the sembly must have been competent to de- 
convictions of the people of the Union, termine in the last resort the qualifications 
then had recourse, in the pursuit of their and the election of its members. The sub- 
general object, to the extraordinary meas- ject was by its nature one appertaining 
ure of propagandist colonization of the exclusively to the jurisdiction of the local 
Territory of Kansas to prevent the free authorities of the Territory. Whatever 
and natural action of its inhabitants irregularities may have occurred in the 
in its internal organization, and thus elections, it seems too late now to raise 
to anticipate or to force the determi- that question. At all events, it is a ques- 
nation of that question in this inchoate tion as to which, neither now nor at any 
State. previous time, has the least possible legal 

With such views associations were or- authority been possessed by the President 

ganized in some of the States, and their of the United States. For all present 

purposes were proclaimed through the purposes the legislative body thus consti- 

press in language extremely irritating and tuted and elected was the legitimate legis- 

offensive to those of whom the colonists lative assembly of the Territory, 

were to become the neighbors. Those de- Accordingly the governor by proclama- 

signs and acts had the necessary conse- tion convened the Assembly thus elected 

quence to awaken emotions of intense to meet at a place called Pawnee City; 

indignation in States near to the Terri- the two houses met and were duly organ- 

tory of Kansas, and especially in the ized in the ordinary parliamentary form ; 

adjoining State of Missouri, whose do- each sent to and received from the govern- 

mestic peace was thus the most directly or the official communications usual on 

endangered; but they are far from jus- such occasions; an elaborate message open- 

tifying the illegal and reprehensible coun- ing the session was communicated by the 

ter movements which ensued. governor, and the general business of 

204 



FIERCE, FRANKLIN 



legislation was entered upon by the legis- 
lative Assembly. 

But after a few days the Assembly re- 
solved to adjourn to another place in the 
Territory. A law was accordingly passed, 
against the consent of the governor, but 
in due form otherwise, to remove the seat 
of government temporarily to the " Shaw- 
nee Manual Labor School" (or mission), 
and thither the Assembly proceeded. After 
this, receiving a bill for the establishment 
of a ferry at the town of Kickapoo, the 
governor refused to sign it, and by special 
message assigned for reason of refusal 
not anything objectionable in the bill itself 
nor any pretence of the illegality or in- 
competency of the Assembly as such, but 
only the fact that the Assembly had by 
its act transferred the seat of government 
temporarily from Pawnee City to the 
Shawnee Mission. For the same reason 
he continued to refuse to sign other bills, 
until, in the course of a few days, he by 
official message communicated to the As- 
sembly the fact that he had received notifi- 
cation of the termination of his functions 
as governor, and that the duties of the 
office were legally devolved on the secre- 
tary of the Territory; thus to the last 
recognizing the body as a duly elected 
and constituted legislative Assembly. 

It will be perceived that, if any consti- 
tutional defect attached to the legislative 
acts of the Assembly, it is not pretended 
to consist in irregularity of election or 
want of qualification of the members, but 
only in the change of its place of session. 
However trivial this objection may seem 
to be, it requires to be considered, because 
upon it is founded all that superstructure 
of acts, plainly against law, which now 
threaten the peace, not only of the Terri- 
tory of Kansas, but of the Union. 

Such an objection to the proceedings 
of the legislative Assembly was of excep- 
tionable origin, for the reason that by the 
express terms of the organic law the seat 
of government of the Territory was " lo- 
cated temporarily at Fort Leavenworth " ; 
and yet the governor himself remained 
there less than two months, and of his 
own discretion transferred the seat of 
government to the Shawnee Mission, where 
it in fact was at the time the Assembly 
were called to meet at Pawnee City. If 
the governor had anv such right to change 



temporarily the seat of government, still 
more had the legislative Assembly. The 
objections are of exceptionable origin, for 
the further reason that the place indicated 
by the governor, without having any ex- 
clusive claim of preference in itself, was 
a proposed town site only, which he and 
others were attempting to locate unlaw- 
fully upon land within a military reserva- 
tion, and for participation in which il- 
legal act the commandant of the post, 
a superior officer in the army, has been 
dismissed by sentence of court - martial. 
Nor is it easy to see why the legislative 
Assembly might not with propriety pass 
the Territorial act transferring its sittings 
to the Shawnee Mission. If it could not, 
that must be on account of some pro- 
hibitory or incompatible provision of act 
of Congress ; but no such provision exists. 
The organic act, as already quoted, says 
" the seat of government is hereby located 
temporarily at Fort Leavenworth " ; and 
it then provides that certain of the pub- 
lic buildings there " may be occupied and 
used under the direction of the governor 
and legislative Assembly." These ex- 
pressions might possibly be construed to 
imply that when, in a previous section 
of the act, it was enacted that " the first 
legislative Assembly shall meet at such 
place and on such day as the governor 
shall appoint," the word " place " means 
place at Fort Leavenworth, not place any- 
where in the Territory. If so, the govern- 
or would have been the first to err in 
this matter, not only in himself having 
removed the seat of government to the 
Shawnee Mission, but in again removing 
it to Pawnee City. If there was any de- 
parture from the letter of the law, there- 
fore, it was his in both instances. But 
however this may be, it is most unreason- 
able to suppose that by the terms of the 
organic act Congress intended to do im- 
pliedly what it has not done expressly — 
that is, to forbid to the legislative Assem- 
bly the power to choose any place it might 
see fit as the temporary seat of its delib- 
erations. This is proved by the significant 
language of one of the subsequent acts 
of Congress on the subject — that of March 
3, 1855 — which, in making appropriation 
for public buildings of the Territory, 
enacts that the same shall not be ex- 
pended " until the legislature of said 



205 



PIERCE, ERANKLI1? 

'Territory shall have fixed by law the and has nevertheless been admitted into 
permanent seat of government." Congress the Union as a State, It lies with Con- 
in these expressions does not profess to gress to authorize beforehand or to con- 
be oranting the power to fix the perma- firm afterwards, in its discretion. But 
nent seat of government, but recognizes the in no instance has a State been admitted 
power as one already granted. But how? upon the application of persons acting 
Undoubtedly by the comprehensive pro- against authorities duly constituted by act 
vision of the organic act itself, which of Congress. In every case it is the peo- 
declares that "the legislative power of pie of the Territory, not a party among 
the Territory shall extend to all rightful them, who have the power to form a eon- 
subjects of legislation consistent with the stitution and ask for admission as a State. 
Constitution of the United States and the No principle of public law, no practice or 
provisions of this act." If in view of this precedent under the Constitution of the 
act the legislative Assembly had the large United States, no rule of reason, right, 
power to fix the permanent seat of gov- or common-sense, confers any such power 
ernment at any place in its discretion, as that now claimed by a mere party in 
of course by the same enactment it had the Territory. In fact, what has been 
the less and the included power to fix it done is of revolutionary character. It is 
temporarily. avowedly so in motive and in aim as 

Nevertheless, the allegation that the respects the local law of the Territory, 
acts of the legislative Assembly were il- It will become treasonable insurrection 
legal by reason of this removal of its if it reach the length of organized re- 
place of session was brought forward to sistance by force to the fundamental or 
justify the first great movement in dis- any other federal law and to the authority 
regard of law within the Territory. One of the general government. In such an 
of the acts of the legislative Assembly event the path of duty for the ex- 
provided for the election of a delegate ecutive is plain. The Constitution re- 
to the present Congress, and a delegate quiring him to take care that the laws 
was elected under that law. But sub- of the United States be faithfully ex- 
sequently to this a portion of the people ecuted, if they be opposed in the Territory 
of the Territory proceeded without au- of Kansas he may, and should, place at 
thority of law to elect another delegate. the disposal of the marshal any public 

Following upon this movement was an- force of the United States which happens 
other and more important one of the to be within the jurisdiction, to be used 
same general character. Persons con- as a portion of the posse comitatus; and 
fessedly not constituting the body politic if that do not suffice to maintain order, 
or all the inhabitants, but merely a party then he may call forth the militia of one 
of the inhabitants, and without law, have or more States for that object, or employ 
undertaken to summon a convention for for the same object any part of the land 
the purpose of transforming the Territory or naval force of the United States. So, 
into a State, and have framed a constitu- also, if the obstruction be to the laws of 
tion, adopted it, and under it elected a the Territory, and it be duly presented 
governor and other officers and a Repre- to him as a case of insurrection, he may 
sentative to Congress. In extenuation of employ for its suppression the militia 
these illegal acts it is alleged that the of any State or the land or naval force 
States of California, Michigan, and others of the United States. And if the Terri- 
were self-organized, and as such were ad- tory be invaded by the citizens of other 
mitted into the Union without a previous States, whether for the purpose of de- 
enabling act of Congress. It is true that ciding elections or for any other, and the 
while in a majority of cases a previous local authorities find themselves unable 
act of Congress has been passed to au- to repel or withstand it, they will be en- 
thorize the Territory to present itself as titled to, and upon the fact being fully 
a State, and that this is deemed the most ascertained they shall most certainly re- 
regular course, yet such an act has not been ceive, the aid of the general government, 
held to be indispensable, and in some cases But it is not the duty of the President 
the Territory has proceeded without it, of the United States to volunteer inter* 

206 



FIERCE, ERAttKLIN 

position by force to preserve the purity of tion which is at this time of such dis 

elections either in a State or Territory, turbing character. 

To do so would be subversive of public But Ave are constrained to turn our at- 

freedom. And whether a law be wise or tention to the circumstances of embarrass- 

unwise, just or unjust, is not a question ment as they now exist. It is the duty of 

for him to judge. If it be constitutional the people of Kansas to discountenance 

— that is, if it be the law of the land — every act or purpose of resistance to its 

it is his duty to cause it to be executed, laws. Above all, the emergency appeals to 

or to sustain the authorities of any State the citizens of the States, and especially 

or Territory in executing it in opposition of those contiguous to the Territory, 

to all insurrectionary movements. neither by intervention of non-residents 

Our system affords no justification of in elections nor by unauthorized military 

revolutionary acts, for the constitutional force to attempt to encroach upon or 

means of relieving the people of unjust usurp the authority of the inhabitants of 

administration and laws, by a change of the Territory. 

public agents and by repeal, are ample, No citizen of our country should permit 

and more prompt and effective than il- himself to forget that he is a part of 

legal violence. These means must be its government and entitled to be heard in 

scrupulously guarded, this great preroga- the determination of its policy and its 

five of popular sovereignty sacredly re- measures, and that therefore the highest 

spected. considerations of personal honor and 

It is the undoubted right of the peace- patriotism require him to maintain, by 

able and orderly people of the Territory whatever of power or influence he may 

of Kansas to elect their own legislative possess, the integrity of the laws of the 

body, make their own laws, and regu- republic. 

late their own social institutions, without Entertaining these views, it will be my 
foreign or domestic molestation. Inter- imperative duty to exert the whole power 
ference on the one hand to procure the of the federal executive to support public 
abolition or prohibition of slave labor in order in the Territory; to vindicate its 
the Territory has produced mischievous laws, whether federal or local, against 
interference on the other for its main- all attempts of organized resistance, and 
tenance or introduction. One wrong be- so to protect its people in the establish- 
gets another. Statements entirely un- ment of their own institutions, undis- 
founded, or grossly exaggerated, concern- turbed by encroachment from without, 
ing events within the Territory are and in the full enjoyment of the rights 
sedulously diffused through remote States of self-government assured to them by the 
to feed the flame of sectional animosity Constitution and the organic act of Con- 
there, and the agitators there exert them- gress. 

selves indefatigably in return to encour- Although serious and threatening dis- 

age and stimulate strife within the Ter- turbances in the Territory of Kansas, an- 

ritory. nounced to me by the governor, in Decem- 

The inflammatory agitation, of which ber last, were speedily quieted without the 

the present is but a part, has for twenty effusion of blood and in a satisfactory 

years produced nothing save unmitigated manner, there is, I regret to say, reason 

evil, North and South. But for it the to apprehend that disorders will continue 

character of the domestic institutions of to occur there, with increasing tendency 

the future new State would have been a to violence, until some decisive measure 

matter of too little interest to the in- be taken to dispose of the question itself 

habitants of the contiguous States, person- which constitutes the inducement or oc- 

ally or collectively, to produce among them casion of internal agitation and of ex- 

any political emotion. Climate, soil, pro- ternal interference. 

duction, hopes of rapid advancement, and This, it seems to me, can best be ac- 

the pursuit of happiness on the part of complished by providing that when the 

the settlers themselves, with good wishes, inhabitants of Kansas may desire it and 

but with no interference from without, shall be of sufficient number to constitute 

would have quietly determined the ques- a State, a convention of delegates, duly 

2P7 



PIERCE— PIKE 



elected by the qualified voters, shall as- Pike, Albert, lawyer; born in Boston, 

semble to frame a constitution, and thus Mass., Dec. 29, 1809. At the age of six- 

to prepare through regular and lawful teen years he entered Harvard College, 

means for its admission into the Union but, unable to support himself there, he 

as a State. taught school at Newburyport and Fair- 

I respectfully recommend the enactment haven, and in 1831 travelled (mostly on 

of a law to that effect. foot) to St. Louis, where he joined an ex- 

I recommend also that a special appro- pedition to New Mexico, acting as mer- 

priation be made to defray any expense chant's clerk and peddler in Santa Fe. 

which may become requisite in the ex- Roving with trappers awhile, he became 

ecution of the laws for the maintenance of editor and proprietor of a newspaper in 

public order in the Territory of Kansas. Arkansas in 1834, and in 1836 was admit- 

Pierce, Frederick Clifton, author; ted to the bar. He was an advocate for 

born in Worcester county, Mass., July 30, State supremacy; served in the war 

1858; received an academic education ; set- against Mexico in command of Arkansas 

tied in Illinois in 1880; was connected in cavalry; and in the Civil War he organized 

various capacities with Chicago newspa- and led a body of Cherokee Indians in the 

pers. His publications include History battle of Pea Ridge (q. v.). After the 

of Grafton, Mass.; History of Barre, war he edited the Memphis Appeal for a 

Mass.; History of Rockford, III.; and nu- while. A collection of his poems was 

merous family genealogies. printed in Philadelphia, in 1854. He was 

Pierrepont, Edwards, diplomatist; a Free Mason of high degree. He died in 

born in North Haven, Conn., March 4, Washington, D. C, April 2, 1891. 

1817; graduated at Yale in 1837; re- Pike, James Sheperd, diplomatist; 

moved to New York in 1845; elected judge born in Calais, Me., Sept. 8, 1811; received 

of the Superior Court of New York in a common school education; was associ- 

1857; appointed one of the counsel for ate editor of the New York Tribune in 

the prosecution of John H. Surratt, in- 1850-60; exercised a strong influence in 

dieted for complicity in the assassination uniting the anti - slavery parties in his 

of President Lincoln. General Grant ap- native State; and was minister to Hol- 

pointed him United States attorney for land in 1861-66. His publications include 

the Southern District of New York in A Prostrate State; The Restoration of the 

1869. In 1875 he was appointed Attorney- Currency; The Financial Crisis, its Evils 

General of the United States, which office and their Remedy; Horace Greeley in 

he resigned in 1876, on his appointment 1812; The New Puritan; and The First 

as minister to Great Britain, where he re- Blows of the Civil War. He died in 

mained till 1878. He died in New York Calais, Me., Nov. 24, 1882. 

City, March 6, 1892. Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, military 

Pierron, Jean. See Jesuit Mis- officer; born in Lamberton, N. J., Jan. 5, 

sions. 1779; was appointed a cadet in the regi- 

Pierson, Abraham, first president of ment of his father (a captain in the army 
Yale College; born in Lynn, Mass., in of the Revolution) and brevet lieutenant- 
1641; graduated at Harvard College in colonel United States army when twenty 
1668; ordained a colleague of his father, years of age. He was made captain in 
at Newark, N. J., in March, 1672; and 1806, and was appointed to lead an expe- 
from 1694 till his death was minister of dition in search of the sources of the 
Killingworth, Conn. He was president of Mississippi River, which performed the 
Yale College in 1700-7. He died in required duties satisfactorily in eight 
Killingworth, Conn., March 7, 1707. His months and twenty days of most fati- 
father, Abraham (born in Yorkshire, Eng- guing explorations. In 1806-7 he was en- 
land, in 1608; died in Newark, N. J., Aug. gaged in a geographical exploration of 
9, 1678), was one of the first settlers of Louisiana, when he was seized by the 
Newark (1667), and was the first minis- Spaniards, taken to Santa Fe, and, after 
ter in that town. He also preached to the a long examination and the seizure of his 
Long Island Indians in their own Ian- papers, was escorted to Natchitoches (July 
g"age. 1, 1807) and dismissed. The government 

208 



PIKEVILLE— PILGRIM FATHERS 



rewarded him with a major's commission Pilgrim Fathers, The. At the middle 
(May, 1808). Passing through the vari- of the sixteenth century the social condi- 



ous grades, he was commissioned briga- 
dier-general March 12, 1813. Early in 




ZEHCI.ON* MOXTGOMKRY PIKE. 



that year he had been appointed adjutant 
and inspector-general of the army on the 



tion of the people of England was very 
primitive, and their wants were few. The 
common people lived in cottages built of 
wooden frames filled in with clay; their 
houses were without wooden floors; and 
in many of them the fireplaces were con- 
structed in the middle of the rooms with- 
out chimneys, a hole being left in the 
roof for the escape of the smoke. The 
windows were not glazed, and were closed 
against the weather, and the light was 
allowed to enter by means of oiled paper. 
Such was the plain condition of the houses 
of the Puritans of New England. In Eng- 
land in the early part of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign pallets of straw served for 
beds of the common people, who had cover- 
ings made of rough mats, and their pil- 
lows were logs. This was regarded as a 
good bed, for many slept in straw alone. 
Very few vegetables were then cultivated, 
for gardening had not yet been generally 
introduced from Holland, and gardens 
were cultivated only for the rich, and 
these chiefly for ornament. The common 
material for bread was the unbolted flour 
of oats, rye, and barley; and sometimes, 
when these were scarce (afterwards in 
New England), they were mixed with 



northern frontier. He was killed in an ground acorns. Even this black bread 



ittack upon York, Upper Canada, April 
27, 1813. 

Pikeville, Battle near. Gen. William 
Nelson was in command of about 3,000 
loyalists in eastern Kentucky in Novem- 
ber, 1861. About 1,000 Confederates, un- 
der Col. J. S. Williams, were at Pike- 
ville, the capital of Pike county, Ky. Nel- 
son sent Colonel Sill, with Ohio and Ken- 
tucky troops, to gain the rear of Williams, 
while, with the remainder, he should at- 



was sometimes denied them, and flesh was 
the principal diet. Their forks and 
ploughs were made of wood, and these, 
with a hoe and spade, constituted the bulk 
of their agricultural implements. Their 
spoons and platters were made chiefly of 
wood, and table-forks were unknown. It 
is said that glazed windows were so scarce, 
and regarded as so much of a luxury, 
that noblemen, when they left their coun- 
try-houses to go to court, had their glazed 



tack his front. A battalion of Kentucky windows packed away carefully with oth- 



volunteers, under Col. C. A. Marshall, 
moved in advance of Nelson. On the 9th 
these were attacked by Confederates in 
ambush, and a battle ensued, which lasted 
about an hour and a half, when the Con- 
federates fled, leaving thirty of their num- 
ber dead on the field. Nelson lost six kill- 



er precious furniture. Chimneys had been 
introduced into England early in the six- 
teenth century. 

The non-conformist English refugees in 
Holland under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. 
Robinson, yearning for a secluded asylum 
from persecution under the English gov- 



ed and twenty-four wounded. He did not ernment, proposed to go to Virginia and 
pursue, as he had no ^cavalry. Williams settle there in a distinct body under the 
fled to the mountains at Pound Gap, car- general government of that colony. They 
rying with him a large number of cattle sent Robert Cushman and John Carver 
and other spoils. to England in 1617 to treat with the Lon- 

vii.— o 200 



PILGRIM FATHERS, VHE 



d<«n Company, and to ascertain whether 
the King would grant them liberty of con- 
science in that distant country. The 
company were anxious to have these peo- 
ple settle in Virginia, and offered them 
ample privileges, but the King would not 
promise not to molest them. These agents 
returned to Leyden. The discouraged 
refugees sent other agents to England in 
February, 1619, and finally made an ar- 
rangement with the company and with 
London merchants and others for their 
settlement in Virginia, and they at once 
prepared for the memorable voyage in the 
Mayflower in 1620. Several of the congre- 
gation at Leyden sold their estates and 
made a common bank, which, with the 
aid of their London partners, enabled them 
to purchase the Speedwell, a ship of 60 
tons, and to hire in England the May- 
flower, a ship of 180 tons, for the intend- 
ed voyage. They left Delft Haven for Eng- 
land in the Speedwell (July, 1620), and in 
August sailed from Southampton, but, on 
account of the leakiness of the ship, were 
twice compelled to return to port. Dis- 
missing this unseaworthy vessel, 101 of 
the number who came from Leyden sailed 
in the Mayflower, Sept. 6 ( O. S. ) . These 
included the " Pilgrim Fathers," so called. 



The following are the names of the 
forty-one persons who signed the constitu- 
tion of government on board the May- 
flower, and are known as the Pilgrim 
Fathers: John Carver, William Brad- 
ford, Edward Winslow, William Brew- 
ster, Isaac Allerton, Myles Standish, John 
Alden, Samuel Fuller, Christopher Mar- 
tin, William Mullins, William White, 
Richard Warren, John Howland, Stephen 
Hopkins, Edward Tilley, John Tilley, 
Francis Cook, Thomas Rogers, Thomas 
Tinker, John Ridgedale, Edward Fuller, 
John Turner, Francis Eaton, James Chil- 
ton, John Craekston, John Billington, 
Moses Fletcher, John Goodman, Degory 
Priest, Thomas Williams, Gilbert Wins- 
low, Edward Margeson, Peter Brown, 
Richard Britteridge, George Soule, Rich- 
ard Clarke, Richard Gardiner, John Aller- 
ton, Thomas English, Edward Doty, Ed- 
ward Lister. Each subscriber placed op- 
posite his name the number of his family. 

The following is the text of the agree- 
ment which was signed on the lid of 
Elder Brewster's chest (see Brewster, 
William ) : 

" In the name of God, Amen. We whose 
names are hereunto written, the loyal 
subjects of our dread sovereign lord, King 




DELPT HAVEN. 

210 



PILGRIM FATHER&, THE 

James, by the grace of God, of Great have long safely lain. Nearly all the 

Britain, France, and Ireland, King, De- company went ashore, glad to touch land 

fender of the Faith, etc., having under- after the long voyage. They first fell on 

taken for the glory of God and advancement their knees, and thanked God for the pres- 













HANDWRITING OF THE PILGRIMS. 

of the Christian Faith, and honor of our ervation of their lives. The waters were 
King and Country, a voyage to plant the shallow, and they had waded ashore — the 
first colony in the northern parts of Vir- men to explore the country, the women 
ginia, do by these presents solemnly and 
mutually, in the presence of God and of 
one another, covenant and combine our- 
selves together into a civil body politic 
for our better ordering and preservation 
and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; 
and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, 
and frame such just and equal laws, or- 
dinances, acts, constitution, and offices, 
from time to time, as shall be thought 
most meet and convenient for the general 
good of the colony, unto which we promise 
all due submission and obedience. In wit- 
ness whereof we have hereunto subscribed 
our names, at Cape Cod, the 11th of 
November [O. S.], in the year of the 
reign of our sovereign lord, King James, 
of England, France, and Ireland, the 
eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty- 
fourth, Anno Domini 1620." 

The Mayflower first anchored in Cape 
Cod Bay, just within the cape, on Nov. 

21 (N. S.), in what is now the harbor to wash their clothes after the long voy« 
of Provincetown, the only windward port age. 

for manv a league where the vessel could The spot chosen by a party of explorers 

211 




OLD RFLIC FROM THE MAYFLOWER. 



PILGRIM FATHERS, THE 



PVAPof 

PLYMOUTH 
BAT 

Scale 8s Jlfilti 
_perJhc7i 




for the permanent landing-place of the the ship were confined in foul air, with un- 
passengers on the Mayflower was selected wholesome food. Scurvy and other dis- 
about Dec. 20, 1620, where New Plymouth eases appeared among them, and when, 
was built. From about the middle of late in March, the last passenger landed 
December until the 25th the weather was from the Mayflower, nearly one-half the 
stormy, and the bulk of the passengers colonists were dead. 

remained on the ship, while some of the The lands of the Plymouth Colony were 
men built a rude shelter to receive them, held in common by the " Pilgrims " and 
On the 25th a greater portion of the pas- their partners, the London merchants. In 
sengers went on shore to visit the spot 1627 the "Pilgrims" sent Isaac Allerton 
chosen for their residence, when, tradition to England to negotiate for the purchase 

of the shares of the London 
adventurers, with their stock, 
merchandise, lands, and chat- 
tels. He did so for $9,000, 
payable in nine years in equal 
annual instalments. Some of 
the principal persons of the 
colony became bound for the 
rest, and a partnership was 
formed, into which was ad- 
mitted the head of every fam- 
ily, and every young man of 
age and prudence. It was 
agreed that every single free- 
man should have one share ; 
and every father of a family 
have leave to purchase one 
share for himself, one for his 
wife, and one for every child 
living with him ; that every 
one should pay his part of the 
public debt according to the 
number of his shares. To ev- 
ery share twenty acres of ara- 
ble land were assigned by lot; 
to every six shares, one cow 
and two goats, and swine in 
the same proportion. This 
agreement was made in full 
court, Jan. 3, 1628. The joint-' 
stock or community system 
was then abandoned, a di- 
vision of the movable prop- 
says, Mary Chilton and John Alden, both erty was made, and twenty acres of 
young persons, first sprang upon Plym- land nearest to the town were assigned in 
outh Rock from the boat that conveyed fee to each colonist. See Plymouth, 
them. New. 

Most of the women and children re- Gov. William Bradford (q. v.) wrote 
mained on board the Mayflower until suit- a History of the Plymouth Plantation, of 
able log huts were erected for their re- which the following is an extract: 

ception, and it was March 21, 1621, before 

they were all landed. Those on shore were The Pilgrims' Arrival at Cape God. — 
exposed to the rigors of winter weather Being thus arived in a good harbor and 
and insufficient food, though the winter brought safe to land, they fell upon their 
was a comparatively mild one. Those on kneei & blessed ye God of heaven, who had 

212 



PILGRIM FATHERS— PILLOW 



brought them over ye vast and furious 
ocean, and delivered them from all ye 
periles & miseries thereof, againe to set 
their feete on ye firme and stable earth, 
their proper elemente. And no marvell if 
they were thus joyefull, seeing wise Sen- 
eca was so affected with sailing a few 
miles on ye coast of his owne Italy; as 
he affirmed, that he had rather remaine 
twentie years on his way by land, then 
pass by sea to any place in a short time; 
so tedious & dreadful was ye same unto 
him. 

But hear I cannot but stay and make a 
pause, and stand half amased at this 
poore peoples presente condition; and so I 
thinke will the reader too, when he well 
considers ye same. Being thus passed ye 
vast ocean, and a sea of troubles before 
in their preparation (as may be remem- 
bered by yt which wente before), they had 
now no friends to wellcome them, nor inns 
to entertaine or refresh their weather- 
beaten bodys, no houses or much less 
townes to repaire too, to seeke for suc- 
coure. It is recorded in scripture as a 
mercie to ye apostle & his shipwraked 
company, yt the barbarians shewed them 
no smale kindnes in refreshing them, but 
these savage barbarians, when they mette 
with them (as after will appeare) were 
readier to fill their sids full of arrows 
then otherwise. And for ye season it was 
winter, and they that know ye winters of 
yt cuntrie know them to be sharp & vio- 
lent, & subjecte to cruell & feirce stormes, 
deangerous to travill to known places, 
much more to serch an unknown coast. 
Besids, what could they see but a hidious 
& desolate wildernes, full of wild beasts & 
willd men? and what multituds ther might 
be of them they knew not. Nether could 
they, as it were, goe up to ye tope of 
Pisgah, to vew from this willdernes a 
more goodly cuntrie to feed their hops ; 
for which way soever they turned their 
eys (save upward to ye heavens) they 
could have litle solace or content in re- 
specte of any outward objects. For sumer 
being done, all things stand upon them 
with a weatherbeaten face; and ye whole 
countrie, full of \v.„ .Is & thickets, repre- 
sented a wild & savage heiw. If they 
looked behind them; ther was ye mighty 
ocean which they had passed, and was now 
as a maine barr & goulfe to seperate them 



from all ye civill parts of ye world. If 
it be said they had a ship to sucour them, 
it is trew; but what heard they daly from 
ye mr. & company? but yt with speedo 
they should looke out a place with their 
shallop, wher they would be at some near 
distance; for ye season was shuch as he 
would not stirr from thence till a safe 
harbor was discovered by them wher they 
would be, and he might goe without dan- 
ger; and that victells consumed apace, 
but he must & would keepe sufficient for 
them selves & their returne. Yea, it was 
muttered by some, that if they gott not 
a place in time, they would turne them & 
their goods ashore & leave them. Let it 
also be considered what weake hopes of 
supply & succoure they left behinde them, 
yt might bear up their minds in this sade 
condition and trialls they were under ; 
and they could not but be very smale. It 
is true, indeed, ye affections & love of their 
brethren at Leyden was cordiall & entire 
towards them, but they had litle power to 
help them, or them selves ; and how ye 
case stode betweene them & ye marchants 
at their coming away, hath allready been 
declared. What could now sustaine them 
but ye spirite of God & his grace? May not 
& ought not the children of these fathers 
rightly say: Our faithers were Eng- 
lishmen ichich came over this great ocean, 
and were ready to perish in this willder- 
nes ; but they cried unto ye Lord, and he 
heard their voyce, and looked on their ad- 
versitie, &c. Let them therefore praise ye 
Lord, because he is good, <£• his mercies 
endure for ever. Yea, let them which have 
been redeemed of ye Lord, shew how he 
hath delivered them from ye hand of ye. 
oppressour. When they wandered in ye 
deserte willdernes out of ye toay, and 
found no citie to dwell in, both hungrir, 
& thirstie, their soicle was overwhelmed 
in them. Let them confess before ye Lord 
his loving kindnes, and his wonderful 
works before ye sons of men. 

Pillow, Fort, a defensive work erected 
by the Confederates on the Mississippi 
River at Chickasaw Bluff, above Mem- 
phis, Tenn. It was occupied by a 
National force on June 5, 1862. In 1864 
it was garrisoned by about 550 men, in- 
cluding 260 colored soldiers, under the 
command of Maj. L. F. Booth. Forrest 
approached the fort on the morning of 
13 



PILLOW— PINCKNEY 



April 13, drove in the pickets, and began 
an assault. A sharp battle ensued. About 
nine o'clock Major Booth was killed, and 
the command devolved on Major Bradford. 
The whole force was then called within 
the fort, and the fight was maintained 
until past noon. Meanwhile the gunboat 
New Era, of the Mississippi squadron, 
lying near, had taken part in the defence 
of the fort, but the height of the bank 
prevented her doing much execution. For- 
rest sent a flag to demand an. instant sur- 
render. While negotiations were going on 
Forrest sent large numbers of his troops 
to favorable positions for attack, which 
could not have been gained while the gar- 
rison was free to fight. By this trick he 
gained a great advantage. Bradford re- 
fused to surrender, and Forrest gave a 
signal, when his men sprang from their 
hiding-places,, which they had gained by 
treachery, and, with a cry of " No quar- 
ter!" pounced upon the fort at different 
points, and in a few moments were in 
possession of it. 

Generals Forrest and Chalmers entered 
the fort simultaneously from opposite 
sides. The surprised and overwhelmed 
garrison threw down their arms. Some of 
them attempted to escape down the steep 
bank of the river or to rind concealment in 
the bushes. The conquerors followed and 
butchered the defenceless men, who begged 
for quarter. Within the fort like scenes 
were exhibited. Soldiers and civilians — 
men, women, and children, white and 
black — were indiscriminately slaughtered. 
The massacre continued until night, and 
was renewed in the morning. Fully 300 
Avere murdered in cold blood. Major Brad- 
ford, who was a native of a slave-labor 
State, was a special object of Forrest's 
hatred. He regarded him as " a traitor to 
the South." While on his way towards 
Jackson, Tenn., as a prisoner of war, 
the day after the Confederates left Fort 
Pillow, the major was taken from the line 
of march and deliberately murdered. So 
testified one of Forrest's cavalry before a 
congressional committee. Forrest had de- 
termined to strike terror in the minds 
of colored troops and their leaders. This 
seemed to be his chosen method. Maj. 
Charles W. Gibson, of Forrest's command, 
Raid to the late Benson J. Lossing, " For- 
rest's motto was, War means fight, and 

21 



fight means kill — we want but few prison- 
ers." 

Pillow, Gideon Johnson, military offi- 
cer; born in Williams county, Tenn., June 
8, 1806; graduated at the University of 
Nashville; studied law, and rose to the 
front rank in his profession. At the 
head of a brigade of Tennessee volunteers 
he joined General Scott at Vera Cruz 
in 1847, and performed gallant service 
throughout the war against Mexico. Scott 
made serious charges against him, but a 
court of inquiry acquitted him and left 
his fame untarnished. In 1861 he was 
commissioned a major-general of Tennes- 
see militia, and also a brigadier-general 
in the Confederate army; but his military 
career was cut short early in 1862 by 
his conduct at Fort Donelson. He died 
in Lee county, Ark., Oct. 6, 1878. See 
Donelson, Fort. 

Pinckney, Charles, statesman; born 
in Charleston, S. C, in 1758; was made 
prisoner at the capture of Charleston 
(1780), and sent to St. Augustine; was 
a member of Congress from 1784 to 1787; 
and a member of the convention that 
framed the national Constitution in the 
latter year. He was governor of South 
Carolina (1789-92, 1796-98, and 1806-8) ; 
United States Senator from 1798 to 1801, 
and minister to Spain from 1802 to 1805, 
when he negotiated a release from that 
power of all claims to the territory pur- 
chased by the United States from France. 
In Congress, from 1819 to 1821, he was 
an opponent of the Missouri Compromise. 
He died in Charleston, S. C, Oct. 29, 
1824. See Louisiana. 

Pinckney, Charles Coteswortu, 
statesman; born in Charleston, S. C, 
Feb. 25, 1746; son of Chief-Justice 
Charles Pinckney; educated in England; 
read law in London; passed nine months 
in a military academy in France, and re- 
turning in 1769 began the practice of law. 
He was a member of the first Provincial 
Congress of South Carolina, and was made 
colonel of a regiment. After the defence 
of Fort Sullivan he joined the army in 
the North, and was aide to Washington 
in the battles of Brandywine and German- 
town. He was engaged in the unsuccess- 
ful expedition into Florida in 1778, and 
the next year presided over the State 
Senate of South Carolina. On the surren- 
4 



PINCKNEY— PINE BLUFF 



der of Charleston (May, 1780), he was sent as minister to Great Britain, and 
made a prisoner, and suffered cruel treat- in 1794 to Spain, where he negotiated 
ment until exchanged early in 1782. He the treaty of St. Ildefonso, which secured 
was made brigadier -general in November, 
1783, and in 1787 was a member of the 
convention that framed the national Con- 
stitution. In July, 1796, he was ap- 
pointed minister to the French Republic, 
but the French Directory, failing to bribe 
him into a compliance with their de- 
mands, ordered him to leave the coun- 
try, when he withdrew to Amsterdam 
in February, 1797. While abroad he ut- 
tered the phrase, " Millions for defence ; 
not one cent for tribute!" General Wash- 
ington created him a major-general on 
his return home. In 1800 he was a can- 
didate for the Vice-Presidency of the Unit- 
ed States; and in 1804 and 1808 for the 
Presidency, each time as a Federalist. 
He died in Charleston, S. C, Aug. 16, 
1825. 

Pinckney, Thomas, diplomatist; born 
in Charleston, S. C, Oct. 23, 1750; edu- 
cated in England, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1770. He joined the army in 
1775; became a major and aide to General to the United States the free navigation of 
Lincoln, and afterwards to Count d'Es- the Mississippi River. In 1799 he was 




THOMAS PINCKNEY. 



taing in the siege of Savannah. He was 
distinguished in the battle at Stono Fer- 



a member of Congress, and in March, 
1812, President Madison appointed him 
commander of the Sixth Military District. 
His last military service was under Gen- 
eral Jackson at the last decisive bat- 
tle with the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend. 
He died in Charleston, S. C, Nov. 2, 1828. 
Pine, Robert Edge, painter ; born in 
London, England, in 1730 or 1742; gained 
considerable reputation in England before 
he came to America at the close of the 
Revolution. In Philadelphia he exhibited 
the first cast of the Venus de' Medici 
ever seen in America. He was befriended 
by Francis Hopkinson, and painted from 
life, at Mount Vernon, a portrait of 
Washington. He also painted portraits 
of other worthies of the period of the 
Revolution. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., 
Nov. 19, 1788. 

Pine Bluff, Battle at. Fifty miles 

below Little Rock, on the south side of 

the Arkansas River, is Pine Bluff, the 

county seat of Jefferson county. Ark. In 

October, 1863, it was occupied by Col. 

ry, and was aide to General Gates in the Powell Clayton, with about 350 men and 

battle near Camden, where he was wound- four guns. Marmaduke attempted to capt- 

ed and made prisoner. In 1792 he was ure it with over 2,000 men and twelve 

215 




CHARLES COTKSWOKTII PINCK.NET. 



PINE-TREE FLAG— PINZON 



guns. He advanced upon the post in three 
columns. Clayton had just been rein- 
forced by Indiana cavalry, making the 
number of his fighting men about 600. 
About 200 negroes had built barricades 
of cotton-bales in the streets. The attack 
was made (Oct. 25) by Marmaduke, and 
was kept up for about five hours. The 
Confederates were repulsed with a loss 
of 183 men killed, wounded, and prison- 
ers; the Nationals lost 57, of whom 17 
were killed. The town was badly shat- 
tered, and the court-house and many dwell- 
ings were laid in ashes. 

Pine-tree Flag, a flag with a pine- 
tree in a white centre, used by New Eng- 
land at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tion. 

Pine-tree Money. The earliest rude 
coinage of sixpence and shillings was made 
in Massachusetts. The pieces bore on one 
side a representation of a pine-tree. 

Pinkney, William, statesman; born 
in Annapolis, Md., March 17, 1764. His 
father, an Englishman, was a loyalist in 
the Revolution, but the son espoused its 
principles. He studied law with Judge 
Chase, and was admitted to practice in 




WILLIAM PINKNEY. 



1786, in which he acquired great reputa- 
tion for his impassioned oratory. He was 
a delegate in the Maryland convention 



that ratified the national Constitution. 
After serving a term in the Maryland 
legislature, he was elected to a seat in 
Congress, but declined the honor on ac- 
count of the state of his private affairs. 
In 1796 he was appointed one of the com- 
missioners in London under Jay's treaty, 
and obtained for the State of Maryland 
a claim on the Bank of England for 
$800,000. Pinkney was made attorney- 
general of his State in 1805, and the next 
year he was sent to England as commis- 
sioner to treat with the British govern- 
ment in conjunction with James Monroe. 
He was minister there from 1807 to 1811, 
and in the autumn of the latter year was 
chosen to his State Senate from Baltimore. 
From December, 1811, until 1814, he was 
United States Attorney - General. In the 
latter year he entered the military service 
to repel a British invasion of his State, 
and was severely wounded in the battle 
of Bladensburg. Again in Congress ( 1815— 
16), he took a leading part. In 1816 he 
went to Naples as special minister there, 
and became minister at St. Petersburg, 
whence he returned home in 1818. From 
1320 until his death he held a seat in the 
United States Senate. In that body he 
opposed the admission of Missouri into 
the Union under the terms of the com- 
promise. He died in Washington, D. C, 
Feb. 25, 1822. 

Pinzon, Martin Alonzo, navigator; 
born in Palos de Moguer, Spain, in 1441; 
accompanied Columbus on his first voyage 
across the Atlantic. He commanded the 
Pinta, one of the three vessels of the 
squadron of Columbus. When he heard 
of the wreck of the vessel in which Colum- 
bus sailed, instead of going to his relief, 
he sailed for Spain. Columbus, having lost 
all respect for Pinzon, immediately fol- 
lowed him in the Nina. He saw the Pinta, 
but the two vessels soon parted company. 
When the Pinta reached Bayonne, Pinzon, 
believing the Nina had gone to the bot- 
tom of the sea, sent a letter to the Span- 
ish monarchs recounting his adventures 
and discoveries. Meanwhile the Nina had 
reached the mouth of the Tagus, and Co- 
lumbus sent a courier to the Court of 
Spain to announce his great discoveries. 
Then he put to sea, and soon afterwards 
entered the port of Palos. The same 
evening the Pinta entered that harbor. 



216 



PINZON— PIRATES 



Pinzon hastened into seclusion, filled with 
mortification and fear. Then came a let- 
ter from the monarchs, in answer to his, 
rilled with reproaches for attempting to de- 
fraud the admiral of his just fame. Pin- 
zon died of mortified pride a few days 
after reading the royal epistle, in 1493. 

Pinzon, Vincent Yanez, navigator; 
horn in Palos de Moguer, Spain, ahout 
1G40; brother of Martin Alonzo Pinzon; 
commanded the Nina in the first voyage 
of Columbus (1492); in 1499 led an ex- 
pedition composed of four caravels, which 
s-ailed from Palos in December, and first 
saw the continent of South America at 
Cape Augustine, Brazil. Sailing north- 
ward, he discovered and named the River 
Amazon. He died at his birthplace about 
1524. 

Piqua, Council at. Late in 1750 the 
Ohio Land Company sent Christopher 
Gist to explore the Ohio region as far as 
the falls at Louisville. He arrived at the 
Scioto Valley early in 1751, and was kind-, 
ly received by the great sachem of the 
Miami Confederacy, rivals of the Six Na- 
tions, with whom they were at peace. 
Agents of Pennsylvania and Virginia were 
there, intending to make a treaty of 
friendship and alliance. The council was 
held at Piqua, far up the Scioto Valley. 
It was then a town of 400 families, the 
largest in the Ohio region. On Feb. 21 
the treaty was concluded, and just as it 
was signed some Ottawas came with pres- 
ents from the governor of Canada. They 
were admitted to the council, and ex- 
pressed a desire for a renewal of friend- 
ship with the French. A sachem arose, 
and, setting up the colors of the English 
and the French, denounced the latter as 
enemies of the Miamis. Having delivered 
his speech, he strode out of the council. 
The colors of the French were taken down 
and their ambassadors were dismissed. 
On March 1 Gist took his leave, bearing 
this message to the English: "Our friend- 
ship shall stand like the loftiest moun- 
tain." In the spring the French and Ind- 
ians from Sandusky struck the Miamis a 
stunning blow. Piqua was destroyed, and 
the great chief of the Miami Confederacy 
was taken captive, sacrificed, and eaten 
by the savage allies of the French. 

Piquet, Francis, See Jesuit Mis- 
sions. 



Pirates. For a long time merchants 
and ship-masters suffered from the dep- 
redations of pirates on the southern coasts 
of what are now the United States and 
in the West Indies. In 1718 King George 
I. ordered a naval force to suppress them. 
At the same time he issued a proclama- 
tion promising pardon to all pirates who 
should surrender in the space of twelve 
months. Capt. Woods Rogers took the 
island of New Providence, the chief ren- 
dezvous of the pirates, in the name of the 
crown of England. All the pirates, ex- 
cepting about ninety who escaped in a 
sloop, took advantage of the King's 
proclamation. Rogers was made governor 
of the island, and built forts. From that 
time the West Indies were fairly protected 
from the pirates. They yet infested the 
coast of the Carolinas. About thirty of 
them took possession of the mouth of the 
Cape Fear River. Governor Johnson de- 
termined to extirpate them. He sent out 
an armed vessel under the command of 
William Rhett, who captured a piratical 
sloop with its commander and about thirty 
men, and took them to Charleston. John- 
son soon afterwards sailed after and capt- 
ured another armed sloop. All the pirates 
excepting two were killed, and those two 
were hanged. Those first taken into 
Charleston were also hanged, excepting 
one man. 

Privateersmen cruising under the Span- 
ish-American flags degenerated into down- 
right pirates. In 1819 Commodore Perry 
was sent to the West Indies in the frigate 
John Ada)ns to cruise against the pirates 
who swarmed there; but before he had ac- 
complished much he was smitten by yel- 
low fever, and died just as his ship was 
entering the port of Trinidad. Many con- 
victions and executions for piracy had 
taken place; but as there had been many 
escapes through loop-holes in the law, the 
act of Congress on that subject was re- 
vised and strengthened. 

On June 28, 1861, the steamer 8t 
Nicholas, Captain Kirwan, left Baltimore 
with forty or fifty passengers, including 
about twenty who passed for mechanics. 
There were a few women among them — 
one who professed to be a young French- 
woman. When, on the following morning, 
the steamer was near Point Lookout, the 
Frenchwoman was suddenly transformed 



217 



PITCAIRN—PITT 

into a stout young man, and the twenty next morning she was presented to Wash- 
mechanics into well-armed Marylanders, ington by General Greene, who was so 
who demanded the surrender of the St. pleased with her bravery that he gave her 
Nicholas. Kirwan had no means for re- a commission as sergeant and had her 
sistance, and yielded. The passengers name placed on the pay-list for life. The 
were landed on the Virginia shore, and fame of " Sergeant Mary," or Molly 
the captain and crew kept as prisoners. Pitcher, as she was more generally known, 
Then 150 armed accomplices of the pirates spread throughout the army, 
went on board the steamer, which was des- Pitt, Fort (Pittsburgh), the most im- 
tined for the Confederate navy. She portant military post in the American 
cruised down the Chesapeake, captured colonies west of the Alleghanies. The gar- 
three brigs, and, with her prizes, went rison had launch-boats to bear the Eng- 
up the Rappahannock River to Fredericks- lishmen to the country of the Illinois. For 
burg, where they were entertained at a some time the bitter foes of the English 
public dinner by the citizens. A few days — the Mingoes and Delawares — had been 
afterwards some of Kenly's Baltimore seen hovering around the post. On May 
police were on the steamer Mary Wash- 27, 1763, they exchanged a large quantity 
ington, going home from a post on the of skins with the English traders for 
Chesapeake. On board were Captain Kir- powder and lead, and then suddenly dis- 
wan and his crew; also Thomas and his appeared. Towards midnight the Delaware 
associates, who had captured the St. Nich- chiefs warned the garrison to fly, offering 
olas, evidently intending to repeat their to keep the property safe; but the gar- 
operation on the Mary Washington. The rison preferred to remain in their strong 
captain was directed to land at Fort Mc- fort, and the Indians withdrew and threat- 
Henry. Thomas drew his revolver, and ened Fort Ligonier. See Pontiac; Dtj- 
calling his fellow-pirates around him, he quesne. 

threatened to throw the officers over- Pitt, William, the " Great Coin- 
board and seize the vessel. The pirates moner"; born in Westminster, England, 
were overcome by numbers. General Nov. 15, 1708; entered Parliament in 
Banks sent a squad of men on board to 1735, where he was the most formidable 
seize Thomas and his confederates. The opponent of Robert Walpole. He held the 
former was found concealed in a closet in office of vice-treasurer of Ireland (1746), 
the ladies' cabin of the boat. He was and soon afterwards was made paymaster 
taken out, and with his accomplices of the army and one of the privy council, 
lodged in Fort McHenry. In 1755 he was dismissed from office, but 
Pitcairn, John, military officer ; born in in 1757 was made secretary of state, and 
Fifeshire, Scotland, about 1740; was made soon infused his own energy into every 
major in the British army in 1771. Lead- part of the public service, placing Eng- 
ing troops to seize stores at Concord, he land in the front rank of nations. By 
engaged in the fight at Lexington, and his energy in pressing the war in America 
was shot dead on entering the redoubt on (see French and Indian War) he added 
Bunker (Breed's) Hill, June 17, 1775. Canada to the British Empire and de- 
Pitcher, Molly. In the Battle of cided for all time the future of the Mis- 
Monmouth (q. v.) a shot from the Brit- sissippi Valley. All through the progress 
ish artillery instantly killed an American of the disputes between Great Britain 
gunner while working his piece. His wife, and its American colonies he advocated a 
Mary, a young Irishwoman twenty - two conciliatory and righteous policy towards 
years of age, had been fetching water to the Americans. In 1766 he was called 
him from a spring near by. When he fell to the head of affairs again; was created 
there appeared no one competent to fill his Earl of Chatham ; but quitted office for- 
place, and the piece was ordered to be re- ever in 1768. In the House of Lords he 
moved. Mary heard the order, and, drop- opposed coercive measures towards the 
ping her bucket and seizing a rammer, Americans, in speeches remarkable for 
vowed that she would fill her husband's their vigor and eloquence. He was op- 
place at the gun and avenge his death, posed to the political independence of the 
She did so with skill and courage. The Americans, for he deprecated a dismem- 

218 



PITT, WILLIAM 




WILLIAM PITT. 



berment of the empire, and, while opposing made a powerful speech against the Stamp 
a motion to that effect, in an earnest Act, to which the new ministry were corn- 
speech in the House of Lords (April, pelled to give heed. Franklin was sum- 
1778), he swooned, and was carried to moned to the bar of the House to testify, 
his home so much exhausted that he never 
rallied. He had risen from a sick-bed to 
take his place in Parliament on that occa- 
sion, and the excitement overcame him. 
He died in Hayes. Kent, May 11, 1778. 

When he became the first minister of 
the realm, he saw, with enlightened vision, 
the justice and the policy of treating the 
American colonies with generosity and 
confidence. This treatment gained their 
affections, and, under his guidance, they 
gave such generous support to the govern- 
ment in the war with the French and Ind- 
ians that the conquest of Canada was 
achieved, and the French dominion in 
America was destroyed. The project of 
an American Stamp Act was pressed 
(1757), which Pitt disdained to favor. 
He and Temple were both driven from 
office in April, 1757, leaving the govern- 
ment in the hands of incompetent and 
unscrupulous men. The country turned 
to Pitt, as the only man who could save 
the nation from ruin. Like a giant, he 
directed the affairs of the nation with 

so much wisdom that in two short years He gave reasons why the Stamp Act could 
England was placed at the head of na- not be enforced in America, and a bill 
tionalities in power and glory. for its repeal was carried (March 18, 

When Pitt resigned the seals of office 1766), by a large majority. 
(1761) the King offered to confer a title In January, 1775, Pitt introduced Dr. 
upon him. He accepted for his wife the Franklin on the floor of the House of 
honorary title of Baroness of Chatham, Lords, when the former made an eloquent 
with a pension for her, her husband, and plea for justice towards the Americans, 
their eldest son, of $15,000 a year. In This was in support of a measure which 
1766 he was created Viscount Pitt and he proposed. 

Earl of Chatham, and was then called to Pitt early in the year 1775 proposed 
the head of public affairs. an address to the King advising the. re- 

in January, 1766, Pitt appeared in his call of the troops from Boston. It was re- 
place in the House of Commons, and de- jected. In February, 1775, Pitt brought 
clared that " the King had no right to forward a bill which required a full 
levy a tax on the colonies," and said they acknowledgment on the part of the col- 
had invariably, by their representatives in onists of the supremacy and superintend- 
their several assemblies, exercised the con- ing power of Parliament, but provided 
stitutional right of giving and granting that no tax should ever be levied on the 
their own money. " They would have been Americans except by consent of the co- 
slaves," he said. " if they had not. . . . lonial assemblies. It also contained a 
The colonies acknowledge your authority provision for a congress of the colonies 
in all things, with the sole exception that to make the required acknowledgment : 
you shall not take their money out of and to vote, at the same time, a free grant 
their pockets without their consent." This to the King of a certain perpetual revenue, 
avowal of the great commoner made a to be placed at the disposal of Parlia- 
profound impression on the House. He ment. It was rejected at the first reading. 

219 



PITT— PITTSBURGH 

In token of their gratitude to Pitt for a holy war. I affirm that it is a most ae- 

his successful efforts in procuring a repeal cursed war, barbarous, cruel, and unnat- 

of the Stamp Act, in 1776 the Americans ural; conceived in injustice, it was 

ordered two statues of their friend to be brought forth and nurtured in folly; its 

prected, in memory of his services to footsteps are marked with slaughter and 

America, one in New York and the other devastation, while it meditates destruc- 

in Charleston. tion to the miserable people who are the 

Pitt, William, statesman; born in devoted objects of the resentments which 

Hayes, England, May 28, 1759; son of produced it. Where is the Englishman 

William Pitt, Earl of Chatham; became a who can refrain from weeping, on what- 

member of the House of Commons in ever side victory may be declared?" He 

1781 when the Tory ministry was totter- became prime minister in 1783, and was 

ing under the disasters in America. In a party to arrange the peace treaty with 

an address before that body he said: "A the United States. He died in Putney, 

noble lord has called the American war England, Jan. 23, 1806. 



PITTSBURGH 

Pittsburgh, a city, port of entry, and bill in equity, declared the act to be uncon- 

county seat of Allegheny county, Pa. ; for- stitutional under the prohibitions of 

merly known as the " Iron City," from the special legislation. On January 15, 1906, 

character of its main industries, and the the legislature met in extraordinary ses- 

" Smoky City," from its use of soft coal; sion to consider ten measures submitted 

now most widely known as the " Steel by the governor, one of them being a 

City"; on the Allegheny and Mononga- Greater Pittsburgh bill, framed with 

hela rivers, which here unite and form the special reference to the Supreme Court's 

Ohio, and on a number of important rail- objections to the former bill. On Feb. 7, 

roads, including the Pennsylvania system, 1906, it became a law. The two cities 

the Baltimore & Ohio, the Pittsburgh & have long had an incalculable community 

Lake Erie ; the Wabash ; and the Bessemer of interests — in fact, have been a single 

& Lake Erie. Population (1900), 321,- municipality in almost all relations ex- 

616; 1905 (estimated), 365,000. cepting those legally circumscribed. 

Public Interests. — The city in 1906 had Combining the foregoing statistics of 

an area of 28% square miles, and for ad- Pittsburgh with similar ones of Allegheny 

ministrative purposes was divided into City, a comprehensive view will be had 

41 wards. There were 730 miles of streets, of the strictly municipal interests of the 

365 miles of sewers, a water-works system Greater Pittsburgh: Total area, 36 

that cost $8,000,000 and had 400 miles of square miles ; number of wards, 55 ; miles 

mains, to which is being added a filtration of streets, 980 ; miles of sewers, 476 ; miles 

plant at an estimated cost of $7,000,000; of water-mains, 565; cost of water-works 

a police department of 516 men that cost system, $11,500,000, exclusive of the cost 

annually $611,650; and a fire department of Pittsburgh's uncompleted filtration 

of 433 men that cost $576,138. The as- plant; police department, men, 656, annual 

sessed property valuations (1904) were: cost, $783,850; fire department, men, 549, 

Real estate, $470,969,360; personal, $2,- annual cost, $737,428; assessed property 

269,695— total. $473,239,055; tax rate, $13 valuations, real estate, $565,662,227: per- 

per $1,000; and net public debt, $13,750,- sonal, $2,757,695; total, $567,367,380; net 

000; and the annual cost of maintaining public debt, in round numbers, $19,000.- 

the city government was about $6,805,651. 000. The tax rate in Allegheny in 1905 

The Greater Pittsburgh. — On April 20, for city and school purposes was $15.80 

1905, Governor Pennypaeker signed a legis- per $1,000. According to the United 

lative bill providing for the consolidation States census of 1900 the two cities had 

of the cities of Pittsburgh and Allegheny a combined population of 451,512, which. 

City under the name of the former. Af- it is officially estimated, has increased 

terwards the State Supreme Court, on a to about 600.000. This would make the 

220 



PITTSBURGH 



Greater Pittsburgh the fifth city in the 
United States in population on the 1905 
estimates. Further statements in this 
article refer to the individual city of Pitts- 
burgh, except where otherwise indicated. 

Industrial Affairs. — According to the 
last Federal census, Pittsburgh had 1,938 
manufacturing and mechanical industries 
that were operated on a total capital of 
$193,162,900; employed 69,977 wage-earn- 
ers; paid for wages, $36,684,563, and for 
materials used in manufacturing, $110,- 



value of the manufactured products of the 
two cities $257,398,218. The leading in- 
dustries were relatively the same as those 
of Pittsburgh, with the addition of slaugh- 
tering and meat-packing, which had a 
product valued at $3,996,807. All these 
figures in both cities have been materially 
increased during the past six years. 

Pittsburgh's basic industry to-day is 
steel, ranging from ore direct from the 
mines to finished products in almost 
countless variety, and graded from the 



A.PLA.nr 

of the 
2fZW FORT 
at 

PITTS-BURGH 



Nov.'ij^g . 
Situated itLXat.4.0.40 Long.8o 




£xbla>iati'on 
Castmttfet zindtr tftf OirtauLr. . . . 
I'oivder JUagazifus.* .,.. ». . .. . '.. 

Xab(pvto>itsJi>r thtArtrffay 

TlarraeJLvJvr .tco \ftn-. 

_fi 'cunicAsJerO/ficerx..., ...... 

i'alfy porb/r<mi the CurmaXcf. 

1 Low Town. ..^. .....,-. 

The Guard Hocrm .......,...; 



(From a set of pla 



NEW FORT AT PITTSBTTRGH. 

and forti in America, reduced from actual surveys, 1763, publishtd in London.) 



833,174; and had a combined product 
valued at $203,261,251. The principal in- 
dustries, with the value of output, were: 
Iron and steel, $90,798,561; foundry and 
machine-shop products, $15,545,561 ; elec- 
trical apparatus and supplies, $14,013,- 
450; architectural and ornamental iron- 
work, $6,111,943; malt liquors, $3,586,- 
393; and glass, $2,778,847. Allegheny 
City had 893 manufacturing industries, 
$50,122,503 capital, and 20,804 wage- 
earners; paid $10,352,502 for wages and 
$29,478,781 for materials; and had prod- 
ucts valued at $54,136,967— making the 



smallest, simplest article to the giant 
constructions involving the highest me- 
chanical skill. Here are the greatest 
steel-works in the country, if not in the 
world, with their affiliated blast-furnaces, 
rolling-mills, and other technical depart- 
ments, all continually expanding, crowd- 
ing, and overflowing into the suburbs, till 
this single industry has come to cover a 
very large territory of which the city is 
the brain centre. Other fields in which 
Pittsburgh occupies a commanding situa- 
tion are the petroleum and natural-gas 
industries, the manufacture of fire-proof 



221 



PITTSBURGH 

buildings and materials, plate, table, do- tered as the Pittsburgh Academy in 178?. 
mestic, and ornamental glass, pottery, This became the Western University of 
manufactures of copper, cork, white and Pennsylvania in 1808. The Carnegie tech- 
red lead, and the pickling and preserving nical schools are in course of erection. The 
of fruits and vegetables. public-school system of Pittsburgh accom- 

Commerce. — In the fiscal year ending modates 52,730 pupils, with 1,197 teachers, 
June 30 1905, Pittsburgh was credited and cost for maintenance in 1905, $2,006,- 
with having imported foreign merchandise 483.25; that of Allegheny City has 15,685 
to the value of $1,750,000. The receipts pupils and 454 teachers, and cost in the 
of the Custom House were $684,386.86. year 1905 $805,758.33; together there are 
The volume of business of the city is 68,415 pupils and 1,651 teachers, and an 
indicated by the receipts of the Pittsburgh expenditure in 1905 of $2,812,241.58. 
Post Office, which were $1,622,343.13 for Pittsburgh has three high-school buildings 
the year ending June 30, 1905. No statis- and a fourth projected; Allegheny City 
tics of Pittsburgh's direct or indirect ex- has one; both cities give special attention 
ports are available, for its foreign ship- to industrial training, domestic science, 
ments are, from geographical necessity, and kindergarten work, 
made through convenient seaports that Pennsylvania College for Women, the 
receive the credit for this trade. The great College of the Holy Ghost (R. C), Bishop 
trunk lines of railroad that pass through Bowman Institute (Meth.), a kinder- 
the city, the smaller ones that have garten training-school, several business 
terminals here, and the exceptional facili- colleges, and a system of Roman Catholic 
ties afforded by the Allegheny, Mononga- parochial schools are located in Pitts- 
hela, and Ohio rivers, give a wealth of burgh; the Western University of Penn- 
shipping opportunities remarkable for an sylvania has departments in both cities, 
inland centre, and that will be still more and the theological seminaries of the Pres- 
noteworthy when the $33,000,000 ship- byterian, United Presbyterian, and Re- 
canal to connect the city with Lake Erie formed Presbyterian Churches are in Alle- 
is completed. In round numbers the gheny City. An Academy of Science and 
railroads carried into and out of Pitts- Art was founded in Pittsburgh in 1890, 
burgh about 90,000,000 tons of freight in and subsequently its members united with 
1905, and freighting-boats about 12,000,- those of the Engineers' Society of Western 
000 tons more. In 1902 the receipts and Pennsylvania, the Botanical Society, the 
shipments of the great ports of Antwerp, Historical Society of Western Pennsyl- 
Hamburg, Hong-kong, Liverpool, London, vania, the Architects' Society, the Ama- 
and New York aggregated 95,418,590 tons, teur Photographers' Association, and the 
while those of Pittsburgh alone amounted Art Society in leasing the Thaw mansion 
to 86,636,680 tons. for a general headquarters. These or- 

Banking. — At the close of 1903 there ganizations remained here till the corn- 
were ninety-five banking institutions, with pletion of the Carnegie Institute, founded 
a combined capital of $53,190,220; sur- in 1896, when they removed thither, the 
plus, $69,471,849; deposits, $261,165,537; Young Women's Christian Association 
and resources, $414,253,161. On January taking their former quarters. 
1, 1906 (many banks and trust companies Both cities are amply supplied with pub- 
having meanwhile consolidated, and new lie, school, collegiate, professional, and 
ones having been established ) , there were special libraries, and each has a free pub- 
96 banking institutions of all kinds in lie library provided by Andrew Carnegie, 
Pittsburgh, with total resources of $491,- that of Pittsburgh comprising a main 
490,861. There were at that date 32 Na- library, combined with a museum, music- 
tional banks, 25 State banks, and 39 trust hall, and art - gallery, embraced in the 
companies. During 1905 the exchanges of Carnegie Institute, and six branch libraries 
the Pittsburgh clearing-house amounted in different parts of the city, with a 
to $2,996,473,438.57. circulating branch in the principal busi- 

Education. — The first incorporated in- ness section. The completed Institute 

stitution of learning west of the Alle- building will cost nearly $7,000,000. One 

ghanies and north of the Ohio was char- of the branch libraries cost $100,000. The 

222 



PITTSBURGH 



University Extension Society of Pittsburgh 
is an organization that is exerting a most 
beneficial influence in both cities through 
its system of public lectures. 

Churches and Charities. — Pittsburgh has 
upward of 200 churches, and Allegheny 
City over 80. The most noteworthy in the 
former are the Roman Catholic Cathedral 
of St. Paul, Trinity, and St. Peter's and 
Ascension (P. E. ), First and Third Presby- 
terian, First Baptist, United Evangelical, 
and English Evangelical ; and in the latter, 
St. Peter's (R. C), Trinity (Evan. Luth.), 
North Avenue, Christ Church, Calvary 
(M. E. ), Second United Presbyterian, and 
Sandusky Street Baptist. There are 
Young Men's and Young Women's Chris- 
tian associations, both flourishing. 



Building of twenty-two stories; and Alle- 
gheny City has a City Hall, the Allegheny 
Observatory, and the Western State Peni- 
tentiary, also Soldiers', Washington, Hum- 
boldt, Armstrong, and Hampton Battery 
monuments. In their vicinity is the inter- 
esting Davis Island movable dam to facili- 
tate navigation. 

Pittsburgh has the large Schenley Park, 
at the entrance to which is the group of 
buildings presented to the city by Andrew 
Carnegie. This park contains one of the 
largest and finest conservatories in the 
world, the gift of Henry Phipps, Jr. 
Highland Park is a beautiful spot in the 
East End, with two pillars of highly 
artistic design at its entrance. Alle- 
gheny City has a public park system of 100 




ONE OF THE MODERN STEEL-PLANTS. THE HOMESTEAD WORKS. 



Among the benevolent institutions of 
Pittsburgh are the Western Pennsylvania, 
Municipal, Homoeopathic, Mercy, St. Fran- 
cis, Passavant's, South Side, St. Mar- 
garet Memorial, and East End Charity 
hospitals, Episcopal Church Home, Con- 
vent of the Sisters of Mercy, Home for 
Incurables, and Western State Institu- 
tion for the Blind. Allegheny City has 
the Allegheny General, Presbyterian, 
United Presbyterian, and St. John's hos- 
pitals, Allegheny Orphan Asylum, and 
Home of the Friendless, and others. 

Notable Buildings. — Besides the build- 
ings already mentioned Pittsburgh has a 
handsome Municipal Hall, County Court 
House, United States Post Office and Cus- 
tom House, United States Arsenal, and 
Masonic Temple, the Farmer's Bank Build- 
ing twenty-four stories high, the Friek 



acres containing several small lakes, nu- 
merous fountains, and the Humboldt 
Monument, in the heart of the city, and 
the Riverview Park in its suburbs. 

History. — This entire region is rich in 
historical lore. On Aug. 3, 1749, Celoron 
de Bienville (q. v.), under orders from 
the governor-general of New France to 
take possession of the country, deposited 
a dated lead plate at the forks of the 
Ohio, where Pittsburgh now stands. Wash- 
ington visited the locality on Nov. 24, 
1753, and with military prescience pro- 
nounced it extremely well situated for a 
fort, as it had absolute command of both 
rivers. In the following year the erection 
of a stockade was begun by Captain 
Trent, but before it was finished it was 
occupied by Ensign Ward and a garrison 
of forty men, who were forced in the same 



223 



PITTSBURGH— PLATT 

year to surrender it to the French under tween Cincinnati and Pittsburgh; whiskey 

Captain Ccutrecouer. The latter brought insurgents assembled at Braddocks to at- 

with hirn 60 bateaux, 300 canoes, 18 tack Pittsburgh. An army of 1,500 men 

pieces of cannon, and 1,000 men, and under General Lee was sent to suppress 

immediately began the erection of a strong the insurgents. The manufacture of glass 

military post, which he named Fort was begun in 1795; the President Adams, 

Dtjquesne (q. v.). On Nov. 24, 1758, the the first sea-going vessel built on the Ohio, 

French burned and vacated the fort, and was launched at Pittsburgh, May 10, 1798; 

on the following day the British took pos- the first paper-mill was built the same 

session under General Forbes. The year; two more ships were launched in 

erection of Fort Pitt on the site of Fort 1801; a branch of the Bank of Pennsyl- 

Duquesne was begun by General Stan- vania was established, and the first iron- 

wix in September, 1759, and was com- foundry erected in 1804. 

pleted in the following spring. Later events include the building of the 

The year 1764 was an important one first steamboat in 1811; the first rolling- 

in the history of the young town that mill in 1812; a steel-furnace in 1813; the 

had grown up about the fort. Colonel United States Arsenal in 1814; ineorpora- 

Bouquet erected a redoubt between Penn tion as a city March 18, 1816; first manu- 

Street and Duquesne Way; Col. John facture of blister steel in 1833; destruc- 

Campbell laid out four squares of village tion of 982 buildings by fire on April 10, 

lots between Water and Second and Ferry 1845; beginning of manufacture of cruci- 

and Market streets; and Col. George ble cast steel in 1859; consolidation of 

Morgan erected the first shingle-roofed eleven boroughs with the city in 1872; 

house, a two-story, double-hewn log, on strike on Pennsylvania Railroad in 1877 ; 

the corner of Water and Ferry streets, burning of the Exposition buildings in 

On May 19, 1769, the survey of the 1883 and again in 1900; introduction ot 

" Manor of Pittsburgh " was completed, natural gas as fuel in 1884. There were 

showing an area of 5,766 acres. Under a number of costly fires in recent years, 

orders from General Gage, the British but none involving public buildings. The 

abandoned Fort Pitt in October, 1772, and other important events are, in the main, 

the post remained in a quiescent state a record of commercial and industrial 

till Sept. 11, 1775, when it was occupied progress and consolidations, the chief 

by a body of Virginia troops under Capt. being the merger of the Carnegie Steel 

John Neville. Company in the United States Steel Cor- 

In 1784 the first sale of lots was made poration. 

by John Penn, Jr., to Isaac Craig and Pittsburg Landing. See Shiloh. 

Stephen Bayard, comprising about three Pizarro, Francisco, military officer; 

acres lying between Fort Pitt and the born in Estremadura, Spain, in 1476. He 

Allegheny River, and in the same year the conquered Peru in 1532. A Spanish fac- 

laying out of the town was completed by tion led by the son of Almagro attacked 

Thomas Vickroy. John Scull and Joseph Pizarro and killed him, June 26, 1541. 

Hall issued the first number of the Pitts- Piatt, Orville Hitchcock, legislator; 

burgh Gazette on July 29, 1786, and a post born in Washington, Conn., July 19, 1827; 

route was established between Washing- admitted to the bar in 1849; elected State 

ton and Pittsburgh in September follow- Senator in 1861; member of the State 

ing. Allegheny City was laid out in 1789. Assembly in 1864; U. S. Senator in 1879- 

The iron and steel industry had its birth 1905. He was the author of the Piatt 

in 1792, when a small blast-furnace was amendment. He died in Washington, 

erected on what is now Shady Point, but Conn., April 21, 1905. See Cuba. 

the enterprise was far ahead of the times, Piatt, Thomas Collier, legislator; 

and was abandoned after a precarious born in Owego, N. Y., July 15, 1833; 

existence of three years. elected Representative in Congress in 

Pittsburgh was incorporated as a bor- 1873; United States Senator, Jan. 18, 1881 ; 

ough on April 22, 1794. That year was resigned May 16, 1881, with Roscoe 

quite an exciting one locally. The first Conkling (q. v.) ; became president of 

line of keel boats was established be- the United States Express Company, and 

224 



PLATT— PLATTSBURG 



president of New York Quarantine Com- 
missioners in 1880; re-elected to the 
United States Senate in 1896 and 1903. 

Piatt, Zephaniaii, legislator; born in 
Dutchess county, N. Y., in 1740; preach- 
ed law; delegate from New York to the 
Continental Congress, 1784-86; judge of 
the circuit court for many years; founder 
of Plattsburg, N. Y., where he died Sept. 
12, 1807. 

Piatt Amendment. See Cuba. 

Plattsburg, Battles at. When Gen- 
eral Izard marched from Champlain for 
Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., with 4,000 men 
in August, 1814, he left 1,500 soldiers 
there, under the command of Gen. Alex- 
ander Macomb. During the spring and 



with about 14,000 men, assisted by Gen- 
eral de Rottenburg as his second, and at 
the same time the British flotilla, under 
Captain Pringle, came out of the Sorel 
Kiver, the outlet of Lake Champlain. 
Prevost announced his intention to seize 
and hold northern New York as far down 
as Ticonderoga, and he called upon the 
inhabitants to cast off their allegiance and 
furnish him with supplies. 

In the mean time Macomb, with untiring 
energy, prepared for a defence of the 
threatened region. He had completed re- 
doubts and block-houses at Plattsburg, to 
prevent the invaders crossing the Saranac 
Kiver. The militia were under the com- 
mand of Gen. Benjamin Mooers. He had 




BATTLE OP PLAITSBURG 

summer of that year both parties had been 
busy in the preparation of war-vessels for 
Lake Champlain, and the command of the 
American squadron there was held by Capt. 
Thomas Macdonough. Released from duty 
in Europe by the downfall of Napoleon, a 
number of Wellington's troops had arrived 
in Canada. There were about 15,000 
British troops (chiefly these veterans) at 
Montreal at the close of August, and Sir 
George Prevost, governor of Canada and 
general-in-chief of the forces there, pro- 
ceeded to invade New York. Izard had 
made a requisition for militia and light 
dragoons, and at the beginning of Sep- 
tember Macomb found himself at the head 
of about 3,500 men. These he gathered at 
Plattsburg, to repel an expected invasion. 
Prevost advanced from the St. Lawrence 



(From an old print). 

been very active in gathering them, and 
when Prevost advanced he was at the head 
of about 5,000 men. Prevost arrived at 
Champlain on Sept. 3, and two days after- 
wards pushed to a point within 8 miles 
of Plattsburg. At the same time Macomb 
divided his troops into detachments, to 
complete fortifications already begun. 
Small forces were sent northward, to 
watch the movements of the British. On 
the 6th Prevost moved upon Plattsburg 
with his whole force, in two columns, the 
right crossing on to the Beekmantown 
road. Informed of this, Macomb sent 
Maj. John E. Wool (who volunteered for 
the purpose), with some regulars, to sup- 
port the militia under Mooers, who was 
out in that direction, and to oppose the 
advance of the foe. His force was 280 



225 



tLATTSBURG, BATTLES AT 



strong. At Beekrrantown he encountered Downie, had approached Cumberland 
J'revost's advanced guard. The militia Head. His flag-ship was the Confiance, 
broke, and fled towards Plattsburg, but thirty-eight guns, and with it were one 
the regulars stood firm. He fought the brig, two sloops-of-war, and twelve gun- 
invaders, inch by inch, all the way to boats. Macdonough's squadron lay In 
Plattsburg. His and other detachments Plattsburg Bay, and consisted of the Sara- 
toga, twenty-six 
guns (his flag- 
ship ) , with one 
brig, two schoon- 
ers, and ten gun- 
boats, or galleys. 
The British 
came around 
Cumberland 
Head, with a fair 
wind, on the 
morning of the 
11th, and at the 
same time the 
British land 
forces were mov- 
ing for a eom- 
b i n e d attack 
upon the Ameri- 
cans by land and 
water. Macdon- 
ough had skilful- 
ly prepared his 
vessels for action, 
and when all was 
in readiness he 
knelt on the deck 
of the Saratoga, 
and offered up a 
fervent prayer to 
God, imploring 
divine aid. His 
were pushed back by the overwhelming officers were around him, and very soon 
force of the British, and retired to the after he arose the guns of both squad- 
south side of the Saranac, tearing up the rons opened, and a sharp naval action 
bridges behind them, and using the tim- began. A shot from one of the British 
bers for breastworks. The invaders tried vessels demolished a hen - coop on the 
lo force a passage across the stream, but deck of the Saratoga, in which was a 
were repulsed by a small company of young game-cock. The released fowl, 
volunteers in a stone mill near the site startled by the noise of cannon, flew upon 
of the lower bridge, who fired sharp vol- a gun-slide, and, flapping his wings, crow- 
leys of musketry upon them from that ed lustily and defiantly. The sailors 
strong citadel. Prevost now perceived that cheered, and the incident was regarded by 
he had serious work before him, and em- them as ominous of victory. Their cour- 
ployed the time from the 7th to the llth age was strengthened. The Confiance and 
in bringing up his batteries and supply- Saratoga fought desperately. A broadside 
trains, and constructing works to com- from the former had a terrible effect upon 
inand those of the Americans on the south the latter. Forty of the Saratoga's people 
side of the Saranac. Meanwhile the naval were disabled. This stunning blow was 
force, under the command of Commodore felt only for a moment. The battle be- 

226 




OLD STONE MILL ON THE SAKANAO. 



S'LATTSBTJRG, BATTLES Al? 



came general, and lasted about two hours 
and twenty minutes. The vessels were all 
terribly shattered. " There was not a 
mast in either squadron," wrote Mac- 
donough, " that could stand to make sail 
on." One of the officers of the Confiance 
wrote : " Our masts, yards, and sails were 
so shattered that one looked like so many 
bundles of matches and the other like so 
many bundles of rags." The contest was 
witnessed by hundreds of spectators on 
the headlands of the Vermont shore. It 
ended with victory for the Americans. 
The British commodore (Downie) was kill- 
ed and his remains were buried at Platts- 
burg. The Americans lost 110 men; the 
British loss was over 200 men. 

While this naval battle was raging, 
there was a sharp conflict on the land. 
The British troops had attempted to force 
their way across the Saranac at two 
places, but after a short and desperate 
struggle they were repulsed by the gallant 
regulars and militia led by Macomb and 
Mooers. Some of the British had crossed 
the stream near the site of the upper 
bridge, and the Americans were driving 
them back, when tidings came that the 
British fleet had just surrendered. The 
Americans gave three hearty cheers. The 
British took them as indications of a:ood 



news for their antagonists, and their lir-> 
wavered. Soon Prevost was notified of 
the disaster on the water, and, naturally 
timid in the presence of danger, saw with 
alarm the rapid gathering of the neigh- 
boring militia, who menaced his flanks and 
rear. At twilight (Sept. 11, 1814) he 
ceased fighting, and prepared for flight 
back to Canada. At midnight, something 
having given him greater alarm, he re- 
treated in such haste that he left his sick 
and wounded and a vast amount of stores 
behind. Light troops, militia, and volun- 
teers started in pursuit, but a heavy fall 
of rain compelled them to give it up. 
Prevost halted and encamped at Cham- 
plain, and on the 24th he left the United 
States territory, and returned to Mon- 
treal with the main army. The loss of 
Prevost, after he crossed the international 
boundary, in killed, wounded, missing, 
and deserters, did not fall much short of 
2,000. The loss of the Americans on the 
land was less than 150. The whole coun- 
try rang with the praises of Macomb and 
Macdonough, the chief leaders in the 
battles at Plattsburg. In almost every vil- 
lage and city in the land there were bon- 
fires and illuminations. Governor Tomp- 
kins presented Macomb with a sword in 
the name of the people of the State of 




thkatkk OF naval ENGAGEMENT, PLATTSRDRo bat (Adirondack Mountains in Me distance.) 

227 



PLEASANT GROVE— PLEASONTON 

New York, and De Witt Clinton, mayor of distance on the road towards Grand Ecore. 

New York, presented him, in the name Towards noon (April 9), the Confederate 

(»f the corporation, with the freedom of advance appeared, and between 5 and 6 

the city. Congress gave him the thanks of p.m. a furious battle began. The assail- 

the nation, and voted him a gold medal, ants fell heavily on Emory's left, held by 

The State of New York gave Macdonough Benedict's brigade, with crushing force, 

2,000 acres of land. The State of Vermont and pushed it back. At the first onset, 

purchased 200 acres on Cumberland Head, and while trying to rally his men to 

and presented them to him, the house charge, Benedict was slain by a bullet 

upon it overlooking the scene of his gal- which passed through his head. While the 

lant exploits. " Thus," said Macdonough left was giving way, and the Confederates 

to a friend, while tears filled his eyes, had captured four guns, Emory's right 

" from a poor lieutenant I became a rich stood firm until enveloped on three sides 

man." Congress gave him the thanks of by a superior force, when it fell back a 

the nation and a gold medal. little. Then the tide was changed by a 

Pleasant Grove, Battle at. At Pleas- heavy countercharge by Smith's veterans, 
ant Grove, 3 miles from Sabine Cross- under General Mower. The right of the 
roads, La., General Emory, advancing Confederates was driven more than a mile 
with his corps, halted on April 8, 1864, by this charge. Then the whole of Smith's 
when the Nationals, defeated at the Cross- reserves were ordered up, when the Con- 
roads, were retreating. Across the road federates were routed and pursued until 
along which the fugitives and their pur- dark. General Banks reported his losses 
suers were advancing General Dwight in the battles of April 7, 8, and 9, at 
formed his brigade, and on his left was 3,909, of whom 289 were killed and 2,150 
another brigade, commanded by Col. missing, most of the latter taken prison- 
Lewis Benedict. Another was held in re- ers. The Nationals had also lost, thus 
serve. Their ranks were opened to receive far, twenty pieces of artillery, 160 wagons, 
the flying columns, which passed through and 1,200 horses and mules. They had 
to the rear, the Confederates close upon captured 2,300 prisoners, twenty-five can- 
their heels. In strong force they assailed non (chiefly by the fleet), and 3,000 bales 
Emory's troops. A severe battle ensued, of cotton. The Confederate losses were 
which lasted an hour and a half, the Con- never reported. 

federates making the most desperate Pleasonton, Alfred, military officer; 
efforts to turn the National left, firmly born in Washington, D. C, June 7, 1824; 
held by Benedict. The assailants were re- graduated at West Point in 1844, enter- 
pulsed, and very soon the battle ceased on ing the dragoons. He served in the war 
that part of the field. Everywhere else against Mexico, and afterwards in Cali- 
the Confederates were thrown back, with fornia, New Mexico, and Texas. For 
great slaughter. Then the Nationals re- several years he was assistant adjutant- 
tired to Pleasant Hill, 15 miles distant, general and adjutant-general to General 
followed by the Confederates. See Bed Harney, and in the fall of 1861 was acting 
Btver Expedition. colonel of the 2d Cavalry. He was made 

Pleasant Hill, Battle at. When it brigadier-general of volunteers in July, 
was discovered that the Confederates were 1862, and took command of Stoneman's 
following the Nationals in strong force cavalry brigade, leading the van when Mc- 
after the battle at Pleasant Grove, Banks Clellan crossed the Potomac, in October, 
formed a battle-line at Pleasant Hill, 15 Pleasonton was in the battles at Fred- 
miles east of the latter place, with Emory's ericksburg, Chancellor sville, and Gettys- 
division in the front, the right occupied by burg, and was afterwards efficient in driv- 
Thvight's brigade, another, under General ing Price out of Missouri, in 1864. In 
Millan, in the centre, and a third, under March, 1865, he was brevetted major-gen- 
Colonel Benedict, on the left. A New York eral United States arauy for " meritorions 
battery was planted on a commanding hill, services during the rebellion." He resigned 
The army trains, guarded by Lee's cav- his commission in 1868, and was placed on 
airy, a brigade of colored troops, and Ran- the retired list as colonel in 1888. He died 
som's shattered columns, were sent some in Washington, D. C. Feb. 17, 1897. 

228 



PLYMOUTH— PLYMOUTH COMPANY 

Plymouth., Capture of. About 7,000 wards known as Parker's Island, where, 

Confederates, under Gen. R. F. Hoke, at- after a sermon had been delivered, and 

tacked Plymouth, N. C, at the mouth of the patent and other laws read, they dug 

the Roanoke River, April 17, 1864. The a well, built a stone house, a few log-huts, 

post was fortified, and garrisoned by and a stockade, which they called Fort 

2,400 men, under Gen. H. W. Wessells. St. George. They experienced the bitter 

Hoke was assisted by the powerful ram fruit of Weymouth's kidnapping in the 

Albemarle. The town was closely be- hostility of the natives, who refused to 

sieged. A gunboat that went to the as- furnish them with maize or other food, 

sistance of the garrison was soon disabled The season was too far advanced to raise 

and captured. On April 20 the Confed- food for the colony, so, on Dec. 5, two of 

erates made a general assault, and the the ships returned to England, leaving 

town and Fort Williams were compelled forty-five persons, with sufficient stores, 

to surrender. There were 1,600 men sur- Popham being president of the colony, and 

rendered, with twenty-five cannon, 2,000 Raleigh Gilbert admiral. During the 

small-arms, and valuable stores. severe winter their storehouse was burned 

Plymouth Company. The domain in by accident. The next spring a vessel 
America assigned to this company ex- arrived at Fort St. George with supplies, 
tended from lat. 41° to 45° N. Mem- and with the intelligence of the death of 
bers of the company were in the field of Chief- Justice Popham and Sir John Gil- 
adventure before it was organized. Ad- bert, two of the most influential members 
venturers from England had been on the of the company. Discouraged and dis- 
coast of New England, but had failed to heartened by the severity of the winter, 
plant a permanent settlement. The prin- during which their houses were almost 
cipal members of the company were Sir covered with snow, their losses by disease, 
John Popham (then chief -justice of Eng- and the death of their governor, Henry 
land, who had, with scandalous injustice, Popham, the colonists forsook their new 
condemned Raleigh to die on the scaf- abode and returned to England, 
fold), his brother George Popham, Sir For a few years the operations of the 
Ferdinando Gorges, Sir John and Raleigh company were confined to fishing voyages 
Gilbert (sons of Sir Humphrey Gilbert), and a little traffic with the natives. Their 
William Parker, and Thomas Hanham. prospects brightened by the first success- 
In 1606 Justice Popham sent a vessel at ful voyage of Captain Smith, but were 
his own cost, commanded by Henry Chal- again darkened by subsequent misfortunes. 
Ions, to make further discoveries of the The company had indignantly dismissed 
north Virginia region. Challons and his Hunt from their service on hearing of 
crew of about thirty persons were capt- his conduct, and when they found Squanto 
ured by the Spaniards, and the vessel was had escaped from Spain and made his way 
confiscated. Soon after the departure of to England, they sought him out, loaded 
Challons, Thomas Hanham, afterwards him with presents, and sent him to New 
one of the company, sailed in a small ves- England with Captain Dermer to pacify 
sel for America, accompanied by Martin the natives. But they were still too in- 
Pring, to discover a good place for a set- dignant to listen, and they attacked and 
tlement; and his report was so favorable, dangerously wounded Dermer and several 
so confirmatory of Gosnold's statements of his party. The company now abandon- 
ee Gosnold," Bartholomew), that the ed all thoughts of establishing colonies in 
above-named gentlemen and others formed New England at that time, and looked 
an association called the Plymouth Com- forward to receiving large profits by the 
pany, and received a charter from King fisheries and by traffic. The London Coin 
James late in that year. pany had by its second charter obtained 

In the spring of 1607 they sent three new territory. The Plymouth Companv 

small vessels to the domain with 100 emi- desired to secure greater privileges by a 

grants, and George Popham as governor distinct and separate grant, by which they 

of the colony. They landed, late in might have the monopoly of the fisheries 

August, at a rather sterile place near on the New England coast. The London 

the mouth of the Kennebec, Maine, after- Company and private traders warmly op- 

229 



PLYMOUTH COMPANY 



posed them, for they wished to keep these George Calvert, a supporter of the 
fisheries free ; but they obtained a charter monopoly. " You therefore have no right 



from the King, Nov. 3. 1620, known as 
the " Great Patent," and the popular name 
of the association was changed to " The 
Council of Plymouth." 



to interfere." " We make laws for Vir- 
ginia," retorted another member; "a bill 
passed by the Commons and the Lords, 
if it receives the King's assent, will con- 



By the new charter all North America, trol the patent." Coke argued (referring 
from lat. 40° to 48° N., excepting to many statutes of the realm) that, as 
places possessed by " any Christian prince the charter was granted without regard 
or people," was granted in full property, to pre-existing rights, it was necessarily 
with exclusive rights of jurisdiction, set- void. This attack upon his prerogative 
tlement, and traffic, to forty wealthy and stirred the anger of the monarch, who was 
influential persons, incorporated as "The sitting near the speaker's chair, and he 
Council established at Plymouth, in the blurted out some silly words about the 
County of Devon, for the Planting, Rul- " divine right of kings," when the Com- 
ing, Ordering, and Governing of New Eng- mons, in defiance of his wrath, passed a 
land, in America." The line between the bill giving freedom to commerce in spite 
London and Plymouth colonies was nearly of the charter. 

coincident with that between the late Before the bill had passed through the 

slave-labor and free-labor States. But form of legislation the King dissolved the 

that powerful organization was not per- Parliament, and forbade by proclamation 

mitted to make the first permanent Eng- any vessel to approach the shores of New 

lish settlement within its domain; it was England without the special consent of 

done by a handful of feeble liberty-loving the Council of Plymouth. He also caused 

people fleeing from persecution in Eng- the imprisonment of Coke, Pym, and other 

land. The pretences of the council to an leaders of the Commons, after adjourn- 

exclusive right of fishing on the New Eng- ment, for their alleged factious behavior, 

land coast were denounced in the House of The next Parliament proceeded to perfect 

Commons (1621), soon after the granting what the former one had begun. Under 

of the charter, as a " grievance," and a the King's proclamation, the council sent 

committee reported that the charter was out Francis West as admiral of New Eng- 

vitiated by the clause in it which for- land, to impose a tribute upon fishing- 

feited the ships of intruders without the vessels on the northeast coast; but the 

sanction of Parliament. final decision of Parliament took away his 

That body had not met for seven years, occupation, and virtually destroyed the 

and were strongly tinctured with the idea power of the council. Many of the parties 

that the people had " divine rights " as withdrew their interests in the company, 

well as the King, and acted accordingly, and those who remained, like Gorges, did 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges appeared before it little more than issue grants of domain 

in defence of the charter. So also was the in the northeastern parts of America. 
King there to defend his prerogative if it After the accession of Charles I. (1625) 

should be assailed. Sir Edwin Sandys, there was much restiveness concerning 

the wise statesman and friend of Virginia, the monopoly, even in its weakened state, 

opposed Gorges. Sir Edward Coke, a and the merchants prayed for a revocation 

member of Parliament and of the privy of the charter. The Commons, growing 

council (who had been lord chief- justice more and more democratic, regarded it as 

of England), also opposed the monopo- a royal instrument; churchmen looked 

lists; and then began his famous contest upon it as a foe to prelacy, because Puri- 

with King James which resulted in a tans were sheltered on its domain; and 

notable exhibition of wrath and despotism Charles, as bigoted a believer in the doc- 

on the part of the sovereign. Sandys trine of the " divine right of kings " as his 

pleaded for freedom in fishing and in gen- father, suspected the New England colo- 

eral commerce, which was then the staple nists were enjoying liberties inconsistent 

source of wealth for England. " America with the royai prerogative. The company 

is not annexed to the realm, nor within prepared for its dissolution by dividing 

the jurisdiction of Parliament," said north Virginia into twelve royal prov- 

230 



PLYMOUTH DECLARATION OF RIGHTS— PLYMOUTH ROCK 



inces, assigning each to persons named, 
and at their last meeting (April, 1635) 
they caused to be entered upon their 
minutes the following record : " We have 
been bereaved of friends; oppressed by 
losses, expenses, and troubles; assailed 
before the privy council again and again 
with groundless charges; weakened by the 
French and other foes without and with- 
in the realm; and what remains is only 
a breathless carcass. We therefore now 
resign the patent to the King, first re- 
serving all grants by us made and all 
vested rights — a patent we have ho! den 
about fifteen years." See Plymouth, New. 

Plymouth Declaration of Rights. In 
1636 the Plymouth Colony adopted a body 
of laws called " The General Fundamen- 
tals." The first article declared " That 
no act, imposition, law, or ordinance be 
made or imposed upon us at present or to 
come but such as shall be enacted by the 
consent of the body of freemen or asso- 
ciates, or their representatives legally as- 
sembled; which is according to the free 
liberties of the freeborn people of Eng- 
land." The second article read: "And 
for the well governing of this colony, it 
is also ordered that there be free elec- 
tions annually of governor, deputy gov- 
ernor, and assistants by the vote of the 
freemen of this corporation." These and 
other fundamentals are dated 1636, and 
were revised in 1671. The style of enact- 
ment is : " We, the associates of the colony 
of New Plimouth, coming hither as free- 
born subjects of the kingdom of England, 
endowed with all and singular the privi- 
leges belonging to each, being assembled, 
do enact," etc. The seal adopted by the 
Plymouth Colony was called the " Old 
Colony " seal, because Plymouth Colony 
was established before Massachusetts Bay 
Colony. 

Plymouth, New, universally known as 
the Plymouth Settlement, was founded 
by Pilgrims from Holland in 1620. Their 
first care on landing from the May- 
flower was to build a rude fort and plant 
five cannon upon it which they had brought 
with them. Then they " fell to building 
houses." Distributed into nineteen fami- 
lies, they all worked diligently until near- 
ly all were prostrated by sickness. There 
were no delicacies for the sick and very 
little wholesome food. The sailors of the 



231 



Mayflower had unkindly refused to let the 
passengers have a variety by sharing their 
own coarse food with them. At times 
that winter the huts at New Plymouth 
were half buried in snow-drifts. The 
Pilgrims trembled in fear of the surround- 
ing Indians, but felt comforted by the 
voice of one of them as he went through 
the new village, crying, " Welcome, Eng- 
lishmen! Welcome, Englishmen!" It 
was Samoset, who had learned a few Eng- 
lish words from English sailors at Mohe- 
gan. He afterwards brought to New 
Plymouth Squanto, whom Hunt kid- 
napped. Squanto had returned, and 
through him an acquaintance and friend- 
ship were formed with Massasoit. The 
town lay on a slope ; and when, six years 
after the arrival of the Mayflower, it was 
visited by Dutch commissioners, the houses 
were built of hewn timber, and the whole 
village was surrounded by a palisade of 
timbers driven into the ground and point- 
ed at the top, a mile in circuit, and at the 
end of the streets were three gates made 
of strong beams. In the centre of the 
village was the governor's house, before 
which was a square enclosure bearing four 
mounted swivels. Upon an eminence was 
a square house, with a flat roof, made of 
thick sawed planks, stayed with oak 
beams, upon which were mounted six 
5-pounder cannon. The lower part of this 
building was used for a church, where 
worshippers were seen with loaded mus- 
kets. See Pilgrim Fathers. 

Plymouth Rock. The passengers on 
the Mayflower, on account of great priva- 
tions and exposure in their winter houses 
at New Plymouth, sickened, and a large 
number of them died before the warm 
spring weather of 1621 arrived. They 
were buried near the rock on which 
the great body of the Pilgrims landed. 
Lest the Indians who might come there 
should see their weakness by the great 
mortality, the graves were seeded over, 
and the rock remained the enduring monu- 
ment and guide. Thomas Faunce, who died 
in 1746, was a ruling elder in the first 
church at New Plymouth, and knew some 
of the Mayflower's passengers, who showed 
him the rock on which they landed. On 
hearing that it was about to be covered 
by the erection of a wharf, the venerable 
man was so affected that he wept. His 



POCAHONTAS 



tears probably saved that rock from ob- him, one on each side of the " throne." 
livion, a fragment of which was carefully One of these was Matoa, or Pocahontas, 
preserved at New Plymouth. Before the who subsequently made a conspicuous fig- 
Jievolution the sea had washed up sand ure in Virginia history. When Smith was 

brought before Powhatan, the scene that 
ensued was impressive. There were at 
least 200 warriors present. The emperor 
wore a mantle of raccoon skins and a head- 
dress of eagle's feathers. The room was 
a long house, or arbor, made of boughs. 
The warriors stood in rows on each side 
in their gayest attire, and back of them as 
many women, with their necks painted 
red, their heads covered with the white 
down of birds, and strings of white beads 
falling over their bosoms. The captive 
was received with a shout, when the 
" Queen of Appomattox " brought water 
for him to wash his hands, and another 
woman a bunch of feathers to dry them 
with. Then he was feasted, and after- 
wards a solemn council was held, by which 
he was doomed to die. Two large stones 
were brought before the emperor, when 
Smith was dragged to them, his arms were 
pinioned, and his head placed upon them. 
Pocahontas petitioned her father to spare 
the captive's life, but in vain. Huge 
clubs were raised by strong men to beat 
out his brains, when Pocahontas, the 




PLYMOUTH ROCK AND MONUMENT. 

and buried the rock. This sand was re- 
moved, and in attempting to move the rock 
it split asunder. The upper half, or shell, 
was taken to the middle of the village. 
.In 1834 it was removed from the town 
square to a position in front of Pilgrim 
Hall, where it was enclosed in an iron 
railing, lost all its historical interest, and 
was reduced to a vulgar stone. In Sep- 
tember, 1880, the citizens wisely took the 
fragment back and reunited it to the other 
portion, when it resumed its original dig- 
nity and significance. 

Pocahontas. When Capt. John Smith 
was on trial before Powhatan, two of the " king's dearest daughter," who, Smith 
emperor's daughters occupied seats near says in his narrative, was " sixteen or 

232 




POCAHONTAS. 



POCAHONTAS 




POCAHONTAS SAVING THE LIFE OF JOHN SMITH. 



eighteen years " old, sprang from her 
father's side, clasped the prisoner's head 
with her arms, and laid her own head 
upon his. 

Powhatan yielded to his daughter, and 
consented to spare Smith, who was released 
and sent with an Indian escort to James- 
town. The emperor and his people prom- 
ised to be friends of the English. Two 
years after this event the Indians con- 
spired to exterminate the white people. 
Again Pocahontas was an angel of deliver- 
ance to them. She heard of the plan, and on 
a dark and stormy night left her father's 
cabin, sped to Jamestown, informed Smith 
of the danger, and was back to her couch 
before the dawn. The English regarded 
the gentle Indian princess with great af- 
fection; and yet, when Smith had left the 
colony, and the Indians, offended, would 
help them to food no longer, that kind girl 



was ruthlessly torn from her kindred by a 
rude sea captain and kept a prisoner sev- 
eral months (see Argall, Samuel). That 
wicked act proved a blessing to the colony. 
While she was a captive mutual love was 
engendered between Pocahontas and John 
Polfe, a young Englishman of good family 
and education. He was a Christian, she 
was a pagan. " Is it not my duty," he 
said, " to lead the blind into light ?" He 
labored for her enlightenment and conver- 
sion, and succeeded. The young princess 
was baptized at a font " hollowed out like 
a canoe" in the little chapel at James- 
town, whose columns were rough pine- 
trees ; its rude pews were of " sweet- 
smelling cedar," and the rough com- 
munion-table and pulpit of black walnut. 
She received the Christian name of 
Pebecca — the first Christian convert in 
Virginia. 



233 



POCAHONTAS— POE 




Not long afterwards— on a charming The " Lady Rebecca " received great at« 
day in April, 1613 — Pocahontas, with her tentions at Court and from all below it. 
father's consent, stood before the chancel She was entertained by the Lord Bishop 
of the chapel with Rolfe. a young widower, of London, and at Court she was treated 
her affianced, and was married to him by with the respect due to the daughter of a 

monarch. The silly 
King James was 
angry because one 
of his subjects 
dared marry a lady 
of royal blood! 
And Captain 
Smith, for fear of 
displeasing the 
royal bigot, would 
not allow her to 
call him "father," 
as she desired to 
do, and her loving 
heart was grieved. 
The King, in his 
absurd dreams of 
the divinity of the 
royal prerogative, 
imagined Rolfe or 
his descendants 
marriage of pocahontas. might claim the 

crown of V i r- 
the Rev. Mr. Whittaker, the rector. All ginia on behalf of his royal wife; and 
1 he people of Jamestown were pleased spec- he asked the privy council if the hus- 
tators. The chapel was trimmed with ever- band had not committed treason ! Poca- 
greens, wild flowers, and scarlet-berried hontas remained in England about a year; 
holly. Pocahontas was dressed in a sim- and when, with her husband and son. 
pie tunic of white muslin from the looms she was about to return to Virginia, with 
of Dacca. On her head was a long and her father's chief councillor, she was seized 
flowing veil, and hanging loosely to her with small-pox at Gravesend, and died 
feet was a robe of rich stuff presented by in June, 1617. Her remains lie within 
the governor, Sir Thomas Dale, fancifully the parish church-yard at Gravesend. Her 
embroidered by herself and her maidens, son, Thomas Rolfe, afterwards became a 
A gaudy fillet encircled her head, and distinguished man in Virginia, and his 
held the plumage of birds of gorgeous descendants are found among the most 
f-olors, while her wrists and ankles were honorable citizens of that commonwealth, 
adorned with the simple jewelry of the Poe, Edgar Allan, poet; born in Bos- 
native workshops. When the ceremony ton, Mass., Jan. 19, 1809. His father 
was ended, the eucharist was administered, was a lawyer, and his mother was an 
with bread from the wheat-fields around English actress. They both died early. 
Jamestown and wine from the grapes of The son was adopted by John Allan, a 
the adjacent forest. Her brothers and sis- rich merchant, who had no children of 
ters and forest maidens were present; also his own, and Edgar was educated partly 
the governor and council, and five English- at an academy in Richmond, Va., and at 
women — all that were in the colony — who the University of Virginia. In 1829 he 
afterwards returned to England. Rolfe published a volume of his poems. His 
and his spouse " lived civilly and lovingly foster-father procured him a cadetship 
together " until Governor Dale returned to at West Point. There he neglected his 
England (1616), when they and the Eng- studies, drank to excess, and was expelled, 
lishwomen in Virginia accompanied him. After that young Poe's conduct seems 

234 



POINSETT— POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



to have been so obnoxious to Mr. Allan 
that he was left unmentioned in that 
gentleman's will. Thrown upon his own 
resources, young Poe turned to literature 
as a means for earning a livelihood, and 
was successful as a writer of both prose 
and poetry; but his dissipated habits 
kept him poor. He married a charming 
young girl, and removed to New York 
in 1837. His wife died in 1848. Poe's 
most remarkable literary production, The 
Raven, was published in 1845. At Balti- 
more in October, 1849, he was discover- 
ed in the streets insensible. He was taken 
to Baltimore, where he died in a hospi- 
tal, Oct. 7, 1849. 

Poinsett, Joel Roberts, legislator; 
born in Charleston, S. C, March 2, 1779; 
educated at Timothy Dwight's school, 
Greenfield, Conn., at Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, and the Woolwich Academy, Eng- 
land. In 1809 he was sent to the South 
American states by the President for the 
purpose of inquiring into the prospects 
of the Spanish colonies winning their in- 
dependence. He was a member of Congress 
in 1821-25, and in the latter year was ap- 
pointed United States minister to Mexi- 
co. President Van Buren appointed him 
Secretary of War in 1837. He published 
his notes on Mexico, made in 1822, with 
a historical sketch of the revolution. 
He died in Statesburg, S. C, Dec. 12, 
1851. 

Point Pleasant, Battle at. Col. An- 
drew Lewis led the left wing of the Vir- 
ginia forces in Dunmore's War in the 
summer and autumn of 1774. He had 
about 1,200 men, and, crossing the moun- 
tain-ranges, struck the Great Kanawha 
and followed it to the Ohio, and there 
encamped, Oct. 6. Expecting Dunmore 
with the right wing, he did not cast up 
intrenchments, and in this exposed situ- 
ation was attacked (Oct. 10) by 1,000 
chosen warriors of the Western Confed- 
eracy, led by the giant chief Cornstalk, 
who came from Pickaway Plains, and 
Logan, the Mingo chief. Fire was kept up 
until sunset; and during the night the 
Indians retreated, having lost, in killed 
and wounded, about 150 men. The Vir- 
ginians lost about one-half their commis- 
sioned officers. Their entire loss was 
about seventy killed and a large number 
wounded. 

23 



Pokanoket Indians. See Wampanoag 
Indians. 

Poland, Luke Potter, jurist; born in 
Westford, Vt., Nov. 1, 1815; acquired an 
academic education; was admitted to the 
bar in 1836; judge of the Supreme Court 
of Vermont 1848-1865, becoming chief - 
justice in 1860; and resigned in 1865 
to become United States Senator. Ik- 
was a member of Congress in 1867-75 and 
in 1883-85, and chairman of the Ku-Klux 
Klan and Credit Mobilier Investigating 
Committees. He died in Waterville, Vt., 
July 2, 1887. 

Political Parties in the United States. 
Before the Revolution the two political 
parties in America were the Whigs and 
Tories. The latter favored royalty, and 
the former, including Sons of Liberty. 
Liberty Men, and Patriots, advocated in- 
dependence. At the close of the Revolu- 
tion the Whig party divided into Particu- 
larists, favoring State sovereignty and 
advocating confederation ; and Strong Gov- 
ernment, favoring a constitution. In 1787 
the Particularists became Anti-federalists 
and the Strong Government party Federal- 
ists. Since this, the history of the vari- 
ous political parties in the United States 
has been as follows: 

PRINCIPAL PARTIES, 

Federal, 1787-1816.— Formed from the 
Strong Government or Constitutional 
party. Elected two Presidents: Washing- 
ton, two terms, and Adams, one term. 
Advocated a tariff; internal revenue: 
funding the public debt; a United States 
bank; a militia; assumption of State 
debt by the government; favored England 
as against France; opposed a war with 
England and a protective tariff. Wash- 
ington, John Adams, Hamilton, Madison, 
and Jay were among its principal sup- 
porters. 

Democratic - Republican, 1793 - 1828. — 
Formed from the Anti-federal (1787-93), 
the Republican or Jeffersonian party 
(1791-93), and Democrats or sympathiz- 
ers with the French Revolutionists (1791- 
93). Elected three Presidents: Jefferson, 
two terms; Madison, two terms; Monroe, 
two terms. Favored State rights; en- 
larged freedom; France as against Eng- 
land; war with England; internal im- 
provement; purchase of Louisiana; pur- 
5 



POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



chase of Florida; Missouri Compromise, 
1820; Monroe doctrine; free-trade in 
1800 and a protective tariff in 1828. 

Democratic, 1828. — The Democratic-Re- 
publican party divided into four parts in 
the Presidential campaign of 1824 and 
never reappeared again in a national con- 
test. The Democratic (and Whig) party 
was constructed out of its ruins. Has 
elected six Presidents: Jackson, two 
terms; Van Buren, Polk, Pierce, Buchan- 
an, one term; Cleveland, two terms. Fa- 
vored internal improvements; State 
banks; removal of deposits; sub-treasury; 
State rights; free-trade; tariff for revenue 
only; annexation of Texas; Mexican War; 
compromise of 1850; Monroe doctrine; 
Died Scott decision; fugitive slave law; 
acquisition of Cuba; frugal public ex- 
pense; free coinage of silver at the ratio 
of 16 to 1. Opposed agitation of the 
slavery question in any form or place; co- 
ercion of the seceded States; the amelio- 
ration of the condition of the freed ne- 
groes; freedmen's bureau; Chinese immi- 
gration; strong government; opposes in 
general the policy of the other party in 
power. 

Whig, 1834-54. — Formed from a union 
of the National Republicans and disrupted 
Democratic - Republicans. Elected two 
Presidents: Harrison and Taylor. Fa- 
vored non-extension of slavery; slavery 
agitation — i. e., right of petition and free 
circulation of anti-slavery documents; a 
United States bank; protective tariff; vig- 
orous internal improvements; compromise 
of 1850. Opposed the. Seminole War; an- 
nexation of Texas; Mexican War; State 
rights; Democratic policy towards sla- 
very. Principal leaders of this party, 
Webster and Clay. 

Republican, 1854. — Formed from other 
parties, principally from the Whig party, 
on the issues of the slavery question. Has 
elected six Presidents : Lincoln, . two 
terms; Grant, two terms; Hayes, Gar- 
field, and Harrison, one term; McKinley, 
two terms. Favored the suppression of 
slavery; suppression of the rebellion; all 
constitutional means to accomplish it, 
financial and otherwise; emancipation of 
slaves; prohibition of slavery throughout 
the United States; full citizenship to the 
emancipated slaves; Monroe doctrine; full 
payment of the national debt; protective 



tariff; free ballot; generous pension legis= 
lation; decided increase of the navy and 
coast defence. Opposed the free coinage 
of silver. This party, while showing 
many able men, has never had a 
leader. It has maintained its na- 
tional position through the principles it 
has advocated. Remark: Both the Demo- 
cratic and Republican, as the chief parties, 
recognize and assume to legislate on all 
questions of national importance — viz. s 
civil-service reform ; woman's suffrage ; 
free ballot; justice to the laboring classes; 
private interests as against monopolies; 
the general finances of the country; tem- 
perance, etc. 

MINOR PARTIES. 

A nti- federalist. — A continuation of the 
Particularists. See Democratic - Republi- 
can on page 235. 

Peace Party, 1812-15. — Composed of 
Democratic-Republicans and Federalists, 
mostly in New England. Opposed the 
War of 1812. See Hartford Convention. 

Clintonians, 1812. — An offshoot of the 
Democratic-Republican party who opposed 
long terms of office, caucus nominations, a 
Virginia President, and an official regency. 
United with the Federalists. Nominated De 
Witt Clinton, of New York, for President. 

People's Party, 1824. — An offshoot of 
the Democratic-Republicans in New York, 
who favored the choosing of electors by the 
people instead of State legislatures. Sup- 
ported William H. Crawford for Presi- 
dent. 

Coalition, 1825. — So called from the 
union of the supporters of Clay with those 
of John Quincy Adams in the House, thus 
giving the Presidency to Adams. 

Anti-masonic, 1827-34. — Consisted of 
those who believed the members of the 
Masonic fraternity held their civil obliga- 
tions subordinate to their fraternal, hence 
unworthy to hold office. See Morgan, 
William. 

National - Republican, 1828 - 34.— The 
liioad-construction wing of the Demo- 
cratic-Republican party. For internal im- 
provements, protection, and a United 
States bank; for dividing proceeds of land 
sales among States. Opposed to the spoils 
system. United to form the Whig party, 
1834. Supported John Quincy Adams, 
1S28, and Henry Clay, 1832. 



236 



POLITICAL PABTIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



V unification, 1831-33.— A South Caro- 
lina party organized by Calhoun. See 
South Carolina. 

Liberal Party, 1840-48. — Founded at a 
national convention of abolitionists at 
Albany, N. Y., deriving additional strength 
from Whigs and Democrats. For the im- 
mediate abolition of slavery, and equal 
rights. Against the fugitive-slave clause 
of the Constitution. Nominated James 
G. Birney for President, 1839, and again 
in 1843. Withdrew their candidates and 
joined the Free-soil party in 1848. 

Free-soil Party, 1848-54. — Formed from 
the Liberty party, Democrats, and Whigs. 
Chief cause of its appearance, opposition 
1o slavery. Merged into the Republican 
party. Nominated Martin Van Buren 
for President, 1848, and John P. Hale, 
1852. 

American, 1852-60. — Generally known 
as the " Know-nothing party." Formed 
from members of other parties dissatisfied 
with the influx and power of the foreign 
element. Favored more stringent natural- 
isation laws; reserved rights of States. 
Opposed foreign immigration ; suffrage 
and office-holding by foreign-born citizens ; 
efforts to reject the Bible from the public 
schools, etc. Nominated Millard Fillmore 
for President in 1856. Merged into the 
Constitutional Union party in 1860. 
See Know-nothing Party. 

Douglas Democrats, 1860. — Northern 
Democrats, supporters of Stephen A. 
Douglas in the disruption of the Demo- 
cratic party in 1860. 

Breckinridge Democrats, 1860. — South- 
ern Democrats, supporters of Breckinridge 
in 1860. 

Constitutional Union Party, 1860. — 
Democrats, for the Union, the Constitu- 
tion, and the enforcement of law; sup- 
porters of Bell and Everett. 

IAberal Republicans, 1872. — Formed by 
dissatisfied Republicans, formerly mostly 
war Democrats. Favored greater leniency 
towards the Confederates. Nominated 
Horace Greeley for President, 1S72. 

" Straight-out " Democrats, 1872. — The 
" Tap-root " Democrats, displeased by the 
nomination of Greeley by the Regular 
Democrats, nominated Charles O'Conor for 
President; declined, but received about 
30.000 popular votes. 

Temperance, 1872. — A national combina- 



tion of local temperance organizations, be- 
came 

Prohibition, 1876. — For legal prohibi- 
tion; female suffrage; direct Presidential 
vote; currency convertible into coin. 
Nominated James Black from Pennsyl- 
vania for President, 1872; Green Clay 
Smith, 1876; Neal Dow, 1880; John P. 
St. John, 1884; C. B. Fisk, 1888; John 
Bidwell, 1892; Joshua Levering, 1890; 
John G. Woolley, 1900. 

Greenback, 1874; became National 
Greenback, 1878 ; became Union Labor, 
1887. — Unlimited coinage of gold and sil- 
ver; substitution of greenbacks for na- 
tional bank notes; suffrage without re- 
gard to sex; legislation in the interest of 
the laboring classes, etc. Nominated 
Peter Cooper for President, 1876; James 
B. Weaver, 1880; Benjamin F. Butler, 
1884; Alson J. Streeter, 1888. These vari- 
ous elements, uniting with the " Farmers' 
Alliance," form the 

People's or Populists' Party, 1891.- — A 
meeting was held at St. Louis, December. 

1889, of the " Farmers and Laborers' 
Union of America," for the purpose of 
consolidating the various bodies of organ- 
ized farmers in the United States, which 
had at different times and places formed 
since 1867, and known under the gen- 
eral term of " The Granger Movement." 
This meeting was a success, and the con- 
solidated body was called the " Farmers' 
Alliance and Industrial Union." Dec. 2, 

1890, a national convention was held at 
Ocala, Fla. ; thirty-five States and Terri- 
tories were represented by 163 delegates: 
at this convention independent political 
action was decided upon, and a platform 
adopted embracing the following prin- 
ciples: (1) The abolition of the national 
banks, establishment of sub-treasuries to 
loan money to the people at 2 per cent., 
increase of circulation to $50 per capita : 
(2) laws to suppress gambling in agricult- 
ural products; (3) unlimited coinage of 
silver; (4) laws prohibiting alien owner- 
ship of land, and to permit the ownership 
of land in actual use only; (5) restricting 
tariff; (6) government to control rail- 
roads, telegraphs, etc.; (7) direct vote of 
the people for President, Vice-President, 
and United States Senators. Second con- 
vention held at Cincinnati, May 19, 1891 ; 
thirty States and Territories represented 



237 



PdLK 



With 1,418 delegates; at this convention 
the platform of Ocala, Fla., 1890, was 
heartily endorsed and the party given the 
name of " People's party." Third national 
meeting at St. Louis, Feb. 22, 1892. Na- 
tional convention for the nominating of 
President and A^ice-President held at 
Omaha, July 4, 1892; James B. Weaver, 
of Iowa, nominated for President, and 
James G. Field, of Virginia, for Vice-Presi- 
dent. United with the Democrats in 1896 
and 1900 in nominating William J. Bryan. 

Socialist Labor. — First national con- 
vention held in New York City, Aug. 28, 
1892, and nominated Simon Wing, of 
Massachusetts for President, and Charles 
H. Matchett, of Brooklyn, N. Y., for Vice- 
President. Nominated Charles H. Match- 
ett in 1896. Joseph F. Malloney in 1900. 

National Democrats, 1896. — Formed by 
Democrats who opposed free silver. Nomi- 
nated John N. Palmer, of Illinois, for 
President; Simon B. Buckner, of Ken- 
tucky, for Vice-President. 

Silver Republican. — United with the 
Democratic party in nominating William 
J. Bryan for President. 

National Party, 1896. — For prohibition 
and free silver. Nominated Charles E. 
Bentley, of Nebraska, for President ; James 
H. Southgate, of North Carolina, for Vice- 
President. Name was changed to Liberty 
party in 1897. 

Middle-of-the-road, or Anti-fusion Peo- 
ple's Party, in 1900 nominated Wharton 
Barker, of Pennsylvania, for President. 

Union Reform Party, nominated Seth 
II. Ellis, of Ohio, for President in 1900. 

Social Democratic, nominated Eugene 
V. Debs for President in 1900. 



United Christian Party, in 1900 nomi* 
nated J. F. R. Leonard, of Iowa, for Presi- 
dent. 

LOCAL PARTIES AND POLITICAL NAMES. 

Abolitionists. — Abolitionists. 

Anti-Ren ters. — Anti-Rentism. 

Anti-Nebraska. — Opposers of the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska bill, 1854. 

Barnburners. — Barnburners. 

Bucktails. — Democratic followers of 
Madison in 1816. 

Doughfaces. — Doughfaces. 

Half-breeds. — A term of contempt be- 
stowed by the Stalwarts upon those who 
supported the administration of President 
Hayes and opposed the nomination of 
Grant for a third term, etc. Mugwumps. 

Hunkers. — Barnburners. 

Independent Republicans. — Started in 
1879 in opposition to Senator Conkling's 
leadership of the party. Mugwumps. 

Ku-klux Elan. — Ku-klux Klan. 

Loco-foco. — Loco-foco. 

Readjusters, 1878. — A division of the 
Democratic party in Virginia advocating 
the funding of the State debt at 3 per 
cent. ; under the leadership of General 
Mahone. 

Silver Grays. — Silver Grays. 

Stahcarts. — A branch of the Republican 
party, followers of Conkling, Cameron, and 
Logan, opposed to the reconciling course 
of President Hayes towards the South. 
Favored the nomination of Grant for a 
third term. Opposers of Blaine, etc. 

Tammany. — Tammany. 

Woman's Rights. Belva Lockwood con- 
stituted herself a candidate for President 
in 1876. 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 

Polk, James Knox, eleventh President tion of John Quincy Adams. He was 
of the United States; from 1845 to 1849; speaker of the House of Representatives 
Democrat; born in Mecklenburg county, from 1835 to 1837, and in 1839, having 
N. C, Nov. 2, 1795: His ancestral name served fourteen years in Congress, he de- 
was Pollock, and he was of Scotch-Irish clined a re-election. He was a candidate 
descent. He graduated at the Uni- for the Vice-Presidency in 1840, but was 
versity of North Carolina in 1818; ad- defeated. In 1844 the Democratic Nation- 
mitted to the bar in 1820. Three years al Convention at Baltimore nominated 
afterwards he was a member of the legis- him for the Presidency, chiefly because 
lature of Tennessee and was sent a dele- he was strongly in favor of the annexa- 
gate to Congress in 1825, where he was tion of Texas, a favorite measure of the 
a conspicuous opponent of the administra- Southern politicians, and he was elected, 

238 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 



his opponents being Henry Clay and 
James G. Birney (see Cabinet, Presi- 
ijent's). During his administration, the 
most important event was a war with 
xUexico from 1846 to 1848. The other 
chief events of his administration were 
the establishment of an independent treas- 
ury system, the enactment of a low tariff 
system, and the creation of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior. Three months after 
lie retired from office, he was seized with 
illness and died in Nashville, Tenn., June 
15, 1849. 

Inaugural Address. — On March 4, 1845, 
President Polk delivered the following 
inaugural address: 



Fellow - citizens, — Without solicitation 
on my part, I have been chosen by the 
free and voluntary suffrages of my coun- 
trymen to the most honorable and most 
responsible office on earth. I am deeply 
impressed with gratitude for the con- 
fidence reposed in me. Honored with this 
distinguished consideration at an earlier 
period of life than any of my predecessors, 
I cannot disguise the diffidence with which 
I am about to enter on the discharge of 
my official duties. 

If the more aged and experienced men 
who have filled the office of President of 
the United States even in the infancy of 
the republic distrusted their ability to dis- 
charge the duties of that exalted station, 
what ought not to be the apprehensions of 
one so much younger and less endowed 
now that our domain extends from ocean 
to ocean, that our people have so greatly 
increased in numbers, and at a time when 
so great diversity of opinion prevails in 
regard to the principles and policy which 
should characterize the administration of 
our government? Well may the boldest 
fear and the wisest tremble when incur- 
ring responsibilities on which may depend 
our country's peace and prosperity, and in 
some degree the hopes and happiness of 
the v/ho)e human family. 

In assuming responsibilities so vast I 
fervently invoke the aid of that Almighty 
Puler of the Universe in whose hands are 
the destinies of nations and of men to 
guard this heaven-favored land against 
the mischiefs which without His guidance 
might arise from an unwise public policy. 
With a firm reliance upon the wisdom of 



Omnipotence to sustain and direct me in 
the path which I am appointed to pursue, 
I stand in the presence of this assembled 
multitude of my countrymen to take upon 
myself the solemn obligation " to the best of 
my ability to preserve, protect, and defend 
the Constitution of the United States." 

A concise enumeration of the principles 
which will guide me in the administrative 
policy of the government is not only in 
accordance with the examples set me by 
all my predecessors, but is eminently be- 
fitting the occasion. 

The Constitution itself, plainly written 
as it is, the safeguard of our federative 
compact, the offspring of concession and 
compromise, binding together in the bonds 
of peace and union this great and increas- 
ing family of free and independent States, 
will be the chart by which I shall be di- 
rected. 

It will be my first care to administer 
the government in the true spirit of that 
instrument, and to assume no powers not 
expressly granted or clearly implied in 
its terms. 

The government of the United States 
is one of delegated and limited powers, 
and it is by a strict adherence to the clear- 
ly granted powers and by abstaining from 
the exercise of doubtful or unauthorized 
implied powers that we have the only 
sure guarantee against the recurrence of 
those unfortunate collisions between the 
federal and State authorities which have 
occasionally so much disturbed the har- 
mony of our system and even threatened 
the perpetuity of our glorious Union. 

" To the States, respectively, or to the 
people " have been reserved " the powers 
not delegated to the United States by the 
Constitution nor prohibited by it to the 
States." Each State is a complete sover- 
eignty within the sphere of its reserved 
powers. The government of the Union, act- 
ing within the sphere of its delegated au- 
thority, is also a complete sovereignty, 
while the general government should ab- 
stain from the exercise of authority not 
clearly delegated to it, the States should 
be equally careful that in the maintenance 
of their rights they do not overstep the 
limits of powers reserved to them. One 
of the rnogt distinguished of my predeces- 
sors attached deserved importance to " the 
support of the State governments in all 



239 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 



their rights, as the most competent ad- 
ministration for our domestic concerns 
and the surest bulwark against anti-re- 
publican tendencies," and to the " preser- 
vation of the general government in its 
whole constitutional vigor as the sheet- 
anchor of our peace at home and safety 
abroad." 

To the government of the United States 
has been intrusted the exclusive manage- 
ment of our foreign affairs. Beyond that 
it wields a few general enumerative powers. 
It does not force reform on the States. . It 
leaves individuals, over whom it casts its 
protecting influence, entirely free to im- 
prove their own condition by the legiti- 
mate exercise of all their mental and 
physical powers. It is a common protec- 
tor of each and all the States; of every 
man who lives upon our soil, whether of 
native or foreign birth; of every religious 
sect, in their worship of the Almighty ac- 
cording to the dictates of their own eon- 
science; of every shade of opinion, and 
the most free inquire; of every art, trade, 
and occupation consistent with the laws of 
the States. And we rejoice in the general 
happiness, prosperity, and advancement 
of our country, which have been the off- 
spring of freedom, and not of power. 

This most admirable and wisest system 
of well-regulated self-government among 
men ever devised by human minds has 
been tested by its successful operation for 
more than half a century, and if preserved 
from the usurpations of the federal gov- 
ernment on the one hand and the exercise 
by the States of powers not reserved to 
them on the other, will, I fervently hope 
and believe, endure for ages to come and 
dispense the blessings of civil and relig- 
ious liberty to distant generations. To 
effect objects so dear to every patriot I 
shall devote myself with anxious solici- 
tude. It will be my desire to guard 
against that most fruitful source of dan- 
ger to the harmonious action of our sys- 
tem which consists in substituting the 
mere discretion and caprice of the ex- 
ecutive or of majorities in the legislative 
department of the government for powers 
which have been withheld from the federal 
government by the Constitution. By the 
theory of our government majorities rule, 
but this right is not an arbitrary or un- 
limited one. It is a riorht to be exercised 



in subordination to the Constitution, and 
in conformity to it. One great object of 
the Constitution was to restrain majorities 
from oppressing minorities or encroach- 
ing upon their just rights. Minorities 
have a right to appeal to the Constitution 
as a shield against such oppression. 

That the blessings of liberty which our 
Constitution secures may be enjoyed alike 
by minorities and majorities, the ex- 
ecutive has been wisely invested with a 
qualified veto upon the acts of the legis- 
lature. It is a negative power, and is con- 
servative in its character. It arrests for 
the time hasty, inconsiderate, or uncon- 
stitutional legislation, invites reconsider- 
ation, and transfers questions at issue be- 
tween the legislative and executive depart- 
ments to the tribunal of the people. Like 
all other powers, it is subject tp be abused. 
When judiciously and properly exercised, 
the Constitution itself may be saved from 
infraction, and the rights of all preserved 
and protected. 

The inestimable value of our federal 
Union is felt anu acknowledged by all. By 
this system of united and confederated 
States our people are permitted collective- 
ly and individually to seek their own hap- 
piness in their own way, and the con- 
sequences have been most auspicious. 
Since the Union was formed the number 
of the States has increased from thirteen 
to twenty-eight; two of these have taken 
their positions as members of the confed- 
eracy within the last week. Our popu- 
lation has increased from 3,000.000 to 20,- 
000,000. New communities and States are 
seeking protection under its aegis, and mul- 
titudes from the Old World are flocking 
to our shores to participate in its bless- 
ings. Beneath its benign sway peace and 
prosperity prevail. Freed from the bur- 
dens and miseries of war, our trade and 
intercourse have extended throughout the 
world. Mind, no longer tasked in devising 
means to accomplish or resist schemes of 
ambition, usurpation, or conquest, is de- 
voting itself to man's true interests in de- 
veloping his faculties and powers, and the 
capacity of nature to minister to his en- 
joyments. Genius is free to announce its 
inventions and discoveries, and the hand is 
free to accomplish whatever the head con- 
ceives not incompatible with the rights of 
a fellow-beins:. All distinctions of birth or 



240 







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20LK, JAMES KNOX 

rank have been abolished. All citizens, It is a source of deep regret that in 
whether native or adopted, are placed upon some sections of our country misguided 
terms of precise equality; all are entitled persons have occasionally indulged in 
to equal rights and equal protection. No schemes and agitations whose object is the 
union exists between Church and State, destruction of domestic institutions exist- 
and perfect freedom of opinion is guaran- ing in other sections — institutions which 
teed to all sects and creeds. existed at the adoption of the Constitu- 

These are some of the blessings secured tion and were recognized and protected 
to our happy land by our federal union, by it. All must see that if it were pos- 
To perpetuate them it is our sacred duty sible for them to be successful in attaining 
to preserve it. Who shall assign limits to their object the dissolution of the Union 
the achievements of free minds and free and the consequent destruction of our 
hands under the protection of this glorious happy form of government must speedily 
Union? No treason to mankind since the follow. 

organization of society would be equal I am happy to believe that at every 
in atrocity to that of him who would period of our existence as a nation there 
lift his hand to destroy it. He would has existed, and continues to exist, among 
overthrow the noblest structure of human the great mass of our people a devotion 
wisdom, which protects himself and his to the Union of the States which will 
fellow-man. He would stop the progress shield and protect it against the moral 
of free government and involve his coun- treason of any who would seriously con- 
try either in anarchy or despotism. He template its destruction. To secure a 
would extinguish the fire of liberty, which continuance of that devotion the corn- 
warms and animates the hearts of happy promises of the Constitution must not 
millions and invites all the nations of the only be preserved, but sectional jealousies 
earth to imitate our example. If he say and heart-burnings must be discounte- 
that error and wrong are committed in nanced, and all should remember that 
the administration of the government, let they are members of the same political 
him remember that nothing human can be family, having a common destiny. To 
perfect, and that under no other system increase the attachment of our people to 
of government revealed by heaven or de- the Union, our laws should be just. Any 
vised by man has reason been allowed so policy which shall tend to favor monopo- 
free and broad a scope to combat error, lies or the peculiar interests of sections or 
Has the sword of the despots proved to be classes must operate to the prejudices of 
a safer or surer instrument of reform in the interests of their fellow-citizens, and 
government than enlightened reason? should be avoided. If the compromises of 
Does he expect to find among the ruins the Constitution be preserved, if sectional 
of this Union a happier abode for our jealousies and heart-burnings be discoun- 
swarming millions than they now have tenanced, if our laws be just and the 
under it? Every lover of his country government be practically administered 
must shudder at the thought of the pos- strictly within the limits of power pre- 
sibility of its dissolution, and will be scribed to it, we may discard all appre- 
ready to adopt the patriotic sentiment, hensions for the safety of the Union. 
"Our Federal Union — it must be pre- With these views of the nature, char- 
served." To preserve it the compromises acter, and objects of the government, and 
which alone enabled our fathers to form the value of the Union, I shall steadily op- 
a common constitution for the government pose the creation of those institutions and 
and protection of so many States and dis- systems which in their nature tend to per- 
tinct communities, of such diversified vert it from its legitimate purposes and 
habits, interests, and domestic institutions, make it the instrument of sections, classes, 
must be sacredly and religiously observed, and individuals. We need no national 
Any attempt to disturb or destroy these banks or other extraneous institutions 
compromises, being terms of the compact planted around the government to control 
of union, can lead to none other than or strengthen it in opposition to the will 
the most ruinous and disastrous con- of its authors. Experience has taught us 
sequences. how unnecessary they are as auxiliaries ot 

vii.— q 241 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 

the public authorities — how impotent for One of the difficulties which we have had 

good and how powerful for mischief. to encounter in the practical administra- 

Ours was intended to be a plain and tion of the government consists in the ad- 
frugal government, and I shall regard it justment of our revenue laws, and the levy 
to be my duty to recommend to Congress of the taxes necessary for the support of 
and, as far as the executive is concerned, the government. In the general proposi- 
to enforce by all the means within my tion that no more money shall be collected 
power the strictest economy in the ex- than the necessities of an economical ad- 
penditure of the public money which may ministration shall require all parties seem 
be compatible with the public interests. to acquiesce. Nor does there seem to bo 
A national debt has become almost an any material difference of opinion as to 
institution of European monarchies. It is the absence of right in the government to 
viewed in some of them as an essential tax one section of country, or one class 
prop to existing governments. Melancholy of citizens, or one occupation, for the mere 
is the condition of that people whose gov- profit of another. " Justice and sound 
ernment can be sustained only by a system policy forbid the federal government to 
which periodically transfers large amounts foster one branch of industry to the detri- 
from the labor of the many to the coffers ment of another, or to cherish the inter- 
of the few. Such a system is incompatible ests of one portion to the injury of an- 
with the ends for which our republican other portion of our common country." 
government was instituted. Under a wise I have heretofore declared to my fellow- 
policy the debts contracted in our Rev- citizens that " in my judgment it is the 
olution and during the War of 1812 have duty of the government to extend, as 
been happily extinguished. By a judicious far as it may be practicable to do so, by 
application of the revenues not required its revenue laws and all other means 
for other necessary purposes, it is not within its power, fair and just protection 
doubted that the debt which has grown to all the great interests of the whole 
out of the circumstances of the last few Union, embracing agriculture, manufact- 
years may be speedily paid off. ures, the mechanic arts, commerce, and 

I congratulate my fellow-citizens on the navigation." I have also declared my 

entire restoration of the credit of the opinion to be " in favor of a tariff for 

general government of the Union, and that revenue," and that " in adjusting the de- 

of many of the States. Happy would it tails of such a tariff I have sanctioned 

be for the indebted States if they were such moderate discriminating duties as 

freed from their liabilities, many of which would produce the amount of revenue 

were incautioxisly contracted. Although needed, and at the same time afford rea- 

the government of the Union is neither in sonable incidental protection to our home 

a legal nor a moral sense bound for the industry," and that I was " opposed to a 

debts of the States, and it would be a tariff for protection merely, and not for 

violation of our compact of union to as- revenue." 

sume them, yet we cannot but feel a deep The power " to lay and collect taxes, 
interest in seeing all the States meet their duties, imposts, and excises " was an in- 
public liabilities and pay off their just dispensable one to be conferred on the 
debts at the earliest practicable period, federal government, which without it 
That they will do so as soon as it can be would possess no means of providing for 
done without imposing too heavy burdens its own support. In executing this power 
on their citizens there is no reason to by levying a tariff of duties for the sup- 
11 doubt. The sound moral and honorable port of the government, the raising of rev- 
feeling of the people of the indebted enue should be the object and protection 
States cannot be questioned, and we are the incident. To reverse this principle 
happy to perceive a settled disposition and make protection the object and reve- 
on their part, as their ability returns after nue the incident would be to inflict in- 
a season of unexampled pecuniary em- justice upon all other than the protected 
barrassment, to pay off all just demands interests. In levying duties for revenue it 
and to acquiesce in any reasonable meas- is doubtless proper to make such discrim- 
ures to accomplish that object. inations within the revenue principle as 

242 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 

will afford incidental protection to our tribute the burdens as equally as possible 

home interests. Within the revenue limit among them. 

there is a discretion to discriminate; be- The republic of Texas has made known 
yond that limit the rightful exercise of the her desire to come into our Union, to form 
power is not conceded. The incidental a part of our confederacy and enjoy with 
protection afforded to our home interests us the blessings of liberty secured and 
by discriminations within the revenue guaranteed by our Constitution. Texas 
range it is believed will be ample. In was once a part of our country — was un- 
making discriminations all our home in- wisely ceded away to a foreign power — 
tcrests should as far as practicable be is now independent, and possesses an un- 
equally protected. The largest portion of doubted right to dispose of a part or the 
our people are agriculturists. Others are whole of her territory and to merge her 
employed in manufactures, commerce, sovereignty as a separate and independent 
navigation, and the mechanic arts. They State in ours. I congratulate my country 
are all engaged in their respective pur- that by an act of the late Congress of the 
suits, and their joint labors constitute the United States the assent of this govern- 
national or home industry. To tax one ment has been given to the reunion, and it 
branch of this home industry for the bene- only remains for the two countries to 
fit of another would be unjust. No one agree upon the terms to consummate an 
of these interests can rightfully claim an object so important to both, 
advantage over the others, or to be en- I regard the question of annexation as 
riched by impoverishing the others. All belonging exclusively to the United States 
are equally entitled to the fostering care and Texas. They are independent powers 
and protection of the government. In ex- competent to contract, and foreign na- 
ercising a sound discretion in levying dis- tions have no right to interfere with them 
criminating duties within the limit pre- or to take exceptions to their reunion, 
scribed, care should be taken that it be Foreign powers do not seem to appreciate 
done in a manner not to benefit the the true character of our government, 
wealthy few at the expense of the toiling Our Union is a confederation of indepen- 
millions by taxing lowest the luxuries of dent States, whose policy is peace with 
life, or articles of superior quality and each other and all the world. To enlarge- 
high price, which can only be consumed its limits is to extend the dominions of 
by the wealthy, and highest the necessa- peace over additional territories and in- 
ries of life, or articles of coarse quality creasing millions. The world has nothing 
and low price, which the poor and great to fear from military ambition in our 
mass of our people must consume. The government. While the chief magistrate 
burdens of government should as far as and the popular branch of Congress are 
practicable be distributed justly and elected for short terms by the suffrages 
equally among all classes of our popula- of those millions who must in their own 
tion. These general views, long entertain- persons bear all the burdens and miseries 
ed on this subject, I have deemed it prop- of war, our government cannot be other- 
er to reiterate. It is a subject upon wise than pacific. Foreign powers should 
which conflicting interests of sections and therefore look on the annexation of Texas 
occupations are supposed to exist, and a to the United States, not as the conquest 
spirit of mutual concession and compro- of a nation seeking to extend her domin- 
mise in adjusting its details should be ions by arms and violence, but as the 
cherished by every part of our wide- peaceful acquisition of -a territory once 
spread country as the only means of her own, by adding another member to 
preserving harmony and a cheerful ac- our confederation, with the consent of that 
quiescence of all in the operation of our member, thereby diminishing the chances 
revenue laws. Our patriotic citizens in of war, and opening to them new and 
every part of the Union will readily ever-increasing markets for their prod- 
submit to the payment of such taxes ucts. 

as shall be needed for the support of To Texas the reunion is important, be- 

their government, whether in peace or cause the strong protecting arm of our 

in war, if they are so levied as to dis- government would be extended over her, 

243 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 

and the vast resources of her fertile soil tier obstructions which must occur if she 

and genial climate should be speedily de- remains out of the Union? Whatever is 

veloped, while the safety of New Orleans good or evil in the local institutions of 

and of' our whole Southwestern frontier Texas will remain her own whether an- 

acainst hostile aggression, as well as the nexed to the United States or not. None 

interests of the whole Union, would be of the present States will be responsible 

promoted by it. f° r them any more than they are for 

In the earlier stages of our national the local institutions of each other. They 
existence the opinion prevailed with some have confederated together for certain 
that our system of confederated States specified objects. Upon the same prin- 
could not operate successfully over an ex- ciple that they would refuse to form a 
tended territory, and serious objections perpetual union with Texas because of 
have at different times been made to the her local institutions our forefathers would 
enlargement of our boundaries. These ob- have been prevented from forming our 
jections were earnestly urged when we present Union. Perceiving no valid objec- 
acquired Louisiana. Experience has shown tion to the measure, and many reasons 
that they were not well founded. The for its adoption vitally affecting the peace, 
title of numerous Indian tribes to vast the safety, and the prosperity of both 
tracts of country has been extinguished; countries, I shall on the broad principle 
new States have been admitted into the which formed the basis and produced the 
Union; new Territories have been created adoption of our Constitution, and not in 
and our jurisdiction and laws extended any narrow spirit of sectional policy, en- 
over them. As our population has ex- deavor by all constitutional, honorable, 
panded, the Union has been cemented and and appropriate means to consummate 
strengthened. As our boundaries have been the expressed will of the people and gov- 
enlarged and our agricultural population ernment of the United States by the re- 
has been spread over a large surface, our annexation of Texas to our Union at the 
federative system has acquired addition- earliest practicable period, 
al strength and security. It may well Nor will it become in a less degree my 
be doubted whether it would not be in duty to assert and maintain by all con- 
greater danger of overthrow if our pres- stitutional means Ihe right of the United 
ent population were confined to the com- States to that portion of our territory 
paratively narrow limits of the original which lies beyond the Rocky Mountains, 
thirteen States than it is now that they Our title to the country of the Oregon 
are sparsely settled over a more expand- is " clear and unquestionable," and already 
ed territory. It is confidently believed are our people preparing to perfect that 
that our system may be safely extended title by occupying it with their wives 
to the utmost bounds of our territorial and children. But eighty years ago our 
limits, and that as it shall be extended population was confined on the west by 
the bonds of our Union, so far from being the ridge of the Alleghanies. Within that 
weakened, will become stronger. period — within the lifetime, I might say, 

None can fail to see the danger to our of some of my hearers — our people, in- 
safety and future peace if Texas remains creasing to many millions, have filled the 
an independent State, or becomes an ally eastern valley of the Mississippi, advent- 
or dependency of some foreign nation more urously ascended the Missouri to its head- 
powerful than herself. Is there one among springs, and are already engaged in estab- 
our citizens who would not prefer per- lishing the blessings of self-government in 
petual peace with Texas to occasional wars, valleys of which the rivers flow to the 
which so often occur between bordering Pacific. The world beholds the peaceful 
independent nations ? Is there one who triumphs of the industry of our emigrants, 
would not prefer free intercourse with To us belongs the duty of protecting them 
her to high duties on all our products adequately wherever they may be upon 
and manufactures which enter her ports our soil. The jurisdiction of our laws 
or cross her frontiers? Is there one who and the benefits of our republican insti- 
would not prefer an unrestricted com- tutions should be extended over them in 
munication with her citizens to the fron- the distant regions which they have se- 

244 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 

leeted for their homes. The increasing ions and judgments, and that the rights 
facilities of intercourse will easily bring of all are entitled to respect and regard, 
the States, of which the formation in that Confidently relying upon the aid and 
part of our territory cannot be long de- assistance of the co-ordinate departments 
layed, within the sphere of our federative of the government in conducting our pub- 
Union. In the mean time, every obligation lie affairs, I enter upon the discharge of 
imposed by treaty or conventional stipula- the high duties which have been assigned 
tions should be sacredly respected. me by the people, again humbly suppli- 

In the management of our foreign re- eating that Divine Being who has watched 
lations it will be my aim to observe a over and protected our beloved country 
careful respect for the rights of other na- from its infancy to the present hour to 
tions, while our own will be the subject of continue His gracious benedictions upon 
constant watchfulness. Equal and exact us, that we may continue to be a pros- 
justice should characterize all our inter- perous and happy people, 
course with foreign countries. All alliances Special Message on Mexico. — On May 
having a tendency to jeopard the welfare H, 1846, President Polk sent the follow- 
and honor of our country, or sacrifice any ing special message on the Mexican situa- 
one of the national interests, will be stu- tion to the Congress: 

diously avoided, and yet no opportunity will 

be lost to cultivate a favorable understand- Washington, May 11, 181,6. 

ing with foreign governments by which our To the Senate and House of Representa- 

navigation and commerce may be extend- tives, — The existing state of the relations 

ed, and the ample products of our fertile between the United States and Mexico 

soil, as well as the manufactures of our renders it proper that 1 should bring the 

skilled artisans, find a ready market and subject to the consideration of Congress, 

remunerating prices in foreign countries. In my message at the commencement of 

In taking " care that the laws be faith- your present session the state of these 
fully executed," a strict performance of relations, the causes which led to the 
duty will be exacted from all public offi- suspension of diplomatic intercourse be- 
cers. From those officers, especially, who tween the two countries in March, 1S45, 
are charged with the collection and dis- and the long-continued and unredressed 
bursement of the public revenue Avill wrongs and injuries committed by the 
prompt and rigid accountability be re- Mexican government on citizens of the 
quired. Any culpable failure or delay on United States in their persons and prop- 
their part to account for the moneys in- erty were briefly set forth, 
trusted to them at the times and in the As the facts and opinions which were 
manner required by law will in every then laid before you were carefully con- 
instance terminate the official connection sidered, I cannot better express my present 
of such defaulting officer with the gov- convictions of the condition of affairs up 
eminent. to that time than by referring you to that 

Although in our country the chief communication, 
magistrate must almost of necessity be The strong desire to establish peace 
chosen by a party and stand pledged to with Mexico on liberal and honorable 
its principles and measures, yet in his terms, and the readiness of this govern- 
official action he should not be the Presi- ment to regulate and adjust our boundary 
dent of a part only but of the whole and other causes of difference with that 
people of the United States. While he power on such fair and equitable prin- 
executes the laws with an impartial ciples as would lead to permanent rela- 
hand, shrinks from no proper responsi- tions of the most friendly nature, induced 
bility, and faithfully carries out in the me in September last to seek the reopen- 
executive department of the government ing of diplomatic relations between the 
the principles and policy of those who two countries. Every measure adopted 
have chosen him, he should not be un- on our part had for its object the further- 
mindful that our fellow-citizens who have ance of these desired results. In corn- 
differed with him in opinion are entitled munieating to Congress a succinct state- 
to the full and free exercise of their opin- ment of the injuries which we have suf- 

245 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 

fered from Mexico, and which have been much-injured and long-suffering citizens, 

accumulating during a period of more many of which had existed for more than 

than twenty years, every expression that twenty years, should be postponed or 

could tend to inflame the people of Mexico separated from the settlement of the 

or defeat or delay a pacific result was boundary question. 

carefully avoided. An envoy of the United Mr. Slidell arrived at Vera Cruz on 
States repaired to Mexico with full powers Nov. 30, and was courteously received by 
to adjust every existing difference. But the authorities of that city. But the 
though present on the Mexican soil by government of General Herrera was then 
agreement between the two governments, tottering to its fall. The revolutionary 
invested with full powers, and bearing party had seized upon the Texas question 
evidence of the most friendly dispositions, to effect or hasten its overthrow. Its de- 
li is mission has been unavailing. The termination to restore friendly relations 
Mexican government not only refused to with the United States, and to receive 
receive him or listen to his propositions, our minister to negotiate for the settle- 
but after a long-continued series of men- ment of this question was violently as- 
aces have at last invaded our territory sailed, and was made the great theme 
and shed the blood of our fellow-citizens of denunciation against it. The govern- 
on our own soil. ment of General Herrera, there is good 
It now becomes my duty to state more reason to believe, was sincerely desirous 
in detail the origin, progress, and failure to receive our minister; but it yielded to 
of that mission. In pursuance of the in- the storm raised by its enemies, and upon 
structions given in September last, an Dec. 21 refused to accredit Mr. Slidell 
inquiry was made on Oct. 13, 1845, in the upon the most frivolous pretexts. These 
most friendly terms, through our consul are so fully and ably exposed in the note 
in Mexico, of the minister for foreign of Mr. Slidell of Dec. 24 last, to the Mex- 
affairs, whether the Mexican government ican minister of foreign relations, here- 
" would receive an envoy from the United with transmitted, that I deem it unneces- 
States intrusted with full powers to ad- sary to enter into further detail on this 
just all the questions in dispute between portion of the subject, 
the two governments," with the assur- Five days after the date of Mr. Slidell's 
ance that " should the answer be in the note General Herrera yielded the govern- 
affirmative such an envoy would be im- ment to General Paredes without a strug- 
mediately despatched to Mexico." The gle, and on Dec. 30 resigned the Presi- 
Mexican minister, on Oct. 15, gave an dency. This revolution was accomplished 
affirmative answer to this inquiry, re- solely by the army, the people having 
questing at the same time that our naval taken little part in the contest: and thus 
force at Vera Cruz might be withdrawn, the supreme power in Mexico passed into 
lest its continued presence might assume the hands of a military leader, 
the appearance of menace and coercion Determined to leave no effort untried to 
pending the negotiations. This force was effect an amicable adjustment with Mex- 
immediately withdrawn. On Nov. 10, ico, I directed Mr. Slidell to present his 
1845, Mr. John Slidell, of Louisiana, was credentials to the government of General 
commissioned by me as envoy extraor- Paredes and ask to be officially received 
dinary and minister plenipotentiary of by him. There would have been less 
Ihe United States to Mexico, and was in- ground for taking this step had General 
trusted with full powers to adjust both Paredes come into power by a regular 
the questions of the Texas boundary and constitutional succession. In that event 
of indemnification to our citizens. The his administration would have been con- 
redress of the wrongs of our citizens sidered but a mere constitutional con- 
naturally and inseparably blended itself tinuance of the government of General 
with the question of boundary. The Herrera, and the refusal of the latter to 
settlement of the one question in any cor- receive our minister would have been 
rect view of the subject involves that of deemed conclusive unless an intimation 
the other. I could not for the moment had been given by General Paredes of his 
entertain the idea that the claims of our desire to reverse the decision of his prede- 

246 



POLK. JAMES KNOX 

cessor. But the government of General to meet a threatened invasion of Texas 
Faredes owes its existence to a military by the Mexican forces, for which exten- 
i evolution, by which the existing consti- sive military preparations had been made, 
tutional authorities had been subverted. The invasion was threatened solely be- 
The form of government was entirely cause Texas had determined, in accord- 
changed, as well as all the high function- ance with a solemn resolution of the 
aries by whom it was administered. Congress of the United States, to annex 

Under these circumstances, Mr. Slidell, herself to our Union, and under these 

in obedience to my direction, addressed a circumstances it was plainly our duty to 

note to the Mexican minister of foreign re- extend our protection over her citizens 

lations, under date of March 1 last, asking and soil. 

to be received by that government in the This force was concentrated at Corpus 

diplomatic character to which he had Christi, and remained there until after 

been appointed. This minister in his re- 1 had received such information from 

ply, under date of March 12, reiterated Mexico as rendered it probable, if not cer- 

the arguments of his predecessor, and in tain, that the Mexican government would 

terms that may be considered as giving refuse to receive our envoy, 

all grounds of offence to the government Meantime Texas, by the final action of 

and people of the United States denied our Congress, had become an integral part 

the application of Mr. Slidell. Nothing, of our Union. The Congress of Texas, 

therefore, remained for our envoy but to by its act of Dec. 19, 1836, had declared 

demand his passports and return to his the Rio del Norte to be the boundary of 

own country. that republic; its jurisdiction had been 

Thus the government of Mexico, though extended and exercised beyond the Nueces, 
solemnly pledged by official acts in Oc- The country between that river and the 
tober last to receive and accredit an Amer- Del Norte had been represented in the 
iean envoy, violated their plighted faith Congress and in the convention of Texas, 
and refused the offer of a peaceful ad- had thus taken part in the act of an- 
justment of our difficulties. Not only was nexation itself, and is now included with- 
the offer rejected, but the indignity of its in one of our congressional districts, 
rejection was enhanced by the manifest Our own Congress had, moreover, with 
breach of faith in refusing to admit the great unanimity, by the act approved 
envoy who came because they had bound Dec. 31, 1845, recognized the country be- 
themselves to receive him. Nor can it be yond the Nueces as a part of our terri- 
said that the offer was fruitless from the tory by including it within our own 
want of opportunity of discussing it; our revenue system, and a revenue officer to 
envoy was present on their own soil. Nor reside within that district has been ap- 
can it be ascribed to a want of sufficient pointed by and with the advice and con- 
powers; our envoy had full powers to sent of the Senate. It became, therefore, 
adjust every question of difference. Nor of urgent necessity to provide for the de- 
was there room for complaint that our fence of that portion of our country. Ac- 
piopositions for settlement were unreason- cordingly, on Jan. 13 last, instructions 
able; permission was not even given our were issued to the general in command of 
envoy to make any proposition whatever, these troops to occupy the left bank of the 
Nor can it be objected that we, on our Del Norte. This river, which is the south- 
part, would not listen to any reasonable western boundary of the State of Texas, 
terms of their suggestion; the Mexican is an exposed frontier. From this quar- 
government refused all negotiation, and ter invasions were threatened; upon it 
have made no proposition of any kind, and in its immediate vicinity, in the 

In my message at the commencement judgment of high military experience, 
of the present session I informed you are the proper stations for the protect- 
that upon the earnest appeal both of the ing forces of the government. In addition 
Congress and convention of Texas I had to this important consideration, several 
ordered a sufficient military force to take others occurred to induce this movement. 
a position "between the Nueces and the Among these are the facilities afforded by 
Del Norte." This had become necessary the ports at Brazos Santiago and the 

247 



POLK, JAMES KNOX 

mouth of the Del Norte for the reception of these troops, and after a short affair, 

of supplies by seas, the stronger and more in which some sixteen were killed and 

healthful military positions, the con- wounded, appear to have been surrounded 

\enience for obtaining a ready and a more and compelled to surrender." 
abundant supply of provisions, water, The grievous wrongs perpetrated by 

fuel, and forage, and the advantages Mexico upon our citizens throughout a 

which are afforded by the Del Norte in long period of years remain unredressed, 

forwarding supplies to such posts as may and solemn treaties pledging her public 

be established in the interior and upon faith for this redress have been disregard- 

the Indian frontier. ed. A government either unable or un- 

The movement of the troops to the Del willing to enforce the execution of such 

Norte was made by the commanding gen- treaties fails to perform one of its plain- 

eral under positive instructions to abstain est duties. 

from all aggressive acts towards Mexico Our commerce with Mexico has been 
or Mexican citizens, and to regard the almost annihilated. It was formerly 
relations between that republic and the highly beneficial to both nations, but 
United States as peaceful unless she our merchants have been deterred from 
should declare war or commit acts of prosecuting it by the system of out- 
hostility indicative of a state of war. rage and extortion which the Mexi- 
He was specially directed to protect prop- can authorities have pursued against 
erty and respect personal rights. them, while their appeals through their 

The army moved from Corpus Christi own government for indemnity have been 

on March 11, and on the 28th of that made in vain. Our forbearance has gone 

month arrived on the left bank of the to such an extreme as to be mistaken in 

Del Norte opposite to Matamoras, where its character. Had we acted with vigor 

it encamped on a commanding position, in repelling the insults and redressing 

which has since been strengthened by the the injuries inflicted by Mexico at the 

erection of field - works. A depot has commencement, we should doubtless have 

also been established at Point Isa- escaped all the difficulties in which we 

bel, near the Brazos Santiago, 30 miles are now involved. Instead of this, how- 

in rear of the encampment. The selec- ever, we have been exerting our best 

tion of his position was necessarily con- efforts to propitiate her good-will. Upon 

tided to the judgment of the general in the pretext that Texas, a nation as inde- 

command. pendent as herself, thought proper to unite 

The Mexican forces at Matamoras as- its destinies with our own, she has affected 
sumed a belligerent attitude, and on April to believe that we have severed her right- 
12 General Ampudia, then in command, ful territory, and in official proclamations 
notified General Taylor to break up his and manifestoes has repeatedly threatened 
camp within twenty-four hours, and to re- to make war upon us for the purpose of 
tire beyond the Nueces River, and in the reconquering Texas. In the mean time 
event of his failure to comply with these we have tried every effort at reconciliation, 
demands announced that arms, and arms The cup of forbearance had been exhaust- 
alone, must decide the question. But no ed even before the recent information from 
open act of hostility was committed until the frontier of the Del Norte. But now, 
April 24. On that day General Arista, after reiterated menaces, Mexico has pass- 
who had succeeded to the command of ed the boundary of the United States, has 
the Mexican forces, communicated to Gen- invaded our territory, and shed American 
eral Taylor that " he considered hostili- blood upon the American soil. She has 
ties commenced, and should prosecute proclaimed that hostilities have com- 
them." A party of dragoons of sixty-three menced, and that the two nations are now 
men and officers were on the same day at war. 

despatched from the American camp up As war exists — and, notwithstanding all 
the Rio del Norte, on its left bank, to our efforts to avoid it, exists by the act 
ascertain whether the Mexican troops had of Mexico herself— we are called upon by 
crossed or were preparing to cross the every consideration of duty and patriot- 
river, "became engaged with a large body ism to vindicate with decision the honor, 

248 



POLK 



the rights, and the interests of our coun- 
try. 

Anticipating the possibility of a crisis 
like that which has arrived, instructions 
were given in August last, " as a precau- 
tionary measure " against invasion or 
threatened invasion, authorizing General 



taining our entire military force and fur- 
nishing it with supplies and munitions of 
war. 

The most energetic and prompt measures 
and the immediate appearance in arms of 
a large and overpowering force are recom- 
mended to Congress as the most certain 



Taylor, if the emergency required, to ac- and efficient means of bringing the exist- 

cept volunteers, not from Texas only, but ing collision with Mexico to a speedy and 

from the States of Louisiana, Alabama, successful termination. 
Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and In makingthese recommendations, I deem 

corresponding letters were addressed to it proper to declare that it is my anxious 

the respective governors of those States, desire not only to terminate hostilities 

These instructions were repeated, and in speedily, but to bring all matters in dis- 

January last, soon after the incorporation pute between this government and Mexico 

of "Texas into our Union of States," to an early and amicable adjustment; and 

General Taylor was further " authorized in this view I shall be prepared to renew 

by the President to make a requisition negotiations whenever Mexico shall be 

upon the executive of that State for such ready to receive propositions or to make 

of its militia force as may be needed to propositions of her own. 



repel invasion or to secure the country 
against apprehended invasion.'' On March 
2 he was again reminded, " in the event 
of the approach of any considerable Mex- 



I transmit herewith a copy of the cor- 
respondence between our envoy to Mexico 
and the Mexican minister for foreign 
affairs, and so much of the correspondence 



nan force, promptly and efficiently to use between that envoy and the Secretary of 

the authority with which he was clothed State, and between the Secretary of War 

to call to him such auxiliary force as and the general in command on the Del 

he might need." War actually existed, Norte as is necessary to a full understand- 

and our territory having been invaded, ing of the subject. 



General Taylor, pursuant to authority 
vested in him by my direction, has called 
on the governor of Texas for four regi- 
ments of State troops, two to be mounted 
and two to serve on foot, and on the 
governor of Louisiana for four regiments 
of infantry to be sent to him as soon as 
practicable. 

In further vindication of our rights and 
defence of our territory, I invoke the 
prompt action of Congress to recognize 
the existence of the war, and to place 
at the disposition of the executive the 
aneans of prosecuting the war with vigor, 
and thus hastening the restoration of 
peace. To this end I recommend that 
authority should be given to call into 
the public service a large body of volun- 
teers to serve for not less than six or 
twelve months, unless sooner discharged. 
A volunteer force is beyond question more 
efficient than any other description of 
citizen soldiers, and it is not to be doubt- 
ed that a number far beyond that required 



Polk, Leonidas, military officer; born 
in Raleigh, N. C, April 10, 1806; gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1827; ordained in 
the Protestant Episcopal Church; and was 




LEONIDAS POLK. 



chosen bishop of the diocese of Louisiana 
1841. In 1861 he became a major- 



would readily rush to the field upon the general in the Confederate army, in which 
call of their country. I further recommend capacity he was distinguished for his zeal 
that a liberal provision be made for sus- and activity. He first appeared con- 

249 



POLLABD— PONCE 

spicuous as a soldier in the occupation Contract; A Treatise on Equity Juris- 
of Columbus, Ky., late in 1861. He com- prudence; and a Treatise on Riparian 
manded a division at the battle of Shiloh Rights. He died in San Francisco, Cal., 
(April, 1862), and was in the great bat- Feb. 15, 1885. 

tie at Stone River at the close of that Pomeroy, Samuel Ciarke, legislator; 
year, when he was lieutenant-general. He born in Southampton, Mass., Jan. 3, 1816; 
led a corps at the battle of Chickamauga educated at Amherst; elected to the 
(September, 1863). For disobedience of Massachusetts legislature in 1852; led a 
orders in this battle he was relieved of colony to Kansas in 1852, locating in Law- 
command and placed under arrest. In rence, but afterwards removed to Atchi- 
the winter and spring of 1864 he was in son. He was a member of the Free-State 
temporary charge of the Department of convention which met in Lawrence, Kan., 
the Mississippi. With Johnston when op- in 1859, and was elected to the United 
posing Sherman's march on Atlanta, he States Senate in 1861 and 1867, but failed 
was killed by a cannon-shot, June 14, 1864, of re-election in 1873 on account of charges 
on Pine Knob, not many miles from Mari- of bribery, which were afterwards ex- 
etta, Ga. amined by a committee of the State legis- 

Pollard, Edward Albert, journalist; lature, which found them not sustained, 
born in Nelson county, Va., Feb. 27, 1828: Mr. Pomeroy was nominated for Vice- 
graduated at the University of Virginia President of the United States on the 
in 1849; studied law in Baltimore, Md., American ticket in 1880. 
and was editor of the Richmond Examiner Pomeroy, Seth, military officer; born 
in 1861-67. He was a stanch advocate in Northampton, Mass., May 20, 1706; be- 
of the Confederacy during the Civil War, came a gunsmith; was a captain in the 
but bitterly opposed Jefferson Davis's pol- provincial army of Massachusetts in 1744 ; 
icy; was captured near the end of the and was at the capture of Louisburg in 
war and held a prisoner for eight months. 1745. In 1775 he took command of Colonel 
His publications include Letters of the Williams's regiment, after his death, in 
Southern Spy in Washington and Else- the battle of Lake George. In 1774-75 
where; Southern History of the War; he was a delegate to the Provincial Con- 
Ohservations in the North; Eight Months gress, and was chosen a brigadier-general 
in Prison and on Parole; The Lost Cause; of militia in February, 1775, but fought 
'A New Southern History of the War of as a private soldier at the battle of Bunker 
the Confedei-ates ; Lee and his Lieuten- (Breed's) Hill. On liis appointment as 
ants; The Lost Cause Regained; Life of senior brigadier-general of the Continental 
Jefferson Davis, with the Secret History army, some difficulty arose about rank, 
of the Southern Confederacy; Black Dia- when he resigned and retired to his farm; 
monds Gathered in the Darky Homes of but when, late in 1776, New Jersey was 
the South; and The Virginia Tourist, invaded by the British, he again took the 
He died in Lynchburg, Va., Dec. 12, field, and at the head of militia marched 
1872. to the Hudson River, at Peekskill, where 

Polygamy. See Mormons. he died, Feb. 19, 1777. 

Pomeroy, John Norton, lawyer; born Ponce, a department, district, and city 
in Rochester, N. Y., April 12, 1828; grad- on the south coast of the island of Porto 
uated at Hamilton College in 1847; ad- Rico. The city is regularly built — the 
mitted to the bar in 1851; became Profes- central part almost exclusively of brick 
sor of Law in the New York University houses and the suburbs of wood. It is 
in 1864-69; practised in Rochester in the residence of the military commander 
1869-78; and was Professor of Law in the and the seat of an official chamber of com- 
University of California in 1878-85. He merce. There is an appellate criminal 
was the author of An Introduction to court, besides other courts; two churches 
Municipal Law; An Introduction to the — one Protestant, said to be the only one 
Constitutional Law of the United States; in the Spanish West Indies — two hos- 
Remedies and Remedial Rights according pitals besides the military hospitals, a 
to the Reformed American Procedure ; A home of refuge for the old and poor, a 
Treatise on the Specific Performance of perfectly equipped fire department, a bank, 

250 



PONCE— PONCE DE LEON 




Sl'tiAK-.MILL NEAR PONOB. 



a theatre, three first-class hotels, and gas- population of 203,191; the district, 55,477; 
works. The inhabitants are principally the city, 27,952; and Playa, 4,660. 



occupied in mercantile pursuits ; but car- 
penters, bricklayers, joiners, tailors, shoe- 
makers, and barbers find good employ- 
ment. The chief occupations of the people 
are the cultivation of sugar, cocoa, to- 
bacco, and oranges, and the breeding of 



Ponce de Leon, Juan, discoverer of 
Florida; born in San Servas, Spain, in 
1460; was a distinguished cavalier in the 
wars with the Moors in Granada. Ac- 
companying Columbus on his second 
voyage, Ponce was made commander of a 



cattle. Commercially, Ponce is the second portion of Santo Domingo, and in 1509 he 

city of importance on the island. A fine conquered and was made governor of 

road leads to the port (Playa), where all Porto Rico, where he amassed a large 

the import and export trade is transacted, fortune. There he was told of a fountain 

At Playa are the custom-house, the office of youth — a fountain whose waters would 

of the captain of the port, and all the restore youth to the aged. It was situated 

consular offices. The port is spacious and in one of the Bahama Islands, surround- 

will hold vessels of 25 feet draft. The ed by magnificent trees, and the air was 

climate, on account of the sea-breezes dur- laden with the delicious perfumes of 

ing the day and land-breezes at night, is flowers; the trees bearing golden fruit 

not oppressive, though warm; and, as that was plucked by beautiful maidens, 

water for all purposes, including the fire who presented it to strangers. It was the 

department, is amply supplied by an old story of the Garden of the Hesperides. 

aqueduct, it may be said that the city of and inclination, prompted by his credulity, 

Ponce is perhaps the healthiest place in made Ponce go in search of the miracu- 

the whole island. According to the census lous fountain, for his hair was white and 

taken by the United States military au- his face was wrinkled with age. He sailed 

thorities in 1899, the department had a north from Porto Rico in March, 1513, 

251 



PtfNCE DE LEON— PONTIAC 



and searched for the wonderful spring 
among the Bahama Islands, drinking and 
bathing in the waters of every fountain 
that fell in his way. But he experienced 
no change, saw no magnificent trees with 
golden fruit plucked by beautiful maidens, 
and, disappointed but not disheartened, he 
sailed towards the northwest until wester- 
ly winds came laden with the perfumes of 
sweet flowers. Then he landed, and in the 
imperial magnolia-trees, laden with fra- 
grant blossoms, he thought he beheld the in- 
troduction to the paradise he was seeking. 
It was on the morning of Easter Sunday 
when he landed on the site of the present 
St. Augustine, in Florida, and he took 
possession of the country in the name of 
the Spanish monarch. Because of its 




JUAN PO.NX'E DE LKU.V. 



wealth of flowers, or because of the holy 
day when he first saw the land (Pascua 
de Flores), he gave the name of Florida 
to the great island (as he supposed) he 
had discovered. There he sought the 
fountain of youth in vain Sailing along 
the coast southward, he discovered and 
named the Tortugas (Turtle) islands. At 
another group he found a single inhabi- 
tant — a wrinkled old Indian woman — not 
one of the beautiful maidens he expected 
to find. Abandoning the search himself, 

25 



but leaving one of his vessels to continue 
it, he returned to Porto Rico a wiser and 
an older man, but bearing the honor of 
discovering an important portion of the 
continent of America. In 1514 Ponce re- 
turned to Spain and received permission 
from Ferdinand to colonize the " Island of 
Florida," and was appointed its governor; 
but he did not proceed to take possession 
until 1521, having in the mean time con- 
ducted an unsuccessful expedition against 
the Caribs. On going to Florida with two 
ships and many followers, he met the de- 
termined hostilities of the natives, and 
after a sharp conflict he was driven back 
to his ships mortally wounded, and died 
in Cuba in July, 1521. Upon his tomb 
was placed this inscription: "In this 
Sepulchre rest the Bones of a Man who was 
Leon by Name and still more by Nature.'' 

Poncet, Joseph Anthony. See Jesuit 
Missions. 

Pond, George Edward, journalist; 
born in Boston, Mass., March 11, 1837; 
graduated at Harvard College in 185S; 
served in the National army in 1862-63; 
was associate editor of the Army and Navy 
Journal in 1864-68; afterwards was on 
the staff of the New York Times till 1870; 
editor of the Philadelphia Record in 1870- 
77: and next became connected with the 
New York Sun. He is the author of The 
Shenandoah Valley in 1864 / and Drift- 
icood Essays in the Galaxy Magazine. 

Pontiac, Ottawa chief; born on the 
Ottawa River in 1720; became an early 
ally of the French. With a body of Ot- 
tawa s he defended the French trading- 
post of Detroit against more northerly 
tribes, and it is supposed he led the Ot- 
tawas who assisted the French in defeat- 
ing Braddock on the Monongahela. In 
1760, after the conquest of Canada, Major 
Rogers was sent to take possession of the 
Western posts. Pontiac feigned friend- 
ship for the. English for a while, but in 
1763 he was the leader in a conspiracy 
of many tribes to drive the English from 
the Ohio country back beyond the Al- 
leghany Mountains. 

The French had won the affection and 
respect of the Indian tribes with whom 
they came in contact, by their kindness, 
sociability, and religious influence; and 
when the English, formidable enemies of 
the red men, supplanted the French in 



PONTIAC 



to him in a vision, saying, " I am the 
Lord of life; it is I who made all men; I 
wake for their safety. Therefore I give you 
warning, that if you suffer the Englishmen 
to dwell in your midst, their diseases and 
their poisons shall destroy you utterly, and 
you shall die." The chief preached a 
crusade against the English among the 
Western tribes, and so prepared the way 
for Pontiac to easily form his conspiracy. 
After the capture of Fort Duquesne, 
settlers from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
Virginia went over the mountains into 
the Ohio region in large numbers. They 
were not kindly disposed towards the Ind- 
ians, and French traders fanned the 
embers of hostility between the races. 
The Delawares and Shawnees, who had 
lately emigrated from Pennsylvania, and 
were on the banks of the Muskingum. 
Scioto, and Miami, nursed hatred of the 
English and stirred up the Western tribes 
against the white people. Pontiac took 
the lead in a widespread conspiracy, and 
pontiac. organized a confederacy for the purpose of 

driving the English back beyond the Al- 
the alleged possession of the vast domain leghanies. The confederacy was composed 
acquired by the treaty of Paris, expelled of the Ottawas, Miamis, Wyandottes, 
the Roman Catholic priests, and haughtily Delawares, Shawnees, Ontagamies, Chip- 
assumed to be absolute lords of the Ind- pewas, Pottawattomies, Mississagas, Foxes, 
ians' country, the latter were exasperated, and Winnebagoes. These had been allies 
and resolved to stand firmly in the way of of the French. The Senecas, the most 
English pretensions. " Since the French westerly of the Six Nations, joined the 
must go, no other nation should take their confederacy, but the other tribes of the 
place." The conspiracy known as Pontiac's Iroquois Confederacy (q. v.) were kept 
began with the lower nations. The quiet by Sir William Johnson. It was 
Senecas, of the Six Nations, the Del a- arranged for a simultaneous attack to be 
wares and Shawnees, had for some time made along the whole frontier of Penn- 
urged the Northwestern Indians to take sylvania and Virginia. The conspiracy 
up arms against the English. They said: was unsuspected until it was ripe and 
" The English mean to make slaves of us, the first blow was struck, in June, 1763. 
by occupying so many posts in our coun- English traders scattered through the 
try." The British had erected log forts frontier regions were plundered and slain, 
here and there in the Western wilderness. At almost the same instant they attacked 
" We had better attempt something now all of the English outposts taken from 
to recover our liberty, than to wait till the French, and made themselves masters 




they are better established," said the na- 
tions, and their persuasions had begun 
to stir up the patriotism of the North- 
western barbarians, when an Abenake 



of nine of them, massacring or dispersing 
the garrisons. Forts Pitt, Niagara, and 
Detroit were saved. Colonel Bouquet 
saved Fort Pitt (now Pittsburg) ; Niagara 



prophet from eastern New Jersey appear- was not attacked; and Detroit, after a 
ed among them. He was a chief, and had long siege by Pontiac in person, was re- 
first satisfied his own people that the lieved by Colonel Bradstreet in 1764. The 
Great Spirit had given him wisdom to Indians were speedily subdued, but 
proclaim war against the new invaders. Pontiac remained hostile until his death 
He said the great Manitou had appeared in Cahokia, 111., in 1769. He was an able 

253 



£ONY EXPRESS— POPE 

sachem and warrior, and, like King Philip, after the evacuation of Boston his regi- 

was doubtless moved by patriotic impulses; ment was ordered to join the troops in 

for the flow of emigration over the moun- New York that invaded Canada. In 

tains threatened his race with displacement February, 1777, he was appointed briga- 

if not with destruction. See Detroit. dier-general, and as such commanded 

Pony Express, an express service es- troops in the campaign against Burgoyne, 

tablished in April, 1860. It was part of after whose surrender he joined the army 

a mail line between New York and San under Washington in Pennsylvania. He 

Francisco by way of St. Joseph, Mo., and was in the movements near Philadelphia 

Sacramento. Between the two last-named late in the year; spent the winter amid 

places the distance was traversed by fleet the snows of Valley Forge, and in June, 

horsemen, each of whom went 60 miles. 1778, was engaged in the battle of Mon- 

The weight carried was not to exceed 10 mouth. He accompanied Sullivan on his 

pounds, and the charge was $5 in gold expedition against the Indians in 1779. 

for each quarter of an ounce. The riders When the corps of light infantry was 

were paid $1,200 a month. The distance formed (August, 1780), Poor was given 

between New York and San Francisco by command of one of the two brigades. He 

the aid of this express was made in four- was killed in a duel with a French officer 

teen days. The pony express lasted two near Hackensack, N. J., Sept. 8, 1780. In 

years, being given up when the telegraph announcing his death, Washington said he 

line across the continent was completed. "was an officer of distinguished merit, 

Poole, William Frederick, librarian; who, as a citizen and a soldier, had every 
born in Salem, Mass., Dec. 24, 1821; grad- claim to the esteem of his country, 
uated at Yale College in 1849; librarian Poor Richard, a fictitious name as- 
of the Boston Athenaeum in 1856-69; or- sumed by Benjamin Franklin. In 1732 he 
ganized the public library of Cincinnati, began the publication in Philadelphia of 
O., in 1869, and that of Chicago in 1874. an almanac, with the name -of Richard 
His publications include Cotton Mather Saunders as author. It continued twen- 
and Salem Witchcraft ; The Popham Col- ty-five years. Sometimes the author call- 
ows// The Ordinance of 1181 ; Anti-sla- ed himself " Poor Richard," and the pub- 
very Opinions before 1800; the chapter lication was generally known as Poor Rich- 
on Witchcraft in the Memorial History of ard's Almanac. It was distinguished for 
Boston; Index to Periodic Literature ; and its numerous maxims on temperance, fru- 
The Battle of Dictionaries. He died gality, order, justice, cleanliness, chastity, 
in Evanston, 111., March 1, 1894. and the like. It has been said that its 

Poor, Charles Henry, naval officer; precepts are "as valuable as any that 
born in Cambridge, Mass., June 11, 1808; have descended from Pythagoras." 
joined the navy in 1825; participated with Poore, Benjamin Perley, journalist: 
distinction in numerous important actions born near Newburyport, Mass., Nov. 2, 
during the Civil War. While in command 1820; learned the printer's trade; was at- 
of the sloop-of-war Saranac, in the Pacific taehe of the American legation in Brus- 
fleet in 1863-65, he forced the government sels in 1841-48; became a Washington 
at Aspinwall to let a United States mail- newspaper correspondent in 1854, and con- 
steamer proceed on her way after it had tinued as such during the remainder of 
been held to pay illegal dues. He also his life. His publications include Cam- 
compelled the authorities at Rio Hocha, paigh Life of Gen. Zachary Taylor; Aqri- 
ISIew Granada, who had insulted the Amer- cultural History of Essex County, Mass. ; 
ican flag to raise and salute it. He was The Conspiracy Trial for the Murder of 
promoted rear-admiral in 1868 and retired Abraham Lincoln; Federal and State- 
in 1870. He died in Washington, D. C, Charters; The Political Register and Con- 
Nov. 5, 1882. gressional Directory; Life of Burnsidei 

Poor, Enoch, military officer; born in Perley's Reminiscences of Sixty Years in 

Andover, Mass., June 21, 1736; became the National Metropolis, etc. He died in 

a merchant in Exeter, N. H. After the Washington, D. C, May 30, 1887. 

fight at Lexington he was appointed Pope, John, military officer; born In 

colonel by the Provincial Congress, and Louisville, Ky., March 16, 1822; graduated 

234 



POPE— POREY 



at West Point in 1842, entering the corps 
of topographical engineers. He served 
under General Taylor in the war against 




Mexico. In 1849-50 he conducted explora- 
tions in Minnesota, and from 1854 to 1859 
he was exploring the Rocky Mountains. In 
1S5G he was made captain, and in 1860, in 
an address at Cincinnati on " Fortifica- 
tions," he boldly denounced the policy of 
President Buchanan, for which offence he 
was court-martialled, but the matter was 
dropped. Captain Pope was one of the 
officers who escorted Mr. Lincoln to Wash- 
ington (February, 1801), and in May was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers and 
appointed to a command in Missouri, 
where he operated successfully until the 
capture of Island Number Ten, in 1862. 
In March, 1862, he became major-general 
of volunteers, and in April he took com- 
mand of a division of Halleck's army. 
Late in June he was summoned to Wash- 
ington to take command of the Army of 
Virginia, where, for fifteen days from Aug. 
18, he fought the Confederate army under 
Lee continuously; but finally was compell- 
ed to take refuge behind the defences of 
Washington. At his own request, he was 
relieved of the command of the Army of 
Virginia and assigned to that of the North- 
west. In March, 1865, he was brevetted 
major-general; in 1882 was promoted ma- 
jor-general; and in 1886 was retired. He 
died in Sandusky, O., Sept. 23, 1892. See 
Grant, Ulysses Simpson; Logan, John 
Alexander; Porter, Fitz-John. 



Popham, George, colonist; born in 
Somersetshire, England, about 1550; be- 
came a patentee of a grant in the present 
State of Maine; and sailed from Plym- 
outh, England, May 31, 1G07, with two 
ships and 100 men. Popham commanded 
one of the vessels and Raleigh Gilbert the 
other. The expedition was a failure. 
Popham died Feb. 5, 1608. His brother, 
Sir John, who was lord chief-justice of 
the king's bench, and an earnest pro- 
moter of settlements in America, was born 
in Somersetshire, England, in 1531; be- 
came chief-justice "dn 1592; and died in 
June, 1607. 

Popular Sovereignty. See Squatter 
Sovereignty. 

Popular Vote for President. Previous 
to 1824 no returns were preserved of the 
popular vote for President, for the reason 
that in the earier elections the legislat- 
ures of the different States chose the 
Presidential electors. Even as late as 
1824 six States — viz., Delaware, Georgia, 
Louisiana, New York, South Carolina, 
and Vermont, thus voted, and one State, 
South Carolina, so continued to vote until 
1868. See Presidential Elections. 

Population, Centre of. See Census; 
Centre of Population. 

Populists. See People's Party. 

Porcupine's Gazette. William Cob- 
bett, British soldier; born in 1762; emi- 
grated to America in 1792. He published 
a small daily paper called Porcupine's Ga- 
zette, which was a formidable and dread- 
ed adversary of the "French" (or Re- 
publican) party; and the Gazette fought 
the Aurora with the keen and effective 
weapons of scathing satire. But he did 
not spare the other side, and often 
came in sharp collision with the Mi- 
nerva, the leading Federalist paper of 
New York, edited by Noah Webster, after- 
wards the lexicographer. Cobbett assailed 
leading citizens in his Gazette, and was 
prosecuted for libels. He was fined $5,000 
for a libel on Dr. Rush, and this caused 
the death of the Gazette. See Cobbett, 
William. 

Porey, John, author and traveller ; edu- 
cated at Cambridge. While in Italy, in 1813. 
he was imprisoned for debt, from which 
he was released by Sir Dudley Carleton 
who wrote to a friend : " I fear he has 
fallen too much in love with the pot to be 



255 



PORTER 



much esteemed." At about the same time 
another wrote of Porey : " He must have 
both meat and money; for drink he will 
find out himself, if it be above ground, or 
no deeper than the cellar." Porey was 
made secretary of the Virginia colony in 
1019, but, on account of his exactions, was 
recalled in 1622. Early in that year he, 
with some friends, penetrated the country 
southward beyond the Roanoke River, with 
a view to making a settlement (see North 
Carolina). On his arrival in London, 
Porey joined the disaffected members of 
the London Company, which so excited the 
mind of the King against the corporation 
that, in 1624, he deprived them of their 
charter. He had been sent early in that 
year as one of the commissioners to inquire 
into the state of the Virginia colony, 
and while there he bribed the clerk of the 
council to give him a copy of their pro- 
ceedings, for which offence the poor scribe 
vms made to stand in the pillory and lose 
one of his ears. 

Porter, Andrew, military officer; born 
in Worcester, Montgomery co., Pa., Sept. 
24, 1743; was made captain of marines in 
1776 and ordered on board the frigate 
Effingham, but was soon transferred to the 
artillery service. He served with great 
distinction, and at the end of the war was 
colonel of the Pennsylvania artillery. In 
the battle of Germantown nearly all his 
company were killed or made prisoners. 
He was with Sullivan in his expedition in 
1779, when he rendered important service 
by the exercise of his scientific knowledge. 
In 1784 he was a commissioner to run the 
State boundary-lines, and in 1800 was 
made major-general of the State militia. 
He was appointed surveyor-general of 
Pennsylvania in 1809, and on account of 
his age and infirmities he declined a seat 
in Madison's cabinet as Secretary of War. 
He died in Harrisburg, Pa., Nov. 16, 1813. 

Porter, David, naval officer; born in 
Boston, Mass., Feb. 1, 1780; was appoint- 
ed a midshipman, April 16, 1798, and, as 
lieutenant on the frigate Constellation, 
fought L'Insurgente in February, 1799, 
and was promoted soon afterwards. He 
was wounded in an engagement with a 
pirate (January, 1800) off Santo Do- 
mingo, and was first lieutenant of the En- 
terprise, which captured a Tripolitan cor- 
sair. He afterwards commanded an expe- 



dition that destroyed some feluccas, laden 
with wheat, under the batteries at Tripoli, 
where he was wounded. In October, 1803, 




DAVID PORTER. 



he was captured in the Philadelphia when 
she grounded in the harbor of Tripoli, and 
was a prisoner and slave for eighteen 
months. In 1806, in command of the En- 
terprise, he fought and severely handled 
twelve Spanish gunboats near Gibraltar. 
In 1812 he was commissioned captain and 
placed in command of the Essex, in which 
he made a long and successful cruise in 
the Pacific Ocean. 

This cruise was one of the most re- 
markable recorded in history. He had 
swept around the southern cape of South 
America, and up its western coast, and on 
March 14, 1813, after being enveloped in 
thick fogs several days, he saw the city 
and harbor of Valparaiso, the chief sea- 
port town of Chile. There he learned, for 
the first time, that Chile had become an 
independent state, and that the Spanish 
viceroy of Peru had sent out cruisers 
against the American vessels in that 
region. Porter's appearance with a strong 
frigate was very opportune, for American 
commerce then lay at the mercy of Eng- 
lish whale-ships armed as privateers and 
of Peruvian corsairs. The Essex was 
cordially welcomed by the Chilean authori- 



256 



SORTER 

ties. She put to sea on the 25th; pressed Essex had just cast anchor, when a canOe 
np the coast; and soon overhauled a Peru- shot out from the shore containing three 
vian corsair which had captured two white men — one an Englishman who had 
American vessels. He took from her all been there twenty years. The other two 
the captured Americans, cast her arma- were Americans — one of them Midship- 
ment overboard, and sent her into Callao, man John Maury, of the navy. They in- 
with a letter to the viceroy, in which he formed Porter that a war was raging on 
denounced the piratical conduct of her the island between native tribes, and that, 
commander. Recapturing one of the in order to obtain supplies, he would have 
American vessels, Porter sailed for the to take part with the Taeehs, who dwelt 
Galapagos Islands, the resort of English in the valley that opened out upon the 
whalers. There were over twenty of them bay. Porter sent a message to the ene- 
in that region, most of them armed, and mies of the Taeehs that he had a force 
bearing letters-of-marque. Porter cruised sufficient to subdue the whole island, and 
among the islands for nearly a fortnight that if they ventured into the valley of 
without meeting a vessel. On April 29 the Taeehs while he remained he would 
he discovered two or three English whale- punish them severely. He gave them per- 
ships. He first captured the Montezuma, mission to bring hogs and fruit to the 
He had made a flotilla of small boats, ship to sell, and promised them protection 
which he placed under the command of while trafficking. In an interview with 
Lieutenant Downes. These pushed for- the king of the Taeehs, Porter agreed to 
ward and captured the Oeorgiana and assist him in his wars. With muskets 
Policy. From these Porter procured ample and a cannon, Porter's men drove the ene- 
snpplies of provisions and naval stores, mies of the king from hill to hill, until 
With the guns of the Policy added to they made a stand, 4,000 strong, and sent 
those of the Georgiana, the latter, fitted stones and javelins against their assail- 
up as a cruiser, became a worthy consort ants. The hostile tribes soon sued for 
of the Essex. Her armament now con- peace, and on Nov. 19, Porter took posses- 
sisted of sixteen guns, and she was placed sion of the island in the name of the 
under the command of Lieutenant Downes. United States. One tribe had remained 
Other English vessels were soon captured hostile. This Porter subdued. On Dec. 
and fitted up as cruisers; and at the end 12 he started for home in the Essex, tak- 
of eight months after he sailed from the ing with him the three white men. They 
Delaware in the solitary Essex, Porter reached Valparaiso, Feb. 3, 1814. In that 
found himself in command of a squadron harbor the Essex was captured by the Brit- 
of nine armed vessels, prepared for formid- ish ship Phoebe, and the great conqueror 
able naval warfare. In July he captured on the Pacific Ocean became a prisoner, 
the Seringapatam, an English vessel built Porter was one of the naval commis- 
for a cruiser for Sultan Tippoo Sahib, sioners from 1815 to 1823, and in the 
Shq was the most formidable enemy of latter year made a successful cruise 
American ships on the Pacific. against pirates in the Gulf of Mexico. In 

Porter now released a large number of consequence of some irregularity, he was 
his prisoners on parole, and sent them to suspended from command for six months; 
Pio Janeiro. With his squadron he then and in 1826 he resigned, and entered the 
sailed for the Marquesas Islands, captur- Mexican navy as its commander-in-chief, 
ing other English vessels on the way, and He was appointed United States consul 
late in October he anchored in the bay of at Algiers in 1829; and when that coun- 
Nooaheevah with his prizes. The Essex try fell into the hands of the French he 
was the first vessel that carried the Amer- was made charge d'affaires at Constan- 
ican pennant to these far-distant seas, tinople, where he afterwards, as American 
She was more than 10,000 miles from minister, negotiated several important 
home, with no friendly port to steer to. treaties. He was minister there at the 
She had swept the Pacific of her enemies, time of his death, March 3, 1843. 
and now lay, surrounded by her trophies, Porter, David Dixon, naval officer ; born 
in the quiet waters of an almost unfre- in Chester, Pa., June 8, 1813; a son o/ 
quented island on the mighty ocean. The David Porter; entered the navy as mid- 
vn. — B 257 



PORTER 



shipman, Feb. 2, 1829. He was attached command of a division. In May, 1-862, he 
to the coast survey from 1836 to 1840. took command of the 5th Army Corps; 
Then he cruised in Brazilian waters, and directed the siege of Yorktown, Va., and 
served in the Naval Observatory at Wash- was one of McClellan's most efficient com- 
ington for a while. He engaged in the war manders during the Peninsular campaign 
against Mexico on land and on water, and ending with the battle of Malvern Hili 
in 1861 joined the Gulf Squadron, in com- (q. v.). For services in that campaign 
mand of the Powhatan. He was in the he was promoted to major-general of 
expedition up the Mississippi against New volunteers. Temporarily attached to the 
Orleans in 1862, in command of twenty- Army of Virginia (Pope's), and formal 
one mortar-boats and several steamers, charges having been made against him, he 
Porter did important service on the Mis- was deprived of his command. At the re- 
sissippi and Bed rivers in 1863-64, and quest of General McClellan, he was re- 
was conspicuous in the siege of Vicksburg. stored, and accompanied that general in 
For the latter service he was promoted the campaign in Maryland. In November 
rear-admiral, July 4, 1863. In 1864 he was he was ordered to Washington for trial 
in command of the North Atlantic block- by court-martial, on charges preferred by 
ading squadron, and rendered efficient General Pope, and on Jan. 21, 1863, he 
service in the capture of Fort Fisher in was cashiered for violation of the 9th and 
January, 1865. He was made vice-ad- 52d Articles of War. In 1870 he appealed 



miral in July, 1866; admiral, Oct. 17, 

1870; and was superintendent of the sentence, and in 1878 a 
Naval Academy from 1866 to 1870. He 
died in Washington, D. C, Feb. 13, 1891. 
Porter, Fitz-John, military officer; 
born in Portsmouth, N. H., June 13, 
1822; a cousin of David Dixon Porter; 



to the President for a reversal of this 
commission of 
inquiry was instituted to determine 
whether there was new evidence in his 
favor sufficient to warrant ordering a new 
trial. He was finally in 1886 restored to 
his rank of colonel and retired. After 



graduated at West Point in 1845, enter- leaving the army he was superintendexit of 

ing the artillery corps. He was adjutant the building of the New Jersey Asylum 

of that post in 1853-54, and assistant in- for the Insane; commissioner of public 

structor of cavalry and artillery in 1854- works and police commissioner in New 

55. In 1856 he was made assistant ad- York City; and was offered, but declined, 

jutant-general. In May, 1861, he was the command of the Egyptian army. He 

made brigadier-general of volunteers and died in Morristown, N. J., May 21, 1901. 

chief of staff to Generals Patterson and See Grant, Ulysses Simpson; Logan, 



Banks until August, when he was as- 
signed to the Army of the Potomac, in 




FITZ-JOffS PORTER. 



John Alexander; Pope, John. 

Porter, Horace, diplomatist, born in 
Huntington, Pa., April 15, 1837; gradu- 
ated at the United States Military Acad- 
emy in 1860; served with distinction 
through the Civil War; brevetted briga- 
dier-general in 1865; was private secretary 
to President Grant in 1869-77; and be- 
came ambassador to France in 1897. He 
is the author of Campaigning with Grant. 

Porter, James Madison, jurist; born 
in Selma, Pa., Jan. 6, 1793; served in the 
army during the War of 1812: afterwards 
studied law and was admitted to the bar 
in 1813. He was appointed Secretary of 
War by President Tyler, but the nomina- 
tion was rejected by the Senate. He died 
in Easton, Pa., Nov. 11, 1862. 

Porter, Moses, military officer; born in 
Danvers, Mass., in 1755; was in the bat- 
tle of Bunker (Breed's) Hill, and many of 
258 




ADMIRAL DAVID D. PORTER 



PORTER 



the prominent battles of the Revolution, 
and was one of the few old officers select- 
ed for the first peace establishment. In 
1791 he was promoted to captain, and 
served under Wayne in 1794. In March, 
1812, he was colonel of light artillery, 
and was distinguished at the capture of 
Fort George, in May, 1813. He accom- 
panied Wilkinson's army on the St. Law- 
rence, and in the autumn of 1814 was 
brevetted brigadier - general, and ordered 
to the defence of Norfolk, Va. He died in 
Cambridge, April 14, 1822. 

Porter, Noah, educator: born in Farm- 
ington, Conn., Dec. 14, 1811; graduated at 
Yale College in 1831; Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Moral Philosophy in Yale 
College in 1846-71; and president of the 
same in 1871-86. His publications in- 
clude Historical Discourse at Farmington, 
JVou. -}, 18-kO ; The Educational System of 
the Puritans and Jesuits Compared; 
American Colleges and the American Pub' 
lie, etc. He died in New Haven, Conn., 
March 4, 1892. 

Porter, Peter Buel, military officer; 
born in Salisbury, Conn., Aug. 4, 1773; 
studied law, and began practice at Canan- 
daigua, N. Y., in 1795; was a member of 
Congress from 1809 to 1813, and again in 
1815-16. He settled at Black Rock, near 



for his skill and bravery, and received the. 
thanks of Congress and a gold medal. 
President Madison offered him the position 




PKTKK Kt'Kl. PORTER 



of commander-in-chief of the army in 1815, 
which he declined. He was secretary of 
state of New York (1815-16), and was 
Secretary of War, under President John 
Quincy Adams, in 1828. General Porter 




GENERAL PORTER'S MEDAL. 

Buffalo, where he and his brothers made was one of the early projectors of the 
large purchases of land along the Niagara Erie Canal, and one of the first board of 
River. A leader of volunteers on the commissioners. He died at Niagara Falls, 
Niagara frontier, he became distinguished March 20, 1844. 

259 



PORTER— POET HUDSON" 



Porter, Robert P., journalist; born in 
Markham Hall, England, June 30, 1852; 
received a common school education, and 
came to the United States early in life. 
He became connected with the Chicago 
I iiter-Occan in 1872; was a member of the 
tariff commission in 1882; later estab- 
lished the New York Press; was superin- 
tendent of the eleventh census, in 1889-93; 
and special United States commissioner 
to Cuba and Porto Rico in 1898-99. He 
is the author of The West in 1880; Life 
of William McKinley; Municipal Owner- 
ship at Home and Abroad; and Industrial 
Cuba. 

Porter, William David, naval officer; 
born in New Orleans, La., March 10, 1S09; 
a son of David Porter; entered the navy 
in 1823. In the sloop-of-war St. Mary, 
on the Pacific Station, when the Civil 
War broke out, he was wrongly suspected 
of disloyalty. He was ordered to duty on 
the Mississippi River, in fitting out a 
gunboat fleet, and was put in command 
of the Essex, which took pa-rt in the at- 
tacks on Forts Henry and Donelson. when 
he was severely scalded. He fought his 
way past all the batteries between Cairo 
and New Orleans, taking part in the at- 
tack on Yicksburg. He caused the de- 
struction of the Confederate ram Ar- 
kansas, near Baton Rouge, and assisted 
in the attack on Port Hudson. For these 
services he was made commodore in July, 
1862. His feeble health prevented his 
doing much afterwards. He died in New 
York City, May 1, 1864. 

Port Gibson, Battle at. Grant cross- 
ed the Mississippi at Bruinsburg on the 
gunboats and transports which had run 
by Grand Gulf in 1863. His troops con- 
sisted chiefly of General MeClernand's 
13th Army Corps. These troops pushed 
forward and were met ( May 1 ) , 8 miles 
from Bruinsburg. by a Confederate force, 
which was pushed back to a point 4 miles 
from Port Gibson. There McClernand was 
confronted by a strong force from Vicks- 
burg, under General Bowen, advantageous- 
ly posted. The Nationals were divided 
for the occasion. On McClernand's right 
were the divisions of Generals Hovey, Carr, 
and Smith, and on his left that of Oster- 
haus. The former pressed the Confeder- 
ates steadily back to Port Gibson. The 
troops of Osterhaus were reinforced by a 



260 



brigade of General Logan's division of the 
advance of McPherson*s corps, and others 
were sent to help McClernand. Late in the 
afternoon the Confederates were repulsed 
and pursued to Port Gibson. Night ended 
the conflict, and under its cover the Con- 
federates fled across a bayou, burning the 
bridges behind them, and retreated tow- 
ards Yicksburg. The Nationals lost in 
this battle 840 men, of whom 130 were 
killed. They captured guns and flags and 
5S0 prisoners. 

Port Hudson, Capture of. Port Hud- 
son, or Hickey's Landing, was on a high 
bluff on the left bank of the Mississippi, in 
Louisiana, at a very sharp bend in the 
stream. At the foot of the bluff was 
Hickey's Landing. The Confederates had 
erected a series of batteries, extending 
along the river from Port Hudson to 
Thompson's Creek above, a distance of 
about 3 miles. They were armed with very 
heavy guns. They were field batteries 
that might be moved to any part of the 
line. Immediately after Banks took com- 
mand of the Department of the Gulf (Dec. 
IS, 1S62), he determined to attempt to re- 
move this obstruction to the navigation of 
the Mississippi. He sent General Grover 
with 10,000 men to occupy Baton Rouge, 
but the advance on Port Hudson was de- 
layed, because it would require a larger 
force than Banks could then spare. So 
he operated for a while among the rich 
sugar and cotton regions of Louisiana, 
west of the river. 

In March, 1863, he concentrated his 
forces — nearly 25,000 strong — at Baton 
Rouge. At the same time Commodore Far- 
ragut had gathered a small fleet at a point 
below Port Hudson, with a determination 
to run by the batteries there and recover 
the control of the river between that place 
and Vicksburg. To make this movement, 
Banks sent towards Port Hudson (March 
13) 12,000 men, who drove in the pickets, 
while two gunboats and some mortar-boats 
bombarded the works. That night Far- 
ragut attempted to pass, but failed, and 
Banks returned to Baton Rouge. After 
more operations in Louisiana. Banks re- 
turned to the Mississippi and began the in- 
vestment of Port Hudson, May" 24, 1863. 
His troops were commanded by Generals 
Weitzel, Auger, Grover. Dwight, and T. 
W. Sherman, and the beleaguered garrison 



PORT HUDSON, CAPTURE OF 



was under the command of Gen. Frank K. 
Gardner. Farragut, with his flag-ship 
(Hartford) and one or two other vessels, 
was now above Port Hudson, holding the 
river, while four other gunboats and some 
niortar-boats, under Commander C. H. B. 
Caldwell, held it below. 

On May 27 Banks opened his cannon on 
the works in connection with those on the 



in which the Nationals lost 1,842 men, of 
whom 293 were killed. The Confederate 
loss did not exceed 300 in killed and 
mounded. 

Banks, undismayed by this disastrous 
failure, continued the siege. His great guns 
and those of Farragut hurled destruc- 
tive missiles upon the works daily, wear- 
ing out the garrison by eyessive watch- 




FASRAGUT PASSING THE BATTERIES AT PORT HUDSON - . 



water, preparatory to a general assault. 
The attack was made at 10 a.m. by a por- 
tion of the troops, but others did not 
come up in time to make the assault gen- 
eral. A very severe battle was fought, 
the Nationals making desperate charges, 
from time to time, and gaining ground 
continually. In this contest was the first 
fair trial of the mettle of negro troops. 
The Confederates were driven to their 
fortifications, and, at sunset, they were 
all behind their works. Close up to them 
the Nationals pressed, and they and their 
antagonists held opposite sides of the 
parapet. This position the Nationals on 
the right continued to hold, but those on 
the left, exposed to a flank fire, withdrew 
to a belt of woods not far off. So ended 
the first general assault on Port Hudson. 



ing and fatigue. Their provisions and 
medical stores were failing, and famine 
threatened the brave defenders of the post. 
It was closely hemmed in, and so, also, 
was the besieging force of about 12,000 
men by a hostile population and concen- 
trating Confederate cavalry in its rear, 
while Gen. Richard Taylor was gathering 
a new army in Louisiana, west of the 
river. A speedy reduction of the fort had 
become a necessity for Banks, and on June 
11 another attempt was made, and failed. 
This was followed by an attempt to take 
the fort by storm on the 14th. At that 
time the Nationals lay mostly in two 
lines, forming a right angle, with a right 
and left but no centre. When a final dis- 
position for assault was made, General 
Gardner was entreated to surrender and 



261 



PORT REPUBLIC— PORT ROYAL 



stop the effusion of blood, but he refused, 
hoping, as did Pemberton, at Vicksburg, 
that Johnston would come to his relief. 

The grand assault began at dawn (June 
14) by Generals Grover, Weitzel, Auger, 
and Dwight. A desperate battle ensued, 
and the Nationals were repulsed at all 
points, losing about 700 men. Again the 
siege went on^as usual. The fortitude of 
the half-starved garrison, daily enduring 
the affliction of missiles from the land and 
water, was wonderful. Gun after gun on 
the Confederate works was disabled, until 
only fifteen remained on the land side; 
and only twenty rounds of ammunition 
for small-arms were left. Famine was 
about to do what the National arms could 
rot effect — compel a surrender — when the 
garrison was startled (July 7) by the 
thunder of cannon along the whole line 
of their assailants, and shouts from the 
pickets, "Vicksburg is taken!" That 
night Gardner sent a note to Banks, ask- 
ing if the report were true, and if so, re- 
questing a cessation of hostilities. The 
surrender of the post and all its men and 
property was completed on July 9, when 
6,408 men, including 455 officers, were 
made prisoners of war. The little hamlet 
of Port Hudson was in ruins. The loss 
of Banks during the siege of forty-five 
clays was about 3,000 men, and that of 
Gardner, exclusive of prisoners, about 800. 
The spoils of victory were the important 
post, two steamers, fifty-one pieces of 
artillery, 5,000 small-arms, and a large 
amount of fixed ammunition. Banks re- 
ported that his winnings in Louisiana up 
to that time were the partial repossession 
of large areas of territory, 10,584 prison- 
ers, seventy-three great guns, 6,000 small- 
arms, three gunboats, eight transports, 
and a large amount of cotton and cattle. 
This conquest gave the final blow to the 
obstruction of the navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi River. On July 16, 1863, the 
steamer Imperial, from St. Louis, arrived 
at New Orleans, the first communication 
of the kind between the two cities in two 
years. Then the waters of the Mississippi, 
as President Lincoln said, "went unvexed 
to the sea." 

Port Republic, Battle at. Before 
the battle of Cross Keys (q. v.), " Stone- 
wall " Jackson had crossed the Shenandoah 
River, and was encamped at Port Repub- 



lic. The vanguard of Shields's force, under 
General Carroll — less than 1,000 infantry, 
150 cavalry, and a battery of six guns — ■ 
had arrived there almost simultaneously 
with Jackson. With his cavalry and five 
pieces of artillery, Carroll dashed into 
the village, drove Jackson's cavalry out 
of it, and took possession of the bridge 
that spanned the river. Had he burned 
that structure, he might have ruined Jack- 
son, for he would have cut him off from 
Ewell at Cross Keys. But he waited for 
his infantry to come up, and was attacked 
by a superior force and driven to a point 
2 miles from the town, where he was 
afterwards joined by Gen. E. B. Tyler 
and his brigade, 2,000 strong, Tyler taking 
command. Meanwhile, Ewell had escaped 
from Fremont, crossed the bridge, and 
reinforced Jackson. A flanking move- 
ment was now begun by the Confederates, 
which Tyler resisted with his whole force, 
about 3,000 in number. With these he 
drove 8,000 Confederates into the woods. 
At the same time an augmented force at- 
tacked Tyler's right, and a severe battle 
ensued. Gen. Dick Taylor's Louisiana 
brigade made a sudden dash through the 
woods and captured a National battery, 
when Colonel Candy, with Ohio troops, 
made a countercharge and recaptured it, 
with one of the guns of the Confederates. 
The artillery-horses having been killed, 
he could not carry off the battery; but he 
took back with him sixty-seven Confeder- 
ates. So overwhelming was Jackson's 
force that Tyler was compelled to retreat, 
and was pursued about 5 miles, covered 
by Carroll's cavalry. The battle was dis- 
astrous to the Nationals, but it was rec- 
ognized by both sides as one of the most 
brilliant of the war. In the engagement 
and retreat the Confederates captured' 
450 prisoners and 800 muskets. The Na- 
tional army then fell back to Harrison- 
burg (June 9, 1864), when Fremont went 
on to Mount Jackson, and Shields to New- 
market. 

Port Royal, Capture of. In 1690, 
the Indians having taken the fort at 
Pemaquid, and French privateers from 
Acadia infesting the coasts of New Eng- 
land, the General Court of Massachusetts 
determined to seize Port Royal, N. S. 
A fleet of eight small vessels, bearing about 
800 men, under the command of Sir Will- 



262 



PORT ROYAL FERRY— PORT ROYAL SOUND 

iam Phipps, sailed for that purpose on Presbyterians were persecuted. Some of 

April 28. The weak fort was surrendered their agents went to England to treat 

without resistance, and the whole sea- with the proprietaries of Carolina for a 

coast from that town to the northeast lodgment there. It is believed that one 

settlements was taken possession of by of these agents was Lord Cardross, and 

Sir William. that his colony were Presbyterians, who 

Port Royal Ferry, Battle at. After preferred exile in peace to their native 
an expedition from Hampton Roads, under land, where they were continually harass- 
Admiral Dupont and Gen. T. W. Sherman, ed. When Cardross arrived there were 
had taken possession of Port Royal Sound instant premonitions of trouble. In pur- 
and the neighboring islands (Nov. 7, suance of some agreement or understand- 
1861), the only stand made by the Con- ing with the proprietaries, Lord Cardross 
federates in defence of the South Caro- claimed /for himself and associates co- 
lina coast islands was at Port Royal ordinate authority with the governor and 
Ferry, on the Coosa, at the close of the grand council at Charleston. This claim 
year. Gen. R. S. Ripley, formerly of the the provincial government disallowed, 
National army, who had joined the Con- and the colony at Port Royal was corn- 
federates, was in command of that sea- pelled to acknowledge submission. Soon 
coast district, and had established a for- afterwards Lord Cardross returned home, 
tified post at the ferry. When the Some time afterwards his colonists were 
Nationals landed at Beaufort it had a dislodged by the Spaniards at St. Au- 
garrison estimated to be 8,000 strong, gustine (1686), who accused them of in- 
under Generals Gregg and Pope. The Na- citing the Indians to invade their terri- 
tionals proceeded to expel them. For this tory. 

purpose a joint land and naval force, the In 1779, when Prevost joined Campbell 
former commanded by Brigadier-General at Savannah, the British commanders de- 
Stevens, and the latter by Commodore termined to extend a part of their forces 
C. R. P. Rogers, proceeded to attack into South Carolina. Major Gardiner 
them. Stevens had about 4,000 troops — was detached, with 200 men, to take pos- 
of New York, Pennsylvania, and Michi- session of Port Royal Island; but soon 
gan ; and the naval force consisted of four after he landed, General Moultrie, with 
gunboats, an armed ferry-boat, and four the same number of men (only nine of 
large row-boats, each carrying a 12- whom were regulars), attacked and drove 
pounder howitzer. The expedition moved him off the island. Two field-pieces, well 
on the evening of Dec. 31. The land and served by some militia under Captains 
naval forces were joined 3 miles below Heyward and Rutledge, were principally 
the ferry on the morning of Jan. 1, 1862, gainers of this advantage. A small body 
and pressed forward to the attack. The of horsemen, under Capt. John Barnwell, 
first onset was sharp and quick. A con- who gained the rear of the British, were 
cealed battery near the ferry, that was also efficient in contributing to the re- 
opened upon the Nationals was soon suit. 

silenced by a close encounter, in which Port Royal Sound, Expedition to. 
the 8th Michigan bore the brunt. But On the morning of Oct. 29, 1861, a land 
very little fighting occurred afterwards, and naval armament left Hampton Roads 
The Confederates, seeing the gunboats for a destination known only to the offi- 
coming forward, abandoned their works cers. It was composed of fifty ships-of- 
and fled, and the Pennsylvania " Round- war and transports, commanded by Ad- 
heads " passed over the ferry and oc- miral S. F. Dupont, and 15,000 troops 
cupied them. The works were demolished, under Gen. T. W. Sherman. Dupont's 
and the houses in the vicinity were burned, flag-ship Wabash led the way out to sea, 
Stevens had nine men wounded, one mor- and each ship sailed under sealed orders, 
tally. to be opened in case of the dispersion of 

Port Royal Island, Settlement on. the fleet. Off Cape Hatteras the fleet was 

In 1692 Lord Cardross (afterwards Earl so terribly smitten by a tempest that very 

of Buchan), a Scotch nobleman, led a soon only one vessel could be seen from 

colony from his native land, where the the deck of the flag-ship. The sealed 

263 



POET BOYAL SOUND, EXPEDITION TO 




MAP SHOWING T1IK POSITION* OF PORT ROYAI,. 



orders were opened, and each commander little bundles containing all their worldly 
was ordered to rendezvous at Port Royal possessions, ready to go on board the 
Sound, on the coast of South Carolina, ships of the invaders, who, they had been 
There all but four transports that were told, were coming to steal or sell the 
lost were gathered on the evening of negroes in Cuba, or to kill and bury them 
Nov. 4. No human life on the perished in the sound. In the conflict with the 
transports had been lost. The entrance forts at the entrance of the sound Dupont 
to the sound, between Hilton Head and 
Phillip's Island, was guarded by the Con- 
federates with a strong battery on each 
side — Forts Walker and Beauregard. 
Within the sound was a small Confederate 
flotilla, commanded by the veteran Com- 
modore Tatnall, formerly of the United 
States navy. It was called the " Mos- 
quito Fleet." The guns of the guarding 
forts were silenced, and on the morning 
of Nov. 7 Dupont's fleet passed into the 
sound and drove Tatnall's vessels into 
shallow water. The National forces took 
possession of Port Royal Island and the 
neighboring ones, and found them desert- 
ed by the planters and their families. 
Most of the slaves remained. They re- 
fused to follow their masters. Groups of 
them actually stood upon the shore with 

264 




PLAN OF BATTLE AT PORT ROYAL. 



PORTO RICO 

had lost eight killed and twenty-three sion of Hilton Head also, General Sher- 
wounded. The Confederate officers re- man went vigorously to work to strength- 
ported their loss in both forts (Walker en the position. The Nationals held the 
and Beauregard) at ten killed and forty islands and controlled Port Royal Sound 
wounded. Troops having taken posses- until the end of the war. » 



PORTO RICO 

Porto Rico, an island in the West 3,000 feet, with occasional summits slight- 
Indies, one of the Greater Antilles; for- ly above 3,000 feet and gaps slightly be- 
merly belonging to Spain, but occupied by low 2,000 feet. This range is known in dif- 
the United States as a conquest of war in ferent parts of the island by various 
1898. The Spanish spelling of the first names, Cordillera Central, Sierra de 
word is Puerto, and this form was fol- Cayey, and in the northeast Sierra de Lu- 
lowed by United States authorities till an quilla. From its crest the land slopes 
act of Congress, approved April 12, 1900, northward and southward in broad undu- 
established the form Porto. lations, deeply cut by streams, giving 

Location. — The island is the easternmost most of the interior of the island a steep, 
and smallest of the Greater Antilles; is hilly surface, gradually becoming more 
within the tropics, between latitudes 17° 50' nearly level, until near the coast it spreads 
and 18° 30' N. and longitudes 65° 30' and into broad level playas. This range 
67° 15' W. ; lies east of Haiti, being sepa- forms the water divide of the island, and 
rated from it by Mona Passage; is in shape from it streams flow northward and 
rudely rectangular, its longest axis lying southward, those flowing north having 
east and west; is a trifle over 100 miles much the longer courses and gentler 
long and about 36 miles wide; area ap- slopes. None of these streams are navi- 
proximately 3,600 square miles, three- gable, excepting for a very few miles near 
fourths the size of Connecticut. The isl- their mouths, where they are in effect 
and is divided into seven departments, estuaries. The largest are the Rios, 
viz., Aguadilla, Arecibo, Bayamon, Gua- Loiza, Bayamon, Morovis, Arecibo, and 
yama, Humacao, Mayaguez, and Ponce. Blanco, all on the north of the dividing 
At the time of the American occupation ridge. On the south the dividing ridge 
the departments were subdivided into 69 descends steeply, with short spurs and a 
municipal districts, and these in turn into narrow coastal plain. Here the streams 
barrios, or outlying tracts. Besides the are short, with very steep descents. The 
main island the United States has juris- coast is low and for the most part simple, 
diction over the islands of Vieques and with few good harbors, the best beinsr that 
Celubra, lying to the eastward, and Isla of San Juan, on the north coast. Ponce 
Mona to the west, in the Mona Passage, and Guanica are the only harbors on the 
together with a few other islets in their south coast into which vessels of ordinary 
neighborhood. Since the occupation the draft can enter, but the island of Vieques 
municipalities have been reduced to 46 has several commodious ports where the 
in number, the others having been consoli- largest ships can ride at anchor. The 
dated with their larger and more prosper- coast of Porto Rico, unlike that of Cuba, 
ous neighbors. is not bordered by fringing reefs or islets. 

Physical Features. — The structure of the Climate. — Lying in the tropics, the isl- 
island is simple. Passing across it from and is within the region of the southwest 
east to west, a little south of the middle trades, which blow with great regularity, 
of its breadth, is a broken, irregular range The annual temperature at San Juan, on 
of hills or low mountains, which towards the north coast, ranges in different years 
the eastern end trends northeastward, and from 78° to 82° F. The mean monthly 
terminates near the northeastern corner of temperature ranges from 75° in January 
the island, where it culminates in the peak to 82° in August. The maximum tem- 
of El Yunque, 3.609 feet in altitude. Else- perature on record is 99°, and the mini- 
where it ranges in altitude from 2,000 to mum 57°, indicating a very slight range 

265 



PORTO RICO 



and a uniform climate. The only dif- 
ference of temperature to be observed 
throughout the island is due to altitude, 
the highlands of the interior having a 
mean annual temperature as low as 72° F. 
Serious storms occur and occasional earth- 
quakes, but the latter are not violent, 
doing but little damage. The annual rain- 
fall at San Juan averages sixty inches, 
about the same as at New Orleans, and 
nearly two-thirds of this falls in the sum- 
mer and autumn. The annual relative 
humidity at the capital is very high, 
averaging not far from eighty per cent. 
The annual rainfall increases eastward 
from San Juan, until near the northeast 
corner of the island it exceeds 100 inches. 



are sugar, tobacco, cotton, coffee, and 
fruits. In the fiscal year 1902-03 the ex- 
portation of sugar was the largest on 
record, reaching 233,070,000 pounds, and 
the same may be said of molasses, the 
quantity being 3,537,000 gallons. The ex- 
port of tobacco in leaf was valued at $135,- 
080; as cigars and cigarettes, $1,755,311. 
An improvement in quality and increase 
in yield were features of the year's crop. 
The coffee crop was about 39,650,000 
pounds, and the value of its export, $718,- 
531. Cotton-growing was greatly stimu- 
lated during the year. The variety is the 
famous and valuable Sea Island cotton, 
and the Department of Agriculture at 
Washington is liberally promoting in- 




STREET SCENE IN SAN JCAN. 



It increases also upon the highlands of the 
interior, reaching a maximum upon the 
dividing ridge of nearly 100 inches. The 
south slope of the island, on the other 
hand, is much drier, both rainfall and 
atmospheric moisture being less, so much 
so that in some regions irrigation is neces- 
sary for cultivation of crops. 

Agriculture. — The principal productions 



266 



creased acreage and the highest grade of 
cultivation. Fruit culture has advanced 
decidedly. Within three or four years 
about 10,000 acres of land have been plant- 
ed with oranges. The superior flavor of 
the native wild orange is such that many 
planters have budded with them, expect- 
ing to produce the very best fruit in this 
way. The value of oranges exported in 



PORTO RICO 

1902-03, mostly from wild trees, was $230,- Finances. — Official reports of the Treas- 
589, as against $51,364 in 1901-02. Much ury Department on June 30, 1903, 
larger attention also is being given to the showed: Balance from previous year, $1,- 
growing of the pineapple. 358,468.86; receipts from customs, $771,- 

Mineralogy. — The mineral deposits have 447.90; from internal revenue, $1,609,- 
not attracted particular attention as yet, 433.69; from other sources, $69,111.35; 
although it is known that there are con- repayments and transfers, $52,688.13; 
siderable deposits of iron and copper, and trust funds deposited, $1,004,624.80; re- 
that gold and silver have been found in payments and transfers, $20,100.61 — 
the mountains. During 1902-03 there total receipts, $4,885,875.34. The expendi- 
were fifty-three claims prosecuted in the tures were: Legislative, $116,205.13; ex- 
bureau of mines, and at the end of the year ecutive, $1,902,317.12; judicial, $204,- 
there were eighty mining claims in force. 891.83; settlement payments of sundry 

Commerce. — For the first time since the claims, $234,598.38; transfers to trust 
American occupation the foreign trade funds, $14,598.43; advanced from trust 
yielded a balance in favor of the island funds to the Department of the Interior, 
in the year ending June 30, 1903. The $429,274.03, to the Department of Educa- 
total imports were $14,179,575; total ex- tion, $94,486.96; payment of claims, $602,- 
ports, $14,866,644. The imports from the 856.01 ; transfer to insular revenues from 
United States amounted to $11,976,134, trust funds, $1,244.29— total expenditures, 
principally rice, cotton manufactures, pro- $3,600,832.18, leaving a balance of $1,285,- 
visions, iron and steel manufactures, 043.16. Of the balance $344,310 only was 
breadstuff's, and wood and leather manu- available for ordinary insular expendi- 
factures; and the exports to the United tures, the remainder belonging to trust 
States, $10,909,147, made up of sugar, to- funds, viz., $887,939.28 representing the 
bacco, cigars and cigarettes, molasses, balance of the funds set aside by Congres* 
fruits, and coffee. for permanent improvements, and $52,793.- 

Under the Spanish regime the total ex- 30 money due municipalities or held in 
ports to the United States and total im- trust for other purposes. The receipts for 
ports from the United States were as the year exceeded the expenditures by 
follows: $29,710.18. 

NON-AGRICULTURAL imports FROM THE Public Instruction.— The system of 

UNITED states. schools of the island is built upon the 

F ,? r \Hl $ 879'725 common public school, which takes a child 

" 1895.! ....................... ','".'." 781 ! 751 at nve or s ' x years of age and carries him 

" 1896'.'.".'.'.".""'/.'.'.'.".!".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.!!'.!'.;'. 868',504 through eight years of school life. All the 

' . 1^97 — •••• y: ■••; 794,333 town schools are graded and in many of 

Chiefly manufactures of iron, steel, and wood. ,, ■ , , , ° , „ . 

them eight grades are successfully main- 

AGRICULTURAL imports FROM THE UNITED tained. The grading has been found very 

STATR9 

For 1893 $1 649 356 difficult, because many children entering 

" 1894 !!! 1,825]921 school, even of sufficiently advanced age 

1895 1,038,452 to do high-school work, had never had any 

», 18 9 7 1 170 527 cc ^ uca tional advantages whatever and were 

Chiefly bread and brea'dVtuffs. ' not able to read or write. Official reports 

for the year ending June 30, 1903, showed: 

NON- AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS TO THE UNITED ^ . • , , , ?• t \. i n ~,n 

states. Estimated population of school age, 377,- 

For 1893 ' $15,905 200; enrolled in the public schools, 70,- 

„ j^qi o!'q!u ~^' ro ax ™ un i number of schools in 

u iggg 34400 °P era tion, 1,014, of which 427 were graded 

" 1897 ."!!!.'!!!!."!!!!!!!!!! 86,705 or town schools; school buildings, 717; 

AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES. m ™, ™ mh *r «f teachers 1,354 ; 

For 1893 $3 992 718 s P ecia ^ schools, 89, including 10 kinder- 

" 1894 !...!.! .'..! 3.122,046 gartens, 44 night schools, 6 industrial 

1895 1,482,171 schools, 23 high-schools; 2 practice schools ; 

u 1896 2 VfY* 25^ i 

,i jqqw 2094319 anc ^ ^ norma l schools; total expenditure 

Chiefly sugar and molasses. ' for public education from all sources, 

267 



PORTO RICO 

$817,814, or $7.99 per pupil enrolled. Of across the island in a northwesterly direc- 

the expenditures, $14,864 was for the edu- tion, a distance of about eighty miles, and 

cation of Porto-Rican students in the connecting San Juan with Ponce ; the' road 

United States. leading from Cayey, on the military road, 

Religion. — Under Spanish rule the to Guayama, on the coast, a distance of 

Roman Catholic was the only recognized about twenty-eight miles; and the roads 




A NATIVE VILLAGE, PORTO RICO. 



form of religion on the island, with the from Toa Alta to Bayamon, from Baya- 
exception that by a special decree the mon to Rio Piedras, from Bayamon to 
Protestant Episcopal Church had been per- Catano, and from Ponce to Guayama, the 
mitted to establish itself in Ponce. The last group being only fairly good. The 
latter church has since consecrated a military road is a stone macadam, very 
bishop, the Rev. James H. Van Buren, carefully built, with a most complete sys- 
for Cuba and Porto Rico jointly. As tem of bridges and culverts, and is con- 
freedom of worship is now guaranteed sidered one of the finest roads in the 
throughout the island, other denomina- Western World. From the trust funds 
tions are rapidly acquiring establishments allotted for internal improvements a lib- 
there, eral amount was set aside for road-making 
Communications. — At the time of the and repairs in 1902-03, and at the end of 
American occupation the roads and high- that year the Ponce-Arecibo road was well 
ways, with few exceptions, were in the advanced in construction; the Manaubo- 
worst possible condition. The exceptions Yabucoa road was nearing completion ; re- 
were the military road extending entirely pairs had been made on the Camuy-Agua- 

268 



POUTO RICO 



dilla and the Caguas-Humacao roads; and gust, 1899, on the recommendation of the 
appropriations had been made to recon- judicial board, Military-Governor Davis 
struct the Ponee-Guayama, the Fajardo- reorganized the courts, reduced the num- 
Mameyes, the Yabucoa-Sabana Grande, and ber of judicial districts from twelve to five, 
the Lares-San Sebastian roads, to build and gradually introduced many American 
bridges across the Auasco and Portugues rules of procedure, and the system ob- 
rivers, and to proceed with the Bayamo- served generally in the courts of the 
Comerio road. United States. The organic act of the 

The experiment of the governmental civil government established a Supreme 
ownership of telegraph lines is meeting Court of five justices having the sam